CONCEPT OF STATE AND GOVERNMENT IN ANCIENT INDIA

BY:TARUN PRATAP

MAURAYAN STATE
BY:TARUN PRATAP

THE FORMATION OF STATE WAS COMPLETED AROUND 500 B.C. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FULL-FLEDGED STATE SYSTEM WITH ALL FOUR ESSENTIAL FACTORS OF THE STATE NAMELY A TERRITORY,A POPULATION ,UNITY AND ORGANISATION IN A COMPLETELY EVOLVED FORM WAS A DISTINGUISHING FEATURE OF THE MAURAYAN AGE. ACOORDING TO THE ARTHSHASTRA OF KAUTILYA THE STATE CONSISTED OF THE SEVEN LIMBS (SAPTANGA)--------THE KING(SWAMIN) THE MINISTER(AMATYA)THE TERRITORY OR THE COUNTRY(JANAPADA OR RASHTRA) THE FORT(DURGA) THE TREASURY(KOSHA) THE ARMY(BALA) THE ALLY(MITRA) THE IDEA BEHIND THE SAPTANGA THEORY WAS THAT WITHOUT A PROPER ORGANISATION ,ASTATE OF LAWLESSNESS(MATSYANYAYA)WOULD SET IN AND THAT HINDERS THE THE DEVELOPMENT OF STATE’S PERSONALITY.

IN THE MAURAYAN POLITY THE KING WAS CONSIDERED ALL-POWERFUL THOUGH THE ARTHSHASTRA LAY EMPHASIS ON THE CONCEPTION OF THE KING AS THE SERVANT OF THE STATE WHICH WAS ONE OF THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ANCIENT INDIAN POLITICAL THOUGHT. THE EXALTATION OF THE ROYAL AUTHORITYIS A STRIKING FEATURE OF THE NATURE OF THE MAURYAN STATE THE ARTHSHASTRA GRANTS THE POWER OF LEGISLATION BY EDICTS AND DECREES .A POWER WHICH WAS NEVER ENJOYED BY THE KING BEFORE IN INDIA .

MINES. THEY WERE CONCERNED WITH THE ECONOMIC. .SALTS.METALS.GAMBLING DENS.MILITARY AND SOCIAL FUNCTIONS.CHARIOTS AND INFANTRY.LIQUOR SHOPS ETC.OCEANIC MINES.THE MAURAYAN STATE HAD DEVELOPED A HIGHLY ORGANIZED BUREAUCRATIC ADMINISTRATION CAPABLE OF MAINTAINING THE STABILITY OF THE EMPIRE SPANNING THE LENGTH AND BREATH OF THE LAND AND CONTROLLING ALL SPHERES OF LIFE.WASTELANDS.FOREST PRODUCE.PASTURELANDS.MINTS .ELEPHANTS.WEAVING AGRICULTURE.HORSES. OF THE CHIEF DEPARTMENTS CHARGED WITH THE ECONOMIC FUNCTIONS ARE THOSE OF COMMERCE.TOLLS AND EXERCISE THE CHIEF MILITARY DEPARTMENTS ARE THOSE OF ARMOURY. IN ONE PASSAGE THE ARTHASHASTRA SPEAKS OF 18 TIRTHS(DEPARTMENTS) AND IN ADDITION MAKES PROVISION FOR 27 SUPERINTENDENTS(ADHYAKAS). THE ADMINISTRATION SHOWED EQUAL CONCERN FOR THE HEALTH OF THE SOCIETY BECOMES EVIDENT FROM THE APPOINTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENTS TO CONTROL THE PROSTITUTES.

IN ORDER TO SUPRESS CRIME THE ARTHASHASTRA ADVISES THE IMPOSITION OF STRINGENT CURFEWFROM ABOUT TWO AND A HALF HOURS AFTER THE SUNSET TO THE SAME TIME BEFORE THE DAWN.THEY HAD TO MAKE GOOG THE LOSS.THE POLICE WAS THE MOST IMPORTANT CIVIC ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT.IF THEY FAIL TO TRACE THE THIEF. THERE WAS AN EFFICIENTLY ORGANISED ESPIONAGE SYSTEM AND THE SPIES IN DISGUISE HELPED THE POLICE IN THE DETECTION OF CRIMES .IT PREVENTED THE COMMISSION OF CRIMES AND BRINGING THE TRANSGRESSORS OF LAW TO JUSTICE.

