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World Heritage Patrimoine mondial
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35 COM
Paris, April 2011 Original: English

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UNnED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION ORGANISATION DES NATIONS UNIES POUR L'EDUCATION,"LA SCIENCE ET LA CULTURE CONVENTION CONCERNING THE PROTECTION OF THE WORLD CULTURAL AND NATURAL HERITAGE CONVENTION CONCERNANT LA PROTECTION DU PATRIMOINE MONDIAL, CUL TUREL ET NATUREL WORLD HERITAGE COMMITTEE / COMITE DU PATRIMOINE MONDIAL

Thirty-fifth sesslon I Trente-clnquleme session Paris, France 19-2"9June 2011/19-29 juin 2011

Item 7 of the Provisional Agenda: State of conservation of properties inscribed on the World Heritage List and/or on the List 'of World Heritage in Danger. Puiot 7 de ,'Ordre du iourprovisoire: Etat de conservation de biens tnscrlts sur la Llste du patrimoine mondial et/ou sur la Liste du patrimoine mondi·al en peril

MISSION REPORT 1 RAPPORT DE MISSION City of Cuzeo (Peru) (N 273) Ville de Cuzeo (Perou) (N 273) 12 -19 December 2010 /12 -19 deeembre 2010 This mission report should be read. in conjunction with Document: Ce rapport de mission doit etre tu conjointement avec Ie document suivant:

WHC-11/35.COM/7B

Report on the joint UNESCO/ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring Mission to the City of Cuzco 12 -19 December 2010

ICOMOS

2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND LIST OF RECOMMENDATIONS

1

BACKGROUND TO THE MISSION Inscription history Criteria and World Heritage values Justification of the Mission (Terms of Reference. Programme and composition of Mission team provided in Annex)

2

NATIONAL POLICY FOR THE PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY Protected area legislation Institutional framework Management structure

3

IDENTIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF ISSUES Management Factors affecting the property

4

ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF CONSERVATION OF THE SITE Review whether the values on the basis of which the property was inscribed on the World Heritage List are being maintained

5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6

ANNEXES I-Terms of reference II - Itinerary and programme III - Composition of Mission team

3

LIST OF ACRONYMS
INC: Instituto Nacional de Cultura I National Institute of Culture ORC: Direccion Regional de Cultura I Regional Direction of Culture

Hec:

Historic Centre ofCuzco

MP: Master Plan

AECID: Agencia Espanola de Cooperacion Internacional para el Desarrollo I Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation

4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The joint UNESCO/ICOMOS from 12 - 19 December reactive monitoring mission to the City of Cuzco took place to the development

2010. The Mission members wish to express their gratitude that were involved in the organization.and contributed

various public, and private institutions

of the Mission, as well as those Whose participation

to its smooth implementation.

The Mission would first like to thank the agencies of the State Party responsible for the protection and management of the site: -the Min istry a f Culture represented by Vice-Mini ster of Cultural Heritage and Cultural Industries Dn. Bernardo Roca-Rey Miro-Quesada, and the Regional Direction of Cultural Cuzco (ex INC-Cuzco), represented by its Director. the architect Juan Julio Garcia Rivas, organizers and officials of the programme of the Mission
regarding Provincial Assistant the technical and operational aspects that allowed it to happen. In additlon. the local

Municipality

of Cuzco, represented

by Mayor Dn .. Luis Arturo Florez Garcia and
Aka Crayle Alfaro, who acted asa visits during the stay in the City of Cuzco, technical support regarding importance to the of that carry aut documents which was of relevant

Manager of the Historic Centre, Architect

host by accompanying
prov ided conference the situation Mission. particular Finally,

members on technical
rooms forthe meetings,

and also contributed

at the site and its local management, within the private projects

sector and civil society, the companies organizations which accompanied

evaluation

which enabled the technical visits and provided community

the site; the non-governmental

the Mission and

presented views and documents relevant to the purposes of reactive monitoring: Secondly, it should be noted the invaluable assistanceof thearchitect Director of the Regional Directorate of the Mission's whose technical achievement programme, and docurnentary of Cultural Cuzco, responsible Juan Julio Garcja Rivas, for effective coordination and facilitated the

whose permanent presence with the members of the Mission and

vcontributions have made possible
Also, special recognition

of the Mission's

objectives.

needs to be given to Ms.

Ana Maria Hoyle. Director of Peruvian to recognize the participation during the development

Sites for World Heritage of the Mini-stry of Culture, of the Mission. Finally, we wish members of
Cl,IlCO

for her support and ongoing technical assistance.tomembers of the managerial Bureau for Culture, for their technical of the Mission.

and professional

Regional

input in the various visits and desk work carried out

5

EXECUTNE suMMARy AND LIST OF RECOMMENDATIONS
The City of Cuzco was inscribed on the World Heritage List (Reference number 273) in December 1983 (7th Session of the World Heritage Committee), under criteria (iii) and (iv), Since that time, the number of visitors to the site has increased significantly, a fact that has generated new demands for services (hotels, restaurants, recreation and tourism), resulting in changes to land use and challenging the adequacy of the Historic Centre to meet those requirements. Moreover there have been numerous actions aimed at the restoration, enhancement and conservation of monumental publ ic and private buildings. At the same time, urban interventions have taken place for the management and improvement of public spaces, pedestrian movement. and vehicular traffic in the Historic Centre, representing a concrete improvement in the conditions of tbe site and contributing to the maintenance of the attributes of Outstanding Universal Value of the property. There has also been a process of de-population of the Historic Centre. According to the 2005 Master Plan, in 198 I the population was 27, I06 inhabitants; however in 2003 it was down to 13,000. This has 'caused pressure in the surrounding areas with the increase in new residential constructions which have also had some visual impacts on the setting.

This data implies changes in land lise, with a substitution of residential use for touristic purposes. particularly in the monumental sector of the Historic Centre (area of the Plaza de Armas and location of the main historical monuments of the city). However in adjacent neighbourhoods (such as San Pedro, San Cristobal, Santa Ana and San Bias) there remains a significant percentage of land for residential use by the indigenous population. In some cases, the residential situation is characterized by processes of urban degradation, overcrowding, houses in a serious State of neglect, inadequate basic services traffic congestion pollution and a lack of green spaces. This was particularly noticeable to members of the Mission in the neighbourhood of San Pedro during a technical visit to the sector. This situation is exacerbated by the fact that there are challenges in regularizing the ownership (legally established ownership) of almost 70% of housing units in the peripheral sectors of the Historic Centre, which negatively impacts the possibility of intervention for recovery and preservation of buildings with historic value. Moreover, the city has suffered from natural disasters such as an earthquake in April 198_6 and the extraordinary levels of rainfall in 2009 and 20 10, which resulted in severe damage to historical monuments and houses, many of which are still in the process of consolidation and recovery for rehabilitation and enhancement. Within this context and since 1996, the World Heritage Committee has encouraged the establishment of appropriate planning mechanisms for the management of the Historic Centre of Cuzco. In 1997, with input from the Technical Cooperation Fund, proceedings were commenced to prepare the Master Plan of the City. The Plan was finalized and adopted in

In that Same period, the number of tourists increased from 279,147 to 463792.

