Eunice Moral 2C 1 Case Digests in Admin Law

Introduction/ General Consideration 1. Malaga v Penachos Jr. Facts: De la Llana vs. Alba [GR 57883, 12 March 1982] En Banc, Fernando (J): 2 concur, 1 concurs with condition, 7 concur in separate opinions, 1 dissents in separate opinion Facts: De la Llana, et al. filed a Petition for Declaratory Relief and/or for Prohibition (considered by this Court as an action for prohibition), seeking to enjoin the Minister of the Budget, the Chairman of the Commission on Audit, and the Minister of Justice from taking any action implementing Batas Pambansa Blg. 129. BP 129 mandates that Justices and judges of inferior courts from the Court of Appeals to municipal circuit courts, except the occupants of the Sandiganbayan and the Court of Tax Appeals, unless appointed to the inferior courts established by such Act, would be considered separated from the judiciary. It is the termination of their incumbency that for petitioners justifies a suit of this character, it being alleged that thereby the security of tenure provision of the Constitution has been ignored and disregarded. Issue: Whether the abolition of the existing inferior courts collides with the security of tenure enjoyed by incumbent Justices and judges Under Article X, Section 7 of the Constitution. Held: The Batasang Pambansa is expressly vested with the authority to reorganize inferior courts and in the process to abolish existing ones. The termination of office of their occupants, as a necessary consequence of such abolition, is hardly distinguishable from the practical standpoint from removal, a power that is now vested in the Supreme Court. Removal is, of course, to be distinguished from termination by virtue of the abolition of the office. There can be no tenure to a nonexistent office. After the abolition, there is in law no occupant. In case of removal, there is an office with an occupant who would thereby lose his position. It is in that sense that from the standpoint of strict law, the question of any impairment of security of tenure does not arise. Nonetheless, for the incumbents of inferior courts abolished, the effect is one of separation. As to its effect, no distinction exists between removal and the abolition of the office. Realistically, it is devoid of significance. He ceases to be a member of the judiciary. In the implementation of the assailed legislation, therefore, it would be in accordance with accepted principles of constitutional construction that as far as incumbent justices and judges are concerned, the Supreme Court be consulted and that its view be accorded the fullest consideration. No fear need be entertained that there is a failure to accord respect to the basic principle that the Supreme Court does not render advisory opinions. No question of law is involved. If such were the case, certainly the Supreme Court could not have its say prior to the action taken by either of the two departments. Even then, it could do so but only by way of deciding a case where the matter has been put in issue. Neither is there any intrusion into who shall be appointed to the vacant positions created by the reorganization. That remains in the hands of the Executive to whom it properly belongs. There is no departure therefore from the tried and tested ways of judicial power. Rather what is sought to be achieved by this liberal interpretation is to preclude any plausibility to the charge that in the exercise of the conceded power of reorganizing the inferior courts, the power of removal of the present incumbents vested in this Tribunal is ignored or disregarded. The challenged Act would thus be free from any unconstitutional taint, even one not readily discernible except to those predisposed to view it with distrust. Moreover, such a construction would be in accordance with the basic principle that in the choice of alternatives between one which would save and another which would invalidate a statute, the former is to be preferred. There is an obvious way to do so. The principle that the Constitution enters into and forms part of every act to avoid any unconstitutional taint must be applied. Batas Pambansa Blg. 129 could stand the most rigorous test of constitutionality. Further, it is of the essence of constitutionalism to assure that neither agency is precluded from acting within the boundaries of its conceded competence. That is why it has long been well-settled under the constitutional system we have adopted that the Supreme Court cannot, whenever appropriate, avoid the task of reconciliation. It is a cardinal article of faith of our constitutional regime that it is the people who are endowed with rights, to secure which a government is instituted. Acting as it does through public officials, it has to grant them either expressly or impliedly certain powers. Those they exercise not for their own benefit but for the body politic. The Constitution does not speak in the language of ambiguity: "A public office is a public trust." That is more than a moral adjuration. It is a legal imperative. The law may vest in a public official certain rights. It does so to enable them to perform his functions and fulfill his responsibilities more efficiently. It is from that standpoint that the security of tenure provision to assure judicial


