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Technical Manual for IWMP_GSWMA

Technical Manual for IWMP_GSWMA

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Sections

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Watershed Approach for National Resources Conservation
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Manual
  • 1.4 Watershed Management
  • 2 Terminologies related to Watershed
  • 2.1.1 Rainfall Parameters
  • 2.1.2 Rainfall Amount
  • 2.1.3 Rainfall Duration
  • 2.1.4 Rainfall Intensity
  • 2.1.5 Rainfall Frequency
  • 2.2 Measurement of Rainfall
  • 2.3 Installation of Rain gauge
  • 2.4 Outflow from the Watershed
  • 2.5 Evaporation
  • 2.6 Evapotranspiration (ET)
  • 2.7 Subsurface Outflow or Subsurface Runoff
  • 2.8 Surface Storage
  • 2.9 Surface Runoff
  • 2.10 Factors affecting Surface Runoff
  • 2.10.1 Climatic Factors
  • 2.10.2 Physiographic Factors
  • 2.10.3 Area of the Watershed
  • 2.11 Runoff Estimation
  • 2.11.1.1 Time of Concentration
  • 2.11.2 Runoff Estimation by Empirical Formulae
  • 2.11.3 Runoff Co-efficient Method
  • 2.11.4 Dicken’s Formula
  • 2.12.1 Rising limb
  • 2.12.2 Falling limb
  • 2.12.3 Peak discharge
  • 2.13 Factors affecting the Hydrograph
  • 2.15.1 Raindrop Splash and Sheet Erosion
  • 2.15.5 Stream Bank Erosion Control
  • 2.15.5.1 Supplementary Agronomic Measures
  • 3 Upper Catchment Area Treatment
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Biological Measures
  • 3.2.1 Riparian Habitat
  • 3.2.2 Live Hedge
  • 3.2.2.1 Construction
  • 3.3 Engineering measures
  • 3.3.1 Contour Bunding
  • 3.3.1.1 Objectives
  • 3.3.2 Ramser’s formula
  • 3.3.3 COXS' Formula
  • 3.3.6 Contour Trenching
  • 3.3.6.1 Objectives
  • 3.3.6.2 Specifications
  • 3.3.6.3 Layout
  • 3.3.7 Types of Trenches
  • 3.3.7.1 Continuous Contour Trenches
  • 3.3.7.2 Staggered Contour Trenches
  • 3.3.8 Design of Contour Trenches
  • 3.3.8.1 Determination of direct runoff volume
  • 3.3.8.2 Determination of cross sectional area and volume of trench
  • 3.3.8.3 Determination of spacing
  • 3.3.8.4 Contour Trenches: DON'Ts
  • 3.3.9 Bench Terracing
  • 3.3.9.1 Functions
  • 3.3.9.2 Functions of Terracing in the Conservation Programme
  • 3.3.9.3 Limitations
  • 3.3.10 Types of Bench Terraces
  • 3.3.10.1 Level Bench Terraces
  • 3.3.10.2 Bench Terraces Sloping Outward
  • 3.3.10.3 Bench Terraces Sloping Inward
  • 3.3.10.4 Design of Bench Terraces
  • 3.3.10.5 Basic design parameters
  • 3.3.10.7 Terrace Grade along the Width & Length
  • 3.3.11 Vegetative Grassed Waterways
  • 3.3.12 Gully plugging Measures
  • Laying out Boulder Checks on a Stream
  • 3.3.12.2.1 Design of Loose Boulder check
  • 3.3.13 Chute Spillway
  • Conduit or Chute Discharge Carrier
  • 4 Middle Catchment Area Treatment
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Land Levelling
  • 4.2.1 Design Methods for Land Levelling
  • 4.2.1.1 Plane Method
  • 4.2.1.2 Centroid with respect to Reference Line
  • 4.2.1.3 Earth Work Estimations
  • 4.2.2 Profile Method
  • 4.2.3 Plan Inspection Method
  • 4.2.4 Contour Adjustment Method
  • 4.3 Farm Bund
  • Improvement of the Soil Moisture Profile
  • Alignment of Bunds under Different Conditions
  • 4.4 Farm Pond
  • 4.4.1 Types of Ponds
  • 4.4.1.1 Volume of Lift
  • 4.5 Waste Weir
  • 4.5.1 Design of Waste Weir
  • 5.2 Gabion Structure
  • 5.2.1 Objectives
  • 5.2.2 Site Selection
  • 5.2.3 Spacing of the Gabions
  • 5.2.4 Brief Description of the Construction
  • 5.2.6 Construction Methodology – Gabion structure
  • 5.3 Earthen Dams
  • 5.3.1 Basic Requirements of an Embankment Dam
  • 5.3.2 Selection of Embankment Type
  • Geology and Foundation Conditions
  • 5.3.3 Design of Earthen Dam
  • 5.3.3.1 Foundation Cutoffs (Key trench)
  • 5.3.3.2 Height of Embankment
  • 5.3.3.3 Top Width of Embankment
  • 5.3.3.4 Embankment Side Slopes
  • 5.3.3.5 Slope Protection
  • 5.3.3.6 Free Board
  • 5.3.3.7 Internal Drainage System
  • 5.3.3.8 Design of Waste Weir
  • 5.3.3.9 Causes of Failure of Earthen Dams
  • 5.3.3.10 Cost estimation of Earthen Dam
  • 5.4 Check Dam
  • 5.4.1 Classification of Check Dams
  • 5.4.2 Site Characteristic and Design Guidelines for Check Dams
  • 5.4.3 Design of Check Dams
  • 5.4.4 Forces Acting on Dam Wall
  • 5.4.4.1 Horizontal forces due to stored water
  • 5.4.4.2 Self Weight Force of the Check Dam
  • 5.4.4.3 Uplift Force due to Standing Water Column
  • 5.4.5 Causes of Failure of Check Dam
  • 5.5 Sub-Surface Check Dams/Dykes
  • 5.5.1 Advantages
  • 5.5.2 Construction and Design Guidelines
  • 6 Measures for Soil Acidity and Soil Salinity
  • 6.2 Soil Acidity
  • 6.2.1 Causes of Soil Acidity
  • 6.2.3 Management of Acid Soil
  • 6.2.4 Treating Soil with Lime (CaCo3)
  • 6.2.4.1 Choice of Liming Material
  • 6.2.4.2 Lime Requirement for Different Soils
  • 6.2.4.3 Cropping Pattern for Acid Soil Region
  • 6.3 Soil Salinity
  • 6.3.1 Classification of Soil Salinity
  • 6.3.2 Distinguishing Features of Saline and Sodic Soils
  • Table27: Distinguishing Features of Saline and Sodic Soils
  • 6.3.3.2 Biological Method
  • 6.3.3.2.1 Planting Salt Tolerant Crops
  • 6.3.4 Reclamation of Sodic Soils
  • 6.3.4.1 Land Forming
  • 6.3.4.2 Improved Irrigation Techniques
  • 6.3.4.3 Application of Additional Dose of Plant Nutrients
  • 6.3.4.4 Leaching
  • 6.3.4.4.1 Amount of Water Required for Leaching
  • 6.3.4.5 Mulching
  • 7 Measures for Water Logging Area
  • 7.2 Water Logging
  • 7.2.1 Causes of Water Logging
  • 7.2.2.2 On Farm Water Management
  • 7.2.2.3 Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater
  • 7.2.2.4 Planting Trees in Vulnerable Reaches/Bio-drainage
  • 7.2.3.1 Types of Surface Drainage
  • 7.2.3.1.1 Random Drain System
  • 7.2.3.1.2 The Parallel Field Drains
  • 7.2.3.2 Design of Surface Drainage System
  • 7.2.3.3 Design Criteria for Surface/Field Drainage
  • 7.2.4 Subsurface Drainage System
  • 7.2.4.1 Drainage Investigations
  • 7.2.4.2 Groundwater Conditions
  • 7.2.4.3 Subsurface Drainage Methods
  • 7.2.4.4 Design of Subsurface Drainage System
  • 7.2.4.6 Sub-surface Drainage Coefficient
  • 7.2.4.7 Installation of Subsurface Drainage System
  • 7.2.4.8 Drainage Materials for Subsurface Drainage
  • 7.2.4.9 Types of Drainage Materials
  • 7.2.4.10.1 Depth of Lateral Drains
  • 7.2.4.10.2 Spacing of Lateral Drains
  • 7.2.4.10.3 Size of Tile Drain
  • 7.2.5 Mole Drain
  • 7.2.5.1 Testing for Suitability for Mole Draining
  • 7.2.5.2 Construct of Mole Drain
  • 7.2.5.3 Gradient of Mole Drain
  • 7.2.5.4 Depth of Mole Drain
  • 7.2.5.5 Spacing
  • 7.2.5.6 Length
  • 7.2.5.7 Outfall/Outlet
  • 8.2 Prioritization of Area for Ground Water Recharge
  • 8.3 Conditions of Ground Water Recharge
  • 8.4 Types of Ground Water Recharge Structure
  • 8.4.1 Ground Water Recharge through Pit
  • 8.4.2 Ground Water Recharge through Trench
  • 8.4.3 Ground Water Recharge through existing Tube Wells
  • 8.4.4 Ground Water Recharge through Percolation Tank
  • 8.4.4.1 Percolation Tanks
  • 8.4.4.2 The Factors Considered for Selection of Site
  • 8.4.4.3 General Guidelines
  • 8.4.5 Ground Water Recharge through Shaft
  • 8.4.6 Ground Water Recharge through Dugwells
  • 8.4.6.1 Features of Artificial Dugwell Recharge Structures
  • 8.4.6.2 Benefits of Ground Water Recharge through Dugwells
  • 9 Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting Structure
  • 9.2 Design Considerations
  • 9.3 Components of Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting
  • 9.3.1 Roof Catchment
  • 9.3.2 Drain Pipes
  • 9.3.3 Gutters
  • 9.3.4 Down Pipe
  • 9.3.5 First Flush Pipe
  • 9.3.6 Filtration of Water
  • 9.3.7 Filter Sand
  • 9.3.8 Rapid Sand Filters
  • 9.3.9 Storage Tank
  • 9.3.9.1 Size of Storage Tanks for Rural Areas
  • 9.3.9.2 Space of Water Tank
  • 9.3.9.3 Collection Sump
  • 9.3.9.4 Pump Unit
  • 9.3.9.5 Economic Viability
  • References

Technical Manual for IWMP

Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 2


Table of Contents

Executive Summary .................................................................................................................................................. 12
Abbreviations .............................................................................................................................. 13

Chapter-1 Watershed Concept ............................................................................................. 15
1.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 15
1.2 Watershed Approach for National Resources Conservation ........................... 16
1.3 Objectives of the Manual ................................................................................................ 17
1.4 Watershed Management ................................................................................................ 17

Chapter-2 Terminologies related to Watershed ............................................................ 20
2.1 Precipitation ................................................................................................................ 19
2.1.1. Rainfall Parameters .................................................................................................... 20
2.5.1.2 Rainfall Amount ..................................................................................................... 20
2.5.1.3 Rainfall Duration ................................................................................................... 20
2.5.1.4 Rainfall Intensity ................................................................................................... 20
2.5.1.5 Rainfall Frequency ................................................................................................ 20
2.6 Measurement of Rainfall ................................................................................................ 21
2.7 Installation of Rain gauge .............................................................................................. 21
2.8 Outflow from the Watershed ....................................................................................... 22
2.9 Evaporation......................................................................................................................... 22
2.10 Evapotranspiration (ET) ................................................................................................ 22
2.11 Subsurface Outflow or Subsurface Runoff .............................................................. 23
2.12 Surface Storage .................................................................................................................. 23
2.13 Surface Runoff .................................................................................................................... 23
2.14 Factors affecting Surface Runoff ................................................................................. 23
2.14.1 Climatic Factors...................................................................................................... 23
2.14.1.1 Type of precipitation ............................................................................................ 23
2.14.2 Physiographic Factors ......................................................................................... 24
2.14.2.1 Area of the Watershed ......................................................................................... 24
2.14.2.2 Length of Watershed ............................................................................................ 24
2. 14.2.3 Slope of watershed ................................................................................................ 24
2. 14.2.4 Land Use .................................................................................................................... 24
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2. 14.2.5 Drainage Density ................................................................................................... 24
2. 14.2.6 Soil type ..................................................................................................................... 25
2. 14.2.7 Basin Shape .............................................................................................................. 25
2. 14.2.8 Stream Order ........................................................................................................... 25
2. 14.2.9 Drainage Patterns .................................................................................................. 27
2.15 Runoff Estimation ....................................................................................................... 29
2.15.1 Rational Method ..................................................................................................... 29
2.15.1.2 Time of Concentration ................................................................................... 30
2.15.2 Runoff Estimation by Empirical Formulae .................................................. 33
2.15.3 Runoff Co-efficient Method ........................................................................... 34
2.15.4 Dicken’s Formula .............................................................................................. 34
2.16 Hydrograph ................................................................................................................... 34
2.16.1 Rising limb ............................................................................................................... 35
2.16.2 Falling limb .............................................................................................................. 35
2.16.3 Peak discharge ........................................................................................................ 35
2.16.4 Lag time ..................................................................................................................... 35
2.16.5 Discharge .................................................................................................................. 35
2.16.6 Factors affecting the Hydrograph ......................................................................... 36
2.16.6.1 Soil Properties .............................................................................................................. 36
2.16.6.2 Soil Classification ........................................................................................................ 36
2.16.6.3 Soil Erosion .................................................................................................................... 38
2.16.6.3.1 Factors Affecting Erosion ......................................................................................... 39
2.16.6.3.1.1 Climate Factor ......................................................................................................... 39
2.16.6.3.1.2 Soil Feature Factor ................................................................................................ 39
2.16.6.3.1.3 Geological Factor ................................................................................................... 40
2.16.3.1.4 Biological Factor .................................................................................................... 40
2.16.3.2 Types of Erosion .......................................................................................................... 40
2. 16.3.2.1 Raindrop Splash and Sheet Erosion ............................................................... 40
2. 16.3.2.2 Rill Erosion ............................................................................................................... 42
2. 16.3.2.3 Gully Erosion ........................................................................................................... 42
2. 16.3.2.4 Stream Bank Erosion ........................................................................................... 43
2. 16.3.2.5 Stream Bank Erosion Control ....................................................................... 43
2. 16.3.2.5.1 Supplementary Agronomic Measures...................................................... 43
2. 16.3.2.5.2 Vegetative Protection ..................................................................................... 44
2. 16.3.2.5.3 Structural Protection ...................................................................................... 44
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Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 4


2. 16.3.2.6 Estimation of Soil Erosion ............................................................................ 45

Chapter-3 Upper Catchment Area Treatment ................................................................. 49
3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 49
3.2 Biological Measures ......................................................................................................... 49
3.2.1 Riparian Habitat .......................................................................................................... 49
3.2.2 Live Hedge ..................................................................................................................... 49
3.2.2.1 Construction ............................................................................................................ 49
3.2.2.2 Functions .................................................................................................................. 49
3.3 Engineering measures .................................................................................................... 50
3.3.1 Contour Bunding ......................................................................................................... 50
3.3.1.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................. 50
3.3.1.2 Ramser’s formula .................................................................................................. 50
3.3.1.3 COXS' Formula ........................................................................................................ 50
3.3.1.4 Contour Bunds: DO's and DONT's ................................................................... 53
3.3.1.5 Marking Contour Lines by field method ....................................................... 54
3.3.1.6 The Water Tube Level.......................................................................................... 56
3.3.1.7 Marking the Line .................................................................................................... 57
3.3.2 Contour Trenching ..................................................................................................... 57
3.3.2.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................. 57
3.3.2.2 Specifications .......................................................................................................... 57
3.3.2.3 Layout ........................................................................................................................ 57
3.3.3 Types of Trenches ....................................................................................................... 58
3.3.3.1 Continuous Contour Trenches ......................................................................... 58
3.3.5.2 Staggered Contour Trenches............................................................................. 58
3.3.6 Design of Contour Trenches.................................................................................... 59
3.3.6.1 Determination of direct runoff volume ......................................................... 59
3.3.6.2 Determination of cross sectional area and volume of trench .............. 59
3.3.6.3 Determination of spacing ................................................................................... 60
3.3.6.4 Contour Trenches: DON'Ts ................................................................................ 60
3.3.7 Bench Terracing .......................................................................................................... 60
3.3.7.1 Functions .................................................................................................................. 61
3.3.7.2 Functions of Terracing in the Conservation Programme ...................... 61
3.3.7.3 Limitations ............................................................................................................... 62
3.3.7.4 Types of Bench Terraces .................................................................................... 62
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3.3.7.4.1 Level Bench Terraces ...................................................................................... 62
3.3.7.4.2 Bench Terraces Sloping Outward ............................................................... 62
3.3.7.4.3 Bench Terraces Sloping Inward .................................................................. 62
3.3.7.5 Design of Bench Terraces .............................................................................. 62
3.3.7.5.1 Basic design parameters ................................................................................ 63
3.3.7.5.2 Terrace spacing ................................................................................................. 63
3.3.7.5.2 Terrace Grade along the Width & Length ................................................ 63
3.3.7.5.3 Terrace Cross Section ...................................................................................... 64
3.3.7.5.4 Vegetative Grassed Waterways .................................................................. 66
3.3.7.5.5 Shape ..................................................................................................................... 67
3.3.7.5.6 Channel Grades .................................................................................................. 68
3.3.7.5.7 Channel Dimensions ........................................................................................ 68
3.3.8 Gully plugging Measures .......................................................................................... 69
3.3.8.1 Nala Plug ................................................................................................................... 70
3.3.8.2 Loose Boulder Checks .......................................................................................... 71
3.3.8.2.1 Objectives ............................................................................................................. 71
3.3.8.2.2 Location ................................................................................................................ 71
3.3.8.2.3 Laying out Boulder Checks on a Stream .................................................. 72
3.3.8.2.4 Design of Loose Boulder check .................................................................... 73
3.3.9 Chute Spillway .............................................................................................................. 76
3.3.9.1 Objectives ................................................................................................................. 76
3.3.9.2 Specific Site Conditions ....................................................................................... 76
3.3.9.3 Design ........................................................................................................................ 76
3.3.9.4 Control Section ....................................................................................................... 77
3.3.9.5 Conduit or Chute Discharge Carrier ............................................................... 77
3.3.9.6 Outlet .......................................................................................................................... 77
3.2.9.7 Cost Estimate .......................................................................................................... 77

Chapter-4 Middle Catchment Area Treatment ............................................................... 79
4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 79
4.2 Land Levelling .................................................................................................................... 79
4.2.1 Design Methods for Land Levelling ...................................................................... 79
4.2.1.1 Plane Method .......................................................................................................... 80
4.2.1.1 Centroid with respect to Reference Line ................................................ 80
4.2.1.2 Earth Work Estimations ................................................................................ 81
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4.2.2 Profile Method .............................................................................................................. 82
4.2.3 Plan Inspection Method ............................................................................................ 82
4.2.4 Contour Adjustment Method .................................................................................. 82
4.3 Farm Bund ........................................................................................................................... 83
4.3.1 Objectives ....................................................................................................................... 84
4.3.2 Control of Soil Erosion .............................................................................................. 84
4.3.3 Improvement of the Soil Moisture Profile ......................................................... 84
4.3.4 Planning .......................................................................................................................... 85
4.3.5 Spacing ............................................................................................................................ 85
4.3.6 Alignment of Bunds under Different Conditions ............................................ 87
4.4 Farm Pond ........................................................................................................................... 89
4.4.1 Types of Ponds ............................................................................................................. 89
4.4.1.1 Traits of a Good Pond Site........................................................................................ 90
4.4.1.2 Detailed Soil Investigation ....................................................................................... 91
4.4.1.3 Selecting the Dimensions ......................................................................................... 91
4.4.1.4 Building the Pond ........................................................................................................ 93
4.4.1.5 Establishing Vegetation ............................................................................................ 95
4.4.1.6 Volume of Lift ............................................................................................................... 97
4.5 Waste Weir .......................................................................................................................... 97
4.5.1 Design of Waste Weir ................................................................................................ 98

Chapter-5 Lower Catchment Area Treatment .............................................................. 100
5.1 Gabion Structure ............................................................................................................ 100
5.1.1 Objectives .................................................................................................................... 101
5.1.2 Site Selection .............................................................................................................. 102
5.1.3 Spacing of the Gabions ........................................................................................... 102
5.1.4 Brief Description of the Construction .............................................................. 102
5.1.5 Specifications ............................................................................................................. 103
5.1.6 Construction Methodology – Gabion structure ............................................ 103
5.2 Earthen Dams .................................................................................................................. 107
5.2.1 Basic Requirements of an Embankment Dam............................................... 109
5.2.2 Selection of Embankment Type .......................................................................... 109
5.2.2.1 Topography .......................................................................................................... 109
5.2.2.2 Geology and Foundation Conditions ........................................................... 109
5.2.2.3 Materials available ............................................................................................. 110
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5.2.2.4 Spillway/Exit weir ............................................................................................. 110
5.2.2.5 Environmental ..................................................................................................... 110
5.2.2.6 Economic Analysis ............................................................................................. 110
5.2.2.7 Technical Requirements .................................................................................. 110
5.2.3 Design of Earthen Dam .......................................................................................... 111
5.2.3.1 Foundation Cutoffs (Key trench) .................................................................. 112
5.2.3.2 Height of Embankment .................................................................................... 113
5.2.3.3 Top Width of Embankment ............................................................................ 113
5.2.3.4 Embankment Side Slopes ................................................................................ 113
5.2.3.5 Slope Protection .................................................................................................. 114
5.2.3.6 Free Board ............................................................................................................. 114
5.2.3.7 Internal Drainage System ................................................................................ 114
5.2.3.8 Design of Waste Weir ........................................................................................ 115
5.2.3.9 Causes of Failure of Earthen Dams .............................................................. 116
5.2.3.10 Cost estimation of Earthen Dam ................................................................... 118
5.3 Check Dam ........................................................................................................................ 123
5.3.1 Classification of Check Dams ............................................................................... 124
5.3.2 Site Characteristic and Design Guidelines for Check Dams ..................... 125
5.3.3 Design of Check Dams ............................................................................................ 125
5.3.4 Forces Acting on Dam Wall .................................................................................. 128
5.3.4.1 Horizontal forces due to stored water ....................................................... 129
5.3.4.2 Self Weight Force of the Check Dam ........................................................... 129
5.3.4.3 Uplift Force due to Standing Water Column ............................................ 129
5.3.5 Causes of Failure of Check Dam .......................................................................... 129
5.4 Sub-Surface Check Dams/Dykes .............................................................................. 132
5.4.1 Advantages ................................................................................................................. 132
5.4.2 Construction and Design Guidelines................................................................. 132

Chapter- 6 Measures for Soil Acidity and Soil Salinity ............................................... 135
6.1 Soil Acidity ........................................................................................................................ 135
6.1.1 Causes of Soil Acidity .............................................................................................. 136
6.1.2 Management of Acid Soil ....................................................................................... 138
6.1.3 Treating Soil with Lime (CaCo3) ......................................................................... 138
6.1.3.1 Choice of Liming Material ............................................................................... 139
6.1.3.2 Lime Requirement for Different Soils......................................................... 139
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6.1.3.3 Cropping Pattern for Acid Soil Region ....................................................... 140
6.2 Soil Salinity ....................................................................................................................... 141
6.2.1 Classification of Soil Salinity ................................................................................ 141
6.2.2 Distinguishing Features of Saline and Sodic Soils ....................................... 142
6.2.3 Reclamation of Saline Soil ..................................................................................... 144
6.2.3.1 Chemical Method ................................................................................................ 144
6.2.3.2 Biological Method ............................................................................................... 144
6.2.3.2.1 Planting Salt Tolerant Crops ....................................................................... 144
6.2.3.2.2 Crop Selection ................................................................................................ 145
6.2.3.2.3 Shallow Rooted Crops ................................................................................. 145
6.2.3.2.4 Tillage Practices ............................................................................................ 145
6.2.4 Reclamation of Sodic Soils .................................................................................... 145
6.2.4.1 Land Forming ....................................................................................................... 146
6.2.4.2 Improved Irrigation Techniques .................................................................. 147
6.2.4.3 Application of Additional Dose of Plant Nutrients ................................ 147
6.2.4.4 Leaching ................................................................................................................. 147
6.2.4.4.1 Amount of Water Required for Leaching ............................................... 148
6.2.4.5 Mulching ................................................................................................................ 149

Chapter-7 Measures for Water Logging Area ............................................................... 150
7.1 Water Logging ................................................................................................................. 150
7.1.1 Causes of Water Logging ....................................................................................... 150
7.1.2 Strategies for Prevention and Management of Water-logging ............... 151
7.1.2.1 Lining of Water Distribution System .......................................................... 151
7.1.2.2 On Farm Water Management ......................................................................... 151
7.1.2.3 Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater ........................................ 151
7.1.2.4 Planting Trees in Vulnerable Reaches/Bio-drainage ........................... 151
7.1.3 Surface Drainage ...................................................................................................... 152
7.1.3.1 Types of Surface Drainage .............................................................................. 153
7.1.3.1.1 Random Drain System .................................................................................. 153
7.1.3.1.2 The Parallel Field Drains .............................................................................. 154
7.1.3.1.3 Bedding system ............................................................................................... 154
7.1.3.2 Design of Surface Drainage System ............................................................. 155
7.1.3.2.1 Design Criteria for Surface/Field Drainage .............................................. 156
7.1.4 Subsurface Drainage System ............................................................................... 157
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7.1.4.1 Drainage Investigations ................................................................................... 157
7.1.4.2 Groundwater Conditions ................................................................................. 158
7.1.4.3 Subsurface Drainage Methods ....................................................................... 158
7.1.4.4 Design of Subsurface Drainage System ...................................................... 158
7.1.4.4.1 Drainage criteria ................................................................................................. 159
7.1.4.4.2 Sub-surface Drainage Coefficient ................................................................. 159
7.1.4.4.3 Installation of Subsurface Drainage System ............................................ 160
7.1.4.4.4 Drainage Materials for Subsurface Drainage ........................................... 161
7.1.4.4.5 Types of Drainage Materials .......................................................................... 161
7.1.5 Tile Drain Method .............................................................................................. 161
7.1.4.10.1 Depth of Lateral Drains ................................................................................ 162
7.1.4.10.2 Spacing of Lateral Drains ............................................................................. 162
7.1.4.10.3 Size of Tile Drain ............................................................................................. 163
7.1.5 Mole Drain .................................................................................................................. 165
7.1.5.1 Testing for Suitability for Mole Draining .................................................. 165
7.1.5.2 Construction of Mole Drain ............................................................................ 166
7.1.5.3 Gradient of Mole Drain ..................................................................................... 166
7.1.5.4 Depth of Mole Drain .......................................................................................... 166
7.1.5.5 Spacing .................................................................................................................... 166
7.1.5.6 Length ..................................................................................................................... 166
7.1.5.7 Outfall/Outlet ....................................................................................................... 167

Chapter-8 Artificial Recharge to Ground Water .......................................................... 168
8.1 Prioritization of Area for Ground Water Recharge .......................................... 168
8.2 Conditions of Ground Water Recharge ................................................................. 168
8.3 Types of Ground Water Recharge Structure ....................................................... 169
8.3.1 Ground Water Recharge through Pit ................................................................ 170
8.3.2 Ground Water Recharge through Trench ....................................................... 171
8.3.3 Ground Water Recharge through existing Tube Wells .............................. 172
8.3.4 Ground Water Recharge through Percolation Tank ................................... 173
8.3.4.1 Percolation Tanks ............................................................................................... 173
8.3.4.2 Factors Considered for Selection of Site .................................................... 174
8.3.4.3 General Guidelines ............................................................................................. 175
8.3.5 Ground Water Recharge through Shaft ........................................................... 176
8.3.6 Ground Water Recharge through Dugwells ................................................... 177
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8.3.6.1 Features of Artificial Dugwell Recharge Structures .............................. 177
8.3.6.2 Benefits of Ground Water Recharge through Dugwells ...................... 178

Chapter-9 Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting Structure ............................................... 181
9.1 Design Considerations ................................................................................................. 181
9.2 Components of Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting ............................................. 182
9.2.1 Roof Catchment ......................................................................................................... 183
9.2.2 Drain Pipes ................................................................................................................. 184
9.2.3 Gutters .......................................................................................................................... 185
9.2.4 Down Pipe ................................................................................................................... 185
9.2.5 First Flush Pipe ......................................................................................................... 186
9.2.6 Filtration of Water ................................................................................................... 187
9.2.7 Filter Sand ................................................................................................................... 188
9.2.8 Rapid Sand Filters .................................................................................................... 188
9.2.9 Storage Tank .............................................................................................................. 189
9.2.9.1 Size of Storage Tanks for Rural Areas ........................................................ 189
9.2.9.2 Space of Water Tank.......................................................................................... 191
9.2.9.3 Collection Sump .................................................................................................. 191
9.2.9.4 Pump Unit .............................................................................................................. 191
9.2.9.5 Economic Viability ............................................................................................. 192

References ................................................................................................................................. 196
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Executive Summary

This Technical Manual for Integrated Watershed Management Programme is prepared
by experienced technical officials of Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency (GSWMA),
in consultation with various professional research institutes i.e. Central Soil and Water Con-
servation Research and Training Institute (CSWCRTI), Vasad (Anand), Central Ground Water
Board (CGWB), West Central Region, Ahmedabad, Narmada, Water Resources, Water Supply
and Kalpsar Department, Govt. of Gujarat, Gujarat Land Development Corporation (GLDC) and
referred various technical books and reports on watershed Development. This manual will act
as a key tool to all the field engineers of integrated Watershed Management Programme
(IWMP) for practical guidance. Comprehensive details is written for all types of possible soil
and water conservation engineering structures in ridge to valley principle under IWMP, as
per the new common guidelines 2008 issued by Ministry of Land Resources, Government of
India.

The appropriate design and proper selection of site is very important for ridge to val-
ley treatment. This manual gives systematically ridge to valley treatment with details engi-
neering activities with appropriate design, drawings, estimation example and photograph of
each structure. Chapter-1 involves watershed concept and its related terminology. Chapter-2
involves soil and moisture conservation activities for upper catchment area treatment that
covers contour bunding, contour trenching, bench terracing, nala plug, loose boulder checks,
chute spill way, etc. Chapter-3 involves land development activities for middle catchment area
treatment that covers land leveling, farm bund, farm pond and waste weir. Chapter-4 involves
soil and water conservation activities for lower catchment area treatment covers gabion
structures, earthen dams, masonry check dams, earthen dam, sub-surface check dams/dykes.
Chapter-5 involves measures for soil acidity and soil salinity covers its causes and manage-
ment. Chapter -6 involves measures for water logging that covers on farm water management,
surface drainage and sub-surface drainage methods. Chapter-7 involves various techniques of
groundwater recharge, covers artificial recharge to ground water through recharge pits, re-
charge trenches, existing tube wells, percolation tanks, recharge shafts and through existing
dug wells. Chapter-8 involves details of roof top rain water harvesting structures.
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Abbreviations

AKF Aga Khan Foundation
AKRSP Aga Khan Rural Support Programme
BAIF Bharatiya Agro-Industries Foundation
BCR Benefit-Cost Ratio
BDO Block Development Office
BPL Below Poverty Line
CAPART Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology
CAZRI Central Arid Zone Research Institute
CBO community-Based organisation
CDS Current Daily Status
CEO Chief Executive Officer
CESS Centre for Economic and Social Studies
CGWB Central Ground Water Board
CIDA Canadian International Development Agency
CSWCRTI Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute
DDP Desert Development Programme
DLR Department of Land Resources
DPAP Drought Prone Areas Programme
DRDA District Rural Development Agency
DSC Development Support Centre
DWDU District Watershed Development Unit
EAP Externally Aided Project
EAS Employment Assurance Scheme
FAO Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations
FPR Flood Prone Rivers
FRL Full Reservoir Level
GIA Gross Irrigated Area
GIS Geographical Information System
GLDC Gujarat Land Development Corporation
GPS Global Positioning System
GSWMA Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency
GWD Ground Water Development
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GWT Ground Water Table
HM Hhard Mooram
HST Hind Swaraj Trust
IARI Indian Agricultural Research Institute
ICAR Indian Council of Agricultural Research
ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics
IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development
IGWDP Indo-German Watershed Development Programme
IIM Indian Institute of Management
I-JRY Innovative Jawahar Rozgar Yojana
IRR Internal Rate of Return
IT Information Technology
IWDP Integrated Wastelands Development Programme
IWMI International Water Management Institute
IWMP Integrated Watershed Management Programme
LCC Land Capability Class
LEISA Low External Input Sustainable Agriculture
LGP Length of Growing Period
MDT Multi-Disciplinary Team
MGNREGS Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
MIS Management Information System
MoRD Ministry of Rural Development
MoU Memorandum of Understanding
MTO Master Trainer Organisation
NABARD National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
NASDORA National Authority for Sustainable Development of Rainfed Areas
NBSS-LUP National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning
NCMP National Common Minimum Programme
NDDB National Dairy Development Board
NGO Non-Government Organization
NRM natural resource management
NRSA National Remote Sensing Agency
NSS National Sample Survey
NTFP Non-Timber Forest Produce
NWDPRA National Watershed Development Programme for Rainfed Areas
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PE Professional Expert
PET Potential Evapo-Transpiration
PIA Project Implementing Agency
PM Project Manager
PMES Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Systems
PNP Participatory Net Planning
PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal
PRADAN Professional Action for Development and Networking
PRI Panchayati Raj Institution
PRM Participatory Resource Mapping
PSI People’s Science Institute
RDT Rural Development Trust
RVP River Valley Projects
SC Scheduled Caste
SHG Self-Help Group
SIDA Swiss International Development Agency
SIDBI Small Industries Development Bank of India
SMC Soil and Moisture Conservation
SoR Schedule of Rates
SPS Samaj Pragati Sahayog
ST Scheduled Tribe
SVO Support Voluntary Organisation
TE Technical Expert
VRTI Vivekananda Research and Training Institute
VWC Village Watershed Committee
WA Watershed Association
WASSAN Watershed Support Services and Activities Network
WC Watershed Committee
WDF Watershed Development Fund
WDT Watershed Development Team
ZP Zilla Panchayat
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Chapter- 1
Watershed Concept
1.1 Introduction
The stress on water resources started in Gujarat due to green revolution (in early Six-
ties), fast development in industrial sector and change in health and hygiene habits of people
of Gujarat. Hectic exploration and exploitation of ground water for drinking, agricultural and
industrial purposes has been practiced all over the Gujarat state for past few decades, which
has resulted in dwindling of water levels. Ground water was being used by means of shallow
wells in 1960-61, a practice, which turned, gradually from wells to bores and tube wells to
deeper tube wells. Exploration has already reached to the levels of almost 600 Mts. in hard
rock areas and 400 Mts. in alluvium areas.
This phenomenon has activated minds of many scientists and engineers working in
water sector, to dedicate their professional lives to study water for its proper use and man-
agement for future needs. Land degradation is a major cause of productivity losses and soil
erosion is the most serious one among the various factors affecting land degradation. There-
fore soil conservation is of primary importance in any land development work. Also, in dry
lands, soil water (moisture) conservation is of vital importance for successful crop produc-
tion. There are many time-tested technologies for soil and water conservation that can be
adopted for alternate land use systems whether it is crop production, horticulture, agro-
horticulture systems, agro-forestry, silvi-pasture system or any other. The type of soil and wa-
ter conservation measure will depend on the size and shape of the areas to be developed for
cropping, its location within the watershed of which this area is a part, the kind of plantation
being taken up etc. For small areas, in situ conservation practices such as formation of basins,
or micro relief systems and agronomic conservation practices may suffice whereas for large
plantations, watershed scale development work may have to be taken up.
Since 1996, Government of India has issued guideline for the implementation of area
development programme adopting watershed approach. Watershed approach aims at resto-
ration of ecological balance preserving environment and stabilizing the income of village
community both farmers, asset less and landless agricultural labour. The importance of wa-
tershed development cannot be underestimated. On one hand is the need to increase food
productivity and hence productivity from soil and the other increasing soil erosion and dep-
leting water availability.
Water is almost a dual edge sword, in the form of rain, if allowed to fall and flow un-
abated and unchecked. If instead it can be captured allowed percolation time, it can deplete
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reservoir and half soil erosion to a certain extent. It thus makes sense to adopt soil and water
conservation method together through watershed management and development. Watershed
management discusses the impact of watershed on people, the need for people participation
and how this can be achieved and most considerably provides a format for watershed plan-
ning.
1.2 Watershed Approach for National Resources Conservation
The scope of soil conservation is very wide and encompasses much more than physical
work for erosion control. The concept of soil conservation, now-a-days has been expanded to
mean protection of the soil against physical loss by erosion or against chemical deterioration.
Thus, the effective conservation and management of land, water and vegetation resources
aimed at obtaining optimum and sustained return from these resources without degrading
them can be achieved by adopting watershed as basic unit of development. Watershed being a
natural hydrological entity, it responds most effectively to various engineering, biological and
cultural treatments. Monitoring of runoff and silt at the outlet of the watershed can help as-
sess the impact of various treatments aimed at conserving soil and water, and protecting ve-
getation.
Watershed management involves protection of land against all forms of degradation,
restoration of degraded land, sediment control, pollutants control, and prevention of floods,
etc. A workable size of the watershed can be decided in accordance with the aim and objective
of the particular system as well as the size of the stream for which it forms a catchment. Wa-
tershed of smaller size has distinct advantage of involving a smaller number of families within
a resource unit with a common social and economic pattern. Demarcation of watershed and
subsequently sub watersheds can be done either by using toposheet of the area available with
Survey of India or by interpretation of remotely sensed imagery of the area. Prioritization of
sub watershed should be done on the basis of sediment yield and pollutants concentration in
the runoff from the sub watershed. The entire watershed can be treated gradually over a
number of years as per the availability of financial and other resources.
Numerous treatment technologies in the form of engineering measures and agronomic
practices are available. But identification of most suitable technologies as per the site condi-
tion and their application in correct way is most important to achieve the desired results.
These technologies when adopted within the boundary of watershed, facilitates favorable in-
teraction among various watershed factors such as physiography, land slope, soil characteris-
tics, land use, hydrological behavior etc, land and water resources to produce food, fodder,
fuel and fiber on sustainable basis. In this manual only engineering measures suitable for the
region are discussed. Engineering measures are also called mechanical measures. These
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measures are aimed at arresting the movement of eroded soil by reducing the slope length
and / or slope steepness or gradient and conserving water by different methods. Some of
these measures suitable for agricultural lands and their design and potential land use models
are discussed.
This manual "Technical Manual for Watershed" aims to attempt development of wa-
tershed in the Indian context and particularly considering the need of Gujarat. It aims at ac-
tual identifying ideal soil conservation structures, water harvesting structures and their de-
sign situated to a particular topography. It is meant for those individuals like Multi Discipli-
nary Team (MDT)/Watershed Development Team (WDT) member, Line Departments and or-
ganizations who will be involved in planning, implementing and/or monitoring of watershed
programme. It will be helpful as they will work out how structures are built and cost esti-
mated.
1.3 Objectives of the Manual
The manual will play a key tool of practical guidance to the field engineers at village lev-
el as well as district levels. Many of field engineers are joining as fresh without any practical
experience and many field engineers not having relevant field experiences will get the bene-
fited from this manual. This manual is prepared in comprehensive for all types of possible soil
and water conservation engineering structures applicable in integrated watershed manage-
ment programme as per the new common guidelines 2008 issued by Government of India.
The proper design and proper selection of sites have discussed in this manual systematically
in ridge to valley development approach with drawings and example photographs of each
structures. This manual covers complete engineering treatments starting with basics and
concept of watershed development and management, various factors and terminology used in
watershed development programme, then upper catchment area treatment, lower catchment
area treatment, land development activities, acidity and salinity controls, treatments for par-
tial water logging areas, ground water recharging techniques and roof rain water harvesting
techniques. The stake holders will be able to:
i) Apply integrated approach to watershed.
ii) Apply techniques of soil and water conservation in watershed management.
iii) Use rainwater-harvesting techniques.
iv) Reclamation of soil acidity and salinity.
1.4 Watershed Management
A watershed is an area from which runoff, resulting from precipitation, flows past a
single common outlet point into a large stream, a river, lake or a reservoir. In other words a
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watershed is a topographically delineated area that is drained by a stream system through sin-
gle outlet. A A w wa at te er rs sh he ed d i is s m ma ad de e u up p o of f i it ts s p ph hy ys si ic ca al l a an nd d h hy yd dr ro ol lo og gi ic ca al l n na at tu ur ra al l r re es so ou ur rc ce es s a as s w we el ll l a as s
h hu um ma an n r re es so ou ur rc ce es s. . Watershed management implies the proper use of all land and water re-
source of a watershed for optimum production with minimum hazard to natural resources. A
watershed may be only a few hectares as in case of small ponds or hundreds of square kilo-
meters as in case of rivers. All watersheds can be divided into smaller sub watersheds.


Fig 1: A watershed
Table 1: Hierarchy of Watersheds
Category Size (ha)
Basin 30,00,000-300,00,000
Catchment 10,00,000-30,00,000
Sub-catchment 2,00,000-10,00,000
Watershed 50,000-2,00,000
Sub-watershed 10,000-50,000
Milli-watershed 4000-10,000
Mini watershed 1000-4000
Micro-watershed 100-1000

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The objectives of watershed management are:
i) To control damaging runoff
ii) To manage and utilize runoff for useful purposes
iii) To control erosion
iv) To moderate floods in the downstream areas
v) To enhance groundwater storage and
vi) To decide use of appropriate of the land resources in the watershed.

The factors which affect the watershed behavior and which need to be studied in man-
agement programmes are (i) size and shape of the watershed (ii) topography (iii) soil and
their characteristics, (iv) precipitation (v) land use and (vi) vegetative cover.

Data to be collected for planning of watershed programmes are (i) hydrological infor-
mation - precipitation, climate data, flow data and sediment flow. (ii) Soil and land use data -
land use, soil data, topography, geology and vegetation and (iii) Socio-economic data as per
needs of the people to work out cost benefit of the project.

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Chapter-2
2 Terminologies related to Watershed
2.1 Precipitation
It is nothing but the all atmospheric moisture that reaches to earth surface in liquid,
vapor or solid forms. The liquid form of precipitation that is rainfall is used for various pur-
poses such as land use planning, identification of crop growth period, choice of cropping pat-
tern, resources allocation, etc.
2.1.1 Rainfall Parameters
Rainfall parameters which are important from soil conservation and hydrological
point of view are rainfall amount, duration, intensity and rainfall frequency.
2.1.2 Rainfall Amount
Rainfall amount is the depth to which rainwater would collect on horizontal surface
under conditions of no infiltration, no runoff and no evaporation. In other words, it is vertical
depth to which rainwater would collect if water remains where it falls. It is measured in terms
of linear unit i. e. in mm or cm.
2.1.3 Rainfall Duration
The period during which the rainfall occurs is known as the duration of rainfall. It has
the unit of time, viz; second, minutes or hours.
2.1.4 Rainfall Intensity
Rainfall Intensity is defined as the rate at which rainfall takes place or it is the amount
of rainfall occurring per unit of time. It is expressed in units of mm/hr or cm/hr. It is one of
the most important parameter which is used for the design of soil and water conservation
structures. A high intensity rainfall occurring over a short period is more harmful for the un-
protected soil as compared to low intensity rainfall occurring over a longer period, the total
amount of rainfall remaining the same.
2.1.5 Rainfall Frequency
Rainfall frequency and return period are synonymous terms and denote the period in
years during which a storm of given intensity and duration can expected to occur. Thus, if at a
given station the maximum daily precipitation of 30 cm has got recurrence interval of 10
years, it means that on this station, the chances of rainfall are such that once in 10 years, rain
is likely to equal or exceed 30 cm.
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2.2 Measurement of Rainfall
Measurement of rainfall is a process of sampling wherein the rainfall measuring devic-
es are located at predetermined points in the watershed and then the average value is deter-
mined for the area. Rain gauge is the device/instrument used for the measurement of rainfall.
Two types of rain gauges are used for measurement of rainfall, viz; non-recording or standard
rain gauge and recording rain gauge. Rainfall can be measured simply by installing a rain
gauge. A simple manual rain gauge (non-recording type) can be easily installed in an open
area and the accumulated rainfall measured regularly i.e once in a day. All forms of precipita-
tion shall be measured on the basis of vertical depth of water.
Pour the water collected from bottle (from inside the gauge) into the glass-measuring cylind-
er (IS: 4849-1968) placed on level surface. Need to take care to avoid spilling of the collected
water. Take the reading at the bottom of curved surface of the water and estimate it to the
nearest 0.1 mm
If there is more water in the bottle than the measuring glass can hold, fill the glass nearly up
to the top graduation mark, take the reading and throw away the water. Repeat till all the col-
lected water has been individually measured and noted. The total rainfall is the sum of all
these measurement.
Measurement must be taken daily at 8.30 hr Indian Standard Time. Examine the raingauge
daily at this hour even if there is no rainfall.
Use a rain gauge of appropriate capacity as specified in IS:5225-1969 for measuring very
heavy rainfall
If rainfall is very heavy at the time of observation, place a spare bottle immediately after the
bottle inside the receiver is taken out so that no record is missed during the interval. Replace
the bottle quickly and pour the rainfall collected in spare bottle in it.
2.3 Installation of Rain gauge
The base of rain gauge should be masonry or concrete foundation of size 600 X
600X600 mm, sunk into the ground in such a manner that the rim of the rain gauge is exactly
300 mm above the ground level. This height is necessary to prevent water splashing into the
gauge.
Keep the top of the gauge perfectly level and true to shape, as change in the effective area of
the collector changes the amount of rain collected.
In flood-prone areas, maintain the level of rain gauge 300 mm above the maximum flood level.

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Fig 2: Non-recording type Rain Gauge
2.4 Outflow from the Watershed
Outflow from the watershed means, the amount of water that leaves the watershed
surface area. It takes into account various parameters, which help in calculating the actual
outflow that has occurred from the watershed. These parameters include evaporation, evapo-
transpiration, subsurface outflow, ground water recharge, soil moisture, surface runoff and
surface storage.
2.5 Evaporation
Water that lost as vapour from soil or open surface is called evaporation. There are
various methods to calculate the evaporation within the area. The pan evaporation method is
the most commonly used method. Imagine the open container, with a depth of 15 mm of wa-
ter in it, leave the container in the field for 24 hr and make sure that it does not rain during
those 24 hr. After 24 hr, a part of the water originally in the container will have evaporated. If
only 9 mm of water depth remains in the container, then the evaporation during that day was
15-9 = 6 mm.
2.6 Evapotranspiration (ET)
Evapotranspiration of the particular area is the water lost from soil by evaporation
and water lost from plant leaves by transpiration. The evapotranspiration of crop is the total
amount of soil water used for transpiration by plants and evaporation from the surrounding
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soil surface. Evapotranspiration is commonly expressed in mm of water used per day
(mm/day)
2.7 Subsurface Outflow or Subsurface Runoff
It is the part of rainfall, which leaches into the soil and moves laterally without joining
the water table, to the streams, rivers or ocean. This parameter is one of the major compo-
nents in measuring the water balance. This is collected in stream and can be observed in the
forms of a flow in stream in the month of January to May. Subsurface flow could be calculated
using the simple method of calculating the discharge of seepage in the streams or any outlet.
2.8 Surface Storage
Surface storages include all the surface water storages existing in the watershed. For
accurate calculation of the amount of water in each structure, a contour survey of the site is
necessary. Based on the contours, one can accurately define the storage capacity of the struc-
ture. To calculate the storage capacity of surface water, thumb rule equation can be used as
Storage= 0.4 x Length of spread x Breadth of dam x Height of water near the dam.
2.9 Surface Runoff
It is that portion of rainfall, which enters the stream immediately after the rainfall. It
occurs when all losses are satisfied and if rain is still continued, with the rate greater than in-
filtration rate, at this stage water starts flowing over the land as overland flow. For the design
of any soil and water conservation structures and waterways or channels, runoff volume and
peak rate of runoff are required to be estimated. Runoff rate is expressed in cubic meter per
seconds and runoff volume or water yield from watershed is generally expressed as m
3
.
2.10 Factors affecting Surface Runoff
2.10.1 Climatic Factors
The climatic factors of the watershed affecting the runoff are mainly associated with the cha-
racteristics of precipitation, which include:
i) Type of precipitation
ii) Rainfall intensity
iii) Duration of precipitation
iv) Rainfall distribution
v) Direction of prevailing wind
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2.10.2 Physiographic Factors
Physiographic factors of watershed consist of both, the watershed as well as channel charac-
teristics. The different characteristics of watershed and channel, which affect the runoff, are
listed below:
2.10.3 Area of the Watershed
The area of watershed is also known as the drainage area and it is the most important
watershed characteristic for hydrologic analysis. It reflects the volume of water that can be
generated from a rainfall. The total volume and rate of runoff depends on the area of the wa-
tershed. However, per unit area values decreases due to longer opportunity time.
2.10.4 Length of Watershed
This is the distance traveled by the surface drainage and sometimes more appropriate-
ly labeled as hydrologic length. This length is usually used in computing a time parameter,
which is a measure of the travel time of water through a watershed. The watershed length is
therefore measured along the principal flow path from the watershed outlet to the basin
boundary. As the length of watershed is more, runoff takes more time to reach at its peak val-
ue.
2.10.5 Slope of watershed
Watershed slope affects the momentum of runoff. Watershed slope reflects the rate of
change of elevation with respect to distance along the principal flow path. It is usually calcu-
lated as the elevation difference between the endpoints of the main flow path divided by the
length. Higher slope causes high runoff rate within short period of time. Therefore in wa-
tershed development principle, we try to reduce the slope so that runoff takes more time to
reach the outlet and during that period a part of it recharges ground water.
2.10.6 Land Use
Land use pattern, local crop management practices; forest or grass land determines
the runoff producing characteristics of the watershed. Vegetated watershed produces less ru-
noff than the bare watershed due to induced opportunity time. During a rainstorm, flow from
an impervious steeply sloped and smooth surface make a little retardation and no loss to the
flow. In comparison, flow along a pervious grassy hill of the same size will produce retarda-
tion and significant loss to the flow due to infiltration.
2.10.7 Drainage Density
The drainage density (Dd) is defined as the ratio of total length (L) of channel in the
watershed to the total watershed area (A). The drainage density and its pattern affects the
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runoff, greater the drainage density, more would be the runoff due to efficient drainage. Dd=
L/A
2.10.8 Soil type
In the watershed, the surface runoff is mainly influenced by soil type, soil structure
and soil texture as the infiltration and permeability depend upon the soil characteristic. More
runoff is expected from a layered soil, as compared to homogeneous profile.
2.10.9 Basin Shape
Basin shape is not used directly in hydrologic design methods; however, parameters
that reflect basin shape are used occasionally and have a conceptual basis. Watersheds have
an infinite variety of shapes, and the shape supposedly reflects the way that runoff will
“bunch up” at the outlet. A circular watershed would result in runoff from various parts of the
watershed reaching the outlet at the same time. An elliptical watershed having the outlet at
one end of the major axis and having the same area as the circular watershed would cause the
runoff to be spread out over time, thus producing a smaller flood peak than that of the circu-
lar watershed.
2.10.10 Stream Order
Horton (from Horton’s infiltration equation fame) developed a set of “laws” that are
indicators of the geomorphologic characteristics of watershed. The stream order is a measure
of the degree of stream branching within a watershed. Each length of stream is indicated by
its order (for example, first-order, second-order, etc.). A first-order stream is an un-branched
tributary, a second-order stream is a tributary formed by two or more first-order streams. A
third-order stream is a tributary formed by two or more second-order streams and so on. In
general, an n
th

order stream is a tributary formed by two or more streams of order (n-1) and
streams of lower order. The stream through which all discharge of water and sediments pass
in the stream is known as highest order stream of that watershed. For a watershed, the prin-
cipal order is defined as the order of the principal channel. Usefulness of the stream order is
based on the premise that the order is directly proportional to size of the contributing wa-
tershed, to channel dimensions and to stream discharge at that place in the system. The figure
below gives an example of stream ordering. The concept of stream order is used to compute
other indicators of drainage character. The bifurcation ratio (R
b
) is defined as the ratio of the
number of streams of any order to the number of streams of the next highest order. Values of
R
b
typically range from the theoretical minimum of 2 to around 6. Typically, the values range
from 3 to 5. The bifurcation ratio is calculated as
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R
b
= N
i
/N
i+1

From this, Horton developed the Law of Stream Numbers which relates the number of
streams of order I (Ni) to the bifurcation ratio and the principal stream order (k)
Ni = R
b
k-1

Example: The bifurcation ratio of a watershed is the average of the bifurcation ratios of each
stream order. For a watershed with a bifurcation ratio of 2.6 and a fourth-order principal
stream,
Ni = 2.6
4-I

This would predict 18, 7, and 3 streams of order 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In addition to this
Horton proposed a Law of Stream Lengths, in which the average lengths of the streams of suc-
cessive orders are related by a length ratio R
L
:
R
L
= L
i+1
/L
i

L
i
= L
1
r
L
i-1

By similar, Schumm (1956) proposed a Law of Stream Areas to relate the average areas A
i
drained by streams of successive order
R
A
= A
i+1
/A
i

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Fig 3: Stream order
2.10.11 Drainage Patterns
Geomorphologists and hydrologists often view streams as being a part of drainage pat-
tern. Over time, a stream system will achieve a particular drainage pattern to its network of
stream channels and tributaries as determined by local geologic factors. Drainage patterns
are classified on the basis of their form and texture. Their shape or pattern develops in re-
sponse to the local topography and subsurface geology. Drainage channels develop where
surface runoff is enhanced and earth materials provide the least resistance to erosion. The
texture is governed by soil infiltration, and the volume of water available in a given period of
time to enter the surface.
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A dendrite drainage pattern is the most common form and looks like the branching pattern
of tree roots. It develops in regions underlain by homogeneous material. That is, the subsur-
face geology has a similar resistance to weathering so there is no apparent control over the
direction the tributaries take. Tributaries are joining larger streams at acute angle (less than
90 degrees).






Fig 4: Dendrite drainage pattern
Parallel drainage patterns form where there is a pronounced slope to the surface. A parallel
pattern also develops in regions of parallel, elongate landforms like outcropping resistant
rock bands. Tributary streams tend to stretch out in a parallel-like fashion following the slope
of the surface. A parallel pattern sometimes indicates the presence of a major fault that cuts
across an area of steeply folded bedrock. All forms of transitions can occur between parallel,
dendritic, and trellis patterns.






Fig 5: Parallel drainage patterns
Trellis drainage patterns look similar to their namesake, the common garden trellis. Trellis
drainage develops in folded topography like that found in the Appalachian Mountains of
North America. Down-turned folds called synclines form valleys in which resides the main
channel of the stream. Short tributary streams enter the main channel at sharp angles as they
run down sides of parallel ridges called anticlines. Tributaries join the main stream at nearly
right angles.



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Fig 6: Trellis drainage pattern
Deranged or contorted patterns develop from the disruption of a pre-existing drainage pat-
tern. Fig. 7 began as a dendritic pattern but was altered when overrun by glacier. After reced-
ing, the glacier left behind fine grain material that forms wetlands and deposits that dammed
the stream to impound a small lake. The tributary streams appear significantly more con-
torted than they were prior to glaciation.







Fig 7: Deranged or contorted pattern
2.11 Runoff Estimation
There are number of methods and empirical formulae employed for the estimation of
runoff. The two commonly used methods of runoff computation from small watershed are ra-
tional method and Empirical formulae method.
2.11.1 Rational Method
For urban watersheds of less than 100 acres that are not complex and do not have sig-
nificant storage areas, it is acceptable to use the Rational Method to determine peak flow
rates only. Due to its simplicity and inherent assumptions, it may not be appropriate for some
applications. Different components of the Rational Method are explained below
. .
360
C I A
Q =
Where,
Q = Peak rate of runoff, m
3

C = Runoff Coefficient (constant value ranges from 0 to 1)
I = Rainfall intensity for design frequency and duration equal to time of concentration,
mm/hr
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A = Area of watershed, Ha
The general procedure for Rational Method calculations for a single watershed is as follows:
Delineate the watershed boundary and calculate its area.
Define and measure the flow path from the upper-most portion of the watershed to the
deign point.
i) Calculate the slope for the flow path.
ii) Calculate time of concentration, Tc
iii) Find the rainfall intensity I, for the design storm using the calculated Tc as the dura-
tion.
iv) Determine the runoff coefficient, C
v)
Calculate the peak flow rate from the watershed using above equation

Table 2: Value of runoff coefficient, C
Vegetative cover Slope (%)
Soil Texture
Sandy Loam
Clay and slit
Loam
Stiff clay
Cultivated land
0-5 0.3 0.5 0.6
5-10 0.4 0.6 0.7
10-30 0.52 0.72 0.82
Pasture land
0-5 0.1 0.3 0.4
5-10 0.16 0.36 0.55
10-30 0.22 0.42 0.60
Forest land
0-5 0.1 0.3 0.4
5-10 0.25 0.35 0.50
10-30 0.3 0.50 0.6
(Source: “Soil and Water Conservation Engineering” book by R. Suresh)
2.11.1.1 Time of Concentration
The time of concentration, Tc, is defined as the time required for water to travel from
the most hydraulically remote point in a watershed to the point of outlet. When using the Ra-
tional Method, the rainfall duration used to determine intensity should typically equal the
time of concentration of the drainage area. If a highly developed portion of the watershed
produces a higher rate of runoff than the overall drainage area, then calculations should be
based upon the flow length and path that results in a Tc for the highly developed portion of
the drainage area only.

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Computation of Time of Concentration
There are several empirical relations available for computing the time of concentra-
tion, Kirpich (1940) developed an equation for computing the Tc on the basis of channel
length and its average slope. The equation is given below
Tc= 0.0195 L
0.77
x S
-0.385

Where,
Tc = time of concentration, minutes
L = length of channel reach, m
S = average slope of channel, m/m
One Hour rainfall : The intensity of severest rainfall during a given recurrence interval of par-
ticular region, during the time interval of one hour is called as one hour rainfall for that return
period/frequency. In the rational method, for computing peak runoff, the intensity of rainfall
should be equal to the time of concentration; in this case one hour rainfall intensity is con-
verted accordingly with Tc value.
Rainfall intensity for design frequency and duration equal to time of concentration, cm/hr is
given by following formula
a
n
K.T
I=
(Tc+b)

Where,
L= longest length, m
S= average slope of channel, m/m
T= return period in years
K,a, b and n are constant as per zone.
Tc = time of concentration, minutes










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Table 3: Intensity-duration-return period relationship, India
Zone Station K a b n



Eastern Zone











Aearthala

8.097

0.1177

0.50

0.8191

Dumdum

5.940

0.1150

0.15

0.9241

Gauliati

7.206

(1.1557

0.75

0.9401

Gava

7.176

0.1483

0.50

0.9459

Imphal

4.939

0.1340

0.50

0.9719

Jamshedpur

6.930

0.1307

0.50

9.8737

Jharsitguda

8.596

0.1392

0.75

0.8740

Noltll Lakhimpur

14.070

0.1256

1.25

1.0730

Sagar Island

16.524

0.1402

1.50

0.9635

Shilons

6.728

0.1502

0.75

0.9575

Eastern Zone

6.933

0.1353

0.50

0.8801

Zone Station K a b n


Southern Zone









Bangalore

6.275

0.1262

0.50

1.1280

Hyderabad

5.250

0.1354

0.50

1.0295

Kodaikanal

5.914

0.1711

0.50

1.0086

Madras

6.126

0.1664

0.50

0.8027

Mangalore

6.744

0.1395

0.50

0.9374

Tinichiapalli

7.135

0.1638

0.50

0.9624

Trivandrurn

6.762

0.1536

0.50

0.8158

Visakhapatnam

6.646

0.1692

0.50

0.9963

Southern Zone

6.311

0.1523

0.50

0.9465


Zone Station K a b n




Central Zone









Bagra-tawa

8.5704

0.2214

1.25

0.9331

Bhopal

6.9296

0.1892

0.50

0.8767

Indore

6.9280

0.1394

0.50

1.0651

Jabalpur

11.379

0.1746

1.25

1.1206

Jagdalpur

4.7065

0.1084

0.25

0.9902

Naapur

11.45

0.1560

1.25

1.0324

Puuasa

4.7011

0.2608

0.50

0.8653

Raipur

4.683

0.1389

0.15

0.9284

Thin

6.088

0.1747

1.00

0.8587

Central Zone 7.4645 0.1712 0.75 0.9599





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Zone Station K a b n


Western Zone







Aiiransabad

6.081

0.1459

0.50

1.092.3

Bhuj

3.823

0.1919

0.25

0.9902

Mahabaleshvar

3.483

0.1267

0.00

0.4853

Nandurbar

4.254

0.2070

0.25

0.7704

Veneurla

6.863

0.1670

0.75

0.8683

Veraval

7.787

0.2087

0.50

O.S908

Western zone

3.974

0.1647

0.15

0.7327

Zone Station k a b n



Northern Zone










Aera

4.911

0.1667

0.25

0.6293

Allahabad

8.570

0.1692

0.50

1.0190

Arnristar

14.41

0.1304

1.40

1.2963

Dehradun

600

0.22

0.50

0.8000

Jaipur

6.219

0.1026

0.50

1.1172

Jodlipur

4.098

0.1677

0.50

1.0369

Lucknow

6.074

0.1813

0.50

1.0331

New Delhi

5.208

0.1574

0.50

1.1072

Srinasar

1.503

0.2730

0.25

1.0636

Northern Zone

5.914

0.1623

0.50

1.0127

(Source: Technical paper for SMC works by Forest dept. Andhra Pradesh)

Table 4: Recommended maximum runoff frequencies for various types of structures.
Type of structures

Frequency, year

Storage arid diversion dams having permanent spillways

50-100

Earthen dams-storage having natural spillways

25-50

Stop dams/Check dams

25

Small permanent masonry gully control structures.

10-15

Terrace outlets and vegetated waterways

10

Field diversions

15
(Source: Training manual vol. II Soil and Water Conservation Engineering (CSWCRTI)
2.11.2 Runoff Estimation by Empirical Formulae
Empirical Formulae have been derived by Hydrologist and soil conservationists to de-
rive relationship between rainfall over catchment area and resulting runoff for application to
ungauged watersheds. The application of such relationship may, however be limited due to
variations in factors such as antecedent moisture conditions, infiltration rates and runoff res-
ponses. For smaller areas with fairly uniform and evenly distributed rainfall, these relation-
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ships may be very simple. However, complexity arises in larger areas having varying condi-
tions of topography, landuse, geological composition and uneven distribution of rainfall.
Hence these relationships must be extrapolated with great caution to ungauged watershed
under identical agro climatic situations.
2.11.3 Runoff Co-efficient Method
In this method runoff is computed simply multiplying the runoff coefficient to the rain-
fall amount, given as under
R = K. P.
Where, R = Runoff, cm
K = runoff coefficient
P = Rainfall Depth, cm
The values of runoff coefficient for different land use condition are given below.
Table 5: Values of runoff coefficient (K)
Sr. No. Area K
1 Urban Area covered by residential
Buildings
Garden apartments

0.3
0.5
2 Commercial and industrial area 0.9
3 Forest area to 0.2

2.11.4 Dicken’s Formula
Q = C. A
3/4

Where, Q = flood discharge in m
3
/s
A = Catchment area in sq km
C = 11.45 for areas with annual rainfall of 600 mm to 1200 mm.
2.12 Hydrograph
A hydrograph is a graph showing changes in the discharge of a river over a period of
time. It can also refer to a graph showing the volume of water reaching a particular outfall, or
location in a sewerage network, related to time.
The discharge is measured at a certain point in a river and is typically time variant.
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2.12.1 Rising limb
The rising limb of hydrograph, also known as concentration curve represents the increase
in discharge due to the gradual building up of storage in channels and over the catchment sur-
face.
2.12.2 Falling limb
The recession limb extends from the point of inflection at the end of the crest segment to
the commencement of the natural groundwater flow (base flow). It represents the withdrawal
of water from the storage built up in the basin during the earlier phases of the hydrograph.
2.12.3 Peak discharge
The highest point on the hydrograph when there is the greatest amount of water in the river
2.12.4 Lag time
Lag time is the amount of time it takes from when precipitation falls within the river basin to
when it reaches the river.
2.12.5 Discharge
Volume of water in a river at a given time


Fig 8. Hydrograph

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2.13 Factors affecting the Hydrograph
Soil saturation is dependent on previous rainfall, or otherwise known as Antecedent
rainfall. The surroundings; Rural or Urban (Could be less impermeable surface, or the surface
type could vary)
i. Vegetation type (Deforestation and amount of interception)
ii. Steepness of surrounding land, or 'relief' land
iii. Drainage density (Number of tributaries)
iv. Geology (Rock Type; Impermeable=flashier hydrographs. Or Permeable)
v. Season dependant; Very dry weather creates a crust on the river bed. Wet winters
create increase in discharge.
vi. Soil Type (Clay, sand etc.) Clay would create a flashy hydrograph,
vii. Shape of drainage basin (circular or elongated).
viii. Precipitation (distribution of rainfall rates and locations)
2.14 Soil Properties
For the design of any soil and water conservation structures, soil properties are very
important. These properties play significant role in deciding the stability and strength of the
structure. Soil properties break down into three categories: impervious, pervious (drains),
and semi-pervious (usually unlabelled, general fill). This refers to the soil’s ability to drain or
retain water. This is an important feature in a soil. The other feature of the soil that will be
needed is the strength of the soil. The properties that effect both permeability and strength
are numerous and complex. But, they do not have to be understood completely to perform
some simple tests to determine if a soil is suitable for a certain application
2.14.1 Soil Classification
Soil can be broken down in to two basic categories: organic soils (such as peat) and
nonorganic soils (sand, gravel, silt, and clay). Organic soils are formed from rotting and de-
composing plant and animal mater and are characterized by high compressibility, dark colour
and occasionally an organic smell. Because of their instable nature and extreme variability it
is considered to be completely useless for foundations, embankments, and other forms of en-
gineering. Soils with small amounts of organic matter don’t have to be discarded completely,
but the amount should be as little as possible. Non-organic soils have been produced through
erosion and other geologic processes. The four basic soil particles types are: clay, silt, sand,
and gravel. The differences between these types of soils are the size of the grain. Clay and silt
also have chemical and shape properties that separate them, but since neither can be seen
with the naked eye they must be differentiated based on feel and other factors. Since almost
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all soils contain a combination of these grain sizes, soils can be classified based on how much
of each type is present.
Soil texture refers to the relative proportion (by weight) of sand, silt and clay present
in soil. This is differentiated from soil structure, which is the physical arrangement or
grouping together of the individual soil mineral particles. Soil texture is very important in
that it effects: 1) soil structure, 2) water holding capacity, 3) nutrient holding capacity, 4) ae-
ration, 5) drainage, and 6) root penetration and growth.

Table 6: Description of Basic Soil Grains



Fig 9. Soil texture triangle
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The soil texture triangle shows the percentage (by weight) sand, silt and clay in the
various textural classes of soils. The various textural classes denote a range of texture combi-
nations which have similar chemical and physical properties, and yield similar plant growth.
Generally, a loam soil is considered the best for overall plant growth. For example, a soil that
was found to contain 20% sand, 20% clay and 60% silt would be classified as a silt loam.
2.14.2 Soil Erosion
Erosion is the transport of soil from one place to another. Climatic factors such as wind
and rain can cause erosion, but also under irrigation it may occur.
Over a short period, the process of erosion is almost invisible. However, it can be continuous
and the whole fertile top layer of a field may disappear within a few years.
Soil erosion by water depends on:
i. The slope: steep, sloping fields are more exposed to erosion;
ii. The soil structure: light soils are more sensitive to erosion;
iii. The volume or rate of flow of surface runoff water: larger or rapid flows induce more
erosion.
2.14.3 Soil Erosion Principle
The soil erosion may be defined as a process of detachment, transportation and deposition of
soil particle from one place to another place under the influence of wind, water or gravity
forces. Detachment is the dislodging of the soil particle from soil mass by erosive agents. Ero-
sion is a function of the eroding power of raindrops, running water, and sliding or flowing
earth masse, and the erodibility of the soil or Erosion=f (Erosivity, Erodibility). In case of wa-
ter erosion, major erosive agents are impacting raindrop and runoff water flowing over soil
surface. Transportation is the movement of detached soil particles from their original posi-
tion. The severity of soil erosion depends upon the quantity of material supplied by detach-
ment process and capacity of eroding agents to transport them. Soil erosion is the major soil
conservation problem and almost recognized as a serious threat to human well being.
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Fig 10: Different forms of water erosion


2.14.4 Factors Affecting Erosion
Climate and geology are the most important influences on erosion with soil character and ve-
getation being dependent upon them and interrelated with each other.
2.14.4.1 Climate Factor
The major climatic factors which influence runoff and erosion are precipitation, temperature,
and wind. Precipitation is the most important factor among them. Temperature affects runoff
by contributing to change in soil moisture between drains, it determines whether the precipi-
tation will be in the form of rain or snow and it changes the absorptive properties of the soil
by causing the soil to freeze. Ice in the soil, particularly needle ice, can be very effective in
raising part of the surface of bare soil and thus making it more easily removed by runoff or
wind. The wind effect includes the power to pick up and carry fine soil particles, the influence
it exerts on the angle and impact of raindrops and, more rarely, its effect on vegetation, espe-
cially by wind-throw of trees.
2.14.4.2 Soil Feature Factor
The soil factor is expressed as the erodibility of the soil. Erodibility, unlike the determination
of erosivity of rainfall, is difficult to measure and no universal method of measurement has
been developed. The main reason for this deficiency is that into two groups: those which are
the actual physical features of the soil and those which are the result of human use of the soil.
The resistance of soil to detachment by raindrop impact depends upon its shear strength, that
is its cohesion (c) and angle of friction. It is difficult in practice to measure the appropriate
values of c and for grains at the surface of a soil or soil crust, partly because of variability in
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the size, packing and shape of particles and partly because of the varying degrees of wetting
and submergence of grains by water.
2.14.4.3 Geological Factor
This factor is evident in the steepness and length of slope. Nearly all of the experimental work
on the slope effect has assumed that the slopes are under cultivation. In such conditions rain-
drop splash will move material further down steep slopes than down gentle ones, there is
likely to be more runoff, and runoff velocities will be faster. Because of this combination of
factors the amount of erosion is not just proportional to the steepness of the slope, but rises
rapidly with increasing angle. The length of slope has a similar effect upon soil loss, because
on a long slope there can be a greater depth and velocity of overland flow, and rills can devel-
op more readily than on short slopes. Because there is a greater area of land on long than on
short slope facets of the same width, it is necessary to distinguish between total soil loss and
soil loss per unit area.
2.14.4.4 Biological Factor
Vegetation offsets the effects on erosion of the other factors-climate, topography, and soil
characteristics. The major effects of vegetation fall into at least seven main categories:
(1) The interception of rainfall by the vegetation canopy.
(2) The decreasing of velocity of runoff, and hence the cutting action of water and its capacity
to entrain sediment.
(3) Root effects in increasing soil strength, granulation, and porosity.
(4) Biological activities associated with vegetative growth and their influence on soil porosity.
(5) The transpiration of water, leading to the subsequent drying out of the soil.
(6) Insulation of the soil against high and low temperatures which cause cracking or frost
heaving and needle ice formation.
(7) Compaction of underlying soil.

2.15 Types of Erosion
2.15.1 Raindrop Splash and Sheet Erosion
The first step in the erosion process begins as raindrops impact the soil surface. The detach-
ment and splash or transport of the soil particles occurring as a result of impact of falling rain
drops is called rain drop erosion. Raindrops typically fall with a velocity of 6-10 meter per
second. The energy of these impacts is sufficient to displace soil particles as high as two feet
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vertically. In addition, the impact of a rainfall on a bare soil can compact the upper layer of
soil, creating a hard crust that inhibits plant establishment.


Fig.11. Sheet erosion
Sheet erosion occurs as runoff travels over the ground, picking up and transporting the par-
ticles dislodged by raindrop impacts. The removal of more or less uniform thin layer or sheet
of soil by running water from sloping land is known as sheet erosion. The process of sheet
erosion is uniform, gradual and difficult to detect until it develops into rill erosion.
The method used to prevent erosion from raindrop splash and sheet erosion is stabilization.
Stabilizing techniques such as temporary and permanent vegetation, sodding, mulching, com-
post blankets, and rolled erosion control products absorb the impact of raindrops and protect
the ground surface. By protecting the surface, soil particles are not dislodged and transported
by sheet flow. Typically, sheet flow does not have sufficient volume or velocity to dislodge soil
particles from a bare surface by itself. It is dependent on raindrop impacts to disturb the sur-
face. Therefore, stabilizing a surface, protects the ground from both raindrop and sheet ero-
sion.

