Social Studies Intensive Revision SEQ Mock Examination 2 – Conflict & Harmony in Multi-ethnic Societies Answer ONE question

. Conflict in Sri Lanka 1 (a) To what extent was the issue of citizenship rights the most important [12] cause of the conflict between the Sinhalese and the Tamils in Sri Lanka? Explain your answer. (MFSS MYE 2011) “The political impact of the conflict in Sri Lanka is more severe than the [13] social impact.” Do you agree? Explain your answer. (SPS Prelims 2010)

(b)

Conflict in Northern Ireland 2 (a) ‘Divided loyalties were the main driving force of the Northern Ireland [12] conflict’. How far do you agree with this assertion? Explain your answer. (ACSBR MYE 2011) Which was the more adverse result of the Northern Ireland conflict – [13] the impact on the economy or the impact on society? Explain your answer. (ACSBR MYE 2011)

(b)

Bonding Singapore 3 (a) Transnational terrorism is the only challenge faced by multi-racial Singapore. Do you agree? Explain your answer. (HKSS MYE 2011) [12]

(b)

Here are three measures adopted by the Singapore government to [13] develop common space:  Opportunities for Interaction in Educational Institutions  Common Living Space Provided by Public Housing  Events and ProgrammesOrganised by Grassroots Organisations Which of these is the most effective measure to develop common space? Explain your answer. (NSS Prelims 1 2011)

AES / HUM

1

Thus this contributed to the conflict between the Sinhalese and the Tamils.g. and additional marks for any supporting detail. E. many Indian Tamils who lived in Sri Lanka were stateless. After Sri Lanka achieved independence. This made them resent the Sinhalese whom they considered to be responsible for this discrimination as the Sri Lankan government comprised mainly of them. E. there were other factors such as the ‘Sinhala Only’ policy and University admission criteria. the Tamils indeed felt like second class citizens in a country which they had regarded as their home. This frustrated and angered the Tamils who felt marginalised although they were contributing immensely to the country’s economy by working at the tea plantations. L2 Describes the given factor. the ‘Sinhala Only’ policy was also another important cause for the conflict between the Sinhalese and Tamils. Sinhala was made the official [8-10] [7] [4-6] [3-4] [12] Level L1 Marks [1-2] AES / HUM 2 . Do not award 10 marks unless more than one additional factor is explained. L3 Explains the given factor OR other factor(s) Award 4 marks for an explanation. L5 Both elements of L3 Award 8 -10 marks for explanation of the given AND other factors. When Sri Lanka was under British rule. Citizenship rights was an important cause of the conflict between Sinhalese and Tamils. to a maximum of 2 marks. to a maximum of 6 marks.g. The Citizenship Act granted citizenship only to those who were either born in Sri Lanka or those whose forefathers were born there. However.Social Studies Intensive Revision SEQ Mock Examination 2 – Conflict and Harmony in Multi-ethnic Societies Suggested Answer Scheme Conflict in Sri Lanka 1 (a) To what extent was the issue of citizenship rights the most important cause of the conflict between the Sinhalese and the Tamils in Sri Lanka? Explain your answer. AND/OR identifies/describes other factor(s) Award 3 marks for describing the given factor OR identifying / describing other factor(s). E. jobs. [L3 plus] However. English-educated Tamils occupied some of the most powerful jobs in the government service as they could read and write English unlike their Sinhalese counterparts. By being denied the basic rights.g. As a result. This meant that they were denied basic rights such as education. housing and voting even though they had been in Sri Lanka for many years. L4 Explains the given factor and identifies/describes other factors Award 7 marks for answers which explain the given factor and identify/describes other factor(s). Award 4 marks for both. (MFSS MYE 2011) Response Writes about the topic but without focus on the question Award 1 mark for each detail.

