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The Photographic History of The Civil War
On its site the United States Gov 1831 ernment had erected a strong fortification called Fort Barrancas. belongs to a series hitherto unpublished.EVIEW OF REVIEWS CO PREPARING FOR WAR A CONFEDERATE PHOTOGRAPH OF Florida Opens the 61 Grim Game of War. Out of the deep shadows of the pieces of sally port we look into the glaring sunlight upon one moves. have helped force the crisis still flew the Stars and Stripes. Here we sec one of the heavy ordnance that were intended to defend the harbor from foreign being shifted preparatory to being mounted on the rampart at Fort Barrancas. which. what is On a sandy now point at the entrance to Pensacola Bay over two hundred years ago. taken by the New Orleans photographer Edwards. since January 12th. On the western end of this island was the strongly built Fort Pic-kens. of State troops Fort Pickens. had been in possession of State troops. This remarkable picture. But the mo/c under orders from Governor Perry of Florida. of the earliest warlike foes. held by a mere handful of men under Lieutenant Slemmer. in seizing Fort Barrancas and raising the State flag even before the shot that that was impending. Between this point and a low-lying sandy island directly opposite. any vessels going up to Pensacola must pass. the Spaniards who so long held possession of the Gulf coast of the United States had built a fort. 1861. Early in both forts were practically ungarrisoned. in February. [41 may well be said to . aroused the nation at Fort Sumtcr.
LANIER Managing Editor \ :\^ Thousands of Scenes Photographed 1861-G5.t mi-Centennial *ST ** * Memorial **:**?* The Photographic History of The Civil War In Ten Volumes - A \%x\ FRANCIS TREVELYAN MILLER EDITOR-IN-CHIEF ROBERT S. . with Text by many Special Authorities v NEW YORK THE REVIEW OF REVIEWS 1911 Co.
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JAMES BARNES Author of ". V. HENRY W. EBEN SWIFT Lieutenant-Colonel. U. Brigadier-General. U. A. S. S. New York The Review of Reviews 1911 Co. ELSON Professor of History. U. WRIGHT S. A.The Photographic History of The Civil War Volume One The Opening Battles Contributors WILLIAM H. G. HENRY WYSHAM LANIER Art Editor and Publisher MARCUS J. . N. Ohio University FRENCH E. Farragut ". CHADWICK S. TAFT President of the United States GEORGE HAVEN PUTNAM Major.David Rear -Admiral. C.
1911. MASS. INCLUDING THAT OF TRANSLATION INTO FOREIGN LANGUAGES.A. U. SPRINGFIELD.S.COPYRIGHT. INCLUDING THE SCANDINAVIAN Printed in New York. THE TROW PRESS NEW YORK . ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. BY PATRIOT PUBLISHING Co..
. 12 President Taft DEDICATION .. . 30 THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD George Haven 60 Putnam 88 THE FEDERAL NAVY AND THE SOUTH French E. 13 . ACKNOWLEDGMENT The Publishers 14 EDITORIAL INTRODUCTORY Francis Trevelyan Miller 15 PREFACES PHOTOGRAPHING THE CIVIL Henry Wysham Lanier WAR AS HISTORY . .CONTENTS PAGE Map BATTLE GROUNDS Frontispiece OF THE CIVIL PREPARING FOR WAR . WAR 2 4 FOREWORDS GREETING . Elson 137 BULL RUN THE VOLUNTEERS FACE FIRR  142 228593 . Wright THE STRATEGY OF THE Eben Swift WAR LEADERS 112 Part I THE FIRST OF THE GREAT CAMPAIGNS Henry W. Chadwick RECORDS OF THE Marcus WAR BETWEEN CIVIL THE STATES 102 J.
210 220 Jam eft Barnes FORT PILLOW AND MEMPHIS Henry W. .. PHOTOGRAPH DESCRIPTIONS THROUGHOUT THIS VOLUME Jamett Hanicx  .. ..... 254 IN SIGHT OF RICHMOND 282 304 311 THE SHENANDOAH AND THE ALARM AT WASHINGTON SEVEN DAYS . Elson THE NAVY HELPS THE .. .... 100 Henry W.....Part II DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY . .. .. . ...... Kilmer CIVIL WAR UP TO . . .. . . 251 YORKTOWN FAIR OAKS UP THE PENINSULA . . ENGAGEMENTS OF THE George L..... THE CONFEDERATE CAPITAL SAVED Part IV JULY.. . Elson GUNBOATS AND BATTERIES 230 Part III THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND Henry W...345 309 Map THEATER OF CAMPAIGNS IN VIRGINIA . PAGE 171 THE FALL OF FORT HENRY AND FORT DONELSON Henry W.. 1802 ... ... ... . Elson NEW MADRID NEW ORLEANS AND ISLAND NUMBER TEN Henry W. .. ARMY . Elson SHILOH ITS THE FIRST GRAND BATTLE . Elson . .
FOREWORDS GREETING FROM PRESIDENT TAFT DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGMENT EDITORIAL INTRODUCTORY .
THE WHITE HOUSE WASHINGTON We have reached a point in this country when we can look without back. and the South admire to the full the heroes of the North.a monument to com memorate the battle of the Plains of Abraham. Yale. to the events of the Civil War. I We have am glad to say. but to the Yale men who died in the Civil War. but partisan passion. when the North can admire to the full the heroes of the South. we have established an association for the purpose of erecting within her academic precincts a memorial not to the Northern Yale men who died. nor to the Southern Yale men who died. and I am glad to say that in my own alma mater. On one face of that beautiful structure is the name of Montcalm. reached a point. and on the opposite side the name of Wolfe. . not without intense pride. There is a monument in Quebec that always commended itself to me . not without love. That always seemed to me to be the acme of what we ought to reach in this country.
Betiuateti FIFTY YEARS AFTER FORT SUMTER TO THE MEN IN BLUE AND GRAY WHOSE VALOR AND DEVOTION HAVE BECOME THE PRICELESS HERITAGE OF A UNITED NATION .
U. Captain F. S.. Colonel (". S. V. historical societies. Bachman. A. Deep acknowledgment is due the owners of indispensable pictures who have so gen erously contributed them for this purpose. Miller. With these additions to the collection it the loss is and rediscovery of which Mr. Burke.. R. The . S. accordance with a single Yet it is true that the contributions throughout the entire ten volumes of the are a direct outgrowth of the plan created years ago faith in its national PHOTOGRAPHIC HISTORY and urged since by Mr. Mr.. Colonel E. Colston. Charles Erankel. Meserve.. U. A. in been possible to construct the text of such an extended history idea. Roziene. Koch. Captain E. Mr. V. Colonel John P. H. U. in order that the photographic treasures in their archives should become available .  patriotic organizations which courteously suspended their rules. W. Especial mention must be given to: Mrs. Mr. Hence the Civil War-time photographs any hundreds of scenes that will come as a reve many lation even to historians and special scholars photographs taken within the lines of the Confederate armies and of the hosts in the Mississippi Valley. in photographs. noble human chords. U.. The Military Order of the Loyal Legion. M. General Harrison Gray Otis. A. state and government bureaus. J. Captain Joseph T. S. Daughters of the Confederacy. Colonel S. battles. C. and others who have furnished hundreds of long-treasured photographs. James Blair.Brady-Gardner". C. John ( . S. U.Browne. U. C. Francis Trevelyan Miller the publishers of these books must confess an Seldom indeed has it obligation quite apart from the usual editorial services.ACKNOWLEDGMENT TO broad Mr. General G. This was a conception so straightforward and so inspiring that the opportunity to give it the present embodiment has become a lasting privilege. Thruston. military and for the present record. The Washington Artillery. whose fighting was no less previous publication. unwilling that the HISTORY should appear without presenting many important scenes of which no actual illustrations had ever before been available to the public. but also include in the present work are not only several times as numerous as those in momentous than the Eastern or as fully heralded. S. Edward Bromley Mr. Brackett. Mr.. Readers as well as publishers are also indebted to the collectors. C. S. Edgar R. S. but in the nature of things could not be as quickly ". William Beer. and the various State historical departments. The University of South Carolina. Mr.. E. S. A.. Henry possible for the first Wysham Lanier s introductory narrates now time to present comprehensively the men and scenes and types of the American epic. A. by him with constant importance to emphasize in comprehensive form those deeds and words from the mighty struggle that strike universal.. A. V. A.has. V. F. Miss Isabel Maury. Cunningham. Nicholson.. Mr. Copp. P. Mr. Harlan. K. S. V. George A.
We look back Napoleon through the glamor of time. men who battled for the decision of one of the world In this first volume. It is as an American ". military writers have informed me that they cannot understand why the American people have been so little interested in this remarkable Great generals have told how they led their magnificent armies in battle. containing varying viewpoints relating to this epoch in our national development. As one stands in the library of the libraries. the silenced cannon. Nearly seven thousand treatises. THE PHOTO War Department that the last at Washington.". Herbert Putnam. but the its turning point of half century. take this privilege to refer few of the intimate desires that have led to this revelation of GRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE CIVIL WAR. tells me. not upon the tar nished muskets. nor the battle-stained but upon the warriors hosts of the themselves standing on the firing-line in the heroic struggle when the to North and the legions of the South met on the battle-grounds in the balance. Librarian at the Congressional Library at Washington. while in my home city of Hartford. with the destiny it is of a continent hanging And what a tribute American character to be able to gather about these pages in peace and brotherhood. standing is literally before the open door to the I ". that these pages are opened on this anniversary. within a generation from the greatest fratricidal tragedy in the annals of man s kind. the wars of the ancient in time has first The decades have shrouded the first American Revolution now come when this second American revolution.Battle Abbey. The vision is no longer blinded by heart wounds.Battle Abbey". but as Americans we can see only the heroic self-sacrifice of these greatest problems. so that the eyes of the generations may look upon the actual scenes flag. without malice and without dissension.EDITORIAL INTRODUCTORY OX at this semi-centennial of the American Civil War -the war of the modern Roses in in the Western World these volumes are dedicated to the American people tribute to the courage and the valor with which they met one a crisis of the greatest crises that a nation has ever known that changed the course of civilization. military tacticians have mapped and recorded the movements of regiments and corps with tech- US 1 . or before the archives of the American he feels word of evidence must have been recorded. I find of all the nearly two thousand works similar to those that are within the reach American people in every part of the country. W ith war. which is a typical American community. to become an American epic in which nearly three and a half million men gathered on the battle-line to offer their lives for principles that were dear to them. have been written so Dr. in which the vision of war briefly to a to be revealed in all its reality. without fully realizing that here all on our own continent are battle-grounds more noble in their purport than regimes. at the is romance. of a nation s ideals. this great inheritance before us.
but more than that they feel again the spirit that leads men to ing lines throw themselves into the cannon s flame. I crisis all of which is a permanent tribute to American scholar in civilization have come to the conclusion that the lack of popular interest is because this is not a military nation. the blood of the stalwart Dissenters and of the heroic Highlanders of Scotland. is a science that requires either life-study or tradition to cultivate an The Americans them cause to take are a peace-loving people. No Grecian legion ever knew truer manhood than in those days on the American when the Anglo-Saxon met Anglo-Saxon in the decision of a constitutional that beset their beloved nation. and It is it battled for principle rather than conquest. they hear the roar of the guns and the clatter of cavalry. once saying: ". the blood of those devout and resolute men who protested against the grinding exactions of the Stuarts. the same flag.". is This is the American epic that is told in these time-stained photographs an epic which in romance and chivalry more inspiring than that of the olden knighthood. the sacred heritage of Anglo-Saxon freedom won at Runnyin mede. who had formulated the Constitution that dethroned mediaeval monarchy and founded a new republic to bring new hope to the races of the earth parted at the dividing line of a great economic problem and stood arrayed against each other in the greatest fratricidal tragedy that the fifty world has ever witnessed.Dixie.nical accuracy. to testify in photograph to the true story of how a devoted people whose had stood shoulder to shoulder for the ideal of liberty in the American Revolution. and they feel the melody in that old Mar to men seillaise of the Confederacy. and historians have faithfully discussed the causes and the effects of this strange ship. they love the greater emotions that meet danger face to face. It feel the impulse of justice that permeates the Western World. years later. I recall General Gordon.What else could be expected of a people whose veins commingled the blood of the proud cavaliers of England. who had issued to the world the declaration that all men are created politically free and equal. for in them they catch mental visions of the sweep under floating banners at the battle-front. for its warriors the spirit of these volumes. Their hearts beat to the martial strain of the national anthem ".The Star Spangled Banner". This is seems to me that it must be the spirit of every true American. for right rather than power. which interest in it. hand in hand for the betterment of mankind. only to be reunited and to stand. offering their lives for that men speaking the same language. life The American people the pulse of itself. an American who turned the defeat of war into the vic tory of citizenship in peace. and of  . is when once aroused they are a mighty moral and physical fighting It is not their love for the art of war that has caused up arms. THE PHOTOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE a people fathers s CIVIL WAR comes on this anniversary to witness valor. pledging themselves to universal peace and brotherhood. It was more than Napoleonic. living under phalanx or continent principle Roman which they believed to be right. brother against brother. but force. ". The great heart of American citizenship knows little of military maneuver. father against son.
and the fortitude of the world s a composite of the courage. of its sacrifice Teuton. I felt for the I. for East. and I felt the heart-beat of the Confederacy. of Catholic. whose signal to gather to their breasts the armfuls of spears to battle-line of Puritan. the blood of those defenders of freedom lights summoned It make way for liberty. a nation whose sinews are from the strong men oldest races. In full recognition of the masterly works of military authorities that valuable historical evidence. . is To the impulse of both the North and the South the desire of these volumes. looked I stood upon my friends their heads before the mausoleum with them as they laid the April flowers on the graves of their dead. and which finally came to a focus through the conflicting interests that developed in the upbuilding of American civilization. the sturdy Presbyterians of Ireland. was a great every Huguenot. War will always be subject to academic controversy. what Lee. When. of Protestant. what a magnificent thing it is to have lived. some years ton in the ago. In the light of modern historical understanding it was the inevitable result of a sociological system that had come down through the ages before there was a republic on the Western continent. surely There is glory enough for it is not strange that their descendants should have differed. for West. the path for progress ! I am proud that my New hundred years to the men who planted the seed World into which is flowing the blood of the great races of the built earth. It is unnecessary to linger in each side arguing conscientiously these pages over the centuries of economic growth that came to a crisis in the American The causes of the American Civil nation. to enter the halls of Washington and Lee University in historic Lexing hills of Virginia. and the ideals that it represents in the heart of  humanity. and Washington and Hamilton in another. indigenous to the soil. who had bowed my head from childhood bowing I to the of greatness of Grant. and the text is designed to present the mental pictures of the inspiring pageantry in the war between the its Red and the White Roses in America. I left the portals of Trinity College. human impulses. now exist as War from an in en The collection of photographs is in itself a sufficient contribution to military and historical record. but its exploits have equalled those of the heroic age the Grecian legends and surpass Leonidas and his three hundred at Thermopylae. Conn. the per commingled into one great throb in bing body. It is a young race. for South.. to lay the laurel When returned to my New England home it was and the May flowers on that. and I felt the heart-beat of the Republic more than impulse of When I now turn these pages I realize how wonderful is man and his power to blaze heritage runs back through nearly three of liberty in the humanity and the greatness of all men. first time as a Northerner. When Jefferson and Madison construed our constitution in one way. on these battle-grounds of a people legions s tra ditions a grander empire than Caesar feel s won for Rome. it means to be a Southerner. of the ages.0f from the mountain battlements of Switzerland. from its own viewpoint. I felt the the graves of my dead. and Celt nation and every religion throwing on the altar of civilization. in the old abolition town of Hartford. all for North. these volumes present the American Civil tirely original viewpoint. and in whose hearts beat the impulses that have inspired the centuries severance. of (Html Mar who came her people ".
The military movements of the armies have been exhaustively studied properly to that stage the great scenes that are herein enacted. the oldest surviving generals in the Federal and Con federate armies. and its editor-in-chief. truly says that they are the greatest arguments for peace that the world has ever seen. the American Civil War is told in judgment may fail. but the final record of The reader may con these time-dimmed negatives. martial picture that lies may burden the memory before the reader has been purposely avoided. The result. in speaking of them. My rick. These photographs are appeals to peace. it is to make history to mould the thought of this of the generations as everlasting witnesses of the price of war. and Mr. more anniversary. who has extended his autographed message to the North and the South. memorial library. Mass. owners of the Brady-Gardner Civil War negatives in existence. they are the most convincing evidence of the tragedy of war. the editors take pleasure in recording their deep appreciation. They bring it before the generations so impressively that one begins to understand the meaning of the great movement for universal brotherhood that is now passing through the civilized world. fair. The hand of the historian may falter. mental visions and is human as the latter inspiration rather than military knowledge. the secretary of the New York Peace Society. It is the desire to leave impressions rather than statistics. is so conflicting regarding numbers in battle and killed and wounded that the Government records have been followed. by whom this work was inaugurated. now so abun dant in American In every detail the contradictory evidence of the many It authorities has been weighed carefully to present the narrative fairly and impartially. also to Generals Sickles and Buckner. Edward Bailey Eaton. William Short. president of The Search-Light Library of New York. As the founder Frank Drake. as closely as possible. of the Patriot Publishing of Springfield.. to General Frederick  Dent Grant and . or his all scientiously disagree with the text. respectively. we hope. To President William Howard Taft. through whom it was organized for its present develop largest private collection of original ment by the Review of Reviews Company. and to Mr. it is my pleasure to give historical record to Mr. especially literature. Herbert Company. Mr. but the routine or detract from the broader. J. These institutions have all co-operated to realize the national and impartial conception of this work. Egbert Gilliss Handy. Their mission is more than to record history. but we must be of one and the same mind when we look upon the photographic evidence. on this anniversary. Mr. It is in these photographs that all Americans can united at the meet on the common ground of their beloved traditions. Here we are all shrine where our fathers fought Northerners or Southerners may look upon the undying record of the valor of those for independence who fought and here the generations to maintain the Union and those who fought from it each according to his own interpretation of the Constitution that bound them into a great republic of states. is a and intimate picture of America s greatest sorrow and greatest glory than has perhaps been possible under the conditions that preceded this semi-centennial friendly.
ants. John McElroy.". for their con the War Department at and advice. work ing with the editorial staff of the of Reviews.". and Mr. A. the Military Order of the Loyal Legion.Glttrii General G. Mr. Lee who. the historian of the United Confederate Vet erans. Librarian at the United States Military Academy at West Point. ". and to the many intent of this work. Librarian sideration Washington. Holden. General William E. whose names are signed to their historical contributions throughout these volumes. Custis Lee. after the war. countrymen must always be an admonition against war: us have FRANCIS TREVELYAN MILLER.Chief. former Secretary of War. HARTFORD. the sons of the great warriors who led the armies through the American Crisis. The impossibility of deciding finally the difference of opinion in the movements of the Civil War been has been generously recognized. Bickford. to in James W. Mickle. It was General Robert E. gave this advice to a Virginia mother. Edward S. Young. Grant. editor of the National Tribune. General Grenville M. can close these introductory words with no nobler tribute than those of the mighty warriors who led the great armies to battle. the Daughters of the Con federacy. Wallace H. and the other memorial organizations that have shown an appreciation of the Mr. in their understanding and appreciation have rendered valuable assistance in the realization of its special mission to the This preface should not close American people on without a final word as to the this semi-centennial. historical. CONNECTICUT. War W. Colonel S. Cheney. Dodge.Abandon all I these animosities and make your sons Americans. ask further privilege to extend my gratitude to my personal assist Miller. to Dr.Let appeal to his peace. General Bennett H. especially indebted to We are others who. that confronted the military. and to the officers of the Grand Army of the Republic. to the Honorable Robert Todd Lincoln. set With all personal and partisan arguments have aside in the universal I and hearty effort of all concerned to fulfil the obliga tions of this work. we stand years as reunited Americans. difficulty of the problems whose contributions have and other authorities made the text of THE PHOTOGRAPHIC HISTORY OF THE Review CIVIL WAR. and the spirit in which. Fiftieth Anniversary Lincoln [A s Inauguration. Arthur Forrest Burns. Walter R. and General Ulysses S. Mr. let us clasp hands across the long-gone And now. they have met these problems. as to-day. whose ". [ 2] 19 ] . General Irvine Walker. the United Confederate Veterans. Cunningham. founder and editor of the Confederate Veteran. Edit or -in. fellowmen in the great republic that is carrying the torch in the foreranks of the world s civilization.
PER) AFTER HIS ILL-FATED ATTACK ON FREDERICKSBURG .FIRST PREFACE PHOTOGRAPHING THE CIVIL WAR THE WAR PHOTOGRAPHER BRADY (WEARING STRAW HAT) WITH GENERAL BURNSIDE (READING NEWSPA TAKEN WHILE BURNSIDE WAS IN COMMAND OF THE ARMY OF THE POTOMAC. EARLY IN 1863.
obtained permis sion to take a picture of ". 1863. was. in position for battle. The order. Second U. (SEE PAGE 32) This is another photograph taken under fire and shows us Battery B. Cooper himself is seen leaning on a sword at the who supposed . ". the Sixth Corps had its third successful crossing of the Rappahannock. Brady. in action before Petersburg. upsetting and destroying his chemicals. The first attempt provoked the fire of the Confederates. according to the photographer s account.Cooper s Battery. running up. the veteran photographer. Battery wagon out of the way in the list of casualties D once took position with other artillery out in the fields near the ". Artillery. had just been given.COOPER S BATTERY". S. In the picture to the left.".".cannoneers to your posts. taken just as the battery was loading to engage with the Confederates. called to the photographer to hurry his name made unless he wished to gain a place for his In June. as the at advance of Hooker s movement against Lee. and the men.THE FLANKING GUN This remarkably spirited photograph of Battery D.  that the running forward of the artillerists was with hostile intent. First Pennsylvania Light Artillery. Captain James H. 1864. The Confederate guns frightened Brady s horse which ran off with his wagon and his assistant.
The grove of white With poplars to the right surrounded the Mansfield house.". its record of casualties includes twenty-one killed and died of wounds. Lieutenant Miller is the second figure from the Lieutenant Alcorn is next. Battery D was present at the first battle of Bull Run. In the rear of the battery the veteran Vermont brigade was acting as support. taken. READY TO OPEN FIRE extreme right. Lieutenant James A. line of Copyright by Review oj Reviews Co. to the left from Captain Cooper.LOAD!". just behind the prominent figure with the haversack in the right section of the picture. . characteristic coolness. This Pennsylvania battery suffered greater loss than any other volunteer Union battery. where the Confederates there engaged got a taste of its metal on the Federal left their dog tents. ruins of the Mansfield house. identified these members almost forty-seven years after the picture was left. To their rear was the bank of the river skirted by trees. and fifty-two wounded convincing testimony of the fact that throughout the war its men stood bravely to their guns. some of the troops had already pitched Better protection was soon afforded by the strong earthworks which was thrown up and occupied by the Sixth Corps. Gardner.
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 in camp by General J. who became a belle of official society in Washington during the war. It was the smart thing for the ladies of the capital to invade these outlying camps. At this time she was the wife in of Governor William Sprague. of Rhode Island. well known in the capital. Lincoln s Secretary of the Treasury. an officer of the regular army. Chase. She was the daughter of Salmon P.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. and was being entertained Abercrombie. . and strong camps for the defense of Washington were maintained throughout the war. and they were always welcomed by the officers weary of continuous guard-duty. Here the camera has caught the willing subject handsome Kate Chase Sprague. J. A WASHINGTON BELLE IN CAMP From Bull Run to Gettysburg the Federal capital was repeatedly threatened by the advances of the Confederates.
Copyright by Review nfjteviews Co. This noble beast is of Lieut. A HORSE AND RIDER THAT WILL LIVE Here the is mount rider an extraordinary photograph of a spirited charger taken half a century ago. C. and was photographed at General Fitz John Porter s headquarters. Such clear definition of every feature of man and horse might well be the envy of modern photography. is The Colonel Norton himself. -Col. Norton. B. and instantaneous dry uncap the lens plates. by hand. To which can be developed at leisure. process has preserved every detail. which does not achieve such depth without fast lenses. and develop the negative within minutes after the exposure. Here the old-time wet-plate secure results like this it was necessary to sensitize the plate just five before exposing it. . focal-plane shutters.
race are purely pictorial. even of the most and legendary sort. Han nibal s crossing of the Alps. can he really illustrated. not followed by camera men. this description since the Franco. But in recent years there have been recov ered in certain caves of France scratched and carved bone weapons and rough W all-paintings which tell us some dra matic events in the lives of men who lived probably a hundred thousand years before the earliest of those seven strata of ancient Troy. And it is still infinitely more effective an appeal. the Norman ". this is the adequate history 1 only conflict of the first magnitude in the world s history that War is the only EXTRAORDINARY Civil ". Here is a much more important historical fact than the human The earliest records we have of the casual reader realizes. ". How impossible it is for the average person to get any clear idea of the great struggles which altered the destinies of nations and which occupy so large a portion of world history! How can a man to-day really understand the siege of Troy. 1 There have been. The picture came before the written record. only two wars of 1865:  . nearly all our knowledge of long ancient Babylonia and Assyria is gleaned from the details left to the by some picture-maker. for some reason. the battles of Thermopylae or Salamis. vividly illuminating. and the marvellously expert photographers who flocked to the struggles between Russia and Japan were not given any chance by the Japanese authorities to make anything like an adequate record.Prussian War was.PHOTOGRAPHING THE CIVIL WAR By HENRY WYSHAM LANIER as the fact seems. goes hack hardly more than ten shadowy thousand years.". with a pictorial record which is indisputably authentic. History. which indefatigable archeologists have exposed 7 wondering gaze of the modern world. and the final evi dence in any question of detail. of course. the American great Avar of which we have an in photographs: that is to say. the famous fight at Tours when Charles the Hammer checked the Saracens.
1864 . the very costume which made a as Confederate it photogra im a familiar iattle figure at the first pher stood on in of Bull Run. from which Baton Rouge. Irishman by birth and pos all essed of the active tempera lent which such an origin implies Lt f Bull Run he was in the thick Lytle would steal secretly up things. Here was was relayed provision to New Orleans. and often exposed to rifle shots flag ital Sunday. which had Jrady o flee.^he indomitable i war photographer Below Lytle is the gallery of A. Lytle obtained his photographic supplies for his defense. LOUISIANA. Later in the day. himself and at compelled nightfall of that in the was been built on the ruins of the capitol. BRADY. 1864. alone and unarmed. West by the Federal Government. THE GALLERY OF A CONFEDERATE SECRET-SERVICE PHOTOGRAPHER. It was indeed dangerous work. ". Main Street. but ". Copyright by Reriew if Reviews Co. hence to ure tig New him York. lent Zouaves. when in the e returned precipitately to New employ of the Confederate Secret fork after his initial attempt to ut into practice his icturing the war. whence the news ikes jiind its name. still In the pic- proudly wearthe weapon which he was presee we traband traffic to got them passed on the trade".orders & Company of New York. the Observation Tower. would with e lost his way woods near he or lantern signal to the Confederates he stream from which the battle at Scott s Bluff. Brady lade his way to Washington and thony but unlike Cook of Charleston. D. and by some of of the famous cornFire Departa it made for smuggling the any word New York precious prints through the lines. AFTER BULL RUN Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. from the Federals. he did not have to depend upon con secure them.ork Service Lytle trained his camera scheme for Brady was a upon the Federal army which occu pied Baton Rouge. who gave him Buckling Like Brady. from An n beneath his linen duster. as discovery of his purpose would have visited upon the photographer the fate of a spy. BATON ROUGE. to iared to use for the protection of issued quite freely in the imself and his precious negatives.
and engaged the Confederate batteries on their line near the Avery house. G. all succeeding ones. and lithographs by contemporary men in most cases the effect is simply one of keen disappointment at the painfully evident fact that most of these w orthy artists never saw a battle or a camp. Cooper s Battery in front of the Avery house. by a lucky chance. even our own seven-year struggle for liberty. as shown in this photograph. drawings. was put into position on the evening of that day. the Civil War is on a basis from all others. Gardner (of Battery B. 1864. To apply this pictorial principle. made by adventurous camera-men under incredible difficulties. moreover. is practically an open book to old and young. there is an exceptional wealth of paintings.ffitutl War . prints. without any first-hand picture-aids to start the imagination? Take the comparatively modern Napoleonic wars where. who immediately named half a dozen of the figures. The greatest literary genius might write a volume without giving you so intimate a comprehension of the strug gle before Petersburg as do these exact records. of which \ve have. The enemy at that time  . the Hundred Years or Thirty Years Wars. conquest of England. an account from one of the men in the scene. K. Our corps arrived in front of Petersburg on June 17. during the siege of Petersburg. First Penn sylvania Light Artillery). able to pick out and recognize a very number of the members of our battery. and one s eyes instinctively follow their fixed gaze toward the lines of the foe. let us look at one remarkable photograph. For when man achieved the photograph he took almost as important a step forward as when he discovered how to make fire: he made scenes and events and personalities immortal. large Our battery (familiarly known as Cooper s Battery) belonged to the Fifth Corps. This picture was shown to Lieutenant James A. even at this late day. adding details of the most intimate inter est (see 1 pages 22 and 23) : am. So the statement that there have been gathered together thousands of photographs of scenes on land and water during those momentous years of 1861 to 1865 means that for our : r J generation and different The lifelikeness of the picture is beyond praise: one cannot help living through this tense moment with these men of long ago. then commanded by Gen. Warren. and hold ing calmly before your eyes the very Reality itself.
the city on their famous march through the Carolinas. in which General McPherson lost his Poe. Thus Brady and up all the war photographers worked right to the trenches. chances of failure was added that of being at off be held by such a force as Sherman intended to leave as garrison any time picked by some sharpshooter. 1865. he selected a new line of much shorter development which passed through the northern part of of the town. ately within the tent. 1864. Captain Poe found the old Confederate line of defense of too great extent to To the many rough roads or exposed to possible shells. which the army photographer worked picture The larger is of Barnard. and developing immedi tent. 1865 tary resources of the South. This as was s work sensitizing burned troops Sherman his plates in a light-proof passed through making his exposures. the dark-room buggy of Photographer Wearn. Chief Engineer of the Military Division of the Barnard was engaged to take photographs of the Mississippi. picture appears a duplicate of Brady s ". lugging their cumbersome tents and new Federal fortifications being constructed under Captain Poe s apparatus. served the s bring were carried ing up the rear. as the pioneer corps worked on the forti Sherman is work. the mili Washington by Captain RUINS OF STATE ARMORY. where began the engagement of July 22. COLUMBIA. which we see the conditions under in the field. here at Barnard is Carolina. often running out of supplies or carrying hundreds of glass plates over direction at Atlanta. M. of which typical that done fications the entire series of photographs showing by him all along the line of march to render use less to their progress was made the Confederate ar to be forwarded later to mies in the field. South that quarter. In the smaller Consequently. In the background we see the official report. known as the battle of Atlanta.THE PHOTOGRAPHER WITH THE ARMY Here are two excellent views in Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.". making necessary the destruction of many buildings in ground are the ruins of the State Armory at Columbia. has pre result the wngon showing to the of right. .What-Is-It. September-October. His February. the Government photographer under Captain O. chemicals supplies and general in The photographer. being In the back the town. with his battle-field life. Poe. Thus. 1 864.
On June 18th the division of the Confederates which was opposite us was that of Gen. as gunner. when we were taken further to the left. while loading our guns. began arriving on the evening of June 18th. and first lieutenant. along where you will notice the chimney ( the houses had been burnt down). on the same ridge now stands. Army . in action. was a small fort or works erected. and point them out. where you see the chimney. but I think it is Mr. Mr. holding the latter position at the close of the war. of our battery . Petersburg lay immediately over the ridge in the front.(Ettril Mar was commanded by General Beauregard. after ward became the main line of the Union army. and the second one was taken a little to the rear. On the night of the 18th we threw up the lunettes This position was occupied by us until possibly in front of our guns. Brady or his assistant. and to the right of the Avery house. who are expected to be always on the lookout. about the 23d or 24th of June. and a little farther to the and about where the battery right was Fort Stedman. as soon as each gun is loaded the cannoneers drop to the ground and protect themselves as best they can. This is Mr. and front. Brady took tery. 1864. Bushrod R. merely from the position that I occupied at that time. Brady took the photographs. copies of which you have sent me. I served as ser geant. being the beginning of opera tions in front of that city. yet I am able to designate at least fifteen persons of our bat I should have said that Mr. The position shown in the picture is about six hundred and fifty yards in front. Fort Morton of the Union line was constructed. which then occupied the ridge which you see to the right and front. and at or about where you see the chimney standing. The gunners are the corporals who sight and direct the firing of the guns. right over past  . which was used continuously dur ing the entire siege of Petersburg. under General Lee. That night the enemy fell back to their third line. it would be impossible for me to say who occupied the enemy s lines after that. our men exhibited the same coolness that that is. known is as Battery Seventeen. Our lines were advanced to that point. I know myself. Brady himself. The movement in which we were engaged was the advance of the Army of the Potomac upon Petersburg. All the officers shown in this picture are dead. as shown in the picture. When engaged shown in the picture It is now almost forty-seven years since the photographs were taken. . In the photograph you will notice a person (in civilian s clothes). except the gunners and the officers. If the enemy is engaging us. and left. Johnson but as the of Northern Virginia. 1 from a point a little to the left. The photographs were taken in the forenoon of June 21. in the picture. After that. While occupying this position. picture No. and at or near this point was built a permanent fort or battery. of the battery. first sergeant. which was along on the ridge to the front. The enemy s position.
invented by Brady and first by him compartment for left more leisurely developing. from the s parapet at and Charleston during the bom bardment. was used upon occasions when was we see the outfit with which Samuel A. United States Army. 1864.". In the fol dark-room buggy to the necessary for the order. Cooley was attached to the Tenth Corps. seem to eyes far too of the present day cumbersome to make With Sherman looking proudly on. the gun boats and transports steamed Here are Cooley of s two means transportation. Christmas Day. and recorded for the stirring events around time army photographer to proceed in light marching In the smaller picture we see again the light-proof devel of the exterior of the fort fronting the Savannah at the completion of the March to the Sea.Copyright by Patriot Pub. The little it Run. Augustine. who the in the act see the smoke of making an exposure. had become organized toward the lower picture close of the war. The next morning. Co. The gunboats waiting to just huge camera and plate-holder welcome them beyond.bummers. Here he of is Sherman could Federal ". the footsore and hungry soldiers rushed forward to the possible the wonderful defini effects tion light and beautiful of attack. and the precious finished negatives includes a raphy. The view River. oping tent in action before the ramparts of Fort McAllister. up the river and the joyful The wagon [A-S] fitted to carry the THE CIVIL WAR PHOTOGRAPHERS IMPEDIMENTA news was flashed northward. glass plates. Cooley all lowed the fortunes of the campaigners. and the Stars and and shade which charac the war-time negatives Stripes were soon floating over this vast barrier terize between them that have come down to us and the sea. THE FIELD DARK ROOM Here we get an excellent idea of how the business of exemplified army photog at Bull supply of chemicals. and secured photographs at Jackson ville. through the vicissitudes of half a century. Beaufort. . is Savannah A few days before the Confederate guns had frowned darkly St.
gave him succor in the shape of a broadsword. But we have the portrait of Brady himself three days later in his famous linen duster. Instances might be multiplied indefinitely. descended upon the rear of the Union troops and drove them into a retreat which rapidly turned to a rout. hut he had come through unscathed as it was his fate to do so frequently afterwards. at the battle of Fredericksburg. 1861. notice in Humphrey s Journal in 1861 describes vividly the records of the flight after Bull Run secured by the inde fatigable Brady. He was a sight to behold after his wanderings. He says: Burnside.". com manding the Confederate forces. desiring as usual to be in the thick of things. as he returned to ". who with Bcauregard and Jackson. ". were fortifying the hills back of the right bank of that river. ". He was clad in the linen duster which was a familiar sight to those who saw him taking his pic tures during that campaign. Brady. of pen his way. He placed cameras in position and got his men to work. until one of the famous company of the Union forces. He [Brady] had in Sunday morning ". was pre paring to cross the Rappahannock. He was unarmed as well. and had nothing with which to defend himself from any of the victorious Confederates who might hap Fire zouaves. then in command of the Army of the Potomac. and was by no means prepared for a night in the open. At last Johnston. This he strapped about his waist. Unfortunately the unique one in which the reviewer identified Bull Run Russell in reverse action is lost to the world. undertook to make some pictures from the left bank. ". The plucky photographer was forced along with the rest and as night fell he lost his way in the thick woods which were not far from the little stream that gave the battle its name. and seen now the success of the green Federal troops under General McDowell in the field. but here is one more evidence of the quality of this pictorial record. The same narrator had from Brady a tale of a picture made a year and a half later. strengthened hy reenforcements. and it was still there when he finally made his way to Washington three days later. His story comes from one who had it from his own lips: watched the chh and flow of the battle on that July. and Longstreet and Jackson. and now the stub born defense of the green troops under that General Jackson who thereby earned the sobriquet of Stonewall. .(Etuil Uar there so leisurely on the earthworks the man whom you sec sitting thrown up. but suddenly found him . was a Confederate commander. A 1 Washington.
Below a photograph Near here Grant s two years later. and before them Lee s veterans last were making their stand within the entrenchments at Petersburg. whether good fortune or ill betided it. at Cobb s Hill on the Appomattox.THE CAMERA WITH IN RETREAT AND ADVANCE THE ARMY The plucky Brady-Gardner operatives stuck to the Union army in the East. while Pope s army was is in retreat. Above. er s portable dark-room. army had joined Butler s. just before the second battle on that fateful ground. (ABOVE) (BELOW) PHOTOGRAPHERS AT BULL RUN PHOTOGRAPHERS AT BUTLER S SIGNALING BEFORE THE SECOND FIGHT TOWER 1864 fl . two of them are busy with their primitive apparatus near Bull Run.
and it was but a short time before he had a gallery  . man Brady. Stewart. that very year (1839) Daguerre made his daguerre known to the world. Morse.3. The youngster s good qualities were so conspicuous that his large-minded employer made it possible for him to take a trip abroad at the age of fifteen. Arriv ing in New York as a boy. Matthew B. who was then laboring at his epoch-making development of the telegraph. in 1840. which required the amazingly short exposure of only ninety seconds! ". and Brady found himself the target for a good many bullets. determine his whole life-work. he may fairly be said to have fathered the movement. and his daring and success undoubtedly stimulated and in spired the small army of men all over the war-region. first of the merchant princes of that day. this scientist took his young compan ion to the laboratory of the already famous Daguerre. T. In the bright sunshine his bulky cameras gleamed like guns. and Brady s keen interest was otype intensified when. whose arduous experiments in making pictures by sunlight were just approaching fruition. Pro fessor Draper produced the first photographic portrait the world had yet seen. a likeness of his sister. Ireland (not in New Hampshire. For Brady s natural business-sense and his mercantile train ing showed him the chance for a career which this new inven tion opened. on his own side of the ocean. who was clearly worth while to study for a few moments this so ready to risk his life for the idea by which he was obsessed. B.(Eitril Uar $ * * $ self taking a part very different from that of a non-combatant. Naturally enough. as is generally stated) about 182. K&. whose unrelated work has been laboriously gathered together. They promptly opened fire. under the charge of S. Brady was born at Cork. F. so that he is probably directly responsible for only a fraction of the whole vast collection of pictures in these vol umes. and the wonderful discovery which young Brady s receptive eyes then beheld was destined to ". and the Confed erate marksmen thought that a battery was being placed in position. It was only his phenomenal good luck that allowed him to escape without injury either to himself and men or to his apparatus. he got a job in the great estab lishment of A. While the war soon developed far beyond what he or any other one man could possibly have It is $ N compassed.
in his persistent pushing forward upon Richmond. Copyright by 1 atriot Pub. and the Union photog- strenuous work involved in the oncoming battle. the cameraists were engaged in fixing.WASHING THE NEGATIVES Photographers Headquarters at Cold Harbor. In the lull before the fierce engagement which Grant was about to meet hen. and storing their negatives. BEFORE SECOND BULL RUN Brady s AT WORK IN SUMTER. BRADY S ". VIRGINIA \\ . AT CULPEPER. . washing.WHAT IS IT?". raphers for the time were securing views of the position.What Is It?". preparing for the were in Charleston. Co. At last the besiegers first 1865 headquarters with his ". Virginia. APRIL.
and his vigorous enthusiasm saw in this fierce drama an opportunity to win ever brighter laurels. T. picture. This letter. about the same time he opened an office in Washington. and he succeeded in interesting President Lin coln. unfortunately. and flour at You And look supernaturally grand. : ".) Well. d never suspect he sold bacon Poverty Flat. and in the twenty years between his start and the Civil War he became the fashionable photog rapher of his day as is evidenced not only by the superb col lection of notable people whose portraits he gathered together. The need 86% from for such permits appears in a home letter E. a war photographer whose negatives. but by Brete Harte s classic verse (from Her Letter ". His energy and his acquaintance with men in authority overcame every obstacle. General Grant. as taken tinted at that. ". Secretary Stanton. successful from the start. an expert in the new revolutionary wet-plate proc ess. 1862. Whitney. and permits to make photographs at the front. states that the day before  . which gave a negative furnishing many prints instead of one unduplicatable original. sunny period of prosperity the Civil War Brady had made portraits of scores of the men who leaped into still greater prominence as leaders in the terrible struggle. in 1851 his work took a prize at the London World s Fair. and infusing into all his own ambition to astonish the world by this unheard-of feat. have been destroyed. and Allan Pinkerton to such an extent that he obtained the protection of the Secret Service. yes if you saw us out driving Each day in the Park. but with entire confidence he equipped his men. Everything had to be done at his own expense. Upon this broke in 1861. and set out himself as well. ". ". four-in-hand If you saw poor dear mamma contriving To If you saw papa s By Brady. in the fifties he brought over Alexander Gardner. giving instructions to guard against breakage by making two negatives of everything. dated March all photographing has 13.(ttttril on Broadway and was well launched upon the new trade of He was furnishing daguerreotype portraits to all comers.
I-H -- M a X = a !! o a I Q .&. a o s W .gt. a -* a O fl TJ _C CX f3 fi ~ & O 2 3 Q ^L qj V 1 I M n p s o hH -r.lt. -5 2 O s. .a -g CUD w tn -C c &.03 .
in New York. Army Corps. Jacksonville. of Baton Rouge. and Charleston during the bombardment. the necessary iodides and bromides masqueraded as ". had to secure his chemi from Anthony in New York who also supplied Brady and smuggle them through) did their part in the vast labor. M. S. specific use of the Confederate Secret Service. He secured his chemicals from the same great firm of Anthony & Co. Cooley was attached to the Tenth and recorded the happenings around Savannah. where he made application to General McClellan for a special pass. Cook of Charleston. he was a camera spy. J. r Three-fourths of the scenes with the Army of the Potomac were made by Gardner.". r folds itself before the reader. Siebert was very busy indeed at Charleston in 1865. as already hinted. detached as official camera-man for the War Department. and many another unknow n. ". Louisiana. Russell. but instead of running the blockade with them. who made a series of views (covering three years and several campaigns and scattered through the present work) for the consequently That is to say. did yeoman s service around Atlanta. Poe (then Captain in the Engineer Corps). Roche was an indefatig able worker in the armies train. Edwards of New Orleans. he was but one of many in the great work of picturing the war. for instance. Owing to ignorance of tbis order on the part of the guard at the bridge.  . Fort McAllister. contributed to the panorama which to-day un cals . extraordi We nary as w ere the results of Brady s impetuous vigor. which were hurried straightway to Secretary Stanton at Washington. Whitney was allowed to reach the Army of the Poto mac. D.". Captain A.. R. shall get some more glimpses presently of these ad venturous souls in action. including the makers of the little cartes de lisite. Thomas G. working under even greater difficulties (Cook. too. and a good one. tinder the supervision of General O. and other unknown men on the Confederate side. for in stance. One most interesting camera-man of unique kind was A.". obtained many invaluable pictures illustrating the military railroading and construction work of the Army of the Poto mac. But. Sam A. they were supplied on orders to trade. Lytle. Barnard.GInril Mar been stopped by general orders from headquarters. In many cases. Beaufort. George M. St. Augustine.
many sturdy foot-soldiers as well as horsemen were swept over the falls. larly at the negroes. However. apparently performing the duties In grassy She was captured astride of a bony steed and asserted that she belonged to a battery of artillery. on the North Anna River. Crittenden s the same coign of vantage. with her tangled black locks hanging down her neck.*. Among the prisoners brought in while the army was here in camp was a woman clad in Confederate gray. the division got across in good fighting shape and formed point is a line of battle around the ford on the southern bank just in time to head off a bold Confederate dash for advance guard was hotly engaged in the woods beyond the mill and being roughly handled when the rear of the column reached the southern bank. made almost fifty years ago. While General Thomas L. 1864) by fording the mill-dam.* life*. yet Mr. At these she would occasionally throw stones with considerable accuracy. particu who gave her a wide berth.. the river current at this strong and rapid. A TRIUMPH OF THE WET-PLATE photograph could have been taken before the advent of modern pho tographic apparatus. ". The view is of Quarles Mill. Virginia. This wild creature. Gardner s negative.: : * Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. As the faithful camera indicates. became the center of interest to of a scout. the idlers of the camp. Crittenden s division of the Federal Ninth Corps was crossing the North Anna (June 24. It seems almost impossible that this or fields above the mill the tents of the headquarters of Grant and Meade were pitched for a day two during the march which culminated in the siege of Petersburg. might well furnish a striking exhibit in a modern photographic salon. .
Ly tie s son relates that his father used to signal quinine. ". Slocum. Brady s enterprise and furnish the public with more views. Brady intends to take other photographic scenes of the locali ties of our army and of battle-scenes. Among McDowell. etc. square at the at Camp monopolizing the field. Flem University of Louisiana. Corcoran. spoken of in our last are those of many leading generals and colonels number.. signed by President Lincoln. And surely the sum total of achievement is triumph ant enough to share among all who had any hand in it. Zouaves on the lookout from the belfry of Fairfax Court House. McClellan. of There are contemporary comments on the first crop war photographs which confirm several points already made. Wood. but he found this provided such a tempting tar get for the Federal sharpshooters that he discontinued the IM^ v. And now let us try to get some idea of the problem which confronted these enthusiasts. and others. states he has seen many such ordersto-trade. the most effective are those of the army passing through Fairfax village. contained the following PHOTOGRAPHS OF WAR SERIES the portraits in Brady s selection. Professor Walter L. There are numerous photographers close by the stirring scenes which are being daily enacted. and his collection will undoubtedly prove to be the most interesting ever yet exhibited. of the statement is historically confirmed. and now is the time for them to distinguish themselves.Qltml Uar * 1 Mr. etc. 1 New practice. with flag and lantern from the observation tower on the top of the ruins of the Baton Rouge capitol to Scott s Bluff. But why should he monopolize this department? We have plenty of other artists as good as he is. Burnside. the Engineer Corps of the New York Twelfth Anderson. ing. Let other artists exhibit a little of Mr. Heintzelman. What a field would there be for Anthony s instantaneous views and for stereoscopic pictures. the 71st Regiment [New York] formed in hollow Navy Yard. . Of the larger groups. 1861. but not countersigned by Secretary  Stanton. Humphrey : s Journal in October. the battery of the 1st Rhode Island regiment at Camp Spmgue. Mr. and see We have seen how far Brady came from ". whence the messages were relayed to the Confederates near Orleans. how they tackled it.
specimens of landscape . above the pontoon bridge constructed for the crossing of the Federal troops. At such times. The picture was taken During at Hazel Run. the advances and retreats. true to the professional instinct. this negative has successfully caught the waterfall and necessity the Federal cavalryman s horse which has been ridden to the stream for a drink.Copyright by Review of keviews (Jo. A SNAPSHOT IN THE WAR REGION Another remarkable example of the results achieved by the old collodion process photographers quite indistinguishable from the instantaneous photographs of the present day. these splendid photography give us a clear conception of the character of the country over which the Federal and Confederate armies passed and repassed during the stirring period of the war. while the Federal armies were maneuvering for position. Virginia. the photographers were frequently at a tice loss for material. Less important from the strictly military viewpoint. they kept in prac by making such views as this. Although taken under the of removing and replacing the lens cap.
with the continual chance of being picked off by some scouting sharp shooter or captured through some shift of the armies. The coating of plates was a delicate operation even in the ordinary well-organized studio. The most advanced photography photographer. exposed within five minutes. our camera adventurer was but through the overture of his of that day was the wet-plate method. its became a familiar awkward mystery never quite wore Having arrived. war-photographs. ". and developed within five minutes more! For the benefit of ama teur members of the craft here are some notes from the veteran troubles. it was returned to the dark-room and developed. about ". derision. This operation created the sensitive condition of the plate. The first sight of the queer-looking wagon caused amaze became so inevi What is ment. or cadmium. and exposed to the action of the light in the camera. or ". speculation. and had to be done in total darkness except a subdued yellow light. yet the novelty of wagon!".  .lt. When properly coated (from three to five minutes) the plate was put into a ". they will exclaim It simultaneously. the off. and having faced the real perils gener ally attendant upon reaching the scenes of keenest interest. and alcohol evaporate to just the right degree of stickiness. ". all the plain glass plates in various sizes. and a couple of action of hundred glass plates whose breakage meant failure. over unspeakable back-country roads or no roads at all. to be carefully cleaned and carried in dust-proof boxes. it was lowered carefully into a deep bath holder which contained a solution of nitrate of silver about 60 for quick field-work.* Imagine what it must have meant even to get to the scene with cumbersome tent and apparatus. Rockwood: First. When ".Oh. had ready for action. by which the plates had to be coated in the dark (which meant in this case carrying everywhere a smothery. Mr. Collodion is made by the solution of guncotton in about equal parts of sulphuric ether and 95 proof alcohol.".Oltuil Har * &.". or ammonia.slide". which carried in solution the excitants bromide and iodide of potassium. ". After coating the plate with collodion and letting the ether salts cle for ". The above mentioned are then added. making the collodion a vehi obtaining the sensitive surface on the glass plate. collodion. usually 8 x 10.holder". the plate was carefully coated with ". yes. table a greeting that to this day if one asks a group of soldiers it?". what-is-it sight. George G. light-proof tent). When exposed.
the color values of this picture are marvelous. One of these was the signal tower toward the left of the Federal line of investment. the successful consumma tion of which practically closed the war. whom we see on a visit to a permanent camp. . A review or a parade was usually held for their entertainment. taken at Brandy Station. The officers quarters received first attention. When we remember that orthochromatic plates were undreamed of in the days of the Civil War. a new and better rustic structure sprang into being. Thus an atmosphere of indescribable charm was thrown about the permanent camps to which the wives of the officers came in their brief the front. the New York engineers. and from which they reluctantly returned without seeing anything of the gruesome side of war. amused visits to themselves by constructing a number of rustic buildings of great beauty. while not engaged in strengthening the Federal fortifications. Near it a substantial and artistic hospital building was erected. to take the place of a demolished church. Virginia.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. AMENITIES OF THE CAMP IN 1864 This photograph. The entrance to the tent is a fine example of the rustic work with which the Engineer Corps of the various armies amused themselves during periods which would otherwise be spent in tedious inactivity. and. The collodion wet-plate has caught the sheen and texture of the silk dresses worn by the officers wives. In the weary waiting before Petersburg during the siege. is an excellent example of the skill of the war photographers.
there came a large realization of some of the immense We worked long with one of the foremost of Brady doff here let me my ". With such a wagon on a larger scale. large enough for to sleep in front of the dark-room part. in which there was just room enough to work. the ". negative. came down over the step which was boxed in at the sides.).". On exceptional occasions in very cold weather the life of a wet plate might be extended to nearly an hour on either side of the exposure. you under carefully hung stand. depth in the&. I was only home a few months 1862-63 and even then from our boys who came home invalided we heard of that^grand picture-maker Brady. the phenomenal men Brady risked his life pictures of Brady were made possible. the coating or the development side. as they called him. in a special re ceptacle. and every minute of delay resulted in loss of brilliancy and 1 A ". Some come intimately vivid glimpses of the war-photographers troubles also from Mr. even as far as ability from the photo graphic standpoint goes.gt. The door. of the period. Rockwood also knew about Brady ".". so as to be light-proof. I was. the level of the wagon floor. a time in order not to separate from this cumbrous piece many of impedimenta. Brady worthy to carry his camera case.  . in common with the Cape Codders. s wagon. When I made some views (with the only apparatus then known. Pitcher Spencer. much like the butcher s cart of delivery wagon to-day and had a strong step attached at the rear and below door was put on at the back. but ordinarily the work had to be done within a very few minutes. following the ocean from 1859 to 186-4. who knew the work : s men. B. On his left also was the holder of one of the baths.wet plate". The chief developing bath was in front. hav ing had a similar contrivance made for himself before the war. and the space be tween it and the floor filled with plates.(Ettril War all Mr. J. He used an ordinary for taking pictures in the country. and few to-day are hat to the name of M. making it a sort of well within the body of the wagon rather than a true step. The work of coating or sensitizing the plates and that of developing them was done from this well. with the tanks of various liquids stored in front of it again. As the operator stood there the collodion was within reach of his right hand.
was an unsuccess blow up the dam at the mouth of this canal. with his army paused while the camera of the army photographer then bottled up in Bermuda Hundred. Butler. began to dig a canal at army James River and thus avoid the batteries.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. all The of this engineering feat are here seen plainly in the photograph. Dutch Gap to save a circuit of six miles in the bend of the and obstructions difficulties which the Confederates had placed to prevent the passage of the Federal Beet up the river toward Richmond. torpedoes. It took Butler s men the rest of the year (1864) to cut through this canal. exposed as they were to the fire of the Confederate batteries above. DIGGING UNDER FIRE AT DUTCH GAP Here for a 1864 moment the Engineering corps of General Benjamin F. . 1864. Butler s it. and by thus admitting water to render it navigable. was focussed upon In August. ful effort to One of the last acts of General Butler it.
Still further details ". and varnishing. with the story of many battles. The time between flowing the collodion and developing should not ex ceed eight or ten minutes. it was taken out. ". drained. across the plate being poison might carry enough produce a blank spot instead of some much desired effect. The developer was sulphate of iron solu tion and acetic acid. it took unceasing care to keep every bit of the apparatus. and they tell more than pages of description. M. The epic of the It would compare war-photographer is still to he written. unlike a dry plate. Rood: ". and hundreds of minor discouragements. by curling some part of it out of shape. the narrow escapes. after which came a slight washing and fixing (to remove the surplus silver) with solution of cyanide of potassium. whose pictures you have given. exposed. as well as each and every chemical. I was all through the The war from 186165. come from an old Mr. of wind. You have also in your collection a negative of each company of that regiment. could not be touched. graphic expert. the men imbued with vim and forcefulness by the Only Brady kept right along and to-day the world can enjoy these wonderful views as a result. Fortunately the picture men occasionally immortalized each other as well as the combatants. just as some fine result looked certain. When you most sensitive of all the list of chemicals are requisite to make collodion. free from any Often a breath possible contamination which might affect the picture. In one the wagon. which must coat every plate. remained there in darkness three to five minutes . Moreover. Often. the omnipresent obstacles which could be overcome only by the keenest ardor and determination. a hot streak of air would not only spoil the plate. you may perhaps have a faint idea of the care requisite to produce a picture. naturally. no matter how gentle. in water also iodized. In face of these. drying. slightest breath coated to make it ". so that we have a num ber of intimate glimpses of their life and methods. But. still in darkness.Qltutl War difficulties surmounted by those who made war-pictures. in the Ninety-third New York regiment. soldier and photo flowed with collodion was dipped at once in a bath plate of nitrate of silver. and developed in the dark-tent at once. spoiled the whole affair. And it does not favorably  . they cannot show the arduous labor. F. ". put in the dark-holder. I recognized quite a number of the old com rades. but put the instrument out of com mission. chemicals and camera are in the very trenches at Atlanta. The surface (wet or dry). and then a final washing. and that the very realize that the ".
forge. a regiment of infantry From the 15th to the 19th of May the Army of the Potomac was concentrated between in Cumberland Landing and White House. the Sixth Corps under Franklin.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. CAMP LIFE OF THE INVADING ARMY This picture preserves for us the resplendent aspect of the the spring of 1862. McClellan advanced his supply base from Cumberland Landing to White House on the Pamunkey. before the is camp of the Fifth New York inspection Volunteers (Duryee columns of companies for drawn up Zouaves). around the mud-spattered Farther on the patient army mules drill. camp of McClellan s Army of the Potomac in On his march from Yorktown toward Richmond. The barren fields on the bank of the river were converted as if by magic into an immense city of tents stretching away as far as the eye could see. The divisions of Porter and those of Franklin and Smith into in camp an important change was made in the organi and Sykes were united into the Fifth Corps under Porter. . while mirrored in the river lay the immense fleet of transports convoyed up by gunboats from Fortress Monroe. In the foreground. s In the background. Here we see but a small section of this inspiring view. On May 19th the movement to While Richmond was begun by [A-4] the advance of Porter and Franklin to Tunstall s Station. zation of the army. are tethered around the wagons. the blankets and knapsacks of the farriers have been thrown carelessly on the ground.
who created the immediate train of events that led to their importance as the nucleus of a collection of many thousand pictures gathered from all over the country to furnish the material for this work. where it is now held with a prohibition The $25.lt. private collectors. were discovered and appreciated by Edward owners. these hidden treasures have been Historical societies. that they did have such things or once knew of them. photographic supplies.Ii0i0grapljutg tip QJttril War &. supplemented. to the Gulf. From 7 all sorts from Maine drawn. estimated at in most cases) ruined him. or destroyed by fire. voted to Mr. to get a fair measure of these indomitable workers. upon earnest insistence.  . Singly and in groups they have come from walls. old garrets. The net result of Brady s efforts was a col lection of over seven thousand pictures (two negatives of each and the expenditure involved. and he died in the nineties. One set. after viewing the results obtained in the face of such conditions.$.000 tardily against its use for commercial purposes. from the Atlantic to the Pacific. they Bailey Eaton. military and patriotic organiza families have recollected. out of archives. safes. tions. poor and forgotten. often seeing the light of day for the first time in a generation. Brady s own negatives passed in the seventies into the pos session of Anthony. save by a few old-time friends. nated for posterity. until They were kicked about from pillar John C. Taylor found them in an attic and bought them. to post for ten years. After passing to various other lost. and in 1895 Brady him self had no idea what had become of them. finally passed into the Govern ment s possession. Connecticut. after undergoing the most $100. old soldiers and their Government and State bureaus. of Hartford. The story of the way in which these pictures have been rescued from obscurity is almost as romantic a tale as that of their making. extraordinary vicissitudes.000. of sources. to join together once more in a pictorial army which daily grew more irre sistible as the new arrivals augmented. require much imagination. in default of payment of his bills for . Brady by Congress did not retrieve his financial fortunes. in a New York hospital. librarians. from this they became the back bone of the Ordway-Rand collection. and ex The superb result is here spread forth and illumi plained. Many were broken.