HE LAYS DOWN QUALIFICATIONS AND PRESCRIBES RULES FOR THEIR PROMOTION . HE ALSO TALKS ABOUT THE TRANSFER OF THE GOVERNMENT SERVANTS. .KAUTILA ATTACHES GREAT IMPORTANCE TO THE SELECTION OF THE SUPERINTENDENTS . THE TEXTS SAYS THAT NO SUPERINTENDENT SHALL BE ALLOWED TO TAKE DECISION WITHOUT BRINGING IT TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THEIR MASTERS EXCEPT REMEDIAL MEASURES AGAINST IMMINENT DANGERS. THIS HIGHLY ORGANISED BUREAUCRACY APPEARS TO HAVE TIED WITH THE RED-TAPE THAT IS WHY KAUTILYA SUGGESTS THAT EACH DEPARTMENT WAS WAS TO BE OFFICERED BY SEVERAL TEMPORARY HEADS.

. THE HIGHER FUNCTIONARIES SUCH AS THE PRIEST. THE RATIO BETWEEN THE HIGHEST AND THE LOWEST SERVANT OF THE GOVERNMENT THEREFORE WORKED OUT TO BE 1:48000 WHICH SHOWS A YAWNING GAP BETWEEN THE TWO.THE MOTHER OF THE KING.AND THE QUEEN RECEIVED 48000 PANS MONTHLY. A MESSENGER OF THE MIDDLE QUALITY WAS GIVEN ONLY 10 OR 20 PANAS.THE BOOK GAVE DETAILED INFORMATION ABOUT THE PAYS OF DIFFERENT DIGNITARIES AND OFFICERS.THE COMMANDER OF THE ARMED FORCES . THE LOWER OFFICIALS LIKE THE PALACE WORKERS ATTENDENTSAND THE BODT-GUARDS RECEIVED ONLY 60 PANAS.THE HEIR-APPARENT PRINCE .THE TEACHER.THE MINISTER.

THE NAVY TRANSPORT AND THE COMMISSARIAT ARE THE MAURYAN INNOVATIONS. THERE WERE ELABORATE RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE TRAINING AND DRILLINGOF SOLDIERS AND THAT SPECIAL ATTENTION WAS PAID BY THE MILITARY AUTHORITIES TO THE SICK AND WOUNDED IN THE ARMY AND FOR THIS THE ARMY WAS SUPPLEMENTED BY A CONTINGMENT OF DOCTORS AND NURSES. MUNITIONS OF WAR WERE MADE A STATE ARSENALS AND THERE WAS A STATE CONTROLOVER THE ARTISANS WHO PRODUCED WEAPONS .

OFFICERS CHARGED WITH THE MURDER.THEFTS. .DHAMASTHAYA WERE THE CIVIL COURTS AND KANTAKSHODHAN WERE THE CRIMINAL COURTS WHICH DIFFERED FROM THE CIVIL COURTS BY THEIR MORE SUMMARY PRODUCE AND SPEEDY DISPOSAL.DACOITY AND THE SEXUAL OFFENCES APPEARED BEFORE THE LATTER.

OFFICIALS LIKE SAMAHARTA.SIMILARLY.THE STHANIKA AND THE GOPA PERFORMED BOTH THE FISCAL AND POLICE AND MAGISTERIAL FUNCTIONS. .THE OFFICERS LIKE PRADESTA PERFORMED BOTH POLICE AND REVENUE FUNCTIONS.