6

2005. Since then, measures implementation

have been taken for its effective implementation

but

to 'date

full

has not been achieved. Centre and with this situation as background, and developed facilities: for certain monumental three major interventions to create new

Within the Historic have been proposed

assets destined

tourist and commercial

a) The Cuzco Marriott Hotel project on the site of the former convent of San Agustin, where only isolated remains from different periods (pre-Inca Inca, Colonial and Republican) could be found and were not enough to compose a set-value unit: into thebuilding of tile former Beaterio

b) The project to extend the Hotel Monasterio de las Nazarenas and; c) The construction

of the [rna Sumaq Mall within a building of the Republican

period of

(Art Deco building of the first half of the 20th century) containing exceptional Inca period (Inca Wall Street Loreto).
With these considerations, potential property, impact the World Heritage Committee Universal Value,

reminiscences

at its 34th session (Brasilia, 2010), authenticity and integrity of the with

requested technical information as well as information frameworks

from the State Party on the above three projects to assess their on the site's management mainly at the Municipal system and its coordination

on the Outstanding

existing legislative Centre.

level. It also urged the State Party to of a Public Use Plan for the Historic and

update the Master Plan and to include the development

It also requested

that the State Party s management

invite a joint UNESCO/ICOMOSreactive status of the site and the effectiveness

monitoring

Mission to evaluate the conservation of the property

appropriateness

system (Decision 34 COM 7B.llS). status of the site and the and integrity Beateria of the de Las

The main objectives the effectiveness potential property convent impacts

then of the Mission, were to assess the conservation of the site's management Universal Value, on the Outstanding authenticity

and suitability

system. as well as evaluating

where the Marriott of San Agustin

Hotel project is taking place, located on the site of where the in the former

used to be. the hotel expansion

Nazarenas, and the Shopping Centre Ima Sumaq. The Mission took into consideration the dangers to and I or improvements in the conservation of the site, and the implementation of
previous Decisions or integrity
0:11

of the World Heritage Committee

on the conservation

status of the site. and /

and any dangers, damages to and lor loss of Outstanding which the site's inscription had been based. visits and technical maintains Heritage

Universal Value, authenticity

Based on the various meetings concluded Universal for

analysis conducted

by the Mission. it was its Outstanding situation of

that the City of Cuzco on the World

the attributes List. Regarding

that sustain

Value as well as the conditions management

of authenticity

and integrity which formed the basis the particular

its inscription

conservation,

and intervention

at the property, the Mission has made a number

of recommendations

concerning

the different aspects:

7

a)

Regarding

management,

the

Mission

recommends

the

full

and

effective Regional of the

implementation was signed Directorate Coordinating establishment

of the Historic Centre Master Plan and its regulations. the Provincial (Ministry Municipality of Cuzco of Culture) for the effective

This agreement

between

and Cuzco functioning

for Culture

Board for the management of the Joint Technical

of the Historic

Centre, and the immediate for formulating proposals

Secretariat responsible

for the implementation

of the Master Plan and the process of the, site's management. that the State Party for the of To the

b) With regard to conditions existing at the site it is recommended and local authorities residential residential do this. sections, buildings in by increasing the level of intervention of degradation

encourage the recovery process of real estate, particularly affected by the processes tile regularization of

for the rehabilitation and overcrowding. engaged as well as

it is recommended

that the State Party property

be actively ownership, improvement

and work

expeditiously implementation for interventions

of an effective and massive programme aimed at the recovery, rehabilitation,

for funding (direct or ind irect) and enhancement

for the use ofbuildings neglect and deterioration building recovery

as places of residence. Changes in land use from residential to of buildings further and urban degradation. gentrification of the Historic Centre. ,aimed at improving Centre should landscape the quality of the pub1ic particular projects. Active investme-nt for impact this

touristic purposes have occurred as a response to new demands and also because of the will prevent and the negative

process would have on the functionality On the other hand, the interventions spaces and routes of the Historic that the recovery Univers-al Value,

be- continued,

paying

attention to the quality of the contextual also recommended site's Outstanding c)

Of the intervention

It is
(as

operations

for the buildings

be continued

verified in the Case of the Church of Santa Ana) in order to maintain and improve the

With regard to the special intervention be effectively monitored.

projects for valuable recommends

monumental

assets, and

these-should

The Mission

an effective

permanent follow up for the three projects: recommended the restoration traditional

Marriot Hotel, the expansion the lma Sumaq Shopping

of the HoteJ Centre. It is

Monasterio in Beaterio de las Nazarenasand

that the State Party intervene effectively of the adobe wall, which characterizes

to achieve the return of the the urban section of the of

Inca wall on Loreto Street to its original state, with the removal of the glass wall and assets of downtown. Likewise. the quality control of the reconstruction

the Art Deco facade on Mauri Street in order to reconstitute is a characteristic of the Historic Centre.

an image of quality which

8

1

BACKGROUND TO THE MISSION

1.1 Site Data Site Name: CITY OF CUZCO Registration date: 12/09/1983 (7th Session of the World Heritage Committee) Registration No.: 273 Criteria: C (iii) and (iv) State Party: Peru Location: Long. 72 0 W; Lat. 13 030 'S

1.2 Brief summary The ancient City of Cuzco is located in the heart of the Central Andes of South America. After a pre-lnca process of more than 3,000 years of occupation of the site, during the reign of Inca Pachacuteq (Tit» Cusi Inca Yupanquii in the 14th century, it was renovated and redesigned, becoming the capital of the [flea Empire Tawantinsuyo that was located on the majority of the South American Andes during the 14th and 16th centuries. The Inca imperial city was well defined, distributed and organized. The buildings for religious and governmental functions were accompanied by the royal family s housing, creating an urban symbolic complex that used a stone building teehnotogyand structure with unique aesthetic properties, as in the Temple of the Sun or Qoricancha The Aqllahuasi,the Sunturcancha, the Kusicanchaesv: aseries of buildings that formed the perfect indivisible unit courts of the Inca town planning, The liable city was clearly segregated from the agricultural area and residential neighbourhoods that surrounded-the city, even today is visible these patterns and the pre-Hispanic buildings that shaped the Inca imperial city. Upon the Spanish conquest in the 16th century, the urban structure of the Inca Imperial City of Cuzco remained as well as its stone buildings, temples, monasteries and houses that were built mainly in Baroque style With local adaptations. This generated a singular configuration which mixed high quality from the initial juxtaposition and the blending of different periods and cultures, as well as the continuity ofthe historical process of the city, whose remarkable syncretism is evident not only in 'its physical structure but also in its artistic expression, configured in viceroyalty as one of the most important centres of creation and production of religious art at the continental level, as wen as the customs and traditions of the population, many of which maintain their ancestral origins.

