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Technical Manual for IWMP_GSWMA

Technical Manual for IWMP_GSWMA

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Published by Himanshu Katira

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Published by: Himanshu Katira on Oct 03, 2011
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06/20/2013

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Size of the storage tank needs to be carefully selected considering various factors such
as number of persons in the household, water use, and duration of water scarcity, rainfall,
type and size of house roof and the status of existing water sources in the area. In general, the
period of water scarcity for domestic purposes is found to be in the range of 90 days to 200
days depending upon the quantity and distribution of rainfall and water sources existing in
the area. The water use of the household should first be studied, considering the local culture
and habits of the people influencing the water use. Availability of water at the doorstep, as is
the case with RRHS, is likely to increase the water use of the household. This results in in-
crease in required size of storage tank and its cost. It is found that the per capita water use

Technical Manual for IWMP

Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency

Page | 190

varies over a range of 3 litres to 10 litres per day. A per capita water consumption of 5 litres
per day for the domestic drinking and cooking purposes is found optimum. Adding 20% to-
wards additional water requirement for visitors, festivals and wastage, a per capita water re-
quirement of 6 litres per day may be considered for selecting the size of water storage tank.
The size of water storage tank may be determined using the following relation and approxi-
mating to the nearest thousand:
Size of Storage tank (in litres) = No. of persons in the household x Period of water scarcity (in
days) x Per capita water requirement (in liters per day)
The capacity of storage tank, which reflects the total household water requirement during the
period of water scarcity, need to be checked with the amount of water available from house
rooftop during rains. If the amount of water available from roof is less than the required ca-
pacity of storage tank, then the household shall use the water available from roof only for a
part of the water scarcity period.
Water available from roof is obtained from the following relation:
Water available (in litres) = Annual rainfall (in mm) x Roof area (in sq.m) x Runoff Coefficient

Area of a roof shall be measured as the area projected on a horizontal surface. For
practical purpose, it is measured on the ground surface and the area calculated as the product
of length and breadth. The coefficient of runoff varies depending on the type of roof and indi-
cates the fraction of rainwater that can be collected from roof. Run-off coefficients for com-
mon types of roofs are shown in below Table
Table 40: Runoff Coefficients of Common Types of Roofs
Type of Roof

Runoff Coefficient

GI Sheet

0.9

Asbestos

0.8

Tiled

0.75

Concrete

0.7

Example: Selection of Size for Storage Tank

No. of persons in the selected household (4 adults and 4 children) = 8, period of water
scarcity for the domestic needs = 120 days, per capita water requirement = 6 L/day Annual
average rainfall = 1000 mm. Area of roof made of country tiles = 20 sq. m. Runoff coefficient
for tiled roof = 0.75.

Technical Manual for IWMP

Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency

Page | 191

Solution: Size of storage tank (in litres) = No. of persons in the household x Period of water
scarcity (in days) x Per capita water requirement (in lit/day)
= 8 x 120 x 6
= 5,760 L
Say 6,000 L
Check with water availability from roof top
Water available from roof top = Annual rainfall (in mm) X Area of roof (in sq.m) X Coefficient
of runoff for the roof
= 1000 X 20 X 0.75 = 15000 liters

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