O g CU O ^ ^^
^ S O
II ! el
all the above considerations, these invaluable are well worth attention from the standpoint of picto pictures talk a great deal nowadays about the aston rial art. advances of modern art-photography; and it is quite ishing true that patient investigators have immeasurably increased
camera methods and
now manipulate negatives and print to produce any sort of effect; we print in tint or color, omitting or adding what we wish; numberless men of artistic capacity are daily showing how to transmit personal feeling through the intricacies of the mechanical process. But it is just as true as when the cayeman scratched on a bone his recollections of mammoth and
reindeer, that the artist will produce work that moves the be holder, no matter how crude may be his implements. Clearly there were artists among these Civil photographers. Probably this was caused by natural selection. It took ardor and zest for this particular thing above all others to keep a man at it in face of the hardships and disheartening
handicaps. In any case, the work speaks for itself. Over and over one is thrilled by a sympathetic realization that the van ished man w ho pointed the camera at some particular scene, must have felt precisely the same pleasure in a telling com position of landscape, in a lifelike grouping, in a dramatic glimpse of a battery in action, in a genre study of a wounded soldier watched over by a comrade that we feel to-day and that some seeing eye will respond to generations in the future. This is the true immortality of art. And when the emotions thus aroused center about a struggle which determined the destiny of a great nation, the picture that arouses them takes its proper place as an important factor in that heritage of the which gives us to-day increased stature over all past past ages, just because we add all their experience to our own.
THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD STORY AS
WITH THE DEFENDERS OF WASHINGTON IN 1862 THE SALLY-PORT AT FORT RICHARDSON
BROUGHT AGAIN INTO THE PRESENT
The value of "The Photographic Record as History" is emphasized in the contribution from Mr. Geor/ Haven Putnam on page 60. This photograph of a dramatic scene was taken on a July day after the photo Tree Street, Atlanta, to the nor! rapher s own heart clear and sunny. The fort is at the end of Peach
of the city.
The mire-caked wheels
of his force just taken possession, and the man at the left is a cavalryman of the guns show that they have been dragged through miles and miles of mudc
Copyriyht by Recieiv of
CONFEDERATE EARTHWORKS BEFORE ATLANTA,
roads. The delays Sherman had met with in his advance on Atlanta resulting in constant and indecisive fighting without entrapping Johnston, had brought about a reaction at the North. large party wished to end the war. Election Day was approaching. Lincoln was a presidential candidate for the second time. He had many enemies. But the news of Sherman s capture of Atlanta helped to restore confidence, and to insure the continuation of the administration pledged to a vigorous prosecution of the war.
A STRIKING WAR PHOTOGRAPH OF
introduction on page 30, "Photographing the Civil
such vivid action by camera in the days of 61.
remarks on the genius required to record The use of the instrument had not then become pastime;
Only experts like the men that Brady trained could do such work as this. There were no lightning shutter^, no automatic or universal In positions of danger and at times when speed and accuracy were required, there was the delicacy focus.
was a pioneer
science, requiring absolute knowledge, training,
wet plate to consider, with all its drawbacks. No wonder people were surprised that had grown used to the old woodcut and the often mutilated attempts of pictures such as this exist; they was pen and pencil to portray such scenes of action. There are many who never knew that photography
of the old-fashioned
Copyright by Review of Itcvicws C o.
possible in the Civil
Yet look at
Union battery, taken by the shore
can hear the
before the battle of Chancellorsville.
portraiture are shown.
standing in front giving his orders; his figure leaning slightly forward
is tense with spoken words of com The cannoneers, resting or ramming home the charges, are magnificent types of the men who made the Army of the Potomac the army doomed to suffer, a few days after this picture was taken, its crush
by the famous flanking charge of "Stonewall" Jackson; yet the army which kept faith and ultimately became invincible in the greatest civil war of history. Within sixty days after the Chancellors
defeat the troops engaged
triumph over the self-same opponents at Gettysburg.
THE PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD
By GEORGE HAVEN PUTNAM
Adjutant and Brevet Major 176th
York Volunteer Infantry
fifty years since.
tence of Scott
famous romance, my own, had to do with the strenuous
opening senWaverley," and
the unique series of photographs which were secured, during the campaigns of our great war, by the pluck and persistence of Brady and Gardner, and the nega
To one examining
which have, almost miraculously, been preserved the vicissitudes of half a century, comes, however, the through feeling that these battles and marchings were the events not of
not, indeed, things of to day. These vivid pictures bring past history into the present tense; the observer sees our citizen soldiers as they camped,
fifty years back,
but of yesterday,
as they marched, and as they fought, and comes to know how they lived and how they died. There are revealed to the eye
lifelike photographs, as if through a vitascope, the successive scenes of the great life-and-death drama of the nation s struggle for existence, a struggle which was fought
out through four eventful years, and in which were sacrificed of the best of manhood of the country, North and South, eight
hundred thousand lives. In September, 1862, I landed in New York from the Bremen steamer Hansa, which was then making its first trans atlantic trip. I had left my German university for the purpose
of enlisting in the
Union army, and, with
the belief that the
Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co.
This informal photograph of the Ninety-Third New York Infantry was taken in 1862 just before Antietam. In it we see the quality of the men who dropped the pursuits of civil life and flocked to form the armies of
camp and on
the battlefield the camera did
four terrible years, showing us to the minutest detail
its work and now takes us back over the how our men marched and lived and fought. The
youth of the troops
strikingly evident in this picture as they stand assembled here with their
stacked for the ever-pleasurable experience of having their pictures taken.
war could hardly be prolonged for many further months, I had secured leave of absence from my university only for the
college year. I have to-day a vivid recollection of the impres sion made upon the young student by the war atmosphere in which he found his home city. In coming up from the steam
ship pier, I found myself on Broadway near the office of the Herald, at that time at the corner of Ann Street. The bulletin
board was surrounded by a crowd of anxious citizens, whose ex citement was so tense that it expressed itself not in utterance but in silence. With some difficulty, I made my way near
enough to the building to get a glimpse of the announcement on the board. The heading was, A battle is now going on in Maryland; it is hoped that General McClellan will drive Lee s
I recall to-day the curious impressiveness of the present tense, of the report of a battle that was actually going on."
one who reads such an announcement, be possible, and as I stood surrounded by
things seem to
were throbbing Math the keenest of emotions, I felt with them as if we could almost hear the sound of the cannon on the Potomac. The contrast was the stronger to one coming from
the quiet lecture-rooms of a distant university to the streets of a great city excited with twelve months of war, and with the ever-present doubt as to what the hours of each day might
going on is known in fight that was then history as the battle of Antietam. History tells us that Lee s army was not pushed into the Potomac. There were two
causes that prevented this result George B. McClellan and Robert E. Lee. McClellan was a skilled engineer and he knew how to organize troops, but he never pushed an enemy s army
before him with the energy of a man who meant to win and who had faith that he could win. It was his habit to feel that he
had made a
with the foe, without undue loss; and
when, having come into touch he had succeeded in withdrawing his own army
fair to say that
f^ *O tC
y ^ S
O c 5 7?
2 o T
a 2 * I
3^ c Cu
ptfltngraplnr Bternrft as If tetnry
was Robert E. Lee, such a successful withdrawal might almost be considered as a triumph. fresh and vivid impression of the scene of the bloody struggle at Antietam Creek is given in one of the photographs
in this great
The plucky photographer has
ceeded in securing, from the very edge of the battle-field, a view of the movements of the troops that are on the charge;
and when, on the further edge of the fields, we actually see the smoke of the long lines of rifles by which that charge is to be repulsed, we feel as if the battle w-ere again going on before our eyes, and we find ourselves again infused with mingled dread and expectation as to the result. In looking at the photographs, the Union veteran recalls the fierce charge of Burnside s men for the possession of the bridge and the sturdy resistance made by the regiments of
Longstreet. He will grieve with the Army of the Potomac and with the country at the untimely death of the old hero, General Mansfield he will recall the graphic description given by the poet Holmes of the weary week s search through the
and the environs for the body of his son, the young captain, who lived to become one of the scholarly mem bers of the national Supreme Court; and he may share the disappointment not only of the army, but of the citizens back
of the army, that, notwithstanding his advantages of position, McClellan should have permitted the Confederate army to
withdraw without molestation, carrying with it its trains, its artillery, and even its captured prisoners. Another photograph in the series, which is an example of special enterprise on the part of Mr. Brady, presents Lincoln and McClellan in consultation some time after this bloody and indecisive battle. The pose and the features of the two men are admirably characteristic. Two weeks have elapsed since Lee s withdrawal across the river, but the Army of the Potomac, while rested and fully resupplied, has been held by its young commander in an inexplicable inaction. Lincoln s per
a & - *
i i li S o a S
S ^ i J H 1 3
^ ^ -^
an advance and his reiterated inquiries as to the grounds for the delay have met with no response. The President finally comes to the camp for a personal word with
in the field.
the photographer secured
the opportunity of being present at such an interview one does not know, but that he was there is unmistakable.
These vivid photographs which constitute the great his toric series bring again into the present tense, for the memories of the veterans, all of the dramatic scenes of the years of war and even to those who are not veterans, those who have grown
in years of peace and to whom the campaigns of half a century back are but historic pages or dim stories, even to them
in looking at these pictures of campaigns, these vivid episodes of life and death, a clearer realization than could
be secured in any other
of what the four years
and their grandfathers. views of Fort Stevens and Fort Lincoln
the several periods in which, to the continuing anxieties of the people s leader, was added immediate apprehension as to the
safety of the national capital.
the 19th of April, 1861, the
Massachusetts Sixth, on its way to the protection of Washing ton, had been attacked in Baltimore, and connections between few hundred troops Washington and the North were cut off. represented all the forces that the nation had for the moment been able to place in position for the protection of the capital. I have stood, as thousands of visitors have stood, in Lin coln s old study, the windows of which overlook the Potomac; and I have had recalled to mind the vision of his tall figure and sad face as he stood looking across the river where the
picket lines of the Virginia troops could be traced by the smoke, and dreading from morning to morning the approach
of these troops over the
There must have come
to Lincoln during these anxious days the dread that he was to be the last President of the United States, and that the torch,
of the nation, that had been transmitted
Brady s camera has ". He told me that he was satisfied with all that I had done. conversed fully on the state of affairs. said General McClellan. THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF Here the gaunt figure of the Great Emancipator confronted General MoClellan in his headquarters two weeks after Antietam had checked Lee s invasion of Maryland and had enabled the President to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.". the last time that these two men met each other.We spent some time on the battlefield and preserved this remarkable occasion. He parted from me with the utmost cordiality.". A few days later came the order from Washington to ". The plan to follow up the success of Antietam in the effort to bring the war to a speedy conclusion must have been the thought uppermost in the mind of the Commander-in-Chief of the Army as he talked with his most popular General in the tent.Copyright by Patriot Pub. .cross the Potomac and give battle to the enemy or drive him South. Co. that he would stand by me. McClellan was relieved in the midst of a movement to carry out the order.
Such an intervention would have meant the triumph of the Confederacy and the breaking up of the great Republic. 1864. the war must indeed at this time have been something in the present tense. and in July. the troops of General Grant were placing the Stars and Stripes over the well-defended works of Vicksburg. further emphasized the final assaults of Lee was i very day way back to the Potomac. but only for country and his responsibilities) was to be renewed in June. and Lee wmdd finally have been driven across the Potomac as he was actually compelled to retire after the decision of the battle. on July 2. with heavy loss. picture recalls the sharp fight that was 1863. to isolate Washing ton from the Xorth. It was during Early s hurried attack that Lincoln. For the President. visiting Fort Stevens. marked the turning point of the If the Federal lines had been broken at Gettys burg.to him by the while he was And his it faltering hands of his predecessor was to expire responsible for the continuity of the flame. Lee would have been able. The value for the cause of the success of Meade in repelling. came into direct sight of the fighting by which Early s men were finally repulsed. 1863. The month great contest. would in all probability have secured success for the efforts of the Confederate sympathizers in Europe and have brought about recognition and intervention on the part of France and of England. On the on which Lee s discomfited army was making its A beautiful little made. something which meant dread possibilities always impending. . at the time of Early s raid. have been reconstituted. for the possession of Little Round  . But such a check to the efforts of the Xorth. after two years of war for the maintenance of the nation. was not only in 1861 that the capital was imperiled. of the President (never for himself. of July. in placing his army across the highways to Baltimore and to Philadelphia. The Army of the Potomac would. \ when Lee was in Maryland. still The anxiety 1863. by a great triumph in the West. of course.
could see in the distance the smoke from Confederate camp fires. Lincoln would not consenUto the withdrawal of many of the garrisons about Washington to reinforce McClellan on the Peninsula.FORT RICHARDSON DRILL AT THE BIG GUNS. Foreign military at taches often visited the forts about Washington. There was little to relieve the tedium of guard duty. which was threatened in the beginning of the war and subsequently on when Lincoln. In the center picture we see two of them inspecting a gun. In sharp contrast was that of their battle-scarred comrades who passed before Lincoln when he visited the front. The troops in the tents and barracks were always able to present a fine appearance on review. and the men spent their time principally at drill and in keeping their arms and accouterments spick and span. 1862 CopyrigM by Review of Reviews Co. OFFICERS OF THE FIFTY FIFTH NEW YORK VOLUNTEERS DEFENSES OF WASHINGTON CAMP OF THE FIRST CONNECTICUT HEAVY ARTILLERY Here we occasions see some of the guardians of the city of Washington. looking from the White House. .
the rocks of Devil s Den and the slopes of the hill were thickly strewn with dead. but Warren. with two or three aides. Longstreet s men were actually on their way to take possession of the rocky hill from which the left and rear of the Union line could have been en filaded. and with the realization that the control of the hill was absolutely essential for the maintenance of the line. almost he placed his fla. raised some flags over the rocks. catalogue of the ships. the Federals held their own. Each of these vessels repre Brady series of sents a history of its own. a division of the Fifth Corps.  . getting an impression that the position was occupied. hind it. The editors have fortunately been able to include with the crest. came the first attack.". delayed a brief Top.t0tn0rajilttr Smirfc as was the foresight of General Warren that recog nized the essential importance of this position for the main After the repulse of Sickles s tenance of the Union line.g when there were no guns be single-handed. in grim con trast to the smiling fields of the quiet farm behind. great army photographs a private collection. Xo Union force was for the moment available for the defense. A later. but when darkness fell. and the leader of Longstreet s advance. the Con federate field-guns that mark the position of Longstreet s lines. the bodies of the Blue and the Gray beautiful statue of Warren lying closely intermingled. Third Corps in the Peach Orchard. A Round Top at the point where. boats on the rivers of the West. This momentary respite gave Warren time to bring to the defense of the hill troops from the nearest command that few minutes was available. some advantages of position. of more than four hundred views of the gun probably unique. followed by a series of fierce onsets With that continued through the long summer afternoon. One wishes for the imagination of a Homer which could present with due effectiveness a new ". It spell for reenforcements. The general is looking out gravely over the slope and stands on Little now N toward the opposite where have been placed.
This break in the Federal line was discovered by General Warren just in time. . LITTLE ROUND TOP THE KEY TO GETTYSBURG. to find behind each a soldier waiting for the hand-to-hand struggle which meant the death of one or the other. which led the Confederates to were removed. July 2. Hastily procuring a flag. field Round Top.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. On this rocky slope of Little with the Federals in the second day s conflict. way. believe the position strongly occupied and delayed Longstreet tells all s advance long enough for troops to be rushed forward to meet it. presented a far more appalling appearance than does the picture. 1803. Longstreet s men fought From boulder to boulder they wormed their The whole tangled and terrible After the battle each rock and tree overshadowed a victim. with but two or three other officers to help him he planted it on the hill.slaughter pen". The picture too plainly at what sacrifice the height was finally held. A ". at Gettysburg. which was taken after the wounded Little Round Top had been left unprotected by the advance of General Sickles Third Corps.
His phrase damned tea-kettles came. that Farragut was speaking half a century ago. any such attempt at protection. such sleep as could be secured. in the time of slow-velocity missiles. excepting a couple of easily plugged holes. the the day. But when a shell makes its way into one of those damned tea It sputters round inside doing kettles.  . ". and the men lay on them. apart from the natural exaggeration of such an utterance. It must be borne in mind.". During hot that the hand could barely rest upon it. however. to be the general descriptive term for the ironclads. not only by the themselves. the iron of the decks would get so places. applied through. no damage.". had the impatience of the old-fashioned ". all kinds of mischief. It was difficult to protect the man at the wheel from such plunging fire. The steepness of the banks on the Red River gave peculiar advantages for such fire. ".". lie preferred wooden frigate of which his flag was the representative. The decks were kept wetted down. ". getting. sleep was impossible. but bales of cotton were often placed around the upper the ". the famous Hartford. as it was frequently the case that the guns of the boats could not be elevated so as to reach the foe s position. toward the morning hours when the hulls had cooled down. Why. if a shell strikes the side of the goes clean Unless somebody happens to be directly in the path. there is ". At night. sailor against for himself the old type of ship. men in the ranks but by the naval men There were assured advantages given by the armor in time of action against most of the fire that was possible with weapons of the day.Admiral Farragut. but for the midsummer climate of tea-kettles were most abominable abiding Louisiana. The progress of the armored transports making their way up the Red River under fire from the shore was an inter esting feature of that campaign. while accepting the armored vessels as possessing certain advantages and as apparently a necessity of modern warfare. Hartford it said he. it can t get out again.
and little eye we look northward over the valley toward and beyond the town of Gettysburg. Across the plain to in the middle distance. utter coolness. termination with which that charge was The is spirit of complete devotion to one of the most precious heritages of a united nation. THE FATEFUL FIELD No picture has ever been painted to equal this panorama of the very center of the shell ground over which surged the struggling troops mid shot and of the fighting at Gettysburg.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. and grim de made have rarely been paralleled in history. and up the muzzles of the guns on field on Independence Day. the conviction which prompted Pickett and his men . over the Federal breastworks Cemetery Ridge which were belching forth grape and canister. The daring gallantry. The camera was planted on through its during the thickest Little Round Top. swept the men in gray under General Pickett in the last brave but unsuccessful assault that left Meade in possession of the very near the crest. 1863.
through the building of turtles was which Admiral Porter s river fleet of eleven ". ". w as able to make its way back to the Mississippi with a very much lessened opposition. General Taylor. The photograph gives an excellently accu A rate view of a portion of the dam. five wing-dams were constructed. The problem was. had managed to cut off all connections with the Mississippi. while \ve were feeding in the town of Alexandria the women and children whose men folks \vere fighting us from outside. it would have been necessary to overcome by frontal attacks a series of flank of the army breastworks by which this road was blocked. within the time at our disposal and with the ma terial available (in a country in which there was no stone). and the army of General Banks. ". It happened more than once (I recall witnessing one such inci dent) that the cotton was brought into flames by such shot and it became necessary to run the vessel ashore. repulsed and disappointed but by no means demoralized. while the inches. the turtles had been held above the rapids at Alexandria. Without the aid of Porter s guns to protect the r ". brought safely over the rapids at Alexandria. This improvised armor proved. Lieut. not only insufficient but a peril when the enterprising Confederate gunners suc ceeded in discharging from their field-pieces red-hot shot. of which the shortest pair. retreating along the river road. was eagerly accepted by General Banks. however.as Ijtetnrg works which were sufficient to keep off at least musketry fire. to increase the depth of water on the rapids by about twenty-two The plan submitted by the clever engineer officer. longest pair. and. was  els . Through a sudden fall of the river. photograph in the series which presents a picturesque view of the famous Red River dam recalls some active spring days in Louisiana. with the narrowest passage for the water. we had rations sufficient for only about three weeks. The energetic Confederate leader.-Colonel Bailey. Under Bailey s directions. with the widest aperture for the water. of the Fourth Wisconsin. was up-stream.
near the tree at the edge of the road. Impa to retrieve the earlier retrograde movement at this point. General Reynolds pierced by a Confederate bullet. was thrown out to the cornfield in Riding out to it to reconnoiter. During the first day s fighting this peaceful cornfield was trampled by the advancing Confederates. The cupola of the seminary on the ridge held at nightfall by Lee s forces is visible in the distance. The town of Gettysburg lies one mile beyond. and his line of skirmishers fell. Later. . it.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. shoving back the enemy before the picture. At this spot Major-General John F. WHERE REYNOLDS FELL AT GETTYSBURG. Reynolds met his death. General Reynolds again advanced his com tient Reynolds troops. Gen eral had encountered the Confederates and had been compelled to fall back. mand. advancing early in the day. the Federal line by hard fighting had gained considerable advantage on the right.
with no particular damage. although itself arduous enough. in details on alternate days.placed at the point on the rapids where the increased depth was The water was thrown. men selected from the On by the West ern regiments. boys. with the result that he was taken down over the rapids. The wood-chopping is being done under a scattered but active fire. calling upon my command to follow but the w ater which ". had not gone very much above the w^aist of the tall colonel. arid not only was the depth secured. ". After the hot work of tearing down the sugar-mills. the ". caught the small adjutant somewhere above the nostrils. in the pool beyond. as it were. leading the way into the water where the men had to work in the swift current at the adjustment of the crates. a territory claimed sharpshooters of our opponents. he took the liberty of saying to the Wisconsin six-footer. I marched after the colonel into the river. are applying their axes to the shaping of the logs for the crates from which the dams were constructed. time. lahor of house-hreaking. The saving of the fleet cidents of the war. and the vessels were brought safely through the rapids into the deep water below. in pulling down the sugar-mills and in breaking up the iron-work and the bricks. I recall the fatiguing rapids. r . but while hastened somewhat in speed. He came up. and the was one of the most dramatic in method of operation. wet but still ready for service. Colonel Bailey. was The dams were completed within the necessary refreshing. and calling Come along. into a funnel. it s only up to your waists. service in the cool water.". when the troops were put to work. that was hardly fair for us little fellows. As in duty bound. protected more or less by our skirmish line. the further side of the river. it loses none of its precision. but in re porting for the second time.". Colo nel. out. required. as well as the  tims . I recall the tall form of the big six-footer.". hut the rush downward 1 helped to carry the vessels in safety across the rocks of the As I look at the photograph.
with a barge and a transport lashed to her. P. moment the abandonment and presented with a sword and a purse $3. Bailey had been a lumberman admiration I feel for the ability of Lieut. and sending messages to Porter that his he was shot by them on March 21. brevetted briga support of Admiral Porter. She was commanded during the Red River expedition by Lieutenant-Commander Foster. The Lafayette had the stronger armament. all the Federal Admiral Porter fleet imprisoned by low were able to pass down below the ". of any of his vessels even though the Red He River expedition had been ordered to re turn and General Banks was chafing at de lay war and was a formidable enemy of the till ".Bushwhackers". The Lafayette stood up to this fiery christening and successfully ran the gantlet. Ohio. In the under taking he had the approval and earnest country. is Wisconsin and had there gained the prac tical Colonel Bailey. with two 100-pound Parrott guns astern. . troops must be got in motion at once. four 9-inch guns in the broadside. in his report. April 28. He was The him highest honors the Government can Engineer of the Nineteenth this time.The army browed.to said Ad Red River expedition in in miral Porter. She got her first taste of it on the night of April 16. was not one of those en in the trapped at Alexandria. at Salem. 1827. ".". Army Corps at bestow on Colonel Bailey can never repay for the service he has rendered the and obtained permission to go ahead and build his dam. and two 24She and the Choctaw were the most important acquisitions to Porter s pound howitzers. The Lafayette was built and armed for heavy fighting. This without doubt the . . express the 1804.Words water above the Falls at Alexandria at the close of the futile are inadequate. Here we see her lying above Vicksburg spring of 1863. For this achievement Bailey was promoted to colonel. the Choctaw. He was born COLONEL JOSEPH BAILEY IN 1864 THE MAN WHO SAVED THE FLEET Copyright by Review of Renews Co. 1867. experience which taught him that the Acting Chief best engineering feat ever performed. held her course with difficulty through the tornado of shot and shell which poured from the Confederate batteries on the river front in Vicksburg as soon as the all movement was vessels save discovered. voted the thanks of Congress. the other one transport. 1863. were side-wheel steamers altered into casemate ironclads with rams. Her heavy draft precluded her being taken above the Falls. READY FOR HER BAPTISM This powerful gunboat. gested engineers laughed at this wide- Bailey pushed on with his work and in unassuming man when he sug building a s eleven days he succeeded in so raising the dam so as to release water in the channel that vessels Falls.". She and her sister ship. fleet toward the end of 1862. . plan was feasible. though accompanying Admiral Porter on the Red River expedition. the Lafayette. consider for a of who refused to dier general. as did J. when Porter took part of his fleet past the Vicksburg batteries to support Grant s crossing of the river in an advance on Vicksburg from below.000 by the officers of Porter settled in Missouri after the s fleet. The Lafayette. carrying two 11 -inch Dahlgrens forward.
okly and with so little preparation.THE BATTLE WITH THE RIVER Colonel Bailey s wonderful dam which. and stone We see the men engaged upon this work at the Coal barges filled with brick and stone were sunk bevond this whUe right of the picture. ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^^ - *~ .^ br( H 7 t".l".* 7 mf ". VfiT ". no private company would have completed within Bailey 8 men did .^ u r he b oilin? sun". backed up the current sufficiently to release three vessels The very next f_^ ". according to Admiral Porter. had V". Never was thereTinstance where such Acuities were overcome so qu . The current of the Red River. briek.00o".? their necks in water. ".*.u th".000.t in eleven days and saved a fleet of Union vessels worth *. a t the r te of nine SW ( P aW he W rk f th S 1(1 erS aS faSt aS U Was P^&. * * In pifiht Baile v 8 men workin "..The work was commenced v hiking Irom the left hank of \l river with large trees cross-tiedi with om iT the .gt.V heavy timber and filled in with brush.. rushing". - .
being confident now that all the gunboats would be Their hopes were realized when the last vessel passed to safety on May 12. In another instant she had plunged to safety. approached the opening in the dam through which a torrent was pouring. having squeezed of the dam. 1864.". a breathless silence seized the watchers on the shore. and a deafening cheer rose from thirty thousand throats. seeing their labor swept away in a moment. and as the Lexington.his noblehearted soldiers. jumping on his horse. finally brought over. morning two ton to of the barges were swept away. come down and attempt the passage . cheerfully went to work to repair damages. through the passage of the falls.Copyright by Renew of Reviews Co. THE MEN WHO CAPTURED THE CURRENT Admiral Porter. Por ter was afraid that Colonel Bailey would be too disheartened by the accident to the dam to renew work upon it. The other three vessels were at once ordered to follow the Lexington s example. and came safely through. But Bailey was undaunted and ". rode to the upper falls and ordered the Lexing The water was rapidly falling.
which was the first command to reach the Savannah River. Ain t we jest obleeged to take them? The assault was made under the immediate inspection of General Sherman. The vet erans had for weeks been tramping. ". the commissary wagons were practically empty.". By the time the advance had reached the line of the coast. under appoint ment made months back by General Sherman. who realized the importance of getting at once into connection with the fleet. But between the boys and the food lay the grim earthworks of Fort McAllister. heads as horizontal as the bosom of the ocean?".whole effect of the river scene.See my Bummers. was the signal for the steaming up-stream of the supply ships. ". in the form of corn on the cob or an occasional razor-backed hog. could see down the river the smoke of the Yankee gunboats and of the trans ports which were bringing from New York.". and that evening raising of fort  The Old Glory over the . with an occasional inter A val of fighting. The men in the division of General Hazen. to offset the wear and tear of the shoe-leather. your boys take those works? and the answer was in substance. ". ". are admirably indicated in the cleverly taken photographs.Ain t their Old Sherman with most illigant emotion. view of Fort McAllister recalls a closing incident of Sherman s dramatic march from Atlanta to the sea. ". the muchneeded supplies. Before there could be any eating. working in a country that had been already exhausted by the demands of the retreating Confederates. The soldiers had for days been dependent upon the scattered supplies that could be picked up by the foraging parties. it was necessary to do a little more fighting. gave hardly enough return. but with very little opportunity for what the boys called a square meal. ". The Can question came from the commander to General Hazen. and the general was proper ly appreciative of the energy with which the task was executed. said ". and the foragers.
The preponderance of capable military leaders was an im portant factor in giving to the Southern armies the measure of success secured by these armies during the first two years. I used to meet with some sharp from army men and from others interested in army time that had been taken by the men operations. ing every possible natural advantage for defense. military capacity developed also \\ \\ \\\%\| North. becomes the task of the leaders and armies of the North higher we through whose service the final campaigns were won and the cause of nationality was maintained. I believe.Itp fHtotograjthtr aa ijtstorg * * witnessed for the advance division a glorious banquet. with ingenuity in utiliz sources. however. as to the of the North to overcome  . as the commander of the Army of Northern Virginia. or for the nation. Lee accomplished with his Army of Northern Virginia a larger task in proportion to the resources at his command than has. of course. with initiative and enterprise in turning defense at most unexpected moments into attack. For the last year of that period. with real beef and soft bread. It may frankly be admitted. through the weary and bloody campaigns of three years. on the 22d of December. but even during this earlier period. that no commander of on the side of the the North had placed upon him so stupendous a burden as that which was carried by Lee. General Sherman was able to report to President Lincoln that he had secured for him. a Christ And even this mas present in the shape of the city of Savannah. with a sublime patience and persistence and with the devotion and magnificent fighting capacity of the men behind \^\SC1 him. Lee was fighting with no forces in reserve and with constantly diminishing re With great engineering skill. the larger. The place the ability of the Southern commander and the fighting capacity of the men behind him. climax was capped when. ever been accomplished in modern warfare. and by the middle of the war the balance of leadership ability may be considered as fairly equal. In going to England in the years immediately succeeding criticism the war.
forces from Richmond first the Seven Days Battles the hopes of the Confederates were So hastily arranged was that it. LEE. AND COLONEL TAYLOR E. C. he became the military adviser Davis and finally the General-in-Chief of the in Confederate forces. ever became so universally beloved as Robert Rising from the nominal position of Superintendent of Fortifications at of Jefferson s Richmond. and final meeting with Grant to discuss the terms of surrender that no photograph was obtained of General of but here are preserved for us the commanding figure. Lee throughout the South before the close of the war. not even excepting General Washington himself. From the time that Lee began to drive back McClellan centered in their great general. Major-General G. W. keen eyes. Lee. No military leader in G. and marvelously moulded features Lee as he appeared immediately after that dramatic event. He has just arrived in Richmond from Appomattox.C opyriyht by Review of Reviews Co LEE WITH HIS SOX. C. Colonel Walter Ta vlor. and his aide. W. [A-6] . and is seated in the basement of his Franklin Street residence between his son. any country.
that the history of modern warfare gives no example of so complex. left to [84 . the invaders of which were fighting many miles from their base and with lines of communication that were easily cut. It was absurd that you should have allowed ". You must have been able to put two muskets into the field against every one of your opponents. : yourselves to be successfully withstood for four years and that you should finally have crushed your plucky and skilful oppo nents only through the brute force of numbers.". large armies that were opposed to the plucky and per sistent Boers and the people at home came to have a better The understanding of the nature and extent of the task of securing control over a wild and well-defended territory. extensive. The other thousands have been used up on the march or have been guard the lines of communication. rebellion. a force of some forty thousand Boers found it possible keep two hundred thousand well-equipped British troops at bay for nearly two years. but seventy thousand or sixty thousand. By the constant cutting and harassing of the lines of communication. and a clever dispo sition of lightly equipped and active marching troops who were often able to crush in detail outlying or separated troops of the invaders. The Englishman now understands that when an army originally comprising a hundred thousand to men distant has to come into action at a point some hundred of miles from its base. it is not a hundred thousand muskets that are available. armies which were contending against some of the best fighting material and the ablest military leadership that the world has known. and difficult a mili tary undertaking as that which was finally brought to a suc cessful close by the armies of the North. It is probable.their in opponents and to establish their control over the territory You had Such phrases would be used as twenty-two millions against nine millions. in fact. I recall the difference of judgment given after the British campaigns of South Africa as to the difficulties of an invading army. Without constantly renewed supplies an army is merely a helpless mass of men.
WHICH HAS BEEN SHATTERED IN THE COURSE OF THE BOMBARDMENT FROM CHARLESTON . 1861 SOUTH CAROLINA TROOPS DRILLING ON THE PARADE.THIKD PREFACE THE SOUTH AND THE FEDERAL NAVY THE SOUTH AND THE WAR RECORDS With Many Photographs of 61-65 Taken Inside the Confederate Lines THE SOUTHERN FLAG FLOATING OVER SUMTER ON APRIL 16. TWO DAYS AFTER FORCING OUT ANDERSON AND HIS FEDERAL GARRISON THE FLAG IS MOUNTED ON THE PARAPET TO THE RIGHT OF THE FORMER FLAGSTAFF.
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". and at the same time compelled it to guard every point against a raid like that which had destroyed the Capitol of the United States in 1814? Had able to exercise dominion over the sea the Confederacy instead of the United States been had it been able to keep open its ..= ~9nll7Trrf?l was It has been. Hilary A. States. it is not too had it much outcome of the to say that such a reversal of conditions would have reversed the Civil War. means of communication with the countries of the Old World. we have come that half a century has passed since the Civil War. possessed the sea power to prevent the United States from des patching by water into Virginia its armies and their supplies. ?. Meanwhile it is not amiss in these pages The to look into the causes of the South s failure to set up a nation * -s^ and thus justify Gladstone Newcastle speech in 1862. the mouth been able to blockade Portland.". Newport. 1 CHAD WICK. August 10.The Sea and Sea Power as a Factor in the History United delivered at the Naval War College. Herbert. Boston. and the entrance of Chesapeake Bay .THE FEDERAL NAVY AND THE SOUTH By FRENCH Who E. C. This is so in a moderate  8B2& . 1896. NOW ality. United States shall estimate the value to the United States of the its navy which thus isolated the Confederacy. of the in an address.A. cut it off from communication with the outside world.S. had it York. s surety of Southern success in his -jfaf. Navy services of Rear-Admiral. New of the Delaware.". to a point where we can deal calmly with the philosophy of the great contest without too great disturb ance of the feeling which came near to wrecking our nation actualities of the struggle will be dealt with in the photographic history. as a rule. taken for granted that the South worsted in a fair fight in the field. to send its cotton abroad and to bring back the supplies of which it stood so much in need. ex-Secretary of the Navy. Colonel 8th Alabama Vol unteers.
Gilchrist. with all their accoutrements bright and shining. . A CHARLESTON VOLUNTEER COMPANY AT DRILL UNDER THE WALLS OF CASTLE PINCKNEY In pipe-clayed cross belts and white gloves. here we see a volunteer company of young Confederates standing at ". than repay the owners for the Under these circumstances it can be easily seen that men were tempted to take risks that ordinarily they would avoid. BLOCKADE RUNNER. regularity of express trains. The four officers standing in front of the line are Captain C. Lieutenant B. M. and posing before the camera. John White. Chichester. THE SWIFTEST CRAFT OF HER DAY Copyright hi/ Review of Reviews Co. Lieutenant E. swift vessels like this one left Nassau and Bermuda and traveled direct for their destination.Present Arms". C. Gilchrist is curving his Da mascus scimitar a blade so finely tempered that its point would bend back to form a complete loop.A With the arrive in the night. timed to So great were the profits of blockade running that in some cases one successful voyage out and back would more loss of the vessel. Walpole and Lieutenant R. E.
 1905.". Differ ence of forces in the field may be set aside. .". xix. ". said truly: ".We. of supply. 224. himself a val notably iant soldier of the war. historians have recognized and made clear this General Charles Francis Adams. says: ". The pounding ". reduced to a state of inanition by the blockade. The former. Everything an army could have the Federal forces had to overflowing. any disproportion in numbers was But the army of the North was lavishly largely annulled. could continue this war only as robbers or guerillas. ammu nition. food. given by a British sympathizer in Blackwood July. 1866. not to speak of the luxuries which the abounding North poured forth for its men in the field. Massachusetts Historical Society. there was no want of arms. In other words that success was made pos sible by the undisputed naval and maritime superiority of the North. John Christopher Schwab. The South was in want of many of these nec essaries even in the beginning of the war. The Southern army finally melted away and gave up the fight had arrived at the limit of human endurance through the suffering which came of the absolute want brought by the because it blockade. Some few fact. equipped.We s Magazine for are . analyzing six reasons for the South s failure. . It purchasing supplies of any kind. Cut off from the outer w orld and all exterior sources r v . or medical care. as the controlling condition of Union success. Another is Mr. toward the end it was had was because of this want that it to yield. through elimination brought down to one factor. l the Confederacy was pounded to death. the blockade. Johnston. General Joseph E. or procuring or repairing arms. Proceedings. writing General in 1868. raiment. without the means of Beauregard in want of all. 1 Charles Francis Adams. as the fight being on the ground of the weaker. professor of political economy in Yale University. for the fight was not wholly a fair one. . vol. On the other hand the Southern army was starved of all necessaries.c Natty degree only.
The Cadets had enlisted on April 11. little dreaming that up his life for the Southern cause. the first but one among army officers to offer The hopes now beating high in the hearts of both officers and men were all to be realized in further cost of human life here seen at its flood tide. while in the background to relieve the others are playing the banjo and the violin tedium of this inactive waiting for the glorious battles anticipated in imagination when they enlisted. watched their maneuvers on this spring day. Colonel) Charles D. and can boast none of the bright new uniforms with shining brass buttons that made Here and there a cap indicates an officer. when the ruddy glow on their faces had given place to the sallowness of disease. Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. camp near Mobile on a spring day in To the left we see a youth bending eagerly over the shoulder of the man who holds the much-prized newspaper in his hands. 1861. parading before their encampment at Big Bayou. These men are clad in the rough costume of home life. Yet even these humble accessories were much better than the same troops could show later on. April 21. THE FIRST TASTE OF CAMP LIFE This rare Confederate photograph preserves for us the amusements of the Alabama soldiers in 1861. the Federal camps resplendent.Copyright by Patriot Pub. deeds of bravery but only at in less than three months he would fall in battle. Company A. it was with pride and confidence for the future that their commander. still To the right a group of youngsters are reading letters from home. . Co. Although their uniforms are not such as to make a brilliant display. Dreux. ON PARADE Here a Confederate photographer has caught the Orleans Cadets. This was the first volunteer company mustered into service from the State of Louisiana. near Pensacola. Captain (afterwards Lieut. Florida. 1861.
as sympathizers. go to make an army.000.100.000. never know the actual forces of the South on account of the unfortunate destruction of the Southern records of enlist ments and levies. besides men. The blockade. Schwab in his Financial and con Industrial History of the South during the Civil War.000 Boers in South Africa could put 80.". than the ravages of the army that sapped the industrial navy the larger share strength of the Confederacy.000 could never have been conquered on its own ground by even the great forces the North brought against it but for this failure of re sources which made it impossible to bring its full fighting 7/7 A A 7/.was mainly done by the army. and not merely by force of arms.000 of the South would have furnished an equal proportion had there been arms.". The situ ation which prevented an accomplishment of such results as  was a total of 2. and to these were added 125. patent from the fact that the white population of the seceding states was 5. brilliant achievements of the army. The South fought as men have rarely fought. of course.600. clothing. and the rest of the many accessories which. stituted the most powerful tool at the command of the Fed The eral Government in its efforts to subdue the South. and if the 325. r The South w as thus beaten by want. Its spirit was the equal of that of any race or time. how ever.600. /% strength into the field. nation of well on to 6. the conditions which permitted it to be effectively done were mainly established by the navy. ". we shall. 1 ". who. joined the Southern army. know that there We V and reenlistments in senting some 1.000 men into the field.000 three-year enlistments. repre // xT ^ . the 5.600. food.000 men were available is. but we lean to ascribing in to the undermining the power of re It was the blockade rather sistance on the part of the South.".906 enlistments the army and navy of the North. That some 1.000 men. relentless and almost uniformly successful operations of the navy have been minimized in importance by the at times more ".841. says Mr.
CONFEDERATES ENLISTING AT THE NATCHEZ COURTHOUSE. armies. RECRUITING AT BATON ROUGE 1862 . South The fresh recruits are but scantily supplied with arms and accouterments. for only the Federal arsenals in the South could supply munitions of war. and the Southland as the war opened. believed that nearly a hundred thousand from each State enlisted in the Southern The two scenes on this page were duplicated in hundreds of towns throughout Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. that of Louisiana at eighty thousand. EARLY IN This rare Confederate photograph preserves a lively scene that was typical of the war preparations in the 1861 in the spring of 1861. The military population of Mississippi at the opening of the It is war has been estimated at seventy thousand.
was fifteen hundred miles in length. The many thousand troops which would have been an invaluable reenforcement to the Southern armies in the East were to remain west of the Mississippi and were to have no influence in the future events. for in any case the State would finally have to yield with the rest of the Confederacy. on the Mississippi. to deprive the South of its intercourse with Europe and in addition to cut the Confederacy in twain through the control of the Mis those in South Africa. on the west. No in touch with  v~\ . latter.un Vir ginia. along which operations were to begin. . sissippi. the one to New Orleans. of blockade. was truly a gigantic proposition. eight hundred miles from north to south and seventeen hundred from east to defended by such forces as mentioned. The question of the military control of Texas could be left aside so long as its communications were cut. The The determination to attempt by force to reinstate the Federal authority over a vast territory. The strategic situation was of the simplest. The frontier of the Confederacy. was but a part of the great scheme Porter. was the result of the blockade of the Southern coast. It was as far from Washington to Atlanta (which may be considered as the heart of the Confederacy) as from London to Vienna. and it gained largely by the battles of Farragut. the other to Mobile Atlanta connected with Chattanooga Mobile . Foote. Within the Confederacy were railways which connected Chattanooga with Lynchburg. a force the South was powerless to resist. and Savannah were line \vhich Richmond through the coast passed through Wilmington and Charleston. What has been said shows how clear was the role of the navy. . as it cut off the supply of food from Texas and the shipments of material which entered that State by way of Matamoras. to be measured somewhat by the effort put forth by Great Britain to subdue the comparatively very small forces of the South African republic. and Davis. on the east and with Memphis.was impossible in the circum stances that they could be. west two north and south lines ran.
April 6. Sunday. 18C2. We see them at Camp Louisiana proudly wearing new boots and their uniforms as yet unfaded by the sun.Some very youthful Louisiana soldiers waiting for their first taste of battle. and by night were Federal camps save one. WAITING FOR THE SMELL OF POWDER CONFEDERATES BEFORE SHILOH . The s Company of the Washington Artillery took part in the closely contested Battle of Shiloh.first the next day at Pittsburg Landing enabled Grant to recover from the reverses suffered on that bloody day". of the guns handsomely and helped materially in forcing the Federals back to the bank The Washington Artillery served their river. Fifth Louisiana gave liberally of her sons. who distinguished themselves in the fighting throughout the West. their These are members of the Washington Artillery of New Orleans. Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. .Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. a few weeks before Shiloh. in possession of all the The Confederates defeated Sherman troops in the early morning. The timely arrival of Buell s army ".
would be an error. were often in danger.". Four Unionist objectives. which for a long period the South carried on excepting in that portion which ran from Lynchburg to Chattanooga through the eastern part of Tennessee. The commanders of Eastern and Western armies any effective coordination. the southern ports blockaded. was very distant from railway transportation. the noted English writer on strategy. but it was nearly two years more before the gallant Army of Northern Virginia suc r : r*&. were clear. ". To say that at the outset there was any broad and wellconsidered strategic plan at Washington for army action. no central organization to do the planning of campaigns. the great river which divided the Confederacy into an east and w est brought under Federal control.lt. At the end of two years all but the last of these objectives had been secured. where the population was in the main sympathetic with the Union. of holding and operating on interior lines. east of the Mississippi. a march which Colonel Hen would have derson.part of the South. There was no such thing as a general staff. It was not until Sherman made his great march to the sea across Georgia. says been impossible had not a Federal fleet been ready to receive him when he reached the Atlantic. such as now exists. Thus the South had the great advantage. The greatly disaffected border states which had not joined the Con federacy must be secured and the loyal parts of Virginia and It often went their own gait without was not until 7 Tennessee defended. Grant practically came to supreme military command that complete coordination was possible. that the South felt its com munications hopelessly involved. whereas those of the Federals. which it held for several years. as in the case of Grant s advance by way of the Wilderness. and the army which defended Richmond overcome. however. Its communications were held intact. cumbed through the general misery wrought in the Confed eracy by the sealing of its ports and the consequent inability of  .
These men of Company B of the Ninth Mississippi enlisted as the Home Guards of Marshall County. at the right. February 16. the Ninth Mississippi made a glorious record for itself in Chalmers Brigade at Shiloh. said General Bragg. The boots worn by Colonel Barry.". and were mustered into the State service at Holly Springs. Lacking in the regalia of war fare.". Rankin. where it lost its gallant Colonel. OFFICERS OF MISSISSIPPI S ". . man % Their checked trousers and workday shirts are typical of the simple equipment each furnished for himself.?% - Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. were good enough for the average Confederate soldier to go through fire to obtain later on in the war.FIGHTING NINTH. In this long-lost Confederate photograph we see vividly the simple accoutrements which characterized many of the Southern regiments during the war. ". 1861.were troops and commander more worthy of each other and their State. ".Never.". William A.
brought the tre mendous pressure of the sea power to bear against the South. grinds It was the command slowly.the Southerners to hold their own against the ever increasing. the able Englishman just mentioned. The great by this concentration of military and naval power. well-fed and well-supplied forces of the North. have for strategical results obtained him a profound interest and importance. at the very outset of the war.]  . which were as remarkable as the circumstances under which the successes were gained. like the mills of God. and to fire on the national ensign. deserve our closest Field-Marshal^ the study. An English general has almost always to make his what the navy can do for him. in conjunction with the army.". must always. but grinds exceedingly small. calculations strictly in accordance with therefore. To quote again ". In forcing the Confederates to become the aggressors. and had her statesmen possessed the knowledge of what that pressure meant. EDITORS. of the sea which finally told and made certain the success of the army and the reuniting of the States. in establishing a blockade of their coasts he brought into play a force which. they must have realized that Abraham Lincoln was no ordinary foe. split operations by the Confederacy in two and severed the East from the West. he had created a united North.The cooperation of the United States navy with their army in producing a decisive effect upon the whole character of the military operations is akin to what happens with us in nearly every war in which we engage. [To the discussion presented above by Admiral Chadwick may be added the following expression of opinion by one of the foremost military students of modern Europe: ". The which the Federal navy. Judicious indeed was the policy which. Right Honorable Viscount Wolseley.
This but recently re-discovered picture is the work of G. Cook. The guns of the Federal had now been pounding the fort for many weeks. the Charleston photographer. the ruins later upon a detachment of sleeping soldiers. SUMTER BECOMES A FEDERAL TARGET The eastern blockading is barracks inside Fort Sumter during the fleet Bombardment of Sept. The upper casemate to the left has been demolished. The flag and guns shown in the earlier picture have been swept away. 8. S. 1863. however. The view to the right of the exploding shell on page 100. The lower ones remained intact. .Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. The guns here bore on the channel on the chimney of which are a couple of In one of the lower rooms of the bar racks. to be used and even armed to the end Fort Moultrie. .nearly opposite The bake oven fell of the barracks Confederate soldiers [A 7] was frequently used for heating solid shot. and continued in the picture . of the Confederate s defense. seen to the right.
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". in 1861-5. called ".".362 the States.773 died of were /m does not include the missing muster-rolls.A. Differences in methods of reporting the strength of commands. but the United States War Depart ment. The report of Provost-Marshal General Fry shows that of these 61. so that to these fig ures a substantial percentage must be added. Brigadier-General.//!/! .".000 men.000. The War of the Rebellion.954 Confederate soldiers were killed in action.570 died of wounds. The tabulation of these rolls shows that 52. THE War. 1869. and The War Between mm -. I WRIGHT. The Civil The War of Secession.287 died of disease.865.". C. 21. and 59.lt. The Confederate forces are estimated from 600. 306 were accidentally killed. 1 wounds. United States ". the absence of adequate field-records and the destruction of those actually f 102 ] . The Adjutant-General made a report February 7. has many Confederate muster-rolls on which the casualties are recorded.504. Official reports show that 2. Department for Military Records in the Agent of the United States War the Collection of &. and 267 were executed by sentence.". which has been assiduously engaged in the collection of all records of both armies. war which was carried on ". I II/I/ I/I/// V //I was one of the greatest conflicts of ancient or modern times.000 to 1.S. This killed in battle. . and ever since the conclusion of the war there has been no little controversy as to the total number of troops involved.028 men were mustered into the service of the United States. The losses in the Confederate army have never been officially reported. 34.297 died of disease. showing the total number of deaths to be 303. 183.RECORDS OF THE WAR BETWEEN THE STATES By MARCUS J.
Co. 3 is Wilmot D. Charleston Harbor. No. Bachman. K.the finest In this picture we see three of them taken prisoners at Gettysburg and caught by the camera of a Union infantry on earth!". ". South Carolina was particularly active in this line.Never. Confederate Uniforms at Gettysburg. later Captain in the German Volunteers. TWO YEARS AFTERWARD Copyright by Patriot Pub. officers of the Flying Artillery we see here entering the Confederate service at Sullivan s Island.". 1863. 4 is W. 7 is John Waites. SPRING These 1861 Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. Lee could only make his daring invasion of the North in 1863 by severing his connection with any base of supplies. Green. Number 2 of this group is Allen J. still wear It was one of the state militia companies so extensively organized ing the blue uniforms of their volunteer organization. he had no friendly force waiting to receive him should he prove able to overcome the powerful army that opposed him. According to a Northern authority. . a state infantry No.". organization that finally entered the artillery service and achieved renown as Bachman s Battery. photographer. then Captain of the Columbia Flying Artillery (later a Major in the Confederate service). were unquestionably the envy of many of their less fortunate comrades. then Lieutenant and later Captain of another company. and. the Confederate soldiers were not ashamed to wear the blue clothing brought in by the blockade runners. ". unlike Sherman in his march to the sea. Their shoes perhaps taken in sheer necessity from the dead on the field worn and dusty as we see them. then a 4th Lieutenant. After 18G3. Lee s veterans in 1863 were ". they marched and fought in any garb they were fortunate enough to secure and were glad to carry with them the blankets which would enable them to snatch some rest at night. says Eggleston. when the Confederate resources were waning. State the Charleston papers were full of notices for various military companies to assemble for drill or for the distribution of arms and accoutrements. No. The memory of their heroism is the common heritage of all the people of the great Republic. After the secession of the throughout the South previous to the war. de Saussure. July 1-3. These battle-stained Confederates had no glittering uniforms to wear.anywhere did soldiers give a better account of themselves.SOUTH CAROLINA MEN IX BLUE.
Colorado. Maryland. 2. Texas. Kentucky.S. 80. to Secretary Elihu Root. during the tenure of succeeding Presidents. 244 4. as well as in the interest of history. 108. 519. Minnesota. under the direction of the Secretaries of War. Arizona. Tennessee. and this work was projected near the close of the first administration It has continued of President Lincoln. 6. 1. 11. the gagements.67. 1. The total cost of publication was $2. Arkansas. 1 . North Caro lina. prepared a methodical arrangement of the matter which was continued throughout.A. 167. Louisiana. South Carolina. 80. Florida. under whose direction it was completed.nf made War Irturmt are responsible for considerable lack of information as There to tbe strength and losses of the Confederate army. 4. U. Utah. 3. 60. 32. Washington Territory. 6 . Pennsylvania. Colonel Robert N. 1. Joseph W. 7. 4 . Dakota. Stanton. The expert who continued with the work from its inception was Mr. 14. Nevada. Illinois. 186. 1. Kirkley. Scott. The total number of volumes is 70. Indian Territory. Ohio. 17. which took place in the following named States: In Xew York. 128. Nebraska. for there is no probability that further data on this subject will be forthcoming. District of Columbia. West Virginia. . In diana. 138.858. Missouri. It soon became evident that the official record of the War of 1861-5 must be compiled for the purposes of Government administration. 4.514. 9. 118.  . 1. matter is involved in considerable controversy and never will be settled satisfactorily. 19. under whom it began. Oregon. 298. 78. and former erate Officers of the officers United of the Confed chief civilian army were also employed in the work. Mississippi.261 battles and en fore. Alabama. The immensity and extent of our great Civil War are shown by the fact that there were fought 2. New Mexico. many of the volumes containing several separate parts. 2. Kansas. Virginia.. from Edwin M. and Idaho. California. the total number of books. who was placed in charge of the work in 1874. 30. Georgia. States army were detailed.
but each has donned the dress coat of an unused uniform carefully saved in some chest in the belief that it was to identify him with a victorious cause and not as here with a lost one. General E. The names of those seated are: Richard M. Louisiana. and William Freret. gathered in Shreveport. in Mississippi Department. THE LAST TO LAY DOWN ARMS Recovered from oblivion only after a long and patient search. Major of Engineers. are : David French Boyd. First Louisiana Engineers. this is believed to be the last Confederate On May 26. from left to right. Venable.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. First Louisiana Engineers. The names of those standing. Colonel of Engineers. unidentified. Kirby Smith surrendered the troops in the TransParoled by that capitulation these officers war photograph taken. . T. The clothes in which they fought were worn to tatters. early June to commemorate by means of the camera their long connection with the war. and Octave Hopkins. C. Proctor. The oldest of them was but 40. Douglas. 1865. D. H.
it is believed. which must form. In 1878.  .". work. history of this official record is mentioned in these pages as it indicates a wide-spread national desire on the part of the people of the United States to have a full and impartial The record of the great conflict. and all bitter feeling eliminated. The large number of these volumes makes them unavailable for general reading. the attitude of the South increased records were the result. but give permanent testimony of the photographic nega tive. and erate archives. nothing could be more useful or interest the equally The Photographic History of the Civil War.0f tlj? liar J8rttu?nt tlj? States * In view of the distrust with which the South for a while naturally regarded the efforts made by the Government to pro cure the records of the Confederacy. The ing than text does not aim at a statistical record. and others held for sale at cost. North and South. ". as a successor to and complement of this Gov ernment publication. will add greatly to that end. The more intelligent people of the country. but in the prepa ration of The Photographic History of the Civil War the ". and its fulness and impartial character have never been questioned. Nothing gives so clear a conception of a person or an event as a picture. By provision of Congress. but is an impartial ". Therefore. a Confederate officer. the writer. narrative supplementing the pictures. was appointed as agent of the War Department for the collection of Confed Through his efforts ern people became more cordial. the work of the depart 1 ment to obtain this material at first met with slight success. necessarily. editors have not only consulted these official reports. certain sets of the volumes were distributed. It is the record of the struggle as distinguished from personal recollections and reminiscences. the basis of all history concerned with this era. desire the This truth put on record.
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POINT THE APPROACH TO RICHMOND VIA JAMES RIVER. AS IT LOOKED IN WAR-TIME.VIRGINIA. AND GUNBOATS ".".PATRICK HENRY". BLOCKED BY THE CONFEDERATE RAM ".".JAMESTOWN. SUNK IN THE CHANNEL TO HOLD THE FEDERAL FLEET FROM RICHMOND (SEE TWO PAGES FOLLOWING FOR ANOTHER VIEW OF THIS SCENE) . AND ".E STRATEGY WAR -EADERS A CENTRAL STRATEGICAL.
and the  difficult. To this fact the surrender of Forts Henry and Donelson and the ultimate control of the Mississippi by the Union forces gives eloquent testimony.OBSTRUCTIONS RENDERED USELESS The superior navy of the Federals at the beginning and throughout the war enabled them to gain the advantage of penetrating the rivers leading into the interior of the Confederacy and thus support the military forees in many telling movements. Far more dreaded than the advance of the army was the approach of the powerful Monitor and the Galena up the James River. . In the East the regions between Washington and Richmond were traversed by streams. small and large. which made aggressive warfare For this reason McClellan chose the James River Peninsula for his first advance upon the Confederate Capital.