and these earnings have not been subjected to tax. Videogram(s) establishments collectively earn around P600 Million per annum from rentals. discs. A month after the promulgation of the said Presidential Decree. Such unregulated circulation have caused a sharp decline in theatrical attendance by at least forty percent (40%) and a tremendous drop in the collection of sales. cassettes or any technical improvement or variation thereof. thereby resulting in substantial losses estimated at P450 Million annually in government revenues. That in Metropolitan Manila." "Section 10. Tax on Sale. — There shall be collected on each processed video-tape cassette. Provided. PROVIDED. thereby depriving the Government of approximately P180 . amusement and other taxes. and justifiably so. Video Tapes. the amended the National Internal Revenue Code provided that: "SEC. There is no reason to assume that the failure of this suit to annul BP 129 would be attended with deleterious consequences to the administration of justice. videotapes. G. sales and disposition of videograms.” “Fifty percent (50%) of the proceeds of the tax collected shall accrue to the province.” The rationale behind the tax provision is to curb the proliferation and unregulated circulation of videograms including.R. That locally manufactured or imported blank video tapes shall be subject to sales tax. TIO VS. lease or disposition of a videogram containing a reproduction of any motion picture or audiovisual program. No. 3. “An Act Creating the Videogram Regulatory Board" with broad powers to regulate and supervise the videogram industry. Nor should there be any fear that less than good faith will attend the exercise of the appointing power vested in the Executive. 1987. regardless of length. as the case may be. an annual tax of five pesos. the province shall collect a tax of thirty percent (30%) of the purchase price orrental rate. 134.Eunice Moral 2C 2 Case Digests in Admin Law independence is to be viewed. that the three departments are as one in their determination to pursue the ideals and aspirations and to fulfill the hopes of the sovereign people as expressed in the Constitution. L-75697. 18 Jun 1987] Facts: The case is a petition filed by petitioner on behalf of videogram operators adversely affected by Presidential Decree No. It does not follow that the abolition in good faith of the existing inferior courts except the Sandiganbayan and the Court of Tax Appeals and the creation of new ones will result in a judiciary unable or unwilling to discharge with independence its solemn duty or one recreant to the trust reposed in it. VIDEOGRAM REGULATORY BOARD [151 SCRA 208. ready for playback. and the other fifty percent (50%) shall accrue to the municipality where the tax is collected. Lease or Disposition of Videograms. Well and truly has it been said that the fundamental principle of separation of powers assumes. among others. the tax shall be shared equally by the City/Municipality and the Metropolitan Manila Commission. have greatly prejudiced the operations of movie houses and theaters. for every sale. — Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary. contractor's specific. It cannot be denied that an independent and efficient judiciary is something to the credit of any administration.

119322. and losses in government revenues due to the drop in theatrical attendance. a representative of the Department of Justice and a representative of the Executive . particularly because of the rampant film piracy. to collect from any tax liabilities discovered from such investigation and to file the necessary criminal actions against those who may have violated the tax code. No costs. June 4. and the proliferation of pornographicvideo tapes.Eunice Moral 2C 3 Case Digests in Admin Law Million in taxes each year. NO. 1987 as unconstitutional and void. And while it was also an objective of the DECREE to protect the movie industry." WHEREFORE. the flagrant violation of intellectual property rights. It was imposed primarily to answer the need for regulating the video industry. 4. 1993. The levy of the 30% tax is for a public purpose. While the underlying objective of the DECREE is to protect the moribund movie industry. there is no question that public welfare is at bottom of its enactment. 1996 FACTS:On June 1. Held: Taxation has been made the implement of the state's police power. considering "the unfair competition posed by rampant film piracy. the tax remains a valid imposition. We find no clear violation of the Constitution which would justify us in pronouncing Presidential Decree No. Issues: (1) Whether or not tax imposed by the DECREE is a valid exercise of police power. The unregulated activities of videogram establishments have also affected the viability of the movie industry. COMMISSION OF INTERNAL REVENUE vs.R. COURT OF APPEALS G. not to mention the fact that the activities of video establishments are virtually untaxed since mere payment of Mayor's permit and municipal license fees are required to engage inbusiness.The task force was composed of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. the President of the Philippines issued a Memorandum creating a Task Force to investigate the tax liabilities of manufacturers engaged in tax evasion scheme. the erosion of the moral fiber of the viewing public brought about by the availability of unclassified and unreviewedvideo tapes containing pornographic films and films with brutally violent sequences. such as selling products through dummy marketing corporations to avoid payment of correct internal revenue tax. (2) Whether or nor the DECREE is constitutional. the instant Petition is hereby dismissed.