WHICH WAS PERHAPS THE INNOVATION OF THE MAURYAS.CITY ADMINISTRATION THE INCREASINGLY COMPLEX SOCIAL ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF THE STATE COUPLED WITH THE NEED OF THE URBAN SETTLEMENTS NECESSIATED THE CREATION OF A MACHINARY FOR THE ADMINITRATION OF THE TOWNS . . MEGASTHENES GAVE A DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE OF THE MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION OF PATLIPUTRA. HE SAYS THAT THE CITY OF PATLIPUTRA WAS ADMINISTERED BY THE COMMITTEE OF THIRTY MEMBERS DIVIDED INTO SIX COMMITTEES OF FIVE MEMBERS EACH.

A NEW SET OF OFFICIALS CALLED ANTAMAHAMATRAS WAS APPOINTED SO AS TO SET THE BORDER PEOPLE RIGHT. .THE KAUTILYA DOES NOT ENVISAGE THE INVOLVEMENT OF LOCAL ELEMENTS IN THE CITY ADMINISTRATION. THE MOST IMPORTANT ELEMENT THERE WAS NAGARIKA. THE GOPA WAS CHARGED WITH THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE COLLECTION OF THE REVENUE NA THE SUPERVISION OF THE FORTY HOUSEHOLDS EACH.PRESERVATION OF LAW AND ORDER AND THE SUPERVISION OF THE SANITATION ARRANGEMENTS. THE STHANIKA ATTENDED TO THE ACCOUNTS OF THE FOUR QUARTERS OF THE TOWN.THE GOVERNOR OF THE CITY. THE NAGARIKA WAS ASSISTED IN THE ADMINISTRATION BY TWO OFFICIALS CALLED STHANIKA AND GOPA. HIS RESPONSIBILITIES WERE THAT OF THE REVENUE COLLECTION .

HE BROUGHT RURAL AND URBAN AREAS IN ADDITION TO ARTISANS. KAUTILA ADVOCATED THE GRADUAL SYSTEM OF TAXATION. THE TRADERS TAXED NOT ON THEIR GROSS EARNINGBUT ON THE NET PROFITS AND THE ARTICLES WAS TAXED ONLY ONCE. THE MANUAL LABOURES HAD TO WORK IN THE STATE FARMS FOR ONE DAY. THE SANNIDHATA(CUSTODIAN OF THE TREASURY) AND THE SAMAHARTA (THE CHIEF REVENUE COLLECTOR)WERE THE IMPORTANT OFFICIALS OF THE FINANCE DEPARTMENT. .AND TRADERS UNDER THE TAX NET. HE DEMONSTRATES GREAT INGENUITY IN DEVISING AND JUSTIFYING MEANS FOR AUGUMENTING THE WEALTH OF THE STATE. THIS LARGE SYSTEM OF TAXATION WAS FOR MAINTAINING THE ARMY AND THE BUREAUCRACY. HE DOES NOT NEGLECT ANY SOURCE BECAUSE OF ITS SMALLNESS AND LEAVES NOTHING OUT OF TAXATION.MAURAYAS POSSES THE WORLD’S MOST ANCIENT THEORY ON PUBLIC FINANCE. KAUTILYA MADE A DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE WAR ECONOMY AND THE PEACE ECONOMY AND SAID THAT THE STABILITY OF THE ADMINISTRATION DEPENDS ON THE TREASURY.

ASHOKA SHOWED TRACES OF DECENTRALISATION WHEN HE GRANTED LARGE EXECUTIVE AND JUDIACIL POWERS TO THE RAJUKAS.BUT LITTLE ATTENTION WAS GIVEN TO THE VILLAGE INSTITUIONS.CONCLUSION MAURAYAN SYSTEM OF ADMINISTRATION WAS HIGHLY CENTRALIZEDAND THEY RECOGNIZED THE NEED FOR UNIFORMITY IN ADMINISTRATIVE INSTITUTIONS. . WE GET A COMPLETE PICTURE OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF PROVINCES(JANAPADAS)AND THE DISTRICTS.

