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By: M H Lakdawala
Chapter 1. Copy INTRODUCTION
What is Copywriting? Copywriting is essentially selling with words. Copywriting is using words to convince readers they will benefit (come out ahead) by using a certain product or service and then motivating them to take action (buy). Copywriting is the words used in advertisements, TV commercials, and brochures. Whenever a business promotes itself (through a press release, a leaflet or a newsletter), it needs a copywriter. That’s why copywriting is everywhere - on big posters, local newspaper ads, and every clever slogan. And when you put a postcard in a newsagent's window, to sell your old hi-fi, you're using copywriting again. Copywriting is probably the most creative and demanding branch of writing. You start with a blank sheet of paper. You may have only a couple of days to meet the client’s deadline. And your work could be read by millions of people. Who needs copywriters? The market is vast. Every business, small and large, has to promote itself. Every company needs leaflets or direct mail letters. And every new product needs a pack that will entice us to buy it. These days all organizations need to communicate. That includes hospitals, local authorities and charities. So the opportunities for the copywriter are infinite. Because organizations constantly alter, their literature and ads need regularly changing, too. That keeps copywriters busy!
I. Attributes of a good copywriter
1. A good copy writer has an excellent and well-rounded portfolio - Take a look at a copywriter's past work. Is it professional? Do you see some good concepts? Are the projects high-caliber? You don't necessarily have to see work that is specific to your particular industry. A broad spectrum of work demonstrates a copywriter's talent and skill as well as the ability to adapt her knowledge to just about any market. A good portfolio will also show experience in a range of formats, such as print, web, outdoor, direct mail, press releases and corporate By: M H Lakdawala 2
communications. 2. has plenty of marketing and public relations savvy - Pretty words are, well, pretty. But they don't necessarily do what you want them to do for you. Look for a copywriter who has a rich background in marketing and public relations. That person will have a quicker and deeper grasp of what the copy needs to do and how to make it do it. 3. Listens to clients - When a copywriter listens to a client, wheels are turning. He's making observations about the "who, what, when, where and why" of your company, product or service. Questions come to his mind. He will have things he wants to discuss and find out more about. But first, he listens carefully to what you have to say. 4. Asks the right questions - You don't want an order taker; you want a copywriter who knows how to find out what she needs to in order to do the best job. What is your goal? Who do you need to sell to? Why should people care about your product or service? What sets you apart from your competition? What does your product or service does and how does it do it? How are you already reaching out to your audience with marketing and public relations? 5. Doesn't always take your word for it - Sure, it's important for a copywriter to understand the client's take on the situation. But a thorough copywriter will do a little digging on his own to find out things like how the competition brands itself, what's being said about your company, product or service and what is generally important to your customers' buying decision. 6. Brings ideas to the table - You tell your copywriter you want content for your web site, just your basic About Us, Products & Services and How to Contact Us. A good copywriter will make suggestions, like "Have you thought about featuring some case studies?", "Have you had a key word analysis yet?" or "How about doing a newsletter that will let you capture email information?" 7. Can develop concepts - The copywriter's approach to a project is often determined by the client's process. Sometimes a graphic designer has already created a look and feel, determined what the tone should be. Other times, the copywriter is called upon to help shape the message from the beginning. Find a copywriter who has experience developing concepts and you'll have someone who can make a broader contribution to the project. 8. A good copy writer is empathetic - Read something written by a good writer and you can tell that she truly becomes the customer, brings that person right into her head. When she writes about a new home, she imagines walking through her dream house. When the reader will be a business person who has been thinking seriously about going back to school for that MBA, the copywriter feels that person's restlessness and desire to move up.
By: M H Lakdawala
9. Offers flexibility - You need someone who will meet your time constraints and deadlines. Or maybe the copywriter will need to be proactive and persistent about getting information from some very busy, hard to reach people. Whether it's patience or persistence you require in your copywriter, she should be someone who can deliver. 10. Is someone you enjoy working with - In the end, when you've determined that a copywriter has what it takes--talent, skill, experience, savvy--it comes down to whether or not she is someone you respect and enjoy working with. The work will thrive if you're a good team.
PRINCIPLES OF COPYWRITING
1. Use Attention Getting Headlines For example – print ad for DHL uses only one word as it’s headline – “URGENT”, which is underlined in red, and is enough to attract anyone’s attention. Star TV print ad for The Big Fight does not use words, but uses a pair of boxing gloves as headline. 2. Expand Headline with Lead Paragraph Follow up the headline immediately with the first paragraph. If you ask a question, answer it. If you propose a thought, explain it. Don't leave them hanging too long; you may end up hanging yourself. The ad for Maruti N2N fleet solutions uses the headline “ Who says managing a huge fleet of company cars is hard work? This is followed by the lead paragraph which explains how Maruti N2N works 3. Draw the Reader In Avoid page and advertising layouts that are confusing or hard to read. Reading your message should be a pleasure to read. Keep your copy simple, clear and concise. Talk to your reader as you would a friend or family member. Be straight and sincere with them. Spell it out and explain points that need explaining. Don't leave your reader second-guessing your copy. 4. Focus on the Reader, not the Product By: M H Lakdawala 4
Of course your copy must contain information and facts about your product or service, but that is not your focal point. You must focus the reader. Use their needs, wants, desires, fears, weaknesses, concerns, and even fantasies to sell your product or service. The ad for Lakme Deep Pore Cleansing begins with the headline “There's a lot that shows on your face”. The body copy includes - Now, one-and-a-half minutes is all it takes to uncover the real you. Presenting the complete Deep Pore Cleansing Regimen from Lakme. Simply because your face says it all. Thus, not only does the ad talk about the product, it also focuses equally on the reader. Using words like “you” would make the reader feel good, rather than an ad that boasts about the product but says nothing about how to use it, how it could make your life better, etc. 5. Use the "That's Right!" Principle Get your prospect to agree with you. Tell them something they know already. Get them to say to themselves, "That's Right!" The print ad for JW Marriott starts with the headline -: Your mom knows exactly how you like your bed, your toast, and your coffee…. This headline will indeed make the target exclaim – that’s right! 6. Ask Provocative Questions: Leading into your copy or headline with thought provoking questions will grab the reader's interest and move them to read more for the answer. The ad for Deccan Chronicle uses an attractive female model asking a provocative question like – “Want to play the number Game?”. The ad actually talks about the impressive figures of circulation of the Deccan Chronicle. 7. Move Quickly from Intro to the Pitch: Don't waste your reader's time trying to "warm them up". If they got that far, there's blood flowing already. People are busy creatures. If you lose their interest, you neither sell nor profit. Get on with it! 8. Be Sincere: What's the number one fallback for sales on the web? Fear! Fear of being scammed or ripped-off. The more sincere you are the better your chance of building a "selling" relationship. The sincerity and genuineness of Air Sahara comes across in its ad where the body copy says – as hard as we may try at this time of the year (winter), there
By: M H Lakdawala
are chances of flight delays due to weather conditions. Every step is taken to help passengers get to their destinations on time. To make this process easier, we need your help too. 9. Don't Contradict Yourself: Double-check your copy. You would be surprised to know that many copywriters unknowingly contradict themselves leaving the reader suspicious, thus destroying your credibility with them. 10. Keep Your Focus Aligned The more focused your target group, the better your chance of meeting their needs. Don't try to sell everyone! 11. Make Your Product Irresistible Dress it up. Your product should sound like the cream of the crop. Focus on your selling point (price, quality, etc) and make it impossible for the reader to imagine another in comparison.
12. Use Fear as Motivation: Fear is both a weakness and strength, but also a powerful selling tool. Fear of injury, death or missed opportunity. If you sell a safety product you would use this fear to your advantage. If you're offering an opportunity, the fear of missing their chance is a strong seller. Many ads for financial services use fear to motivate their target. For example in the ad for New India Assurance – Shop Owners Policy, a shop owner imagines a riot occurring near his shop, which causes damage to his shop I.e. the physical property. Thus fear is used to motivate shop owners to get their shops insured under the policy offered by NIA. 13. Flattery will get you everywhere Yes, everyone likes to hear a little flattery. Keyword here is "little". Don't overdo it! 14. Be Personable Let them know that there is a kind, honest and real person behind the page. People would rather deal with people, not companies, corporations or conglomerates. Add the "Human Touch" to your copy. Ex: the institutional ad for Eureka Forbes which shows model Aditi Gowatrikar with her child has a human touch to it, what with the body copy saying – “…times have changed. Yet your dreams remain the same. So open up. Say ‘yes’ to life…” 15. Its Guaranteed
By: M H Lakdawala
Using personal pronouns like "you". you will get a year’s supply of your detergent free. Certain words have proven to be movers and shakers in the advertising world. Examples of persuasive and attention-grabbing words Easy Genuine Immediate More Convenient Advantages Instant Biggest Exclusive Comfortable WANTED Oldest Indulge Dependable WARNING Original 17. Go with the Flow Writing copy requires the ability to make a smooth transition from one point to another. Use "Power"ful Words: "Power" words are words that move a buyer by enhancing and reinforcing your presented idea. Finding misspelled words in copy leaves the reader wondering how competent your product or service could be. the anchor promises that if “your” detergent is better than Vim Bar. Share a Secret People want to get the inside track. 16. Transitional words are used to go from one point to another. if you cannot take the time to be sure you spelled the words in your web copy correctly. Check Your Spelling Take the time and spell-check your work. Keep It Lively: There are many ways to keep your copy lively. 20. For example. Telling a (brief) story is a strong technique for getting your message across. By: M H Lakdawala 7 . This guarantee lends credibility to the offering and induces the viewer to act. If you can convince your prospect that you have an exclusive message for them. you're one step closer to a sale. in the Vim Bar TVC.A guarantee reassures the reader that you are reputable and will live up to your promises. we and us will add a sense of warmth to your copy. learn to use transitional words. If used correctly a picture really is worth a thousand words. Use Photo's to Demonstrate: Use photos to demonstrate your product or service. 19. 18. 21. Separating and highlighting key information or facts is another. Rather than laying them out like a list.
Ads for cosmetics generally use photographs to demonstrate the benefits of using the product – smooth skin. 24 Create a Memorable Logo Create a simple. People want to hear what others have to say about your product or service. If organized correctly they can also help sort facts or messages into categories. 26. reputable testimonials. Create an Unforgettable Slogan Use a short. Tell them to respond. By: M H Lakdawala 8 . Offer a bonus or freebie if they respond. 23. The ad for Toyota Qualis uses arrows to draw the readers’ attention to the unique features of the vehicle such as integrated bumper. Visa – Go get it Pepsi – Yeh Dil Maange More Asian Paints – Merawalla…. Nike – Just Do It. Use Graphics to get Attention: Using buttons. etc. icons and arrows can help direct the reader's attention to important details. wood finishes paneling. captain seats. 22. Give them a reason they should respond now. Spell it out for them. etc. but memorable logo or custom graphic that your visitor can easily relate to your product or service Examples: Nike swoosh Tata Mercedes McDonald Golden Arches 25. fairness. Offer Testimonials Offer short. Get a response There are many techniques for getting a prospect to respond. Diana Hayden – Miss World 1996 offers testimonial for Loreal Hair color. Tell them why they should respond. easy to remember slogan that a reader will walk away with on his or her lips.
This can be done by using words like – order now. last chance. order today. 3999 only By: M H Lakdawala 9 . Ex: Service – ICICI Bank – Two Wheeler Loans “Take Home Passion (Hero Honda Passion) by just paying Rs. for a short time only. etc.
STAGES IN COPYWRITING/ THE APPROVAL PROCESS Product Manager of Client Legal Client Service (Agency) Creative Director Account Management Team Legal Art Director Senior Writer Acct. Once the approval is received. are communicated to the creative department The (rough) ad is then shown to the client servicing dept. The dept. This brief is then broken down into creative and media brief. Supervisor Account Manager Staff Writer The client company representative (product manager) gives the brief to the client-servicing department of the ad agency. if any. the creative department goes ahead with the actual production of the ad. These two work in conjunction to create the ad. By: M H Lakdawala 10 . The (rough) ad is then shown to the account management team consisting of the supervisor and manager. They look into legalities that might affect the ad and whether the ad meets the client’s brief and budget. Changes. The ad is finally shown to the client for his approval. The creative brief is given to the creative director who passes it on to the art director and the copywriter. might also suggest changes.
Advertising P Developing an Advertising Plan An advertising plan is a document created with the goal of matching the most effective message to your audience. how to accomplish those goals. how to accomplish those goals. Developing an Advertising Plan: An advertising plan is a document created with the goal of matching the most effective message to your audience Definition: An outline of what goals an advertising campaign should achieve. and how to determine whether or not the campaign was successful in obtaining those goals. An Advertising Plan Matches the Right Audience to the Right Message and Presents It in the Right Medium to Reach That Audience Advertising Plan Definition: An outline of what goals an advertising campaign should achieve. Creative Strategy: Planning and Development I. and how to determine whether or not the campaign was successful in obtaining those goals. Marke By: M H Lakdawala 11 .Chapter 2.
• II.• By: M H Lakdawala I. • VI.Typical Advert Plan Out IV. V. The Creative Pl Executive Summar Situation Analysis The Media Plan Advertising Proble The Com mOpport Advertising unic 12 Introduction III.• Key Strategy Deci Sales prom otion • • • Advertising Object Public relations Target Audience .
In seeing or performing something in a manner different from what was thought possible or normal previously. What Is Creativity? Creativity is a mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts. 2. Advertising Creativity involves two processes: 1. In investing an existing object with new properties or characteristics 3. In producing or bringing about something partly or wholly new 2. or new associations of the creative mind between existing ideas or concepts More than 60 different definitions of creativity can be found in the psychological literature Definitions of creativity are typically descriptive of activity that results: 1. Young's Crea Immersion Immersion Digestion Digestion Gett Get Imm Imm to G to G 13 By: M H Lakdawala Rum Rum Turn Tur . while innovation is the process of both generating and applying such creative ideas in some specific context. In imagining new possibilities that were not conceived of before 4. Creative Thought Process. producing. Advertising Creativity: The five stages of creativity. Thinking.II. approaches or actions. Distinguishing between creativity and innovation Creativity is typically used to refer to the act of producing new ideas.
Advertising C Successful Long Miller Miller AMUL AMULor Brand Lite Company Lite Nike The central me The central me comm comm in all of the var in all of the var B C J 14 “ Taste of Thumps up “ Taste of By: M H Lakdawala India” India” Hallmark cards “ The T “ The Driv Driv W .III. Components of the Creative Strategy: 1.
2. Major Sellin Use a Unique Positioning the Use a Unique Positioning the Brand Selling Position Brand Selling Position Approaches to the See See Uniqu Uniqu Ma Ma Prop Pro Benefit Benefit By: M H Lakdawala U U 15 Positioning Positioning .
Perspectives of Great Ad David Ogilvy David Ogilvy Brand image or Brand image or personality is particularly personality is particularly important when brands important when brands are similar are similar 3.” 16 By: M H Lakdawala The creativity sales The creativity sales .” that is the brand image. Creating a Used when competing brands Used when competing brands “Everyis difficultcontribute “Every addifficult to find or must to find or similar it isad must contribute c similar it to the complex unique attribute symbol to the complex unique attribute symbol that is the brand image.
A. Appeals and Inherent Inherent Drama Drama M M in i H H 4.Approaches to Idea: Inherent D 4. emotional and moral appeals: By: M H Lakdawala 17 F F w w d d e e . Advertising appeals Appeals are broadly classified as rational.
(vi) Re-sale Value. etc. food items..000 kms. Most industrial buyers are knowledgeable about the product class. Nine per cent of the human psyche is irrational. (vii) Economy. (ii) Low Price: Many people buy low-priced locally made air conditioners for their homes because they believe that these products will show a product performance similar to. in the operating expenses of some brands of refrigerator is greater because they consume less electricity. kitchenware and a host of consumer durables for their high quality. product quality. or a timer in the kitchen mixer which switches off automatically after a pre-determined time period. as long he believes this to be true. such as clothing. Industrial buyers are most responsive to rational appeals. the following are some buying motives. Although there may be some disagreement regarding which motives are rational and which are emotional. point out that some of the best ads are totally irrational. what is irrational can be made to seem rational. as of a screwdriver with a magnetized tip which clings to the metal head of the screw. Whether this is true or not. trained to By: M H Lakdawala 18 . furniture. thinks his reason will be accepted as a "good" one by his social group. which a person believes would be acceptable to other members of his social group. Porsche car ads listed such irrational benefits. etc. are bought for their quality. as of a car tyre that will give 30. Gary Goldsmith is not content with just a rational benefit but expects the benefit offered to be such. beverages. which a rational person can understand. as of a ballpoint pen that won't release excessive ink or skip under any circumstances. In this case. They attempt to show that the product would yield the expected functional benefit. (iii) Long Life. as of a two-wheeler scooter. Rational appeals: A rational ad becomes believable and effective. or slightly inferior to. Many two-wheeler vehicles claim a better mileage per litre consumption of fuel than similar other vehicles. that of nationally reputed brands at higher price. too. considered rational under ordinary circumstances: (i) High Quality: People buy television. (iv) Performance. and not merely because of their taste or fashion. (v) Ease of use. stereophonic music systems. Many consumer goods. a person. They involve some sort of a deliberate reasoning process. which are normally. refrigerators.Rational appeals are those directed at the thinking process of the audience. We should. or style. however. electric gadgets. Volkswagen built itself on the proposition it's ugly but it works. "Bajaj" has a better re-sale value than any other make. before its utility has been exhausted. Rationality has come to be equated with substance. But. he is exhibiting a rational motive. They make purchase decisions in line with the technical specification of the product.
or even if he is fully aware that such a motive is operating. We feel that rational motives will raise our status in the eyes of our associates and colleagues. All brands have rational and emotional credentials. industrial buying decisions are made after a thorough comparison of various offers and after evaluating the various benefits of different makes. therefore. Levi's is youthful. an emotional icon. Emotional appeals are designed to stir up some negative or positive emotions that will motivate product interest or purchase. Emotional motives may be below the level of consciousness. which is a rational proposition.recognize value and are responsible to others about their choice. and so on. Those who buy Playboy or Debonair are likely to say they buy them for the articles. Even when decisions are made on emotional grounds. early settlement of claims.the danger of losing one's possessions or the ravages of fire. One has to balance between rational and emotional arguments. or it may stress the negative aspect of not getting insurance . Positive appeals use the strategy of "reducing" a person's anxiety about "buying and using" a By: M H Lakdawala 19 . Most of us want others to regard us as rational human beings. People are ready and willing to give rational motives if asked why they have made a particular [purchase. That is why we like to give socially acceptable reasons for our buying decisions. the services the insurance company provides. Often. he is unwilling to admit it to others because he feels that it would be unacceptable as a "proper" reason for buying among his associates and colleagues. For example. name the negative appeals first. But it also emphasizes in-flight service that other airlines talk about. and may not be recognized by a person. rebellious and sexy. which are not preceded by careful analysis of the pros and cons of making a buying. Emotions are those mental agitations or excited states of feeling which prompt us to make a purchase. an advertising campaign to get the target audience to buy fire insurance may stress the positive aspect -low cost relative to other investment. We shall also. Negative Emotional Appeals: An advertiser may try to induce a particular behavioral change by emphasizing either positive or negative appeals. Emotional appeals: Emotional appeals are those appeals. Different emotional appeals. Singapore Airlines presents the Singapore girl. which are particularly important from the advertising point of view. Consumer durables of high value 'are also often bought on the basis of rational appeals. Strong emotional propositions need rational underpinnings. are listed below. or a combination of both. Following several motivation research studies. But it offers rational benefits like strength too. people like to rationalize their decision~ to show that they are based on sound rational grounds. it has been found that negative emotional appeals are more effective than positive ones.