the appeal was dismissed on the ground that the same had been filed out of time. he filed a complaint with the Ministry of Labor and Employment (MOLE). he was made an inspector of the Fire Division with a monthly salary of P685. 1985 (Ibid. RUIZ. In July.R. 1985 (Record. Being a permanent employee.00 plus allowances and other benefits. herein private respondent Rogelio R. in a Resolution dated November 15. the instant petition. Ruiz reinstated him to his position with back wages. In 1980." In the same year.00 a day. he was made a regular employee. he was furnished a copy of petitioner company's "General Information. and in a Decision dated March 14. On October 15. 1993 that the reclassification made by the Commissioner is of “doubtful legality” and enjoined its enforcement. respondents.On July 1.Eunice Moral 2C 4 Case Digests in Admin Law Secretary. petitioners. the Court of Appeals ruled on September 8. he was transferred to the Claims Department and his salary was increased to P450. Office Behavior and Other Rules and Regulations. private respondent Rogelio R. Accordingly.On August 3. the Commissioner issued a Revenue Memorandum Circular No.00. Coria was hired by herein petitioner Rizal Empire Insurance Group as a casual employee with a salary of P10. On January 1. TEODORICO L. 37-93 is valid despite the lack of notice of hearing to Fortune Tobacco Corporatio 5. having been appointed as clerk-typist. 1987 Facts: In August. 73140 May 29. on the grounds of tardiness and unexcused absences. without change in his position-designation. 31-32). RIZAL EMPIRE INSURANCE GROUP AND/OR SERGIO CORPUS. ISSUE: Whether or not Revenue Memorandum Circular No. 1993. as Labor Arbiter and ROGELIO R. 1983. 1983.00 a month plus cost of living allowance. allegedly. CORIA. Hence. Issue: Whether or not NLRC committed a grave abuse of discretion amounting to lack of jurisdiction in dismissing petitioner’s appeal on a technicality. Fortune questioned the validity of the reclassification of said brands as violative of its right to due process and equal protection of law. Petitioner filed an appeal with the National labor Relations Commission (NLRC) but. Coria was dismissed from work. pp. Parenthetically. 80-87). NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS COMMISSION. 1993. provides: .00 a month. 1978. he was transferred to the Underwriting Department and his salary was increased to P580. “More” and “Champion” as cigarettes of foreign brands subject to a higher rate of tax without notice of hearing to Fortune Tobacco Corporation who sells the mentioned brands. with a monthly salary of P300. No. Labor Arbiter Teodorico L. G. 1977. until he was transferred to the Fire Department as filing clerk. vs. pp. Held: Rule VIII of the Revised Rules of the National Labor Relations Commission on appeal. 37-93 reclassifying best selling cigarettes bearing the brands “Hope”.

Pursuant to the "no extension policy" of the National Labor Relations Commission. the consistent promotions in rank and salary of the private respondent indicate he must have been a highly efficient worker. (a) Appeal. — No motion or request for extension of the period within which to perfect an appeal shall be entertained. who should be retained despite occasional lapses in punctuality and attendance. SECTION 6. have the force of law. 1985. . The record shows that the employer (petitioner herein) received a copy of the decision of the Labor Arbiter on April 1.Eunice Moral 2C 5 Case Digests in Admin Law SECTION 1. aforesaid motion for extension of time was denied in its resolution dated November 15. Perfection cannot after all be demanded. it is an elementary rule in administrative law that administrative regulations and policies enacted by administrative bodies to interpret the law which they are entrusted to enforce. The Revised Rules of the National Labor Relations Commission are clear and explicit and leave no room for interpretation. 1985 and filed the Memorandum of Appeal on April 22. this petition is DISMISSED. 137 SCRA 314 [1985]). — Decision or orders of a labor Arbiter shall be final and executory unless appealed to the Commission by any or both of the parties within ten (10) calendar days from receipt of notice thereof. Even on the merits. Moreover. and are entitled to great respect (Espanol v. Under the above-quoted provisions of the Revised NLRC Rules. It filed a Motion for Extension of Time to File Memorandum of Appeal on April 11. Philippine Veterans Administration. No extension of period. 1985. 1985 and the appeal was dismissed for having been filed out of time. the decision appealed from in this case has become final and executory and can no longer be subject to appeal. the ruling of the Labor Arbiter appears to be correct. WHEREFORE.

f¯f°€ .