. THE BRAHAMANS BEGAN ASCRIBING DIVINE ATTRIBUTES TO THE KING AND THIS CREATED A FERTILE SOIL FOR THE GERMINATION OF FOREIGN IDEAS ON DIVINITY BROUGHT BY THESCYTHIANS.WERE BRAHAMANS.POST MAURAYAN PERIOD IT WAS AGE OF TRIUMPH FOR BRAHAMINISM AS THE FOUNDER OF THE SHUNGA AND KANVA DYNASTY IN THE NORTH AND THE SATVAHANAS IN THE DECCAN.

WHICH CONTRIBUTED LARGELY TO THE ECONOMIC PROSPERITY OF THE LAND. THE MOST IMPORTANT OF THEM IS THAT THEY MADE THE ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN ..VASHISTIPUTRA ETC) THEY ALSO ENTRUSTED THE RURAL ADMINISTRATION TO MILITARY MEN. THIS WITNESSED THE INTENSE COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY BETWEEN INDIA AND THE WESTERN WORLD. THEY ALSO GRANTED THE FISCAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE IMMUNITIES TO THE BENEFICIARIES OF THE VILLAGE.(THE GRANT OF AGRAHARA BHUMIS TO THE BRAHAMANS BECAME VERY EXTENSIVE DURING THESE DAYS).ATTHOUGH THEY INTRODUCED SEVERAL INNOVATIONS.PARTICULARLY THE QUEENS AND THE WIVES OF THE HIGH DIGNATORIES AND THE MERCHANT BODIES IN THE ADMINISTRATION(METRONYMIC PREFIXES LIKE GAUTMIPUTRA. THE SATVAHANAS MODELLED THEIR SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT ON THE MAURYAN TRADITION . . THEY WERE THE FIRST GREAT POWER OF THE DECCAN WHO ESTABLISH THEIR SUPREMACY OVER BOTH THE NORTH AND SOUTH INDIA.THE SATVAHANAS THE SATVAHANAS ESTABLISHED AN EXTENSIVE EMPIRE THAT EXTENDED UPTO THE SANCHI IN THE NORTH TO KONKAN IN THE SOUTH.

HERINIKA . ANOTHER FEATURE OF THE SATVAHANAS POLITY WAS THAT THE USE OF THE TITLE MAHA (GREAT( BY THE STATE OFFICIALS. . IT IS WORTHY TO NOTE THAT PERHAPS AT NO OTHER TIME IN THE HISTORY OF DECCANDO EPIGRAPHIC RECORDS AND EXCAVATIONS REVEALS SO MANY TOWNS IN THE DECCAN. THE NIGAM HAD AN ASSEMBLY CALLED NIGAMSABHA.THE USE OF THE PREFIX MAHA INTRODUCES GRADED AND UNEQUAL RELATIONSHIP AND MARKS THE BEGINNING OF THE TITLES WHICH BECAME POPULAR IN FEUDAL HIERARCHY IN THE EARLY MEDIEVAL PERIOD.ADMINISTRATIVE ARRANGEMENT OF SATVAHANAS THE VARIOS OFFICIALS MENTIONED DURING THEIR REIGN AREAMATYAS.INCLUDING THE FEUDATORIES.THE AHARAS WERE FURTHER DIVIDED INTO THE NIGAMS(TOWNS) AND THE TO GAMAS AND GRAMAS.WHICH ACTED AS THE MOUTHPIECE OF THE CITIZENS.RAJAMATYAS.MAHASENAPATI.BHANDAGARIKA.MAHAMATRA.LEKHAKA. THE AHARAS CORRESPOND TO THE RASHTRA OF THE PALLAVA RECORDS.NIBANDHAKARAS ETC.