Emotional appeals are designed to stir up some negative or positive emotions that will motivate product interest or purchase. therefore. early settlement of claims. while negative appeals use the strategy of "increasing" a person's anxiety about "not using" a product or service. One has to balance between rational and emotional arguments. 3. Following several motivation research studies. the negative appeal stresses his loss if he fails to comply.the danger of losing one's possessions or the ravages of fire. it has been found that negative emotional appeals are more effective than positive ones. or even if he is fully aware that such a motive is operating. The level of emotionality should not exceed that experienced by the consumer. and may not be recognized by a person. or it may stress the negative aspect of not getting insurance . Execution should not be exaggerated. the services the insurance company provides. or a combination of both. All brands have rational and emotional credentials. Negative Emotional Appeals: An advertiser may try to induce a particular behavioral change by emphasizing either positive or negative appeals. Singapore Airlines presents the Singapore girl. which are particularly important from the advertising point of view. which is a rational proposition. Precautions while using the Emotional Route: 1. In general. We shall also. In general. and so on. By: M H Lakdawala 20 . name the negative appeals first. But it also emphasizes in-flight service that other airlines talk about. rebellious and sexy. he is unwilling to admit it to others because he feels that it would be unacceptable as a "proper" reason for buying among his associates and colleagues. 2. an advertising campaign to get the target audience to buy fire insurance may stress the positive aspect -low cost relative to other investment. Positive appeals use the strategy of "reducing" a person's anxiety about "buying and using" a product. There should be a natural flow of feelings. Different emotional appeals. a positive appeal stresses the positive gains to a person from complying with the persuasive message. Emotional motives may be below the level of consciousness. The advertising should have relevance. Levi's is youthful.product. But it offers rational benefits like strength too. a positive appeal stresses the positive gains to a person from complying with the persuasive message. For example. Emotions are those mental agitations or excited states of feeling which prompt us to make a purchase. an emotional icon. If the product needs attribute-based rational advertising. while negative appeals use the strategy of "increasing" a person's anxiety about "not using" a product or service. the negative appeal stresses his loss if he fails to comply. emotional appeals should be avoided. are listed below.
Fear is the higher level of tension. and then suggests the use of "Promise" to avoid a recurrence of toothache. even though this is a statutory warning and advertisers themselves would not like to include it is the ad on their own. position. shave lotions. Personal-care products (soaps. Preferably.) fall in this category. cosmetics. very weak fear appeals By: M H Lakdawala 21 . The warning on the cigarette packet that smoking is injurious to health is a typical example. It is said that the message's effectiveness increases with the level of fear it generates. and also the most effective. The advertisements relating to prohibition. deodorants. friendship. directly or indirectly. which relate to more subtle social and psychological motivations. which successfully employ fear appeals to induce a particular buying behavior. Then there are many products that are. They present the fear of tooth decay or unhealthy gums or bad breath. The use of fear appeal in getting people to start doing things they should is very common. Fear Appeals: The fear appeal is most important among emotional appeals. the fear appeal of the type illustrated above can be effectively employed. A recent ad of "Promise" shows a boy weeping because of severe toothache. Many ad messages of toothpaste employ this appeal. However. other food products and home appliances. job. and then suggest the use of a specific brand of toothpaste to get rid of such fears. Then there are products designed to protect an individual from loss of property (automobile or home). Think of ads wherein the housewife's anxieties are fully exploited to get the message across to the target audience. mouthwash. the greater is the tension resulting in a greater drive from within to reduce the tension. prevention of losses and conservation of energy fall in this category. Fear appeals are at times used in ad messages in connection with getting people to stop doing the things they shouldn't do. A large number of advertisements employ the fear appeal in their ad messages of products. involved in the avoidance of a fearful situation. these two should be compatible. etc. The more carefully fear is built. but anxiety has been used to promote the sale of a large number of instant foods. Research studies have proved that extremely great fear appeals ate less effective than moderate ones in motivating people to adopt the product and eliminate fear. There is a difference between a consumer's emotions associated with the product / brand and a consumer's emotional reaction to the ad copy itself. such as loss of status. When products are designed to protect an individual from some loss of health (medical or life insurance). and so forth.4. A fear appeal of this kind is used in a wide variety of product categories.
it is possible that people would exhibit a defensive behavior.’ It drives out smoke. ‘The Khaitan Fresh Air Fan. the chances of dampness are eliminated. These campaigns were run for a full year in two different areas. however. the recent advertisement of Khaitan Kitchen fans employing a negative appeal. And this prevents cockroaches and other insects from breeding in your kitchen. and in this form the negative appeals appear to be just as effective on the average as positive appeals. Therefore. Not only that. thanks to the continuous inflow of fresh air. and tries to avoid the ad. Khaitan presents a simple. symbolizing the disease and misfortune arising from wrong food habits. smells and heat. However. They feel that buyers have different tolerances for fear and that therefore. It makes her irritable and saps her energy. The evaluation of these campaigns clearly showed that the fear appeal created a great deal more awareness of the value of the nutritive food. Some authors and experts in the field of advertising. the underlying concept that every message should promise to relieve. may disagree with this view. The warnings generally pave the way for positive advice and exhortation. The "love" campaign featured a proud mother rearing her thriving child on the prescribed food.positive or negative-would work better in getting a nutritive food accepted. However. The "fear" approach created a frightening devil (rakshas). the fear it arouses should be the ultimate guide in the selection of the levels of fear appeals.are not effective either in evoking the desired response. and may not be prepared to accept the threat. a selection of the appropriate fear level is important. Take. The negative proposition aroused immediate reaction because of the fact that an unpleasant bang is more likely to make one sit up than the melodious strains of soothing music. and brings in fresh air. in a believable way. different levels of the fear message should be set for the various segments of the audience. But fear appeals are seldom composed entirely of negatives." By: M H Lakdawala 22 . A general principle of "not too much and not too little" is most relevant in the selection of appropriate fear appeals. for example. The headline states: "Are you cooking or being cooked?" It goes on: "Every housewife knows how miserable she feels when she cooks. But if an excessively strong fear is pictured. some researchers have found cases where strong fear appeals have worked beautifully. efficient and inexpensive answer. They may even take the view that the solution recommended in the ad may be inadequate to deal with so great a fear. CARE (an American conducted a methodical study in rural north India (mainly UP) ad agency) to discover which of the two appeals . The positive appeal was love of children and the negative one was fear of the consequences of malnutrition. it should be strong enough to heighten the drive of the people to buy a particular product.
Such is the most common form of the advertising message . The rider himself may By: M H Lakdawala 23 . which is often rejected by most smokers. fear appeals fail in the case of the cancer hazard of cigarette smoking. That is why it has been recommended that both the market segment and product category groupings should be taken into consideration before designing appropriate fear appeals. whereas. Let us take an in-depth look at the use of fear appeals and their relationship with the market segment. and too much anxiety tends to make the stimulus aspect predominant. fear appeals are effective. lastly. with maximum effectiveness occurring at the intermediate levels of anxiety. Fear Appeal and Market Segmentation: We have just now stated that. Furthermore. for this will provide a valuable insight to advertisers. Take the case of life insurance. Furthermore. rightly state that fear or anxiety has two kinds of possible effects on message reception and yielding. too little anxiety tends to provide an insufficient drive. Advertising Management. but the latter part of the copy presents the solution and the positive appeal of the product. The net result of these two factors is to make the relationship between anxiety level and message effectiveness non-monotonic. where the level of fear is low. Aaker and Myer. For individuals whose aroused fear or anxiety about the product is low. On the level of fear. a fear appeal can make an advertisement stand out from others. to threaten someone close to the prospect rather than the prospect himself. It has been found that it is better to put fear first in the order of presentation.The headline and the initial part of the body of the copy effectively create fear. this approach is useful for products that are of little interest to consumers when rational appeals are employed. in their book.first building up fear and then offering a solution with other positive appeals of the product advertised. and an ad about smoking and cancer. Even in cases where the product fulfils a generally recognized need. the fear appeal can be particularly effective if these individuals have been previously exposed to positive arguments. It is important to note that although people generally prefer positive arguments. its effect tends to be negative. While advertising a helmet for scooter-riders. the fear of injury to the head is the most appealing to the wife and to someone close to the rider. in some cases. so far as appeals to fear are concerned. We have also given examples of an ad about dental health. the use of low levels of fear is the logical strategy. However. Fear appeals are still required to sell policies. big doses of fear are recommended. where the degree of associated fear is high. And. apart from the differences in product categories. in others. and those who would not normally search for information about the product. it tends to be positive. and as a drive. the age and personality differences in the target audience vary the effectiveness of each level of fear appeal. As a stimulus.
they don't buy from them…So many people in advertising are compulsive entertainers who seek applause rather than sales." Is this positive appeal not effective. A careful analysis of those potential fear appeals. In fact. and who find the product to be of low relevance." Mother's love for the baby has been appealed to in ad of Johnson's baby soap. the ad appeals by saying: "Give your family the Loving Care of Dettol Soap. life insurance companies find that fear appeals work beautifully with those who feel that they do not need coverage for their lives. Fear appeals are appropriate for breaking into new market segments. By: M H Lakdawala 24 . For example. pride. Dinesh etc.not accept the idea promptly because of self-esteem and of ego consciousness. Love for family is perfectly employed in an ad of Dettol soap that has been called "The Love & Care Soap. prestige and joy. A humorous message attracts more attention and creates more liking and belief in the source. Positive Emotional Appeals: Positive appeals highlight product benefits and attributes capable of influencing consumer behavior. They are love. employ emotional motives. as illustrated by people who build an ultra modem home in an area of traditional homes. There are many who have a low vulnerability to fear and anxiety. when the advertiser shows as much care for a child as its mother does? Advertisers have also successfully used messages communicating the joy and thrill (all." Other positive emotional appeals involving price. designed to arouse emotion in a group or audience. Advertisements of suitings by Raymonds. Because Johnson & Johnson care for your baby almost as I much as you do. Other emotional motives are illustrated in the following list: (i) Desire to be different. they become a useful tool in market segmentation." a Digjam ad campaign. The appeal of intense fear might be best for people who tend to be of low-anxiety and high self-esteem people." It further. humor. the susceptibility to fear appeals is one more approach to the market segmentation process." In the closing sentence. if appropriate fear appeals are defined. prestige or exclusiveness are often used in ads of suitings. Most baby food products have a mother's love appeal.. those soft drink. ads) associated with using the product. David Ogilvy. wherein all ads addressed to this audience will incorporate such fear appeals. should be made a part of advertising strategy. believes that humour has been over-used: "People are amused by clowns . It says: "Gentle as a kiss on your baby's tender skin. though it reduces comprehension. is an example of appealing to those individuals who are experts in matters of taste and choice of clothing. a well-known personality in the advertising profession. Thus. "Suitings for the Connoisseur. goes on to say: ''Johnson's Baby Soap. Digjam. who exhibit a copying behavior.
rural development. (iv) Desire for prestige. A woman may want to buy a new home in posh locality because it will improve her family's social status and because it is within walking distance of a good school for her children. as shown by a teenage girl who buys a new cosmetic in order to make her skin more beautiful. Sex Appeals in Advertising: Sex appeal is being increasingly used in Indian advertising to overcome the culture in the print as well as broadcast media and to grab attention. (iii) Desire to attract the opposite sex.these are often based on moral appeal. consumer protection. Men remember the sexy illustration and neglect the brand. In fact. There are messages that appeal for generous donations for flood victims and for famine relief operations . etc. Effectiveness of ads is measured in terms of the objectives .(ii) Desire to confirm. Sex appeals in contraceptive ads have become explicit.creating awareness may be the objective.feeding. social forestry. The advertising objective may be to make the consumer buy . By: M H Lakdawala 25 . employment generation. Research shows that non-sexual illustrations are more effective than sexual ones while undergoing brand recall.here buying intention is a measure of effectiveness. as in the case of teenage boy and girls who want to be "in jeans" because all their friends wear jeans. Does sex really sell? Or is it a negative influence on consumer? The answer is not either affirmative or negative for these questions. These are often used in messages to arouse a favorable response to social causes. and then brand recall is a measure of effectiveness. Favorably disposed people to the use of sex had a higher brand recall of brand names that used sex appeals in their ads. adult literacy. and so on. . social responsibility projects of corporations. Toyota. siding weaker sections of society. equal rights for women. Negatively inclined people to sex had a lower brand recall. many combine both rational and emotional motives. and depends upon a number of factors. a blend of buying motives usually is the basis of a purchase: An engineer may take up a management course at any of the prestigious schools because he feels it will make him look important in the eyes of his associates and help him in securing a better job in the industry and business. Moral appeals are those appeals to the audience that appeal to their sense of right and wrong. Many WHO experts are critical of these corporations that promote bottle-feeding against breast. Many commercial advertisements are criticized on moral grounds. and are more visual than verbal.) he can afford in order to impress his friends. as shown by a person who buys the most expensive automobile (Mercedes. The most controversial ad campaigns are by multinational companies marketing baby food products. The following summarizes the research studies in this context. such as prohibition. In making purchases. antismuggling and hoarding.
are associated with lowest quality product and least reputable company. and swimsuits. Information transmission is definitely adversely affected by sex appeal. Media clutter may be one reason that leads to the explosion of sexual imagery in advertising. There might be gender-related responses to sex appeal. "Of no use to one. faith. Even the same person reacts to them differently at different stages of his life cycle. Even an act of kissing has both sexual and non-sexual content. region to region. sex has always been a favorite selling point. the hypocrite's mask. art must be so prepondering as to throw the obscenity into the shadow. There is a thin line between nudity and crudity. panties. Functional sex appeals have highest recall and so also symbolism. the young man has to steal it and the old man has to buy it. watches and cars are resorting to this route. jeans. It has also been observed that visual which is highly sexual interferes with the cognitive processing of the message since readers tend to spend more time on the ad as a whole. the lover's privilege. yet it is absolute bliss to two.Research also shows that nude illustrations of female are least appealing. charity. Blatant references to sex are suddenly the inthing in American advertising. The relevance of the appeal to the product is very important. alcohols. Fantasies are also used as sex appeals." Sex appeals are interpreted differently from time to time. For Calvin Klein. undergarments. person to person. country to country. hope and to an old maid. to a married woman. Recently Seven's research shows that explicit sex appeals do not interfere with the ability to recall brand names. gloves. By: M H Lakdawala 26 . The late Justice Hidayatullah had ruled "where obscenity and art are mixed. A lipstick ad showing a female model that is seductive may grab the attention of the male-audience rather than the targeted female audience. The manner of sex portrayal. They may not go well with industrial products. The baby's right. Connotative sexual appeals like symbolism are more acceptable than explicit appeals. To a young girl. Females may find the sexual ad offensive and so its use for a female-targeted product runs a risk. lead to a higher recall. The sexual appeals are justified in case of products like personal products. and society to society. the sex of the models and the target segment also affect the effectiveness of the ad. Ads of perfumes have traditionally focused on the sensuous. Marketers promoting perfumes. Inappropriate sex appeals have lowest recall. Appeal that are consistent with the product. The small boy gets it for nothing. bras." We tend to agree with him.
especially if used tastefully. And of course the Government thought that the entire populace was a morose mass of morons who did not have a sense of humour. rejuvenating and has great repeat value. That's why Centre Shock and Alpenliebe successfully used humour and other `serious' service industries didn't. A recent TV commercial has an animated family that is `shrunk' to watch movies on their handsets. elevating. when others don't have the guts to use it. one has traditionally seen humour being used to sell either FMCG or durables. wish that recognised songs are not directly lifted and used. you have forgotten all the serious stuff about technical specs and the like. That's entertainment for you.) The fantastic animation and humour packaged tightly with superb art direction for Amaron Batteries. the advertisement is a winner all the way. Conventional wisdom had it that you don't use humour to sell serious products like insurance or products where the technology and value proposition seemed to be the hero. in fact. As they say. Nokia. Hutch and Nokia have discovered the joys of entertaining customers not just with their products but also with their advertising. "you can think like only you can". private insurers have been advertising for about four years now) insurance companies thought that since they dealt with `morbid' subjects like death and injury. humour is a great differentiator. Paresh really brings the RIM commercial to life with his persona. The Standard Furukawa advertising where the campaign used humour in small-sized print advertising (Why is a Standard battery like a mother-in-law? Because it goes "on and on and on". For many years (yes. From the `sing-song' narrative to the `ting-tong' sign off. Remember any advertising for batteries? Odds on. had another memorable commercial where an army of clowns scrambles to put a smile on a dreary customer's face. One would of course.Humour Humour has always been a great way to sell. On a more practical level. these days. For one. hold a sickle in their hands and act as if the grim reaper had come to collect the insurance premium from the hapless customers. Well. Dominos and Reliance Infocomm have been using the amazing width of expression that Paresh Rawal can bring to any role he graces to keep their audiences smiling. humour is light. the joke is on those who did not dare to use humour. more so. By: M H Lakdawala 27 . they should put on a black hat.
Tata AIG has also decided that a smile is a good policy and has created its second TVC in the `smile genre. Make the customer smile and you can laugh all the way to the bank. only money for ICICI and Lowe in persisting with this lighter approach. ICICI Prudential deserves to be congratulated for leading the charge in the right direction. Pros and Cons Advantages • Aids attention and awareness • May aid retention of the message • Creates a positive mood 28 By: M H Lakdawala .Fortunately. The fact that its `Chintamani' advertisement in its TV and print versions is doing an encore this year proves that there is no `chinta'. they seem to be breaking out of that mindset now.' All in all. the message seems to be clear.
rebellious and sexy. But it offers rational benefits like strength too. 4. which is a rational proposition. Levi's is youthful. Singapore Airlines presents the Singapore girl. But it also emphasizes inflight service that other airlines talk about. Advertising Execution Techniques Execution style – the way the particular appeal is turned into an advertising message presented to the consumer • • • • • • FAVORABLE TOWARD HUMOR Creative personnel Radio and television Consumer non-durables Business services Products related to the humorous ploy Audiences that are: – – – – Younger Better educated Up-scale Male By: M H Lakdawala 29 . B. One has to balance between rational and emotional arguments.Use o All brands have rational and emotional credentials. an emotional icon.
