ON n-POWER NORMAL OPERATORS
Adnan A.S. Jibril* Department of Mathematics and Statistics King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
ﻧُﻌﺮﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻓﺌﺔ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻀﺎء ﻫﻠﺒﺮﺕ ﻭﻧﺴﻤﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻮﺩﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﻮﺓ ﱢ ﻥ ﻭﻧﻌﻄﻰ ﺷﺮﻭﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻯ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻟﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻔﺌﺔ ﻭﻧﺪﺭﺱ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛﺮﺍﺕ .۳ = ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﺎﻡ ﺛﻢ ﻧﺮﻛﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺘﻴﻦ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻥ = ۲ ، ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻥ
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: email@example.com Paper Received 16 March 2005; Revised 29 December 2007; Accepted 20 February 2008
The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Volume 33, Number 2A
Key words: Operator. and prove that an operator T (T T ∈ L(H) is n-power normal if and only if T n is normal. Hilbert Space. Normal Operator
The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Jibril
ABSTRACT We introduce the class of n-power normal operators. 3.S. Invariant Subspace. Number 2A
. Uniform Closure. Adjoint.Adnan A. We give some properties of these operators in general. 2-Normal Operator. and also study the special case when an operator is n-power normal for n = 2. if and only if ⎜⎜ nx ⎜⎜= ⎜⎜ n)*(x) ⎜⎜ for all x ∈ H. Volume 33.
Let T ∈ L(H).1 and from (.1. then T ∈ [nN ] if and only if T n is normal for any positive integer n ≥ 1. we show that the two classes [2N ] and [3N ] are independent and give some conditions under which an operator T ∈ [2N ] ∩ [3N ] becomes normal. INTRODUCTION Let H be a complex Hilbert space and let L(H) be the algebra of all bounded linear operators on H.Adnan A. Immediate from Proposition 2. the inverse. Corollary 2. The proof follows immediately from Proposition 2. The class of all 2-normal operators is denoted by [2N ]. Volume 33. Proof. Let T ∈ L(H). If T. the author introduced the class of 2-normal operators: T ∈ L(H) is 2-normal if T 2 T ∗ = T ∗ T 2 .4. if it exists. T n (T n )∗ = T ∗ T n T ∗ (T ∗ )n−2 = (T n )∗ T n . 2. p. then T n (T ∗ )n = T ∗ T n (T ∗ )n−1 . In Section 3.
Proposition 2. Proposition 2. Number 2A
. T T n = T nT ∗.2 cannot be replaced by similarity: The operators T = 1 0 −1 1 0 0 0 1 and S = 0 0 1 1 acting on C 2 . Unitary equivalence in Corollary 2.2. are similar since S = X −1 T X where
Corollary 2. i. In . RESULTS In this section we prove some general results about n-power normal operators. In this paper we introduce the class of n-power normal operators n ≥ 3 which we denote [nN ] for all positive integers n: T ∈ L(H) is n-power normal if T n T ∗ = T ∗ T n . Remark 2. Then T is n-power normal if and only if T n x = (T n )∗ x for all x ∈ H. but T is 3-normal and S is not. If conversely T n is normal then T n T = T T n implies — by Fuglede theorem — that (T n )∗ T = T (T n )∗ .
July 2008 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering.S. If T n T ∗ = T ∗ T n . we characterize and prove some general results about n-power normal operators.e. then T F ∈ [nN ]. Proof. i. and taking adjoints. and the restriction to a closed subspace of H of an n-power normal operator is n-power normal. Jibril
ON n-POWER NORMAL OPERATORS
1. The class [nN ] of n-power normal operators on H is closed under scalar multiplication.1. unitary equivalence. Moreover. F ∗n commute.3. Proof. F ∈ [nN ] and T ∗n . 154).5. In Section 2.e.