Fig 12: Rain drop erosion

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2.15.2 Rill Erosion
Rill erosion occurs as runoff begins to form small concentrated channels. As rill ero-
sion begins, erosion rates increase dramatically due to the resulting concentrated higher ve-
locity flows. Rill can be repaired by tilling or normal cultivation operation and should be re-
paired as soon as possible in order to prevent gullies from forming.


Fig 13: Rill Erosion from the field.
2.15.3 Gully Erosion
Gully erosion results from water moving in rills, which concentrate to form larger
channels. When rill erosion can no longer be repaired by merely tilling or discing, it is defined
as gully erosion. The advanced stage of gully erosion leads to formation of ravines near the
river systems. It is however noted that deep gullies are formed normally in lands having rela-
tively thick soil depth.


Fig 14: Gully Erosion in the field.



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Table 7: Types of Gully
Description Gully depth Catchment area
Small 1 m or less 2 ha or less
Medium 1 to 5 m 2 to 20 Ha
Large Greater than 5 m Greater than 20 ha

2.15.4 Stream Bank Erosion
Stream channel erosion consists of both stream bed and stream bank erosion. Stream
bed erosion occurs as flows cut into the bottom of the channel, making it deeper. This erosion
process will continue until the channel reaches a stable slope. The resulting slope is depen-
dent on the channel materials and flow properties. As the stream bed erodes, and the channel
deepens, the sides of the channel become unstable and slough off, resulting in stream bank
erosion. Stream bank erosion can also occur as soft materials are eroded from the stream
bank or at bends in the channel. This type of stream bank erosion results meandering water-
ways. One significant cause of both steam bed and stream bank erosion is due to the increased
frequency and duration of runoff events that are a result of urban development.
2.15.5 Stream Bank Erosion Control
It is often necessary in areas where development has occurred in the upstream wa-
tershed and full channel flow occurs several times a year. Stream bank protection can be ve-
getative, structural or a combined method where live plant material is incorporated into a
structure (bioengineering). Vegetative protection is least costly and the most compatible with
natural stream characteristics. Additional protection is required when hydrologic conditions
have been greatly altered. Because each reach of channel is unique, measures for stream bank
protection should be installed according to a plan developed for the specific site and wa-
tershed.
2.15.5.1 Supplementary Agronomic Measures
Several agronomical measures are adopted, supplementing the mechanical measures
in the treated lands, the process of soil erosion (detachability and transportability) will con-
tinue resulting fluctuating crop fields.
These measures include: -
Contour Farming. - planting on contours
Mulching – using various techniques that will increase the water retention capacity of the soil,
for instance mixing straw and breaking clods. Mulching is particularly helpful in vegetable
cultivation, where assured soil moisture is a necessity.
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Use of dense growing crops/ cover crops – for instance cowpea, pulses, paddy, wheat. These
will reduce splash erosion.
Mixed cropping. – increasing the capacity to retain water
Inter – cropping or strip cropping, alternating either blocks or strips with different crops.
Use of organic manure or green manuring with legumes, such as cowpea, dhaincha, pulses.
This improves water-holding capacity.
2.15.5.2 Vegetative Protection
Provide vegetative protection in zones where the location of each zone depends on the
elevations of the mean high water level, the mean water level and the mean low water level.
Vegetative protection usually works for stabilization only when a channel has become unsta-
ble because vegetation has been removed.
Aquatic Zone The aquatic plant zone includes the stream bed and is normally submerged at
all times. No artificial planting is required in the aquatic plant zone.
Shrub Zone The shrub zone lies on the bank slopes above the mean water level and is nor-
mally dry, except during floods. Willows, silver maple and poplar can be planted (staked)
from top-of-bank to waterline. They are preferred because they have high root densities, root
shear and tensile strength is higher than that of most grasses or forbs, and they can transpire
water at high rates. Some grasses can be planted in the shrub zone if velocities are not too
high and plants are not submersed frequently or for long periods of time. Plant grasses in the
spring or the fall.
Tree Zone Plant upland trees along the banks of the stream and not on the slopes. If trees
provide shade to the stream bank, grasses should be planted which will thrive in shady condi-
tions.
2.15.5.3 Structural Protection
Structural protection should be provided in locations where velocities exceed 6 feet per
second, along bends, in highly erodible soils and in steep channel slopes. Common materials
include riprap, gabions, fabric- formed revetments and reinforced concrete. Grouted riprap is
not recommended, because grouted rock does not move with freeze/thaw and wet-
ting/drying cycles. Voids quickly form under grouted rock, allowing erosion. The upstream
and downstream ends of the structural protection should begin and end along stable reaches
of the stream.
Riprap is the most commonly used material for stream bank protection. Properly
sized, graded, bedded and placed riprap rises and settles with soil movement. Stream banks
should be sloped at 2:1 or flatter. Place filter fabric or a granular filter between the riprap and
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the natural soil. Construct the riprap layer with sound, durable rock. Refer to plan for grada-
tion and layering. Place the toe of the riprap at least 1 foot below the stream channel bottom
or below the anticipated scour depth. Install toe walls as specified in plan. Extend the top of
the riprap layer at least up to the 2-year water surface elevation.

Gabions are rock-filled wire baskets. They are very labor intensive to construct but are semi-
flexible, permeable and can be used to line channel bottoms and stream banks.

Fig 15: Stream Bank Erosion control by gabion structure

Reinforced concrete may be used to stabilize the stream bed or the stream bank.
Reinforced concrete retaining walls and bulkheads provide good erosion protection for
stream banks. Anchor the foundation for these structures to a stable, non erodible base ma-
terial such as bedrock. Place filter fabric or a granular filter between stream bank material
and the retaining wall or bulkhead. Construct water stops at all joints in concrete retaining
walls. Construct the top of the retaining wall or bulkhead up to the design water surface ele-
vation plus freeboard, and vegetate the rest of the stream bank.
2.16 Estimation of Soil Erosion
The erosion risk (A=annual soil loss) is calculated from a number of factors that have
been measured for all climates, soil types, topography and kinds of land used in the state. The
amount of soil erosion is, therefore depends on a combination of power of rain to cause ero-
sion and ability of soil to withstand the rain. In mathematical terms, erosion is a function of
erosivity of rain and erodibility of the soil.
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Erosion = f (Erosivity, Erodibility)
The factors are combined in a number of formulas of the 'Universal Soil Loss Equation', which
returns a single number, the tolerance factor, equivalent to predicted erosion in ton/ha

A = R.K.L.S.C.P
Where:
A = Average annual soil loss: the predicted erosion or tolerance factor in ton/ha, calculated
from all others.
R = Rainfall erosivity factor: a factor dependent on climate and likelihood of extreme events.
K = Soil erodibility factor: an estimate made from soil properties as catalogued in the National
Resources Inventory. It depends on the particle sizes and proportions of sand, silt and clay,
oganic matter, granularity and profile permeability to water.
L = Slope length factor: the slope length is the length of the field in a down-slope direction.
The larger slope length, the more water accumulates at the bottom of the field, increasing
erosion. It also depends on the land's slope.
S = Slope steepness factor: calculated from the slope of the land in %.
C = Crop management factor: depends on crop growth rate in relation to the erosivity varia-
tion in the climate.
P = Supporting practice factor: reflects the use of contours, strip cropping and terracing.

Table 8: Computed value of soil Erodibility factor (K) from various research station
Research Station Soil type Erodibility factor (K)
Agra (U.P.) Loamy sand, alluvial 0.07
Dehra Dun Dhulkot silt loam 0.15
Hyderabad (A.P) Red chalka sandy loam 0.08
Kharagpur (W.B.) Soil from lateritic rock 0.04
Kota (Rajastan) Clay loam (black soil) 0.11
Udhagamandalam (T.N.) Deep lateritic 0.04
Rehmankhera (U.P) Loam alluvial 0.17
Vasad (Gujarat) Sandy loam alluvial 0.059
(Source: Training manual vol. II Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, CSWCRTI)


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Fig. 16: Soil Erosion map of Gujarat
(Source: Indian Journal of Soil Conservation, 25 (1); 9-13, 1997)

Slope length factor (L)
The slope length factor (L) is the ratio of the soil loss from field slope length to that from 22 m
length plot under identical conditions. The factor can be calculated from following equation:
L= (l/22)
m

Where, L = slope length factor,
l = slope length in meters
m = dimension less exponent
The value of exponent m varies with slope and given as below:

Table 9: Variation of ‘m’ with slope
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Slope gradient (%) Value of m
Less than 1 0.2
1 – 3 0.3
3 – 5 0.4
More than 5 0.5
Source: Training manual vol. II Soil and Water Conservation Engineering (CSWCRTI)
Slope gradient factor (S)
The slope gradient factor is the ratio of soil loss from the field slope gradient to that from 9%
slope gradient. Wischmeir and smith (1978) have given following relationship for computa-
tion of S:

2
65.41sin 4.56sin 0.065 S u u = + +
Where, u is the angle of slope

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Chapter-3
3 Upper Catchment Area Treatment
3.1 Introduction
The treatment measure for watershed development starts from a ridge and proceeds to the
valley. If done in reverse order, runoff velocity from the untreated top part can damage the
structure on lower catchments. This approach helps to conserve soil first and to retain mois-
ture in the area for longer periods.
3.2 Biological Measures
It is also important to adopt biological measures for stream bank protection so that it
facilitates recharge, in-stream habitat restoration and enriches the overall ecosystem.
3.2.1 Riparian Habitat
Riparian vegetation should be allowed to grow and regenerate on both the banks,
throughout the stretch of the stream. Indigenous grasses and plants may be selected for creat-
ing vegetation cover along the banks. Depending upon whether plantation is below or above
the line of submergence, appropriate aquatic and non-aquatic species may be selected. The
vegetation created will absorb floods, protect agriculture, build up hyporheic zone to increase
soil moisture holdings capacity and provide habitat to invertebrates and higher animals.
3.2.2 Live Hedge
A barrier created by planting grass, shrubs and trees across the rills to stop soil ero-
sion is called live hedges. It is done at a location where the gully/rill originates. Following
points should be kept in mind while designing and constructing live hedges.
3.2.2.1 Construction
Clean the site first
Excavation up to 0.15 to 0.23m depth needed.
Then plant two lines of grasses like vertiver or any other local soil binding grass.
On the downstream of the grass line, plant one line of shrubs such as pandanus, thor or agave.

Functions
i. To check soil erosion
ii. To reduce runoff velocity
iii. To control further deepening of gullies
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3.3 Engineering measures
3.3.1 Contour Bunding
This measure involves construction of horizontal lines of small earthen or boulder bunds
across the sloping land surface. Contour bunding is practiced to intercept the runoff flowing
down the slope by an embankment with either open or closed ends to conserve moisture as
well as to reduce erosion. The land treatment in between the bunds is desirable for uniform
conservation of moisture. The practice of contour bunding is found to increase crop yield by
about 15-20 per cent.

3.3.1.1 Objectives
i. To increase the time of concentration of rainwater where it falls and thereby allowing
rainwater to percolate into the soil
ii. Converting a long slope into several ones as to minimize velocity and thereby reducing
the erosion by runoff water
iii. To divert runoff for water harvesting purposes
The term contour bunding used in India is same as “level terraces” and “ridge type ter-
races”. The bund acts as barrier to the flow of water and at the same time impound water to
build up soil moisture storage. The spacing of bunds is so arranged that the flowing water is
intercepted before it attains the erosive velocity. The vertical interval between the two bunds
is determined by the following formula:

3.3.2 Ramser’s formula
V.I. = 0.3 (S/3 + 2)
Where,
S = Degree of slope in percent
V.I. = Vertical interval between two bunds, m

3.3.3 COXS' Formula
VI = (XS + Y) 0.3
Where, X = Rainfall factor
Y = Infiltration and crop cover factor
S = Slope %
VI = Vertical Interval (m)

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Table 10: Value of "X" in COXS' Formula
Rainfall Annual Rainfall (cm) Rainfall Factor "X"
Scanty 64 0.8
Moderate 64-90 0.6
Heavy Over 90 0.4
Source: Training manual vol. II Soil and Water Conservation Engineering (CSWCRTI)

Table 11: Value of "Y" in COXS' Formula
Intake rate
Crop cover during erosive pe-
riod of rains
Value of "Y"
Below average (e.g. black soils) Low coverage 1.0
Average or above Good coverage 2.0
One of the above factors favorable and
the other unfavorable
1.5
Source: Training manual vol. II Soil and Water Conservation Engineering (CSWCRTI)
The spacing is increased by 25% in highly permeable soils and decreased by 15 percent in
poorly permeable soils. It is always desirable to remove local ridges and depressions before
building contour bunds. Dimensions of contour bunding with different height and side slope,
is recommended as given below.
By knowing the cross section area of the bund, the volume of earthwork per hectare and the
cost of earthwork per hectare can be determined. The design of cross-section of contour
bund, which can store runoff excess from 24 hrs rainstorm, can be done with the help of the
following equation.
Table 12: Dimensions of the Contour Bund
Type of soil Bottom width (m) Top width (m) Height (m) Side slope
Gravel soils 1.2 0.3 0.6 0.75:1
Red soils 2.1 0.3 0.6 1.5:1
Shallow to me-
dium black soil
2.4 0.45 0.75 1.3:1
Deep soils 3.3 0.60 0.675 2:1
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Re
50
xVI
h =
Where, h = Depth of impounding in meter near the bund, Re = Maximum 24 hours rainfall in
cm, VI = Vertical interval in meter
Using the above equation, height of impounding required for 10 years frequency (or any other
frequency) can be obtained which will not cause any spill over. To the depth of impounding
‘h’, the free board of 25 to 30% may be added.










Example
A piece of land measuring 1350 m along the slope and 250 m across the slope has uni-
form slope of 2%. The maximum 24 hr rainfall for 10 year recurrence interval is 200 mm. The
soils are sandy loam in texture. The side slope for bund 1.5:1. Design cross section of the main
bund if the top width of the bund is 0.5 m. Find the cost of bunding if the rate of earth work is
Rs. 41 per cum.
Solution: V. I. =
2
2 0.3 2 0.3 0.8
3 3
S
m
| | | |
+ = + =
| |
\ . \ .

H.I. =
100 0.8
40
2
x
m =
No. of bunds =
1350
34
40
Nos =
Height of bund, h =
Re . .
50
xV I

Where, Re is maximum 24 hr rainfall in cm and V.I. is vertical interval in m

0.80 20
0.57
50
x
h m = =

Fig 17. Sketch of Contour Bund
H. I.
W
s
Free
Board
V.I.
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Free board (15 % of h)= (0.57X15)/100 = 0.1
Actual height of bund after adding the free board = 0.57 +0.1 = 0.67 or 0.7 m
Cross sectional area of bund if top width is 0.5m and side slope as 1.5:1
=
(2.60 0.5)
0.70 1.085 . .
2
x sq m
+
=
Length of the bund = 10000/H.I. = 10000/40 = 250 m/ha
Total Area = (1350x 250)/10000=33.75 Ha
Total length of the bund for given area= 250 X 33.75 = 8437.50 m
Volume of earth work for main bund = L x A = 8437.50 X 1.085 = 9154.69 or 9155 cum
Cost estimate = 41 X 9155 = Rs 375355/-

Fig 18: Contour Bunds in a hill

3.3.4 Contour Bunds: DO's and DONT's
i. Always provide a berm (distance from excavated portion to bund) of minimum 30 cm.
ii. Always provide a settlement allowance of 10-15% depending on soil type.
iii. Exit must be provided in sloping land and in impermeable soils , depending on site
conditions.
iv. In impermeable soils increase the cross section area of bunds.
v. Do not start the lay-out of bunds from the shorter section. Always begin from the long-
est section within the largest area of uniform slope.
vi. Do not make bunds on slopes higher than 10%.
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vii. On relatively high slopes do not make bunds closer than 30 m.
viii. On low slopes do not make bunds farther than 60 m.
ix. Do not construct bunds where there is already dense vegetation.
x. Do not excavate if roots of a tree are encountered
xi. Do not excavate soil continuously in permeable soils.

3.3.5 Marking Contour Lines by field method
Contour Lines are imaginary lines across a slope, which are the same height at all places along
the slope. Water cannot flow along a contour line - it is completely level. Most soil erosion
control methods are built along the contour lines to have maximum effect. Contour lines can-
not be guessed - they need to be measured. An A-Frame can be made at no cost, from material
readily available to every farmer and used by one or two people. The Hose Level needs mate-
rials which cost a small amount of money and it needs either two or three people for marking
contours, but it is quicker to use.
“A” Frame
An A frame is a simple device used for demarcation of the contours on the ground. Soil
and water conservation measures such as bunding, trenching is laid along the contours.
Hence each contour line needs to be demarked.
Materials needed
i) Poles about 2 meters long
ii) 1 shorter pole about 1 meter long
iii) some string
iv) a stone or plum bob
Step 1
Tie the poles very tightly together to make the shape of a letter A. Hang the stone/plum bob
from the top of the A-Frame, making sure the stone hangs below the cross bar.


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Step 2
Holding the frame upright, mark with two sticks exactly where the poles touch the ground.
When the stone or plum bob stops moving, mark on the cross bar. Turn the A-Frame around,
placing the poles in exactly the positions marked by the two sticks. Again mark where the
string crosses the cross bar.

Step 3
Mark the level mark on the cross bar - exactly half way between the previous marks. If the
first two marks happen to be on the same place - this is the level mark.

Step 4
Before using the A-Frame, collect a number of sticks. Begin ideally with, one side of the field
where the first contour line is needed. Hold one pole firmly on the ground. Move the other
pole until both poles are on the ground with the string touching the level mark. Place a stick
into the soil by each pole. Move the A Frame along, by turning it around (pivoting), keeping
pole 1 in exactly the same place. Move pole 2 until the string touches the level mark and place
another stick into the ground by pole 2. Carry on in this way, pivoting the A-Frame across the
field.

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The Water Tube Level
The Water Tube Level is more popular equipment in demarcating contours in watershed area
and is simple equipment that can be prepared locally.
Materials needed
Two poles about 2 metres long
Length of clear plastic tubing 10-25 metres long and about 1 cm in diameter
Small amount of string or adhesive tape
Step 1
Tie the ends of the tubing securely to the two poles in several places. Carefully fill the tubing
with clean water, making sure no air bubbles are trapped inside, until nearly full. Hold the
poles side by side, with their lower ends resting on the ground, until the water level settles at
exactly the same level on each pole (ideally where it is easy to see without bending). Mark this
level clearly on each pole.

Step 2
When moving the poles, either use a thumb or fit some kind of plastic stopper to stop water
spilling - these should be removed before measuring. Begin at one side of the field. One per-
son stands still while the other moves their pole until the level mark is reached in both poles.
As with the A-Frame, use marker sticks and move alternate poles so that any slight faults with
the Hose Level do not affect the contour line.
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Marking the Line
Whatever method has been used, the end result will be a line marked across the land
with a series of sticks. If there are sharp bends in the line, then move a stick a little to make a
smoother line. Such sharp bends are usually due to rocks or small holes which have affected
one measurement. The contour line is now ready for whatever control measures are planned.
3.3.6 Contour Trenching
Construction trenches are constructed on contours to detain water and sediment transported
by water. Contour trenches are ditches dug along a hillside in such a way that they follow a
contour and run perpendicular to the flow of water. The soil excavated from the ditch is used
to form a small bund on the downhill edge of the ditch. The bund is planted with permanent
vegetation (native grasses, legumes) to stabilize the soil and for the roots and foliage in order
to trap any sediment that would overflow from the trench in heavy rainfall events.
3.3.6.1 Objectives
Contour trenches are used to break up the slope surface, to slow runoff and allow infiltration,
and to trap sediment. Rills are stopped by the trenches. Trenches or terraces are often used in
conjunction with seeding. It improves soil moisture profile by checking soil erosion. They can
be constructed with machinery (deeper trenches) or by hand (generally shallow). Width and
depth vary with design storm, spacing, soil type, and slope.
3.3.6.2 Specifications
Trenches can be continuous or interrupted. The interrupted one can be in series or staggered,
continuous one is used for moisture conservation in low rainfall areas and require careful
layout. Intermittent trenches are adopted in high rainfall areas. The trenches are to be con-
structed strictly on contours irrespective of the category.
3.3.6.3 Layout
The size of the trench depends upon the soil's depth. Normally 1,000 sq cm to 2,500 sq cm. in
cross section are adopted. The trench may be of 30 cm base and 30 cm top width and square
in cross section or it can be trapezoidal with side slopes 1:1. Based on the quantum of rainfall
to be retained, it is possible to calculate the size and number of trenches.
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3.3.7 Types of Trenches
3.3.7.1 Continuous Contour Trenches
Continuous contour trenches (CCT) are the ones when there is no break in their length and
they can be 10 to 20 m long across the slope depending on the width of the field. The cross
section of the trench generally varies from 30 x 30 cm to 45 x 45 cm .They are constructed for
moisture conservation in low rainfall areas receiving storm of mild intensities. It has been ob-
served that CCT are prone to breaching if they are not constructed perfectly on contours
hence it demands high skill for construction.
3.3.7.2 Staggered Contour Trenches
In medium rainfall areas with highly dissected topography, Staggered Contour
Trenches are adopted. The length of the trenches is kept short around 2-3 m and the spacing
between the rows may vary from 3-5 m. The chances of breaches of SCT are less as compared
to CCT. Over time, experience of watershed programs has shown that it is better to stagger
the digging of contour trenches. This is because it has been found that invariably errors have
been made in contouring over long distances. If the contour trench is not level and by mistake
sloped, then water starts to flow from the high point to the low point, cutting a path and in-
creasing soil erosion. Therefore, instead of making trenches continuously, they should be
made in a staggered, discontinuous manner.

(Source: Watershed works manual: Samaj Pragati Sahayog)
Fig 19: Staggered contour trenches
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Fig 20: Staggered contour trenches in a hillock

3.3.8 Design of Contour Trenches
Design of contour trenches involve the determination of cross sectional area and spacing of
trenches to collect desired amount of runoff generated from the catchment area. Steps in-
volved in design of contour trenches are as follows:
3.3.8.1 Determination of direct runoff volume
Trenches are designed to hold part of the runoff expected from a storm of 4 years recurrence
interval and 6 hr duration. Trenches are designed to store 60-70 % of runoff. The volume of
run-off from the design storm is computed by the following formula.
Q = C × R × A
Where, C = runoff coefficient, R = quantum of daily rainfall
A = catchment area for that particular structure

3.3.8.2 Determination of cross sectional area and volume of trench
The cross section of trench can be of square, rectangle, trapezoidal or triangular V-shape. The
size of trenches depends upon the soil depth available at site. In relatively deeper soils, trench
depth is generally fixed at 40-50 cm while for shallow soil, trench depth may reduce to about
15-20 cm. As far as length of trench is considered, shorter lengths 3 to 7 m are adopted for
convenience of layout and construction.
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3.3.8.3 Determination of spacing
Spacing is expressed in terms of horizontal and vertical interval. Vertical interval is defined
as the elevation difference between the upper or lower edge of successive contour trenches. A
definition sketch of contour trenching is given below.








Relation between the horizontal spacing of contour trenches, runoff depth and dimension of
trenches is given below:
H.I. =Cross sectional Area/Runoff depth= A/Q
Assuming trench to be rectangular, . .
100
WxD
H I
xQ
=
Where, H.I. = Horizontal spacing
W = width of trench, cm
D = depth of trench, cm
Q = Runoff depth, cm
3.3.8.4 Contour Trenches: DON'Ts
i. Do not make trenches on slopes higher than 25%. Instead adopt vegetative measures
ii. Do not make trenches on slopes less than 10%. Instead construct contour bunds
iii. Do not excavate trenches where there is already dense vegetation
iv. Do not plant inside the trench
v. Do not excavate if roots of a tree are encountered
vi. Do not excavate trenches across large streams or drainage lines
vii. Do not start the lay-out of trenches from the shorter section. Always begin from the
longest section within the largest area of uniform slope
3.3.9 Bench Terracing
Bench terracing means construction of nearly level steps like fields along contours
usually by half cutting and half filling procedure. It is an earthen embankment or a ridge and
channel, constructed across the slope at a suitable location to intercept surface runoff water.
Fig.21: Design of Contour Trench
Trench
V.I.
H.I.
Slope
1:1
0.3m
0.3m
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It may be constructed with an acceptable grade to an outlet or with a level channel and ridge.
By adopting bench terracing, both degree and length of slope are reduced which help in soil
moisture conservation for enhanced crop production. Bench terracing is recommended for
slopes from 10 to 30%.
3.3.9.1 Functions
Terraces are constructed
i. To reduce erosion by shortening the length of slope and conducting the runoff water
on a non-erosive grade to a stable slope.
ii. To conserve moisture
iii. To reduce floods by means of level closed terraces, or by increasing the time of concen-
tration with graded terraces, and
iv. Controlling gully heads downstream (by checking water fall erosion).
3.3.9.2 Functions of Terracing in the Conservation Programme
i. One of the best mechanical measures
ii. Properly located, constructed and maintained terraces
iii. Reduce runoff and soil losses
iv. Prevent the formation of rills and gullies and
v. Assist in reclaiming badly eroded gullied fields by intercepting the runoff before it be-
comes concentrated and attains an eroding velocity.
vi. To be effective, they must be used in combination with other practices, such as stubble
mulching, contouring and strip cropping.
vii. Over a period of years, better crops may be expected on terraced land because of the
soil and moisture they conserve.

Fig 22: Different types of bench terraces
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3.3.9.3 Limitations
Terraces can be constructed on practically all soils except those are too stony, sandy or
shallow to permit practical and economical construction and maintenance.
It is not advisable to terrace some lands where the slope of the land is either too slight or ex-
cessive, or the topography is extremely irregular.
The steepness of the land is one of the factors that determine the practicability of terraces.
As the slope increases, soil loss from erosion increases. However, the cost of construction and
maintenance of terraces and the difficulty of farming them also increase with the degree of
slope to the point that these factors may eventually outweigh the benefits derived. When this
point is reached, terracing is not advisable.
3.3.10 Types of Bench Terraces
3.3.10.1 Level Bench Terraces
This type of terraces consists of level top surface. They are generally used in the areas
which receive medium rainfall and have highly permeable soils. Since it is expected that most
of surface runoff passing through these terraces are absorbed by the soil and remaining por-
tion is drained into drain. These are used for paddy cultivation for providing uniform im-
pounding.
3.3.10.2 Bench Terraces Sloping Outward
Such terraces are adopted in low rainfall areas with permeable soil. For these terraces
a shoulder bund is essential to provide the stability to the outer edge of terrace. Bench terrac-
es sloping outward are also known as orchard type bench terrace.
3.3.10.3 Bench Terraces Sloping Inward
Bench terraces sloping inward are preferred to construct in the areas of heavy rainfall
and less permeable soils, from where large portion of rain water is drained as surface runoff.
Such type of terraces has a provision to drain the runoff from their inner side by constructing
a drainage channel. These types of terraces are usually preferred for those crops, which are
extremely susceptible to water logging such as potato.
3.3.10.4 Design of Bench Terraces
The following factors have direct bearing on design of bench terraces:
i. Soil depth and uniform spreading of top soil.
ii. Slope of land
iii. Rainfall amount
iv. Farming practices and proposed crops to be grown
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3.3.10.5 Basic design parameters
v. Terrace spacing
vi. Terrace grade along the width & length
vii. Terrace cross section
3.3.10.6 Terrace spacing
Terrace spacing is the vertical distance between two successive bench terraces. It is
equal to the double the depth of cut. It depends on the soil depth and land slope. The width of
terrace should be such that it enables convenient and economic agriculture operations.
Step I: Find out the maximum depth of productive soil range (D). Lesser the depth of cutting,
the greater will be the depth of productive soil available for cultivation.
Step II: Find out the maximum admissible cutting (d) for desirable land slope (S) and the crop
to be grown. This depth of cutting should enable the construction of terrace with convenient
width.
Step III: The width of terrace (W) can be computed for a given slope (S) by the formula

200.d
W
S
=
Where, W and d are in meters and S in percent
Step IV: Determine the vertical interval using following formula
. .
100
WS
V I
S
=
÷


3.3.10.7 Terrace Grade along the Width & Length
Suitable terrace gradient has to be provided in new terraces in high rainfall areas for
safe and quick disposal of the excess water.
Step I: Use Rational formula to estimate peak rate of runoff in cumec from bench terrace as
given by
. .
360
C I A
Q =
Step II: Calculate the area drained in ha by the formula
.
10000
LW
A =
Where, L= length of terrace, m
W=Average width of terrace, m
Step III: Find out the approximate value of cross sectional area of the channel, using follow-
ing relation as
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Q = A x V
Where, Q is runoff computed in step I, and "A" is the cross sectional area of channel and "V" is
the permissible velocity of runoff water in channel.
Step IV: Calculate the mean hydraulic radius, R as follows
R = A / P
Where, P is wetted perimeter of channel
Step V: Calculate the value of terrace grade, using Manning’s formula, given as under
2 1
3 2
. R S
V
n
=
In this formula value of R is taken from step IV and velocity V from step III.
The value of n= 0.02 to 0.04 and S = Slope of channel
3.3.10.8 Terrace Cross Section
In bench terrace construction, the earth excavated from the upper half is deposited over the
lower slope and this forms an embankment which should be properly and safely secured on
the slope.
Earth work in bench terracing is given as

. .100
8
W S
E =
Where, E = Volume of earthwork, cum
W = width of terrace, m
S = land slope, %
Area available for cultivation= 100 (100-NS)
Where, N = Batter slope, %
S = land slope, %
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Fig 23: Farming on bench terraces in a hilly area
Example
It is proposed to construct bench terraces in hilly region over an area of 1 ha having slope of
25 % the average soil depth is 1 m. The crops to be raised after making the terrace require
minimum soil depth of 0.3m. The riser is to be laid on 1:1 gradient and local species of grasses
will be planted on them. The critical length of terrace is approx. 100 m. Calculate the cost of
bench terrace assuming earth work @ Rs 41/- per cum. Cost of grass plantation @ Rs 30 per
100 m length of riser. Total cost of bench terracing.
Solution
Cost of bench terrace
Assume depth of cut 65 %, hence
Depth of cut = 0.65 x 1 m = 0.65 m
Still soil depth available for plantation = 1- 0.65 = 0.35 m which is > 0.3 m
Bench width,
200.d
W
S
=

200 0.65
25
x
W = = 5.2 m
Vertical Interval, . .
100
WS
V I
S
=
÷


5.2 25
. . 1.73
100 25
x
V I = =
÷
m
H.I. = W + V.I. = 5.2 + 1.73 = 6.93 m
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Earth work,
. .100
8
W S
E =

5.2 25 100
1625
8
x x
E = = cum.
Cost of earth work @ Rs. 41/- per cum = 1625 x 41 = Rs 66,625/-
ii) Cost of grass plantation @ Rs 30/- per 100 m
Critical length of terrace (K) = 100 m
Length of terrace per Ha = 10000/H.I = 10000/6.93 = 1443 m
Cost of grass plantation @ Rs 30/- per 100 m
= (30/100) x 1443 = 432.90 or Rs 433/-
iii) Total cost of bench terracing
= 66625 + 433
= Rs. 67058/-
3.3.11 Vegetative Grassed Waterways
Vegetative waterways are natural or constructed waterways shaped to require dimen-
sions and vegetated for safe disposal of runoff from a field, diversion, terrace or other struc-
tures. Satisfactory performance of vegetated waterways depends on its having the proper
shape, as well as the preparation of the area in a manner to provide conditions favourable to
vegetation growth. The grass in the waterways should be established before any water turned
into it. The velocity in the grassed waterways should be kept within the permissible limit for
different types of soil and these limits are presented below table.

Table 13: Permissible velocity in grassed waterways for different soil types
Type of soil Maximum permissible velocity (cm/sec)
Sand and silt 45
Loam, sandy loam and silt loam 60
Clay loam 65
Clay 70
Gravelly soil 100
(Source: Paper on treatment technologies for watershed development and management in north east hill region by
R. K. Singh)

Design
Vegetative waterways are generally designed to carry the maximum runoff from a
storm of 10-year recurrence interval. Runoff can be estimated by the Rational Method.
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Shape
Vegetated waterways may be built to three general shapes or cross-sections, namely,
parabolic, trapezoidal or V-shaped. Parabolic waterways are most common and generally are
the most satisfactory. It is the shape ordinarily found in nature. V-shaped channels can be eas-
ily constructed with a V-ditcher and trapezoidal channels with a V-ditcher and a buck scrap-
per, and hence these sections are preferred constructed channels. Broad-bottom trapezoidal
channels require less depth of excavation than parabolic or V-shapes for the same capacity.
Thus there are number of factors which govern the selection of shape.

Table 14: Basic equations for Trapezoidal, V-shaped and Parabolic Channels
Cross-
section
Area (A) Wetted perimeter
(P)
Top width (t) Top width with
freeboard (T)
Trapezoidal
A = bd + zd
2

P = b + 2d (z
2
+1)
0.5


t = b + 2zd T = b + 2 zD
V-shaped
(triangular)
A = zd
2


P = 2d (z
2
+1)
0.5


t = 2zd T = tD/d
Parabolic A = 2td/3 P = t + (8d)/3t t = A/(0.67d)
T = t (D/d)
0.5



Fig 24: Different Shape of waterways
D
d
T
Trapezoidal
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Channel Grades
Grassed waterways generally run down the slope and the channel grade is usually go-
verned by land slope. In any case, channel slope should not exceed 10% while it is normally
desirable to keep the grade within 5%.

Channel Dimensions
After the runoff, channel grade and design velocity have been determined, the next
step is to decide on the channel dimensions. Design of vegetated waterways is based on the
Manning’s formula. The coefficients of roughness (n) usually assumed in grassed waterways
design is 0.04. Side slopes of channel should be 4:1 or flatter to facilitate crossing of farm
equipment. A freeboard of 10 - 15 cm should be provided to take care of the sediment deposi-
tion and variation in the value of ‘n’.
Example:
Determine the dimension of trapezoidal shaped grassed waterways to carry the peak
runoff rate of 4.0 m
3
/s and slope of the waterway is 0.3 %. Assume flow velocity as 0.9 m/s
and manning’s coefficient n= 0.045.
Solution
Let the side slope of trapezoidal channel be 2:1
Bottom width = 2m
Flow depth = 1 m
Area of cross section:
A = bd + zd
2

= (2x1) + (2x1
2
)
= 4 m
2

Wetted Perimeter (p)
2
2 1 b d z = + +

2
2 2 1 1 2 x = + +
= 6.47 m
Hydraulic radius (R) = A/P = 4/6.47 = 0.62 m
Velocity,
2 1
3 2
. R S
V
n
=

1
2
2
3
1 0.3
= (0.62)
0.045 100
x
(
(
¸ ¸

= 0.885 m/s
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Q = A x V = 4 x 0.885 = 3.54 m
3
/s
The discharge computed above is less than the given value, therefore, another trial with bot-
tom width 2.5 m and with the same side slope may be attempted.
Then by same formula mentioned above, cross section area A = 4.5 m
2

and perimeter P= 6.97 m
Hydraulic Radius R = A/P = 4.5/6.97 = 0.645 m
Velocity, V
1
2
2
3
1 0.3
= (0.645)
0.045 100
x
(
(
¸ ¸

= 0.91 m/s
Therefore Discharge Q = A.V = 4.5 x 0.91 = 4.09 m
3
/s
The discharge capacity of waterway obtained is about equal to the discharge rate to be han-
dled by waterway. Hence, the selected dimensions i. e. bottom width as 2.5 m, depth of flow as
1.0 m and side slope 2:1 can be used for construction of grassed waterway.
3.3.12 Gully plugging Measures
Gullies are a symptom of functional disorder of the land, improper land use and are the
most visible result of severe soil erosion. They are small drainage channels, which cannot be
easily crossed by agricultural equipment. The gully plugging measures include vegetative
plantings and brushwood check dams, boulder checks, earthen bunds or a combination of
both and sand bag plugs etc.

Gully plugs can be defined as stones placed across gullies or valleys, so as to capture
nutrients, silt and moisture. Stones are often embedded into the upper surface of spillway
aprons and wells to provide support for the next layer. The principle is to capture runoff from
a broad catchment area, thus transferring low rainfall into utilizable soil moisture, and to pre-
vent soil erosion. Slowing of the flow of water helps in settling down organically rich soil. A
well maintained gully plug creates a flat, fertile and moist field, where high value crops and
trees can be grown.







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Table 15: Recommended Vertical interval for different types of gully
Slope of
Gully Bed
%
Width of
Gully Bed
(m)
Location
Type of Gully
Plug
Vertical
Interval
0-5
4.5 Gully bed Brush wood 3.0
4.5-10.5 Gully bed Earthen 2.25-3.0
7.5-15.0
At the confluence of two
Gullies
Sand bag 2.25-3.0
7.5-15.0
At the confluence of all
branches of a compound
gully
Brick masonry 2.25-3.0
5-10
4.5 Gully bed Brush wood 3.0
4.5-6.0 Gully bed and side branch Earthen 1.5-3.0

3.3.12.1 Nala Plug
It is creating obstruction by placing used bags filled with sand. Nala Plug (Bori Bandh)
is the effective method to slow down the speed of flowing water of the stream in any area. Bo-
ri Bandh is a kind of stop made of empty cement bags filled with sand, clay and such other ma-
terial and placed in the course of stream. Usually, there is erosion due to flow of water in hilly
terrain but Bori Bandh can check it effectively. In case of Bori Bandh, the empty cement bags
are filled with sand, clay and small pebbles. Such bags are then stacked one over the other in
the channel of the stream which are not more than 15 meter in width. This method is effective
where the depth of the stream is not more than one and a half meter and the sides of the
stream are of clay. On the upstream side of masonry check dam at two to three places if Bori
Bandhs are constructed then they prevent land erosion. Moreover they check sediments from
entering into the dams and increase the lifespan of downstream structures.

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Fig. 25: Nala Plug (Boribandh)
3.3.12.2 Loose Boulder Checks
Boulder checks are loose rock dams made on small drainage lines or seasonal streams
which have a catchment area of less than 50 ha.
Objectives
In active gullies the objective of gully control should be to reduce the gradient and dis-
sipate the energy of the flowing water. In nature, this is achieved through erosion down to
base levels. To control a gully, a series of local base levels can be established through check-
dams. The difference in height between the crests of successive check-dams should be such
that the filled-up basins form steps with a mild slope. In this way, a steep erosive gradient is
replaced by a stairway of gentle and non-erosive steps. By reducing the velocity of runoff,
boulder checks help in:
i. Reducing soil erosion;
ii. Trapping silt which slows the rate of siltation in water harvesting structures in
the lower reaches of the watershed.
iii. Creating a hydraulic head locally which enhances infiltration of surface runoff
into the groundwater system.
iv. Increasing the duration of flow in the drainage line. Therefore, the capacity of
the water harvesting structures created downstream on the drainage line is uti-
lized more fully as they get many more refills.

Location
Boulder checks should be made as a series on a drainage line, with each structure di-
viding the overall catchment of the drainage line into smaller sections.
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1. The independent catchment of each boulder check should not be more than 1 to 2 ha.
2. Boulder checks should not be made where the bed slope of the drainage line at that point is
above 20% because the check will not be able to withstand the high velocity of water flow.
However, on a drainage line with an overall high bed slope, loose boulder checks can be con-
structed in sections where the local bed slope is less than 20%.
3. Boulder checks should be made where boulders are available in large quantities in the re-
quisite size.
4. A high enough to accommodate peak flows even after the check has been made, thereby
preventing water from rising over and cutting the banks. The height of the embankment at
the location of the structure must at least equal the maximum depth of flow in the stream plus
the design height of the structure in the central portion of the drainage line. This rule is appli-
cable to all structures in which overtopping is permissible boulder check should be made
where the embankments are well defined and stable.
5. Even though storage is not a primary consideration in the case of loose boulder checks, en-
hanced water retention and groundwater recharge is a desirable objective. Hence, locating
the structure in those sections in the drainage line where the upstream slope is flatter may be
advantageous. The flatter the upstream slope, the more would be the storage per unit height
of the structure.
Laying out Boulder Checks on a Stream
Since loose boulder checks are not reinforced, the angle of rest of the rock should de-
termine the slopes of the dam sides. This angle depends on the type of rock, the weight, size
and shape of the individual rocks and their size distribution. If the dams are constructed at an
angle steeper than that of rest of the rock, the structure will be unstable and may lose its
shape during the first heavy runoff. Loose rock has proved to be a very suitable construction
material if used correctly. Often it is found on the land and thus eliminates expenditure for
long hauls.
There will be a series of loose boulder checks on each drainage line. The minimum ver-
tical interval between two successive checks on a drainage line should equal the height of the
structure, so that the water temporarily stored in one check will reach the toe of the check
upstream. Any interval below this limit would mean under utilization of the capacity of the
downstream boulder check. What interval we keep above this limit would require a balance
to be struck between cost considerations and volume of water to be stopped. Once this vertic-
al interval is fixed, the horizontal interval between two successive checks would depend on
the bed slope of the drainage line: for instance, with a constant vertical interval of 1m, the
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boulder checks would be spaced at a horizontal interval of 20m on a 5% slope and 10m on a
10% slope. In general the relationship can be expressed as follows:
100
%
VI
HI x
Slope
=
Where, HI is the Horizontal Interval and VI the Vertical Interval. However, one must not fol-
low this rule blindly without taking into account the catchment area that each boulder check
has to handle. For example, on high slopes one may end up making too many checks even
though there is very little water which each check needs to handle. In practice, one must fix
the maximum and minimum horizontal interval between two successive loose boulder
checks:
1. On high slopes, loose boulder checks should be spaced close but not closer than 10m;
2. As the slope decreases, boulder checks must be spaced farther, but not farther than
50m.
3.3.12.2.1 Design of Loose Boulder check
Through years of experience in watershed development, the maximum height general-
ly accepted for loose boulder checks is 1m. The design height of 1m means that the top of the
check in the middle of the stream is 1m above ground level. The top width of the boulder
check is usually 0.4-0.5 m. As the material used in the check has a high angle of repose, the
upstream slope of the check should be fixed at 1:1in general, to be varied only in exceptional
cases where the structure has to handle very high volume of runoff of high velocity.

Fig 26: Cross section of loose boulder check

The downstream slope of the boulder check can vary from 1:2 to 1:4 depending on the vo-
lume and velocity of runoff. The higher the volume and velocity of runoff, flatter the slope.
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Since the boulder check is composed of highly porous material it is not expected to hold water
for a long period.
Example 1:
Find out the number of loose boulder check in the micro-watershed, if there is a stream
2000m long, with a slope of 8%, then how many 1m high loose boulder checks.
Solution: We know that,
Slope S = 8%
Length of the Stream L = 2000 m
Height of the Boulder Check VI = 1 m
Horizontal interval, 100
%
VI
HI x
Slope
= = (1/8) x 100 = 12.5 m
Also, the base of the boulder check itself will occupy 5m. Therefore the effective width
of a boulder check, w = 12.5 m + 5 m = 17.5 m.
Therefore, Number of boulder check = (Total length of stream)/(Effective width of 1 boulder
check)
= 2000/17.5
= 114.2 means 114 numbers
Example 2
Cross section of the boulder check is shown below. Find the cost of the loose boulder check.








Fig 27: Cross section of loose boulder check
1:S1 1:S2
a
b
h
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Solution
Area of a trapezium = Average of parallel sides × Distance between two parallel sides
a+b
A=( )×h
2

where, a = Top width, b = Base width, h = Height
Base width (b) = Upstream Slope (S1) × Height + Downstream Slope (S2)× Height + Top
width(a), b=hxS1+a+hxS2
Area of trapezium (cross section between two points) = a x h + h
2
x (S1 + S2) /2
Volume of boulders required can be found out by multiplying the distance between points
with area. Here we know Top width (a) = 0.5 m, Upstream slope S1=1 and Downstream slope
S2=3.Using the above equation quantities of boulders required can be found out.

Boulder check- Quantities
Point Chainage Height
Area of X-
Section
Av. Area of x-
Section
Distance Quantity
A 0 0.00 0.00 - - -
B 3 0.55 0.88 0.44 3 1.32
C 6 0.60 1.02 0.95 3 2.85
D 8 1.00 2.50 1.76 2 3.52
E 10 0.62 1.08 1.79 2 3.58
F 12 0.00 0.00 0.54 2 1.08
Total 12 12.35

Point
Chainage (be-
tween points)
Height
A 0 0.00
B 3 0.55
C 6 0.60
D 8 1.00
E 10 0.62
F 12 0.00
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Add 15% for keying and smooth exit of boulder check. Volume of boulder required for keying
= 12.35 x 0.15 = 1.82 m
3

Total Volume of boulder required for boulder check = 12.35 + 1.82 = 14.20 m
3
Unit Rate for collection & stacking of boulders = Rs 250 (From rate analysis). So, total cost of
boulder check =14.20x250= Rs 3550
3.3.13 Chute Spillway
Chute spillways are paved sloppy channels usually carrying high run-off discharges. In
addition, these help in controlling high falls in gullies. Chute spillway ordinarily consists of an
entrance channel either straight or curved in alignment, a control structure, a terminal struc-
ture, and an outlet channel. The main design consideration would be to fix the longitudinal
bed profile of the channel and its sectional dimensions. The energy of the flow has to be suita-
bly dissipated at the outlet, before the flow enters the downstream channel.

Objectives
i) To serve as a spillway for surplus water from farm ponds/reservoirs over earthen em-
bankments.
ii) To serve as gully control structures for safely accommodating flash flow coming from up-
per catchment and causing deep gullies.
Specific Site Conditions
Chute spillways are generally used to drop water at reaches which are much farther
and lower than that of a drop structure. In gully control, they can be used for the control of
gully drops up to 6 m. Where there is no opportunity for providing temporary storage above
the structure and where high discharges are required, the flume with its inherent high capaci-
ty is preferred over the drop inlet spillway. In situations where construction of a drop spill-
way or drop inlet spillway is going to be costly, chute spillway structures, which are relatively
cheaper, are adopted. However, there is the danger of the structure being undermined by ro-
dents and in locations with poorly drained soil; foundations may be threatened by seepage.
Design
The chute spillway structure also has the following main components.
(i) Inlet or control section
(ii) Conduit or Chute Discharge Carrier
(iii) Outlet or Energy Dissipator


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Control Section
The control structure should have a proper approach channel. It is usually located on
the flanks where the height of body wall either of masonry or concrete of spillway is consi-
derably small. The Crest gates for flood control if necessary may be provided. Water overflow-
ing the spillway is let into the chute. The common type of inlets used in chute spillways are
the straight inlet, box inlet and the side channel inlet. The design procedures for inlets are
more or less the same as drop spillways.
Conduit or Chute Discharge Carrier
The Chute portion will be a steep channel to convey water from a higher to lower ele-
vation (i.e. to the natural river course at very high velocity. The cross section of the Chute may
be rectangular or trapezoidal). Usually the conduit section is adopted considering the dimen-
sions of the inlet section. Sometimes, more or less same section as that of inlet is used for the
conduit also.
Outlet
These are located at the downstream end, after the fall is completely negotiated and in
the vicinity of the natural stream. It may include Chute blocks, baffle blocks, stilling basin, end
sill and side (training) walls. It is preferable to keep them vertical on water side for the satis-
factory formation of hydraulic jump. When the velocity at entry of stilling basin is high, chute
and baffle blocks are omitted. The outlet's capacity is verified by different considerations of
critical depth of flow. Straight apron can also be used for small structures. Scour at the outlet
is one of the important factors leading to failure of an over fall structure. Scour may be con-
trolled by giving proper consideration in the design to the:
i. Stability of the grade below the structure.
ii. Velocities occurring in the downstream channel.
iii. Tail water elevations for different flow stages.
iv. Dissipation of water energy in the outlet.
Scour below drop spillways or chutes usually are reduced as the tail water elevation is in-
creased.
Cost Estimate
Cost estimates of the chute structures may involve the earth work in embankment or
shaping the existing gully head or pond fill to accommodate the components of chute struc-
tures. The cost of inlet, paved channel and outlet are worked out based on the standard pro-
cedure of weir.

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Fig. 28: Chute Spillway
The type of foundation for any proposed site may determine the type and size of struc-
ture to be constructed. Wet, seepy foundations are not suitable for large concrete structures
unless the design includes expensive corrective measures. This may be the place where a
drop inlet structure is needed. Dry, unstratified foundations are suitable for almost any type
of structure. Where there are wet areas on the structure site, drop spillways or chutes can be
constructed in a drier area and the water flow diverted to them.
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Chapter-4
4 Middle Catchment Area Treatment
4.1 Introduction
This chapter involves land development activities for middle catchment area treatment cov-
ers land leveling, farm bund, farm pond and waste weir.
4.2 Land Levelling
Land levelling is a process of smoothing and grading the land surface to provide a suit-
able surface for efficient application of irrigation water and uniform leaching of salts. It may
be defined as the process of changing the natural topography in such a way so as to control
the movement of water on to or from the land surface. Land levelling could be considered un-
der the two heads namely development of barren uncultivated lands and levelling of currently
irrigated lands. In the first case, land levelling would be a package of land development con-
sisting of reconnaissance survey, land clearing, topographic and soil survey and land levelling.
In the second case where fields are already cultivated, land levelling is usually accomplished,
on a field-to-field basis. In large area planning, a complete design of the land levelling opera-
tion in blocks of economically feasible sizes is necessary. Before doing so, it would be benefi-
cial to complete rough grading with the help of bulldozer. For hauls exceeding 100 m, the effi-
ciency of a bulldozer is reduced significantly. In such cases, use of scraper with a pick up and
carry operation could be employed. In the second instance for small areas, the tractors usu-
ally do levelling operation and the driver’s judgment is sufficient to achieve the desired level.
In establishing the land-grading plan in both the cases, the designer has to consider factors
like soil profile limitations, prevailing land slopes, rainfall characteristics, crops to be grown
and irrigation methods to be practiced. For example, in sprinkler and drip irrigation levelling
could be quite rough and could even be dispensed with. Levelling is usually limited to lands,
which can be graded economically to slopes, which do not ordinarily exceed 2%. The depth of
top soil that can be disturbed without reducing productivity often limits the extent of levelling
that is practicable, especially in shallow soils.

4.2.1 Design Methods for Land Levelling
There are four basic methods of land levelling. Each method has some advantages and disad-
vantages, but when intelligently used, all will provide satisfactory results.
i. Plane method
ii. Profile method
iii. Plan inspection method
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iv. Contour adjustment method
v. Out of above four methods, the first one is most commonly used.

4.2.1.1 Plane Method
It is the most widely used and very useful method for developing a good quality levelling job.
It is so called because the resulting land surface has a uniform field slope and a uniform cross
slope. Thus, true plane surface results. Following are the steps for design procedure using
plane method:
Determination of centroid: The distance of the centroid of the field from any line of reference
is equal to the sum of the products obtained by multiplying the area of each part times the
distance from the line of reference to its centroid, divided by the area of the entire field.

Fig 29: Location of centroid using plane method
4.2.1.2 Centroid with respect to Reference Line
South of row A = [(10x5) + (30x5) + (50x5) + (70x5) + (90x3)]/23 = 46.52 m
Left of line 1 = [(10x5) + (30x5) + (50x5) + (70x4) + (90x4)] / 23 = 47.39 m
(ii) Determination of average elevation: It is obtained by adding the elevations of all grid
points in the field and dividing the sum by total number of grid points.
Elevation of centroid = 194.86 / 23 = 8.472 m
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(iii) Computing the cut and fills for levelled field: Taking elevation of the centroid (8.472 m) as
formation level for levelled field, the cuts and field for all grid points are calculated as given in
Table 24.
(iv) Computing the formation level and cuts and fills for 0.2% slope: Taking 0.2% slope in
east-west direction, the formation level and the cuts and fills for different grid points are
given in Table 25.
Table 16: The cuts and fills for levelled field
1 2 3 4 5
A -0.298 +0.032 -0.228 -0.098 +0.142
B -0.228 -0.298 -0.228 -.028 +0.102
C -0.028 -0.098 +0.002 +0.102 +0.202
D -0.002 +0.072 +0.072 +0.202 +0.242
E -0.072 +0.142 +0.142 - -
(- sign indicates cut and + indicates fill: check: ∑ cut = ∑ fill = 1.530 m)
Table 17: The cuts and fills for field with 0.2% slope (east-west direction)
1 2 3 4 5
Level 8.397 8.437 8.477 8.517 8.557
A -0.373 -0.003 -0.223 -0.053 +0.227
B -0.303 -0.333 -0.223 +0.017 +0.187
C -0.103 -0.133 +0.007 +0.147 +0.287
D -0.073 +0.037 +0.077 +0.247 +0.327
E -0.003 +0.107 +0.147 - -
(- sign indicates cut and + indicates fill: check: ∑ cut = ∑ fill = 1.820 m)

4.2.1.3 Earth Work Estimations
The “average end area” or the “prismoidal” formulae are suitable for making earthwork com-
putations. A better procedure known as “the four point method” is generally employed and is
quite accurate for land grading:
( )
( )
2
2
4
L C
Vc
C F
=
+
¿
¿ ¿
and
( )
( )
2
2
4
f
L F
V
C F
=
+
¿
¿ ¿

Where, Vc = volume of cut, cum
Vf = volume of fill, cum
L = grid spacing, m
C = cut on the grid, m
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F = fill on the grid, m
4.2.2 Profile Method
With this method, ground profiles are plotted and a grade is established that will pro-
vide an appropriate balance between cuts and fills as well as reduce haul distances to reason-
able limits. It is usually well adapted to levelling design for very flat land with undulating to-
pography on which it is desired to develop a fairly uniform surface relief. There are many
variations of the profile method, but essentially it is a trial and error method of adjusting
grades on plotted profiles until the irrigation criteria are met with and the earthwork balance
is attained. Experienced workers frequently use this method, as it is relatively easy to select
grades on a profile that will provide balanced cut and fill with a relatively short haul distance.
4.2.3 Plan Inspection Method
In this method, the grid point elevations are recorded on the plan and the design grade
elevations are determined by inspection after a careful study of the topography. It is largely a
trial and error procedure keeping in mind down field slope and cross slope limitations. Al-
though this method does not ensure minimum cuts and fills or the shortest length of haul, it is
a rapid method. This method is adopted for moderate to flat land slopes. Usually it is neces-
sary to assume trial elevations for one or two lines of stakes. In selecting the formation level,
the designer must simultaneously consider the down field slope, cross slope, earthwork bal-
ance and haul distance.

4.2.4 Contour Adjustment Method
To apply this method, a contour map is drawn and the proposed ground surface is
shown on the same map by drawing new contour lines. The uniformity of slope is controlled
by properly spacing the new contours. As with the plan inspection method, it is largely a trial
and error procedure. The proper balance of cuts and fills is estimated graphically at the grid
points by interpolating between contour lines and by new surface. This method is adapted to
smoothening of steep lands that are to be irrigated. This method demands considerable
judgment on the part of designer to keep the earthwork and haul to a minimum.


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Fig. 30: Land Levelling using contour adjustment method
4.3 Farm Bund
Farm bunds are constructed on agricultural land with the aim of arresting soil ero-
sion and improving the soil moisture profile. Ideally, bunds on farms should be made on
the contour line. But this creates several problems for farmers. These bunds divide the field
into irregular sections. In such a situation, it becomes inconvenient to maneuver bullocks
for operations such as ploughing and line-sowing.
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(Source: Capacity Building Manual for IWMP, GSWMA)
Fig. 31: Farm Bund
4.3.1 Objectives
4.3.1.1 Control of Soil Erosion
In our country, rain falls in a few hours on a few days in a few months. After falling on
the ground, rainwater carries off with it precious top soil. Due to this action of rainwater, rills
are formed in fields, which soon become small drains. It must be remembered that every year
in our country 6.6 billion tonnes of top soil and 5-8 million tonnes of nutrients are lost due to
soil erosion. India is losing soil 30 to 40 times faster that the natural replenishment rate. We
should also keep in mind that it takes over ten thousand years to form a cm thick layer of fer-
tile soil. It is estimated that if these soil losses are prevented the productivity of agricultural
can rise by 30-40%. By dividing the field into several units, bunds control the volume and ve-
locity of runoff in each such unit. The water in the field and the soil it is carrying are stopped
at each bund. Thus, by not allowing water a long stretch of free flow, bunds break the momen-
tum of water.
Improvement of the Soil Moisture Profile
Bunding improves and stabilises the soil moisture profile. The definition changes with
changing local conditions:
In permeable soils (sandy or alluvial), the main aim of bunding is to stop runoff.
In impermeable soils (black or clayey), the purpose of bunding is to make arrangements for
the safe exit of water out of the field. On the one hand, we aim to reduce the velocity of run-
off. But since the soil is impermeable, this water will collect in the field and harm the standing
crops. Thus, we also aim to provide an outlet to this water.
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In fields with crops such as paddy, the purpose of bunding is to stop water in the field, regard-
less of the permeability or impermeability of the soil.
Planning
A plan for farm bunding can never be made for one field alone. Because, in any field
water flows the fields above it and water flows out to the fields below it. Thus, it is important
to plan for the entire stretch between the up-lying fields to the drainage line as a single unit.
Therefore, it is crucial to involve all farmers in the village in the planning process. They must
be informed about the proposed plan and its objectives. Only with their complete participa-
tion bunding should be finalised. Even so, it may happen that farmers in the uplying fields
may not agree to get their fields bunded. In such a case, if bunding has to be done on low-
lying fields, a diversion channel will have to be dug for the exit of water coming in from the
fields above.
Spacing
The distance between bunds must be 30-80 m. This decision depends on the slope of
the field. That is,
The greater the slope, the lesser the distance
The lesser the slope, the greater the distance
In highly sloping land, water will run off very fast. Thus it will have to stop more frequently.
Design
Situation 1: In Relatively Permeable Soils

(Source: Watershed works manual: A source book for Soil and Water Conservation Meas-
ures,FES)
Fig. 32: Cross section of a farm bund in permeable soil
1. Height: 60 cm (refer to Figure 32)
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2. Settlement Allowance: 25%
3. Thus, height of bund at time of construction: 60 x 1.25 = 75 cm. In gravelly soils, the settle-
ment allowance can be lowered to 10%
4. Top Width: 20-30 cm
5. Upstream Slope: 1:1
6. Downstream Slope: 1:1.5.
7. Exit: On relatively flat permeable fields, an exit need not be given. However, in sloping
lands, there is every danger of the bund breaking without an exit. Therefore, provision of a
stone exit becomes imperative. From the point of view of safety, it is best to provide an exit at
the lowest point of the bund but in such a case no water will stop at the bund, rendering the
bund meaningless. The exit should, therefore, be made a little above the lowest point of the
bund. The water will stop at the bund for a short time and then flow out of the exit.

Situations 2: In Relatively Impermeable Soils
In such soils, there is a danger of water collecting in the field.
Height: 50 cm in impermeable soils, water takes a longer time to percolate below the ground.
Therefore, there is always a danger of it overtopping the bund and breaching it. Thus, an ar-
gument can be made that bunds in such soils should be higher. However, in black clayey soils,
this may create waterlogging and may also endanger the bund. In order to get around this di-
lemma, the bunds should be kept at a lower height, but in order to avoid waterlogging, an exit
should be provided. In black, clayey soils, provision of such an exit is a must. In addition, the
distance between bunds should be reduced (20 to 50 m) so that no unnecessary pressure is
created on any one bund.
Settlement Allowance: The fine particles of clay have a natural tendency to settle.

(Source: Watershed works manual: A source book for Soil and Water Conservation Measures,
FES)
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Fig. 33: Cross section of farm bund in impermeable soil
Also, such soils are found as clods. Depending upon the shape of the clods, it is important to
give a settlement allowance of at least 25%. As much as possible, the clods should be broken
down, since the bigger the clods, the greater are the chances of the bund subsiding. The clods
are best broken when they are dry.
3. Top Width: 30-40 cm. The width of bunds made of clayey soils has to be greater because
when the clay dries up, it cracks. Moreover, on such bunds it is very important to plant grass
etc. whose roots stabilise the bunds.
4. Upstream Slope: 1:1.5
5. Downstream Slope: 1:2 since clayey soils have a greater tendency to settle, bunds made
from them should have lower slopes than those made on permeable soils. In particular, spe-
cial care has to be taken to prevent water from seeping through the cracks in the bund and
emerging across on the other side. After some time, the water starts forming wide channels
downstream of the bund. To prevent this, the downstream slope of the bund must be lower
than its upstream slope. Its base width can be kept at 2.5 m. This will prevent the seepage of
water through the bund since it will be difficult for the water to seep through a broad bund.
Another way is to give a gentle grade to the bund. The water will flow along the bund and out
of the exit.
6. Exit: In black soils, exits must be provided, depending on local conditions. If the slope per-
mits, a channel should be dug upstream of the bund for the exit of water. The water flowing
out of each field should be given a channel, which uses the natural slopes to conduct water
into the main drainage line. Grass should be planted on such channels in order to prevent soil
erosion. At every 10-20 m. interval, small trenches should be dug across these channels which
should be filled with stones. These trenches will prevent soil erosion, without obstructing the
flow of water.
Alignment of Bunds under Different Conditions
The alignment of bunds requires several improvisations on the spot, depending on lo-
cal conditions:
Example 1: When a rectangular field slopes along one diagonal or towards one edge of the
field
In such a situation, ideally, contour bunds should be constructed across the slope of the field.
However, as mentioned earlier, contour bunds will divide the field into irregular sections.
Therefore, the bund should be constructed parallel to one of the field boundaries. In this way,
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since the bund will have a gradient, water will flow along it (Source: Watershed works manual:
Samaj Pragati Sahayog).


(Source: Watershed works manual: Samaj Pragati Sahayog)
Fig. 34: The wrong and the right way to layout bunds on sloping fields

Example 2: If the field has a two-way slope
If in such a situation, the bunds are aligned parallel to the boundaries, the velocity of
runoff will only increase. Thus, first one bund should be constructed across one slope. Then
the other bund should be constructed across the other slope. Both bunds should be joined in
the middle. Such a bund will be almost like a contour bund. Remember to provide an exit in
one or the other of the bunds (Source: Watershed works manual: Samaj Pragati Sahayog).


(Source: Watershed works manual: Samaj Pragati Sahayog)
Fig. 35: Farm bunds on a field with a two-way slope
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4.4 Farm Pond
For many years farmers have been building ponds for irrigation and livestock. More
will be needed in the future. The demand for water has increased tremendously in recent
years, and ponds are one of the most reliable and economical sources of water. Ponds are now
serving a variety of purposes, including water for livestock and for irrigation, fish production,
field and orchard spraying, energy conservation, wildlife habitat, recreation, and landscape
improvement. Harvesting of the water in pond, lakes, wells, tanks and reservoirs helps to pre-
serve this water so that it can be put to varied uses later on. One of the most effective ways of
water management is through pond. This technology developed due to the following reasons.
Dug out farm pond is most suitable water harvesting structure for semi arid black soils. Black
soils constitute 23.1% of rainfed lands in India.
These areas receive low average annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 700 mm.
Due to low infiltration rate of these soils the storage losses will be minimum, which is good
for storing water in dugout farm ponds.
The production of runoff in these areas ranges from 10 to 20%, which is higher than other
soils.
The required storage capacity of a pond used for irrigation depends on these interre-
lated factors: water requirements of the crops to be irrigated, effective rainfall expected dur-
ing the growing season, application efficiency of the irrigation method, losses due to evapora-
tion and seepage, and the expected inflow to the pond.
4.4.1 Types of Ponds
Depending on the source of water and their location with respect to the land surface, farm
ponds are grouped into four types. These are (1) Dugout ponds (2) Surface ponds (3) Spring
or Creek fed ponds and (4) Off-stream storage ponds.

Dugout Ponds are excavated at the site and the soil obtained by excavation is formed as em-
bankment around the pond. The pond could either be fed by surface runoff or groundwater
wherever aquifers are available. In case of dugout ponds, if the stored water is to be used for
irrigation, the water has to be pumped out. Pond is made by digging a pit or dugout in a nearly
level area. Because the water capacity is obtained almost entirely by digging, excavated ponds
are used where only a small supply of water is needed. Some ponds are built in gently to
moderately sloping areas and the capacity is obtained both by excavating and by building a
dam. Excavated ponds are the simplest to build in relatively flat terrain. Because their capaci-
ty is obtained almost solely by excavation, their practical size is limited. The ease with which
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they can be constructed, their compactness, their relative safety from flood flow damage, and
their low maintenance requirements make them popular in many sections of the country.
Surface water ponds are the most common type of farm ponds. These are partly excavated
and an embankment is constructed to retain the water. Generally it is made by building an
embankment or dam across a stream or watercourse where the stream valley is depressed
enough to permit storing 6 feet or more of water. The land slope may range from gentle to
steep.
Spring or creek fed ponds is those where a spring or a creek is the source of water supply to
the pond. Construction of these ponds, therefore, depends upon the availability of natural
springs or creeks.
Off-stream storage ponds are constructed by the side of streams which flow only seasonally.
The idea is to store the water obtained from the seasonal flow in the streams. Suitable ar-
rangements need to be made for conveying the water from the stream to the storage ponds.
If an excavated pond is to be fed by surface runoff, enough impervious soil at the site is
essential to avoid excess seepage losses. The most desirable sites are where fine-textured clay
and silty clay extend well below the proposed pond depth.
Although excavated ponds can be built to almost any shape desired, a rectangle is
commonly used in relatively flat terrain. The rectangular shape is popular because it is simple
to build and can be adapted to all kinds of excavating equipment. Rectangular ponds should
not be constructed, however, where the resulting shape would be in sharp contrast to sur-
rounding topography and landscape patterns. A pond can be excavated in a rectangular form
and the edge shaped later with a blade scraper to create an irregular configuration.
Traits of a Good Pond Site
A good pond site should possess the following traits:
(i) It should be a narrow gorge with a fan shaped valley above: so that a small amount of
earthwork gives a large capacity.
(ii) The capacity catchment area ratio should be such that the pond can fill up in about 2-3
months of rainfall. The capacity should not be too small to be choked up with sediments very
soon.
(iii) The main factors in deciding the location of a farm pond are soil type, natural flow of wa-
ter (runoff water), possibilities of siltation and the topography. It must be ensured that all the
water from field and also water from catchment area can be diverted into the pond (i.e. point
in depression). It is necessary to make a test pit to understand the strata.
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(iv) It can be undertaken in any field (individual or common land) from where farmer can
easily provide water to crops, nursery, animals, and vegetable crop or fishery.
(v) Junction of two tributary, depressions and other sites of easily available fill material and
favorable geology should be preferred.
(vi)The site should not have excessive seepage losses.
(vii) The catchment area should be put under conservation practices.
Detailed Soil Investigation
Soils in the pond area: Suitability of a pond site depends on the ability of the soils in the re-
servoir area to hold water. The soil should contain a layer of material that is impervious and
thick enough to prevent excessive seepage. Clays and silty clays are excellent for this purpose,
sandy and gravelly clays are usually satisfactory. Generally, soils with at least 20 percent
passing the No. 200 sieve, a Plasticity Index of more than 10 percent and an undisturbed
thickness of at least 3 feet do not have excessive seepage when the water depth is less than 10
feet. Coarse-textured sands and sand-gravel mixtures are highly pervious and therefore
usually unsuitable. The absence of a layer of impervious material over part of the ponded area
does not necessarily mean to abandon the proposed site.
Some limestone areas are especially hazardous as pond sites. Crevices, sinks, or chan-
nels that are not visible from the surface may be in the limestone below the soil mantle. They
may empty the pond in a short time. In addition, many soils in these areas are granular. Be-
cause the granules do not break down readily in water, the soils remain highly permeable. All
the factors that may make a limestone site undesirable are not easily recognized without ex-
tensive investigations and laboratory tests. The best clue to the suitability of a site in one of
these areas is the degree of success others have had with farm ponds in the immediate vicini-
ty.
Selecting the Dimensions
The dimensions to be selected for a pond depend on the required storage capacity. Of
the three dimensions of a pond, the most important is depth. If an excavated pond is fed from
ground water, it should be deep enough to reach well into the water bearing material. The
maximum depth is generally determined by the kind of material excavated and the type of
equipment used. The type and size of the excavating equipment can limit the width of an ex-
cavated pond. For example, if a dragline excavator is used, the length of the boom usually de-
termines the maximum width of excavation that can be made with proper placement of the
waste material. To prevent sloughing, the side slopes of the pond are generally no steeper
than the natural angle of repose of the material being excavated. This angle varies with differ-
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ent soils, but for most ponds the side slopes are 1:1 or flatter. If the pond is to be used for wa-
tering livestock, provide a ramp with a flat slope (4:1 or flatter) for access.

Depth: For the same volume of water stored, deeper the pond, lesser is the area occupied by
the pond and also lesser are evaporation losses. However, with increased depth, the seepage
losses also increase and hence the storage losses may even out. When the construction is
done with human labour, any increase in depth beyond 2.5 to 3 m becomes uneconomical. It
also becomes uneconomical and difficult for lifting devices operated with human and animal
power. Hence, a depth of 2.5 to 3 m may be suitable in general for the ponds.

Side slopes: The side slopes are decided by the angle of repose of the sub-soil. The constant
action of standing water may require relatively flatter side slopes to avoid slippage due to sa-
turation. Generally, side slopes of 1:1 or flatter are adopted.



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Fig. 36: Plan and Cross-Section of a Farm Pond

Bottom area: When the volume of the pond is known and the depth and side slopes are fixed,
the side of the bottom square can be obtained from the following formula:
3 2
3V-d
b= -dz
3d
z

Where, b = Side of bottom square, m,
V = Volume of pond, m
3
,
d = Depth of pond, m, and
z = Side slope ratio (horizontal: vertical).
Bottom area (A0) can be obtained by squaring the value obtained as above.
Top area: Once the bottom dimensions are known, the side of the top square can be obtained
from the following formula:
B = b + 2 d.z.
Where, B is length of side of farm pond at the top in meter. Top area (A2) can be obtained by
squaring the value of 'B'
Inlet: The inlet is designed as chute spillway for conducting the runoff into the pond in a con-
trolled manner. The entry section can be designed as a rectangular broad crested weir. The
minimum size of inlet should be 1m x 1m in section and the length should be maintained as
per the site condition. The pit of size 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.5 m (inlet chamber) should be provided to
trap the incoming silt. Every year, the silt collected in the pit has to be removed.
Outlet: The outlet is constructed as a rectangular or square channel. The discharge capacity
of the outlet can be assumed to be half as that of the inlet capacity as peak rate of runoff.
Stone pitching for the outlet section has to be provided to avoid scouring of soil. If step cutting
is adopted, step of 0.50m to 1m width and depth are more convenient.
Construction of the Pond
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i. Site clearing
ii. Leveling
iii. Demarcating pond area.
iv. Establishing reference level
v. Stepping method of construction
vi. Formation of spoil bank
vii. Pitching
viii. Silt trap
Clear the pond area of all undesired vegetation. Mark the outside limits of the proposed
excavation with stakes. In low-rainfall areas where water is unlikely to accumulate in the ex-
cavation, you can use almost any kind of available equipment. Tractor-pulled wheeled scra-
pers, dragline excavators, and track-type tractors equipped with a bulldozer blade are gener-
ally used. Bulldozers can only push the excavated material, not carry it; if the length of push is
long, using these machines is expensive.



Fig. 37: Farm Pond
Pitching: Rock pitching is an effective method of control if a high degree of protection is re-
quired or if the water level fluctuates widely. Pitching should extend up to the flood reservoir
level of the bund. Rock is dumped directly from trucks or other vehicles or is placed by hand.
Hand placing gives more effective protection and requires less stone. Dumping requires more
stone, but less labor. The layer of stones should be at least 12 inches thick and must be placed
on a bed of gravel or crushed stone at least 10 inches thick. This bed keeps the waves from
washing out the underlying embankment material that supports the pitching.
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Establishing Vegetation
Trees, shrubs and grasses should be planted during or soon after construction of the
bunds. Native varieties are preferred for new plantings.