9

1.3 Rationale and World Heritage values Criteria C (iii) The ancient City of Cuzco is a unique testimony to the ancient Inca civilization, the seat of imperial government Taw anunsuyo, who exercised political religious and administrative power over much of the South American Andes between. the 14th and 16th centuries; This represents the culmination of 3,000 years of indigenous and autonomous social development in the Andes of southern Peru. Criterion C (iv) The ancient City of Cuzco is a unique testimony to the urban and architectural achievements of political, cultural and economic pre-Columbian of major settlements in South America. It is also an outstanding representative sample of the meeting of two different cultures, the Inca culture and the Spanish one, with the passing of the centuries has produced an extraordinary cultural syncretism, forming a unique architectural and urban structure. Integrity The ancient City of Cuzco preserves the spatial organization and most of the buildings of the ancient capital of the Inca Empire and the colonial era, showing along its streets and squares the original urban and architectural attributes. In spite of urban growth, the sectors where the former Inca imperial city was built are recognizable and evident, due to the ancient stone structures found in the construction technique that define and delimit streets and courts (basic housing units), on which temples, convents and homes of Colonial and Republican periods have been built and all their architectural components are kept intact, as well as works of art that are kept in their interiors. The urban sector is fully functional add also holds unique intangible values present in their customs, traditions and festivities. All these attributes are present and with no modifications within the defined area, which maintains its structural integrity. material and urban environment.
Authentictry

The authenticity of the Old City of Cuzco is based on the physical evidence of the urban formation; the streets, squares and buildings show the urban and architectural values of the original trace, use of space and the Inca and colonial architecture, the product of a syncretism that reached its maturity in the lSth century, reflecting the expression of their Outstanding Universal Value. These attributes attest to the importance of the Old City of Cuzco as thecentre of power of'the empire of Tawuntinsuyo, which represents a historical period that started 3,000 years ago until the J 6th century and its symbiosis with the settlement patterns and colonial building of the time. allows us to understand much more clearly the city and its historical process.

10

1.4 Background

and

Terms of Reference of the'Misston

The City of Cuzco was inscribed an the World Heritage List by the World Heritage Committee at its 7th Session (Florence, 5 - 9 December 1983), under criteria C (iii) and (iv). The Committee recommended that the protected zone be extended to the outskirts of the City to include the courts and ancient Inca villages (Decision SC/83/CONF.009/8). In 1993, several major urban remodelling projects were launched (Plaza de Armas and Qoricancha Archaeological Area); the Committee noted that the projects-and work must he carried out by specialists of the highest level, discussed with the local community, as well as the scientific and professional communities. It also mentioned the need to improve cooperation between the Municipality and the National Institute of Culture (Decision 17'COM SOC).

x-

In 1996, due to the existence of plans for the Historic Centre of the City of Cuzco that could have a negative impact on the Outstanding Universal Value of the site. the authorities were invited to establish appropriate planning mechanisms for the Historic City of Cuzco (Decision 20 COM VII.D.S3/S4 - SOC WHC-96ICONF.201l7B). In November 1997, USD 20,000 was approved from the Technical Cooperation Fund for the preparation of a Master Plan for the City of Cuzco. In 1998, concern was expressed regarding the conservation status of the City of Cuzco, and a request was made to the national and local authorities to carry out an adequate process for the preparation and implementation of'.a Master Plan for the City, taking into consideration publl.c spaces, as well as remodelling and new construction while respecting the historical, architectural and urban values which are representative of the City, in full accordance with international standards of intervention in historical urban areas (WHC-98/CONF.203/8). In 1999 the National Institute of Culture (rNC) and the Municipality of Cuzco were encouraged to assist in the preparation of the Master Plan for the City (WIiC99/CONF.209/6Rev). In 2003 after the completion of a renovation project for the Plaza de Scm Francisco, which included the planned construction of an underground parking garage, the Secretariat requested information on the subject which ended with the State Party deciding to cancel the parking lot. At that time, it was also reported by the INC that the dtaft Master Plan was under review. The Committee urged the State Party to finalize the Master Plan for the City of Cuzco (Decision WHC-03/27.COMI7B). In 2004 after receiving a copy Of the Master Plan and the Emergency Assessment of buildings of the Historic Centre (after heavy rains in February 2003), the Committee commended the State Party for their report and recommended the immediate implementation of their

11

conclusions. restriction concrete.

It-also requested the finalization of the MasterPlan studies .and regulations forconstruction

and the creation of provisions programme, traffic the use of reinforced

for it to be put into action with spec-inc regulations

for a risk preparedness materials prohibiting

Finally, it asked the State Party to consider nominating the archaeological site of Sacsayhuaman as an extension of the Cuzco property (Decision 28COM 15B.119; WHC04!28.COM/15B) In 2005 the Committee. commended
CULCO

the State Party for its efforts in the preparation and the Management to implement Plan of the archaeological the Master

of a site of

Master Plan for the City of

Sacsayhuaman, and were encouraged
7B.96; WHC-05/29.COM/7B.Rev).

Plan (Decision

29 COM

In 2009 the World Heritage Centre received various neighbourhood associations construction

information from the media, civil society and
regarding projects relating to

in the City of Cuzco

.in the Historic Centre of Cuzco, mainly the construction of the Marriot Hotel, the expansion of the Hotel Monastery and the construction of the Ima Sumaq Mall, which could
possibly impact the Outstanding Universal Value and conditions of authenticity and integrity

of the property. In February 201 O~ a report from the State- Party was received, of pressures from tourism and commercial of heritag_e conservation. and a loss of traditional including a description residential of the activity

site. with main issues relating to the loss of historic buildings, changes in land use as a result activities which had diminished of living conditions, due to inappropriate in the Historic Centre, an increased degradation To these problems architectural typologies and a lack of awareness interventions in changes

must be added issues with vehicular circulation and interventions that do not take level have of San

to the urban landscape" resulting that political changes

from illegal settlements between

into account the urban and architectural that happened affected the implementation the construction projects

features of the Historical

Centre. It also emphasized was sent regarding

2007 and 2009 at the Municipal information

of the Master Plan. Additionally, of: the Marrier

Hotel on the fanner

site of the Convent

Agustin: the expansion of the Hotel Monasterio in the old Beguine of the Nazarene; and the Ima Sumaq Mall, including part of the Inca wall on Loreto Street in the Historic Centre of the
town. Due to this situation, in 20 I0 the Committee Party to provide impact technical
00

at its 34th session (Brasilia) requested the State projects mentioned, and to assess integrity their of the with Value authenticity

information

on the three Universal management

potential property,

on the Outstanding frameworks

and to inform

the property's

system and its coordination

existing legislative

mainly at the Municipal

level. It also urged the State Party to mission from

update- the Master Plan to include the development

of the Public Use Plan of the Historic status of the site and

Centre. Finally, it required the State Party to invite a joint reactive monitoring the World Heritage Centre and LCOMOS, to evaluate the conservation

12

the effectiveness and appropriateness COM / 7B.llS).

of its management system (Decision WHC-10/34

With this background, the main objectives of the Mission therefore were to assess the conservation status of the site and the effectiveness and suitability of its management system, and to assess potential impacts to the Outstanding Universal Value, authenticity arid integrity of the property with regard to the 'Marriott Hotel project (taking place in the location of the former convent of San Agustin), the hotel expansion in the former Monastery of Las Nazarenas Beater, and the Shopping Centre lma Sumaq. The joint Mission took into consideration the dangers to and / or improvements in the conservation of the site. including progress made on the implementation of the previous Decisions of the World Heritage Committee on the conservation status of the site and any threats, damage and / or loss of Outstanding Universal Value, particularly, authenticity and / or integrity; which warranted the inscription of the property.