THE CLASSES [2N ] AND [3N ] In this section we study the relation between the two classes [2N ] and [3N ]. Proof. but T ∈ [3N ].1) by T and use T 3 T ∗ = T ∗ T 3 to get T 2T ∗T = T T ∗T 2 (3. If T ∈ [nN ].Adnan A.and post-multiply (3. T T ∗ T = T.8. The operator T =
acting on C 2 is not 2-normal but T ∈ [3N ]. The operator T = 1 0 1 −1 2 −1 1 0 acting on C 2 . we prove it for n = 4.2. Proof. The operators T = but S + T ∈ [2n]. Number 2A
The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. Clearly ST = T S. If T is a partial isometry.5. then (by . then it is not necessary that T F ∈ [nN ]: The non-commuting operators S = ST ∈ [3N ]. p.7.3. Volume 33.
Proposition 3. is 2-normal. If T ∈ [2N ] and T is a partial isometry as well. The proof follows from Proposition 2. Remark 2.6. are both in [3N ].S.4.5 and by using induction. are both 2-normal operators 1 0 0 2 and T = 1 −1 1 0 acting on C 2 . Since T ∈ [2N ]. In the following example we show that the sum of two commuting n-power normal operators is not necessarily n-power normal. In Proposition 2.
Example 3.1. Proposition 3.e. Let T ∈ L(H) such that T ∈ [2N ] ∩ [3N ]. but
3. First. 0 0 1 0 and S = 1 0 0 1 acting on C 2 . 153). Jibril
(3. T ∈ [3N ]. This follows immediately from Proposition 2.1 and Fuglede theorem. then T ∈ [3N ]. Corollary 2. Example 2. We prove the result by induction.
Proof. Pre.and post-multiply the last equation by T to get T ∗ T 3 = T 3 T ∗ . if T F = F T . then T m ∈ [nN ] for any positive integer m. T 2T ∗ = T ∗T 2 Pre. The following two examples show that these classes are independent: Example 3. then T ∈ [nN ] for all positive integers n ≥ 4.
suppose that T n T ∗ = T ∗ T n .  S. Since T ∗ T and T T ∗ are self-adjoint.e. p. we have T ∗ T T ∗ = T ∗ T which implies that (T T ∗ − T ∗ T )2 = 0. Thus T is (n + 1)-normal. J.Adnan A. Introduction to Hilbert Spaces.  Heydar Radjavi and Peter Rosenthal. The result now follows by induction. T is normal. Anal. If ker T = ker T 2 (e.3. Proposition 2.6. “N -th Roots of Operators”.2) on the left by T we get T 3T ∗T = T 2T ∗T 2 which implies that T ∗ T 4 = T 4 T ∗ . Now suppose the result is true for n > 4. 653–664. Since T ∈ [2N ] ∩ [3N ] and since ker T 2 = ker T . if T is one-to-one). Appl.g.
 A. T T ∗ − T ∗ T = 0. i. pp. i. 24 (1971). 19 (1968).  Mary R. Math. Number 2A
. 1976. The unilateral shift is not 2-normal since the unilateral shift is quasinormal and if it were 2-normal then this implies (. Embry. Remark 3.
The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering..
Proof.7. Proc. “On 2-Normal Operators”. Let T ∈ [2N ] ∩ [3N ]. Berberian. Remark 3.
It is easy to see that an operator in [2N ] ∩ [3N ] need not be normal. then T n+1 T ∗ = T T ∗ T n = T T ∗ T 2 T n−2 = T 3 T ∗ T n−2 = T ∗ T 3 T n−2 = T ∗ T n+1 .S. 23 (1996). Amer.K. for example the operator We have however the following: Proposition 3. Embry  has studied operators such that T 2 is normal and these have been completely characterized by Radjavi and Rosenthal . Jibril.e. Soc. pp.S. 63–68. Jibril
Multiplying (3.. “On Roots of Normal Operators”. Math. Volume 33. 193) that T is normal which is not true. New York: Chelsea Publishing Company. then T is normal. Dirasat.