The advertisement clearly explains the features of the product such as its USP and features. Demonstration Demonstration 3. Straight sell Straight sell 1. the message of the advertisement must necessarily underline the differences between the goods or services compared by describing their main 3. The technique consists of a straightforward and clear presentation of the product and its benefits. TV is particularly well suited for demonstration executions.Scientific Scientific 1. In order to achieve this objective. differentiating it from other products. since the benefits a little less dramatic than TV demonstration ads can also work in print.Testimonial Testimonial 5. Straight sell Straight sell 1. Demonstration Demonstration 4. or with those of other competitors. 3. All comparative advertising is designed to highlight the advantages of the goods or services offered by the advertiser as compared to those of a competitor.Ad Execution 1.Testimonial Testimonial 30 By: M H Lakdawala . is a sales promotion device that compares the products or services of one undertaking with those of another. Demonstration: Demonstration advertising is designed to illustrate the key advantages of the product/ service by showing it in actual use or in some staged situation. 2.Scientific Scientific 2. Straight-Sell Copy: A type of body copy in which the text immediately explains or develops the headline and visual in a straightforward attempt to sell the product.Comparison Comparison 5. Scientific / technical: the presentation focus on the scientific and technological aspect of the product. as a special form of advertising.Comparison Comparison 4. 2. Comparative copy: Comparative advertising. Example while promoting digital cameras the focus is on picture quality and the mega pixel. Demonstration executions can be very effective in convincing consumers of a products utility or quality and of the benefits of owning or using the brand.
which features computer users from various walks of life discusing why they switch from Windows-based machines to Macintoshes. By: M H Lakdawala 31 . 4. Testimonial executions can have ordinary satisfied customers discuss their own experiences with the brand and the benefits of using it. consumers may make informed and therefore efficient choices. Based on this information. 5. where a person praises the product or service on the basis of his or her personal experience with it. This approach can be very effective where the person delivering the testimonial is someone with whom the target audience can identify or who has an interesting story to tell. Slice of Life: Advertising-copy technique where a real-life problem is presented in a dramatic situation and the item being advertised becomes the solution to the problem. Function of comparative advertising Comparative advertising should enable advertisers to objectively demonstrate the merits of their products.characteristics. Market transparency is also deemed to benefit the public interest as the functioning of competition is improved resulting in keeping down prices and improving products. (These statements are true only if the comparative advertising is objective. 2002. It featured what the company referred to as "real people" who had "switched" from the Microsoft Windows platform to the Mac. Testimonials: Many advertisers prefer to have their messages presented by ways of testimonials.Apple Computer made effective use of testimonials as part of its “Switch” campaign.Switch was an advertising campaign launched by Apple Computer on June 10. Comparative advertising can stimulate competition between suppliers of goods and services to the consumer's advantage. The television commercials were directed by Errol Morris. An international television and print ad campaign directed users to a website where various myths about the Mac platform were dispelled. The testimonial must be based on actual use of the product or service to avoid legal problems and the spokesperson must be credible. The comparison made by the advertiser will necessarily flow from such a description. Comparative advertising improves the quality of information available to consumers enabling them to make well-founded and more informed decisions relating to the choice between competing products/services by demonstrating the merits of various comparable products. The people giving the testimonials in the ads are from various walks of life.) Comparative advertising which aims to objectively and truthfully inform the consumer promotes the transparency of the market.
7. Cosmetic companies often use By: M H Lakdawala 32 . animation is one of the most multipurpose tools for increasing sales of any product or business or simply getting a message across. animated characters or even animals. 6. These advertisements create a positive feeling about specific products in the minds of consumers because they can relate to these everyday situations which they too face. The human mind goes through a thought process of depicting meaning from an animated aesthetic. An example is a housewife who is having trouble cleaning her kitchen floor. Widely used in print advertising formats. When dealing with concepts that can not be expressed in words or with illustrations can be extremely frustrating for advertisers and marketers .Detergent manufacturers rely upon this advertising format heavily. Generations of children have found this to be extremely appealing. this execution shows a real life problem and what the person in the ad does to overcome it. It instigates thought in the way that advertisers can use to their advantage by inspiring thoughts of desire. A good example is the Kellogg’s Coco Pops adverts. When harnessed well. Personality symbol—this type of execution involves the use of a central character or personality symbol to deliver the advertising message and with which the product or service can be identified. The personality symbol can take the form of a person who is used as a spokesperson. Imagery / Fantasy—this type of appeal is often used for image advertising by showing an imaginary situation or illusion involving a consumer and the product or service. with a product offered which can solve this problem. These types of advertisements connect with consumers on a personal level. This execution is a combination of the demonstration and the testimonial executions.This is where animation steps in. They relate well to cartoon-like imagery therefore commercials that utilise animation grab their attention easily. The fact that these concepts can be portrayed successfully and can make it easy for the consumer to grasp your idea or concept without any kind of explanations is unparallel tool in the advertising industry. Animation: This technique used animated characters or scenes drawn by artists or on computer. Ads for consumer products use this method effectively. They depict an imaginary island inhabited by eccentric animals. Animation is an inherently creative medium. 8. The ads usually portray a family scene occurring (a "slice of life") during a typical day. Animation is extremely effective when marketing a product aimed at children.
"True 'Reason-Why' copy is logic plus persuasion plus conviction.. or create a feeling of warmth and pleasantness. but also to build long-term good will for "later" because kids will grow up to be adults.In advertising. a copy which they want to read from beginning to end. so that it is easier to understand than to misunderstand it. 10. any individual "feel good" ad must be put into a wider context. now). which aimed to present the consumer with convincing arguments to purchase the advertised brand. 13.’ 9. In this sense. as Smith knows. or to vote. The need to stimulate interest and desire seemed to be fully satisfied by "Reason-Why" ads.In addition. Dramatization—this execution technique creates a suspenseful situation or scenario in the form of a short story. For example. 12. and like.. Ads had the task of pointing out the distinctive characteristics of a brand and explaining its superiority. all woven into a certain simplicity of thoughtpre-digested for the average mind."People buy from people they know. 11.fantasy executions although the technique has also been used in advertising for other products such as automobiles and beer. Feel good Ads: "Feel good" ads are those ads which do not have a specific call for a response: to buy something. "Reason Why" was the answer of Kennedy to what makes people purchase a particular good. "reason-why" advertising was the appropriate method of implementing a strategy of product differentiation. Fund raising copy:The fund raising copy is all about inspiring potential donors to believe in a cause. “That was a By: M H Lakdawala 33 . which angered them or made them proud. slice-of-life ads are often used to demonstrate a product or make brand comparisons. But fine words alone don’t make for good fundraising copy. For example. most ads targeted at kids not only seek an immediate response (kids or their parents buy something. so that we know and like the product or the company. to take action. I'm going to get a . It’s how you use them that count.. Dramatizations often use the problem/solution approach as they show how the advertised brand can help resolve a problem. Remember the old Roman aphorism. as a small part of a larger ad campaign. "feel good ads" can describe the many different ads and sponsorships which generate good will. the growing importance of national advertising of branded products produced a perfect condition for growth of "reason-why" adverting. As this term is used here. to do something. ‘When Cauis spoke in the Senate the people said. The copy says unexpected things in elegant ways. Note how often kids will say "When I grow up. which moves readers and stirred thier emotions. Combinations—many of these execution techniques can be combined in presenting an advertising message.
remarkably fine speech”, but when Marcellus spoke they shouted, “Let us now march on Byzantium!”.’ For Marcellus’ powerfully put words had moved his listeners not to sympathy but to action. You need to know to write more clearly, more convincingly and more accessibly with clarity and precision.
IV. Combining Creativity and Strategy:
In advertising, different creative strategies are used in order to obtain consumer attention and provoke shoppers to purchase or use a specific product. Advertisers use different ways of thinking to create catchy slogans that capture consumer attention. Creative strategies promote publicity, public relations, personal selling and sales promotion. These ways of thinking are divided into three basic descriptions: Weak strategies, mid-strength strategies and strong strategies. The strategies labeled "strong, mid-strength, and weak are generic phrases used in the text books referenced below to help students understand the intensity of each different type of advertising strategy. Advertisements, weak, mid-strength, and strong can be found in television, radio, and magazines/print. Since the beginning of advertising, strategies have been created, starting with the simplest (weak) strategies in the 1940s.
V. Organizing the Creative Task
Strategy and Creativity? Strategy: What is an advertising strategy? Basically, it is the formulation of a message that communicates to the market the benefits or problem solution characteristics of the product or service. What you are trying to convey through your advertising and state in your strategy is what your product offers to meet the consumer's need; how your product has more beneficial characteristics than the competition's; and what the beneficial characteristics are.
By: M H Lakdawala
The advertising strategy is a direct result of the market strategy. The market strategy focuses on the improvement of operations and the positioning of the storefront, while the advertising strategy concentrates on reaching out to the marketplace and conveying what the market strategy has accomplished internally. The first step in formulating an advertising strategy is to determine the product or service you have to offer to the marketplace and the objective of the campaign. Creativity: Creativity is simply the ability of a person to create. To understand creativity one can simply refer to a person with unique ideas and willing to bring new things into the life. Usually creativity is considered as the natural ability of a person. However, the creativity can also be developed in a person. Weak strategies Generic and Pre-emptive strategies describe the two weakest forms of advertising that were most popular through the 1940s.
A generic strategy gives a product attribution. An example of this would be how the Milk industry chose to advertise their product. With their slogan, “Milk, it's good for health, have it with dinner,” consumers aren't learning anything new about the product. The Milk slogan simply states milk as a dinner item. It enhances the product in no other way.
A pre-emptive strategy is a form of advertising that makes a generic claim stronger. An example of a pre-emptive strategy can be found in Folgers Coffee. As many of us know, most all coffee is grown in the mountains. Folgers took that fact and claimed it as their own with their slogan, “Folgers: Mountain Grown Coffee.” Middle-strength strategies Secondly, are the mid-strength strategies: 1. 1. Unique positioning strategy 2. Brand image and 3. Positioning? 1. A unique positioning strategy is proving that something about your product is truly unique. This is commonly found when producers take an average product and add a new, unique element to it. An example of Unique Positioning Strategy would be in Dove soap. Dove added the unique feature of moisturizing cream in their product to differentiate it from other brands of soaps.
By: M H Lakdawala
A downfall in Unique positioning strategy advertising is that if a unique feature increases sales on one product, many other brands are likely to adopt the “unique” feature, making the end product not so unique. 2. Brand Image is another very common way companies choose to advertise. In brand image, an advertiser is not trying to create rational thinking. This type of advertising strives to create emotion and give a brand a personality. A common way of doing this is by using a celebrity as a spokesperson. A great example of brand image is found in Proactive Acne Solutions. In each of their commercials they have celebrities sharing their Proactive experiences, giving the brand a face people want to be. 3. Positioning is one of the most common forms of advertising. It was developed in the 1970s and is still widely used today. In positioning one brand will take its product and “position” it against a competing product. An example of positioning can be found in the rental car company “Avis'” store slogan. With “Hertz” car company being the leader in rental car services, Avis took their number two position and used it to their advantage by creating the slogan, “When you're number two, you try harder.” Positioning Positioning is another basic concept in strategy design. Position is defined as the perception that the targeted consumers have of a firm's products or services relative to competitive products or services. Positioning is based on product or service attributes or characteristics that are potentially relevant to the audience. One methodology suggests that positioning strategy may be approached via one of six positioning trait sets, shown in Table 2. We'll look briefly at each of these.
Positioning Trait Sets 1. By Attributes 2. By Price and Quality 3. By Use or Application 4. By Product User 5. By Product Class 6. By Competitor
By: M H Lakdawala
Attempts to position it as a soft drink were not successful. To use this method. a fruit-based drink. Positioning by Price/Quality This may be thought of as a set of attributes. and/or better service performance. Some kinds of cosmetics for women associate themselves with well-known models and are positioned in the minds of consumers as appropriate for women who want to be associated with that type of beauty. then becoming transformed into a good person? Some ideas are just bad. Positioning by Product User This is product positioning by a specific type of user or class of users. The downside to this application-specific type of positioning is that later attempts to reposition the product or service to another application may fail because of deeply entrenched consumer positioning. The relationship of the price/quality judgment made by consumers about products creates the positioning on these specialized attributes. Higher prices tend to signal a higher quality of product or service. The price/quality set reflects a perception in consumers' minds that brands which offer more features. It became established in the market for this use and is still primarily seen as a workout thirst quencher and bodily fluid replenisher. usually in pairs. was positioned at its introduction as a mixer for alcoholic cocktails. For example. Seven-up. positioned itself as "for use during strenuous workouts" when it was introduced.Positioning by Attribute Positioning by attribute is probably the most often used positioning approach. but they are of such importance to all consumers that they probably should be considered their own category for positioning purposes. It was only with its repositioning as an alternative to cola drinks that Seven-up was able to shake its position as a mixer. a soft drink product. Gatorade. positioning is established by attributes or characteristics of the product's use. By: M H Lakdawala 37 . For example. you begin by defining a relevant set of attributes. An attribute is a characteristic feature or benefit of the product or service. are often priced higher. what about the Thai potato chip company who depicted Hitler eating their chips. These attributes can be anything as long as the consumer of the products or services perceives the attribute as an important characteristic of the product or service. Or. Positioning by Application In this process.
For example. but often humor and an honest character can make affective advertising possible. If an advertiser can create a campaign that certain target markets identify with. Lastly. The some notion is now used in the "not exactly. Strong strategies The third and strongest form of creative strategy includes affective advertising and resonance advertising. Avis Rent-A-Car was made famous for its advertising campaign based on the positioning against a well-established competitor. Their recognition with soccer moms makes “Tide” a favorite pick among women with children who are very involved in activities. Hertz. honest. rather than against other brands of margarines. but one from whom the consumer could expect better service. Many times mothers are busy doing laundry in between sports practices and driving their children around in mini vans. As an example. resonance advertising is a way of identifying with consumers. consumers tend to trust what the Zoozoo is saying and find humor in his actions. Making people feel really good about a product is called affective advertising. Here the product is positioned against competing products in other associated classes.. By: M H Lakdawala 38 .. This creates a good feeling about the actual service “Vodaphone” offers.Positioning by Product Class This is a rare and potentially dangerous product positioning technique. The nowfamous "We're number two so we try harder" advertising slogan established Avis in the minds of consumers as second largest firm." commercials by Hertz. funny Zoozoo as a spokesperson. A great example of affective advertising is found in the “Vodaphone” commercials. This is difficult to do. By creating a friendly. a brand of margarine called "I can't believe it's not butter" positions itself against butter. Positioning by Competitor An established image of a competitor can serve as the basis for positioning. An example of resonance advertising is in “Tide” detergent ads. then resonance advertising has been achieved.
the copywriter needs to create a copy platform. emotional appeals are directed at the consumer’s psychological. when and how of the ad: 1. the writer must start again. After writing the first ad. a document that serves as the creative team’s guide for writing and producing the ad. or symbolic needs. psychographic. When and where will the messages be communicated? What medium? What time of the year? What area of the country? 5. 2. The copy platform is the written strategy statement of the most important issues to be considered in the ad or campaign – the who. 3.VI. social. How should this be communicated? What style. If it doesn’t. what. and/or behavioristic qualities. Who is the most likely prospect for the product? The copy platform must define the prospect in terms of geographic. the copywriter should review the copy platform to see if the ad measures up. why. Rational appeals are directed at the consumer’s practical. functional need for the product or service. Why? Does the consumer have specific wants or needs that the ad should appeal to? Advertisers use two broad categories of appeals. By: M H Lakdawala 39 . demographic. What product features satisfy the consumers’ needs? What factors support the product claim? What is the product’s position? What personality or image – of the product or the company – can be or has been created? What perceived strengths or weaknesses need to be dealt with? 4. approach or tone will the campaign use? And generally what will the copy say? The answers to these questions help make up the copy platform. where. CREATIVE PROCESS Writing the Creative brief or Copy platform In developing the message strategy.
Specify Target Au By: M H Lakdawala 40 . Supporting Inform 5. Creative Strategy 5. Putting the Strategy in writing: CREATIVE BRIEF (Copy Platform) FORMAT Building a Co 6. Creative Strategy 4. Selling Idea or Ke 3. Specify Target Au 3. Supporting Inform 6. Selling Idea or Ke 4.Who is a creative person? Creative Strategy: Components of the Creative Strategy.
Chapter: 3 Phases of campaign creation: Understanding Campaigns By: M H Lakdawala 41 .
If the strategy is right. If the strategy is wrong. (ii) The Briefing Phase and (iii) The Creative (i) Strategy Development Phase This phase decides the objectives and contents of communication. They found that clients did not want to buy strategy from an ad agency. It analyses the research data and decides positioning of a brand. The strategy formulation is in modern day's agencies a team effort. one can sell due to right strategy.storming sessions. AI Ries and Jack Trout started focusing on the strategy side of advertising business in the late 60s when they first started writing about positioning. (i) Strategy Development Phase. right strategy and creative campaign is a winning combination. The team throws up the ideas. The brilliant in the team pick up one or two ideas from the total ideas generated and develop them. Our strategy should give us a competitive edge.Three Phases of Campaign Creation There are three phases involved in the creation of any campaign. However. There are brain. By: M H Lakdawala 42 . These ideas ultimately make up the strategy. The creative persons form a part of this team not as creative persons but as a mind. whereas they decided to talk about strategy. no amount of creativity will help. It is essential that advertising professional should appreciate the importance of strategy development phase. Everybody else was talking about creativity. despite the poor creative work.
Mere creativity and no strategy never work. To agency should tell what they are trying to achieve in their communication. The strategist is the left-brain oriented, very linear in thinking, very logical in deduction. The strategy formulation leads to an advertising brief. If you want to catch fish, you have to think like a fish. If you want to catch a consumer, you have to think like a consumer. That's the first principle. What most companies do is they think like themselves. They spend all their time with themselves' (AI Ries and Jack Trout). Bob Isherwood, creative director, Saatchi & Saatchi, Australia emphasizes that a good effective ad has to be married to the right strategy, if it has to sell. He is also a strong believer of the theory that a creative director is as important a member of the strategizing team as the account director is especially if it involves a product launch. II. Advertising Brief to the Creative As a matter of fact, the client has to brief the agency about the strategy. However, most of the time this does not happen. The agency is supposed to brief itself. The strategy formulated is communicated to the creative people. They are briefed about how to create the advertising the product needs. The strategy should be communicated with clarity. The strategist should be a good motivator for the creative team. Proper briefing is going halfway as far as creativity is concerned. Bad brief to the creative team results into bad work. Good brief ensures good work. Within the creative team, the copywriter and visualiser work together and it is difficult to attribute the final product to either of them. Yes, when they are working, there are sparks of creativity. Please appreciate that briefing completes half the job. Creative campaigns are creative due to a good brief. It is critically very important to question the brief. Very often, a brief is a set of clichés. We have to get the real situation. Creative brief of strategy contains a key consumer insight. If the brief acquaints you with the consumer, and how his mind works, it has the seeds of creativity in it. It gives stimulus to creative team. Success or failure of the advertisement is largely dictated by the brief. It is the job of a client to tell the agency what he wants to say and it is the agency's job to decide how to say it. Great briefs inspire great work. Briefs should have clarity and single-minded objective. They should aim at a target person. The idea is to have the desired response. All briefs must suggest a benefit or a product plus. III. The Creative Phase
By: M H Lakdawala
Here the lateral thinkers come on the scene. They leap from a single unidirectional idea of the strategist to an advertising idea that will add value to the product/brand. The creative persons are supposed to be right-brained - lateral thinkers, irrational thinkers as against the accounts director who is left brained, i.e., logical. They make connections that had not existed before. They rearrange the order of things. They create abruptions in the consumer mind. There should be a beautiful marriage between the strategy and the lateral thinking by the creative people. The creative director's post has become a more responsible one. He does not remain content with a clever copy or stimulating visuals. He is required to understand the product and its market completely. He is now an overall ad man, an all-rounder. He participates in research and has active role in positioning. He does not follow a policy of art for the sake of art any more. He sits at briefings alongside the client servicing people. Creative are involved in the whole campaign - right from the concept to the commissioning stage. Spink of the Lowe group says "Strong creatives are probably the cheapest competitive advantage that a company can have." The best creatives are derived from a complete understanding of the product and the benefits it offers. But a thorough understanding of the target audience provides an edge. Norman Berry of O & M says, "It is the sensitive understanding of the audience that takes one's creative from logic to magic."
By: M H Lakdawala
I. Understanding the psychographics of target audience
Psychographics are a way to measure consumers’ beliefs, opinions, and buying habits. Rather than demographics which use age, income, gender and other quantitative data, psychographics provide a way to understand more qualitative data. Psychographics can be extremely helpful to predict differences in buying patterns and stimulating ideas for communicating with the target group.