Thus the Tamil students had to score higher marks to secure a place in the university. They felt discriminated against as Tamil was their dialect and they were asked to learn a language they had no knowledge of. it caused riots to break out between the two communities. As a result. this prevented them from moving up the economic and social ladder. they had no access to the country’s economic wealth as they missed out on the opportunities. Hence. One of the goals behind the policy was to restrict the accessibility of the English-educated Sri Lankan Tamils to the higher education and government and government employment.language. the distrust and suspicion they had of each other deepened even further. This once again angered the Tamils as they realised how unfair the new policy was towards them as it was difficult to secure their jobs or be promoted. This evoked a strong protest from the Tamil community but the government disregarded it. At the same time it sought to increase the number of the Sinhalese educated youth in the universities and government services. AND E. causing conflict between the Sinhalese and the Tamils. the government adopted a pro-Sinhalese education policy by replacing merit as the criteria for the university admissions with a system of weightage in favour of the Sinhalese students. L6 L5. This made them resent the Sinhalese even more. As the Tamils felt very deprived in getting equal opportunities for a higher education. Education is the gateway to better job opportunities. plus explains the relative importance of different factors [11-12] AES / HUM 3 .g. This made the Tamils resent the Sinhalese as they felt that the Sinhalese were responsible for their loss of opportunities and dismissal. University admission criteria was another cause for conflict between the Tamils and Sinhalese. Many English-speaking Tamils in the government service were given three years to learn Sinhala or lose their jobs. In 1970. When a protest meeting against this policy was disrupted by government supporters.

The conflict has also caused large-scale displacement beyond its borders. High Security Zones (HSZ) were built by the Sri Lankan Army to keep the LTTE away. they also attacked Tamil members of the police force. their demands took on a violent nature especially when violence was met with retaliation from the Sinhalese government.g.(b) “The political impact of the conflict in Sri Lanka is more severe than the social impact. the conflict had driven many Sri Lankan Tamils out of their homeland. Many are forced to live in overcrowded refugee camps or with relatives or friends.g The conflict has also caused large-scale displacement beyond its borders. Tamil members and supporters of the ruling party and Tamil politicians who did not support their aim of creating a separate state for Tamils. In the 1983 riots. thousands of Tamils fled to Tamil Nadu in South India. 6-8 L4 Explains both sides 9-11 AES / HUM 4 . but without answering the question e. In the 1983 riots. It is serious because it had troubled Sri Lanka for more than 20 years.g Before the formation of the Tamil Tigers. (SPS Prelims 2010) Response Assertions lacking valid contextual support Award 1 mark for each detail. But with the formation of the LTTE. Many still remain as refugees in India. OR e. Young teenagers are known to be recruited as members of the LTTE. Thus. Tamil members and supporters of the ruling party and Tamil politicians who did not support their aim of creating a separate state for Tamils. Most of these are refugee camps with poor living conditions and are ill-equipped. Many still remain as refugees in India.” Do you agree? Explain your answer. to a maximum of 2 marks [13] Level L1 Marks 1-2 L2 Describes one or both sides. Besides attacking the Sinhalese. Besides attacking the Sinhalese. thousands of Tamils fled to Tamil Nadu in South India. These episodes of violence and the inculcation of hatred prejudice and hostility towards the Sinhalese among the young Tamils perpetuates the vicious cycle of generations of violent existence in Sri Lanka.g Before the formation of the Tamil Tigers. Many lives were lost – about 60 000 – and the economy was crippled due to the continuous stream of violence in the country. their demands took on a violent nature especially when violence was met with retaliation from the Sinhalese government. Many had to flee whenever the Sri Lanka moved into parts of the country to take on the LTTE. demands made by the Tamils were generally done peacefully. 3-5 L3 Explains one side Explanations must have valid contextual support e. Many are forced to live in overcrowded refugee camps or with relatives or friends. High Security Zones (HSZ) were built by the Sri Lankan Army to keep the LTTE away. they also attacked Tamil members of the police force. The conflict has led to many having to abandon their homes in place for temporary housing. OR e. But with the formation of the LTTE. Many had to flee whenever the Sri Lanka moved into parts of the country to take on the LTTE. demands made by the Tamils were generally done peacefully.