VIRGINIA. the Federal vessels confined their activities to the lower James. Hence the obstructions (shown on the opposite page) in the bend of the James River near Drewry s Bluff. in 186-t rendered them useless by throwing his army across the James in one of his famous flanking movements and advancing toward Richmond in a new direction. NEAR DREWRY S BLUFF. .Copyright by Review of Reriewi JAMES RIVER. first 1862 sunk thought of the Confederates was to hold this danger in abeyance. The campaign developing into a siege of Petersburg on the Appornattox. where a powerful battery known as Fort Darling was hastily but These blocked the attempts of the Federals to invest the Confederate capital until Grant s superior strategy effectively constructed.
though. F. eralship. a more useful word than  . He also pursues his investigations without of the distracting influences of war itself. and has several valuable which make it ". but will Stone wall Jackson and the Civil War". it is right. by the disputes and explanations of participants. His point of view is illuminated then by the stories as told by both contestants. C. particularly when he makes his study after a lapse of fifty years. It is a comparatively recent addition to our lan derived from the Greek crrpar^yta. strategist. At the same time. and to read the secrets of our future in its tale of failure or success. for not only will a comprehension of its immutable principles add a new interest to the records of stirring times make him a more useful citizen. Henderson. In a larger sense. unfortunately. it is a science which repays the student.". as strategic and ". and the strictest attention to the various steps in the problems it presents. R. But grasp of many factors. ". meaning gen is ". It may not. ". although he may have no direct concern with military affairs . THE many student has great advantage over the actor in war. a soldiers. we shall continue to study the great conflict of 1861-5. ". Strategy guage. United States strategy. Until we have another war.B. even among requiring both in practice and in demonstration constant and careful study of the map. because past experience gives the best lessons and guides for the future.THE STRATEGY OF THE By EBEN SWIFT CIVIL Army WAR Lieutenant-Colonel 8th Cavalry. any therefore. by Lieutenant-Colonel G. the closest computation of time and space. is a very unpopular science. derivatives. and great achievements. be entirely fair to take each man s act before the bar of history and to require him to justify himself to the critics of a later day.
observing the war at close range as General McClellan s personal aide- de-camp. On the ground. . in the face of a continual bombardment. Hooker and genial disposition made him a universal favorite. visit to America to observe the Civil W ar. Colonel Dickinson. 7 To his left is Lieutenant Rosencranz. serving at the time spirit. later the winner of honors with his airship and then on a officer. to Meade in the same capacity. conspicuous actors as well the left. Ulric Dahlgren. dug on the James. who commanded the colored Dutch Gap Canal is brigade which. and under his direction. r Standing Captain on Meade s staff. w here he was wounded. as students in the struggle. Assistant Adjutant General to Hooker. a Swedish on leave of absence. The man in the straw hat is Lieut. of the Prussian Army. a position in which he served until the Battle of Gettysburg.Copyriglit by Review of Reviews Co* WAR STUDENTS OF TWO CONTINENTS What an excellent example of open-air group portraiture the work of Gardner s camera! But photography can add nothing to the fame of these men. His brave and The other men are Americans. gathered together in an idle hour to chat about the strategy of the war. sits Major Ludlow. Seated in the center is Count Zeppelin. He successively served Burnside. Even the loss of a leg could not quell his indomitable and he subsequently sacrificed his life in an effort to release the Federal prisoners at Libby and Belle Isle.
were at work. In Maryland. place. and James rivers. Of the former. however. the region of decisive operations was. which could be used for lines of military operations. . both the Xorth and / / South had several routes running east and west for lateral communication. The line was unequally divided by the towering barrier of the Alleghany Mountains. over which communication was difficult.0f 1BH1-B5 means the art of the general first generalship. new l/i tff/i \\ Although hostilities at first began over an area half as large as Europe. In respect to water routes. railroads. about seven hundred miles in an air-line. Tennessee. and the South had several running north and south in each section. on ac count of lack of communication. The Mississippi River sep arated three of the seceding States from the remaining eight. Kentucky. the Union and the Confederacy. The advantage of the water route over that by rail was at once utilized by the Northern generals. and that new in by foreign military men. narrowed to the country be tween the Atlantic and the Mississippi. which changed the art of the general even from the respected models of Xapoleon fifty years before. it has claimed their close attention. the breech-loader. the Xorth soon demonstrated its complete control of the sea and was thus able to choose its points of attack. It and indicates the with indifference and way to fight battles. a kind of cavalry were the fresh factors in the problem. The eastern section of the country beyond the range was about one hundred miles wide and the western section was about four hundred miles wide. The War of the States was viewed at For many years past. Ironclads. Cum berland. fluences. northwestern Vir and Missouri sentiment was divided between ginia. because they have come to realize that new conditions were tested then. while interior water routes were available by the Mississippi. entrenchments. time. about two hun dred miles wide. The immense amount of supplies needed for a great army caused military operations on a large scale to be confined to rail and water lines.
and Captain Mohain. LEARNING THE GAME [A 8] Copyriy!it by Patriot Pub. At the close of the Peninsula to Cam paign the royal party returned France.In 1861 there arrived the flrst great oppor field since tunity to study warfare in the of the Napoleon. A Union officer has taken It the place of the Prince de Joinville. bestowed upon each the honorary rank of Captain. . the The of three distinguished Army end left. 1861. The a painting of that made engagement which became widely published. Captain Leclerc. themselves at the battle Prince de Joinville They distinguished of Games Mill. but watched the war with great interest to its close. merely guests at headquarters. the invention of an American admiral. A KING S SON IN CAMP In the lower picture the Count de Paris and the Due de Chartres are trying their skill at dominoes after dinner. the left. bearing despatches and the like. from right to the Prince de Joinville. his two nephews. and assigned them to the Officially staff of General McClellan. they acted as aides-de-camp to McClellan. the Count de Paris of and the Due de Chartres. now am war field plified fare. eager to take some part in the great conflict for the sake of the experience it would give them. the Potomac seated at the farther of the camp and dinner-table are. and these young men campaigns blood expected at no distant day to of royal be the leaders of a war of their the lost own to recover Bourbon throne of guests of France. tified General McClellan tes that ever in the thick of things they performed their duties to his entire satisfac tion. the in Due Sep They came to Washington tember. they could compare their effectiveness with that of the huge rifled Dahlgrens. son of King Louis Phillipe. to perfect their skill in a greater was and grimmer game that these young men came to America. on right. Co. sons d Orleans. frequently under fire. At Yorktown they could see the rehabilitated fortifications of Cornwallis. on the are of their party. methods fire of defensive Exposed to the imported of the Napoleon pieces by the Confederacy. President Lincoln welcomed them. which men of their own blood had helped by the latest to seize.
thus somewhat simplifying the The problem of controlling these two important streams. Several mountain valleys leading north at the eastern ranges of the Alleghanies gave opportunities for leading large forces safely into Pennsylvania from Virginia. strategic chess-board. Richmond-Chattanooga railroad The advantage of the was not used by the Confed erates until too late for success. Virginia. in Tennessee. gave an opportunity for transferring troops from one section to the other. This was availed of by Lee. Within the mountain district. about four a railroad from Lynchburg. Jackson. while the corresponding distance at the three times as great. hundred miles long.  v~\ . Several natural features which were certain to influence In Virginia. In the western section. The Shenandoah valley afforded a safe approach to Washington from the rear. numerous rivers. In the West. form good lines for defense and also obstacles to an advance. the long line defended by scattered troops was weak at every point and was quite easily broken by Grant. gave great opportunities to skilful rivers gave strength to long de generalship. and Early to keep many thousand men of the army of the North in idleness. the North \vas Tennessee and Cumberland rivers are separated at one place by a narrow neck about two miles wide. events to a great extent are to be noticed. then. and McClellan. All navi gable rivers within the area of operations were used for this purpose. or vice versa. fensive lines. Burnside. running parallel to the direct line of advance. screened marches from east to west. The operations of the Confederates.1 0f 1BH1-H5 was not so vulnerable * * It to attack as the railroad. and Grant used the Chesa peake Bay and its tributaries to carry their base of supplies Richmond. and forced the Northern generals to seek the flank rather than the front attack. on the other hand. to Chattanooga. particularly when the South was The Virginia slow in grasping the situation there. were greatly restricted by being confined to close to railroad lines.
realized that much was to be learned from it. New York Not half the veterans that were his guests more than two decades ago are still alive. while in his his cutting loose from any base whatever March Lee s was only less remarkable than invasion of Pennsylvania under similar conditions. to which was added a superior op posing force. war pace for later develop YORKTOWN EIGHTY YEARS AFTER . Co. Copyright by Patriot Pub. Eu ropean military opinion was at indifferent to the importance of the conflict as a school of war.There is no mistaking the nationality of these Military Attaches with their tartans and Dun dreary the whiskers. to say nothing of Howe and Cornwallis. of Army the They were accompanying Potomac on its Peninsula Campaign. The railroad and the telegraph were two un tried elements in strategy. but as the struggle proceeded both armies de veloped distinctly new ideas of their own. In the center of the group of Joinville. The ironclad gun boat and ram introduced serious complica tions in naval warfare. and the Due him self joined the majority in 1894. The Count de Paris wrote a very comprehensive and impartial history of the war. In these and set the many other ex amples the ment. The more progressive. The sight of Sherman maintaining railroad and telegraphic communications with a base 138 miles away was a new one to the Sea to the world. and in 1890 revisited America and gathered together some 200 or more surviving officers of the Army of the Potomac at a dinner in the old City. first 1862. Englishmen stands the Prince de From the observations of these men both many on the mili soil France and England were to learn tary lessons from a new conflict over which the soldiers of both nations had fought in a former generation. Hotel Plaza. of At first the influence Napoleon I was manifest in the field. WATCHING THE WAR Here are some English and other foreign mili tary officers with General Barry and some of his staff before Yorktown in May. nevertheless. of The armies manner and both North and South were being moved in the field in a and maintained upon a scale undreamed of by Napoleon.
undertaken with insufficient forces and too Numerous causes have been far from his base of supplies. instead of to the assistance of Grant and would have changed the course of events in the Mississippi valley. on account of political and other influences. In the spring of 18(52. JH conform and to make his plan to suit as best he can. the most plausible of which were of a political and not of a strategic nature. given for these campaigns. The cap view. entirely out of reach? marching in the track of unreasonable importance. the head of policy would come Lee s several inva sions of the Xorth. Three months later. to join Lee. If that was not the case might not Hood have done better by in Longstreet through Knoxville. It finally caused Buell s relief from command because of his disapproval. The policy of making military operations conform to the desire to help Northern sympathizers in eastern Tennessee had a powerful influence on the entire war. Virginia. was not always chosen according to the best military prin Such influences always exist.* * strategy. or that it would increase the disaffected element in the North to such an extent that the South could dictate a peace. ital of the United States had been captured in two wars without producing more than local effect. It was thought that a victory won on Northern soil might lead to intervention on the part of foreign nations. It caused Burnside s army to be absent from the battle of Chickamauga. and Lynchburg.lt. while Sher man was marching to the sea.Strategy nf 1B61-S5 The &. Tennessee. the campaigns of Price in Missouri and Hood soldier to Under Tennessee are said to have been intended to affect the presi dential election at the North by giving encouragement to the party which was claiming that the war was a Federal failure. but every plan in  An . from a military point of was given to the capital of each government. and it is the duty of the ciples. it would have taken Buell into eastern Tennessee. it was one of the potent influences that led to the breaking up of Halleek s army at Corinth. In 1864.
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advantage These conditions dictated much of the strategy which ject to criticism. the national tion of its Government concentrated troops for the protec capital the Western States gathered along the Ohio .nf 1BB1-H5 Virginia was contingent upon the safety of Washington. blame. and the generals seemed powerless to limit or Probably the latter are entitled to most of the w as not uncommon for a general to call for reenforcements at a time when large numbers of his troops were r The armies were indeed  long in getting over the . Ohio sent an army into West Virginia. was appreciated by both sides and exercised a strong influence on the plans of the generals. was probably unavoidable. and the defending army surren dered as a consequence. In the distribution of troops the Federal authorities were hampered by the rival claims of the border States. until it On was too late. is sub policy of furloughing great numbers of soldiers during the war. River and in Missouri. thus causing the diversion of many thousand soldiers for that single Southern side the correct military decision would have been to abandon Richmond as soon as Peters burg was invested. which thought they required protection. Pennsylvania. The great difficulty of holding troops in service. whose home country had been overrun. the reasons. but the Government delayed. for political duty. into the Shenandoah valley. This great dispersion existed on both sides and continued more or less till the end of the war. Absenteeism is one of the inevitable consequences of a long war. Hence. with troops untrained in time of peace by modern methods. and should not be forgotten. but it helped to cause inactivity during many The months and in the case of Sherman s Atlanta campaign it caused the absence of two of his divisions. plained of it Lincoln com prevent it. as an inducement to reenlist. It absent. The it gave was in the protection of the friendly portion of the population and in the good recruiting ground thus se cured.
to Harper s Ferry. Tennessee. Virginia. provided by nature became a veritable through it lay open the path for sudden approach upon Washington on the part of the Confederates. the Valley and forcing him across the Potomac. Co. . Jackson saved Richmond from McClellan Up the Valley came Lee the follow ing year. striking terror to the North in the Alleghanies. favorite avenue of The approach to this was made easy and enemy s territory. The scene is of the dismantled bridge across advance by the Confederates when threatening in Armstrong Run. the vasion of the facile lay the Alleghany Mountains. Driving General Banks forces up in 1862. gateway of terror to the Federals. an almost impassable barrier to the move at Harper s Ferry on the Potomac. THE KEY TO WASHINGTON From Chattanooga. Here we see them sloping toward the gap from the South by the Shenandoah Valley. by the invasion that was only checked at Gettysburg.Copyright by Patriot Pub. for This eastern gap. ment of armies.
/ /// // // age of \ tion less than seven miles per day. As an example march on May 2. Glendale. ^ for the early battles were complicated in the extreme. we notice the fine play of early campaigns replaced by a savage directness and simplicity at a later period. and had to be learned in the hard school of experience. and such men as had studied the art of high command had done so by themselves. form of strategy was the practice of ruse. of improvement. the average was down to a mile a day. while. perhaps due to the study of Napoleon and his perfect The plans army opposed by poor T generals. and failed. Bull Run. 1863. The trade of the general was new to all. July 2. //". Shiloh. Even at Gettysburg.nf 1BH1-H5 raw troops. take Jackson s of fourteen miles on a country road and the battle fought At the beginning Richmond both Lee and Grant seemed It of the movement on reckless in the risks they took. Lee s failure to execute his echelon attacks showed that his army was not yet ready to perform such a delicate refine ment of war. however. Games Mill w ere of this kind. all between daylight and dark of one day. in case of opposi by a greatly inferior force. as in the Peninsula campaign and the advance on Corinth.". because West Point was a preparatory school. as clumsy expedients which are no longer effective against The earliest [ 122 ] . but they have long been considered stratagem. also. but the generals in their early do not appear much better than the troops. In battles. Seven Pines. they marched on an aver characteristics of ". 1863. in the Wilderness by Lee and at Spottsylvania by Grant. which was a mistake. Thus it was that both leaders had ceased to count on the ineffi ciency of the enemy. In four of the early campaigns in which the Federal troops were practically unopposed. Wilson s Creek. and surprise. Malvern Hill. Every movements man who had been graduated from West Point was regarded as a trained soldier. was not so earlier.
The Confederates threatened Washington at the outset of the war. and realizing the effectiveness of such a move in giving moral rather For a like reason ".On to Richmond".RICHMOND IX RUINS. . donment of until Grant took command and made the army of Lee and its ultimate reduction to an ineffective state his With the investment of Petersburg by the Federals. Lee s proper military move would have been the aban Richmond and the opposing of Grant along other lines. than military support to their cause. OCCUPIED BY THE FEDERALS Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. WASHINGTON In these two pictures appear the two capitals that were mistakenly made the goals of the military operations on both sides. was the cry at the North controlling purpose. POLITICAL OBJECTIVES. similar movements were repeated throughout the war.
localities at too high a value is shown in Pemberton s retreat ing to Vicksburg. Chancellorsville. it is noticeable that the tendency to rate city. of strategy have not changed in several Sherman. established a base of supplies at the North and invested the In this case. In 1861. Then. marched south and crossed again below Vicksburg.the best troops and commanders. instead of joining forces the interior.. He then turned back again toward the Mississippi. drove Pemberton into Vicksburg. for instance. crossed the Chatta- hoochee. in attempting to reduce it to an exact science. which was quite certain to be surrendered. the might easily art of war had been greatly complicated by pedantic study. The Vicksburg campaign gave great fame to General Grant and is really one of the most complete and decisive ex amples in history. relying on the country for supplies. which was held by Johnston. The true lesson of Napoleon s siege the fate of  . where he interposed between the fractions of the Confederate army under Pemberton and Johnston. in the same way that Alexander crossed the Hydaspes in the year 326 B. Moltke remarked that strategy was nothing more than common sense. principally by officers of the French school. soon as Grant s army crossed the James and began this Richmond was sealed. by feinting at one flank and crossing at the other. in 1864. Some forms thousand years. Among instances which are often classed in this category are Shiloh. he moved to Jackson. w ith Johnston r to oppose Grant in As The same point is illustrated by the siege of Petersburg. c. but he acknowledged that it was often difficult to decide what was common sense and what was not. He have had our Civil War in his mind. and the Wilderness. forty-five miles east of Vicksburg. he deliberately crossed the river north of Vicksburg. In this campaign. for Grant had a great and numerous means of extending his fortified lines until army they crossed every avenue of approach to Richmond.
Rein A. The Army of the Potomac was at first superior in number to Lee s army It coukl have been made overwhelmingly so at the beginning of the war if the troops around Washington had of Northern Virginia.A DEFENDER OF THE FEDERAL CAPITAL Copyright by Patriot Pub. Early. the ". forcements were rushed to these works and Early retreated. The constant compliance with the clamor at the North that Washington be strongly defended was a serious strategical mistake. 1864. AN IDLE GARRISON Only once were the elaborate That was when the Confederate General Jubal fortifications about Washington seriously threatened. He then outnumbered Lee in the field.". and detachments from the Veteran Reserve to defend Washington. Grant demonstrated the wisdom of this policy in 1864 by leaving only a few heavy artillery regiments. with a force of 10.hun dred days men. . marched against the Federal capital in July. Co. with the intention of capturing it.000 men. been added to it.
in the fall of army when he went to Fred-  . in 1862.nf 1B61-B5 campaigns had either been had not been appreciated. 1862. the gaining of which will mean the success or failure of the cause. By objective is meant. or to Chattanooga and even to Richmond. it The Confederate appears. when the hostile armies opposed each other in front of Washington. m .fes. away from Lee s Burnside. contrary to his desire. leader repaired his losses and soon recovered from his seri sense ous defeats. marched ericksburg. His plan resulted in the transfer of his army to the Peninsula and carried him to within For this. and he was weakened by a vast which had been kept back to guard Washington. But McClellan found the undefeated Con six miles of Richmond with insignificant loss. we may simply say federate that to fight the foe as far from Richmond as possible now be considered the correct solution of that problem. In 1862. when Halleck with much trouble and skill had collected a great army of one hundred thousand men at Corinth.lt. and the true objective was lost.$ lost or the effect of new conditions to It seems rather commonplace say at this time that the first thing to do in war is to decide on your objective. At that time the army could have gone any where. With army out entering into this great controversy. army at Richmond. and many lives were lost in a blind search for an objective. a point upon which to concentrate the greatest effort. Again. &. McClellan insisted on attacking Rich mond instead of Johnston s army. whether to Vicksburg to open the Mississippi. the army was dispersed. This is the opinion of those best qualified to know. the counsel of wise military advisers or by his own common we know not.. of course. also. r would It is well known whether by that Lincoln disapproved of McClellan s plan. much treasure expended. but in the Civil War an incalculable amount of time was wasted. great credit has been claimed and unfavorable comment made on later campaigns.
the remains of which appear in the picture. who persistently remaining on the defensive shifted from one impregnable position to another till James and. come forth and give The investment in of Petersburg. was the final strategic triumph by which Grant accomplished victory over Lee s army. it was but necessary to the communications of the Confederate capital in order to force Lee to battle. Co. Richmond. Richmond. would leave but one railroad the hands of the Confederates.Copyright by Patriot Pub. proceeded to For months Grant s brilliant flanking movements had gained him no advantage over his opponent. Lee was as good as checkmated. WHERE GRANT CROSSED THE When Grant at this point crossed the JAMES. The crossing of the James near Wilcox Landing over the bridge. . ignoring the water approaches upon the investment of Petersburg. at last With Lee cut off s forces entirely disposed for the defense of Grant saw that the railroads were the key to the situation. successfully prosecuted.
while Sherman had weakened his army by guarding a long line of communication. as was suggested by Grant. and still Johnston s army was undefeated. The same strategy continued until Atlanta was reached. has gone into history as the Campaign for Chattanooga. Judging from this. was Sherman s main objective. introduces a novel Later. we are disposed to suspect that Atlanta. ". that Rosecrans campaign. for Sherman abandoned Hood s army as a first objective. and it has been claimed by his admirers that the possession of that place was worth what it cost a heavy defeat at Chickamauga. third. There was an idea that Johnston would not give up Dalton. For him self it was clearly Lee s army. It will be remembered that Sherman had difficulty in getting consent from Grant. but Sherman s heavy turning move ment against his rear forced him to retreat without a battle. which he had already announced in 1862. General Sherman. was not so clear in his manner of execution as was his chief. rather than Johnston s army.". which he had strongly fortified. which would have taken two months. how ever. As it turned out. and chose Lee s army instead. second. Sherman marched one thousand miles and was several hundred miles from Lee at the end of the campaign. by sending the troops by rail. and it was intended to be the same with other commands as well. by sending his army by sea north from Savannah. Grant had authority to lay down a choice of objective. were other ways of reaching it: first. in the summer of 1863. In 1864.1BB1-B5 So deep-rooted is the idea of choosing a locality as the objective of a campaign instead of a hostile army. say until the end of February. moved with 1865. His strategy creates a suspicion that it was designed to force Johnston to retreat and to relinquish territory. the historic March to the Sea element into the question. by marching on . ". who wanted him to ruin Hood s army first. and. If Lee s army had been his real objective there ". as Schofield was fifteen thousand men and as Hooker was moved  with twenty-three thousand men.
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It must be admitted that Grant used some seventy-five thou sand men on secondary objectives which were not successful. when these men would have had himself. in of diversions are afforded by Jackson s 1862. East and one in the West. in 1864. one in the objectives. Such a conception clears away a mass of secondary on two great armies. ". and that man was Grant.gt. This clear estimate seems to have come quite naturally and easily to only one man during the war. which consumed hundreds of thou ".l? ^tratrgy of 1BH1-B5 4* $ Lynchburg by the Knoxville road. and the destruction of either meant the destruction of the other. to induce the opposing general to weaken his forces at de large ". and twenty thousand men was purposes. Looking upon the war with all the advantage of to-day. a great effect either with the armies of that an Sherman or He probably thought army of one hundred / I ^ enough for his Equally fallacious with the importance given to strategic was that ascribed to the occupation of territory. Numerous examples Valley campaign. but the injury inflicted on the Confed erate army by the large capture of men at Donelson and Island Xumber 10 was the real and vital result. but he found it was a mistake. Such was the experience of Grant and Sherman. which would have been & about one-third to one-half the distance actually marched. which kept many . ". sands of troops and had only a minor effect on the final issue. such as so-called strategic points along the coast and west of the Mississippi. and the latter in the Atlanta campaign. The points control of Kentucky and Tennessee was given by Grant s Fort Donelson campaign. cisive points. For the South it was an easier task to decide upon an ob jective because it was the weaker side and its acts were deter mined by those of the stronger. the former in his first advance on Vicksburg. The control of ter ritory that was not accompanied by the defeat of the foe often had many disadvantages. it is not difficult to assume that the hopes of both sides rested a fff&. The main idea of the strategy of the Southern generals was to divert attention to side issues.
were ever ready r raids to cut communications. The How picture AFTER A RAID ON THE ORANGE AND ALEXANDRIA RAILROAD .WORK OF THE ENGINEERS AND THE CAVALRY groat Civil A\ar first introduced the railroad as a strategic factor in military operations. Extemporized wooden structures of that time seem paltry in comparison with the great steel cranes and derricks which our modern wrecking trains have made familiar. The railroads in control of the North were much better equipped and guarded than those of the South. thoroughly they did their work whenever they got the chance. under such leaders as Stuart. yet the bold Confederate Cavalry. the lower tells. In the upper picture we see the federal engineers at Yibbard Draw on Long Bridge at Washington busily at work rehabilitating a locomotive for use along the railroad connections ot the capital with its army.
but not brilliant. Lee made six campaigns in fourteen months. from May. But McClellan s army was inactive for ten months after Bull Run. Johnston joined Beauregard at Bull Run in time to win the battle. generals on both sides. rior lines. The concentration which is of scattered forces at decisive points. a performance un- equaled in history. Johnston after Bull Run. called in the text-book the use of inte technically ". The long North seem periods of inactivity in the several armies of the to have been largely. to July. getting there first with the most men. Grant Seven Days Battles on the Peninsula and of Meade in  V~\ . Rosecrans army for five months and Grant s army for four months after Vicksburg. Ewell joined Breckinridge to defeat Sigel. even in the very campaigns mentioned. and many cavalry raids. as we see them to-day. while Grant s army was almost in the same class during its ten months before Petersburg. after Meade after Gettysburg. The conduct most difficult of pursuits confirms the idea that it is the operation presented to a general. Thus. Jackson alternately attacked the divided forces of his opponents and neutralized their greatly superior forces. due to the frequent change of commanders. but not always. and Lee Bragg after Fredericksburg practically allowed the defeated enemy to escape without further injury. the . was often skilfully performed on both a large and small scale. 1863. and finally joined Lee for an other campaign. Lee s pursuit of McClellan in the Chickamauga. after Chattanooga. Many opportunities were lost.". 1862. and safe. McClellan after Antietam. after Murfreesboro. and in more homely phrase. The result of a study of objectives shows that.of 1SH1-B5 + + thousand men away from McClellan Early s march on Wash ington. with good troops. Longstreet joined Bragg to win Chickamauga. only his way to overthrow the opponent is to attack and defeat main army. The other causes would take long to analyze.
JULY. chosen for the army base quickly became a bustling center. Winter quarters were built in the form of comfortable cabins for the reserve troops and the garrison. The railroad to Petersburg was controlled and operated by the army for the forwarding of troops and stores. and City Point became the army base. the little village was turned tem finally settled down to the siege of Petersburg. Whatever point was ritory which it occupied. The Federal army in Virginia. and giving employment field near by. City Point. and ample hospital buildings were provided. The supply base longest occupied by the Army of the Potomac. to thousands of men whose business it was to unload and forward the arriving stores and ammunition to the army in the CITY POINT. This view of the magazine wharf at City Point in 1864 reveals the immensity of the transportation problem that was solved by the North in support of its armies in the field. did not forage off the ter Rail and water transportation made possible the bringing of supplies long distances.MILITARY COMMERCE Cowuriaht bu Review of Reviews Co. unlike the armies of Napoleon. . and with it soon after the evidences of its aggrandizement. Co. With the coming of peace the importance of the post vanished. When Grant 1864 Copyright by Patriot Pub. grew up almost in a night. porarily into a great town. rivaling the activity of any great commercial city. VIRGINIA.
and the Appomattox campaign gives the only entirely successful instance in about one hundred years of military history. On two occasions he withdrew his army across the Poto mac River. He [ -J ^_ 134 ] . and fought battles in that position. had only partial success. He used converging columns which met upon the field of battle. The campaigns of Lee and Jackson were models of their kind. The critic of Lee finds it hard to detect mistakes. n showed a much higher efficiency than had yet been reached. He was probably the last of the race of generals who.0f 1BB1-H5 &. he did not hesitate throw his last reserve into the fight. Lee.* the operations of October. he divided army in the presence of the foe. has made war under greater disadvantages and accomplished so much with an inferior force. dominated the field of war by genius alone. in good order and without loss. even when he was violating the so-called rules of war. like Washington. Napoleon has said that the general who makes no mis takes never goes to war. after Nashville. he inherited a own army. but nowhere more than in his ability to calculate chances. His use of the ground to compen sate for inferior numbers and to hide his movements from the Federals shows how clearly he saw the secrets of Napoleon s generalship.lt. in the presence of retreat to a powerful hostile army. Near the end of the war Thomas pursuit of Hood. while his battles in the woods were entirely orig inal and his use of entrenchments was effective. His genius was shown in many ways. 1863. in the last two years of his campaigns. As with other great soldiers. The power of the modern fire-arm in the hands of his opponents forced to accept less decisive results than great soldiers who preceded him. his best success him SHL was due to the inefficiency of his opponents in the early days. made his He fought soldiers of the same race and generals of the same school as himself. like Napoleon. No general since Hannibal. and perhaps Xapoleon. While all great generals before him ready-made army. his detached inferior forces against the Federals rear. he uncovered his lines of .
increased deadlines. The works in the upper picture were thrown up in a night by the Federals near North Anna River. It is apparent how they would strengthen the resistance of a small force to larger numbers who might advance across the open upon the position. the result of many days work of the soldiers in This was one of the anticipation of attack. ". in 1804. Virginia. In the lower picture we see the salient of Fort Hell. where the construction of fieldworks was developed to the highest point of efficiency. with its ditch and abattis and breastworks constructed of gabions.? of firearms taught the commanders in the Civil War the habit of greatly strengthening every new position occupied with earthworks as formidable as possible. . fortifications about Petersburg.".NEW The NECESSITIES OF WARFARE Copyright hi/ Review of Reviews Co.
even before Sedan and Mukden. Grant. the subject may be narrowed down to the statement that Lee. may be the excuse for Great fame has come to the various generals who each made some well-planned maneuver. 136] . who formulated the modern idea of strategy which has been so closely followed in recent wars to seek out the foe.Strategy 0f 1BH1-B5 by the safe leader who is never brilliant. but this was not approved. and Sherman before Dalton did all this. in his year from the Rapidan to Appomattox accomplished the desired result. and perhaps Johnston han dled inferior forces with as great skill as any commanders ^ Hannibal and Napoleon. In the South. It never The absence seemed to have been developed his orders for a in the Xorth until Grant issued general advance. which forced the foe to relinquish territory and retreat to a rear position. On the other hand. Jackson. Longseems to have prepared a strategic plan for the move ment of all Confederate armies after Chancellorsville. greater than had ever before been occupied this. McClellan before Manassas. After all is said. of a broad and comprehensive plan of opera tions was particularly noticeable on both sides. in a single war. but the foe was not defeated. but no mistakes and at the same time commands the heaviest makes will be replaced battalions. and Rosecrans gained Chattanooga with a loss of eighteen thousand men. get close to him. and fight it out by shortsince arm jolts. Sherman gained Atlanta with a loss of thirty-two thou sand men. Rosecrans before Shelbyville. The immense area occupied by the street opposing forces. in 1864. it is true. but it is a debatable question whether the final issue was hastened or delayed. but with severe losses. On the other side it was also an American soldier.
FROM BULL RUN TO APPOMATTOX.) VOLUNTEERS ABOUT TO FACE FIRE AT BULL RUN MCCLELLAN S TROOPS DRILLING NEAR WASHINGTON . CONTINUING THROUGH VOLUME III EACH OF THE REMAINING SEVEN VOLUMES IS DEVOTED THROUGH OUT TO A SEPARATE PHASE OF WAR-TIME ACTIVITY.PART I THE FIRST OF THE GREAT CAMPAIGNS BULL RUN (HERE BEGIN THE CHAPTERS THAT PICTURE BROADLY THE CAMPAIGNS.
THE TURNING POINT OF THE BATTLE Across this little War. the I 138 ] tin. At daylight of July 21. These were congratulating them- . 1861. On the farther side the Confederates under Beauregard had taken their stand with the stream as a contested barrier between them and stream that was destined to mark the center of left of s troops. we of Bull see what was Run McDowell First. battle of the Civil the bridge after the day had ended in a Federal rout (see ".".first. page 142). Tyler s division advanced to this It was a day of confusion on both sides. bridge. Confederates were driven back in disorder by the impetuous onslaught of the Federals. and in many respects the most desperate.Bull Run.
RUINS OF THE STONE BRIDGE BULL RUN. and threw the lines into con Back across the field fled the first memorable Federal rout. . The little bridge was soon groaning with the weight of the men struggling to get across it.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. Finally. when Johnston s reinforcements from Winchester fell upon the rear of their right. army that is some thirty miles to the south in the Here Federal wooded Virginia country. in frantic haste. it was destroyed engineers are rebuilding the bridge. VIRGINIA selves fusion. upon a victory. but dependent on communications with the base at Washington. in order to forward supplies to the by the Federals to delay the dreaded pursuit.
[ 140 ] .
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Harper s Ferry and on Two governments. in the fear of the assassin s plots. she seized the arsenal at the 20th the great navy-yard at Norfolk. revealing the danger that threatened the Union and calling forth a determination to preserve it. their contention had grown stronger through all these years.BULL RUN THE VOLUNTEERS FACE FIRE A the had been strife. the great sections of the country For the first time in the nation s history the newly-elected President had entered the capital city by night and in secret. Virginia. The same event had unified the South. appears on page 346. The fall Xorth to the 7 umn but three days after the fall of April 18th. four addi tional States cast their lot with the seven which had already seceded from the Union. 1861. swung into the secession col war. for forty years between the two great sections of the Ameri can nation. until at last there was nothing left but a final appeal to the arbitrament of the sword then came the great war. political strife. same household had been successful. Then came the opening shots. each representing a different economic [A complete record of leading events and the various engagements. the Old Dominion. ] August. For the first time he had been inaugurated under a military guard. giving the troops involved and casualties between January. the next day. had aroused the imminence of the crisis. the great est civil war in the annals of mankind. 1861. the first born of the sisterhood of States. . a bloodless. on April 14. Sumter. 1862. Xo efforts to reconcile the estranged brethren of The ties that bound had severed one by one. and the ruined walls of the noble fort in Charles ton harbor told the story of the beginnings of the fratricidal of Sumter. and THE Knrroits.
he was looked upon as the coming Napoleon. he commanded the Army of S. he became a popular and noted leader in the Confederacy. . defended Charleston. Military Academy in 1838. S. whom he succeeded at Shiloh. 1818. the Southern leader upon whom at eyes were turned. but he had held the provisional rank of Brigadier-General since February 20th. He was confirmed as Major-General in the Confederate army on July 30. being in command of the Confederate forces in the firing on Fort Sumter in April. After the Union defeat at Manassas.. Gallant and dashing. the Mississippi under General A. Johnston. in all New Orleans on May 28. in 1862-3 and afterward commanded the De of partment North Carolina and Southeastern Virginia. he won the brevets of Captain and Major in the war with Mexico and was wounded at Chapultepec. 1861. Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard. S. He After his promotion to Major-General. Owing to his forceful personality. before a shot was fired. C. was gradu ated from the U. Early in 61 he resigned from the army. He died at New Orleans in 1893. and joined the Confederacy.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. THE SOUTHERNER OF THE HOUR IX Born first 61.
". No less earnest was the feeling of the South. that a blow be struck for the Union. was answered with surprising alacrity. only a hundred miles apart at Washington and at Richmond. After the fall of Fort Sumter. President Lincoln had called for threemonths volunteers at the beginning of July some thirty thou sand of these men were encamped along the Potomac about the heights of Arlington.- General Winfield Scott. to the nation s capital to take tip arms in defense of the Union. Jar? now stood where there had been but one the July 1861 North. Both were call ing upon the valor of their sons. Each side believed itself in the right. and soon two formidable armies were arrayed against each other. would the Union be divided.  .Hun and political idea. of infantry and the galloping of horsemen through the streets could be heard day and night. to dreadful internecine war. Citi zens left their farms. whose military career had begun be fore most of the men of 61 had been born. similar call by the Southern President was and hurried A answered with equal eagerness. Both were profoundly sincere and deeply in earnest. ". The commander of the United States Army was Lieut. their counting rooms. Would the South return to its allegiance. The call to arms rang through the nation and aroused . the people. At the nation s capital all was confusion and disorder. Both have won the respect of history. or would there be war? The religious world called unto the heavens in earnest prayer for peace. with its rich agricultural empire. but the rushing torrent of events swept on toward war. The first call of the President for troops. the great Northern public grew impatient at the inaction and demanded that Sumter be avenged. the two sides spent the spring months marshaling their forces for the fierce conflict that was to follow. for seventy-five thousand men. As the weeks passed. with its powerful industrial organization and wealth. the South. their workshops. Aged and infirm. Throughout the The tramp country anxiety and uncertainty reigned on all sides.
when simplicity was the order of the day in camp.Copyright by Review uf Reviews Co.shapo". picture. The young and confident troops on both sides approached this Srst severe lesson of the war in the same The man the sword There is not a serious face in the jocular spirit. YOUNG SOUTHERNERS AT RICHMOND MAKING LIGHT OF WAR skylarking before the lens of the Confederate photographer. we see the Boys in Gray just before Bull Run had taught them the meaning if a battle and elated them with the conviction of their own prowess. indicate that the group is of a uniformed military organization already in existence at the beginning of the war. comic-opera soldier. The pipe-clay of the officer. flourishing bayonet and the one with the drawn dagger are marking with mock heroics their bravado toward the coming struggle. . the cock plumes in the ". There was no such paraphernalia in the outfit of Southern troops organized later. while the one with the musket stands debonair as a cross belt and breast plate.
Opposed to Patterson in the Shenandoah valley was Joseph E. had won the homage of the South by reducing Fort Sumter. The best disciplined troops were those of the regular army. who. twenty thousand strong. the fear. kept apart. The plans of the President and General Scott were to send McDowell against Beauregard. wholly ignorant of try. dressed in the varied ". at Manassas Junction. In addition to the regulars were volunteers from all the Xew England States. John ston with a force of nine thousand men. . It was a motley crowd. had volunteered for three months service. was a veteran of the War of 1812 and of the Mexican War. with waving banners and lively hopes of victory. On to ward through the Virginia plains and uplands they marched the strains of martial music. three months before. if the two Confederate forces could be could win a signal victory over and on July 16th.lt. the force at Manassas: ! * uniforms of the different State militias. Many were boys in their teens with the fresh glow of youth on their cheeks. Michigan. amid the cheers of the multitude. artillery. f l_ r--*- .gt. about thirty miles from Washington. lay a Confederate army under Brig adier-General Beauregard who. The immediate command of the army was entrusted to Brigadier-General Irvin McDowell. while Patterson was to detain Johnston in the Valley and prevent him from joining Beauregard. lay at Martinsburg. many of the men would drop to the rigid discipline out of line to gather fefej&. organizations which. in an swer to the President s call for troops. Unused of war. the horrors of the battle-field. it moved out from the banks of the Potomac toward the interior of Virginia. represented by infan navy was drawn upon and a battalion of marines was included in the Union forces. It was con fidently believed that. cavalry.*\\ Tj nil Him vlhr Bniimlrrrs IForr Ifirr Julv 1861 he remained in Washington. and Even the the exhilaration. Opposite McDowell. like General Scott. and Minnesota.&. Another Union army. from Xew York and Pennsylvania and from Ohio. the Grand Army ". Virginia. under the command of Major-General Patterson.
On April 14. First Minnesota. left is Lieut. IStil. a regiment that fought s after Sumter surrender. The photograph was taken In the front line the first from the just before the regiment left Fort knelling in 1S(U. the First Minnesota was mustered into service by laeutenant W. led the officer". \Yilkinson. Gorman the regiment proceeded to Washington in June and. W. while at the left hand of Adjutant Loach is Captain the extreme right of the picture stands General J. the Federal 18l&.A. his right R Sanborn with Lieutenant Joinders ^mustering Colvill. the last two and behind them is Captain William Colvill. U. at Bull Run gave an excellent account of itself. A record for conspicuous bravery was sustained by the First finally retiring from the field in good order.ONE OF THE FIRST UNION VOLUNTEER REGIMENTS The day in the flanking column at Bull Run. On his left hand is Major Dyke and next to him is Adjutant W. Heint/elman s Division of McDowell s Army. as Colonel. Between At hand. Sanders. and Mark Oownie.gt.S.S. July ?. attached to Frank lin s Brigade. the next is Colonel Gorman. 1 on on Sanders right is the Honorable Morton S. Minnesota throughout the war. the Government received an offer of a volunteer regiment from Minne sota. [A-10] . and on April ^9. I nder Colonel William O. regiment in its Gettysburg charge. Colonel R Leach. notably its famous charge on the field of Gettysburg. Stephen Miller.
On to Richmond as After a two days march. upon sent him on his way. The latter sent him to the capital city bearing a paper with two words in cipher. he crossed the Potomac below Alexandria. from Alabama. That night the momentous bit of news was in the hands of General Beauregard. 148 .". when the newsboys were calling out in the empty streets the latest intel The messenger rang the doorbell at a ligence of the army. McDowell and Beauregard. destined army to give flict. . from the mountains of Tennessee. and wait a reply. Beauregard.nil Sun Se Unlunims tempting fruits Jar? Ifltrr July 1861 along the roadside. Order issued for McDowell to march Manassas to-night. He instantly wired in cipher the ". and giving him the scrap of paper. from North and South Carolina. wrote intelligible. halted at the quiet hamlet of Centreville. Mississippi. a former government clerk at Washington. they had been graduated in the same class at West Point. Trust Bearer. Traveling all night. and Georgia. and frequent halts were necessary to allow the stragglers to regain their lines. had been long-time friends twenty-three years before. present it to the lady within. house within a stone s throw of the White House and delivered the scrap of paper to the only one in the city to whom it was She hurriedly gave the youth his breakfast. Between the two armies flowed the stream of Bull Run. w hose sympathies. its name to the first great battle of the impending con The opposing commanders. words. He he was to call at a certain house. With this ". or to refill their canteens at every fresh stream of water. the army of similar composition untrained men and boys. The news had been conveyed to him by a young man. twenty-seven miles from Washington and seven miles from Manassas Junction where lay the waiting Confederate their battle-cry. Beauregard knew of the coming of the Federal army. with berries or ". had gathered on the soil of the Old Dominion State to do battle for the Southern cause. however. r ~ won the confidence of lay with the cause of the South. ". and reached the city at dawn. even from distant Arkansas. Men from Virginia.".
who were it was not one who had ever maneuvered a thousand men and whose A lesson lay before them and was soon to come. and throughout the South the same confident and reck the same urging to see something done. The surprising battle that opened early in the morning. laughing and talking carelessly. results spread such consternation through the North. Not one knew exactly sied the immensity of the struggle. The press and the politicians demanded action. Virginia. even among the leaders. . but who had had the experience. Centreville. and long into the morning of the twenty- marched lines of hurrying troops. They had left desk and shop and farm and forge. hardly realizing in the contagion of their patri otic ardor the grim meaning of real war. there and the absolute carrying out of orders? With the exception in the field. Their blue uniforms were new.Copyright by Review of Renews Co. in the great game of war. It what lay before him. and with the thought in their minds that the war would last for three months the majority had been mustered in. was really the result of popular clamor. for after their short training they were going to take part. less spirit prevailed. 1861. and these were regarded as extremists. to be sure of the details regulars. for the time. So on they went in long lines down the road in the darkness of the night. and though some faces were first pale their spirits were elated. of the veterans of the Mexican War. their muskets bright and polished. first Past this little stone church on the night of July 20. The battle had been well planned. Only the very wise and farseeing had prophe was the first move of the citizen soldier of the North toward actual conflict. EVE OF THE CONFLICT Stone Church. chattering. Their ideas were laughed at. The men were mostly from New England and the Middle States.
and he promptly proceeded to do so. The Confederates. r ^/^//^ / j// / the retreat of the lay dead Union forces after nineteen of their number . and instead of marching upon Johnston at Win chester he led his army to Charlestown. At half -past two in the the sleeping men were roused for the coming conflict. and William T. Believing false reports. P. a year and five months later. morning Their dream of an easy victory had already received a rude shock. too. Sunday. who was to achieve a greater renown in the coming war. he was convinced that Johnston had an army of thirty-five thou sand men. Burnside. Sherman. was to figure in a far greater and far this more disastrous battle. Among the subordinate officers was Ambrose E. Johnston thereupon was free to join Beauregard at Manassas. have seen. July 21st. for on the day after their arrival a skirmish between two minor divisions of the opposing armies had resulted in opposite direction. Heintzelman. twenty miles in the .nil Sun Richmond and asked that he be reenforced President Davis at by Johnston s General Scott had arranged that Johnston in the Valley. But the aged Patterson was ". not many miles from same spot. w as selected as the day on which to offer battle. As we army. and S. and eagerly. David Hunter. The time for them to test their mettle in a general engagement was at hand. upon the plain. I unequal to the task before him. The army moved out in three divisions commanded by Generals Daniel Tyler. in the early dawn of the sultry July morning.". On the Southern side we find equally striking characters.  . who. they marched toward the banks of the stream on which they were to offer their lives in the cause of their country. had suffered and fifteen of their army were killed. But patriotic enthusiasm was too ardent to be quenched by such an incident. He had even ad Patterson detain if Johnston joins Beauregard he shall vised McDowell that have Patterson on his heels. McDowell s eager troops had rested at Centreville for two days.
jht by Patriot Pub. including deaths from sickness. was on July 18. PRELUDE TO THE COMBAT BLACKBURN S FORD This crossing of Bull Run. Confederates posted on the opposite bank fired upon Tyler s advance line. the scene of a lively prelude to the first great combat. pushed a reconnaissance to the north hank of the stream near this Ford. that many re-enlisted and again went to the front. General Daniel Tyler. . The regiment was attached to Tyler s division. force". A THREE The Third Connecticut was July. 1861. in this regiment. Tyler then withdrew ".satisfied that the enemy was in This picture was taken the next year. The total losses. where they stayed until the conflict ended. 1861. and suffered little in the battle. com manding a division of McDowell s army. amounted to five all told. at this point. for they were three MONTHS REGIMENT THE THIRD CONNECTICUT The men had enlisted in April. It goes without saying. which was mustered out at the end of its service. driving it back in disorder. and their time was all but up in field of Bull Run. of McDowell s army. while Rickett s division of the McDowell Corps was encamped at Manassas. . Their drilling had taken place for a short time in their home State and afterward in the camps around Washington. Co. They were mostly artisans and farmer boys with a sprinkling of mill hands and men of business from the larger towns. however. present on the months men.Copyright by Renew of Reviews Co.
Here they were to cross the stream. who after the war was he over. too. while Tyler guarded the Stone Bridge.July ull Sim Holrattma * 1861 1 General Joseph E. was to spend many years in the service of the country ". The Confederate attack was planned to take place a few hours later than McDowell had decided to move. he had battled at the gates of Mexico and like the latter he chose to cast his lot with the fortunes of . The plan of the battle was admirably drawn. was Longstreet. Gen erals Beauregard and Johnston were planning an aggressive movement against the left wing of the Federal army. While the Federals were making Confederate left wing. whose brilliant military career was to astonish the world. was now seeking to divide. There. known as Sudley s Ford. the South. Most striking of all was Stone wall Jackson. but the march around to Sudley s Ford was slower than had been expected. for this fateful July day was that Tyler should lead his division westward by way of the Warrenton The Union plan four turnpike to a stone bridge that crossed Bull Run. In the Indian wars of Jackson s time Johnston had served his country. under Hunter and Heintzelman was to make a detour of sev eral miles northward through a dense forest to a ford of Bull Run. ". and it was ten o clock before the main army reached the point west of the Stone Bridge. engage the foe on the west side of Bull Run. march down its right bank and. like Mc Dowell and Beauregard. The Southern troops were preparing to cross the stream when the boom of cannon at the Stone Bridge told that the Federals had taken the aggressive and that the  . Johnston was not held by Patterson in the Valley and with a portion of his army had reached Manassas on the afternoon of the 20th. They were to cross Bull Run by fords several miles below the Stone their plans to attack the Bridge and attack the Northern troops on the weaker wing of the Union force in an effort to rout them before relief could be sent from the Federal right. about At the same time the main army miles from Centreville.
Men who had fought courageously an hour before. The Confederates fed fat for days after GENERAL BEAUREGARD S HEADQUARTERS The handsome old colonial mansion known as the McLean House was near Manassas station. Tyler s division of McDowell s army. Congressmen. BULL RUN BATTLEFIELD OF THE MORNING. person in the late afternoon started the panic of the raw Union volunteers.Copyright by Patriot fuo. . carriages and carryalls to see the spectacle of a Federal army walking over the Confederates. not far from Blackburn s Ford. 1861 Along Bull Run Creek on the morning of July 21st Tyler s division vigorously attacked from the east the Confederates under Longstreet and Beauregard on the western bank. had become as hares fleeing from pursuing hounds. civilians of every sort. By this attack McDowell hoped to succeed in falling unexpectedly on the rear of the Confederate left with the force sent on a detour of some three miles to the north. . and lavishly dressed women who had gone out in . A vigorous cannonade opened the action. ward upon the provisions that the picnickers abandoned in their flight. attacked near here on the morning of July 18th. finding the Confederates had retreated from Centreville. and a shell landing in the fireplace of the McLean house deprived General Beauregard of his dinner.". The confusion was increased and multiplied by the presence among the fugitives of a multitude of panic-stricken picnickers. . C o. JULY 21. A charge of fresh troops brought forward by Beauregard in ". the scene of a sharp encounter preliminary to the battle of Bull Run.
Then. It moved slowly to the westward. Evans was now convinced (and he was right) that the main Union army was marching to Sudley s Ford. Orders countermanding the command to attack were quickly sent to the Southerners at the lower fords. and howitzers ready to pour their charges into an advancing force. Quickly then he turned about with six companies of brave South Carolinians and a battalion of Louisiana Tigers and posted them on a plateau overlook . ing the valley of Young s Branch. With guns loaded. where the Sudley road turns to the southward to cross the Sudley Ford. not far from the Matthews and Carter houses. ". Two 6-pound howitzers were placed to sweep the field of approach. and preparations were hur riedly made to repulse the attack of the Northern force.ull Sim July IcSOl weak Confederate left was in danger of being overwhelmed by the superior numbers of the Union right wing. For some time this was kept up. it followed the watched the line of dust that arose . a small tributary of Bull Here. north of the Warrenton turnpike. ". one at each end of Evans line of defense. and would reach the field from that direction. three miles above the Stone Bridge. The failure of the Union troops to advance led Evans to be lieve that Tyler s attack was only a feint and that the real attacking force would approach from some other direction. ". the Southerners stood and held above the trees. he awaited the coming of the Federals. This belief was confirmed when he descried a lengthening line of dust above the tree-tops far in the distance. Run. # His force was stationed overlooking the Sudley and New market road and an open field through which the Federal troops would be forced to pass to reach the higher ground by the Confederates. Tyler reached the Stone Bridge before six in the morning and opened fire on a Confederate force under Colonel Evans on the other side of the run. and Evans was much puzzled that the Federals did not at tempt to cross the bridge they merely kept up a desultory fire.
by the ford at the left. marked the northern point Hunter and Heintzelman. and marched southward mile farther south Burnside s brigade engaged the Confederate troops led by Colonel Evans. heavily reinforced. marched upstream with half a brigade and confronted the turning column beyond the turnpike. Evans. 1861 of the detour of the some three miles north of the battlefield of the afternoon. man crossed Bull Run. THORNTON S HOUSE BULL RUN JULY Phis house. Co. The Confederate Colonel Evans. past the church. A This Methodist Episcopal church stood a half mile south of the ford by which Hunter and HeintzelThese troops crossed Cat Harpin Run. who held the extreme left of Beauregard s line. which stood divisions of 21. 1861. WHERE A FEDERAL VICTORY SEEMED ASSURED Sudley Church July 21.critical. of deploying a line of battle. took up a new position in the rear.". Hunter sent successive detached regiments and brigades against it. . seen in the foreground. Johnston deemed the The remains at the right of the picture are of the Sudley Sulphur Spring House.Copyright by Patriot Pub. As Evans men fell situation ". and whose Instead suspicions had been aroused. back.
Those who could find shelter beneath the trees moved from was nearing ten o their places into the shade. and for the first time in the nation s history two hostile American armies faced each other in battle array. The whole country awaited initial conflict. It reached the crossing of Bull Run. . giving promise of relief from silence settled over the ranks of the oppressive warmth. in open battle array. of South numbers Carolina. The rays of the summer sun were beating in sweltering heat upon the waiting troops. crossed a valley to the south of Evans in the face of a heavy artillery fire to a point within one hundred yards of the Federal lines. Confederates as they watched the edge of the woodland for A appearance of the approaching troops. Heavy banks of storm clouds were gathering on the horizon. At Fort Sumter only the stone walls had suffered not a drop of human blood was shed. At this short range thou sands of shots were fired and stretched many brave men and boys were upon the green. But here was to be a gigantic conflict. Then.ull SUm July 1861 trend of the highway. in The Federals had a as their outlying forces came up. under the command of Colonel Burnside. Suddenly there was a glimmer of the sunlight reflected from burnished steel among the trees. with two brigades. emerged from the wood on a neighboring the first . clock. The outcome at this point was un certain until the Union forces were joined by Heintzelman with heavy reenforcements and by Sherman with a portion of 156 . to in breathless ex pectancy the news of this the battle of Bull Run. become know n r as With clear little delay the battle opened. advantage but they met with a brave resistance. the Federal advance guard. and the line of dust faded as the Federals spread into battleline behind the expanse of woodland that hid each column from s the other It view. General Bee. Confederacy. and thousands of people believed that here on this field on this day would be decided the fate of the Union and the fate of the hill.
Meeting troops retreating in increasing disorder. Though reinforced by General Bee. It was General Bee who uttered these words. General July 21.". ". Jackson won his name near this house early in the afternoon of July 21st. .all enter of Battle of was lost. Here a vigorous Union charge swept the whole battle to the hill south of the stream. JACKSON WON HIS NAME ". adding. he advanced with a battery to the ridge behind the Robinson House and held ". 1861. ee sent for reinforcements.Rally on the Virginians. was the sentence that gave e position until Bee s troops had rallied in his rear.Stonewall". saying that unless he could be supported ".STONEWALL".". just before he fell.Look at Jackson standing there like a stone wall. HERE ibinson House. ". Co. about a mile. he was driven back at noon to this ause in the valley near Young s Branch. Bull Run.Copyright by Patriot Pub. th to his historic nickname.". meral Bee s WHERE THE CONFEDERATES WAVERED North of this house. the Confederate Colonel Evans met the columns of Morning urnside and Porter in their advance south from Sudley Ford.
nearly four miles from the scene of action. and in J Meanwhile. seeing Thomas J. Generals Beauregard and Johnston had re mained at the right of their line. Beauregard and Johnston found it a herculean task to rally the fleeing men and re-form the lines. led his men in the thickest of the fight. soldier has since been known as Stonewall Jackson. and that invincible ".U Sun Tyler s * $ division. Plans for an aggressive movement were then abandoned. ". still determined to press their was offered. ".  . As became louder and extended further to the westward. As the frightened men were running in the utmost disorder. Johnston and Beauregard attack on the Federal left the if the opportunity morning passed and the sounds of conflict iM/ . They arrived about noon at the moment when Bee s brigade was fleeing across the valley from the hail of Federal bullets. the army and to the world. Bee could now do nothing but withdraw. Beauregard. a ^ three o clock it raged with greater fury than before. //. bursting shell killed his horse under him and tore the heel from his boot he mounted A . waiting the onset. was hill. the battle w as renewed. exclaimed to his men. and sending them to the support of the small force that was holding back the Federals. Jackson s brigade calmly Look at Jackson. like McDowell on the other side. (/ General Bee. but they succeeded at length. near Manassas. it became evident to the Confederate leaders that the Federals were massing all their strength in an effort to crush the left of the Southern army. galloped at full speed to the scene of the battle. cheer arose from the ranks of the Union army. and from noon till nearly r /& /. After dispatching troops to threaten the Union left. Cheer after doing so his men fell into great disorder. there he stands like a stone wall! The expression spread to ". chiefly for the possession of the plateau called The fight the Henry in the Up and down the slopes the two armies surged broiling sun. the commanders withdrawing all their reserve forces from the positions where they had been held to follow up the Confed erate attack.
Dnfederate sharpshooters from bushes. BULL RUN. fences and buildings picked off cannoneers and horses. THE STORM CENTER OF THE BATTLE.Copyright by Patriot Pub.urage The Union batteries commanded g hour of Union victory precipitated the flight and contagious panic. Ricketts and Griffin had moved across Young s Branch and taken up a position on the Henry Hill. swarmed . 1861 Henry House) are shown. Thirteen r onfederate and eleven Federal guns engaged in a stubborn duel till the Confederate regiments om cover and captured the Union position.gt. and in the crown&. JULY ear where the ruins of this house (the 21. Co. the w. in the middle of the afternoon. undisciplined volunteers of both sides surged back and forward with the heroism and determined of rugged veterans until the arrival of fresh Confederate troops turned the tide. The City of Washington was now threatened.
twenty-three hundred fresh troops. They did not know that Johnston. . and the Confederates when they saw retreat again approaching. grew louder and nearer. In vain McDowell and his officers attempted to rally his panic-stricken men and re-form his 160] lines. It was this that caused the cheering and de termined Beauregard to make another attack on the Henry It ". Johns passed through the Union ranks. and for the second time within three or four hours the Union troops raised the shout of victory. The thrilling cry then Johnston has come. At three o clock. had been pressed back for a mile and a half. plateau. their first battle. their courage failed and they began to down the hill. with two-thirds of his army. With waving colors the Confederates pressed on. ". opening a volley of musketry on the retreating Federals. had just united with the army of Beauregard. and following it with another and another. their friends. But with the long march and the five hours fighting in the scorching July sun they were weary to exhaustion. Only the regulars. they had braved the hail of lead and of bursting shells. reen- forced with fresh troops. At half -past two the Confederates had been entirely driven from the plateau. had arrived the day before. untrained and unused to warfare as they were. and neighbors fall at their feet to rise no more.Run another horse and continued the battle. they had witnessed their comrades. and presently the gray lines were seen marching gallantly back toward the scene of the battle from which they had been driven. They nevertheless rejoiced in their success. while McDowell and his men were con gratulating themselves on having won the battle. had reached Manassas at noon by rail. and after a forced march of three hours. but it was true that the remaining third. under the command of Kirby Smith. The Union men had fought valiantly in this. a faint cheer ing was heard from a Confederate army far across the hills. ton has come! and there was terror in the cry.