Psychographics of various audiences and writing Copy for them 1. Copy for Youth Youth Marketing is a term used in the marketing and advertising industry to describe activities to communicate with young people, typically in the age range of 12 to 34. More specifically, there is the Tween Marketing, targeting people in the 8 to 12 year-old range, Teen Marketing, targeting people age 13 to 19, College Marketing, targeting college-age consumers, typically ages 18 to 21, Young Adult Marketing, targeting young professionals, typically ages 22 and above. The youth market is critical because of the demographic's buying power and its members' influence on the spending of family members. In addition, teens and young adults often set trends that are adopted by other demographic groups. The youth market is viewed as a difficult group to connect with and sell to, based on the fragmented media landscape and young people's keen ability to identify and reject marketing messages that lack credibility. Nonetheless, many brands market to youth by offering relevant products and services while communicating a brand message in an appropriate voice and tone. Successful brands marketing to youth have a foundation in or association with key interests and drivers among youth: music, sports, fashion, video gaming and technology, among others. Youth marketing strategies commonly include television advertising, magazine advertising and online marketing. Today young people expect to be able to learn By: M H Lakdawala 45
Essentials for writing copy for youth: 1. it is a fear of not belonging that drives the youth market to adopt the consumer patterns that are unique to their demographic group. For many members of Generation Y (now aged around 12–20 years). They are tools that give the user control. provide them with a sense of belonging and don’t forget to stand on the cutting edge. event marketing. By: M H Lakdawala 46 . Those companies that understand this inherent desire for acceptance have in their back pocket one of the keys to success within the youth market. Empower your market. music marketing. school and college programs. it is also important for marketers to analyze their product placement when pitching to this demographic. Marketing to the younger members of the consumer world is based around the age-old concepts of wants and needs. to belong. The key to tapping into this coveted market is to understand why young consumers choose one product over another in the first place. As well as promoting the emotional aspect of a product or brand that gives the user the desired feelings. So how can one use these factors to drive sales? Take mobile phones as an example. In the youth marketplace more so than any other. 4. interact and be entertained by with brands or services targeting them online. Among the youth market. Marketers must emphasize the elements within their product that evoke these emotions when communicating to this market. Other common youth marketing tactics include entertainment marketing. independence and important information. the most important factor is the never-ending desire to be accepted. The flow-on effects of having a sense of belonging and control are the feelings of empowerment. being seen on the cutting edge has a major impact on the attention that a brand. viral marketing. Marketers should be aware of the impact these desires have on this demographic’s decision to purchase a product or service. sports marketing. give them the confidence to take control. The use of SMS and the Internet as media of cutting edge communication are avenues that the youth market is very comfortable with.about. this is by far one of the most pressing issues confronting them in daily life. product or service receives. confidence and independence—emotions highly sought by young people. In essence. 3. product sampling and influencer marketing. 6. 2. mobile phones are an absolute necessity. 5. 7.
“Brand Lite” isn’t the answer: Many companies make the mistake of thinking they need to create a separate brand to reach women. What do women need? At a fundamental level a woman yearns to be understood. She does all this to feel herself. even if they are of -I love you. She needs to be listened to. Women simply care more for these things than men do. or vegetables if they believe that they are getting something special. And let’s be honest. A woman needs attention. Women have very strong need to enter into relationships. a texture. modern women It's no secret that men and women have different communication and decision making styles as well as different priorities and preferences. to be fussed over. if only she can speak what is on her mind and be understood. By: M H Lakdawala 47 . Few men will take such efforts on their own. A woman will travel to another end of town to buy something like rice. This is a basic expectation. or a pretty hairclip.Homemakers. The way a woman narrates happenings in a day with the finest of details to anyone close to her holds a significant lesson to those connected with marketing. assure her that the mechanic would not just be courteous. Assure her that he would leave only after he clears the mess. Small things matter to women. I hate you -kind. they’re also afraid that feminizing the core brand will alienate the guys. They take extra-ordinary efforts to satisfy their needs. The reality is that marketing to women is just smarter marketing strategy. one that is softer and more accessible. If she tries your spices and the dish doesn’t taste quite the way she expected. Your services need to reassure a woman that you will be around in a predictable way when she needs help. Take care of those small things. She will be happy to be waited on. dry fruits. If she needs her washing machine repaired. Copy for women. These could be matching of colors.2. A woman has an uncanny ability to spot what she wants amidst clutter and chaos. A woman will take whatever it takes to get such small things. She might forgive you for some mistakes. Factors to keep in mind while writing copy for women 1. Look at the way women go through the hustle and bustle of shopping areas. and they will shower you with their favors. but that he would come home at her convenience with tools and cleaning cloth. coordination of accessories. Your communications need to be sensitive to them. she will be relieved if she can talk to someone. Women have different needs as compared to men.
3. ultimately winning her business back. This “mom marketing” no longer fit with modern women and they were taking their kids and their dollars elsewhere. but many organizations develop and market products without ever asking their female customers what features they think are most important and why. But rather than make its marketing message an endless list of “look at all our cool stuff. Consider Whole Foods. 5. Online research and a visit to the dealership reveal all the terrific features Volvo has developed to back their message up.grounded in meeting and exceeding high standards and consistently delivering on your brand promise. when they find it they’re willing to pay for it. more importantly. Understand that she’s always watching: Women are great at detecting inconsistencies. leading to such improvements as color coding of fluid lids under the hood. Respect her In Fara Warner’s new book. 4. when the company was forced to realize that it was still talking to women as if it was 1955. the company had viewed women mainly as a conduit to kids. Terrific design.552 percent increase in its stock price over the last decade. A willingness to solicit and listen to women’s input and understand that women didn’t see themselves only through the “mom” lens allowed McDonald’s to redefine its relationship with its most important consumer. One of the best examples of a great company that gets it right with women is Apple.” the “Volvo for Life” slogan conveys the two umbrella messages that are especially important to women: safety and dependability. which has enjoyed a 1. Embrace high standards Women are suckers for quality and. Communicate product value instead of listing features: Sounds simple. Affectionately nicknamed “Whole Paycheck” by some. 2. you’ve lost her trust and she’ll go somewhere else. easier-to-fold-away rear seats and easier-to-load trunks. Whole Foods is able to charge higher prices in a notoriously low margin industry because they have created a lifestyle brand that delivers on By: M H Lakdawala 48 . easy-to-use technology. and a passionate lifestyle brand message hold strong appeal for women and for consumers overall. McDonald’s quest to “find the woman inside the mom” led them to the highly successful launch of Premium Salads. If your marketing message doesn’t match up with your product performance and your retail experience. The Power of the Purse. Up until that point. No need to invest money in making and marketing her Pod when iPod is pretty damn great the way it is. she chronicles the substantial shift McDonald’s began making following a 2002 sales slump. healthier Happy Meal options and a revamping of Play Places to include comfortable seating and wireless internet access. Volvo has made gaining women’s input a key part of its development process since the late 1980s.
Women constitute about half of the market. 6. a coconut oil bottle that drips with oil despite all the fancy packaging. and decent fuel efficiency. By: M H Lakdawala 49 . better brakes. hard-to-find products. a sachet of shampoo that requires a pair of scissors. This isn’t a market you can just dip your toes into. and movie theaters where women can not walk between two rows without feeling embarrassed. Women no doubt can manage all above creations by men. a cell phone requiring complex menu navigating abilities and that comes with complicated telephone bills. These were mere happy coincidences on a long road littered with products born to insensitive design and brought to customers by arrogant marketing. A Kinetic Honda came around with electric start and gearless driving. the dreaded “c” word. and even chair massage in some locations. They wish they could do without help from men. The reason? It goes both ways. 7. But you would earn their gratitude and loyalty if you free them from such men-made mess. When the program began women accounted for 19 percent of Wyndham’s business travelers. courteous sales people. a tin with tough metal seal that requires a hacksaw for cutting. When you consider that. With high quality. It looked feminine.its promise. They wish to be themselves: Women crave to look good. according to the Center for Women’s Business Research. cars with too low roofs requiring crawling to get inside. Few manufacturers care. 86 percent of women entrepreneurs say they use the same products and services at home as they do in their business it’s clearly no accident that women also now make up 50 percent of Wyndham’s customer base overall. Activa became a runaway success without so much of bragging and boasting by Honda. Be willing to commit There it is. Kinetic Honda was a huge success. knowledgeable. They will enthusiastically recommend your products to many other equally enthusiastic women. There are many more examples –a ketchup bottle with a crown cap which needs a man to open. Whole Foods has transformed something uninspiring and mundane into a premium experience. Wyndham Hotels recently celebrated the ten-year anniversary of its award-winning Women On Their Way initiative. They wish to be themselves. launched in 1995 to better serve the needs of women business travelers with improved services and amenities. a pleasant atmosphere. good power. An Activa rode in with nicer looks. such as healthier menu options and a courtesy call announcing room service. If their influence in buying decisions is considered women control much more than half the market. They do it with minimum fuss. Today that number has increased to over 35 percent. They wish to be independent and mobile.
Industry spending on advertising to children has exploded in the past decade. Parents today are willing to buy more for their kids because trends such as smaller family size. Marketer tries to draw children’s attention through various means like TV. children also represent a third major market and perhaps the most significant and that is the future market. Young children. Children represent an important demographic to marketers because they have their own purchasing power. Children initially take advertisement as entertainment and having soft heart. What do young children need? To feel safe To be allowed the freedom to explore To play Girls & boys have different patterns of growth & development (genetic factors) Freedom of expression through art (Avoid asking “What is it?”) Opportunities to exercise autonomy Why Marketers target Children? Children represent three different markets. guilt can play a role in spending decisions as time-stressed parents substitute material goods for time spent with their kids. have difficulty in distinguishing between advertising and reality in ads. Stickers. Needs of women –bonding. In addition to the direct money that children spend and the money they influence. Factors to keep in mind while writing copy for children By: M H Lakdawala 50 . and dreaming about all this 3. force their parents for product purchase. etc. As well. who are considered as the most vulnerable audiences because they enjoy advertisement to the maximum extent. and ads can distort their view of the world. Magazines. Advertisers recognise that brand loyalties and consumer habits formed when children are young and vulnerable will be carried through to adulthood. dual incomes and postponing children until later in life mean that families have more disposable income. sharing. in particular. looking and feeling beautiful. This is called as a ‘Nag Factor’. they influence their parents' buying decisions and they're the adult consumers of the future.8. Writing copy for children Marketers pay special attention to children.
" Persistence nagging is not as effective as the more sophisticated "importance nagging. "Pester power”: Today's kids have more autonomy and decision-making power within the family than in previous generations. and plays on any guilt they may have about not having enough time for their kids 3. Speak to both kids and parents: The conventional wisdom for reaching children is to frame a marketing message in a manner that speaks to both kids and parents. Marketing to children is all about creating pester power. Use Fear appeal: Fears and worries are powerful emotions and marketers who can help comfort a child by resolving a fear will have gained a loyal patron. 4. Nagging can be divided into two categories—"persistence" and "importance." This latter method appeals to parents' desire to provide the best for their children. "Pester power" refers to children's ability to nag their parents into purchasing items they may not otherwise buy. 7. Using three-part “I” messages a. since it's the adult who will be forking over a credit card. thus blurring the distinction between programming and advertising and taking advantage of the affection children feel for those characters. emotionally or socially are: a. From an ethical standpoint marketers are reminded constantly that offers need to specifically address parents. kids are less capable of processing product information: They have lesser product experience to realize in their decisionmaking process. 2. so it follows that kids are vocal about what they want their parents to buy. 5. 8. Compared to adults.1. Host selling: Advertisers not only feature cartoon or other characters from children's television programmes to gain their endorsement for their products (known as host selling) but they sometimes even place those advertisements in the breaks of the television programmes about those characters. because advertisers know what a powerful force it can be. They search for bits and pieces of information that they can make sense of and tend to develop brand loyalty based on these. Two points to remember • The two skills that are most useful for facilitating behavior change without damaging a child cognitively. Communicate empathic understanding By: M H Lakdawala 51 . Communicating empathic understanding b. Keep the positioning simple and childlike: Keep the positioning simple and childlike: The communication message must be based on simple ideas and appeal to the kids’ imagination 6.
you must really like it.” • • 4. not to all products across the board The mature market is extremely varied and will only reward marketers who are willing to deal with its complexities and pursue a targeted strategy.Communicating with children use empathic understanding to touch the child’s feelings so they may become independent in their thinking – Child: Teacher what do you think of my picture? – Teacher: Wow. you are really excited about your picture. so they don't want to read flowery language. The characteristic of senior citizens are: 1. By: M H Lakdawala 52 . Special needs 2. Seniors have a lot of time on their hands and so you must be prepared for answering many more detailed questions than you would for 20-year-olds. it makes me so sad I just want to cry. "The key elements are to keep message direct: The over-50s are experienced consumers. Spare time But how can copy effectively target senior market? 1. Research shows that some attitudinal or psychographic segments in the mature market are more brand loyal than others and their loyalties are to specific classes of products. High discretionary incomes 3.” (your action) • • “When I see you writing with you pencil it makes me so happy I just want to say hurray for you!” To discourage negative behavior o “When I see you… (child’s action)” o “It makes me feel… (your feeling)” o “I just want to cry. You also need to give them a lot of information. b. Copy writing for the mature market Growing old is a physical as well as an emotional condition. 2. Three-part “I” message • To reinforce positive behavior o “When I see you… (child’s action)” o “It makes me feel… (your positive feeling)” o “I just want to say hurray for you.” (your action) “When I see you hit Sally.
Writing copy for Executives An executive always buy for personal desires. Matures will begin to spend more money on themselves. After working hard and sacrificing for so many years. hard-working generation as they enjoy their retirement but not by selling products for "old people They have to be smarter than that.3. Play to the notion that this generation overcame daunting odds to achieve their successes. Be prepared. Not selling. and they plan to do so . It's been that way for millions of years. Even as Matures spent. [Matures'] interest in pleasurable or exciting experiences for their own sake is low. tug at their heartstrings and nudge them into taking action. 6. press their hot buttons. reflected the more cautious. 9. but they don't want to go overboard. jerk their tears. The overriding attitude here is that they have enough money to enjoy their retirement. And much of this spending was for others anyway. This is the most important strategy if you want to successfully sell to an By: M H Lakdawala 53 . 8. 4. they have reached a level of financial comfort and a time in their lives where they can feel freer to spend money on themselves . .wisely and responsibly. But they won't turn into recklessly wasteful spendthrifts in the mold of their Boomer children. Copy writers commonly err by emphasizing the biological age of their consumers. They want to enjoy life. Period. As they age. Why? Because people are people. they actually saved a lot of money. selfish reasons and self-interested motives. disciplined values of their savings-focused outlook. because they've earned it. you're only telling. especially their children. Nevertheless. If not. Their style of spending. 5. they already get the point. Don't be loud or brash. however. . Copy writers must avoid depicting older consumers in negative ways Even Matures who are not as active and healthy as they would like to be dislike advertising assaults that remind them of their problems. Focus instead on themes that leverage the way Matures are motivated to buy. Your job is to express your offer in terms that trigger their emotions. Marketers can reach this practical. satisfied and secure. 1.
selfish reasons. The average senior-level businessperson has at least 52 hours of uncompleted work on their desk at any given time. When executives can visualize the process of doing what you want them to do. complex. pretentious language doesn't sell product to executives. Be energetic. The majority of executives are not interested in the details. 6. as convincingly and as compellingly as possible. Follow the "3 C's" Rule: Express your offer as Clearly. 3. whipping out their credit cards or signing the checks. 11. 8. Deliver a Real Solution that Solves a Critical Challenge. Have A Relevant Message. Be enthusiastic. 2. And executives always buy for personal. 5. But more important. Executives are big picture thinkers so be prepared to discuss your product/service on a macro level. The most precious commodity to an executive is time. Gain as much information as you can before writing copy for executives. Avoid details. Plus. Be direct. 10. 9. Respect their time. of course. Be excited about your offering. Use words. concise. phrases and imagery that help paint vivid mental pictures. in a comfortable. they usually have only one or two of unscheduled time in a typical week. right in front of them. because your job is to transfer that excitement into the minds of your buyers. be ego-driven when describing those benefits. Write as if you were speaking with your prospect. including the enjoyment of the benefits of your offer. You need to make them feel important. Copy using convoluted. 4. you drive their actions almost instinctively. Research the company before your meeting. 7.executive. Most executives get to the point very quickly and expect others to do the same. Be benefit-rich. conversational manner By: M H Lakdawala 54 . and to the point. 12. Business people are often so tied to their businesses or products that they get tunnel vision and fail to look at their copy from their readers' perspective. Appeals to Their Ego: Executives people are still the ones Okaying the deal.
Purchase Logic: The Foundation of Marketing Strategy The foundation of a successful marketing strategy is an understanding of what product/service should be offered. Purchase Logic is an understanding of customer motivation that goes far beyond industry or demographic classifications. But don't focus on how better or unique you are. 16. When you do. you feel for them and their "suffering" (for which you have a solution).13. Focus on how that uniqueness directly benefits executives. the more complicated Purchase Logic becomes. What Determines Purchase Logic: The more factors involved in a purchase decision. Being different is important. even to the point they can almost taste it. broad claims. make sure you express those claims in your sales message in a way that directly benefits your buyer and appeals to her ego. The complexity of Purchase Logic increases as any of the following variables Increase: • The number of needs and wants to be satisfied • Length of commitment to or longevity of the product/service • Number of people involved in the decision • Number of alternatives • Price Two examples illustrate how Purchase Logic becomes complex. Forget things like "best. Purchase Logic defines what an individual customer wants and how he or she sorts among different alternatives. and you're ready to nurture and take care of them. how it should be presented." "cheapest" and other. What is Purchase Logic? Definition: Purchase Logic is the description of how and why someone buys a particular product or service. First. You are hungry. II. is to express those claims broadly. and to whom. If you want to tell people how better or different or superior or unique your offering is. Small. have half an hour to spend and have no plans to meet anyone. Because the worst thing you can do." "fastest. 14. Determining these three things is the essence of the marketing function. 15. second to making broad claims. The decision is simple. think about buying a meal for lunch at work. Purchase Logic is marketing’s primary tool for coming up with the answers. routine purchases have simple Purchase Logics. your copy will imply that you understand them. You run By: M H Lakdawala 55 .
in order to succeed in selling a product or service. Hunger is only one need to satisfy. After the benefit ts have been established. Purchase Logic also defines the sequence in which issues must be confronted. but they do exist. you use a fairly complicated Purchase Logic in selecting the restaurant.downstairs to the cafeteria and pick up a sandwich for four dollars. PURCHASE LOGIC IS A PROCESS Every purchase decision involves a number of steps. it is important to take a systematic and formal approach to looking at Purchase Logic. This choice was easy because you had few options and a very simple need to satisfy your hunger and perhaps also take a little break. you sort through many more factors to arrive at a decision about where to go. it is time to address barriers to purchase. You have four people’s tastes to blend and will spend a significant amount of money. Sellers need to understand each step of Purchase Logic in order to make sure they are talking about the right thing at the right time. Thus. Now think about buying a meal on Saturday night. The more factors involved in a purchase decision. the more complicated Purchase Logic becomes. a seller will benefit by understanding what is on the buyer’s mind and how he or she is approaching the purchase decision. Because you are going out with your family. They represent the order in which alternatives are sorted and decisions are made. COMPONENTS OF PURCHASE LOGIC A systematic approach to examining Purchase Logic will look at each of its four components: Benefits. a purchase decision is made. Purchase Logic reveals how a prospect will react to what is offered. Further. The price was also insignificant. Benefits must be addressed first. Barriers. Next come trade-offs and price. you have many more options. This latter scenario is still quite straightforward compared with most purchase decisions. Even if you are not aware of it. After an individual weighs all these factors. You also seek some kind of entertainment or atmosphere. Trade-offs and Price. These steps may not be clearly discrete or particularly conscious. Clearly. BENEFITS By: M H Lakdawala 56 .
the “one that can not be criticized. One highly motivating barrier in business-to-business situations is the fear of criticism. barriers must be dealt with. benefits are what we seek. Buyers are often reluctant to share their wants with a seller. BARRIERS Barriers to purchase are those factors that may prevent a customer from purchasing.” Usually that is the brand leader. Often they are emotional and may appear irrational. Both do an equally good job of satisfying the basic need—to tell time reliably. they usually do not offer objections and criticism freely. The seller needs to know what they are in order to address them. Benefits fulfill needs and wants. the buyer will not mention them. Purchase Logic defines all relevant needs and wants. Purchase Logic allows us to understand how important each benefit is to an individual buyer and why it is so important. The desire for prestige or some other very emotional need or want justifies the choice of a Rolex over some much lower priced alternative. thus. Even if we have a specific idea of what features will deliver them. wants are usually most influential in a buying decision. Wants can be particularly tricky to identify. We need to design our products or services so that they overcome these barriers. Nevertheless. frequently they are not even conscious of some of them. This fear causes buyers to select the safest choice. In this situation. Sometimes barriers may seem irrational or unfair. Overcoming barriers can become the most important benefit. Because people want to avoid conflict. They can be at least as important as the desired benefits.We all buy benefits. demonstrating By: M H Lakdawala 57 . Think about purchasing a watch. However. Barriers to purchase can be hard to discover.