Design example
A dugout pond is to be constructed in a semi-arid area having red soils. It is proposed
to provide two supplemental irrigations of 10 cm depth (including losses) to an area of 1.5 ha.
Design the pond and estimate the cost.
Solution
Water requirement for two irrigation times of 10 cm to 1.5 ha area,
= 1.5 x 10 = 15.0 ha-cm
Assuming 20 per cent of storage losses (evaporation and seepage),
Losses = 15 x 0.20 = 3 ha-cm
Designed capacity of the pond = 15.0 + 3.0
= 18.0 ha-cm = 1800 cu-m
It is presumed that the pond will have sufficient watershed area contributing runoff to fill the
pond.
Depth of pond = 4.5 m (assumed)
Side slopes = 1:1
Shape = Rectangular
Assuming bottom width & length = 12 m x 25 m
Top length = 25 + (4.5 x 1) 2 = 34 m
Top width = 12 + (4.5 x 1) 2 = 21 m
Area of pond at top (A2) = 34 x 21 = 714 m
2
Mid-length = 25 + (2.25 x 1)2 = 29.5 m
Mid-width = 12 + (2.25 x 1)2 = 16.5 m
Area of the pond at d/2 depth below the top of pond (A1) = 29.5 x 16.5 = 486.75 m
2
Area of pond at bottom (A0) = 12 x 25 = 300 m
2
Volume (V) using Equation
0 1 2
d
V= (A +4A +A )
6

V= (300 + 4 x 486.75 + 714) 4.5/6 = 2220 ha-cm
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Section III
Section II
Section I
18m
20m
Hard Soil
Murroom
16m
1
1
1
Since, it is higher than the design capacity; the dimensions should be less than the previously
assumed one. Now, assuming bottom dimensions = 12 m x 20 m (length changed from 25 to
20 m, keeping width as same).
Top length = 20 + (4.5 x 1) x 2 = 29 m, A2 = 29 x 21 = 609 m
2
Mid-length = 20 + (2.24 x 1) 2 = 24.5 m
A1 = 24.5 x 16.5 = 404.25 m
2
, A0 = 12 x 20 = 240 m
2
0 1 2
d
V= (A +4A +A )
6
, V= (240+4 x 404.25+240) x 4.5/6 = 1849.5 m
3

Therefore, these dimensions can be accepted as the design dimensions to store 18 ha cm ru-
noff water.
Design dimensions (L x W) are:
Bottom = 20 m x 12 m, Top = 29 m x 21 m, Depth = 4.5 m, Side slopes = 1:1
Total estimated cost = cost of excavation/cubic meter of soil x Total Volume of Excavation
Assuming the cost of excavation per cubic meter of soil as Rs 43 (including lift), the estimated
cost will be: 1849.50 x 43= Rs 79529/-
Design Example
Plan and Cross section of the dugout pond is shown in fig below. Find the cost of said
dugout pond.















Fig. 39: Cross-section of pond

20 m
18 m
16 m
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Volume of dugout pond in section I = Length x Width x Depth
= 20m x 20m x 1m = 400 m
3

Volume of dugout pond in section II = Length x Width x Depth
= 18m x 18m x 1m = 324 m
3
Volume of dugout in hard soil = 400 + 324 = 724 m
3
Volume of dugout pond in Section III = Length x Width x Depth
= 16m x 16m x 1m = 256 m
3
Volume of dugout in hard murrum = 256 cubic meter
Cost of excavation in hard soil = Volume x Rate
= 724 x 41 = Rs 29684
Cost of excavation in hard murrum = Volume x Rate
= 256 x 62 = Rs 15872
Lift charge: (it is a charge when the depth of excavation is more than 1.5 m.)
4.4.1.1 Volume of Lift
Volume of lift charge soil in section II = Length x Width x Depth
= 18 x 18 x 0.5 = 162 m
3

Volume of lift charge soil in section III = Length x Width x Depth
= 16m x 16m x 1m = 256 m
3

Total volume of lift charge soil = 162 + 256 = 418 cubic meter
Cost of Lift charge = Volume x Rate
= 418 x 2.50 = 1045
Total cost of dugout pond = 29684 + 15872 + 1045 = Rs 46601
4.5 Waste Weir
Waste weirs are structures with regular openings (to dispose of excess runoff) placed
in the path of the water. They may be permanent or temporary. They are generally located
within the structure in case of permanent structures and away from the structure or at safe
locations in temporary structures. These are constructed also for giving a safe passage to the
excess runoff from the field and also store some amount of water in the field. The water
stored in these structures is mostly confined in field and height is normally less than 0.5 m.
and excess water is allowed to flow over the head wall. They are usually located at the lowest
point of the field forming the inter-bund area. Rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal weirs
are commonly used in soil and water-conservation structures.
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The rectangular weir is the most commonly used in agricultural lands. Weirs are typi-
cally installed in open channels such as streams to determine discharge (flow rate). The basic
principle is that discharge is directly related to the water depth (h) in the figure above; h is
known as the "head."


Fig. 40: Waste weir

4.5.1 Design of Waste Weir
The weir can be made of wooden planks, sheet metal or concrete and the opening cut on the
top of the edge. The weir has two design components namely its length (L) and the height (H)
of water above the crest; these are variably related to the discharge (Q) according to the type
of weir. The formulae expressing these relations are given below.
Rectangular weir:
Q = 1.84 LH
3/2
Triangular weir:
Q = 1.38 H
5/2
Trapezoidal weir (Cipoletti weir with side slopes of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical),
Q = 1.86 LH
3/2

A depth of 0.3 m is mostly followed for computing the waste weir length at the beginning. The
main components of a clear over fall weir are crest wall, side pitching and apron. A row of
headers are also placed on the downstream side to hold the stones in position.
The discharge Q in all cases is calculated using the Rational formula described earlier. If H is
assumed depending on the height of the water path, L can be calculated. Conversely, if the
width of the waterway is known, L is assumed and H is derived for surplussing the excess wa-
ter.

L
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Fig. 41: Waste weir of a farm (farm outlet)
Design Example
To design a rectangular weir for disposing runoff from a catchment area (A) of 35 ha, having a
runoff coefficient C of 0.5 with rainfall intensity (I) of 50 mm/hour
CIA
Q =
360
= 0.5 x 50 x 35 /360 = 2.43 cumec
H is assumed to be 0.6 m, and then L is given by
L = Q/ (1.84 H
3/2
)
= 2.43/ (1.84x0.6
3/2
) = 2.43/ (1.84x 0.465) = 2.84 m.

The actual height of the weir should be 0.6 m + free board.










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Chapter 5
5 Lower Catchment Area Treatment
5.1 Introduction
There are always strong links between soil conservation and water conservation
measures. Many actions are directed primarily to one or the other, but most contain an ele-
ment of both. Water harvesting in the lower catchment area or in drainage line is the collec-
tion, storage and recycling of rain water (surface/subsurface) for irrigation and other uses.
Reduction of surface runoff can be achieved by constructing suitable structures or by changes
in land management. Further, this reduction of surface runoff will increase infiltration and
help in water conservation.
The engineering measures adopted differ with location, slope of the land, soil type,
amount and intensity of rainfall. The principle of water harvesting techniques in the drainage
line of lower catchment consists of three main components. First, the catchment area is where
the part of the land contributes its share of rainwater. Second, the storage is the place where
runoff water is held or collected. Third, the target or cultivated area is where the harvested
water is used. Depending on these parameters, the methods commonly used are gabion, ear-
then dam, masonry check dam and subsurface check dams or dyke.
5.2 Gabion Structure
This is a kind of check dam being commonly constructed across small stream to con-
serve stream flows with practically low submergence beyond stream course with a catchment
area of 30-150 ha. Small bund across the stream is made by putting locally available boulder
in a mesh of steel of mesh wires. This is put up across the stream to make it as a small dam by
anchoring it to the stream banks. This makes the structure strong and heavy. It acts as a single
unit that can withstand a high velocity of runoff. The height of such structures is around 1 to 2
meter and is normally used in the streams with width of about 10 to 20 m. Gabion structures
have a long life (20-25 years) almost similar to cement masonry permanent structures.
Concrete, masonry and brick work have good resistance to compression but fail easily
under tensile loads resulting from settlement. A small settlement of the structure, can intro-
duce stresses which the structure is ill equipped to withstand. The inherent flexibility of the
gabions, the ability to bend without breaking seems to be the primary reasons for their suc-
cess. Other important advantage are that i) they are permeable to water but retain soil, ii)
they do not require water or cement for their construction, iii) the materials are re-usable if
the baskets should break or if the structure should deform excessively, iv) gabions are also
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suitable where firm foundation is not available. They are also constructed to reinforce highly
erodible stream embankments.
The excess water overflows this structure storing some water to serve as a source of
recharge. The silt content of stream water in due course forms an impermeable layer and
helps in retaining surface water runoff for sufficient time to recharge the ground water body.
5.2.1 Objectives
The main aim of constructing gabion structure is to reduce the velocity of water flowing
through the drainage line. By reducing the velocity of runoff, gabion structures help in
i. Trapping silt, which reduces the rate of siltation in water harvesting structures in the
lower reaches of the watershed.
ii. Soil conservation.
iii. Creating a hydraulic head locally which enhances infiltration of surface runoff into the
groundwater system.
iv. Increasing the duration of flow in the drainage line. Therefore, the capacity of the wa-
ter harvesting structures created downstream on the drainage line is utilized fully as
they get many more refills.


(Source: Capacity Building Manual for IWMP, GSWMA)
Fig. 42: Gabion Structure

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Fig. 43: Sketch of gabion structure in a drainage line

5.2.2 Site Selection
These are the structures constructed out of stones, where masonry and earthen structures
are not feasible or uneconomical. Hence, the desired conditions are:
i. Straight stream flow.
ii. Stream bed should not be with loose material
iii. Stream banks should be stable and should have sufficient height on both sides.
iv. For maximizing storage in the structure, the bed slope of the upstream portion should
be low. The flatter the upstream slope, the more will be the storage.
v. Structures should be at right angles to the stream flow.
vi. On the downstream of the structure at least 2m fairly level land should be available for
apron work.
5.2.3 Spacing of the Gabions
Most common thumb rule is bottom of the upstream structure should be in the same
level with top of downstream structure. If there is very mild slope say around 1% then spac-
ing between two structures must be 50 m horizontally. In steep slopes spacing should be 5 to
10 m vertical interval or 10 to 20 m horizontal interval.
5.2.4 Brief Description of the Construction
Good quality galvanized wire of gauge 12-14 (chain link) must be used for constructing
gabion structures. Ready-made mesh with a single twist is commercially available. In these
meshes the gap should not be more than 7.5cm x 7.5cm. The prepared mesh should be com-
bined together with 14 gauge wires. Box size of 1m length x 1 wide x 1m height is required to
prepare and all the boxes have to be joined as a whole unit. After filling the box with rocks or
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boulders the top cover mesh is to be folded and all the corners are to be tightened with bind-
ing wire (14 gauge). Acceptable stone for gabion construction shall be hard, durable, equally
graded, angular in shape, and shall not be less than 4" in any given dimension and no larger
than 8" in any given dimension. The specific gravity required for the stone fill shall be deter-
mined by the design and specified by the design engineer. Specific gravity for stone fill shall
be no less than 2.5. To increase the impermeability of the structure, a reverse filter should be
constructed on its upstream face. This is made by placing layers of small boulders, gravel,
sand and mud against the structure. The boulders are placed adjacent to the structure, with
gravel, sand and mud being placed successively away from it.

Table 18: Unit weight of gabion stone fill
TYPE OF ROCK LBS/CUBIC FT
Basalt 180
Granite 160
Sandstone 140

5.2.5 Specifications
Top width : 1 to 2 m
Depth of foundation : 0.30 to 0.6 or up to hard strata
Height above Ground Level : 1-2 mt
Keying into bank : 0.30 to 1.0 m into stable portion
Galvanized Iron chain link : size: 12 -14 gauge
5.2.6 Construction Methodology – Gabion structure
i. Clean the site first.
ii. Loose material should be removed from the construction site.
iii. Excavate the foundation trench to 0.30 to 0.60 m depth.
iv. Gabion box should be properly aligned along the foundation.
v. Layer by layer loose rock is to be kept. Bigger size rock should be kept at the bottom
portion and smaller rocks (minimum size 4”) should be kept on the upper layer. The
headwall as well as the sidewalls should be constructed as boxes of 1 to 2m length and
1to 2 m height. After filling up, the box should be closed tightly with the binding wire
(14 gauges G.I. wire).
vi. Construct a stone bund with locally available stones.
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vii. The whole structure should go (Head wall extension) up to 0.30 to 1.0 m into the sta-
ble portion of the gully side to prevent end cutting.
viii. The structure to the level equal to flood depth plus free board to prevent scouring of
the stream banks.
ix. On down streamside, provide 2 to 2.5m wide apron along the full length of the struc-
ture. Apron should be made by first excavating the trench and fill with boulders and
enclosed in a wire mesh which is anchored under the boulders. This helps to prevent
erosion of the down streamside of the structure.
x. To increase the impermeability of the structure, a reverse filter should be constructed
on its upstream face.

(Source: Watershed works manual: Samaj Pragati Sahayog)
Fig. 44: Design of stone box for gabion structure
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Fig. 45: Selection of stones for gabion structure
Example
Find the cost of a Gabion Structure (GS) with the following parameter details: Length
of gabion 20 m, Depth of foundation of headwall, headwall extension, sidewall and apron = 0.6
m, Height of head wall = 2.0 m, Length of headwall extension = 2 m, Height of sidewalls over
headwall = 1m, Width of apron = 5m. Cross section of the gabion is shown in fig below.
(Source: Watershed works manual: A source book for Soil and Water Conservation Measures,
FES)
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5 mt
20 mt
Step 1 Excavation
1. Excavation for head wall extension in hard soil
= 2 × Length ×Width × Depth
= 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 16 cum
2. Excavation for apron and main wall foundation in hard soil
= Length ×Width × Depth
= 20 × (5 + 1) × 0.60 = 72 cum
3. Boulder filling for apron and main wall foundation
= Length ×Width × Depth = 20 × (5 + 1) × 0.6 = 72 cum
Step 2 Area of wire mesh
Area of wire mesh
1. Area of wire mesh on apron and main wall foundation
= Length ×Width = 20 × (5 + 1) = 120 sqm
2. Area of wire mesh for keying of apron
= Length ×Width = (20 + 20 + 5 + 1 + 5 + 1) × 1 = 52 sqm
Total area of wire mesh apron: = 120 + 52 = 172 sqm
Step 3 Gabion Boxes
As we know the gabion is made with GI wire mesh cubical boxes of 1.0 m. filled with the
boulders. For making one cubical box of 1 cum capacity:
Quantity of boulder required in 1 box= 1.00 cum
Quantity of wire mesh required = 5.00 sqm (As out of the six faces of cube two faces will re-
main common for joining the two boxes). For estimating the quantity of GS, we have to count
the number of boxes in each part of the structure:
Total boxes for main wall = Number of boxes in the main wall c/s × Length of
GS = 2 × 20 = 40 boxes
Total boxes for both sidewalls = Number of boxes in the side wall c/s × 2 = 6 × 2 = 12 boxes
Total boxes for both side head wall extensions = No. of boxes in the head wall extensions × 2 =
4 × 2 = 8 boxes
Total boxes for main wall + sidewall + head wall = 40 + 12 + 8 = 60 Boxes
Total quantity of wire mesh required for main wall + sidewall + extension wall =
No. of boxes × 5 = 60 × 5 = 300 sqm
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Quantity of reverse filter = Length x Base x height x 0.5
Volume of Reverse Filter = 20 x 1 x 2 x 0.5 = 20 cubic meter

Sr. No. Particulars of work Quantity Rate Amount
1 Excavation of foundation in hard soil 72 41 2952
2 Excavation for main wall extension in
hard soil
16 41 656
3 Boulder filling in apron 72 250 18000
4 G.I. wire mesh for apron and its keying 172 90 15480
5 Boulder required for main wall, side wall
& main wall extension
60 250 15000
6 G.I. wire mesh required for main wall,
side wall & main wall extension
300 90 27000
7 Reverse filter 20 120 2400
Total cost (Rs) 81488

5.3 Earthen Dams
A dam exceeding 15m in height above deepest river bed level is defined as large dam.
Also a dam in between 10 m to 15 m height is termed as large dam if volume of earth dam ex-
ceeds 0.75 million cubic meters and storage exceed one million cubic meters. A dam not satis-
fying the above criterion of large dam is termed as small dam and is an important structure in
drainage line or in low catchment areas. Earthen dams are constructed across streams of hav-
ing gentler slopes. An earthen dam may be homogeneous, zoned type and diaphragm type.

Fig. 46: Earthen Dam
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Fig 47: Homogeneous earthen dam
Homogeneous earth dam: A purely homogeneous type of dam is composed of a single kind of
material. The purely homogeneous type of section has now been replaced by a modified ho-
mogeneous section, in which small amount of carefully placed pervious material control the
action of seepage so as to permit much steeper slopes as compared to pure homogenous dam.
Zoned earth dam: In this type, a central highly impervious core is flanked by zones of material
considerably more pervious. The core extends from above the water line to an impermeable
stratum in the foundation. Sometimes an upstream blanket may also be used in conjunction
with the central core or core wall to reduce the cost of fill material.
Diaphragm: In this type, the bulk of the embankment is constructed with pervious material
(sand, gravel or rock) and a thin diaphragm of impermeable material like plastic, butyl, con-
crete, steel or wood to act as a barrier against seepage through the fill is provided. Depending
on the length of wall, it could be "full diaphragm" or "partial diaphragm" type.

Fig 48: Diaphragm type earthen dam

An earth dam is composed of suitable soils obtained from borrow areas or required
excavation and compacted in layers by mechanical means. Following preparations of a foun-
dation, earth from borrow areas and from required excavations is transported to the site,
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dumped, and spread in layers of required depth. The soil layers are then compacted by tamp-
ing rollers, sheepsfoot rollers, tractors, or earth-hauling equipment.

5.3.1 Basic Requirements of an Embankment Dam
Dams are a critical and essential part of the Nation’s infrastructure for the storage and
management of water in watersheds. To meet the dam safety requirements, the design, con-
struction, operation, and modification of an embankment dam must comply with the follow-
ing technical requirements:
5.3.2 Selection of Embankment Type
Site conditions that may lead to selection of an earthen dam include a wide stream val-
ley, lack of firm rock abutments, considerable depths of soil overlying bedrock, poor quality
bedrock from a structural point of view. In order to be cost effective, the dam should be lo-
cated where maximum storage volume is obtained through minimum volume of earth fill.
Drainage line should have well-defined embankments where the dam is to be located so that
it can be anchored.
Topography
Topography, to a large measure, dictates the first choice of type of dam. A narrow V-
shaped valley with sound rock in abutments would favour an arch dam. A relatively narrow
valley with high, rocky walls would suggest a rock fill or concrete dam (or roller-compacted
concrete). Conversely, a wide valley with deep overburden would suggest an earth dam. Irre-
gular valleys might suggest a composite structure, partly earth and partly concrete. Compo-
site sections might also be used to provide a concrete spillway while the rest of the dam is
constructed as an embankment section.
Geology and Foundation Conditions
The geology and foundation conditions at the dam site may dictate the type of dam
suitable for that site. Competent rock foundations with relatively high shear strength and re-
sistance to erosion and percolation offer few restrictions as to the type of dam that can be
built at the site. Gravel foundations, if well compacted, are suitable for earth or rock-fill dams.
Special precautions must be taken to provide adequate seepage control and/or effective wa-
ter cutoffs or seals. Silt or fine sand foundations can be used for low concrete (or roller-
compacted concrete) and earth dams but is not suitable for rock-fill dams. The main problems
include settlement, prevention of piping, excessive percolation losses, and protection of the
foundation at the downstream embankment toe from erosion. Non dispersive clay founda-
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tions may be used for earth dams but require flat embankment slopes because of relatively
low foundation shear strength.
Materials available
The most economical type of dam will often be one for which materials can be found
within a reasonable haul distance from the site, including material which must be excavated
for the dam foundation, spillway and outlet works. Materials which may be available near or
on the dam site include soils for embankments, rock for embankments and riprap, and con-
crete aggregate (sand, gravel, and crushed stone). Materials from required excavations may
be stockpiled for later use. However, greater savings will result if construction scheduling al-
lows direct use of required excavations. If suitable soils for an earth-fill dam can be found in
nearby borrow pits, an earth dam may prove to be more economical. The availability of suita-
ble rock may favor a rock-fill dam. The availability of suitable sand and gravel for concrete at
a reasonable cost locally or onsite is favorable to use for a concrete exit weir.
Spillway/Exit weir
The spillway is a critical part of dam construction. An under-designed spillway will re-
sult in the dam overtopping or serious spillway erosion during peak runoff. These situations
can cause major water losses, potential flooding and damage downstream, in addition to the
costs to repair the dam. The size, type, and restrictions on location of the spillway are often
controlling factors in the choice of the type of dam. When a large spillway is to be constructed,
it may be desirable to combine the spillway and dam into one structure, indicating a concrete
overflow dam. In some cases where required excavation from the spillway channel can be uti-
lized in the dam embankment, an earth or rock-fill dam may be advantageous.
Environmental
Recently environmental considerations have become very important in the design of
dams and can have a major influence on the type of dam selected. The principal influence of
environmental concerns on selection of a specific type of dam is the need to consider protec-
tion of the environment, which can affect the type of dam, its dimensions, and location of the
spillway and appurtenant facilities.
Economic Analysis
The final selection of the type of dam should be made only after careful analysis and
comparison of possible alternatives, and after thorough economic analyses (cost benefit ratio)
that include costs of spillway and foundation treatment.
Technical Requirements
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i. The dam, foundation, and abutments must be stable under all static and dynamic load-
ing conditions.
ii. Seepage through the foundation, abutments, and embankment must be controlled and
collected to ensure safe operation. The intent is to prevent excessive uplift pressures,
piping of materials, sloughing removal of material by solution, or erosion of this ma-
terial into cracks, joints, and cavities. In addition, the project purpose may impose a
limitation on allowable quantity of seepage. The design should include seepage control
measures such as foundation cutoffs, adequate and non brittle impervious zones, tran-
sition zones, drainage material and blankets, upstream impervious blankets, adequate
core contact area, and relief wells.
iii. The freeboard must be sufficient to prevent overtopping by waves and include an al-
lowance for settlement of the foundation and embankment.
iv. The spillway and outlet capacity must be sufficient to prevent over-topping of the em-
bankment by the reservoir.
5.3.3 Design of Earthen Dam
The various components of an earthen bund include (a) foundation including key
trench or cut-off, (b) height of bund, (c) side slopes, (d) top width, (e) free board and (f) set-
tlement allowance.

Fig. 49: Earthen Dam
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It is possible to construct a stable and economical earthen bund on any foundation.
Sites with foundation conditions requiring relatively expansive construction measures should
be avoided. The most satisfactory foundation is one that consists of, or is underlain at a shal-
low depth by a thick layer of relatively impervious consolidated material. Such foundations
cause no stability problems. Where a suitable layer occurs at the surface no special measures
are required. It is sufficient to remove the top soil (with vegetation and roots) and plough the
area to provide a good bond with the new fill material of the bund.
Where the impervious layer is overlain by pervious material (sand), a compacted clay cut-off
extending from the surface of the ground into the impervious is required to prevent excessive
seepage and to prevent possible failure by piping.


Fig. 50: Design of Earthen Dam

An earth dam often contains an impervious clay core to prevent water seeping through the
face of the dam and causing erosion of the dam wall. Earth dams have a watertight core wall,
formerly made of puddle clay. Their construction is very economical even for very large
structures. Rock-fill dams are a variant of the earth dam in which dumped rock takes the
place of compacted earth fill.
5.3.3.1 Foundation Cutoffs (Key trench)
A key trench (cutoff trench) is excavated below the base of the fill upstream of the cen-
terline of the fill. The key trench is incorporated in the design for two reasons: to anchor the
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dam to the base material and to prevent piping (seepage under the fill). The key trench should
be a minimum of three feet deep for a dam height of 10 to 12 feet. It should extend the full
length of the dam and depth of about one third to one half of the height of the dam. Usually a
cut-off joining the impervious stratum in the foundation with the base of the dam is needed.
The most common type of cutoff is one constructed of compacted or puddled clay material.
The trench should have a bottom width of not less than 1.5 meters but adequate to allow the
use of mechanical equipment if necessary, to obtain proper compaction. The sides of the
trench should be filled with puddled clay or with successive thin layers of relatively imper-
vious material each layer being properly compacted.
5.3.3.2 Height of Embankment
The height of embankment will depend upon the volume of runoff to be stored and to-
pography of the reservoir area. The height of the bund or embankment should also be se-
lected in such a way that its cost per unit of storage (cum volume) is minimum. While calcu-
lating the cost corresponding to any height some allowance for settlement and free board, and
temporary flood storage may be added to give the actual bund height or in other words the
actual quantity of earth work.
5.3.3.3 Top Width of Embankment
Adequate top width especially when the crest is to be used as roadway for connecting
adjoining villages or watersheds. Simple formula relating top width (W) with height (H) of
dam (m) may be used:
1.5
5
H
W = +
Up to 5 m height of dam, a minimum top width of 3 m is recommended. If the top is to be used
as a road, width of 5 m or more is to be adopted.
5.3.3.4 Embankment Side Slopes
Embankment slopes are required for stability of the embankment on stable founda-
tions. Pervious foundations may require the addition of upstream blankets for stability
against seepage forces. Weak foundations may require the addition of stabilizing fills at either
or both toes of the dam. The side slopes depend primarily on the stability of the material in
the embankment. The greater the stability of the material, the steeper will be the side slopes
or vice versa. The recommended side slopes for earthen embankments are presented.



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Table19: Recommended side slopes for earthen dams
Type of material Upstream slope Downstream slope
Homogeneous well graded material 2.5:1 2:1
Homogeneous coarse silt 3:1 2.5:1
Homogeneous silty clay or clay
(Height less than 15 m)
2.5:1 2:1
Height more than 15 m 3:1 2.5:1
Sand or sand and gravel with clay
core
3:1 2.5:1

On embankments higher than 10 meters, berms are provided on downstream side of the dam.
The berms are of 1-3 m width and have a mild inward slope for drainage.
5.3.3.5 Slope Protection
Upstream slope: The upstream slope protection is ensured by providing riprap. For
design of riprap, IS 8237-1985 may be referred. A minimum of 300 mm thick riprap over 150
mm thick filter layer may be provided up to the top of dam.
Downstream slope: The downstream slope protection is ensured by turning or by local grass.
It is usual practice to protect the downstream slope from rain cuts by providing suitable turf-
ing on the entire downstream slope from top to toe. For details of downstream slope protec-
tion, IS 8237-1985 may be referred.
5.3.3.6 Free Board
It is the added height of the dam provided as a safety factor to prevent waves and ru-
noff from storms greater than the design frequency from overtopping the embankment. It is
the vertical distance between the elevation of the highest flood level and top level of the dam
after all settlement has taken place. It depends upon the height as well as length of the dam.
Normally, 10-15 percent is added as free board to the highest flood level of the dam. Mini-
mum free board of 0.5 m is provided for length of pond upto 400 m, 0.75 m for length be-
tween 400 to 800 m and 1m for length more than 800 m.
5.3.3.7 Internal Drainage System
To ensure safety of dam, it is very important to handle the seepage water in the dam so as to
maintain the original particles of soils in their place. The measures commonly adopted for
safe disposal of seepage water through embankment dams are:
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i. Inclined or vertical filter (chimney filter)
ii. Horizontal filter
iii. Rock toe
iv. Toe drain
As far as possible locally available sand, gravel etc should be used. Inclined or vertical
filter is provided just on downstream slope of core. Its thickness is kept 1.0 meter (minimum).
Horizontal filter collects the seepage from chimney filter & foundation, and carries to the rock
toe & toe drain. Its thickness is kept minimum (as 1.0 meter). The standard filter criterion be-
tween filter and adjoining soil (casing or foundation) should be satisfied .In case of dam por-
tions, where the head of water is 3 m or less it is not required to provide horizontal filter.
Adequate toe protection shall however be provided. The height of rock toe is generally pro-
vided as 0.2 H, where H is the height of embankment. However minimum height of rock toe be
kept as 1.0 metre. Rock toe is not necessary where height of embankment is 3 m or less. The
toe drain is provided at the downstream toe of the earth dam to collect seepage from horizon-
tal filter, rock toe & through foundation and to discharge it away from the dam by suitable
surface or sub surface drains. The section of toe drain should be adequate enough to carry
seepage. The bed of toe drain should be given a suitable slope to lead the seepage to natural
drains. Depth of toe drain is usually provided as 1.5 m with bottom width of 1 m minimum
and side slopes of 1:1 .For details IS 9429-1980 be referred.
The filter material should satisfy the following criteria with the base material:
a. D15 (f) / D15 (b) > 4 and < 20
b. D15 (f) / D85 (b) < 5
A filter that satisfies the above criteria may yet fail if it has an excess or lack of certain sizes or
is not uniformly graded. The following criteria must be fulfilled.
D50 (f) / D50 (b) < 25
The gradation curve of the filter material should be nearly parallel to the gradation curve of
the base material. The suffix 'f' stands for the filter material and 'b' for the base material. 15,
50, 85 percent particles, by weight, respectively are finer than D15, D50 and D85 particle size.
5.3.3.8 Design of Waste Weir
Water in excess of the Flood Reservoir Level (FRL) is drained out by a waste weir. Af-
ter estimating the peak runoff from a catchment and the FRL of the structure, the dimensions
of the waste weir are determined. The waste weir must have the capacity to safely drain out
the peak runoff when the water is at FRL in the structure. Peak runoff from a watershed is es-
timated using the Rational formula:
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Q=CIA/360,
Where Q=Peak runoff (cubic meter per seconds); C=runoff coefficient;
I = Intensity of rainfall (mm/hr); and A=watershed area (ha).
Wherever possible, it is better to have a broader waste weir for a given volume of excess ru-
noff rather than a deeper one so as to maximize the storage capacity. The discharge capacity
of the waste weir is given by the crested weir formula, Qp= 1.75LH
3/2

So we need to arrive at the value of L, the length of the surplus weir.

3/ 2
1.75
p
Q
L
H
=
×

Where, Qp=discharge (cubic meter per second), L=weir width (m) and H=depth of flow (m).
The waste weir should be designed with a wide base and a gentle slope, which will reduce wa-
ter velocity and soil erosion. The base and sides should also be seeded to grass. The weir
should be located away from the dam fill, not through or directly adjacent to the fill. This
placement will reduce the risk of the dam washing out. Culverts are often used in waste weir
design, and if undersized, they can restrict flow and result in project failure.
5.3.3.9 Causes of Failure of Earthen Dams
The most common causes of failure of earthen dams are:
i) Overtopping of the dam
ii) Wave erosion of the upstream
iii) Toe erosion of the downstream
iv) Rill and gullying downstream/upstream
v) Upstream slope failure due to caving/slipping.
vi) Downstream slope failure due to seepage
vii) Excessive settlement in embankment and foundation
viii) Inadequate spillway or blockage of spillway
ix) Sometimes, outlet pipe has to be taken through dam body. If, antiseep collars are not
provided, water seeps along the pipe and leads to structure failures
x) Seepage failures:
 Excessive seepage through the embankment
 Excessive seepage through the foundation
 Piping of fill and foundation due to seepage
 Excessive creep flow around irrigation pipe outlet and pipe spillway.



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Table 20: General Guidelines for Embankment section
Sl .
No
Description Height up to 5 m Height above 5 m
and up to 10 m
Height above 10 m and
up to 15 m
1. Type of section Homogene-
ous/Modified homo-
geneous section

Zoned / Modified
homogeneous
/Homogeneous
section
Zoned / modified homo-
geneous/ homogeneous
section
2. Side slopes U/S D/S U/S D/S U/S D/S
(a) Coarse grained
soil

(i)GW,GP,SW,SP Not Suitable Not Suitable Not suitable for core,
Suitable for casing zone
ii)GC,GM,SC,SM 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 Section to be decided
based upon stability
analysis
(b
)
Fine grained
soil

(i)CL,ML,CI,MI 2:1 2:1 2.5:1 2.5:1 -do-
(ii) CH, MH 2:1 2:1 3.75:1 3.75:1 -do-
3. Hearting zone Not required May be Provided Necessary
a) Top width -- 3 m 3 m
b) Top Level -- 0.5m above MWL 0.5m above MWL
4. Rock toe height Not necessary upto
3m height. Above 3m
height, 1m ht. of rock
toe may be provided
Necessary.H/5,
where H is height
of embankment
Necessary.H/5, where H
is height of embankment
5. Berms Not necessary Not necessary The berm may be pro-
vided as per design. The
minimum berm width
shall be 3 m.
Extract from Table 1 of IS: 12169 - 1987

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Table 21: Suitability of soil for construction of dams
Relative suitability
Homogeneous
Dykes
Zoned Dams
Impervious Blan-
kat
Impervious core
Pervious cas-
ing
Very Suitable GC GC SW, GW GC
Suitable CL,CI CL,CI GM CL, CI
Fairly suitable SP, SM, CH
GM, GC, SM, SC,
CH
SP, GP CH, SM, SC, GC
Poor - ML, MI, MH - -
Not suitable - OL, OI, OH, Pt - -
(Extract from Appendix A of IS 12169-1987)
5.3.3.10 Cost estimation of Earthen Dam
For working out the cost estimates of an earthen dam, following aspects are included.
i. Cost of stripping/cleaning inside layout or plan section
ii. Earth work to erect the dam
iii. Excavation of cut-off trench
iv. Cost of core wall (if any)
v. Cost of pitching on upstream side
vi. Cost of toe wall
vii. Excavation for exit weir
Example: One earthen dam is proposed in a watershed in Rajkot dist of Gujarat. Length
of earthen dam is 20 m and maximum height of bund is 5 m. Cross section of the dam is
shown in fig below. Find the cost of the earthen dam. (Rates used in the examples are the SoR –
2008 of Irrigation Dept.)
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D/S
1:S2
U/S
1:S1


X-section of the Embankment


Area of Trapezium = [(Top Width + Bottom Width) / 2] x Depth
= [(B + H x S1+ B+ H x S2) /2] x H = [(2B + H x S1 + H x S2) /2] x H
= [{2B + H x (S1 + S2)} /2]
= [{2B /2} + {(H x (S1 + S2)) /2}] x H
= [B + {(H x (S1 + S2)) /2}] x H
= [(B x H) + {(H
2
x (S1 + S2)) /2}]
= B x H + H
2
x (S1 + S2) /2
Here, B = Top Width, H = Height, S1 = U/S slope, S2 = D/S slope
Cross sectional area of earthen dam = B x H + H
2
x (S1 + S2) /2
As per drawing we knows, B = 2.5 m, S1= 3, S2 = 2
Cross sectional area of earthen dam = 2.5 x H + H
2
x (3 + 2) /2 = 2.5 x H + H
2
x 2.5
1m
FBL
D/S 2:1
Turfing

FRL-------
Core
1.67 m
Puddle
trench
2 m
Casing
Pitch-
ing
U/S 3:1

2. 5 m

B
H*S1
H
H*S2
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Volume of Overall Bund
Point Chainage Height
X-sectional
area
Average X-
sectional area
Length
Between two
points
Volume
(m
3
)
A 0 0 0 - - -
B 5 2 15 7.5 5 37.50
C 10 5 75 45 5 22.50
D 15 3 30 52.50 5 262.50
E 20 0 0 15 5 75
Total 600

Total volume of bund = 600 cubic meter.
Volume of Core Wall
X-sectional area = width x height = W x (H – free board)
We know that, W = 2.5 m, Freeboard = 1 m (assumed).
X-sectional area = W x (H – free board) = 2.5 x (H - 1)
Point Chainage Height
X-sectional
area
Average X-
sectional area
Length
between two
points
Volume
(m
3
)
A 0 0 0 - - -
B 5 2 1 0.5 5 2.50
C 10 5 4 2.50 5 12.50
D 15 3 2 3 5 15
E 20 0 0 1 5 5
Total 35
Volume of core wall = 35 cubic meter.
Volume of cut-off trench
Volume= Length x (Top width + Bottom width)/2 x Depth
= 20 x (2 + 1)/2 x 1.67
= 50.10 m
3
Volume of Rock toe
In triangle AOB,
Angle BAO = 180 - 90 – angle ABO
= 90 - angle ABO
Angle CBO = 90 - angle ABO
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So, Angle BAO = angle CBO
If the slope of line AB is 2:1 then slope of line CB will be 2:1
Cross sectional area of rock toe = 1/2 x Base x Height
= 1/2 x {(H/ 4S2) + (H x S2/4)} x H /4
= H/8 x {(H/ 4 S2) + (H x S2/4)}
= H/32 x {(H/ S2) + (H x S2)}
= H/32 x {(H + (H x S2
2
)/ S2}
= H
2
x (1 + S2
2
)/(32 x S2)
S2 = 2

Cross sectional area = H
2
x (1 + S2
2
)/(32 x S2)
= H
2
x (1 + 2
2
)/32 x 2 = H
2
x (5 /64)
Estimation of volume of Rock Toe
Point Chainage Height
X-sectional
area
Average X-
sectional area
Length
between two
points
Volume
(m
3
)
A 0 0 0 - - -
B 5 2 0.31 0.16 5 0.78
C 10 5 1.95 1.13 5 5.66
D 15 3 0.70 1.33 5 6.64
E 20 0 0 0.35 5 1.76
Total 14.84

Volume of casing/outer cover should be calculated as in this case the dam has two sections
namely ,a core wall section made with impervious or clayey soil and the casing/outer cover
with more pervious material and rock toe filter on the downstream side.
Volume of casing/outer cover =Total volume of dam − (Volume of core wall + Volume of rock
toe) = 600 − (35 + 14.84) = 550.16 cum





Area of Pitching
Cross sectional width (AC) = (H - freeboard) x (upstream slope S1
2
+ 1)
1/2

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= (H - 1) (3
2
+ 1)
1/2
= (H - 1) x 3.16
Point Chainage Height
Length of
pitching
Average X-
sectional area
Length
between two
points
Area of
Pitching
A 0 0 0 - - -
B 5 2 3.16 1.58 5 7.91
C 10 5 12.65 7.91 5 39.53
D 15 3 6.32 9.49 5 47.43
E 20 0 - 3.16 5 15.81
Total 110.68

Area of stripping:
Cross sectional width (AC) = (H x S1)+ B + (H x S2)
= B + H x (S1 + S2)
B = 2.5 m, S1= 3, S2 = 2
Cross sectional width (AC) = B + H x (S1 + S2) = 2.5 + H x (3 +2) = 2.5 + H x 5

Point Chainage Height
Width of strip-
ping
Average Width
of stripping
Length
between
two
points
Area of
stripping
A 0 0 2.5 - - -
B 5 2 12.50 7.50 5 37.50
C 10 5 27.50 20.00 5 100.00
D 15 3 17.50 22.50 5 112.50
E 20 0 2.50 10.00 5 50.00
Total 300.00

Excavation for Exit
The exit is rectangular in shape and assumed length is 5 m.
Volume of excavation for exit = Length ×Width × Height= 5m × 4m× 1.5m = 30 cum
Sr.

No.
Description Quantity Rate Amount
1 Stripping 300 1.66 498
2 Excavation of cut-off trench in hard soil 50.10 41 2054.1
3 Cut-off trench filling with black cotton soil 50.10 140 7014
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4 Casing construction in hard soil 550.20 53 29160.6
5 Construction of core wall 35 140 4900
6 Construction of rock toe on D/S side 14.80 290 4292
7 Construction of pitching on U/S side 110.68 153 16934.04
8 Excavation of exit in hard soil 30 41 1230
Total cost Rs. 66082.74

5.4 Check Dam
It is an impermeable structure constructed across the drainage line having gentle slope
and is feasible both in hard rock as well as alluvial formations for storage of water. The side of
the dam where water is stored is called the upstream side and other side and other side of the
dam is called downstream side. The water stored in these structures is mostly confined to
stream course and the height is normally less than 3 m for watershed projects. These are de-
signed based on stream width and excess water is allowed to flow over the wall. In order to
avoid scouring from excess run off, water cushions are provided at downstream side. To har-
ness the maximum run off in the stream, series of such check dams can be constructed to have
recharge on regional scale. While constructing a series of check dams on along stream course,
the spacing between two check dams should be beyond their water spread. The height of the
check dam should be such that even during the highest flood, water does not spill over the
banks. During the site selection for water harvesting structures under the watershed pro-
grammes, the cement masonry structures are usually preferred over the earthen structures.
Watershed projects also focus on aspects that provide employment to the rural community
but the construction of the cement masonry structure involves a very small component of un-
skilled labour cost. The proportion of wage cost and non-wage cost for the construction of the
masonry structure is in the proportion of 40:60. Hence, these structures should be planned
only on such sites that are not favorable for the construction of earthen structures.
Uses of check dam: The stored water may be used may be used for a variety of purposes that
may be irrigation, drinking, electricity generation, and flood control etc.
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Fig. 51: Masonry Check dam in drainage line

5.4.1 Classification of Check Dams
Dams are generally classified by three types:
5.4.1.1 On the basis of Use
Geographical location, storage capacity and location of the dam are the three main pa-
rameters for future classifying dams on the basis of use
Storage: The main purpose of this structure is to store the excess surface runoff during the
rainy season. It can further be used for irrigation, electricity generation and the ground water
recharge.
Irrigation: The main purpose of this dam is irrigation through canal network. All minor irriga-
tion dams are the examples of this class.
Flood control structure: The main purpose of this structure is to protect a particular area
from flooding by storing the water at flood times and releasing it during the normal period.
5.4.1.2 On the basis of overflow and non overflow
A dam where water flows over the dam body is called on overflow dam and otherwise
it is called a non-overflow dam. All masonry structures are overflow dams and all earthen
dams are the examples of non-overflow dams.
5.4.1.3 On the basis of construction material/shape
 RCC dam: It is constructed by concrete and steel bars hence it is called RCC dam.
 Concrete dam: Concrete is mainly used for construction of this structure.
 Masonry dam: UCR or Aron is mainly used.
 Steel dam: The dam constructed by steel thus, it is called steel dam.

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5.4.2 Site Characteristic and Design Guidelines for Check Dams
Site of a dam is selected on the basis of its catchment area and the total amount of runoff
generated from the catchment. Following points should be kept in mind while conducting
survey for a dam:
i) The total catchment of the stream should normally be between 500 to 1000
Hectares though the local situations can be guiding factor in this.
ii) The width of nala bed should be at least 5 meters and the depth should not be
less than 1 metre.
iii) The lands downstream of check dam should have irrigable land under well irri-
gation (This is desirable but not an essential requirement).
iv) The banks of the drain should be high and firm
v) Width of the drain at the site should be narrow and the slope of the drain bed
should be gentle.
vi) The site should be approachable for an easy transportation of construction ma-
terials.
vii) The submergence area of the dam should be marked on the ground.
viii) Conduct cross section survey at regular intervals across the drain to estimate
the storage capacity of the dam.
ix) Check the status of catchment area i.e. whether it is treated or untreated. If it is
not treated then a plan for the same should be made and incorporated into the
proposal of dam.
x) Selecting potential riverbeds based on field data regarding the physical and so-
ciological aspects.
5.4.3 Design of Check Dams
During the preliminary survey, Following technical parameters have to be found out:
A = Catchment area in hectare from Toposheet/Drainage line maps.
H = Maximum height of the structure in meter

Step I: Calculate peak discharge, Q = C*(A/100)
3/4
Here, Q = Peak discharge in cusec
A = catchment in hectares
C = coefficient of runoff, the value of C is 11.45 for the areas with annual rainfall of 600
to 1200 mm and for Central India the value is 14.
Step II: Calculate peak runoff per running meter q = Q/L, where L is the length of the dam
Step III: Calculate depth of the flow considering peak discharge
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h = (q/1.71)
2/3
Step IV: Calculate the hydraulic head "HL"
HL=H+h, where H is height of the dam
Step V: Calculate the top width of the dam "a"
a = [HL/ (G+1)
1/2
], where G is specific gravity of construction material

Step VI: Calculate the bottom width of the dam "b"
b = [HL/ (G-1)
1/2
], where G is specific gravity of the construction material
Step VII: Calculate the length of the downstream apron (La)
La = 1.45* K * (HL/13)
½
, here K is coefficient of hydraulic gradient
Step VIII: Calculate the thickness of the downstream apron (t)
t = 1.33 * [h/ (G +1)], where G is specific gravity of the construction material
Table 19: Specific gravity of different construction material

Sr. No. Construction material Specific gravity (G)
1 Plain cement concrete (PCC) 2.24
2 Reinforced cement concrete (RCC) 2.40
3 Stone masonry in cement mortar 2.54
4 Dry stone masonry 2.08
5 Random rubble masonry 2.32
6 Brick masonry 1.92
7 Reinforced brick masonry 2.00
8 Plum cement concrete 2.24

Table 20: Hydraulic gradient (K) for different situation of drain bed
Sr. No. Situation of drain bed Safe hydraulic gradient (K)
1 Coarse sand 12
2 Fine sand + mud 8
3 Sand + Boulder 5 to 9
4 Fine Sand 15
5 Boulder 5
6 Big Boulder 3.5 to 4.5


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Step IX : Design of Baffle wall:
The downstream drain bed may get damaged by the water falling over the top of the
dam, it is thus necessary that a baffle wall be constructed at the end of the downstream
apron, so that an additional water cushion may be provided at the scour.
Calculate height of the baffle wall (hb), hb = yc – y1
Here = yc is critical depth, yc = (q
2
/g)
1/3
, where g is acceleration due to gravity, which
is 9.81
And y1 is pre-jump depth, y1 = 0.183 * q
0.89
* HL
-0.35
If the yc - y1 is less than 0.30 m then hb = yc
Thickness of baffle wall "tb"
tb =2/3 * hb
Distance of baffle wall from head wall (Lb)
Lb = 5.25 * hb


Down Stream Elevation

Fig. 52: Cross section and top view and components of Check Dams

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Step X
Design of sidewall and wing-wall: These are constructed for protection of the struc-
ture, especially where the banks are weak. Weep holes should be provided in the wing
wall for the drainage of excess water. Foundation depth of the sidewall and wing wall
depends on the soil strata of foundation bed. It is an expensive measure, and thus it
should be constructed only where it is necessary.

In certain cases, a gabion wall may be constructed instead of masonry wall depending
on the bank condition and the catchment area. Height of the sidewalls at the dam section
should be equal to the height of the structure plus the depth of the flow over dam plus the free
board. Top width of the wing wall should be equal to 1/6 to 1/7
th
of the height of the wing
wall. Bottom width of the wing wall should be equal to 1/3 to 1/4
th
of the height of the wing
wall. Wing wall turns at the radius of 1.5 to 2 times of height of the dam.

Example
If peak discharge (Q) is = 18 cusec, length of dam (L) = 22m, height of the dam (H) = 1.8m,
situation at drain bed is big boulder, construction material is concrete and site is in Gujarat.
Design the structure.

Solution:
q = Q/L = 18/22 = 0.81 cusec/running meter
h = (q/1.71)
2/3
= (0.81/1.71)
2/3
= 0.58m
yc = (q
2
/g)
0.33
= (0.81
2
/9.81)
0.33
= 0.40m
y1 =0.183 * q
0.89
* HL
-0.35
= 0.183 * 0.81
0.89
* 2.38
-0.35
= 0.30m
HL =H+h, HL = 1.8 +0.58 = 2.38 m
hb =yc – y1 = 0.4 – 0.3 = 0.10 m, it very less so hb = yc , hb = 0.40 m
Thickness of baffle wall (tb) = 2/3 * hb = 2/3 *0.40 = 0.26 m
Distance of baffle wall from head wall (Lb) = 5.25 * hb = 5.25 * 0.40 = 2.1 m
Length of downstream apron (La) = 1.45 * K * (HL/13)
1/2
= 1.45 * 4.5 * (2.38/13)
1/2
= 2.79 m
Thickness of downstream apron (t) = 1.33 * [h/(G+1)] = 1.33 [0.58/(2.24+1)] = 0.62m
Top width of dam (a) = [HL /(G+1)
1/2
] = [2.38/(2.24+1)
1/2
] = 1.11 m
Bottom width of dam (b) = [HL /(G-1)
1/2
] = [2.38/(2.24-1)
1/2
] = 1.8 m
5.4.4 Forces Acting on Dam Wall
 Stored water in upstream side of the dam body
 Self-weight of dam
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 Uplift force of stored water
 Forces due to earthquake
 Ice force in cold terrain
 Wind force
 Force due to siltation

5.4.4.1 Horizontal forces due to stored water
Horizontal forces act on the dam body mainly due to the standing water column. Resultant of
the forces acts at H/3 from the base of the dams. Formula for calculating horizontal force (P)
on the dam body is
P = ½ * w*H
2
, here w = specific unit weight of water = 1000 kg/m
3
and H is height of the
stored water

5.4.4.2 Self Weight Force of the Check Dam
W = 1/2 * w * H * b * G
Where W is self-weight force in Kg,
w is specific unit weight of water,
H is depth of water column,
G is specific gravity of construction material and "b" is bottom width of dam
5.4.4.3 Uplift Force due to Standing Water Column
The standing water enters the foundation through small pores and the pore water would
force upwardly from the dam body.
U =1/2 * η* w * b * H
Here "U" is uplift force in Kg
η is a constant for uplift force, value of η varies from 0.60 to 0.75
5.4.5 Causes of Failure of Check Dam
 Overturning
 Crushing
 Shearing or sliding
 Sinking

Overturning
Resultant force of all forces except self weight force, acting on the dam body, causes the dam
failure by overturning. If the summation of all negative moment divided by summation of all
positive moment should be 1.5 to 2.5, then dam is safe from failure by overturning. Negative
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moment mainly occurs due to self-weight of the dam whereas positive moment occurs due to
uplift force and the force due to standing water column. ∑(-M)/∑ (+ M) should be in between
1.5 to 2.5, means dam is safe
Crushing
The bearing capacity of the foundation strata should resist the forces occurring due to the
dam body. On comparing the bearing capacity of the soil to the forces due to dam body, if the
answer comes more than 1, it would mean that the dam is safe from crushing failure.
Bearing capacity of the soil per unit area divided by forces of dam on foundation per unit area
should be more than 1.
Shearing or sliding
If the force of standing water is more than the force of self-weight of the dam then the dam
may fail due to shearing or sliding. If summation of all vertical forces acting on the dam body
divided by summation of all horizontal forces on the dam is more than 1, it would mean dam
is safe from shearing or sliding failure. Friction constant is 0.75.
Example
Salient features of the dam are as follows: Length of the head wall = 32 m, location of the dam
is in Central India with a catchment area of 200 ha. Design the dam.
Solution:
Q = C * (A/100)
3/4
= 14*(200/100)
3/4
= 23.54 cumec
Here, C = 14 ,A = 200 ha and H=3.2 m
q = Q/L = 23.54/32 = 0.73 m
h = (q/1.71)
2/3
= (0.73/1.71)
2/3
= 0.54 m
Hydraulic head (HL) = H + h = 3.2 + 0.54 = 3.74 m
yc = (q
2
/g)
1/3
= (0.73
2
/9.81)
0.33
=0.44 m
y1 = 0.183 * q
0.89
* HL
-0.35
= 0.183 * 0.73
0.89
* 3.74
-0.35
= 0.35 m
hb = yc – y1 = 0.44 – 0.35 = 0.09m, it is very less hence, hb = yc, hb = 0.44 m
Thickness of baffle wall from head wall (tb) = 2/3 * hb = 2/3 * 0.44 = 0.29 m
Distance of baffle wall from head wall (Lb) = 5.25 * hb = 5.25 * 0.44 = 2.31 m
Length of downstream apron (La) = 1.45 * K * (HL/13)
1/2
= 1.45 * 4.5 * (3.74/13)
1/2
=3.50 m
Thickness of downstream apron (t) = 1.33 * [h/(G+1)] = 1.33 * [0.54/(2.24+1)] = 0.62 m
Top width of dam (a) = [HL/ (G+1)
1/2
] = [3.74/(2.24+1)
1/2
] = 2.07 m
Bottom width of dam (b) = [HL/(G-1)
1/2
] = [3.74/(2.24-1)
1/2
] = 3.35 m
Force of standing water (P) = ½ * w * H
2
= ½ * 1000 * 3.2
2
= 5120 Kg
Self Weight of dam = ½ * w * H * b * G = ½ * 1000 * 3.2 * 3.35 * 2.24 = 12006 Kg
Uplift force (U) = ½ * η * w * b * H = ½ * 0.75 * 1000 * 3.35 * 3.2 = 4020 Kg
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Negative moment due to self weight of dam = Self weight of dam x perpendicular distance
from toe of the dam (b/2)
= 12006 * 3.35/2 = 201110 Kg-m
Positive moment due to force of water = force of water x perpendicular distance from toe of
dam (H/3)
= 5120 * 3.2/3 = 5461 Kg-m
Positive moment due to uplift force of water = uplift force of water x perpendicular distance
from toe of dam (b/2)
= 4020 * 3.35/2 = 6733.5 Kg-m
Shearing or Sliding Check
Summation of vertical forces acting on dam body divided by summation of horizontal forces
acting on dam body should be more than 1.
µ = 0.75
= (12006 – 4020) / 5120
= 1.56 > 1 hence OK
Check for overturning
= ∑ (- M)/∑ (+ M) should fall between 1.5 to 2.5
= 20110/12194
= 1.64>1.5 hence OK
Calculating the Quantities of Materials
I. Concrete
Mix Ratio – 1: a: b
Where: 1 = cement proportion: a = sand proportion: b = coarse aggregate proportion
If the amount of concrete needed is C, then:
Cement Quantity (Kg) = 1 * C * 1400 * 1.3 * 1.05/ (1+a+b)
Sand Quantity (m
3
) = a * C* 1.3 * 1.15/ (1+a+b)
Gravel Quantity (m
3
) = b * C * 1.3 * 1.15/ (1+a+b)
II. Stone Masonry
For water tight structures usually 65% of masonry body is proposed to be stone and 35%
cement mortar. So, if the volume of stone masonry work is S, then
Volume of Stone (m
3
) = 0.65 * S * 1.3
Volume of Mortar, M (m
3
) = 0.35 * S
If mix ratio of mortar is 1: C,
Cement Quantity (Kg) = 1 * M * 1400 * 1.2 * 1.05/(1+C)
Sand Quantity (m
3
) = C * M * 1.2 * 1.15/ (1+C)
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III. Plastering
Follow the same formula used for mortar ingredients of stone masonry.
IV. Pointing
Pointing area is taken as 1/3 of plastering area and then follows the same way used for plas-
tering.
V. Water
Water required for mixing, curing, washing dirty construction faces, workers construction
and food preparation is roughly calculated from the total cement requirement of the site.
If Z Quintals of cement is required to complete the construction work,
Total volume of water = 280 * Z
5.5 Sub-Surface Check Dams/Dykes
Groundwater dams are structures that intercept or obstruct the natural flow of
groundwater and provide storage for water underground. They have been used in several
parts of the world, notably in India. Their use is in areas where flows of groundwater vary
considerably during the course of the year, from very high flows following rain to negligible
flows during the dry season. Sites for construction of subsurface dykes have to be located in
areas where there is a great scarcity of water during the summer months or where there is
need for additional water for irrigation.
5.5.1 Advantages
 The underground dam or dyke has following advantages:
 Since the water is stored within the aquifer, submergence of land can be avoided and
land above reservoir can be utilized even after the construction of the dam.
 No evaporation loss from the reservoir takes place.
 No siltation in the reservoir takes place
 The potential disaster like collapse of dams can be avoided.

5.5.2 Construction and Design Guidelines
The basic principle of the groundwater dam is that instead of storing the water in sur-
face reservoirs, water is stored underground. It is a sub-surface barrier across stream, which
retards the base flow and stores water upstream below ground surface. The water level in up-
stream part of ground water dam rises saturating otherwise dry part of aquifer site where
sub-surface dyke is proposed should have shallow impervious layer with wide valley and nar-
row outlet. The reservoir is recharged during the monsoon period and the stored water can
be used during the dry season. Groundwater dams cannot be a universally applicable as these
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require specific conditions for functioning. The best sites for construction of groundwater
dams are where the soil consists of sands and gravel, with rock or a permeable layer at a
depth of a few meters. Ideally the dam should be built where rainwater from a large catch-
ment area flows through a narrow passage.
After selection of site, a trench of 1-2 m wide is dug across the breadth of the stream
down to impermeable bed. The trench may be filled with clay or brick / concrete wall up to
0.5 m below the ground level. In case of clay dykes, the width should be between 1.5 and 2m
depending on the quality of clay used. The construction should be in layers and each fresh
layer should be watered and compacted by plain sheet or sheep foot rollers of 1 to 2 ton ca-
pacity. In absence of roller, the clay should be manually compacted. Where the core wall is a
masonry structure, the remaining open trench should be back-filled by impermeable clay.
Dykes of 30 cm thick brick cement or stone cement, extending down to the compact bedrock,
with mud or clay fillings in excavated portions on both sides of the wall provide a perfect im-
permeable barrier. Such dykes are also useful across the perennial streams. For ensuring total
imperviousness, PVC sheets of 3000 PSI tearing strength and 400 to 600 gauge or low density
polyethylene film of 200 gauge is also used to cover the cut out dyke faces. The underground
structures should be keyed into both the flanks of stream for one meter length to prevent lea-
kage from sides. In order to minimize or avoid problem of dewatering during construction,
the work should be taken up by the end of winter and completed well before the onset of
rains, as water table is at lower elevation in this period. These structures are preferred down-
stream of existing water supply structure to sustain availability during the summer.


Fig. 53: Subsurface dam or Dyke

Clay or concrete wall
Regional water table
able
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Fig. 54: Cross section of a Dyke
The main advantage of water storage in groundwater dams is that evaporation losses
are much less for water stored underground. Further, risk of contamination of the stored wa-
ter from the surface is reduced because as parasites cannot breed in underground water. The
problem of submergence of land which is normally associated with surface dams is not
present with sub-surface dams.
Design example
Find the cost estimate of an underground dyke for the following dimensions: Length of dyke =
20 m, Width = 1.5 m and Depth of 3 m.
Volume of Excavation for trench:
Volume= Length x Width x Depth
= 20 x 1.5 x 3 = 90 m
3

Cost of Excavation= Volume x Rate = 90 x41= Rs 3690
Laying of low density polyethylene sheet to cover the impermeable layer:
=Surface area of all the faces of the layer = 189 m
2
of sheet
Cost =189x 60 (assume for m
2
of polyethylene sheet) = Rs 11340/-
Construction of impermeable wall or Filling the trench with clayey soil:
Volume required is 90 m
3

Cost=Volume x Rate
=90 x140 (Assume) =Rs 12600/-
Total cost = Cost of Excavation + Cost of polyethylene sheet and laying+ Filling the trench
=3690+11340+12600=27630






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Chapter-6
6 Measures for Soil Acidity and Soil Salinity
6.1 Introduction
This chapter involves measures for soil acidity and soil salinity covers its causes and man-
agement.
6.2 Soil Acidity
Soil acidity occurs when there is a build up of acid in the soil. The production of acid in the
soils is a natural process and many soils in the high rainfall areas are inherently acidic. Acidi-
fication is a slow process but it is accelerated by agriculture. As soils become more acidic,
plants intolerant of acidic conditions do not thrive and productivity declines.
Acid soils are found mainly in the eastern part of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, i.e. in West Bengal,
Bangladesh and the mid-hills region of Nepal, where cropping is intensive and monsoonal
precipitation is high. In many of these soils, organic matter is also quite low, resulting in poor
buffering capacity and low nutrient contents

Soil acidity is one such limiting factor affecting adversely crop production to a consider-
able extent mainly in high rainfall and light texture conditions of soil. There are different
types of problem lands where the constraints for optimum production are either unfavorable
physico-chemical properties of the soil or some inherent land features and/or environmental
conditions limiting optimum growth of crops. As such the productivity of these lands goes
down to a considerable extent.
Table 21: Soil description based on pH
Soil Description pH
Strongly acid < 5.5
Medium acid 5.5 - 5.9
Slightly acid 6.0 - 6.4
Very slightly acid 6.5 - 6.9
Neutral 7.0
Very slightly alkaline 7.1 - 7.5
Slightly alkaline 7.6 - 8.0
Medium alkaline 8.1 - 8.5
Strongly alkaline > 8.5

Table: 22: Effects of Soil Acidity/Alkalinity on Plant Nutrient Availability
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Generally, most plants require a soil pH in the range of 6.0 to 7.0. The pH of distilled water is
7.0 and is considered neutral. A pH of 6.0 is slightly acidic. While most plants do well in this
range (6.0-7.0), some favor more acid conditions. Azaleas, rhododendrons and blueberries
grow better in acid soils of pH 4.5 to 5.5. On the other hand, plants in the bean family (le-
gumes) favor slightly alkaline conditions of 7.0 to 7.5 for good growth.

6.2.1 Causes of Soil Acidity
Major reasons for soils to become acidic are:
(i) Rainfall and leaching,
(ii) Acidic parent material,
(iii) Organic matter decay
(iv) Harvest of high-yielding crops
(v) Removal of product from the farm or paddock
(vi) Inappropriate use of nitrogenous fertilizers

Wet climates have a greater potential for acidic soils. In time, excessive rainfall leaches the
soil profile's basic elements (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium) that prevent soil
acidity. Soils that develop from weathered granite are likely to be more acidic than those de-
veloped from shale or limestone. Organic matter decay produces hydrogen ions (H+), which
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are responsible for acidity (an ion is a positively or negatively charged element). Like that
from rainfall, acidic soil development from decaying organic matter is insignificant in the
short term. Harvest of high-yielding crops plays the most significant role in increasing soil
acidity. During growth, crops absorb basic elements such as calcium, magnesium, and potas-
sium to satisfy their nutritional requirements. As crop yields increase, more of this lime like
nutrients is removed from the field. Compared to the leaf and stem portions of the plant, grain
contains minute amounts of these basic nutrients. Therefore, harvesting high-yielding forages
such as Bermuda grass and alfalfa affects soil acidity more than harvesting grain does. The
natural rate of acidification is accelerated by agricultural practices like use of nitrogen ferti-
lizers. The impact of nitrogen fertilizers on acidification depends on the type of fertilizer.

Acidity of soil creates unfavorable medium for the soil micro flora responsible for
breaking down the complex organic as well as inorganic matter of the soil to more simple and
soluble form. Useful micro organisms cannot grow well. It also makes primary, secondary and
micro-nutrients to remain fixed or insoluble form, which cannot be taken by plants. "Phos-
phate fixation" in highly acid soils is an acute problem. The phosphate gets fixed with soluble
iron present in acid soils. pH of the soil is the indicator of its Acidity, pH value 7 indicating
neutral reaction and above 7 alkaline and below 7 acidic. Acidity and Alkalinity are relative
terms. Highly acidic and alkaline soils both limit crop growth and should be ameliorated for
optimum crop production. Strongly acid soils with pH less than 4.5 brings down the soil mi-
cro-flora activity and increases toxicity of elements like iron, copper and aluminum.
The acid soils are sedimentary in nature belonging to lateritic, ferruginous red and other red
soil groups. They are developed mainly by the influence of relief, acidic parent material and
wet climate. Under hot humid climate and heavy precipitation soils undergo drastic weather-
ing of parent material and excess leaching of bases. In short, high rainfall with high tempera-
ture and heavy leaching is the main factor for the formation of acid soils.
6.2.2 Measures of Soil Acidity
Soil acidity is determined by a measurement of the hydrogen ion concentration of a
particular soil. A pH meter is the instrument generally used by soil testing laboratories in
measuring soil acidity. Generally, a small portion of the soil sample is mixed with water in a 1
to 1 or a 2 to 1 ratio and stirred. After the soil solution has set for approximately 30 minutes, a
glass electrode and reference electrode are dropped into the soil-water mixture and the soil
pH is determined. The measurement scale used in determining soil acidity is the pH scale
which ranges from 0-14. A soil pH of 7.0 indicates a soil is neutral in reaction. Any number be-
low 7.0 denotes soil acidity and numbers above 7.0 denote soil alkalinity. These measure-
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ments are a logarithmic factor. Therefore, a soil with a pH of 6.0 is 10 times more acid than a
soil with a pH of 7.0. A soil having a pH of 5.0 is 100 times more acid than a soil pH of 7.0, etc.

6.2.3 Management of Acid Soil
The management of acid soils aims at improving the production potential by addition
of amendment to correct the acidity and manipulate the agricultural practices so as to obtain
optimum crop yields under acid condition. One of the practices is to grow acid tolerant crops/
varieties and to supplement nutrients through suitable carriers. The pH level is a number that
describes how acid or alkaline a soil is and from this it is calculated how much lime is needed
to reduce soil acidity. A soil pH test measures the acidity or alkalinity of the soil. A pH 7.0 is
considered neutral. Above pH 7.0, the soil is alkaline and below pH 7.0, the soil is acid.
Limiting is a desirable practice when the soil is highly acidic and where multi-cropping in-
volving acid sensitive crops is adopted. Limiting improves base saturation and availability of
Ca & Mg. Fixation of P and Mo is reduced by inactivating the reactive constituents. Toxicity
arising from excess soluble Al, Fe and Mn is corrected and there by root growth is promoted
and uptake of nutrients is improved. Liming also stimulates microbial activity and encourages
N2 fixation and nitrogen mineralization, and hence, legumes are highly benefitted from liming.
6.2.4 Treating Soil with Lime (CaCo3)
In liming programme, the first and foremost thing is to assess the lime requirement of
the soil for optimum yield of the crop/crops. Lime requirement is estimated on the basis of
exchange acidity and percentage base saturation of soil. Among the various methods pro-
posed to determine the lime requirement, buffer equilibration methods are most handy and
accurate. Modified Woodruffs buffer method has been successfully used to assess the lime re-
quirement of acidic soils in Orissa (2.02 to 6.08 tonnes/ ha.). However, it has been verified in
a number of field trials that the full lime requirement dose as assessed by this method, which
raise the pH to 7.0 or above, is not necessary for getting optimum yields of most crops. The
desirable dose of lime for laterite soils was found to be one half of the lime requirement (LR)
dose determined by Woodruffs buffer (pH 7.0) for maize and cotton. Scientists also recorded
economic response to lime sludge applied at 0.5 LR dose in a variety of crops in red loam soils
of Semiliguda with pH 5.0. When applied in high doses, much of the lime is lost by leaching
from the top soil of light textured soils because of their low exchange capacity. Split applica-
tion is recommended to minimize the leaching loss. Lime should preferably be applied in
smaller doses more frequently (every alternate year) rather than in heavy dose one in three
to four years. Application of full LR dose suppressed P availability and caused B deficiency.
Hence, excess application is harmful.
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 The lime requirement approximately ranges from 3.5 to 15 tonnes/ha.
 Lime application should be done in split doses.
 In smaller doses more frequently.
 Application of lime in furrows @ 3 Qtls/ha at the time of sowing.
 Application has to be done in every alternate year till the soil pH is brought to normal
range.
 The programme may be taken up on area basis. (Block/Panchayat as unit).
6.2.4.1 Choice of Liming Material
The second important aspect is the choice of liming material. Lime should be less ex-
pensive and available within easy reach of the farmers besides suitability. Commercial lime
stone or dolomite lime stone power is costlier. Several industrial wastes have been tried in
the past as alternative sources of lime. Relative efficiencies of four sources i.e. lime stone, do-
lomite; basic slag and lime sludge were compared in lateritic soil taking three successive
crops of maize. Crust formation and moisture stress during dry spells are the two major soil
physical constraints under dry land situations in the red-lateritic acid soil zone, which also
enhances soil erosion.
Application of organic amendments such as FYM or decomposable green leaf manures (Glyri-
cidia) is quite effective in preventing crust formation and increasing moisture retentivity of
the soil. Judicious application of lime, organic amendment and phosphate benefit the crop.
6.2.4.2 Lime Requirement for Different Soils
The lime requirement depends on soil texture (clay content), CEC and sesguioxide con-
tent of soil. In the absence of more accurate recommendation the following ready reckoner
may be followed.
Table: 23: Lime Requirement (LR) for different soils
Soil pH Lime Requirement kg/ha
Sandy loam Loam Clay loam
5.0 1,262 1,892 2,944
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5.2 1,093 1,639 2,551
5.4 925 1,387 2,159
5.6 757 1,135 1,766
5.8 589 883 1,374
6.0 421 630 981

6.2.4.3 Cropping Pattern for Acid Soil Region
Rice has certain amount of tolerance to soil acidity; and flooding of the field also
creates favorable condition (increase in pH and availability of P, Si and K) for growth of rice.
Liming is desirable for raising the productivity of several crops. The acid sensitive crops like
cotton, soybean, groundnut, french bean, pigeon pea etc. are better adaptable to acid soils
with proper liming. Crops are classified according to their relative response to liming. This
information can be utilised in fixing suitable cropping sequence. Under rainfed conditions,
highly responsive crops like cotton, soybean, pigeon pea etc. may be grown in the first year of
liming, followed by medium response crops like maize and wheat in the subsequent seasons.
The low responsive crops like millets, rice, barley, linsed etc. may be grown when the effect of
liming has been further reduced.
Soil erosion and shifting cultivation are major problems in hilly-tracts of ASR. Agri-
horticultural and agro forestry systems need to be introduced in such tracts.
In general, regions receiving more than 900 mm rainfall and with a moisture storage capacity
of 200 mm in the root zone, double cropping can be taken up.

Fig.24: Cropping Pattern in different elevation of Rain-fed Areas
Type of land Crops Inter cropping / sequence crop-
ping
Higher elevation Mesta, Pigeonpea, Maize,
Groundnut
Inter cropping of pigeonpea +
Groundnut
Medium land Finger millet, Rice (Short dura-
tion)
Rice, Finger millet, Maize Horse-
gram, Cowpea
Low Rice Rice-Pulse, Rice-Rapeseed

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6.3 Soil Salinity
Soil salinity is a measure of the concentration of soluble salts in the soil. Sodium chlo-
ride is the most common salt; others include bicarbonates, sulphates and carbonates of cal-
cium, potassium and magnesium. Some salts are useful (many fertilisers are in salt form), but
too much salt of any kind is detrimental to plants and other organisms. However, a concentra-
tion of salts in the root zone that is too high can damage plant health and reduce crop yields.
All soil contains some water soluble salts. Plant absorbs nutrients from the soluble salts. Sen-
sitive crops lose their vigor already in slightly saline soils, most crops are negatively affected
by (moderately) saline soils and only salinity resistant crops thrive in severely saline soils.
Measurement of soil salinity is generally required to determine the salt status of a soil.
Soil salinity is measured as electrical conductivity (EC) in units of desi-siemens (dS/m). Salt is
extracted from the soil using one of two methods, the most accurate and reliable of which is
the saturation extract, although this method must be completed in a soil testing laboratory.
The standard for the determination of soil salinity is from an extract of a saturated paste of
the soil, and the EC is then written as ECe. The extract is obtained by centrifugation.
6.3.1 Classification of Soil Salinity
The salt affected soils have been grouped into three classes considering the nature of
salts present in them, their physico-chemical characteristics and their ameliorative require-
ments. The two distinct classes are alkali and saline.

Table 25: Classification of salt affected soils (USDA system)
(Source: Agriculture Land Drainage, Centra Soil Salinity Research Institute, 2007)
Where, ESP means Exchangeable Sodium Percentage
Table 26: Classification of salt affected soils (Indian system)
Soil characteristics Saline soil Alkali soil
pH < 8.2 > 8.2
ESP < 15 > 15
ECe (dS/m) > 4 Variable, mostly < 4
Nature of salts Neutral, mostly Cl and SO4 of Na Capable of alkaline
(Source: Agriculture Land Drainage, Centra Soil Salinity Research Institute, 2007)
Type of soil ECe (dS/m) ESP pHs
Saline > 4.0 < 15 < 8.5
Sodic < 4.0 > 15 > 8.5
Saline-sodic > 4.0 > 15 < 8.5
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In the Indian system, pH criterion for classification was reduced from 8.5 to 8.2 as the
isoelectric pH for precipitation of CaCO3. At this pH sodification process starts and mostly this
pH is associated with ESP of 15 or more. The soils are classified in two categories. The saline
sodic soil as classified by USDA, is to be classified either saline or alkali based upon pHs, ESP
and ECe for which a separate criterion has been evolved as follows. If the ratio of
(2CO3+HCO3)/ (Cl+2SO4) and / or Na / (Cl+2SO4) expressed in mol/m
3
is more than 1, the sa-
line sodic soil is treated as sodic and if less than 1, it is treated as saline.