13

2 NATIONAL POLICIE,S FOR THE .PRESERV ATION AND MANAGEMENT THE WORLD HERITAGE PROPERTY

OF

2.J Protected Area Legislation
The legal and regulatory applicable framework related to the protection of cultural heritage levels. and for the City ofCuzco has been defined at the.national and municipal

2.1.1 National Level 2~1.1.1 Political Constitutien of Peru
Art. 21

° states: "The sites and archaeological sites, buildings, monuments, places, documents,

bibliographic and archival, art objects and evidence of historical value, are expressly declared cultural property. and provisionally presumed as such, as the cultural heritage of the Nation regardless of their status. as public or private property. They are protected by the state. The law guarantees ownership of that property. The law encourages, private participation in the conservation. restoration, exhibition and dissemination of it, and returning it to the country when it has been illegally transferred out alit: " 2.1.1.2 Law 28296 (21/7/2004) - National Cultural Heritage General Law
It s-ets national defence policies, protection, promotion, declaration property, legal status and use of lnstitute of Culture to the cultural protection and in the cultural cif the national

property which is of National Cultural Heritage; It establishes the National (INC) as a State Regulator It establishes involvement conservation for the registration, criteria for identification and classification

and protection of cultural heritage. of assets belonging criteria, the level of

heritage- of the nation and its registration; of the heritage guidelines

protective measures; ownership resources

by regional and municipal government for education,

agencies in the restoration, involved and promotion

as well as the economic

heritage protection; cultural heritage.

dissemination

2,.1.1.3 Supreme Decree N ° 01l ... '!006-ED (01106/2006)
Regulates National Cultural Heritage Law 2,8296 2.1.1.4 Legislative It establishesthe Decree No. 1003 (Ol/05/2008) need to obtain authorization from the

mc

in the case of public infrastructure of the

and public services that affect the land in which there are or could be real members national cultural heritage.

14

2.1.1.5 Legislative Resolution No. 2334-9 Peru ratifies its addition to the Convention on the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage (UNESCO, 1972) 2..1.1.6 Decree Law 22,682 (1976) Peru ratifies its addition to the Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological, Historical and Artistic Heritage of the.American Nations (Convention of San Salvador). 2..1.1.7 Law 27580 Provides protective measures. to be applied by the INC on how the work needs to be done on buildings that are part of the cultural heritage 2..1.1.8 Supreme Decree 017-2003-ED
It rules the organization and functions of the fNC as a state regulator with responsibility for

safeguarding the cultural heritage of the nation. 2.. .1.9 Law 27972 1 The Organic Law of Municipalities. It establishes responsibilities and roles of municipalities regard ing the protection, conservation, management and promotion of the cultural heritage. 2.1.1.10 Law 28611 General Environmental Law 2.1.1.11 Supreme Decree No. 024-2008- VI The Law 29090 regulates the Urban and Buildings areas .. In Article 8.3 it states that "in Provincial Municipalities there will be specialized committees of historic centres and monumental zones setup,and micro zones Zoning Commission and Urban Renewal 7'rea t t'. or ... 1 .men
ft· ."

2.1.1.12 Supreme Resolution N° 004-2000-ED Regulates archaeological research. It classifies the properties of the 'cultural heritage of Peru as pre-Hispanic arehaeological monuments, colonial landmarks and Republican, It states that sites defined as Pre Hispanic archaeological monuments are of national cultural heritage, so they are intangihleand are protected by the State. Establishes and regulates methods of

15

archaeological

research, characteristics

of research and archaeological

assessment,

conditions

for approval and sanctions.

2.1.1.13 Stand ard A 140 of Cul tu ral Properties
It aims to regulate the execution of the work done to buildings that are established buildings in order to contribute heritage. Monumental to the enrichment of cultural and preservation property (Historic Monument architectural Environment It sets the types Archaeological as cultural

of urban space and Area, Downtown, Area). It states that

Site or Historical

the heritage value of the historic urban areas lie in their buildings, open spaces and cultural events of its population, creating a distinctive image, which results in an attractive, identity of that promotes affection to the inhabitants, and cultural property, the criteria for which is the main objective of the conservation new constructions in historic areas

these properties .. It provides conditions for the work that needs to be done in the historic areas and the characteristics that the intervention project should have on the cultural property.

2.1.2 Municipal Level 2.1.2.1 Municipal
Municipal Ordinance

No. 02-AlMQ~SG-92

Code for the Protection of Historical City Cuzco Ordinance No. 027-00 MC

2.1.2.2 Municipal

Approves the Cuzco Urban Plan

2.1.2.3 Municipal

Ordinance

No. 028-00-MC

Urban Plan regulations for Cuzco

2.1.2.4 Municipal Ordinance It approves the Master
and regulatory rehabilitation protection

No. llS-05-MC

(11/03/2005) Centre of Cnzco. The Master Plan is a technical cultural, urban and environmental of special of Cuzco

Plan of the Historic
for the protection

instrument

of cultural heritage buildings, the comprehensive urban space. It is also an instrument of the Municipality

and social development,

the economics,

Historic Centre of Cuzco and its surrounding for archaeological sites, watersheds is an instrument for the government

and scenic areas around the Historic Centre. It of the Historic b)

and for the management

the National Lnstitute of Culture and other agents involved in the management Centre. It is based on three pillars: a) special regulations protection plan for the protection and revitalization that will protect and preserve tbe heritage and technically of the Historic Centre,

for the Historic Centre and areas of oriented interventions; which includes a set of

16

programmes, projects and ongoingactivities and to be able to achieve the objectives of protection, conservati on and rehabilitati on; c) management of programmes and projects. 2.1.2.5 Muniei.pal Ordinance No. 140-05-MC (12/30/2"005) It approves, the Regulations of the Master Plan of the Historic Centre of Cuze« .. It establishes general criteria and principles, general provisions far the Historic Centre of Cuzco (demarcation and zoning, protection,use and interventions in the Historic Centre; listing of properties; general guidelines to intervene m a property, land zoning; urban settings and buildings; provisions for open 'spaces, roads, transit and commercial transportation and promotion of housing), provisions forthe protected area of the Historical Centre (Historical Centre delineation, building conditions; parameters and urban building, commercial transportation), make arrangements to manage the Historic Centre (establishes management between the City of Cuzco, the INC and the district Municipalities in their jurisdiction, it creates a Coordinating Board for the Management of the Historic Centre consisting of the Mayor of the Municipality of Cuzco, the Regional Director and the District Mayor of INC, who will be assisted by the Technical Secretariat responsible for formulating the proposals for the management of the Historic Centre andthe implementation ofthe Master Pian).

2.2 Institutional framework
Under the current legal framework, the state agency partly responsible for the protection, preservation and promotion of the cultural heritage of Peru is the National Institute of Culture (INC), currently under the Ministry of Culture of the nation. In the case of the City of Cuzco, the jurisdiction is exercised by the Regional Direction of Culture (ORe) Cuzco. In accordance with the .provisions of Law 1'8296 General Law of Cultural Patrimony of the Nation (Title U, Chapter II; arts. 280 and 29°), in the management of a site. the DRC CUZC.o works with the cooperation of state agencies ( in this case; the Regional Municipality of Cuzco and the District Municipalities of Santia:go and Wanchaq). 2.3 Management structure According to the provisions of the Master Plan of the Historic Centre of Cuzco and its regulations, the management structure of the property is run by a Management Coordinating Board of the Historic Centre consisting of the Mayor of the Municipality of Cuzco, the Regional Director INC (Regional Direction of Culture Cuzco) and the appropriate Mayoral District, assisted by a Technical Secretariat responsible for formulating the proposals for the management of the Historic Centre and the Master Plan's implementation. The Technical Secretariat is composed of three representatives of the City of Cuzco and three representatives of the DRC Cuzeo. This body will be chaired by a Technical Secretary, who shall be appointed from the representatives mentioned above. It should be noted that up to the date of completion of the Mission, the Technical Secretariat of the Coordinating Board was not formally constituted.