By: M H Lakdawala 58 . In order to win. functions or benefits. What a customer concludes from the trade-off evaluation directly determines how that customer will react to different prices. The trade-off is a comparison of these different bundles. the seller must also provide evidence that the buyer can use to defend his choice.product superiority is not enough. They choose among services or products that offer bundles of benefits. Customers do not buy individual features. TRADE-OFFS Trade-off analysis is the process of assessing the relative value of different offerings.
Cost does not determine price unless you are selling a commodity. By: M H Lakdawala 59 . The value of those benefit is to a specific customer determines the maximum price that a customer will pay.PRICE Price is the mechanism by which sellers capture some of the economic value of the product or service being offered. Price is a function of the benefits provided. Cheaper acceptable alternatives put limits on how high a price a customer will pay. However. what a customer will pay is very much influenced by the relative value of alternative products or services.
2. you will have a deeper understanding of what your current customers seek.PURCHASE DECISION As the customer completes the Purchase Logic process. In addition. Also. You will know what benefits to stress in order to motivate purchase. you will know how to “position your product” for greater appeal versus others in its market. This gives you power to change your offering or approach. Since nothing is perfect. By: M H Lakdawala 60 . 3. Identifying Qualified Prospects and 4. Communicating. which minuses am I willing to live with? Part 2. Why Should You Care About Purchase Logic? There are four specific areas in which a seller can apply an understanding of a Purchase Logic to enhance the likelihood of success: 1. Analyzing the Market. What is the relative value of the options I am still considering? 2. COMMUNICATING No matter what communication vehicle is used. the answers to three questions determine the final purchase decision: 1. knowing your prospects Purchase Logic will help you talk about the right topic at the right time. and thereby strengthen or defend your position. Altering Offerings for Stronger Appeal. Is the value of one choice enough to justify a higher price? 3. ANALYZING THE MARKET You will gain a clearer picture of the kinds of people who are likely to be interested in what you have to offer.
Specifically. your understanding of Purchase Logic enables you to choose the most compelling features. as the name suggests are the various barriers that the consumers have to overcome in order to buy a service or a product. • Understand the barriers to purchase Unless brands owners know what is preventing people from buying their brand in store. Clear understanding of your market’s needs and wants and their relative importance will give you the guidance you require to make effective changes. then they have no hope in being able to change their ways in the last few feet. In some cases you may even be able to construct selling messages that will prompt buyers to self select and identify themselves to you. but increasingly it will be the last 3 feet that delivers the reasons to buy. The first focuses on how Purchase Logic may be used to redefine product offerings. It always makes sense to list down By: M H Lakdawala 61 . Or has the brand failed to deliver its benefits sufficiently to the shopper thereby not arming them with the reasons why it should be chosen over competitors. Marketers used to rely on advertising to do this work for them. or makes it standout against the others around it.IDENTIFYING QUALIFIED PROSPECTS From Purchase Logic you can pull out some salient questions or characteristics that will help you identify good prospects. Barriers to purchase. Part 3. Maybe the packaging and product design does not reflect the premium image the brand claims. psychological or financial. Purchase Logic can also help you revise or improve your products and services to give them stronger appeal. These choices become clear because Purchase Logic defines what products and services to offer and how to talk about these offerings. such as not being able to find or locate the product. The second illustrates how understanding Purchase Logic can increase the power of your communications. We close with two brief examples of how an understanding of Purchase Logic can make a difference. The barriers can be physical. Once you have identified the Purchase Logic(s) in your marketplace. ALTERING OFFERINGS FOR STRONGER APPEAL As we have already suggested. the direction in which you need to move will be evident. Some of the barriers may not be brand related. How Is Purchase Logic Turned Into Positive Action? Understanding precisely what your customers want and why they want it is a powerful tool for managing the marketing of your product or service. they can be environmental. marketing programs and sales message.
you still could recognize it by just seeing the words romantic. Why should I buy it? 2. A sweet spot is met when the relevant benefit fuses By: M H Lakdawala 62 . Developing an ear for ‘human insights’ What is a brand? ‘We live in a brand world. Marketers (and those of us who serve them) need to take a close look at what's going on in the consumer's world. We need to listen.’ According to experts no. It sound too good to be true 4. and this is what makes a consumer relate to a brand. To understand brands. needs and desires of the people you want to talk to -. expectations. As in every successful marketing campaign. 1 brands have (on average) 3 times higher gross margins than no. A brand is a set of memories. Marlboro & Harley Davidson. there is also a sweet spot like in sports. actionable human insights are critical to its success. are consistent in spirit and have anchored themselves on powerful universal human emotions or insights. e.the various barriers that your clients may have to overcome in order to reach you. but its not just what it does to you. where’s the buzz III. If the barrier is “I don’t believe in this brand” then some sort of brand in store campaign that talks about brand benefits might be a good idea. How the to overcome the Barriers to purchase: Influencing barriers to purchase is not always a case of running a brand or price promotion. but if the barrier is “I don’t know what it’s for or don’t see the point”. Once you know the barriers. So what’s different? 3. brands need to align their assets to overcoming these barriers in way that best leverages what they know about how the shopper is shopping. Understanding the passions. however these memories don’t even need to be your own memory for you to be able to identify a brand as associations can be thought.is vital. 3 brands. 1. Even when you have never been in Paris. The ultimate feeling one could have with a brand is a feeling of unification: ‘I am Harley Davidson. it’s important to know that strong brands have unique personalities. Apple. you can dismantle them one by one and make it easy for the clients. as they go beyond the product like the Marlboro man or the Singapore girl.g. In short. Its not worth the price 5. Sweet spot In marketing. elegant and fashionable.2 brands and 6 times higher than no. It’s almost impossible to copy strong brands. then delivering an in store campaign that helps the shopper to understand why they should buy is the way forward. but how it makes you feel’.or inspire to talk about you -.
Much research is done by people whom have a different value system from the target group. The insight can be slightly below the surface. Golden rule is that one cannot write creative. They talk to the parent through the child. So what makes India different? Is there a common set of values for the whole of India? And very important. India is extremely complex and paradoxical. and don’t know a thing about how or where their target group lives. To understand India the single biggest problem is that the many professional people who create Indian advertisements have not been exposed to the diverse Indian culture. can we appeal to all Indian through one communication? There are two solutions to communicate with Asians: 1. Leverage universal human insights but localize them to fit each region. They have difficulty to relate and fall regularly into clichés. in order to have effect. An insight makes advertising meaningful. the localised commercials had a sense of humour and value to them that was very different for each country. but with a local flavour. geography and races. Important to bare in mind is that it springs from an understanding of people. Brands like McDonald’s and Pepsi approach Asian countries with universal human insights. if you don’t know whom you write it for.with the right consumer insight. Take for example the powerful insight on chocolate: women who are depressed like chocolate. it’s a personal truth about a consumer. Understanding Indian Living in India everybody knows that it is very diverse. Understanding Malays • Rustic simplicity • Unhurried approach to life • Family orientation • Sensitive sophistication • Gentleness • Focus on play rather than work • Graciousness rather than frantic pace Understanding Indians • Spirituality over materialism By: M H Lakdawala 63 . languages. Forget globalization and take a completely localized approach. It is a revelation about human behavior or human emotions that can be leveraged to build a brand. relevant and helps connect with the target. ‘it puts a smile back on her day’. 2. with many different cultures. not products. and what you see is not what you get. McDonalds brings out the child in you and focused on the knowledge between parents and children. On the other hand.
Never underestimate the sophistication of Indian culture. By: M H Lakdawala 64 . . but with a local flavour.• Sentimentality and drama • Respect for elders • Intellectual orientation • Family honor before personal honor • Spontaneity. what you see is not what you get! People may look westernized with miniskirts etc. An insight makes advertising meaningful. And last. Do look beyond the surface. there are some common Asian values that would make it possible to create an Asian localised’ commercial or advertisement: • Harmony and order • Institution above individual • Respect for elders • Strong family and community ties • Fear of losing face / honour • Team above self • Consensus based approach • Strong traditional anchors • Premium on relationships rather than objectivity One should not be misled by appearances. Universal human insights.. but their values can still be conservative. but not least you can’t talk to Indian if you don’t master “the nuance”... . joy and passion • Mythology over history • Fatalism • Stronger individuality compared to the rest Understanding Chinese • Materialism over spirituality • Pragmatism over sentimentality or abstractions • Action orientation over intellectual orientation • Premium on face value • Ambition / success orientation • Hard work ethic Even though the Asian people are very different. relevant and helps connect with the target.
ideas. Mind or Thought Mapping are the various processes based upon a mind map. There are various different techniques for generating ideas. problem solving. with brainstorming arguably being the best known and most often utilized. This graphic version of the classic brainstorming method is used to generate. The criticism of Six Thinking Hats is it has to be learned and practiced. Centered Association. The method is meant to promote fuller input from more people. but more often than not is a list of potential ideas. Brainstorming is a group creativity technique for generating ideas to solve a problem. The results of a brainstorming session can be a complete solution to the problem or a list of ideas resulting in a plan. another type of idea generation process. is meant to generate multiple associations of the one original trigger so it can be more fully explored. de Bono. In de Bono's words it "separates ego from performance". and decision-making processes. a hand-drawn diagram used to represent words. Applied Imagination. which is closest to classic brainstorming. and the process supplies and training materials can only be written and authorized by Dr.IV. 3. tasks or other items linked to and arranged around a central key word or idea. Serial Association starts with a trigger.serial and centered. It is a visual aid in organization. 1. Alex Osborn’s book. 4. Today the term brainstorming is often generically applied to the many differing forms of advertising creativity processes based upon this original concept. visualize. There are six metaphorical hats and the thinker can put on or take off one of these hats to indicate the type of thinking being used. Edward de Bono. from free association to mind mapping. Six Thinking Hats was a method developed in the 1980’s by Dr. structure and classify ideas. By: M H Lakdawala 65 . How to get an idea What does “Idea Generation” really mean? The term idea generation is a blanket description referring to any means of creating or developing ideas. depends largely on a mental ‘stream of consciousness’ of which there are two major varieties. Brainstorming originated in 1957 with advertising executive. Free Association. Many software companies are now selling versions of Mind or Thought Mapping tools which supposedly aid in facilitating and recording this process. 2. The key point is a “hat” represents a direction to think rather than a label for thinking. each idea triggering the next until ultimately reaching a potentially useful one. recording the flow of ideas that come to mind.
or regarded as being used. based on the assumption that if two things are known to be alike in some respects. Metaphor means something used. Critical to the creative process is developing a clear understanding of our clients' needs and expectations. An analogy means Similarity in some respects between things that are otherwise dissimilar. budget parameters and timelines. then they must be alike in other respects. This can be painful and pointless if we are not asking the correct questions and more importantly the correct person. A comparison based on such similarity. Analogies and metaphor: Used to see new patterns or relationships. time or focus of participants.5. The problem with any of these idea generation processes is the lack of understanding. Divergent thinking uses exploration to search for all possible alternatives 7. emblem. to represent something else. By: M H Lakdawala 66 . (which aims at solving a specific problem) divergent thinking is creative. open-ended thinking aimed at generating fresh views and novel solutions. symbol. The knowledge and problemsolving expertise required make idea generation successful are often simply not available within the organization. • Choosing the idea that effectively communicates the emotional/rational benefit Chapter 4: Brief A brief is one of the most important aspects of Client servicing executive. Divergent thinking: In contrast to convergent thinking. 6. At the important initial meetings we listen and ask a lot of questions to help us establish the full scope of the project. Convergent thinking: Problem solving technique in which ideas from different fields or participants are brought together (synthesized) to find a single optimum solution to a clearly defined problem. Thus it’s a form of logical inference or an instance of it. So what should we ask for? More often than not we are not given a written brief from the client instead we need to extract a brief.
• Product Brief: The product brief (initial information provided by the contracting company that dictates what they require from me). Development and Application Even the greatest ideas require careful implementation to achieve their full potential. Together we discuss and agree which of our ideas are worth developing. This is our opportunity to shape a vision for the project and to set out the means for achieving it. Strategy and Research If appropriate and practical. It helps to find out about your customer. Following client feedback.Before you get into asking the usual questions of how big. Initial Proposal Inspiration is what our clients expect so we spend time refining the initial brief and make sure our proposals will deliver it. You can pick up product ranges. You might even be able to see a picture of a previous stand. departments and divisions. we develop and polish our ideas into carefully crafted final Creative strategy. If they don’t have a web site ask them to send you a brochure before your meeting. and how many people work for the company and how many offices they have. Its essential that highest quality work is delivered. It’s information like this that the smart client servicing executive gathers without thinking. A product brief is a document designed to focus on specific benefits and attributes of clients’ products. how much and where. we like to include careful market analysis through customer and competitor research. Whatever the required deliverable. as well as realistic deadlines for every stage. try starting at the beginning. This can be done before the appointment via the web where you might find out what they do. By: M H Lakdawala 67 . how big they are. This helps us to fully understand where our clients are coming from and where we can help them go Creative Concepts This is the stage when all the groundwork produces the first buds of creativity and culminates in our first major presentation. If they are a foreign owned company it is quite possible that the decision will be made abroad.
a) Where are we? (situational analysis . both internally and relative to its competition. The marketing team can clearly define what they want the creative team to create. It’s the starting point for any work agency do for their customers. competitive analysis. You want everyone to be clear about the job at hand. Step 2 Outline the expectations of each party involved.• Marketing brief: The purpose of marketing brief is to help assess client’s current situation.creative or marketing . objectives & strategy) c) How are we going to get there? (actions.) b) Where are we going? (opportunities. Know the prices of each part of the project and the total cost. By: M H Lakdawala 68 . Know who is completing what and when it should be completed. trends.the market. The details elicited in marketing brief provide the foundation for refining clients marketing message and revising and updating their marketing and advertising program. The process can be driven by either side . so that everyone knows the purpose of your project. You have a better chance of succeeding if everyone is clear on this point. Include all areas and all players who will be involved in the project. A marketing brief is the best way for the marketer to clearly lay out a framework for the creative team. Step 4 State your goals and objectives. Have a date for the final project. etc. Follow these tips to create a marketing brief so all parties involved will know what work is expected of them. Step 3 Include the dates of each part of the project. plans & controls) Instructions for creative Marketing brief: Step 1 Write a summary of the project including any background information. Know the individual jobs of each player and include these job expectations in your creative marketing brief. Marketing brief is a document outlining the expectations by a company's marketing team regarding a finished project.but both sides need to agree on the brief before the work can commence.
Research Include any and all relevant research that could support the marketing campaign. the greater the prospect of a successful campaign. degree of awareness. Aims What are the required results of your marketing campaign? Confirm your expectations and aims. 3.Step 5 Know your target group. The more you know about the target. The more comprehensively you recognise your target audience. They should be conceived in simple detail. specific and quantifiable. The target audience can be portrayed in terms of current market behaviour. product/service knowledge. the more successful your project will be. details of your previous campaigns and the results. By: M H Lakdawala 69 . provide full details of the targeted markets. 4. as they will present the principal concept for your campaign. Objectives Will your objective be: o Raising awareness of your products or service? o Changing preconceived attitudes Your objectives must be comprehensible. 2. 5. We will have little or no knowledge of your market and will have to understand the key elements that need to be focused on by the marketing campaign. Background you have to supply enough detailed information. Include plenty of white space between sections so readers can scan for information. you are the expert in your field. 6. favoured method of receiving info and clients/customers enthusiasm /obstruction to take notice of and accept the information. regarding your needs. Previous Marketing Material If you have tried marketing and advertising previously. 10 Point Marketing Brief (Brief) 1. Step 6 Write your brief in project format with clear headings and sections for each part of the project. Once you know the target group. Target Market Know exactly who you want your message aimed at. Remember. you can tailor the project to that group.
By partnership we mean complete and thorough disclosure. not driven by ego and private agenda. This document will serve as a broad-based reference tool for both focus and direction of your marketing efforts. is a good benchmark for defining the relationship between agency and client. who cares where the idea emanated from? If the campaign is less than successful. both short and long term. Evaluation If you do not build in a stratagem to appraise the campaign. then both sides must take mutual accountability A good advertisement agency will ask client for a briefing. you will not know if it was successful and if your money was well spent. An unclear message may result in an ineffectual strategy and an unsuccessful campaign. 10. If you do not specify a budget in your brief then a marketing strategy may be proposed that exceeds what you had in mind. Equally. 9. in outline form. Budget Define your marketing budget. What’s fascinating is that this is true. By: M H Lakdawala 70 . prompt response to requests. At the end of the day. if the campaign is highly successful. partnership.7. The agency must really understand clients issues. Timescale Provide an approximate schedule for the campaign. The oft-used word. Key Message Be clear and concise concerning the purpose of your marketing campaign. 8. Results will take time and we need to know the timescales we are working to. The agency brief document purpose is to involve advertisement agency within clients marketing strategies –from the beginning until the end. and the commitment by both client and agency to see the creative process as one of collaboration. It is fundamental to a healthy client-agency relationship that the agency be seen as a fully engaged partner with client. essential questions and topics of discussion necessary for informing outside agency about clients marketing communication needs. A briefing is crucial for good advertisement. its product and the vision clients want to communicate. evaluation will help identify where things went wrong • Agency brief This comprehensive guide provides. if the campaign doesn’t produce the required results.
and it should include: a. Communication objectives d. Benefits to promise e. Supports for the promise f. its recommend that a team complete this briefing. Note boxes will expand to accommodate verbiage. Media to be used.Since agency brief is very detailed and goes into great depth. Try to keep Creative Brief as concise as possible. Target audience c.. the advertiser should prepare a creative brief. A single person would provide the agency with just one view that may be skewed by his or her specific discipline. (Client Name) Creative Brief Format Agency/Graphic Designer: ____________________________________ Agency Phone:______________ Fax: _____________ Email: ______________________ AgencyAddress: ______________________________________________________________ Street City State Pin Code Project Summary: Clear. • Converting into creative brief Once an effective appeal is found. concise description of project – keep brief. it is an elaboration of the positioning statement. By: M H Lakdawala 71 . Target Audience: Whom are you trying to attract? Be specific. Key message b. typically covering one or two pages.
fun. active? Project Timeline: Indicate major milestones.key words and phrases. market realities. specific internet links etc. key visual images. etc. Key Benefits: What’s in it for the audience? Background/Competitive Positioning: Briefly discuss the competition. warm. Communication Strategy: Indicate any specific elements to be included (logos. By: M H Lakdawala 72 .) Desired Message Tone: How do you want the message perceived -.creative.Key Messages: One or two key “thrusts” – those most important to the project’s success. obstacles. key contact information.