6.3.2 Distinguishing Features of Saline and Sodic Soils
Table27: Distinguishing Features of Saline and Sodic Soils
Characteristics Saline soils Sodic soils
1. Chemical a. Dominated by neutral soluble
salts consisting of chlorides and
sulphates of sodium, calcium and
magnesium.
a. Appreciable quantities of neutral so-
luble salts generally absent. Measurable to
appreciable quantities of salts capable of
alkaline hydrolysis, e.g. Na2CO3, present.
b. pH of saturated soil paste is
less than 8.2.
b. pH of the saturated soil paste is more
than 8.2.
c. An electrical conductivity of
the saturated soil extract of more
than 4 dS/m at 25 °C is the gen-
erally accepted limit above which
soils are classed as ‘saline’.
c. An exchangeable sodium percentage
(ESP) of 15 or more is the generally ac-
cepted limit above which soils are classed
as ‘sodic’. Electrical conductivity of the sa-
turated soil extract is generally less than 4
dS/m at 25 °C but may be more if appreci-
able quantities of Na2CO3 etc. are present.
d. There is generally no well-
defined relationship between pH
of the saturated soil paste and
exchangeable sodium percentage
(ESP) of the soil or the sodium
adsorption ratio (SAR) of the sa-
turation extract.
d. There is a well defined relationship be-
tween pH of the saturated soil paste and
the exchangeable sodium percentage
(ESP) of the soil or the SAR of the satura-
tion extract for an otherwise similar group
of soils such that the pH can serve as an
approximate index of soil sodicity (alkali)
status.
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e. Although Na is generally the
dominant soluble cation, the soil
solution also contains apprecia-
ble quantities of divalent cations,
e.g. Ca and Mg.
e. Sodium is the dominant soluble cation.
High pH of the soils results in precipita-
tion of soluble Ca and Mg such that their
concentration in the soil solution is very
low.
f. Soils may contain significant
quantities of sparingly soluble
calcium compounds, e.g. gypsum.
f. Gypsum is nearly always absent in such
soils.
2. Physical a. In the presence of excess neu-
tral soluble salts the clay fraction
is flocculated and the soils have a
stable structure.
a. Excess exchangeable sodium and high
pH result in the dispersion of clay and the
soils have an unstable structure.
b. Permeability of soils to water
and air and other physical cha-
racteristics are generally compa-
rable to normal soils.
b. Permeability of soils to water and air is
restricted. Physical properties of the soils
become worse with increasing levels of
exchangeable sodium/pH.
3. Effect on
plant growth
In saline soils plant growth is ad-
versely affected:
In sodic soils plant growth is adversely
affected:
a. chiefly through the effect of
excess salts on the osmotic pres-
sure of soil solution resulting in
reduced availability of water;
a. chiefly through the dispersive effect of
excess exchangeable sodium resulting in
poor physical properties;
b. through toxicity of specific
ions, e.g. Na, Cl, B, etc.;
b. through the effect of high soil pH on nu-
tritional imbalances including a deficiency
of calcium;
c. through toxicity of specific ions, e.g. Na,
CO3, Mo, etc.
4. Soil im-
provement
Improvement of saline soils es-
sentially requires removal of so-
luble salts in the root zone
through leaching and drainage.
Application of amendments may
Improvement of sodic soils essentially re-
quires the replacement of sodium in the
soil exchange complex by calcium through
use of soil amendments and leaching and
drainage of salts resulting from reaction of
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generally not be required. amendments with exchangeable sodium.
5. Geographic
distribution
Saline soils tend to dominate in
arid and semi-arid regions.
Sodic soils tend to dominate in semi-arid
and sub-humid regions.
6. Ground-
water quality
Groundwater in areas dominated
by saline soils has generally high
electrolyte concentration and a
potential salinity hazard.
Groundwater in areas dominated by sodic
soils has generally low to medium electro-
lyte concentration and some of it may
have residual sodicity so has a potential
sodicity hazard.
(Source: Salt-Affected Soils and their Management, FAO Soils Bulletin 39, Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1988)

Although weathering of rocks and primary minerals is the chief source of all salts, salt-
affected soils rarely form through accumulation of salts in situ.
6.3.3 Reclamation of Saline Soil
6.3.3.1 Chemical Method
Liming of acid soils is the most common and useful practice. Liming is done to raise the pH
to some value so that the toxic effect of Al, Mn and Fe are suppressed or removed. It causes
the displacement of Al & Mn ion from the permanent exchange sites of Colloids and thereafter
the displaced Al & Mn are eventually precipitated as complexed compounds.
 Reclamation by addition of lime and phosphatic fertilizers
 Scrapping of the surface salts
 Keep the areas flooding to wash away the excess salt.
 Control water table
 Leach with proper drainage to remove salt
 Shallow ploughing
6.3.3.2 Biological Method
This method involves growing of variety of acid tolerant plantation crop like Pea, Cof-
fee, Rubber, Cardamom, Cashew and some forest plant like Madhuca and Jack fruit etc. to
manage the acidity of soils.
6.3.3.2.1 Planting Salt Tolerant Crops
Like waterlogged lands, differences occur in the tolerance of crops to soil salinity or
soil alkalinity. Moreover, the problems of salinity /sodicity are dynamic in nature such that
the degree of the problem would continue to increase unless some curative measures are
adopted.
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6.3.3.2.1.1 Crop Selection
In the management of waterlogged and/or saline lands, selection of crops is important.
The following considerations should govern the crop selection for such areas. There are intra
and inter-genic differences in tolerance to water logging. Crop tolerance would differ from the
kind of the problem surface stagnation or high water table and/or soil salinity/alkalinity.
6.3.3.2.1.2 Shallow Rooted Crops
In waterlogged saline lands especially with high water table, shallow rooted crops
should be preferred than the deep rooted ones. A shallow rooted crop will perform better
than a deep-rooted crop for the same condition of the water table. Rice is preferred as the
first crop in the first few years of reclamation of alkali lands since it is shallow rooted and its
roots are mainly confined to reclaimed shallow layer.

Table 28: Tolerance of crops to high groundwater table (Groundwater at 50 cm)
Tolerance level

Crops

High tolerance

Medium tolerance
Sensitive

Sugarcane, potatoes, rice, willow, plum, broad beans, strawberries,
some grasses
Sugar beet, wheat, oats, citrus, bananas, apple, barley, peas, cotton
pears, Blackberries, onion
Maize, tobacco, peaches, cherries, olives, peas, beans, date palm

(Source: Agriculture Land Drainage, Centra Soil Salinity Research Institute, 2007)

6.3.3.3 Tillage Practices
Waterlogged saline lands are usually moist and need to be handled very carefully. Till-
age of these lands at inappropriate moisture content could destroy the soil structure resulting
in reduced infiltration rates and adverse root zone physical environment. Most agricultural
operations should be performed at moisture content equivalent to the plastic limit of the soil.
A viable option in such cases would be to resort to minimum tillage. Deep ploughing, if
needed, could be done when the water table is deep and land is fallow. As far as possible, use
of heavy machinery should be avoided.
6.3.4 Reclamation of Sodic Soils
In the reclamation of sodic soils, excess exchangeable Na+ is replaced by calcium.
However gypsum, by virtue of its easy availability and low cost, is widely used to reclaim sod-
ic soils. Na – (Clay) + CaSO4 (gypsum) → Ca – Clay + Na2SO4 + H2O. The quantity of amend-
ment depends upon the soil texture, soil depth, degree of sodicity and crops to be grown.
A package of practices for management of sodic soils includes,
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i. Proper land levelling and bunding
ii. Ploughing salt surface crust deep in the soil
iii. Removal of Salt crust from surface
iv. Proper irrigation and water management
v. Good quality of irrigation water
vi. Application of Gypsum and green manures
vii. Application of appropriate fertilizer
viii. Selection of suitable crops, varieties and cropping sequences
ix. Suitable agronomic practices

Table 29: Important crop varieties for cultivation in alkali soils
Crop

Varieties

Range of alkalinity tolerance
Rice

CSR10 CSR13, CSR27,CSR30

9. 8 to 10.2 9.4 to9.8

Wheat

KRL 1-4, KRL-19

9.2 to 9.4

Gram

Karnal Ghana 1

8. 5 to 9.0

Mustard

CS52

9.2 to 9.5

(Source: Agriculture Land Drainage, Centra Soil Salinity Research Institute, 2007)
6.3.4.1 Land Forming
Landforms which help in efficient surface drainage and that reduce the effect of shal-
low water table are helpful. Ridge cultivation in that way is most suited for waterlogged lands.
It allows the plants to grow well at the same time provides surface drainage through the val-
leys. Raised and sunken bed technology is becoming quite popular and location specific ver-
sions of this technology are emerging from humid, subhumid and semiarid climates including
salt affected soils. Raised bed planting of wheat is being recommended and popularized,
which besides other benefits provide insurance against surface stagnation during the growing
season of the crop. The landforms for saline soils and for use of saline water in agriculture
have also emerged. Basic strategy in developing these landforms is to grow seeds at places
where salt accumulation is minimum or away from the salt accumulation zone.
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(Source: Agricultural Land Drainage, Reclamation of Waterlogged Saline Lands, CSSRI, Karnal 132001)
Fig 55: A raised and sunken bed model to manage drainage problem in sodic vertisols

6.3.4.2 Improved Irrigation Techniques
The irrigation water applied should be just sufficient to wet the root zone. Surface irri-
gation in that sense, unless managed properly, is inefficient. This can only be achieved
through improved irrigation techniques. Improved irrigation techniques such as sprinkle or
drip irrigation or some indigenously developed technique such as pitcher irrigation could be
adopted to save water as well as to utilize saline/sodic waters. The drip irrigation system has
become very popular in areas of acute water scarcity and places where commercial cultiva-
tion is undertaken mainly of cash or horticultural crops.
6.3.4.3 Application of Additional Dose of Plant Nutrients
Nitrogen uptake by the plants is reduced in waterlogged lands. Additional doses of ni-
trogen application therefore, have been found to be useful to reduce the harmful effects of wa-
terlogging. Adverse effects of waterlogging are similar to the effects that are caused by low N-
fertilizer in heavy soils. It has been conclusively proved that it is possible to compensate the
effect of high water table by applying additional doses of nitrogen. As the effects of nitrogen
application in waterlogged lands are a short-lived, it is recommended that applications of N-
fertilizer should be increased but the full dose should be applied more frequently.
6.3.4.4 Leaching
Leaching is essentially a process in which water of low concentration (fresh water) is
applied to displace the soil solution of relatively high concentration. The application of the
excess water to pass through the root zone with the aim of pushing the salts below the root
zone is defined as leaching. The leaching efficiency on the other hand is defined as the amount
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of salt drained as a fraction of the amount of salt present in the profile per unit pore volume
after pre-decided pore volumes of water have been drained. The leaching of salts is carried
out to meet one of the following objectives:
To remove or to reduce the salts in the root zone commonly known as one time leaching for
reclamation. In alkali soils leaching also helps in transporting the exchanged ions below the
root zone. To maintain the salt balance in the reclaimed or irrigated lands so that crops do not
suffer due to excess salts at any time in future.
6.3.4.4.1 Amount of Water Required for Leaching
Drainage is an essential pre-requisite but not the end in itself in reclaiming water-
logged saline soils. It is imperative to reduce the salts in the root zone to an acceptable level
before the lands are cultivated. In an ideal soil system without bye pass, dissolution of pre-
cipitated salts, salt diffusion constraints or hydrodynamic dispersion, the salt concentration of
the soil water present in a given depth of the soil profile should drop to the concentration of
the applied water when one pore volume of the water has passed through the profile. The ac-
tual amount of water required in practice, however, depends upon factors such as: salt ini-
tially present in the profile, desired level of salt in the root zone, soil texture, type of salts, soil
depth to be reclaimed, efficiency of the drainage system and method of leaching.

Table 30: Leaching requirements of soils for one time reclamation
Soil type Leaching requirement
(cm/cm of soil depth)
Water requirement to leach 60
cm of soil profile (cm)
Coarse textured 0.5-0.6 30-36
Medium textures 0.6-0.8 36-48
Heavy textured 0.8-1.0 48-60
(Note: The above requirement is to leach down 80% of the salts initially present)
Source: Agriculture Land Drainage, Centra Soil Salinity Research Institute, 2007
In the monsoon season, leaching should preferably be carried out during the last week of June
so that monsoon rains would be able to further leach down the salts making the land fit for
cultivation in the first year itself. As far as possible, good quality water should be used for
leaching.
Under conditions as exists in most farmlands, the rainwater utilization efficiency for
leaching is in the range of 10-20%. If lands are appropriately levelled and bunded, rainwater
efficiency for leaching could increase to 50%. If the land is also tilled before the onset of the
monsoon season, the efficiency could go as high as 70%. Under appropriate management,
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about 1.85, 0.95 and 0.76 cm of rainwater would be required to leach 80% of the salt from
each cm of the soil needing salt removal in the case of heavy, medium and coarse textured
soils, respectively.
6.3.4.5 Mulching
Mulch is a protective covering, usually of organic matter such as leaves or straw,
placed around plants. It prevents the evaporation of moisture, the growth of weeds and (in
cold climates) it prevents freezing of roots. It can have a positive effect on the fertility of the
soil. Salinity, an offshoot of water logging, adversely affects the crop yield. The rate of soil salinity
is fastest during periods when soils are bare and potential evaporation is high. During such periods,
mulching will be helpful in reducing rate of evaporation at the soil surface thereby curtailing accu-
mulation of salts in the root zone.

Mulching films are most commonly used to save water, produce earlier, higher and
healthier yields, and to produce plants with a better commercial appearance. Mulching has
beneficial effects on soil, and on the environment. These include moisture retention, maintai-
ning a proper structure, better use of fertilizers, protection of growing plants, less product
damage and elimination of weeds when using opaque plastics.

All the plastics used for mulching increase soil temperature during the day, apart from the
white and aluminised plastics which reflect light. Black plastic is best for preventing the growth of
weeds. Inside greenhouses, white plastic is used as a reflective mulch to increase the quantity of
light available for the plants.


Fig 56: Organic mulching
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Chapter-7
7 Measures for Water Logging Area
7.1 Introduction
This chapter involves measures for water logging that covers on farm water management,
surface drainage and sub-surface drainage methods.
7.2 Water Logging
Water logging is one of the major problems of land degradation in India. An irrigated area is
said to be waterlogged when the surplus water stagnates due to poor drainage or when the
shallow water table rises to an extent that soil pores in the root zone of a crop become satu-
rated, resulting in restriction of the normal circulation of the air, decline in the level of oxygen
and increase in the level of carbon dioxide. Excess water in the plant root zone restricts the
aeration required for optimum plant growth. It may affect the availability of several nutrients
by changing the environment around the roots. The actual depth of water table, when it starts
affecting the yield of the crops adversely, may vary over a wide range from zero for rice to
about 1.5 meters for other crops
7.2.1 Causes of Water Logging
Water logging may be a result of both natural and man-made factors. Natural factors may in-
clude poor natural drainage as a consequence of unfavorable sub-soil geology like existence of
hardpan at shallow depths, spilling of rivers resulting in submergence of agricultural lands
and heavy storm rainfall coupled with poor natural drainage etc. Water logging is, however,
caused mainly because of manmade factors like deforestation and poor upkeep of water-
sheds, developmental activities such as construction of roads, bridges, railway lines and
buildings resulting in choking of natural drainage, hydraulic pressure of water from upper
irrigated areas resulting in seepage outcrop in low lying areas, introduction of irrigation
without taking into account characteristics of soils and sub-soils for their irritability, seepage
from canals, distributaries and watercourses, excess application of irrigation water particu-
larly in the initial years when the command is not fully developed, poor “On Farm Water Man-
agement” resulting in poor water-application efficiencies, unrealistic cropping patterns tilted
in favour of water intensive crops, lack of night irrigation in some commands, inadequate
drainage and poor maintenance of existing drainage systems and outlets and lack of conjunc-
tive use of surface and ground water etc.
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7.2.2 Strategies for Prevention and Management of Water-logging
7.2.2.1 Lining of Water Distribution System
The effect of lining in canal distribution system shows that the system could result in substan-
tial reduction in seepage. Lining the field channels alone followed by main canals and di-
stributaries can help to derive the maximum benefits. Even in a particular component of the
system need to be lined fully. The lining of ponds and reservoirs would be desirable although
cost considerations would often limit the practicability of this proposition. A major difficulty
with this option is the quality of work. If the quality is substandard, the lining or no lining
does not matter. It is assessed that if 10% of the lining is defective, it might cause 70% of the
seepage that is expected in an unlined system.
7.2.2.2 On Farm Water Management
Good irrigation water management lies in the efficient use of irrigation water once it reaches
the field head. It is reported that as much as 50% of the water delivered at the field head goes
as deep percolation losses and on an average, it is presumed that 1/3rd of the water is lost at
the field level. Adding the earlier 25% of water lost in seepage, nearly 58% of water from ca-
nal irrigation system contributes to the groundwater naturally causing water-logging at an
alarming rate than envisaged. To use this water through surface irrigation methods with
minimum losses, on farm water management technology should include efficient land level-
ling and shaping, efficient design and layout of irrigation methods, scientific scheduling of ir-
rigation under both adequate and deficit water supplies, crop planning for optimal water use
and adequate provision of drainage. The water management must aim at optimum yield per
unit of water applied and minimum loss of soil and plant nutrients. Proper control of the wa-
ter delivered to the fields to avoid any misuse or over-use can result in water economy. The
water thus saved can be used for intensive irrigation.
7.2.2.3 Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater
Transport of water from one basin to another increases the input to the groundwater
aquifer. Since natural drainage cannot take care of this additional input, the rise in water table
is inevitable. Therefore, any approach to irrigation development should have an integrated
use of surface and groundwater resources. Conjunctive use of groundwater serves as a cor-
rective measure to remove the deficiencies of the distribution system and provide assurance
of water availability urgently needed in modern agriculture. It also serves as an in-built insur-
ance against water-logging.
7.2.2.4 Planting Trees in Vulnerable Reaches/Bio-drainage
An alternative option claimed to reduce water logging is bio-drainage, which is pro-
jected as the least expensive and more environmentally friendly method of land reclamation.
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Bio-drainage relies on vegetation rather than mechanical means to remove excess water
through consumptive use by the plants. Quick growing plants, which transpire water at a high
rate, could be grown to dispose-off excess water. Eucalyptus is the most appropriate plant for
this purpose. Exotic plants may be grown in areas prone to water logging to prevent or delay
its appearance. These trees may be grown along the canal banks and also along the influent
boundaries so as to check the incoming seepage from outside the area. This will curtail the
input to the groundwater.
7.2.3 Surface Drainage
Surface drainage is the safe removal of excess water from the land surface through
land shaping and improved or constructed channel. Surface drainage in agricultural land is
needed to remove the excess rainfall as well as collection and disposal of excess surface irri-
gation. Low-lying flat areas, heavy soils with low permeability and lands in humid tropical or
sub-tropical regions where high intensity storms are common, are subject to surface inunda-
tion and therefore, require surface drainage. Surface drainage uses the potential energy that
exists due to overflow from rivers or natural channels sometime contribute to the drainage
problem of an area. The following reasons could be ascribed to the problem:
Flat land surfaces causing hindrance in the natural runoff from the upper catchment area. The
problem is severe in heavy textured soils and in humid climate.
Inadequate capacity of the drainage channels particularly during critical periods could cause
surface stagnation. During intense storms the main drainage channels are full to the brim
thereby reducing the capacity of the lateral and collector channels causing inundation up-
stream.
Inadequate outlet conditions partly due to developmental works, which obstruct the flow
and partly due to choking of the outlet of the natural drainage systems.
No outlet due to backwater flow water. Surface stagnation is and would continue to be
a major stress factor under monsoon climatic conditions. Although in monsoon, most agricul-
tural lands climatic conditions are prone to short-term surface stagnation.
All lands in humid and subhumid regions and even lands in semiarid regions are prone
to surface stagnation particularly during the kharif season.
Lands under rice-wheat system are prone to surface stagnation because of the devel-
opment of plow sole/hard pan at the bottom of the plough layer impeding vertical movement
of water.
Lands under irrigation with poor quality waters that is saline water with high Sodium Ad-
sorption Ratio (SAR) or alkali waters with high Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) are prone
to surface stagnation particularly during rain events.
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Areas where drainage system with unrealistic drainage designs have been laid and/or the
drainage systems are inadequately maintained.
Besides, the changing land use patterns, field-to-field irrigation, flood irrigation and
poor on farm development; all favour short-term stagnation of water. It may be mentioned
that there are large areas in the irrigation commands where field-to-field irrigation is still
practiced. In such cases, irrigation water far in excess than required is applied such that
short-term water stagnation is bound to occur particularly at low spots.

Fig. 57: Components of surface drainage

7.2.3.1 Types of Surface Drainage
There are three types of drainage systems used in flat area (less than 2 % slope)
7.2.3.1.1 Random Drain System
The random field drainage system is applied where there are a number of large but
shallow depressions in a field, but where a complete land-forming operation is not considered
necessary. The random field drainage system connects the depressions by means of a field
drain and evacuates the water into a collector drain. The system is often applied on land
which does not require intensive farming operations (e.g. pasture land) or where mechaniza-
tion is done with small equipment.

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Fig 58: Random field drain system
7.2.3.1.2 The Parallel Field Drains
This system is most effective method of surface drainage and is well suited both for ir-
rigated and rainfed areas. In his system individual fields are properly graded such that they
discharge into the drain. Then each drain is connected to field lateral which further dis-
charged into main outlet. Lateral and mains should be deeper than the field ditches to provide
free outfall.

The parallel open ditch system is applicable in soil that requires both surface and subsurface
drainage. It is similar to parallel field drain system, except the drains are replaced by open
ditches which are comparatively deeper and have steeper side slope than the field drain. The
open ditch cannot be crossed by farm machinery. The spacing of ditch depends upon the soil
and watertable condition and may vary from 60 to 200 m.

Fig. 59: The parallel field drain system

7.2.3.1.3 Bedding system
Bedding is a surface drainage method achieved by ploughing land to form a series of
low beds, separated by parallel field drains. The bedding system for surface drainage is essen-
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tially a land forming process. The land is ploughed into beds, separated by dead furrow which
run in the direction of prevailing slope. Ploughing is to be done parallel to the furrow and all
other farming operation can be done either across the beds or parallel to the furrow. Bedding
was proved to be successful on poorly drained soil and on flat lands having slope upto 1.5 per
cent. The bedding system is normally used for grassland. In modern farming, bedding is not
considered an acceptable drainage practice for row crops, because rows near the field drains
will not drain satisfactorily. To overcome the disadvantages of the bedding system, the two
other methods of land forming have been developed: land grading and land planning.



Fig. 60: Bedding system

Table 31: Recommended bed widths for different soils.
Permeability Bed width
Very low with K = 0.5 cm/day 8- 12m
Low with K = 5 to 10 cm/day 15- 17 m
God with K = 10 to 20 cm/day 20-30 m
(Source: Agriculture land Drainage, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, 2007)

7.2.3.2 Design of Surface Drainage System
Agricultural land drainage system may be categorised in to surface and subsurface
drainage systems. The main objective of both the systems is to facilitate the removal of excess
water (some times with presence of toxic soluble salts) from cropped land that may hinder
the potential crop production. However, surface drainage may be defined as the removal of
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excess water over the ground surface through natural or constructed channels with adequate
outlets for optimum crop production.
7.2.3.3 Design Criteria for Surface/Field Drainage
The very purpose of a good surface drainage system is to prevent the harmful effects of
water logging on crops. Selection of an appropriate drainage coefficient is the key to design a
successful surface drainage system. Drainage coefficient is defined as the amount of water
that runs off from a given area and is to be removed in 24 hours. While designing surface
drainage system, a low value of the drainage coefficient will lead to partial improvement in
drainage though the cost of design may be relatively low, whereas a high value would in-
crease the cost substantially without any additional gain in the removal of surface congestion.
The water logging tolerance of a crop should be considered while estimating the drainage co-
efficient for a surface drainage project.
Example: Design a field drain for following parameters. Catchment area 10 Ha, land slope 1 %,
soil type Clay loam, rainfall intensity 12.3 cm/hr (For Tc – 13.8 min rainfall intensity I= 21
cm/hr)

Solution
Assume side slope of drain 1:1 (depending upon soil type), Run off coefficient C= 0.35(for
clay loam soil with 0-5 % slope)
Design Runoff,
. .
360
C I A
Q =


0.35 210 10
360
x x
Q = where, (I= 210 mm/hr)
= 2.05 cumsec
Design of Cross-section of Drain
For efficient cross section, bottom width B= 2d and R =0.6213d and A= 3d
2

Where, d = depth of flow, R = Hydraulic Radius i. e. A/P
Now Velocity of flow
2 1
3 2
. R S
V
n
= (for clay loam n= 0.032)
= 1/0.032 x (0.6213d)
2/3
x (0.01)
1/2
= 1.94 d
2/3

Now, Q = A.V
2.05 = 3d
2
x 1.94 d
2/3

2.05 = 5.8 d 8/3
Therefore by solving d= 0.68 m
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Hence, actual depth of channel after adding 10% free board d= 1.2 x 0.68 = 0.75 m
Bottom width = 2d =2x 0.75 = 1.5 m
Top width, T = B + (2 x z x d) where, z is side slope 1
= 1.5 + (2 x 1 x 0.75) = 3 m
The above designed channel is shown below

Fig. 61: Design of Earthen Drainage Cannel
7.2.4 Subsurface Drainage System
Irrigation induced water logging and soil salinity/alkalinity problems are observed in irriga-
tion commands of large irrigation projects in many states of India. These problems adversely
affect the production and productivity as well as threaten the sustainability of irrigated agri-
culture. Waterlogging is called as critical, if water table fluctuates between 0-2 m below
ground surface. It is treated as semi-critical, if water table fluctuates between 2-3 m below
ground surface. Besides coastal soil salinity, inland drainage problems in irrigated command
and non-command areas in states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh
are observed mainly because of cultivation of water loving crops on heavy soils having low
permeability.
Subsurface drainage refers to the removal of excess water present below the ground
surface. Agriculture lands affected by high watertable generally need subsurface drainage.
Subsurface drainage lowers the watertable and provides the better environment in the root
zone.
7.2.4.1 Drainage Investigations
Drainage requirements and measures greatly vary depending upon factors such as soil,
geo-hydrological and climatic conditions, irrigation and cropping practices and natural drain-
age. Drainage investigations are mainly conducted to understand different dimensions of the
problem to search for a suitable solution. However, investigations are generally problem spe-
cific. It is always better to plan with minimum data obtained through best available means for
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a specific project. Information on hydraulic conductivity, drainable porosity, infiltration char-
acteristics, soil salinity, soil alkalinity, depth of impermeable layer, aquifer parameters,
groundwater fluctuations, groundwater quality, fresh water supplies, surface drainage net-
work and availability of outlets, etc. is a pre-requisite for planning the drainage of water-
logged saline and alkali soils. In addition to above-mentioned information, knowledge on
drainage requirement of different crops and criterion for drainage design is also needed. In-
formation generated through drainage investigations is utilized effectively to design a drain-
age system, which would satisfy the limits related to drainage criteria.
7.2.4.2 Groundwater Conditions
The water table behaviour in drainage area needs to be studied on the basis of water table
data during pre-monsoon period as well as post-monsoon period. Water table contour map is
necessary to understand direction of groundwater flow. It also helps to assess whether inter-
ceptor drain is necessary and to decide the directions of main and lateral lines.
7.2.4.3 Subsurface Drainage Methods
In sub-surface drainage, water moves under influence of gravity to suitable outlets.
This is accomplished using one of the following methods:
(1) Tile drain including perforated pipes
(2) Mole drain
(3) Drainage well
(4) Deep open drains and
(5) Combination of tile and open drains.
7.2.4.4 Design of Subsurface Drainage System
In the design of subsurface drainage system, following main items are considered:
 Drainage criteria
 Subsurface drainage coefficient
 Laterals: Depth and spacing of field laterals
 Size and slope of the laterals and collectors
 Drainage materials
 Layout and installation of drainage system
 Construction of sump and evaporation pond, if needed
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Fig. 62: Design of Subsurface Drainage System
7.2.4.5 Drainage Criteria
The agricultural drainage criterion is defined as the state to which the original waterlogging
on or in the soil is to be reduced by a drainage system so that the maximum agricultural bene-
fits are attained. In the definition of drainage, ‘removal of excess water’ indicates that land
drainage is an action by man, who must know how much excess water should be removed. A
groundwater balance of the drainage area is the most accurate tool to calculate the volume of
the water to be drained. Before the water balance of the area can be made, number of the sur-
veys must be undertaken to prepare hydrogeological and topographic maps. Further all sur-
face and subsurface water inflows and outflows must be measured and estimated. Precipita-
tion and relevant evapotranspiration data must be analysed and hydraulic properties of the
soil should be determined.
7.2.4.6 Sub-surface Drainage Coefficient
Drainage coefficient is the most important parameter that decides the lateral drain spacing,
size of the laterals and collectors and capacity of the pump to dispose off the drainage efflu-
ent. The drain spacing is less in cases where drainage coefficient is more as compared to a
case where drainage coefficient is less. As such, the cost of the system depends largely upon
this parameter. Therefore, the need to select an appropriate value for this parameter has al-
ways been emphasized. The drainage coefficients for some of the sites in India have been ob-
served to be in the range of 1-5 mm

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Table 32: Subsurface drainage coefficients for Gujarat as observed from test plots
Site

Rainfall (mm)

Rate
(mm/d
ay)

Recommended range (mm/day)

Dabhou (Gujarat)

800

4.0

3.0-5.0

Muraj (Gujarat)

500

2.8

2.0-4.0

Variation in the range of 600-1400 mm (Source: Gupta and Gupta, 1997)
Table 33: Guidelines on drainage coefficient for subsurface drainage
Climatic conditions

Range (mm/day)

Optimum value (mm)

Arid

1-2

1

Semiarid

1-3

2
Subhumid

2-5

3

7.2.4.7 Installation of Subsurface Drainage System
The installation of subsurface drainage system begins with construction of outlet. In the ab-
sence of a natural outlet, pumped outlet is constructed. The installation of collectors and lat-
erals follows the construction of outlet. Excavation of trenches, lying of lateral pipes along
with filter material and immediate back filling of trenches are done to avoid any problem in
the event of rainfall. Manholes (RCC pipe 2.5 m length and 0.6m diameter) can be installed
and collectors and laterals are connected to manholes at 20-30 cm above their bottom levels
so that manholes also act as sediment trap.

(Source: Agricultural Land Drainage, Reclamation of Waterlogged Saline Lands, Central Soil Sa-
linity Research Institute, Karnal 132001)
Fig 63: Perforated clay tile drains and their fixing
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7.2.4.8 Drainage Materials for Subsurface Drainage
Subsurface drainage aims at controlling the water table and to reduce the soil salinity. Several
drainage techniques such as tube well drainage, open drains or subsurface drains could be
employed to control the water table but leaching is most effective only through subsurface
drains. On the other hand, efficient performance of a subsurface drainage system depends on
the technically sound design and use of appropriate material in quality construction of the
system. Major factors contributing towards satisfactory performance of the drainage are the
structural strength, hydraulic properties and the type of pipe materials as well as the quality
and hydraulic properties of envelope materials used in the system. The introduction of corru-
gated perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) pipes have resulted in the
development of high powered, high speed trenching and trench less drainage machines and
has prompted the use of cheaper and labour saving drainage envelope materials. In India, we
are confronted with the problems of evolving a combination of artificial and locally available
materials as well as combining the mechanized and manual methods of installation to effi-
ciently utilize the skilled and unskilled manpower available. Due consideration should be
given to existing conditions, availability and cost of materials while selecting the drainage ma-
terials.
7.2.4.9 Types of Drainage Materials
a) Drain pipes: The drain pipes could be (i) clay pipes (ii) concrete pipes and (iii) plastic
pipes. The plastic pipes could further be characterized into corrugated perforated PVC
or PE pipes and rigid PVC pipes.
b) Envelope material: is a common name given to filter and surrounds. Filters are classi-
fied into (i) geo-textile (ii) polypropylene (iii) coconut fiber (iv) polystyrene and (v)
foam plastic. The common surrounds are gravel and coarse sand.
c) Pre-wrapped corrugated perforated pipes.
d) Miscellaneous materials: In this category pipe outlets, pipe connections, closing de-
vices and outflow regulators, and drain bridges are included.
7.2.4.10 Tile Drain Method
It is consists of short length pies (30 to 90 cm) installed at particular depth from land surface.
The pipes are made up of concrete or burnt clay. After digging the trench to desired depth the
pipes are held end to end without any joining. They are covered with an envelope material in
certain case and soil is backfilled. A network of tile line laid with a grade so that it removes
the subsurface water easily.
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7.2.4.10.1 Depth of Lateral Drains
Depth of the laterals should be planned according to agricultural drainage criteria. The drain
depth is also decided by the construction method, the available machinery and drain specifi-
cations. Drains need to be installed at depths, where chances of damage due to agricultural
operations are less. To protect the pipes against damage due to passage of heavy machinery,
the minimum drain depths have been recommended, which vary from one soil type to an-
other.

Table 34: Minimum soil cover required for pipe drains
Soil type

Minimum soil cover (cm)

Mineral
Deep peat and muck
Organic

60
120
75

(Source: Agriculture land Drainage, Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, 2007)
Table 35: Guidelines on drain depth
Outlet conditions

Depth of the drains

Optimum depth (m)

Gravity
Pumped

0.9-1.2
1.2-1.8

1.1
1.5

(Source: Agriculture Land Drainage, Centra Soil Salinity Research Institute, 2007)

7.2.4.10.2 Spacing of Lateral Drains
Assuming the steady state drainage criteria spacing between the laterals can be computed us-
ing
Hooghout’s formula








Fig. 62: Terms in Hoogoudt's equation


H
Rainfall or irrigation rate,
R
Hydraulic conductivity K
irrigation rate, R
d
L
h
G.L.
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2
4
(2 )
KH
L d H
R
= +
Where L= spacing between two drains, m
K= Hydraulic conductivity, m/day
H = the height of water table at midway between the drains, m
R = Rainfall m/day
d = the depth to impervious layer from drain, m
The discharge (m/day) through drain is given by:
2 2
2
4 ( 2 2 ) K H h dH dh
q
L
÷ + ÷
=
Table 36: The average depth and spacing of tile drains (source: Schwab et al., 1993)
Soil type Hydraulic class Conductivity
(m/day)
Spacing (m) Depth (m)
Clay Very slow 0.001 9 – 15 0.9 – 1.1
Clay loam Slow 0.001 – 0.005 12- 21 0.9 – 1.1
Average loam Moderately slow 0.005- 0.02 18- 30 1.1 – 1.2
Fine sandy loam Moderate 0.02 – 0.06 30 – 37 1.2 – 1.4
Sandy loam Moderately rapid 0.06 – 0.13 30 – 60 1.2 – 1.5
Peat and muck Rapid 0.13 – 0.25 30 – 90 1.2 – 1.5
Irrigated soil variable 0.025 - 25 45 - 180 1.5 – 3.0

7.2.4.10.3 Size of Tile Drain
The size of tile drain is determined using the maximum expected flow and the grade. Man-
ning’s formula is used for the design. The value of manning’s constant recommended is 0.011
for concrete tiles and for other material value of ‘n’ is given in following table. Using man-
ning’s formula; the following relationship is developed for the size of the tiles flowing full

Q = A.V
Where,
2 1
3 2
. R S
V
n
=
2
2 2 3
1
2
.
4 2
d r
Q AV S
n r
t t
t
| |
= =
|
\ .

Q = discharge through tile drain, m3/s
A = cross section of tile drain, m2
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V= velocity m/s
d = tile diameter, m
r = tile radius, m
Table 37: Recommended values of n for various conduit materials:
Conduit Materials Manning’s n
Clay tile 0.011
Concrete pipe 0.011
Vitrified clay pipe 0.011
Perforated plastic pipe 0.017
Corrugated plastic tubing 0.017

Table 38: Capacity of corrugated pipe lateral drain
Internal

Drainage

Area (ha)

Maximum length at 75 m

Q dia

(m
3
/day)

Slope (%)

spacing between laterals

(mm)





(m)


0.1

0.15

0.1

0.15

0.1

0.15

75

62.7

76.5

2.1

2.5

278

339

100

135.2

164.8

4.5

5.5

599

730

125

306.7

374.0

10.2

12.5

1359

1659

150

498.8

608.5

16.6

20.3

2212

2699

Example
In subsurface drainage system, the lateral were laid out 50 m apart and the 200 long
and have grade of 0.3 m. if the drainage coefficient of the area is 2 cm, what size tiles have to
be used? If drainage coefficient is increased to 3 cm, what will be the spacing of the laterals?
Solution:
Quantity of water to be drained by the lateral in 24 hr = 2/100 x 50 x 200 = 200 cu.m/day
Rate of flow = 200/(24 x 60 x 60) = 0.002315 cu.m/s
Consider the rate of flow through 10 cm dia tile
Wetted perimeter, P = t .r = 3.14 x 0.1 = 0.314 m
Hydraulic radius R = A/P = (t /4 x 0.1 x 0.1)/ t x 0.1 = 0.025 m
Velocity,
2 1
3 2
. R S
V
n
=

2 1
3 2
0.025 .(0.3/100)
0.0108
V =

= 0.4335 m/s
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Capacity of the tile, Q = A. V
=3.14/4 x 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.4335
= 0.003405 cu.m/s
Hence 10 cm dia tiles will be satisfactory.
Let the lateral be located at a distance of W and length kept at 200 m
Amount of water to be drain in 24 hr = W x 200 x 3/100
And this is nothing but the capacity of tile line = 0.003405 x 24 x 60 x 60 = 294.19 cu.m/day
Hence, W x 200 x 3/100 = 294.19
W = 49 m

Layout plan
The layout of subsurface drainage system is adjusted to utilize the natural slope and to
minimize earthwork against slope. Collectors are generally laid along the natural slope and
laterals are laid across the general slope. The details of position of lateral, gravel envelope,
collector and main drain, junction boxes etc. are worked out to decide their exact locations.
7.2.5 Mole Drain
Mole drains are unlined channels formed in clay subsoil with a ripper blade with a cy-
lindrical foot, often with an expander which helps compact the channel wall. Mole drains are
used when natural drainage needs improving due to lack of slope or heavy clay subsoil pre-
vents downward drainage. They are a more sophisticated drainage system than open drains.
Mole drains do not drain groundwater but only water that enters from above.
Soils should have a minimum of 35% clay for best results. Clay gives the soil the ability to hold
together and reduce the chances of collapsing after the mole is pulled. Sand content should be
less than 30%. The soil should be free of stones at the mole drain depth.
7.2.5.1 Testing for Suitability for Mole Draining
Two simple tests can indicate a soil’s suitability for mole drainage:
1. Test soil at mole draining depth by rolling out a pencil thick rod and try to form a 40 to 50
mm diameter circle. If this can be done without crumbling or cracking then it may be suitable
for mole draining.
2. Another test is to find out if the soil at mole drain depth will slake or disperse. Small golf
ball size balls of the soil are placed in distilled or rain water and observed over a day or two. If
the water becomes cloudy and the ball becomes soft, then this indicates a dispersive soil.
These soils are prone to tunnel erosion and should not be mole drained. If these ball falls
apart quickly it is has a tendency to slake. Soils which tend to slake may be successfully gravel
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mole drained (actually a gravel slot) albeit expensively. Gypsum may be useful in dispersive
soils to suppress clay dispersal, but it can be difficult to get the gypsum into the subsoil.
7.2.5.2 Construct of Mole Drain
To achieve satisfactory results, the soil in the vicinity of the mole channel needs to be
moist enough to form a channel, but not dry enough to crack and break up, and not soft
enough to slough off and form slurry. These conditions usually occur on the drying cycle in
late spring or early summer. The surface soil needs to be dry enough to form cracks at the
time of mole draining and allow traction. If too moist then the cracks can heal over and reduce
water intake. It is preferable for a drying period with no rain to allow the cracks to dry and
the mole channel to harden. Usually when the clay at mole draining depth has a moisture con-
tent of 20-25%, conditions are satisfactory. Test the soil by kneading between the fingers. If
you can roll out a ribbon without it sticking to your fingers the moisture content is right. Mole
draining in autumn is not recommended, as the topsoil is wet and subsoil is too dry. The sub-
soil is difficult to mole and to dry out and it’s difficult to achieve the desirable depth.
7.2.5.3 Gradient of Mole Drain
Recommended gradients for moles generally fall between 0.4% and 4%. A good gra-
dient to aim for is 3%. This should enable relatively trouble free moles in that minor surface
undulations won’t block with negative gradients, and the risk from erosion is reduced. The
flatter the gradient, the more even the soil surface has to be and more interceptor drains
needed to achieve good results.
7.2.5.4 Depth of Mole Drain
Optimum mole depth depends on soil type and the conditions when moles are in-
stalled. Generally moles are pulled at 400–600 mm depth. Often when first mole draining, the
shallow depth is used due to tractor limitations in tight soils. As the soil structure improves
over time they can often be pulled deeper. Moles less than 400 mm deep are liable to be dam-
aged by tractors and animals during or immediately after rain. A rule of thumb is that the ex-
pander to mole draining depth ratio is 1:7 i.e. 70 mm diameter expander should have mole
depth 490 mm.
7.2.5.5 Spacing
In dairy areas spacing between moles is usually about 2 m. In grazing or less intensely
used areas spacing may be up to 5 m apart but performance falls off with wider spacing.
7.2.5.6 Length
The generally accepted maximum effective length of moles is about 200 m. However
moles up to 400m pulled have performed satisfactorily for a number of years. However
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shorter (80-100 m) moles should last longer, because they empty out quicker and are not
likely to be overloaded.
7.2.5.7 Outfall/Outlet
The drain outfall or outlet is the most important part of the system. If this fails the
whole system fails. Mole drains can discharge to open drains or into interceptor drains filled
with gravel. This latter system protects the mole outlets and the only maintenance is required
at the tile outlet, but does cost more to install. Open drain outlets should be fenced off from
stock and kept clean so the outfall is above the drain water level. This prevents water backing
up into the mole outlets and causing them to collapse. Short lengths of plastic pipe inserted in
the ends can protect them better. Another advantage of gravel filled interceptor drains is that
moles can be pulled both ways, instead of the one way trip from open drains. This speeds up
the job.

















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Chapter-8
8 Artificial Ground Water Recharge
8.1 Introduction
Artificial recharge is becoming increasingly necessary to ensure sustainable ground wa-
ter supplies to satisfy the needs of a growing population. The benefits of artificial recharge
can be both tangible and intangible. The hydraulic effects generated by artificial recharge are
measured both in qualitative and quantities terms. The water table rise depends on the geo-
logic and hydraulic boundaries of the aquifer being recharge and type, location, yield and du-
ration of recharge mechanism.

The artificial recharge to ground water by rain water harvesting is very important for
the following objectives:

i. To overcome the inadequacy of waters to meet our demands.
ii. To arrest decline in ground water levels.
iii. To enhance availability of ground water at specific place and time and utilize rain wa-
ter for sustainable development.
iv. To increase infiltration of rain water in the sub-soil; which has decreased drastically in
urban areas due to paving of open area.
v. To improve ground water quality by dilution.
vi. To increase agriculture production.
vii. To improve ecology of the area by increase in vegetation cover, etc.

8.2 Prioritization of Area for Ground Water Recharge
Prioritization of area for artificial Ground water Recharge is normally done by overlying
post-monsoon depth of water level maps with data of long term trend of groundwater levels.
Normally, the area having deeper water levels in post monsoon period and decline water level
trends should have higher priority for artificial recharge.

8.3 Conditions of Ground Water Recharge
i. Adequate space for surface storage is not available especially in urban areas.
ii. Water level is deep enough (> 8 m.) and adequate subsurface storage is available.
iii. Permeable strata are available at shallow / moderate depth.
iv. Where adequate quantity of surface water is available for recharge to ground water.
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v. Ground water quality is bad and our aim is to improve it.
vi. Where there is possibility of intrusion of saline water especially in coastal areas.
vii. Where the evaporation rate is very high from surface water bodies.
viii. Where ground water levels are declining on regular basis.
ix. Where substantial amount of aquifer has been de-saturated.
x. Where availability of ground water is inadequate in lean months.
xi. Where due to rapid urbanization, infiltration of rain water into subsoil has decreased
drastically and recharging of ground water has diminished.
8.4 Types of Ground Water Recharge Structure
- Recharge Pits
Recharge pits are constructed for recharging the shallow aquifers. These are con-
structed 1 to 2 m. wide and 2 to 3 m. deep which are back filled with boulders, gravels &
coarse sand.
- Recharge Trenches
These are constructed when the permeable stratum is available at shallow depths.
Trench may be 0.5 to 1 m. wide, 1 to 1.5 m. deep and 10 to 20 m. long depending upon avail-
ability of water. These are back filled with filter materials.
- Dug wells
Existing dug wells may be utilised as recharge structure and water should pass
through filter media before putting into dug well.
- Hand pumps
The existing hand pumps may be used for recharging the shallow / deep aquifers, if the
availability of water is limited. Water should pass through filter media before diverting it into
hand pumps.
- Recharge wells
Recharge wells of 100 to 300 mm. diameter are generally constructed for recharging
the deeper aquifers and water is passed through filter media to avoid choking of recharge
wells.
- Recharge Shafts
For recharging the shallow aquifers which are located below clayey surface, recharge
shafts of 0.5 to 3 m. diameter and 10 to 15 m. deep are constructed and back filled with boul-
ders, gravels & coarse sand.
- Lateral shafts with bore wells
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For recharging the upper as well as deeper aquifers lateral shafts of 1.5 to 2 m. wide &
10 to 30 m. long depending upon availability of water with one or two bore wells are con-
structed. The lateral shafts are back filled with boulders, gravels & coarse sand.
- Spreading techniques
When a permeable stratum starts from top then this technique is used. Spread the wa-
ter in streams / Nalas by making check dams, nala bunds, cement plugs, gabion structures or
a percolation pond may be constructed.

N.B.: (i) All the recharge structures should have wire mess at water inlet to prevent entry of
foreign materials in the filter and recharge system.
(ii) All the recharge system should have options for bypassing overflow water to the
nearby drainage system.

8.4.1 Ground Water Recharge through Pit
i) In alluvial areas where permeable rocks are exposed on the land surface or at very
shallow depth, roof top rain water harvesting can be done through recharge pits.
ii) The technique is suitable for buildings having a roof area of 100 sq.m and is con-
structed for recharging the shallow aquifers.
iii) Recharge Pits may be of any shape and size and are generally constructed 1 to 2 m.
wide and 2 to 3 deep which are back filled with boulders (5-20 cm), gravels (5-
10mm) and coarse sand (1.5- 2mm) in graded form. Boulders at the bottom, gravels
in between and coarse sand at the top so that the silt content that will come with
runoff will be deposited on the top of the coarse sand layer and can easily be re-
moved. For smaller roof area, pit may be filled with broken bricks/ cobbles.
iv) A mesh should be provided at the roof so that leaves or any other solid waste / de-
bris is prevented from entering the pit and a desilting /collection chamber may also
be provided at the ground to arrest the flow of finer particles to the recharge pit.
v) The top layer of sand should be cleaned periodically to maintain the recharge rate.
vi) By-pass arrangement should be provided before the collection chamber to reject the
first showers.
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(Source: Rain water Harvesting Techniques to Augment Ground Water, CGWB, MoWR, GoI, Faridabad, 2003)
Fig. 64: Ground Water Recharge through pit
8.4.2 Ground Water Recharge through Trench
i) Recharge trenches are suitable for buildings having roof area of 200-300 sq. m. and
where a permeable stratum is available at shallow depths.
ii) Trench may be 0.5 to 1 m wide, 1 to 1.5m deep and 10 to 20 m. long depending upon
availability of water to be recharge.
iii) These are back filled with boulders (5-20cm), gravel (5-10 mm) and coarse sand
(1.5-2 mm) in graded form – boulders at the bottom, gravel in between and coarse
sand at the top so that the silt content that will come with runoff will be coarse sand
at the top of the sand layer and can easily be removed.
iv) A mesh should be provided at the roof so that leaves or any other solid
waste/debris is prevented from entering the trenches and a desilting/collection
chamber may also be provided on ground to arrest the flow of finer particles to the
trench.
v) By-pass arrangement should be provided before the collection chamber to reject the
first showers.
vi) The top layer of sand should be cleaned periodically to maintain the recharge rate.
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(Source: Rain water Harvesting Techniques to Augment Ground Water, CGWB, MoWR, GoI, Faridabad, 2003)
Fig. 65: Ground Water Recharge through Trench
8.4.3 Ground Water Recharge through existing Tube Wells
i) In areas where the shallow aquifers have dried up and existing tube wells are tap-
ping deeper aquifer, roof to rain water harvesting through existing tube well can be
adopted to recharge the deeper aquifers.
ii) PVC pipes of 10 cm dia are connected to roof drains to collect rainwater. The first
roof runoff is let off through the bottom of drainpipe. After closing the bottom pipe,
the rainwater of subsequent rain showers is taken through a T to an online PVC fil-
ter. The filter may be provided before water enters the tube wells. The filter is 1 –
1.2 m. in length and is made up of PVC pipe. Its diameter should vary depending on
the area of roof, 15 cm if roof area is less than 150 sq m and 20 cm if the roof area is
more. The filter is provided with a reducer of 6.25 cm on both the sides. Filter is di-
vided into three chambers by PVC screens so that filter material is not mixed up.
The first chamber is filled up with gravel (6-10mm), middle chamber with pebbles
(12-20 mm) and last chamber with bigger pebbles (20-40 mm).
iii) If the roof area is more, a filter pit may be provided. Rainwater from roofs is taken
to collection/desilting chambers located on ground. These collection chambers are
interconnected as well as connected to the filter pit through pipes having a slop of
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1:15. The filter pit may vary in shape and size depending upon available runoff and
are back-filled with graded material, boulder at the bottom, gravel in the middle and
sand at the top with varying thickness (0.30-0.50m) and may be separated by
screen. The pit is divided into two chambers, filter material in one chamber and
other chamber is kept empty to accommodate excess filtered water and to monitor
the quality of filtered water. A connecting pipe with recharge well is provided at the
bottom of the pit for recharging of filtered water through well.

(Source: Rain water Harvesting Techniques to Augment Ground Water, CGWB, MoWR, GoI, Faridabad, 2003)
Fig. 66: Ground Water Recharge through existing Tube well
8.4.4 Ground Water Recharge through Percolation Tank
In rural areas, rain water harvesting is taken up considering watershed as a unit. Sur-
face spreading techniques are common since space for such systems is available in plenty and
quantity of recharged water is also large.
8.4.4.1 Percolation Tanks
Percolation tanks are artificially created surface water bodies, submerging a land area
with adequate permeability to facilitate sufficient percolation of impounded surface runoff to
recharge the ground water. These have come to be recognized as a dependable mode for
ground water recharge in the hard rock terrain. The hard rock areas with limited to moderate
water holding and water yielding capabilities often experience water scarce situations due to
inadequate recharge, indiscriminate withdrawal of ground water and mismanagement. These
are quite popular in the state of Gujarat. The percolation pond is a multipurpose conservation
structure depending on its location and size. Percolation tanks are normally constructed on
second order or third order steams since the catchment so also the submergence area would
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be smaller. Designed capacity should not normally be more than 50% of the total quantum of
rainfall in catchment. It stores water for livestock and recharges the groundwater. In the Sau-
rashtra region of Gujarat these tanks are constructed for recharging wells that support peanut
production.
The design of percolation tank is similar to the design of earthen dams or nala bund with a
fairly large storage reservoir. It is constructed by excavating a depression, forming a small re-
servoir or by constructing an embankment in a natural ravine or gully to form an impounded
type of reservoir.

(Source: Rain water Harvesting Techniques to Augment Ground Water, CGWB, MoWR, GoI, Faridabad, 2003)
Fig. 67: Showing suitable location for a Percolation Tank

The cost of this type of structure is estimated at around 2 to 4 lakh. The capacity of
these ponds or tanks varies from 5000 - 10000 m
3
. This quantity of water, if it is used for irri-
gation, is sufficient to irrigate 4-6 hectares of irrigated dry crops (maize, cotton, pulse, etc.)
and 2-3 hectares of cereal crop.

8.4.4.2 The Factors Considered for Selection of Site
i) It should not be located in heavy soils or soils with impervious strata; otherwise
the top soil should be porous.
ii) Suitable and adequate soil should be available for forming embankments.
iii) The ideal location of the pond will be on a narrow stream with high ground on ei-
ther side of the stream.
iv) Simple, economic and efficient surplus arrangement should be possible.
v) Pond size should be decided on the basis of the catchment area and the number of
fillings possible for the pond in the area.
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8.4.4.3 General Guidelines
i) Percolation tanks should normally be constructed in a terrain with highly fractured
and weathered rock for speedy recharge. In case of alluvium, the bouldary forma-
tions are ideal. However, the permeability should not be too high that may result in
the percolated water escaping in the downstream as regenerated surface flow.
ii) The aquifer to be recharged should have sufficient thickness of permeable Vadose
zone to accommodate recharge. The Vadose zone should normally be about 3 m be-
low the ground level to minimize the possibility of water logging.
iii) The benefited area should have sufficient number of wells, hand pumps etc. A mini-
mum well density of 3 to 5 per square kilometres is desirable. The aquifer zone
should extend upto the benefited area.
iv) Submergence area should be uncultivated as far as possible.
v) The nature of the catchment is to be evaluated based on Strange’s Table for classifi-
cation under Good, Average and Bad Category. It is advisable to have the percolation
tank in a good/ average catchment.
vi) Rainfall pattern based on long-term evaluation is to be studied so that the percola-
tion tank gets filled up fully during monsoon (preferably more than once).
vii) Soils in the catchment area should preferably be of light sandy type to avoid silting
up of the tank bed.
viii) The location of the tank should preferably be downstream of runoff zone or in the
upper part of the transition zone, with a land slope gradient of 3 to 5%.
ix) The yield of a catchment area is generally from 0.44 to 0.55 MCM/sq.km in a low
catchment area. Accordingly, the catchment area for small tanks varies from 2.5 to
4 sq.km and for larger tanks from 5 to 8 sq.km.
x) The size of percolation tank is governed more by the percolating capacity of the
formation under submergence rather than the yield of the catchment. Therefore,
depending on the percolation capacity, the tank is to be designed. Generally, a per-
colation tank is designed for a storage capacity of 2.25 to 5.65 MCM. As a general
guide the design capacity should normally not be more than 50 percent of the total
quantum of utilizable runoff from the catchment.
xi) While designing, due care should be taken to keep the height of the ponded water
column about 3 to 4.5 m above the bed level. It is desirable to exhaust the storage by
February since evaporation losses become substantial from February onwards. It is
preferable that in the downstream area, the water table is at a depth of 3 to 5 m be-
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low ground level during the post monsoon period, implying that the benefited area
possesses a potential shallow aquifer.
xii) Construction-wise there is not much difference between a percolation tank and a
minor irrigation tank, except for providing outlets for surface irrigation and the
depth of the cut-off trench. The cut-off trench is to be provided below the earthen
bund with depth limited to one fourth of the height between bed level and full sto-
rage level.

8.4.5 Ground Water Recharge through Shaft
i) This is the most efficient and cost effective technique to recharge unconfined aqui-
fer overlain by poorly permeable strata.
ii) Recharge shaft may be dug manually if the stratum is of non-caving nature. The di-
ameter of shaft is normally more than 2 m.
iii) The shaft should end in more permeable strata below the top impermeable strata.
It may not touch water table.
iv) The unlined shaft should be backfilled, initially with boulders/ cobbles followed by
gravel and coarse sand.
v) In case of lined shaft the recharge water may be fed through a smaller conductor
pipe reaching up to the filter pack.
vi) These recharge structures are very useful for village ponds where shallow clay
layer impedes the infiltration of water to the aquifer.
vii) It is seen that in rainy season village tanks are fully filled up but water from these
tanks does not percolate down due to siltation and tubewell and dugwells located
nearby remains dried up. The water from village tanks get evaporated and is not
available for the beneficial use.
viii) By constructing recharge shaft in tanks, surplus water can be recharged to ground
water. Recharge shafts of 0.5 to 3 m. diameter and 10 to 15 m. deep are con-
structed depending upon availability of quantum of water. The top of shaft is kept
above the tank bed level preferably at half of full supply level. These are back filled
with boulders, gravels and coarse sand.
ix) In upper portion of 1 or 2 m depth, the brick masonry work is carried out for the
stability of the structure.
x) Through this technique all the accumulated water in village tank above 50% full
supply level would be recharged to ground water. Sufficient water will continue to
remain in tank for domestic use after recharge.
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(Source: Rain water Harvesting Techniques to Augment Ground Water, CGWB, MoWR, GoI, Faridabad, 2003)
Fig. 68: Ground Water Recharge through Shaft
8.4.6 Ground Water Recharge through Dugwells
Artificial Recharge of Ground Water is one of the most efficient Ground Water Manage-
ment tools for controlling decline in Ground Water levels, resource augmentation and in-
creased sustainability of wells besides mitigation of Ground Water quality problems.
In this method Ground water is recharged through Scheme through existing dug wells
using rainfall run-off from the agricultural fields to facilitate improvement in Ground Water
situation in the affected areas which in turn will improve the overall irrigated agricultural
productivity and help in improving the quality of Ground Water especially in the fluoride af-
fected areas
8.4.6.1 Features of Artificial Dugwell Recharge Structures
i) Existing and abandoned dug wells may be utilized as recharge structure after
cleaning and desilting the same.
ii) The recharge water is guided through a pipe from desilting chamber to the bottom
of well or below the water level to avoid scouring of bottom and entrapment of air
bubbles in the aquifer.
iii) Recharge water should be silt free and for removing the silt contents, the runoff
water should pass either through a desilting chamber or filter chamber.
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iv) Periodic chlorination should be done for controlling the bacteriological contamina-
tions.
8.4.6.2 Benefits of Ground Water Recharge through Dugwells
The recharge of dugwell increases the sustainability of wells during lean period and
will improve the overall irrigated agricultural productivity, drinking water availability, socio
economic conditions and quality of life of the people in the affected areas. The recharge pro-
gramme will also help improving the quality of ground water especially in the fluoride af-
fected areas.

(Source: Rain water Harvesting Techniques to Augment Ground Water, CGWB, MoWR, GoI, Faridabad, 2003)
Fig. 69: Ground Water Recharge through Dugwells
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(Source: Rain water Harvesting Techniques to Augment Ground Water, CGWB, MoWR, GoI, Faridabad, 2003)
Fig 70: Sketch of Dugwell Recharge Structure







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7.3 Approximate cost of Ground Water Recharge Structures
The cost of each recharge structure varies from place to place. The approximate costs of the
following structures are as under:-
Table 39: Approximate cost of Ground Water Recharge Structures
Sr. No. Recharge Structure Approximate cost (Rs)
1. Recharge pit 2500 – 5000
2. Recharge Trench 5000 – 10000
3. Recharge through hand pump 1500 – 2500
4. Recharge through dug well 5000 – 8000
5. Recharge well 50000 – 80000
6. Recharge shaft 60000 – 85000
7. Lateral Shaft with Bore well Shaft per m. Shaft per m. 2000 – 3000
Bore well 25000 - 35000
(Source: Rain Water Harvesting and Artificial Recharge to Ground Water, A Guide to Follow, CGWB, Ministry of
Water Resources, and International Hydrological Programme (IHP) United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cul-
tural Organization, September, 2000)










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Chapter-9
9 Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting Structure
9.1 Introduction
This is an ideal solution of water problem where there is inadequate groundwater supply
and surface sources are either lacking or insignificant. Rain water is bacteriologically pure,
free from organic matter and soft in nature. Since the available roof area is usually limited, the
system is used to meet water requirements during the summer months i.e. about 90 days.
Such systems are usually designed to support the drinking and cooking needs of the family
and comprise a roof, a storage tank and guttering to transport the water from the roof to the
storage tank. In addition, a first flush system to divert the dirty water, which contains debris,
collected on the roof during non-rainy periods and a filter unit to remove debris and contami-
nants before water enters the storage tank are also provided.
9.2 Design Considerations
i) Rooftop water harvesting systems can provide good quality potable water.
ii) Roof surfaces should be smooth, hard and dense since they are easier to clean and
are less likely to be damaged and release materials/ fibers into the water.
iii) Roof painting is not advisable since most paints contain toxic substances and may
peel off.
iv) No overhanging trees should be left near the roof.
v) The nesting of birds on the roof should be prevented.
vi) All gutter ends should be fitted with a wire mesh screen to keep out leaves, etc. A
first-flush rainfall capacity, such as detachable down pipe section, should be in-
stalled.
vii) A hygienic soak away channel should be built at water outlets and a screened over-
flow pipe should be provided.
viii) The storage tank should have a tight fitting roof that excludes light, a manhole cov-
er and a flushing pipe at the base of the tank (for standing tanks).
ix) There should be a reliable sanitary extraction device such as a gravity tap or a
hand pump to avoid contamination of the water in the tank.
x) There should be no possibility of contaminated wastewater flowing into the tank
especially for tanks installed at ground level).
xi) Water from other sources, unless it is reliable source, should not be emptied into
the tank through pipe connections or the manhole cover.
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In a typical domestic roof top rainwater harvesting system, rainwater from the roof is col-
lected in a storage vessel or tank for use during periods of scarcity. Such systems are usually
designed to support the drinking and cooking needs of the family and comprise a roof, a stor-
age tank and guttering to transport the water from the roof to the storage tank. In addition, a
first flush system to divert the dirty water, which contains debris, collected on the roof during
non-rainy periods and a filter unit to remove debris and contaminants before water enters
the storage tank are also provided.
9.3 Components of Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting
A typical Roof top Rainwater Harvesting System comprises following components:
i) Roof catchment.
ii) Drain pipes
iii) Gutters
iv) Down pipe
v) First flush pipe.
vi) Filter unit
vii) Storage tank.
viii) Collection sump.
ix) Pump unit



Fig 71: A Typical Rainwater Harvesting System
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(Source: Rejuvenation of water bodies by adopting rain water harvesting by Samuel et all)
Fig. 72: Roof water Harvesting Structure
Among the above components, storage tank and filter unit are the most expensive and critical
components. The capacity of the storage tank determines the cost of the system as well as its
reliability for assured water supply whereas the filter unit assures the quality of the supplied
water. Brief descriptions of each of the components are given below:
9.3.1 Roof Catchment
The roof of the house is used as the catchment for collecting the rainwater. The style,
construction and material of the roof determine its suitability as a catchment. Roofs made of
corrugated iron sheet, asbestos sheet, tiles or concrete can be utilized as such for harvesting
rainwater. Thatched roofs, on the other hand, are not suitable as pieces of roof material may
be carried by water and may also impart some colour to water.

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Fig. 73: Projected Roof Catchment Area
The type of roof determines the quality of water that is collected in the storage tank.
Among the commonly seen roof types in rural areas, concrete, tiled, asbestos sheet and galva-
nized iron sheet are most suitable as roof catchments. The roof should be away from big trees
to avoid accumulation of leaf litter and bird droppings. Thatched roofs are not suitable as roof
catchments because the water collected from these roofs gets brownish colour and carries
pieces of roof material. The slope and shape of the roof are also important in planning a roof
top rain top rainwater harvesting system. Water flows with high velocity on steep-sloped
roofs, causing overflow or wastage of water form gutters and filter. Gentle slopes in the range
of 10 to 30 degrees are most suitable for smooth flow of water into the storage tank. Roofs
having slope more than 30 degrees are to be avoided wherever possible. The size of roof is
another important factor which determines the amount of water available for storage in the
RRHS. Generally, a roof area of 15-20 square meters is required for collecting sufficient water
required for a household. Roof catchments of lesser sizes could become a limiting factor in
designing RRHS to the required capacity.
9.3.2 Drain Pipes
The drain pipes of suitable size, made of PVC / Stoneware are provided in RCC build-
ings to drain off the roof top water to the storm drains. They are provided as per the building
code requirements.
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9.3.3 Gutters
Gutters are channels fixed to the edges of roof all around to collect and transport the
rainwater from the roof to the storage tank. Gutters can be prepared in rectangular shapes
and semi-circular

(Source: Manual on Artificial Recharge to Groundwater, CGWB, MoWR, Government of India,2003)
Fig. 74 (a) Rectangular Gutter and (b) Semi-circular Gutter

Gutters are channels made of either plain Galvanized Iron sheets or cut PVC pipes or split
Bamboo. These channels are fixed to the roof ends to divert the rainwater into the storage
tank. Semi-circular or rectangular shaped channels can be made using GI sheet. Cut PVC pipes
and Bamboos will be semi-circular in shape. These channels are made at the site of construc-
tion and fixed to the roof by using mild steel supports. As the preparation of gutters from GI
sheet involves cutting and bending the sheet to the required size and shape, certain amount of
skill is required. Gutters from PVC pipes or bamboos are easily made. Use of locally available
materials reduces the overall cost of the system.
9.3.4 Down Pipe
Down pipe is the pipe that carries the rainwater from the gutters to the storage tank.
Down pipe is joined with the gutters at one end, whereas the other end is connected to the
filter unit of the storage tank as shown below PVC or GI pipes of 50 mm to 75 mm (2 inch to 3
inch) diameter are commonly used for down pipe. In the case of RCC buildings, drain pipes
themselves serve as down pipes. They have to be connected to a pipe to carry water to the
storage tank. The down pipe and first flush pipe can be of either GI or PVC material of diame-
ter 7.5 cm. Joining of pipes will be easy if both are of same material.
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(Source: Manual on Artificial Recharge to Groundwater, CGWB, MoWR, Government of India,2003)
Fig. 75: Down pipe of Roof Water Harvesting Tank

The orientation and arrangement of the down pipe depends on relative locations of tank and
roof. The shape of the roof and type of the roof also determine the arrangement of down
pipes. The most common type of down pipe arrangement is shown in below fig.

(Source: Manual on Artificial Recharge to Groundwater, CGWB, MoWR, Government of India,2003)
Fig.76: Most Common Arrangement of Down Pipe

9.3.5 First Flush Pipe
Debris, dirt and dust collect on the roofs during non-rainy periods. When the first rains
arrive, these unwanted materials will be washed into the storage tank. This causes contami-
nation of water collected in the storage tank, rendering it unfit for drinking and cooking pur-
poses. A first flush system can be incorporated in the roof top rainwater harvesting systems
to dispose off the ‘first flush’ water so that is does not enter the tank. There are two such sim-
ple systems. One is based on a simple, manually operated arrangement, whereby the down
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pipe is moved away from the tank inlet and replaced again once the first flush water has been
disposed. In another semi-automatic system, a separate vertical pipe is fixed to the down pipe
with a valve provided below the ‘T’ junction


(Source: Manual on Artificial Recharge to Groundwater, CGWB, MoWR, Government of India,2003)
Fig. 77: Flush Pipe

After the first rain is washed out through first flush pipe, the valve is closed to allow the water
to enter the down pipe and reach the storage tank.
9.3.6 Filtration of Water
Filtration forms the most important process in the purification of water. It usually in-
volves allowing water to pass through a filter media e.g. sand. Filtration essentially involves
removal of suspended and colloidal impurities present in water. Depending on the type of fil-
tration, the chemical characteristics of water may be altered and the bacterial content may be
considerably reduced. These effects take place due to various processes such as mechanical
straining, sedimentation, biological metabolism and electrolytic changes. Mechanical straining
involves removal of suspended particles, which are unable to pass through the voids of the
filter media. Sedimentation of particles of impurities occurs in the voids between sand grains
in the filter unit. Such particles also adhere to the sand grains due to i) presence of a gelati-
nous film or coating developed on sand grains by previously trapped bacteria and colloidal
matter and ii) physical attraction between particles. Biological metabolism in filter units in-
volves the formation of a zoological jelly or film containing large colonies of bacteria around
the sand grains, which feed on the organic impurities in the water and convert them into
harmless compounds by complex biochemical reactions. Electrolytic changes involve the neu-
tralization of ionic charges of particles of suspended and dissolved impurities when they
come into contact with sand particles having opposite charge. When this happens, they neu-
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tralize each other, which ultimately results in the alteration of chemical characteristics of wa-
ter.
9.3.7 Filter Sand
The sand being used for filter in roof top rainwater harvesting systems should be free
from clay, loam, vegetable matter, organic impurities etc. and should also be uniform in na-
ture and grain size. In place of sand, ‘anthrafilt’, made from anthracite (stonecoal) can also be
used as filter medium. This material is found to possess many advantages such as low cost,
high rate of infiltration and better efficiency. However, as sand is readily available almost eve-
rywhere, the usual practice is to use it as filter medium.
9.3.8 Rapid Sand Filters
Rapid sand filters (Gravity type) have been developed to achieve increased filtration
rates by increasing the grain size of the filter media. These types of filters are preferred for
rainwater harvesting schemes implemented over larger areas

(Source: Manual on Artificial Recharge to Groundwater, CGWB, MoWR, Government of India,2003)
Fig. 78: Cross section of a Slow Sand Filter

Screen filters or micro filters, which are readily available in the market, can also be used for
filtration. Silt and other contaminants present in the roof top rainwater can be removed effi-
ciently using these filters. The size of the filter can be decided based upon roof top area and
the rainfall amount. Locally fabricated filters consisting of buckets or other containers filled
with filter media such as coarse sand, charcoal, coconut fiber, pebbles and gravels may also be
used to remove the debris and dirt form water that enters the tank in small scale domestic
roof top rainwater harvesting systems. The container is provided with a perforated bottom to
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allow the passage of water. The filter unit is placed over the storage tank. Another simple way
of filtering the debris and dust particles in the water is to use a fine cloth as filter media. The
cloth, in 2 or 3 layers, can be tied to the top of a bucket or vessel with perforation at the bot-
tom.
9.3.9 Storage Tank
Storage tank is used to store the water that is collected from the Roof tops. Common
vessels used for small-scale water storage are plastic bowls, buckets, jerry cans, clay of ce-
ramic jars, cement jars, old oil drums etc. For storing larger quantities of water, the system
will usually require a bigger tank with sufficient strength and durability. Different types of
storage tanks feasible for storing roof top rainwater are given below. Storage tanks are RCC,
Masonry, Ferro, Cement and PVC There are unlimited numbers of options for the construc-
tion of these tanks with respect to the shape (cylindrical, rectangular and square), the size
(capacity from 1,000 - 15,000 L. or even higher) and the material of construction (brick,
stone, cement bricks, Ferro-cement, concrete and reinforced cement concrete). For domestic
water needs, taking the economy and durability of tanks into consideration, ferrocement
tanks of cylindrical shape in capacities ranging between 4,000 and 15,000 L are most suitable.
Brick, stone or cement brick may be used for capacities ranging between 15,000 to 50,000 L.
Cement concrete and reinforced cement concrete are used for tank capacities exceeding
50,000 L Storage tanks are usually constructed above ground level to facilitate easy detection
of structural problems/leaks, easy maintenance and cleaning and easy withdrawal of stored
water. They are provided with covers on the top to prevent contamination of water from ex-
ternal sources. They are also provided with pipe fixtures at appropriate places for drawing
water, cleaning the tank and for disposal of excess water. They are called tap or outlet, drain
pipe and over flow pipe respectively. PVC or GI pipes of diameter 20 to 25 mm are generally
used for the purpose.
9.3.9.1 Size of Storage Tanks for Rural Areas
Size of the storage tank needs to be carefully selected considering various factors such
as number of persons in the household, water use, and duration of water scarcity, rainfall,
type and size of house roof and the status of existing water sources in the area. In general, the
period of water scarcity for domestic purposes is found to be in the range of 90 days to 200
days depending upon the quantity and distribution of rainfall and water sources existing in
the area. The water use of the household should first be studied, considering the local culture
and habits of the people influencing the water use. Availability of water at the doorstep, as is
the case with RRHS, is likely to increase the water use of the household. This results in in-
crease in required size of storage tank and its cost. It is found that the per capita water use
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varies over a range of 3 litres to 10 litres per day. A per capita water consumption of 5 litres
per day for the domestic drinking and cooking purposes is found optimum. Adding 20% to-
wards additional water requirement for visitors, festivals and wastage, a per capita water re-
quirement of 6 litres per day may be considered for selecting the size of water storage tank.
The size of water storage tank may be determined using the following relation and approxi-
mating to the nearest thousand:
Size of Storage tank (in litres) = No. of persons in the household x Period of water scarcity (in
days) x Per capita water requirement (in liters per day)
The capacity of storage tank, which reflects the total household water requirement during the
period of water scarcity, need to be checked with the amount of water available from house
rooftop during rains. If the amount of water available from roof is less than the required ca-
pacity of storage tank, then the household shall use the water available from roof only for a
part of the water scarcity period.
Water available from roof is obtained from the following relation:
Water available (in litres) = Annual rainfall (in mm) x Roof area (in sq.m) x Runoff Coefficient

Area of a roof shall be measured as the area projected on a horizontal surface. For
practical purpose, it is measured on the ground surface and the area calculated as the product
of length and breadth. The coefficient of runoff varies depending on the type of roof and indi-
cates the fraction of rainwater that can be collected from roof. Run-off coefficients for com-
mon types of roofs are shown in below Table
Table 40: Runoff Coefficients of Common Types of Roofs
Type of Roof Runoff Coefficient
GI Sheet 0.9
Asbestos 0.8
Tiled 0.75
Concrete 0.7

Example: Selection of Size for Storage Tank
No. of persons in the selected household (4 adults and 4 children) = 8, period of water
scarcity for the domestic needs = 120 days, per capita water requirement = 6 L/day Annual
average rainfall = 1000 mm. Area of roof made of country tiles = 20 sq. m. Runoff coefficient
for tiled roof = 0.75.
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Solution: Size of storage tank (in litres) = No. of persons in the household x Period of water
scarcity (in days) x Per capita water requirement (in lit/day)
= 8 x 120 x 6
= 5,760 L
Say 6,000 L
Check with water availability from roof top
Water available from roof top = Annual rainfall (in mm) X Area of roof (in sq.m) X Coefficient
of runoff for the roof
= 1000 X 20 X 0.75 = 15000 liters
9.3.9.2 Space of Water Tank
Among all the components of roof top rainwater harvesting systems, storage tank is
the component occupying most space, and hence the space required for the system depends
on the size of the storage tank. For a typical 10,000 litre tank, the minimum space required is
3.0 x 3.0m. Therefore, assessment of availability of space adjacent to the house shall be done
giving due importance to the preferences of the household. Storage tanks located near the
roof reduce the cost of down pipes. The site should be clean, hygienic and away from cattle
sheds to avoid contamination of stored water.
9.3.9.3 Collection Sump
A small pit is normally dug in the ground beneath the tap of the storage tank and con-
structed in brick masonry to make a chamber, so that a vessel could be conveniently placed
beneath the tap for collecting water from the storage tank. A small hole is left at the bottom of
the chamber, to allow the excess water to drain-out without stagnation. Size of collection pit
shall be 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm.
9.3.9.4 Pump Unit
A hand pump or a power pump fitted to the storage sump facilitates lifting of water to
the user. The size of the pump has to be decided depending upon the consumption of the
stored water. In rural area, ponds, streams and wells have traditionally been used as sources
of water for drinking and other domestic uses. In recent years, bore wells with hand pumps
and small water supply schemes have almost replaced these traditional sources of water. Yet,
in many rural habitations, these sources have not been able to supply water to the rural
households round the year, due to various reasons. Domestic Roof top Rainwater Harvesting
System (RRHS) provides a viable solution to bridge the gap between demand and supply of
water in such areas, especially during periods of water scarcity.