17

3. IDENTIFICATION
This chapter discusses

AND ASSESSMENT OF ISSUES
the problematic aspects related to the management Value, authenticity of the Historic projects that of the of urban degradation Universal and the ongoing

Centre of Cuzco (HCC)~ the processes could pose a threat to the Outstanding historical heritage.

and integrity

3.1 Management
To assess the HCC's current condition, area; and the institutional permits for construction. Regarding the first aspect, the Mission must emphasize the positive fact that there is a Master structure management must take into account two aspects: the of urban interventions

provision of town planning, control and management
responsible

for monitoring

in the historical arid intervening by granting

Plan (MP) for the HCC that was written during 2003 and finally approved in 2005. The MP is the result ofajointeffort and the Town HaJI, therefore, between the Regional Bureau of Culture (ORC) ofCuzco as a technical reference for any decision of the HCC. Code that have the coritrol and monitoring

it can be considered

making between the two major institutions

The MP is the resu It of a long journey that started in 1992, when .as a result of assessing the damage of the earthquake of] 986, the first Declaration took place. The major stages of this long process, affected the area are: 1983 - 1992: The process of drafting and the final approval of the Declaration in of Monuments of MOnument" of the Municipal including two major natural events that

the Municipal Code;
and subsequent damage assessment; urban developments; (MP) as a result of joint action by of the city, with large-scaled

1986:: Natural disaster -earthquake 1992 - 1998.: The transformation 1999 - 2002: Production

of the Master Plan Guidelines

UNESCO. the National Institute of Culture and the Municipality;

2003 - 2004: Master Plan development
2005: Adoption of the Master Plan and Regulations 2006: Implementation of the MP; for the Historic Centre;

201;t9: Process diffusion of the MP;
2010: Natural disaster - January to February rainfall with landslides in the HCC. The MP is an urban instrument Regulations with completeand well-developed technical documentation, The

very interesting and useful for understanding for controlling In particular, and regulating the regulation the operations

the historical heritage and its management.

of the Historic Centre that accompany

the MP is the second most important tool

that refer to the various urban sectors identified a techno-political management instrument

in the plans of the MP. of the MP constitutes of the Historic Centre that was rigorously developed with conceptual and technical precision.

18

Firstly, fairness continuity

it contains
relating participation,

-a clear enunciation
to prevention, urban Secondly,

of the principles coordination

of the underlying and interagency Protection

instrument
cooperation.

(principles

conservation,

sustainabi Iity, integrity,
definition

responsibility,

decentralization,

and retention).
city. lnall

it makes a complete

ofthe Historic Centre
Areas surrounding

area the protected the historical

area of the Historic Centre and Landscape Cases there is precise description

and zoning of each area, together

with protection criteria, usage and operation. Of significance establishes (CH·VC) is the content related to real estate listings of the Historical I ) Buildings with Monumental Heritage (CH-MP). characteristics (CH-PI), 3) Buildings Centre. which 2) Buildings value

five categories:

with heritage value or individual any heritage

with contextual

4) Buildings with a heritage

or historical element (CH~EP), 5) Properties without or land that has not been built on (CH-SV). There are general conditions to
conditions by category listing, art issue that is

intervene in a property and there are particular Moreover key issues: a) Because they define a monumental particularly important

valued as highly positive for the purpose of protecting the Historic Centre and its components. are the provisions related to zoning and land use, under two

area, which represents the Historic Centre itself and that atthe Delimitation

includes the entire area inscribed on the World Heritage List, and also identifies a buffer zone adjacent to this Centre (position expressed 2004, see MP-regulation), (with minoradjustments) adequate protection. b) Because

POI MPHCC Structuring, April

which is in fact a delineation

of the buffer zone that corresponds

to the buffer zone of the World Heritage Centre that is required for

itarticulates the Centre in different homogeneous areas (different sectors of the Historic Centre, flat MPHCC P02 Land Use Zoning January 2004, MP~regulation)for which
provide an identification of transformation of downtown. that are established of the predominant functional vocation that is and that can the process and change that has occurred

specific regulations used to contrast

threaten the functionality Due to the zoning which includes according

urban and building parameters

in the downtown area,
and

both the Historic

Centre and the buffer zone, for urban development, were established.

to the parameters,

special building categories

It has a complete
transportation.

provision regarding open and public spaces, traffic, and urban and commercial Finally, the characteristics creating a Coordinating Municipality appropriate Board Municipality management to manage the Historical Board for the Management

Centre and buffer zone are established, of the

He

fanned

by the Mayor of the the

of Cuzco, the Regional

Director of Culture (formerly TNC) of Cuzcoand Secretariat composed of the MP. of three representatives proposals

District Mayors (in this' case the Municipalities

of Santiago and Wanchaq). The of the for the for formulating

is assisted of the

by a Technical

of Cuzco and three of the ORe, responsible

He and

the implementation

19

The implementation interventions contingency Agency Ministry and institutions

phase of the MP has beencharacterized of housing

by the performance of some pilot
of public spaces and by groups -and the of goed between different

on the rehabilitation

and renovation the ccltabcraticn

actions. In both pilot interventions, Development

that have financed the work has .been very important, Cooperation through the DRC. These interventions
represent

such as. the Spanish examples

for International of Culture

(A ECI) , the Municipality

practices regarding urban heritage conservation, not trigger additional interventions

however they remain isolated actions and do the central Plaza de Armas.

in other areas of the Historic Centre to address residential

use or enhance public spaces in areas that are more distant.from Some of the contingency - The process downtown actions.taken

have been very important. These.include: that has been strategic for some areas of to the market, and the

of relocation

of street vendors

such as the Plaza de Armas, Plaza de San Pedro; compared been pedestrian ized; intervention on downtown a visual decontamination of Preferential

some. streets ha vesince - Conducting

streets. representing

beginning of a process that should .be continued, - The delimitation Treatment on housing status, which focuses primarily policies against urban poverty. With reference downtown substitution to the sensitive

if there aresufficient
interventions

resources;
and implementation of

Areas (ATP) based on data from socio-economic sanitation

issue of maintaining as

policies

for residential developing

use in the gentrification

area of Cuzco, this has been fragile and has been threatened of the original population

by the progressive

a

result of a classic

process. The Mission must emphasize the persistence the buildings or the building areas with residential title, making the processes of intervention and also in dealing with conservation A second aspect and

of a base problem where almost 70% of of resources to persons very tedious projects. by the process foundation by of for

uses in the HOC do not possess a property

and allocation

and improvement

of the implementation

of the I\1P is constituted which for represents validation an

dissemination DRC have

awareness
several

raising,

important of the MP,

participation and consultation conducted neighbourhood associations

for the public, For this process; the City, in conjunction workshops with the basic objective of expanding knowledge

with the involving

and aboveall

collective awareness the archaeological Regarding characterized

of the value that represents

the cultural heritage ·of the Historic Centre,

areas and in general the collective memory of the City of' Cuzco. structure that is responsible situation for monitoring Management the HCC, and the appropriate as it is Office of the HC on on the other. The agents under the

the institutional

implementation

of the MP, the current by a competition offices

is riot the most Ministry

between theMunicipality of the DRC's

one hand, and the technical situation of institutional of the Historic regulation Centre.