The Creative Strategy is built around a theme that By: M H Lakdawala 73 . e.g. Prepared by : _________________________________________Date:___________________ _____ Accepted by: Agency/Graphic Designer Signature: ______________________________ Title: ______________________________ Date: ______________________________ Chapter: 5 The BIG IDEA A BIG IDEA can be used to provide a basis for the campaign. Does the ad position the product simply? … and with unmistakable clarity? Does this ad bolt the brand to a benefit? Does this ad contain a power idea? Does this ad have brand personality? Is how the Advertising meets its promotional objectives given its audience and constraints? Translates the ads purpose into its Creative Strategy (how it will do what it is supposed to). a “hook” that you can use for multiple executions.Anticipated Budget: Other: Add any key information not covered under the above items.
You can use Tone of Voice to give orders. first decide when Tone of Voice you wish to use when talking to your target audience.” The concept or central theme that will bind the campaign together. She is your wife. The theme is the ad’s context. So when you communicate through an ad. Big idea—“The flash of insight that synthesizes the purpose of the strategy. I abhor quarrelsome people. David Ogilvy’s Quotes 2 The consumer is not a moron. You are constantly engaged in changing your tone of your voice as you speak. brings the subject to life. or evoke fear? What sort of voice will make the reader of your ad eventually respond as you want him or her to respond? Tone of Voice is a crucial element in designing communication message. Unless your advertising contains a big idea. and evoke pity. Tone of Voice Tone of Voice often communicates so much more than even the expression on your face. I abhor people who wage paper-warfare. and listen. joins the product benefit with consumer desire in a fresh. raise an alarm. it will pass like a ship in the night. involving way. I admire people with gentle manners who treat other people as human beings. and makes the reader or audience stop. and use another if the child is frightened and needs comforting. use Tone of Voice to generate a mood. In short.” David Ogilvy’s Quotes 1 It takes a big idea to attract the attention of consumers and get them to buy your product. What sort of feelings do you wish to inspire in the housewife’s heart? Should you inspire confidence.contains an appeal. Never insult her intelligence You will never win fame and fortune unless you invent big ideas Creative Strategy The search for the “BIG IDEA. You admonish a naughty child in on tone. or to impel action. or setting. Chapter: 6 By: M H Lakdawala 74 . look. The appeal taps into the audiences’ motives to initiate and guide behavior / learning.
Parts of a press ad. there are several grammatical forms the headline can take. To awaken the interest of the reader in learning more about the product. To select the special readers who might have a specific interest in what you are selling. THE HEADLINE PROVIDES THE “A” AND “I” In copywriting. The ad for Intelligent Investor. which just says By: M H Lakdawala 75 . subhead. 3. The headline has 3 functions: 1. Ex: Axe effect – red lips creating a sensuous appeal are a very attention seeking ad and the visual acts as the headline. It may be determined as: A statement or part of a statement The Business Standard ad uses a statement the headline:” Its tough being a Business Standard reporter”. body copy WRITING THE COPY The elements of the copy. Eanadu Pradesh ad targets media planners.Headline – “should the new Onida TV be banned?” Surf excel – sample laaney ki kya zaroorat hai A command. get it! – Visa Ad for Star News that has a headline. 2. and not a counting machine”. would awaken the interest of the readers.the headline. A question Onida TV ad. To capture attention.Writing for Print Media. Once the dominant selling point and copy appeal have been determined. the attention and interest of the potential customer must be caught by the headline. or the page will be turned and the possible sale lost. hence the headline – “Perhaps the first ad written with the belief that a media planner is human. which uses the headline “Why being a regular reader of Intelligent Investor is such a healthy habit”. from headline to closing should follow the 4 steps in the selling process – “A-I-D-A” in a logical progression.
and have them rank them in order. Just Released. The most effective way to determine this benefit is to survey your customers . And for it to be as effective as possible. Finally. At Last... it must display the #1 benefit your prospect will receive buy purchasing your product or service... buy it” What a headline contains is more important than the form in which it does it. News or Information: Conveys real news or important information about a product..... Ask them the top 3 reasons for purchasing your product or service.“Don’t!” Sub-headline – “don’t just envy the Ondia TV...by phone. most widely used type of headline. or postal mail. Announcing.. Here are some words you can use in your News Headline: New.. announce it in your headline.“Stop” Onida TV – headline . Headlines may be classified by performance as follows: Headline Types Benefit News and Information Command Provocative Question Reason why Caution headline How-to-type Selective headline • Solution to problem Advice headline Gimmick headline 1) Promise of a Major Benefit This is the safest. Now. Introducing. Examples: By: M H Lakdawala 76 ... Now Available. email. It's a good idea to offer your customers an incentive for providing you with this information. If your product or service offers something newsworthy. 2.. Newsworthy is usually the introduction of a new product or the improvement of an existing product...
to use this headline. “ The Times of India: 301927 copies. you give our prospect specific reasons why they should read your ad. The Question Headline should focus on your prospect’s self interest and ask a question they want to know the answer to. You need to know what your prospect is thinking. The Times of India ad that boasts of the circulation of TOI as compared to that of Deccan Herald.) How To Headlines promise your prospect a source for By: M H Lakdawala 77 . (Over 7. Examples: • “7 Reasons Why IBM Provides You With a More Reliable System” 7. The Command Headline. “Reason Why” headlines are effective because they contain facts and specific numbers.Eg.000 book titles start out with How To. The Question Headline. You can never go wrong using a How To Headline. The “Reason Why” Headline. Deccan Herald : 147538 copies” 3. you must really know your market. what their anxieties are. These two words -. then the Question Headline is an effective headline to use. Examples: ♦ “What Does the Space Shuttle Have To Do With LaZer Runner’s 7 Year Premium Protection Warranty?” ♦ “Can Half of All Laser Tag Owners in America Be Wrong?” ♦ “What Do The Giant Entertainment Companies Know That You Don’t?” 6. Effective Command Headlines start out with action verbs. Here again. Provocative 5.“how to”. If you know your target audience this well. The best type of questions to ask are questions that get your prospect involved. and what they’re hoping to accomplish. The How-To Headline. The Command Headline tells your customer what to do. Your command should encourage action by offering your prospect a benefit that will help them. With the “Reason Why” headline. are very powerful words. Examples: ♦“Trade In Your Old Motor cycle for-Bye to Maintenance Headaches!” 4. “Reasons why” headlines don’t need to include the words “reason why”.
If you ever get stumped for a headline.Guaranteed!" This headline presents the benefit of reducing fat in the waist as the #1 solution to the problem of having excess fat in the waist area. The problem solved by your product or service is the #1 benefit . Example… Attention: Newborn Journal Readers! New. Example: "Now You Can Melt at Least 3 Inches of Fat from Your Waist in 30 Days or Less .information.those most likely to buy your product or service. advice.Guaranteed! You can also use the flag headline to increase response by catering your offer to readers of the publication you're advertising in. Selective Select a specific audience with specific language and words. which addresses advertisers. Use a flag headline to attract your target audience .” Media planer ad of Eenadu Pradesh.Guaranteed! By: M H Lakdawala 78 . 9) Solution to a problem This type of headline is a slight variation of the #1 benefit headline. The print ad starts with the headline which says – “A few commandments to advertisers this Xmas. Exercise Safely Burns the Fat You Gained During Your Pregnancy in Less than 60 Days . 10) The Flag Headline A flag is a phrase calling for the attention of a particular person or group.it's just presented in a problem/ solution format.it works! Examples: ♦ “How To Expand Your Customer Base and Increase Your Profits” 8. For example… Attention: New Mothers! New Exercise Safely Burns the Fat You Gained During Your Pregnancy in Less than 60 Days . The Malaya Manorama ad. use the How To Headline -. and solutions to their problems.
There are a few ways to use this approach. without changing my exercise routine. * Warning: Dieters * Don't eat another reduced calorie meal until you read this startling message… Why Your Current Eating Habits May be Doing More Damage to Your Body Than Good! 12) The Testimonial Headline This is simply a satisfied customer testimonial used as a headline.11) The Warning Headline This type of headline can yield tremendous results when use properly. more of India’s companies choose us”. it's important that the testimonial has a strong impact. if so then it is called Horn-Blowing. Claim: Insist that this product has an outstanding record or performs in a certain way. Or you can use the warning to flag a specific audience. DHL: “when sending shipments to the US. Advice or Promise: By: M H Lakdawala 79 . 13. It must make a significant claim related to a major benefit of your product or service. giving it added validity. Your headline can propose a warning to read your message before making a purchase. 14.4% in only 37 days. The following example uses both of these techniques. It should not be overly blatant and boastful. When using this method. Here's an example: "Big Boulder Protein Powder helped me pack on 11 pounds of muscle and reduce my body fat by 6. or it won't have the desired effect. Don't just use an "average" testimonial." The quotes around the headline signify that it's an actual quote from a customer. Horn blowing – the Asian Paints yamaraj ad – this ad just exaggerates the durability aspect of the paints which kind of sounds boastful. and I'm convinced it can do the same for you too.
timesofmoney. If it presents a question. There are exceptions: Those messages where a headline and very descriptive visuals are able to tell the whole story. An over line is a sub-head that leads into headline. The advertisement for HLL looking for baby models – Headline – “Nude models wanted” Ad for Amitasha Foundation – Her parents cursed the day she was born” 18. Ex: Don’t get a credit card from us and you may end up with the wrong one in your hands . Eg. By: M H Lakdawala 80 . So is the view from our hotel.com ad. with the explanation provided in the body copy. Logo Or Slogan: Stress the reputation of the company behind it. Eg.her face tells the whole story and there’s no body copy! Sub-headlines: Sub-headlines are sectional headlines. An underline is a sub-headline that follows the main headline and leads the reader into the copy test. Tata both use their logos for most of the ads for their automobiles – Camry and Indica respectively. 15. the answer must lie in the subheadline or body copy and in the product’s characteristics. The JW Marriott ad. Mood-Setting: Set a mood to create receptivity in the reader. The “bad night – Goodknight” ad with Lisa Ray ……. which uses the headline –“The earth is mostly water. features. Visuals are as much a part of headlines as are verbal concepts. and performance. If a provocative headline is used it must be pertinent to the product. It means startling or interrupting in order to capture attention. Sometimes it presents a contradiction or an apparent paradox to the reader. Toyota.Promise a real benefit if the product is used. 16. Provocative: It must provoke the reader into probing further. There are over lines and underlines. A picturesque scene of girl relaxing supports this 17.
Copy approaches. you must try to entice readers into the body copy. minimum sum assured. Body copy can be extremely important to the success of an ad. Once the headline and visual have attracted attention and aroused interest.Generally the purpose of the sub-headline is to support the main headline and complete the meaning of the headline. Factual. No matter what style of copy you're writing. to awaken the desire to own the product. In that case. it's a huge waste of your time and your client's money. And most people won’t read body copy--in fact. the body copy attempts further to develop the interest of the potential customer. It allows you to fully convince the target audience of the benefits of the product. direct or rational approach LIC – The LIC ad states the benefits of the Komal Jeevan policy. It can also be used to break up a lengthy copy." This is the first sentence of the body copy. So what do you do? You can leave it out of the ad and hope that the ad will compel readers to seek more product information elsewhere (at the Web site. etc. various as they seem. Several ways to work out this approach • a. But unless you can get them to read it.) But sometimes advertising is the most efficient way of communicating all the product information so you have to write good body copy. at the showroom. Functions of Sub-headline: •Include important information not communicated in the headline • Communicate key selling points or information quickly • Stimulate more complete reading of the ad BODY COPY Body copy carries the selling message. And the best way to do that is with a great "lead. The copy approach is the way the copy and its appeal are presented. it should draw the reader from the headline and into the text. Direct selling information By: M H Lakdawala 81 . 80% of readers won't read it. the eligibility. It may also be used to bring out related but additional or different appeals. can be grouped into three categories: 1. etc. and to close with a “call to action”.
e. the body copy does not state any contact address or number. he is offering testimony to the benefit offered by Boost. provide direct selling information. Proof or evidence: a seal is shown in the ad which states – Best employer to work for in India Business today – Hewitt Associates survey – Jan 2001 Software’s Best Employer Dataquest – NFO – MBL Study May 2001 By: M H Lakdawala 82 .Ads that offer information on products like music cassettes. Implied suggestion (“soft sell”) Amway – the ad does not urge you to “ buy today” or “hurry”. i. Closing The ad by Infosys seeking recruits starts with the Headline – “ We need Though Leaders who can assert our Domain Competence. CDs. Additional details 4. since Amway products are made available through personal selling. Amplification of headline – “As a global IT consulting and services organization. books. When Sachin Tendulkar says – “Boost is the secret of my energy”. someone will suggest that you find out for yourself how exquisite our personal care products are. Amplification of headline in the lead (1st sentence (s) of body copy) 2. Rather. it lays down the benefits of using Amway products in a subtle way. For example – The Economic Times Entertainment 2001-2002 report. Testimonial copy 1. Ratan Tata lends credibility to the plea made by Dept of Electronics – Govt. Infosys is at the cutting edge of IT development and a thought leader in business and technology domains…” 2. energy. instead. Proof or evidence 3. which are sold by the newspaper/magazine in which the ads feature. • c. of India by ratifying the seriousness of the Y2K Bug. 2.” 1. • b. Besides. Body copy developed for the factual approach: 1. etc. it states – “ someday soon.
3. eligibility criteria are given. Azaad.. For example. if you are a though leader who wants to fly high. Cadburys dairy milk. So does she. Fictional testimony In the ad for Dove. 4." The ad uses the narrative approach to emphasize the USP of Om Kotak Mahindra Life Insurance. etc use this approach c. act now! Mail your resume… 2. Descriptive or human interest story Most NGOs use this approach to elicit a favorable response from the readers.. Monologue or dialogue 83 • • By: M H Lakdawala . show the photograph of a girl in rags. Independence. "Om Kotak Mahindra Life Insurance. Several ways to work out this approach: • a." They become the life of the party as. main apne aap se mila.the MVO adds. i.Nurturing the girl child.e. “Slice of life” – slice of life ads depict situations that one can relate to. ad for the Amitasha foundation .. situations that could have occurred in anyone’s life.. Additional details: details about Domain Competency. Closing: So. and enjoys the carefree moment. Narrative approach story board Ex: om kotak mahindra A man joins a party and is bewildered by what he sees. He moves forward in a daze and recognizes his own image as an old man. "Aatmanirbhar. with the headline – “Her parents cursed the day she was born. surakshith. Jeene ki azaadi. women who have used Dove narrate the positive effects of using Dove in their lives. McDonald. the focus areas of the project. . 5.” • b. Aur apna bhavishya dekha." He dances together with his vision. d. "Ek din.
Hindustan Times • e. involving him emotionally through a projected “factual story” or through fictional story about By: M H Lakdawala 84 . which end with words. Then comes a rustic local. But things change when she uses Fair and Lovely • Happy ending Not only does she become beautiful (fair) and confident. etc. only ends up cursing herself.a suave gentleman is shown fishing in a lake for hours. Thus. Even the feviqwick ad where two men are shown fishing. and the father proudly calling her ‘beta’ (son). but a after look at her dark complexion in the mirror. Humor Most of the Fevicol ads have used humor to make the ads noticeable. The ad . • Closing (suggestion to the reader) Ads. interesting as well as memorable. who applies Feviqwick at a few places on his fishing rod. Projective or emotional approach This approach puts the reader realistically into the situation. like – “jaldi kijiye”. but could not catch a single fish. Body copy developed for the narrative approach: • Predicament Most fair and lovely ads start with a predicament – the girl faces problem/s because of her complexion. Example – Safal ad – jaldi kijiye . The daufghter comes across an offer for the job of an airhostess.mahurat nikal na jaye 3. hurry now. humor gave high noticibility as well as recall to the ad. has the same effect. The ad ends with the female taking her father out for coffee to a five star hotel. dips it in the water and out comes with five fish stuck to his rod. • Transition to the product. like the ad in which the father wishes that he had a son and not a daughter. she even becomes an airhostess.
data. Eg. To avoid having the ad’s text become a glut of testimonials. coupons. and off-the-issue discussions. BOXES AND PANELS Boxes and panels are great tools for the copywriter. The occasions celebrated and the good times come flashing back to him. This allows readers to first focus on the main issues and later study the detailed facts.he recalls all the fun they had here.g. Address arguments before they arise. 4. copywriters segregate information of a secondary and supportive nature into boxes and panels next to the main body copy.. By: M H Lakdawala 85 .. Boxes are useful for framing information that the prospect must read – e. A writer must put conviction into their own copy. The emotional impact of this type is often felt in copy written about perfume. Cut to the new house. McDonald’s ad. the kid sees a McDonald's restaurant opposite and his gloom disappears. This approach relies on the customer’s association with the characters in the story – as if it were happening to him. Quick tips for Body copy. Everything is being packed up and stashed away to be moved Saying good-bye to his best friend he gets into the car and they drive out. Keep your line of thought on track. cosmetics. Get quickly to the crux of your body copy message. On the way. writers can access huge amounts of information to support their product’s utility and demonstrate why customers need it.fictional characters. he spots a McDonald’s restaurant and. As they look out. Never oversell in your body copy 3.Write for your audience-not yourself. A little boy takes a last look around his old home. A panel is an elongated box that runs the whole length or width of an ad. lingerie. special offers. 1. The ad ends with the jingle . 2.McDonald's mein hai kuch baat. cars and travel. His sister drags him to the window to show him something. 6.. contest rules. and the order blanks. In the information age. A box is copy with a line around all four sides. The father draws a Mac logo in the air.
7. SLOGANS A slogan is a small attractive phrase used in the ad to sum up the advertising message in a few words. Ideally the slogan should be short. Sometimes. 4. radio. you can be sure’. Example: ‘when it’s Philips.7. Rasna. 5. whether on TV. Slogans can place emphasis on Advanced technology of the company. Great slogans are like great ideas. Example: ‘The name you can trust’. The words must be simple.Mafatlal. Slogans emphasizing International reputation of the product. Basis for writing a slogan: Techniques/factors 1. The slogan should be such that it can be used in any media. It should be so designed that it can be repeated .Slogans can be used to build Trust and confidence. Present your body copy in a logical sequence that relates to the rest of the text. perhaps a year or years together. Example: ‘The best tobacco money can buy’-Rothmans. By: M H Lakdawala 86 . Slogan can be based on the Life of the company. 2. press and outdoor. Keep your copy user friendly 8. Example: ‘ A trusted household name for over fifty years’-Philips.slogans to guard against substitutes. clear and easy to remember. 6. they don't come overnight. Slogans emphasizing sales of the product. they just come along but most often slogans are the result of hard work of days together put in by the creative marketing people/advertising people. 9. Use one of the twelve slogans for constructive persuasion.British Airways. Example: ‘The world’s favorite airline’. Example: ‘India’s largest selling soft drink concentrate’. Slogans can be based on the Quality of the product. 3. Slogans are not easy to create. preferably 5 to 7 words or even less than 5 words.