Manassas Station. 1862. taken in A igust. ictory of THE ROAD THAT CHANGED HANDS TWICE Phe Orange & Alexandria R. CONFEDERATE FORTIFICATIONS AT MANASSAS. as the first move in the spring campaign. and were called upon to defend themselves against aggression at the hands of an nemy to be feared.Having won the completes! and most conspicuous modern times. At the close of Pope s disastrous campaign against Richmond the railroad again fell into the hands of Lee s army. R. luring the winter of J861-2. . Vinter 1861-2. ". they set to work to fortify themselves for defence against the enemy they had so disastrously overthrown. Phis view. THE LOST CHANCE. Confederate troops had been withdrawn in March. Part of the eastern defenses constructed by the Confederates after ".Bull Run". looks down the road towards Union Mills ord. It was the lost chance many military writers aver they could have swept on to Washington. The Confederates did not follow up their success at Bull Run. 1862. Co. The Federals The North never quite got over the haunting fear ully expected them to do so and all was alarm and confusion within the city.Copyright by Patriot Pub. irecisely as if they had been beaten in the fight. after the Union occupation of the abandoned works. hat the Confederate army would some day redeem that error and the defenses of the capital were made well nigh impregnable.".
to check the enemy. but he was powerless. poured in a deadly volley. and cap tured the guns. at the Centreville ridge.ull * July 1861 about sixteen hundred in number. had come out from Washington to witness a victory for the Grand Army. and they saw that army scattered in wild flight to escape an imaginary pursuer. desperately wounded. They had done most valiant service while the tide of battle ebbed and flowed. is little more to relate of the battle of Bull Run. on and troops refused to listen to any commands they rushed . The Confederates made no serious effort to follow after them. cut down the cannoneers almost to a man.IHIIIJ were the two powerful batteries of Griffin and Ricketts. Confederate regiment. dashing from a mass. McDowell made a desperate effort to check and reor The ganize his army at Centreville. He then sent his own surgeons to care for the wounded captain and detailed one of his staff to make him comfortable when he was carried to Rich mond In There as a prisoner of war. for the routed Federals had destroyed the Stone Bridge as they passed it in their retreat. he took command in person of the force previously stationed for holding the road back to Centreville and made such disposition as would best serve ". asked him if he could be of any service. The two men had been friends in the years gone by. But at last their hour had come. were subject to the orders of their superiors. and had ob structed the other avenues of pursuit.  . the On Henry hill A neighboring hill. Some hun dreds of civilians. his report McDowell stated that after providing for the protection of the retreat from the battlefield by Porter s and Blenker s volunteer brigades.". few minutes later General Beauregard rode up to the spot and noticed Captain Ricketts lying on the A ground. As darkness settled over the field the Confederates returned to their camps. recognizing his old friend. and they made a brave stand against the oncoming foe while they covered the retreat of the disorganized ^". members of Congress and others. Beauregard. killed their horses.
Tyler to feel for the Confederate position. Va. We are looking north along the line of the earthworks town and can see the abandoned Confederate winter quarters on the left. This picture was taken in March. THE PRINCIPAL FORT AT CENTREVILLE.. A strong force under Longstreet was encountered at Blackburn s Ford and a spirited engagement followed. by the Confederates during the winter of 1861-2. This was the prelude to the battle of July 21st. Centreville did not fall into the hands of the Federals until the Peninsula Campaign caused its abandonment.. From Centreville McDowell sent a reconnaisance in force July 18. 1862. All about it on the North can be seen the quarters in which the Confederate troops wintered after their victory at Bull Run. under General D.Vn^f^ Copyright by Patriot Pub. and in the upper two of them are lying on the ground. [A 11] . In the lower is m picture we see the dummy guns in position. when the Federals had occupied the abandoned works. 1861-2 This almost circular fort was constructed in the village of Centreville. Co. When the Confederates evacuated this line dummy guns of rough hewn logs were placed in position to deceive the Federals into the belief that the works were still occupied force. 1861. Va. THE DUMMY GUNS Here east of the another well-built field work of the Confederates at Centreville.
nil Him Jar? all great numbers of them traveled ington in the morning. Many soldiers went home in this belief. . night. The North. The captured and missing brought the Federal loss to nearly three thousand men. Nearly five hundred of their number were left dead on the field of battle. But the defeated army had not lost its courage. was a needed lesson was awakened to a sense of the mag taught nitude of the task before it. Federal forces engaged were nearly nineteen thousand. reaching Wash These raw troops had now received their first baptism of blood and fire. while the Confederates had more than eighteen thousand men on the field. The remnants of the shattered forces were gathered. on the other hand. wounded. The Confederate loss in The killed. on July 22d. The Confederate injury in that it led vast victory at Bull Run did the South great numbers to believe the war was over and that the South had won. the North was shrouded in gloom. joy Confederacy As the Federal troops marched into Washington through a drenching downpour of rain. brought and grief to the States of the North. and from the fragments a mightier host was to be rallied under the Stars and Stripes to meet the now victorious foe on future to the The first great battle of the American Civil War JL battle-grounds. and for months thereafter it was not easy to recruit the Southern armies. and missing was less than two thousand. and fourteen hundred were wounded.
1 was occupied by prisoners for the prisoners.5 wounded on the field. To break the monotony of guard duty Captain Chichester. August.". . and white cross belts were a novelty. and was there on the 9th when the guns back the battery turned the Star of the West ar riving with reinforcements for of wearing the uniform of the bat tlefield: wide dark-blue trousers with socks covering the bot toms. from the llth New York Zouaves. some of whom we see following October the At the beginning of the war the prisoners were exchanged. We see them still among the patriotic of Charleston. 1861. About 65 of them were taken way Charleston and placed for safe keeping in Castle Pinckney. Charleston Zouave Cadets were organized in the summer of 1860. then garrisoned by the Charleston Zouave Cadets. and a blue sash around the Their regiment. red flannel shirts with the silver badge of the New York Fire Department. some time in August. the fa waist. had taught the North that the war was on in earnest. The every Southerner capable of bearing arms had already joined the colors. 1861. who had been recruited almost The smaller entirely from the New York Fire Department. red fatigue caps.". July 21. on the They gave Run. Af ter the first fateful clash at Bull Henry House hill. stationed The company was on the Sullivan s also of Island was posted at Bull Run as a support forRickett s and Griffin s the Batteries during fighting of the afternoon fierce during bombardment Sumter. when exchanges became almost Almost the last resource for recruiting the dwindling ranks. Zouave. 1861. picture is a nearer view of their quarters. 1861. leaving 48 dead and 7. Sumter. engaged a photog rapher to take some pictures about the fort showing his men. April 12-13. Ellsworth s Zouaves. Gray uniforms with red stripes. over which they have Hotel de sign placed the ". The casemates of the fort had been fitted up with bunks and doors as sleeping quarters prisoners. Charleston Harbor. In Inside Castle Pinckney.Copyright by R AFTER BULL RUN GUARDING THE PRISONERS. a number of Federal prisoners were brought to THE PRISONERS HTH NEW YORK ZOUAVES here a before the charge of the Confederates. The company first went into active service on Morris Island. red fez caps with blue tassels. after month the battle. possession of prisoners did not mean as much to the South as it did later in the struggle. mous ". January 1. these hitherto unpublished Confederate photographs we see one of the earliest volunteer military organizations of South Carolina and The some of the first Federal prisoners taken in the war. We young men see in the picture how very young they were. and were recruited from Casemate No. blue jackets elaborately trimmed with braid.
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on his right. Upon Winfield Scott. his fine countenance and bearing betoken the soldierly qualities which made him one of the first commanders of his age. a battle. Henry Van Rensselaer. he was now in his seventy-fifth year. 18f&. he had never lost Born in Petersburg. hero of the Mexican War. . fell the responsibility of directing the Union armies at the outbreak of the Civil T ar. W D. On Townsend.Copyright by Re SCOTT THE FIRST LIEUTENANT-GENERAL AFTER WASHINGTON. Sitting here with his staff in Washington. his left in the picture stands Colonel E. General Scott retired on October 31. second in command only to President Lincoln.gt.l. in 178(i. Virginia. In active service for half a century.
PART II DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY FORT HENRY AND FORT DONELSON .
Louis. t was named m honor of the Governor.Louis had gathered in great crowds m the vicinity. on May 10th. Frost. on horses and afoot. toward Camp Jackson. hurrying thither in carriages. at half-past five in the afternoon . and was in command of General D.THE FIRST CLASH WEST OF THE Near here the citizens of St. Lyon. . marched nearly five thousand strong. By r ol (jovernor Jackson. M. soners. Captain Nathaniel Lyon was in command of the United States troops at the Arsenal in St. planted batteries on all the heights over looking it and set guards with fixed bayonets and muskets at half cock. 089 m all. surrounded it. baggage-wagons. General Frost surrendered his command. surrounded by a line of United States soldiers. Many of the men had seized their rifles and shotguns and had come too late to the as sistance of the State troops. a camp had been formed in the western suburbs of the city for drilling the militia. Meanwhile the inhabitants of bt. Louis MISSISSIPPI saw the first blood spilled in Missouri at the outbreak of the War. Greatly outnumbered by Lyon.
women.CAMP JACKSON. A clash occurred next day between troops and citizens and it was many weeks before the uproar over Lyon s seizure quieted down. After a short wait the ominous silence was suddenly broken by shots from the head of the column. Some of Lyon s soldiers had been pressed and struck by the crowd. As Lyon. with his prisoners. ST. No one was injured. and children were seen running frantically from the scene. Louis. MAY. . excitement ran high in St. MISSOURI. on the road leading to St. and had discharged their pieces. Louis. and halted. Tranquillity was apparently restored when volley after volley broke out from the rear ranks. marched through the city to the Arsenal. It was said that Lyon s troops were attacked with stones and that two shots were fired at them before they replied. and men. Meanwhile Camp Jackson became a drill-ground for Federal troops. as we see it in the picture. Twenty-eight citizens chiefly bystanders including women and children were killed. 1861 were marched out of camp. LOUIS.
artillery. who served under lor and bcott. under Ulysses S. Grant. through the Mexican War. had resigned his commission of captain in 1854 and settled in St. He soon impressed the Governor with his efficiency and was made drill officer at Camp Butler. .s services to his country in 1861.WHERE WESTERN SOLDIERS WERE TRAINED BY GRANT Here. Many Illinois regi ments. and Governor Yates gave him a desk in the Adjutant general s office. Louis. He went to Springfield. and especially cavalry. many a Western raw recruit was whipped into shape for active service. infantry. were organized and trained at Carnp Butler under the watchful eye of Grant By . Illinois. Grant. He was among the first to offer h.
ILLINOIS. NEAR SPRINGFIELD. This photograph was taken in 1862. IN 1862 1861. and on July 3d started for northern edge of Springfield. his usefulness had become so apparent that he was made mustering officer and aide. after Grant had left Camp Butler and was winning laurels for himself as Com mander of the District and Army of West Tennessee. Missouri. May. then at Camp Yates on the State Fair Grounds at the western On June 28th this regiment became the Twenty-first Illinois Volunteers. . In June he was appointed Colonel of the Seventh District Regiment. CAMP BUTLER.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. with the complimentary rank of colonel.
Lcretarv ff Tt W us c Umcron K". and thus gain access to the Ohio. &. cU^Tn ".T cleared parade grounds. and threw up g dCT ^-General Swift. w .. In the upper . f mounted guns. at gUnbbatS comi g P the Mississippi might visit upon it. f ^^ ^^ ^ fortifications against the attack which never came. to Conf &. REACHING OUT FOR THE RIVER SPri ". / Wracks. 1 C E NiDth TCnth E1CVenth and Twdfth IUin is V lunteers * ho b an the building of 1 hth&.ro at the junction of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers and save it from the fate of Sumter.MOUNTING ARTILLERY IN FORT DARLING AT CAMP DEFIANCE ne S erC ". T occupy ^ ". Ca.lt.gt.K I .gt. !.gt. who had been ordered by .de wt edi&.
ILL. In the latter we see one of the innumerable drills with which the troops were kept occupied and tuned Across the Mississippi was the battery at Bird s Point. on the river. Fort Darling. September 5-6. band traffic . This and Fort for the active service before them. 1861. up but their labors were chiefly confined to the prevention of contra Darling were occupied by the First and Second Illinois Light Artillery. Ky. The troops at Cairo did not see any campaigning till Grant led them to Paducah. CAMP DEFIANCE DRILL GROUNDS OF THE DKKKNDKHS OF CAIRO. which was situated to the left of the drill grounds pictures the men are at work rushing to completion the unfinished seen in the lower panorama. on the Missouri shore..UNCOMPLETED EARTHWORKS.
him major-general of volunteers. campaign There were two great battle-grounds of the Civil War. The South.Life of 1 felt the inspiriting event. The whole i?i Xicolay and Hay. for the early threatening of Washington. the capture of a stronghold that was thought impregnable. the raid of Morgan in Ohio. the Get except tysburg campaign. subordinate to the dramas of these two great theaters.I By this brilliant and important victory Grant full and universal recognition. vigorous of Fort Donelson. In the East after the initial engagement at Bull Run was quiet along the Potomac for some months./ appointment. fft. on the other hand. and the expeditions of Bragg and Hood into Kentucky and Ten nessee. McClellan had loomed large as the rising hero of the war. ". and the Senate at once confirmed the denly into fame sprang sud President Lincoln nominated s //. inci dental and contributory. and the bringing into public notice of a new commander who was destined to outshine all his fellows these were the achievements of the short. THE grasp of a great section of western Kentucky and Tennessee by the Northern armies. ". the North became impatient and demanded that ". military service Lincoln. nearly a thousand miles apart Virginia and the valley of the great river that divides the continent and the two defi nite objects of the Northern armies during the first half of the war period were to capture Richmond and to open the All other movements and engagements were Mississippi. all  . . was on the defensive from the beginning of the war to the end. but McClellan did not move with the celerity that was expected of him. the forced surrender of a great army.
and next to him is Cairo post-office. then Thomas. C. John Maxey. and Phil. young Bill Thomas. leans against the doorway on Grant s right. Up in the windows sit George Olmstead and Will Smith. the postmaster s son. Howard. for the photograph of this gathering was taken in Sep tember. Fred Theobold. Davidson. Copyriyht by Review of Iti rit i CAIRO CITIZENS With his WHO MAY HAVE RECALLED THIS DAY hands thrust in his pockets stands General Grant. the whole world was ringing with his praises the citizens who chanced to be in the group must have recalled that day with pride. later. and Jaques. Taggart. the mason. 1861. Young Al Sloo. is C. is Bob Jennings. on General McClernand s left. In his shirt sleeves. Charles Hotel and met them here. In the group about him are Benjamin Munn. the butcher. On the extreme right. then comes Dr.POST OFFICE. and when. facing the camera. who is directly in front of the pillar of the The future military leader had yet his great name to make. Perhaps these men told their children of the morning that Grant left his headquarters at the St. next to General McClernand. Who knows? .
Colonel James A. the disaster at After Missouri had been saved to the Union in spite of Wilson s Creek in August. General Humphrey Mar shall.nf Suiri attb 3Fnri something be done. The Confederate army was utterly routed and Zoliicoffer was killed. covered a year and five months. in charge of the of the Ohio. But one later event gave great encouragement to the North. in the early days of 1802. sharp engagement took place at s Cross Roads near Mill Logan Springs on January 19th. 18(51. was also in considerable ferment. and a superior force into the Cumberland Mountains. river by moving up the Cumberland and the greatest flanking movement in the history of It began at Fort Henry and ended at Vicksburg. But while the public was still waiting there were two occurrences in the West that riveted the attention of the nation. after a series of slight encounters. Thomas at Lebanon. It was the first substantial victory for the Union arms. [ was about two hundred and sixty. and It was not a great 180 ] . and to regain control of the Mississippi. secure the latter end a flank movement was decided upon To to open the mighty Tennessee warfare. Garfield had driven the Confederate commander. Eastern Kentucky. General Zollicoffer held the extreme Confederate right at Cumberland Gap and he now joined General B. terminating at Paintsville on the Big Sandy River. Army ening Confederate force. on January 10th. These were the fall of Fort Henry and of Fort Donelson. sending a thrill of gladness through the North and a wave of depression over the Southland. and cost tens of thousands of human lives and millions of dollars worth of property but it was successful. had placed General George H. which had not seceded. Its purpose was to dis pute with the Confederates their hold on Kentucky. a Union army slowly gathered in southern Illinois. Crittenden near Mill George General Buell. A The Union loss the Confederate over twice that number. and the latter promptly moved against this threat Springs in central Kentucky.
Captain Lagow and Cap of the General s mission from Fremont. his full-dress Here Grant appears Brigadier-General s Tennessee and began early to importune in Washington to be allowed to maneuvers. Kentucky. S. .CAPTAIN CLARK U. Grant pushed forward a Medical Director of the District. ". GRANT Copyright by Review of Reviews Co CAPTAIN WILLIAM S. RAWLINS. James Simons was W est. this outlying arena of Grasping at once the problems Captain Rawlins was made Assistant Adjutant-General by Grant. by a well- from his shoulders much two of the routine chosen staff. Few will and occupied Paducah. his immediate superior. of his of a military district includ Illinois. wore plain fatigue dress in in Kentucky and striking contrast with fully uniformed Lee. could Grant was impatient to drive back the Confederate lines Appomattox. southern September 4. HILLYER CAPTAIN JOHN A. Without waiting for per of the post. Dr.any out uni His keen judgment con form as he came to Cairo to assume vinced him that these must quickly be command ing 1861. WINNING HIS SPURS AT CAIRO. of the tain Hillyer were Commander of the Department r aides-de-camp. made in in order to secure the advantage the war. and lifted new post he began the work assisted of reorganization. BRIGADIER-GENERAL U. recognize in this early and at approach arrive. the before Confederates. unusual photograph the man who the ing with the same purpose. LAGOW force DR. JAMES SIMONS.
Then a 24-pound shot struck the Essex. At Bowling Green. The opposing commander was Albert Sidney Johnston. and the people first learned to appreciate the abilities of their great general. Kentucky. It was now February. George H. The fleet was yet unhurt when the first hour had passed. the Caronddct. the following year. 1862. crashed through her side and penetrated her boiler. while Foote should move up the river with his fleet to move r guns on the Confederate batteries. Slowly and cautiously he approached the fort. Tennessee. 1862. near Vicksburg. The Essex. perhaps. a brave officer who was destined to give his life for the Confed erate cause. Thomas. he had thirty thousand men. in General IT. 2d. wholly  disabled. the guns on the parapet answering those of the fleet. firing as he went. G rant s plan of attack was to land his army four miles below the fort. General Grant left Cairo with of seventeen thousand men and on transports moved across the country and seize the road leading to Fort Donelson. the Essex. then reputed the ablest general of the South. Several of the Confed erate guns were disabled. command of the Union forces in western Grant was Kentucky and S. It covered about three acres and mounted seventeen heavy guns. the ironclads the Cincinnati. Foote formed his vessels into two lines. and the St.Jail nf nrg effect * battle. he deter mined to save Tennessee for the South and took his stand at Nashville. that he could not hold Kentucky. On February 6th. drifted . four of them ironclads. Be lieving. Louis forming a front rank. Ac companying him was Flag-Officer Foote with his fleet of seven gunboats. instantly killing both her pilots and flooding the vessel from stem to his and turn stern with scalding steam. Fort Henry was garrisoned by an army of about three thousand men under the command of General Lloyd Tilghman. but its on the North was most stimulating. On his February army up the Ohio and the Tennessee to attack Fort Henry.
Porter and the Ess( s fleet. Fifteen the shots from Fort Henry last burg on July 22d. in July. PORTER May 1. Porter. D. and he witnessed the blowing up Arkansas the following of standing among his directing the fight. He die was terribly scalded by the escaping steam. THE ESSEX TWO YEARS LATER Copyright uy neview uj neviews Co. He recovered after Fort Henr. Fighting blood surged in the veins of Com Commander Porter s condu to su( mander W. COMMANDER W.THE UNLUCKY ESSEX AFTER FORT HENRY The thousand-ton the severest ironclad Essex received as were twenty-seven others. David Porter Porter. The gunboat which and was made Commodore Again in he led into action at Fort Henry was command of the Essex he a to named father after the famous Essex which in his tempted unsuccessfully destroy tl commanded of the War dread Confederate ram Arkansas at Vick of 1812. son of of Admiral Admiral during the struggle gave the lie and brother calumny. Commander men Porter. day. August 5tl tl: middle boiler. D. . the helped the Union forces to one penetrating her armor and piercing her Confederates at Baton Rouge. 1864. then joined Farragut His shel repulse tl struck and told upon the Essex. 186 David D. Wron outbra punishment at Fort Henry. ly suspected of disloyalty at the of the war.
a sound exceeding the roar of cannon w as heard above the tumult. the hillsides were covered with felled trees whose interlacing branches w ere supposed to render the ap closed r proach of the foe impossible under fire. a veteran of the regular army. . an Illinois lawyer and member of Con Ben Hur. Outside the fort and stretching far along the ridges that en it were rifle-pits. and a few houses scattered about. decided to save his army by send ing it to Fort Donelson. Pillow and Simon B. consisting of a court-house. Smith. At this moment Donelson was held by eighteen thousand men under the command of General John B. A A columbiad was also destroyed. Beneath the bluff and on the river bank were two acres that powerful batteries commanding the approach to the river. on the Cumberland River. great gun in the fort had exploded. Tilghman. Floyd. The Fort Donelson until the Confederates had escaped. reserving fewer than a hundred men to work the guns. This he did. Fort Donelson was a fortified enclosure of a hundred crowned a plateau on the Cumberland River. Buckner. Next to him were Gideon J. Southerners hastened across the country and added their num and by so doing they de bers to the defenders of Donelson ferred surrender for ten days. and Lew Wallace. Farther beyond.atry down stream. gress. late Sec retary of War in the cabinet of Buchanan. a two-story tavern. The Union army under Grant was divided into three parts under the respective commands of Charles F. John A. the future author of ". seeing that he had no hope of holding the fort. McClernand. while her companion ships continued their ad fire.". He then raised the white flag and surrendered the seventyGrant had failed to reach the road to eight that remained. r vance and increased their Presently. great 10-inch killing or disabling every man who served it. lines of logs covered with yellow clay. It was just south of the boundary between Kentucky and Tennes see and close by the little village of Dover.
and Mound City. 2. victory The eleven heavy guns in chorus. At a range of 1. near the border colors on Fort Henry were lowered and it Kentucky. was one seven flat-bottom iron the Carondelet. When Grant finally squadron. Louis.700 yards the obtained permission from General Halleck to Cincinnati opened the engagement. Illinois. break the backbone of the Confederacy. February transports. St. convoying the When General Grant ar loaded with the advance de of rived an hour later. of This gunboat. . which were steaming forward half a Missouri. Grant s seventeen thousand him and returned to Cairo with his Arriving before Fort Henry on FLAG-OFFICER FOOTE disabled gunboats. the Cincinnati. to Flag- 1862. lies the flagship February 6th. of the fort responded and won of the before the arrival and an iron rain began to fall army. the with telling effect upon the the Essex. General Tilghman surrendered Officer Foote. Cincinnati. Foote turned over the fort to tachment troops.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. which opened the in attack on to mander at once began the bombardment Fort Henry a the first movement with a well-aimed shot from the Cincinnati. riding at of anchor. the intrepid naval com Foote. After advance the attack upon Fort Henry of a little over an hour of heavy firing the on the Tennessee River. during mile in advance of the rear division of the the latter half of 1861. and the clads built by Captain Eads at Carondclet. Flag Officer Foote started up the river. THE GUNBOAT THAT FIRED THE FIRST SHOT AT FORT HENRY Hero.
and a braver one never was made through out the whole period of the war. This left an open space in the center. near the village of Dover. return ing volley for volley. Even then they stood for fifteen minutes. [ 18G ] . determined at all hazards to capture the battery on the hill.Feb. Reaching the foot of the hill. near the center of the Confederate line of battle. who arrived with his divi On the 13th there was a continuous bom till bardment from morning crack of the sharpshooter night. the hill. Jail of and McCler- 1862 With waving banners the divisions of Smith nand marched across country on February 12th. As they ran up the hill. the smoke stifled and they had to retreat. The charge was led by Colonel Morrison of Illinois. their ears and souls were leaves ". punctuated by the sharp s rifle. and returned to the assault. This bat tery had annoyed McClernand greatly. they rallied under the Stars and Stripes. firing as w ent. With no apparent thought of danger they sallied forth. and he delegated his third brigade to capture it. before retreating. but the dry on the ground now caught fire. Lew Wallace tells us. of Tennessee. commanded by Captain Maney. As they returned down them. The chief action of the to an attempt day that involved the infantry was capture a battery on a hill. their numbers were rapidly thinned by the terrific they r and two others on adjoining hills. Even a third time they charged. The men who made it were chiefly youths from the farms and workshops of Illinois. with fearful slaughter. to be filled by sion the next day. known as Maney s Battery. Smith was stationed on the left and McClernand on the extreme right. At length when they came cross-fire this battery from //W within forty yards of the goal a long line of Confederate mus ketry beside the battery suddenly burst into flame and a storm of bullets cut down the brave boys of Illinois. which stood out in relief against the sky. Still the survivors pushed on and their deadly fire thinned the ranks of the men at the battery. Lew Wallace. arriving at noon and encircling the doomed fort ere nightfall.
s ing Grant right wing that held a strong position. on the 15th of February. the gallant gunboat laurels at Island No. and in the Shattered they retreated to their works. fully re Helpless now. this gallant gunboat that Foote had chosen for his flag ship. Up in the pilot-house the brave man who knew the and on the channel stood at the wheel. the river sailors were loading and firing the heavy broadsides as fast as the great guns could be run out and aimed at the frowning line of entrenchments on the river bank. the current swept the Louis bow around. Meanwhile on a big battle. Buckner. entered the zone of fire at Fort Donelson. mangled. and as ing the same name the St. fleet October. pilot-house. her armored sides withstood the heavy shocks although the plating. bleeding and soon to die. to shore. ". But the repulse was complete. 1862. dented and bent. and later again. Fort Pillow. bore record of each impact. arid past her consorts that were still fighting.000. his eyes firmly fixed ahead. the forts as Tillc. Grant was earning his first laurels as a soldier in The disabling of the gunboats caused the Confederates Assail make the fatal attack that resulted so disastrously for them.000 For the capture of Fort Donelson Grant was first made major-general. 16th. as though endeavoring to attract the attention of the Con federate gunners to themselves and save the flag-ship from receiving more than her share. morning of the surrendered. stood Foote himself. later. the Louisat the up the narrow channel the flag-ship led the the Carondelet. she went into action lashed to the Carondelet on account of the narrowness of the stream. The In step to the conquest of the Mississippi had been achieved. there was another vessel in the service. Flag Officer Foote did not escape. and the Pittsburgh belching their fire wooded heights. THE FORT won . texas. struck the frail A great shot. the river was transferred from the Army to the Navy Department.". and that of the The Federal less. About 14. upon her and the Fifty-nine times was this brave vessel struck. Nearer and nearer grew way. He fell badly wounded in the leg by a fragment covered. leaving the Carondelet and Pittsburgh to escort the transports. bear Louis was renamed the Baron de Kalb. within speaking distance of him. 10. she returned to Cairo. It THE FLAG-SHIP ST.000 greater in number. as the upper deck was called. she drifted down the stream and out of action. was as if the vessel s s heart was pierced.000 prisoners were taken. in convoy of the Louisville.With the shots from the Confederate batteries ringing and bounding off her iron plates. Memphis. 19. loss was nearly 3. Southern cause about 1. river The wheel was swept away from the pilot hand and the brave guide was hurled into the corner. and Vicksburg. In the confined space of her smoke-filled gun-deck. LOUIS VIEWED FROM ASTERN Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. aimed accurately as a minie ball. From them marksman But the concentrated hail of iron was poured ship was good. the Confederate general. At LOUISVILLE A FIGHTER AT Fort Henry. of the shell a wound from which he never St.000 men were hurled against a force 8.
Foote steamed with his four ironclads to a point in the river within four hundred yards of the two power ful batteries on the river bank under the fort and opened fire with his cannon while continuing to advance. knowing that Grant s army was much  Now . the 13th of February. General Floyd. under the command of Andrew H. one of which had been struck fifty-nine times. four of them ironclads. upon Feb. The two vessels. now But swelled to twenty-seven thousand. At length a solid shot struck the pilot house of the flagship and tore away the pilot wheel. Grant had sent them Thus ended and up the Cumberland. Grant s army was victory. 1862 riven with the shrieks of their whom they the flames crept and smothered and charred where lay. pitiless they spent the night lying behind logs or in ditches or wherever they could find a little protection from the wintry blasts. In a short time the decks of the vessels were slippery with human blood. their second victory since the coming of the Union army. they floated down with the current. weary of the burden of their overcoats and blan kets during the warm preceding days. a fierce. to Fort Donelson. Lew Wallace s division.". raised a wild shout of joy at this. But what will be the story of the morrow? With the reenforcements The Confederates brought by Foote. Thousands of the men. On the 14th. about three support army in the afternoon. could no longer be turned about with the eddies of the river and managed. That night the river gunboats. had changed.0f wounded comrades. had thrown them away. All that fearful night of The wind with driving sleet and snow. The reply from the Confederate batteries was terrific and many of their shots struck home. six in number. and in spite of the initial repulse the Federals felt confident of ultimate springlike weather February 14th there was a dreary night was before them. Foote himself was severely wounded. Foote. At almost the same the Tennessee to the Ohio his down at moment another gunboat was disabled. arrived. The others followed.
at anchor in the Ohio River this little Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. and also at Fort Donelson. she engaged the land batteries and a Confederate gunboat. September 10.THE ADVENTUROUS GUNBOAT CONES TOG A wooden gunboat is having the finishing touches put to her equipment while her officers Lying and men are impatiently waiting for the opportunity to bring her into action. . 1861. Her boilers and steam pipes were lowered into the hold and the oaken bulwarks five inches thick which we see were put on her and pierced for guns. THE TYLER A sister-ship of the Conestoga. She got her first taste of fighting when. A side-wheel river steamer originally. She was present both at Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. She was present at Fort Henry in the second division of the attacking fleet. at Lucas Bend. she was purchased at Cincinnati by Commander John Rodgers in the spring of 1861 and speedily converted into a gunboat.
The situation was hopeless. council was held by Floyd. and said in his ordinary tone. This moment. When his lines hesitated Smith waved his cap on the point of his sword and rode in front. Confederates made no attempt to escape. Pillow seems then to The night was spent in He felt that the whole Union army was and though the road to Nashville was open. up the hill. the position on the right must be re taken. Then he galloped away to General Smith. says Wallace. Further more. Lew Hearing the disastrous news. Next instant he was calm. At the same foe. to McClernand and Wallace. and in the morning Pillow with ten thousand men fell upon McClernand. after consulting with Pillow and Euckner. down the river consulting Foote. He had heen absent all morning have lost his head. not knowing that the Con federates had planned an escape. Here again the Confederates re and the road to Nashville was no longer open. tired. Buckner. Pillow. decided. Floyd was under indictment at Washington for maladministration in the  Buchanan .". Fill preparing for this. Gentlemen. the defeated. to attack the Union right at dawn on the 15th. and Buckner soon joined him with an additional force. was the crisis in the life of Grant. he crushed some papers in his hand. toward the rifle-pits moment Lew Wallace was leading his division up another ".stronger than his own. who was a master in the art of warfare. In a short time the Union lines were in motion. Toward noon many of McClernanxTs men ran short of powder and he was forced to recede from his position. and Buckner. Smith held a position from which he could shell the fort on the inside. General Smith made a grand assault on the Confederate outworks and rifle-pits. his face flushed for a mo ment. and nothing was left to the inmates but surrender or slaughter an the morrow. cabinet. declared that he could not hold his position for half an hour in the A morning. slope with equal gallantry. Just then General Grant rode upon the scene. in the hottest fire of the and they were carried.
that then and there began the friendship that grew as if the two men were brothers of the blood. and re ceived him after the battle For a short as his guest. but being repulsed. and given an impor tant command. When General Grant. see him a brave figure of a man clad in the uniform of a Southern Colonel. had reached Fort Donelson. TWO UNWILLING GUESTS OF THE NORTH willing to recall. in a measure. But at last. as it does physical friendship are cemented that last a lifetime.". surrendering himself eighty-four men as Here ws prisoners of war. It was im possible for the garrison of Fort Donelson to command of the Confederate Fort Donelson much stronger position on the Cumberland only a few miles away were men who pos in make its a had once appeared General escape after the flotilla of gunboats in the river. THE DEFENDER OF DONELSON and antagonist requesting that Buckner do him the final honors by becoming one of his pallbearers. was held by a few thousand men and strongly armed with twenty guns including one 10-inch Columbiad. whose heavy bombard ment began early in the morning. gan. have been his Surrender". failed in his business career. although Floyd. some in three number. after having been twice President. twelve milesaway General Tilghman hauled down his flag. wrote his old-time comrade exchanged and welcomed back with all honor into the ranks of the Confeder acy. Grant. ou the banks of the Tennessee. he sent back a reply that in a few short hours he would. that was. Buckner sent him a check. when he was roled. left the desperate situation to be coped with by General Buckner. on the 16th of May. Here. his retreat cut off the troops who had been ordered to depart in the close as morning thousand . saw his men flung back once more into the fort. Fort Donelson. and his personal the officers to keep their side arms. Copyright by Review of K BUCKNER. General Tilghman had seen from the first that the He was trapped position could not be held. however. won Grant. and especially is this so between conqueror and bravery. Each one was al lowed to retain baggage. Well did this handful serve the guns on the river bank. Assailed in the rear by an army that outnumbered the defenders of the fort by nearly eight thousand and with the formidable gunboats hammering his entrenchments from the river. It of Forts Henry It is not often that on the battlefield ties of requires as much moral courage to decide upon a surrender. The actual reduction of the tendering the command to General Pillow. on all sides. TILGIIM. a repetition of Fort Henry. the sessed Both had courage. ". Hurt and smarting under his position. in maintaining a useless fight to the death. But the friend ship between the two leaders continued. saw two fighting foes become thus united. this kind of former scene Secretary of War under President Buchanan. but he would not give way without Before the firing be a display of resistance. Grant and had known Buckner in the Mexican War. On Febru ary 16th. Only for a short time was he held a prisoner. the misfortune to hold untenable positions. Fort Henry. live long to serve his cause. But when the capitulation had taken place and nearly fifteen One shot struck the gun boat Exxex. perhaps. his who in his turn. who com manded the Confederate Fort Henry on the Tennessee and General Simon Bolivar Buckner conquered. fort leader GENERAL LLOYD nickname of ". for Grant with 17. But on the Cth of February it fairly lay in the possession of the Federals before a shot had actually been fired. Most of the prisoners were pa sides. had withdrawn himself from the Each displayed generalship and sagacity and only gave up to the inevitable when holding out meant nothing but wasted slaughter and the sacrifice of men who had been called upon to exert every human effort. shortly before his death.000 men had gained the rear of the fortification after his move from Cairo on the 30th of the previous month. There was never the slight est doubt of his courage or of his proper discretion in making this surrender. of whom he lost twenty-one. for shortly after rejoining the army he was killed at the battle of Baker s Creek. he had sent off most of the garrison and maintained the unequal combat with the gun boats for an hour and a quarter with less than a hundred men. 1863.VM. all thousand men had surren dered.Unconditional Buckner was informed that the Federal army was about to move upon his works. Buckner decided to cut his way out in a desperate charge. after escaping with own brigade. its senior commander. enveloped on boilers. the coming nothing for was left to the gunboat flotilla under Flag Officer Footc. Yielding to circumstances he accepted what he bluntly pronounced. Mississippi. time General Buckner was kept a prisoner at Fort Warren until he was ex changed. There was it but to make terms. Grant was so generous. a greater number than ever before laid down their arms upon the conti nent.The Captured Commanders and Donelson. . even when odds are overwhelming. piercing her and wounding and scalding twenty-eight men.un generous and unchivalrous terms. Brigadier-General Tilghman. trusting that it might be of use in his time of trouble. He did not. in a note to Grant he asked what might be granted him.
". consisting of at least fourteen thousand men. the victors gained Third. He accepted the ungenerous and unchivalrous terms. Grant de ing to capitulate. and In the early ". ". His men were so worn with eighty-four hours of fighting and watching that many of them had fallen asleep while standing in battleline and under fire. Floyd and Pillow with their their escape.". and Pillow. He passed the com mand to Pillow. as he pronounced them.". The capture of Fort Donelson did three things. nation a new man Ulysses S. and added. passed it on to Buckner. morning Buckner sent a note to Grant offer The answer is well known. and that with his Vir ginia troops he would escape on two little boats that were to arrive from Nashville in the morning. killed and wounded. Grant. Buckner was too good a soldier to sacrifice his men in needless slaughter. so did Colonel Forrest. The Confederate loss. Bull Run had been a moral victory to the South. ". the capture of Donelson forced before the replaced. declaring that he too would escape. was about two thousand. scarcely control of an extensive territory and captured a noble army which could ill be spared by the South and which could not be more than the but the vanquished were weakened victors. Second. with all its stores of ammunition. Y it opened up the way for the Federal army to penetrate the it heart of the western South and gave and of western Tennessee. 192] . It was the first great victory for the North in the war. the cav his mounted force. men made good alry leader. manded unconditional surrender. I propose to move immediately on your works. and surrendered Fort Donelson and the army. First. At Donelson.tr He declared that he must not be taken. control of it electrified the Kentucky North with confident hopes of ultimate success. The Union loss was over twenty-eight hundred men.
IN HOLDING OFF WITHERS* GALLANT ATTACK .SHILOH THE FIRST GRAND BATTLE ITS FLANKING FIRE THE PLUCKY LITTLE WOODEN GUNBOAT TYLER ON THE CONFEDERATE TROOPS CHARGING ACROSS THE RAVINE OF DILL S BRANCH. COMMANDER OF THE FEDERAL LEFT. CLOSE BY THE RIVER. GREATLY ASSISTED HURLBUT.
of Grant s staff. had ranged along the top of the bluff from a quarter to a half a mile from Pittsburg Landing. 1862.^fea*f J m EV^teraS^C*. ^ll \i i !3 vHM i. Onward swept | the Confederates toward a grim line of batteries.lt. In one of the backward movements of Grant s forces in the afternoon of that day General Prentiss. isolated by the retirement of troops in his flanks.^4 ^ kv &.^^&.. which Colonel Webster. ^11 . fought till overwhelmed by the Confederates.gt. W3 :v. //* !fi aS rr& ftyl . 1*J4 J The line of artillery overlooked a deep ravine opening into the .fw I 1 fc ^OP* . Encouraged by this success General Bragg ordered a last desperate charge in an effort to turn the left of the re-formed Federal line.. April 6.-** :*/ V *&. then surrendered the remnant of his division.lt. / - THE DEFENDERS OF GRANT S LAST LINE AT These heavy guns when this picture SHILOII was taken had not been moved from the actual position they held in the afternoon of the battle of Shiloh.
.". Into this and up its precipitous side General Withers dashed with in the river joined with Webster s batteries upon the ridge and a frightful fire the slope of the [A came the order to retire. Copyriiiht by lierirw of Itevir.. To his men working their way up Tennessee River.gt..wx ( &. of Withers Division. did not get the word.-&.gt. The gunboats Tyler and Lexington was poured into the ranks of the advancing Con federates. Down in the ravine his men alone whole Confederate army were continuing the battle. Withers led on his men.. The division that he had expected to reenforce him had been withdrawn by the order of General Beauregard. Only after nightfall did lie retire. In the face of this. 13] . General Chalmers.*& .. although finding himself unsupported save by Gage s battery.&. GUNS THAT HELD THEIR GROUND AT PITTSBURG LANDING two brigades. .lt.
and now decided to collect his troops at try. Johnston (Son of the Confederate General. had given up Nashville. And the pity of it was that the contestants were brethren of the same household. and who had come from Virginia to aid Johnston.SHILOH THE FIRST GRAND BATTLE No Confederate who fought at Shiloh has ever said that he found Colonel William Preston any point on that bloody field easy to assail. Leonidas Polk who. they bered forty thousand. determined to concentrate the scattered forces and to make a desperate effort to retrieve the disaster of Donelson. not hereditary and unrelenting enemies. had entered the church and for twenty years before the war had been Episcopal bishop of Louisiana. Next in command to expression. but the greatest of them were skirmishes compared with the gigantic conflicts of the Old World under Marlborough and Napoleon. The legions of the South were gath little ". Johnston was Gen eral Beauregard who fought at Bull Run. He had abandoned Bowling Green. At Fort Donelson the western South was not slain it w as only wounded. Albert Sidney Johnston. though a graduate of West Point. On the field of Shiloh. and John C. 1862. A ered at Corinth until.". IN the history of America many battles had been fought. former Vice President of the United States. Mississippi. killed at Shiloli). more grape. two great American armies were to engage in a mighty struggle that would measure up to the most important in the annals of Eu rope. whose name had become famous through the laconic Corinth. by the 1st of April. [1961 num . There also came Braxton Bragg. Captain Bragg. The chief commander of that part of the coun r Albert Sidney Johnston. for the first time. Breckinridge. uttered by Zachary Taylor at Buena Vista..
He was West did Grant pay higher tribute than to this veteran of the Mexican War who was his Chief of Staff. In 01 he was as with a natural genius for war. A. C. and had been commander district of of the military bravery. On March of his superiors show the trust and con In he received the brevet of Major- fidence that were reposed in him. a fact that the coming leader recognized on April 14th. and was appointed superin valuable executive. whole South into mourning. in the saddle. BRIG. and that repelled the at Shiloh where he He was and a man to be collected the artillery near the final Landing upon in counsel in Confederate attack emergency. of from the very outset.lass A West In the signed to a district including Kentucky of 26. 13. relied with Grant at Paducah. S. S. and gifted with a personality that General Thomas at Hood defeat before won friends everywhere. in the face of tendent of military railroads in the De Later he was of Tennessee. Pointer of the (". he had taken charge of the stirring scenes of the early conflict in the fortifications at Cairo. Copyright by Review of Keviewx Co. 1861. cesses of the 6th of April were due to his At the outbreak of the Civil War he had leadership. . whose early knew the loss they would sustain and the was a hard blow to the Confederacy. and again proved his worth Always cool and collected when he was with s danger. of leading He had also the gift men and partment inspiring confidence. practical his military training and was made a Brigadier-General experience made him a most Volunteers. and the Federal authorities GENERAL A. artillery officer On October of and engineer. 1865. gain that would be given to the cause of the Albert Sidney Johnston was a born fighter Confederacy. To no one who was close to him in the April. in the border conflicts in ganizer. but Shiloh cut short a career that led Texas. WEBSTER General of Volunteers.A loss brilliant Southern leader. his him to a high place in fame he had always proved worth. his and history. he had led a life. and in the advance into Mexico. D. His death put the conscience. He remained Chief 1862. Struck by a minie he kept Utah. way of meeting it attested to his ball.-GEN. the reports of all Nashville in December. An Staff until October. 1864. An ardent Southerner. J. falling exhausted and dying he made his choice. he 6th. JOHNSTON. CAMP OF THE NINTH The story of this regiment is MISSISSIPPI told on page 201. at Forts Henry and Donelson. Chief of Staff to General Sherman. his His manner of death and already been brevetted Hrigadier-General. strenuous and adventurous At once he displayed would have his gifts as an or early Indian wars. dictated by heart and from the loss of blood. The early Confederate suc bravery and his knowledge as a soldier. Illinois. and Tennessee with the rank of General.
there were revelry and mirth around the thousand camp-fires. Whether the Union army was really surprised has been the subject of long controversy. General Grant had no idea that the Confederates would meet him at Pittslmrg Landing. the woods on the neighboring hills within gunshot of the Fed the At camps.htinh Jfftrat laltb April -* $&. on the Tennessee River. It was Saturday night. the Union army had moved southward and was concentrating at Pittsburg Landing. The his army occupied at the Landing was a kind of quad position rilateral. but Grant it. It was clear that two mighty. an obscure stopping place for boats in southern Tennessee. He believed that they would wait for an attack on their entrenchments at Corinth. streams that flow into As was so sure that Johnston would not attack that he spent the night of the 5th of April at Savannah.gt. There was the sound of the plashing streams overflowing from recent rains. and some twenty miles northeast from Corinth. and during this night were deploying around the Union camp. 1802 Meantime. some miles down the Tennessee River. The name means more now than merely a landing place for river craft. enclosed on three sides by the river and several small the early days of April passed there were ominous rumors of the coming storm. who had for two days been drawing nearer with a steady tread. April 6th. hostile forces were drawing to gether and that ere long there would be a battle of tremen dous proportions. magnificent under the Confederate battle-flag. which we need not eral [ 198 ] I . only a mile away. V was no sound dawn of day on Sunday. For two weeks the Union troops had occupied the undulating tableland that stretched away from the river at the Landing. There was nothing to indicate that the inevitable clash of arms was but a few hours in the future. emerged from battle-lines. but there to give warning of the coming of forty thou sand men. such as this Western hemisphere had not then known.
Anderson was first in the second line of battle at the beginning. I nder the command of Captain W. stands out in red letters. Before the action was twenty minutes old he was at the front. the name of the Washington Artillery. with Anderson s brigade of brave fighters. Here we see the officers of the Fifth Company. company made its name from the very first. galloping over the rough ground. and buttons glistening. Not one of the lads here pictured is within a year of his majority. . SOUTHERN BOYS Here we see plainly IN BATTLE men of the shown the extreme youth of some of the enlisted Washington Artillery of New Orleans. We hardly realize how young the fighters on both sides were. in the first year of the war while uniforms were this bright. only their faces and the records can show it. the dandies of their day. came the Washington Artillery. these young cannoneers answered to the call. and with the advance. sword-belts pipe-clayed. At Shiloh.BRAVE SOUTHERNERS SHILOH In the Southern record of the battle of Shiloh. Irving Hodgson. of New Orleans. It was composed of the best blood of the city.
he heard the distant boom of cannon and he quickly realized that Johnston s army had attacked his own at the Landing. T. The second Federal force to encounter the fury of the oncoming foe was the division of General W. General Grant. of West Vir throughout the day. Sherman. he found a tremendous battle raging. as we have noted. which was cut to pieces and disorganized. giving directions and cheering them on as best he could. but he was soon ready and. though pressed back for half a mile in the next two or three hours. his ginia. s As Grant passed Crump Landing. but only after it had inflicted frightful loss on the Confederate army. a town nine miles by way of the river from Pittsburg Landing. and in con and at a disadvantage r f) s corps. and Breckinridge was extending all along the line in front of the Federal camps. in which for years the simple folk of the countryside had been wont to gather for worship But on this fateful Sunday. Meanwhile the further Confederate advance under Bragg. As he sat at breakfast. about half way between the two. and he spent the day riding from one division commander to another. he met Wallace and ordered him to be ready for instant marching when he was called for. Polk. the attack on it was sequence it fought on the defensive enter.April IjUdj- 1862 Certainly. men fought like heroes. most sudden. demon of war reigned supreme. General Hardee Before Prentiss could form his lines Hardee s shells began bursting around him. Instantly he took a boat and started for the scene of the conflict. spent the night at Savannah. When Grant arrived at Pittsburg Landing. forming the first line of battle. The little church was known  . the every Sunday morning. the outlying division of the Union army. about eight o clock in the morning. General Lew Wallace was stationed with a division of seven thousand men. About two and a half miles from the Landing stood a little log church among the trees. which moved against was commanded by General Benjamin Prentiss. At Crump s Landing.
from loss of blood. when a minie ball cut an artery of his thigh.". mander was dead. But about nine o clock.".". and it gave its name to the great battle that raged near it on that memorable day. received his death wound as he was urging his troops to force back Hurlbut s men. In a few minutes the great com horse. and here he held his ground for eight long hours. Hornet s Nest. Their noble commander. when he and a large portion of his division were surrounded and compelled to sur render. a He was lifted from his deadly pallor blanched his cheek. Jefferson Davis afterward de clared that on the life the fortunes of a country hung by a single thread that was yielded on the field of Shiloh. One of Johnston s subordinates wrote Johns ton s death was a tremendous catastrophe. The West perished with Albert Sidney Johnston and the ". after being reen forced. followed.Irilnlt It? 3f trsl IBattl? $ April 1862 as Shiloh to all the country around. The final charge . but it was too late. until five in the afternoon. General Prentiss had borne the first onset of the morning. Albert Sidney Johns ton. Beauregard succeeded to the command on the fall of Johnston and the carnage continued all the day till dark ness was falling over the valleys and the hills. It was not spot came to be known as the ". cheering his men. Sometimes the hopes of millions of people depend upon one head and one arm. Time after time the Confederates rushed upon his This position. changed the result at Shiloh and prevented the utter rout or capture of Grant s army. A surgeon far 7 could easily have saved him. The wound was not necessarily fatal. The death of Johnston. in the belief of many. He w as riding in the center of the fight. Pie had been pressed back half a mile. But he thought only of victory and continued in the saddle. raising his voice in encouragement above the din of battle. but only to be repulsed with fearful slaughter. Presently his voice became faint. from here that the Confederates suffered the irreparable loss of the day. he made a stand on a wooded spot with a dense undergrowth. : Southern country ".
up. Grant transferred his headquarters to the Tigress. and even regiments. and the two leaders held a conference on the upper deck of the Tigress. had intended to leave an opening that would tempt the hard-pressed Federal army came to retreat down the river. pushing ahead of his troops. which lies between the other vessels in the photograph. The Confederate General Johnston. The steamer on the right is the Universe. April 6th was as the some miles from where the fight began. It was touch and go whether the troops fighting in the forest. was of such immense importance as to become a great factor in the turn General Grant It s headquarters in the early morning of was at Savannah. cannonade announced the opening of the battle. Later. beyond the landing. as the picture shows. could hold their ground. At one o clock General Buell. and as soon ing of the battle tide that saved the Federal cause. and all As soon as Buell s hastening troops night long they plied across the river loaded within an inch of their gunwales with the reinforcements. they brought supplies.THE BOATS THAT TURNED THE TIDE AT SHILOH PHOTOGRAPHED A PEW DAYS AFTER THE BATTLE The assistance rendered tions into the service of the by these Tennessee River boats that had been pressed from their peaceful occupa army. huddled to gether so closely that brigades. . the lar gest of the transports present. reached the river bank. they massed solidly back on Pittsburg Landing. on the Tennessee. But. the transports were turned into ferry-boats. in forming his plans. were overlapping. instead.
$ Further mention is due the two little wooden gunboats. in the hope of gaining that important point. But by means of a battery of many guns on the bluff of Dill s Branch. He had counted on making an immediate grand assault in the attack all i darkness. he re ceived permission to open fire. and when he saw the Confederate right pushing its way toward the Landing. informed him of Beauregard it . When General Bragg heard this he was furious with rage. Gwin.". the angry Bragg. All that night. When the messenger he inquired manders. rejoined Yes. Southern hopes were high at the close of this first bloody day at Shiloh. aided by the gunboats in the river. was eager for a part in the battle. Later on the Lexington joined her sister. Whatever of victory there was at the end of the  . for their share in the great fight. believing that he could capture a large part of the Federal army. and had a de pletely cided effect upon the next day s result. Tyler and Lexington. sent shot crashing through the trees in the direction where the Confederates had bivouacked. to the other com If you had not. and the two vessels gave valuable support to the Union cannon at the edge of the ravine and to Hurlbut s troops until the contest ended. This com broke the rest of the exhausted troops. at the request of General Nelson. The Tyler had lain all day opposite the mouth of Dill s Branch which flowed through a deep. Beauregard then gave orders to desist from further along his lines. he had already delivered ".". to suspend operations till morning. But Bragg s fears were not shared by his compatriots.Sfltrat dkaith $ -$ April 1862 of the evening was made by three Confederate brigades close to the Landing. s order. was the reply. the charge was repulsed. For an hour his guns increased the difficulties of Jackson s and Chalmers brigades as they made their way to the surrounding of Prentiss. in the downpour of rain. if ". Lieutenant see just above the Landing. I would not obey it.". into the Tennes Her commander. Lieutenant Gwin. The battle is lost. marshy ravine.
and that every ten min utes an 8-inch shell should be launched in the direction of the Confederate camp. battle was ended elsewhere. opened on the Here we see pictured in the lower part of the page the captain s gig and crew near the Lexington. strove to keep the federate Con After army from the Landing. branches slept. ization became evident fruit in and rest Slowly a certain demoral little rest. How the was going. . Gwin and of sent a messenger ashore in the evening to General Nelson. makes a separate chap In the early morn ing they were out of sight. General ers set his division in With toward son s this point. the surrender of Prentiss. showing that under the continuous and fierce assaults The they were falling back upon the Landing.THE UUJNliUATb AT SHllAJti where In the river near Pittsburg Landing. was pitch dark. The daunt less brigade of Chalmers. was swept by fire. results that bore the action that morrow. All the rest of the river kept up their continuous bombard ment. was evident. The masses of the blue-clad troops appeared through the trees on the river bank. In Gwin s inquiry. asked in what manner he could now be It service. and what they did during the battle of April 6th ter in the action. the only one Withers had. commanded by Lieutenant Gwin. and and re limbs upon them where they tearing great gashes in the earth. sult The was that they got was necessary. and afterward the Lexington. reached the battle-field. who had just arrived. though within sound battle of the continuous firing. however. With great this course. and in connection with the field batteries on the bank checked General Withers desperate attempt on the Landing. until nightfall. Tyler. and played havoc with the Confederate skirmishers. General Nelson requested that the gunboats keep on firing during the night. which arrived at four o clock. ready to row their commander out into the stream. motion to the right Chalmers and Jack brigades marched into the ravine of Dill s Branch and into the range of the batteries Federal silenced gunboats and which Gage s battery. com manded by Lieutenant Shirk. the afternoon. were two small gunboats. whose brave Southerners held their ground near the foot of the ravine and maintained the conflict after the sailors THE LEXINGTON Copyright by Review uf Reviews Co. the Federal transports lay. the gunboats When Buell s army. s that had been hurrying up to Grant assistance. precision Gwin followed out Through the showering forest the shells shrieked and exploded over the exhausted Confederates. except terrific for the occasional firing of the pickets the armies were resting after the reply to combat.
that the issue eral [ 200 ] .litlolj 3Ftrst Saitle * * day belonged to the Confederates. others con tinued to pour in during the night. Buell was coming from Nashville to join Grant s army. And. Buell and Wallace had brought with them twenty-five thousand fresh troops to be hurled on the Confederates on the morning of the But Van Dorn had not come. furthermore. now at last had arrived. Gen V Lew Wallace s division. The Union army was stunned and abled. stand at the Hornet s Xest. They had captured General Prentiss with some thousands of his men as a result of his brave ". early in the evening the cry ran along the Union lines that Buell s army had come. but the roads were bad and he was yet far away. The preponderance of 7th. at the close of the first bleeding. though it had taken a wrong road from Crump s Landing and had not reached the field in time for the fighting of the 6th. the men had made a noble stand. indeed. hopes were mingled with grave fears. On the other hand. but not dis day s battle. They had pressed their the Federals back more than a mile and now occupied ground and tents of the night before. was w orn and weary almost to their r r But exhaustion. muddy march from Corinth and its more than twelve hours continuous fighting. numbers now was with the Union army. The advance guard had arrived late in the afternoon and had assisted Hurlbut in the closing scene on the bluff of Dill s ravine. Moreover. with its long. they had hopes of heavy reenforcements during their position the night. the contest of the next day would be unequal and the Confederates would risk losing all that they had gained. pressed back from and obliged to huddle for the night around the Landing. Should he arrive during the night.". Beauregard s army. while thousands of their comrades had fallen on the gory field. Though Caught unawares. And. General Van Dorn with an army of twenty thousand men w as hasten ing from Arkansas to join the Confederate forces at Shiloh. Everyone knew that the battle was not over.
points with pride to the Hazen s Nineteenth Brigade. individuals have been so rewarded for deeds of bravery and prowess. them two to one able and determined fighters. *1. two or three times found himself so fiercely assailed that it looked as the flank would be crumbled but the Ninth was there. on the Federal side. . And along that thin rail fence. and well was ever been equaled. and on the stands the never faltering Ninth. * A*K Copyright by Review of Renews Co.. Army of the Cumberland. The Ninth had suffered the heaviest loss in left numbers of any regiment in the Army of the Ohio at that battle. v* f*. too. who charged time and again up in to the muzzles of their only to be beaten back by the steady and continuous volleys. given them under s fire. that outnumbered deserved. Fourteenth Corps. A GALLANT REGIMENT FROM THE IIOOSIER STATE To the Ninth Indiana belongs the banner record. told.well done". no less than eight positions there were to in the depleted companies. and at Stone River it one hundred and nine men. fill The percentage of officers killed and wounded many vacancies for promotion. at bloody Shiloh. first The Fourth list Division. for they rail saved the flank of Ha/en little brigade by stubborn bravery that has hardly their Posted on the line of a fence that offered or no protection.v^S. while still engaged in action. if command in. rode up and thanked them. one hundred and seventy scroll of men had been killed or wounded. Ilazen. General Nelson. Colonel William B. Flags have been decorated with the medal of honor. on April 7th. it made a sad hut gallant showing. of the Nineteenth Brigade. they held ground against a force rifles. In November s it was transferred lost to the Second Brigade all of the Second Division. in the battle. which General Nelson commanded. It seldom happens to any unit of a fighting force. but to the Ninth Regiment from the Hoosier State fell the unique honor of having the it word ". to receive words of thanks and congratulation while still on the firing-line. And when the cost was footed up.
the right wing was com manded by McClernand. The troops that Grant now ad the break of At vanced into the contest were all. so continuous that no ear could distinguish one shot from another. Nelson commanded the Federal left wing. while the Confederates had not a single company that had not been on the ground the day before. But now under the changed conditions the Confederates were at a great dis advantage. Meanwhile Grant and Buell were together in Sherman s camp and it was decided that Buell s troops should attack Beauregard next morning. Shiloh Church was again the storm center and in it  to . The Confed erate left wing was commanded by the doughty Bragg and next to him was General Polk. all was astir in both camps on the field of Shiloh. and the weary thousands of both sides sank down on the ground in a drenching rain to get a little rest and to gain a little strength for the desperate struggle that \vas sure to come on the morrow. except about ten thousand. Nelson s division of Buell s army was the first engage the Confederates. day on Monday. with Hardee and Breckinridge immediately opposed to him. Some military historians believe that Beauregard would have won a signal victory if neither army had been reenforced during the night. The deafening roar of the cannon that characterized the beginning of the day s battle was followed by the rattle of musketry. Beauregard rested hopes upon a fresh dispatch announcing that Buell was delayed and the dreaded junction of two Federal armies therefore impossible. and yet they fought for eight long hours with heroic valor. The Union center was under the command of Gen erals McCook and Crittenden. while Sherman and Lew Wallace occupied the extreme right. and the dawn was greeted with the roar of cannon. the fresh recruits that Wallace and Buell had brought. with Hurlbut next. April 7th. One division of Buell stood to arms all night.April must be decided on the coming day.
might summon them to fight. 1861.THE MOUNTED POLICE OF THE WEST The bugle and Stalwart horsemen such as these bore the brunt of keeping order in the turbulent regions fought over by the armies in the West. or to watch the movements of the active Confederates. enlisted at Louisville. OFFICERS OF THE FOURTH KENTUCKY CAVALRY . ". Van Dorn Price. Of this unattached cavalry of the Army of the Ohio were the men in the upper picture Company D. Fourth Kentucky Volunteers. to embarrass the Copyriu/tt by Review of Reviews Co. It was largely due to their daring and bravery that the Confederate forces were held back from the Mississippi so as not movements of Grant and the gunboats. call.Boots and Saddles!". December.