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9.3.9.5 Economic Viability
A typical domestic roof top rainwater harvesting system requires and investment of
about Rs.12, 000/- to Rs.16, 000/-, depending on the capacity of the storage tank. This works
out to Rs.2.34 to Rs.1.49 per litre of water stored. This is quite high when compared to the
free water available through government-sponsored schemes, where community participa-
tion and labour are not required at the construction stage. Hence, investment to this extent is
a costly option and may be unaffordable to many rural households. The cost of roof top rain-
water harvesting systems could be brought down to a certain extent by using local materials
such as bamboo for gutters, down pipe and first flush pipe. Contribution from users could be
also be raised in terms of labour and materials to meet a part of the investment.
It is advisable to have the user household themselves meet a sizeable portion of the
cost of RRHS to ensure its sustainability and reliability. This would also encourage ownership
and appropriate maintenance of the system at the level of households. Extending soft loans
repayable in easy instalments would be appropriate for this purpose. The existing Govern-
ment schemes, which finance women self-help groups in rural areas such as the Rashtriya
Mahila Kosh and NABARD self-help group schemes, could be utilized for extending such loan
facilities to the rural households.
Design Example
A house has a sloping roof of G.I. sheet with an area of 50 sq m. The owner of the house has a
family of 5 members. Design a roof water harvesting system. The 10 year rainfall for the areas
is as follows:
Year Rainfall (mm) Year Rainfall (mm)
Year 1 320 mm Year 6 280 mm
Year 2 360 mm Year 7 335 mm
Year 3 311 mm Year 8 380 mm
Year 4 290 mm Year 9 355 mm
Year 5 330 mm Year 10 340 mm

The maximum rainfall intensity is 10 mm/hour. The lower edge of the roof is 3 m
above the ground.
Solution
Arranging the rainfall in descending order, we get: 380, 355,340, 335, 330, 320, 311,
290, and 280. The highest rainfall of 380 mm is equalled or exceeded only once in 10 years.
Therefore, it’s expected that the return period of this rainfall is 1 in 10 years, which is ‘rare’.
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On the other hand, the lowest rainfall of 280 mm is equalled or exceeded in all the 10 years.
Thus, this is the most reliable figure. So, the system may be designed for this rainfall.
For the roof area of 50 sq m and rainfall of 280 mm, the available water works out as
Q = Area x Rainfall Depth x Runoff coefficient
= 50 x 0.280 x 0.8 = 11.2 cu.m. i.e. 11200 lit
Allowing for a consumption of 10 lit/day/person, this water should be sufficient for
224 days or at least 7 months. As houses are of low height in rural areas, height of the tank
may be limited to 1.6 m with water storage up to 1.4 m height.
Tank Diameter can be calculated as
Total water,
2
π
Q= d xh
4


2
3.14
11.2 = xd x1.4
4

d = 3.19 m
A tank of 3.2 m dia and 1.4 m height should be adequate for storing the water. However, an
extra 0.2 m height may be provided to allow for fixing overflow pipe and dead storage below
the outlet (tap). Thus, a tank having 3.2 m diameter and 1.6m height can be constructed for
the purpose.
Size of Collector Channel (Gutter)
During heavy rains having intensity of 10 mm/hr or more, the runoff coefficient may be taken
as 0.9 (assuming a net loss of 10% of rainfall).
Assuming instant generation of run-off, the maximum rate of runoff from the roof on either
side from the roof area of 50 sq m is worked out as
Roof Area (m
2
) x Rainfall intensity (m/sec) x Runoff coefficient

4
10
= 50 x 0.9 1.25 10 0.125
(1000 x 60 x 60)
x x lps
÷
= =
Assuming the slope of the collector channel as 5 cm for 1 m, i.e. 1 in 200
Trial -1: Providing a collector channel of 0.1 m diameter with half circular
Cross sectional area of the channel (A) = (
2
π
d
4
)/2 = 0.003925 sq m
Perimeter (P) = 0.157m
Hydraulic Mean depth (R) = 0.003925/ 0.157
= 0.25m
For slope of 1 in 200 for the collector channel,
Velocity of flow (V) = 0.24 m/sec
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Discharge (Q) = AX V
= 0.003925 x 0.24
= 0.000942 cum/sec
As the design discharge is only 0.000125 cum/sec, the channel is oversized and hence, it is
not acceptable.

Trial-II: Considering a channel of 0.05 m diameter
Area (A) = 0.00098 sq m
Perimeter (P) = 0.0785 m
Hydraulic Mean Depth, R = 0.00098/ 0.0785= 0.0125m
Velocity (V) = 0.152 m/sec
Discharge (Q) = A x V
= 0.00098 x 0.152= 0.000148 cum/sec.
As this corresponds well with the designed discharge, this channel diameter is accept-
able. The channel may be made of plain Galvanized Iron (G.I) sheet. Width of the G.I. sheet re-
quired for channel is the perimeter of the channel
P = 0.0785 m = 78.5mm
Providing 25 mm extra for fixing with rafters / purlins,
Total width required = 78.5 + 25 = 103.5 mm, Say 104 mm
Tips for Maintenance of the RRHS
i) Always keep the surroundings of the tank clean and hygienic
ii) Remove algae from the roof tiles and asbestos sheets before the monsoon
iii) Drain the tank completely and clean the inside of the tank thoroughly before the
monsoon
iv) Clean the water channels (gutters) often during rainy season and definitely before
the first monsoon rain
v) Avoid first 15 or 20 minutes of rainfall depending on the intensity of rain. Use the
first flush arrangement to drain off this first rainwater.
vi) Change the filter media every rainy season
vii) Cover all inlet and outlet pipes with closely knit nylon net or fine cloth or cap dur-
ing non-rainy season to avoid entry of insects, worms and mosquitoes
viii) Withdrawal water from the system at the rate of 5 litres/head/day. This will en-
sure availability of water throughout the water scarcity period.
ix) Leakage or cracks in the storage tank should be immediately attended to. This will
obviate the need for major repairs caused by propagation of cracks.
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x) Heavy loads should not be applied on the lid.
xi) Water should not be allowed to stagnate in the collection pit
xii) The tap should have lock system to prevent pilferage or wastage of water
xiii) The filter material should be washed thoroughly before replacing in the filter
bucket
xiv) In coastal areas, the outer side of the tank may be painted with corrosion-resistant
paint at least once in 3 years and in other areas lime (Calcium Carbonate) based
whitewash may be applied regularly.



















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on dated 10th December, 2010)
29. Tideman E. M, 1998, Watershed Management – Guidelines for Indian Conditions,
Omega Scientific Publishers, New Delhi.
30. Treatment Technologies for Watershed Development and Management in North
East Region, ENVIS Bulletin Vol 14(1) : Himalayan Ecology, R.K. Singh*, T.D. Lama
and K.K. Satapathy, Division of Agricultural Engineering, ICAR Research Complex for
NEH Region, Umiam - 793 103, Meghalaya;
http://gbpihed.gov.in/envis/HTML/vol14_1/TREATMENT.pdf
31. Watershed Manual by B. K. Kakade, Bharatiya Agro Industries Foundation (BAIF),
2005
32. Watershed Works Manual by Samaj Pragati Sahayog for Ministry of Rural Develop-
ment, Government of India, October 2007
33. Weirs - Flow Rate Measure, The Engineering Tool Box,
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/weirs-flow-rate-d_592.html (accessed on
10th December2010)

Technical Manual for IWMP

Table of Contents

Executive Summary Abbreviations

.................................................................................................................................................. 12

.............................................................................................................................. 13
Watershed Concept ............................................................................................. 15 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 15 Watershed Approach for National Resources Conservation ........................... 16 Objectives of the Manual ................................................................................................ 17 Watershed Management ................................................................................................ 17

Chapter-1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4

Chapter-2 2.1 2.1.1. 2.5.1.2 2.5.1.3 2.5.1.4 2.5.1.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.14.1 2.14.1.1 2.14.2 2.14.2.1 2.14.2.2 2. 14.2.3 2. 14.2.4

Terminologies related to Watershed ............................................................ 20 Precipitation ................................................................................................................ 19 Rainfall Parameters .................................................................................................... 20 Rainfall Amount ..................................................................................................... 20 Rainfall Duration ................................................................................................... 20 Rainfall Intensity ................................................................................................... 20 Rainfall Frequency ................................................................................................ 20 Measurement of Rainfall ................................................................................................ 21 Installation of Rain gauge .............................................................................................. 21 Outflow from the Watershed ....................................................................................... 22 Evaporation......................................................................................................................... 22 Evapotranspiration (ET) ................................................................................................ 22 Subsurface Outflow or Subsurface Runoff .............................................................. 23 Surface Storage .................................................................................................................. 23 Surface Runoff .................................................................................................................... 23 Factors affecting Surface Runoff ................................................................................. 23 Climatic Factors...................................................................................................... 23 Type of precipitation............................................................................................ 23 Physiographic Factors ......................................................................................... 24 Area of the Watershed ......................................................................................... 24 Length of Watershed ............................................................................................ 24 Slope of watershed................................................................................................ 24 Land Use.................................................................................................................... 24
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Technical Manual for IWMP

2. 14.2.5 2. 14.2.6 2. 14.2.7 2. 14.2.8 2. 14.2.9 2.15 2.15.1 2.15.1.2 2.15.2 2.15.3 2.15.4 2.16 2.16.1 2.16.2 2.16.3 2.16.4 2.16.5 2.16.6 2.16.6.1 2.16.6.2 2.16.6.3 2.16.6.3.1 2.16.6.3.1.1 2.16.6.3.1.2 2.16.6.3.1.3 2.16.3.1.4 2.16.3.2 2. 16.3.2.1 2. 16.3.2.2 2. 16.3.2.3 2. 16.3.2.4 2. 16.3.2.5 2. 16.3.2.5.1 2. 16.3.2.5.2 2. 16.3.2.5.3

Drainage Density ................................................................................................... 24 Soil type ..................................................................................................................... 25 Basin Shape .............................................................................................................. 25 Stream Order ........................................................................................................... 25 Drainage Patterns.................................................................................................. 27 Runoff Estimation ....................................................................................................... 29 Rational Method..................................................................................................... 29 Time of Concentration ................................................................................... 30 Runoff Estimation by Empirical Formulae .................................................. 33 Runoff Co-efficient Method ........................................................................... 34 Dicken’s Formula .............................................................................................. 34 Hydrograph ................................................................................................................... 34 Rising limb ............................................................................................................... 35 Falling limb .............................................................................................................. 35 Peak discharge ........................................................................................................ 35 Lag time ..................................................................................................................... 35 Discharge .................................................................................................................. 35 Factors affecting the Hydrograph ......................................................................... 36 Soil Properties .............................................................................................................. 36 Soil Classification ........................................................................................................ 36 Soil Erosion.................................................................................................................... 38 Factors Affecting Erosion ......................................................................................... 39 Climate Factor......................................................................................................... 39 Soil Feature Factor ................................................................................................ 39 Geological Factor ................................................................................................... 40 Biological Factor .................................................................................................... 40 Types of Erosion .......................................................................................................... 40 Raindrop Splash and Sheet Erosion ............................................................... 40 Rill Erosion............................................................................................................... 42 Gully Erosion ........................................................................................................... 42 Stream Bank Erosion ........................................................................................... 43 Stream Bank Erosion Control....................................................................... 43 Supplementary Agronomic Measures...................................................... 43 Vegetative Protection ..................................................................................... 44 Structural Protection ...................................................................................... 44
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Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency

.7.............................................................................................4 3................................................... 54 The Water Tube Level...................3..................................3.......3..............6...........................3..1 3........................... 50 COXS' Formula ........3 3...3 3.............. 60 Functions ......1 3..................................... 49 Construction .............................................................................................3 3.........................3.........3................................................................5............................................ 58 Design of Contour Trenches.............. 61 Limitations .........1..................5 3.2 3..............................................................................................................2.6.................................... 50 Contour Bunds: DO's and DONT's ...2..............3...........3...................................................................................................2 3...........2 3..... 57 Objectives ............................................. 62 Types of Bench Terraces ....1 3............................................................3.......... 60 Contour Trenches: DON'Ts .......1 3.................2.............................3.......3.. 49 Biological Measures ................................................ 59 Determination of spacing ...............2......................7...2 3.......................................7 3........................2........................................................3 3.............................................3........2..................................6 3....................................3...............3......3....3.......2 3................ 45 Chapter-3 3...6 3........................1 3..........................3. 57 Contour Trenching ......6..............3...................... 57 Specifications ........................................................................................1.................................... 57 Types of Trenches ..............................................3... 60 Bench Terracing ...........................................................3.......1 3.........2......6................3..................................... 62 Page | 4 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency ...........................7.....2 3............................................................3......7...............................4 Upper Catchment Area Treatment .............................................................................1...........................3 3............................... 56 Marking the Line ...........Technical Manual for IWMP 2....... 49 Riparian Habitat ............................2 3. 58 Continuous Contour Trenches ..................................3..............................1................................3...........................1 3............................................................................................................................1.................... 61 Functions of Terracing in the Conservation Programme ............................................... 58 Staggered Contour Trenches..2................... 59 Determination of cross sectional area and volume of trench ........................................ 59 Determination of direct runoff volume ... 49 Introduction ............... 50 Contour Bunding ....1 3.....2........................................................2 3............... 49 Live Hedge .................................................4 3.....................3...3 3.............................................3.................. 57 Layout ........... 49 Functions ...........2.................1.................... 53 Marking Contour Lines by field method ...........7 3......... 50 Ramser’s formula ..................................... 16.........3......................................................... 49 Engineering measures ...................................... 50 Objectives ................6 Estimation of Soil Erosion ...........................1..............................2 3.............................................................1 3.................................

................2 3.......2............................................................1 3..8............ 79 Land Levelling ..............1 4...................3................2 3..........1.7 3............................3...........2....................................9.......................................3.3 3................. 63 Terrace Cross Section...........7...............9.........................................................................1 3.....5..................3.........................5 3.......3.......................................................4 3.......................................3 3................5................7...............................3...7...................9......................3.....................3.......2.....................5................ 68 Gully plugging Measures ....1 3.......3....................................................2 3......3 3.............3.............................5................2............................ 77 Outlet ..................5 3.....2....... 71 Laying out Boulder Checks on a Stream ............... 73 Chute Spillway .... 62 Basic design parameters ........................................................................ 72 Design of Loose Boulder check .................2...............................7.................................... 79 Design Methods for Land Levelling..............1 4........................................5................. 79 Plane Method ................1 4.................................9...............4..2...9...................................................2 Middle Catchment Area Treatment ................. 76 Control Section ......8....3.7.................... 80 Earth Work Estimations ............................... 77 Chapter-4 4................................ 62 Design of Bench Terraces ...3..................... 62 Bench Terraces Sloping Outward ....2.......7.......................................................9...........................3 3..........7 Level Bench Terraces ................ 64 Vegetative Grassed Waterways ......................................................8................................ 76 Objectives ........................................................................3...... 67 Channel Grades ............7.........5 3.................9 3...............3........................................... 62 Bench Terraces Sloping Inward ......................................1 3..........7. 63 Terrace spacing .........................7..........9............7.........................................................................................................................2 4............................ 79 Introduction .......................................3..4 3.2....3........................................................2 3......3.....................................8.....1.. 66 Shape .........7.................... 71 Objectives............................................. 69 Nala Plug ......................................4 3...3...........................................6 3....... 77 Cost Estimate .........................2 3......5....................................................Technical Manual for IWMP 3................................................... 81 Page | 5 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency ..............1.......................3..................................................................1 4............3........ 76 Specific Site Conditions ....................3....6 3........5.3...............................................................2 3.........................3..........5...................................................................................8 3....7................ 70 Loose Boulder Checks .......3......... 80 Centroid with respect to Reference Line .............................................................................4........8...................................... 77 Conduit or Chute Discharge Carrier ..................................................4.3.......... 68 Channel Dimensions ....... 63 Terrace Grade along the Width & Length ................................ 71 Location ...... 76 Design ......1 3......................................3...8............

.1..................4 4..................2..2................................................................ 90 Detailed Soil Investigation ......... 84 Control of Soil Erosion .... 91 Building the Pond .................................................... 109 Selection of Embankment Type .......................................................................4. 109 Geology and Foundation Conditions .........................1 Profile Method ......................................................... 84 Improvement of the Soil Moisture Profile .............................................................................5 4.......................................4..............................2...................2 5........................... 97 Waste Weir ..............3.......4........................................3 4.......................................5 4....................2................................2.....................................................................................................................................................3...1.2 4...............3 4........................................................................................ 101 Site Selection ............................ 109 Materials available ..............................................1 4............3.................................... 82 Plan Inspection Method ...............1....................................... 97 Design of Waste Weir ................................................1 5................ 107 Basic Requirements of an Embankment Dam........................... 102 Specifications ......................1..................................................................1................................................................Technical Manual for IWMP 4................................................................................................................3....................2 4...................2 5................3 Lower Catchment Area Treatment ...4 5............................6 4...........4......... 98 Chapter-5 5........... 89 Types of Ponds .............................................................................................................. 87 Farm Pond ......................1.........................................................................4 4.....................2.................. 82 Contour Adjustment Method .5 4...........1........5 5......................1....................................................................3 4....4...................................... 83 Objectives ...............................4...........6 4........... 100 Gabion Structure .......................................................................... 100 Objectives .....2.1..............................................................1 5..2 4....1......................................................2........ 85 Alignment of Bunds under Different Conditions .......................................................................1 5...............................................................................2. 89 Traits of a Good Pond Site................................... 110 Page | 6 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency ....................3......................................... 103 Construction Methodology – Gabion structure .......................................................1................................................... 85 Spacing ............................. 93 Establishing Vegetation ....................1 4..4 4.....................3 4............................5.....................................................................1 5....3................2 5...............3 5..........6 5........... 102 Brief Description of the Construction ..................................... 102 Spacing of the Gabions ..................... 109 Topography .....4....................................2 5........................................... 103 Earthen Dams ....... 82 Farm Bund ........... 84 Planning ...............................................................2..........................1.......... 91 Selecting the Dimensions ....................................1 4...................................................................................4 4.... 95 Volume of Lift ...................................2..............................

............3.....................4......................................................4 5.............................................................2.........................................2............................ 114 Internal Drainage System ...6 5.....2......3......................................................................................3 5...................... 110 Design of Earthen Dam .......3.....3 5.......10 5......... 136 Management of Acid Soil ................................................... 125 Design of Check Dams ......................... 125 Forces Acting on Dam Wall ..1...............3 5...........1 5............................................1 6...........2..5 5...6 6..........................4.................... 112 Height of Embankment ..... 129 Self Weight Force of the Check Dam ...................................................... 113 Slope Protection ..........................3....................4 5.........................2....................................................3................................................................................2..2........2 5.........................................1...................................... 128 Horizontal forces due to stored water ............ 116 Cost estimation of Earthen Dam ............3.........2...................3......... 138 Treating Soil with Lime (CaCo3) .............................4....... 124 Site Characteristic and Design Guidelines for Check Dams .............................3 5.......1...........2.1........................4 5............................................................................................................................3......4......................4 5.... 113 Top Width of Embankment ..............7 5....................................1 5.3..........2...........................................2.................................. 138 Choice of Liming Material ......2 Spillway/Exit weir ............................................2...........................................3........ 110 Technical Requirements .....................................3.................... 139 Lime Requirement for Different Soils.... 132 Advantages .....................2 5............................................ 139 Page | 7 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency .Technical Manual for IWMP 5.... 115 Causes of Failure of Earthen Dams ...................................2 6..........6 5.........2.......................................................................................3................................................... 113 Embankment Side Slopes ..................................................................................2 Measures for Soil Acidity and Soil Salinity ............ 110 Environmental ....... 132 Chapter.......4.1..............1 6...... 135 Soil Acidity ............................................. 129 Uplift Force due to Standing Water Column ........9 5..............7 5...........3.................3......3...2 5.................................................................. 114 Design of Waste Weir ............................3................... 111 Foundation Cutoffs (Key trench) ....................................... 123 Classification of Check Dams ............................2.................................... 135 Causes of Soil Acidity ..................... 132 Construction and Design Guidelines.. 129 Sub-Surface Check Dams/Dykes ....................1 6................................................................................................................ 118 Check Dam .3...............................................2..........2.......8 5.......5 5............................ 110 Economic Analysis ............ 114 Free Board .......1 5............1 5.....3.........3...................2.............................2...................................................3 5.............3...........................................3 6.5 5...2........................................... 129 Causes of Failure of Check Dam ..........................

...............3.........4 Measures for Water Logging Area .........................................3. 157 Page | 8 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency ...................1.......................... 144 Biological Method .3 7..........................2 6................1 7...4..... 151 Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater ........ 150 Strategies for Prevention and Management of Water-logging ..... 144 Chemical Method ............ 154 Bedding system .......................1 6..............................3 6...... 156 Subsurface Drainage System ...............2.....................2...2..................2............................ 145 Shallow Rooted Crops ....................3............1....4...............4..2......3......................2..2 6......................................................... 145 Land Forming ...............................2......1 7..2 6...1...............................2 7..........................................................Technical Manual for IWMP 6..............................2...........................................................................................................3.........................1.............................1..... 150 Water Logging ........1.....2.....................2............................... 145 Tillage Practices ................ 151 Surface Drainage .............1.....................1 7... 150 Causes of Water Logging .......................... 151 On Farm Water Management................3..2 7....................................................................2.....4. 144 Planting Salt Tolerant Crops ...................................4..2.............................2.......3.....2...........................1 6.......................3....... 145 Reclamation of Sodic Soils ......................................1 6.....3...............4 6......4..............2 6......3....1 7.1 6................3 6.................................................................................................................1.................3..................... 147 Amount of Water Required for Leaching.....................................................................1. 149 Chapter-7 7................... 152 Types of Surface Drainage ............................................. 141 Classification of Soil Salinity .............. 155 Design Criteria for Surface/Field Drainage ................ 142 Reclamation of Saline Soil...............................2. 141 Distinguishing Features of Saline and Sodic Soils ..... 151 Planting Trees in Vulnerable Reaches/Bio-drainage ....................3..............................................3 7......................2............................ 153 Random Drain System .................1............4...............................................................................................2 7................5 Cropping Pattern for Acid Soil Region ..................1 7..................................2 6..................................................1.................................1.1.............1......... 144 Crop Selection ...........2............................................................3..... 154 Design of Surface Drainage System ........1 7............1......................................2..................4 6..........................................................3 6.... 140 Soil Salinity .......................................2....1 6........... 148 Mulching ............2. 147 Application of Additional Dose of Plant Nutrients ...............2....2............................1.................2..1..................... 153 The Parallel Field Drains .................................. 146 Improved Irrigation Techniques .....3 7.2 7.............................................2............................. 151 Lining of Water Distribution System ..................................... 147 Leaching .....................4 6.2..................................1.............3 6...........4 7.....................

..............................1 7...........................1......1................ 158 Design of Subsurface Drainage System ..................................3 7........4... 167 Chapter-8 8.......3.................. 158 Drainage criteria ....... 163 Mole Drain ...1 7.................4 7...................... 166 Spacing......................................................3................ 166 Gradient of Mole Drain ....5......1........................ 168 Conditions of Ground Water Recharge .................................4........4....1 7.....6 Artificial Recharge to Ground Water ...........................................3..........................4.........1.4 7.......................................... 166 Depth of Mole Drain .. 161 Tile Drain Method ....4..1 8...................... 171 Ground Water Recharge through existing Tube Wells ..4..........3.......................4....................3.....1..............................5 7.........................3....1...............................3....5.............. 176 Ground Water Recharge through Dugwells .........................1 8......................... 168 Prioritization of Area for Ground Water Recharge ........ 161 Types of Drainage Materials ....1.....................................1...............................4................5 7................................................. 173 Percolation Tanks........................................4...............................2 7.............4.......... 174 General Guidelines ..1...7 Drainage Investigations .4 8......................................................................................4..... 158 Subsurface Drainage Methods ........................................................ 166 Outfall/Outlet .......3 7...............................2 7........................................5 7...................... 157 Groundwater Conditions .............................. 175 Ground Water Recharge through Shaft .........4......4.........................................4............. 166 Length ....................................................1........1.................4................3 7........ 160 Drainage Materials for Subsurface Drainage ..................................Technical Manual for IWMP 7......................5..................1.................................1........... 159 Installation of Subsurface Drainage System ......... 173 Factors Considered for Selection of Site .............................5 7....1... 165 Testing for Suitability for Mole Draining ..................6 7...................1....... 168 Types of Ground Water Recharge Structure ....1 8... 177 Page | 9 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency ........................4......4...........................................1.......................3 8...................1..................2 8.......1.................10.......4......................... 170 Ground Water Recharge through Trench ............3 7.......................................... 169 Ground Water Recharge through Pit ..................................................................5.....1..................................................3 8...........................3.....................2 8.....................5....2 8..2 7... 162 Spacing of Lateral Drains ....1...5 8....................................5.............................................10........2 7................................................................. 159 Sub-surface Drainage Coefficient ....................4................................................................. 172 Ground Water Recharge through Percolation Tank ...................... 165 Construction of Mole Drain ......................1..3....................................10. 161 Depth of Lateral Drains ................1 7.............4 7..................................................................4. 162 Size of Tile Drain ......3 8.......................................5................

.......... 181 Design Considerations .... 185 First Flush Pipe .................2.....................2...............................................................2 9.................. 188 Rapid Sand Filters ............................... 189 Size of Storage Tanks for Rural Areas ..............................................................4 9...3......................................... 189 Space of Water Tank..9..............................1 9..............................................................................................................2.....................6...........3..................................... 196 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 10 .6..............Technical Manual for IWMP 8......................2...................................2........................ 191 Collection Sump ..................9.....9....9........................................................2 Features of Artificial Dugwell Recharge Structures .....3 9.....................................4 9.......................................... 184 Gutters ............ 187 Filter Sand ......... 177 Benefits of Ground Water Recharge through Dugwells .............. 185 Down Pipe .................7 9................................... 192 References .......................2.......................................................2.................................................................................8 9......................................................................... 191 Economic Viability ................................2 9. 186 Filtration of Water .................9.........................2......................5 9...2 9...............................................9 9.....2........................................................3 9.......................1 8............................ 183 Drain Pipes ......................................................................................................... 181 Components of Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting .....5 Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting Structure ................................ 188 Storage Tank .............................. 182 Roof Catchment............................................................................................. 178 Chapter-9 9.................................6 9..........................2.........................................................................2........................2.............................................2..........2............1 9......................... 191 Pump Unit.......1 9.

percolation tanks. Government of India. bench terracing. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 11 . Central Ground Water Board (CGWB). earthen dams. as per the new common guidelines 2008 issued by Ministry of Land Resources. Chapter-4 involves soil and water conservation activities for lower catchment area treatment covers gabion structures. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute (CSWCRTI). farm bund. nala plug. surface drainage and sub-surface drainage methods. Chapter-8 involves details of roof top rain water harvesting structures. covers artificial recharge to ground water through recharge pits. Water Resources.e. Vasad (Anand). in consultation with various professional research institutes i. contour trenching. This manual gives systematically ridge to valley treatment with details engineering activities with appropriate design. Gujarat Land Development Corporation (GLDC) and referred various technical books and reports on watershed Development. Comprehensive details is written for all types of possible soil and water conservation engineering structures in ridge to valley principle under IWMP. drawings. Water Supply and Kalpsar Department. This manual will act as a key tool to all the field engineers of integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) for practical guidance. estimation example and photograph of each structure. Chapter -6 involves measures for water logging that covers on farm water management. sub-surface check dams/dykes. Chapter-1 involves watershed concept and its related terminology. The appropriate design and proper selection of site is very important for ridge to valley treatment. Ahmedabad. chute spill way. West Central Region. Govt. Chapter-7 involves various techniques of groundwater recharge. recharge shafts and through existing dug wells. farm pond and waste weir. Chapter-3 involves land development activities for middle catchment area treatment that covers land leveling. of Gujarat. recharge trenches. etc.Technical Manual for IWMP Executive Summary This Technical Manual for Integrated Watershed Management Programme is prepared by experienced technical officials of Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency (GSWMA). Chapter-2 involves soil and moisture conservation activities for upper catchment area treatment that covers contour bunding. masonry check dams. loose boulder checks. Narmada. existing tube wells. earthen dam. Chapter-5 involves measures for soil acidity and soil salinity covers its causes and management.

Technical Manual for IWMP Abbreviations AKF AKRSP BAIF BCR BDO BPL CAPART CAZRI CBO CDS CEO CESS CGWB CIDA CSWCRTI DDP DLR DPAP DRDA DSC DWDU EAP EAS FAO FPR FRL GIA GIS GLDC GPS GSWMA GWD Aga Khan Foundation Aga Khan Rural Support Programme Bharatiya Agro-Industries Foundation Benefit-Cost Ratio Block Development Office Below Poverty Line Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology Central Arid Zone Research Institute community-Based organisation Current Daily Status Chief Executive Officer Centre for Economic and Social Studies Central Ground Water Board Canadian International Development Agency Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute Desert Development Programme Department of Land Resources Drought Prone Areas Programme District Rural Development Agency Development Support Centre District Watershed Development Unit Externally Aided Project Employment Assurance Scheme Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations Flood Prone Rivers Full Reservoir Level Gross Irrigated Area Geographical Information System Gujarat Land Development Corporation Global Positioning System Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Ground Water Development Page | 12 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency .

Technical Manual for IWMP GWT HM HST IARI ICAR ICRISAT IFAD IGWDP IIM I-JRY IRR IT IWDP IWMI IWMP LCC LEISA LGP MDT MGNREGS MIS MoRD MoU MTO NABARD NASDORA NBSS-LUP NCMP NDDB NGO NRM NRSA NSS NTFP NWDPRA Ground Water Table Hhard Mooram Hind Swaraj Trust Indian Agricultural Research Institute Indian Council of Agricultural Research International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics International Fund for Agricultural Development Indo-German Watershed Development Programme Indian Institute of Management Innovative Jawahar Rozgar Yojana Internal Rate of Return Information Technology Integrated Wastelands Development Programme International Water Management Institute Integrated Watershed Management Programme Land Capability Class Low External Input Sustainable Agriculture Length of Growing Period Multi-Disciplinary Team Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme Management Information System Ministry of Rural Development Memorandum of Understanding Master Trainer Organisation National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development National Authority for Sustainable Development of Rainfed Areas National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning National Common Minimum Programme National Dairy Development Board Non-Government Organization natural resource management National Remote Sensing Agency National Sample Survey Non-Timber Forest Produce National Watershed Development Programme for Rainfed Areas Page | 13 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency .

Technical Manual for IWMP PE PET PIA PM PMES PNP PRA PRADAN PRI PRM PSI RDT RVP SC SHG SIDA SIDBI SMC SoR SPS ST SVO TE VRTI VWC WA WASSAN WC WDF WDT ZP Professional Expert Potential Evapo-Transpiration Project Implementing Agency Project Manager Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Systems Participatory Net Planning Participatory Rural Appraisal Professional Action for Development and Networking Panchayati Raj Institution Participatory Resource Mapping People’s Science Institute Rural Development Trust River Valley Projects Scheduled Caste Self-Help Group Swiss International Development Agency Small Industries Development Bank of India Soil and Moisture Conservation Schedule of Rates Samaj Pragati Sahayog Scheduled Tribe Support Voluntary Organisation Technical Expert Vivekananda Research and Training Institute Village Watershed Committee Watershed Association Watershed Support Services and Activities Network Watershed Committee Watershed Development Fund Watershed Development Team Zilla Panchayat Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 14 .

it can deplete Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 15 . Ground water was being used by means of shallow wells in 1960-61.1 Introduction The stress on water resources started in Gujarat due to green revolution (in early Sixties). Land degradation is a major cause of productivity losses and soil erosion is the most serious one among the various factors affecting land degradation. Therefore soil conservation is of primary importance in any land development work. There are many time-tested technologies for soil and water conservation that can be adopted for alternate land use systems whether it is crop production. Water is almost a dual edge sword. in situ conservation practices such as formation of basins. Hectic exploration and exploitation of ground water for drinking. in alluvium areas. The importance of watershed development cannot be underestimated. a practice. Also. For small areas. soil water (moisture) conservation is of vital importance for successful crop production. gradually from wells to bores and tube wells to deeper tube wells. watershed scale development work may have to be taken up. The type of soil and water conservation measure will depend on the size and shape of the areas to be developed for cropping. which has resulted in dwindling of water levels.Technical Manual for IWMP Chapter. agricultural and industrial purposes has been practiced all over the Gujarat state for past few decades. asset less and landless agricultural labour. if allowed to fall and flow unabated and unchecked. Watershed approach aims at restoration of ecological balance preserving environment and stabilizing the income of village community both farmers. fast development in industrial sector and change in health and hygiene habits of people of Gujarat. to dedicate their professional lives to study water for its proper use and management for future needs. Exploration has already reached to the levels of almost 600 Mts. its location within the watershed of which this area is a part. in dry lands. in the form of rain. Since 1996. If instead it can be captured allowed percolation time. the kind of plantation being taken up etc. agro-forestry. This phenomenon has activated minds of many scientists and engineers working in water sector. or micro relief systems and agronomic conservation practices may suffice whereas for large plantations. which turned. silvi-pasture system or any other. agrohorticulture systems. On one hand is the need to increase food productivity and hence productivity from soil and the other increasing soil erosion and depleting water availability. horticulture. Government of India has issued guideline for the implementation of area development programme adopting watershed approach.1 Watershed Concept 1. in hard rock areas and 400 Mts.

Demarcation of watershed and subsequently sub watersheds can be done either by using toposheet of the area available with Survey of India or by interpretation of remotely sensed imagery of the area. biological and cultural treatments. Engineering measures are also called mechanical measures. A workable size of the watershed can be decided in accordance with the aim and objective of the particular system as well as the size of the stream for which it forms a catchment. The entire watershed can be treated gradually over a number of years as per the availability of financial and other resources. Thus. fuel and fiber on sustainable basis. These Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 16 . In this manual only engineering measures suitable for the region are discussed. Watershed management involves protection of land against all forms of degradation. pollutants control. etc. Prioritization of sub watershed should be done on the basis of sediment yield and pollutants concentration in the runoff from the sub watershed. facilitates favorable interaction among various watershed factors such as physiography. hydrological behavior etc. and prevention of floods. These technologies when adopted within the boundary of watershed. land use. Watershed of smaller size has distinct advantage of involving a smaller number of families within a resource unit with a common social and economic pattern. But identification of most suitable technologies as per the site condition and their application in correct way is most important to achieve the desired results.Technical Manual for IWMP reservoir and half soil erosion to a certain extent. fodder. land slope. the effective conservation and management of land. Watershed management discusses the impact of watershed on people. and protecting vegetation. Watershed being a natural hydrological entity. The concept of soil conservation. it responds most effectively to various engineering. Numerous treatment technologies in the form of engineering measures and agronomic practices are available. 1. soil characteristics. It thus makes sense to adopt soil and water conservation method together through watershed management and development. sediment control. land and water resources to produce food. water and vegetation resources aimed at obtaining optimum and sustained return from these resources without degrading them can be achieved by adopting watershed as basic unit of development.2 Watershed Approach for National Resources Conservation The scope of soil conservation is very wide and encompasses much more than physical work for erosion control. Monitoring of runoff and silt at the outlet of the watershed can help assess the impact of various treatments aimed at conserving soil and water. the need for people participation and how this can be achieved and most considerably provides a format for watershed planning. restoration of degraded land. now-a-days has been expanded to mean protection of the soil against physical loss by erosion or against chemical deterioration.

treatments for partial water logging areas. lower catchment area treatment.Technical Manual for IWMP measures are aimed at arresting the movement of eroded soil by reducing the slope length and / or slope steepness or gradient and conserving water by different methods. 1. acidity and salinity controls. then upper catchment area treatment. This manual "Technical Manual for Watershed" aims to attempt development of watershed in the Indian context and particularly considering the need of Gujarat. implementing and/or monitoring of watershed programme. The stake holders will be able to: i) Apply integrated approach to watershed.4 Watershed Management A watershed is an area from which runoff. Some of these measures suitable for agricultural lands and their design and potential land use models are discussed. The proper design and proper selection of sites have discussed in this manual systematically in ridge to valley development approach with drawings and example photographs of each structures. various factors and terminology used in watershed development programme. flows past a single common outlet point into a large stream. iv) Reclamation of soil acidity and salinity. iii) Use rainwater-harvesting techniques. resulting from precipitation. Many of field engineers are joining as fresh without any practical experience and many field engineers not having relevant field experiences will get the benefited from this manual. This manual is prepared in comprehensive for all types of possible soil and water conservation engineering structures applicable in integrated watershed management programme as per the new common guidelines 2008 issued by Government of India. It will be helpful as they will work out how structures are built and cost estimated. land development activities. In other words a Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 17 . Line Departments and organizations who will be involved in planning. It aims at actual identifying ideal soil conservation structures. water harvesting structures and their design situated to a particular topography. It is meant for those individuals like Multi Disciplinary Team (MDT)/Watershed Development Team (WDT) member.3 Objectives of the Manual The manual will play a key tool of practical guidance to the field engineers at village level as well as district levels. This manual covers complete engineering treatments starting with basics and concept of watershed development and management. lake or a reservoir. a river. 1. ii) Apply techniques of soil and water conservation in watershed management. ground water recharging techniques and roof rain water harvesting techniques.

000-300. Watershed management implies the proper use of all land and water resource of a watershed for optimum production with minimum hazard to natural resources.00.00.000 2.000 10.00. Fig 1: A watershed Table 1: Hierarchy of Watersheds Category Basin Catchment Sub-catchment Watershed Sub-watershed Milli-watershed Mini watershed Size (ha) 30.00.000 1000-4000 Micro-watershed 100-1000 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 18 .000-2.000 4000-10.000 50.000-10.00.00. A watershed may be only a few hectares as in case of small ponds or hundreds of square kilometers as in case of rivers. All watersheds can be divided into smaller sub watersheds.000-30.00.Technical Manual for IWMP watershed is a topographically delineated area that is drained by a stream system through single outlet.000-50.000 10. A watershed is made up of its physical and hydrological natural resources as well as human resources.

climate data. flow data and sediment flow. Data to be collected for planning of watershed programmes are (i) hydrological information . soil data.Technical Manual for IWMP The objectives of watershed management are: i) To control damaging runoff ii) To manage and utilize runoff for useful purposes iii) To control erosion iv) To moderate floods in the downstream areas v) To enhance groundwater storage and vi) To decide use of appropriate of the land resources in the watershed. topography. geology and vegetation and (iii) Socio-economic data as per needs of the people to work out cost benefit of the project.precipitation. (ii) Soil and land use data land use. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 19 . (iv) precipitation (v) land use and (vi) vegetative cover. The factors which affect the watershed behavior and which need to be studied in management programmes are (i) size and shape of the watershed (ii) topography (iii) soil and their characteristics.

second. 2.1. The liquid form of precipitation that is rainfall is used for various purposes such as land use planning. It is measured in terms of linear unit i. It has the unit of time.2 Rainfall Amount Rainfall amount is the depth to which rainwater would collect on horizontal surface under conditions of no infiltration. in mm or cm. It is expressed in units of mm/hr or cm/hr. choice of cropping pattern. Thus. rain is likely to equal or exceed 30 cm. 2.4 Rainfall Intensity Rainfall Intensity is defined as the rate at which rainfall takes place or it is the amount of rainfall occurring per unit of time. identification of crop growth period. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 20 . A high intensity rainfall occurring over a short period is more harmful for the unprotected soil as compared to low intensity rainfall occurring over a longer period. 2. viz.1. it means that on this station. e. It is one of the most important parameter which is used for the design of soil and water conservation structures.1 Precipitation Terminologies related to Watershed It is nothing but the all atmospheric moisture that reaches to earth surface in liquid.3 Rainfall Duration The period during which the rainfall occurs is known as the duration of rainfall. the chances of rainfall are such that once in 10 years. resources allocation. intensity and rainfall frequency. In other words. it is vertical depth to which rainwater would collect if water remains where it falls. 2. 2.5 Rainfall Frequency Rainfall frequency and return period are synonymous terms and denote the period in years during which a storm of given intensity and duration can expected to occur.1.1. duration. vapor or solid forms. etc.Technical Manual for IWMP Chapter-2 2 2. the total amount of rainfall remaining the same. if at a given station the maximum daily precipitation of 30 cm has got recurrence interval of 10 years.1 Rainfall Parameters Rainfall parameters which are important from soil conservation and hydrological point of view are rainfall amount. minutes or hours.1. no runoff and no evaporation.

Repeat till all the collected water has been individually measured and noted. place a spare bottle immediately after the bottle inside the receiver is taken out so that no record is missed during the interval. maintain the level of rain gauge 300 mm above the maximum flood level. Take the reading at the bottom of curved surface of the water and estimate it to the nearest 0. Use a rain gauge of appropriate capacity as specified in IS:5225-1969 for measuring very heavy rainfall If rainfall is very heavy at the time of observation. non-recording or standard rain gauge and recording rain gauge. sunk into the ground in such a manner that the rim of the rain gauge is exactly 300 mm above the ground level. Pour the water collected from bottle (from inside the gauge) into the glass-measuring cylinder (IS: 4849-1968) placed on level surface. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 21 . Measurement must be taken daily at 8. All forms of precipitation shall be measured on the basis of vertical depth of water. Rain gauge is the device/instrument used for the measurement of rainfall. Rainfall can be measured simply by installing a rain gauge. viz. This height is necessary to prevent water splashing into the gauge. as change in the effective area of the collector changes the amount of rain collected. Keep the top of the gauge perfectly level and true to shape. Need to take care to avoid spilling of the collected water. Replace the bottle quickly and pour the rainfall collected in spare bottle in it.2 Measurement of Rainfall Measurement of rainfall is a process of sampling wherein the rainfall measuring devices are located at predetermined points in the watershed and then the average value is determined for the area. Two types of rain gauges are used for measurement of rainfall. A simple manual rain gauge (non-recording type) can be easily installed in an open area and the accumulated rainfall measured regularly i. take the reading and throw away the water.e once in a day. fill the glass nearly up to the top graduation mark. In flood-prone areas. 2. Examine the raingauge daily at this hour even if there is no rainfall.1 mm If there is more water in the bottle than the measuring glass can hold. The total rainfall is the sum of all these measurement.30 hr Indian Standard Time.3 Installation of Rain gauge The base of rain gauge should be masonry or concrete foundation of size 600 X 600X600 mm.Technical Manual for IWMP 2.

leave the container in the field for 24 hr and make sure that it does not rain during those 24 hr. ground water recharge. 2.5 Evaporation Water that lost as vapour from soil or open surface is called evaporation. subsurface outflow. a part of the water originally in the container will have evaporated. After 24 hr. soil moisture. Imagine the open container. It takes into account various parameters. The evapotranspiration of crop is the total amount of soil water used for transpiration by plants and evaporation from the surrounding Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 22 . evapotranspiration.6 Evapotranspiration (ET) Evapotranspiration of the particular area is the water lost from soil by evaporation and water lost from plant leaves by transpiration.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig 2: Non-recording type Rain Gauge 2. then the evaporation during that day was 15-9 = 6 mm. with a depth of 15 mm of water in it. which help in calculating the actual outflow that has occurred from the watershed. 2. These parameters include evaporation. the amount of water that leaves the watershed surface area. The pan evaporation method is the most commonly used method.4 Outflow from the Watershed Outflow from the watershed means. surface runoff and surface storage. There are various methods to calculate the evaporation within the area. If only 9 mm of water depth remains in the container.

To calculate the storage capacity of surface water. Subsurface flow could be calculated using the simple method of calculating the discharge of seepage in the streams or any outlet.1 Climatic Factors The climatic factors of the watershed affecting the runoff are mainly associated with the characteristics of precipitation. to the streams. For the design of any soil and water conservation structures and waterways or channels. Evapotranspiration is commonly expressed in mm of water used per day (mm/day) 2. 2.8 Surface Storage Surface storages include all the surface water storages existing in the watershed. runoff volume and peak rate of runoff are required to be estimated. It occurs when all losses are satisfied and if rain is still continued. with the rate greater than infiltration rate.9 Surface Runoff It is that portion of rainfall.10. at this stage water starts flowing over the land as overland flow.4 x Length of spread x Breadth of dam x Height of water near the dam. thumb rule equation can be used as Storage= 0. which enters the stream immediately after the rainfall. This parameter is one of the major components in measuring the water balance.Technical Manual for IWMP soil surface. For accurate calculation of the amount of water in each structure. rivers or ocean. which include: i) Type of precipitation ii) Rainfall intensity iii) Duration of precipitation iv) Rainfall distribution v) Direction of prevailing wind Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 23 . 2. 2.10 Factors affecting Surface Runoff 2. Based on the contours. Runoff rate is expressed in cubic meter per seconds and runoff volume or water yield from watershed is generally expressed as m3. a contour survey of the site is necessary. This is collected in stream and can be observed in the forms of a flow in stream in the month of January to May.7 Subsurface Outflow or Subsurface Runoff It is the part of rainfall. one can accurately define the storage capacity of the structure. which leaches into the soil and moves laterally without joining the water table.

local crop management practices. 2. we try to reduce the slope so that runoff takes more time to reach the outlet and during that period a part of it recharges ground water.5 Slope of watershed Watershed slope affects the momentum of runoff. The total volume and rate of runoff depends on the area of the watershed.10. It is usually calculated as the elevation difference between the endpoints of the main flow path divided by the length. This length is usually used in computing a time parameter. the watershed as well as channel characteristics. The watershed length is therefore measured along the principal flow path from the watershed outlet to the basin boundary. flow from an impervious steeply sloped and smooth surface make a little retardation and no loss to the flow. It reflects the volume of water that can be generated from a rainfall. As the length of watershed is more.2 Physiographic Factors Physiographic factors of watershed consist of both. 2.10. per unit area values decreases due to longer opportunity time.10. Higher slope causes high runoff rate within short period of time. During a rainstorm.6 Land Use Land use pattern. are listed below: 2. The drainage density and its pattern affects the Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 24 . The different characteristics of watershed and channel. runoff takes more time to reach at its peak value.4 Length of Watershed This is the distance traveled by the surface drainage and sometimes more appropriately labeled as hydrologic length. Therefore in watershed development principle.7 Drainage Density The drainage density (Dd) is defined as the ratio of total length (L) of channel in the watershed to the total watershed area (A). which is a measure of the travel time of water through a watershed. 2. forest or grass land determines the runoff producing characteristics of the watershed. Watershed slope reflects the rate of change of elevation with respect to distance along the principal flow path.10.Technical Manual for IWMP 2.10. which affect the runoff.3 Area of the Watershed The area of watershed is also known as the drainage area and it is the most important watershed characteristic for hydrologic analysis.10. In comparison. flow along a pervious grassy hill of the same size will produce retardation and significant loss to the flow due to infiltration. Vegetated watershed produces less runoff than the bare watershed due to induced opportunity time. 2. However.

soil structure and soil texture as the infiltration and permeability depend upon the soil characteristic. D d= L/A 2. second-order. parameters that reflect basin shape are used occasionally and have a conceptual basis. to channel dimensions and to stream discharge at that place in the system. 2. Usefulness of the stream order is based on the premise that the order is directly proportional to size of the contributing watershed. An elliptical watershed having the outlet at one end of the major axis and having the same area as the circular watershed would cause the runoff to be spread out over time. The bifurcation ratio is calculated as Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 25 . For a watershed. as compared to homogeneous profile.10 Stream Order Horton (from Horton’s infiltration equation fame) developed a set of “laws” that are indicators of the geomorphologic characteristics of watershed. A third-order stream is a tributary formed by two or more second-order streams and so on. the values range from 3 to 5. first-order. The bifurcation ratio (Rb) is defined as the ratio of the number of streams of any order to the number of streams of the next highest order. The stream order is a measure of the degree of stream branching within a watershed.Technical Manual for IWMP runoff. the principal order is defined as the order of the principal channel.10. and the shape supposedly reflects the way that runoff will “bunch up” at the outlet. The concept of stream order is used to compute other indicators of drainage character. Watersheds have an infinite variety of shapes. Typically. The stream through which all discharge of water and sediments pass in the stream is known as highest order stream of that watershed. Values of Rb typically range from the theoretical minimum of 2 to around 6.8 Soil type In the watershed. however. an nth order stream is a tributary formed by two or more streams of order (n-1) and streams of lower order. thus producing a smaller flood peak than that of the circular watershed. 2. In general.). greater the drainage density. Each length of stream is indicated by its order (for example. A circular watershed would result in runoff from various parts of the watershed reaching the outlet at the same time.9 Basin Shape Basin shape is not used directly in hydrologic design methods. The figure below gives an example of stream ordering. the surface runoff is mainly influenced by soil type. A first-order stream is an un-branched tributary. More runoff is expected from a layered soil. etc.10. a second-order stream is a tributary formed by two or more first-order streams. more would be the runoff due to efficient drainage.10.

In addition to this Horton proposed a Law of Stream Lengths.6 4-I This would predict 18. Horton developed the Law of Stream Numbers which relates the number of streams of order I (Ni) to the bifurcation ratio and the principal stream order (k) Ni = Rb k-1 Example: The bifurcation ratio of a watershed is the average of the bifurcation ratios of each stream order. For a watershed with a bifurcation ratio of 2. 2. and 3 streams of order 1. 7.Technical Manual for IWMP Rb = Ni/Ni+1 From this. respectively. and 3.6 and a fourth-order principal stream. Schumm (1956) proposed a Law of Stream Areas to relate the average areas Ai drained by streams of successive order RA= Ai+1/Ai Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 26 . Ni = 2. in which the average lengths of the streams of successive orders are related by a length ratio RL: RL = Li+1/Li Li = L1rL i-1 By similar.

and the volume of water available in a given period of time to enter the surface. The texture is governed by soil infiltration.10. Drainage channels develop where surface runoff is enhanced and earth materials provide the least resistance to erosion. a stream system will achieve a particular drainage pattern to its network of stream channels and tributaries as determined by local geologic factors. Their shape or pattern develops in response to the local topography and subsurface geology.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig 3: Stream order 2. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 27 . Over time.11 Drainage Patterns Geomorphologists and hydrologists often view streams as being a part of drainage pattern. Drainage patterns are classified on the basis of their form and texture.

dendritic. Short tributary streams enter the main channel at sharp angles as they run down sides of parallel ridges called anticlines. and trellis patterns. All forms of transitions can occur between parallel. elongate landforms like outcropping resistant rock bands.Technical Manual for IWMP A dendrite drainage pattern is the most common form and looks like the branching pattern of tree roots. A parallel pattern sometimes indicates the presence of a major fault that cuts across an area of steeply folded bedrock. Tributary streams tend to stretch out in a parallel-like fashion following the slope of the surface. It develops in regions underlain by homogeneous material. the common garden trellis. the subsurface geology has a similar resistance to weathering so there is no apparent control over the direction the tributaries take. Fig 4: Dendrite drainage pattern Parallel drainage patterns form where there is a pronounced slope to the surface. Tributaries are joining larger streams at acute angle (less than 90 degrees). That is. Fig 5: Parallel drainage patterns Trellis drainage patterns look similar to their namesake. Trellis drainage develops in folded topography like that found in the Appalachian Mountains of North America. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 28 . A parallel pattern also develops in regions of parallel. Tributaries join the main stream at nearly right angles. Down-turned folds called synclines form valleys in which resides the main channel of the stream.

A 360 Where. it may not be appropriate for some applications. The two commonly used methods of runoff computation from small watershed are rational method and Empirical formulae method. The tributary streams appear significantly more contorted than they were prior to glaciation. Due to its simplicity and inherent assumptions. Different components of the Rational Method are explained below Q C.1 Rational Method For urban watersheds of less than 100 acres that are not complex and do not have significant storage areas.11 Runoff Estimation There are number of methods and empirical formulae employed for the estimation of runoff.11. After receding. Fig.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig 6: Trellis drainage pattern Deranged or contorted patterns develop from the disruption of a pre-existing drainage pattern. m3 C = Runoff Coefficient (constant value ranges from 0 to 1) I = Rainfall intensity for design frequency and duration equal to time of concentration.I . 7 began as a dendritic pattern but was altered when overrun by glacier. Fig 7: Deranged or contorted pattern 2. the glacier left behind fine grain material that forms wetlands and deposits that dammed the stream to impound a small lake. it is acceptable to use the Rational Method to determine peak flow rates only. 2. mm/hr Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 29 . Q = Peak rate of runoff.

3 0.6 0. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 30 . i) Calculate the slope for the flow path.1 0.3 Clay and slit Loam 0.4 0. Tc. Ha The general procedure for Rational Method calculations for a single watershed is as follows: Delineate the watershed boundary and calculate its area.Technical Manual for IWMP A = Area of watershed.42 0. Define and measure the flow path from the upper-most portion of the watershed to the deign point.1 0.3 0.35 0. When using the Rational Method.50 Stiff clay 0.16 0.60 0. is defined as the time required for water to travel from the most hydraulically remote point in a watershed to the point of outlet. Suresh) 2. the rainfall duration used to determine intensity should typically equal the time of concentration of the drainage area.52 0. Tc iii) Find the rainfall intensity I.82 0.6 0-5 Cultivated land 5-10 10-30 0-5 Pasture land 5-10 10-30 0-5 Forest land 5-10 10-30 (Source: “Soil and Water Conservation Engineering” book by R. then calculations should be based upon the flow length and path that results in a Tc for the highly developed portion of the drainage area only. ii) Calculate time of concentration. C Soil Texture Vegetative cover Slope (%) Sandy Loam 0.50 0.25 0.55 0. If a highly developed portion of the watershed produces a higher rate of runoff than the overall drainage area. iv) Determine the runoff coefficient.7 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.1.1 Time of Concentration The time of concentration.36 0.4 0.11.22 0. for the design storm using the calculated Tc as the duration. C v) Calculate the peak flow rate from the watershed using above equation Table 2: Value of runoff coefficient.72 0.6 0.

In the rational method. Tc = time of concentration. Rainfall intensity for design frequency and duration equal to time of concentration. m S = average slope of channel. L= longest length.a. m/m One Hour rainfall : The intensity of severest rainfall during a given recurrence interval of particular region. in this case one hour rainfall intensity is converted accordingly with Tc value.0195 L0.77 x S-0. m/m T= return period in years K. minutes Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 31 .T a I= (Tc+b) n Where. b and n are constant as per zone. during the time interval of one hour is called as one hour rainfall for that return period/frequency. The equation is given below Tc= 0. Kirpich (1940) developed an equation for computing the Tc on the basis of channel length and its average slope. the intensity of rainfall should be equal to the time of concentration.Technical Manual for IWMP Computation of Time of Concentration There are several empirical relations available for computing the time of concentration.385 Where. Tc = time of concentration. minutes L = length of channel reach. for computing peak runoff. cm/hr is given by following formula K. m S= average slope of channel.

50 b 0.9284 0.75 1.0086 0.25 0.250 5.1150 (1.126 6.7011 4.9374 0.1557 0.9635 0.933 K 6.25 0.683 6.206 7.1502 0.1692 0.9902 1.8801 n 1.1892 0.1711 0.1638 0.596 14.50 0.75 n 0. India Zone Station Aearthala Dumdum Gauliati Gava Imphal Jamshedpur Jharsitguda Noltll Lakhimpur Sagar Island Shilons Eastern Zone Station Bangalore Hyderabad Kodaikanal Madras Mangalore Tinichiapalli Trivandrurn Visakhapatnam Southern Zone K 8.9963 0.50 0.8587 0.9296 6.1340 0.135 6.9280 11.2214 0.8158 0.762 6.930 8.1354 0.8767 1.50 0.1536 0.9401 0.4645 a 0.1392 0.1280 1.7065 11.9719 9.8027 0.Technical Manual for IWMP Table 3: Intensity-duration-return period relationship.50 0.1483 0.9241 0.50 0.744 7.1560 0.50 1.0324 0.75 0.1712 b 1.1747 0.0651 1.275 5.0730 0.914 6.9624 0.311 a 0.1389 0.1523 b 0.75 0.1206 0.1307 0.45 4.25 1.15 0.50 0.1664 0.8653 0.9575 0.1256 0.50 0.8191 0.1395 0.50 0.940 7.25 0.9599 Central Zone Jagdalpur Naapur Puuasa Raipur Thin Central Zone Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 32 .50 n 0.097 5.00 0.9465 Eastern Zone Zone Southern Zone Zone Station Bagra-tawa Bhopal Indore Jabalpur K 8.1262 0.1177 0.524 6.2608 0.5704 6.088 7.1394 0.1084 0.379 4.8740 1.9331 0.728 6.1353 a 0.1402 0.25 1.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.646 6.0295 1.50 0.176 4.1746 0.50 0.15 1.8737 0.50 0.9459 0.070 16.939 6.

50 n 0.50 0.25 0.25 0.00 0.50 0.0190 1.1813 0. The application of such relationship may.2 Runoff Estimation by Empirical Formulae Empirical Formulae have been derived by Hydrologist and soil conservationists to derive relationship between rainfall over catchment area and resulting runoff for application to ungauged watersheds.8683 O.S908 0.1574 0.2087 0.570 14.1026 0.823 3.40 0.22 0.911 8.15 n 1.0127 Northern Zone (Source: Technical paper for SMC works by Forest dept.50 0.1623 b 0. infiltration rates and runoff responses.8000 1. Type of structures Storage arid diversion dams having permanent spillways Earthen dams-storage having natural spillways Stop dams/Check dams Small permanent masonry gully control structures.1677 0. For smaller areas with fairly uniform and evenly distributed rainfall.0636 1.092.50 0.1172 1.208 1.098 6.0331 1.75 0.50 0. II Soil and Water Conservation Engineering (CSWCRTI) Frequency.2730 0.50 1.1459 0.787 3. Andhra Pradesh) Table 4: Recommended maximum runoff frequencies for various types of structures.863 7.2963 0.3 0.503 5.25 0.1304 0.2070 0.1670 0. however be limited due to variations in factors such as antecedent moisture conditions.483 4. Terrace outlets and vegetated waterways Field diversions (Source: Training manual vol.1647 b 0.254 6.9902 0.11.074 5.1267 0.7704 0.914 a 0.219 4.Technical Manual for IWMP Zone Station Aiiransabad Bhuj Mahabaleshvar Nandurbar Veneurla Veraval Western zone K 6.1919 0.1692 0.25 0.50 0.974 a 0.7327 Western Zone Zone Station Aera Allahabad Arnristar Dehradun Jaipur Jodlipur Lucknow New Delhi Srinasar Northern Zone k 4.41 600 6.4853 0.081 3.6293 1.0369 1.1072 1.1667 0.50 0. these relationGujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 33 . year 50-100 25-50 25 10-15 10 15 2.

or location in a sewerage network. landuse. However.12 Hydrograph A hydrograph is a graph showing changes in the discharge of a river over a period of time. given as under R = K. 2.2 K 2. related to time. cm K = runoff coefficient P = Rainfall Depth. It can also refer to a graph showing the volume of water reaching a particular outfall. The discharge is measured at a certain point in a river and is typically time variant.5 0. R = Runoff. 2.9 to 0.4 Dicken’s Formula Q = C.Technical Manual for IWMP ships may be very simple. No. Table 5: Values of runoff coefficient (K) Sr. geological composition and uneven distribution of rainfall. P. Q = flood discharge in m3/s A = Catchment area in sq km C = 11. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 34 . Hence these relationships must be extrapolated with great caution to ungauged watershed under identical agro climatic situations. cm The values of runoff coefficient for different land use condition are given below. 1 Area Urban Area covered by residential Buildings Garden apartments 2 3 Commercial and industrial area Forest area 0. A3/4 Where.3 0.11.3 Runoff Co-efficient Method In this method runoff is computed simply multiplying the runoff coefficient to the rainfall amount.45 for areas with annual rainfall of 600 mm to 1200 mm. Where. complexity arises in larger areas having varying conditions of topography.11.

12.12. 2.12.2 Falling limb The recession limb extends from the point of inflection at the end of the crest segment to the commencement of the natural groundwater flow (base flow).12.5 Discharge Volume of water in a river at a given time Fig 8. 2. Hydrograph Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 35 . 2.12. It represents the withdrawal of water from the storage built up in the basin during the earlier phases of the hydrograph.Technical Manual for IWMP 2. also known as concentration curve represents the increase in discharge due to the gradual building up of storage in channels and over the catchment surface.3 Peak discharge The highest point on the hydrograph when there is the greatest amount of water in the river 2.4 Lag time Lag time is the amount of time it takes from when precipitation falls within the river basin to when it reaches the river.1 Rising limb The rising limb of hydrograph.

or 'relief' land Drainage density (Number of tributaries) Geology (Rock Type. The other feature of the soil that will be needed is the strength of the soil. Vegetation type (Deforestation and amount of interception) Steepness of surrounding land.14. Wet winters create increase in discharge. sand. The properties that effect both permeability and strength are numerous and complex. Clay and silt also have chemical and shape properties that separate them. but since neither can be seen with the naked eye they must be differentiated based on feel and other factors. viii. Soil properties break down into three categories: impervious.1 Soil Classification Soil can be broken down in to two basic categories: organic soils (such as peat) and nonorganic soils (sand. and clay). Precipitation (distribution of rainfall rates and locations) 2. Because of their instable nature and extreme variability it is considered to be completely useless for foundations. silt. but the amount should be as little as possible. This refers to the soil’s ability to drain or retain water. Non-organic soils have been produced through erosion and other geologic processes. they do not have to be understood completely to perform some simple tests to determine if a soil is suitable for a certain application 2. general fill). sand etc. or the surface type could vary) i. silt.13 Factors affecting the Hydrograph Soil saturation is dependent on previous rainfall. Rural or Urban (Could be less impermeable surface. Since almost Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 36 . v. dark colour and occasionally an organic smell. Very dry weather creates a crust on the river bed. or otherwise known as Antecedent rainfall. iii. and other forms of engineering. gravel. Impermeable=flashier hydrographs. and gravel. pervious (drains).14 Soil Properties For the design of any soil and water conservation structures. embankments. The four basic soil particles types are: clay. ii. This is an important feature in a soil. soil properties are very important.Technical Manual for IWMP 2. Soil Type (Clay.) Clay would create a flashy hydrograph. and semi-pervious (usually unlabelled. Shape of drainage basin (circular or elongated). Or Permeable) Season dependant. vi. But. Soils with small amounts of organic matter don’t have to be discarded completely. The differences between these types of soils are the size of the grain. Organic soils are formed from rotting and decomposing plant and animal mater and are characterized by high compressibility. vii. iv. The surroundings. These properties play significant role in deciding the stability and strength of the structure.

This is differentiated from soil structure. 4) aeration.Technical Manual for IWMP all soils contain a combination of these grain sizes. silt and clay present in soil. soils can be classified based on how much of each type is present. 5) drainage. 3) nutrient holding capacity. 2) water holding capacity. Soil texture is very important in that it effects: 1) soil structure. which is the physical arrangement or grouping together of the individual soil mineral particles. Soil texture refers to the relative proportion (by weight) of sand. Table 6: Description of Basic Soil Grains Fig 9. and 6) root penetration and growth. Soil texture triangle Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 37 .

Detachment is the dislodging of the soil particle from soil mass by erosive agents. sloping fields are more exposed to erosion. The soil structure: light soils are more sensitive to erosion. iii. a loam soil is considered the best for overall plant growth. The various textural classes denote a range of texture combinations which have similar chemical and physical properties. but also under irrigation it may occur. The severity of soil erosion depends upon the quantity of material supplied by detachment process and capacity of eroding agents to transport them. In case of water erosion. Erosion is a function of the eroding power of raindrops.2 Soil Erosion Erosion is the transport of soil from one place to another. and the erodibility of the soil or Erosion=f (Erosivity.14. the process of erosion is almost invisible. 2. ii. Soil erosion by water depends on: i. Generally. The slope: steep. Soil erosion is the major soil conservation problem and almost recognized as a serious threat to human well being. 20% clay and 60% silt would be classified as a silt loam. transportation and deposition of soil particle from one place to another place under the influence of wind. For example.3 Soil Erosion Principle The soil erosion may be defined as a process of detachment.Technical Manual for IWMP The soil texture triangle shows the percentage (by weight) sand. Transportation is the movement of detached soil particles from their original position. Climatic factors such as wind and rain can cause erosion. running water. The volume or rate of flow of surface runoff water: larger or rapid flows induce more erosion. water or gravity forces. major erosive agents are impacting raindrop and runoff water flowing over soil surface. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 38 . silt and clay in the various textural classes of soils. and yield similar plant growth.14. Over a short period. 2. However. it can be continuous and the whole fertile top layer of a field may disappear within a few years. Erodibility). a soil that was found to contain 20% sand. and sliding or flowing earth masse.

is difficult to measure and no universal method of measurement has been developed. partly because of variability in Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 39 . The main reason for this deficiency is that into two groups: those which are the actual physical features of the soil and those which are the result of human use of the soil. The wind effect includes the power to pick up and carry fine soil particles.14.1 Climate Factor The major climatic factors which influence runoff and erosion are precipitation.4.2 Soil Feature Factor The soil factor is expressed as the erodibility of the soil.4 Factors Affecting Erosion Climate and geology are the most important influences on erosion with soil character and vegetation being dependent upon them and interrelated with each other. Temperature affects runoff by contributing to change in soil moisture between drains. and wind. Erodibility. 2. The resistance of soil to detachment by raindrop impact depends upon its shear strength. especially by wind-throw of trees. 2. particularly needle ice. It is difficult in practice to measure the appropriate values of c and for grains at the surface of a soil or soil crust. that is its cohesion (c) and angle of friction. temperature. it determines whether the precipitation will be in the form of rain or snow and it changes the absorptive properties of the soil by causing the soil to freeze. more rarely.14.4.14. Ice in the soil. the influence it exerts on the angle and impact of raindrops and. its effect on vegetation. can be very effective in raising part of the surface of bare soil and thus making it more easily removed by runoff or wind. Precipitation is the most important factor among them.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig 10: Different forms of water erosion 2. unlike the determination of erosivity of rainfall.

(7) Compaction of underlying soil. 2. In such conditions raindrop splash will move material further down steep slopes than down gentle ones. and soil characteristics. Raindrops typically fall with a velocity of 6-10 meter per second.15. and rills can develop more readily than on short slopes. Nearly all of the experimental work on the slope effect has assumed that the slopes are under cultivation.4. (6) Insulation of the soil against high and low temperatures which cause cracking or frost heaving and needle ice formation. Because of this combination of factors the amount of erosion is not just proportional to the steepness of the slope. 2. The energy of these impacts is sufficient to displace soil particles as high as two feet Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 40 . (3) Root effects in increasing soil strength. it is necessary to distinguish between total soil loss and soil loss per unit area. there is likely to be more runoff. The length of slope has a similar effect upon soil loss. packing and shape of particles and partly because of the varying degrees of wetting and submergence of grains by water. The detachment and splash or transport of the soil particles occurring as a result of impact of falling rain drops is called rain drop erosion.14. because on a long slope there can be a greater depth and velocity of overland flow.14. (2) The decreasing of velocity of runoff. and porosity. topography. 2. and hence the cutting action of water and its capacity to entrain sediment.1 Raindrop Splash and Sheet Erosion The first step in the erosion process begins as raindrops impact the soil surface. but rises rapidly with increasing angle.15 Types of Erosion 2. Because there is a greater area of land on long than on short slope facets of the same width.Technical Manual for IWMP the size.4 Biological Factor Vegetation offsets the effects on erosion of the other factors-climate. The major effects of vegetation fall into at least seven main categories: (1) The interception of rainfall by the vegetation canopy.4.3 Geological Factor This factor is evident in the steepness and length of slope. (4) Biological activities associated with vegetative growth and their influence on soil porosity. and runoff velocities will be faster. leading to the subsequent drying out of the soil. (5) The transpiration of water. granulation.

Technical Manual for IWMP vertically. creating a hard crust that inhibits plant establishment. Typically. soil particles are not dislodged and transported by sheet flow. stabilizing a surface. protects the ground from both raindrop and sheet erosion. The removal of more or less uniform thin layer or sheet of soil by running water from sloping land is known as sheet erosion. It is dependent on raindrop impacts to disturb the surface. gradual and difficult to detect until it develops into rill erosion. sodding. The process of sheet erosion is uniform. Fig. By protecting the surface.11. Sheet erosion Sheet erosion occurs as runoff travels over the ground. The method used to prevent erosion from raindrop splash and sheet erosion is stabilization. Fig 12: Rain drop erosion Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 41 . mulching. and rolled erosion control products absorb the impact of raindrops and protect the ground surface. In addition. compost blankets. sheet flow does not have sufficient volume or velocity to dislodge soil particles from a bare surface by itself. Therefore. the impact of a rainfall on a bare soil can compact the upper layer of soil. picking up and transporting the particles dislodged by raindrop impacts. Stabilizing techniques such as temporary and permanent vegetation.

3 Gully Erosion Gully erosion results from water moving in rills. When rill erosion can no longer be repaired by merely tilling or discing. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 42 . As rill erosion begins.15.15. which concentrate to form larger channels. 2. Fig 13: Rill Erosion from the field. The advanced stage of gully erosion leads to formation of ravines near the river systems. erosion rates increase dramatically due to the resulting concentrated higher velocity flows.Technical Manual for IWMP 2. it is defined as gully erosion. It is however noted that deep gullies are formed normally in lands having relatively thick soil depth.2 Rill Erosion Rill erosion occurs as runoff begins to form small concentrated channels. Rill can be repaired by tilling or normal cultivation operation and should be repaired as soon as possible in order to prevent gullies from forming. Fig 14: Gully Erosion in the field.

supplementing the mechanical measures in the treated lands. Additional protection is required when hydrologic conditions have been greatly altered. and the channel deepens. where assured soil moisture is a necessity.5.15.15. Because each reach of channel is unique. structural or a combined method where live plant material is incorporated into a structure (bioengineering). As the stream bed erodes. The resulting slope is dependent on the channel materials and flow properties. This type of stream bank erosion results meandering waterways. 2. 2. This erosion process will continue until the channel reaches a stable slope.5 Stream Bank Erosion Control It is often necessary in areas where development has occurred in the upstream watershed and full channel flow occurs several times a year. Stream bank erosion can also occur as soft materials are eroded from the stream bank or at bends in the channel.Technical Manual for IWMP Table 7: Types of Gully Description Small Medium Large Gully depth 1 m or less 1 to 5 m Greater than 5 m Catchment area 2 ha or less 2 to 20 Ha Greater than 20 ha 2. These measures include: Contour Farming. Vegetative protection is least costly and the most compatible with natural stream characteristics.15. resulting in stream bank erosion. measures for stream bank protection should be installed according to a plan developed for the specific site and watershed. . Mulching is particularly helpful in vegetable cultivation. the process of soil erosion (detachability and transportability) will continue resulting fluctuating crop fields.planting on contours Mulching – using various techniques that will increase the water retention capacity of the soil. making it deeper.4 Stream Bank Erosion Stream channel erosion consists of both stream bed and stream bank erosion. for instance mixing straw and breaking clods. One significant cause of both steam bed and stream bank erosion is due to the increased frequency and duration of runoff events that are a result of urban development. Stream bank protection can be vegetative. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 43 .1 Supplementary Agronomic Measures Several agronomical measures are adopted. the sides of the channel become unstable and slough off. Stream bed erosion occurs as flows cut into the bottom of the channel.

and they can transpire water at high rates. because grouted rock does not move with freeze/thaw and wetting/drying cycles. Aquatic Zone The aquatic plant zone includes the stream bed and is normally submerged at all times.2 Vegetative Protection Provide vegetative protection in zones where the location of each zone depends on the elevations of the mean high water level.Technical Manual for IWMP Use of dense growing crops/ cover crops – for instance cowpea. These will reduce splash erosion. Properly sized. silver maple and poplar can be planted (staked) from top-of-bank to waterline. The upstream and downstream ends of the structural protection should begin and end along stable reaches of the stream. Mixed cropping. This improves water-holding capacity. – increasing the capacity to retain water Inter – cropping or strip cropping. Vegetative protection usually works for stabilization only when a channel has become unstable because vegetation has been removed. such as cowpea. the mean water level and the mean low water level. allowing erosion. Voids quickly form under grouted rock. wheat. Shrub Zone The shrub zone lies on the bank slopes above the mean water level and is normally dry.5.5. gabions. If trees provide shade to the stream bank. Stream banks should be sloped at 2:1 or flatter. They are preferred because they have high root densities. in highly erodible soils and in steep channel slopes. 2. graded.formed revetments and reinforced concrete. pulses. paddy. Common materials include riprap. grasses should be planted which will thrive in shady conditions. root shear and tensile strength is higher than that of most grasses or forbs. 2. pulses. except during floods. Willows. Riprap is the most commonly used material for stream bank protection. Tree Zone Plant upland trees along the banks of the stream and not on the slopes.15. Use of organic manure or green manuring with legumes.15. Plant grasses in the spring or the fall. dhaincha. Place filter fabric or a granular filter between the riprap and Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 44 . alternating either blocks or strips with different crops. No artificial planting is required in the aquatic plant zone.3 Structural Protection Structural protection should be provided in locations where velocities exceed 6 feet per second. Some grasses can be planted in the shrub zone if velocities are not too high and plants are not submersed frequently or for long periods of time. Grouted riprap is not recommended. bedded and placed riprap rises and settles with soil movement. fabric. along bends.