Slogans expressing Joy and happiness. Affordable reliability in your pocket. (headline: ‘Made for each other). real fast-Moov. slogans don’t have to be clever. Example: ‘Only Vimal’ 15. 6.’. Slogans conveniently package everything in one sentence. Example: ‘Arrive in better shape’-Cathay Pacific. Slogans are in a world of their own.-Thumps up 11. Slogans expressing Love and Affection Example: ‘A gift for someone you love-Amul chocolates. By: M H Lakdawala 87 . 2. Example: ‘A pocket doctor for aches and pains-Amrutanjan pain balm. Slogans call for action 4. 10. Slogan are about you: Successful slogans tend to use the word ‘you’ some where in the copy. Owners’ pride’. 12. Slogans emphasizing the choice of specific class. The twelve slogans of constructive persuasion: 1. Example: ‘Filter and tobacco perfectly matched’-Wills. The writer’s choice The best pen you can buy. Slogan may rhyme: Top for shops. It’s here. by far.Slogans emphasizing name of the brand company. 5. you can’t beat it.Example: ‘In tune with tomorrow. Enter a new world of writing. 9. 9. In order to sell. Slogans are it: Go for it. Example: Neighbours envy. 8. Slogan make promises 3. Slogan based on the headline of the ad.Lehar Pepsi. Example: ‘ Happy days are here again. Example: ‘The choice of new generation’. 10.Slogans can be full of alliterations Supremely Scottish Salmon Buy better.Slogans based on pride and possession. 13. Example: ‘Real relief. Example: Dunlop is Dunlop. Slogans emphasizing the use of the product.Bush. Slogans emphasizing the comfort and convenience. always ahead’. Buy bigger. 7. Slogans create ideals: Zindagi ke saath bhi Zindagi ke baad bhi. 8. 14. meals that appeals.
Slogans become a battle cry for the company.To build name and goodwill of the company. Many slogans – also called theme lines or tag lines – begin as successful headlines. Aid memory recall: It should be easy and pleasant to remember. Slogans repeat key word patterns. To stress market leadership “ India’s No. they become standard statements. To suggest increased use or frequency of use. Slogans have two basic purposes: to provide continuity to a series of ads in a campaign and to reduce an advertising message strategy to a brief. 12. 6. “ World Champion Lubricants. The one. 5. Through continuous use.” DHL. every time. By: M H Lakdawala 88 . “ The world’s favorite airline. The shape.the Answer. repeatable and memorable positioning statement. not just in advertising but also for salespeople and company employees. Functions of Slogan: 1. The right price. ‘The’ slogan is king The best. To emphasize international standards. De Beers ads still use the slogan – “Diamonds Are Forever/Heera Hai Sada Ke Liye” Because of their use in positioning a company or product. 8. 4.1 Radial. 7. The best quality. many slogans are developed at the same time the product or company is conceived.” British Airways. Rane ( Madras Limited).” JK Tyre.” Castrol. To describe the use of a product. To suggest the product’s special advantage or unique benefit.Express Hotelier & caterer Magazine. “ The weekly update on the hospitality industry. 3. “ I love you Rasna”.11. 2. To stress the quality of the product “ Greater Reliability through Better Technology”. " On time.
simple. Logotypes and signature are special designs of the advertiser’s company name or product name. Movement related corporations like Air India. Companies claiming to be ISO approved Since these organizations have credibility as recognized authorities. and most important. Effective slogans are short. It reposes in itself the collective pride of the company and is designed with great care to represent the personality of the company and its product. and reason – not to mention alliteration – are valuable tricks of the trade for slogan writing. like trademarks. The term Seal is sometimes interpreted to mean the company seal or trademark. etc. the corporate logo embodies the company with a personality. give the product individuality and provide quick recognition at the point of purchase. Rhyme. on note paper. rhythm. logo styles also incorporate nuances about the company. cast in one piece. LOGOTYPES AND SIGNATURES The concise Oxford Dictionary describes the word ‘Logo’ simply as ‘logo type’. The company’s logo is the corporate signature. their seals provide an independent. help differentiate the product or the company from its competitors. logotype is describe as: Word. and a host of other airline and travel agencies prefer their logotypes to move from left to right and underline the sense of motion through Italicised typefaces. a human quality and character. Indian Airlines.Slogans should be like old friends.recognized instantly year after year. Non-heraldic device chosen as company symbols or badge of organization and used in advertisements. They are actually called logotypes. SEALS. or more letters than one. In other words. Apart from lending personality to the Company’s public image. Captions: By: M H Lakdawala 89 . In turn. valued endorsement for the advertiser’s product. They appear in all company ads and. Sunsilk claimed that it had passed the rigid tests and had received the approval of Elida Hair Institute of Paris . A seal is awarded only when a product meets standards established by a particular institution or organization. memorable and easy to repeat.
Captions are small sentences that seem to come out the mouth of the people shown in the ads. Jingles make possible the association of memorable phrases with the product or with the company. musician.Make it interesting 8. singer. “ If you have nothing to say. For example. recording studio. Creative Tactics: Print Ad Layout 3. It is important to know the target audience when composing a jingle. Follow the headline and illustration. It is important to know the target audience when composing a jingle. or ‘joyous’. Jingle composing.Make it persuasive 9.Captions do form part of copy text. Comic strip type of copy make use of captions. sing it. By: M H Lakdawala 90 . voice over person and host of others. As David Ogilvy once said. composer. The signature tunes immediately conjure up their products. you must have come across such captions in the print ads of Tortoise Mosquito Coil.” A jingle with its repeat phrases has a far higher recall value than the visuals do. They also give a profile of the target audience. Jingle composing involves co-ordination with client. The mood briefs are generally given to the jingle singer by the Agency. which we pick up and hum quite unconsciously most of the times. like a refrain registered in our brain. which refuses to go away. They tell whether a tune should be ‘peppy’ or ‘romantic’. The music catches the attention of children and teenagers. Essentials/ Characteristics/ Attributes of a Good copy: 1. singing and making it work is highly creative art. Make it believable 6.Keep a surprise in the copy 10. Be specific 4. Be clear 7. Sometimes a story-board is given by the Agency to make the singer aware of the characters expected to be mouthing the jingle. Be Simple 3. Be Personal 5. Jingles These are catchy little tunes. Be Concise 2.
Effective TV commercials merge video and audio into a powerful sales tool.fussing with cords and heavy equipment. You'd also use video to show someone struggling with a regular. The same holds true for audio. But don't think one is more important than the other.Chapter: 7 I. Order now. there are no words more important than your call to action. If the audio doesn't explain the product in detail. You'd use words like "convenient. Use your audio to explain the advantages of owning your product. and lightweight." However. hard to reach places and inside a car. For instance. For example. turn down the volume on any commercial. portable. Visit their local dealer. Always use a strong audio and video combination when creating your own commercial. Potential customers should be able to hear your message even if they're not in the room to see it. Close your eyes and listen to the announcer. "Our handheld vacuum cleaner is By: M H Lakdawala 91 . Say you're selling a handheld vacuum cleaner: Your video could actually demonstrate the product vacuuming the stairs. Your video must match your audio to drive home your selling points. then the commercial isn't effective. What do you want your viewer to do? Tell them to call now. Writing for Television: Stages of producing a TV Commercial 1) Writing scripts and developing storyboards 2) Briefing the producer 3) Pre-production 4) Shooting 5) Post-production The Two elements that make TV so exiting are: (1) Sight (2) Sound Focus on single big idea: TVC are generally use for launching the single Big Idea to leave its impression. Audio and video go hand-inhand. bulky vacuum cleaner . you wouldn't want to see video of a woman struggling with a large vacuum cleaner while you hear audio claiming. You should be able to identify the benefits of purchasing a product just from the video.
2. Be sure to tell the viewer your name visually. And you lose the sale. along with your logo. 5. 1. rather than just "telling" what they are. etc. Combining sight and sound should spark your viewers' emotions and help them identify with your product. If you're advertising a restaurant. 3. And remember to stress them visually. But this also changes the whole concept of copy for the copywriting effort. 2. don't just use a shot of a crowd of people at a funeral. so use a strong opening image . Use a close-up of your food in your commercial. but they can recall how the ad made them feel.the visual equivalent of a strong headline. Television has a tremendous advantage over radio: In that action as well as sound can be used in the message. Tell the viewer what to do . Make sure they feel motivated after viewing yours. The ability to create a mood or demonstrate a brand in use gives television it superior capability. And if they can identify with your product. Come see us. Think of television as an intimate medium. Motivate viewers: Television viewers rarely remember the details of an ad. and your address and phone number. You can do this by "showing" what they are. Don't forget your call to action. 4. hit them twice by having the voice-over announcer read it aloud at the same time. Show a tear streaming down a child's face. don't just use a shot of your building's exterior. Stress your benefits.if it's not clear you've lost the viewer for the entire ad. And show people eating your food.great for cleaning the inside of your car!" Your message gets distorted. Copy for television must be highly sensitive to the ads visual aspects as specified by the creative director. Better yet. If you're producing a Public Service Announcement (PSA) about drunk driving. You have about two seconds to grab the television viewer's attention. Visit your local dealer. You then have a total of maybe five seconds to say what the ad is about . Put it right there up on the screen. Get to the point. The viewer gets confused. you're more likely to get Successful television advertising sells through emotions: 1. 3. By: M H Lakdawala 92 . Compare the value. Keep your message simple.Call now!!!.
Demonstrating a brand in action is an obvious format for a television ad. The delivery of a message by a spokesperson can place a heavy emphasis on the copy. and wine) frequently use this format to create the desired mood for their brands. The copy is given precedence over the visual and is supported by the visual. Many television commercials use music and singing as a creative technique. beer. and sound techniques may ultimately convey a message far better than the cleverest turn of a phrase. A storyboard is a frame-by-frame sketch depicting in sequence the visual scenes and copy that will be used in a television advertisement. average-person. As in a radio commercial. A brand is introduced as the savior in a difficult situation. Copy must be precisely coordinated with the video. in which a consumer solves a problem with the advertised brand. The copywriter must remember that words do not stand alone. Writing TV Copy Television Advertising Formats: Because of the broad creative capability of the television medium. Problem and Solution. special effects. The road map for this coordination effort is known as a storyboard. Demonstration with sight and sound lets viewers appreciate the full range of features of a brand. Expert. By: M H Lakdawala 93 . and celebrity testimonials fall into this category. there are several alternative formats for a television ad: Demonstration. rather than vice-versa. Most slice-of-life ads in which a husband and wife or friends are depicted using a brand employ a dialogue format. Dialogue format ads pressure a copywriter to compose dialogue that is believable and keeps the ad moving forward. Music and Song. Television commercials represent a difficult timing challenge for the copywriter. Brands whose benefits result from some tangible function can effectively use this format.The opportunities inherent to television as an advertising medium represent challenges for the copywriter as well. The beverage industries (soft drinks. Spokesperson. a television ad may feature a dialogue between two or more people. Dialogue. Visuals. A variation is to promote a brand on the basis of problem prevention. This format often takes shape as a slice-of-life message.
commercials are produced to run as 10. which can help achieve awareness and recognition. Unoriginality. evaluate its potential as a sustainable idea.15-. Copy has to fit in a limited time frame (or space). When copy for a particular advertisement is being written. like a vignette. Using clichés and worn out superlatives was mentioned as a threat to print copywriting. Use the video. Vagueness. due to audio and audiovisual capabilities) exists in radio and television advertising. Avoid generalizations and words that are imprecise in meaning. Use copy judiciously. Vignettes also give the advertising a recognizable look. The copywriter may need to ensure that the audio portion of an ad is complete and comprehensive within varying time lengths. 3. Narrative. 8. A narrative ad often focuses on storytelling and only indirectly touches on the benefits of the brand. 30-.Vignette. Reflect the brand personality and image. Wordiness. there are common mistakes made in copywriting that should be avoided: 1. 2. Be flexible. Coordinate the audio with the video. 20-. Being economical with descriptions is paramount. 9. 3. 7. Due to media-scheduling strategies. Guidelines for Writing Television Copy 1. outdated image for a brand or firm. By: M H Lakdawala 94 . The Taster's Choice couple featured in a series of advertisements in the United States and Great Britain is an example of the vignette format. If all the copy does is verbally describe what the audience is watching. Make sure that the copy doesn't simply hitchhike on the video. 5. an opportunity to either communicate additional information or strengthen the video communication has been lost. Sell the product as well as entertain the audience. Many of the "heart-sell" ads by Kodak and Hallmark use the narrative technique to great effect. but the mood of the ad is highly personal. emotional. The same threat (to a lesser degree. and receivers bore easily. 4. or 60-second spots. Support the video. Common Mistakes in Copywriting Beyond the guidelines for effective copy in each media area. Trite copy creates a boring. A narrative is similar to a vignette but is not part of a series of related ads. Build campaigns. and involving. Narrative is distinct in that it tells a story. 2. 6. A vignette format uses a sequence of related advertisements as a device to maintain viewer interest.
Storyboard is a series of visuals which convey the story or the idea behind the commercial. Inevitably. these visuals are usually hand-drawn. Often. A typical copy approval process goes as follows. their age group. Evaluative copy research is where the audience expresses its approval or disapproval of the copy used in an ad. After the account management team has made recommendations. or both. a meeting is likely held to present the copy marketing staff. visualizes the entire film shot by shot. A redrafted copy is forwarded to the account management team within the agency. In the advertising agency. the place / location where the TVC is set in and so on. Once the concept behind a TVC is ideated. their costumes. The artist is given a detailed description on the commercial viz. Socio-economic profile of the protagonists . a copywriter submits draft copy to either the senior writer or the creative director. the director then takes over the mantle and in consultation with the director of photography. The dialogues / lyrics of the jingle are written against each corresponding visual. the storyboard artist is called upon to present the ideas visually with a brief from the creative department. By: M H Lakdawala 95 . The final step in copywriting is getting the copy approved. The Copy Approval Process In copy approval. Storyboard Creating the Storyboard is the second level of making a television commercial (TVC). A main concern at this level is to evaluate the copy on legal grounds. look of the models etc on a storyboard but this time in a more detailed version. copy may be subjected to research scrutiny. After the initial discussions on the TVC with the creative. Some copywriters get carried away with a clever idea. His interpretation of the commercial is again presented by a storyboard artist as various shots. copy should always be submitted for final approval to the advertiser's senior executives. Developmental copy research provides audience interpretations and reactions to the proposed copy. The artist then presents his interpretation of the commercial in visuals as various shots conceived by the creative team. presented to the client. In Advertising.4. This storyboard is in turn forwarded to the producer /director of the TVC. these executives have little interest in evaluating advertising and they leave this responsibility to middle managers. approved and researched. It’s essential that the copy in an ad remain true to its primary responsibility: communicating the selling message. Creativity for creativity's sake. the client feels compelled to make recommendations for altering the copy. locales. Finally.
giving us CONTRAST. of their script. have desires. Motive finds its outlet in deeds. CONFLICT and STRUGGLE: The various motives. the director's storyboard helps them understand what exactly the director's visualization is. Incident by incident the conflict grows into SITUATIONS. vi. dialogue tends to be used frugally. Dialogue is only used to add subtlety to characters and action and to provide additional information that will help the audience better understand what is going on and why. lenses . Too much dialogue clutters up and slows down the impact of the film. being human. The Director of photography too. So one of the most important lessons a screenwriter can learn is to show rather than tell. giving us SEQUENCE. give us CONFLICT and STRUGGLE. CHARACTERIZATION: The portrayal of these characters gives us CHARACTERIZATION. By: M H Lakdawala 96 . especially when it slows down or reduces visually showing the audience what is happening. iii. II. vii. In presenting our story on the screen through the medium of photographed action we have SCREEN DRAMA. The sequence of situations builds to the final situation and the greatest crisis in the story. v. The various minor happenings throughout are INCIDENTS. Cinema: Art of script writing In a good screenplay. From the advertising agency's perspective. giving us characters. The Elements of The Screenplay i. Each situation builds up to a CRISIS. Drama: First we are telling a story in the form of DRAMA. following one after another. ii. gets a fair idea on the editing pattern. a storyboard makes things easier for all parties involved. giving us ACTION. The story is about people. The characters. MOTIVE: These desires cause them to do certain things--and the causes are called MOTIVE. The editor. clashing. the lighting technique which could be used to make the frames look interesting. CLIMAX. which are the effects of the causes. viii. with the help of a storyboard knows his shots and the angles much in advance and this helps his planning with the kind of equipment. even before the film gets shot. There must be several situations and crises. thanks to the storyboard.For a TVC. It makes the director's job much easier once he has his well-defined visual representation. iv. Waiting for the outcome of the conflict gives us SUSPENSE CONTRAST: To be interesting the characters must be dissimilar.
2. Limited Research Data. A radio commercial is like a TV ad. or newspapers. 3. Creative Limitations: Absence of visual image. there are other fundamentals which are important: The OBJECT of conflict must be of sufficient importance to possess SIGNIFICANCE. Thus they may miss all or some of the commercials. Audience research data are often limited. III. b. DIALOGUE is used throughout to add subtlety and to convey information that fleshes out what is being communicated visually. Radio production process 1. Limited Listener Attention: It is difficult to retain listener attention to commercials. Radio has been called the Rodney Dangerfield of media because it gets no respect from many advertisers. radio has inherent limitations that affect its role in the advertiser’s media strategy: a. is often the background to some other activity and may not receive the listener’s full attention.Radio has also become a medium characterized by highly specialized programming appealing to very narrow segments of the population. particular compared with TV. magazines. The story usually involves a single general SUBJECT known as THEME. particularly music. d. Characteristics of Radio environment 2. Message strategy 3. Radio programming. a short-lived and fleeting message that is externally paced and does not allow the receiver to control the rate at which it is processed. Writing script 4. 4. In addition to these components. Radio is capable of presenting words and “theatre of the mind. After which we gather the various threads of the story together and reach the ENDING. Characteristics of Radio environment 1. Radio: Writing Radio Copy 1.which culminates in the CLIMAX. However. c. Radio has survived and flourished as an advertising medium because it offers advertisers certain advantages for communicating messages to their potential customers. Fragmentation: The high level of audience fragmentation due to large number of stations. By: M H Lakdawala 97 .
Message strategy Deciding the message is the one of the important activity in the advertising decisions. In order to understand communication. Message evaluation and selection 3. it includes: 1. Flexibility: Radio is probably the most flexible of all the advertising media because it has a very short closing period. to have suitability to the message and to understand likes and dislikes of the customers and the middlemen’s. Some creative people use a deductive framework for generating a advertising messages. he saw buyers as expecting one of the four types of reward from a product: a. They require only a script of the commercial to be read by the radio announcer or a copy pf a prerecorded message that can be broadcast by the station. Radio commercials can easily adjust their messages to local market conditions and marketing situations. episodes related to the problem and outcomes. Sensory c. The Doyle. John Maloney proposed one framework. dealers and experts and experts. Social By: M H Lakdawala 98 .Advantages: Cost and efficacy: Radio commercials are very inexpensive to produce. Rational b. Advertising people have proposed different theories for creating an effective message. • • • Reeves of the Ted Bates advertising agency favoured linking the brand directly. Leo Burnett and his agency preferred to create a character that expressed the product’s benefits. Social responsibility review Message generation: An important component of communication is the message what is said or written. 2. which means advertisers can change their message almost up to the time it goes on the air. Dane and Bern Bach agency favoured developing a narrative story with a problem. Whatever the method is used. creative people should talk to consumers. Message generation 2. Message execution 4. it is useful to understand the characteristics of messages and how to construct the most effective messages.