e. thus lowering the economy. L4 + emergence of Tamil Tigers is more damaging because it is the root of armed conflict which in turn leads to other damaging consequences. The society can be strong only if armed conflict is resolved. both L3 examples L5 L4 + Reaches a balanced conclusion based on the relative significance of the factors. the society will continue to be in chaos and weakened. Social instability is less damaging as it is the result of the armed conflict. 12-13 AES / HUM 5 . The destruction of lives and properties done by Tamil Tigers have driven many types of people away. Many Tamils ran away to become refugees because of the fear from Tamil Tigers and do not wish to be in the conflict.g. Otherwise. e.i. driving away investors and weaken social stability.

Public housing was partly paid by the government and the city councils were usually run by protestants.Conflict in Northern Ireland 2 (a) ‘Divided loyalties were the main driving force of the Northern Ireland conflict’. This meant that Catholics usually had to wait very long before they could get their own houses. Most Protestants saw themselves as British and wish to see the country remain as part of the United Kingdom. divided loyalties could be an underlying cause of the conflict in Northern Ireland. OR Unequal housing and the lack of voting right were also driving forces of the conflict. they resented the history of English conquest where Catholics were either killed or treated harshly. Most Protestants saw themselves as British and wish to see the country remain as part of the United [7] [5-6] [3-4] [12] Level L1 Marks [1-2] AES / HUM 6 . the Catholics saw themselves as Irish and wanted to be reunited with the Republic of Ireland. OR The government perpetuated the conflict through unequal public housing. The feared that a Catholic government may not be tolerant of their Protestant beliefs. (ACSBR MYE 2011) Response Writes without focus or identifies other factor(s). Moreover. the Catholics saw themselves as Irish and wanted to be reunited with the Republic of Ireland. distrust and biasness toward between the two groups. L3 Explains given factor or other factors(s). All this cultivated hostility. Most Protestants saw themselves as British and wish to see the country remain as part of the United Kingdom. On the other hand. On the other hand. Divided loyalties also led to the conflict in Northern Ireland. AND The government perpetuated the conflict through unequal public housing. they resented the history of English conquest where Catholics were either killed or treated harshly. Divided loyalties also led to the conflict in Northern Ireland. The increasing tension eventually led to civil war in Northern Ireland. Many of them did not want a union with the Republic of Ireland. Moreover. distrust and biasness toward between the two groups. Public housing was partly paid by the government and the city councils were usually run by protestants. Divided loyalties also led to the conflict in Northern Ireland. The Catholics and Protestants were the parties involved in the conflict in Northern Ireland. How far do you agree with this assertion? Explain your answer. All this cultivated hostility. Thus. L2 Describes given factor and/or other factor(s). L4 Explains one factor and describes other factor(s).

AND Public housing was partly paid by the government and the city councils were usually run by protestants. It was a rip in the fabric of Northern Irish society that could not be mended. the Catholics saw themselves as Irish and wanted to be reunited with the Republic of Ireland. The actions of the government in providing unequal housing were only a catalyst for the war. L6 Rankings given factor and other factor(s). Thus. distrust and biasness toward between the two groups. Thus. they resented the history of English conquest where Catholics were either killed or treated harshly. they resented the history of English conquest where Catholics were either killed or treated harshly. The feared that a Catholic government may not be tolerant of their Protestant beliefs. Thus. Many of them did not want a union with the Republic of Ireland. Divided loyalties were the most important factor as it was the root cause of the conflict. The increasing tension eventually led to civil war in Northern Ireland. The increasing tension eventually led to civil war in Northern Ireland.Kingdom. divided loyalties could be an underlying cause of the conflict in Northern Ireland. [11-12] [8-10] AES / HUM 7 . On the other hand. Most Protestants saw themselves as British and wish to see the country remain as part of the United Kingdom. the Catholics saw themselves as Irish and wanted to be reunited with the Republic of Ireland. divided loyalities were the most important factor that cause the Irish civil war. This meant that Catholics usually had to wait very long before they could get their own houses. The feared that a Catholic government may not be tolerant of their Protestant beliefs. All this cultivated hostility. On the other hand. AND The government perpetuated the conflict through unequal public housing. L5 Explains given factor and explains other factor(s). Moreover. The deep divide between the Protestants and Catholic started from and Middle Ages. Public housing was partly paid by the government and the city councils were usually run by protestants. Housing issues only added to the tensions but was not a root cause. Moreover. distrust and biasness toward between the two groups. Divided loyalties also led to the conflict in Northern Ireland. eventually tearing the country into two. Many of them did not want a union with the Republic of Ireland. All this cultivated hostility. divided loyalties could be an underlying cause of the conflict in Northern Ireland.