The Federals remained in possession of the field and the Confed erates were It wading through the mud on the road to Corinth. but leaped to his feet unhurt and asked for another horse. The general. piled in like bags of grain. His horse was struck by a bursting shell and torn to a thousand fragments.Sit? April 1862 General Beauregard made his headquarters. at the same time making a show of resuming the offensive. thrown ten feet high. Beauregard became convinced that he was fighting a losing battle and that it would be the part He of prudence to withdraw the army before losing all. groaning and cursing. the columns in blue and gray surged to and Hour after hour fro. first one then the other gaining the advantage and presently losing it. Some hours before nightfall the fighting had ceased. that the Federals did not suspect it for some time. An eye-witness described it in the following language I made a detour from the road on which the army w as retreating that I might travel faster and get ahead of the main In this ride of twelve miles alongside of the routed body. was a dreary march for the bleeding and battered Con federate army. : r ever again be called upon to witness. the water sometimes coming into the wagons. The retreating host wound along a narrow and almost impassable road. while the mules plunged on in mud and water belly-deep. At times the smoke of burning powder enveloped the whole field and hid both armies from view. I saw more of human agony and woe than I trust I will army. Early in the afternoon. this thereupon sent the members of his staff to the various corps commanders ordering them to prepare to retreat from the field. pressing on past the  . Here was a line of wagons loaded with wounded. the front firing-line being kept intact. The interesting incidents of day of blood would fill a volume. Next came a straggling regiment of infantry. The retreat was so skilfully made. General Hindman of the Southern side had a novel experience. extending some seven or eight miles in length. fell to the ground.
Over very the Central Alabama (Nashville and Decatur Railroad) food and other necessities for the army s exist- . and other bridges. Supplies had to b&. fore The engineers had be them an enormous task. was a matter heavy with of vital necessity. The Federal General Buell s army was short of supplies and ammunition and the eompletion of this bridge. the 1802 work on this bridge over the Elk River.lt. went on during the months of June and July. through rain or shine. were mud and the incessant rains had swollen the streams making  it not only slow but almost impossible for wagon trains to keep in touch with the base. brought from Nashville. Tennessee on the Central Alabama Railroad. near Pulaski. The roads.FEDERALS ADVANCING INTO TENNESSEE Incessantly.
fruit. and crossed the Elk River at a point where the water was over 20 At the right of the picture three of the engineer officers are consulting together. feet long.Copyright by Ren ENGINEERS AND INFANTRY BUSY AT THE ELK RIVER BRIDGE encc had to be transported. and to the left a squad of infantry are marching to their position as bridge guards. aided by an infantry working as laborers. 58 feet high. detail Four companies were employed construction. Michigan Engineers. . Among those workers who labored uncomplainingly and whose work bore its was the First Regiment. Here is the daily business of war to which fighting is the occasional exception. They built this bridge pictured here. that numbered among enlisted men mechanics and in its artisans of the first class. The bridge was 700 feet deep.
rest. then a stretcher borne on the shoulders of four men. the elements of heaven marshaled a fitting accompaniment of the tempest of human desolation and passion which was raging.". however. Some three hundred and their bodies Four days after the battle. General Grant tells us that after the second day he saw an open field so covered with mish would have been possible to w alk across it in any direction stepping on dead bodies. You . and medical care. without a foot touching the ground. And. . Addressing the soldiers. Your field of Shiloh. Beauregard reported to his government. nightfall. ". hop ing to find shelter. without even a blanket the driving sleet and hail. The news of these two fearful days at Shiloh was astound m /A ing to the American people. it r dead that *u] . confident in the ultimate result of your valor. or other fearful wounds. cold.Ijtlnlj utlp 3Firat (SrattJi lattlj? April 1862 wagons. he said: have done your duty.". carrying a wounded officer. and soon came harder and This storm raged pitiless. then soldiers staggering along. with an arm broken and hanging down. which were enough to destroy their forces life. and the record shows that it was equal to the test. American valor was tried to the full on both sides at Shiloh. until it lay on the ground two inches deep. The losses on each side exceeded ten thousand men. which fell in stones as large as partridge eggs. drizzling A rain commenced about then turned to faster. although wounded. to shelter them from men died during that awful retreat. countrymen are proud of your deeds on the bloody . had struggled on through the storm. filled I passed long wagon trains with wounded and dying soldiers. Bull Hun was a skir in comparison with this gigantic conflict.". ". this army is more confident of ultimate success than before its encounter with the enemy. . to add to the horrors of the scene. ". were thrown out to make room for others who. with violence for three hours. Xever before on the continent had there been anything approaching it. blinding hail.
PART II DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY NEW MADRID ISLAND No. 1862 . 10. 10 NEW ORLEANS CAIRO IX ON THE EXTREME RIGHT IS THE CHURCH WHERE FLAG-OFFICER FOOTE PREACHED A SERMON AFTER THE FALL OF FORT HENRY NEXT HE LED THE GUNBOATS AT ISLAND NO.
master-builder. near St. that Eads signed a contract with the Government to build and deliver seven ironclads. 10 has been truly said that without the American navy. it was the two little impetuous wooden gunboats that aided in preserving the camp from cap ture or complete demoralization. In a week or two four thousand men were at work on the contract.NEW MADRID AND IT ISLAND NO. dash on the Union camp. James B. the North could hardly have succeeded in the great war. It may further be said that without the gunboats on the winding rivers of the middle West success in that quarter would have been equally impossible. The places of building were Carondelet. have now to relate a series of operations down the Mississippi. But the time was too short. The Government refused to pay for them. his Eads  what did he do? He went ahead and used up own fortune to finish those gunboats. . machine shops and iron foundries in several cities were running day and night. Illinois. The blockade was necessary to success. The boats were unfinished at the end of sixty-five days. when at the day s conflict the Confederates made a wild. Eads. in which the gunboats were the alpha and omega We and almost fleet all that falls between them. It was these floating fortresses that reduced Fort indispensable aid at Fort Donelson. 1861. Louis. sawmills were busy in five States cut ting the timber. fifty-one feet wide. of gunboats with which The we now have to creator of the deal was that It was on August 7. hundred and seventy-five feet drawing six feet of water. and without the navy the blockade would have been impossible. close of the first Henry arid that gave At Shiloh. each one long. and carry ing thirteen guns. And the builder. in significant as it was in the early sixties. and Mound City.
retreat. The Carondelet. with delet. and her commander. and the in full s answering shot. darkness 10. caught sight of the flicker of flames from the smoke-stacks of a steamer proceeding She arrived a at New Madrid received Carondelet without a single man down the river. catching glimpses of the tortuous channel amid the fitful were also compelled to surrender. which offered little opposition. Aiming through the darkness at the luminous tops of the smoke-stacks the gunners an event which convinced the Con federates that Island No. Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. and the next morning lay ready to support the army after having achieved one of the greatest feats in the record of the inland navy. hemmed Colonel 10. Heaven the to those had accomplished the step in the opening of the Mississippi the At one moment Carondelet since the expedition left Cairo. of The men on rattle of shore leaped to their guns. were to be the first to take his vessel the dreaded batteries on Island No. would not permit his gunners on Island No. 10 . peering through the her but hastily backing escape past a off. ing battery below the Island. and the crash the cannon and the musketry broke forth across of April 6th. held on her way. 10 and joined Commander Walke. THE CARONDELET FIRST TO RUN THE GANTLET AT ISLAND NO. 10. Walke had begged by the retreat from Island Confederates. in the face of this great lightning of a storm which suddenly descended on of The daring of Commander Walke first danger the of river and added the reverberations battery below. Henry Walke. In the pilot-house he directed Cook troops cut off in their daring attempt. 10 must be en poured in their vindictive fire. before dawn of April 8th. ran by the disheartened sped home.Confederate garrison of the battery on Island No. in by Paine s division and surrendered. They to the having scratch. support of General Pope of the river crossing below had begun. Confederates had elevated their guns too high and only two of their shots couraged by the success of the Caron Commander Thompson. COMMANDER HENRY WALKE No. On bosom the river. but the evacuated. for it was she. made good float dreaded out on the Mississippi. the Pittsburgh. knew at once that the attempt of the The and her commander Federal gunboats to pass down s had made good. her elated and plucky crew captured and spiked the guns of the battery opposite Point Pleasant. That very night. The crossing of men to send a single Pope s forces then proceeded.
answered the admiral. York. He had won ". m v Their ". command It thousand men. That nothing might be left for the foe. It had been strongly fortified by General Beauregard. be Fort Henry he preached a sermon in a church The next year the aged admiral lay sick in New His physician dreaded to tell him that his illness would hut did so. But why hold Columbus fifty cannon pointed over the bluff. 1862. I am Fort Henry and Fort Donelson had fallen.Nn. Like he was a man of deep religious principles. about forty miles below Co lumbus. General Polk had occupied Columbus. 10. We when Henry and Donelson were lost? So thought the good bishop-general and he broke camp on Feb ruary 25. 10 was situated at the upper bend of a great double curve of the Mississippi.". that none could pass it without being blown out of the water by the powerful batteries. and rolling the remainder down the one hundred and fifty foot embankment into the Mississippi. suppression of the slave trade. transferring one hundred and thirty of his big guns to Island No.". and the Federals reached Columbus on March 4th they found only charred remains. who was Stonewall Jackson of the West.". Island No. a powerful stronghold from which one hundred and Kentucky. glad to be done with guns and must get to our story. Orient and had spent years in the Stonewall Jackson. war. first called the commander was Andrew H. On the Sunday in the waters of the fame after the fall of at Cairo.  . 10 (Swtbflats anb then handed them over to the Government and waited for his pay until after they had won their famous victories down the river. Foote. ". but Beauregard was called to Corinth and Shiloh and he turned the over to General Mackall with about seven was confidently believed by its defenders that this fortified island would be the final stopping place of all hostile vessels on the great river. he burned eighteen in its isolation when thousand bushels of corn and five thousand tons of hay. ". Well. fatal.
N. Hollins. with his Commodore George flag-ship. the order to weigh anchor. their which he supposed were all making flag and seven other Confederate gunboats. 10. HOLLINS. 10. Farragut. confined its activities to storming ened by a powerful floating battery which could be pushed about by the gunboats Pope s batteries on the Missouri shore below ing and anchored at the most effective points. Copyright by Review of Renews Co. When the Carondelet accomplished her drawal of every available Confederate gun boat from the upper daring feat of passing Island No. threaten New Orleans. lay N. Below the dreaded battery ing to try conclusions with the powerful at Island No. creeping stealthily by this its and the remain ing river defense fleet under Commodore boasted battery and cutting it off from cut Hollins was not equal to the task of stand ing convoys. All was at once vessels. attempt of the Federals to up to the determined and aggressive seize and hold down the protection Commodore possession of the upper Mississippi. and the federate squadron.S. holding in check the Federal troops chafing to cross the river way down upon masthead of him. on board the Confederate Commodore Hollins did not court a meet Island No.N. dropping slowly Con force of the enemy on fleet other down This opposing was further strength stream. THE McRAE .THE RETREAT DOWN THE RIVER. the McRae Eads gunboats and the mortar boats. had caused the with river. 10 on the night of April 4th. The at the the McRae quickly signaled and get at the the inferior side. the men who manned moorings of it loose from to their and drifted COMMODORE GEORGE C. The Flag-ship of the Confederate Fleet at Hollins activity vigilant neet. New Madrid.
and all through the next day the cannonading was incessant. together with all the guns and some thousands of small arms. held also by the Confederates and protected by heavy guns behind breastworks. trees every movable thing had been swept down the current. At night it ceased. General John Pope com manded a Federal army of twenty thousand men. army across the river that he might capture Island But the threatening cannon on the island forbade. a few miles. The over flow of water on the peninsula \vas deep enough to float the transports. Ifl - Below this island. Houses. indeed. but a dense forest six miles in width prevented any such passage. They arrived on the 12th of March. The Confederates had not even de layed to destroy the supply stores. erected batteries and cut off supplies from New Madrid. Southward was Reelfoot Lake. Above it the aswarm with Federal gunboats. and they fell into the hands of the besiegers. and eastward were impenetrable swamps. 10. His object First he occupied Point Pleas ant. below it and along river was the Missouri shore was Pope s army. in language without words. They determined to remain and dispute the possession of the river at all hazards. General Pope ferry his s great desideratum was to secure boats to No. On the west bank of the river. He then slowly approached the town and was to capture New Madrid. now isolated. At length a novel plan was devised to cut a  . The only pos sible way of escape was by a road to the southward between But the brave the river and Reelfoot Lake to Tiptonville. At this time the river was very high. fences. any attempt to pass them. twelve miles below.. 10 was defenders of the island were not ready to give up or to flee. and as Pope was about to renew the attack he discovered that the town had been aban doned during the night. The whole wooded peninsula made by the great bend was covered with water. was the town of New Madrid on the Missouri shore. Island No. meantime sent to Cairo for siege-guns.
At sight of him the old tars hats and burst into loud huzzas. a chair on her guards. with tears trickling down his cheeks. the Benton. he gazed across the rapidly widening space separating him forever from the Benton. mander Benton. which quickly gave place to moist eyes and saddened countenances. but the wound he had received at Fort Donelson continued to undermine now. Davis. and men waiting solemnly for the ap The Benton had been his flag-ship the operations around Island No. supported by Captain Phelps. the other s sight. 10 and Fort Pillow. by her officers pearance of in Commodore A. Foote. while the men on her deck con tinued to look longingly after him. he feebly made to Captain Charles his his health until bid good-bye to his brave and faithful comrades and resign his way on deck to command swung their H. H. as Foote. his distance and tears hid each from . and Captain Phelps. heartfelt words of farewell. addressed to them some simple. An hour later the De Roto dropped s down to the Foote was assisted to the transport breast Captain Davis. Sitting in filled with emotion. THE FLAG-OFFICER S GOOD-BYE The decks ing of of this staunch gunboat. The men leaned forward to catch every syllable uttered by the beloved com s failing voice. 9.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. were crowded on the morn May 1862. till deck by his successor.
10. Could he get possession of that road the last hope of escape from the island would be lost and ere long its defenders must surrender. The results were slight. as it should be called (for the patriotic engineer still owned it in part). Above the fortified island lay the Eads fleet. They were soon safely lodged at New Madrid without having come within range of the heavy guns of Island No. On that day they trained their guns on the island. feet deep. the Pittsburgh. on the east side of the river. But these vessels could do something: they could shoot. Pope believed it possible for the gunboats to run the gantlet of the batteries of Island No. Six hundred skilled engineers were in the army and they were soon at work in relays of three hun dred. and four and a half opportunity would soon pass. the flag-ship. But the ironclad gunboats what could be done with them? They drew too much water to be taken through the newly-made channel. the Cin cinnati. the Mound City. After cutting off the trees above the water they cut the stumps beneath the water and just above the ground by means of hand-saws attached to pivots. wired to Richmond that his batteries were not damaged and but one man was killed. There were the Benton. The flat-bot tomed transports could pass through this channel and they quickly did so quickly. After nineteen days of vig orous toil a channel was cut through the forest six miles long. restless. the Carondelet. 10. who had not yet departed for Corinth. for nine long hours the boom of cannon was continuous. in the face of the mouths of half a hundred cannon that yawned across the channel. General Pope was sorely in need of a gunboat or two to silence a number of batteries guarding the Tiptonville road. and they did on March 17th. eager for a fight. 10 dmtboats anft iBatfrrwa March 1862 i channel through the forest. . because the river was falling and the fifty feet wide. Beauregard. the St. Louis.No. But Foote thought it impossible. and eleven mortarboats. He refused to force anyone to so perilous an and the commanders of the vessels all agreed undertaking.
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". not be sufficiently depressed. The Carondelet began her perilous journey in total darkness. through the w heel-house so as to avoid the puffing sound T through the smokestack. while the second day s battle was raging at Shiloh April 7.March Ifl 1862 with him that the running of the batteries was too great a risk. Pope s army crossed and occu pied the Tiptonville road. But presently a terrific thunder storm swept up the river and the vivid flashes of lightning rendered it impossible for the gunboat to pass the island unseen. through the fact that she ran so near the island that the great guns could About midnight No. to . The next few days were spent in preparing the vessel for the ordeal. and they overshot the mark. commander of the Carondelet.  The two vessels soon reduced the batteries . The night of April 4th was chosen for this daring adven ture. and cables were wound around the pilot-house and coal barge loaded with other vulnerable parts of the vessel. Commander Walke. chiefly. Chains. Two nights later the Pittsburgh ran the gantlet of Island along the east bank of the river to silence. The sailors were armed to resist boarding parties. and it was agreed delet should attempt to run the batteries. senting a scene of indescribable grandeur. in the presence of the other officers. 1862. Are you willing to try it with your vessel? asked Foote. and this they did. that the Caron Yes. no doubt. coal and hay was lashed to the side where there was no iron A The steam escape was led protection for the magazine. except one Henry Walke. The Confederate garrison of several thousand men could only surrender. The Carondelet was saved. At ten o clock the moon had set and the sky w as over cast with dark clouds. hawsers. as if answer the thunders of the sky the flashes from the burning powder commingled with the vivid lightning. ".". answered Walke. of ". Presently when near the hostile island the vessel was r Next moment the heavy guns began to roar. the gunboat reached New Madrid uninjured. the whole pre discovered. and sharpshooters were placed on board. 10.
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Farragut sailed from Hampton Roads. ?. Such  vessels as could be spared ifitej. judgment proved than by the appointment of Captain David G. w . The inborn genius clearly of President Lincoln was never more shown than when. December and early January of 1862. Porter.. On the 2d of February. the preparations were hurried without waste of energy. its vital connection with the operations of the army in the West and along the great high way of the Mississippi was paramount. the real key to the Mississippi and never was clearer . Coming but two THE months after the fall of Fort Donelson. on November 12.NEW ORLEANS THE ENTERING WEDGE WHERE THE NAVY HELPED THE ARMY By JAMES BARNES capture of Forts Jackson and St. with orders to rendezvous at Key AVest. and though performed by the navy alone. The military history of the war could not be written without touching upon it. and here again was found the right man his fleet for the hour. Philip and the surrender of New Orleans was the first great blow that the Confederacy received from the south. 35% All through November. It was the action that shortened the war by months. t Ift . it was the thunderous stroke on the wedge that started the ensuing separation of the seceding States into two halves. where Porter s mor tar-boats were to join him. Farragut to the supreme command as flag-officer. 1861. To was attached a mortar flotilla under Commander David D. if not by years. he ordered a naval expedition to be fitted out for the capture of New Orleans.
and the flames from first the guns afloat and ashore made everything as bright as day. It was dark. flying Farragut under Commander Wainwright. top-gallant sails. It By some first mistake. two divisions abreast. Craven. top-sails. composed of eight vessels under their utmost. When David Glasgow of the second class) Farragut chose the Hartford as the fine as ship to fly his flag. she succeeded in passing safely. Philip had been told to out for the Hartford and the Brooklyn. The s flag. The flagship (really the ninth in line) steered was obliged to sheer across the stream in an attempt to dodge a fire-raft that was pushed by the Con federate tug Mosher. ". and with her engines doing ing The first division. The Mosher all but succeeded in setting the flag-ship in flames. and courses clewed up. THE STEAM FRIGATE BROOKLYN The Vessel that Followed the Flagship Past the Forts at New Orleans. them steam frigates of the first class: the Hartford. Alden.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. the second ship of the center division. and was sunk by a well-directed to the shore. but the fire-rafts. like the flag-ship. and as a deed of desperate courage has hardly any equal in naval warfare. after a slight collision with the Kinco. for she could sail with her canvas set and the proper wind to drive her faster than she could steam under the best conditions. the Brooklyn. her funnel belching smoke. as in the obstructions. It was a daring act performed by a little crew of half a dozen men. one of the vessels of Bailey s division. the soaring shells. In pass the forts at New Orleans. Here we see her with royal. her engines were merely auxiliary factors. and almost colliding with the hulks her. sail all and as much could be said for the Brooklyn. was hit by the ram Manassas a glancing blow a little more and this would have sunk both her inner and outer planking were crushed. The Brooklyn. showing the fleet in led. 15] . Her tall masts were the inheritance of former days. first under Commander J. under Captain T. was ahead. center division was composed of only three vessels.". and her funnel lowered to a level with her bulwarks. [A But. the reports that were sent to Washington of the passing of the forts contained an erroneous plan. T. he picked out a craft that for her type (a steam frigate was as could be found in any navy in the world. of command Captain Theodorus Bailey on the Cayuga. she swept slowly on into the line of fire. she presented no such appearance her upper yards had been sent down. In the division were also the steam sloops-of-war Pensacola and Mississippi. and the Richmond. and they already had been under in close fire for twenty minutes when the center division neared Fort Jackson.look But every gunner in Fort Jackson and in Fort St. was the or discarded drawing. until four years This was afterwards changed into the three-division plan in which Captain Bailey with the Cayuga after the closing of the It was not war that this mistake was rectified. She marked the transition period between and steam. and many of the histories and contemporary accounts all of of the passing of the forts are entirely in error. but shot.
Up the river. apiece. If she had been ready. the Arkansas was being prepared for active service. was rushed toward completion. Manassas. the iron-clad ram. effort was made by the Confederates strengthened. the former on the north bank and the latter on the south bank of the river below the city. The garrisons were made up of about seven hundred well-trained cannoneers ". Philip and Jackson that faced one another. No ship in Farragut s fleet possessed any more powers of resistance than the old wooden walls of Nelson s time. and on the various tributaries were being built several iron-clad vessels. No such great plans and actions from its incipiency.000 tons rating and mounting sixteen heavy guns.GDrlraua Ininn April 1862 from the blockade. New Orleans would fall. Philip. seventy-four in Fort Jackson and fifty-two pieces of ord nance in Fort St. the object of all this on in secrecy. In addition to the formidable obstructions placed in the river. and in this they all but succeeded. well protected by armor. which consisted of the formidable forts St. As Admiral Porter has observed. building at New Orleans. whose pinch upon the South Atlantic were detached to aid the ports had already begun to be felt. for she was designed to be the most powerful ironclad of her day 4. Confederate military commanders to effort was made by the strengthen the defenses at New Orleans. at Mem phis. perhaps New Orleans would have told a different story. then protected to prepare her for conflict. Against this attacking fleet were the well-placed guns ashore. Almost Every preparation became known throughout the South. Assuming upon the general concession of military men that one gun in a fort was equal to about three afloat. w as strengthened and further r The Louisiana. but every to gain supremacy afloat. and considering the disadvantage of a contrary three-and-a-half-knot current to the Federal ves sels (with additional channel obstructions of fire-rafts and  . could be carried expedition. Once these were Not only were the forts passed.
Just as she neared the passageway through the obstructions her boilers began to foam. was prepared in every way to render the chances of success more favorable. no Farragut s Decks and gun-breeches were whitewashed to make them more visible shall expect the most prompt attention orders had concluded with the following weighty sentence: lights were allowed. ". in view could the Mississippi drive the Federal of the North. When day dawned. she was able to engage Fort Jackson. it will be understood in all cases. In order to prevent her from Federal hands she. for the Louisiana. taking the rule that points. she but at last. Commander J. for she mounted two 7-inch At the city of three 9-inch shell guns. hammocks and and rigged. Cables were slung over the side to protect her vulnerable parts. and as the attempt would be at night.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. The vessels of the third division passed her. The larger vessels were all so slow literally to when under steam that. with her bow pointed up and with small the river. owing to her unfinished condition never entered the her She was considered to be more powerful than the Merrimac. it of the Richmond.a fleet is no faster than the slowest caused them crawl past the danger The Richmond was and she could the slowest of them all. . ". and verbal orders lost either from myself or the Captain killed of the fleet. attempt ever made to match wooden ships against forts at close range. fleet hour for the Federal cause prevented her from of ironclads. loss got by. forts. but that she would be able to paralyze the whole of the wooden navy falling into the and might possibly go so far as to lay the Northern Atlantic cities under contribution.". just about stem the current and no more.". It was believed by her builders and apparently. by the little gunboat Sciota that had equal good fortune. batteries. Alden. fight. and seven 100-pounder in all sixteen guns. first crept up to the anchored fleet and reported. sand splinter-nettings were spread bags and coal had been piled up around her engines. New Orleans was an unfinished ironclad that was expected to be even this timely more powerful than the Louisiana. Only the arrival of Farragut s fleet at being finished. was on the quarterdeck throughout the action and had seen to that his vessel. four 8-inch smooth-bores. acts by my author The Richmond two men and four men wounded in the action. though the Confederate gunboats were almost blind assault. they also have to be taken into consideration for their brave and they had been assisted by the unfinished ironclads they might have borne different results. If inferior to the Federal fleet. rifles. who. It was feared at that she had been lost or sunk. and certainly the boldest. like the others. with reason of the immunity that not only out of the river. was set on fire and drifted a wreck down the stream. THE RICHMOND The Third Ship of the Center Division at the Passing of the Forts. s fleet There was a current fire in the Mississippi that had to be taken into account in estimating the time that Farragut would be under from the ship. like the Louisiana. the Richmond The battle of New Orleans was Al probably the most successful. followed Opening with her port hammered hard at the fort.I to signals ity. Certainly armament would prove rifles it. to run the forts in the darkness.
each vessel firing at the rate of one shell every ten minutes. and in the morning they opened. Another burst near the magazine door. they were anchored close to the shore. the 1 from Fort Jackson. the furthest up stream. only 2. They were near a stretch of woods and their tall masts they were mostly schooners were dressed with branches of trees in order For to disguise their position from the Confederate guns. and 3. was across the river). striking the parapet over one of the magazines.". Organized into three divisions. Philip. of the Confederate forts bore witness to the demoralization of both the of the men and defenses that ensued. penetrated five feet I was obliged to confine the men most casemates. conflagrations started. [ 280 ] . the twenty boats of this flotilla rained their hail of death and de ///// Brave and hardy must have been the men who stood that terrific bombardment! The commanders struction on the forts. the brave defender of Fort Jackson. If that shell had exploded. the odds were greatly in favor of the Confederate defenses. wrote as follows: rigidly to the part of the garri son. at varying intervals even at night. owing to the bend of the river. opening the earth and burying the sentinel and another man five feet in the same grave.QDrlratta an& tit? Mutntt chains). mortar-boats were in position along what was. or we should have lost the best A and failed to burst. The defenders that the fleet of the old city.850 yards Xew Orleans. Colonel Edward Higgins. on the first day. would never pass. the work would have ended. maga zines M-ere threatened. Xearly every shell many thousand fired lodged inside the works. really the southern bank (one division. were confident On the 16th of April. the wall of which was seven feet thick. and destruction was reaped on all sides. almost eight days. Long after the memorable day of the 24th of April when the fleet swept past.680 from Fort St. The parapet and interior of the fort were completely ". shell.
Who Com New Or would lower follow. his trust in his officers be a desperate and almost fool But and in hardy deed.which and when saw safe above the s Nothing was neglected he Bailey vessels his other prudence could suggest. complete. it small chance of failure. Baton Rouge and Natchez surrendered on demand. From Vicksburg southward. ".David G. river after a reconnaissance at Vicksburg. of The up the plans and assuming the responsibility of Farragut s plan and his defeat what seemed to would have meant a most crush ing blow to the North. the long line of the river and the land on either side was yet in the possession of the Confederates. On May 29th. well-thought-out plan. Copyright iiy Review of Reviews Co. command better than did David Glasgow Farragut. Farragut showed his genius and courage. the Fleets at Mississippi. his His attack own fearless courage there was was not a blind rush. waiting. forts a well-studied. Farragut. No man ever succeeded would have enabled the Confed erate in impressing his own personality Government to draw almost and infusing his confidence and unlimited supplies from the vast enthusiasm upon those under his country to the west of the river. DAVID GLASGOW FARRAGUT THE MAN WHO DARED The whole of the North rose in elation at the news of the capture of New Orleans. Farragut was results stupendous undertaking was aware of the that a success. provide. he knew that science well devise. trusting to suddenness for its effect. In drawing and undoubtedly would have failure prolonged the war. and one by one foresight or skill and ships his coming up. He reported to Williams that a body of irregular Confederate cavalry had fired into one of his boats. A FLAGSHIP IN UNFRIENDLY The Hartford Lying Close to the W ATERS T Levee at Baton Rouge . transports carrying the off troops of General Williams came down the Farragut was anchored the town of Baton Rouge. but the surrender of the city at the mouth of the river did not mean complete possession.". and that he had been compelled to open upon the shore. Calm was and collected he went through the ordeal. The control of the if manded leans. wounding an officer his batteries and two men. W illiams at once occupied the town in force.
our magazine doors being much exposed. Amid burning fire-rafts and a continuous roar from the opposing forts. But there were the obstructions yet to deal with. In two divisions. Orleans. as the defenses then existed. the terrible precision with which the formidable vessels hailed down their tons of bursting shell upon the devoted fort made it the ". in referring to the fall of New ". it alone could not reduce the forts. Although all the foregoing proves the accuracy and value of the mortar fire. There is into the details of the naval battle that not space here to go followed with the bravely fought Confederate gunboats and the ram Manassas. closed up the channel. returned to the fleet after a daring survey of the channel. Itasca and Pinola. the fleet passed. and the large number of sand bags with which we were supplied alone saved us from being blown to pieces a hundred times. the first division of the fleet under the command of Captain Theodorus Bailey held its course. the engineer of the department. who had suggested the expedition of the two gunboats that had broken up the obstruction. They had to be passed to lay the city at the mercy of the fleet. as soon the guns of both forts were brought into play. L.".M. the intrepid Lieutenant Caldwell. when impossible for us to obtain either rapidity or accuracy of fire. it was in the enemy s power.honeycombed. there were small separate actions whose relating would make separate stories in themselves. While the obstruction existed. after great difficulties. wrote. [ 232 ] . and thus rendered the passage comparatively easy. and the flag hoisted the appointed signal.". buoyed by logs and hulks. By 2 o clock A. in his report. On morning of the 24th. Smith. That belongs to naval history. There were deeds of prowess performed by vessels that flew either flag. Twas a brave deed that was done by the two gunboats. the fleet ship passed through the broken barriers and steamed into the zone of fire. which. the city was safe when it was swept away. broke the great link-chain that. . General M. in the morning of the 24th. It was an enfilading fire.
and the lower picture shows the yards of Messrs. five off. as they naturally favored the enemy.. who. Hill and Markham. saying that he was responsible There was some coal found in the city belonging to private owners.. The vessel with sails let down to dry is the sloop-of-war Mississippi. involving as it did carriage of the coal against the current.". a vessel dependent upon steam power with empty bunkers is as a man deprived of heart-blood.. If ship without a captain is like a man without a soul. But the larger vessels required coal. THE COALING YARD AT . nerves. and out in the river. the Mayor. could the smaller steamers with Farragut. \\hir\v had f rnoyed the fleet were beyond his jurisdiction. was policed by a body of foreigners employed by the municipal authority. at Baton Rouge. Mahan ^". a part of the fleet. or muscles. was in itself no small anxiety. ". Captain A. and the employment of pilots. and a few days after New Orleans. only for order within c. . about to drop her anchor. T. as runs an old naval saying.. and at first there was not much of it to be had. is one of the smaller steamers that composed the third division of the fleet.cy limits. and had even begun on her guns. two of which were out when she floated Many of the up-river gun boats could burn wood.a summed it up in the following words: ". and the flag-ship herself got aground under very critical circumstances. has for a large squadron. Farragut s vessels faced a serious crisis. and so. few of whom were to be found. although there were some colliers with the fleet and more were dispatched later. In the two pictures of this page we are shown scenes along the levee in 186*2. having had to take out her coal and shot. where Farragut had hoisted his flag over the arsenal.x Bryan. Baton Rouge. The river was drawing near the time of lowest water. The mayor had declared that the guerilla band. and had gone away. at a pinch and for a short time. the provision of convoys to protect the supply vessels against guerillas. The maintenance of the coal supply hundred miles up a crooked river in a hostile country.". through the medium of Mr.COALING FARRAGUT S FLEET AFTER NEW ORLEANS Coaling Farragut s Fleet at Baton Rouge. Nearby lies a mortar schooner and a vessel laden with coal. opened negotiations with Farragut for its sale. ahead of her and a little inshore.
30 P.M. Manassas. By daybreak nine of the Confederate vessels that had The fought so gallantly and dauntlessly were destroyed. The dreaded Louisiana was set on fire and blew up with tremen dous explosion. She had been launched only six days before. Fort St. The little batteries that protected the outskirts of the city were silenced. her.aufr ih? lutmt Nairn April 1862 his ship. leading the van. On May 1st. suffered the same fate. Another. On the 25th. At 2. The powerful steam ram. The second division. the Confederate commander-in-chief. demanded the surrender of the forts and General Duncan. Philip and Fort Jackson were formally delivered. and the United States flag was hoisted over them. Porter. the open ing of the Mississippi from the south had begun. under the fleet s commander. But when the Mississippi turned her wooden prow being turned over like a log. on that day. where her crew escaped. The wedge having been driven home. On the 27th. downstream. Subsequently. and still more powerful ironclad. in order to avoid . accepted the terms on the 28th. the upon ram took to the shore. \ having received two broadsides from the Mississippi. General Butler arrived and the captured city was handed over to the army. the Mississippi (not to be confused with the vessel in Farra gut s fleet of the same name). had struck the Kmokli/n. doing some slight damage. who was down the river. forts lay some five miles . Xew Orleans lay powerless under Farragut s guns. followed. [ 23-1 ] . the Cayuga. she slid off the bank and drifted in flames down with the current.
RUN ASHORE.PART II DOWN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY FORT PILLOW AND MEMPHIS THE CONFEDERATE RAM GENERAL PRICE ACCIDENTALLY STRUCK BY HER CONSORT ".GENERAL BEAUREGARD AT THE BATTLE OF ". AND CAPTURED BY THE FEDERALS . MEMPHIS.
the only service of value performed by this later. T. few days after the surrender of Island No. it had made possible the taking of Fort Donelson. the mutual support. spirit with which this attack It was. but upon the audacity of our attack. Jr. On the other hand. with its vast equipment and fourteen thou sand men. 1862. the gun boat fleet turned toward Fort Pillow. At Memphis. and the gunboats with a small portion of the land forces were left to fight their way down the to A  . But there were more strongholds to conquer and the heaviest battle was still in the future. THE It in the space of Western gunboat flotilla had done wonderful work two months. About this time General Pope was called with most of his army to Shiloh and Corinth. must now be attacked in order open the river to Vicksburg. as Beauregard had been before. 10. however.The Gulf and Inland Waters". although the gunboats engaged fought gal the flotilla as an organization had little cause for satisfaction in lantly. in a letter of War.. 10 all within the eight weeks. The require of boats I have purchased are illy them . it is not their sti ength adapted for the work I shall upon which I rely. in ". a month and at New Orleans. to the Secretary Colonel Charles Ellet. February to April. and Fort Randolph. but the mistake fleet of withdrawing them from strict military control and organization was fatal. had captured Fort Henry. Fort Pillow. the day s work. just below. it had secured to General Pope s army the sur render of Island No. for success. and eighty miles still farther down the great river was Memphis.FORT PILLOW AND MEMPHIS There can be no denying the dash and was made. irregular and undisciplined force. Fort Pillow with its frowning cannon lay eighty miles or more below New Madrid. Mahan. proved incapable of meeting an attack and of There were admirable materials in it. A.
little mortar o clock. One of these. usual position for shelling the and then tied up to the edge of no engagement at Fort Pillow had it the stream fired to not been for the continued annoyance inflicted upon that position by the curious see tied picture. The slipped her moorings. disappeared down the river. but the other re ceived a shot through her boilers from the Benton. but the General Price and the Sumter con tinued the attack.Federal Floating Mortar Battery at Fort Pillow. After that the Bragg pay compliments to Fort Pillow by sending down a mortar boat towed picture. leaving Captain Davis in charge of the Federal flotilla. passed quickly above the Federal ironclad. General Villepigue awoke one morning to the sound of bursting shells which a Fed eral mortar boat was rapidly dropping over his ramparts. the General Bragg. so long as the Federal gunners continued the bombardment. The other Federal ironclad had now come upon the scene and the melee The General Van Dorn rammed the Mound that on the morning of May 10. The wounded Cincinnati bomb-proofs. THE DEFENDER called urgently upon the Confederate flotilla to come up and put an end to the mortar boats. BOATS THAT BROUGHT ON THE BATTLE . There would have been the fort. B. After that the Confederate rams returned to Fort Pillow and the half hour was Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. the day after Flag-Officer Foote went North. on the Arkansas shore. chafing GENERAL J. her protect her. VILLEPIGUE was helped to the shore and sunk. Every day there after. and opened her bow guns upon the ap proaching vessels. 1862. by a gunboat of the type seen in the There was nothing for the Confederates to do but take to their One struck the Cincinnati again. Flag-Officer Foote continued to that knowledge presence with a the appeared bearing down latter Cincinnati. and this ended her part of the fight. the Cincinnati towed mortar No. turned and struck her a violent blow on the star board quarter. 16 down to severely she was compelled s thrilling fight to run over. Early OF FORT PILLOW became City so general. The first shot at five half later One hour and a craft one of which we in the up to the wharf Secure in lower the eight rams of the Confederate River Defense fleet suddenly and un expectedly upon the quickly Beauregard s large force at Corinth had precluded the Federal land attack. under the damage done to his works. At last General Villepigue.
received at Fort Donelson had not healed. the General Price and the Slimier.&. great clouds of fort. some leaping into the water and some falling on the deck. The smoke dense cloud. known as the under the command of Captain J. was appointed in his place. Defense. struck by a 50-pound Dahlgren shot from the Carondelet and completely disabled. one of the most agile of the Confederate vessels. Presently the onrushing vessel struck the Cincinnati on the starboard side and penetrated the shell- Before the room. wounded vessel could get away she was rammed by two other Confederate boats.ort pllmu For two weeks bombarded Fort Pillow Flag-Officer Foote. May and Captain Charles H. at long range. came up and offered battle. and the battle was over. the Union fleet lying a mile or more up the river. Among them was a powerful side-wheel steam ram. the Confederate vessels being huddled under the Pillow. ". a man of well-known skill and The day after the re bravery. which made for the ". Her steam-chest was penetrated and the steam instantly poured out upon all parts of her case mate. Cincinnati. Montgomery. firing as fast as she could load. The men ran for life. and when the smoke away the Confederate fleet was seen drifting slowly down the stream to Fort Pillow. guns of Fort to On arise the 4th of June. On 9th. the General Bragg. Davis. For two or three days after this battle long-range firing was kept up. River tirement of Foote a Confederate fleet.". Mean while the Carondelet had come to the rescue of the Cincin At last the Sumter was nati. asked to be relieved. rendering the ironclad almost helpless. partially disabled the /A Mound City by ramming her amidships with fearful force. cleared of battle had enveloped the whole scene in a There was a lull in the firing. but the shots could not drive the antagonist off. whose wound the fleet June 1862 river alone. victims of the scalding steam. The General Van Dom. The latter opened fire.lt. K. smoke were seen from the and terrific  explosions accompanying .
in proposing it to the United States Government. The plan was not adopted.I was mortally wounded in the fight at Memphis while in command of the Queen of the West. in 1854. filling the bows with solid timbers and surrounding the boijers with a double tier of oak twenty-four inches thick. and in 1855 he published a pamphlet outlining his idea and said. Europe proposed a plan to the Russians to equip their blockaded fleet with rams. in complete vindication of Ellet s theories. however. adding a new chapter As far back as the siege of Sebastopol. but Ellet had reasoned correctly that the danger from collision was im mensely against the vessel struck. Had it not been forEllet s extraordinary personal Cincinnati. which cost Ellet his life. . with strengthening the hulls of the river steamers which he purchased. Jr. as they were entirely unarmored with the exception of the pilot-house. therefore. excellent ".". He contented himself. Charles Ellet being then in to the history of naval warfare. THE FEDERAL RAM VINDICATOR An example of the steam rams as developed from the ideas of Charles Ellet. At Memphis the rams had their first trial and it resulted He It was a vindication.THE VESSEL WITH THE ARMED PROW.. It was not until after the appearance of the Mcrrimac at Hampton Roads and the danger to Foote s fleet on the Mississippi from Confederate rams that Ellet was given the opportunity to try his various projects and commissioned to equip several rams at The project was regarded as a perilous one. hold myself ready to carry it out in all its details whenever the day arrives that the United States is about to become engaged in a naval contest. while the danger from shot penetrating a vital part of the approaching ram he proved was reduced to an unappreciable fraction. influence he would never have been able to obtain crews for his rams.
Alfred W.0rt pilaw anti told the story. sea. some days be been reenforced by four small steam rams under the com fore. eral gunboats in search of their recent antagonists. commanded by ". In the evening they came within gun glassy river the for the night. supposed spot where. but a distinguished civil engineer. cooperated with. It is true that Memphis was not fortified. FlagOfficer Davis. It was understood by all that a ferocious river-battle was necessary before the Federals could get control of the city on the hill. The vessels. His flag-ship was the Queen of the West and the next in importance was the Monarch. Jr. Ellet was not by profes sion a military man. Fort Randolph was likewise abandoned. some eighty miles below Fort Pillow. while was now open as far as unvexed to the not yet rolling Memphis. Union fleet glided on June 5th. De Soto had first cast his eyes on the rolling tide of the Down the shot of Memphis and anchored Mississippi. ". not far from the more than three hundred years before. The banners were waving. The great river.". He had convinced the Government of the value of the steam ram as a The Federal weapon of war. The men were as gay as if they were going to a picnic. eight number. and thither steered the Fed ". Ellet. mand of Colonel Charles Ellet. but was not under the direction of. Even the earthen breast works had been torn to pieces by the fearful powder explosions. The next morning the Federals clambered up the bluff to the site of the fort and found only smoking ruins. whither the River Defense fleet had retreated. His vessels w^ere not armed. They [ 240 ] V~\ ^a . The Confederates were evacuating the place and destroying their magazines before departing. and was given a thority to fit colonel s commission and au out a fleet of rams. He his younger brother. were not equal to those of the Union fleet. but it was defended by the fleet which the previous month had had its first taste of warfare at Fort Pillow and now lay at the foot of the bluffs in ready to grapple with the coming foe. flotilla on the Mississippi had.
them and to conferences in which the most secret their gaze fixed on the familiar countenance they guided the shell. J. There was no more dangerous post than the frail passing up and down apparently peaceful reaches of the river the singing of some sharpshooters bullet men were never safe. intimate knowledge the river admitted either side. and of their under were brought into the fighting on Standing silently at the wheel.PILOT W. of the river before them. was to render the vessel helpless to drift or to run aground to be riddled The mortality among these silent men. A river pilot knew when he could take his and inundated shallows gunboats through showers of into the Peering vessel over sandbars murky first night. Their services and bravery were fully more fire fearless nor hands more steady recognized by the commanders. the pilots during the war hither and yon THE TARGET OF THE SHARPSHOOTERS speaks volumes for the simple heroism of full of holes. they felt their way where soundings would have turned back any navigating officer of the navy. Even when pilot house of a gunboat. pilot who knew that to disable the Copyriyht by Review of Reviews Co. standing as a target would give sudden warning that along for the gunners. through shallow channels past watchful bat teries Such valuable whose shot would be aimed against the and unprotected pilot house. AUSLINTY PILOT DAVID HEINER PILOT CHARLES ROSS HEROES OF THE WHEEL-HOUSE THE UXARMORED CONNING TOWER Look into these six keen eyes which knew every current and from the control of all the of the army to that of the navy the pilots eddy. difficult naval movements were planned. the banks men were lying in wait for them. of To the hands gunboats except Ellet s masters rams were brevetted acting wore the uniform of men like these the commanders the Federal gunboats masters or mates and the owed the hearts safe conduct of their vessels. No navy. every snag and sandbar of of the Mississippi. After the Inland Fleet passed .
The daring little vessel plunged on through the waves. tear ing off her wheel and putting her out of service. unable to rise. carried but 1 But he and his men did not falter.". It was therefore a brave thing for Captain Montgomery to lay down the gage of battle to a fleet far stronger than his own.two guns each. and shouted to his brother: Round out and follow me. and one can imagine how their emotion rose and fell as the tide of battle ebbed and flowed on the river below. The Queen instantly moved toward the Confederate fleet. The Queen fought with desperation and in the melee Colonel Ellet. received a pistol shot in the knee. Soon after this the Queen was rammed by the General Beauregard and a little later when the Beauregard and the General Price were making for the Monarch. except one. the Federal ironclads followed. But the Queen was now disin a  X*. It was at 5 :00 A. beneath the dark waters of the river. waved his hat. ~~:^\ . The Queen struck her antagonist squarely on the side and cut her almost in two. but already both fleets were en gaged in a brisk cannonade and the smoke was so dense that the Queen was soon lost to view. It was the 6th of June. that Montgomery moved up the stream and fired the first gun. and one of the most charming that Xature ever gives. She was headed for the General Lovell. He fell on the deck and. the Beauregard missed her aim and struck her comrade. and few minutes she sank. with many of her devoted crew.M. her commander. The wounded vessel groaned and lurched. 1862. to watch the contest. Now is our chance. one of the most days hills hotly contested naval battles ever fought in American waters. n ti almost in the center of the Confederate line of battle. standing in dark silhouette against the sky. which carried four. battle of They moved up the swift current and opened the Memphis. As the sun rose over the eastern the people of the city gathered along the bluff in thousands.. ". the General Price. continued to give orders to his men while lying prone on his ship. At this opening Colonel Ellet sprang forward on the hurricane deck.
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and Ellet ordered scene in this exciting drama came when the Beauregard. conscious of her inability to stand before the little fighting monster. But the Monarch was the more agile. Beauregard on the bow with handkerchiefs or any white thing at hand in token of surrender. Her commander and her crew leaped into the water. She evaded the blow. The Beauregard was still above water. made for the Monarch with like design. the Monarch gained rapidly. disabled also by the gunboats. however. the Confed on whose deck Captain Montgomery had stood with unfaltering courage in the midst of Federal gun-shots. after disabling the Queen. and they swam to shore and escaped into the The Monarch then steamed back to the middle of the river and rounded out her day s work by doing a deed of mercy. the latter ran aground in the shallow water. But the Union fleet closed in on them and three of them turned to the Arkansas shore in the hope that the crews might make their escape. fled toward the Arkansas shore. but ere she could strike the Little Rebel. The Monarch. were still waving their w hite 7 flags. began to sink and the men on her decks fluttered terrific force. There was the Little Rebel. The Beauregard. Beauregard deck. forest. but was settling rapidly. and dexterously whirling about. The Monarch now turned her prow to the Little Rebel and put on full steam. had determined to add one more to her list of trophies. the sinking where she sank to her boiler of the Confederate gunboats had now been destroyed and the remaining four turned down the river and made a des Four perate effort to escape. The Monarch rescued them and towed to shallow water. knowing that they had done all they could for the cause for which they fought. The race was a hot one. erate flag-ship. and her faithful crew.  In the lead was the General . struck the The next tearing a great hole beneath the water line. The latter. after her crash with the Beauregard. that she he headed for the Arkansas shore.abled.
during his of command on owed the idea of these light-draft stern-wheel vessels. Covered to a height of still eleven feet above the water line with railroad iron a half to three-quarters of an inch thick. .Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. which were always eagerly pressing the shores to annoy the invading the Mississippi. officially known in as ". Many a gun in the Confederate fleets and forts was silenced by the well-directed fire of the two light bow-rifles with which some of the tinclads were equipped.tinclad".Light Drafts. for the larger gunboats. which rendered a magnificent minor service in the river operations of the navy.". fire of and with their boilers further pro tected. they were able to stand up to the even moderate-sized guns. these dauntless fighting craft pushed their way. is typical of the so-called Mosquito Fleet. the field-batteries of the enemy. most which were ordinary river steamers purchased and altered to suit the purposes of the navy. capturing Confederate vessels twice their or boldly en gaging the infantry and even fleet. impassable size. A HANGER OF THE RIVER This little ". Up narrow tributaries and and out of tortuous and shallow bayous. the Federals To Flag-Officer Davis.
lamentations. Of all the eight Confederate gunboats the General Van Dorn alone evaded her pursuers and A made her escape down the river. was one of indescribable grandeur. but the great majority of them were Confederates. and when they saw their ships go down they broke into wails and Sorrowfully they witnessed. and with one the wound Union proved fatal Colonel Kllet.  . and two weeks later. before noon of that day. the Stars and Bars lowered from the City Hall and re placed by the Stars and Stripes. The battle of Memphis. but a con tinuous roar of artillery arose from the hidden surface of the the &.J/. side there were four wounded. The view of the battle of Memphis from the bluffs. her deck.gt. which floated over Memphis to the end of the war. His shattered knee refused to heal. Every house in the city and for miles around quivered with the explosions of burning powder. JVj/f. There were a few Union sympathisers among the on lookers. Closely following the Jeff. At times the smoke of the battle was so dense that scarcely a vessel could be seen by the spectators on the hill. on which the whole population of the city had gathered. in the arms of his wife and daughter. Thompson. Thompson were the Bragg and the Sumter. In a few minutes she had reached the goal and her officers and men leaped from the deck and ran for the moment later a shell exploded on protection of the woods. /t W /A ^ river. set her on fire and she was hurned to the water s edge. and the crews of both escaped in like manner to the swamps and forests of Arkansas. On the killed and wounded were never accurately reported. while the impingement of the vessels crashing together sounded like a titanic battle of the elements. His body was carried to Philadelphia and laid to rest at Laurel Hill. lasted but an hour and a quarter. famous engineer breathed his last. after being given a state funeral at Independence Hall. one of the fiercest of its kind on The Confederate record.
.East". operations west of the Mississippi. and also in the minor. C. helping the Union forces on the other side finally to gain possession of the river. GENERAL C.FIGHTING WESTERNERS THE SECOND WISCONSIN CAVALRY Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. and her infantry and cavalry won records ". In Missouri and Arkansas they protected the inhabitants from outlaw bands and resisted the raids of the Confederates. but by no means inglorious. WASHBURN (ORGANIZER OF THE SECOND WISCONSIN CAVALRY) AND STAFF Wisconsin sent ninety thousand of her sons into the struggle.
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a signal from General Williams. a few days after the Baton Rouge Breckinridge sections of artillery to his right wing. the Federal back on the out forces were attacked. concentrating. The action was a drawn fight. he was General Van Dorn of C. &. hours the battle raged ing at short range cases be command Thomas Williams and the fighting in some went down the to to Farragut proceeding hand-to-hand. Williams ordered Connecticut. retired to Port Hudson. and the Federal forces. General Williams placed himself at its head. and THE FEDERAL DEFENDER OF BATON ROUGE sending at the same ville. but in the loss of the brave and six thousand men. body was sent to New Orleans on an artillery transport which was sunk Williams in collision with the Oneida battle. with him only about twenty-five hundred had also suffered heavily. AUGUST. off Donaldson- Wisconsin regiments to go to their time two relief. fell The upon veteran of the Mexican War who had led brunt of the early morning attack the Indiana and Michigan troops. fell morning August 5. exposing himself repeatedly. 1862. Williams. fire The Federal s lines gunboats Kalahdin and Kinco opened on Breckinridge had previously was abandoned by the Federals on August 20th. fell who also. General back before the fierce rushes of the bravely led men in gray. The Confederates.gt. As he was bravely leading killed men. the almost instantly by a bullet that Breckinridge to seize the post. the firing on the the river bank opposite Vieksburg under of General river. Louisiana. Massachusetts. back men. LOUISIANA.lt. Breckinridge having between five retreating to their camp. soon found that a much larger force was opposed to him. ly fell them the land sippi forces of the lower Missis who slow sustained a severe blow. At once. 1862 &. and all in front of Vieksburg. who For almost two fiercely. ILLERY TRANSPORT THAT WAS SI NK OFF DONALDSONVILLE. who had skirts of the town.}/ Review of Revieu-x Co. his arrival at and a few days after sent refusing pleadings to go to the rear. The Twenty-first New Orleans and Williams once more drawn from Baton Rouge. WITH GENERAL WILLIAMS BODY O\ BOARD. On passed through his chest. . The latter had with his work of cutting the canal Indiana regiment having lost all its field officers.Hiyriyht !&.On July 24th the fleet under Farragut and at the troops that had occupied the position indicated their position.lt. his Baton Rouge the Confederate General J.
PART III THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND YORKTOWN UP THE PENINSULA : GUNS MARKED GEN. MAGRUDEB. YORKTOWN IN THE POSITIONS MCCLELLAN S WHERE THEY DEFIED ARMY A MONTH .
a mile and a half Just a day before this could be done. and scatter the routed Confederate army into the Southwest. 1862. Yorktown was evacuated. in By his much heralded Peninsula Campaign. It one of fifteen batteries planted to the south 4. intending to sweep up the peninsula between the a force York and James rivers. had just been placed in position and were almost ready for action. own.Copyright by Patriot Pub. 1862. May 4. At Yorktown. Co THE SUPERFLUOUS SIEGE The Mortar Battery planned to that Never Fired a Shot. seize lie Richmond at one stroke. distant. the complement of No. Its useless elaboration by Battery No. was opposed well by a line of fortifications that sheltered all much army inferior in strength to his For a whole month is McClellan devoted illustrated the energies of his entire 4. He landed with his Army Potomac at Fortress Monroe. and southeast of Yorktown. in April. McClellan had of the end the war a few days. . was planned to have them drop shells on the Confederate works. The ten monster 13-inch siege mortars. to a systematic siege.
THE ELABORATE DEFENSES Advanced Looking due north and showing the same three mortars pictured in the preceding views. The mortars shown in this photograph are 13-inch sea-coast mortars and exceeded in weight any guns previously placed in siege batteries. the next day if the Confederates had not evacuated. 4. The first of these mortars was landed at daybreak on April 27th and the whole battery was ready to open bombardment in a week s time. . No.Copyright by Patriot fuu. branch that runs into a northern arm of Wormley Creek at By this bridge communication was held with the batteries to the west. Three Mortars of Union Battery. The heavy stockade was intended to forestall any attempt of the Confederate infantry to rush the battery. The photograph shows (1) the stockade built above the excava tions as a protection from attack by Confederate infantry. (2) the ammunition that would have been used Section. and s (3) the temporary bridge crossing the narrow this point.
was a SHATTERED problem to challenge the military genius of the century. the new recruits continue to march through the streets. had the American citizen received such tuition in the art of M ar. Day after day the trains bring from the shops and farms the inexperienced sons of the Northland. in whom lived the enthusiasm of the creator and mas ter whose soul was in his work all deeply imbued with patri otism there sprang up as if by magic. They come.THE PENINSULA CAMPAIGN A and discomfited army were the hosts when they reached the hanks of the Poto of McDowell mac. until the victory ". should be theirs at Appomattox. Baron Steuben ". that the Young Napoleon may forge them into a ". r gigantic attempt. the winning personality of a popular and efficient com mander. in the vacant fields about the capital city. The transformation of this chaos of demoralization into the trained. ". after that ill-fated July Sunday at Hull Run. this motley and unorganized mass of men became rather a mob than an army. that military dis is the glory of the soldier and the cipline strength of armies. batteries of artil lery. General George Brinton McClellan began the task of trans muting the raw and untutored regiments into fighting men who were to bear the brunt of the conflict. Fresh from his victories in the mountains of West Vir ginia. It was a ". disciplined.". but with the flower of the youth of the North. battalions of infantry.  X . and splendid troops of the Grand Army of the Potomac. soldier Never. imbued with the spirit of Carnot. Washington has become a camp. with flags flying and bands playing. since the days of at Valley Forge. All during the summer and autumn months. Dispirited by the sting of defeat. two hundred thousand strong. and squadrons of cavalry.
condition to throw one hundred and seventy-five tons of metal daily into the Confederate defenses around Yorktown.HOW PICK AND SHOVEL SERVED Rear Section. General McClellan personally planned the location of some of these batteries for the purpose of silencing the Confederate artillery fire. the batteries were placed in elaborate excavations. of Union Battery No. In order to make it impossible for Confederate sharpshooters to pick off the gunners. and. . with their ammunition. Copyright by Review of ttevi WASTED TRANSPORTATION Both Sections of Union Battery No. On the day of the evacuation the six batteries equipped were in set up. all There they were laboriously the way from Fortress Monroe up the York River and Wormley s Creek to the position of the battery. were as laboriously removed. At No. without firing a shot. The heavy barge at the landing transported the ten huge mortars. Seven Mortars. 4 the entire bank of Wormley s Creek was dug away. 4. 4.
clouds of smoke were seen ascending. Johnston. and not till the day after. The next day orders came for the Army of the Potomac to move. As if by instinct the men begin the construction of log huts for shelter ". 1862. Filled with the spirit of action. at Manassas. The autumn days come and go. buoyancy yellow and sticky. is the Confederate army. Next morning the two days return march to Washington began. All s quiet along the Potomac. the men were jubilant at the prospect. y troops took up the line of march. the old structure shaking under the tread of the passing hosts.". near evening. The rain fell in sheets and it was a wet and bedraggled till it army that sought the defenses of the capital. The strategic eye of the commander had I- detected two routes to the coveted capital of the Confederacy. Why does not the army move? Across the country. later in the come. from the cold of the coming winter. which ". ". At night the bivouac was made in the oozy slime. It was the 8th of March. were the deserted fortifications of Manassas reached. fenses. The increasing army continues its drill within the de There are no indications of the forces moving. Across the Long Bridge the ".crhtnuin hands of the Hammerer will beat down the veterans of Lee before Richmond. thirty miles away. It was from the burning huts. Through the morning mists w as heard the bustle of activity. The frosty nights have weapon. Johnston was evacuating his camp. Throughout the day the muddy march continued. There was the Virginia mud. McClellan was putting his army to a test. As the Union army looked toward Manassas. flushed with its July victory. One lost of its possibilities by the Confederate retreat from many [25(5] . into which the feet of man and horse sank was almost impossible to extricate them. down along the hori/on line. The winter months wear on and Public Opinion is growing restless. The Confederates were abandoning Manassas. under the command of General Joseph E. But this was of short duration.