¯¯¾¾°°  f°  .°¾  €¾n €¯f°–f°fn°¯½ ¯ °°– ff¾9f¯ f°¾f –   9¯f° f ¾f¾n ¾f° © – ¾€ °€ n¾€¯ .

€½½ f¾¯°n½fnnn¾  n ½ nn½f°¾€ f° –f° ff°f°   .

€@f½½ f¾ ° ¾¾f½½°  °€ n¾ ¾f ¾  ¾nn   n°¾  ¾ ½ff €¯  © nf ¾  ¯°f°€ °n¯ °nf€½ ° ¾©¾€ ¾f¾€¾nffn   °–f –  f   ¾ n€ ° ½¾°€ .

°¾°f¾ °–° f°  ¾ –f  ¾¾ J   f °€  ¾°–°€ n¾n ¾ ¾ n€ °  °©  °n¯ ° ¾n ¾f° © – ¾D° n O  n°€ .

°¾°    @  ff¾f°–9f¯ f°¾f¾ ½ ¾¾ ¾  f –f° °€ n¾f° ° ½n ¾¾ f ¾ ¾°–° ¾ @  ¯°f°€€€n € nn½f°¾ f¾f° n ¾¾fn°¾  °n €¾nf ° ¾f  ¾°–¾f  €¯ ½fnnf¾f° ½°€¯ ¯f f½ f¾° ¾ ° ½ ¯ .

  ¯f¾  €n¾   ¾°–¾ €¯ ¯°f°  € f °€ €€n @  nf° ° ° f°° ¾ °€€n €  f °   ¾°f°nn½f° °nf¾ € ¯f   ¾f°€€n f°nn½f°    ¾ ¾½¾° ¾°f¾ °¾ f€¯ ¾f° ½°€¾nf   ¾°€f°¯½f¯ °€ ¾ n€ °   ¾°f¾ -°   ¾¾ € °n¯ °¾€°€ n¾f ¾   €€ n¾° € ¾ ½ff° ¾¾ €€ n ° ¾°n° ¾¾  ° ¯ff°  f °€ €€n  f¾nf ¾  € ¾–°€nf°n  n f¾ ¾ f¯ ¯ € © nf ° ¯½ ¯ °f°€ f¾¾f  –¾f°   €    °fnn f°n fnn ½ ½°n½ ¾€n°¾°fn°¾n°ff¾€ff¾°n¯ °©¾n ¾f° © – ¾ f n°n °  ½ ¯ .

 n°¾ f° f¾  fnn  € ¾n°¾ f° -€ f°   ° f° f  ¾f€f fnn  ¾½ n  f¾n½°n½ f ½ ¯ .

  ¾° ° f ¾ ½°°¾ - ¾°€f¾° €¾n   nf¾ n f° ½ ¯ .

   ¾nfn°¾n°  °fnn f°n   f¾n½°n½ f°  nn €f °f ¾  °° n ¾f f° f° n °f f f¾f  €¯ ¾  ½ €  @  ¾f° ¾f ¾ @ ½°n½ f .n °f ¾¾f½  fn°f °   €  ½f¯ °¾  ° ° n  ¾ ° f€ n °–fnf¾     ¯f f¾ °½°¾¾ -  ¾  f°°¾°°¾f f½½°  fnf°½¾°¾n f     –f°f° @f ¯f°¾° f° ¾€  n ¯½½  °–¾ @  ¾° ½f    € €¯  f°  ¾ f¾€© nf½  f f¾¾– fn   ¾ f ° ½ f°¾½ n f°½f¾  nf– f°   n¾ € n°n ½ € –f°°–  °€ n¾  ½ € ¯f€ ½ ¾ °°n¯ °¾ ¾ °¾@ °f¾–°  ¾ –f @  nf °– n ¾ € €¯f°°n°¾°ff°   °° ° f  ¾n °   n ½¾  ½ ¾½¾   ¾¾ .