Thus the economy of both England and Northern Ireland were affected by the conflict. Foreign investors were discouraged from investing in the country. it was estimated that the daily cost of maintaining the British Army and providing compensation for the victims of the conflict was half a million pounds. [3-4] L3 Explains one given factor. Thus. OR The conflict socially segregated the Protestants and Catholics in the way they live. In the 1970s. Thus the economy of both England and Northern Ireland were affected by the conflict. the Belfast peace wall was one of the many walls built to separate the Catholic and Protestants. For example. Foreign investors were discouraged from investing in the country. AND It was sometimes possible for young people in Northern Ireland to grow up not having met someone from the other community. [13] Level L1 Marks [1-2] L2 Describes given factor(s). This led to the lack of understanding between the two groups.(b) Which was the more adverse result of the Northern Ireland conflict – the impact on the economy or the impact on society? Explain your answer. The threat of bombings and the high cost of security drove away large manufacturers in great numbers. The economy of Northern Ireland was affected by the conflict. The conflict put a strain on the British economy. (ACSBR MYE 2011) Response Writes without focus. Foreign investors were discouraged from investing in the country. The conflict put a strain on the British economy. For example. The economy of Northern Ireland was affected by the conflict. [5-6] L4 Explains one factor and describes other factor. AND [7-8] AES / HUM 8 . The conflict put a strain on the British economy. work and play. The Catholics and Protestants were the parties involved in the conflict in Northern Ireland. This led to the lack of understanding between the two groups. The threat of bombings and the high cost of security drove away large manufacturers in great numbers. it was estimated that the daily cost of maintaining the British Army and providing compensation for the victims of the conflict was half a million pounds. The threat of bombings and the high cost of security drove away large manufacturers in great numbers. the Belfast peace wall was one of the many walls built to separate the Catholic and Protestants. In the 1970s. the conflict had an impact on the Northern Irish society. It was sometimes possible for young people in Northern Ireland to grow up not having met someone from the other community.

However. the Belfast peace wall was one of the many walls built to separate the Catholic and Protestants. the impact on society was the more important impact as compared to the impact on the economy. It will take generations for the two groups to be fully integrated. The economy of Northern Ireland was affected by the conflict. the Belfast peace wall was one of the many walls built to separate the Catholic and Protestants. work and play. The economy recovered within a decade of the end of the conflict. Presently. It was sometimes possible for young people in Northern Ireland to grow up not having met someone from the other community. This led to the lack of understanding between the two groups. The impact on society was the more important than the impact on the economy. the Northern Irish economy is one of the stronger ones in Europe. Thus. The threat of bombings and the high cost of security drove away large manufacturers in great numbers. it was estimated that the daily cost of maintaining the British Army and providing compensation for the victims of the conflict was half a million pounds. [12-13] [9-11] AES / HUM 9 .It was sometimes possible for young people in Northern Ireland to grow up not having met someone from the other community. This led to the lack of understanding between the two groups. AND The conflict socially segregated the Protestants and Catholics in the way they live. For example. L6 Rankings given factors. the divide between the Protestant and Catholics remains. L5 Explains both given factors. Thus the economy of both England and Northern Ireland were affected by the conflict. In the 1970s. the conflict had an impact on the Northern Irish society. Foreign investors were discouraged from investing in the country. The conflict put a strain on the British economy. Thus. For example.