Phillippe of France. He afterwards wrote a valuable of the Cival War. He appears in the center between two of his favorite aides-de-camp Lieut.". (who stands at the extreme left).". Morell Division. the Count de Paris. . A.LITTLE MAC". ".". -Cols. and General McClellan was engaged in transforming the raw recruits in the camps near the national capital into the finished soldiers of the Army of the George W. Sweitzer whom he usually selected. ". commanding a brigade in Fitz John Porter s stationed on the defenses of Washington at Minor s Hill in Virginia.when hard riding is required. ". who wears the uniform of McClellan on which he was to serve through ". son of King Louis s staff. Colburn and N. V. he writes.History out the Peninsula Campaign (see page 115). as they called him.Little Mac. and his nephew. Morell was then time at the height of his popularity. was at this stand two distinguished visitors the Prince de Joinville. PREPARING FOR THE CAMPAIGN A ROYAL AIDE when McClellan was at the headquarters of General A picture taken in the fall of 1861. B.OF REVIEWS CO. Farther to the right Potomac.
with tattered flags. On shore. thou sands of horsemen with shining arms fill the meadows to the right. barges. march and countermarch.The other was determined on. is The army massing toward the piers of Alexandria. It is a magnificent pageant a far different scene these depleted. three-decked steamers. when many of war-worn regiments. Swinton tells us that it was an undertaking which for economy and celerity of movement is without a parallel on record. and flags and banners are waving over all. 1862. a long line of marching men stretch from the hills to the streets of Alex andria. and boats are loaded. regimental bands play familiar tunes. but conjecture as to their destination. flat-bottoms. wagons. This vast army with its entire equipage was trans ". The unfinished dome of the Capitol fades away in the distance. including fourteen thousand horses and mules. It is a glorious day of awakening spring. The men gather in little knots and can like ants. ferred in about two weeks a distance of two hundred miles without the loss of a man.". Here upon this assortment of transports. to the left are many batteries. from that. Armed men cover the hillside and the plain. Soon the Poto mac will swarm with every description of water craft.  . will pass in grand review through the avenues of the capital. Manassas. with all the equipment for war. with guns flashing in the sunlight. three years hence. this 17th of March. comprises a fleet of four hundred vessels. It is to be the prelude to another drama on the military stage. one hun dred and twenty-one thousand men. On the placid river there come canal-boats. the cities of tents are being deserted. On board men are swarming they unmoor from the landings and lazily float down the river. columns of soldiers. beyond these. from the scene of its preparation at Washington to the Flanders of the Civil War. without confu sion and with the precision of a well-oiled machine. pontoon bridges. forty-four It batteries. From the heights above Alexandria a beautiful spectacle is seen. and transatlantic packets.
well sheltered in comfortable tents. Here we see the general s chargers with their grooms. and fat. The guard always wore white gloves. the men happy and Little hardships had these troops seen as yet. Everything was new and [A-17] . S HEADQUARTERS BEFORE YORKTOWN General McClellan was a stickler for neatness. His headquarters were models of even in the active campaign. Wormley s Creek. near military order. the waiting orderlies and the sentry standing stiffly at support arms. At the left is the guardhouse with stacked muskets. Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.McCLELLAN Camp Winfield Scott. THE TENTED MEADOW Overlooking the camp from near McClellan fresh. the horses well fed s headquarters.
at whose stood the frowning walls of Fortress Monroe. apex The first troops landed in a terrible storm of thunder and lightning. dreary rains were unceasing. The van was led by May 1862 On the General Hamilton s division of the Third Corps. Sunnier.0rktmtm The army had already been divided into four corps. respectively. The sea became rough. General McClellan reached Fortress Monroe on April 2d. To the right was Old Point Comfort. But the cold. with water standing in pools. low against the sky-line. Heintzelman. [2GO] . The Confederate capital was yet seventy miles away. preparations for the night morning some pitched their tents were made. and in the darkness. afternoon of the second day the first transports entered Chesa peake Bay. In the shadowy distance. on the northern side of the James. beating in their faces. The vessels passed toward Hampton Roads where a short time before had occurred the duel of the ironclads. and Keyes. but at the last moment McDowell had been detached by President Lincoln. great billows were break ing on the beach. the Monitor and Merrimac. At the command the men gathered. with neither tents nor fire. with but the lightning s flash to guide them. with the incessant rain able. after day the men Monroe Day stood shivering about their tents. could be descried the faint outlines of the Virginia shore. The route of approach lay along the narrow neck of land between the James and the York. cables broke. Wet and cheerless. by Generals McDowell. commanded. . landing was made in an unpitying storm. Shelter was unavail and there was no abatement of the gale with the night. Transport after transport continued to unload its human freight. The following under the guns of Fortress while others found tenting places amid the charred ruins of the once aristocratic village of Hampton. in an open field. Then came the order to march. they crossed the bridge toward Hampton. allowing vessels to grate The against each other or drift helplessly from the docks. but pa tient. they awaited the coming of their magnetic chief. Here.
Headquarters of General Magruder in Yorktown. . Tons of powder. with nearly 100.000 men not nearly enough to man the defenses of the city that McClellan. behind which the Confederate artillerymen stood and so long successfully defied the besiegers.NATURE S AID TO THE DEFENDERS Confederate magazines at the southeastern end of Yorktown.000. WHENCE THE DEFENSE WAS DIRECTED was on the mam street. This pre-Revolutionary dwelling and here the young commander planned so cleverly the disposition of his 15. Co. from Copyright by Patriot Pub. shot and shell could be carried this fastness in perfect safety to the guns on the heights. was held in check.
from under the gun-bristling fort. The task before the army was not an easy one. At the approach of McClellan reenforcements were hastened to him. Soon the entire route was lined with an endless and reckless profusion of overcoats. gathering the splendidly equipped ". It was a bright April day. April 5th. The Union right wing was in front of Yorktown. but the progress made was slow. ". Under the weight of unaccustomed burdens in the toilsome march. cut tides roll. The warm sun and the wearisome tramp prompted many to lighten their burdens by throwing away some of their apparel. and matchlessly trained Again of the Potomac was ready to move. It was the Warwick. Out from the camp Arm}". a distance of thirteen and a half miles. nearly cutting the Peninsula from Yorktown to the James. who had thrown away their clothing found it a night of suffer ing. the left at Lee s Mills. blankets. parade-coats. By the time Big Bethel was reached the water was coming down in torrents. Beyond the river was a line of trenches and forts. Saturday afternoon. the Federal advance guard on the right. Less than five miles was covered this That night the rain came again and the soldiers day. the men soon fell out of line and began to straggle. Contraband negroes were reaping a rich harvest. at Hampton. Along this wretched way stumbled and plodded horse and man. and shoes. first A [ 262 ] . The morning march began in the rain. a sluggish stream. The roads were cut till they were veritable rivers of mud. up the discarded articles. Now for the first time in the campaign the Union army found its way flash of fire blazed disputed.orktnum This peninsula. consisting of Porter s division of Heintzelman s Third Corps. General Magruder had been stationed on the Peninsula with about eight thousand men. the advance was made in two divisions along the mud-filled roads of the Peninsula. suddenly came to a river. marshy and thickly wooded. The troops marched with the precision of veterans. is from seven to by smaller streams into which the fifteen miles in width. de fended by a Confederate army.
though of archaic pattern. Reenforced with Cotton. by the defenders no fortification of New Orleans.00 a pound. . safe to say that was ever built of material so expensive. in It is War of 1812. and as coverings to the magazines. These cotton bales were used to protect the gunners serv ing the 8-inch Columbiad at the parapet. The sand-bag ramparts were added by which shows at the left of the Confederates as further protection for guns and gunners. Revolution Used in the Civil War. was deemed worth wrecking by the Confederates when they evacuated the position to back upon Richmond. FORTIFICATIONS OF Earthworks of the TWO WARS in 1781. Co. cotton was worth $1. gold. The ditch. Before the end of the Civil War.THE COSTLIEST RAMPART EVER BUILT Confederate Breastworks to the South and Southeast of Yorktown. Copyright by Patriot Pub. The gun fall in the center. one the picture. the This device was used once before. dug by Cornwallis of was deepened by Magruder in 1862. The higher earthworks to the left are also of Revolutionary origin.
received reenforcements. also strongly fortified and garrisoned. were driven back by a galling fire. Facing the Confederate works. defending the line comprised eleven thousand men. The defense confronting the Army of the Potomac was fortified a and Dams. under fire from a battery of eighteen into the Warwick. while across the Gloucester. For one hour the Union troops held the trenches. who was as signed to the chief command on the Peninsula. protected by had been built in the river. of Keyes corps. soon to be York was The force augmented by the army of General Johnston. The attempt not succeed. boggy land rendered it impossible to use light artillery. Eight additional companies came to their support. Yorktown itself was strong one. and charged the Confederate rifle-pits. a paral lel line extending from before Yorktown to the Warwick. re formed. since the condition of the roads and the low. Smith was ordered to send his ". and made a counter-charge. the logical point to break the Confederate line. detected a Here would be seeming weak spot in the fortifications.  . Streams were bridged corduroy roads constructed a depot of supplies established. The water reached above guns. where eighty-one years before their fathers had stood together in the making of the Nation. ingly four companies of cover of a heavy artillery after being driven to a redoubt. The Confederates.". Accord Green Mountain Boys. a . Preparation for a protracted siege was now begun. emerging on the other side. line batteries rifle-trenches. It was returned with equal force and here on the historic soil of Yorktown men of North and South stood opposed. but they waded across the stream. by a of continuous earthworks. plunged the waist-line. At Lee s Mills General Smith. The Vermont soldiers many being killed or to force the wounded line could in recrossing the stream. sent to a reconnaissance by General McClellan. . General make men across the river. It could not be brought close enough to do effective work.arktoum Up tit? from the rifle-pits.
) its embrasure. Magruder had far too few soldiers to man his long line of defenses properly. Copyright by Patriot Pub. that MoClellan spent a month preparing his heavy batteries.. More than 3. hasty abandonment of the Federals. Navy Yard by hasty retreat of the Confederates. 1S62. ANOTHER VOICELESS GUN. they were able to render most of them useless before leaving. and his This ram position could have been taken by a single determined attack. He was the last to leave it on the ni. Yorktown.) these. Hill. THE MISSING in the retreat. were abandoned on the THE CONFEDERATE COMMAND OF THE RIVER. with the exception of the frigate just off shore. Hill succeeded in terrorizing the Federals with grape-shot. Yorktown. wrecking Yorktown. Co. which had been gathered in quantities to prevent the Federal fleet from passing up the river.RAMPARTS THAT BAFFLED McCLELLAN. Norfolk through the ill-advised and (Battery Magruder. Many of these guns did service at Yorktown and subsequently on the James River against the Union. It (Hasty fortifications of fortifications was against such as which Magruder had hastily reenforced with sand-bags. but the rifled gun to which they belonged was taken along Such pieces as they could not remove they spiked. (Confederate ramparts southeast of A 32-pounder Navy gun which had been burst. (Gun exploded by the Confederates on General Hill s rampart. The grape-shot and spherical shells.000 pieces of naval ordnance fell into the hands of the Confederates early in the war. GUNS THE UNION LOST AND RECOVERED.) The shells and carriage were left behind by the Confederates. who had been the first to enter Yorktown in order to prepare it for siege. D. and some of this was left behind. After the evacuation The soldier rest the ramparts were overrun by Union trophy seekers. WRECKED ORDNANCE. four of the five 8-inch Columbiads composing this section of the battery are visible. . (Extensive sand-bag fortifications of the Con federates at Yorktown.) Although the Confederates aban doned 200 pieces of ordnance at Yorktown. (A two-gun Confed erate battery in the entrenchments south of Yorktown. the far one.ht of May 3. a 24-pounder siege-piece. H. the guns being spiked.) The near gun is a 32-pounder navy. The vessels in the river are transport ships.) Looking north up the river. This spot was directly on the line of the British fortification of 1781. RIFLE. part was occupied by the Confederate general. ing his hands upon his musket is one of the Zouaves whose bright and novel uniforms were so conspicuous early in the war. The Federal soldier seated on the sand-bags is on guard-duty to prevent camp-followers from looting the vacant fort. the Confederates at Yorktown.
Battery No. but no Southerners were to be seen. with masterly skill. At had last all was in readiness for the attack. A desul tory cannonading had continued during the night and toward morning the firing was at times intense. The Union men in the rifle-pits crept up to the very lines where but yesterday glinted the Confederate guns. Under the cover of night the defenses had been historic the set of sun the victorious evacuated. throwing sixty shells a minute were ready to belch forth. had to endure the fury of At night his bed might be in a pool of water. Early Sunday morning a bright light from behind the Confederate works was seen by the Union pickets. whether digging trenches. Soon the Federals were in hot pursuit. these storms. began its cannonading. 1. On Sunday. arms of the North would enter the town and unfurl the Stars and Stripes where the Father of his Country had placed them four-score years before. was thrown up. or standing guard. The army waited in in cleared. Violent thunderstorms rapidly succeeded one another. The siege lasted less than thirty days and it rained on twenty of them.0rkt0um the distance of four miles. Fourteen batteries and three redoubts. were even now in full retreat toward The troops V man Williamsburg. But the Federal troops could not remain there because of the shells from the batteries. General Stonewith cavalry and horse artillery followed along the Wil266] . as at Manassas. opposite Yorktown. Saturday morning. Batteries capable of begin. on the picket line. May 3d. it was the great guns would play upon the works and ere surmised. The Sabbath dawned fair and warm. Sickness became prevalent. thousands were in the hospitals and many graves were dug in the marshy lowlands. The works had been abandoned. armed with the heaviest ordnance some of the guns throwing two hundred pounds were put in place. The weather of Yorktown was about to were in position. The Northern soldier. Surrounding Yorktown were open fields. The bombardment The shells tense expectation of the grand spectacle.
From its six Parrott guns. These Parrott guns were in many cases failures. The wickerwork bastions were reinforced by tiers of sand bags. Here we see how carefully McClellan s engineers did their work. This. and this huge Parrott gun in the very center of the battery was much relied upon by the Federals to do heavy damage. 4. The reinforcement of the breach was not properly placed to stand the heavy charges and many burst. Co. 1862. 1 Before Yorktown. with such telling effect that the evacuation of the town was greatly hastened. It was placed half a mile farther down the York River than Battery No. it could at a single Br It opened up on May 1. 1. which was located on the west bank of the York River at the mouth of Wormley s Creek. Never before had so heavy a siege battery been mounted. THE PRIDE OF UNION BATTERY NUMBER ONE A 200-pounder Parrott Gun. killing Copyright by Patriot Pub. The range of the battery was upstream toward Yorktown. mammoth piece of ordnance stood in the center of Battery No.AN UNPRECEDENTED SIEGE BATTERY Federal Battery No. Well-constructed wooden stands were made for the gunners to facilitate the loading and swabbing. occurring two days later. ing drop 700 pounds of shot and shell upon the fortifications and landing at Yorktown. The life of these guns was short. two miles away. five 100-pounders and one 200-pounder. . This battery was near the Farenholdt House. the artillerymen and wrecking everything in close vicinity. at the time.
To its right and left were a dozen redoubts for In front of its half-mile of the placing of field artillery. Heavy shot crashed amid the fallen timber. In front of this and to the right was an open field. was a Southern cavalry regiment. from either side of which flow the tributaries of the York and the James. tioned front. made so by the felling of trees. On the brow of the hill. Night came upon the marching troops. The approach to Williamsburg is along a narrow ridge. Early in the morning the troops were again in motion. floun s dering in the mud. there burst  . The cavalry prepared to bivouac in the rain-soaked fields in front of the Confederate works. earthen wall ran a ditch full of water. were arriving on the scene of the next day battle. Stuart s men were covering the retreat of the main column toward the entrenchments of Williamsburg. who all the day had been trudging the flooded roads of the Peninsula. which were reached by four o clock. The rain had fallen in torrents during the greater part of March. The rear guard of the cavalrymen Confederates had been overtaken.0rktnum Up ilr? May fkntnsttla 1862 debris of a re liamsburg road. its It was a drenched and bedraggled army that slept on \. came to a sudden halt. quick passage of arms The advancing force pressed close but the re resulted. At the junction of two roads stood the main defense It was Fort Magruder with its basof the fortified town. Stuart. B. A sistance was stubborn. The Federal troops. and beyond were the woods in which the army had bivouacked. steadily advanced. in full view. which was littered with the miles from Williamsburg the pursuing Six treating army. arms that night. At once from the wooded cover a vigorous fire. creeping through the slashes. E. It was answered by the Confederate infantry and every gun in reach. All during the evening and even into the night the forces of Sumner and Hooker. It was scarcely day when the attacking Confederate force emerged into the edge of the timber-strewn field. belonging to the famous brigade of J.
impregnable". Co. Never had 1. THE SCENE OF YORKTOWN S ONLY SURRENDER Moore s House. After two days of action it was rendered useless by the evacuation of Yorktown. Near here also many of the Continentals were buried. and had to be transported up the river after the change of the The Farenholdt mansion.SILENT AFTER Union Battery No. House. TWO DAYS WORK Miles Below Yorktown. Two Copyright by Patriot Pub. . The guns of Battery No. water batteries of the Confederates by dropping shot and shell upon Yorktown wharf and within the defenses on the bluff. The good shots were cheered and the men stationed here were in holiday mood no Confeder^ ate fire could reach them. and across their graves and the old camp of Cornwallis s beleagured troops the messengers of destruction hurtled through the air. 1 fired their heavy shells over this house. and frt ii its roof the work of the shells could be clearly observed. about a Mile Southeast of the Town. a handsome old Colonial structure. This section of the Parrott guns was in the peach orchard of the Farenholdt so heavy a battery been set up before in siege work. The Federal fleet was anchored near where the Comte de Grasse s ships lay at the time of the surrender. Cornwallis laid down his arms to Washington and in this house the terms of the surrender which established the independence of America were drawn up. McClellan hoped by it to silence the ". The damage to the house is the effect of the Revolutionary guns and not those of McClellan. in 1781. Near here. was just in the rear of this battery.
There the Northerners halted. The contest grew desperate. those of Webber and Bramhall. terrific fire. who retreated in good order. The Union brigades were being shat tered. ". tore through the branches of the wood in the rear. and took the places of Hooker s and hungry men. making a stand. But about noon.May 1862 plowing the earth as struck or. Neither w ould yield. who had gone down before the Confederate fire. H. Both armies fought tenaciously. At the bank of a small stream. Meanwhile Fighting Phil Kearny was hastening with r ". his regiments over the bottomless roads of the Peninsula. rebounding. Planting his batteries in tired ". The  intrepid Early did not wait. Hill halted to form in line. and General Jubal A. Two Union batteries. these new positions. he began throwing shells into Fort Ma- gruder. General Hancock. Meanwhile there was seen emerging from a little ravine on the Union left a swarm of Confederates who opened at once a Giving their characteristic yell. pushing them back until the edge of the wood was again reached. they charged upon the Federals. The last charges were made with ammunition taken from the cartridge boxes of fallen comrades. the Superb.". with the Fifth and Twenty-third North Carolina and the This new move of the Federals at once attracted the Twenty-fourth and Thirty-eighth Virginia regiments. Slowly the Federals made their way across the field. took his men near the river s bank and occu pied two Confederate redoubts. On the York River side there had been no fighting during the early part of the day. L . Early. They came most opportunely. the Carolina regiments under General D. was sent to intercept Hancock s movements. targets for the Confederate it sharpshooter. attention of the Confederates. leaving on the tree-strewn field seventeen hundred of their comrades. It seemed as if the Federals must give way. advanced to within seven hundred yards of the fort and began to play upon its walls. Fresh troops came to their relief but they were insufficient.
It con Here a group of residents had gathered after the evacuation curious for a sight sisted chiefly of a single street. the South as a whole had not begun ualties among noncombatants were almost nothing. . The inhabitants. The food supply at this time was plentiful. This view looks into the town and toward the river. Yorktown was but a small village. to feel the pinch of hunger that it endured so bravely and so unflinchingly during the dark days of 64. to which the occupation by Cornwallis in 1781 had given an exaggerated strategic importance. who had first hidden in their homes. The advancing Federals entered the city from the other side. who made a strong stand at Williamsburg. Co. A most remarkable thing to be noticed is the unharmed condition of most of the houses. Sallyport in the Copyright by Patriot Pub. Far from being the almost impregnable fortified city which McClellan appeared to think it. Out through this gate the detachment marched in pursuit of the retreating Confederates. upon which the Confederates fell back as McClellan advanced after the evacuation. This commanded the road leading past Yorktown to Williamsburg. flocked to the street corners as regiment after regiment swept into the town with colors flying and bands playing. The cas of the entering Union troops. seen in the picture.THE DOOR TO YORKTOWN Center of the Southwestern Line of Entrenchments. THE TOWN McCLELLAN THOUGHT WORTH A SIEGE Near the Center of Yorktown.
Quick soldiers. too. the sound of battle and hungry. swampy lowlands. The Federal troops. Many of the wounded had not yet been taken to the hospitals.nrktmmt but riding at the head of the Twenty-fourth Virginia. Down by the stream. began to grow fainter in front The Confederates were falling back be protecting walls. and decisive came the order to charge. was not too dark for Longstreet s command to more in the direction of Richmond. In front of his soldiers. The sword of Hancock gleamed in the would display a similar On came the Southerners light. The dead lay half buried in the mud. leaving over five hundred men on Now hind its of Fort Magruder. stood the man who later courage on the field of Gettysburg. Up across the field the column swept. with M drawn sword. But Williamsburg. this night as one of greatest suffering. rush. The slaughter of the Fifth North Carolina regi ment was appalling. seeing what was happening. and Hancock But ilous it held undisputed sway during the starless night. rushed into the attack.  y***~i i&wnK-t . the gallant McRae of the Fifth North Carolina. It was a per road through the flat. then broke and fled down the hill. hurled themselves upon the Con federate column. dashed forward to take part in the fight. the ancient capital of the Old Dominion. and the trained with the coolness of veterans. So close did the opposing col umns come to each other that the bayonets were used with deadly effect. on the field with their fallen comrades. On sixteen hundred the crest of the hill stood Hancock s men strong waiting for the charge. soon echoed with the tread of the hostile to the I army as it swept through its quaint streets sound of martial music. The Northern musketry fire sang in the afternoon air. wet and weary slept the bloody field. had reason to remember hominy. with rain falling at every step of the way as they hastened toward the ChickaThe Union troops. The lines of the South began to waver. retreat once The next morning dawned in all the beauty of early May.
. ready to be taken up the river for the operations against Richmond. The artillery thus parked at the rear of the lower wharf was by no means In the center are the Parrott guns. at the upper wharf. waiting for the embarkation of that portion of the Army Already of the Potomac which went up the York River to the mouth of the Pamunkey from Yorktown. mortars. are the transports ready for the embarkation of the troops. The steamer Robert Morris ready to depart. During the siege of Petersburg they were used by both armies. The little mortars in the foreground were known as coehorns.THE GUNS THAT DID NOT TAKE THE TOWN Federal Ordnance Ready for Transportation from Yorktown. The Louisiana Tigers had been encamped here before McClellan s army took possession. the dismantling of both the Confederate and the Federal forts had begun. In the back that McClellan deemed necessary to overcome the resistance at Yorktown. Here we see troops and artillery ready for the forward move. Their range was only a few hundred yards. all Copyright by Patriot Pub. Co. ground. but with small charges they could quite accurately drop shells at almost a stone s throw. May 6th. after the evacuation. One sees gun-carriages. and tons of shot and shell. They could be lifted by half a dozen men and transported by hand to any part of the entrenchments. LOADING THE TRANSPORTS The Lower Wharf at Yorktown.
Every bit of dried wood had been collected and consumed and standing timber was felled in all directions THE FAR-STRETCHING ENCAMPMENT. looking north toward the nver. This road. The gathering of the Union army of forty thou sand men at White House.  mU army presented in the early days of its march up p ? noplv of war The camera caught a cluster of (Cumberland. looking northwest across the lower camp In this bend of the river was gathered the nondescript fleet of transports steamers. via York River WERE LANDED AT CUMBERLAND. the Army of the Potomac was now ready for the final rush upon Richmond. Here we see but part of that camp the first to be established on a large scale. was the main highway of the region and led to Richmond. near Cumberland. NEAR CUMBERLAND. Witl1 Confederate opposition at Yorktown and Williamsu u j burg broken down. was felt to be the beginning of the expected victorious advance. berland Copyright by Patriot Pub. Clellan a K KI the probably *K headquarters of a division or corps. called [New Kent Road. ihe distance is obscured by the haze of smoke from thousands of camp-hres. barges. Landing. May. (Cumberland Landing.) ON THE BANKS OF THE PAMUNKEY. (Looking south from Cum . 1862 ) Although a long distance from home Mcthe Peninsula officers tents The ground here slopes down directly to the river. and schooners that conveyed Federal army supplies up to this point from Fortress Monroe.TO RICHMOND!". supplies for the camps farther up the river were hauled along a welltraveled road which bisected this stretch of encampment. After the affair at Williamsburg the troops there joined the main army before the advance to the Chiekahommy.) Ihree Quarters O f a mile from the landing. in the Peninsula campaign looking north at the bend ot the Famunkey. That part of the army not at York". Co. WHERE SUPPLIES south bank of the Pamunkey. The A HEADQUARTERS UNDER CANVAS.ON i town and Williamsburg was moved up the Peninsula as fast as the condi tions of the road would permit. VIRGINIA. photograph from a tree-top.
after communication with the divisions that had been fighting at Will iamsburg. The Confederate gen era!. discussing the situation. (Cumberland. impatient. opposition. The Confederates had no such complete shelter during the spring of 1862. . The men sat idly about. the residence of W. The siege delayed the army a month. the divisions of Franklin. These comfortable canvas houses were transported by the army wagons. Lee. H. Magrudcr. son of Gen eral R. the Pamunkey. May. which was remarkable for the inclemency of the weather. was established became headquarters for the whole army. and Richardson. which flows south at this point. which of the York River. waiting The farm-lands occupied by the stripped of fences for firewood. Porter. May 5th to the Union forces. had completely deceived McClellan as to the number of men under his command. Lee.) HEADQUARTERS OF GENERAL McCLELLAN.) During the ten days of inaction the soldiers rested after their heavy labors on the elaborate fortifications before Yorktown. when the Federal army base was changed to the James River by order of General McClellan. WAITING FOR ORDERS TO MOVE. It was burned in June. the southern branch Thence they marched toward White House. 1862.A VISTA OF THE FEDERAL CAMP. E. [A 18] (White House on This house. THE CITY OF TENTS. Sedgwick. 1862. F. Everyone expected to be in Richmond before the end of June. looked east over the river. This panoramic view shows a part of the encampment. abandoned on The Army of the Poto mac waiting for the expected victorious advance on the Confederate Yorktown had been evacuated on May 4th and Williamsburg capital. ness for the forward The Army of the Potomac encamped in readi movement on Richmond. gathered on the banks of the Pamunkey. and no one dreamed that the great cam army were soon paign would come to nothing. after During the week following. some IDLE DAYS AT CUMBERLAND.
throughout Richmond that a Federal
by the dread
Monitor, was advancing up the James
Panic at once seized upon the
Confederate capital. The Government
archives were shipped to Columbia,
South Carolina, and every prepara tion was made to evacuate the city
should the expedition against
ceed in passing up the James.
working at Drewry s Bluff to estab lish a battery that would command the
Earthworks were thrown up
and guns were
position seven miles below
and every possible obstruction op posed to the approaching ironclads. When the Monitor and the Galena
arrived they did not attempt to run
the gantlet, and
These works ultimately
formed Fort Darling.
THE FORT THAT STOPPED A PANIC
In the foreground of the picture
what a mass
hurled into the
at the heads of
the doughty defenders of Richmond.
Monitor, the Galena, and the gun
when Fort Darling opened on
to dispute the passage of the
a rain of projectiles in an effort to
Confederate battery and
possible to proceed
and the gunboats, thoroughly con
strength, did not again
Darling held the water approach to
until the fall of Petersburg
necessary for the Confeder
ates to evacuate their capital.
picture was taken in April, 1865, after the fort had been abandoned, and
was occupied by the
cabin seen in the picture was the quar
ters of the regimental chaplain.
Copyright by Patriot 1 ub. Co.
THE SHOWER OF SHOT AND SHELL
THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND
A HAVEN FOR THE WOUNDED
FARM-HOUSE SERVING AS A HOSPITAL
SHORTLY AFTER THE BATTLE OF MAY SO-JUNE
-r ; vi O O W
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S C c
* S3 CO x ~ js t J3
^ 2 S a
^ & o
V o u S -i
12 i s
S S O
ra ce t.
a a^: 41 ~S
5 S O 2 -o O
^fc 33 en
M I 5
I 5 o
X J3 - H
d ^ O
o g 45 a cs - ** S c * a C to cd CJ
JB-S 73 *S
:t S-E^S i 1 J y ?
1 1 1 -E I
S 5 H
P O u
^5-o * C O
FAIR OAKS OR SEVEN PINES
Confederates, although decidedly successful on their right, had been, it is true, rudely checked on their left ; but, in the battle considered as a whole, thev not only had not been beaten, but they had driven their
of the field, and they antagonists from their entrenchments in one part had guns, small arms, and colors to show as the trophies of their victory. The net result of the battle, in spite of the captured trophies, was un
It remained for doubtedly favorable to the Federal arms. McClellan to utili/e the forces at his disposal, to lead his large General army of brave men, all of whom were devoted to him, to the achievement
of the success which
would seem was
really at this period
of the cam
paign within his grasp.
Part //, The Campaigns of 1862.
Yorktown and Williamsburg
victorious banners, the
Potomac took up march from Cumberland Landing toward
the Confederate capital on the James.
Its route lay along the
Pamunkey, a sluggish stream, whose junction with the Mattapony forms the York. Not all the troops, however, were at Cumberland Landing and McClellan had first to bring up the remainder of his forces from Yorktown and Williamsburg. Some came by water up the York, some by land. The march
was a picturesque one, through a magnificent country arrayed
in all the
gorgeousness of a Virginia spring, with its meadows of green set between the wooded hills. Dotted here and there could be seen the mansions of planters, with their slave quar
ters in the rear.
necessarily slow, for the roads were next to impassable and the rains still continued at
The progress was
It was the 10th of May, 1862, when the advanced corps reached White House, the ancestral home of the Lees. On
the Capitol standing out boldly on 1862. McClellan was not des pectation would be the upper picture realized. THE SPIRES OF RICHMOND Here are the portraits leaders of the two military who were conspicuous in the Confed upon McClellan s camp at Fair Oaks. H. SMITH.TWO KEEPERS OF THE GOAL The North expected General McClellan to possess himself of this citadel of the lost during the hasty retreat of President Davis and his cabinet at the evacuation of April. and only the timely arrival of Sum- ner s troops enabled the Federals to hold their ground. General G. Hill did most of the fierce erate attack fighting first which drove back the Federals on the day. W. General D. we get a near and it would not have meant the the Confederacy had he then view of the State of House at Rich fall of mond. HILL. H. and it seemed likely the ex the hill. S. with Confederacy in June. Richmond. In tined to reach this coveted goal. Below. A. by the Confederate In this building in the Congress during the war. Smith was in command during the second day s fighting. 1865. W. When Lincoln entered 1865. we see the city of Richmond from afar. Had they failed they would have been driven into the morasses of the Chicka- hominy. retreat across which would have been difficult as the bridges were partly submerged by the swollen stream. federacy had been beaten as Con much building were stored the records and archives of the Confederate of by the blockade as by the opera tions of Grant and Sherman with vastly superior forces. C. Co. GENERAL D. GENERAL G. many which were THE GOAL THE CONFEDERATE CAPITOL Copyright by Patriot Pub. After General Johnston was wounded. part as a Capitol which was occupied done the so. Government. S. C. A. .
In the Confederate had seized the people. fear took possession of the inhabitants and many wild rumors were But it was not afloat as to the probable capture of the city. but a moderate shower will cause it to rise quickly and to offer formidable opposition to any army seeking its passage. forming a valley from half a mile to a mile wide. of a full harvest. to the The Union advance was retarded by the condition of Between McClellan s position at White House and the waiting Confederate army lay the ^ Chickahominy. As the retreating army of Johnston sought the environs of Richmond and news of the invading hosts was brought in. ending three years thereafter. On the historic Peninsula lay two of the greatest and most splendid armies that had ever confronted each other on the field of battle. was to be the first in that series of contests. The engagement. between the Army of the Potomac and the Army of Northern Virginia.3Jtt Rirfjmmtfc every side were fields of wheat. Fortunately for him. It was here that General McClellan took I up his headquarters.gt. were it not for the there was the promise presence of one hundred thousand men. in honor. that spreads itself out in wooded swamps and flows around many islands. The valley is covered with trees whose tops reach to the level of [ 284 ] . The time had now come when he should change his position from the defensive to the offensive. an erratic and sluggish stream. In dry weather it is but a mere brook. a distance of twenty-four miles from Richmond. the rainy weather proved a powerful ally. the weather and the roads./ l/t Northern army. The strategic policy of the Southern general had been to delay the advance of the capital a panic w &. and it now turned to beat off the invaders and save its capital. a fear that Johnston would not fight. at Appomattox. down their arms. and. when the war-worn veterans of gray should lay war-worn veterans of blue. bordered by low bluffs. The Army of Northern Virginia had been brought to bay. now imminent.
It was on the 2. 1861.Patriot fuo. also. He was brevetted lieut. brevetted major-general for gallant and meritorious services at Fort Stedman and Fort Sedgwick campaign. Tidhall s battery was the first to try for the position of honor on the artillery firing line and the last to retire. There Campaign that does not mention the name of the gallant officer ism.". Blackburn s Ford in the first battle of Bull Run. where they were.The enemy s brigadier-general on August in the Petersburg 1.". Whi) Peninsula hardly a despatch that concerns the doings of the artillery in the we see here leaning against his mud-spattered gun. and like all West Pointers. was imbued with the slogan and motto of that cradle of soldiers. 5d of May that Tidball s guns swept the Confederate troops from New Bridge on the banks of the Chickahominy. and was brevetted front and occupied a dangerous position. Patriot is Won His Spurs on the Peninsula. The batteries were well in bores. 17th. FROM CAPTAIN TO BREVET MAJOR-GENERAL John C.\ /?** V ". his guns being the last of Barry s battery to limber up and retire in order. was their fight until nearly 3 o clock in the afternoon of June 27th. class of 48. . tinuous. and it At Games Mill Tidball and his guns won laurels. At Gettysburg he commanded a brigade of horse artillery which he led in the Wilderness campaign. Tidball. He was appointed captain in 01 and given command of four rifled 10-pounder Parrotts and two 12-pounder smooth Through the heavy roads he kept his guns well to the fore throughout all of the Peninsula Campaign. General Sykes reported attack was frustrated mainly through the services of Captain Reade and Captain Tidball. For his participation But previous to this he had been reported for gallantry at in the skirmish at New Bridge he was thrice mentioned in despatches. Valor. Copyright uy . ". when the fighting became general. and confirmed as a brigadier-general at the end of the war. Co. His fir ing was so accurate and his men so well drilled that the discharge of his guns was spoken of as being so rapid as to be almost con The artillery had begun the battle at about 11 o clock. -colonel for gallantry at Antietam on September Tidball emerged from the action with a brevet of major. He was a graduate of West Point. but despite the vigor of the attack the guns stayed of the artillery this day: ".Duty.
retreating the one at Mechanicsville. thus forming a screen from either The bridges crossing it had all been destroyed by the side. General McClellan had Chickahominy. In the meantime. crossing the Chickahominy at Bottom s Bridge. only eleven miles from Richmond. and about a mile to the northward. and it was not an easy task that awaited the forces of McClellan as they made their way across the spongy soil. and perhaps the small destroy portion of the Union forces south of the river. newly constructed bridges were beginning to span the Chickahominy. General McClellan had been promised reenforcements from the north. This position of his army did not escape the eagle eye of the Con federate general. ". Joseph E. reaching the plateau beyond. General Jackson. of the Potomac has never been [ checked. who believed the time had now come to give battle. The roads like the in and about Richmond radiate from that city spokes of a wheel. in the Shenandoah. Johnston. Stonewall Meanwhile. ". 28G ] . One of these is the Williams- burg stage-road. Union army reached the Chickahominy The bridge was gone but the men under Gen eral Xaglee forded the little river. army except The van on of the May 20th. Their orders were go prepared for bat tle at a moment s notice and to bear in mind that the Army ". and made a bold reconnaissance before the Confederate lines. and the Federal army soon was crossing to the south bank of the river. It was along this road that the Federal corps of Keyes and Heintzelman had made their way.atr the adjacent highlands. Parallel to this road. ".to ".". General McDowell with forty thousand men had started from Fredericksburg to join him north of the For this reason. was making threatening movements in the direction of Washington. and McDowell s orders to unite with McClellan were recalled. thrown the right wing of his army on the north of the river while his left would rest on the south side of the stream.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. N. Henry Benson. Wilson. NEAR FAIR OAKS OFFICERS OF McCLELLAN S HORSE ARTILLERY BRIGADE Major Hays and five of his These trained soldiers lived up to the promise in their firm-set features. J. C. W. Co. Hains. Dennison. Pendleton. by 65. Robert Clarke. become general officers.THE ADVANCE THAT BECAME A RETREAT s soldiers preparing the way for the passage of the army and its The soil along the Chickahominy was so marshy that in order to move the supply trains and artillery from the base at White House and across the river to the army. Hain. H. M. A. we see McClellan supplies. M. (on ground) R. H. J. McClellan was able to unite the divided wings of the army almost at will. here are Lieutenants and Captains left Pennington.REGULARS". almost within sight of the goal (Richmond). Tidball. (sitting) Gibson. C. W. C. It was well that the men got this early practice in road-building. A. Here. J. Chapin. corduroy approaches to the bridges had to be built. M. M. Thanks to the work kept up. Hays. C. C. Tidball.s. Robertson. Vincent. P. Barlow. ". J. . From to right (standing) Edm. Pennington. Wm. Robertson and Barlow had. H. Gibson.
Nine Mile road crossed Southeast of Casey s division was White Oak Swamp. he gave orders that his army should be ready to move at daybreak. this time was in many places no more than a bog. growth of woods. May 30th. Couch s division of the same corps was at Seven Pines. . a grove of oaks. was stationed at Fair Oaks of Keyes corps Seven Pines mile in front lay his picket line. was thoroughly drenched. hence the name intersection once grew clump of Seven Pines. The plans On That night the windows of heaven seemed to have been and the fountains of the deep broken up. and redoubts for placing The picket line lay along a dense artillery were constructed. =65 the night the tempest raged The thunderbolts rolled with out cessation. The opened storm fell like a deluge. It was the most violent storm that had swept over that region for a generation. from the swamp to the Chickahominy. a A thousand yards beyond the pines were two farmhouses in Where the This was Fair Oaks Farm. Throughout ". The lowlands became a  . known as the Nine Mile road. The !&&.". earth The sky was white with the electric flashes. the railroad was Fair Oaks Station.. Through an opening in the trees. the Con army could be seen in force on the other side of the of the Confederate general were well matured. It was a well-wooded region and at three lines of defense. ". extend ing crescent shape. No sooner had these positions been taken. with Farm.air In May 1862 runs the Richmond and York River Railroad. ". rifle-pits were hastily dug. often given to the battle fought on this spot. ". Friday. federate clearing. than trees were cut to form abatis.".. his right Oaks Station. liamsburg. Seven miles from Richmond another highway intersects the one from Wil- At the point of this of seven pines. A fifth of a wing extending along the Nine Mile road to Fair Heintzelman s corps lay to the rear Kearney s division guarded the railroad at Savage s Station and Hook This formed er s the approaches to -the White Oak Swamp.
. C. Custer. Cavalry. caught by the camera. Washington. at Fair Oaks. who had been enlisted is on opposite sides in the great Civil War met each other during J. later Beside him sits Lieutenant George A. Both men were W est Point graduates and had attended the mili T academy together. A. of the Fifth U. 1862.Copyright by Patriot Pub. S. On the left sits Lieutenant B. CUSTER AND HIS CLASSMATE NOW A CONFEDERATE PRISONER Friends and even relatives the battle-field. Later in the day his former classmate ran across him and a dramatic meeting was thus recorded by the camera. . S. Co. aide on famous cavalry general and Indian fighter. On the morning of May 31. who was an aide to General Johnston at Fair Oaks. Lieutenant Washington was captured by some of General Casey s pickets. McClellan tary s staff. one of the many instances. its vicissitudes upon Here.
and in the open field met the attacking army. preceded by a line of skir The Union pickets mishers. along the Williamsburg road. suddenly a galling fire plowed in on them from the left. rushing on. On and on came the lines of gray in close columns. beds the soldiers arose the next morning Owing ness to the storm the Confederates did not move so early as intended. Hour after hour the forces of Longstreet and Hill awaited the sound of the signal-gun that would tell them General Huger was in his position to march. In this position. The Federals saw the hopelessness of the situation. shower of bullets fell beneath the trees and the Union pickets gave way. to be turned on them . It came from Rains brigade. It was near noon before General Hill.atr QDaks 3ht ^tgljt nf May fttrfptuftd 1862 morass. The Confederate infantrymen came in check. The soldiers in the pits had been under arms for several hours awaiting the attack. Naglee s men charged with their bayonets and pressed the gray lines back again to the edge A Here they were met by a furious fire of mus and quickly gave way. five guns but were guns were left  killed in the attempt. pits at Fair Oaks Farm. advanced to the front. General Naglee with four regiments. The contest was a stubborn one. However. At the same time the brigade of Rodes rushed toward them. weary of they waiting. had gone forward. were lying at the edge of the forest. some of the troops were in readi by eight o clock. Still waited. battery the Fifty-sixth and One hundredth New York and Eleventh Maine and One hundred and fourth Pennsylvania. which had executed a flank movement. The officers at the bat nearly three hours the Federals against three times their number. Suddenly there burst through the woods the soldiers of the South. seeking the cover of the rifleketry of the woods. for waged an unequal combat Then. In front of the abatis had been planted a of four guns. teries tried to spike their But again they were held Hastily falling back. From mud-soaked to battle.
The abandoned guns were turned against the retreating Federals. about a mile and a half.". The soldiers nicknamed it the ". Division was hurriedly placed in po behind the incomplete works. Casey s ar center of the Federal line of battle. and this their hastily dug graves appear plain ly in the picture. handsomely repelling the attack early in the afternoon of May 31st. U Patriot Pub.Redhot Battery. equi-distant. 1862. the Confederates were driving the Federal soldiers through the woods when [A-19] . at Fair Oaks.THE SLAUGHTER FIELD AT FAIR OAKS Over ground the fiercest fighting of the two days battle took place. from both Seven Pines and Fair Oaks. 4th Corps. These earthworks were thrown up for McCarthy s Battery. The guns grew so hot from constant firing that it was only with the greatest care that they could be swabbed and loaded. Some 400 soldiers were buried here. on May 31. In the redoubt seen just beyond the two houses was the In the smaller picture we see the inside of the redoubt at the left background of the picture above. The entrenchments near these farm dwellings were begun on May 28th by Casey s Division. Company C. where they fell. When the Confederates first tillery advanced Casey s artillery did telling work. Co. THE UNFINISHED REDOUBT Later in the day Confederate sharp shooters from vantage points in neigh boring trees began to pick off the officers and the gunners and the re doubt had to be relinquished. The scene is just before the battle and picks and shov els were still busy throwing up the embankments to strengthen this cen ter of the Federal defense. 1st Pennsyl vania Artillery. In the background General Sickles Brigade appears drawn up in line of battle. May 31st.REDHOT BATTERY in disorder this battery Federals were able to (McCarthy s) together with Miller s battery opened up with so continuous and severe a fire that the make a stand and hold their own for the rest of the day. THE On the afternoon of ". and the artillery of Casey s sition was being hurriedly brought up. There was not time to finish them before the Confederate attack opened the battle. near Savage s Station.
The Federals were gradu ally giving way. were new developments. The gray lines pressed on. the frag ments of the broken regiments. alone. Couch was forced out of his position toward the right in the direction of Fair Oaks Station and was thus separated from the main body of the army. who up to this time had been inactive. If this ele vation were once secured by the Confederates. in their retreat. At the same time General Longstreet sent reenforcements to General Hill. W. To the of this new line of battle. was holding its own. then in action. The fight waged was a gallant one. Over at Seven Pines the center of McClellan s army was about to be routed./ These men were fresh for the fight. Smith. but just when the guns were being trained. It looked for a time as if the whole Union army south of the Chickahominy was doomed. Heintzelman came to the rescue. there burst across the road the troops of General G. The next stand would be made at Seven Pines. superior in number. [ The quick eye of General 292 ] . and soon overpowered the Northerners. At the same time over at Fair Oaks Station whither Couch had been forced. there was a rise of right ground. For an hour and a half the lines of blue and graj surged back and forth. all would be this alone lost But and rout would be inevitable. The situa tion of the Federals was growing critical. where Couch was stationed.air ODak0 3ftt INgltt of May In another minute they would have been entirely surrounded and cap tured. From here the woods abruptly sloped to the rear. Xow it was that General Heintzelman personally collected about eighteen hundred men. next to the White Oak r Swamp. /". He was about to strike the Confederate army on its left flank. The forces here had been weakened by sending relief to Casey. He was determined not to give way. and took a decided stand at the edge of the timber. I I/if The Confederates pushed strongly against the Federal center. This move was not too soon. The left wing. ^ would not nor did not save the day.
brunt of men is for first in the firing line. GENERAL were opposed to those of the great Stuart. the battle of Fair Oaks. years before General Lee had Point. of McCarthy At Fair Oaks the old veteran after fighting bravely tion. appearance. Silas left TWO LEADERS OF THE FOREFRONT In the center of this group Naglee. through the woods. arms dark gloom of that cloudy He was began. camp before At Hanover Court House Stoneman s riders supports could reach him. and back them.A VETERAN OF THREE WARS General Silas Casey at Fair Oaks. filled The woods before Active service in two exacting in were of with sharpshooters. The bravely advancing Confederates had gained possession of his Before handing a note to an orderly. massing on his front. the 31st of his forces May. Co. General War and under Scott at Mexico and had Naglee was driven back to the protection s battery near Savage s Sta Twice during the action had Naglee placed himself personally at the head of his fought the Indians on the Pacific Coast. to sits Three General West At Fair Oaks in the his troops had rushed Casey had been graduated. contesting every inch. . s division. He had been with came overpowering numbers. Fighting General Worth at Florida in the Seminole stubbornly. SILAS CASEY GENERAL NAGLEE AND THE CAVALRY GENERAL STONEMAN AT FAIR OAKS Copyright by Patriot Pub. campaigns had aged him but not in efficiency. General Stoneman it the Confederate attack. he had conducted the successful raids against the railroad. fifty-four years old when the war day. received the whole was driven back.
Sumner bridges across the river and the railroad bridge. which was heavy still rising. hill Keyes took reach the battle-lines. river to an entrenched camp.atr a0 in the situation. a deadly volley into his ranks and likewise attempted poured to reach this key to the situation. six miles away. They had forced the Federal troops back from their entrench ments a distance of two miles. In order to save time. in the nick of time. The river fog now came up as the evening fell and the Southern troops spent the night in the captured camps. Before them rolled a muddy and swollen stream. the greater part of the afternoon for orders to cross. On the north side Chickahominy were stationed the two divisions of Sedgwick and Richardson. above whose flood was built a rude and unstable structure. for the Federals. Scarcely had the battle opened when McClellan at his headquarters. The Federals fell back toward the sleeping on their arms. he put his men under arms and marched them to the end of the upper bridge and there waited throughout to be in readiness. lying between the others. but they never got farther than these woods. but he ordered General artillery.  From the other side . General Sum ner had himself constructed two more bridges. The new line was formed as a heavy mass of Confederates came upon them. to would necessitate taking his men between the The distance was nearly eight hundred yards. Meanwhile at Fair Oaks Station the day was saved. The tremendous Union fire was too much for the assaulting columns. He was stationed on the left. The Federals gained the spot just in time. of the At this time there were four two of them were Bottom s Bridge To go by either of these would con sume too much time in case of an emergency. made a dash for Calling on a single regiment to follow he the position. heard the roar and rattle of He was sick at the time. which were checked. The Southern troops. under command of General Sumner. had swept one of these partially away. too. The flood of the preceding night. divining his intention.
good for cool firing and long range. who was a spectator. in vain he rushes on it himself. and again proved the metal he was made of at Fair Oaks. youngest. Prince de Joinville. Perhaps the commander. wounded but recovered. looking Army straight at the camera. Well did the Confederate leaders that with the down pour then falling the stream know would rise. -Colonel Henry E. but within the next few hours strength would gain at last it until became a sweeping torrent. TWENTY-POUND PARROTT RIFLED GUNS OF THE FIRST NEW YORK . describe the guns that helped to save the day. May 31st. who won his spurs at Williamsburg. later died beside his during the days that preceded Fair Oaks. Copyright by Patriot Pub. is Lieut. the gallant soldier leaning on his saber. only a part of McClellan s army had crossed the river when the Confederates moved to Let the attack. the old pat tern. Bailey. these are the true guns for a 1 12-pound howitzers (Napoleons).".They are not those rifled cannon. Not immedi it ately. H. and next to him stands Major Luther Kieffer. Wainright. ". objects of extravagant ad miration of late. He helped to make the name of the First New York Light Artillery a proud one. was written. simple and rapid discharg ing of these pieces makes terrible havoc in the oppos ing ranks. Co. It was the treach erous River Chickahominy that helped to baffle the It rained FIGHTING OFFICERS OF THE FIRST ARTILLERY NEW YORK LIGHT ". the Hamp ton legion among others. Next to him. the names of most of these men were mentioned in despatches. nothing can shake the line! fight Turner. the He was Corps. is who is standing Adjutant Rumsey.killed in action at Fair Oaks. ". who by firing his guns so continuously helped save the wing of the Second All this proved true. Seated in the camp chair is Colonel Guilford T. Van Valkenburgh.Not long after this picture well-laid plans of the eral Fed was taken. and standing near est to the tent is Major C. In vain Johnston sends against this battery those of his best troops South Carolina. next. who guns. S. his arm thrust into his coat. Against Major D. throwing round pro jectiles or heavy charges of The grape and canister.
The bridge had The by everyone. President Jefferson Davis had come out from his capital to witness the contest. The Confederates were gathering themselves for a vigorous assault on their opponents flaming front.of The upon May 1862 could be distinctly heard the roar of battle. their batteries A poured from and muskets. Johnston himself had immediate command. It swayed to and fro Beneath the men solid column passed over it. The men as the stepped upon the floating bridge. heavy fusillade Great rents were r made in the line of blue. They came not too soon. The artillery was left behind in the mud of the Chickahominy. Fif teenth and Twentieth Massachusetts and Seventh Michigan  . Rap idly the Confederates moved forward. It was nearly six o clock before Sedgwick s column deployed into line in the rear of Fair Oaks Station. day and of the Army of the Potomac rested at the fate of the these men end of the bridge. felled across the stream. Again and again the charge was repeated only to be repulsed. all if was the angry flood which would engulf should fall. Over the river proper it was suspended by ropes at tached to trees. The openings w ere quickly filled and a scorching fire was sent into the approach ing columns. The steady. Had the passage been delayed another hour the flood would have rendered it impassable. rolling fire of musketry and the boom of cannon told of deadly work in front. It did not waver. Just now there was a lull in the battle. General Joseph E. Their lines were re-forming. Guided by the roar of battle the troops hurried on. been built of \ logs. held together and kept from drifting by the stumps of trees. Then came the order to fix bayonets. 1 possibility of crossing was doubted including the general himself. Five regiments Thirty-fourth and Eighty-second New York. r the bridge Gradually the weight pressed it down between the solid stumps and it w as made secure till the army had crossed. At last the long-expected order to advance came.
General Sumner. Captain Pease. Sumner. F. J. once more he was He fought again at Fredericksburg. Chief Commissary.. at St. Lieut. Chief of Artillery. Clark. Taylor. not far from White House Landing. A. The group above from the left. F. Commanding picture was taken Sumner was one year past the age when generals the Second Army Corps in the Peninsula Campaign. G. near New Kent In this sacred edifice George Washington had worshiped. When this Court House.. Capt. He stands above in the Peninsula Campaign. Clarke. leading his men at Antietam. SUMNER IN THE FIELD A GENERAL FULL OF YEARS AND HONORS. struck. Capt. Lieut. But distinguished in the war could look back upon forty-two years of actual service at the outbreak of hostilities. M.-Col. Volunteer A. D. A. Peter s church. Hammond.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. Medical Director. of the present day are deemed too old for service. Not many men includes Maj. Virginia. Gabriel Grant. and again. J. he was twice wounded. . but died from the effects of his wounds in March. H. N. Minnesota Volunteers. 1863. such was the case with General Edwin V.-Col. C.
was again in progress. The com Oaks Station. ous roar. This was The the next day General Robert E. Smith. Early of Smith. Longstreet s men were south of the railroad. Lee. coming through the woods. the opposing forces being not more than fifty yards from each other. although the immediate command for s contest fell upon General G. too. It was. advanced down the attacking Richardson. indicat ing a diligent search for the wounded. Turning in on the Williamsburg road they rapidly deployed to the right and the left. Driving the Southern lines back in confusion. Xight was now settling over the wooded field. W. In front of them was an open field. formed They body of soldiers and seemed eager for the fray.air QDaka 3!u nf May 1862 pushed to the front. near Fair Sunday morning mand it railroad. disability of the Southern commander made it possi ble for the promotion of a new leader upon whom the fortunes of the Army of Northern Virginia would soon rest. For an hour and a half the musketry fire was intensely heavy. Both sides were gathering themselves for another It was then onslaught. with a thick wood on the other side. a continu The line of gray could not withstand the galling and for the first time that day fell back. Here and erates there flashes of light could be seen among the oaks. indeed. throwing him from his horse. Into the woods where the Confed had fallen back the charge was made. General Johnston ordered his troops to sleep on the field. The Confederates had  a magnificent . A The first day of the battle was over. They were the men of Hooker. was a large body of Federal troops. few minutes later he was struck by a rifle-ball and almost immediately a shell hit him. that there were heard loud shouts from the east of the railroad. fire A There. and he was borne off the field. The firing was heavy all along this line. whose lines were north of the battle JL and were using the embankment as a fortification. brief lull ensued. these dashing columns saved the day for the Army of the Potomac. But the Union line had been broken.
bridges and This delay gave the Confederates time to reorganize their forces and place them under the new commander. McClellan did not The heavy rainstorm pursue. May 31. the result of of the second made lery the movement of artil extremely difficult. AIMING THE GUNS AT FAIR OAKS. Co. FORT SUMNER. Then during the junction ". and McClellan waited to complete Copyright by Patriot Pub. In the smaller picture we see the interior of the works at Fair Oaks Station. The first day s battle at Fair Oaks. on the night of May 30th had ing. which it has been asserted led to a fatal delay and the ruin of McClellan s Peninsula Campaign. Co. ". who while McClellan lay inactive effected a with Stonewall Jackson. of Here we them within at the entrenchments Fair Lee steadily drove McClellan from his position. From this secure and advantageous water base Mc Clellan planned a new line of advance upon the Confeder ate Capital. Seven Days Battles men. Here we see the beginning of the lull in the fighting of the second day at Fair Oaks. come up in time to rally the retreating see some the build entrenchments before advancing. which were named Fort Sum ner in honor of the General who brought up his Second Corps and saved the day. Oaks Station on the Rich mond & York River Rail road. within four or five miles of Richmond. crossing his troops on the perilous Grapevine Bridge. The camp of the Second Corps is seen beyond the fortifications to the right. The to come end order will soon cease firing at the day s fight which was to drive the Confederates back to Richmond. Lee. to a new position on the James River. 1862. Robert E. NEAR FAIR OAKS . was decidedly a Federal reverse which would have developed into a rout had not Sumner.Copyright by Patriot Pub.