°¾° ° ¾°f° €¯¾½f€  fn f f°°n°¾°ff°¯¾ f½½  ff¾9f¯ f°¾f – n ¾f°  ¯¾–¾ ¾€ n°¾°f   ¾€  ¾¾ °n €n°¾°f¾¯f¾¾ f°  f– °n¾½ n €¯fn°– °  ° f ¾€¾n°n n¯½  °n @f¾f¾°– °  ¾  °  n°¾°f ¾¾ ¯ f f ½ f ½ ¯ .

nf°°  °  f½½½f f  f¾€ n°nf° ¾f nf °ffn €€f€n°¾°f –¯ f¾ ½ ½ f  °  –¾ ¾ n nf – °¯ °¾°¾ n°–f¾  ¾–½ n€€nf¾ f¾–f° ¯   ½ ¾¾¯½ n f° ½ ¾ @¾    n¾ °€ ° ° € €   ½n @ .

°¾°  ¾°¾½ f°  f°–f– €f¯ –  ½ n€€n ¾f½ n¾ @f¾¯ f°f¯ff ©f° ¾f –f¯½ f @  f¯f ¾°f½ n€€nfn f°–¾   ¾¾ °f   ¯½ €¯¾€°n°¾f° €€¾  ¾½°¾  ¾¯  €€n ° ¾€¯f¾f° ½°f ¾ n€ ° ½¾°f¾¾ © nf .

f.°n .


f¾ – ¾¾° ¯°f  ° ½ ° °n ¾   @  ¾° f¾°f¾¾¯ f €f €¾¾f°° 9  f °     ¾n°¾  °n ¾ f ¯°¾f°€©¾n   ¾°€f f °°– €f€  ¾°–°€ n¾ n ½ f° –f° ff°f°  .

€@f½½ f¾f°  n f°€° ° ¾ ¾°f © nf°f  °°– ¾nf– ° ½ ° °n ¾¾ ¯° °  n f° ¾ ½¾ ° - ¾    f°€ ff ¾¾f°– €ff °    n¾ € f½½°°–½  ¾ °  n  nf°°  ° ff°° ½ ° °f°  €€n °© nf¾¾¯ °– n €f°f ¯°¾f° J f°  f¾ °¾f f €° f¯ °f½°n½ €¾ ½ff°€½ ¾f¾¾¯ ¾ f° ©¾€f ¾ f   ½f¯ °¾f f¾° °   ¯°f°½¾   f¾f° f¾½f°¾f° €€ ½ ¾€ ¾  –° ½ ½ f¾ ½ ¾¾ ° .

°¾°    @I I.D@  .

   -   °   fn¾ @ nf¾ ¾f½ °€  ½ ° ° f€€ –f¯½ f¾f  ¾ f€€ n  9 ¾ °f n  -  #°n.

 f°– I –f¯ –f f  f ½ ¾ –f f° ¾½ ¾   –f¯ ° ¾   ¯°f€  ½¯–f°€ ¾f 9 ¾ °f n  f¯ °  -f°f° °f  ° .

 ½  f   .

f°f  f¾f ¾f  f  . ½f°.  I @f½ ¾  @  ¾f n n ° fn½n ¾¾   f½ nf¾¾   f €½f fn  –f  ¾¾€  °– f°f°°ff€€ ½ ¾¾ 9 @fnf¯f°€fn ¯½  f° f½ ¾¾f ¾ © n ¾f ¾f    n° @f°f  f¾ ¾½¾°€I –f¯¾  -¾f° °–f°½¾°€f n°f   ½°n ¾fn nff€½ n °% %€ ½nf¾ ½n  °ff f¾ nf¾ ¯f €  ¾f   f¾  ¾½¾°€f –f¯n°f°°–f ½ n°€f°¯°½n f ¾f½–f¯ #  #€½ n °% %€ ½n ¾€ fn n ¾ffnn  ½°n f°   €€½ n °% %¾f fnn  ¯°n½f   f¾n n 9I @f°.

°n½ff°  . ½f°.f°f.$.