THE HEAD OF THE SATRAPY ENJOYED THE TITLE OF KSHATRAPA AND MAHAKSHATRAPA. THEREARE INSTANCES OF TWO KSTRAPAS RULING OVER THE SAME PROVINCE CONJOINTLY ENJOYING THE EQUAL STATUS.THIS SCHEME OF POLITY DID NOT ERODE THE AUTHORITY OR AFFECT THE POWERS OF THE KING WHO REMAINED ABSOLUTE. THE KUSHANA STATE ESTABLISHED ABSOLUTE MONARCHY AND THE KINGSHIP WAS CENTRED ROUND DIVINE RIGHT THEOREY.THE SCHEME WAS DEVISED SO THAT ONE ACTED AS A CHECK ON THE POWER OF THE OTHER. .THE KUSHANAS THE KUSHANS PUT INTO PRACTISE A DECENTRALIZED SCHEME OF ADMINISTRATION WITH THE POWERS DISTRIBUTED AMONG DIFFERENT UNITS FORMING ADMINISTRATIVE HIERARCHY. THE KUSHANS CONTINUED THE SATRAPAL SYSTEM OF ADMINISTRATION WHICH WAS INTRODUCED IN INDIA BY THE SCYTHIANS.THE KUSHANAS CLAIM TO DIVINITY IS SEEN IN THEIR STARTING THE PRACTISE OF SETTING UP DEVAKULAS IN WHICH THE STATUES OF THEIR DECEASED RULERS WERE PRESERVED AND WORSHIPPED AS THOSE OF GODS.THE PRIMARY FUNCTION OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT SEEMS TO OFFER PROPER DEFENCE. THE POLITICAL SYSTEM OF THE KUSHANAS WAS BASED ON THE PRINCIPLE OF DECENTRALISATION WHERE AUTONOMOUS AND SEMI-AUTONOMOUS STATES SURVIVED WITHIN THE KINGDOM.

THE KUSHANAS ADOPTED THE INDIAN IDEAL OF LEAST DISTURBANCE TO THE PEOPLE OF THE VILLAGES WHO FLOURISHED UNDER THEIR OWN HEADMEN.THEY SEEMED TO HAVE PLACED IN CHARGE OF JUDICIAL AND POLICE ADMINISTRATION. THE TERM DANDNAYAKA IS FREQUENTLY USED INITS DIFFERENT FORMS IN THE INSCRIPTIONS.PROBABLY THEY WERE ENTRUSTED WITH THE TASK OF GOVERNING DIFFERENT TERRITORIAL UNITS.THE VICEROYS WERE GENERALLY ARMY LEADERS HAVING COMMAND AND CONTROL OVER THE FORCES.WHO WAS THE HEREDITORY CHIEF.GRAMIKA. THE CITIES AROSE OUT OF MILITARY NECESSITY AND THEY MUST HAVE SERVED AS CENTRES OF TRADE AS WELL.THERE ARE REFERENCES TO THE VICEROYALTY. .

THERE WAS MINISTERIAL COUNCIL. THE EMERGENCY TAX CALLED PRANAYA AND FORCED LABOUR(VISTI)ARE SAID TO HAVE BEEN IN OPERATION IN THE DOMINION OF THE WESTERN SATRAPS.CAME TO PROMINENCE UNDER THEIR GREATEST RULER.THIS PERHAPS SUGGESTED THAT RUDRAMAN ESTABLISHED A CONSTITUTIONAL TYPE OF MONARCHY. WHICH CHECKED ROYAL ABSOLUTISM.THIS INSCRIPTION SPEAKS OF THE RECONSTRUCTION OF EMBANKMENT TO LAKE SUDARSHAN.THE GIRNAR ROCK INSCRIPTION.RUDRAMAN I.. THIS HAS BEEN ATTESTED TO BY HIS EXCEPTIONALLY IMPORTANT DOCUMENT.TO REMOVE THE DESPAIR OF THE PEOPLE.MATISACHIVS AND KARMSACHIVS IN THE INSCRIPTIONS IS VERY SIGNIFICANT.THE MENTIONING OF TWO TYPES OF MINISTERS.THE SAKA DYNASTY THE SAKA DYNASTY GENERALLY KNOWN AS THE WESTERN SATRAPS WHO GAINED CONTROLOF KATHIAWAR AND MALWA. . THE INSCRIPTION SAID THAT THE RUDRAMAN WAS THE ELECTED KING .PROVIDING THE FUNDS FROM HIS OWN PURSE .