The dead horses were burned. fight was over. Many of the wounded forces withdrew The Confederate Federal troops could under the scorching sun for hours before help reached them. The leafy shadows the tide of battle front line was lost to view in the except for an occasional gleam of arms from among the The din and the clash and roar of battle were heard for miles. The sound of battle gradually subsided. found sometimes lying within a few feet of each other. and the second day s toward Richmond. their movements became a run. The dead soldiers. and they began firing as they dashed forward. rolled in with them. The forest paths were strewn with the dead and the dying. were buried on the field of battle. Bayonets were brought into use. The Federals marched upon the field in doublequick time.mr in ^igltt nf ^ May 1862 posted themselves in this forest and were waiting for their antagonists. as they entered its ranks. Many were placed upon cars and taken across the Chickahominy. They were met by a withering fire I 1 of field artillery and a wide It immediately filled. blue and gray. Every farmhouse became an improvised hospital where the suffering soldiers lay. trees. The now occupy without molestation the posi tions they held the previous morning. The two giants had met in their first great combat and were even now beginning to gird up their lie were compelled to loins for a desperate struggle before the capital of the Con federacy. . gap being opened in their They reached the edge of the woods and forest. It was almost a hand-to-hand combat in the heavy forest and tangled slashings. then ceased except for the intermittent reports of small arms.
PART III THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY IN MCCLELLAN S MEN DRILLING WITHIN FIVE MILES OF RICHMOND. IGNORANT OF JACKSON S MOVEMENTS FROM THE VALLEY. 1862 . SO SOON TO RESULT IN THEIR REPULSE RICHARDSON S ENTRENCHMENTS SOUTH OF FORT SUMNER JUNE.
Copyriqlit t&. Rushing down the Valley of the Shenandoah. were an insignificant damage done to the Federal cause by that dashing and fearless Confederate leader. his forces threatened to cut off and overwhelm those of General Banks. 18C2. When Richmond was threatened both by land and water in May. were the portion of both during the four weeks in which Jackson led his forces after the retreating  .gt. sometimes as long as thirty-five miles a day.Stonewall".y Review of Revie MEN JACKSON COULD AFFORD TO These two hundred Confederate soldiers captured the day after reprisal for the ". LOSE Jaek. Johnston sent Jackson to create a diversion and alarm the Federal capital. who immediately began a re treat. It became a race between the two armies down the Valley toward Winchester and Harper s Ferry. Forced marches.son s victory at Front Royal.
Then again by forced marches his men disappeared up the Valley to join Lee in teaching the overcon c dent Union administration that Richmond was not to be won without long and Banks was driven hack to the Potomac. CONFEDERATE PRISONERS CAPTURED IN THE SHENANDOAH Federals. Once more a panic spread through the North.Copyriyht by Review of Reviews Co. in all of which he came off victorious. He had held Banks in the Shenandoah Valley until McClellan s Peninsula Campaign was well advanced. But Jackson s purpose was accomplished. and both the troops of Banks and McDowell were held in the vicinity of Washington for its defense. engaging them in six actions and two battles. . Just after these prisoners were taken. But a year later the Confederacy lost this astonishing military genius. costly fighting.
Everything had been most carefully planned by the I HE brilliant strategist.  . Valley of Virginia. in November. mislead. main move of the Union army. With Banks and his forty thousand now on Virginia soil at the foot of the Valley. . At the beginning of March there were but forty-five hundred men. Jaclcnon. comprehensively as he had worked the scheme out. if by any possible maneuvering you own force on only a part. The strategic value to the Confederacy of this broad. and that the weakest part. war. ". 1861. But. and Always mystify. and Fremont s eastern gaps could be held. never fight can hurl your against heavy odds. and surprise the enemy. never let up in the pursuit so long as when you strike your men have strength to follow. for 1862.Stonewall". He then had about ten thousand men. I destroy a large one in detail. near the foot of the Valley. The other rule is. . . Jackson had taken possession of Winchester. ". never removed a vigilant eye from the Valley. and a small army may thus crush it. With the assistance of McDowell s corps. he had neglected a factor in the prob lem which was destined in the end to bring the whole campaign Jackson Stonewall to naught.THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY if possible. was to be McClellan s advance up the Peninsula toward Rich mond. This was the presence of ". of your enemy and Such tactics will win every time. in the r Along in perfect safety the northeasterly roads the gray legions could march upon the rear of Washington so long as the No wonder that the Federal au however much concerned with other problems of the thorities. shel tered avenue into Maryland and Pennsylvania w as great. The Confederate army dwindled greatly during the winter. and overcome him. he expected in all confidence to be in the Confederate capital before the spring had closed.
marches. of 1862. Indeed. under . Jackson lived much were rarely known even to his immediate subordi to first and herein lay the secret of those rank among the world s military and deadly surprises that raised him Jackson s ability and efficiency figures. his plans deep as his mastery of warfare. Few as appeared during his masterly ". JACKSON AT WINCHESTER 1862 It is the great good fortune of American hero-lovers that they can gaze here upon the features of Thomas Jonathan Jackson precisely as that brilliant Lieutenant- General of the Confederate States Campaign". whose Army silence and modesty were to himself.STONEWALL". their contempt for privations his guidance.". swift won the utter confidence of his ragged troops. nates. and their marvelous forced if put into his hands a living weapon such as no oth^r leader in the mighty conflict had ever wielded.Valley photographers dared to approach this man.
Lincoln transferred Blenker s division. He carried the ridge where the Federals w^ere posted. Kernstown \vas a Union victory. Mr. about three miles south of the former place. fifty miles south of Winchester. cut off as he was from taking part in the defense of Richmond. by more than seven hundred. These things were done at once. he led his weary men to an attack on Shields right flank about three o clock in the afternoon. and Jack son. but they were by no means the most momentous consequence of Kernstown. and they had to give way to the reserves of the contest. If McClellan ever experienced any anxiety as to affairs in the Valley. Shields hastened to his station at Winchester. At Washington audacious attack. Union army after three hours of stubborn ^ The Federal ranks were diminished by six hundred. massed his troops at Kernstown. why should the Federal com mander even think about this insignificant fragment of his foe ? But the records of war have shown that a small force. on the 23d of March. to Fremont. he resolved that. it seems to have left him now. The President began to fear that Jackson s was 5ISB goal  .at May 1862 army approaching the head. for he ordered Banks to Manassas on March 16th to cover Washington. Deceived as to the strength of his adversary. halted on the alarm was intense over Jackson s Williams division of Banks troops w^as its way to Manassas and sent back to Winchester. When Jackson heard of the withdrawal. leaving General Shields and his division of seven thousand men to hold the Valley. sometimes accomplishes more in effective results than ten times the number under a less active and able commander. but the energy of his troops was spent. The presence of Banks compelled Jackson to withdraw to Woodstock. nine thousand strong. guided by a master mind. he would do what he could to prevent any aggrandizement of McClellan s forces. yet never in history did victory the Confederate force bring such ultimate disaster upon the victors.
If he failed. JACKSON FOILED Corps of 37. Jackson. Banks. General McDowell. By the March 23d.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.000 troops might move up to Richmond from the west while McClellan was approaching from the North.000 s plan for the Peninsula Campaign of 1862. 20] . with the First Army was assigned a most important part. he had to keep up the game of holding McDowell. to though defeated. But Jackson. that of joining him before Richmond. Lincoln had men. to join McClellan in front of At the news McDowell was ordered not Richmond. fearing sufficient protection was not provided for Washington. so alarmed the Ad ministration that McDowell was ordered real remain at Manassas to protect the capital. and Fremont from reenforcing McClellan. but with his small force The reverse at Kerns- town was therefore a triumph for Jackson. on May 23d and 25th. battle of Kernstown. forcing a retreat to the Potomac. 80. reluctantly consented to the plan. in the Valley of Virginia.STONEWALL". surprised of this event [A Banks forces at Front Royal and Winchester. MCDOWELL AND MCCLELLAN TWO UNION LEADERS WHOSE PLANS In General McClellan ".
The Valley grew Banks was made to greater importance in the Federal eyes.g&. There were now four Union generals in the East oper ating independently one of the other. Therefore. The swift-acting Jackson now darted at Banks. for the city. His fortifications protected his front alone. These reenforce- ments were badly needed. Early on the afternoon of May 23d. entirely independent of McClellan and the defense of this region became his sole task. where a strong Union detachment was stationed under Colonel Kenly. and made for Front Royal. with twenty thou sand. Even that was prevented by the remarkable speed of Jackson s men.108 ] . The Confederate leader left General Ewell to watch Banks while he made a dash for Milroy and Schenck. to his great chagrin. began to threaten Johnson. Schenck and Milroy. of Fremont s corps. McClellan. the thing he had least expected and had ing made no provision for.ljimauii0alT anft tit? Alarm at Waaljittgtnu May 1862 After consulting six of his generals he became convinced that McClellan had not arranged proper protection Washington. but stole across the Massanutten Mountain un known to Banks. McDowell and his corps of thirty- seven thousand men were ordered to remain at Manassas. Banks. who had fortified himself at Strasburg. who could march as much as thirty-five [ A .gt. He fought them at McDowell on May 8th and they fled precipi tately to rejoin Fremont. Kenly and his men fled before them toward Winchester. Jackson stopped long enough to be joined by Ewell. saw his force depleted by forty-six thousand men. Ewell rushed from the forest. large number were captured by the cavalry before they had gotten more than four miles away. There was nothing to be done but retreat to Win chester. was near Harrisonburg. General Ewell with eight thousand troops on the upper Rappahannock and General Johnson with two brigades were now ordered to cooperate with Jackson. Banks at Strasburg realized that Jackson was approach from the rear. He did not attack Strasburg.
On May 24th, the Confederates overtook and miles a day. struck the receding Union flank near Newtown, inflicting three thou heavy loss and taking many prisoners. Altogether, sand of Banks men fell into Jackson s hands.
This exploit was most opportune for the Southern arms. It caused the final ruin of McClellan s hopes. Banks received one more attack from E well s division the next day as he
of the passed through Winchester on his way to the shelter Potomac. He crossed at Williamsport late the same evening and wrote the President that his losses, though serious enough,
considering the very great dis might have been far worse of forces engaged, and the long-matured plans of the parity enemy, which aimed at nothing less than entire capture of our
Mr. Lincoln now rescinded
his resolution to
Instead, he transferred twenty thou
sand of the former
Fremont and informed McClellan to have the aid of McDowell s forty
Fremont was coming from the west; Shields lay in the other direction, but Jackson was not the man to be trapped. He managed to hold Fremont while he marched his main
the Valley. At Port Republic he drove Car roll s brigade of Shields division away and took possession of a bridge which Colonel Carroll had neglected to burn.
Fremont in pursuit was defeated by Ewell at Cross Keys. Jackson immediately put his force of twelve thousand over the Shenandoah at Port Republic and burned the bridge. Safe from the immediate attack by Fremont, he fell upon Tyler and Carroll, who had not more than three thousand men be tween them. The Federals made a brave stand, but after
Jackson fighting were compelled to retreat. Swift Run Gap on the 17th of June, to assist through
turning the Union right on the Peninsula, and Banks and Shields, baffled and checkmated at every move, finally withdrew
from the Valley.
PART III THE STRUGGLE FOR RICHMOND
THE SEVEN DAYS
VIEW ON THE JAMES, THE RIVER TO WHICH McCLELLAN DECIDED TO SWING HIS BASE ON THE FIRST OF THE SEVEN DAYS, JUNE 26, 1862 NOT SIX WEEKS BEFORE, THE GUN SHOWN HAD HELPED TO REPEL THE UNION GUNBOATS THAT ENDEAVORED TO OPEN McCLELLAN s WAY TO RICHMOND
THE SEVEN DAYS BATTLES
McClellan s one hope, one purpose, was to march his army out of swamps and escape from the ceaseless Confederate assaults to a point
resistless fire of the gunboats might protect his To that end, further attack and give them a chance to rest. he retreated night and day, standing at bay now and then as the hunted
on James River where the
stag does, and fighting desperately for the poor privilege of running away. And the splendid fighting of his men was a tribute to the skill and genius with which he had created an effective army out of what he had
regiments cowering upon the banks of the Potomac, some
perfectly raw, others dispirited
by recent defeat, others going
Out of a demoralized and disorganized mass reenforced by utterly un trained civilians, McClellan had within a few months created an army
capable of stubbornly contesting every inch of ground even while effecting a retreat the very thought of which might well have disorganized an army.
George Cary Eggleston,
The History of the Confederate
front of GENERALRichmond should not degenerate into
was determined that the operations
and that the Army of Northern Virginia should no longer be on the defensive. To this end, early in the summer of 1862,
he proceeded to increase his fighting force so as to make it more nearly equal in number to that of his antagonist. Every man who could be spared from other sections of the South was called
Richmond. Numerous earthworks soon made their appear ance along the roads and in the fields about the Confederate capital, giving the city the appearance of a fortified camp.
to the troops said that the
The new commander in an address army had made its last retreat.
Meanwhile, with the spires of Richmond in view, the Army of the Potomac was acclimating itself to a Virginia summer. The whole face of the country for weeks had been a
Copyright by Review of Reviews Co.
JOHNSTON AND LEE A PHOTOGRAPH OF
These men look enough
so in arras, at
Mexico and throughout the war.
Joseph E. Johnston (on the
led the Confederate forces since Bull
Run, was wounded at Fair Oaks.
That wound gave
Robert E. Lee (on the
right) his opportunity to act as leader.
After Fair Oaks, Johnston retired from the
The new commander immediately grasped
the possibilities of the situation which confronted him.
promptness and completeness with which he blighted McClellan
federacy had found
high hopes of reaching
sifting that the
at one stroke that the
was only through much
picked military leaders that could
in the field.
that the sweltering heat of June was veritable bog. ing on, the malarious swamps were fountains of disease.
on polluted waters of the sluggish streams soon began to tell the health of the men. Malaria and typhoid were prevalent;
the hospitals were crowded, and the death rate was appalling. Such conditions were not inspiring to either general or
hoping for substantial reenforcements. McDowell, with his forty thousand men. had been promised him, but he was doomed to disappointment from that Yet in the existing state of affairs he dared not be source. South of the Chickahominy, the army was almost inactive. secure from surprise, owing to well-protected rifle-pits flanked
thickets or covered with felled trees.
the fickle stream,
Fed w as
to transfer all of his
a constant source of anxiety to the commander. He proceeded men to the Richmond side of the river,
excepting the corps of Franklin and Fitz John Porter. About the middle of June, General McCall with a force of eleven
joined the Federal
of the Chicka
hominy, bringing the entire fighting strength to about one hundred and five thousand. So long as there remained the
hope of additional soldiers, it w as impossible to with draw all of the army from the York side of the Peninsula, and it remained divided. That was a brilliant initial stroke of the Confederate gen eral when he sent his famous cavalry leader, J. E. B. Stuart, with about twelve hundred Virginia troopers, to encircle the army of McClellan. Veiling his intentions with the utmost secrecy, Stuart started June 12, 1802, in the direction of Fredr
Stonewall Jackson. ericksburg as if to reenforce night he bivouacked in the pine w^oods of Hanover.
were kindled, and when the morning dawned, his men swung upon their mounts without the customary bugle-call of Boots
Saddles." Turning to the east, he surprised and captured a Federal picket; swinging around a corner of the road, he
THE FLEET THAT FED THE ARMY
by Patriot Pub. Co.
THE ABANDONED BASE
White House, Virginia, June 27, 1862. Up the James and the Paraunkey to White House Landing came the steam and sailing vessels laden with supplies for McClellan s second attempt to reach Richmond. Tons of ammunition and thousands of rations were sent for ward from here to the army on the Chickahominy in June, 1862. A short month was enough to cause McClellan to again change his The Richmond and York Railroad was lit up by burning cars along its plans, and the army base was moved to the James River. course to the Chickahominy. Little was left to the Confederates save the charred ruins of the White House itself.
Riding all through a moonlit night. These isolated Confederates found themselves in an to the extremely perilous position. went through a cut the Confederates fired upon As it. down upon it. which was easily brushed aside. started to ford  . A the obstruction. A squadron of the Confederates moved forward to meet them. ap the station. As usual this erratic stream was overflowing its banks. hardly train bearing Union troops came thundering along. being gradually forced into the Federal main body. They but finding that it would be a long and wearisome task. completely charged surprising a company of Federal infantry stationed there. with their characteristic yell. Now. a bridge was hastily at another improvised place where the passage was made with more celerity. the raiders reached Sycamore Ford of the Chickahominy at break of day. Telegraph wires were cut and a This had been done before the shriek of a locomotive was heard. This time the Federals were about to make the charge. it. The Con federate yell rent the air and a swift. the train wounding and killing some of the Federal soldiers in the cars. put on a full head of steam and made a rush for tree felled across the track to obstruct the road.Saya lj (Htmfrforat? Capital June 1862 suddenly came upon a squadron of Union cavalry. These at once surrendered. nearly every one in the unfortunate front rank was shot or cut down. taking in the situation proaching at a glance. Some Union skirmishers in their effort to get main body of their troops swept into the advancing Confederates and carried the front ranks of the squadron with them. ready to dispute the pas sage of the road. themselves nearing the The Southern cavalrymen swept on and presently found York River Railroad McClellan s As they approached Turistall s Station they supply line. hold charge by the South ern troopers swept the foe on. Before they could extricate themselves. They had not traveled far when they came again to a force drawn up in columns of fours. The engineer.
for Jackson on the morrow. P.ELLERSOX Not until after nightfall of S MILL WHERE HILL ASSAULTED. Till 9 o clock at night they continued to pour volleys at the position. . having executed one of the flanking night marches at which he was an adept. fell upon the Federal rear at Games Mill. James after Games of stores out of the hands of the Confederates in his hasty change of base from White House to the This was the bridge of the Richmond and York River Railroad. and then at last withdrew. to render the railroad useless to the Confederates. here at Ellerson s Mill. They plunged headlong into the waters of the Pamunkey. This was the readiest means that McClellan could devise for keeping his immense quantity Mill. Hill s division cease their assaults upon this Time after time the Confederates charged over the ground we see position where General McCall s men were strongly entrenched. near Mechanicsville. The victory was of little use to the Federals. and was destroyed June 28. June 26. 1862. THE WASTE OF WAR Railroad trains loaded with tons of food and ammunition were run deliberately at full speed off the embankment shown in the left foreground. did the Confederates of General A. 1862.
at most. The authorities at Washington were frightened. a weary but happy body of cavalry. and man aged to have rumors spread of his army being in several places at the same time. dawn Lee thus obtained exact and detailed information of the position of McClellan s army. at of the following day. within strik ing distance of the Army of the Potomac. His advance guard was within four miles of the Confederate capital. would be  . Word had been despatched to Jackson in the Shenandoah of McClellan w ing r s to bring his troops to fall army. McClellan w as r M Seven days before surprised but he was not unprepared.nm\ Says JlllR lj? (Cnufrforair (Eapttal 1862 on the south bank of the river. On the very day he heard of Jackson s arrival at Ashland. the troopers dropped from their saddles. north of the Chickahominy. and his fond that within a few days. His strong fortifications were r bristling upon every vantage point. haste was made for the con fines of Richmond. The ruse proved eminently suc cessful. He was planning for an army mond of nearly one hundred thousand and he now demonstrated his ability as a strategist. which w ould r now prove useful if he were driven south of the . McClellan was pushing his men forward to begin his siege of Richmond that variety of warfare which his engineering soul loved so w ell. which the Army of the Potomac was famous. were steadily increasing. and he laid out his campaign Meanwhile his own forces in and about Rich accordingly. Jackson now began a hide-and-seek game among the mountains. where. his efficient hope was for artillery. and McClellan received no more reenforcements. he had arranged for a new base of supplies on the James. while skilfully veiling his actual movements. It was not until the 2oth of June that McClellan had definite knowledge of Jackson s whereabouts. Chickahominy. He was then eral located at Ashland. At the same time upon the right Lee sent Gen Whiting north to make a feint of joining Jackson and moving upon Washington.
Mechanicsvilie Bridge (shown in this photograph) since 8 A. P. to observe the Meadow and Mechanicsville bridges over the Chickahominy which had only partially been destroyed. Co. . that members of the staff were invariably made regimental commanders.THE BRIDGE THAT STOOD McCall was stationed by McClellan on June 19. force under General The DOING DOUBLE DUTY Here are some s staff Copyright by Patriot Pub. P. On the afternoon of June 26th. McClellan s staff-officers during the strenuous period of the Seven Days Battles. driving the Union skirmish-line back to Beaver Dam Creek. 1862. Hill crossed at Meadow The divisions of D. They passed over in time to bear a decisive part in the Confederate attack at Games Mill on the 27th.M. Hill and Longstreet had been waiting at Bridge. for A. and frequently were compelled to divide their time of has perience between leading their troops into action and reporting to and consulting with their superior. general There were so few regular officers of ripe ex power of the leader. Without them he could not direct the movements of his army. Hill to open the way for them to cross. One commonly supposes that a But it is their duty to multiply the eyes and ears and thinking little to do but wear gold lace and transmit orders. General A. H.
the thicket to see what was on soldiers pressed through the other side and met the Con federate pickets drove them back. in the ". This passage of arms. June 26th. upon whose left bank was a cealed A commanding the valley to the west. full of ponds and marshes. Defensive preparations had been made on an extensive scale. The following day. Field works. among with The advancing column into the open. to an attack from the front. The Union the trees. now well defended. which continued from eight in the morning until five in the afternoon. well manned. The Federals north of the Chickahominy were under the direct command of General Fitz John Porter. had been set by General Stonewall Jackson as the date on which he would join Lee. was almost impregnable steep bluff. To reach these some of the regiments had  / . end the Union forces occupied the former position of their antagonists. The extreme right of the Union line lay near Mechanicsville on the upper Chickahominy. vines. tributary of this stream from the north was Beaver Dam Creek. At once they were met with a steady and incessant fire. This naturally strong position. and rifle-pits. and ragged This strip of woodland bushes. At times the contest almost reached the magnitude of a battle. was less than five hundred yards wide. covered the roads and open fields and were often con by timber from the eye of the opposing army. and together they would fall upon the right wing of the Army of the Potomac. and redoubts. the Federal Upon emerging rifle-pits. heavily armed with artillery. near Fair Oaks. sometimes called the affair of Oak Grove or the Second Battle of Fair Oaks. Before sunrise of the appointed day the Confederate forces were at the Chickahominy bridges. Beyond it was an open field half a mile in width. awaiting the ar rival of Jackson. and ". was city.iay0 (Capital * belching forth its sheets of fire and lead into the beleagured In front of the Union encampment. was the prelude to the Seven Days Battles. a thick entanglement of scrubby pines. troops found it filled earthworks.
was engaged on the field of Games army of Lee. LOWER BRIDGE ON THE CHICKAHOMINY Woodbury early in s Bridge on the Chickahominy. under General Fitz John Porter. June. for their across the Chickahominy. Woodbury s engineers suspect. Little did General D. 1862. as a means of communication between the divided wings of McClellan army on the Chickahominy that it would be of incalculable service during battle. across this bridge the division of General Slocum marched from its position in the trenches Richmond on the south bank of the river to the support of Porter s men. Co. perhaps. Mill against almost the entire in front of When the right wing. F. s when they built this bridge. The battle lasted until nightfall and then the Federal troops moved across this bridge and rejoined the main all forces of the Federal army.THE RETROGRADE CROSSING Copyright by Patriot Pub. the most serviceable. but among them the bridge named Woodbury s engineers built several bridges commander proved to be. .
From in They were range of the Federal batteries.lays Stye Glonfrtorat? (Eapttal June 1862 marched the greater part of the night. Twilight fell upon the warring troops and there were no signs of a ces sation of the unequal combat. growing impatient. decided to put his troops in motion. As the approaching columns reached the stream to fire at the they turned with the road that ran parallel to the bank. Driving the Union outposts to cover. The hillside was soon covered with the victims of the gallant charge. in full view of the defenders of the cliff. and at Mechanicsville was joined by the commands of Longstreet and D. Volley after volley of musketry was poured into the flanks of the marching Southerners.  . derous fire from the batteries on the cliff poured into their ranks. At three o clock. west bank came close to the borders of r w as across the open fields. and still from the the lurid flames burst in a heights display of glorious pyro technics. The Forty-fourth Georgia regiment suffered most in the fight. he marched his men along the north side of the Chickahominy. every waiting field-piece the shells came screaming through the air. Every artilleryman was at his post ready word. the soldiers were in the rifle-pits sighting along the glittering barrels of their muskets with fingers on the triggers. Xoon passed and Jackson had not arrived. Later in the afternoon relief attempted where the slope of the the little to force the sent to Hill. Gallantly the attacking columns withstood the deluge of leaden hail and drew near the creek. Gen eral A. few of the more aggressive reached the opposite bank but their repulse was Hill. the Confederates mur swept across the low approach to Beaver Dam Creek. Crossing at Meadow Bridge. Hill. P. It was nine o clock when Hill finally drew back his From shattered regiments. The morning hours came and went. to await the coming of the morning. fire stream. A A severe. the Confederates moved down the slope. who again Union position at Ellerson s Mill. but the was reserved. Night fell. H. For once Jackson was behind time.
and was as many times repulsed in his attempt to seize the supplies which McClellan was shifting to his new position.Copyright by Patriot Pub. THE FIGHT FOR THE WAGON TRAINS Three times General Magruder led the Confederates against this position on June 29. to avoid being cut off. The corps of Sumner and Heintzelman are camped in the background. same day. along which the Federal wagon trains were attempting to move toward Savage s Station. were inarching swiftly and silently toward Savage s Station. Allen s farmhouse in the foreground stands just back from the Williamsburg Road. the camp was hastily broken and the troops. Co. leaving behind large quantities of supplies which fell into the hands of the eager Confederates. 1862. At dusk of the after Magruder s attacks. [A 21] . Here we see the peaceful morning of that day.
Both armies now prepared another day and a renewal of the conflict. was directed to fall back to the bridges across the Chickahominy near Gaines Mill and there make a stand. were trans ferred by way of the York and the James to Harrison s Land ing on the latter river. The transports were loaded with all the material they could carry. position. Creek convinced McClellan really approaching with a large force. were then run rest The into the river. and he decided to begin his change of base from the Pamunkey to the James. but regiment were all for among those who had fallen. in cars. loaded wagons and many siege-guns had to be transported. to prevent Jackson s fresh troops from interrupting this great movement. McCall s Federal division. for it involved marching an army of a hundred thousand men. nearly three thousand cattle on the hoof had to be driven. Just before daylight the oper ation of removing the troops began.Saga three hundred lp (Enttfrforate (Eapiial and thirty-five being the dreadful toll. for the purpose of holding the Confederate army. The action at Beaver Dam that Jackson was A From White House the supplies could be shipped by the York Thence to the River Railroad as far as Savage s Station. they had to be carried overland along a road intersected by many others from which a watchful opponent might easily attack. a distance of seventeen miles. at Creek. leaving Porter and the Fifth Corps still on the left bank of the Chickahominy. a gigantic undertaking. General Casey s troops. including cavalry and artillery. Dam During the night the wagon trains and heavy guns were quietly moved across the river. These cars. James. guarding the supplies at White House. On Beaver the night of June 26th. It \vas. The Confederates were [ 324 ] . in dead paid for its efforts to break down the Union and wounded. was burned. Dropping back to the rear this ill-fated its officers attempted to re-form its broken ranks. or put with locomotives attached. indeed. train of five thousand heavily across the marshy peninsula.
Instead of to a haven of refuge. men were being railroaded toward the field of must of necessity be left by Copyright by Patriot Pub. The rear guard of the Army ties as to protect the of the movement.A VAIN RIDE TO SAFETY During the retreat after Games Mill. secondary to the necessity of holding the position. 29. THE STAND AT SAVAGE S STATION Here we see part of the encampment to hold which the Magruder and the Confederates fell upon them. where they s Station. McClellan its s army was straining every nerve to extricate itself and present a strong front to Lee before he could strike a telling blow at untenable position. fall Their hopes of relief from their suffering were to be Lee was about to upon the Federal rear guard at Savage carnage. Wagon trains were struggling across the almost impassable White Oak Swamp. We see the camp near the railroad with the passing wagon trains in the lower picture. and Franklin fought valiantly when River Railroad. Thither on flat cars were sent the Potomac had hastily provided such field hospital facili they could. on The and had to be left managed to hold their ground till nightfall. They turned its deadly fire upon the defenders. when hundreds alone with their wounded comrades who had arrived on the flat cars. Co. steadily Along the Richmond & York the Confederates rolled a heavy rifled gun. But attention to these wounded men was. Smith. of their bravest soldiers lay the field . these their retreating companions. June divisions of Richardson. while the troops were striving to hold Savage s Station wounded as we see them in the picture. perforce. 1862. Sedgwick. Federals fought fiercely and mounted on car-wheels. blighted. seen in the picture.
out of which barriers protected with rails and knapsacks were erected. on June 27th. and shell. united to those of Longstreet and the two Hills. Porter had learned from deserters and others that Jack son s forces. and beyond this a wood densely tan gled with undergrowth. but the Union forces. were advancing with grim determination to annihilate the Army of the Potomac. but his columns moved rapidly toward the Union front.1 new position on the Chick- ahominy as the heights. He was unsupported by the other divisions. through which Powhite Creek meandered sluggishly. It artillery. but twentysix guns threw a hail-storm of lead into his ranks. The morning men it of new position. for about the same This march of five miles was a on the retreating columns. when General A. He had less than eighteen thousand men to oppose the fifty thousand Confederates. but was two o clock. canister. To protect the Federals. only a small part of it Porter had considerable could be used.  The heavy cloud of battle . of this creek. the infantry sent messages of death to the approaching lines of gray. ably and skilfully handled. P. continuous skirmish.It? (Ennfrtorate Glaptial June 1862 time they opened a heavy fire equally alert. The assault was terrific. in the arc of a circle curving outward in the The land beyond the direction of the approaching army. succeeded in reaching their I . new day was becoming hot and sultry the Fifth Corps made ready for action in their The selection of this ground had been well of the / occupied a series of heights fronted on the west by The battle-lines followed the course a sickle-shaped stream. made. which had not yet arrived. The Confederate front recoiled from the incessant out pour of grape. Under the cover of this magnificent execution of artillery. Hill swung his division into line for the attack. creek was an open country. trees had been felled along a small portion of their front. Around the Union position were also many patches of wooded land affording cover for the troops and screening the reserves from view.
twenty-five hundred sick and wounded men and their medical attendants became prisoners of war. The next day they disappeared. The photograph was taken just before Sumner and Franklin withdrew the rear-guard of their columns on the morning of June 30th. and when the Confederates occupied Savage s Station on the morning of June 30th. A GRIM CAPTURE The Second and Sixth Corps of the Federal Army repelled a desperate attack of General Magruder at Sav Station on June 29th.Copyright by Patriot Pub. and most of these men were confronted on that day with the prospect of lingering for months in the military prisons of the South. The Confederate hospital facil were already taxed to their full capacity in caring for Lee s wounded. who have been gathered from the field. Co. Nothing but the strict arrest of the stern sergeant Death can save these men from capture. plunging into the depths of White Oak Swamp. . doing what they could to relieve the sufferings of the men that had to be abandoned. age leaving only the brave medical officers behind. Here we see them at work upon the wounded. The brave soldiers lying helpless here were wounded at Games Mill on June 27th and removed to the great ities field-hospital established at Savage s Station.
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with the wing of Not had they death hovering over hill into the Federal all. one hundred and fifty yards from the Union depleted files. or the Chickahominy. The Army of the Potomac was once more united. r Hill were ordered to recross the Chickahominy by the New Bridge and Huger and Magruder were sent in hot pursuit of the Federal forces. in his shirt sleeves. The battle of Games Mill. was over. It was the brave Sumner who covered the  . pushing through the stragglers at the river bank were seen the brigades of French and Meagher. detached from Sumner s r Now a great . When Lee came to the banks of the little river the next morning he found his opponent had crossed over and destroyed the bridges. He still believed that the Federal general would retreat down the Peninsula. The twilight w-as closing in and the day was all but lost to the Army of the Potomac. coming to the rescue. and hesitated therefore to cross the Chicka hominy and give up the command of the lower bridges.Saga li? (Ennfrfarat? (Eaptial June 1862 reached the crest of a small ridge. But now on the 29th the signs of the movement to the James were unmistakable. amid the sulphurous atmosphere of battle. and the retreat was threaten ing to develop into a general rout. General Meagher. It was falling back toward the Chickahominy bridges. corps. P. line. w as leading his men up the bluff and confronted the Confederate battle line. the batteries in front and on the flank sent a storm of shell and canister plowing into their I their already They quickened pace as they passed a shot down fired and the slope and across the creek. had been pierced and \vas giving way. During the day the Federal wagon trains were safely passed over White Oak Swamp and then moved on toward the James River. This put a stop to the pursuit and as night was at hand the Southern soldiers withdrew. they fixed bayonets and dashed up the line. Early on that morning Longstreet and A. With a shout they plunged through The Union line the felled timber and over the breastworks. shout w as heard from the direction of the bridge and. Lee did not at first divine McClellan s intention.
PHOTOGRAPHED THE MONTH AFTER THE SEVEN DAYS BATTLES COLONEL JAMES H. COLBURN. COLONEL D.THREE GROUPS OF McCLELLAN S FIGHTING OFFICERS MAJOR MEYERS AND LIEUTENANTS STRYKER AND NORTON. RESERVES Copyright by Patriot Pub. V. AND GENERAL JOHN SEDGVVICK Copyriyht by Patriot Pub. 10TH PENN. B. Co. COLONEL A. FOURTH PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY . Co. SACKETT. CHILDS AND OFFICERS.
but the Union troops were there to prevent it. and nearly eight hundred brave men had fallen in this Sabbath evening s battle. was pushed into position and opened fire upon the Union forces. mounted on a railroad car and called the Land heavy gun Merrimac. The Southern field". he had halted his men at what is known as the Peach Orchard. and as he stood in the open field near Savage s Station he looked out over the plain and saw with satisfaction the last of the ambulances and wagons mak ing their way toward the new haven on the James. The Confederates were pursuing McClellan s army in two columns.Sags Gkpttal march of the retreating army. Both ". and from nine o clock till eleven had resisted a spirited fire of musketry and artillery. at high noon. The battle began with a fine play of artillery. The army of blue remained motionless. The charge was met with vigor and soon the battle raged over the entire field. On his way from Fair Oaks.". which he left at daylight. For an hour not a musket was fired. And now as the grim warrior. on this Sunday afternoon in June. It was raised by the troops of General Magruder who was pressing close behind the Army of the Potomac.". Then the mass of gray moved across the field and from the Union guns the long tongues of flame darted into the ranks before them. In the morning of that same day he had already held at bay the forces of Magruder at Allen s Farm. On the last day of June. Jackson reached the the bridge was gone. But He desperate being  . While Jackson was trying to force his way across the stream. consisting of a guns were placed in position. Jackson closely following Sumner. while Lorigstreet was trying to cut off the Union forces by a flank movement. there came to him the sound of a battle White Oak Swamp. turned his eyes toward the Chickahominy he saw a great cloud of dust rising on the horizon. A sides stood their ground till darkness again closed the contest. Before midnight Sumner had withdrawn his men and was following after the wagon trains. contrivance. attempted to ford the passage.
Prince John". Co. Fitz John Porter s Fifth Corps and terrific Couch s division. brigade of the Fifth Corps was early called into action. It told them the Confederates had not yet pre was holding. Glad indeed were the men of the Army of the Potomac as they emerged from their perilous White Oak Swamp to hear the firing of the gunboats on the James. and its commander.eta HEROES OF MALVERN HILL Brigadier-General J. Before the battle opened McClellan empted the occupation of Malvern Hill. won the brevet of Major-Genernl. Magruder hurled column after column against the Martindale s left of the Federal but every charge was met and repulsed through the long hot summer afternoon. The gunboats silenced one of the Confederate batteries. attacks of Lee s combined line. THE NAVY LENDS A HAND Officers of the Monitor at Malvern Hill. H. the gallant fighting of his troops. July 1. Fourth Corps. 1862. Martindale (seated) and his staff. and Fiery ". Copyright by Patriot Pub. by. supported the flanks of the army during the battle and are said to have march across . bore the brunt of battle at Malvern Hill where the troops of McClellan withstood the superior forces. which General Fitz John Porter s Corps of the fleet went aboard the Galena to consult with Commodore John Rodgers about a suitable base on the James.
the hiss of the bullet. but he was powerless to give aid. the death-cry. They hammered here. could check their impetuous charge.(Capital fought not more than two miles away. yet the There are the fighting continues with unabated ferocity. the thud of the shouts of command. charged men had across the open field in the face of the Union batteries. there. by Gen Again and again attacks were made. guarding the right flank of the retreat. rushing out from behind a dense wood. asking and giving no quarter and struggling like so many tigers. the flashes of fire streaking through the air. to run a distance of six hundred yards. The Eleventh Alabama. Each brigade seemed to act on its own behalf. the yells of defiance. some in blue and some in gray. while volley after volley of musketry sent its death-dealing messages among the Southerners. of While Lee and his army were held in check by the events June 30th at White Oak Swamp and the other battle at  . the sulphurous smoke. The batteries let loose grape and canister. near the intersection of the Charles It was City road. trail ing their guns. and the fury of the battle. but on they came. Hill had come upon the Federal regiments at Glendale. led pulsed at one place they charged at another. the parry. But nothing except death v/. The contending masses rush to gether. Pausing for an instant they deliver a volley to seize the guns. about half-past two. When two hundred yards away they raised the Confederate yell and rushed for itself Randol battery. Longstreet and A. heavy The and A destructive fire poured into their lines. and beneath all lie the bodies of America s sons. Darkness is closing on the fearful scene. the thrust. and everywhere. made one of his charac Longstreet who. the spouting blood. Re teristic eral McCall. Bayonets are crossed and in a s and attempt men engage hand-to-hand struggle. P. the clash clubbed musket. onslaughts on that part of the Union It was repulsed with heavy army loss.
had changed the position his of his wondering what would be the next step. shifting Below we see the base from the the James. Pamunkey position Hill to mansion as which did The he service General Porter s held on Malvern after was headquarters. Co. In about a month. losses the Seven Days he was made down the the Major-General of Volunteers. 1802. and the army recuperated. historic army twice. McClellan was the here selected. friend.Again we see the transports Seven Days up delay. one of McClellan ers. s abandoned of the victory the most For efficient command July 1. il! lillllillliiME. HARRISON S LANDING . where heavy of McClellan was his lifelong men and supplies during the THE SECOND ARMY BASE Copyright by Patriot Pub. could be made and and supply schooners chor this at an s without danger s time at Harrison Harrison point Landing Landing on the James River. to a and his services during army marched farther new base James. 3 nlilliilii WESTOVER HOUSE: HEADQUARTERS OF GENERAL FITZ JOHN PORTER.
a mile and a half long and half as broad. cheer. for the Confederate columns. His army surrounded this \ hill. IT. Surmounting seven of his heaviest siege-guns. its left flank being protected by the gunboats on the river. for Hill made his attack alone. were close on his trail. bordered a thick forest. was given. It was gallantly done.aga Glendale or Nelson s (Hapttal June 1862 Farm. Late in the afternoon General s massed upon Malvern Hill. The morning and early afternoon were occupied with many Confederate attacks. sometimes formidable in their na ture. they All during the evening. a yell. but no army could have withstood the galling fire of the batteries of the were Army of the Potomac as brigade. the country over which the Confederate commanded a view of army must approach. led by Longstreet. advance when the signal. Malvern Hill. The gunners . They found the Potomac admirably situated to give defensive Army battle. a plateau. Xo other general seems to have heard it. The contest had hardly closed and the smoke had scarcely lifted from the blood-soaked field. but Lee planned for no general move until he could bring up a force that he considered sufficient to attack the The Confederate orders were to strong Federal position. the last of the wagon trains had arrived safely at Malvern Hill. General by Along Mc Clellan had placed tier after tier of batteries. with its top almost bare of woods. on the falling abruptly north and east is a gentle slope to the plain beneath. or shout from the men of Armistead D. Around the summit of the hill. the western face of this plateau there are deep ravines in the direction of the James River. and a march of a few miles of the brought them to the Union outposts. By noon on July 1st the last division reached the position where McClellan decided to turn again upon his assailants. Hill heard some followed by a roar of shouting. when the Union forces were again in motion toward the James. brigade after brigade tried to force the  Union lines. arranged like an these on the crest were massed amphitheater. He had not long to wait. musketry.
Such were the tasks that constantly fell to the lot of the despatch bearer. a favorite Aicle-de-Camp of General McClellan soldier of the It s. Only the coolest headed of the officers could be trusted with this vital work in the field. Co. was he who was sent galloping across the difficult and dangerous country to make sure that Franklin s division was retreating from White Oak Swamp. Here is the bold Green Mountain State who bore despatches about the fields of battle during the Seven Days. . keep the movements of The loss of his life might mean the loss of a battle. perilous chances confronted him in his widely separated divisions in concert with the plans of the commander. -Colonel Albert V. ON DARING DUTY Lieut. and then to carry orders to Sumner to fall back on Malvern Hill. Necessarily a man of quick efforts to and accurate judgment.Copyright by Patriot Pub. Colburn. the failure to arrive in the nick of time with despatches might mean disaster for the army.
The batteries on the heights still hurled their missiles ern soldiers rushed up mowed down. and great limbs were torn through from the trees as they hurtled falling. dis Night was The combatants were no longer tinguishable except by the sheets of flame. orders were issued by General Halleck for the withdrawal of the Army of the Potomac from the Peninsula. sought Landing. saw The Union army had retreated in only deserted ramparts. The The field below was covered with the dead and wounded of the Southland. its But this its time no foe harassed new camp at Harrison s Unmolested. Column after column of South to the death-dealing cannon. only to be thinned and ragged lines. and only an occasional shot rang out over the bloody field of Malvern Hill. The gunboats in the river made the battle scene more aweof death. the darkness of the night. march. The Confeder ates were not able to make concerted efforts. where it remained until August 3d. It was nine o clock before the guns ceased their fire. Although thankful that the siege of 338] The net . looking up the next day through the drenching rain to where had stood the embrasured wall with its grim batteries and lines of blue. but to no avail. it military result of the Seven Days was a disap pointment to the South. rallied again and again to the charge. They were forced to breast one of the most devastating storms of lead and canister to which an assaulting army has ever been subjected. with a valor born of desperation. The courageous though defeated Confederate. by in their outburst of fury. shells shrieked Their heavy inspiring with their thunderous cannonading. when. that spoke death to so many of his companions-in-arms. but the battle waxed hot nevertheless. as Presi dent Lincoln had been convinced of the impracticability of operating from the James River as a base. The round shot and grape cut through the branches of the trees and the battle-field was soon in a cloud of smoke.lays Sit? (Eanfrforat? (Eapital Juno 1862 stood coolly and manfully by their batteries. the forest.
Copyright by Patriot Pub. the forces of A. Frank safe. Battery arrived to his support. Colonel This intrepid officer of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry held the Federal Averell and Staff. Co. he extended the truce for another two hours. P. Hill and Longstreet from his view. . with only a small guard. while McClellan com position It was his duty to watch the movements of pleted the withdrawal of his army to Harrison s Landing. Later. on Malvern Hill on the morning of July 2. W. with an increased s show of unwillingness. he kept up a great activity with his cavalry horses. 1862. AVERELL THE COLONEL WHO BLUFFED AN ARMY. with the news it that the Army of the Potomac was Colonel Averell rejoined without the loss of a man. He had not resist attack. A the Confederates dense fog in the early morning shut a single fieldpiece with which to off W. and hold them back from any attempt to fall upon the retreating trains and troops. Just before they expired. When the mist cleared away. With ap parent reluctance he agreed to a truce of two hours in which the Confederates might bury the dead they left on the hillside the day before. making the Confederates believe that artillery was being brought up.
". Richmond had been ". for it now had an absolutely secure and unassailable base of operations. army. destroyed. within easy There was no knowing at striking distance of Richmond. army would at this time have been a more serious menace than ever to the Confederate capital. but regret that more was not accomplished gives way to gratitude to the Sov ereign Ruler of the Universe for the results achieved. That what moment McClellan might hurl it again upon Richmond the Petersburg or upon that commanding key to Richmond In the hands of a capable commander McClellan s position. how strong and compact a fighting force had been forged from the raw militia and volunteers of the North. On such a field as Chancellorsville was to be shown the brilliancy of Lee as leader. on the other hand. and strengthened rather than weakened superbly equipped. Prominent among these formation. while its fighting quality had been improved rather than impaired by its seven days of battling.ays Gilt? (Emtfrtorate (Capital $ June 1862 raised. and his skilful maneuvers leading to the invasion of the North. General Lee s own official comment on the military prob ". Eggleston states.". in morale. is the want of correct and timely in This fact.". And the succeeding volume will tell. lay securely at rest on the James River. attributable chiefly to the character of the country. lem involved and the difficulties encountered was: Under ordinary circumstances the Federal army should have been Its escape was due to the causes already stated. the Southern public believed that should not have been allowed to reach the James McClellan River with his army intact. Whatever the outcome of the Seven Days Battle another year was to demonstrate beyond question that the wounding of General Johnston at Fair Oaks had left the Confederate army with an even abler commander. splendidly organized. ". enabled General McClellan skilfully to conceal his retreat and to add much to the obstructions with which nature had beset the way of our pursuing columns.  L .
OFFICERS OF THE THIRD PENNSYLVANIA CAVALRY AFTER THE SEVEN DAYS Within a week of the occupation of Harrison s Landing. His scouting expeditions extended in the direction of Richmond and the it deemed up Chickahominy. and General Averell reported on July llth that there were no Southern troops south of the lower Chickahominy. Rest was what both armies needed most. General Lee saw that his opponent was flanked on each side by a creek and that approach to his front was commanded by the guns in the entrenchments and those of the Federal in the river. especially as his troops were in poor condition owing to the incessant marching and fighting of the Seven Days. VIRGINIA. JULY. McClellan s position had become so strong that the Federal commander no longer anticipated an attack by the Confederate forces. Lee there navy fore inexpedient to attack. The Third and Fourth Pennsylvania cavalry made a reconnaisance to Charles City Court House and beyond. Co. CHARLES CITY COURT HOUSE. and on July 8th the Confederate forces returned to the vicinity of Richmond. 1862 . McClellan scoured the country before he was satisfied of the Confederate withdrawal. Copyright by Patriot Pub.
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IH1LDING WINTER QUARTERS .
VI ENGAGEMENTS OF THE CIVIL WAR .
seized Mo. 36 wounded. and S. Losses Union 1 killed. Losses: Union 4 killed. C. Infantry captured at San Antonio. MAY. Mo. by U. 1861. President Montgom MARCH. S. 1861. Confed. with citizens of St. Citizens of Baltimore. Georgia seceded. Ordinance of Secession South Carolina. DECEMBER. ". 13. S. Riots in Baltimore. adopted 1861. 1862 summary and CHRONOLOGICAL important engagements armies. Va. 4. 23. Reserves. showing troops participating. S. Losses: Union 1 killed.. Alabama seceded. and 1th Mo. U. 24.. Fort Art. 3d Mo. 1. losses and casualties. Baltimoreans. Confederate States of America organized at pro visionally Ala. 11.. in the Civil record of historical events. C. Louis. Louis. Evacuation of Fort Sumter. Alexandria. Elmer Ellsworth. Louisiana seceded. E. Collision of Union 5th Mo. Camp 17. S. by a company of or 27 20. occupied by Mo. Virginia adopted the ordinance of se cession. Kilmer from the official records of the Union and Confederate armies filed in the United in War Department. S. Tex. Y. Citizens 19. 10. 18. also some con cerning which statistics. killed by a civilian while removing a Southern flag from the roof of the ganized citizen volunteers. Florida seceded. Abraham Lincoln inaugurated President of the United States at Washington. collated and compiled by George L. 9. C. Minor engagements are omitted. JANUARY. 4. Mississippi seceded. 20. 19. Vols. by Texas seceded. killed. llth N. 1860 CIVIL WAR WITH LOSSES ON BOTH SIDES AUGUST. Arkansas seceded. 27th Pa. Citizens. and of between the Union and the Confederate the United States. ". Co. Sumter. Jefferson Davis inaugurated of the Confederate States at ery. are not available. Steamer Star of the West fired in Charleston harbor by South Carolina troops.. 11 St.ENGAGEMENTS OF THE DECEMBER. No : 10. militiamen taken prisoners. 3d. 12 1861. S. States War PRELIMINARY EVENTS FROM THE SECESSION OE SOUTH CAROLINA TO THE BOMBARDMENT OE FORT SUMTER. 26. 9- upon U. 1861. Montgomery. U. 1860. especially Confederate.. 6. Md. North Carolina seceded. APRIL. . 639 Jackson. by Union 1st.. Bombardment Union 1st of S. Reserve Corps. 5 wounded by premature explosion of cannon in firing a salute to the United States flag. Union 6th Mass. Art. Col. Jefferson Davis elected provisional Pres ident of the Confederate States of Amer ica. Ala. militia. subject to popular vote. Vols. casualties. 12 killed.  Marshall House. 14. FEBRUARY. A 8th U.
of April Attempts to seize the fort by Con federates gathered in force for the purpose the entrance to were held off only by Pensacola Bay. Copyright by Reriew of Rerincx Co. were we see one of menacing the the powerful Confed erate batteries at Fort Slemmer discov ered a plot to betray the fort into the hands of a McRee. picture throughout In the lower A large force of Con con federates stantly fort. to take failed in All the efforts Pickens by Lieutenant A. the timely arrival of Never was a position ly held perilous gunboats with reen- more gallant forcements from the than was Fort North. guard ing on the night llth. which Pickens fired on from across thousand of them the channel. Federals the war. Fort Pickens it Slemmer and garrison his and remained little from the hands of the January to May. 1861.THE THREATENED FORT Fort Pickens. 1861. . J.
1 wounded. 12th. killed. Detach ment of 2d U. Light Artil. 18. Artil.. Losses: Union 2 killed. Confed. Va. Union. Battery. : . 2d and 3d Mich. 71st.. Union.. W. 3d and 5th Mo. Haynesville or Martinsburg. Union. Detachments 1st. McClellan s command. S. 15 Fulton. Bull Run or Manassas. 3d. Mo. 14th Ohio. Battery. Confed. Losses: Union 1 4 killed.. also Falling called Waters. Union. H. 45 prisoners. Losses: Union 1 Martinsburg. B 2d U. Losses: Union 6 wounded. 20 killed. Confed. Confed. Battery E 3d U. Troop. and Pa. Confed. 5th. Confed.. Md. 7 killed. Confed. 34 wounded. 6 13 Confed. Va. R. 38 wounded. 38th. and 3d 27. or Wentzville.... 17th. (three Volunteers. 1st Mass. W. Gunboats Pawnee and Freeborn. I 7 Confed. Va. 8th. W. 1 10 wounded. Losses: Union 13 killed. Vols. Station.. B. 27th. 10. Losses: Union 1 killed. Batteries D. S. Stanard s Va. 8 Carrick s Ford. 3. Losses: Union 19 killed. Confed. 75 prisoners. 12 killed. 1st. Losses Union 2 Confed. Confed... 14 wounded. Confed. Y. No M.. I killed. C. Fairfax C. Confed. Union. 5 Mo. Va. 25th Va. JULY. Battalion. Va. E. Losses: Union 11 killed. H. 100 Union killed.. 2d Mo. Union... 19th Ohio.. Va. killed. I. W. Union. Md. 4th. Artil. 31 wounded. Va. 31 killed. Militia. prisoners. Union. Losses: Union 3 Randolph s and Cavalry.. 1st. Va. -Newport Xews. 1st W. Great Falls. 53 wounded. 17. 12th N. 21 5 Carthage or Dry Forks. Union... Laurel Hill or Bealington. Totten s Battery Mo. C. 1st Pa. Va. Cav. 50 prisoners. 2d.. Y. 1 wounded. Losses Union 13 killed. Losses: Union 1 killed. 13th. 15 killed. Gen. Md. Artil. One Co. 15 killed. 2d Wis. Gen. 35th. Losses: Union 1 16. S. 10 wounded. and 39th N.. Va. 24th Va. Union. 1. Garnett killed. Losses: Union wounded. Monroe killed. E. Union 1 killed. one battery of Mo. 4 wounded. Confed. 7 killed. C. 6 wounded. and 13th Ind.  . Vols. State Guard. Losses: Union 3 fed. and 7th N. Losses: Union 1 killed. 69th. 7. Vols.. 30 killed. 7 killed. S. ConMo. C. 27th La. Confed. Union 7 killed. 31st. Rich Mountain. 11. Losses: Union 8 killed.. 38 wounded. Lee s command. 1st X. Va. months killed. Mo. C. Cav. 6 Booneville. 3d Ohio. 50 wounded. 1 Co. Va. Va. 13th Miss. 1st.. 20 wounded. llth. Union.. Confed. Vols. Confed. 35 wounded. Vols.. Confed. Co.. 1 Mo. and 5th Mass. 8th. Detachment of 2d U. Collins * and 3d Mich. 2d Me. Confed.. Losses: wounded. Vols. Gen. 2 wounded. 6 wounded. 10. Pegram s command. killed. llth. 9th Ind.. Regulars. Patterson Creek or Kelley s Island. Confed. 9th N.. Militia. Confed. killed... Infantry Losses: Union 16 killed. 29th. ed (*). and 79th N. Va. Gen. Millsville wounded... wounded. Mo. Va. 8th. Geo.. Edwards Ferry. 15 wounded. llth Ind.. Romney. W. Va.. Mathias Point. Confed. 2d. Va. (*). Confed. wounded. Vols. 1st and 2d R. 2d. 2 Vienna.. Philippi. W. Blackburn s Ford. 2d. 6. Union. Union. W. Confed. 14th and l6th Ohio. Scarey Creek. 1st. 4 wounded. Union. Confed. 16th. Confed.. Losses: Union 2 killed. 7th La. 4th Mass. Va. Va. Mo. 1861. wounded. : : Middle Creek Fork or Buckhannon. Va. Y. ) wounded. Detachments of 2d. 1861. 14th.. wounded. 3d. 10th. llth Ind. 32d. Va. 5th. Big Bethel. Confed. 26. Conn. Confed. Va. killed. Union. wound 10 Union. Losses: Union 9 killed. Va. Confed. and 8th U. 1st and 2d Minn. 4 killed. Md. llth Pa. 1st and 2d Ohio. 1st S. Confed. 1 wounded. 7th. 2d record found. 13. 2 killed. ify? (Ettril Cav. S. 7th S.. 15 killed. Mo. 125 wounded.. R. 40 wounded. Va. 60 killed. 7th and 9th Ind. Union. wounded. 2. Crescent Rifles. Battalion of Marines. 2d Vt. 17.Engagement* 0f JUNE. Confed. 2d. Y. Y. Union.. 20th Va. 1st Wis. 3d. 1st. 1 Losses: Confed. 2d N. 18th. S. Confed. llth N.. 1 1st Ohio. Jno. G. Losses Confed.
North and South. first He played the part of little a true soldier. The flag and hundreds were to be sacrificed ere the echoes of the great guns died away at the end of four years into the sobs of a nation whose best and bravest. 1861. No wonder that the attention of the civil ized world was focussed on the man who provoked the first blow in the great est conflict the world has ever known. To him the North looked to preserve the flag. had strewn the many battlefields. and two days after the shot was fired he led his gar rison of the First United States Artillery out of Sumter with the honors of war. of the first gun from Fort Johnson Harbor had been notified the breathless. waiting world that of thousands of lives war was on. He was the man who handled the situation at the breaking point. Federal property in Charleston Harbor. At half-past four the following in Charleston morning the boom fired on. . to surrender Fort Sumter and the property of the government whose uniform he wore. and the honor of the National The action of the South depended upon his decision.MAJOR ROBERT ANDERSON AND FAMILY This Federal major of artillery was summoned on April 11.