¯¯¾¾° #  @ f°f  °  f½¾°¾n  ½€ f°f° ° –f nnf°€ –f¯¾°n °–  f¯°– ¾  f½ ¾  ¾n¾ nf¾¾  ¾f° n°nf¯½ ¯ °ff°  € f – f½ © n   ½ f°¾€¯ ¾ ¾f°  f ¾ n° –f nnf°f nf¾ f¾f½ n° ° fnff ° f°n  f f¾€½ n °% %f° f ¯ ° ¾ ½° n n°€¾f ¾ n°fn ¾¾½ n€n f¯¾ ¯ °f°   f ¾    ¾°–°¾ ¾f°f¾¾ ¾ ¾¯f f9.°f°°f°– °¯ °  ° ¾   I –f¯%¾% ¾f ¾¯ °¾n n  f°f° 9.°½ f°°¯€¯ °f¾ ¾f ¾f°  ¾½¾°€  –f¯¾ f°  ¾  f°°–¾f ° °¾ © n f    ½°–  °¯ °€f½½¯f 9 .

f.°n .


f¾ – ¾¾° ¯°f  .°°f ¾ fn f   @ ° –f fn ¾€ –f¯ ¾f ¾¯ °¾f f¾f€€ n  f € ¯ ° ¾    ¾¾ ¾   %%J  °f¯½¾   .

¾ff   n¾ €½n ½    %%J  ° .

¾n°¾°f      @ff°f¾ °¯f  ¯½ ¯ °€ ¾f ¾½n ½  @  €  f¾€f½ n½½¾  f¾¯½¾ ½¯ff°¾  ° € –f°–  ° ¾ ½fnf nf¾ € f¯½f°€¯½fn   €f–f°f°€°  nf½½ –¾ f°  ½€ f°€½°–f½n f½ ¾ °  f¾f¾ f° © n € .

½ n ¯ ° ¾  f ¯f°¾ff ¯½¾°   J €° °n ff°€ .

°¾°n ©¾€¾°½°°n°–9 ¾ °f n - f¾ °n°¾°ff°  J  ° °– © n € .

.0247.3/94109030.425480/419042288430741 39073.203941. 974:/:222..-908412.9:707803..#0.93.%.0 .:9.0/39.03:0 .723.705708039.939073.3:1.9438.7..705708039.79203941:89.0.943. %09.8803574/:.f ¾½ ¯f° ¯°n½fn °¾ € ¾f    °–f– ° ¾° ¾¾   J  °¾f°9 °¾   ¾¯¾¾ -n¾¾       $$  %##'&.0419005.40.089..47547.4770..3/:2.0.91742 ..8438.90/909..-908/8..8  &#% !!$  #   :30  %$ 3:30  90!708/0394190!5530888:0/.041900.389 948042. 94..9.90909.4.0 943.089.0.020 8:.¾½ n ¯ ° ¯ ° ¾   ¾ ° ¾°f½ n €f ¾f ¯€¾ °fn¯ ° n°¾ °–  °€fn¯½ °½¾  f¯½f°€¯ ½fn   ¾°€ ¯f€ €  °–½ n –f   fff €°nf¾¾€ f°  °    f½ ¾n°f°°–½°–f½n€¯¾f° €¯¾ f °¾  °n ¾ f° ¾¾ ¾°– °¯ °   ° ¾    ½° fnff ° f°n °¯ °° €fnf fn ¾€  ¾f ¾¯ °¾f  f°f ¾°n ¯  ½f¯ °€..8147.3.847.3/.070/17428:..943894.

f.°n .


9432.9.943 4808902039430/-7.  !.3/8. 904:7941550./94190 70.994.041 0.8..3/:27..881.7390-7..3/06:..9-D-.8..70990841 14703-7.3/:27.7 3:  9042288430788:0/..87:0/43$05902-07 9.3/ .03:00247.99070.3/88:-0.709908-0.57490.94:9349.4.3/8 450  470 .3/8 3::89  479:306:089430/90.#0.447547.:.f¾ – ¾¾° ¯°f  $0..077.7394479:30%4-.703909../0-90 422884307841 /4:-91:0.02039  $$& 090747349#0..74   70.3/03430/9803147.7394479:30%4-.94341.447547...943418.0410.881.088../-7.74  8..90419.41349...8813-089803.03:00247.041987994/:0574.709.//0859090.9 .2543 .94    .:.