THESE DEVELOPMENTS PAVED THE WAY FOR THE FEUDAL TRAITS OF THE GUPTA POLITY.THUS THE ERA OF POST-MAURAYAN PERIOD SHOWS THAT THE CENTRALISATION WHICH WAS A CHRACTERSTIC FEATURE OF THE MAURAYAN POLITY YIELDED TO DECENTRALISATION AND THE LARGE BUREAUCRACY WHICH MANNED THE SHIP OF THE MAURAYAN STATE DONE AWAY WITHAS THE KINGDOM WHICH WERE SMALL FOUND IT DIFFICULT TO MAINTAIN IT. THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AND A GOOD PART OF ADMINISTRATION OF THE STATE WERE NOW TAKEN BY THE MERCHANT BODIES IN THE URBAN AREAS AND BY THE RELIGIOUS BENEFECIARIES IN THE RURAL AREAS. .

GUPTA POLTY BY:TARUN PRATAP .

HENCE THE ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE HAD TO BE SO DESIGNED AS TO ACCOMMODATE THIS EMERGING NEW PHENOMENA. THE GUPTA KINGS GRANTED THE LAND TO THE BRAHAMANS IN THE BACKWARD AREAS. THEY ALSO RECOGNIZED THE PRIVATE RIGHT IN LAND AND PERMITTED THE SALE AND PURCHASE OF LAND FOR THE RELIGIOUS PURPOSES. . THE CHIEF ELEMENT IN THE ECONOMIC BACKGROUND OF THE GUPTA POLITY WAS THE EXCESSIVE PRE-OCCUPATION OF THE PEOPLE WITH THE LAND.POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUG FIELDS.A MEANINGFUL STUDY OF THE GUPTA POLITY HAS TO TAKE NOTE OF CERTAIN IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIELD OF ECONOMIC.

.THOUGH THERE WAS DECREASE IN THE VOLUME OF TRADE WITH THE OUTSIDE WORLD.ARTS AND CRAFTS MADE VALUABLE STRIDES UNDER THE PROTECTIVE UBRELLA OF THE GUILD SYSTEM.

PARAMBHATTAR AKA HAD LED SCHOLORS TO BELIEVE THAT THESE TITLES EMPHASISE THE DIVINE NATURE OF THE MONARCHY.RAJADHIRAJARSHI COUPLED WITH THE PARAMDAIVATA. THE ASSUMPTION OF THE HIGH SOUNDING TITLES LIKE MAHARAJADHIRAJA. .PARAMMARAJA DHIRAJA.A FACT OF CHIEF IMPORTANCE IN THE POLITICAL SITUATION OF THE GUPTA PERIOD WAS THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE POLITICAL UNITY IN THE COUNTRY WITH THE DIGVIJAYA OF SAMUDRAGUPTA AND THE EXPEDITIONS OF CHANDRAGUPTA II IN THE WESTERN INDIA.RAJADHIRAJA.PARAMESHWARA.

ACTED AS A CHECK ON ROYAL POWER.THEY RESPECTED THE ESTABLISHED LAWS AND THE CUSTOMS OF THE LAND.HE OBSERVED RULES LAID DOWN BY THE SMRITIS. . IN ACTUAL PRACTISE THE BRAHAMANS.THE WORKING OF THE GOVERNMENT SUGGEST THAT THE GUPTA KINGS WERE NO DESPOTS OR ABSOLUTE MONARCHS.THE INTERPRETERS OF LAW .THEY WERE CULTURED AND OBSERVED VIRTUOUS CONDUCT AND SELF-RESTRAINT.HIS AUTHORITY WAS THUS CIRCUMSCIBED BY THESE CHECKS. THE KING HAS TO CONTEND WITH THE MERCHANT AND CRAFTS GUILDS WHICH HAD A LEGAL STATUS WHOSE LAWS AND YSAGES WERE BINDING ON HIM.AN THE BENEFECIARIES AND FEUDATORIES WHO WIELDED CONSIDERABLE POWER. THEORETICALLY.THOUGH.