They are very labor intensive to construct but are semiflexible. Fig 15: Stream Bank Erosion control by gabion structure Reinforced concrete may be used to stabilize the stream bed or the stream bank. Install toe walls as specified in plan. Anchor the foundation for these structures to a stable. Construct the top of the retaining wall or bulkhead up to the design water surface elevation plus freeboard.Technical Manual for IWMP the natural soil. Construct the riprap layer with sound. Gabions are rock-filled wire baskets. and vegetate the rest of the stream bank. topography and kinds of land used in the state. soil types.16 Estimation of Soil Erosion The erosion risk (A=annual soil loss) is calculated from a number of factors that have been measured for all climates. permeable and can be used to line channel bottoms and stream banks. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 45 . In mathematical terms. Refer to plan for gradation and layering. The amount of soil erosion is. Extend the top of the riprap layer at least up to the 2-year water surface elevation. Construct water stops at all joints in concrete retaining walls. durable rock. Place filter fabric or a granular filter between stream bank material and the retaining wall or bulkhead. non erodible base material such as bedrock. 2. erosion is a function of erosivity of rain and erodibility of the soil. Place the toe of the riprap at least 1 foot below the stream channel bottom or below the anticipated scour depth. Reinforced concrete retaining walls and bulkheads provide good erosion protection for stream banks. therefore depends on a combination of power of rain to cause erosion and ability of soil to withstand the rain.

P.C.N. oganic matter.P Where: A = Average annual soil loss: the predicted erosion or tolerance factor in ton/ha. II Soil and Water Conservation Engineering. equivalent to predicted erosion in ton/ha A = R.B.Technical Manual for IWMP Erosion = f (Erosivity.11 0.) Dehra Dun Hyderabad (A.K.) Rehmankhera (U. silt and clay. It also depends on the land's slope.07 0.L.) Kota (Rajastan) Udhagamandalam (T. R = Rainfall erosivity factor: a factor dependent on climate and likelihood of extreme events. Erodibility) The factors are combined in a number of formulas of the 'Universal Soil Loss Equation'. P = Supporting practice factor: reflects the use of contours.08 0. C = Crop management factor: depends on crop growth rate in relation to the erosivity variation in the climate. strip cropping and terracing.P) Vasad (Gujarat) Soil type Loamy sand.15 0.S. CSWCRTI) Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 46 .P) Kharagpur (W.04 0. The larger slope length.04 0.059 (Source: Training manual vol. the tolerance factor. calculated from all others. increasing erosion. the more water accumulates at the bottom of the field. K = Soil erodibility factor: an estimate made from soil properties as catalogued in the National Resources Inventory. which returns a single number. S = Slope steepness factor: calculated from the slope of the land in %. granularity and profile permeability to water. It depends on the particle sizes and proportions of sand.17 0. L = Slope length factor: the slope length is the length of the field in a down-slope direction. Table 8: Computed value of soil Erodibility factor (K) from various research station Research Station Agra (U. alluvial Dhulkot silt loam Red chalka sandy loam Soil from lateritic rock Clay loam (black soil) Deep lateritic Loam alluvial Sandy loam alluvial Erodibility factor (K) 0.

Technical Manual for IWMP Fig. l = slope length in meters m = dimension less exponent The value of exponent m varies with slope and given as below: Table 9: Variation of ‘m’ with slope Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 47 . 9-13. 1997) Slope length factor (L) The slope length factor (L) is the ratio of the soil loss from field slope length to that from 22 m length plot under identical conditions. The factor can be calculated from following equation: L= (l/22) m Where. 16: Soil Erosion map of Gujarat (Source: Indian Journal of Soil Conservation. 25 (1). L = slope length factor.

065 Where.56sin   0.Technical Manual for IWMP Slope gradient (%) Less than 1 1–3 3–5 More than 5 Value of m 0. II Soil and Water Conservation Engineering (CSWCRTI) Slope gradient factor (S) The slope gradient factor is the ratio of soil loss from the field slope gradient to that from 9% slope gradient.  is the angle of slope Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 48 .2 0.3 0.5 Source: Training manual vol.4 0.41sin 2   4. Wischmeir and smith (1978) have given following relationship for computation of S: S  65.

It is done at a location where the gully/rill originates. iii. The vegetation created will absorb floods. protect agriculture.1 Riparian Habitat Riparian vegetation should be allowed to grow and regenerate on both the banks. On the downstream of the grass line.2. runoff velocity from the untreated top part can damage the structure on lower catchments.23m depth needed. 3. plant one line of shrubs such as pandanus. If done in reverse order. thor or agave. 3. build up hyporheic zone to increase soil moisture holdings capacity and provide habitat to invertebrates and higher animals.2. 3. appropriate aquatic and non-aquatic species may be selected.2.Technical Manual for IWMP Chapter-3 3 Upper Catchment Area Treatment 3. Then plant two lines of grasses like vertiver or any other local soil binding grass. Depending upon whether plantation is below or above the line of submergence. To check soil erosion To reduce runoff velocity To control further deepening of gullies Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 49 . shrubs and trees across the rills to stop soil erosion is called live hedges.1 Introduction The treatment measure for watershed development starts from a ridge and proceeds to the valley.15 to 0.2 Biological Measures It is also important to adopt biological measures for stream bank protection so that it facilitates recharge.2.1 Construction Clean the site first Excavation up to 0. Following points should be kept in mind while designing and constructing live hedges. Functions i.2 Live Hedge A barrier created by planting grass. This approach helps to conserve soil first and to retain moisture in the area for longer periods. 3. throughout the stretch of the stream. ii. in-stream habitat restoration and enriches the overall ecosystem. Indigenous grasses and plants may be selected for creating vegetation cover along the banks.

I. m 3. Contour bunding is practiced to intercept the runoff flowing down the slope by an embankment with either open or closed ends to conserve moisture as well as to reduce erosion. The vertical interval between the two bunds is determined by the following formula: 3. X Y S VI = (XS + Y) 0.3 Engineering measures 3.Technical Manual for IWMP 3. Converting a long slope into several ones as to minimize velocity and thereby reducing the erosion by runoff water iii. The land treatment in between the bunds is desirable for uniform conservation of moisture.3.3 COXS' Formula VI Where. = 0. The spacing of bunds is so arranged that the flowing water is intercepted before it attains the erosive velocity.1 i.3 = Rainfall factor = Infiltration and crop cover factor = Slope % = Vertical Interval (m) Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 50 . To divert runoff for water harvesting purposes The term contour bunding used in India is same as “level terraces” and “ridge type ter- races”. = Vertical interval between two bunds.1.2 Ramser’s formula V.3. Objectives To increase the time of concentration of rainwater where it falls and thereby allowing rainwater to percolate into the soil ii. S = Degree of slope in percent V.3. The bund acts as barrier to the flow of water and at the same time impound water to build up soil moisture storage. 3. The practice of contour bunding is found to increase crop yield by about 15-20 per cent.3 (S/3 + 2) Where.1 Contour Bunding This measure involves construction of horizontal lines of small earthen or boulder bunds across the sloping land surface.3.I.

II Soil and Water Conservation Engineering (CSWCRTI) Table 11: Value of "Y" in COXS' Formula Intake rate Below average (e.1 2. It is always desirable to remove local ridges and depressions before building contour bunds.6 0.3 Top width (m) 0.45 0.6 0.8 0.3:1 2:1 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 51 . which can store runoff excess from 24 hrs rainstorm.4 3.4 Source: Training manual vol.5:1 1.0 2.75 0. Table 12: Dimensions of the Contour Bund Type of soil Gravel soils Red soils Shallow to medium black soil Deep soils Bottom width (m) 1. By knowing the cross section area of the bund.3 0.6 0.g. black soils) Average or above One of the above factors favorable and the other unfavorable Crop cover during erosive period of rains Low coverage Good coverage Value of "Y" 1.2 2.Technical Manual for IWMP Table 10: Value of "X" in COXS' Formula Rainfall Scanty Moderate Heavy Annual Rainfall (cm) 64 64-90 Over 90 Rainfall Factor "X" 0.3 0. can be done with the help of the following equation. II Soil and Water Conservation Engineering (CSWCRTI) The spacing is increased by 25% in highly permeable soils and decreased by 15 percent in poorly permeable soils.0 1.5 Source: Training manual vol. The design of cross-section of contour bund.75:1 1. is recommended as given below. the volume of earthwork per hectare and the cost of earthwork per hectare can be determined. Dimensions of contour bunding with different height and side slope.675 Side slope 0.60 Height (m) 0.

height of impounding required for 10 years frequency (or any other frequency) can be obtained which will not cause any spill over. I. The maximum 24 hr rainfall for 10 year recurrence interval is 200 mm. Sketch of Contour Bund form slope of 2%.80 x 20  0. To the depth of impounding ‘h’. S  2  Solution: V. Design cross section of the main bund if the top width of the bund is 0. W s V. Example A piece of land measuring 1350 m along the slope and 250 m across the slope has uniFig 17. h = Re xV . =   2  0.8m 3  3  H. Re is maximum 24 hr rainfall in cm and V. 50 Where.I.I. = No. 41 per cum. h = Depth of impounding in meter near the bund. The soils are sandy loam in texture. VI = Vertical interval in meter Using the above equation. Find the cost of bunding if the rate of earth work is Rs.Technical Manual for IWMP h Re xVI 50 Where.I . The side slope for bund 1. I. of bunds = 100 x0. Free Board H. Re = Maximum 24 hours rainfall in cm. is vertical interval in m h 0.3  0.3    2  0.57m 50 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 52 .5:1. the free board of 25 to 30% may be added.8  40m 2 1350  34 Nos 40 Height of bund.5 m.I.

= 10000/40 = 250 m/ha Total Area = (1350x 250)/10000=33.50 X 1. Do not start the lay-out of bunds from the shorter section. Always begin from the longest section within the largest area of uniform slope. Always provide a settlement allowance of 10-15% depending on soil type.1 Actual height of bund after adding the free board = 0.75 = 8437. depending on site conditions.I.70  1.69 or 9155 cum Cost estimate = 41 X 9155 = Rs 375355/- Fig 18: Contour Bunds in a hill 3.085 sq.5) x0.3.5m and side slope as 1.085 = 9154.5:1 = (2. ii.50 m Volume of earth work for main bund = L x A = 8437.1 = 0.Technical Manual for IWMP Free board (15 % of h)= (0.75 Ha Total length of the bund for given area= 250 X 33. v.7 m Cross sectional area of bund if top width is 0.60  0.57X15)/100 = 0.67 or 0. Exit must be provided in sloping land and in impermeable soils . iii. Do not make bunds on slopes higher than 10%.57 +0. Always provide a berm (distance from excavated portion to bund) of minimum 30 cm.4 Contour Bunds: DO's and DONT's i.m. Page | 53 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency . vi. 2 Length of the bund = 10000/H. iv. In impermeable soils increase the cross section area of bunds.

but it is quicker to use. xi. ix.3. The Hose Level needs materials which cost a small amount of money and it needs either two or three people for marking contours. Most soil erosion control methods are built along the contour lines to have maximum effect. Hang the stone/plum bob from the top of the A-Frame. Materials needed i) Poles about 2 meters long ii) 1 shorter pole about 1 meter long iii) some string iv) a stone or plum bob Step 1 Tie the poles very tightly together to make the shape of a letter A.they need to be measured. “A” Frame An A frame is a simple device used for demarcation of the contours on the ground. from material readily available to every farmer and used by one or two people. Soil and water conservation measures such as bunding.Technical Manual for IWMP vii. On relatively high slopes do not make bunds closer than 30 m. An A-Frame can be made at no cost. trenching is laid along the contours. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 54 . Contour lines cannot be guessed .it is completely level. Hence each contour line needs to be demarked. which are the same height at all places along the slope. Do not construct bunds where there is already dense vegetation. Water cannot flow along a contour line . making sure the stone hangs below the cross bar.5 Marking Contour Lines by field method Contour Lines are imaginary lines across a slope. viii. 3. Do not excavate if roots of a tree are encountered Do not excavate soil continuously in permeable soils. x. On low slopes do not make bunds farther than 60 m.

one side of the field where the first contour line is needed.Technical Manual for IWMP Step 2 Holding the frame upright. Hold one pole firmly on the ground. Move pole 2 until the string touches the level mark and place another stick into the ground by pole 2. Place a stick into the soil by each pole. If the first two marks happen to be on the same place . mark with two sticks exactly where the poles touch the ground. Step 3 Mark the level mark on the cross bar . Step 4 Before using the A-Frame.exactly half way between the previous marks. Again mark where the string crosses the cross bar. by turning it around (pivoting). When the stone or plum bob stops moving. keeping pole 1 in exactly the same place. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 55 . mark on the cross bar. collect a number of sticks.this is the level mark. pivoting the A-Frame across the field. placing the poles in exactly the positions marked by the two sticks. Turn the A-Frame around. Begin ideally with. Move the other pole until both poles are on the ground with the string touching the level mark. Move the A Frame along. Carry on in this way.

One person stands still while the other moves their pole until the level mark is reached in both poles. Materials needed Two poles about 2 metres long Length of clear plastic tubing 10-25 metres long and about 1 cm in diameter Small amount of string or adhesive tape Step 1 Tie the ends of the tubing securely to the two poles in several places. with their lower ends resting on the ground. Begin at one side of the field. making sure no air bubbles are trapped inside. either use a thumb or fit some kind of plastic stopper to stop water spilling . use marker sticks and move alternate poles so that any slight faults with the Hose Level do not affect the contour line. until the water level settles at exactly the same level on each pole (ideally where it is easy to see without bending). Hold the poles side by side. As with the A-Frame. Step 2 When moving the poles. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 56 . Mark this level clearly on each pole.Technical Manual for IWMP The Water Tube Level The Water Tube Level is more popular equipment in demarcating contours in watershed area and is simple equipment that can be prepared locally. Carefully fill the tubing with clean water.these should be removed before measuring. until nearly full.

The interrupted one can be in series or staggered. spacing.6. the end result will be a line marked across the land with a series of sticks. it is possible to calculate the size and number of trenches. Normally 1.6. If there are sharp bends in the line. Rills are stopped by the trenches.3. and slope. in cross section are adopted.000 sq cm to 2.1 Objectives Contour trenches are used to break up the slope surface.3 Layout The size of the trench depends upon the soil's depth. The contour line is now ready for whatever control measures are planned. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 57 . Contour trenches are ditches dug along a hillside in such a way that they follow a contour and run perpendicular to the flow of water. then move a stick a little to make a smoother line. Width and depth vary with design storm. 3. The bund is planted with permanent vegetation (native grasses.2 Specifications Trenches can be continuous or interrupted. to slow runoff and allow infiltration. Intermittent trenches are adopted in high rainfall areas. They can be constructed with machinery (deeper trenches) or by hand (generally shallow). legumes) to stabilize the soil and for the roots and foliage in order to trap any sediment that would overflow from the trench in heavy rainfall events.3.3.Technical Manual for IWMP Marking the Line Whatever method has been used. 3. Trenches or terraces are often used in conjunction with seeding. It improves soil moisture profile by checking soil erosion. The trenches are to be constructed strictly on contours irrespective of the category. The trench may be of 30 cm base and 30 cm top width and square in cross section or it can be trapezoidal with side slopes 1:1. Based on the quantum of rainfall to be retained.6. 3. The soil excavated from the ditch is used to form a small bund on the downhill edge of the ditch. and to trap sediment. Such sharp bends are usually due to rocks or small holes which have affected one measurement. continuous one is used for moisture conservation in low rainfall areas and require careful layout.500 sq cm.6 Contour Trenching Construction trenches are constructed on contours to detain water and sediment transported by water.3. 3. soil type.

The cross section of the trench generally varies from 30 x 30 cm to 45 x 45 cm . (Source: Watershed works manual: Samaj Pragati Sahayog) Fig 19: Staggered contour trenches Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 58 . The chances of breaches of SCT are less as compared to CCT. Staggered Contour Trenches are adopted.7.1 Continuous Contour Trenches Continuous contour trenches (CCT) are the ones when there is no break in their length and they can be 10 to 20 m long across the slope depending on the width of the field.3.7 Types of Trenches 3.3. The length of the trenches is kept short around 2-3 m and the spacing between the rows may vary from 3-5 m. experience of watershed programs has shown that it is better to stagger the digging of contour trenches. This is because it has been found that invariably errors have been made in contouring over long distances. instead of making trenches continuously. then water starts to flow from the high point to the low point. 3.They are constructed for moisture conservation in low rainfall areas receiving storm of mild intensities.2 Staggered Contour Trenches In medium rainfall areas with highly dissected topography. It has been observed that CCT are prone to breaching if they are not constructed perfectly on contours hence it demands high skill for construction.Technical Manual for IWMP 3. they should be made in a staggered. discontinuous manner. If the contour trench is not level and by mistake sloped.7. cutting a path and increasing soil erosion.3. Therefore. Over time.

Trenches are designed to store 60-70 % of runoff.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig 20: Staggered contour trenches in a hillock 3. Q=C×R×A Where.3. Steps involved in design of contour trenches are as follows: 3.8. rectangle. C = runoff coefficient. trapezoidal or triangular V-shape.8 Design of Contour Trenches Design of contour trenches involve the determination of cross sectional area and spacing of trenches to collect desired amount of runoff generated from the catchment area. R = quantum of daily rainfall A = catchment area for that particular structure 3.3. As far as length of trench is considered. shorter lengths 3 to 7 m are adopted for convenience of layout and construction.1 Determination of direct runoff volume Trenches are designed to hold part of the runoff expected from a storm of 4 years recurrence interval and 6 hr duration.3.2 Determination of cross sectional area and volume of trench The cross section of trench can be of square. The volume of run-off from the design storm is computed by the following formula. Page | 59 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency . The size of trenches depends upon the soil depth available at site.8. In relatively deeper soils. trench depth is generally fixed at 40-50 cm while for shallow soil. trench depth may reduce to about 15-20 cm.

Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 60 .  Where. H.21: trenches is given below: Design of Contour Trench Trench H. cm Q = Runoff depth. 0.I. Instead construct contour bunds Do not excavate trenches where there is already dense vegetation Do not plant inside the trench Do not excavate if roots of a tree are encountered Do not excavate trenches across large streams or drainage lines Do not start the lay-out of trenches from the shorter section.3m V.8. runoff depth and dimension of 1:1 Fig.4 Contour Trenches: DON'Ts i. iii.3. vi. Always begin from the longest section within the largest area of uniform slope 3. It is an earthen embankment or a ridge and channel. 0. Do not make trenches on slopes less than 10%. Do not make trenches on slopes higher than 25%.3.I.I. H.9 Bench Terracing Bench terracing means construction of nearly level steps like fields along contours usually by half cutting and half filling procedure. Vertical interval is defined as the elevation difference between the upper or lower edge of successive contour trenches. vii. Instead adopt vegetative measures ii. = Horizontal spacing W = width of trench. H . cm D = depth of trench. v. A definition sketch of contour trenching is given below.3m Slope Relation between the horizontal spacing of contour trenches. =Cross sectional Area/Runoff depth= A/Q Assuming trench to be rectangular. iv. constructed across the slope at a suitable location to intercept surface runoff water.8.Technical Manual for IWMP 3.I.I .3.3 Determination of spacing Spacing is expressed in terms of horizontal and vertical interval. cm WxD 100 xQ 3.

Technical Manual for IWMP It may be constructed with an acceptable grade to an outlet or with a level channel and ridge. better crops may be expected on terraced land because of the soil and moisture they conserve. such as stubble mulching. iii.9. Bench terracing is recommended for slopes from 10 to 30%. Fig 22: Different types of bench terraces Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 61 .3. they must be used in combination with other practices. Properly located. To be effective. To conserve moisture To reduce floods by means of level closed terraces. vi. 3.3. iv. both degree and length of slope are reduced which help in soil moisture conservation for enhanced crop production. v.2 Functions of Terracing in the Conservation Programme i. Controlling gully heads downstream (by checking water fall erosion). Over a period of years. ii.9. contouring and strip cropping. and iv. iii. vii. constructed and maintained terraces Reduce runoff and soil losses Prevent the formation of rills and gullies and Assist in reclaiming badly eroded gullied fields by intercepting the runoff before it becomes concentrated and attains an eroding velocity. To reduce erosion by shortening the length of slope and conducting the runoff water on a non-erosive grade to a stable slope.1 Functions Terraces are constructed i. By adopting bench terracing. 3. One of the best mechanical measures ii. or by increasing the time of concentration with graded terraces.

As the slope increases. The steepness of the land is one of the factors that determine the practicability of terraces.10.3.10.1 Level Bench Terraces This type of terraces consists of level top surface. These are used for paddy cultivation for providing uniform impounding. Slope of land Rainfall amount Farming practices and proposed crops to be grown Page | 62 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency . Such type of terraces has a provision to drain the runoff from their inner side by constructing a drainage channel.3 Limitations Terraces can be constructed on practically all soils except those are too stony. sandy or shallow to permit practical and economical construction and maintenance.3 Bench Terraces Sloping Inward Bench terraces sloping inward are preferred to construct in the areas of heavy rainfall and less permeable soils.3. iii. the cost of construction and maintenance of terraces and the difficulty of farming them also increase with the degree of slope to the point that these factors may eventually outweigh the benefits derived. 3. iv.Technical Manual for IWMP 3. 3. When this point is reached. soil loss from erosion increases. terracing is not advisable. 3.3. from where large portion of rain water is drained as surface runoff. They are generally used in the areas which receive medium rainfall and have highly permeable soils.10 Types of Bench Terraces 3. or the topography is extremely irregular. For these terraces a shoulder bund is essential to provide the stability to the outer edge of terrace. Soil depth and uniform spreading of top soil. These types of terraces are usually preferred for those crops.3. Bench terraces sloping outward are also known as orchard type bench terrace.2 Bench Terraces Sloping Outward Such terraces are adopted in low rainfall areas with permeable soil. 3.3.3.9.10. ii.4 Design of Bench Terraces The following factors have direct bearing on design of bench terraces: i. Since it is expected that most of surface runoff passing through these terraces are absorbed by the soil and remaining portion is drained into drain. It is not advisable to terrace some lands where the slope of the land is either too slight or excessive.10. However. which are extremely susceptible to water logging such as potato.

Terrace spacing vi. Step I: Use Rational formula to estimate peak rate of runoff in cumec from bench terrace as given by Q C.10. Step III: The width of terrace (W) can be computed for a given slope (S) by the formula W 200. using following relation as Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 63 .10.7 Terrace Grade along the Width & Length Suitable terrace gradient has to be provided in new terraces in high rainfall areas for safe and quick disposal of the excess water.3.  WS 100  S 3. This depth of cutting should enable the construction of terrace with convenient width.5 Basic design parameters v.3.10. m Step III: Find out the approximate value of cross sectional area of the channel.6 Terrace spacing Terrace spacing is the vertical distance between two successive bench terraces. L= length of terrace. Lesser the depth of cutting. Step I: Find out the maximum depth of productive soil range (D). W and d are in meters and S in percent Step IV: Determine the vertical interval using following formula V . Terrace grade along the width & length Terrace cross section 3. m W=Average width of terrace. the greater will be the depth of productive soil available for cultivation.d S Where. vii. Step II: Find out the maximum admissible cutting (d) for desirable land slope (S) and the crop to be grown. The width of terrace should be such that it enables convenient and economic agriculture operations.3. It is equal to the double the depth of cut.Technical Manual for IWMP 3. It depends on the soil depth and land slope.I . A 360 Step II: Calculate the area drained in ha by the formula A LW . 10000 Where.I .

using Manning’s formula.10. the earth excavated from the upper half is deposited over the lower slope and this forms an embankment which should be properly and safely secured on the slope. N = Batter slope.02 to 0. % S = land slope. m S = land slope. cum W = width of terrace.3. R as follows R=A/P Where.100 8 Where. Earth work in bench terracing is given as E W .S .8 Terrace Cross Section In bench terrace construction. and "A" is the cross sectional area of channel and "V" is the permissible velocity of runoff water in channel.04 and S = Slope of channel 3.S V n 2 1 2 In this formula value of R is taken from step IV and velocity V from step III. P is wetted perimeter of channel Step V: Calculate the value of terrace grade. E = Volume of earthwork.Technical Manual for IWMP Q=AxV Where. The value of n= 0. Q is runoff computed in step I. % Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 64 . Step IV: Calculate the mean hydraulic radius. % Area available for cultivation= 100 (100-NS) Where. given as under R 3 .

The critical length of terrace is approx.I . = W + V.93 m Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 65 .Technical Manual for IWMP Fig 23: Farming on bench terraces in a hilly area Example It is proposed to construct bench terraces in hilly region over an area of 1 ha having slope of 25 % the average soil depth is 1 m. 100 m.3 m Bench width. Cost of grass plantation @ Rs 30 per 100 m length of riser.73 = 6.per cum.I. V .3m.  WS 100  S 5. The crops to be raised after making the terrace require minimum soil depth of 0.73 m 100  25 H.35 m which is > 0.I . The riser is to be laid on 1:1 gradient and local species of grasses will be planted on them.2 m 25 Vertical Interval.0.65 = 0.d S 200 x0.65 x 1 m = 0. W  W 200. Solution Cost of bench terrace Assume depth of cut 65 %.65 = 5. = 5. Calculate the cost of bench terrace assuming earth work @ Rs 41/.I. hence Depth of cut = 0.65 m Still soil depth available for plantation = 1.  V .2 + 1. Total cost of bench terracing.2 x 25  1.

625/ii) Cost of grass plantation @ Rs 30/.S . 8 Cost of earth work @ Rs. diversion. 41/.93 = 1443 m Cost of grass plantation @ Rs 30/.3. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 66 .per 100 m Critical length of terrace (K) = 100 m Length of terrace per Ha = 10000/H.per cum = 1625 x 41 = Rs 66. Satisfactory performance of vegetated waterways depends on its having the proper shape. Singh) Maximum permissible velocity (cm/sec) 45 60 65 70 100 (Source: Paper on treatment technologies for watershed development and management in north east hill region by Design Vegetative waterways are generally designed to carry the maximum runoff from a storm of 10-year recurrence interval. E  E W . The grass in the waterways should be established before any water turned into it.11 Vegetative Grassed Waterways Vegetative waterways are natural or constructed waterways shaped to require dimensions and vegetated for safe disposal of runoff from a field.Technical Manual for IWMP Earth work. Table 13: Permissible velocity in grassed waterways for different soil types Type of soil Sand and silt Loam. The velocity in the grassed waterways should be kept within the permissible limit for different types of soil and these limits are presented below table. Runoff can be estimated by the Rational Method.per 100 m = (30/100) x 1443 = 432.I = 10000/6.100 8 5. terrace or other structures.2 x25 x100  1625 cum. as well as the preparation of the area in a manner to provide conditions favourable to vegetation growth. K. 67058/3. sandy loam and silt loam Clay loam Clay Gravelly soil R.90 or Rs 433/iii) Total cost of bench terracing = 66625 + 433 = Rs.

67d) T = t (D/d) 0. V-shaped and Parabolic Channels Crosssection Trapezoidal A = bd + zd A = zd2 2 Area (A) Wetted (P) perimeter Top width (t) Top width with freeboard (T) P = b + 2d (z2 +1)0. Table 14: Basic equations for Trapezoidal. namely. Parabolic waterways are most common and generally are the most satisfactory. Broad-bottom trapezoidal channels require less depth of excavation than parabolic or V-shapes for the same capacity.5 t = b + 2zd T = b + 2 zD V-shaped (triangular) Parabolic P = 2d (z2 +1)0.5 t = 2zd T = tD/d A = 2td/3 P = t + (8d)/3t t = A/(0. trapezoidal or V-shaped. and hence these sections are preferred constructed channels. parabolic.Technical Manual for IWMP Shape Vegetated waterways may be built to three general shapes or cross-sections. V-shaped channels can be easily constructed with a V-ditcher and trapezoidal channels with a V-ditcher and a buck scrapper. Thus there are number of factors which govern the selection of shape.5 T d D Trapezoidal Fig 24: Different Shape of waterways Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 67 . It is the shape ordinarily found in nature.

Assume flow velocity as 0. V  n 2 1 2 2 1  0.Technical Manual for IWMP Channel Grades Grassed waterways generally run down the slope and the channel grade is usually governed by land slope. Side slopes of channel should be 4:1 or flatter to facilitate crossing of farm equipment. Design of vegetated waterways is based on the Manning’s formula.9 m/s and manning’s coefficient n= 0.15 cm should be provided to take care of the sediment deposition and variation in the value of ‘n’. Solution Let the side slope of trapezoidal channel be 2:1 Bottom width = 2m Flow depth = 1 m Area of cross section: A = bd + zd2 = (2x1) + (2x12) = 4 m2 Wetted Perimeter (p)  b  2d 1  z 2  2  2 x1 1  22 = 6.47 m Hydraulic radius (R) = A/P = 4/6. The coefficients of roughness (n) usually assumed in grassed waterways design is 0.045.885 m/s Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 68 . In any case.47 = 0.S Velocity. A freeboard of 10 . the next step is to decide on the channel dimensions.0 m3/s and slope of the waterway is 0. channel slope should not exceed 10% while it is normally desirable to keep the grade within 5%.04. Channel Dimensions After the runoff.62 m R 3 . channel grade and design velocity have been determined.62) 3 x  0.3  = (0.3 %. Example: Determine the dimension of trapezoidal shaped grassed waterways to carry the peak runoff rate of 4.045 100   1 2 = 0.

97 = 0. fertile and moist field. Stones are often embedded into the upper surface of spillway aprons and wells to provide support for the next layer.3  Velocity. Gully plugs can be defined as stones placed across gullies or valleys. Hence.885 = 3. depth of flow as 1.54 m3/s The discharge computed above is less than the given value. Then by same formula mentioned above. therefore. 3.91 m/s Therefore Discharge Q = A. bottom width as 2. so as to capture nutrients.0 m and side slope 2:1 can be used for construction of grassed waterway.V = 4. where high value crops and trees can be grown. and to prevent soil erosion. thus transferring low rainfall into utilizable soil moisture. The gully plugging measures include vegetative plantings and brushwood check dams.91 = 4.09 m3/s The discharge capacity of waterway obtained is about equal to the discharge rate to be handled by waterway.5 m2 and perimeter P= 6. Slowing of the flow of water helps in settling down organically rich soil.045 100   1 2 = 0. A well maintained gully plug creates a flat. earthen bunds or a combination of both and sand bag plugs etc. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 69 .5/6. The principle is to capture runoff from a broad catchment area.645 m 2 1  0. V = (0.Technical Manual for IWMP Q = A x V = 4 x 0.5 x 0.5 m and with the same side slope may be attempted. the selected dimensions i.3.645) 3 x  0.97 m Hydraulic Radius R = A/P = 4. silt and moisture. another trial with bottom width 2. boulder checks.12 Gully plugging Measures Gullies are a symptom of functional disorder of the land. cross section area A = 4.5 m. They are small drainage channels. improper land use and are the most visible result of severe soil erosion. which cannot be easily crossed by agricultural equipment. e.

5-15.5-3.0 Location Type of Gully Plug Brush wood Earthen Sand bag Vertical Interval 3.5 4.25-3.25-3. Bori Bandh is a kind of stop made of empty cement bags filled with sand.5 7. Nala Plug (Bori Bandh) is the effective method to slow down the speed of flowing water of the stream in any area. Usually.0 Brick masonry 2.5-10. there is erosion due to flow of water in hilly terrain but Bori Bandh can check it effectively.5-15. clay and small pebbles.0 0-5 3. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 70 .5-6. the empty cement bags are filled with sand.0 1.12. Such bags are then stacked one over the other in the channel of the stream which are not more than 15 meter in width. clay and such other material and placed in the course of stream.0 2. Moreover they check sediments from entering into the dams and increase the lifespan of downstream structures.0 Gully bed Gully bed and side branch Brush wood Earthen 3. On the upstream side of masonry check dam at two to three places if Bori Bandhs are constructed then they prevent land erosion.1 Nala Plug It is creating obstruction by placing used bags filled with sand.0 2.0 branches of a compound gully 5-10 4.Technical Manual for IWMP Table 15: Recommended Vertical interval for different types of gully Slope of Gully Bed % Width of Gully Bed (m) 4.3. In case of Bori Bandh.0 Gully bed Gully bed At the confluence of two Gullies At the confluence of all 7.5 4.25-3. This method is effective where the depth of the stream is not more than one and a half meter and the sides of the stream are of clay.

with each structure dividing the overall catchment of the drainage line into smaller sections.2 Loose Boulder Checks Boulder checks are loose rock dams made on small drainage lines or seasonal streams which have a catchment area of less than 50 ha. ii. Objectives In active gullies the objective of gully control should be to reduce the gradient and dissipate the energy of the flowing water. Reducing soil erosion. Location Boulder checks should be made as a series on a drainage line.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig. 25: Nala Plug (Boribandh) 3. iv. By reducing the velocity of runoff. a series of local base levels can be established through checkdams. Therefore. Creating a hydraulic head locally which enhances infiltration of surface runoff into the groundwater system. In nature. boulder checks help in: i. In this way. Trapping silt which slows the rate of siltation in water harvesting structures in the lower reaches of the watershed. iii. this is achieved through erosion down to base levels.12. Increasing the duration of flow in the drainage line. The difference in height between the crests of successive check-dams should be such that the filled-up basins form steps with a mild slope. To control a gully. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 71 . a steep erosive gradient is replaced by a stairway of gentle and non-erosive steps.3. the capacity of the water harvesting structures created downstream on the drainage line is utilized more fully as they get many more refills.

the weight. Boulder checks should not be made where the bed slope of the drainage line at that point is above 20% because the check will not be able to withstand the high velocity of water flow. thereby preventing water from rising over and cutting the banks. Boulder checks should be made where boulders are available in large quantities in the requisite size. A high enough to accommodate peak flows even after the check has been made. The flatter the upstream slope. 2. the structure will be unstable and may lose its shape during the first heavy runoff. Laying out Boulder Checks on a Stream Since loose boulder checks are not reinforced. If the dams are constructed at an angle steeper than that of rest of the rock. However. This angle depends on the type of rock. 4. There will be a series of loose boulder checks on each drainage line. the horizontal interval between two successive checks would depend on the bed slope of the drainage line: for instance. loose boulder checks can be constructed in sections where the local bed slope is less than 20%. Loose rock has proved to be a very suitable construction material if used correctly. The independent catchment of each boulder check should not be more than 1 to 2 ha. Even though storage is not a primary consideration in the case of loose boulder checks. Hence. 5. so that the water temporarily stored in one check will reach the toe of the check upstream. The height of the embankment at the location of the structure must at least equal the maximum depth of flow in the stream plus the design height of the structure in the central portion of the drainage line. enhanced water retention and groundwater recharge is a desirable objective. Often it is found on the land and thus eliminates expenditure for long hauls. size and shape of the individual rocks and their size distribution. What interval we keep above this limit would require a balance to be struck between cost considerations and volume of water to be stopped. 3. on a drainage line with an overall high bed slope. the angle of rest of the rock should determine the slopes of the dam sides. the Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 72 . the more would be the storage per unit height of the structure. with a constant vertical interval of 1m.Technical Manual for IWMP 1. Any interval below this limit would mean under utilization of the capacity of the downstream boulder check. Once this vertical interval is fixed. The minimum vertical interval between two successive checks on a drainage line should equal the height of the structure. This rule is applicable to all structures in which overtopping is permissible boulder check should be made where the embankments are well defined and stable. locating the structure in those sections in the drainage line where the upstream slope is flatter may be advantageous.

In general the relationship can be expressed as follows: HI  VI x100 Slope% Where. As the slope decreases. one must fix the maximum and minimum horizontal interval between two successive loose boulder checks: 1.Technical Manual for IWMP boulder checks would be spaced at a horizontal interval of 20m on a 5% slope and 10m on a 10% slope. boulder checks must be spaced farther. Fig 26: Cross section of loose boulder check The downstream slope of the boulder check can vary from 1:2 to 1:4 depending on the volume and velocity of runoff.3. For example. The design height of 1m means that the top of the check in the middle of the stream is 1m above ground level. flatter the slope. but not farther than 50m. 3. the upstream slope of the check should be fixed at 1:1in general.12.2. to be varied only in exceptional cases where the structure has to handle very high volume of runoff of high velocity. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 73 . The top width of the boulder check is usually 0. On high slopes. The higher the volume and velocity of runoff. As the material used in the check has a high angle of repose. HI is the Horizontal Interval and VI the Vertical Interval. the maximum height generally accepted for loose boulder checks is 1m. one must not follow this rule blindly without taking into account the catchment area that each boulder check has to handle. 2. loose boulder checks should be spaced close but not closer than 10m. on high slopes one may end up making too many checks even though there is very little water which each check needs to handle.5 m.1 Design of Loose Boulder check Through years of experience in watershed development.4-0. However. In practice.

5 = 114. Find the cost of the loose boulder check. Therefore. Number of boulder check = (Total length of stream)/(Effective width of 1 boulder check) = 2000/17.5 m + 5 m = 17. HI  VI x100 = (1/8) x 100 = 12.2 means 114 numbers Example 2 Cross section of the boulder check is shown below. w = 12. the base of the boulder check itself will occupy 5m. Example 1: Find out the number of loose boulder check in the micro-watershed. with a slope of 8%.5 m Slope% Also. a 1:S1 h 1:S2 b Fig 27: Cross section of loose boulder check Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 74 . Solution: We know that. Therefore the effective width of a boulder check.Technical Manual for IWMP Since the boulder check is composed of highly porous material it is not expected to hold water for a long period. Slope S = 8% Length of the Stream L = 2000 m Height of the Boulder Check VI = 1 m Horizontal interval. if there is a stream 2000m long. then how many 1m high loose boulder checks.5 m.

Technical Manual for IWMP

Point A B C D E F Solution

Chainage (between points) 0 3 6 8 10 12

Height 0.00 0.55 0.60 1.00 0.62 0.00

Area of a trapezium = Average of parallel sides × Distance between two parallel sides
A=( a+b )×h 2

where, a = Top width, b = Base width, h = Height Base width (b) = Upstream Slope (S1) × Height + Downstream Slope (S2)× Height + Top width(a), b=hxS1+a+hxS2 Area of trapezium (cross section between two points) = a x h + h2 x (S1 + S2) /2 Volume of boulders required can be found out by multiplying the distance between points with area. Here we know Top width (a) = 0.5 m, Upstream slope S1=1 and Downstream slope S2=3.Using the above equation quantities of boulders required can be found out.

Boulder check- Quantities Point A B C D E F Chainage 0 3 6 8 10 12 Height 0.00 0.55 0.60 1.00 0.62 0.00 Total Area of XSection 0.00 0.88 1.02 2.50 1.08 0.00 Av. Area of xSection 0.44 0.95 1.76 1.79 0.54 Distance 3 3 2 2 2 12 Quantity 1.32 2.85 3.52 3.58 1.08 12.35

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Technical Manual for IWMP

Add 15% for keying and smooth exit of boulder check. Volume of boulder required for keying = 12.35 x 0.15 = 1.82 m3 Total Volume of boulder required for boulder check = 12.35 + 1.82 = 14.20 m3 Unit Rate for collection & stacking of boulders = Rs 250 (From rate analysis). So, total cost of boulder check =14.20x250= Rs 3550 3.3.13 Chute Spillway Chute spillways are paved sloppy channels usually carrying high run-off discharges. In addition, these help in controlling high falls in gullies. Chute spillway ordinarily consists of an entrance channel either straight or curved in alignment, a control structure, a terminal structure, and an outlet channel. The main design consideration would be to fix the longitudinal bed profile of the channel and its sectional dimensions. The energy of the flow has to be suitably dissipated at the outlet, before the flow enters the downstream channel.

Objectives i) To serve as a spillway for surplus water from farm ponds/reservoirs over earthen embankments. ii) To serve as gully control structures for safely accommodating flash flow coming from upper catchment and causing deep gullies. Specific Site Conditions Chute spillways are generally used to drop water at reaches which are much farther and lower than that of a drop structure. In gully control, they can be used for the control of gully drops up to 6 m. Where there is no opportunity for providing temporary storage above the structure and where high discharges are required, the flume with its inherent high capacity is preferred over the drop inlet spillway. In situations where construction of a drop spillway or drop inlet spillway is going to be costly, chute spillway structures, which are relatively cheaper, are adopted. However, there is the danger of the structure being undermined by rodents and in locations with poorly drained soil; foundations may be threatened by seepage. Design The chute spillway structure also has the following main components. (i) Inlet or control section (ii) Conduit or Chute Discharge Carrier (iii) Outlet or Energy Dissipator

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Control Section The control structure should have a proper approach channel. It is usually located on the flanks where the height of body wall either of masonry or concrete of spillway is considerably small. The Crest gates for flood control if necessary may be provided. Water overflowing the spillway is let into the chute. The common type of inlets used in chute spillways are the straight inlet, box inlet and the side channel inlet. The design procedures for inlets are more or less the same as drop spillways. Conduit or Chute Discharge Carrier The Chute portion will be a steep channel to convey water from a higher to lower elevation (i.e. to the natural river course at very high velocity. The cross section of the Chute may be rectangular or trapezoidal). Usually the conduit section is adopted considering the dimensions of the inlet section. Sometimes, more or less same section as that of inlet is used for the conduit also. Outlet These are located at the downstream end, after the fall is completely negotiated and in the vicinity of the natural stream. It may include Chute blocks, baffle blocks, stilling basin, end sill and side (training) walls. It is preferable to keep them vertical on water side for the satisfactory formation of hydraulic jump. When the velocity at entry of stilling basin is high, chute and baffle blocks are omitted. The outlet's capacity is verified by different considerations of critical depth of flow. Straight apron can also be used for small structures. Scour at the outlet is one of the important factors leading to failure of an over fall structure. Scour may be controlled by giving proper consideration in the design to the: i. ii. iii. iv. Stability of the grade below the structure. Velocities occurring in the downstream channel. Tail water elevations for different flow stages. Dissipation of water energy in the outlet.

Scour below drop spillways or chutes usually are reduced as the tail water elevation is increased. Cost Estimate Cost estimates of the chute structures may involve the earth work in embankment or shaping the existing gully head or pond fill to accommodate the components of chute structures. The cost of inlet, paved channel and outlet are worked out based on the standard procedure of weir.
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Fig. 28: Chute Spillway The type of foundation for any proposed site may determine the type and size of structure to be constructed. Wet, seepy foundations are not suitable for large concrete structures unless the design includes expensive corrective measures. This may be the place where a drop inlet structure is needed. Dry, unstratified foundations are suitable for almost any type of structure. Where there are wet areas on the structure site, drop spillways or chutes can be constructed in a drier area and the water flow diverted to them.

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Chapter-4

4 Middle Catchment Area Treatment
4.1 Introduction
This chapter involves land development activities for middle catchment area treatment covers land leveling, farm bund, farm pond and waste weir.

4.2 Land Levelling
Land levelling is a process of smoothing and grading the land surface to provide a suitable surface for efficient application of irrigation water and uniform leaching of salts. It may be defined as the process of changing the natural topography in such a way so as to control the movement of water on to or from the land surface. Land levelling could be considered under the two heads namely development of barren uncultivated lands and levelling of currently irrigated lands. In the first case, land levelling would be a package of land development consisting of reconnaissance survey, land clearing, topographic and soil survey and land levelling. In the second case where fields are already cultivated, land levelling is usually accomplished, on a field-to-field basis. In large area planning, a complete design of the land levelling operation in blocks of economically feasible sizes is necessary. Before doing so, it would be beneficial to complete rough grading with the help of bulldozer. For hauls exceeding 100 m, the efficiency of a bulldozer is reduced significantly. In such cases, use of scraper with a pick up and carry operation could be employed. In the second instance for small areas, the tractors usually do levelling operation and the driver’s judgment is sufficient to achieve the desired level. In establishing the land-grading plan in both the cases, the designer has to consider factors like soil profile limitations, prevailing land slopes, rainfall characteristics, crops to be grown and irrigation methods to be practiced. For example, in sprinkler and drip irrigation levelling could be quite rough and could even be dispensed with. Levelling is usually limited to lands, which can be graded economically to slopes, which do not ordinarily exceed 2%. The depth of top soil that can be disturbed without reducing productivity often limits the extent of levelling that is practicable, especially in shallow soils.

4.2.1 Design Methods for Land Levelling There are four basic methods of land levelling. Each method has some advantages and disadvantages, but when intelligently used, all will provide satisfactory results. i. ii. iii. Plane method Profile method Plan inspection method
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iv. v.

Contour adjustment method Out of above four methods, the first one is most commonly used.

4.2.1.1

Plane Method

It is the most widely used and very useful method for developing a good quality levelling job. It is so called because the resulting land surface has a uniform field slope and a uniform cross slope. Thus, true plane surface results. Following are the steps for design procedure using plane method: Determination of centroid: The distance of the centroid of the field from any line of reference is equal to the sum of the products obtained by multiplying the area of each part times the distance from the line of reference to its centroid, divided by the area of the entire field.

Fig 29: Location of centroid using plane method 4.2.1.2 Centroid with respect to Reference Line

South of row A = [(10x5) + (30x5) + (50x5) + (70x5) + (90x3)]/23 = 46.52 m Left of line 1 = [(10x5) + (30x5) + (50x5) + (70x4) + (90x4)] / 23 = 47.39 m (ii) Determination of average elevation: It is obtained by adding the elevations of all grid points in the field and dividing the sum by total number of grid points. Elevation of centroid = 194.86 / 23 = 8.472 m

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477 -0.037 +0.820 m) 4.098 +0.397 -0.2% slope: Taking 0.373 -0.298 -0.072 +0.007 +0.2% slope (east-west direction) 1 Level A B C D E 8.002 +0.102 +0. A better procedure known as “the four point method” is generally employed and is quite accurate for land grading: Vc  4C   F  L2   C  2 and V f  4C   F  L2   F  2 Where.3 Earth Work Estimations The “average end area” or the “prismoidal” formulae are suitable for making earthwork computations.472 m) as formation level for levelled field.072 2 +0.223 +0.028 +0.517 -0. cum L = grid spacing.202 5 +0.072 +0.2.017 +0. (iv) Computing the formation level and cuts and fills for 0.228 -0.227 +0.103 -0.247 5 8.187 +0.303 -0. the formation level and the cuts and fills for different grid points are given in Table 25.077 +0.202 +0. m C = cut on the grid. Table 16: The cuts and fills for levelled field 1 A B C D E -0.2% slope in east-west direction.102 +0.147 +0.287 +0.142 4 -0.333 -0.002 -0.298 -0.327 (.147 4 8.242 - (.sign indicates cut and + indicates fill: check: ∑ cut = ∑ fill = 1.228 -0.1. Vc = volume of cut.073 -0.142 +0.223 -0.142 3 -0.133 +0. the cuts and field for all grid points are calculated as given in Table 24.228 +0.437 -0.053 +0.032 -0.003 -0.003 2 8.028 -0.Technical Manual for IWMP (iii) Computing the cut and fills for levelled field: Taking elevation of the centroid (8. cum Vf = volume of fill.098 -.557 +0.107 3 8. m Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 81 .sign indicates cut and + indicates fill: check: ∑ cut = ∑ fill = 1.530 m) Table 17: The cuts and fills for field with 0.

the grid point elevations are recorded on the plan and the design grade elevations are determined by inspection after a careful study of the topography.Technical Manual for IWMP F = fill on the grid. Although this method does not ensure minimum cuts and fills or the shortest length of haul. The uniformity of slope is controlled by properly spacing the new contours. The proper balance of cuts and fills is estimated graphically at the grid points by interpolating between contour lines and by new surface.2. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 82 . m 4. As with the plan inspection method. 4. it is a rapid method. In selecting the formation level. This method demands considerable judgment on the part of designer to keep the earthwork and haul to a minimum.2. but essentially it is a trial and error method of adjusting grades on plotted profiles until the irrigation criteria are met with and the earthwork balance is attained.2.3 Plan Inspection Method In this method. ground profiles are plotted and a grade is established that will provide an appropriate balance between cuts and fills as well as reduce haul distances to reasonable limits. It is usually well adapted to levelling design for very flat land with undulating topography on which it is desired to develop a fairly uniform surface relief.4 Contour Adjustment Method To apply this method. earthwork balance and haul distance. cross slope. There are many variations of the profile method. This method is adopted for moderate to flat land slopes. as it is relatively easy to select grades on a profile that will provide balanced cut and fill with a relatively short haul distance. a contour map is drawn and the proposed ground surface is shown on the same map by drawing new contour lines. the designer must simultaneously consider the down field slope. 4. it is largely a trial and error procedure. Experienced workers frequently use this method.2 Profile Method With this method. Usually it is necessary to assume trial elevations for one or two lines of stakes. This method is adapted to smoothening of steep lands that are to be irrigated. It is largely a trial and error procedure keeping in mind down field slope and cross slope limitations.

3 Farm Bund Farm bunds are constructed on agricultural land with the aim of arresting soil erosion and improving the soil moisture profile. These bunds divide the field into irregular sections. In such a situation. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 83 . it becomes inconvenient to maneuver bullocks for operations such as ploughing and line-sowing. Ideally. 30: Land Levelling using contour adjustment method 4. bunds on farms should be made on the contour line.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig. But this creates several problems for farmers.

we aim to reduce the velocity of runoff.3. Due to this action of rainwater. It is estimated that if these soil losses are prevented the productivity of agricultural can rise by 30-40%.1 Objectives 4. India is losing soil 30 to 40 times faster that the natural replenishment rate.3. But since the soil is impermeable. rainwater carries off with it precious top soil.1 Control of Soil Erosion In our country.6 billion tonnes of top soil and 5-8 million tonnes of nutrients are lost due to soil erosion. the purpose of bunding is to make arrangements for the safe exit of water out of the field. The water in the field and the soil it is carrying are stopped at each bund. Improvement of the Soil Moisture Profile Bunding improves and stabilises the soil moisture profile.Technical Manual for IWMP (Source: Capacity Building Manual for IWMP. 31: Farm Bund 4. On the one hand. which soon become small drains. rills are formed in fields. After falling on the ground. we also aim to provide an outlet to this water. In impermeable soils (black or clayey). bunds control the volume and velocity of runoff in each such unit. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 84 . GSWMA) Fig. We should also keep in mind that it takes over ten thousand years to form a cm thick layer of fertile soil. Thus. By dividing the field into several units. The definition changes with changing local conditions: In permeable soils (sandy or alluvial). by not allowing water a long stretch of free flow. this water will collect in the field and harm the standing crops. the main aim of bunding is to stop runoff. bunds break the momentum of water. It must be remembered that every year in our country 6. Thus.1. rain falls in a few hours on a few days in a few months.

In such a case. Therefore. Design Situation 1: In Relatively Permeable Soils (Source: Watershed works manual: A source book for Soil and Water Conservation Measures. This decision depends on the slope of the field. a diversion channel will have to be dug for the exit of water coming in from the fields above. if bunding has to be done on lowlying fields. Thus.Technical Manual for IWMP In fields with crops such as paddy. in any field water flows the fields above it and water flows out to the fields below it.FES) Fig. Thus it will have to stop more frequently. Height: 60 cm (refer to Figure 32) Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 85 . Only with their complete participation bunding should be finalised. it is important to plan for the entire stretch between the up-lying fields to the drainage line as a single unit. the purpose of bunding is to stop water in the field. regardless of the permeability or impermeability of the soil. the greater the distance In highly sloping land. The greater the slope. the lesser the distance The lesser the slope. Because. They must be informed about the proposed plan and its objectives. it is crucial to involve all farmers in the village in the planning process. Even so. water will run off very fast. 32: Cross section of a farm bund in permeable soil 1. Planning A plan for farm bunding can never be made for one field alone. it may happen that farmers in the uplying fields may not agree to get their fields bunded. Spacing The distance between bunds must be 30-80 m. That is.

this may create waterlogging and may also endanger the bund. rendering the bund meaningless. Situations 2: In Relatively Impermeable Soils In such soils. in sloping lands. it is best to provide an exit at the lowest point of the bund but in such a case no water will stop at the bund. Upstream Slope: 1:1 6. but in order to avoid waterlogging. an exit should be provided. (Source: Watershed works manual: A source book for Soil and Water Conservation Measures. there is always a danger of it overtopping the bund and breaching it. the distance between bunds should be reduced (20 to 50 m) so that no unnecessary pressure is created on any one bund. The exit should.25 = 75 cm. From the point of view of safety.5. an exit need not be given. Settlement Allowance: 25% 3. provision of such an exit is a must.Technical Manual for IWMP 2. In addition. Height: 50 cm in impermeable soils. Settlement Allowance: The fine particles of clay have a natural tendency to settle. clayey soils. Thus. Thus. the bunds should be kept at a lower height. Downstream Slope: 1:1. there is a danger of water collecting in the field. height of bund at time of construction: 60 x 1. Therefore. In order to get around this dilemma. However. water takes a longer time to percolate below the ground. there is every danger of the bund breaking without an exit. an argument can be made that bunds in such soils should be higher. However. Therefore. In gravelly soils. be made a little above the lowest point of the bund. provision of a stone exit becomes imperative. therefore. In black. Top Width: 20-30 cm 5. Exit: On relatively flat permeable fields. FES) Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 86 . in black clayey soils. 7. The water will stop at the bund for a short time and then flow out of the exit. the settlement allowance can be lowered to 10% 4.

Moreover. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 87 . such soils are found as clods. If the slope permits. as mentioned earlier. 3. it cracks. interval. The water will flow along the bund and out of the exit. 4.5 m. Its base width can be kept at 2. the clods should be broken down. Upstream Slope: 1:1. the greater are the chances of the bund subsiding. whose roots stabilise the bunds. it is important to give a settlement allowance of at least 25%. Downstream Slope: 1:2 since clayey soils have a greater tendency to settle. without obstructing the flow of water. the bund should be constructed parallel to one of the field boundaries. Another way is to give a gentle grade to the bund. 33: Cross section of farm bund in impermeable soil Also. bunds made from them should have lower slopes than those made on permeable soils. 6.5 5. contour bunds will divide the field into irregular sections. In particular. This will prevent the seepage of water through the bund since it will be difficult for the water to seep through a broad bund. Top Width: 30-40 cm. The clods are best broken when they are dry. Therefore. which uses the natural slopes to conduct water into the main drainage line. since the bigger the clods. special care has to be taken to prevent water from seeping through the cracks in the bund and emerging across on the other side. The width of bunds made of clayey soils has to be greater because when the clay dries up. As much as possible.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig. exits must be provided. contour bunds should be constructed across the slope of the field. In this way. depending on local conditions. The water flowing out of each field should be given a channel. After some time. Alignment of Bunds under Different Conditions The alignment of bunds requires several improvisations on the spot. the water starts forming wide channels downstream of the bund. At every 10-20 m. However. These trenches will prevent soil erosion. Grass should be planted on such channels in order to prevent soil erosion. depending on local conditions: Example 1: When a rectangular field slopes along one diagonal or towards one edge of the field In such a situation. Exit: In black soils. the downstream slope of the bund must be lower than its upstream slope. small trenches should be dug across these channels which should be filled with stones. on such bunds it is very important to plant grass etc. ideally. Depending upon the shape of the clods. To prevent this. a channel should be dug upstream of the bund for the exit of water.

34: The wrong and the right way to layout bunds on sloping fields Example 2: If the field has a two-way slope If in such a situation. Thus. water will flow along it (Source: Watershed works manual: Samaj Pragati Sahayog). Remember to provide an exit in one or the other of the bunds (Source: Watershed works manual: Samaj Pragati Sahayog). Then the other bund should be constructed across the other slope.Technical Manual for IWMP since the bund will have a gradient. (Source: Watershed works manual: Samaj Pragati Sahayog) Fig. Such a bund will be almost like a contour bund. the velocity of runoff will only increase. the bunds are aligned parallel to the boundaries. first one bund should be constructed across one slope. 35: Farm bunds on a field with a two-way slope Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 88 . (Source: Watershed works manual: Samaj Pragati Sahayog) Fig. Both bunds should be joined in the middle.

application efficiency of the irrigation method. and ponds are one of the most reliable and economical sources of water. which is higher than other soils. wells.Technical Manual for IWMP 4. Dugout Ponds are excavated at the site and the soil obtained by excavation is formed as embankment around the pond. Pond is made by digging a pit or dugout in a nearly level area. lakes. Excavated ponds are the simplest to build in relatively flat terrain. energy conservation. which is good for storing water in dugout farm ponds.1% of rainfed lands in India. Black soils constitute 23. The production of runoff in these areas ranges from 10 to 20%. and landscape improvement. excavated ponds are used where only a small supply of water is needed. wildlife habitat. and the expected inflow to the pond. if the stored water is to be used for irrigation. Harvesting of the water in pond. One of the most effective ways of water management is through pond. including water for livestock and for irrigation. field and orchard spraying. The demand for water has increased tremendously in recent years. The pond could either be fed by surface runoff or groundwater wherever aquifers are available. These are (1) Dugout ponds (2) Surface ponds (3) Spring or Creek fed ponds and (4) Off-stream storage ponds. effective rainfall expected during the growing season. Due to low infiltration rate of these soils the storage losses will be minimum. Because their capacity is obtained almost solely by excavation. In case of dugout ponds. Ponds are now serving a variety of purposes. their practical size is limited. These areas receive low average annual rainfall ranging from 500 to 700 mm. the water has to be pumped out. Some ponds are built in gently to moderately sloping areas and the capacity is obtained both by excavating and by building a dam.4. More will be needed in the future. The ease with which Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 89 .1 Types of Ponds Depending on the source of water and their location with respect to the land surface. The required storage capacity of a pond used for irrigation depends on these interrelated factors: water requirements of the crops to be irrigated. recreation. fish production. losses due to evaporation and seepage. tanks and reservoirs helps to preserve this water so that it can be put to varied uses later on. Because the water capacity is obtained almost entirely by digging. farm ponds are grouped into four types. Dug out farm pond is most suitable water harvesting structure for semi arid black soils. 4.4 Farm Pond For many years farmers have been building ponds for irrigation and livestock. This technology developed due to the following reasons.

The idea is to store the water obtained from the seasonal flow in the streams. depends upon the availability of natural springs or creeks. The most desirable sites are where fine-textured clay and silty clay extend well below the proposed pond depth. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 90 . natural flow of water (runoff water). enough impervious soil at the site is essential to avoid excess seepage losses. their compactness. Generally it is made by building an embankment or dam across a stream or watercourse where the stream valley is depressed enough to permit storing 6 feet or more of water. Suitable arrangements need to be made for conveying the water from the stream to the storage ponds.e. Rectangular ponds should not be constructed. It must be ensured that all the water from field and also water from catchment area can be diverted into the pond (i.Technical Manual for IWMP they can be constructed. Off-stream storage ponds are constructed by the side of streams which flow only seasonally. and their low maintenance requirements make them popular in many sections of the country. Although excavated ponds can be built to almost any shape desired. The capacity should not be too small to be choked up with sediments very soon. If an excavated pond is to be fed by surface runoff. therefore. Construction of these ponds. Spring or creek fed ponds is those where a spring or a creek is the source of water supply to the pond. where the resulting shape would be in sharp contrast to surrounding topography and landscape patterns. (ii) The capacity catchment area ratio should be such that the pond can fill up in about 2-3 months of rainfall. (iii) The main factors in deciding the location of a farm pond are soil type. The land slope may range from gentle to steep. their relative safety from flood flow damage. The rectangular shape is popular because it is simple to build and can be adapted to all kinds of excavating equipment. possibilities of siltation and the topography. Surface water ponds are the most common type of farm ponds. however. Traits of a Good Pond Site A good pond site should possess the following traits: (i) It should be a narrow gorge with a fan shaped valley above: so that a small amount of earthwork gives a large capacity. These are partly excavated and an embankment is constructed to retain the water. It is necessary to make a test pit to understand the strata. A pond can be excavated in a rectangular form and the edge shaped later with a blade scraper to create an irregular configuration. a rectangle is commonly used in relatively flat terrain. point in depression).

animals. nursery. Selecting the Dimensions The dimensions to be selected for a pond depend on the required storage capacity. The maximum depth is generally determined by the kind of material excavated and the type of equipment used. and vegetable crop or fishery. the soils remain highly permeable. (v) Junction of two tributary. it should be deep enough to reach well into the water bearing material. Of the three dimensions of a pond. In addition. Some limestone areas are especially hazardous as pond sites. This angle varies with differGujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 91 . They may empty the pond in a short time. if a dragline excavator is used. or channels that are not visible from the surface may be in the limestone below the soil mantle. The best clue to the suitability of a site in one of these areas is the degree of success others have had with farm ponds in the immediate vicinity. Crevices. To prevent sloughing. The absence of a layer of impervious material over part of the ponded area does not necessarily mean to abandon the proposed site. Because the granules do not break down readily in water. All the factors that may make a limestone site undesirable are not easily recognized without extensive investigations and laboratory tests. the side slopes of the pond are generally no steeper than the natural angle of repose of the material being excavated. Detailed Soil Investigation Soils in the pond area: Suitability of a pond site depends on the ability of the soils in the reservoir area to hold water. sandy and gravelly clays are usually satisfactory. Coarse-textured sands and sand-gravel mixtures are highly pervious and therefore usually unsuitable. many soils in these areas are granular.Technical Manual for IWMP (iv) It can be undertaken in any field (individual or common land) from where farmer can easily provide water to crops. the most important is depth. The soil should contain a layer of material that is impervious and thick enough to prevent excessive seepage. (vii) The catchment area should be put under conservation practices. Generally. sinks. The type and size of the excavating equipment can limit the width of an excavated pond. If an excavated pond is fed from ground water. depressions and other sites of easily available fill material and favorable geology should be preferred. (vi)The site should not have excessive seepage losses. a Plasticity Index of more than 10 percent and an undisturbed thickness of at least 3 feet do not have excessive seepage when the water depth is less than 10 feet. Clays and silty clays are excellent for this purpose. 200 sieve. soils with at least 20 percent passing the No. the length of the boom usually determines the maximum width of excavation that can be made with proper placement of the waste material. For example.

with increased depth. any increase in depth beyond 2. It also becomes uneconomical and difficult for lifting devices operated with human and animal power. but for most ponds the side slopes are 1:1 or flatter. lesser is the area occupied by the pond and also lesser are evaporation losses. side slopes of 1:1 or flatter are adopted. provide a ramp with a flat slope (4:1 or flatter) for access. Depth: For the same volume of water stored. Side slopes: The side slopes are decided by the angle of repose of the sub-soil.5 to 3 m becomes uneconomical. The constant action of standing water may require relatively flatter side slopes to avoid slippage due to saturation. If the pond is to be used for watering livestock.Technical Manual for IWMP ent soils. a depth of 2. Hence. deeper the pond. Generally. However.5 to 3 m may be suitable in general for the ponds. When the construction is done with human labour. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 92 . the seepage losses also increase and hence the storage losses may even out.

Technical Manual for IWMP

Fig. 36: Plan and Cross-Section of a Farm Pond

Bottom area: When the volume of the pond is known and the depth and side slopes are fixed, the side of the bottom square can be obtained from the following formula:
b= 3V-d3 z 2 -dz 3d

Where, b = Side of bottom square, m, V = Volume of pond, m3, d = Depth of pond, m, and z = Side slope ratio (horizontal: vertical). Bottom area (A0) can be obtained by squaring the value obtained as above. Top area: Once the bottom dimensions are known, the side of the top square can be obtained from the following formula: B = b + 2 d.z. Where, B is length of side of farm pond at the top in meter. Top area (A2) can be obtained by squaring the value of 'B' Inlet: The inlet is designed as chute spillway for conducting the runoff into the pond in a controlled manner. The entry section can be designed as a rectangular broad crested weir. The minimum size of inlet should be 1m x 1m in section and the length should be maintained as per the site condition. The pit of size 1.2 x 1.2 x 1.5 m (inlet chamber) should be provided to trap the incoming silt. Every year, the silt collected in the pit has to be removed. Outlet: The outlet is constructed as a rectangular or square channel. The discharge capacity of the outlet can be assumed to be half as that of the inlet capacity as peak rate of runoff. Stone pitching for the outlet section has to be provided to avoid scouring of soil. If step cutting is adopted, step of 0.50m to 1m width and depth are more convenient. Construction of the Pond
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i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii.

Site clearing Leveling Demarcating pond area. Establishing reference level Stepping method of construction Formation of spoil bank Pitching Silt trap Clear the pond area of all undesired vegetation. Mark the outside limits of the proposed

excavation with stakes. In low-rainfall areas where water is unlikely to accumulate in the excavation, you can use almost any kind of available equipment. Tractor-pulled wheeled scrapers, dragline excavators, and track-type tractors equipped with a bulldozer blade are generally used. Bulldozers can only push the excavated material, not carry it; if the length of push is long, using these machines is expensive.

Fig. 37: Farm Pond Pitching: Rock pitching is an effective method of control if a high degree of protection is required or if the water level fluctuates widely. Pitching should extend up to the flood reservoir level of the bund. Rock is dumped directly from trucks or other vehicles or is placed by hand. Hand placing gives more effective protection and requires less stone. Dumping requires more stone, but less labor. The layer of stones should be at least 12 inches thick and must be placed on a bed of gravel or crushed stone at least 10 inches thick. This bed keeps the waves from washing out the underlying embankment material that supports the pitching.
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Technical Manual for IWMP

Establishing Vegetation Trees, shrubs and grasses should be planted during or soon after construction of the bunds. Native varieties are preferred for new plantings.

Design example A dugout pond is to be constructed in a semi-arid area having red soils. It is proposed to provide two supplemental irrigations of 10 cm depth (including losses) to an area of 1.5 ha. Design the pond and estimate the cost. Solution Water requirement for two irrigation times of 10 cm to 1.5 ha area, = 1.5 x 10 = 15.0 ha-cm Assuming 20 per cent of storage losses (evaporation and seepage), Losses = 15 x 0.20 = 3 ha-cm Designed capacity of the pond = 15.0 + 3.0 = 18.0 ha-cm = 1800 cu-m It is presumed that the pond will have sufficient watershed area contributing runoff to fill the pond. Depth of pond = 4.5 m (assumed) Side slopes = 1:1 Shape = Rectangular Assuming bottom width & length = 12 m x 25 m Top length = 25 + (4.5 x 1) 2 = 34 m Top width = 12 + (4.5 x 1) 2 = 21 m Area of pond at top (A2) = 34 x 21 = 714 m2 Mid-length = 25 + (2.25 x 1)2 = 29.5 m Mid-width = 12 + (2.25 x 1)2 = 16.5 m Area of the pond at d/2 depth below the top of pond (A1) = 29.5 x 16.5 = 486.75 m2 Area of pond at bottom (A0) = 12 x 25 = 300 m2 Volume (V) using Equation
d V= (A0 +4A1 +A 2 ) 6

V= (300 + 4 x 486.75 + 714) 4.5/6 = 2220 ha-cm

Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency

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50 x 43= Rs 79529/Design Example Plan and Cross section of the dugout pond is shown in fig below. A0 = 12 x 20 = 240 m2 d V= (A0 +4A1 +A 2 ) .5 x 1) x 2 = 29 m.5 x 16.5 m3 6 Therefore.5 m A1 = 24.25+240) x 4. Design dimensions (L x W) are: Bottom = 20 m x 12 m. the estimated cost will be: 1849.Technical Manual for IWMP Since. keeping width as same). Top length = 20 + (4.25 m2. it is higher than the design capacity. these dimensions can be accepted as the design dimensions to store 18 ha cm runoff water.24 x 1) 2 = 24. A2 = 29 x 21 = 609 m2 Mid-length = 20 + (2. Side slopes = 1:1 Total estimated cost = cost of excavation/cubic meter of soil x Total Volume of Excavation Assuming the cost of excavation per cubic meter of soil as Rs 43 (including lift). Find the cost of said dugout pond. V= (240+4 x 404. 20 m 18 m 16 m 1 1 1 20m Section I 18m Section II Section III 16m Fig. Now. Depth = 4. assuming bottom dimensions = 12 m x 20 m (length changed from 25 to 20 m.5 m.5/6 = 1849. 39: Cross-section of pond Murroom Hard Soil Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 96 .5 = 404. the dimensions should be less than the previously assumed one. Top = 29 m x 21 m.

The water stored in these structures is mostly confined in field and height is normally less than 0.5 Waste Weir Waste weirs are structures with regular openings (to dispose of excess runoff) placed in the path of the water.Technical Manual for IWMP Volume of dugout pond in section I = Length x Width x Depth = 20m x 20m x 1m = 400 m3 Volume of dugout pond in section II = Length x Width x Depth = 18m x 18m x 1m = 324 m3 Volume of dugout in hard soil = 400 + 324 = 724 m3 Volume of dugout pond in Section III = Length x Width x Depth = 16m x 16m x 1m = 256 m3 Volume of dugout in hard murrum = 256 cubic meter Cost of excavation in hard soil = Volume x Rate = 724 x 41 = Rs 29684 Cost of excavation in hard murrum = Volume x Rate = 256 x 62 = Rs 15872 Lift charge: (it is a charge when the depth of excavation is more than 1. They may be permanent or temporary. and excess water is allowed to flow over the head wall. Rectangular.4.50 = 1045 Total cost of dugout pond = 29684 + 15872 + 1045 = Rs 46601 4. triangular and trapezoidal weirs are commonly used in soil and water-conservation structures.1 Volume of Lift Volume of lift charge soil in section II = Length x Width x Depth = 18 x 18 x 0. They are usually located at the lowest point of the field forming the inter-bund area. These are constructed also for giving a safe passage to the excess runoff from the field and also store some amount of water in the field. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 97 .5 m. They are generally located within the structure in case of permanent structures and away from the structure or at safe locations in temporary structures.) 4.1.5 = 162 m3 Volume of lift charge soil in section III = Length x Width x Depth = 16m x 16m x 1m = 256 m3 Total volume of lift charge soil = 162 + 256 = 418 cubic meter Cost of Lift charge = Volume x Rate = 418 x 2.5 m.

84 LH 3/2 Triangular weir: Q = 1.86 LH3/2 A depth of 0. The discharge Q in all cases is calculated using the Rational formula described earlier. sheet metal or concrete and the opening cut on the top of the edge.Technical Manual for IWMP The rectangular weir is the most commonly used in agricultural lands. side pitching and apron. The weir has two design components namely its length (L) and the height (H) of water above the crest. L is assumed and H is derived for surplussing the excess water. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 98 .5.3 m is mostly followed for computing the waste weir length at the beginning.1 Design of Waste Weir The weir can be made of wooden planks. these are variably related to the discharge (Q) according to the type of weir. if the width of the waterway is known. The main components of a clear over fall weir are crest wall. A row of headers are also placed on the downstream side to hold the stones in position. L can be calculated. h is known as the "head. If H is assumed depending on the height of the water path. Q = 1. Weirs are typically installed in open channels such as streams to determine discharge (flow rate). The formulae expressing these relations are given below.38 H 5/2 Trapezoidal weir (Cipoletti weir with side slopes of 1 horizontal to 4 vertical)." L Fig. The basic principle is that discharge is directly related to the water depth (h) in the figure above. Rectangular weir: Q = 1. Conversely. 40: Waste weir 4.

and then L is given by L = Q/ (1.84x 0.43 cumec 360 H is assumed to be 0.6 3/2) = 2.84 m.6 m.84 H3/2) = 2. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 99 . having a runoff coefficient C of 0.5 x 50 x 35 /360 = 2.5 with rainfall intensity (I) of 50 mm/hour Q= CIA = 0.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig.465) = 2.43/ (1. The actual height of the weir should be 0.84x0.43/ (1. 41: Waste weir of a farm (farm outlet) Design Example To design a rectangular weir for disposing runoff from a catchment area (A) of 35 ha.6 m + free board.