of Culture the managing

dualism that has been created in Cuzco is a threat to the preservation This same situation has prompted in January 2010, with the first meeting of

of MP to be only nominally constituted

20

the Coordinating Secretariat management

Board, which has not had any continuity for the effective arid technical

and without the creation of the of the MP by the

provided

implementation

of the HCC. the current management of the HCC needs-to have the rnaximum Downtown". On this basis it may 2.1 - Protection rehabilitation; ~.1 and and

Faced with these conditions cooperation strengthen 11.2 "Creating

between the Municipality the management the processes

of Cuzco and the ORe under the MP in the Programme contained in the MP, including:

unit for the Historical

of the programmes

of the bui It heritage; Integral Rehabilitation mitigation monitoring of natural activities.

2.2 - Val ue of the built heritage and comprehensive of the HCC; 4.2 - Housing rehabilitation; hazards; 8.1 - Sustainable Tourism;

6.Monitori'ng? prevention 10.2 - Implementation

This tends to ensure an effective process of continuous proposals and transformation projects, interventions the heritage and Historic Centre in general

monitoring

of the status of the 1=fCC,

and the work done, and actions taken on

3. 2 Factorseffecting the property
Factors that pose those aspects
-3

threat to the conservation

of the HCC can be divided into two groups':

linked

to

overcrowd-lug

and urban degradation

'iri a residential

part of the under way in of

heritage downtown;

and the major restructuring processes,

measures arid new construction

some sectors of downtown. In the first case there are complex dwellings, as well as the presence linked to issues of tenure and ownership persons of low-income interventions who are unable to invest in the and development

upkeep -and maintenance. of real estate. The second case 'involves-specific for tourism purposes in the Centre, related to the transformation

3.2.1 The process of urban degradatibn in poor netghbourboods In general. the situation in the historical downtown area has Improved greatly III recent decades, this is based on information received during the Mission, documentation and
photographs consulted, and the cases of degradation during the visit has asignificanr private assistance. However, verify that the phenomenon emerging ill the area. In the visit to the Barrio de San Pedro, which according to recent data istheneighbourhood with themost eases of degradation in its residential blocks, the Mission was able to note ana that remain as a negative of small residential issue units verify the scope? status and processes of urban degradation

to the

appear to be in decline due to public and

San Pedro district, the Mission- was able to
and is still one of the major problems

presence

relating to the property's conservation. The urban degradation primarily occurs as a very dense occupation

of one or two floors that occupy the-centre of the block, in most cases what was originally the second courtyard of the old colonial houses. These homes are made with.durable are usually very small (families materialand living in one or two quarters). There is. an evident lack of an

21

infrastructural network and basic services necessary for habitation; and the overall conservation status of the original part that still exists in the built structure is poor in most cases.

Ancient building in San Pedro neighbourhood. units and the lack of maintenance

Note thefragmentation

in many housing

a/the buildings

Ancient mansion in San Pedro neighbourhood presently stone arches are still preserved.

"hovelized ", The Original

Note the access stairway to the ancient living rooms on the mainfloor of the original mansion

22

Another ancient building in.SanPedro neighhourhood"hovelited" at present Note the contemporary addition over the ancient archway in stone and brickwork

Partially recovered upperfloor gallery in an ancient building in San Pedro neighbourhood presently "hovelized"

23

Minimal housing units built inside an ancient building in San Pedro neighbourho(Jd. The evidence of lack ofbasic hOZlsingJqcilities is remarkable reflect high degradation for a large number

The cases that were visited in the neighbourhood

of buildings, and the resulting overcrowding in these blocks furtherexaeerbates the problem. On the other hand, the Mission was able to visit some Qfthe-Pl'0pcrties being operated by the
Municipality with the assistance of the AECID.ln these eases, intervention has focused on the

clearing of the yards of the smaller buildings that were used as bathrooms, storage OF isolation rooms, and the subsequent rehabilitation of open spacesand the creation of new 'sanitary facilities in suitable locations and equipped with the necessary mfrastructure,
However these are isolated interventions overcrowding that only solve part of the problem. The problem of

still remains, as the rehabilitation of these courts DOW oceupied by slums require a reduction in the capacity of housing, and in the number of inhahitants currently

24

Iiv ing (in appalling conditions) start the recovery process,

at the property. Added to these are the insufficient resources to information on the implementation such as the expulsion of the situation of the population of the

as well as insufficient

policies related to building in the .downtown area, to regularize living in the historic area without producing population from downtown. The situation of negative processes

Barrio de. ~r{an edro is a problematic one, as-it relates to the implementation P

of policies againsturban poverty and creating: newresidential opportu_nities for affordable housing. It is an issue that transcends neighbourhood management and has now become -a
much larger prob1em. Therefore the entire city. the definition of ail urban

policy

would be in the interest of

View of collapsed houses in the streets of San Pedro neighbourhood with no tecovery interventions

25

,'Hove Iized

I'

housing units in the back porch of an ancient building in the

San Pedro neighbourhood

26

Facade overlooking Calle San Pedro being restored with AECJDfund~

27

Ancient building of the mansion house type in San.Pedro neighbourhood with no recovery interventions. It preserves original characteristics

Building damaged by heavyrainfall in February 20/0 in the San Pedro neighbourhood

28

Decqy and "hoveltzatton" in ancient buildings in the-San Pedro neighbourhood

29

3.2.2 Projects for tourism andcemmereial
interventions development that transformed properties

development
of three major are linked to a in the Historic high-end Centre, which

One of the main objectives of the M ission was to determine the 'characteristics process of activities related to the tourism andcommercial sector. were related

These two projects

to two new

hotels (the Marriot Hotel and an of part of a block on the new

extension of the Hotel Monasteriov, and the transformation
Sumaq Ima Shopping Centre.

3.2.2.1. The MarriotHote.l
The building intervention at the Marriot Hotel which occupies the entireblock is. the responsibility once occupied by the convent of San Agustin,

of the Soctedad de Inversiones, La Rioja

which acquired the property in 2007.

Localization

in an aerial photo of the Historic

Centre
the history of the land

The following are the highlights and building developments,

of the main events that characterize

destruetion and transformation

ef the old convent buildings.
in 1-645, 86 years

The church and cloister originally had been built in 1559amj was completed later. The main stages of the colonial building were as follows' :

1586: The main Chapel was built 9Y Niealas Alonso 1599: Construction begins next to the altar for the Chapels of San. Jose and San LUis 1623: The main altar is built, constructed of cedar wood and-covered entirely in gold
leaf

1629: The pulpit is enlarged and the choir stall fitted with

its own

facade

I The source of historical data is the ratio .provided tothe Mission by the company that is performingthe intervention, "Inversiones La Rioja", which has a historian as a eonsuljantarchiteet.