THE POST OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS WERE HEREDITARY AND THEY WERE PRESIDED OVER BY THE MANTRIMUKHYA OR THE PRIME MINISTER. HIGHER FUNCTIONARIES WERE OFTEN REFERRED TO AS THE MAHAMTRAS(UNDER ASHOKA) AND KUMARAMATYAS(PRINCELY MINISTERS) FROM THE GUPTAN TIMES.THERE WAS A MANTRIPARISHAD WHO ALSO ACTED AS A CHECK ON THE DESPOTIC ACTIVITIES OF THE KING. .

THEY ALSO POSSED A FLEET.THE WAR OFFICE LOOKED AFTER THE LIMBS OF THE ARMY IN ADDITION TO THE COMMISSARIAT AND ADMIRALITY. OTHER OFFICERS MENTIONED ARE MAHASARVADANDANAYAKA. RANABHANDARAKA---------IN-CHARGE OF WAR FINANCES.SARVADHYAKSHA AND BALADHIKARNA. PILUPATI-------COMMANDANT OF THE ELEPHANT CORPS ASVAPATI---------IN-CHARGE OF THE CAVALRY.THE GUPTA RECORDS REFER TO A NUMBER OF ARMY OFFICIALS. . MAHABALADHYAKSHA---------SUPERINTENDENT OF THE ARMY. MAHABALADHIKARITA---------COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE ARMY.THE GUPTAS MAINTAINED A WELL-EQUIPPED AND A STRONG ARMY.

IT APPEARS THAT THE TAXATION SYSTEM WAS VERY LIGHT AS THE GUPTAS DID NOT MAINTAIN A LARGE ADMINISTRATIVE ESTABLISHMENT.THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF REVENUE WAS THE LAND TAX. .THERE WAS NO ELABORATE SYSTEM OF TAXATION DURING THE GUPTA PERIOD. WE ONLY KNOW TWO KIND OF TAXES----BHAGA:A TAX PAID BY THE PRIVATE LANDOWNERS. BHAGABHOGA:A TAX PAID ON CROWN LANDS.

. THE BHUKTIS WERE PLACED UNDER THE CHARGE OF UPARIKA MAHARAJA AND THE VISAYAS WERE HEADED BY VISAYAPATIS. VISAYAS WERE DIVIDED INTO THE VITHIS. DHRUVADHIKARANA:SUPERINTENDENT FOR THE COLLECTION OF THE ROYAL SHARE OF THE PRODUCE BHANDAGARADHIKRITA:OFFICER IN-CHARGE OF DISTRICT TREASURY. UTKHETAPITA:COLLECTOR OF TAXES. SAULIKA:SUPERINTENDENT OF TOLLS AND CUSTOMS.IT MUST GO TO THE CREDIT OF GUPTAS FOR EVOLVING THE FIRST SYSTEMATIC PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL ADMINISTRATION WHICH WAS PRIMARILY CONCERNED WITH THE COLLECTION OF REVENUE AND THE MAINTENANCE OF LAW AND ORDER. THE EMPIRE WAS DIVIDED INTO THE BHUKTIS(PROVINCES) WHICH WERE SUB-DIVIDED INTOVISAYAS(DISTRICTS).THE LAST UNIT OF ADMINISTRATION WAS THE VILLAGE .HEADED BY THE GRAMINI. GAULMIKA:SUPERINTENDENTS OF FORESTS AND WOOD. THE OTHER OFFICIALS ARE AS FOLLOWS------VISAYADHIKARANA:OFFICER IN CHARGE OF VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS.

THE ADVISORY COUNCILSCONSISTED OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE DIFFERENT INTERESTS OF THE LOCALITY THE IMPORTANT FUNCTION OF THE CITY COUNCILWAS THE IMPROVEMENT OF CIVIC AMENITIES.ECONOMIC AND OTHER CORPORATIONS.THE CITIES HAD THEIR OWN ADVISORY COUNCILS OR PARISHADS.CIVIC LIFE AND CLERICAL BUSINESS. THEY WERE CONTROLLED BY THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT THROUGH ITS REPRESENTATIVE PURAPALA UPARIKA. THE COUNCIL CONSIDERED THE SALE AND PURCHASE OF FALLOW LAND AND HAD A SAY IN THE RURAL AFFAIRS. THEY SUPERVISED LAW AND ORDER. .