OR Managing perceptions of different racial groups is another challenge faced by Singapore. hostility and distrust could occur amongst the people of various religious beliefs in Singapore. The court decided to give custody of Maria back to her original Dutch parents. The Malay newspaper. the Hertoghs. UMNO claimed that the resettlement projects were launched to uproot the Malays from their homes in the traditional Malay areas such as the Kallang River and the West Coast. When her parents demanded that Maria be returned to them. turned into a full-blown race riot over the next few days. 34 JI members were arrested under the Internal Security Act for their involvement in terrorist-related activities. Maria. The Muslim community thought it was unfair to them as they thought their community’s welfare was ignored. (HKSS MYE 2011) Response Lists points without support or explanation Describes factor(s) but without explaining them [12] Level 1 2 3 Marks 1-2 3-4 5-7 Explains one challenge Transnational terrorism can be challenging as they can test the social bonds of Singapore’s people. In 1964. placed their daughter. a court trial followed. Utusan Melayu. during the celebration of Prophet Muhammad’s birthday. in July 1964. As a result of these racial issues. Do you agree? Explain your answer. Singapore experienced the threat of transnational terrorism as seen in the arrest of Jemaah Islamiyah members within Singapore. the Malaysian government led by UMNO went against the PAP government by portraying it as antiMalay. which resulted in the Maria Hertogh riots. The lack of understanding among racial groups in general can create suspicion and unhappiness among the people of Singapore. Aminah. also highlighted that the PAP government did not care about the Malays in Singapore. OR Managing perceptions of different religious groups in Singapore is another challenge. This also sparked off anger towards the European and Eurasian communities. imprisoned by the Japanese. a clash between a Chinese policeman and a group of Malay participants of the procession. married a Malay teacher. instead. under the care of a Malay lady. In 2001. Their targets included the US embassy and major government buildings. A Dutch couple. These threats can divide the people as race and religion may be used to swiftly and strongly create ill feelings among the different ethnic groups.Bonding Singapore 3 (a) Transnational terrorism is the only challenge faced by multi-racial Singapore. The riots showed that if religious issues are not handled carefully. Maria was raised as a Muslim and at the age of 13. Some of their activities included fund-raising for terrorist activities and the purchase of materials for bomb making. 4 Explains two or three challenges 8-11 AES / HUM 10 .

Co-Curricular Activities (CCAs) in schools also help to build close bonds between the races. working and playing with one another. up to a maximum of 4 marks.g. The Racial Harmony Declaration is recited on 21 July every year. regardless of ethnic background. government policy makers felt that such patterns should not be allowed to grow. HDB was founded in 1960 to resettle people from the urban slums into low cost public housing. (NSS Prelims 1 2011) Response Describes the issue but without focus on the question Award 1 mark for each detail.g. By cooperating. The building of new housing estates was a way to allow members of the different races to interact and live harmoniously within the same community. Indians – Little India and Rochor areas. e. Kampong Kembangan and PasirPanjang. Since 2003. regardless of his race. it was observed that there were again too many people from the same racial group living in the same housing estate. junior colleges as well as tertiary institutions like Institute of Technical Education (ITEs). In the 1980s. to a maximum of 2 marks E. Opportunities for Interaction in Educational Institutions E. the various races lived in separate areas based along racial lines in the 1950s.g. In 1989. Racial Harmony Day is celebrated in schools. Malays – GeylangSerai. students from different races build teamwork and appreciate one another’s talents and strengths. Eurasians – Katong and the south-eastern side of the island. These provide more chances for Singaporean to come together and interact. language or religion.g. Chinese – Chinatown areas. Interaction takes place during lessons and provides opportunities for cooperation and friendships to be developed. It is a statement that affirms the importance and commitment of Singaporeans towards religious harmony. Until HDB estates were built. [13] Level L1 Marks [1] L2 Describes the given factors Award 3 marks for describing one factor and an additional mark for explanation/other factors. HDB set ethnic quotas to ensure that the demographics of HDB [2-4] AES / HUM 11 . Common Living Space Provided by Public Housing E. Common spaces are areas which are accessible to all Singaporeans. promoting better understanding. Because 84% of Singaporeans live in public housing estates.5 Reaches a balanced conclusion based on the relative significance of all challenges 12-13 (b) Here are three measures adopted by the Singapore government to develop common space:  Opportunities for Interaction in Educational Institutions  Common Living Space Provided by Public Housing  Events and ProgrammesOrganised by Grassroots Organisations Which of these is the most effective measure to develop common space? Explain your answer. polytechnics and universities are places which are open to every Singaporean. Educational institutions like primary and secondary schools.