30

1634: Crucified,

Don Pedro lengthening

de MezGconstructsanaltarpiece

for the Chapel

of the Holy Christ on both sides, he

the cedar wood choir stalls with two grandstands

renovated the forepart of the roof, constructed of Mount Caramel; type. 1645:

a lectern for the choir and an altar to OUf Lady Christ, produces three covers

Covers inside the Chapel of the Crucified

(two for entry into the church arid the convent cloister) and built a square tower ashlars stone Martin de Torres completes the altar of Our Lady of Carmen; he builds a new altar

for St. Nicholas (three niches, two bodies) and a third altar piece for the altar ofthe Chapel of Santa Monica, which is on one side of the church. In 1650 Cuzco suffered destruction the worst earthquake of the colonial period, which resulted 'in the

of a portion of the church and the original cloister, The main historical events that

concern the property between 1650 and 1950 areasfollows:

"1650: The earthquake destroyed. half of the church, four corners ofthe cloisterand
ef'their cells.

almostall

1825:. General Simon Bolivar decree's, the expulsion of the Augustinians from Peru. 1840: CUZCd's Mayor General Austin Gamarratlestroys "the church and 'much of the cloister. Later a-street was 'opened alongthe main aisle of'the church called the Ruins of St. Augustine.
After the interventions transformations whichare of General Gamarna in the nineteenth century,

the site hiad other

summarized in the

following,maps:

TRANSFORMAC10N URBANA

"'"

A~lttura IlIe la calle RUil'Jas de San Agustin. EI pre.dio se transfarma SA; cuanel mltltar.

1'!l1le'i'OS linderos

y IOl:i:Zaaon de areas ~lblElS (Eaneflcencfra, P)lYI!:illaal. :$€ reducH~ 6.500 m~

31

The last major event is the earthquake of 1950 which resulted in the walls of the transept of the church collapsing which were a large porthole window, and the few remaining remnants of the Convent. The following image represents the only remaining arch of the church.shortly before it collapsed in the quake.

1Jbm: Indians et Paru (~Il5O) F"tI:t!:T. PWr"rv VOliIJf Ttr.lCtm! luI!!; E_ 'l . ·ad Ecfttoriat: Tba pot,Imorrtas. PI

From 1950 until the area was abandoned, there were various uses of the built-area (a food mill, oven, ceramic pro duetion , etc.) introducing additions and alterations to the internal buildings. Fromthe 1956s to the 1960s, the site was' gradually abandoned with various buildings becoming ruins. Simultaneously, various processes were taking place within the main site of the convent, with the consolidation of the Ruinas Street, which separates the northern sector of the street (originally part of the convent) that has been transformed into shops and houses and also the eastern portion ofthe property that bas been transformed into houses. The recent acquisition by the Inversiones La Rioja fot the completion of a .hotel concerned only the remaining part of the original site as seen in the following-maps:

32

ifRANSFORMACION

,_

URBANA

Desmembramiertto ,lliel pradio rnalrlz .:oo 15.5"001 m: rSociemad Comerllitll CarfYargas ota.z

Nuevo predlo'Clm 4450m~ de axtellsloo,esatll;Juir.iIltfi 'POf n""-erslorres La Rioja

In 2007, the Inversiones La Rioja purchased the property and decided to conduct renovations to transform what had remained ofthe old convent into a hotel. Based on the survey conducted prior to the renovation by the company responsible for the work and found and confirmed by the technicians of the ORe, the historical continuances in the estate were: Intervention proje~t for the construction of the Marriot Hotel
-

-

EDIFICACIONES
ORIGINAUS

HS9~'645

,EDIFICACIONES
ORIGINALES

lWmMlmAS

PLANO O~ CAUFICACIONES 2000 - IJ ETAPA bE INVESTIGACION

33

This project has had a long history starting from early 2000 to the present day. During this time it has been characterized by several directional changes due to monitoring interventions made by the DRC and the Municipality aimed primarily at implementing archaeological investigations. With reference to the few Colonial and Republican remains, these have been set aside (as indicated on the map and photos annexed to this Report), rescued and re-assembled correctly, as had been ascertained by the Mission's visit. The intervention for the implementation of a five-star hotel also requires the creation of a basement with two floors, whose construction requires not damaging the remains of the old colonial central patio (the main arches were of particular concern, as well as the stone columns and other elements). It has been agreed by the Company and the DRe that they will be closely monitored, Some details and decorative stones iontile colonial style were made in modern times in the second half of the twentieth century; these too were rescued by the Company and will be reused in the new hotel construction. Regarding the archaeological remains the intervention can be divided into two main aspects: the excavation and discovery of Inca remains within the block (in the area to be occupied by the hotel) and the restoration of the ancient Inca walJ that characterizes Pasaje Santa Monica, in the south side of the block. In the 'first case, work has been very closely monitored and the Company has anexpert archae-ologist responsible for investigations who works in collaboration with the DRC and the Municipality. The result is the discovery of walls, old foundations some graves with remains and grave goods and original hydraulic lines. All traces of the graves and pipe lines have been rescued, cleaned and prepared for exhibition inside the hotel, in some cases within some larger rooms, and some as part of a permanent public exhibition. Offerings and other ceramic items that have been discovered in tombs have been recovered, catalogued and delivered to the DRe. In the second case, the Inca wall has been investigated thoroughly and it has been found that some of the stones are not original' however, it was nevertheless restored so that the wall will show a complete reconstruction of the original image of the old street Passage Inca Santa Monica, The restoration work is nearly completed and was performed under the supervision of the DRe. Actions undertaken 2008 - 2010 1. Interventions: - Wall restoration of the Epistle of the Church; - The restoration of the Republican Gallery; - The restoration of the Arches of the Cloister Convent Sectors West, South, East' - The restoration of the Chapel' - The restoration and enhancement of the findings of both prehispanic structures from the Killkeculture, as well as the Inca culture as a result of archaeological evaluations conducted, and also resulted in the location of a colonial wall and other evidence; - The restoration of the main e-ntrance;

34

- The restoration

of the Wall Street Santa Monica; monitoring and disassembling of various structures approved by for intervention and demol ition),

- The archaeological

"Licencia de obra y Demo lie ion " (Permission

2. Work performance
Before starting the work for archaeological been abandoned monitoring. it was noted that the building and was classified had for many years without maintenance; by its conservation

status BAD and lor badly damaged due to a number of issues and changes in different periods or as a rest! It of natural causes and human acti vi ty . Archaeological • evidence found due to the archaeological structur.es have been found, and restored in the UE-l0. monitoring work on building No. and Republican, these are Killke 432 on the street Calle Ruinas, corner with Calle San Agustin: Prehispanic structures as well as Colonial to enhance its value, in the UE-06, Which will be conserved Colonial and Republican • • The cultural material been properly registered demonstrated

the inca structure

the Inca structures, in the UE-] 9. have ofINC-Cuzco. and not in its of the and

UE-05 (early, intermediate

and late colonial) arabesque as special findings

style apartment in the UE-] 1, th.e floor I.evel and foundation in general and those considered and documented

under the supervision

The lower layers or earlier structures

at least in the north and north-east, have
through the construction of the Prehispanic period. excavation units