LEAVE. .PROVIDENT FUND. THE MERCHANT OR THE CRAFT GUILD HAS THE LEGAL STATUS.ETC FOR THE WORKERS. THE GUID COULD APPOINT HONEST MEN BY ELECTION AS ITS EXECUTIVE OFFICERS TO PUNISH TRANSGRESSORS.SIMHA AND THE LIKE INDICATE THAT THE MEMBERS OF THE DIFFERENT CASTES WERE ADMITTED INTO THE GUILD.GUILDS THE PROMINENT ROLE THAT THE GUILDS OF ARTISENS AND MERCHANTS PLAYED IN THE URBAN ADMINISTRATIONAND THE OTHER EVIDENCE LIKE THE SEALS AND INSCRIPTIONS POINT TO THEIR FLOURISHING AGE. IT COULD POSSESS CORPORATE PROPERTY AND EVEN MAKE ITS OWN RULES AND REGULATIONS AS FAR AS THEY ARE NOT AGAINST THE LAW OF THE DHARMASHASTRAS OR THE KING. THE KING COULD ALSO INTERFERE TO PREVENT UNLAWFUL COMBINATIONS . THE TITLES LIKE DASA.SENA. THE GENERAL BODY OF THE GUILD COULD ELECT THE PRESIDENT AND THE EXECUTIVE OFFICERS AND COULD REMOVE THEM IF THEY FOUND GUILTY IF THE OFFICER IS TOO STRONG THE GUILD APPEAL TO THE KING WHICH FOLLOWS THE INTERVENTION BY THE KING.PALA.PENSIONS.NANDIN. AS A FULLY ORGANISED BODY IT GAVE BONUSES.STRIKES AND FIGHTING AMONG THEMSELVES OR WHEN THE GUILD UNDERTOOK WORKS OPPOSSED TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC INTEREST.DATTA.

. THE VASSALS WERE REQUIRED TO ATTEND IMPERIAL COURT ONCE A YEAR AND PAY TRIBUTES. THEY MAITAINED THEIR OWN OFFICER AT THE IMPERIAL COURT.FEUDATORY NATURE THEY ACCEPTED THE SUZERAINITY OF THE EMPEROR AND AGREED TO PAY ANNUAL TRIBUTE.THE SUZERAINITY WAS MORE NOMINAL THAN REAL.SOMETIMES THEY GAVE THEIR OWN DAUGHTERS IN MARRIAGE TO THE IMPERIAL HOUSE. THE EMPEROR RARELY INTERFERED IN THE INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION OF THE UNLESS IT IS PREJUDICIAL TO THE INTERESTS OF THE EMPIRE.

THE COURT WAS THE SABHA PRESIDED OVER BY THE PRADVIVAKA(CHIEF JUSTICE). A FEATURE OF THE JUDICIAL ADMINISTRATION OF THE WAS THE PREVELANCE OF ARBITRATION OF JUSTICE. 2)IT REDUCED LITIGATION. .SAINIKA.SRENI.KULA. BELOW THEM WERE WERE THE COURTS OF AMATYAS.FROM THE CHIEF COURT TO THE LOCAL COURT. A CLEAR DEMARCATION WAS MADE BETWEEN THE CIVIL AND CRIMINAL COURTS.IT CONFERRED TWO IMPORTANT ADVANTAGES---------1)THE EXPERTS IN LAW EXAMINED THE CASESAND SETTLED DISPUTES THAT CAME UPBEFORE THE COURTS. LOCAL COURTS DEAL WITH CIVIL CASES.ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE THRE WERE GRADATIONS OF THE COURTS.GANA AND OF MERCHANTS.

THE GUPTAS GAVE UP THE USE OF ORDEALS. .CONCLUSION THE TONE OF THE GUPTA ADMINISTRATION WAS NOT AS RIGOROUS AS THAT OF THE MAURAYAS.

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