9D ½ ° ¾  ¾  -@- @-.


 D f¾f   f°  .

f   fn¾   °–¾    °½f  ¾½° °–  .  ¾½° °¾     -  .

ff¾    °½ ° f¯½ °¾f°n ½f¾ fnf¾f ¯½ f¾ff€9 f f °f°f   f¾¯f f –f ¯½ f°– ° f½½° f¾n  ½¾ f¯°¾ff€9   °–f½ ¯f° ° ¯½  f¾€°¾ fn½€ ½ ° n¯½f° ¾  ° f°€¯f° €€n  ff°   ¾f°  –f°¾ ° ¾f¯  f  nf°– °¾½¾° ¾–°f°  f¾f°¾€   .

f¯¾ ½f¯ °f° ¾¾fff¾°n f¾ 9 f ¯° °  f¾f°¾€   D° °– ½f¯ °f° ¾¾fff¾°n f¾ 9 f¯°½¾ n¾€°–ff°n ° f¾f°¾€     ½f¯ °f¾€°–n  °   f¾¯f f° °¾½ n€  ¾°f¯°¾ff€9 ½¾ff°n ¾f°   ° €¾   °n   ½f  ¾½° °–  .

% f° °f  n¾° f .°¾€f f° ¯½¯ °%.ff¾ ¾¯¾¾ €¯ f –  ° –° ¾€f ° ¾¾ f° ° n¾ f ¾ °n ¾ nn °–  € fn¯½f° .fn % n ½½  % f   @  n  °¾f ¯¾½¾° fn f– ¾ 9 ° € f°f½½ f -f°ff  f°¾.


%  °f ¾° f - ¯   %  ½½  %  f½½ ff¾ ¾¯¾¾ ° –° f ¾f¯ f  °€ €¯  °n   °¾f°½ °   ¾¾   J  °-.

n¯¯ f–f f ¾ € ¾n °f¯°°–fn€©¾ n°° ¾¯¾¾°–½ ° #¾ f½½ f°f n°nf        I€  ¾  ¾€ -f°ff  f°¾.

¯¯¾¾°°f½½ f ½ ¾   .

°n .f.


f¾ – ¾¾° ¯°f  .

@- %f%½½ f   n¾° ¾€ff   ¾f €°ff°   n° ¾¾f½½ f   .

¯¯¾¾° f° € ½f ¾° °%%nf ° f f¾€¯ n ½€°n   €   .

¯f° ¯€½½ f°½ f° €  .@- -  °¾°€½   -¯°  ¾€  °¾°€ ½  °n½ € nf°f½½ f ¾f  ° f°   @  n ¾¾f  ¯½ %½ °   °% n  fn½€  n¾°€ f   °½   € f.°€ °¾°€@¯  . ¯f° ¯ €½½ f°½  9¾f°  °  °¾°½n € -f°ff  f°¾.

¯¯¾¾° f€ ¾f  ¯°€  °¾°€¯ f¾ ° °¾ ¾° f - ¯  f°  f½½ ff¾ ¾¯¾¾ € f°– °€ €¯   @  ¾  ¾€ -f°ff  f°¾.

¯¯¾¾°f n ff°  ½nf°  f °¯€° ½ f°  .   ¾f°  ¯ °f °f ¯°¾f fff ¯°¾f  –f°¾f° ½n ¾ °fn   f ¯°¾f    ¾° ½  fn f  °¾  °€n f  €n €f f° f  °  – f ¾½ n%¾½f° 9½½° I  f°¾ ¯°¾f° .

  %   D°  f   ½¾°¾€  ¾ -.

    . ¾   n¾°f½½ f €¯°¾nf¾ f¾ n¯ €°f f°   nf° nf°°°–  ¾ © nf½½ f    °° ¯ ¾  °–€ f   f½½ f¾ n n  n°¾¾ °½¯°¾°f°f° ¾ff€  ½f  ¾½° °° nf  ¯¾f  °f– €€n °  ¾   f°  ¾½ nnf¾°f f½¾ ¾°½°nff° f ° f°n 9 € n°nf°°f€ f  ¯f°   J ¾½ °¾.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer: Get 4 months of Scribd and The New York Times for just $1.87 per week!

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times