Mo. Union. Mo.. Battery D. Lovettsville. Union. S. Y. Bat Cav. Losses: Union 223 killed.. Mex. 30 missing. wounded.Engagements 0f Battery E. 7th. 8 s Mills. Union. Losses: Union 481 killed. Burbridge s Infantry. 31. Va. 2. 5th. S. llth N. 1st. 5th. 13 missing. Losses Union 1 killed. 8th Ga. J.. 2 wounded. North Carolina troops under Confed... 265 Union killed. Union.. 13th Va. John R. Baylor... Losses: Union 2 Dallas. 10th. Brunswick. serves. 2 wounded. Confed. AUGUST. by Col. 13th. Fort Hatteras. Lane s Prairie. B. 9 wounded. 19th Ind. alry. 8 wounded. 5th. Va. 2 wounded. Rains Mo. 14 killed. Ferry. Battery. 3 fed. Union. and Springs. Ball s Cross Roads. Confed. : 19. 4th. 5 killed. W. 2 wounded. Chasseurs. 17th. S. N. 30th Va. N.. : and 47th Ohio. 2 killed. Mo. Cav. Losses: Confed. Home Guards. W.. Losses: Union 3 wounded. Y. 5 wounded. captured by Confederates commanded P ort Fillmore and San 20 26. 18th tlje QKtrtl War U. Losses: Union I killed. of 1st U. 9th. Losses: Union 3 killed. 1861. llth. Y. 3 killed. (*) Losses: Confed. 387 killed. Mo. Confed. Potosi. 1st. 7th. Munson s Hill. 8th. Union. Confed.. 3d. 5th. 6th and 10th Mo. Thornton s. Detach ments of 1st and 2d Dragoons. 4th. Harrison s Battalion. Nathaniel Lyon killed. Mo. State Guard. 19th. 800 wounded.582 wounded. Mo. Re killed. Y. Mounted Vols. Battery. 721 wounded. 19th N. Confed. 24. C. 141 wounded. Carnifex 10th. 1. 3 17. 6 wounded. 5 killed. 3d. Losses: Union 17 killed. Bledsoe S. 715 prisoners. Vol. Martin. Griffin s Battery. 1st. wounded.. 27. Inft. Regulars. Foster s Infantry. Mo. 20th. Artil. 2d. Losses: Union I killed. State Guard. Losses: Confed. 1st Mo. N. 13th. Brig. 4th. 6th. 28th. Confed. Confed. Home Guards. also called Spring field and Oak Hill. 7. and 89th N. Confed. 79th N. in all 400 men. Va. Va. Mo. I.. Union. Losses: Union 2 killed. Union. Losses: Union killed. Cavalry. 17th. llth. Kelly s Infantry. Va. Detachments of 1st and 2d U. Brown s Cavalry. Confed. Mo. 1st. 1st Cavalry. F. s Battery. 3 wounded. Brig. 3d 1st U. Athens. 6th Ala. 2d R. Losses: 9th. killed. 14 wounded.. Confed. Cav. Union. 3d La. 1st Md. 1. 291 missing. Hughes . 3d.. near Rolla. 3d Tenn. S.. Va. 37 wounded. Losses Confed. 1861. 1st Kan. 10 wounded. 2d U. 12th. Artil. Point of SEPTEMBER... Reid s 2d Mounted Riflemen. 24th. Forsyth. C. Hampton s Legion. Home Guards. 4th. Battery. 28th Confed. 28th. Cawthorn s Brigade. Blue Mills. Mo. Confed. 2d. Va.210 missing Ark.. S. Losses: Union 5 killed. 1 killed. Wingo s.. 3d.. Steele talion. 8. Point. 1 killed. 2d. Scott. .. Battery Hampton. 2d Kan. killed.. 5th Miss. or Ft. S. 8th La. Floyd s command. Mo.  . Losses: Union 28 and 29. C. and Naval force. 11. (*). Vt. 51 wounded. wounded. Va. 2. 12 wounded. Campbell s Cavalry. W.. Charleston or Losses: 5th I Mo. South Kansas-Texas Mounted Regiment. Infantry.. Y. (*). 1st Cavalry. and 5th Mo. 40 killed. 2d. Rosser s Bat- * No record found. 4th. 13th. 40 killed. S.. Con: 22. 6 wounded. 7th. Dug Springs.N. 27. Stanley Totten s Troop. Rocks. one Co. 3d U. 1 killed. Mo. Rives . Union 4 killed. Graves Infantry.011 wound ed. Col. Bee and Bartow : Woodruff s.. 3 Bennett killed. 40 wounded. Union. 3d Artil. Union. F 2d U.. Md. detachment of Cav Confed. 26. 1st la. 5th Mo. Losses: Union 3 wounded. Losses wounded. 21st Mo. Union Bird 1 7 s Union killed. W. Cross Lanes or Summerville. Confed. 5th Artil. 8th S. Light Artil. 1. 18th.. Gen.. 1. 41 wounded. 6th. Mo. Confed.. 1 killed.. 5. Mounted Rifles. 1 killed. Hawk s Nest.-Gens. 1st. Confed. 2d. s 200 captured. Augustine 7th U. 49th Va. Mo. 33d. Wilson s Creek. Lewinsville. 27th.-Gen. s Confed. 1st Ark. 10. 20th Dry Wood Union 4 10. and captured. Losses Union 3 wounded. 7th.
and with of the I irst to Fall.Behold mine!". as he emptied a shotgun into Ellsworth breast. his own hands ". Jackson. war. Jackson was immediately shot dead by Private Brownell. 1861. 1861 .Behold pulled down s cried. on May 24. MARSHALL HOUSE. VIRGINIA. seized the city. James T. Colonel Ellsworth. ALEXANDRIA. came the reply from the proprietor of the hotel. led his Fire Zouaves to Alexandria. 1861. Copyright by Review uf Reviews Co. and in April. he organized another from the Fire De partment in New York City. Descending the stairs with the flag in his hand. my trophy!". he ".THE LAST LETTER One A COLONEL EPHRAIM ELMER ELLSWORTH The shooting of this young patriot profoundly shocked and stirred the Federals at the opening of the Colonel Ellsworth had organized a Zouave regiment in Chicago. a Southern flag floating over the Marshall House. Virginia.
Alamosa. 4 wounded. W. State Guard.. Churchill s. Mo. 2 wounded. Kan. 2d W. Kelly s. Losses: Union 1 killed. 50 wounded. Glaze.. S.. Mo. 1 Losses: Union 3 killed. Confed. Inft. and 25th Ohio. Confed. Battery A 1st Mich.* Losses: Union 2 killed. 60 missing. Y..* Losses: Union 4 killed. OCTOBER. (12 miles from Union. Confed. Home s fed. and 38th 111. 21st. Capt. 7th.. * Kanawha Gap. 12 killed. Union. 41 wounded. Confed. 1st Fla. 1 battery Art. Losses: Union 9 killed. Cav.* Losses: Confed. and miss 21. Union. 1st U. Confederate Privateer Judah destroyed near Pensacola. S. Mink s Cavalry. 6th. 3 co... 24-th. 1st Miss. and captured. wounded. Scouts. 158 wounded. Mo. 8th Wis.. 25. 14.. 23d 111. Gen... near Ft. 13th and 1 1th 8th.. Va. Losses: Union 42 108 wounded. 3d Wis. Flag ship Colorado. 1. Union. State Guard. Guibor s. 17 to 21. 9th N. fed. Union. 63 wounded. Mo. W. Union. 18th Miss. 13th. . Co. Berry s and Van and 1 13. 1st Ky. 8 Oltuil 25 of Cavalry. wounded. or Darnestown. Parsons and Rains Divisions. Battery. 6 wounded. Confed. 12 Loring. B. 14th. detachments Union 6 killed. detachments 13th Mass. Losses: Union 4 killed. W. 32 100 wounded. Home Booneville.. and 6th Mo. 2d U. Fla... Confed. wounded. and 5th Ga. Md. Losses: and wounded. Co. 33d. 24th. Va. 3d Miss. Pritchard Md. 30 captured. Confed. ConLosses: Union fed. Losses: Union. detach ments of 28th Pa.. 13. S. Confed. Losses: Union 1 2d. Va. I. Losses: Union 14 killed. 1st 111.. 27. Price s Mo. Confed. detachments Big commanded by Col. Battery. 4th and 8th Ohio. Conkilled. near Potosi. wounded. 1st Ind. Mo.. 9 wounded.. 25th. Confed. Losses: Union 3 killed. 9th and 10th Miss. killed.0f tery. Santa Rosa. Cav. Leesburg. 200 killed. 7 wounded. Artil. 16. Artil. Confed. (*). W.29 wounded. Confed. ZollicofLosses: Union 1 killed. 13th 111. Turner Ashby. 5th. Confed. W. 25th. Light Artil. and 17th Ind. Cav. of Gen. Vols. 40 men of the 38th 111. Cav. Battery G. 35 killed.. Home Confed. F. Cav. Battery I. Losses: Union 8 killed. 12 to 20. and 17th Ind. Union. wounded. Union.. 3d la. 5 killed. 12 Cheat Mountain. Co. A 1st U. Artil. 23. Union. Bolivar Heights.. 67 killed (estimate). 15th.. s C and E 3d U. 1 s Farm Point). 4th U. ** 17. Cavalry. Va.. Union. Loring s command. 28th Pa. 3th. 1861. Confed.. 75 wonnded. Fre mont Battalion. 11 39 wounded. Union.. Blue Mills. 1st Kan.. Artil. Mo. 8 wounded. 1st 111. Va. 15... Underwood Bird s 5 wounded. 40th N. 1st Mo. and 714 missing. Confed. 9th Morristown. Edwards Fer Harrison s Landing. killed. 9th. Mo. Artil. Confed. 15th. 12 killed. 71st Pa. 30 woundt (1. 8th Va. Craig. Ball s Bluff. Confed. State Guard. W. Union. 2 3 1 wounded. Mo. Battalion. Losses: Union 49 killed. Confed. Xo record found. 3d. Losses: Cav. River Bridge.. R. Kneisley s and Clark s batteries. Ky. 19. 25 wounded... Lexington. A 1st Mo. Union. Barboursville. Union. W. 33 captured. Ilomney or Hanging Rock. Cavalry. 13th. and 32d Ohio. by the U. 50 wounded. ing (estimate). or Monday s Hollow. Union. s Va.. and 27th Mo. 34th Ohio. Confed.. Confed.. Fla. Home Guards.624 missing killed. H 13.. Gen. Bledsoe s.. 17 39 killed.. ConVa.. killed. Coopwood s Tex.. Capt. Confed. Union 2 killed. Cav. Confed. Confed. Mo. Guards. Union. 5 wounded. Confed.. 1st Ala. Confed. Greenbrier. 2 killed. Frederiektown and Ironton. 3. S. Confed* Losses: Union 1 killed. Va. Cav. S. Mo. 7 killed. Confed. 17th. fer s brigade. 77th and 114th Va. commanded by Gen. 75 killed. Mo. 4 wounded. 20 killed. Ky. Mo. W. Confed.. 9. Wet 14. 25 killed. Losses: Union 7 killed. 6th. Vols. Va. Mo. Guards. 3 wounded.. 15th. 14th. s Mills. 20th Mass. also called ry. Mo. K. (estimate) 18 killed. N. Y. Y. Union. 6th N. Mex. S. Va.* Confed. Co. Union.. 6 wounded.
from Smyrna Camp Ground. Cadle. s most interesting characters of Congress. Georgia. Steele. under Colonel Blair. BLAIR. through Blair s influence. Governor Jackson and General Sterling Price at once ordered the militia to prepare itself for service on the Southern The First Missouri regiment accompanied side. JR.. William Henley. and was made major-general the following November. Mr. Blair. in the capture of Camp Jackson. Hickenlooper. LL S. AND STAFF Jr. When. in Missouri at the outbreak of the war was Frank P. a call Member When Governor Jackson refused to obey President Lincoln proclamation out troops.) Standing are three of his aides-de-camp: from right to left. R. on his Assistant Adjutant-General C. Blair immediately raised a regiment of three-months men (the First Missouri Infan which later became the First Missouri Light Artillery. June 17th.Copt/right by Review of Reviews Co. Colonel Blair was promoted to brigadier-general in August. A WESTERN LEADER MAJOR-GENERAL FRANK One and try) of the P. Blair was at the head of the Seventeenth Army Corps in 1864-65. brigadier-general Lyon was made and placed in command of the Federal forces in Missouri. left In the picture the general seated in the armchair. is The composition of was announced November is 1864. for Missouri to secede This affair at Booneville practically made it impossible from the Union. on his right Assistant Inspector-General A. May 10. . knowing that Lyon and Blair would quickly attack them. The First Missouri. of St. General Lyon when he went to Booneville and dispersed over a thousand volunteers who had gathered there to enlist under the Confederacy. A.. Jr. and G. Louis. 1801. Logan Tompkins. 1862. (This photograph was taken his staff when General 9. assisted Captain Lyon..
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4. Confed. sion.. Seymour. Louisiana. Underwriter.. Confed. Brinker. Cav. 2d. and 58th 111. 8 captured. Middle Creek. 8. 7th. Daum roe 8.. Pioneer. Bath. Seymour. Losses: Union 7 killed. JANUARY. 28th.. Shawseen. Confed. Losses Tenn. Confed. 13. Tyler. Mounted Losses Rifles. Tenn. 51st Confed. 10th Conn. Union. 1st Artil. llth Va. 9th Ohio. wounded. 8th and 1 3th Mo. 22d Ky. Louisville. Losses Union 35 killed. Cav. fed. Confed. 16 wounded. wounded. Morse. 26th.. Va. I.. Fanny.* 150 25 wounded. Forrest s ConConestoga. 2 Batteries of 1st Mo. C. 1 1 28. bird. Whitehead.. or Cobb s Point. Birge s Sharpshooters. Gunboats Sea: 4 wounded. Latham s. 17th. Confed. 27th. 37th. Mt. 1st Neb. 51st Pa.. Whitehnrst s N. except the Curlew.. 1st Cav. 8th. Mo. 48th.. and Brinker. F.. 9th N. Losses Union 3 killed. : Union 8 killed. 29th Tenn. 89th Va. Pittsburgh. and 12th Infty. Gen. 46th. Gunboats Southfield. Fort 25th. 14th Ind. 11 killed. 5 wounded. Confed. Confed. 8th. 31st. Mon Losses: Confed. 10th... S... 17th and 25th Ky. 48th. Delaware. 12th and 14th Iowa. 3d Mo. Elizabeth City. Louis. Art. Union. 16 killed. 3 N. Putnam. C. 24th. Gunboats Carondelet. killed. 19th.  . 8th Wis.. 20th. 9th. 23d. 28th... Cav. 31st. K. 8th Ohio. killed.. 12th. 5th Ky.. 1st Tenn. Carondelet. Reserves. 43 killed. C. Confed. Iletzel. 54th Va. Union. Confed. Cav. Louisiana. 20th detachment Tenn. Confed. FEBRUARY.. Confed. 15th Ark. 1 1th. detachments of cavalry... Sacramento. : Confed.. Gunboats Delaware. 143 wounded. C. 2 wounded. Culbertson s and Grain s Art. 4th Ky. Confed. 2d/ 7th. Union.. 33d. 18th.. 194 tery. St. Chas seur.. Vidette. C. 2 cos. 22d Ind. 3 killed. Confed. Pa... 8 wounded. 200 wounded. Confed. Pickett. Cav. 6th. 10th Ala. 4th U. 3 wounded. Cav...300 captured. 25th. Shawseen. 30th. 17th. Union 2 killed. 10. Confed. 2d Va. Cav. Stars and Stripes. Artil. : der 19 and s Brigade. 49th. Drainesville... Donelson. 29th. Bledsoe s Bat Losses: Union 38 killed. Vols. 67th. 9th. Mo. 190 killed. 1st Ky. Union. Brem s.. and com prising the vessels engaged at Roanoke Island on the 8th. Mosquito fleet commanded by Commodore W. Ceres. Losses Union Col. Milner s and Milton s Cavalry.. S. Losses: Union 40 wounded. Union. and Lexington. Va. 59th N. Confed. B D No record found. : War 1862... also called Cross Roads. 28th. Baker s and Hanging Rock Pass. 1st Mo. C.. 10. Va. and Conestoga. wounded. Union. Lockwood. 10th Ind. Putnam. Cincinnati. 13 killed.. and 44th Ind. 1st la. ". Louis. Bloomery Gap. Raleigh. Tenn. B.. 58th and 76th Ohio. llth. killed. Cav. 2d Minn. Cav. Va. Valley City. 15th Miss. Valley City. Squadron Ohio Cav. 14th. 21st. 17th. Rains Divi Losses Union 2 killed. Lt. Losses: Union 5 killed. Commodore Perry. Col. 20. and wounded.. parts of the 4th. 15 Curlew. near Paintsville. St. 1st Ky. Zolli* coffer killed. 19th. Ky. 2. ". 39th 111. Granite. Commodore Perry. Whitehead. U. Art. Cav. Union. 5th.. Underwriter. Cutt s Art. Va. Confed.. 25th and 27th Mass. Lynch. 46th.... 20th. 16th Ala. Confed. and 53d N.. 57th. 6th S. 31st. Tenn. : Charleston. Loring s command. 8 captured. 5 killed. Ky. 4th Miss.. 7th. 25 wounded. 31st. 160 Confed... 20. 9th. Beaufort. 39 wounded. 45th.. Saunder s Cavalry.. Ky. Union. Gunboats Essex. Zion and Hallsville. 1st Ky. 10th Union. Detach. Hunchback. 7. N. 10th la. Somerset and Beech Grove.. Batteries 1st 111. Losses: Union 11 killed. Fort Henry. 1st Rifles. 4th and 5th R. Tyler. 111. 3d Ky. 1862. 51st. Roanoke Island. Forrest. dismounted Cav. Union. 41st. Morse. 35th..* Losses: Union 8 killed. 27th Ala. 15 wounded. Com modore Barney. Hussar.(ttttril Mo. Ellis. Y. Logan s ing. Iletzel. 65 miss Mill Springs. s s batteries. Fishing Creek. Ky. Confed. J. 29th. 14-16. or Dover.. Lan F. 6l wound ed.. Union. Union. Gen. Ceres.527 taken prisoners. 1.
showing site Fort Walker on Hilton the opposite shore the Head Island was two miles and the Confederate batteries seized a half across the entrance from and demolished by General I. . PORT ROYAL Stevens. Sherman. off Hatteras. On November The men on 7th the On the 29th of October. passed back and forth through Pont in the Wabash. severe gale was encountered for a time the fleet and was much the 4th it Before sunset Fort Beauregard scattered. SOUTH CAROLINA least of the Confederate forts at Port Royal. bound of the forts. harbors of the Southern coast. THE The Capture lina. HILTON HEAD. Each had at FERRY ACROSS THE COOSAW. 1801. there sailed from fitted Hampton Federal scarcely attacked in close action. were by no small over Port the Coosaw River. This was again united at the bar outside Port Royal Harbor over victory placed in possession of the North one of the finest which the Wabash led the way. 1862. 10-INCH COLUMBIAD AT FORT WALKER. on of near Royal. to shore were Roads the most formidable squadron ever waters out in American able reply to the terrific broadsides of the it main men-of-war commanded by Flag-Officer Samuel F. On No a past two in the afternoon Com vember 1st. but by was likewise deserted. Fort Beauregard.Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. In the lower picture ferry The harbor had been fortifications which the we see the erected Confederates affairs. of twelve for harbor while other vessels outside enfiladed of thousand Port miles men under the Thomas W. I. January 1. South Caro twenty guns of different fleet caliber. mander Rodgers had planted the Federal flag on the ramparts. Du- body the of the big fleet as entrance. and army transports with a force of General Harbor. At the third round the ships the seen Confed leaving half- Royal north twenty erates could be mouth Fort Walker and before the Savannah River.
James Mclntosh killed. 10th. 26th. Losses: Union 203 killed. Inft. Tenn. la. Detach ments of 1st. and 59th 111. 8. 3d. 1 wounded. Keetsville.. 6th Mo. Confed. 4th. 6. The Monitor. Ark. and 8. 20th Ind. Union. 4th Ohio Cav. Y. 51st N. s Bulliss Mo. S. 43d. s Cavalry.. Confed. 10th and 16th 111.000 killed and wounded. Gen. L. 2d Ohio Bat tery. Clark s. Brig.. Cav. Artil. Teel s Art. Bissell s Mo. Mex. Confed. MacDonald s.. 7 killed.-Gen.. 64 killed. 12th. Shel- 18. 14th. 20th. 2d E. Losses : Hart s s.. 413 captured. J. 4()th and 42d Ohio Vols. First battle be tween iron-clad warships. Engineers. and 6th Mo. 5th MARCH. 16th. Birge Sharpshooters and six gunboats.. wounded. 3d 111.. Cav. 26.. Jno. 6th. 9th Tenn. Mo... 3 killed. B. 26th. 2d Col. Heavy Art... and Phelps Mo. 1st. and of 5th. 14. missing. 24th. 174 missing. 37th.. 39th. wounded. Confed. 15 wounded. Battalion. Con fed. 49th. Union. Teel s. 48th. 8th Ky. Artil. 51st Pa.. 17 wounded. Battalion Colm s Bat talion. 1st. 1st N. 3d. 20 200 Confed. 2 1 st Va.. 4th.. 1st Ala. Forrest s Cav alry. Bombardment and capture by Gen... Tenn. 8th. Confed. and 63d Ohio. including New Madrid. tl}? (Ettril by Har D and E 2d s 111. Wade s. 6th Mo. 150 wounded. of 22d Ky... Losses: Union 51 wounded. 46th. N. 4th. Pea Ridge. or Spring River.. Cav. 1st Games and s. Confed.. Corps. Confed. 50th.. 9. Losses: Union 13 killed. Cavalry. J. 466 wounded.  . 3d. 1st. Cav. Morgan s Ky. 7th Tex. 106 wounded. Union..-Gen.. 2d. Confed. Mex. Union 2 killed. 1st.. Battery A 2d 111. Con fed. wounded. John A.. Cav.. Ram Virginia. Zouave. 13.. 5th. Sugar Creek. 4th.. engagements at Bentonville. 1st. 111. Leetown. Tenn. Gunboats Lexington and Confed. 25th. 1st. 23d. 21. 3d. Union. Union. 1st E. Cav. Logan wounded. 5th. 15th Ark.. Losses: Union 2 wounded. 21st. 3d and 15th 111. Cavalry. U nion.. mac}. McCulloch and Actg. 53d Tenn. Ark. Union. C. S. 32d Pittsburg Landing. Losses: Union 62 killed.. Va. 40th C.. Confed. 2d. and Elkhorn Tavern. Light Artil. C. Confed. and Cum berland. Confed. 17th.. 800 to 1. Va. 24th. 17.. 4 killed. 25th.. Brig. Bledsoe s. Pope s com mand. 51st. 35th. Cav. 4th and 9th Iowa. 3d la. Confed. 36th. 4th and 5th R. Tenn. State Guard. Ft. Tenn. Losses: Union 5 killed. 5 wounded... 2d. 100 wounded.. 2d. Guibor s. 7th Tex. Losses: Union 91 killed. command.-Gen. Losses: Union Capt. 3d Iowa Cav. 1st U.. 11- Paris..0f Art. Hampton Roads. 10th. and 10th U. Craig. 21st. Union. and 5th N. 2. 26th Miss. Mo. 18th. Ark. 140 wounded. 15th. 44th. 9th N. 15 miss ing. (estimated). I. Union.. Near Nashville.. Cavalry. Confed. killed. Union. Inft. Confed. 55th Tenn. 8th. 1862. or Valverde. Confed. 2d Mo. 108 wounded. 1. 13-14. 36 killed.. Salem. 7.829 prisoners Union Maj.108 wounded. and 27th Mass. 1st Ind. Cav. Big Creek Gap. 231 1. Losses: Union 10 Confed. Union. Daniel Ruggles Tyler. 7th. killed. Losses: Confed.-Gen. Detachments 6th Mo. Detachs. 36th. 7th and llth N.. and 22d Ind. Mex. 2d Ark.. 1 Battalion Art. 16 3d La.. 3 Indian regiments.. Ram Virginia (MerriLosses: Union 261 killed. Hill s and McRae s Batteries. 6th Mo. 22d Ark. killed. 50th. 972 wounded. Provence Good batteries. Commodore Buchanan. Mo. 2 wounded. Confed. 2d. Union Brig. and U. S. Brig. and llth Conn. and 1 st Ohio Cav. 4th. Ross Texas Rangers. 35th N. or Pea Ridge. Pound Gap. King 5 Mounted 3 Rifles. Asboth and Actg. Losses: Union 1 killed.. Union. Confed. wounded. 5 killed. Confed. Cav. Cav. 15 wounded. Bowen s Mo. 3d. Y. wounded.. Confed. 111. 19th. Tenn. Losses: Union 500 killed. S. Congress. 17th. llth Tex. N. 1 14. Batteries B and F 2d Mo.534 wounded. 27th. Battery. 4th. 42d. Greene s Brigade.. 1 killed. Worden. 2 wounded. Union. 5th. Gunboats Minnesota.. Carr wounded.. Confed. 27th Ala. 18th. 200 to 300 missing and captured (estimated). Confed. Cav. 7th. 56th Va.. Tenn. Confed. Newberne. 33d.-Gen. 224 missing. four cos. Jacksborough. Hampton Roads. 30th. 3d Mich.. Cav. Mounted Rifles. Union.
After the Federal occupation it was turned into a busy supplies from the outer world. Seabrook on Edisto Island.THE GARDEN OF A SOUTHERN MANSION Here we Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. THE SOUTHERN NAVAL BASE OF THE BLOCKADING SQUADRON OF THE NORTH The Transformation Wrought at Hilton Head by the Naval Engineers. It is now in possession of see the garden of the manor house of John E. Savannah. and some of the old plantation servants have mingled with the troops when the Observe the little colored boy saluting on the pedestal against which leans a Federal officer. off the Carolina coast. . picture was being taken. and the garden. but the fine old house was unharmed. gives an idea of its own beauty. although not in luxuriant bloom. Charleston. Hilton Head became the base of supplies and the most im hours steaming of the ports of entry that the South depended upon in gaining portant part of the blockade. In the distance are seen the slave quarters. for it was within a few and Wilmington. Colliers were constantly landing and supplies of all kinds being sent out from here to the blockading vessels kept at sea. place. the Federal troops.
Shiloh or Army commanded by 16. 46th and 48th N. Pulaski. 4th Brig. 7 gunboats.. and 67th Ohio. 4th. Light Artil. QuanConfed.-Gen. 1 killed.-Gen. 42d Va..* Losses: Union 2 killed. Union Brig. Gen. Forrest s. 3d Div. 3d. Crittenden. Gladden killed.. Buell. Smith. Confed. Mo. commanded by Ma j. S. Ga. Confed. Advance of 4th Corps. Confed.-Gen. and and Yorktown Roads. Va. 39th 111. Cav. wounded.754 killed. A. Maj. 12 wounded. Brig. 75 wounded. Artil. under Flag-officer Foote. 2.. Confed. L. 2. Siege and cap ture. 21st. Battalion Mo.. Albert Sid sissippi. S. Confed. Gen. 27.. Braxton Bragg.-Gen. Confed. McD.-Gen. John C. 2d Corps. Cav. 15 missing. Mo.012 wounded. C. Mc- Warwick (Union and Confed. prisoners. Pope s command and the 28. Losses: 23. 360 Col. 4 wounded.. Confed.-Gen. Prentiss. 27th. Nelson. Losses Union 3 killed. as follows: 2d Maj. 10 wounded. 22 captured. Cheatham and Brig. 1st Va. Cavalry. or GloriUnion. 35 missing. Lew Wallace. L.  wounded. Olmstead. S. as follows: 1st Div. Gen. 60 wounded.-Gen. Johnston and Brig.-Gen. Hardee. A. Union. B. Losses: Union 12 wounded. S. 4th. S.-Gens.-Gen. Captured. Va. 5. 10. Confed.. 2 wounded.. : 8. Lanier s Va. Cav. 8th Maine. 13th. Va. Clellan. Island No. 1st la. Confed. W. Brig. Magruder s command. Confed.-Gen. killed. 93 missing. Confed. 37th. A. Ma1 5 . 20 wounded. Union. Artil. S. 1st W. Sherman and W.. 8th Mich. Leonidas Polk. L. as follows: 1st Corps. 15 killed. J. Confed. Confed. 5th. Losses: killed. J. 3d Corps. Gen. Brig. 33d. 6th Div. Reserve Corps. A. 4th. Battery and Battery of 5th U. 23d. Winchester or Kearnstown. R. 29th. 4 killed. Wallace wounded arid B.-Gen. B. 35 wounded. Confed. Mo. 21st Brig Brig.. F. Independence or Little Santa Fe. Clark. B.. Inft. J. Army of Potomac. 18 Confed. Union. Maj. 1 : companies heavy art. Union. Artil. ConArtil. M. Confed.-Gen. I. Va. Brig. Wharton s and Clanton s Cav Losses: Union 1. Ga.. Union. Breckinridge. 26. Crew of U.-Gen. and 7 J. Y. estimates). Union. Div.-Gen. and 7th Tex. Cavalry. 2d. Hollins. Losses Union 32 killed. 5th Div. 3d N. 11. 2d Kan. or Wilmington Island. Cav. Tenn. 5th Div. etta. T. captured. 24 missing.1. 62d. Va. 36 killed..-Gen. and 6th Vt. Losses Union 1 killed. 5 manded by Union 14. Siege of Yorktown.. bat Losses: Union teries. Cook. 8th. Sher burt. S. T. Confed. Union. 6th and 7th Conn. near Santa Fe. Union. 269 1st 1st % (Bttrtl War Union 4 killed. W. com H. Apache Canon.. Lee s Mills. 33. Union. Hurl* No record found. Iowa Cav. Confed. 440 wounded. Gen. Maj. Confed. Brig. A.. Confed.... towards Yorktown. 1862. Brigade of Infantry and Bat talion Art. Parker s command. Joseph E. 1st and 2d Colo.. U. Gunboats Tyler and of the Mis Lexington. Brig. and 28. B.-Gen. Pleasant s. Union.. Chew s. McClernand. Maj.000 10 APRIL. Mo. 1st W. Johnson. 7. Col. Bowen wounded.. Union.. and 8. 2 wounded. and missing (estimated)... Y.. Confed. . Va. Div. Losses: Union 10 killed. Union. Warrensburg. J. Maj. Wm. 1 Losses: Union trell s Irregulars..728 killed. Confed.000 to 5. 7 killed. 1st Montevallo. 4 wounded. H. 7th Va.. H. 100 killed. Grant. 959 captured. commanded by Gen. S. 13th Ga. Army commanded by Gen. Prentiss captured. 5-May 4. wounded. Frazier s command. Army of Western Tennes see. Army of Potomac. 5th. Maj. 1st Ohio Cav. man. 4th Div. Maj. S.. (Irish) Battalion. Battery of R. C. 7th. T. Tenn. S. Teel s Art. N. Johnstoi 6 Whitemarsh and Pittsburg Landing. 2d. Cav. and 14th Ind. 34 wounded.885 captured.. 3d R. E 4th U. 8. Humansville. Navy. 80 killed 342 wounded.. 30 killed and wounded. 3 missing. Confed. Army of the Ohio commanded by D.-Gen.408 alry. ade of the 6th Div. 15 killed and wounded. fed. Ohio ney Johnston. P. C. W. 103 killed. 5th. McCown. 1.. 15th U. M.. 26. 84th and 1 10th Pa. Ft.. 2d Div. Mich. W. Wabash. Confed. Co. 7th.. imder Flag-officer : Losses: Union 17 killed.Engagements of Confed* wounded..-Gen. Mex. Gco.. B. 2 cos. prisoners. C. -Gen. Col.
We get a more distant view of the angle in the lower picture. below Savannah. as a part of the Federal plan to establish supreme authority along the Atlantic coast from Wassaw Sound. 1862. and by the gunboats which had found a channel enabling them to get in the rear of the Fort Pulaski had been effectually blockaded since February. surrendered. APRIL This terrific Copyright by Review of Reviews Co. north to Charleston. FORT PFLASKI AT THE ENTRANCE TO SAVANNAH RIVER . 1862. On April 10. For two days the gallant garrison held out and then finding the effectually to close fort untenable.THE CLOSING OF SAVANNAH. General Hunter demanded the surrender of Fort Pulaski and when it was refused opened the bom This enabled the Federal bardment. 1862 punishment was inflicted the Federals had planted on Big fort. Government Savannah against contraband traffic. 12. Tybee upon the nearest angle of the fort by the thirty-six heavy rifled cannon and the mortars which Island.
Fort Macon. and Mound City. eight rams of the River Defense Fleet. Fort Pillow. Cav Union 6 killed. Union.. Louis. 31st. C. commanded : by Union M. Union. 12 wounded. Parke Losses tured. Union. Ky. Beauregard. Field s Brigade. Gen. Confed. Union. Losses: Union 28 killed. Elk River. 9th and 89th N. 10th. Union. Losses : 19. Stuart s Cavalry Brigade. Detachment 8th Va. S. and Fredericksburg. 350 captured. Confed. Gen. Morgan s Ky. Cavalry. Confed.. 400 captured. Ky. 193 wounded. N. Confed. Army commanded by Gen. Confed.. 6th N... Cav. 2 killed. and Lebanon. Va. 5th Iowa Cav. Losses: Union 1 killed. * MAY. Lockridge Mills or Dresden. 1st. (Irish) Battalion.. 18 wounded. near No record found. 1 co.. 72 killed and 9.^Engagements 0f gruder s tfye (Ettril 5.. Miss. Losses: Texas killed. Union. 21st. federates. Cav. Gen. 13th wounded. Gen. 45 missing. Losses: Union 4 killed. ConStand Watie s Cherokee Regiment. and mortar boats under Command er D. 75 killed. Confed.. Mo. Wade Hampton s Brigade. 17 to 19. Halleck s Army. 150 cap Neosho. Camden. 32d. 41 missing. 75th. Confed. Confed. 1st Mo. War division. 1st W. 3d Ga. C. La. Rangers. Evacuated by the Con Farmington. wounded and missing. 20 killed. Chippewa. S. 7 Union 5 wounded. 197 wounded. Gun boats Daylight. 5 wounded. Union 7 killed. Battery. 1st Va. Confed. talion. 225 wounded.. Ala. Union.. J. Battery D 2d U. Union. and the capture of New Orleans. Miss. Joseph. Garrison White. 6th Confederate Cav. Union.. Va. Confed. Gen. McDowell or Bull Pasture. wounded. Confed. Benton. 104 wounded. C. McDowell s Army. 66 prisoners. Losses: Union 456 killed. W. Gen. Confed. D. 95th and 96th Pa. 3 companies 1st Mass. State of Georgia. Va. 40 wounded. battle. Brigade. 129 wounded. Hood s Texan Brigade. 3d W.. Commodore Farragut s fleet of gun boats. Cav.. 27th. 372 missing. 1. Losses: Union 35 killed. 5th Maine. to June 10. wounded. Union. 1862. Confed. 12 wounded. Va. Losses: fed. Losses: Union 49 killed. 1 killed. B.. 3 missing. Confed. 23d Ohio. 25 Losses: alry. 21st Mass. 16 wounded. Confed. Bat killed. Wheat Losses: Union 3 s La. Col. 10. 1 1 J. Gunboats Cin Carondelet. by Con federate Army under Gen. Tenn. 1st Conn. Army of the Potomac. E. sippi. Union. Forts Jackson and St. Ruggles Division. Gunboat cinnati. Union.. 5 1 killed. West Point or Eltham McComas Union 12 Art. killed. 19 wounded. D. also called South Mills. 37th.. Army of the Missis Confed. ConUnion.. 16 wounded. Union. Leadbetter s Divi sion.400 wounded. 50 cap tured. Maj. Cav. Union. 7. Va. 3d Div. Camp Creek. Pittsburg. 1st Ind.. Siege of Corinth. Plum- mer 1. Confed. Artil. 16th.. Confed. Confed. 8- Ind. Ala. Cav.000 killed. Co. 98 wounded. fleet of gunboats. 12th Ga. Johnston. Gen. Confed. 48th. Somerville Heights. and 32d N. 6 killed. Corps. Va. 110 missing. 52d. fed. Va. Va. Confed. Confed. 1st Mass. Confed* Losses: Union 4 killed. and 82d Ohio.. fed. Union. Cav.. ConArtiL. Joseph E. 189 s wounded. Losses: 25. Va. Va. 5th Ky. Evacuation of Yorktown. 51st Pa. Confed. 14 captured. J.. and Gen. Confed. Gen. s division. wounded. 26. 71 missing. Gen. B. Losses: Union 3 killed. Bridgeport. 23d. Union 36 killed. 58th. Confed. Y. Va. Confed. In front of Yorktown. E.. St. Philip. 1. 1st 424 29. Yorktown garrison. 148 wounded. and captured. N. 25th. Tenn. wounded. Col. 18 to 28.  . 31st. Losses: Confed. Gen. Detachment of 7th Pa. the Bark Gemsbok. 75 wounded. Johnston s army.. 3 wounded.. Va. James Longstreet s. 21 wounded. 7 killed. 25th. Union.. 44th. 8 killed. Plum Point. 42d. 8 killed. Falmouth Union. Confed. s Landing. 8 captured. 21 missing.. -Norfolk. Porter. Mansfield Lovell s army. J. Army of the Ohio. 4th. Hill s Division of Gen. Losses: Union 16 killed. 4. Y. H. 3 killed.. 185 killed. Confed. H. U.. 192 missing. 3d and 4th Williamsburg..
January 1862.000 in his hands. impetuosity of such an and of the South ancestry. and in order ob tain recruits for their army. Louisiana.000 without further rope to take command of the ceremony. Louis had down the Mississippi. St. but Fremont. Georgia. the Confederate authorities sent General Humphrey Marshall with a small force into eastern in Kentucky in November. already advancing upon an ex pedition Treasurer at St. lead-mines. hastened upon Fremont threatening to home from Eu take $100. WHO FOUGHT UNDER GARFIELD FOR KENTUCKY Kentucky in the issue of the regiments that helped to settle the position of its between the to A large Southern element was contained within borders although it had not joined the Confederacy. The Mis- West in November. taken in This was accomplished by the engagement at Middle Creek. turned over. with orders to drive General 10. GENERAL FREMONT (ON THE RIGHT) AND MRS. raised an sourians were divided in senti Fremont had fifty-six army of ment and the home guards were unwilling to reenlist. and to control the great salt works. 1861. thousand men. Marshall from the State. at the outbreak war. With about four He was born in Savan thousand troops. His father was a his his and by various demon checked the aggres Frenchman and Virginian. Fremont seized Cairo. and was The U. nah. FREMONT . $300. S. General Buell promptly formed a brigade from the Army of the Ohio. the funds were newly created Western Depart ment.OHIO SOLDIERS The Forty-second Ohio Infantry was one States. This photograph was 1861 while the regiment was stationed at Plaquemine. 1861. of the The Treasurer s refused. and Fre General John Charles Fremont (1813-1890). Upon his arrival in ern sympathizers in Missouri. the 6rst mont called it upon him to enable for a portion of enlist him to candidate of the men in the Federal cause. Garfield. mother a tempera all strations and sive attitude of the Confederates ment was characterized by the on the Kentucky and Tennes see borders. and lines of railway. Republican party (in 1856). Colonel of the Forty-second Ohio. Already a famous explorer and presidential scientist. Louis he found things in Before he was transferred out of the great confusion. put it command of James A.
Va. 36th. Losses: Union Humphrey Marshall Union 33 killed.. Tidball s Battery. Beauregard. Losses: 122 wounded. Smith s Division. 35 wounded. down the Shenandoah Valley... posts Beauregard s army. Benjamin Huger s Division. Union. 43 cap * Legare s Point. 17th. 3d Corps. J. Losses: Union 10 killed.0f Union 4 wounded. Losses: 1 % (Ettrii Retreat of 24 to 31. Confed. Confed.. Union. Confed. squadron La. Union. Confederate Ram Virginia destroyed in to Hampton Roads by her commander. Mo. 12th. 5th X. part of 1st and 4th Va.. 77th N. Mapes Pioneers. 150 and missing. 19. Cav. 62d and 83d Pa. 329 wounded (in cludes losses at Front Royal the 23d). Battalion. Brig. Confed. including wounded. killed.. : Front street s Division.. Johnston and Brig. Johnston. killed. Va. Searcy Landing. killed and 30. 15. 60 wounded. 27 tured. 243 wounded. Va. Ark. L. James LongGen. Union. 171 missing. Gen. Jeffers command. J. Union. as follows: Gen... 730 prisoners. Halleck s command. 40 killed. 2d Maine Artil.. 66 wounded. 23. Banks command (Union) from Strasburg. Confed. Union 12 killed. 1 battalion 8th Va. Losses: Union 14 killed. Winchester the 25th. Mechanicsville. Chalk Bluffs. 33d. P. Confed.. 7th Me. Front Royal. 7th. Losses: Union 790 killed. Losses: Union 7 killed. and 44th N.-Gen. Losses: Fort Garrison in Darling. Va. 750 miss ing. Confed. Fort Darling. killed. 10th Ga. S. Monitor. 100 captured. at Front 11. Charlestown the 28th. Cav. 4th. Out of Gen. Confed. Seven Pines and Fair Oaks. I. Gunboats Galena. killed. Detachments of 29th Pa. 8 the troops engaged Royal the 23d. End of siege begun Losses: (No detailed report April 29on file. Losses: command.627 wounded. Finney s Bat talion. Artil. Mich. 22d. 68 killed.. 4th la. 25th. W. 4th Mich. Cav. Confed. Lewisburg. Confed. Miss. Miss. Va. federate Evacuation by Con army under Gen.. Pettigrew captured. s Confed.. In front of Corinth. Confed. 30 wounded. 8th Mich. Va. Losses Union 8 killed.. Gen. Confed. Army of the Potomac. wounded. 12th Ga. M. Va. 9th. Cav. Union. 617 missing. 49th. 5 wounded. Port Royal. tery F 5th U. and 4th Corps. Brig.. Union. Y. Mass. 980 killed. No record found.. Union. O B. Confed. 8th.. S. 2d Booneville. 1862. 2 It 314 wounded. Occupation by Union troops of Gen. 14th Ind. Corinth. Cav. 2 cos. D. Confed. Cav. Ashby s Va. and 1st Pa.. Gen. N... Joseph E.) wounded. 200 wounded. Artil. Losses: Union 62 killed. Xaitgatucli. Wheat s La. 17th Mo. 5th Gen. Brigade. Confed.. including Middletown and Newtown the 24th. Army commanded by Gen.. Artil. S. D.000 prisoners. Naglee. Confed. C.. Confed. 27. Cav. Confed. O. Union. Rodes wounded. 8th La. and 18. Gen.* Losses: Confed.-Gen... 2d la. 17 wounded. Confed. Cav. C. Bat 14th... 3. Ohio. 44th Ohio. Confed. Y.. Va. and New Bridge. Gen. Confed. 15.719 Union Brig... 17. occu pied by Union forces under Gen. Gen ls O.. Va. JUNE. Confed. H. Union. It wounded. Hanover C. 31 and June 1. Art. Union. Wool.. Va. 1 56 captured. Confed* and 24. Hill s Divi sion. James River. battery La. Gen. Union 32 23 8th La. 31 wounded. 4. 2d W. 16. 27 missing. Branch s N. killed. Norfolk and Portsmouth. 45th Va. 28th 100th Pa. wounded.. 11 killed. 4th Mo. 8th Royal. La. Princeton.-Gen. 1st U. Smith s Brigade. detachment 1st R. ConLosses: Union 15 killed. 1st Md. Miss..wounded. Howard. prevent capture. Confed.* 2. G.. Confed. 1st Md.. Hatton killed. Cox s Division. Sharpshooters. and Aroostook.. Cav. 3. 6th.. 2d Corps. Cav. 12 killed. 53 killed. Y. Gen. Cav. E. 7 wounded. wounded. Union. Va. W.. 7 killed.. Capt. 9th and 22d Mass. and Wessells wounded.  . L. Col. and Harper s Ferry the 24th to Jackson s Stonewall 30th. H. Union. Ellerson s Mill. command. 69 wounded. 1st Wis. 5th Mass. 32 fed. 13th. 16th Mich. Losses: Union 2 killed. 105 missing.
yielded to Banks five days of six later. by the transfer cipal of the prin Confederate commands garrison of but early 4. command of at prevent the Confederacy from being divided. the principal de fense of Helena. General the Federal District of South the close Holmes collected a force of about nine of 1861. after a siege forever On the field were weeks. contested march He was met entirely tions. dawn of July 186. Port Hudson. from the control of the Confederacy. ARKANSAS . and and see more than a thousand wounded were taken prisoners. From the Meserve Collection. There General Ridge. July 13. left in the attack of General Holmes. on east bank. 1862. the fire From of Confederates fort. 129. mowed down by from the the river that time until it was held by the Federals undisputed gunboat Tyler lying enfiladed the columns pouring through the ravines It was impossible to with to support the attack. stand the deadly rain of shell and shrapnel. near the Missouri border.3. with a resistance his kansas he arrived Ar on the Mis across beyond expecta the GENERAL SAMUEL RYAN CURTIS sissippi. HELENA. Louisiana. FORT CURTIS. The day the the repulse at Fort Curtis. Fort Curtis was named for General Samuel ing this the Confederates de termined herculean to make one to last effort retain a hold upon the Mississippi and who west assumed Missouri Ryan Curtis. Holmes hurled his forces upon After a stubbornly the battlements of Fort Curtis. and the Mississippi passed two thousand dead and wounded Confederates. Most of the dead were buried by the victorious Federals. which fought there to other fields. and the order was given to withdraw. Arkansas. The battle at Pea thousand Confederates and ad vanced through Arkansas upon Fort Curtis. leaving Curtis in con trol. Vicksburg surrendered to Grant. 1862. The fall of Vicksburg was im minent in July. or Elkhorn.The Last Struggle for the River. was a Confed erate reverse and was followed Prentiss opposed him with a In the 4. and be Not but the only were gan to fortify Helena. March. 1863.
. fed. Confed. Campbell s. N. ". Va. U. Va. by Confederates of Gen.. S. Conestoga. Cairo... S. 155 killed. Co. Peach Orchard and Savage Station on der the 29th. No record found. 32d. killed. Y. 55th. Winder s. 17 3 to dttril 79th N. killed and wounded. C. 401 wounded. called Kings School House and The Orchards.. Art. Union. Union. and 82d Ohio. 81th and 110th Pa. 8th Mich. Brig. Y. 500 wounded. Y. Losses: Union 3 killed. and 58th N. Taylor s brigades. Battalion. 47th Ga. Union Army of the Potomac. 2 cos. 111 soldiers and sailors St. Confed. Games Mills or Cold Harbor on the 27th.. 2d. 7th. Williamsburg Road. 100 cap by Lieut.. Rifles. 3d R. Va.. 60th Ohio. 138 miss ing. ConConfed. Confed.. Miss. 25th. 47th. and cap 18. Fort Johnson. Losses: Union 4 killed. Artil. Confed. Cav. White River.. S. James Union. James Island. Artil. A. Avery s 17 troops com Losses Union 85 killed. S. 5 killed. tured. Confed. 1st Ohio Battery. un Vieksburg. 5th. Battery wounded. El/ey s. Geo. Va. U. 535 wounded. W. Batteries E 4th U. Losses : 10. 46th. 19 wounded. B. and 100th Pa. I 3d R. Maj. C. 45th. Mass..-Gens. 6. S. C. including en gagements known as Mechanicsville or Ellerson s Mills on the 26th.. C.. Losses: Union 5 wounded. Union. s.. Union. I Battery . 28th Mass. 3d N. Losses: Union 63 missing.. G. 17 50 wounded. Ark. and Rams Monarch and Mass. 111 wounded. 11 wounded. wounded. Cav.  . Palmer s Brigade of the Fourth Corps. : 9. 1st Md.. L. S. Joseph Fry. 16th Mass. Va. Tenn. Garnett s and Golding s Farms on the 28th. Charleston. 15th.. Bat tery E 3d U. 8th. Y. fense fleet Confed. and * Charles City Cross Roads. 465 wounded. G.* Losses: Union 7 killed. Memphis. 1st Conn. 30 wounded. S. Armistead s brigade.. 1st N.. 361 wounded. Camp bell s. Secessionville 16. 1st and 27th Pa. under the cover of bombardment by Com modore Porter s fleet of mortar boats. Louis.. : 5. H.Gen. 230 wounded.. 28 wounded. White Oak Swamp. Va. 4 Va. Hooker s and Kearney s Divisions of the Third Corps. Union. Va. 34 missing. Union. G. 7th Ind. and occupation by Gen. Union. Fitch. Fleet.* Conkilled. Losses: Union 125 killed. 97th. Confed. Carondelet. 18 Turner Ashby killed. Evacuation by Confederates and occupation by Union troops commanded by Col. and part of Richardson s Division of the Second Corps. 51 killed. A. and A and L 1st Ohio Artil. 8 wounded. 51th. Stevenson s command. Union 17 Losses: Confed. or Island. Confed. 73d. Cav. 5th. 1 1 missing. ". 2 cos. N. 9 wounded. 6 Va. ConWinder s. 14 captured. J. Confed. Gunboats Lex ington. Confed. Fort Pillow. Tenn. and St.. also 25 Oak Grove. Brig. S. 30 wounded. 17 killed. Union. and Malvern Hill or Crew s Farm on July 1st. and 58th Va.0f 24th S.Marine Art. Gunboats Benton. command of Commodore Farragut. Cross Keys or Union Church. Confed. Confed. Morgan s Federal division. and 8th W. Losses Union 5 1 Conkilled. Queen of the West. Charles. Port Republic. Louis. and Evacuation of Cumberland Gap. 5. 8. S. Va. Va. 6l missing. 75th.. wounded.-Gen. Mound City. 65 killed. 88 killed. Confed. 80 tured. Garrison manded by Gen. Trimble s. Stuart s Va. Evans. Engi neers. 1st N. McClellan commanding. 571 missing. Confed. Harrisonburg. Tunstall s Station. New Market Road on the 30th. and St. 21th 3d N. also called 14.. 1st Pa. and 66th Ohio. C. Losses: First Corps. 26 to July 1. 39th... in front of Richmond. 29th. Louisville. Tenn. 3d. L. Union 67 killed. 8th W. Y. 6th and 7th Conn. Losses: Union 105 killed. Fulkerson s. Tranter s Creek. Va.. 26 to 29. fed. Co.. fire into railway train. 42 killed. H 1st 3d U. passed the Confederate land batteries. 43d and 46th Ind. C. The Seven Days Battles. Stuart and Elxey fed.. U. Gunboats Maurepas and Pontchartrain. 97th Pa. 60th. Gen. Confed. I. batteries of Stonewall Jackson s command. Losses Con: commanded fed. Taylor s brigades.. Geo. fed. River De of 8 gunboats. Glendale or Nelson s Farm or Frayser s Farm... Scott batteries. Union. E and Cav. 472 wounded. 47th N.. 45th Pa. 1st W. list.
When the Confederate army retired Breckinridge Confederacy. Co. under McCulloch.to Greatly outnumbered. and w as r capital 14th. S.These fearless leaders by their daring actions at the outbreak of the prompt and war kept Missouri within the Union. and at Cold Harbor.free soil". mined to a battle. fifty calling for ". A. where thousand troops repel left the invasion of the the . After Shiloh Breckinridge was made major-general and in the break-up of the vast Western army he w ent to Louisiana. own met Lyon the s deter Dug on August 2d. Governor Jackson. and he was Second where he attempted. to drive General Williams from Baton Rouge on August 5th. Sigel. and his personality drew many re cruits to the Southern army in that much-divided State. had been on duty in Kansas riots and knew what during the ". had settled Louis in 1858. the the On June Patriot Pub. Meanwhile he had sent Sigel Springs. had been joined and although five McCul by Gen their his and other Confederate at forces now outnumbered to one. Kentucky. At w ar he was in command St. doah campaign of 1864. He formed the rear-guard. 1862. risk troops. it was to see a State torn T the outbreak of the of the by dissension. 1861. Chattanooga. 1861. resigned from the national Senate in October. Lyon militia loch dispersed 17th. 1. and in May. and he be came engaged about one o clock in the afternoon. a Prussian refugee. and on July 5th that intrepid leader MAJOR-GENERAL JOHN C. Breckinridge took prominent part also at appointed to the command of a brigade Stone s Kentucky division under General Buckner. later joined by Lyon. corps consisting of three brigades. to join the placed him south of the Peach Orchard. Louis. two of which he led in the struggle on April 6. he arrived on July 13th. command of the Federal West was given to Lyon. Captain Nathaniel Lyon. Creek. At the battle of Shiloh Breckinridge commanded the reserve River. 1861.June State". volunteer state militia. followed. where Copyright ijy to capture Camp General Frost was drilling a small body of BRIGADIER-GENERAL NATHANIEL LYON made brigadier-general. raised the Union Third Missouri Infantry and be came its colonel. St. U. 1861. General Johnston who had been the youngest Vice President of the United States. r President Davis gave him a commission in the as brigadier-general in November.. Under Lyon he helped Jackson. John Cabell Breckinridge. for Booneville. He Con and attacked at with twelve hundred men into federates Wilson 1861. BRECKINRIDGE August 10. but failed. was killed. in the Shenan- . Department of who had been MAJOR-GENERAL FRANZ SIGEL and fought the battle of Carthage. Louis. he finally retreated to Springfield. Chickamauga. the on the eral Price. southwestern Missouri. United States arsenal at Franz in St. formed an encampment at Hazel Green. where he While the Federals were striving to keep the ter ritory west of the Mississippi in the Union. a veteran of the Mexican War.
Cav. Union.417 wounded. For rest s Cav. 2. 4 to 28. Union. 31st Ohio. John H. Armstrong s Cav. 2 wounded. ments of 2d Wis. 7th Cynthiana. 818 missing. 2. 30 missing. 21 missing. 33d 111. Grand Prairie.820 killed.. Raid). 3. 50 wounded. Col. 2d Mo. 1862. Cav.. Cav. Brig. 5 killed. Losses : Union. Ky. 3d  .. 253 killed. Cincin nati. Maj. Battery.. Jackson s command. E. and missing (estimate). Fifth Corps.. Chalmers Cav.. 6. 3 killed.. 150 : Div. 200 wounded. Union 25. 60 wounded. Union. Union. R. Con fed. 9th Mo. 18. Maj.. Ky. A. banon Home Guards. Corps.-Gen.051 wounded.. Losses: Union Confed. Sixth.. 5th and 13th 111.. 752 E. Rains command.-Gen. 12. Maj.160 wounded. 1. 10 killed and wounded. 17. Losses: Union 83 killed and wounded.-Gen. 800 missing.. Stuart missing. Cynthiana. 30 wounded. 28th Ky. 245 killed. 65 prisoners. Tenn. . 9. 3 killed. Confed. 3d Minn. I Oth Ky. 8 killed...-Gen. Gen. near Gallatin.. 1st Mo. killed.929 wounded. Confed.251 wounded. 6. la. 57 wounded.. and Bayou 28. 3d Mo. B.076 wounded. Home Guards T. Confed. 1. H. JULY. 187 killed. Confed. Gunboats Carondelet. 1st Ind. 2d Mo. 21.. 201 missing.-Gen. detachments 2d Ind.062 wounded. 31 wounded. Holmes s Division. 10th Ind. captured. killed. Cavalry. Gen.-Gen. Hartsville Road. 4 killed. Porter s independent forces. : 97 captured. Morgan s Cav. B. 16 wounded. Total..179 missing. Maj.. 63 missing. Moore s Mills.2-10 wound 1. Cav. Union. Second Corps. Union. X. llth Mo. Courtland Union. 21 wounded.. Losses: Union 2 killed. Fitz-John Porter. Losses: Confed. 1. P orrest s Cav. 5 wounded. Hill s Division. Ram Arkansas. Fourth Corps. 100 wounded. s (Etutl Gen. Confed. 10 killed. George Stoneman.-Gen. Losses Union 2 killed.. Maj. Losses: Union 13 killed. Mo. Confed. Cav.313 wounded. Ark. Tompkinsville. Cav. Brig. Miss. * Xo record found. 110 killed. 6 wounded. Confed. Opponents. near Aberdeen. Confed. Union. Battery.. W.. 763 killed. Union. Confed. Confed.1. 1th Ky. Round Hill. Cav. 9 wounded. Artillery. Morgan s Losses: Union 17 killed.. 19 killed. Tenn. Losses Union 7 killed. Magruder s command. 75 captured. Losses: Union 33 killed. Light Artil. V. Lee commanding. 60 missing. 29 wounded. 1st Ky. Cav. Porter s inde pendent forces. 1. 1. D. wounded.. 8. 4. 2d Ky. detach Union. . 36 wounded. Queen of the West. 1. James Longstreet s Division. 15 killed. 9th Pa. P. 2d la.581 missing. Maj. W. S. Union. 138 captured. 1. Heintzelman. Confed. Bayou Cache. 14.-Gen. Third Corps. 15. Losses: Gen. Confed. 30 killed. llth Wis. Morgan s raid in Kentucky. and Essex. 7th Pa. Confed. Morgan s Cav. Maj. B. Ala. Maj. Confed. E. 7. 258 killed. 23 killed. Mo. Porter s loss. and Bracken s Co. Gen. Huger s Division. de View. 620 killed. 65 wounded. 239 missing.-Gen. Losses: Union 30 killed. wounded. detachment of the 24th Ind.. Confed.. 803 wounded. 3d Ind. 18th Ky. Maj.. Losses: Union 45 killed and wounded. 10th 111.of McCall ed.. T. Ky. 34 Maj. Le Lebanon. Confed. Cav. Gen. 9th Mich. Engineer Corps. Cav. Confed..-Gen. Sumner. 4th.195 wounded. J. Maj. X. 62 50 wounded. Union. 5th Ky.053 missing. Maj. Porter s loss. 3.-Gen. Pendleton. Total. 966 killed. 360 missing. Confed. Confed. 2d Mich. 1..-Gen. Rust s command. 13.. Confed.* Bridge and Trinity. 507 wounded. 55 wounded. 17 killed. 187 killed. Tyler. 69 killed. Confed. 8th Ind. Losses: Union 13 killed. Booneville.1. Opponents. X ewport.* Xashville Bridge. E. Memphis. 619 killed. . P.73-1 killed. 97 missing. 1. 7th Pa. 52 wounded. Reyes. Cav. T Ky...011 wounded. B. Morgan s Kentucky Cav. Ark. 833 missing. Franklin..* Losses: Union 1 killed. and Davidson s Battery.198 missing.-Gen. Murfreesboro Tenn. Union. 2 (Morgan Cav. 100 wounded. Army of Northern Virginia. also called Cotton Plant. Xear Vicksburg. Miss. 84 killed.-Gen. A. Fayetteville. 189 killed. Cavalry. Hill s Plantation.
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RETURN CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT 642-3403 202 Main Library FORM NO DD 6. BERKELEY BERKELEY. 40m. CA 94720 . 6 76 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
GENERAL LIBRARY -U. BERKELEY 6000=117755 i-x *7 M THE UNIVERSITY OF CAUFORNIA LIBRARY .C.
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