and allowing people to participate. not on ethnicity or religion. allowing them to interact with one another. the rules were designed to promote racial harmony and prevent the formation of racial enclaves. Common Living Space Provided by Public Housing E. L3 Explains ONE given factor Award 5 marks for an explanation how one factor helps to develop common space in Singapore and an additional mark for each supporting detail. by ensuring a variety of programmes are provided to residents regardless of their ethnicities or religions. Nonintegration is experienced in European countries. Opportunities for interaction in educational institutions help to develop common space because the criteria for entry is based on merit. thus resulting in a greater appreciation and understanding of one another. Called the Ethnic Integration Policy (EIP). to a maximum of 7 marks. thus allowing Singaporeans to understand and appreciate one another’s Events and ProgrammesOrganised by Grassroots Organisations E. However. the riots in Paris in 2006 were caused by the frustration of the African immigrants who had settled in large numbers in low-cost public housing areas of Paris. Events and ProgrammesOrganised by Grassroots Organisations E. a statutory board set up by the PAP in 1960 to consolidate and manage community centres. [5-7] AES / HUM 12 . sometimes with disastrous consequences. thus allowing Singaporeans to understand and appreciate one another’s differences. e. calligraphy or language lessons and all kinds of sporting activities are organised to promote racial harmony. and the activities organised allow for interactions between people of different races.g.g. Activities like family carnival days.g.housing estates reflect the demographics of the country. Grassroots organisations refer to local groups in the community which are centres of political activity. as well as to promote group participation in social activities so that there is inter-racial understanding.g. The EIP caused some difficulties for some who wished to sell their flats. Activities organised by grassroots organisations contributes to the development of common spaces because they provide for opportunities for interaction between people of various backgrounds. These problems have been avoided in Singapore because of the EIP. One of the earliest grassroots organisations was the People’s Association (PA). the rules were put in place to protect racial harmony.g. regardless of their ethnicity or religion. There are many grassroots organisations whichorganise activities to promote common activities and integration. Opportunities for Interaction in Educational Institutions E. Common living spaces provided by public housing help to develop common space because they provide opportunities for interaction between people of different backgrounds by ensuring a proportionate number of residents from each ethnic group stay in each block.

In my opinion. For common living spaces provided by public housing. it would only affect residents living in HDBs as most segregation occurs only in public housing. This would mean that the culture of being inclusive would start from a young age and it would involve all students. An additional mark to be awarded for any comparison with other alternate factors. and events organized by grassroots organisations only involve people who choose to participate. compared to an alternate factor. Do not award 10 marks unless all three factors are explained.g.L4 Explains more than ONE given factors Award 8 marks to answers that explain two factors. E. [8-10] L5 L4 +Weighs the relative importance of the different factors in L4 Award 11 marks to answers that have an explanation of why the given factor has more or less impact. [1113] AES / HUM 13 . opportunities for interaction in educational institutions is the most important factor to develop common space in Singapore because it involves and affects all Singaporean students. Award an additional mark for any further supporting details. up to a maximum of 13 marks. regardless of citizenship.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.