5. Other important advantage are that i) they are permeable to water but retain soil. The principle of water harvesting techniques in the drainage line of lower catchment consists of three main components. can introduce stresses which the structure is ill equipped to withstand. Depending on these parameters.Technical Manual for IWMP Chapter 5 5 Lower Catchment Area Treatment 5. This is put up across the stream to make it as a small dam by anchoring it to the stream banks. the storage is the place where runoff water is held or collected. Third. storage and recycling of rain water (surface/subsurface) for irrigation and other uses. soil type. Gabion structures have a long life (20-25 years) almost similar to cement masonry permanent structures. masonry and brick work have good resistance to compression but fail easily under tensile loads resulting from settlement. ii) they do not require water or cement for their construction. This makes the structure strong and heavy. Second. Further. Small bund across the stream is made by putting locally available boulder in a mesh of steel of mesh wires. Reduction of surface runoff can be achieved by constructing suitable structures or by changes in land management. First. iii) the materials are re-usable if the baskets should break or if the structure should deform excessively. Many actions are directed primarily to one or the other. The inherent flexibility of the gabions. Water harvesting in the lower catchment area or in drainage line is the collection. the methods commonly used are gabion. The height of such structures is around 1 to 2 meter and is normally used in the streams with width of about 10 to 20 m.2 Gabion Structure This is a kind of check dam being commonly constructed across small stream to conserve stream flows with practically low submergence beyond stream course with a catchment area of 30-150 ha. but most contain an element of both. It acts as a single unit that can withstand a high velocity of runoff. A small settlement of the structure. earthen dam. slope of the land. the ability to bend without breaking seems to be the primary reasons for their success.1 Introduction There are always strong links between soil conservation and water conservation measures. iv) gabions are also Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 100 . Concrete. the target or cultivated area is where the harvested water is used. amount and intensity of rainfall. the catchment area is where the part of the land contributes its share of rainwater. masonry check dam and subsurface check dams or dyke. this reduction of surface runoff will increase infiltration and help in water conservation. The engineering measures adopted differ with location.

iii. ii.2. Soil conservation. Trapping silt. iv. which reduces the rate of siltation in water harvesting structures in the lower reaches of the watershed. Increasing the duration of flow in the drainage line. gabion structures help in i. 42: Gabion Structure Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 101 . GSWMA) Fig. They are also constructed to reinforce highly erodible stream embankments. By reducing the velocity of runoff. 5. Therefore. The excess water overflows this structure storing some water to serve as a source of recharge. The silt content of stream water in due course forms an impermeable layer and helps in retaining surface water runoff for sufficient time to recharge the ground water body. the capacity of the water harvesting structures created downstream on the drainage line is utilized fully as they get many more refills. (Source: Capacity Building Manual for IWMP. Creating a hydraulic head locally which enhances infiltration of surface runoff into the groundwater system.1 Objectives The main aim of constructing gabion structure is to reduce the velocity of water flowing through the drainage line.Technical Manual for IWMP suitable where firm foundation is not available.

ii.3 Spacing of the Gabions Most common thumb rule is bottom of the upstream structure should be in the same level with top of downstream structure. Structures should be at right angles to the stream flow. 43: Sketch of gabion structure in a drainage line 5. In steep slopes spacing should be 5 to 10 m vertical interval or 10 to 20 m horizontal interval. Ready-made mesh with a single twist is commercially available. v. the more will be the storage. 5.5cm. where masonry and earthen structures are not feasible or uneconomical. The flatter the upstream slope. For maximizing storage in the structure.2. iv.2 Site Selection These are the structures constructed out of stones. Box size of 1m length x 1 wide x 1m height is required to prepare and all the boxes have to be joined as a whole unit. The prepared mesh should be combined together with 14 gauge wires. Straight stream flow.5cm x 7.2. On the downstream of the structure at least 2m fairly level land should be available for apron work. After filling the box with rocks or Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 102 . the desired conditions are: i. In these meshes the gap should not be more than 7. Stream bed should not be with loose material Stream banks should be stable and should have sufficient height on both sides. 5. vi. iii. If there is very mild slope say around 1% then spacing between two structures must be 50 m horizontally.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig.2. the bed slope of the upstream portion should be low.4 Brief Description of the Construction Good quality galvanized wire of gauge 12-14 (chain link) must be used for constructing gabion structures. Hence.

The boulders are placed adjacent to the structure. a reverse filter should be constructed on its upstream face. Layer by layer loose rock is to be kept.0 m into stable portion size: 12 -14 gauge Top width Depth of foundation Height above Ground Level Keying into bank Galvanized Iron chain link 5.30 to 0. ii.6 or up to hard strata 1-2 mt 0. Acceptable stone for gabion construction shall be hard. After filling up.2. v. Gabion box should be properly aligned along the foundation. iv. with gravel. The headwall as well as the sidewalls should be constructed as boxes of 1 to 2m length and 1to 2 m height. The specific gravity required for the stone fill shall be determined by the design and specified by the design engineer.5 Specifications : : : : : 1 to 2 m 0. This is made by placing layers of small boulders. and shall not be less than 4" in any given dimension and no larger than 8" in any given dimension. equally graded.2. gravel. Loose material should be removed from the construction site.30 to 0. sand and mud against the structure. durable. the box should be closed tightly with the binding wire (14 gauges G.I. Specific gravity for stone fill shall be no less than 2. sand and mud being placed successively away from it.30 to 1. angular in shape. vi. Excavate the foundation trench to 0.60 m depth. Clean the site first. To increase the impermeability of the structure.Technical Manual for IWMP boulders the top cover mesh is to be folded and all the corners are to be tightened with binding wire (14 gauge). Table 18: Unit weight of gabion stone fill TYPE OF ROCK Basalt Granite Sandstone LBS/CUBIC FT 180 160 140 5. wire). Page | 103 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency . Construct a stone bund with locally available stones. iii. Bigger size rock should be kept at the bottom portion and smaller rocks (minimum size 4”) should be kept on the upper layer.6 Construction Methodology – Gabion structure i.5.

Technical Manual for IWMP vii. a reverse filter should be constructed on its upstream face.0 m into the stable portion of the gully side to prevent end cutting. (Source: Watershed works manual: Samaj Pragati Sahayog) Fig. viii. x. On down streamside. This helps to prevent erosion of the down streamside of the structure. The whole structure should go (Head wall extension) up to 0. The structure to the level equal to flood depth plus free board to prevent scouring of the stream banks.5m wide apron along the full length of the structure. Apron should be made by first excavating the trench and fill with boulders and enclosed in a wire mesh which is anchored under the boulders. 44: Design of stone box for gabion structure Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 104 . To increase the impermeability of the structure. provide 2 to 2.30 to 1. ix.

sidewall and apron = 0. Height of sidewalls over headwall = 1m. headwall extension. (Source: Watershed works manual: A source book for Soil and Water Conservation Measures. Width of apron = 5m. Length of headwall extension = 2 m. Cross section of the gabion is shown in fig below.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig.0 m. Height of head wall = 2. Depth of foundation of headwall.6 m. 45: Selection of stones for gabion structure Example Find the cost of a Gabion Structure (GS) with the following parameter details: Length of gabion 20 m. FES) Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 105 .

Area of wire mesh on apron and main wall foundation = Length ×Width = 20 × (5 + 1) = 120 sqm 2. Excavation for apron and main wall foundation in hard soil = Length ×Width × Depth = 20 × (5 + 1) × 0. Boulder filling for apron and main wall foundation = Length ×Width × Depth = 20 × (5 + 1) × 0.Technical Manual for IWMP 5 mt 20 mt Step 1 Excavation 1.60 = 72 cum 3.00 sqm (As out of the six faces of cube two faces will remain common for joining the two boxes). Area of wire mesh for keying of apron = Length ×Width = (20 + 20 + 5 + 1 + 5 + 1) × 1 = 52 sqm Total area of wire mesh apron: = 120 + 52 = 172 sqm Step 3 Gabion Boxes As we know the gabion is made with GI wire mesh cubical boxes of 1.00 cum Quantity of wire mesh required = 5.6 = 72 cum Step 2 Area of wire mesh Area of wire mesh 1. of boxes in the head wall extensions × 2 = 4 × 2 = 8 boxes Total boxes for main wall + sidewall + head wall = 40 + 12 + 8 = 60 Boxes Total quantity of wire mesh required for main wall + sidewall + extension wall = No. For estimating the quantity of GS. Excavation for head wall extension in hard soil = 2 × Length ×Width × Depth = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 16 cum 2. we have to count the number of boxes in each part of the structure: Total boxes for main wall = Number of boxes in the main wall c/s × Length of GS = 2 × 20 = 40 boxes Total boxes for both sidewalls = Number of boxes in the side wall c/s × 2 = 6 × 2 = 12 boxes Total boxes for both side head wall extensions = No. of boxes × 5 = 60 × 5 = 300 sqm Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 106 . filled with the boulders.0 m. For making one cubical box of 1 cum capacity: Quantity of boulder required in 1 box= 1.

5 Volume of Reverse Filter = 20 x 1 x 2 x 0. 46: Earthen Dam Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 107 .5 = 20 cubic meter Sr. A dam not satisfying the above criterion of large dam is termed as small dam and is an important structure in drainage line or in low catchment areas.I. Fig. wire mesh for apron and its keying Boulder required for main wall. wire mesh required for main wall.75 million cubic meters and storage exceed one million cubic meters. zoned type and diaphragm type. Also a dam in between 10 m to 15 m height is termed as large dam if volume of earth dam exceeds 0. side wall & main wall extension Reverse filter Total cost (Rs) Quantity 72 16 72 172 60 300 20 Rate 41 41 250 90 250 90 120 81488 Amount 2952 656 18000 15480 15000 27000 2400 5. Earthen dams are constructed across streams of having gentler slopes.I.Technical Manual for IWMP Quantity of reverse filter = Length x Base x height x 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Particulars of work Excavation of foundation in hard soil Excavation for main wall extension in hard soil Boulder filling in apron G. No. side wall & main wall extension G.3 Earthen Dams A dam exceeding 15m in height above deepest river bed level is defined as large dam. An earthen dam may be homogeneous.

butyl. the bulk of the embankment is constructed with pervious material (sand. gravel or rock) and a thin diaphragm of impermeable material like plastic. it could be "full diaphragm" or "partial diaphragm" type. Depending on the length of wall. concrete. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 108 . in which small amount of carefully placed pervious material control the action of seepage so as to permit much steeper slopes as compared to pure homogenous dam.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig 47: Homogeneous earthen dam Homogeneous earth dam: A purely homogeneous type of dam is composed of a single kind of material. Diaphragm: In this type. The core extends from above the water line to an impermeable stratum in the foundation. Sometimes an upstream blanket may also be used in conjunction with the central core or core wall to reduce the cost of fill material. a central highly impervious core is flanked by zones of material considerably more pervious. Following preparations of a foundation. Fig 48: Diaphragm type earthen dam An earth dam is composed of suitable soils obtained from borrow areas or required excavation and compacted in layers by mechanical means. earth from borrow areas and from required excavations is transported to the site. The purely homogeneous type of section has now been replaced by a modified homogeneous section. Zoned earth dam: In this type. steel or wood to act as a barrier against seepage through the fill is provided.

Technical Manual for IWMP

dumped, and spread in layers of required depth. The soil layers are then compacted by tamping rollers, sheepsfoot rollers, tractors, or earth-hauling equipment.

5.3.1 Basic Requirements of an Embankment Dam Dams are a critical and essential part of the Nation’s infrastructure for the storage and management of water in watersheds. To meet the dam safety requirements, the design, construction, operation, and modification of an embankment dam must comply with the following technical requirements: 5.3.2 Selection of Embankment Type Site conditions that may lead to selection of an earthen dam include a wide stream valley, lack of firm rock abutments, considerable depths of soil overlying bedrock, poor quality bedrock from a structural point of view. In order to be cost effective, the dam should be located where maximum storage volume is obtained through minimum volume of earth fill. Drainage line should have well-defined embankments where the dam is to be located so that it can be anchored. Topography Topography, to a large measure, dictates the first choice of type of dam. A narrow Vshaped valley with sound rock in abutments would favour an arch dam. A relatively narrow valley with high, rocky walls would suggest a rock fill or concrete dam (or roller-compacted concrete). Conversely, a wide valley with deep overburden would suggest an earth dam. Irregular valleys might suggest a composite structure, partly earth and partly concrete. Composite sections might also be used to provide a concrete spillway while the rest of the dam is constructed as an embankment section. Geology and Foundation Conditions The geology and foundation conditions at the dam site may dictate the type of dam suitable for that site. Competent rock foundations with relatively high shear strength and resistance to erosion and percolation offer few restrictions as to the type of dam that can be built at the site. Gravel foundations, if well compacted, are suitable for earth or rock-fill dams. Special precautions must be taken to provide adequate seepage control and/or effective water cutoffs or seals. Silt or fine sand foundations can be used for low concrete (or rollercompacted concrete) and earth dams but is not suitable for rock-fill dams. The main problems include settlement, prevention of piping, excessive percolation losses, and protection of the foundation at the downstream embankment toe from erosion. Non dispersive clay foundaGujarat State Watershed Management Agency

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Technical Manual for IWMP

tions may be used for earth dams but require flat embankment slopes because of relatively low foundation shear strength. Materials available The most economical type of dam will often be one for which materials can be found within a reasonable haul distance from the site, including material which must be excavated for the dam foundation, spillway and outlet works. Materials which may be available near or on the dam site include soils for embankments, rock for embankments and riprap, and concrete aggregate (sand, gravel, and crushed stone). Materials from required excavations may be stockpiled for later use. However, greater savings will result if construction scheduling allows direct use of required excavations. If suitable soils for an earth-fill dam can be found in nearby borrow pits, an earth dam may prove to be more economical. The availability of suitable rock may favor a rock-fill dam. The availability of suitable sand and gravel for concrete at a reasonable cost locally or onsite is favorable to use for a concrete exit weir. Spillway/Exit weir The spillway is a critical part of dam construction. An under-designed spillway will result in the dam overtopping or serious spillway erosion during peak runoff. These situations can cause major water losses, potential flooding and damage downstream, in addition to the costs to repair the dam. The size, type, and restrictions on location of the spillway are often controlling factors in the choice of the type of dam. When a large spillway is to be constructed, it may be desirable to combine the spillway and dam into one structure, indicating a concrete overflow dam. In some cases where required excavation from the spillway channel can be utilized in the dam embankment, an earth or rock-fill dam may be advantageous. Environmental Recently environmental considerations have become very important in the design of dams and can have a major influence on the type of dam selected. The principal influence of environmental concerns on selection of a specific type of dam is the need to consider protection of the environment, which can affect the type of dam, its dimensions, and location of the spillway and appurtenant facilities. Economic Analysis The final selection of the type of dam should be made only after careful analysis and comparison of possible alternatives, and after thorough economic analyses (cost benefit ratio) that include costs of spillway and foundation treatment. Technical Requirements
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Technical Manual for IWMP

i.

The dam, foundation, and abutments must be stable under all static and dynamic loading conditions.

ii.

Seepage through the foundation, abutments, and embankment must be controlled and collected to ensure safe operation. The intent is to prevent excessive uplift pressures, piping of materials, sloughing removal of material by solution, or erosion of this material into cracks, joints, and cavities. In addition, the project purpose may impose a limitation on allowable quantity of seepage. The design should include seepage control measures such as foundation cutoffs, adequate and non brittle impervious zones, transition zones, drainage material and blankets, upstream impervious blankets, adequate core contact area, and relief wells.

iii.

The freeboard must be sufficient to prevent overtopping by waves and include an allowance for settlement of the foundation and embankment.

iv.

The spillway and outlet capacity must be sufficient to prevent over-topping of the embankment by the reservoir.

5.3.3 Design of Earthen Dam The various components of an earthen bund include (a) foundation including key trench or cut-off, (b) height of bund, (c) side slopes, (d) top width, (e) free board and (f) settlement allowance.

Fig. 49: Earthen Dam
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5. The most satisfactory foundation is one that consists of.3. formerly made of puddle clay. a compacted clay cut-off extending from the surface of the ground into the impervious is required to prevent excessive seepage and to prevent possible failure by piping. Such foundations cause no stability problems. The key trench is incorporated in the design for two reasons: to anchor the Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 112 . It is sufficient to remove the top soil (with vegetation and roots) and plough the area to provide a good bond with the new fill material of the bund. or is underlain at a shallow depth by a thick layer of relatively impervious consolidated material. Rock-fill dams are a variant of the earth dam in which dumped rock takes the place of compacted earth fill. Where the impervious layer is overlain by pervious material (sand).1 Foundation Cutoffs (Key trench) A key trench (cutoff trench) is excavated below the base of the fill upstream of the centerline of the fill. Their construction is very economical even for very large structures. 50: Design of Earthen Dam An earth dam often contains an impervious clay core to prevent water seeping through the face of the dam and causing erosion of the dam wall.Technical Manual for IWMP It is possible to construct a stable and economical earthen bund on any foundation. Sites with foundation conditions requiring relatively expansive construction measures should be avoided. Where a suitable layer occurs at the surface no special measures are required. Earth dams have a watertight core wall.3. Fig.

3. and temporary flood storage may be added to give the actual bund height or in other words the actual quantity of earth work. The greater the stability of the material. 5.5 5 Up to 5 m height of dam. If the top is to be used as a road. The recommended side slopes for earthen embankments are presented. Simple formula relating top width (W) with height (H) of dam (m) may be used: W H  1. the steeper will be the side slopes or vice versa.Technical Manual for IWMP dam to the base material and to prevent piping (seepage under the fill). Pervious foundations may require the addition of upstream blankets for stability against seepage forces. Weak foundations may require the addition of stabilizing fills at either or both toes of the dam. The most common type of cutoff is one constructed of compacted or puddled clay material.2 Height of Embankment The height of embankment will depend upon the volume of runoff to be stored and topography of the reservoir area. While calculating the cost corresponding to any height some allowance for settlement and free board. It should extend the full length of the dam and depth of about one third to one half of the height of the dam.3.5 meters but adequate to allow the use of mechanical equipment if necessary. The trench should have a bottom width of not less than 1. 5. The height of the bund or embankment should also be selected in such a way that its cost per unit of storage (cum volume) is minimum. Usually a cut-off joining the impervious stratum in the foundation with the base of the dam is needed.3 Top Width of Embankment Adequate top width especially when the crest is to be used as roadway for connecting adjoining villages or watersheds. 5. The key trench should be a minimum of three feet deep for a dam height of 10 to 12 feet. width of 5 m or more is to be adopted.3.3. The side slopes depend primarily on the stability of the material in the embankment.4 Embankment Side Slopes Embankment slopes are required for stability of the embankment on stable foundations. to obtain proper compaction. The sides of the trench should be filled with puddled clay or with successive thin layers of relatively impervious material each layer being properly compacted. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 113 .3.3. a minimum top width of 3 m is recommended.

0. For details of downstream slope protection. IS 8237-1985 may be referred. 5. A minimum of 300 mm thick riprap over 150 mm thick filter layer may be provided up to the top of dam. It is usual practice to protect the downstream slope from rain cuts by providing suitable turfing on the entire downstream slope from top to toe. 5. 10-15 percent is added as free board to the highest flood level of the dam. For design of riprap.3.Technical Manual for IWMP Table19: Recommended side slopes for earthen dams Type of material Homogeneous well graded material Homogeneous coarse silt Homogeneous silty clay or clay (Height less than 15 m) Height more than 15 m Sand or sand and gravel with clay core 3:1 3:1 2.5 Slope Protection Upstream slope: The upstream slope protection is ensured by providing riprap. berms are provided on downstream side of the dam.6 Free Board It is the added height of the dam provided as a safety factor to prevent waves and runoff from storms greater than the design frequency from overtopping the embankment.3.5:1 2.75 m for length between 400 to 800 m and 1m for length more than 800 m. The measures commonly adopted for safe disposal of seepage water through embankment dams are: Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 114 .5:1 Downstream slope 2:1 2.3. It is the vertical distance between the elevation of the highest flood level and top level of the dam after all settlement has taken place.3. It depends upon the height as well as length of the dam.7 Internal Drainage System To ensure safety of dam.5:1 Upstream slope 2. IS 8237-1985 may be referred. The berms are of 1-3 m width and have a mild inward slope for drainage.5:1 2:1 On embankments higher than 10 meters.5 m is provided for length of pond upto 400 m. Downstream slope: The downstream slope protection is ensured by turning or by local grass.3.5:1 3:1 2. it is very important to handle the seepage water in the dam so as to maintain the original particles of soils in their place. Minimum free board of 0.3. 5. Normally.

The standard filter criterion between filter and adjoining soil (casing or foundation) should be satisfied . The waste weir must have the capacity to safely drain out the peak runoff when the water is at FRL in the structure. D50 and D85 particle size.In case of dam portions. The toe drain is provided at the downstream toe of the earth dam to collect seepage from horizontal filter. Inclined or vertical filter is provided just on downstream slope of core.5 m with bottom width of 1 m minimum and side slopes of 1:1 . The filter material should satisfy the following criteria with the base material: a. The section of toe drain should be adequate enough to carry seepage. where the head of water is 3 m or less it is not required to provide horizontal filter.2 H. Its thickness is kept 1. The bed of toe drain should be given a suitable slope to lead the seepage to natural drains. 85 percent particles. After estimating the peak runoff from a catchment and the FRL of the structure. b.8 Design of Waste Weir Water in excess of the Flood Reservoir Level (FRL) is drained out by a waste weir.0 metre.0 meter). gravel etc should be used. Its thickness is kept minimum (as 1.3. and carries to the rock toe & toe drain. However minimum height of rock toe be kept as 1.For details IS 9429-1980 be referred.3. Inclined or vertical filter (chimney filter) Horizontal filter Rock toe Toe drain As far as possible locally available sand. The following criteria must be fulfilled. D15 (f) / D15 (b) > 4 and < 20 D15 (f) / D85 (b) < 5 A filter that satisfies the above criteria may yet fail if it has an excess or lack of certain sizes or is not uniformly graded. Rock toe is not necessary where height of embankment is 3 m or less. Depth of toe drain is usually provided as 1. The suffix 'f' stands for the filter material and 'b' for the base material. 15. Horizontal filter collects the seepage from chimney filter & foundation. Adequate toe protection shall however be provided. 5. the dimensions of the waste weir are determined. Peak runoff from a watershed is estimated using the Rational formula: Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 115 . respectively are finer than D15.Technical Manual for IWMP i. ii. The height of rock toe is generally provided as 0. D50 (f) / D50 (b) < 25 The gradation curve of the filter material should be nearly parallel to the gradation curve of the base material. iv. by weight. rock toe & through foundation and to discharge it away from the dam by suitable surface or sub surface drains. 50. iii.0 meter (minimum). where H is the height of embankment.

it is better to have a broader waste weir for a given volume of excess runoff rather than a deeper one so as to maximize the storage capacity. The waste weir should be designed with a wide base and a gentle slope. outlet pipe has to be taken through dam body.9 Causes of Failure of Earthen Dams The most common causes of failure of earthen dams are: i) Overtopping of the dam ii) Wave erosion of the upstream iii) Toe erosion of the downstream iv) Rill and gullying downstream/upstream v) Upstream slope failure due to caving/slipping. Qp=discharge (cubic meter per second). The discharge capacity of the waste weir is given by the crested weir formula. the length of the surplus weir. and if undersized. This placement will reduce the risk of the dam washing out. 5. Qp= 1. C=runoff coefficient. L Qp 1. they can restrict flow and result in project failure.75  H 3/ 2 Where. not through or directly adjacent to the fill.Technical Manual for IWMP Q=CIA/360.3. L=weir width (m) and H=depth of flow (m). The weir should be located away from the dam fill. which will reduce water velocity and soil erosion. Culverts are often used in waste weir design. Wherever possible. If. The base and sides should also be seeded to grass. vi) Downstream slope failure due to seepage vii) Excessive settlement in embankment and foundation viii) Inadequate spillway or blockage of spillway ix) Sometimes. antiseep collars are not provided. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 116 . water seeps along the pipe and leads to structure failures x) Seepage failures:     Excessive seepage through the embankment Excessive seepage through the foundation Piping of fill and foundation due to seepage Excessive creep flow around irrigation pipe outlet and pipe spillway.3. I = Intensity of rainfall (mm/hr).75LH3/2 So we need to arrive at the value of L. and A=watershed area (ha). Where Q=Peak runoff (cubic meter per seconds).

75:1 2.ML.5:1 3. Side slopes U/S D/S U/S D/S U/S D/S (a) Coarse grained soil (i)GW.1987 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 117 .5m above MWL Not necessary upto Necessary. 3m height.homogeneous geneous section /Homogeneous section 2.SW.GP.H/5. Description No 1. Type of section HomogeneHeight up to 5 m Height above 5 m Height above 10 m and and up to 10 m up to 15 m Zoned / Modified Zoned / modified homogeneous/ section homogeneous ous/Modified homo.SC. Rock toe height 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 2. Hearting zone a) Top width b) Top Level 4. 1m ht.CI.Technical Manual for IWMP Table 20: General Guidelines for Embankment section Sl . Berms Not necessary Not necessary The berm may be provided as per design. of rock of embankment toe may be provided 5. Extract from Table 1 of IS: 12169 . MH 3. The minimum berm width shall be 3 m. where H grained upon stability Not required --- May be Provided 3m 0.75:1 -do-doNecessary 3m 0.H/5.GM.5:1 3. Above 3m where H is height is height of embankment height.MI (ii) CH.5m above MWL Necessary. Suitable for casing zone ii)GC.SM 2:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 Section to be decided based analysis (b ) Fine soil (i)CL.SP Not Suitable Not Suitable Not suitable for core.

vi. SM. ii. MH OL. Length of earthen dam is 20 m and maximum height of bund is 5 m.CI SP.3. SM.CI GM. OH. Cross section of the dam is shown in fig below. MI. Find the cost of the earthen dam.Technical Manual for IWMP Table 21: Suitability of soil for construction of dams Zoned Dams Relative suitability Homogeneous Dykes GC CL. Cost of stripping/cleaning inside layout or plan section Earth work to erect the dam Excavation of cut-off trench Cost of core wall (if any) Cost of pitching on upstream side Cost of toe wall Excavation for exit weir Example: One e a rt hen da m is proposed in a watershed in Rajkot dist of Gujarat.) Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 118 . iv. OI. (Rates used in the examples are the SoR – 2008 of Irrigation Dept. GC. i. CH ML. SM. vii. GW GM SP. Pt Pervious ing SW. v. iii. SC. CI CH. following aspects are included. GP GC CL. SC. GC casImpervious kat Blan- Very Suitable Suitable Fairly suitable Poor Not suitable (Extract from Appendix A of IS 12169-1987) 5. CH Impervious core GC CL.10 Cost estimation of Earthen Dam For working out the cost estimates of an earthen dam.3.

S1= 3. 5 m D/S 2:1 Turfing 1m Casing Puddle trench 2m 1.5 m.67 m X-section of the Embankment Area of Trapezium = [(Top Width + Bottom Width) / 2] x Depth = [(B + H x S1+ B+ H x S2) /2] x H = [(2B + H x S1 + H x S2) /2] x H = [{2B + H x (S1 + S2)} /2] = [{2B /2} + {(H x (S1 + S2)) /2}] x H = [B + {(H x (S1 + S2)) /2}] x H = [(B x H) + {(H2 x (S1 + S2)) /2}] = B x H + H2 x (S1 + S2) /2 Here.5 x H + H2 x (3 + 2) /2 = 2. S2 = D/S slope Cross sectional area of earthen dam = B x H + H2 x (S1 + S2) /2 As per drawing we knows. S1 = U/S slope. B = 2. B = Top Width. H = Height.Technical Manual for IWMP FBL FRL------U/S 3:1 Pitching Core 2.5 Page | 119 H*S1 B U/S 1:S1 D/S H 1:S2 H*S2 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency .5 x H + H2 x 2. S2 = 2 Cross sectional area of earthen dam = 2.

50 12.50 22.67 = 50. X-sectional area = W x (H – free board) = 2.Technical Manual for IWMP Volume of Overall Bund Point A B C D E Chainage 0 5 10 15 20 Height 0 2 5 3 0 X-sectional area 0 15 75 30 0 Total Average XLength Between two points 5 5 5 5 Volume (m3) 37.5 x (H .angle ABO Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Average X- Length between two points 5 5 5 5 Volume (m3) 2. Volume of cut-off trench Volume= Length x (Top width + Bottom width)/2 x Depth = 20 x (2 + 1)/2 x 1.90 – angle ABO = 90 .5 45 52.50 3 1 Page | 120 .50 262. Volume of Core Wall X-sectional area = width x height = W x (H – free board) We know that.50 15 5 35 sectional area 0.5 m. Angle BAO = 180 . W = 2.5 2.50 75 600 sectional area 7.angle ABO Angle CBO = 90 .10 m3 Volume of Rock toe In triangle AOB.50 15 Total volume of bund = 600 cubic meter.1) Point A B C D E Chainage 0 5 10 15 20 Height 0 2 5 3 0 X-sectional area 0 1 4 2 0 Total Volume of core wall = 35 cubic meter. Freeboard = 1 m (assumed).

a core wall section made with impervious or clayey soil and the casing/outer cover with more pervious material and rock toe filter on the downstream side.76 14.13 1.66 6. Angle BAO = angle CBO If the slope of line AB is 2:1 then slope of line CB will be 2:1 Cross sectional area of rock toe = 1/2 x Base x Height = 1/2 x {(H/ 4S2) + (H x S2/4)} x H /4 = H/8 x {(H/ 4 S2) + (H x S2/4)} = H/32 x {(H/ S2) + (H x S2)} = H/32 x {(H + (H x S22)/ S2} = H2 x (1 + S22)/(32 x S2) S2 = 2 Cross sectional area = H2 x (1 + S22)/(32 x S2) = H2 x (1 + 22)/32 x 2 = H2 x (5 /64) Estimation of volume of Rock Toe Point A B C D E Chainage 0 5 10 15 20 Height 0 2 5 3 0 X-sectional area 0 0.31 1.35 5 5 5 5 Volume of casing/outer cover should be calculated as in this case the dam has two sections namely .84) = 550.84 two sectional area between points 0.16 cum Area of Pitching Cross sectional width (AC) = (H .freeboard) x (upstream slope S1 2 + 1)1/2 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 121 . Volume of casing/outer cover =Total volume of dam − (Volume of core wall + Volume of rock toe) = 600 − (35 + 14.64 1.78 5.95 0.16 1.70 0 Total Average XLength Volume (m3) 0.Technical Manual for IWMP So.33 0.

Volume of excavation for exit = Length ×Width × Height= 5m × 4m× 1. S1= 3.53 47. S2 = 2 Cross sectional width (AC) = B + H x (S1 + S2) = 2.5 m.5m = 30 cum Sr.91 9.5 + H x 5 Point A B C D E Chainage 0 5 10 15 20 Height 0 2 5 3 0 Width of strip.50 10.58 7.49 3.50 20.00 Excavation for Exit The exit is rectangular in shape and assumed length is 5 m.66 41 140 Amount 498 2054.1 7014 Page | 122 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency .1) (32 + 1)1/2 = (H .50 50.50 27.50 2.Technical Manual for IWMP = (H . 1 No.10 50.00 22.00 300.68 sectional area 1.1) x 3.5 12.00 Length between two points 5 5 5 5 Area of stripping 37.10 Rate 1.5 + H x (3 +2) = 2.65 6.50 17.Average Width ping 2.81 110.16 12.50 Total of stripping 7. 2 3 Description Stripping Excavation of cut-off trench in hard soil Cut-off trench filling with black cotton soil Quantity 300 50.16 Point A B C D E Chainage 0 5 10 15 20 Height 0 2 5 3 0 Length of pitching 0 3.16 Area of stripping: Cross sectional width (AC) = (H x S1)+ B + (H x S2) = B + H x (S1 + S2) B = 2.50 100.43 15.91 39.00 112.32 Total Average XLength between two points 5 5 5 5 Area of Pitching 7.

In order to avoid scouring from excess run off. The side of the dam where water is stored is called the upstream side and other side and other side of the dam is called downstream side.20 35 14. While constructing a series of check dams on along stream course. electricity generation. water cushions are provided at downstream side.4 Check Dam It is an impermeable structure constructed across the drainage line having gentle slope and is feasible both in hard rock as well as alluvial formations for storage of water.Technical Manual for IWMP 4 5 6 7 8 Casing construction in hard soil Construction of core wall Construction of rock toe on D/S side Construction of pitching on U/S side Excavation of exit in hard soil 550. and flood control etc. series of such check dams can be constructed to have recharge on regional scale.04 1230 66082. the spacing between two check dams should be beyond their water spread. water does not spill over the banks. Uses of check dam: The stored water may be used may be used for a variety of purposes that may be irrigation.80 110. 5. During the site selection for water harvesting structures under the watershed programmes. the cement masonry structures are usually preferred over the earthen structures.68 30 53 140 290 153 41 29160.6 4900 4292 16934.74 Total cost Rs. The water stored in these structures is mostly confined to stream course and the height is normally less than 3 m for watershed projects. These are designed based on stream width and excess water is allowed to flow over the wall. Watershed projects also focus on aspects that provide employment to the rural community but the construction of the cement masonry structure involves a very small component of unskilled labour cost. The height of the check dam should be such that even during the highest flood. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 123 . drinking. The proportion of wage cost and non-wage cost for the construction of the masonry structure is in the proportion of 40:60. To harness the maximum run off in the stream. these structures should be planned only on such sites that are not favorable for the construction of earthen structures. Hence.

All masonry structures are overflow dams and all earthen dams are the examples of non-overflow dams. Flood control structure: The main purpose of this structure is to protect a particular area from flooding by storing the water at flood times and releasing it during the normal period.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig. Irrigation: The main purpose of this dam is irrigation through canal network. 5.1 On the basis of Use Geographical location.  Concrete dam: Concrete is mainly used for construction of this structure.  Steel dam: The dam constructed by steel thus. it is called steel dam.1. electricity generation and the ground water recharge.4.  Masonry dam: UCR or Aron is mainly used. All minor irrigation dams are the examples of this class. It can further be used for irrigation. storage capacity and location of the dam are the three main parameters for future classifying dams on the basis of use Storage: The main purpose of this structure is to store the excess surface runoff during the rainy season.4.2 On the basis of overflow and non overflow A dam where water flows over the dam body is called on overflow dam and otherwise it is called a non-overflow dam.1 Classification of Check Dams Dams are generally classified by three types: 5. 5.3 On the basis of construction material/shape  RCC dam: It is constructed by concrete and steel bars hence it is called RCC dam. 51: Masonry Check dam in drainage line 5.4. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 124 .1.4.1.

e. 5.2 Site Characteristic and Design Guidelines for Check Dams Site of a dam is selected on the basis of its catchment area and the total amount of runoff generated from the catchment. Conduct cross section survey at regular intervals across the drain to estimate the storage capacity of the dam. Q = C*(A/100)3/4 Here. vi) The site should be approachable for an easy transportation of construction materials. ii) The width of nala bed should be at least 5 meters and the depth should not be less than iii) 1 metre. the value of C is 11. Q = Peak discharge in cusec A = catchment in hectares C = coefficient of runoff. The lands downstream of check dam should have irrigable land under well irrigation (This is desirable but not an essential requirement). whether it is treated or untreated.3 Design of Check Dams During the preliminary survey.45 for the areas with annual rainfall of 600 to 1200 mm and for Central India the value is 14. where L is the length of the dam Step III: Calculate depth of the flow considering peak discharge Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 125 .4. iv) v) The banks of the drain should be high and firm Width of the drain at the site should be narrow and the slope of the drain bed should be gentle.Technical Manual for IWMP 5. x) Selecting potential riverbeds based on field data regarding the physical and sociological aspects. If it is not treated then a plan for the same should be made and incorporated into the proposal of dam. Step II: Calculate peak runoff per running meter q = Q/L. vii) viii) The submergence area of the dam should be marked on the ground. Following points should be kept in mind while conducting survey for a dam: i) The total catchment of the stream should normally be between 500 to 1000 Hectares though the local situations can be guiding factor in this. ix) Check the status of catchment area i.4. Following technical parameters have to be found out: A = Catchment area in hectare from Toposheet/Drainage line maps. H = Maximum height of the structure in meter Step I: Calculate peak discharge.

5 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 126 . here K is coefficient of hydraulic gradient Step VIII: Calculate the thickness of the downstream apron (t) t = 1. where G is specific gravity of the construction material Table 19: Specific gravity of different construction material Sr.Technical Manual for IWMP h = (q/1. No. where G is specific gravity of the construction material Step VII: Calculate the length of the downstream apron (La) La = 1.00 2.08 2.32 1. No.71)2/3 Step IV: Calculate the hydraulic head "HL" HL=H+h.33 * [h/ (G +1)].54 2. where G is specific gravity of construction material Step VI: Calculate the bottom width of the dam "b" b = [HL/ (G-1)1/2 ]. where H is height of the dam Step V: Calculate the top width of the dam "a" a = [HL/ (G+1)1/2].24 Table 20: Hydraulic gradient (K) for different situation of drain bed Sr.92 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Construction material Plain cement concrete (PCC) Reinforced cement concrete (RCC) Stone masonry in cement mortar Dry stone masonry Random rubble masonry Brick masonry Reinforced brick masonry Plum cement concrete Specific gravity (G) 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Situation of drain bed Coarse sand Fine sand + mud Sand + Boulder Fine Sand Boulder Big Boulder Safe hydraulic gradient (K) 12 8 5 to 9 15 5 3.24 2.40 2.45* K * (HL/13) ½ .5 to 4.

183 * q0.y1 is less than 0. 52: Cross section and top view and components of Check Dams Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 127 . Calculate height of the baffle wall (hb).89 * HL -0. hb = yc – y1 Here = yc is critical depth.30 m then hb = yc Thickness of baffle wall "tb" tb =2/3 * hb Distance of baffle wall from head wall (Lb) Lb = 5.Technical Manual for IWMP Step IX : Design of Baffle wall: The downstream drain bed may get damaged by the water falling over the top of the dam. where g is acceleration due to gravity.25 * hb Down Stream Elevation Fig.35 If the yc . which is 9. it is thus necessary that a baffle wall be constructed at the end of the downstream apron. yc = (q2/g) 1/3 . so that an additional water cushion may be provided at the scour.81 And y1 is pre-jump depth. y1 = 0.

it very less so hb = yc .58 = 2. especially where the banks are weak.810. construction material is concrete and site is in Gujarat.38-0.8 +0.40m y1 =0.8m.24+1)] = 0.38/(2.8 m 5.45 * K * (HL/13)1/2 = 1. Bottom width of the wing wall should be equal to 1/3 to 1/4th of the height of the wing wall. Foundation depth of the sidewall and wing wall depends on the soil strata of foundation bed.26 m Distance of baffle wall from head wall (Lb) = 5.38 m hb =yc – y1 = 0.81)0.24+1)1/2 ] = 1.33 * [h/(G+1)] = 1.812/9.40 m Thickness of baffle wall (tb) = 2/3 * hb = 2/3 *0. Solution: q = Q/L = 18/22 = 0. HL = 1. hb = 0.30m HL =H+h. Example If peak discharge (Q) is = 18 cusec.11 m Bottom width of dam (b) = [HL /(G-1)1/2] = [2. situation at drain bed is big boulder.81/1.45 * 4.81 cusec/running meter h = (q/1.25 * 0.71) 2/3 = 0.58m yc = (q2/g) 0.3 = 0.58/(2.62m Top width of dam (a) = [HL /(G+1)1/2] = [2. height of the dam (H) = 1.40 = 0.5 * (2. a gabion wall may be constructed instead of masonry wall depending on the bank condition and the catchment area.89 * 2. Height of the sidewalls at the dam section should be equal to the height of the structure plus the depth of the flow over dam plus the free board.38/13)1/2 = 2.Technical Manual for IWMP Step X Design of sidewall and wing-wall: These are constructed for protection of the structure.40 = 2. and thus it should be constructed only where it is necessary.89 * HL -0.71)2/3 = (0. Weep holes should be provided in the wing wall for the drainage of excess water.35 = 0.10 m. It is an expensive measure.183 * 0.4.4 Forces Acting on Dam Wall  Stored water in upstream side of the dam body  Self-weight of dam Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 128 .1 m Length of downstream apron (La) = 1.35 = 0. Design the structure.5 to 2 times of height of the dam.33 [0.183 * q0.33 = (0.4 – 0.33 = 0. length of dam (L) = 22m. Top width of the wing wall should be equal to 1/6 to 1/7th of the height of the wing wall.25 * hb = 5.38/(2. In certain cases.79 m Thickness of downstream apron (t) = 1.24-1)1/2 ] = 1. Wing wall turns at the radius of 1.

4.1 Horizontal forces due to stored water Horizontal forces act on the dam body mainly due to the standing water column.4. Negative Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 129 .4.5 Causes of Failure of Check Dam  Overturning  Crushing  Shearing or sliding  Sinking Overturning Resultant force of all forces except self weight force. value of η varies from 0.Technical Manual for IWMP  Uplift force of stored water  Forces due to earthquake  Ice force in cold terrain  Wind force  Force due to siltation 5. G is specific gravity of construction material and "b" is bottom width of dam 5.75 5. Formula for calculating horizontal force (P) on the dam body is P = ½ * w*H2.4. here w = specific unit weight of water = 1000 kg/m3 and H is height of the stored water 5. If the summation of all negative moment divided by summation of all positive moment should be 1.4.4.5 to 2.4.5. w is specific unit weight of water. causes the dam failure by overturning.60 to 0. H is depth of water column. Resultant of the forces acts at H/3 from the base of the dams. then dam is safe from failure by overturning. U =1/2 * η* w * b * H Here "U" is uplift force in Kg η is a constant for uplift force.3 Uplift Force due to Standing Water Column The standing water enters the foundation through small pores and the pore water would force upwardly from the dam body.2 Self Weight Force of the Check Dam W = 1/2 * w * H * b * G Where W is self-weight force in Kg. acting on the dam body.

35 m Force of standing water (P) = ½ * w * H2 = ½ * 1000 * 3.33 * [h/(G+1)] = 1. means dam is safe Crushing The bearing capacity of the foundation strata should resist the forces occurring due to the dam body.33 =0. Solution: Q = C * (A/100)3/4 = 14*(200/100)3/4 = 23.183 * 0. hb = 0.730.07 m Bottom width of dam (b) = [HL/(G-1)1/2 ] = [3.732/9. it is very less hence.35 = 0.183 * q0. ∑(-M)/∑ (+ M) should be in between 1.44 – 0. Friction constant is 0.2 + 0.2 2 = 5120 Kg Self Weight of dam = ½ * w * H * b * G = ½ * 1000 * 3.24+1)1/2] = 2.74/(2.44 = 2.2 m q = Q/L = 23. Example Salient features of the dam are as follows: Length of the head wall = 32 m.75 * 1000 * 3.54/32 = 0.Technical Manual for IWMP moment mainly occurs due to self-weight of the dam whereas positive moment occurs due to uplift force and the force due to standing water column.5 * (3.25 * 0. hb = yc.29 m Distance of baffle wall from head wall (Lb) = 5.5 to 2.35 * 3.71)2/3 = (0.24-1)1/2 ] = 3.A = 200 ha and H=3.89 * HL -0. C = 14 .50 m Thickness of downstream apron (t) = 1.2 * 3. if the answer comes more than 1.5.54 cumec Here.89 * 3.33 * [0.74/13)1/2 =3.35 = 0. Design the dam.74/(2.54 = 3.54 m Hydraulic head (HL) = H + h = 3. Shearing or sliding If the force of standing water is more than the force of self-weight of the dam then the dam may fail due to shearing or sliding.25 * hb = 5.09m.44 m Thickness of baffle wall from head wall (tb) = 2/3 * hb = 2/3 * 0.62 m Top width of dam (a) = [HL/ (G+1)1/2 ] = [3.35 m hb = yc – y1 = 0.81)0.44 m y1 = 0.2 = 4020 Kg Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 130 . Bearing capacity of the soil per unit area divided by forces of dam on foundation per unit area should be more than 1.74 m yc = (q2/g)1/3 = (0.24 = 12006 Kg Uplift force (U) = ½ * η * w * b * H = ½ * 0.35 = 0. On comparing the bearing capacity of the soil to the forces due to dam body. location of the dam is in Central India with a catchment area of 200 ha.45 * K * (HL/13)1/2 = 1.73 m h = (q/1.73/1.71)2/3 = 0.54/(2.35 * 2.44 = 0. it would mean that the dam is safe from crushing failure.74 -0. it would mean dam is safe from shearing or sliding failure.75.24+1)] = 0.31 m Length of downstream apron (La) = 1. If summation of all vertical forces acting on the dam body divided by summation of all horizontal forces on the dam is more than 1.45 * 4.

2 * 1.5 Kg-m Shearing or Sliding Check Summation of vertical forces acting on dam body divided by summation of horizontal forces acting on dam body should be more than 1.65 * S * 1.3 * 1.75 = (12006 – 4020) / 5120 = 1.3 * 1.15/ (1+a+b) II.3 * 1.15/ (1+a+b) Gravel Quantity (m3) = b * C * 1.15/ (1+C) Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 131 .35/2 = 201110 Kg-m Positive moment due to force of water = force of water x perpendicular distance from toe of dam (H/3) = 5120 * 3. M (m3) = 0.35 * S If mix ratio of mortar is 1: C.64>1.3 Volume of Mortar. if the volume of stone masonry work is S.2/3 = 5461 Kg-m Positive moment due to uplift force of water = uplift force of water x perpendicular distance from toe of dam (b/2) = 4020 * 3. Stone Masonry For water tight structures usually 65% of masonry body is proposed to be stone and 35% cement mortar. then Volume of Stone (m3) = 0.Technical Manual for IWMP Negative moment due to self weight of dam = Self weight of dam x perpendicular distance from toe of the dam (b/2) = 12006 * 3.5 hence OK Calculating the Quantities of Materials I.56 > 1 hence OK Check for overturning = ∑ (. Cement Quantity (Kg) = 1 * M * 1400 * 1. then: Cement Quantity (Kg) = 1 * C * 1400 * 1.2 * 1.5 = 20110/12194 = 1. Concrete Mix Ratio – 1: a: b Where: 1 = cement proportion: a = sand proportion: b = coarse aggregate proportion If the amount of concrete needed is C. So.05/ (1+a+b) Sand Quantity (m3) = a * C* 1.5 to 2. µ = 0.35/2 = 6733.M)/∑ (+ M) should fall between 1.05/(1+C) Sand Quantity (m3) = C * M * 1.

5.5. If Z Quintals of cement is required to complete the construction work.Technical Manual for IWMP III.  No evaporation loss from the reservoir takes place. The reservoir is recharged during the monsoon period and the stored water can be used during the dry season. IV. 5. Plastering Follow the same formula used for mortar ingredients of stone masonry. Total volume of water = 280 * Z 5. Groundwater dams cannot be a universally applicable as these Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 132 . It is a sub-surface barrier across stream. Sites for construction of subsurface dykes have to be located in areas where there is a great scarcity of water during the summer months or where there is need for additional water for irrigation.2 Construction and Design Guidelines The basic principle of the groundwater dam is that instead of storing the water in surface reservoirs.  No siltation in the reservoir takes place  The potential disaster like collapse of dams can be avoided. V. Their use is in areas where flows of groundwater vary considerably during the course of the year.5 Sub-Surface Check Dams/Dykes Groundwater dams are structures that intercept or obstruct the natural flow of groundwater and provide storage for water underground. water is stored underground. 5. submergence of land can be avoided and land above reservoir can be utilized even after the construction of the dam. Pointing Pointing area is taken as 1/3 of plastering area and then follows the same way used for plastering. which retards the base flow and stores water upstream below ground surface. curing. washing dirty construction faces. The water level in upstream part of ground water dam rises saturating otherwise dry part of aquifer site where sub-surface dyke is proposed should have shallow impervious layer with wide valley and narrow outlet. workers construction and food preparation is roughly calculated from the total cement requirement of the site. They have been used in several parts of the world.1 Advantages  The underground dam or dyke has following advantages:  Since the water is stored within the aquifer. from very high flows following rain to negligible flows during the dry season. Water Water required for mixing. notably in India.

with rock or a permeable layer at a depth of a few meters. The construction should be in layers and each fresh layer should be watered and compacted by plain sheet or sheep foot rollers of 1 to 2 ton capacity. the width should be between 1. Dykes of 30 cm thick brick cement or stone cement. After selection of site. 53: Subsurface dam or Dyke Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 133 . the remaining open trench should be back-filled by impermeable clay.5 and 2m depending on the quality of clay used. the work should be taken up by the end of winter and completed well before the onset of rains.5 m below the ground level. In absence of roller.Technical Manual for IWMP require specific conditions for functioning. the clay should be manually compacted. Regional water table able Clay or concrete wall Fig. PVC sheets of 3000 PSI tearing strength and 400 to 600 gauge or low density polyethylene film of 200 gauge is also used to cover the cut out dyke faces. The trench may be filled with clay or brick / concrete wall up to 0. In case of clay dykes. For ensuring total imperviousness. The underground structures should be keyed into both the flanks of stream for one meter length to prevent leakage from sides. In order to minimize or avoid problem of dewatering during construction. Such dykes are also useful across the perennial streams. extending down to the compact bedrock. with mud or clay fillings in excavated portions on both sides of the wall provide a perfect impermeable barrier. Where the core wall is a masonry structure. These structures are preferred downstream of existing water supply structure to sustain availability during the summer. Ideally the dam should be built where rainwater from a large catchment area flows through a narrow passage. a trench of 1-2 m wide is dug across the breadth of the stream down to impermeable bed. The best sites for construction of groundwater dams are where the soil consists of sands and gravel. as water table is at lower elevation in this period.

Design example Find the cost estimate of an underground dyke for the following dimensions: Length of dyke = 20 m.5 m and Depth of 3 m. Volume of Excavation for trench: Volume= Length x Width x Depth = 20 x 1. risk of contamination of the stored water from the surface is reduced because as parasites cannot breed in underground water. The problem of submergence of land which is normally associated with surface dams is not present with sub-surface dams. 54: Cross section of a Dyke The main advantage of water storage in groundwater dams is that evaporation losses are much less for water stored underground. Width = 1.5 x 3 = 90 m3 Cost of Excavation= Volume x Rate = 90 x41= Rs 3690 Laying of low density polyethylene sheet to cover the impermeable layer: =Surface area of all the faces of the layer = 189 m2 of sheet Cost =189x 60 (assume for m2 of polyethylene sheet) = Rs 11340/Construction of impermeable wall or Filling the trench with clayey soil: Volume required is 90 m3 Cost=Volume x Rate =90 x140 (Assume) =Rs 12600/Total cost = Cost of Excavation + Cost of polyethylene sheet and laying+ Filling the trench =3690+11340+12600=27630 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 134 .Technical Manual for IWMP Fig. Further.

6. In many of these soils. Acidification is a slow process but it is accelerated by agriculture.1 .5.5 .8.4 6. Acid soils are found mainly in the eastern part of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.6 . organic matter is also quite low.6.5 > 8.e. resulting in poor buffering capacity and low nutrient contents Soil acidity is one such limiting factor affecting adversely crop production to a considerable extent mainly in high rainfall and light texture conditions of soil.9 6.2 Soil Acidity Soil acidity occurs when there is a build up of acid in the soil. where cropping is intensive and monsoonal precipitation is high.Technical Manual for IWMP Chapter-6 6 Measures for Soil Acidity and Soil Salinity 6.5 . As such the productivity of these lands goes down to a considerable extent.1 Introduction This chapter involves measures for soil acidity and soil salinity covers its causes and management.0 7.0 8. Bangladesh and the mid-hills region of Nepal.0 .7. Table 21: Soil description based on pH Soil Description Strongly acid Medium acid Slightly acid Very slightly acid Neutral Very slightly alkaline Slightly alkaline Medium alkaline Strongly alkaline pH < 5.5 5.1 .6. plants intolerant of acidic conditions do not thrive and productivity declines. There are different types of problem lands where the constraints for optimum production are either unfavorable physico-chemical properties of the soil or some inherent land features and/or environmental conditions limiting optimum growth of crops. As soils become more acidic.8.5 7. The production of acid in the soils is a natural process and many soils in the high rainfall areas are inherently acidic.5 Table: 22: Effects of Soil Acidity/Alkalinity on Plant Nutrient Availability Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 135 .9 7. i. in West Bengal.

5. The pH of distilled water is 7. In time. rhododendrons and blueberries grow better in acid soils of pH 4. and potassium) that prevent soil acidity.5 to 5.5 for good growth. 6. sodium.0 to 7.0). Acidic parent material. While most plants do well in this range (6. which Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 136 . plants in the bean family (legumes) favor slightly alkaline conditions of 7.0-7. Organic matter decay Harvest of high-yielding crops Removal of product from the farm or paddock Inappropriate use of nitrogenous fertilizers Wet climates have a greater potential for acidic soils. A pH of 6. excessive rainfall leaches the soil profile's basic elements (calcium. On the other hand.Technical Manual for IWMP Generally. Soils that develop from weathered granite are likely to be more acidic than those developed from shale or limestone.0 is slightly acidic. some favor more acid conditions. magnesium. most plants require a soil pH in the range of 6. Organic matter decay produces hydrogen ions (H+).1 Causes of Soil Acidity Major reasons for soils to become acidic are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Rainfall and leaching.0.0 and is considered neutral.2. Azaleas.0 to 7.

magnesium. Under hot humid climate and heavy precipitation soils undergo drastic weathering of parent material and excess leaching of bases. acidic parent material and wet climate. The natural rate of acidification is accelerated by agricultural practices like use of nitrogen fertilizers. Acidity and Alkalinity are relative terms.0 indicates a soil is neutral in reaction. which cannot be taken by plants. pH value 7 indicating neutral reaction and above 7 alkaline and below 7 acidic. a glass electrode and reference electrode are dropped into the soil-water mixture and the soil pH is determined. "Phosphate fixation" in highly acid soils is an acute problem. high rainfall with high temperature and heavy leaching is the main factor for the formation of acid soils. and potassium to satisfy their nutritional requirements. grain contains minute amounts of these basic nutrients. After the soil solution has set for approximately 30 minutes. a small portion of the soil sample is mixed with water in a 1 to 1 or a 2 to 1 ratio and stirred. acidic soil development from decaying organic matter is insignificant in the short term.0 denotes soil acidity and numbers above 7. A soil pH of 7. Any number below 7. Strongly acid soils with pH less than 4. The phosphate gets fixed with soluble iron present in acid soils. The impact of nitrogen fertilizers on acidification depends on the type of fertilizer. ferruginous red and other red soil groups. These measureGujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 137 .5 brings down the soil micro-flora activity and increases toxicity of elements like iron. As crop yields increase. A pH meter is the instrument generally used by soil testing laboratories in measuring soil acidity. Therefore. harvesting high-yielding forages such as Bermuda grass and alfalfa affects soil acidity more than harvesting grain does. Harvest of high-yielding crops plays the most significant role in increasing soil acidity. secondary and micro-nutrients to remain fixed or insoluble form. copper and aluminum. They are developed mainly by the influence of relief. Acidity of soil creates unfavorable medium for the soil micro flora responsible for breaking down the complex organic as well as inorganic matter of the soil to more simple and soluble form. In short.Technical Manual for IWMP are responsible for acidity (an ion is a positively or negatively charged element). Compared to the leaf and stem portions of the plant. Generally.2 Measures of Soil Acidity Soil acidity is determined by a measurement of the hydrogen ion concentration of a particular soil. The acid soils are sedimentary in nature belonging to lateritic. pH of the soil is the indicator of its Acidity. more of this lime like nutrients is removed from the field. Useful micro organisms cannot grow well. Highly acidic and alkaline soils both limit crop growth and should be ameliorated for optimum crop production.2. The measurement scale used in determining soil acidity is the pH scale which ranges from 0-14. crops absorb basic elements such as calcium. Like that from rainfall.0 denote soil alkalinity. 6. It also makes primary. During growth.

The desirable dose of lime for laterite soils was found to be one half of the lime requirement (LR) dose determined by Woodruffs buffer (pH 7. Fe and Mn is corrected and there by root growth is promoted and uptake of nutrients is improved. A pH 7. Above pH 7.Technical Manual for IWMP ments are a logarithmic factor. One of the practices is to grow acid tolerant crops/ varieties and to supplement nutrients through suitable carriers. Limiting is a desirable practice when the soil is highly acidic and where multi-cropping involving acid sensitive crops is adopted.0.0 is 10 times more acid than a soil with a pH of 7. the first and foremost thing is to assess the lime requirement of the soil for optimum yield of the crop/crops.0. legumes are highly benefitted from liming. much of the lime is lost by leaching from the top soil of light textured soils because of their low exchange capacity.0 or above.4 Treating Soil with Lime (CaCo3) In liming programme. Among the various methods proposed to determine the lime requirement. Liming also stimulates microbial activity and encourages N2 fixation and nitrogen mineralization. and hence. Split application is recommended to minimize the leaching loss. 6. excess application is harmful.0.3 Management of Acid Soil The management of acid soils aims at improving the production potential by addition of amendment to correct the acidity and manipulate the agricultural practices so as to obtain optimum crop yields under acid condition. Application of full LR dose suppressed P availability and caused B deficiency. Modified Woodruffs buffer method has been successfully used to assess the lime requirement of acidic soils in Orissa (2.0. it has been verified in a number of field trials that the full lime requirement dose as assessed by this method.02 to 6. Limiting improves base saturation and availability of Ca & Mg. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 138 .). Therefore. Lime should preferably be applied in smaller doses more frequently (every alternate year) rather than in heavy dose one in three to four years. the soil is alkaline and below pH 7. Hence.08 tonnes/ ha. Lime requirement is estimated on the basis of exchange acidity and percentage base saturation of soil. which raise the pH to 7. Fixation of P and Mo is reduced by inactivating the reactive constituents. Scientists also recorded economic response to lime sludge applied at 0. 6.2. A soil pH test measures the acidity or alkalinity of the soil.0 is 100 times more acid than a soil pH of 7.0 is considered neutral.5 LR dose in a variety of crops in red loam soils of Semiliguda with pH 5. However.0. the soil is acid. A soil having a pH of 5. etc. a soil with a pH of 6. Toxicity arising from excess soluble Al.2. buffer equilibration methods are most handy and accurate. is not necessary for getting optimum yields of most crops. The pH level is a number that describes how acid or alkaline a soil is and from this it is calculated how much lime is needed to reduce soil acidity. When applied in high doses.0) for maize and cotton.

6. 6.1 Choice of Liming Material The second important aspect is the choice of liming material.5 to 15 tonnes/ha. In the absence of more accurate recommendation the following ready reckoner may be followed. (Block/Panchayat as unit). CEC and sesguioxide content of soil.  The programme may be taken up on area basis.2. dolomite. Relative efficiencies of four sources i. Lime should be less expensive and available within easy reach of the farmers besides suitability.4. Judicious application of lime.  Application has to be done in every alternate year till the soil pH is brought to normal range.2 Lime Requirement for Different Soils The lime requirement depends on soil texture (clay content). Commercial lime stone or dolomite lime stone power is costlier.944 Page | 139 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency .892 Clay loam 2.  Application of lime in furrows @ 3 Qtls/ha at the time of sowing.262 Lime Requirement kg/ha Loam 1. organic amendment and phosphate benefit the crop.Technical Manual for IWMP  The lime requirement approximately ranges from 3. basic slag and lime sludge were compared in lateritic soil taking three successive crops of maize.0 1.  In smaller doses more frequently. Table: 23: Lime Requirement (LR) for different soils Soil pH Sandy loam 5. Crust formation and moisture stress during dry spells are the two major soil physical constraints under dry land situations in the red-lateritic acid soil zone. lime stone.2. Several industrial wastes have been tried in the past as alternative sources of lime. Application of organic amendments such as FYM or decomposable green leaf manures (Glyricidia) is quite effective in preventing crust formation and increasing moisture retentivity of the soil.4.  Lime application should be done in split doses. which also enhances soil erosion.e.

Liming is desirable for raising the productivity of several crops.551 2. may be grown in the first year of liming. double cropping can be taken up.766 1.387 1. Finger millet.3 Cropping Pattern for Acid Soil Region Rice has certain amount of tolerance to soil acidity. Rice-Rapeseed Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 140 . may be grown when the effect of liming has been further reduced. rice.093 925 757 589 421 1.159 1. Si and K) for growth of rice.374 981 6.8 6.0 1. are better adaptable to acid soils with proper liming. Fig. pigeon pea etc.4.639 1. followed by medium response crops like maize and wheat in the subsequent seasons.6 5. The acid sensitive crops like cotton.2. Maize.4 5. soybean. Pigeonpea. and flooding of the field also creates favorable condition (increase in pH and availability of P. Agrihorticultural and agro forestry systems need to be introduced in such tracts. Maize Horsegram.2 5. Under rainfed conditions. groundnut. This information can be utilised in fixing suitable cropping sequence. In general. french bean. barley. regions receiving more than 900 mm rainfall and with a moisture storage capacity of 200 mm in the root zone. pigeon pea etc. highly responsive crops like cotton. Soil erosion and shifting cultivation are major problems in hilly-tracts of ASR. Crops are classified according to their relative response to liming.Technical Manual for IWMP 5.135 883 630 2. The low responsive crops like millets. linsed etc. Rice (Short duration) Low Rice Inter cropping of pigeonpea + Groundnut Rice.24: Cropping Pattern in different elevation of Rain-fed Areas Type of land Crops Inter cropping / sequence cropping Higher elevation Mesta. soybean. Groundnut Medium land Finger millet. Cowpea Rice-Pulse.

the most accurate and reliable of which is the saturation extract.1 Classification of Soil Salinity The salt affected soils have been grouped into three classes considering the nature of salts present in them. However. 2007) Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 141 . Centra Soil Salinity Research Institute. All soil contains some water soluble salts. Some salts are useful (many fertilisers are in salt form).2 > 15 Variable. Salt is extracted from the soil using one of two methods.5 > 8. 2007) Where.0 > 4. but too much salt of any kind is detrimental to plants and other organisms. their physico-chemical characteristics and their ameliorative requirements. mostly < 4 Capable of alkaline (Source: Agriculture Land Drainage.0 ESP < 15 > 15 > 15 pHs < 8. Sensitive crops lose their vigor already in slightly saline soils. Sodium chloride is the most common salt. Plant absorbs nutrients from the soluble salts. mostly Cl and SO4 of Na Alkali soil > 8. The two distinct classes are alkali and saline.5 < 8. although this method must be completed in a soil testing laboratory. others include bicarbonates. Measurement of soil salinity is generally required to determine the salt status of a soil. Soil salinity is measured as electrical conductivity (EC) in units of desi-siemens (dS/m). and the EC is then written as ECe.5 (Source: Agriculture Land Drainage. sulphates and carbonates of calcium. most crops are negatively affected by (moderately) saline soils and only salinity resistant crops thrive in severely saline soils. potassium and magnesium.3 Soil Salinity Soil salinity is a measure of the concentration of soluble salts in the soil. The standard for the determination of soil salinity is from an extract of a saturated paste of the soil. ESP means Exchangeable Sodium Percentage Table 26: Classification of salt affected soils (Indian system) Soil characteristics pH ESP ECe (dS/m) Nature of salts Saline soil < 8.Technical Manual for IWMP 6. 6. Centra Soil Salinity Research Institute. a concentration of salts in the root zone that is too high can damage plant health and reduce crop yields. The extract is obtained by centrifugation.2 < 15 >4 Neutral.0 < 4. Table 25: Classification of salt affected soils (USDA system) Type of soil Saline Sodic Saline-sodic ECe (dS/m) > 4.3.

An exchangeable sodium percentage the saturated soil extract of more (ESP) of 15 or more is the generally acthan 4 dS/m at 25 °C is the gen.of soils such that the pH can serve as an turation extract.d. turated soil extract is generally less than 4 dS/m at 25 °C but may be more if appreciable quantities of Na2CO3 etc. d. approximate index of soil sodicity (alkali) status. Measurable to sulphates of sodium.5 to 8. Appreciable quantities of neutral sosalts consisting of chlorides and luble salts generally absent. the saline sodic soil is treated as sodic and if less than 1.Technical Manual for IWMP In the Indian system. There is generally no well.cepted limit above which soils are classed erally accepted limit above which as ‘sodic’. There is a well defined relationship bedefined relationship between pH tween pH of the saturated soil paste and of the saturated soil paste and the exchangeable sodium percentage exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) of the soil or the SAR of the satura(ESP) of the soil or the sodium tion extract for an otherwise similar group adsorption ratio (SAR) of the sa. At this pH sodification process starts and mostly this pH is associated with ESP of 15 or more. ESP and ECe for which a separate criterion has been evolved as follows. than 8. Na2CO3.2.2 Distinguishing Features of Saline and Sodic Soils Table27: Distinguishing Features of Saline and Sodic Soils Characteristics Saline soils 1. pH criterion for classification was reduced from 8. c.g. present.2 as the isoelectric pH for precipitation of CaCO3. is to be classified either saline or alkali based upon pHs. are present. If the ratio of (2CO3+HCO3)/ (Cl+2SO4) and / or Na / (Cl+2SO4) expressed in mol/m3 is more than 1.3. b. The saline sodic soil as classified by USDA. Chemical Sodic soils a. e. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 142 . Dominated by neutral soluble a. calcium and appreciable quantities of salts capable of magnesium. alkaline hydrolysis. pH of saturated soil paste is b. The soils are classified in two categories. An electrical conductivity of c.2. Electrical conductivity of the sasoils are classed as ‘saline’. it is treated as saline. 6. pH of the saturated soil paste is more less than 8.

Physical a. Ca and Mg. e. Cl. Although Na is generally the e.g. through the effect of high soil pH on nuions.g. etc.restricted. chiefly through the effect of a. Excess exchangeable sodium and high tral soluble salts the clay fraction pH result in the dispersion of clay and the is flocculated and the soils have a soils have an unstable structure.g.Improvement of sodic soils essentially resentially requires removal of so. c. dominant soluble cation. the soil High pH of the soils results in precipitasolution also contains apprecia. use of soil amendments and leaching and Application of amendments may drainage of salts resulting from reaction of provement Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 143 .In sodic soils plant growth is adversely versely affected: affected: plant growth a. In the presence of excess neu. through toxicity of specific b.g. tritional imbalances including a deficiency of calcium.Improvement of saline soils es. Gypsum is nearly always absent in such quantities of sparingly soluble soils. B. 2. reduced availability of water. calcium compounds.a. Na. Mo.become worse with increasing levels of rable to normal soils. etc. low. f. CO3.. Soils may contain significant f. gypsum. Soil im. b. e. concentration in the soil solution is very e. b. stable structure. Effect exchangeable sodium/pH. Permeability of soils to water and air is and air and other physical cha.Technical Manual for IWMP e. Na. Permeability of soils to water b.tion of soluble Ca and Mg such that their ble quantities of divalent cations. Physical properties of the soils racteristics are generally compa. on In saline soils plant growth is ad. 3.excess exchangeable sodium resulting in sure of soil solution resulting in poor physical properties. through toxicity of specific ions. 4. e. chiefly through the dispersive effect of excess salts on the osmotic pres.quires the replacement of sodium in the luble salts in the root zone soil exchange complex by calcium through through leaching and drainage. Sodium is the dominant soluble cation.

Geographic Saline soils tend to dominate in Sodic soils tend to dominate in semi-arid arid and semi-arid regions.3.3. 1988) Although weathering of rocks and primary minerals is the chief source of all salts. 6.3. Coffee.3. Cashew and some forest plant like Madhuca and Jack fruit etc. have residual sodicity so has a potential sodicity hazard. It causes the displacement of Al & Mn ion from the permanent exchange sites of Colloids and thereafter the displaced Al & Mn are eventually precipitated as complexed compounds. the problems of salinity /sodicity are dynamic in nature such that the degree of the problem would continue to increase unless some curative measures are adopted. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Moreover.2. Rome. 5. and sub-humid regions. Cardamom. to manage the acidity of soils.  Reclamation by addition of lime and phosphatic fertilizers  Scrapping of the surface salts  Keep the areas flooding to wash away the excess salt. Rubber.  Control water table  Leach with proper drainage to remove salt  Shallow ploughing 6. differences occur in the tolerance of crops to soil salinity or soil alkalinity. saltaffected soils rarely form through accumulation of salts in situ.1 Chemical Method Liming of acid soils is the most common and useful practice.3. Liming is done to raise the pH to some value so that the toxic effect of Al. Ground. water quality (Source: Salt-Affected Soils and their Management.Technical Manual for IWMP generally not be required. amendments with exchangeable sodium.Groundwater in areas dominated Groundwater in areas dominated by sodic by saline soils has generally high soils has generally low to medium electroelectrolyte concentration and a lyte concentration and some of it may potential salinity hazard.3 Reclamation of Saline Soil 6. distribution 6. Mn and Fe are suppressed or removed. 6.2 Biological Method This method involves growing of variety of acid tolerant plantation crop like Pea.3. FAO Soils Bulletin 39.3. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 144 .1 Planting Salt Tolerant Crops Like waterlogged lands.

beans. However gypsum.3.4 Reclamation of Sodic Soils In the reclamation of sodic soils. Table 28: Tolerance of crops to high groundwater table (Groundwater at 50 cm) Tolerance level High tolerance Crops Sugarcane. excess exchangeable Na+ is replaced by calcium. peas.1.1. some grasses Medium tolerance Sensitive Sugar beet. date palm (Source: Agriculture Land Drainage. Blackberries. cherries.3. 6.1 Crop Selection In the management of waterlogged and/or saline lands. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 145 . Centra Soil Salinity Research Institute.3. use of heavy machinery should be avoided. citrus. is widely used to reclaim sodic soils. Rice is preferred as the first crop in the first few years of reclamation of alkali lands since it is shallow rooted and its roots are mainly confined to reclaimed shallow layer.3. Deep ploughing. broad beans.3. peas. barley. cotton pears. As far as possible. A viable option in such cases would be to resort to minimum tillage. by virtue of its easy availability and low cost. wheat. shallow rooted crops should be preferred than the deep rooted ones. could be done when the water table is deep and land is fallow. Na – (Clay) + CaSO4 (gypsum) → Ca – Clay + Na2SO4 + H2O. 6. peaches.3. olives.2 Shallow Rooted Crops In waterlogged saline lands especially with high water table. onion Maize. A shallow rooted crop will perform better than a deep-rooted crop for the same condition of the water table. The quantity of amendment depends upon the soil texture. Most agricultural operations should be performed at moisture content equivalent to the plastic limit of the soil. A package of practices for management of sodic soils includes. bananas. rice. apple.Technical Manual for IWMP 6.3 Tillage Practices Waterlogged saline lands are usually moist and need to be handled very carefully. if needed. potatoes. strawberries.3. There are intra and inter-genic differences in tolerance to water logging.2. soil depth. oats. tobacco. Crop tolerance would differ from the kind of the problem surface stagnation or high water table and/or soil salinity/alkalinity. selection of crops is important.2. degree of sodicity and crops to be grown. The following considerations should govern the crop selection for such areas. 2007) 6. willow. plum. Tillage of these lands at inappropriate moisture content could destroy the soil structure resulting in reduced infiltration rates and adverse root zone physical environment.

ix. ii. KRL-19 Karnal Ghana 1 CS52 Range of alkalinity tolerance 9. iv. Basic strategy in developing these landforms is to grow seeds at places where salt accumulation is minimum or away from the salt accumulation zone. Ridge cultivation in that way is most suited for waterlogged lands. 2007) Landforms which help in efficient surface drainage and that reduce the effect of shallow water table are helpful. viii.4.2 to 9. iii. vii. Centra Soil Salinity Research Institute.Technical Manual for IWMP i. Raised and sunken bed technology is becoming quite popular and location specific versions of this technology are emerging from humid. Raised bed planting of wheat is being recommended and popularized.4 8. subhumid and semiarid climates including salt affected soils. CSR27. The landforms for saline soils and for use of saline water in agriculture have also emerged. varieties and cropping sequences Suitable agronomic practices Table 29: Important crop varieties for cultivation in alkali soils Crop Rice Wheat Gram Mustard 6. which besides other benefits provide insurance against surface stagnation during the growing season of the crop. v.1 Land Forming Varieties CSR10 CSR13.CSR30 KRL 1-4. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 146 . vi.0 9.3. 8 to 10. It allows the plants to grow well at the same time provides surface drainage through the valleys.8 9.2 to 9.2 9. 5 to 9. Proper land levelling and bunding Ploughing salt surface crust deep in the soil Removal of Salt crust from surface Proper irrigation and water management Good quality of irrigation water Application of Gypsum and green manures Application of appropriate fertilizer Selection of suitable crops.5 (Source: Agriculture Land Drainage.4 to9.