levels that need to be filled that are fairly fragmented church. has devastated all vestiges

original context. It is a clear sign that the sector former Augustinian •

Colonial times, and the same thing during the Republican

Those elements made out of or related to stone that were out of context and with historical value, were recovered from the different archaeological due to' the result of the various periods of destruction Republican Cuzco's constructions. eras, as well as by large-scaled earthquakes starting- in the Colonial and recorded throughout and in newer

history. These stone items could be reused in restoration

Proposal for the intervention on the south, east and west arches of the San Agustin Cloister - Marriott Hotel
1. Consolidation 2. Removal of the arches with a preliminary application of epoxy and whitewash the anastylosis and bracing of the elements by using gauze and plaster; of the pier or abutment of the south-west corner through process, the lattice elements were moved to a room and assembled three rows of stone. The core elements came together of cobbles, stones, reused masonry and bricks' 3. 4. Test cut with a diamond blade fo.r the replica arc that was made with similar materials; The formworkdone of wood; 5. Preparation of the environment with cloths for arches withsections between keys and half sticks to dry in groups of

in another group and consisted

for the storage of dismantled parts from the concrete.

35

Current status: At this current time after the dismantling and storage of the colonial arches, the mass removal of earth for the space occupied by the three basements is being carried out, with an archaeologist who will permanently monitor the work given that the arches found in Sector 5 are the boundary between the new work in the basements and the archaeological outdoor area. After the completion of the flew construction in the basement. the colonial arches will be relocated to their original location. lnterventions at the foundations of the perimeter wall of the Pasaje Santa Monica are also being finalized with supervision by an archaeologist from the monitoring team. Con elusions: From the historical documents available to the Mission (maps, critical surveys, photographs of the site before intervention) and from the information gleaned during the field visit, it could be ascertained that profound transformation processes have occurred which have affected the property (earthquakes, destruction by the military republican era the old church bombing, the introduction of new buildings for new uses in the 60s etc.) Very few components of the original Colonial building and the successive transformations of the Republican 'era remain. In general, the remains from the Convent of San Agustin, which compromised the overall value of the: old building and the buildings that remainedin the block, were largely carried out with no formal connections, functionality and techniques that would give a sense of completion. Based on these guidelines, which have been considered in a very professional manner by technicians who ate in charge of the current work, a project was developed to transform the site into a hotel that has taken the task of conservation and inclusion of all the remains that were isolated on the block, either from the Prehispanic, Colonial or Republican eras, and in some cases (such as the great portal of the street ruins) also details that were in "style" in the 19405 and 50s. The adaptation of the historic area of the San Agustin Convent for the use of the Hotel has taken into account the presence of heritage sites within its boundaries and valorizing structures from the Prehispanic, Colonial and Republican times, with prior archaeological assessment. The Hotel's space requirements are being met without transforming the original volumes or the urban fabric which dominates the Historic Centre. mainly through the rehabi Iitation of the vaults beneath the convent's original courts. The application of sophisticated structural technologies are compensated based on space J imitation s irnposed by the presence of assets, with a rigorous tracking system to ensure that there are no impacts or danger to elements classified as heritage. The archaeological assessment carried out bas identified underlying structures of Inca and pre Inca times' their presentation was included in the project by assigning museum functions and display within the Hotel. In general terms, it seems that the project and the work have been prepared by professionals that were very attentive to the preservation of the present historical value and in the course of the intervention all the necessary checks and investigations were done. Archaeological monitoring and evaluation to assess the rescue with the utmost care for the archaeological

36

remains found during the excavations All archaeological been prepared city's history. This is a very important investment intervention

were specifically encouraging

requested

by the DRC and the City. of spaces for public use has of this part of the significant

remains have been restored, and a distribution

to allow for their visitation,

the presentation constant

Which requires

monitoringand

by the proponent private party. With regard to the important [neY" wall which was reconstructed in the existing colonial Santa.},;jv:nicd Street, it was-proposed -that it be dearly displayed with proper signage arid protectien, so as to enable viewing, from the street and
from the insides of the future hotel. Particulailyimpottant, expansion of archaeological research,
-

is the compJetion.i!nd inspection

-

perhaps the

with: continuous

adequate protection and final presentation ANNEX TO THE SKCTU)N

by the DRe to ensure of the archaeOlogical sites.aadfuture pub lit visits.

ON THE HOTE.L MARRIOTT PROJECT

!Plar 0 de sectcrlzaclen

=:t

:E

=...J ....
:'.)
CI)

BlOQUE 06

o z u >

aLOQUE 08

All images below were submitted by the Sociedad de Inversiones La Rioja, and are part of the materials presented to the Mission in order to document the work and research done and the project that needs to be developed.

Photos of the property prior to intervention

37

Above - Ruins Street in early 20,00. the portal is a reconstruction Qf the 1950s, however the windows and smaller openings arc recent and partly linked to the activation of ne}11
businesses.

Below - Arches constructed in late Republican period-which have been covered by the Municipality/or hygiene and safety reasons

The following are other photos taken by La Rioja Company prior to the intervention.

38

VERIFICAOON

DEL rNMUEBLE - CAtLE RUINAS

Tecnologia ccnstructrva cerrternporarree y amblantes precarios agregados en diferentes spac-as sin velar estel1iCO ni ~unoioT1al.

;tQAUII1IifAf1, 1)1; I01;I$CRHO .... 11~mt\;Oli A,liIl:ll~nTE~HIA'(;I",Ul FACH,w",

lhuliC$ tfol;ci ..:\JI"'Il."I~n"~
~fi'l~

il'<'lDID'lI:

IJlLC J;!S1I~

Estructuras de fierro, concreto y ledrilloen

distintos arnbientes

(;l:l~ A1U.I/U.lO

Ii' Vl~Di;_ CPJj~Ji:l ~A!;)Il'!, II Em'l!J~1QN DE AOOIIL

Jlwii:!IIf~. 'W; ~lU.,_O

f:(PosiUX> Al.AJ'J>.~l<p!li;JA'I'M:~~.lA~
ARIiIIlJ)AY V~ d:lI\rCE~

I<tJ!IiIAS L'C (lIJBRl' ~A"a'SJI

_

0U:Iif.I'L'IiI'l- ... ~~
I~~

~~~

_..._-...... ,...

"E$TIIUCTlIQA

1"1I£_1;CIIRJlIl1E~~I!.I,l!l$

!>I,Imt:ru;JICr;

C);i1UIEsI"ONoFA Ollltl ~u.J>, ~I..I.:E &l11!!i'IS . .,EMf 1EtIll:Df!: GIiJII,.1IiI

Pf; j:Qt~
Ul,iflit

~ 1flId)'!;1Wi1!AS

!;,lUI.

1'1IO'~!iO'DE ~A:If. DE - EIIi1ES GE_l:OI!IIIIETtIy C6QW' c.afirrEl!;1POIlAIoiEOS ~1J:l. UlF~ lEt1iFflii,!!it;l\)N CMIliTflU1DA EN LAIlECAIIA llEL 1lIl

39

Construcciones informarles de concreto, latdrildo y adobe p-ara distlntos uses en ernbl entes intericres

IClIIM QU~5I! I!Jif!:mmAl!;A 1Il1Pn:!~ lI~lJI_CAl'IlJ.A

40

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