Improved irrigation techniques such as sprinkle or drip irrigation or some indigenously developed technique such as pitcher irrigation could be adopted to save water as well as to utilize saline/sodic waters. Karnal 132001) Fig 55: A raised and sunken bed model to manage drainage problem in sodic vertisols 6.4 Leaching Leaching is essentially a process in which water of low concentration (fresh water) is applied to displace the soil solution of relatively high concentration.4. Reclamation of Waterlogged Saline Lands. CSSRI.4. Adverse effects of waterlogging are similar to the effects that are caused by low Nfertilizer in heavy soils. This can only be achieved through improved irrigation techniques. have been found to be useful to reduce the harmful effects of waterlogging. it is recommended that applications of Nfertilizer should be increased but the full dose should be applied more frequently.3. 6. unless managed properly. As the effects of nitrogen application in waterlogged lands are a short-lived. The leaching efficiency on the other hand is defined as the amount Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 147 . is inefficient.3. Additional doses of nitrogen application therefore. It has been conclusively proved that it is possible to compensate the effect of high water table by applying additional doses of nitrogen. Surface irrigation in that sense.2 Improved Irrigation Techniques The irrigation water applied should be just sufficient to wet the root zone. The drip irrigation system has become very popular in areas of acute water scarcity and places where commercial cultivation is undertaken mainly of cash or horticultural crops.Technical Manual for IWMP (Source: Agricultural Land Drainage.3 Application of Additional Dose of Plant Nutrients Nitrogen uptake by the plants is reduced in waterlogged lands. The application of the excess water to pass through the root zone with the aim of pushing the salts below the root zone is defined as leaching.4.3. 6.

6 0. As far as possible. type of salts. 2007 In the monsoon season. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 148 . efficiency of the drainage system and method of leaching. leaching should preferably be carried out during the last week of June so that monsoon rains would be able to further leach down the salts making the land fit for cultivation in the first year itself. If the land is also tilled before the onset of the monsoon season. desired level of salt in the root zone. the salt concentration of the soil water present in a given depth of the soil profile should drop to the concentration of the applied water when one pore volume of the water has passed through the profile.8-1.0 Water requirement to leach 60 cm of soil profile (cm) 30-36 36-48 48-60 (Note: The above requirement is to leach down 80% of the salts initially present) Source: Agriculture Land Drainage. salt diffusion constraints or hydrodynamic dispersion. however.4. depends upon factors such as: salt initially present in the profile. 6.3. good quality water should be used for leaching.6-0. In an ideal soil system without bye pass. To maintain the salt balance in the reclaimed or irrigated lands so that crops do not suffer due to excess salts at any time in future. In alkali soils leaching also helps in transporting the exchanged ions below the root zone.8 0. soil texture. If lands are appropriately levelled and bunded.5-0. It is imperative to reduce the salts in the root zone to an acceptable level before the lands are cultivated. dissolution of precipitated salts. Under conditions as exists in most farmlands.4. the rainwater utilization efficiency for leaching is in the range of 10-20%.1 Amount of Water Required for Leaching Drainage is an essential pre-requisite but not the end in itself in reclaiming waterlogged saline soils. Centra Soil Salinity Research Institute. Table 30: Leaching requirements of soils for one time reclamation Soil type Leaching requirement (cm/cm of soil depth) Coarse textured Medium textures Heavy textured 0. the efficiency could go as high as 70%. Under appropriate management. The actual amount of water required in practice. rainwater efficiency for leaching could increase to 50%. soil depth to be reclaimed.Technical Manual for IWMP of salt drained as a fraction of the amount of salt present in the profile per unit pore volume after pre-decided pore volumes of water have been drained. The leaching of salts is carried out to meet one of the following objectives: To remove or to reduce the salts in the root zone commonly known as one time leaching for reclamation.

adversely affects the crop yield. higher and healthier yields. The rate of soil salinity is fastest during periods when soils are bare and potential evaporation is high. medium and coarse textured soils.3. It can have a positive effect on the fertility of the soil. placed around plants. maintaining a proper structure. Mulching has beneficial effects on soil.Technical Manual for IWMP about 1. better use of fertilizers. 0. Fig 56: Organic mulching Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 149 .5 Mulching Mulch is a protective covering. apart from the white and aluminised plastics which reflect light. and on the environment. Salinity. less product damage and elimination of weeds when using opaque plastics. Inside greenhouses. protection of growing plants. the growth of weeds and (in cold climates) it prevents freezing of roots.76 cm of rainwater would be required to leach 80% of the salt from each cm of the soil needing salt removal in the case of heavy. These include moisture retention.4. It prevents the evaporation of moisture.85. white plastic is used as a reflective mulch to increase the quantity of light available for the plants. 6. an offshoot of water logging. Black plastic is best for preventing the growth of weeds.95 and 0. usually of organic matter such as leaves or straw. Mulching films are most commonly used to save water. and to produce plants with a better commercial appearance. All the plastics used for mulching increase soil temperature during the day. produce earlier. During such periods. respectively. mulching will be helpful in reducing rate of evaporation at the soil surface thereby curtailing accumulation of salts in the root zone.

may vary over a wide range from zero for rice to about 1. unrealistic cropping patterns tilted in favour of water intensive crops. inadequate drainage and poor maintenance of existing drainage systems and outlets and lack of conjunctive use of surface and ground water etc. 7.2. Natural factors may include poor natural drainage as a consequence of unfavorable sub-soil geology like existence of hardpan at shallow depths. lack of night irrigation in some commands.Technical Manual for IWMP Chapter-7 7 Measures for Water Logging Area 7. developmental activities such as construction of roads.5 meters for other crops 7.1 Introduction This chapter involves measures for water logging that covers on farm water management. caused mainly because of manmade factors like deforestation and poor upkeep of watersheds. distributaries and watercourses. hydraulic pressure of water from upper irrigated areas resulting in seepage outcrop in low lying areas. The actual depth of water table. when it starts affecting the yield of the crops adversely. Water logging is. introduction of irrigation without taking into account characteristics of soils and sub-soils for their irritability.2 Water Logging Water logging is one of the major problems of land degradation in India. decline in the level of oxygen and increase in the level of carbon dioxide. An irrigated area is said to be waterlogged when the surplus water stagnates due to poor drainage or when the shallow water table rises to an extent that soil pores in the root zone of a crop become saturated. excess application of irrigation water particularly in the initial years when the command is not fully developed. spilling of rivers resulting in submergence of agricultural lands and heavy storm rainfall coupled with poor natural drainage etc. surface drainage and sub-surface drainage methods. poor “On Farm Water Management” resulting in poor water-application efficiencies. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 150 .1 Causes of Water Logging Water logging may be a result of both natural and man-made factors. resulting in restriction of the normal circulation of the air. however. It may affect the availability of several nutrients by changing the environment around the roots. Excess water in the plant root zone restricts the aeration required for optimum plant growth. railway lines and buildings resulting in choking of natural drainage. seepage from canals. bridges.

7.2. If the quality is substandard. Proper control of the water delivered to the fields to avoid any misuse or over-use can result in water economy. Adding the earlier 25% of water lost in seepage. Since natural drainage cannot take care of this additional input.Technical Manual for IWMP 7. 7. Lining the field channels alone followed by main canals and distributaries can help to derive the maximum benefits. Even in a particular component of the system need to be lined fully.2. scientific scheduling of irrigation under both adequate and deficit water supplies. It also serves as an in-built insurance against water-logging. the rise in water table is inevitable. A major difficulty with this option is the quality of work.2. on farm water management technology should include efficient land levelling and shaping. any approach to irrigation development should have an integrated use of surface and groundwater resources.4 Planting Trees in Vulnerable Reaches/Bio-drainage An alternative option claimed to reduce water logging is bio-drainage.2 On Farm Water Management Good irrigation water management lies in the efficient use of irrigation water once it reaches the field head.2.2. 7.1 Lining of Water Distribution System The effect of lining in canal distribution system shows that the system could result in substantial reduction in seepage. it might cause 70% of the seepage that is expected in an unlined system. it is presumed that 1/3rd of the water is lost at the field level. It is reported that as much as 50% of the water delivered at the field head goes as deep percolation losses and on an average. To use this water through surface irrigation methods with minimum losses.2. efficient design and layout of irrigation methods. the lining or no lining does not matter.3 Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater Transport of water from one basin to another increases the input to the groundwater aquifer.2. Therefore.2 Strategies for Prevention and Management of Water-logging 7. Conjunctive use of groundwater serves as a corrective measure to remove the deficiencies of the distribution system and provide assurance of water availability urgently needed in modern agriculture. It is assessed that if 10% of the lining is defective. The lining of ponds and reservoirs would be desirable although cost considerations would often limit the practicability of this proposition. The water thus saved can be used for intensive irrigation.2. The water management must aim at optimum yield per unit of water applied and minimum loss of soil and plant nutrients. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 151 . nearly 58% of water from canal irrigation system contributes to the groundwater naturally causing water-logging at an alarming rate than envisaged. crop planning for optimal water use and adequate provision of drainage.2. which is projected as the least expensive and more environmentally friendly method of land reclamation.

Quick growing plants. These trees may be grown along the canal banks and also along the influent boundaries so as to check the incoming seepage from outside the area. which transpire water at a high rate. Low-lying flat areas. Lands under irrigation with poor quality waters that is saline water with high Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) or alkali waters with high Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) are prone to surface stagnation particularly during rain events.Technical Manual for IWMP Bio-drainage relies on vegetation rather than mechanical means to remove excess water through consumptive use by the plants. Although in monsoon. Lands under rice-wheat system are prone to surface stagnation because of the development of plow sole/hard pan at the bottom of the plough layer impeding vertical movement of water. Inadequate outlet conditions partly due to developmental works. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 152 . heavy soils with low permeability and lands in humid tropical or sub-tropical regions where high intensity storms are common.3 Surface Drainage Surface drainage is the safe removal of excess water from the land surface through land shaping and improved or constructed channel. are subject to surface inundation and therefore. Exotic plants may be grown in areas prone to water logging to prevent or delay its appearance. Surface drainage in agricultural land is needed to remove the excess rainfall as well as collection and disposal of excess surface irrigation. which obstruct the flow and partly due to choking of the outlet of the natural drainage systems. Surface stagnation is and would continue to be a major stress factor under monsoon climatic conditions. The following reasons could be ascribed to the problem: Flat land surfaces causing hindrance in the natural runoff from the upper catchment area. require surface drainage. 7. During intense storms the main drainage channels are full to the brim thereby reducing the capacity of the lateral and collector channels causing inundation upstream. The problem is severe in heavy textured soils and in humid climate. This will curtail the input to the groundwater. Eucalyptus is the most appropriate plant for this purpose.2. No outlet due to backwater flow water. All lands in humid and subhumid regions and even lands in semiarid regions are prone to surface stagnation particularly during the kharif season. most agricultural lands climatic conditions are prone to short-term surface stagnation. Surface drainage uses the potential energy that exists due to overflow from rivers or natural channels sometime contribute to the drainage problem of an area. Inadequate capacity of the drainage channels particularly during critical periods could cause surface stagnation. could be grown to dispose-off excess water.

irrigation water far in excess than required is applied such that short-term water stagnation is bound to occur particularly at low spots. flood irrigation and poor on farm development. 57: Components of surface drainage 7. pasture land) or where mechanization is done with small equipment. The system is often applied on land which does not require intensive farming operations (e.3.2. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 153 .1 Types of Surface Drainage There are three types of drainage systems used in flat area (less than 2 % slope) 7. Besides.g. field-to-field irrigation. all favour short-term stagnation of water. The random field drainage system connects the depressions by means of a field drain and evacuates the water into a collector drain. Fig.2.1 Random Drain System The random field drainage system is applied where there are a number of large but shallow depressions in a field.1. It may be mentioned that there are large areas in the irrigation commands where field-to-field irrigation is still practiced. but where a complete land-forming operation is not considered necessary. the changing land use patterns.Technical Manual for IWMP Areas where drainage system with unrealistic drainage designs have been laid and/or the drainage systems are inadequately maintained. In such cases.3.

3.1. Then each drain is connected to field lateral which further discharged into main outlet. The open ditch cannot be crossed by farm machinery.3. Lateral and mains should be deeper than the field ditches to provide free outfall. It is similar to parallel field drain system.2. except the drains are replaced by open ditches which are comparatively deeper and have steeper side slope than the field drain. In his system individual fields are properly graded such that they discharge into the drain. separated by parallel field drains.1.2.3 Bedding system Bedding is a surface drainage method achieved by ploughing land to form a series of low beds. The parallel open ditch system is applicable in soil that requires both surface and subsurface drainage. The spacing of ditch depends upon the soil and watertable condition and may vary from 60 to 200 m. The bedding system for surface drainage is essenGujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 154 .Technical Manual for IWMP Fig 58: Random field drain system 7.2 The Parallel Field Drains This system is most effective method of surface drainage and is well suited both for irrigated and rainfed areas. 59: The parallel field drain system 7. Fig.

surface drainage may be defined as the removal of Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 155 .Technical Manual for IWMP tially a land forming process. The bedding system is normally used for grassland.5 cm/day Low with K = 5 to 10 cm/day God with K = 10 to 20 cm/day Bed width 8. Ploughing is to be done parallel to the furrow and all other farming operation can be done either across the beds or parallel to the furrow.17 m 20-30 m (Source: Agriculture land Drainage. The land is ploughed into beds.2 Design of Surface Drainage System Agricultural land drainage system may be categorised in to surface and subsurface drainage systems. 60: Bedding system Table 31: Recommended bed widths for different soils. The main objective of both the systems is to facilitate the removal of excess water (some times with presence of toxic soluble salts) from cropped land that may hinder the potential crop production.12m 15. Permeability Very low with K = 0. because rows near the field drains will not drain satisfactorily.2. Bedding was proved to be successful on poorly drained soil and on flat lands having slope upto 1. However.5 per cent. bedding is not considered an acceptable drainage practice for row crops. To overcome the disadvantages of the bedding system. the two other methods of land forming have been developed: land grading and land planning.3. Fig. 2007) 7. separated by dead furrow which run in the direction of prevailing slope. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute. In modern farming.

whereas a high value would increase the cost substantially without any additional gain in the removal of surface congestion.05 cumsec Design of Cross-section of Drain For efficient cross section.6213d)2/3 x (0. rainfall intensity 12. Selection of an appropriate drainage coefficient is the key to design a successful surface drainage system. A 360 Q 0. d = depth of flow.3 Design Criteria for Surface/Field Drainage The very purpose of a good surface drainage system is to prevent the harmful effects of water logging on crops.94 d2/3 Now. Run off coefficient C= 0. bottom width B= 2d and R =0.8 min rainfall intensity I= 21 cm/hr) Solution Assume side slope of drain 1:1 (depending upon soil type).S Now Velocity of flow V  n 2 1 2 (for clay loam n= 0.35(for clay loam soil with 0-5 % slope) Design Runoff.032 x (0. Q  C. Example: Design a field drain for following parameters. The water logging tolerance of a crop should be considered while estimating the drainage coefficient for a surface drainage project.3 cm/hr (For Tc – 13. land slope 1 %. 7.35 x210 x10 where.032) = 1/0. Q = A. Drainage coefficient is defined as the amount of water that runs off from a given area and is to be removed in 24 hours.I .2.3. soil type Clay loam.94 d2/3 2. Catchment area 10 Ha.01)1/2 = 1.68 m Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 156 .Technical Manual for IWMP excess water over the ground surface through natural or constructed channels with adequate outlets for optimum crop production.V 2.6213d and A= 3d2 Where. A/P R 3 . a low value of the drainage coefficient will lead to partial improvement in drainage though the cost of design may be relatively low. While designing surface drainage system.05 = 5.8 d 8/3 Therefore by solving d= 0. (I= 210 mm/hr) 360 = 2. e.05 = 3d2 x 1. R = Hydraulic Radius i.

However. if water table fluctuates between 0-2 m below ground surface. Subsurface drainage refers to the removal of excess water present below the ground surface. Agriculture lands affected by high watertable generally need subsurface drainage.2.2 x 0. geo-hydrological and climatic conditions.75) = 3 m The above designed channel is shown below Fig. 7. investigations are generally problem specific. Waterlogging is called as critical.75 m Bottom width = 2d =2x 0. inland drainage problems in irrigated command and non-command areas in states of Gujarat. if water table fluctuates between 2-3 m below ground surface. It is always better to plan with minimum data obtained through best available means for Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 157 . It is treated as semi-critical. Subsurface drainage lowers the watertable and provides the better environment in the root zone.75 = 1.68 = 0.5 + (2 x 1 x 0. irrigation and cropping practices and natural drainage. Drainage investigations are mainly conducted to understand different dimensions of the problem to search for a suitable solution. actual depth of channel after adding 10% free board d= 1. 61: Design of Earthen Drainage Cannel 7. Besides coastal soil salinity.5 m Top width.4 Subsurface Drainage System Irrigation induced water logging and soil salinity/alkalinity problems are observed in irrigation commands of large irrigation projects in many states of India. T = B + (2 x z x d) where.2. These problems adversely affect the production and productivity as well as threaten the sustainability of irrigated agriculture.1 Drainage Investigations Drainage requirements and measures greatly vary depending upon factors such as soil. z is side slope 1 = 1.4.Technical Manual for IWMP Hence. Maharashtra. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are observed mainly because of cultivation of water loving crops on heavy soils having low permeability.

water moves under influence of gravity to suitable outlets. Information generated through drainage investigations is utilized effectively to design a drainage system.4. knowledge on drainage requirement of different crops and criterion for drainage design is also needed. surface drainage network and availability of outlets. soil salinity. 7. drainable porosity.4 Design of Subsurface Drainage System In the design of subsurface drainage system. which would satisfy the limits related to drainage criteria.2. groundwater fluctuations.2. It also helps to assess whether interceptor drain is necessary and to decide the directions of main and lateral lines. etc. soil alkalinity. 7. infiltration characteristics.4. Information on hydraulic conductivity. In addition to above-mentioned information. if needed Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 158 . This is accomplished using one of the following methods: (1) Tile drain including perforated pipes (2) Mole drain (3) Drainage well (4) Deep open drains and (5) Combination of tile and open drains. aquifer parameters.2. fresh water supplies. Water table contour map is necessary to understand direction of groundwater flow. 7. depth of impermeable layer. is a pre-requisite for planning the drainage of waterlogged saline and alkali soils.2 Groundwater Conditions The water table behaviour in drainage area needs to be studied on the basis of water table data during pre-monsoon period as well as post-monsoon period.4. following main items are considered:  Drainage criteria  Subsurface drainage coefficient  Laterals: Depth and spacing of field laterals  Size and slope of the laterals and collectors  Drainage materials  Layout and installation of drainage system  Construction of sump and evaporation pond.Technical Manual for IWMP a specific project.3 Subsurface Drainage Methods In sub-surface drainage. groundwater quality.

Further all surface and subsurface water inflows and outflows must be measured and estimated. In the definition of drainage. the need to select an appropriate value for this parameter has always been emphasized. Therefore. size of the laterals and collectors and capacity of the pump to dispose off the drainage effluent.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig. The drain spacing is less in cases where drainage coefficient is more as compared to a case where drainage coefficient is less. Precipitation and relevant evapotranspiration data must be analysed and hydraulic properties of the soil should be determined.4. The drainage coefficients for some of the sites in India have been observed to be in the range of 1-5 mm Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 159 .4. number of the surveys must be undertaken to prepare hydrogeological and topographic maps.2. 7. Before the water balance of the area can be made. A groundwater balance of the drainage area is the most accurate tool to calculate the volume of the water to be drained. who must know how much excess water should be removed. 62: Design of Subsurface Drainage System 7. As such. ‘removal of excess water’ indicates that land drainage is an action by man.6 Sub-surface Drainage Coefficient Drainage coefficient is the most important parameter that decides the lateral drain spacing.2.5 Drainage Criteria The agricultural drainage criterion is defined as the state to which the original waterlogging on or in the soil is to be reduced by a drainage system so that the maximum agricultural benefits are attained. the cost of the system depends largely upon this parameter.

7 Range (mm/day) 1-2 1-3 2-5 Installation of Subsurface Drainage System Optimum value (mm) 1 2 3 The installation of subsurface drainage system begins with construction of outlet.0 2. Manholes (RCC pipe 2.6m diameter) can be installed and collectors and laterals are connected to manholes at 20-30 cm above their bottom levels so that manholes also act as sediment trap.5 m length and 0. The installation of collectors and laterals follows the construction of outlet.0-5.0 Variation in the range of 600-1400 mm (Source: Gupta and Gupta.2. 1997) Table 33: Guidelines on drainage coefficient for subsurface drainage Climatic conditions Arid Semiarid Subhumid 7. Karnal 132001) Fig 63: Perforated clay tile drains and their fixing Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 160 . (Source: Agricultural Land Drainage. lying of lateral pipes along with filter material and immediate back filling of trenches are done to avoid any problem in the event of rainfall. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute. Reclamation of Waterlogged Saline Lands.0 ay) 2.Technical Manual for IWMP Table 32: Subsurface drainage coefficients for Gujarat as observed from test plots Site Dabhou (Gujarat) Muraj (Gujarat) Rainfall (mm) 800 500 Rate (mm/d 4.4.0-4. Excavation of trenches. In the absence of a natural outlet. pumped outlet is constructed.8 Recommended range (mm/day) 3.

7. open drains or subsurface drains could be employed to control the water table but leaching is most effective only through subsurface drains. pipe connections. efficient performance of a subsurface drainage system depends on the technically sound design and use of appropriate material in quality construction of the system. b) Envelope material: is a common name given to filter and surrounds. 7. A network of tile line laid with a grade so that it removes the subsurface water easily. Major factors contributing towards satisfactory performance of the drainage are the structural strength. The pipes are made up of concrete or burnt clay.2.8 Drainage Materials for Subsurface Drainage Subsurface drainage aims at controlling the water table and to reduce the soil salinity. we are confronted with the problems of evolving a combination of artificial and locally available materials as well as combining the mechanized and manual methods of installation to efficiently utilize the skilled and unskilled manpower available.4. Several drainage techniques such as tube well drainage. c) d) Pre-wrapped corrugated perforated pipes. Filters are classified into (i) geo-textile (ii) polypropylene (iii) coconut fiber (iv) polystyrene and (v) foam plastic. On the other hand.2. The introduction of corrugated perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) pipes have resulted in the development of high powered. availability and cost of materials while selecting the drainage materials. The plastic pipes could further be characterized into corrugated perforated PVC or PE pipes and rigid PVC pipes. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 161 .Technical Manual for IWMP 7. high speed trenching and trench less drainage machines and has prompted the use of cheaper and labour saving drainage envelope materials.9 a) Types of Drainage Materials Drain pipes: The drain pipes could be (i) clay pipes (ii) concrete pipes and (iii) plastic pipes. The common surrounds are gravel and coarse sand. After digging the trench to desired depth the pipes are held end to end without any joining.4.10 Tile Drain Method It is consists of short length pies (30 to 90 cm) installed at particular depth from land surface. closing devices and outflow regulators. Due consideration should be given to existing conditions. In India. They are covered with an envelope material in certain case and soil is backfilled.4. Miscellaneous materials: In this category pipe outlets. and drain bridges are included.2. hydraulic properties and the type of pipe materials as well as the quality and hydraulic properties of envelope materials used in the system.

9-1. R Hydraulic conductivity K irrigation rate.2-1.Technical Manual for IWMP 7. 2007) (Source: Agriculture Land Drainage. which vary from one soil type to another. the available machinery and drain specifications.2. Centra Soil Salinity Research Institute. 62: Terms in Hoogoudt's equation L d Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 162 .1 Depth of Lateral Drains Depth of the laterals should be planned according to agricultural drainage criteria.10.5 Minimum soil cover (cm) 60 120 75 (Source: Agriculture land Drainage.2.4. To protect the pipes against damage due to passage of heavy machinery. R H h Fig.L.2 1.1 1. 2007) 7.2 ing Spacing of Lateral Drains Assuming the steady state drainage criteria spacing between the laterals can be computed us- Hooghout’s formula G. where chances of damage due to agricultural operations are less. Rainfall or irrigation rate. Drains need to be installed at depths. The drain depth is also decided by the construction method.4. Table 34: Minimum soil cover required for pipe drains Soil type Mineral Deep peat and muck Organic Table 35: Guidelines on drain depth Outlet conditions Gravity Pumped Depth of the drains 0. the minimum drain depths have been recommended.8 Optimum depth (m) 1. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute.10.

025 .06 – 0.5 1.25 9 – 15 12.30 30 – 37 30 – 60 30 – 90 45 . m3/s A = cross section of tile drain.2 1..1 – 1.   S 4 n  2 r  Q = discharge through tile drain. m/day H = the height of water table at midway between the drains.005.3 Size of Tile Drain The size of tile drain is determined using the maximum expected flow and the grade.4.0 Spacing (m) Depth (m) 7.Technical Manual for IWMP L2  4 KH (2d  H ) R K= Hydraulic conductivity.4 1.2.001 0. V  n 2 1 2  d 2   r 2  3 12 Q  AV  .1 0.0. The value of manning’s constant recommended is 0.21 18.1 1.180 0.25 0. m2 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency 2 Page | 163 .9 – 1.V R 3 .9 – 1.5 – 3.02 – 0.10.2 – 1. Using manning’s formula. m Where L= spacing between two drains.011 for concrete tiles and for other material value of ‘n’ is given in following table.S Where. Manning’s formula is used for the design.2 – 1. 1993) Soil type Hydraulic class Conductivity (m/day) Clay Clay loam Average loam Fine sandy loam Sandy loam Peat and muck Irrigated soil Very slow Slow Moderately slow Moderate Moderately rapid Rapid variable 0. m R = Rainfall m/day d = the depth to impervious layer from drain.001 – 0. m The discharge (m/day) through drain is given by: q 4 K ( H 2  h2  2dH  2dh) L2 Table 36: The average depth and spacing of tile drains (source: Schwab et al.5 1.06 0.13 – 0.2 – 1. the following relationship is developed for the size of the tiles flowing full Q = A.13 0.005 0.02 0.

011 0.m/s Consider the rate of flow through 10 cm dia tile Wetted perimeter.314 m Hydraulic radius R = A/P = (  /4 x 0.4335 m/s 1 2 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 164 .3 Maximum length at 75 m spacing between laterals (m) 0.3 m.0 608.Technical Manual for IWMP V= velocity m/s d = tile diameter.1)/  x 0. m Table 37: Recommended values of n for various conduit materials: Conduit Materials Clay tile Concrete pipe Vitrified clay pipe Perforated plastic pipe Corrugated plastic tubing Manning’s n 0.1 4.m/day Rate of flow = 200/(24 x 60 x 60) = 0.011 0.15 76.025 3.8 Drainage (m3/day) 0.5 164. the lateral were laid out 50 m apart and the 200 long and have grade of 0.1 = 0. if the drainage coefficient of the area is 2 cm. what will be the spacing of the laterals? Solution: Quantity of water to be drained by the lateral in 24 hr = 2/100 x 50 x 200 = 200 cu. what size tiles have to be used? If drainage coefficient is increased to 3 cm.1 x 0.017 Table 38: Capacity of corrugated pipe lateral drain Internal Q dia (mm) 0.7 498.0108 = 0.2 306.7 135.5 5.5 10.5 12.(0. V  n 2 2 1 2 0.1 75 100 125 150 62.025 m R 3 .1 0. m r = tile radius.15 2.r = 3.14 x 0.011 0.15 278 599 1359 2212 339 730 1659 2699 Example In subsurface drainage system.5 Area (ha) Slope (%) 0.S Velocity.2 16.6 0.5 20.8 374.3/100) V 0.017 0.002315 cu.1 2. P =  .1 = 0.

V =3. These soils are prone to tunnel erosion and should not be mole drained. Small golf ball size balls of the soil are placed in distilled or rain water and observed over a day or two. collector and main drain.19 cu. Q = A. Sand content should be less than 30%. Mole drains are used when natural drainage needs improving due to lack of slope or heavy clay subsoil prevents downward drainage. If this can be done without crumbling or cracking then it may be suitable for mole draining. junction boxes etc.5. gravel envelope. Mole drains do not drain groundwater but only water that enters from above. Clay gives the soil the ability to hold together and reduce the chances of collapsing after the mole is pulled.4335 = 0.003405 cu. W x 200 x 3/100 = 294.5 Mole Drain Mole drains are unlined channels formed in clay subsoil with a ripper blade with a cylindrical foot. 7.1 x 0. Soils should have a minimum of 35% clay for best results.19 W = 49 m Layout plan The layout of subsurface drainage system is adjusted to utilize the natural slope and to minimize earthwork against slope. They are a more sophisticated drainage system than open drains. Collectors are generally laid along the natural slope and laterals are laid across the general slope.m/day Hence. If the water becomes cloudy and the ball becomes soft. If these ball falls apart quickly it is has a tendency to slake. Another test is to find out if the soil at mole drain depth will slake or disperse.1 x 0. 2. Test soil at mole draining depth by rolling out a pencil thick rod and try to form a 40 to 50 mm diameter circle. often with an expander which helps compact the channel wall.m/s Hence 10 cm dia tiles will be satisfactory.2.003405 x 24 x 60 x 60 = 294. 7. Let the lateral be located at a distance of W and length kept at 200 m Amount of water to be drain in 24 hr = W x 200 x 3/100 And this is nothing but the capacity of tile line = 0. The soil should be free of stones at the mole drain depth.2.14/4 x 0.1 Testing for Suitability for Mole Draining Two simple tests can indicate a soil’s suitability for mole drainage: 1.Technical Manual for IWMP Capacity of the tile. Soils which tend to slake may be successfully gravel Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 165 . then this indicates a dispersive soil. The details of position of lateral. are worked out to decide their exact locations.

e. As the soil structure improves over time they can often be pulled deeper. as the topsoil is wet and subsoil is too dry. Mole draining in autumn is not recommended. In grazing or less intensely used areas spacing may be up to 5 m apart but performance falls off with wider spacing. 7.2. This should enable relatively trouble free moles in that minor surface undulations won’t block with negative gradients. These conditions usually occur on the drying cycle in late spring or early summer. conditions are satisfactory.4% and 4%. 7.5 Spacing In dairy areas spacing between moles is usually about 2 m. However Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 166 . If you can roll out a ribbon without it sticking to your fingers the moisture content is right. 7. Moles less than 400 mm deep are liable to be damaged by tractors and animals during or immediately after rain.2. A rule of thumb is that the expander to mole draining depth ratio is 1:7 i.2.3 Gradient of Mole Drain Recommended gradients for moles generally fall between 0. Test the soil by kneading between the fingers. The flatter the gradient. Usually when the clay at mole draining depth has a moisture content of 20-25%. the more even the soil surface has to be and more interceptor drains needed to achieve good results.5. 7.Technical Manual for IWMP mole drained (actually a gravel slot) albeit expensively. A good gradient to aim for is 3%. The subsoil is difficult to mole and to dry out and it’s difficult to achieve the desirable depth. Generally moles are pulled at 400–600 mm depth.5. 70 mm diameter expander should have mole depth 490 mm. and the risk from erosion is reduced. It is preferable for a drying period with no rain to allow the cracks to dry and the mole channel to harden.5.2. Often when first mole draining. and not soft enough to slough off and form slurry. the soil in the vicinity of the mole channel needs to be moist enough to form a channel.2.5.2 Construct of Mole Drain To achieve satisfactory results. However moles up to 400m pulled have performed satisfactorily for a number of years. the shallow depth is used due to tractor limitations in tight soils.4 Depth of Mole Drain Optimum mole depth depends on soil type and the conditions when moles are installed. but not dry enough to crack and break up. 7. If too moist then the cracks can heal over and reduce water intake. Gypsum may be useful in dispersive soils to suppress clay dispersal.5.6 Length The generally accepted maximum effective length of moles is about 200 m. but it can be difficult to get the gypsum into the subsoil. The surface soil needs to be dry enough to form cracks at the time of mole draining and allow traction.

5. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 167 .7 Outfall/Outlet The drain outfall or outlet is the most important part of the system. This latter system protects the mole outlets and the only maintenance is required at the tile outlet. Another advantage of gravel filled interceptor drains is that moles can be pulled both ways. This speeds up the job. instead of the one way trip from open drains. Short lengths of plastic pipe inserted in the ends can protect them better. but does cost more to install. Open drain outlets should be fenced off from stock and kept clean so the outfall is above the drain water level. This prevents water backing up into the mole outlets and causing them to collapse. If this fails the whole system fails. Mole drains can discharge to open drains or into interceptor drains filled with gravel.2.Technical Manual for IWMP shorter (80-100 m) moles should last longer. 7. because they empty out quicker and are not likely to be overloaded.

vii. the area having deeper water levels in post monsoon period and decline water level trends should have higher priority for artificial recharge. iii.3 Conditions of Ground Water Recharge i. yield and duration of recharge mechanism. iii. 8. To arrest decline in ground water levels. vi. Page | 168 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency . iv.2 Prioritization of Area for Ground Water Recharge Prioritization of area for artificial Ground water Recharge is normally done by overlying post-monsoon depth of water level maps with data of long term trend of groundwater levels. Permeable strata are available at shallow / moderate depth. To overcome the inadequacy of waters to meet our demands. location. which has decreased drastically in urban areas due to paving of open area. Normally. The artificial recharge to ground water by rain water harvesting is very important for the following objectives: i. To increase infiltration of rain water in the sub-soil.Technical Manual for IWMP Chapter-8 8 Artificial Ground Water Recharge 8. ii.) and adequate subsurface storage is available. Water level is deep enough (> 8 m. Where adequate quantity of surface water is available for recharge to ground water. The hydraulic effects generated by artificial recharge are measured both in qualitative and quantities terms. ii. To improve ecology of the area by increase in vegetation cover. The benefits of artificial recharge can be both tangible and intangible.1 Introduction Artificial recharge is becoming increasingly necessary to ensure sustainable ground water supplies to satisfy the needs of a growing population. v. iv. Adequate space for surface storage is not available especially in urban areas. The water table rise depends on the geologic and hydraulic boundaries of the aquifer being recharge and type. To improve ground water quality by dilution. 8. To enhance availability of ground water at specific place and time and utilize rain water for sustainable development. etc. To increase agriculture production.

These are constructed 1 to 2 m.  Lateral shafts with bore wells Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 169 . These are back filled with filter materials. gravels & coarse sand.  Dug wells Existing dug wells may be utilised as recharge structure and water should pass through filter media before putting into dug well. 1 to 1. gravels & coarse sand. ix. Ground water quality is bad and our aim is to improve it.4 Types of Ground Water Recharge Structure  Recharge Pits Recharge pits are constructed for recharging the shallow aquifers. Where ground water levels are declining on regular basis. x. recharge shafts of 0.5 m.  Hand pumps The existing hand pumps may be used for recharging the shallow / deep aquifers. xi.Technical Manual for IWMP v. Where the evaporation rate is very high from surface water bodies. Where availability of ground water is inadequate in lean months.  Recharge wells Recharge wells of 100 to 300 mm. wide and 2 to 3 m. wide. deep are constructed and back filled with boulders.5 to 3 m. diameter and 10 to 15 m. 8. diameter are generally constructed for recharging the deeper aquifers and water is passed through filter media to avoid choking of recharge wells. if the availability of water is limited. Where substantial amount of aquifer has been de-saturated.5 to 1 m. Trench may be 0.  Recharge Trenches These are constructed when the permeable stratum is available at shallow depths. long depending upon availability of water. vi. vii. viii. deep which are back filled with boulders. Water should pass through filter media before diverting it into hand pumps. Where due to rapid urbanization.  Recharge Shafts For recharging the shallow aquifers which are located below clayey surface. Where there is possibility of intrusion of saline water especially in coastal areas. deep and 10 to 20 m. infiltration of rain water into subsoil has decreased drastically and recharging of ground water has diminished.

Boulders at the bottom. ii) The technique is suitable for buildings having a roof area of 100 sq. 8.  Spreading techniques When a permeable stratum starts from top then this technique is used. long depending upon availability of water with one or two bore wells are constructed. gabion structures or a percolation pond may be constructed.5 to 2 m. pit may be filled with broken bricks/ cobbles. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 170 .4. By-pass arrangement should be provided before the collection chamber to reject the first showers. wide and 2 to 3 deep which are back filled with boulders (5-20 cm). nala bunds.5. gravels (510mm) and coarse sand (1.Technical Manual for IWMP For recharging the upper as well as deeper aquifers lateral shafts of 1. The lateral shafts are back filled with boulders. (ii) All the recharge system should have options for bypassing overflow water to the nearby drainage system. N.2mm) in graded form. gravels & coarse sand.B. roof top rain water harvesting can be done through recharge pits. cement plugs. gravels in between and coarse sand at the top so that the silt content that will come with runoff will be deposited on the top of the coarse sand layer and can easily be removed. iv) A mesh should be provided at the roof so that leaves or any other solid waste / debris is prevented from entering the pit and a desilting /collection chamber may also be provided at the ground to arrest the flow of finer particles to the recharge pit.: (i) All the recharge structures should have wire mess at water inlet to prevent entry of foreign materials in the filter and recharge system. v) vi) The top layer of sand should be cleaned periodically to maintain the recharge rate. wide & 10 to 30 m. iii) Recharge Pits may be of any shape and size and are generally constructed 1 to 2 m.m and is constructed for recharging the shallow aquifers.1 Ground Water Recharge through Pit i) In alluvial areas where permeable rocks are exposed on the land surface or at very shallow depth. For smaller roof area. Spread the water in streams / Nalas by making check dams.

Technical Manual for IWMP (Source: Rain water Harvesting Techniques to Augment Ground Water. Faridabad.2 Ground Water Recharge through Trench i) Recharge trenches are suitable for buildings having roof area of 200-300 sq. iv) A mesh should be provided at the roof so that leaves or any other solid waste/debris is prevented from entering the trenches and a desilting/collection chamber may also be provided on ground to arrest the flow of finer particles to the trench. ii) Trench may be 0. gravel (5-10 mm) and coarse sand (1.5 to 1 m wide. CGWB. GoI.4. gravel in between and coarse sand at the top so that the silt content that will come with runoff will be coarse sand at the top of the sand layer and can easily be removed. vi) The top layer of sand should be cleaned periodically to maintain the recharge rate.5-2 mm) in graded form – boulders at the bottom. m. Page | 171 Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency .5m deep and 10 to 20 m. 64: Ground Water Recharge through pit 8. iii) These are back filled with boulders (5-20cm). and where a permeable stratum is available at shallow depths. 1 to 1. v) By-pass arrangement should be provided before the collection chamber to reject the first showers. long depending upon availability of water to be recharge. 2003) Fig. MoWR.

After closing the bottom pipe. Faridabad. roof to rain water harvesting through existing tube well can be adopted to recharge the deeper aquifers. a filter pit may be provided. The filter may be provided before water enters the tube wells. iii) If the roof area is more. The filter is 1 – 1. These collection chambers are interconnected as well as connected to the filter pit through pipes having a slop of Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 172 . Its diameter should vary depending on the area of roof.4. in length and is made up of PVC pipe.Technical Manual for IWMP (Source: Rain water Harvesting Techniques to Augment Ground Water. The first roof runoff is let off through the bottom of drainpipe. 2003) Fig. middle chamber with pebbles (12-20 mm) and last chamber with bigger pebbles (20-40 mm).25 cm on both the sides. ii) PVC pipes of 10 cm dia are connected to roof drains to collect rainwater. Rainwater from roofs is taken to collection/desilting chambers located on ground. GoI.2 m. MoWR. 15 cm if roof area is less than 150 sq m and 20 cm if the roof area is more. 65: Ground Water Recharge through Trench 8. CGWB. the rainwater of subsequent rain showers is taken through a T to an online PVC filter. Filter is divided into three chambers by PVC screens so that filter material is not mixed up. The first chamber is filled up with gravel (6-10mm).3 Ground Water Recharge through existing Tube Wells i) In areas where the shallow aquifers have dried up and existing tube wells are tapping deeper aquifer. The filter is provided with a reducer of 6.

MoWR. GoI.Technical Manual for IWMP 1:15. filter material in one chamber and other chamber is kept empty to accommodate excess filtered water and to monitor the quality of filtered water.4.50m) and may be separated by screen. Percolation tanks are normally constructed on second order or third order steams since the catchment so also the submergence area would Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 173 . gravel in the middle and sand at the top with varying thickness (0. rain water harvesting is taken up considering watershed as a unit. These have come to be recognized as a dependable mode for ground water recharge in the hard rock terrain. The percolation pond is a multipurpose conservation structure depending on its location and size. indiscriminate withdrawal of ground water and mismanagement.4. 66: Ground Water Recharge through existing Tube well 8. Faridabad. Surface spreading techniques are common since space for such systems is available in plenty and quantity of recharged water is also large. 8. The pit is divided into two chambers. (Source: Rain water Harvesting Techniques to Augment Ground Water. The filter pit may vary in shape and size depending upon available runoff and are back-filled with graded material. A connecting pipe with recharge well is provided at the bottom of the pit for recharging of filtered water through well. These are quite popular in the state of Gujarat.30-0. boulder at the bottom.4. The hard rock areas with limited to moderate water holding and water yielding capabilities often experience water scarce situations due to inadequate recharge. submerging a land area with adequate permeability to facilitate sufficient percolation of impounded surface runoff to recharge the ground water. CGWB.1 Percolation Tanks Percolation tanks are artificially created surface water bodies.4 Ground Water Recharge through Percolation Tank In rural areas. 2003) Fig.

otherwise the top soil should be porous. forming a small reservoir or by constructing an embankment in a natural ravine or gully to form an impounded type of reservoir. CGWB. 2003) Fig. In the Saurashtra region of Gujarat these tanks are constructed for recharging wells that support peanut production. etc. if it is used for irrigation.10000 m3. It stores water for livestock and recharges the groundwater. Pond size should be decided on the basis of the catchment area and the number of fillings possible for the pond in the area. pulse. Faridabad.4. The design of percolation tank is similar to the design of earthen dams or nala bund with a fairly large storage reservoir. This quantity of water. The ideal location of the pond will be on a narrow stream with high ground on either side of the stream. is sufficient to irrigate 4-6 hectares of irrigated dry crops (maize. It is constructed by excavating a depression. GoI. cotton.Technical Manual for IWMP be smaller. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 174 . ii) iii) Suitable and adequate soil should be available for forming embankments. MoWR. (Source: Rain water Harvesting Techniques to Augment Ground Water. The capacity of these ponds or tanks varies from 5000 .) and 2-3 hectares of cereal crop.4. 67: Showing suitable location for a Percolation Tank The cost of this type of structure is estimated at around 2 to 4 lakh. 8.2 i) The Factors Considered for Selection of Site It should not be located in heavy soils or soils with impervious strata. iv) v) Simple. economic and efficient surplus arrangement should be possible. Designed capacity should not normally be more than 50% of the total quantum of rainfall in catchment.

5 m above the bed level. ii) The aquifer to be recharged should have sufficient thickness of permeable Vadose zone to accommodate recharge. A minimum well density of 3 to 5 per square kilometres is desirable.3 i) General Guidelines Percolation tanks should normally be constructed in a terrain with highly fractured and weathered rock for speedy recharge.Technical Manual for IWMP 8. due care should be taken to keep the height of the ponded water column about 3 to 4. the water table is at a depth of 3 to 5 m beGujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 175 .65 MCM. with a land slope gradient of 3 to 5%.km in a low catchment area. It is advisable to have the percolation tank in a good/ average catchment. As a general guide the design capacity should normally not be more than 50 percent of the total quantum of utilizable runoff from the catchment. the permeability should not be too high that may result in the percolated water escaping in the downstream as regenerated surface flow. However.5 to 4 sq.44 to 0. It is desirable to exhaust the storage by February since evaporation losses become substantial from February onwards. depending on the percolation capacity.km and for larger tanks from 5 to 8 sq. In case of alluvium. vi) Rainfall pattern based on long-term evaluation is to be studied so that the percolation tank gets filled up fully during monsoon (preferably more than once). iv) v) Submergence area should be uncultivated as far as possible. Accordingly. x) The size of percolation tank is governed more by the percolating capacity of the formation under submergence rather than the yield of the catchment. the catchment area for small tanks varies from 2. viii) The location of the tank should preferably be downstream of runoff zone or in the upper part of the transition zone. hand pumps etc. the bouldary formations are ideal. Therefore.55 MCM/sq. xi) While designing.25 to 5. iii) The benefited area should have sufficient number of wells. ix) The yield of a catchment area is generally from 0.km. Average and Bad Category.4. a percolation tank is designed for a storage capacity of 2. It is preferable that in the downstream area. Generally.4. vii) Soils in the catchment area should preferably be of light sandy type to avoid silting up of the tank bed. the tank is to be designed. The aquifer zone should extend upto the benefited area. The Vadose zone should normally be about 3 m below the ground level to minimize the possibility of water logging. The nature of the catchment is to be evaluated based on Strange’s Table for classification under Good.

implying that the benefited area possesses a potential shallow aquifer. 8. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 176 . the brick masonry work is carried out for the stability of the structure. iii) The shaft should end in more permeable strata below the top impermeable strata. except for providing outlets for surface irrigation and the depth of the cut-off trench. The top of shaft is kept above the tank bed level preferably at half of full supply level. gravels and coarse sand. x) Through this technique all the accumulated water in village tank above 50% full supply level would be recharged to ground water. initially with boulders/ cobbles followed by gravel and coarse sand. These are back filled with boulders.Technical Manual for IWMP low ground level during the post monsoon period.5 Ground Water Recharge through Shaft i) This is the most efficient and cost effective technique to recharge unconfined aquifer overlain by poorly permeable strata. ii) Recharge shaft may be dug manually if the stratum is of non-caving nature. vii) It is seen that in rainy season village tanks are fully filled up but water from these tanks does not percolate down due to siltation and tubewell and dugwells located nearby remains dried up. It may not touch water table. The cut-off trench is to be provided below the earthen bund with depth limited to one fourth of the height between bed level and full storage level. viii) By constructing recharge shaft in tanks. ix) In upper portion of 1 or 2 m depth. The diameter of shaft is normally more than 2 m.4. vi) These recharge structures are very useful for village ponds where shallow clay layer impedes the infiltration of water to the aquifer.5 to 3 m. diameter and 10 to 15 m. Sufficient water will continue to remain in tank for domestic use after recharge. surplus water can be recharged to ground water. deep are constructed depending upon availability of quantum of water. xii) Construction-wise there is not much difference between a percolation tank and a minor irrigation tank. The water from village tanks get evaporated and is not available for the beneficial use. v) In case of lined shaft the recharge water may be fed through a smaller conductor pipe reaching up to the filter pack. iv) The unlined shaft should be backfilled. Recharge shafts of 0.

Technical Manual for IWMP (Source: Rain water Harvesting Techniques to Augment Ground Water. 68: Ground Water Recharge through Shaft 8. resource augmentation and increased sustainability of wells besides mitigation of Ground Water quality problems. 2003) Fig. CGWB. In this method Ground water is recharged through Scheme through existing dug wells using rainfall run-off from the agricultural fields to facilitate improvement in Ground Water situation in the affected areas which in turn will improve the overall irrigated agricultural productivity and help in improving the quality of Ground Water especially in the fluoride affected areas 8. GoI.6 Ground Water Recharge through Dugwells Artificial Recharge of Ground Water is one of the most efficient Ground Water Management tools for controlling decline in Ground Water levels. the runoff water should pass either through a desilting chamber or filter chamber. iii) Recharge water should be silt free and for removing the silt contents.4. MoWR.1 i) Features of Artificial Dugwell Recharge Structures Existing and abandoned dug wells may be utilized as recharge structure after cleaning and desilting the same. ii) The recharge water is guided through a pipe from desilting chamber to the bottom of well or below the water level to avoid scouring of bottom and entrapment of air bubbles in the aquifer.4. Faridabad.6. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 177 .

(Source: Rain water Harvesting Techniques to Augment Ground Water. GoI. 8. Faridabad. socio economic conditions and quality of life of the people in the affected areas. 69: Ground Water Recharge through Dugwells Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 178 .2 Benefits of Ground Water Recharge through Dugwells The recharge of dugwell increases the sustainability of wells during lean period and will improve the overall irrigated agricultural productivity.Technical Manual for IWMP iv) Periodic chlorination should be done for controlling the bacteriological contaminations. MoWR. CGWB.6.4. The recharge programme will also help improving the quality of ground water especially in the fluoride affected areas. 2003) Fig. drinking water availability.

2003) Fig 70: Sketch of Dugwell Recharge Structure Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 179 . Faridabad. CGWB.Technical Manual for IWMP (Source: Rain water Harvesting Techniques to Augment Ground Water. MoWR. GoI.

A Guide to Follow. 5. and International Hydrological Programme (IHP) United Nations Educational. Recharge Structure Recharge pit Recharge Trench Recharge through hand pump Recharge through dug well Recharge well Recharge shaft Lateral Shaft with Bore well Shaft per m. No. Ministry of Water Resources. 2. 2000) Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 180 . Approximate cost (Rs) 2500 – 5000 5000 – 10000 1500 – 2500 5000 – 8000 50000 – 80000 60000 – 85000 Shaft per m. 2000 – 3000 Bore well 25000 . CGWB. 3.3 Approximate cost of Ground Water Recharge Structures The cost of each recharge structure varies from place to place. 7. 6.Technical Manual for IWMP 7. Scientific and Cultural Organization. The approximate costs of the following structures are as under:Table 39: Approximate cost of Ground Water Recharge Structures Sr.35000 (Source: Rain Water Harvesting and Artificial Recharge to Ground Water. September. 1. 4.

e. should be installed. vii) A hygienic soak away channel should be built at water outlets and a screened overflow pipe should be provided. which contains debris. iii) Roof painting is not advisable since most paints contain toxic substances and may peel off. a first flush system to divert the dirty water. hard and dense since they are easier to clean and are less likely to be damaged and release materials/ fibers into the water.1 Introduction This is an ideal solution of water problem where there is inadequate groundwater supply and surface sources are either lacking or insignificant. In addition. etc. Rain water is bacteriologically pure. the system is used to meet water requirements during the summer months i. All gutter ends should be fitted with a wire mesh screen to keep out leaves.2 Design Considerations i) ii) Rooftop water harvesting systems can provide good quality potable water. collected on the roof during non-rainy periods and a filter unit to remove debris and contaminants before water enters the storage tank are also provided. 9. a manhole cover and a flushing pipe at the base of the tank (for standing tanks). about 90 days. Roof surfaces should be smooth.Technical Manual for IWMP Chapter-9 9 Roof Top Rainwater Harvesting Structure 9. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 181 . Such systems are usually designed to support the drinking and cooking needs of the family and comprise a roof. such as detachable down pipe section. xi) Water from other sources. free from organic matter and soft in nature. x) There should be no possibility of contaminated wastewater flowing into the tank especially for tanks installed at ground level). Since the available roof area is usually limited. ix) There should be a reliable sanitary extraction device such as a gravity tap or a hand pump to avoid contamination of the water in the tank. should not be emptied into the tank through pipe connections or the manhole cover. iv) v) vi) No overhanging trees should be left near the roof. The nesting of birds on the roof should be prevented. viii) The storage tank should have a tight fitting roof that excludes light. A first-flush rainfall capacity. unless it is reliable source. a storage tank and guttering to transport the water from the roof to the storage tank.

In addition. Drain pipes Gutters Down pipe First flush pipe.3 Components of Roof Top Rain Water Harvesting A typical Roof top Rainwater Harvesting System comprises following components: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Roof catchment. Filter unit Storage tank. viii) Collection sump.Technical Manual for IWMP In a typical domestic roof top rainwater harvesting system. collected on the roof during non-rainy periods and a filter unit to remove debris and contaminants before water enters the storage tank are also provided. which contains debris. a storage tank and guttering to transport the water from the roof to the storage tank. ix) Pump unit Fig 71: A Typical Rainwater Harvesting System Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 182 . Such systems are usually designed to support the drinking and cooking needs of the family and comprise a roof. 9. rainwater from the roof is collected in a storage vessel or tank for use during periods of scarcity. a first flush system to divert the dirty water.

Technical Manual for IWMP (Source: Rejuvenation of water bodies by adopting rain water harvesting by Samuel et all) Fig. tiles or concrete can be utilized as such for harvesting rainwater. Roofs made of corrugated iron sheet.3. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 183 .1 Roof Catchment The roof of the house is used as the catchment for collecting the rainwater. are not suitable as pieces of roof material may be carried by water and may also impart some colour to water. construction and material of the roof determine its suitability as a catchment. The style. Thatched roofs. asbestos sheet. storage tank and filter unit are the most expensive and critical components. 72: Roof water Harvesting Structure Among the above components. The capacity of the storage tank determines the cost of the system as well as its reliability for assured water supply whereas the filter unit assures the quality of the supplied water. on the other hand. Brief descriptions of each of the components are given below: 9.

73: Projected Roof Catchment Area The type of roof determines the quality of water that is collected in the storage tank. Roofs having slope more than 30 degrees are to be avoided wherever possible.Technical Manual for IWMP Fig. They are provided as per the building code requirements. The slope and shape of the roof are also important in planning a roof top rain top rainwater harvesting system. Among the commonly seen roof types in rural areas.2 Drain Pipes The drain pipes of suitable size. The roof should be away from big trees to avoid accumulation of leaf litter and bird droppings. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 184 . asbestos sheet and galvanized iron sheet are most suitable as roof catchments. Gentle slopes in the range of 10 to 30 degrees are most suitable for smooth flow of water into the storage tank. made of PVC / Stoneware are provided in RCC buildings to drain off the roof top water to the storm drains. causing overflow or wastage of water form gutters and filter.3. 9. tiled. The size of roof is another important factor which determines the amount of water available for storage in the RRHS. Thatched roofs are not suitable as roof catchments because the water collected from these roofs gets brownish colour and carries pieces of roof material. Water flows with high velocity on steep-sloped roofs. a roof area of 15-20 square meters is required for collecting sufficient water required for a household. Roof catchments of lesser sizes could become a limiting factor in designing RRHS to the required capacity. concrete. Generally.

MoWR. Cut PVC pipes and Bamboos will be semi-circular in shape. certain amount of skill is required.3. whereas the other end is connected to the filter unit of the storage tank as shown below PVC or GI pipes of 50 mm to 75 mm (2 inch to 3 inch) diameter are commonly used for down pipe. They have to be connected to a pipe to carry water to the storage tank. 9.5 cm. In the case of RCC buildings.4 Down Pipe Down pipe is the pipe that carries the rainwater from the gutters to the storage tank.3. CGWB. drain pipes themselves serve as down pipes. Gutters from PVC pipes or bamboos are easily made.2003) Fig. These channels are fixed to the roof ends to divert the rainwater into the storage tank. The down pipe and first flush pipe can be of either GI or PVC material of diameter 7. Gutters can be prepared in rectangular shapes and semi-circular (Source: Manual on Artificial Recharge to Groundwater. These channels are made at the site of construction and fixed to the roof by using mild steel supports. 74 (a) Rectangular Gutter and (b) Semi-circular Gutter Gutters are channels made of either plain Galvanized Iron sheets or cut PVC pipes or split Bamboo. As the preparation of gutters from GI sheet involves cutting and bending the sheet to the required size and shape. Down pipe is joined with the gutters at one end.Technical Manual for IWMP 9. Government of India. Joining of pipes will be easy if both are of same material. Semi-circular or rectangular shaped channels can be made using GI sheet. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 185 . Use of locally available materials reduces the overall cost of the system.3 Gutters Gutters are channels fixed to the edges of roof all around to collect and transport the rainwater from the roof to the storage tank.

whereby the down Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 186 . MoWR.3.2003) Fig. When the first rains arrive. Government of India. The most common type of down pipe arrangement is shown in below fig.Technical Manual for IWMP (Source: Manual on Artificial Recharge to Groundwater. CGWB.76: Most Common Arrangement of Down Pipe 9. dirt and dust collect on the roofs during non-rainy periods. This causes contamination of water collected in the storage tank. One is based on a simple. The shape of the roof and type of the roof also determine the arrangement of down pipes. A first flush system can be incorporated in the roof top rainwater harvesting systems to dispose off the ‘first flush’ water so that is does not enter the tank. Government of India. rendering it unfit for drinking and cooking purposes.2003) Fig. CGWB. There are two such simple systems. these unwanted materials will be washed into the storage tank.5 First Flush Pipe Debris. (Source: Manual on Artificial Recharge to Groundwater. MoWR. 75: Down pipe of Roof Water Harvesting Tank The orientation and arrangement of the down pipe depends on relative locations of tank and roof. manually operated arrangement.

77: Flush Pipe After the first rain is washed out through first flush pipe. Biological metabolism in filter units involves the formation of a zoological jelly or film containing large colonies of bacteria around the sand grains. sedimentation.2003) Fig. biological metabolism and electrolytic changes. MoWR. which feed on the organic impurities in the water and convert them into harmless compounds by complex biochemical reactions. Electrolytic changes involve the neutralization of ionic charges of particles of suspended and dissolved impurities when they come into contact with sand particles having opposite charge. the valve is closed to allow the water to enter the down pipe and reach the storage tank. It usually involves allowing water to pass through a filter media e. Depending on the type of filtration. Such particles also adhere to the sand grains due to i) presence of a gelatinous film or coating developed on sand grains by previously trapped bacteria and colloidal matter and ii) physical attraction between particles. Filtration essentially involves removal of suspended and colloidal impurities present in water.3.6 Filtration of Water Filtration forms the most important process in the purification of water. sand. they neu- Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 187 .g. In another semi-automatic system. a separate vertical pipe is fixed to the down pipe with a valve provided below the ‘T’ junction (Source: Manual on Artificial Recharge to Groundwater. Mechanical straining involves removal of suspended particles. CGWB. which are unable to pass through the voids of the filter media. These effects take place due to various processes such as mechanical straining. the chemical characteristics of water may be altered and the bacterial content may be considerably reduced. Government of India. Sedimentation of particles of impurities occurs in the voids between sand grains in the filter unit. When this happens. 9.Technical Manual for IWMP pipe is moved away from the tank inlet and replaced again once the first flush water has been disposed.

organic impurities etc. These types of filters are preferred for rainwater harvesting schemes implemented over larger areas (Source: Manual on Artificial Recharge to Groundwater. The container is provided with a perforated bottom to Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 188 . However. and should also be uniform in nature and grain size. coconut fiber. 9.7 Filter Sand The sand being used for filter in roof top rainwater harvesting systems should be free from clay. which are readily available in the market. can also be used for filtration. 78: Cross section of a Slow Sand Filter Screen filters or micro filters. CGWB. 9.8 Rapid Sand Filters Rapid sand filters (Gravity type) have been developed to achieve increased filtration rates by increasing the grain size of the filter media. pebbles and gravels may also be used to remove the debris and dirt form water that enters the tank in small scale domestic roof top rainwater harvesting systems. ‘anthrafilt’.2003) Fig. Locally fabricated filters consisting of buckets or other containers filled with filter media such as coarse sand. as sand is readily available almost everywhere. In place of sand. Silt and other contaminants present in the roof top rainwater can be removed efficiently using these filters. made from anthracite (stonecoal) can also be used as filter medium. the usual practice is to use it as filter medium.3. loam.3. This material is found to possess many advantages such as low cost. high rate of infiltration and better efficiency. vegetable matter. MoWR.Technical Manual for IWMP tralize each other. charcoal. which ultimately results in the alteration of chemical characteristics of water. The size of the filter can be decided based upon roof top area and the rainfall amount. Government of India.

000 L Storage tanks are usually constructed above ground level to facilitate easy detection of structural problems/leaks. the period of water scarcity for domestic purposes is found to be in the range of 90 days to 200 days depending upon the quantity and distribution of rainfall and water sources existing in the area. Another simple way of filtering the debris and dust particles in the water is to use a fine cloth as filter media. easy maintenance and cleaning and easy withdrawal of stored water. stone or cement brick may be used for capacities ranging between 15. Cement and PVC There are unlimited numbers of options for the construction of these tanks with respect to the shape (cylindrical. type and size of house roof and the status of existing water sources in the area. Ferro-cement.15. the size (capacity from 1.000 L are most suitable. in 2 or 3 layers. They are provided with covers on the top to prevent contamination of water from external sources. For storing larger quantities of water. Masonry.1 Size of Storage Tanks for Rural Areas Size of the storage tank needs to be carefully selected considering various factors such as number of persons in the household. This results in increase in required size of storage tank and its cost. stone. cleaning the tank and for disposal of excess water. buckets. It is found that the per capita water use Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 189 . cement bricks. rainfall. cement jars.000 to 50. considering the local culture and habits of the people influencing the water use. Cement concrete and reinforced cement concrete are used for tank capacities exceeding 50. Brick.000 and 15. The cloth.000 L. Storage tanks are RCC. PVC or GI pipes of diameter 20 to 25 mm are generally used for the purpose. jerry cans. Availability of water at the doorstep. as is the case with RRHS. They are also provided with pipe fixtures at appropriate places for drawing water.9. old oil drums etc. clay of ceramic jars. can be tied to the top of a bucket or vessel with perforation at the bottom. For domestic water needs. drain pipe and over flow pipe respectively. 9. ferrocement tanks of cylindrical shape in capacities ranging between 4. Different types of storage tanks feasible for storing roof top rainwater are given below. is likely to increase the water use of the household.9 Storage Tank Storage tank is used to store the water that is collected from the Roof tops. or even higher) and the material of construction (brick.000 . taking the economy and durability of tanks into consideration.Technical Manual for IWMP allow the passage of water. Common vessels used for small-scale water storage are plastic bowls. The water use of the household should first be studied. concrete and reinforced cement concrete). rectangular and square). 9. the system will usually require a bigger tank with sufficient strength and durability. The filter unit is placed over the storage tank. They are called tap or outlet.3.000 L. In general. Ferro.3. and duration of water scarcity. water use.

then the household shall use the water available from roof only for a part of the water scarcity period.Technical Manual for IWMP varies over a range of 3 litres to 10 litres per day. which reflects the total household water requirement during the period of water scarcity.9 0.75.m) x Runoff Coefficient Area of a roof shall be measured as the area projected on a horizontal surface. The coefficient of runoff varies depending on the type of roof and indicates the fraction of rainwater that can be collected from roof. Adding 20% towards additional water requirement for visitors.7 Example: Selection of Size for Storage Tank No. Run-off coefficients for common types of roofs are shown in below Table Table 40: Runoff Coefficients of Common Types of Roofs Type of Roof GI Sheet Asbestos Tiled Concrete Runoff Coefficient 0. m. of persons in the household x Period of water scarcity (in days) x Per capita water requirement (in liters per day) The capacity of storage tank. need to be checked with the amount of water available from house rooftop during rains. If the amount of water available from roof is less than the required capacity of storage tank. The size of water storage tank may be determined using the following relation and approximating to the nearest thousand: Size of Storage tank (in litres) = No. it is measured on the ground surface and the area calculated as the product of length and breadth. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 190 . period of water scarcity for the domestic needs = 120 days. For practical purpose. per capita water requirement = 6 L/day Annual average rainfall = 1000 mm. A per capita water consumption of 5 litres per day for the domestic drinking and cooking purposes is found optimum. festivals and wastage. Runoff coefficient for tiled roof = 0. Area of roof made of country tiles = 20 sq.75 0. Water available from roof is obtained from the following relation: Water available (in litres) = Annual rainfall (in mm) x Roof area (in sq.8 0. of persons in the selected household (4 adults and 4 children) = 8. a per capita water requirement of 6 litres per day may be considered for selecting the size of water storage tank.

bore wells with hand pumps and small water supply schemes have almost replaced these traditional sources of water. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 191 . Domestic Roof top Rainwater Harvesting System (RRHS) provides a viable solution to bridge the gap between demand and supply of water in such areas. especially during periods of water scarcity.760 L Say 6.3 Collection Sump A small pit is normally dug in the ground beneath the tap of the storage tank and constructed in brick masonry to make a chamber. The size of the pump has to be decided depending upon the consumption of the stored water. assessment of availability of space adjacent to the house shall be done giving due importance to the preferences of the household.3. streams and wells have traditionally been used as sources of water for drinking and other domestic uses. The site should be clean.4 Pump Unit A hand pump or a power pump fitted to the storage sump facilitates lifting of water to the user. Storage tanks located near the roof reduce the cost of down pipes.9. storage tank is the component occupying most space.0m. For a typical 10. In recent years.2 Space of Water Tank Among all the components of roof top rainwater harvesting systems. hygienic and away from cattle sheds to avoid contamination of stored water.000 litre tank. Yet.Technical Manual for IWMP Solution: Size of storage tank (in litres) = No. due to various reasons. In rural area. 9. in many rural habitations. 9.9. so that a vessel could be conveniently placed beneath the tap for collecting water from the storage tank. A small hole is left at the bottom of the chamber. the minimum space required is 3. Therefore.75 = 15000 liters 9.000 L Check with water availability from roof top Water available from roof top = Annual rainfall (in mm) X Area of roof (in sq.m) X Coefficient of runoff for the roof = 1000 X 20 X 0. to allow the excess water to drain-out without stagnation.0 x 3.3. Size of collection pit shall be 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm.9. ponds. and hence the space required for the system depends on the size of the storage tank. these sources have not been able to supply water to the rural households round the year.3. of persons in the household x Period of water scarcity (in days) x Per capita water requirement (in lit/day) = 8 x 120 x 6 = 5.

Contribution from users could be also be raised in terms of labour and materials to meet a part of the investment. Hence. which finance women self-help groups in rural areas such as the Rashtriya Mahila Kosh and NABARD self-help group schemes.2. 000/. The existing Government schemes. It is advisable to have the user household themselves meet a sizeable portion of the cost of RRHS to ensure its sustainability and reliability.9. depending on the capacity of the storage tank. 320. 290. Extending soft loans repayable in easy instalments would be appropriate for this purpose. Solution Arranging the rainfall in descending order. 000/-.to Rs.49 per litre of water stored. it’s expected that the return period of this rainfall is 1 in 10 years. 355. could be utilized for extending such loan facilities to the rural households.16. This works out to Rs. down pipe and first flush pipe. The highest rainfall of 380 mm is equalled or exceeded only once in 10 years. Design a roof water harvesting system. where community participation and labour are not required at the construction stage. sheet with an area of 50 sq m. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 192 .1. which is ‘rare’. This is quite high when compared to the free water available through government-sponsored schemes. and 280.12. The lower edge of the roof is 3 m above the ground.5 Economic Viability A typical domestic roof top rainwater harvesting system requires and investment of about Rs.Technical Manual for IWMP 9.340. 311. The cost of roof top rainwater harvesting systems could be brought down to a certain extent by using local materials such as bamboo for gutters. 335. we get: 380. investment to this extent is a costly option and may be unaffordable to many rural households. 330. The 10 year rainfall for the areas is as follows: Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Rainfall (mm) 320 mm 360 mm 311 mm 290 mm 330 mm Year Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10 Rainfall (mm) 280 mm 335 mm 380 mm 355 mm 340 mm The maximum rainfall intensity is 10 mm/hour. Design Example A house has a sloping roof of G.3. The owner of the house has a family of 5 members. This would also encourage ownership and appropriate maintenance of the system at the level of households.34 to Rs. Therefore.I.

157 = 0. Size of Collector Channel (Gutter) During heavy rains having intensity of 10 mm/hr or more. 1 in 200 Trial -1: Providing a collector channel of 0.9 (assuming a net loss of 10% of rainfall). the maximum rate of runoff from the roof on either side from the roof area of 50 sq m is worked out as Roof Area (m2) x Rainfall intensity (m/sec) x Runoff coefficient = 50 x 10 x0.8 = 11. the runoff coefficient may be taken as 0. the available water works out as Q = Area x Rainfall Depth x Runoff coefficient = 50 x 0.25x104  0. the lowest rainfall of 280 mm is equalled or exceeded in all the 10 years. So. i.280 x 0.003925/ 0. However.125lps (1000 x 60 x 60) Assuming the slope of the collector channel as 5 cm for 1 m.003925 sq m 4 Perimeter (P) = 0. Thus. the system may be designed for this rainfall.4 m height should be adequate for storing the water.2 = 3. Velocity of flow (V) = 0.2 m dia and 1. this water should be sufficient for 224 days or at least 7 months.1 m diameter with half circular π Cross sectional area of the channel (A) = ( d 2 )/2 = 0.6 m with water storage up to 1. i.157m Hydraulic Mean depth (R) = 0. Assuming instant generation of run-off. For the roof area of 50 sq m and rainfall of 280 mm. this is the most reliable figure.6m height can be constructed for the purpose. a tank having 3.9  1.Technical Manual for IWMP On the other hand.2 m height may be provided to allow for fixing overflow pipe and dead storage below the outlet (tap). an extra 0.2 cu.4 m height. Q= d 2 xh 4 11.m.24 m/sec Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 193 .e.19 m A tank of 3. Thus. Tank Diameter can be calculated as π Total water. 11200 lit Allowing for a consumption of 10 lit/day/person.14 2 xd x1. As houses are of low height in rural areas.25m For slope of 1 in 200 for the collector channel. height of the tank may be limited to 1.e.2 m diameter and 1.4 4 d = 3.

Use the first flush arrangement to drain off this first rainwater.0785= 0.5mm Providing 25 mm extra for fixing with rafters / purlins. sheet required for channel is the perimeter of the channel P = 0.00098 sq m Perimeter (P) = 0.0785 m = 78. As this corresponds well with the designed discharge.000942 cum/sec As the design discharge is only 0. Say 104 mm Tips for Maintenance of the RRHS i) ii) iii) Always keep the surroundings of the tank clean and hygienic Remove algae from the roof tiles and asbestos sheets before the monsoon Drain the tank completely and clean the inside of the tank thoroughly before the monsoon iv) Clean the water channels (gutters) often during rainy season and definitely before the first monsoon rain v) Avoid first 15 or 20 minutes of rainfall depending on the intensity of rain. This will ensure availability of water throughout the water scarcity period.000148 cum/sec.0125m Velocity (V) = 0.05 m diameter Area (A) = 0. The channel may be made of plain Galvanized Iron (G.00098 x 0.5 + 25 = 103. this channel diameter is acceptable.000125 cum/sec.Technical Manual for IWMP Discharge (Q) = AX V = 0. Trial-II: Considering a channel of 0. vi) vii) Change the filter media every rainy season Cover all inlet and outlet pipes with closely knit nylon net or fine cloth or cap during non-rainy season to avoid entry of insects.003925 x 0. Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 194 .I) sheet. Width of the G. Total width required = 78. R = 0. it is not acceptable.24 = 0.00098/ 0. This will obviate the need for major repairs caused by propagation of cracks.152 m/sec Discharge (Q) = A x V = 0.152= 0.0785 m Hydraulic Mean Depth. ix) Leakage or cracks in the storage tank should be immediately attended to. worms and mosquitoes viii) Withdrawal water from the system at the rate of 5 litres/head/day.5 mm.I. the channel is oversized and hence.

Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 195 . Water should not be allowed to stagnate in the collection pit The tap should have lock system to prevent pilferage or wastage of water The filter material should be washed thoroughly before replacing in the filter bucket xiv) In coastal areas. the outer side of the tank may be painted with corrosion-resistant paint at least once in 3 years and in other areas lime (Calcium Carbonate) based whitewash may be applied regularly.Technical Manual for IWMP x) xi) xii) xiii) Heavy loads should not be applied on the lid.

crida. (accessed on 27 November.iitm.A potential Source of Water Harvesting in Deep Black Soils in Deccan Region. Hydraulics. June 2008 2. 2010) 5. http://nptel. 2010) 7. India Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture. 2010) 8. ASTM D5242. (accessed on 10th December.pdf (accessed on 25th November 2010) 6. Enabling Rural Poor for Better Livelihoods through Improved Natural Resource Management in SAT India. Vihar.greensboro-nc. Design of Small Earth Dams.gov. Agricultural Land Drainage. 2011 http://waterresources. 2007. http://waterresources. 1993. Dehra Dehra DoonDoon— 248006248006. American Society for Testing and Materials. Final Technical Report. Dugout Farm Pond. http://www. 2007 Central Soil Salinity Research Institute. India. Reclamation of Waterlogged Saline Lands.in/courses/IIT- MADRAS/Hydraulics/pdfs/Unit35/35_1. http://www.S. Synopsis. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. PeoplePeople’’s Science Institutes Institute252/1. Water Resource Department Government of Rajushtan. Hyderabad.rajasthan. (2002-2005).K) Project R8192. Government of Rajasthan. B.ernet.in. 19-25 February. Design Of Spillway. Ensuring Water flows through Spring Sanctuaries.in/6guidelines_design_earth_dam. 252/Vasant. Chute Spillways-Design Guidelines. (ac- Gujarat State Watershed Management Agency Page | 196 .ac.rajasthan. Chute Spillways. VasantVihar. Y.pdf (accessed on dated 28th November.asp cessed on dated 12th December. Standard method for open-channel flow measurement of water with thin-plate weirs. Indian Council of Agricultural Research. 2010) 9. A Source book for “Soil and Water Conservation Measures” by Foundation for Ecological Security (FES).C.gov. 4. Prof. . Thandaveswara. Greensboro Stormwater Division. DFID-NRSP (U.Agarwal. Water Resource Department.gov/NR/rdonlyres/ED25C078-BE15-44B5-B27EBA0E7ED5D17D/0/CHUTESPILLWAYSDESIGN GUIDELINES. Karnal 132001 3. 2010) 10. National Level Training Course on Land Drainage for Reclamation of Waterlogged Saline Lands. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute.in/6guidelines_design_spillway.asp (accessed on December.Technical Manual for IWMP References 1.

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