Some aim for rational positioning and others for emotional positioning. Results of use experience 2. but often more important. Incidental to use experience. exclusiveness and believability. but DIK Twedt suggested that messages be rated on desirability. Crossing the four types of rewards with the three types of experience generate twelve types advertising message. b. the message appeal can be: a. Product in use experience 3. Message execution: The message impact depends not only on what is said. preference. preference. Persuasive message: This type is to create liking. c. conviction and purchase of product or services. conviction and purchase of product or service. The advertiser should conduct market research to determine which appeal works best with its target audience. Reinforcement message: This is to convince current purchases that they made the right choice. By: M H Lakdawala 99 . Informative message: This is to create awareness and knowledge of new products or new features of existing products or service. d. Message evaluation and selection: The good advertisement normally focuses on one core-selling proposition.d. Message Appeal: Message appeal is the feature that brings about attitude change on the part of the audience. Reminder message: This type is to create liking. Social responsibility review: Advertiser and their agency must be sure their creative advertising does not overlap social and legal norms. on how it is said. Ego satisfaction Buyers might visualize these rewards from: 1. For example the appeal ‘get cloths cleaner’ is a rational reward promise following the results of use experience.
When you place a radio ad. Remember that it takes longer to say something out loud than it does to read it. Entertaining Commercials sell Humor. much of the “mad variety. you need to keep your message simple and focused. Foreground" stations require active listening. You have two basic choices when it comes to creating a radio ad. it will sound like a testimonial. 6. Make your ad sensitive to the format to keep the listener's attention . if appropriate. Because listeners are often sitting alone (frequently in their cars). and the like. In "Guerrilla Advertising.don't use a "voice-only" ad on a music station. Mention your company name at least three times in those 30 seconds. you're speaking to a captive audience – The listener has to take an action (actively change the station) to pass by your ad. You can provide a script and have it read by the announcer. If you choose the latter. Different radio stations require different types of ads. 3. Frequency helps you break through the clutter. Music is used skillfully to capture attention or to create moods. and don't use a music-driven ad on talk radio." Jay Levinson identifies two basic types of stations. Address them directly. Choose one theme and stick to it. don't put a country and western jingle on a classical music station.Writing Radio script 1. The average 30-second radio spot contains only about 70 words. 4. "Background" stations are on in the background and are typically music stations that are listened to passively. They would include talk radio. Take a week off and then run it for another week. Or you can provide a tape. have a professional announcer read the copy. all-news radio. Repetition is very important in radio: Because it takes several airings for the listener to become familiar with your name and product or service. 5. call-in shows. speak to them like you're having a one-on-one conversation. consider placing your ads on the show of a well-known radio personality.send them a sample. On radio. By having the personality read your ad. 7. And make sure the personality is familiar with your product or service . 2. and consider using background music or sound effects as a way of making the ad stand out. Consider running your spots at the same time every day for a week. By: M H Lakdawala 100 . holds audience just as well as the surrounding program material. If you're using a script. and your message will get across.
The result is new advertising vehicles which are wider in reach. and so on 1. 8. Length of words and sentences Short words are usually the best radio words. 3. 4. put your audience in the driver’s seat of that car-make them feel its surging strength-its ease of handling-make them see its handsome lines. 7. Words are your illustrations Radio scriptwriter job is to make those-listening to your commercial see the product through you’re his words alone. Description is vital in a great many radio commercial. In radio the writer is the artist as well as the writer. Try them out loud The one most important rule to learn about writing for radio is that every single word you set down on paper for use over the air must be read aloud by you before you give it your personal approval. Details should be kept to a minimum. 8. If you are asked to prepare radio commercials for an automobile you must deftly use description. 2. 9. the emergence of new media has enhanced reach on several levels. 5. Thus a “great car” is better than “an exceptional car”. As technological breakthroughs facilitate better modes of communication. Regardless of their pronunciation or ease of understanding. taste it. By: M H Lakdawala 101 . words that contain more than three of four syllables should be used only when absolutely necessary. specific in targeting and most of all lower in cost. want it.“ good” to “ outstanding”. 10. 6. smell it. METHODS OF DELIVERY: The Live Commercials Station Announcers The prerecorded commercials Music Dialog Announcement Celebrity announcer IV.The good radio writer knows that in this era of half-listening radio audiences it is vital to give the listener just one principal idea to carry away. Writing for Innovative medium Innovative media focuses on alternative platforms of advertising which open up new avenues for advertisers.“Lovely” preferable to “beautiful”.
By: M H Lakdawala 102 . Direct Appeals: Direct appeals are those that clearly communicate with the consumers about a given need. The body of copy should have sufficient secondary keywords. Search Engine Optimization: Write copy that is keyword rich. prestige or exclusiveness 6. prestige and joy. 4. Most baby food products have a mother's love appeal. Unlike writing for print media. ii. URL must contain the primary keyword to increase your search engine ranking. creativity. Web posts that captivate reader’s mind and that are understandable. Write for people’s interest: Writing articles for newspaper or magazine is different to writing for Internet. humor. being different is important.1. Copywriting for Internet Writing for Web How to make websites and web pages popular and attract more traffic. Since innovative medium grab attention the copy should use Positive Emotional Appeals: Positive appeals highlight product benefits and attributes capable of influencing consumer behavior. It should be kept in mind and strictly adhere to the principles of online copywriting to make headlines and copy appeal the online traffic. curt and laconic share good ranking from search engine optimizers as well as from the readers’. This enhances the visibility of web page on the search engines. followed by a message that extols the advertised brand as a product that satisfies that need. iii. thereby increasing success rate. Keep copy stick to one topic and the topic should be burning and topical. Write copy around the in-demand keywords for your product or service. 3. Also adhere to following norms: i. Use words. even to the point they can almost taste it. Primary keywords that you use in the URL should also be included in headline of the copy. They are love. Other positive emotional appeals involving price. Focus on how that uniqueness directly benefits target group. 5. 2. 1. Listed below are some valuable tips to write effective copy for web pages and web sites. novelty and timing which are key themes in innovative medium advertising 2. The copy for innovative medium should reflect Newness. V. phrases and imagery that help paint vivid mental pictures. But don't focus on how better or unique you are. writing for web pages is very different in as much as the web traffic is very impatient and any thing less appealing is not likely to generate any interest. pride.
" 4. there is a need for research on customers’ needs. Awareness: Target group should be able to recognize that there is a relationship between brands and associated content that they have experienced via other channels. To develop a product. companies that have online shops should offer warranties for products sold. greater customization of the products to the customer needs. Internet offers the opportunity of developing new products or services. and shorter product life cycles. Cost: Target group for sms campaign are generally extremely price sensitive. 3. On Internet.iv. Writing copy for SMS campaigns Critical success factors for writing copy for sms campaigns: 1. VI. The target group would consider downloading and paying for the sponsored content as long as it was relevant. This practice increases customers’ confidence thereby their willingness to buy on Internet 4. Since customers can not touch. Participants did not like the ads that were originally filmed for television and not formatted to their phone By: M H Lakdawala 103 . Brand Loyalty: Target group for sms campaign perceive some brands as "trusted. 6. Internet provides the opportunity of offering a core product that satisfies the customers’ fundamental needs. they will pay for content that they perceive as valuable. The anchor text of links in the body of text should also contain keywords. The Internet leads to faster discovery of customer needs. 3. a picture or description will replace the physical product offered in the traditional marketplace or in stores. feel or try the products chosen on Internet. 5. 5. Relevance: Advertising content must be targeted." and would enjoy receiving content they requested via opt-in customer acquisition methods. Providing complete and relevant product information is crucial in order for the customers to get a realistic picture of the product and to make the product offered more attractive. but it also enables the companies to offer additional services such as interactivity or more information about the company’s core product. faster product testing. 2. Appropriate: Video content must be designed to meet the needs of the mobile handset. "This is just like on TV.
‘what’.Chapter: 8 Principles of writing press release copy. The more you can match your story to their needs. Whatever your objective. To succeed. Understanding what the Media Want It is important to establish a working relationship between the organisation and the media (both local and national). Newsworthiness b. This press release should be a short fact-filled document that tells editors the ‘who’. Often success in PR terms comes from a well-crafted. the more likely they are to publish You need to think about what they want: i. you need to understand a few things about the media and how it works. The media have to want to give that attention to you. ii. ‘where’. they want news They want reader relevance They want fresh insights. It’s not enough to want attention. Within its handful of paragraphs. By: M H Lakdawala 104 . the press release makes a compelling case for: a. you can deploy PR tactics such as press releases to your advantage. ‘when’. Reader relevance c. one-page press release. The secret to successful media relations is to serve your interests by serving the media’s interests. and sometimes ‘why’ of your story. The organization’s credibility A press release should be able to attract further inquiry and generate publicity around your offer. iii. ‘how’.
7) Collect answers to the following questions: • Who is your product/service (offer) useful for or meaningful to? • How and why is this offer used. 9) One of the easiest ways to liven up a press release and to give it added credibility is to include a direct quote from a person connected to the story -preferably someone who is not a member of your organisation. Constructing the Elements of the Press Release 1. you also have to consider smaller issues such as: • Who – Who’s involved? Includes both the readers or the audience for whom the story is relevant • What – The bulk of your press release – the ‘what’ – covers all the specifics of your statement • How – May include both the offer and ‘how’ the prospects can acquire/ use it • Why – The key question is ‘why is this important?’ Explain the significance of your statement to the editor’s readers. press release headlines are like any other headlines. The press release begins with: a. ‘so what?’ What is it adding to the different parties? 5) Preparing Yourself: If you want to capture the attention of a journalist. Release date – here you have two options. 4) For every statement you wish to include in the press release. Formatting the top of the release.Writing a Press Release Follow three basic steps when writing your press release: 1) Get a grip on the content – be sure you have clear understanding of your story and all the facts that support it 2) Follow the standard format – press releases have evolved into fast. Creating catch headlines In many ways. However. a press release By: M H Lakdawala 105 . to make the release. answer. Contact information – how can the editor/journalist contact the organization and to whom should they speak? 2. to be ‘embargoed’ until a particular publication date (which you can specify) b. deployed or valued? • How or where can the offer be obtained? 8) In addition to asking the big questions that capture the core idea of your press release. think like a journalist! 6) Ask pertinent questions that go to the heart of the story. Think of it as the ‘so what’ rule. or. easily skimmed documents for the media’s convenience 3) Turn your content into compelling news – explain ‘why it’s important’ to the editor’s readers. ‘for immediate release’. They have to communicate the essence of your story right away.
Following the opening paragraph. you now have room to elaborate with the ‘middle’ of the release. This is your chance to really back-up the promises made in the release with just enough detail to create a watertight case for the value and meaning of your story. By: M H Lakdawala 106 . Subheads – to help smooth the transition into another element of your story or to highlight another key benefit or newsworthy item 2. 3. with no more than two or three sentences. why and how • The reason – why this announcement is newsworthy – articulate why this news is important to the publication’s readers • Proof points – articulate evidence that validates your claims. Your headline must summarise the essence of the release. Think of the news as the actual announcement and the benefit as the reason why the announcement is important to your target audience. about the organisation represented in the release. regardless of its contents. The Body: The press release starts out with the fundamentals of your story. what. providing the editor with enough information to provide reassurance that this announcement is both newsworthy and relevant for the publication’s readers. Boilerplate’ A ‘boilerplate’ is a brief paragraph.headline is not a place to make an offer (i. The opening paragraph should cover: • The facts – establish the fundamental facts of your story – the who. when. selling) – instead it must get right to the point and inform. How do you write a good headline? Write about the news plus the benefit the news provides. where. Some ways to do this include using: 1. This information remains the same in every press release your organisation produces. Quotes – weave the quotes into the story in as seamless and natural a manner as possible The end of the release The purpose of the close of the press release is to signal to the editor that this is the end of the release.e. You do this by adding a ‘boilerplate’. and it simply states ‘who you are’ and ‘what you do’.
(4) Mail order advertisers know that readers forget. It is usually set in smaller type than ordinary print. There is nothing to amuse. Deliveries are made through the mail. most customers can easily access any number of retail stores. they can pore through the pages of mail order catalogs that offer just about everything they can imagine. where the potential customer is not physically present at a store or other location to make a purchase or to place an order. either print or electronic. That economy of space is universal. They are reading a magazine of interest. magazine. radio.Chapter: 9 I. There is no useless talk. (2) Every line is utilized. Definition: What is mail order? Mail order is a term that refers to many different methods of soliciting and/or selling products or services at a distance. The mail order customer learns of and views an item and its description through one or more types of media. or sometimes through a local agent. email. including catalog. They may be absorbed in a story. Factors to keep in mind while writing copy for Mail order advertising: 1. In today's marketplace. and others. (3) In mail order advertising there is no boasting. Borders are rarely used. So he inserts that reminder to be cut out. but they don't have the time. A large percentage of people who read an ad and decide to act will forget that decision in five minutes. The mail order advertisers that waste by tests. direct mail. Consumer buy direct by post either in response to an advertisement or from a sales promotional catalogue. by carrier direct from warehouse or factory. newspaper. That is there to cut out as a reminder of something the reader has decided to do. By: M H Lakdawala 107 . Instead of spending their precious free time at the mall. television. Mail order advertising is always set in small type. electronic catalog. website. Mail order advertising usually contains a coupon. Mail Order Advertising: Mail Order It is a distribution channel. and he does not propose to accept it. and it turns when the reader is ready to act. There is no attempt at entertainment. save of super-service.
Keep the opening paragraph of a direct mail letter short-absolutely no more than 17 words. end it at the top of the next page. product brochures. We have seen many a test prove that. and usually some in addition. folders etc 1. Less important things get smaller spaces. But the benefits that readers gain from these features. Why? To pull the reader with you and "make" them turn the page. 2. Not the features that you offer…. They are salesmen in themselves. Have something to say----. Direct mail works because it is "conversation in writing. Write about benefits. (6) The size is gauged by their importance. The motto there is. Before you use useless pictures. Copywriting for Direct Mail-letters Writing for direct mail-letters. Begin it at the bottom of the first page. merely to decorate or interest. Whenever you go to second page in a letter. 4. read. (8)Sometimes the advertiser uses small ads. And you may be sure that everything about them has been decided by many comparative tests.(5) In mail order advertising the pictures are always to the point. "The more you tell the more you sell. They probably result in whims. split the last sentence in half. None are to small to tell a reasonable story." No matter what you have heard.and say it in a way that's understandable by your audience. A four times larger ad brings four times the returns. But an ad twice larger brings twice the returns. 5. look over some mail order ads. They earn space they occupy. leaflets. The picture of a dress one is trying to sell may occupy much space. Mark what their verdict is. II. But this occurs only when the larger space is utilized as well as the small space. By: M H Lakdawala 108 . Pictures in ordinary advertising may teach little.. sometimes-large ads. But pictures in mail order advertising may form half the cost of selling. 3. You see no limitations there are on amount of copy. (7) Mail order advertising tells a complete story if the purpose is to make an immediate sale. or believe most people look forward to receiving and reading their mail. Set half-page copy in a page space and you double the cost in returns." And it has never failed to prove out so in any test we know.
S. The P. Never. offers.S. Keep that in mind. A good Service or cause fills an identifiable need. in your letter first. But never exaggerate. Ø Secondary Purpose Ø To build a good image of the writer's organization. A good mailing list has accurate addresses and is a good match to the product. Tell funny stories. Ø To have the reader act ( Order the product. and make readers who do not act more likely to respond positively next time. You P. before they read your letter. can be mailed. Share a case history. 7. is a repeat of earlier key benefits. 79%. can do everything that your headline can do. By: M H Lakdawala 109 . Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø You can use it to: Bring up the big promise again Add more benefits Powerfully state the offer Create curiosity Build urgency Add even more credibility and proof any or all of the above Primary purpose of Direct Mailer Ø To motivate the reader to read the message. Always be true. schedule a demonstration. Ø To provide enough information so that the reader knows exactly what to do.e.almost 4 out of 5 – will read the P.6. Include testimonials. to strengthen the commitment of readers who act. Be dramatic. Be entertaining.S. i. Of your first-time readers. or cause appeal Ø A good mailing list Ø A good appeal A good product appeals to a specific segment. opportunities. Weave a scene. they'll go to the end of the letter because they know that the whole letter will be summed up in the offer and the P. service. but never tell a lie. Components of Good Direct Mail Good direct mail has three components: Ø A good product.S. Often when people are confronted by a long letter (and long letters almost always sell more). Ø To overcome any objections that might prevent or delay action. send a donation). At least usually. how to respond. and provides an adequate profit margin. Make a point.
Questions Dear writer What is the best way to start writing? This letter selling subscriptions to Writer's digest goes on the discuss Hemingway's strategy for getting started on his novels and short stories. Starling statements a 4.A good appeal offers a believable description of benefits. Questions 2. The appeal is made up of the words in the letter. This information in the letter is useful to any writer. These steps interact How to organize a Direct Mailer: Opener (Star): The opener of your letter gives you 30 seconds to motivate readers to read the rest or thrown away. Choose a central selling point. link the benefits of the product or service to a need or desire that motivates the reader. anecdotes By: M H Lakdawala 110 . Poor question: do you want information about investments? Better question: can you still make money investing in land? I. Quotations 1. Good question challenge but don't threaten the reader. use the four basic modes: 1. Learn about the product. Choose and analyze the target audience 3. and motivates the reader to act. service. Direct Mail strategies start with three basic steps: 1. the information also helps to prove the claim that the magazine will be useful. stories. They're interesting enough that readers want the answers. from outer envelop to reply card. so the recipient keeps reading. Narration. the pictures in the brochure. or organization 2. and all the parts of the package. Makes the reader want to read the letter. A very successful subscription letter for Psychology Today started out: Do you still close the bathroom door when there's no one in the house? To brain storm possible openers. Narration 3. so they read the letter. Writer's Digest offers practical advice to writers who want to be published.
The opening quote is used on the envelope over a picture of the ballerina and as an opener for the letter. Information readers will find useful even if they do not buy or give. The letters encourage readers to see the artists as individuals. and challenges. overcomes their objections. they can work as long as they like. 3. understand. and to share their excitement about each performance. Body (Chain) The chain is the body of the letter. twists. I'm writing to offer you a job. they pay their own(tax deductible)expenses. A good chain answers reader's questions. Variations of this mode include special opportunities. Quotations "I never tell my partner that my ankle is sore or my back hurts. This fund. Earth watch's volunteers help scientists and scholars dig for ruins. By: M H Lakdawala 111 . to appreciate their hard work. On the contrary. and involves them emotionally. and donate to its programs. It's not a permanent job. 2. Each letter quotes a different member of the company. You can't give in to pain and still perform. Startling Statements This fund-rising letter from Earth watch invites readers to participate in its expeditions. it will cost you money. and monitor changes in water. subscribe to its journal. count bighorns. they pay their own (tax-deductible) expenses. and challenges. and donat its programs.raising letter from earth watch invites readers to participate in its expeditions. subscribe to its journal. count bighorns. Earth watch's volunteers help scientists and scholars diag for ruins. Variations of this mode include special opportunities. It provides the logical and emotional links that moves readers from their first flicker of interest to the action that is wanted. 4. they can work as long as they like.Dear membership candidate: 1. twists. You'll be working for only as much time as you find it rewarding and fun. Content for the body of the letter can include 1. 3. It's even a paying job." The series of which this letter is a part sells season tickets to the Atlanta ballet by focusing on the people who work to create the season. and monitor changes in water.
They lack positive emphasis and encourage your reader to say no. remind readers that the sooner they get the product.more contrast that's easier to scan. Summarize the scope of the business (and a key selling point) in the 'Year Round Yard Maintenance' subheading. All caps are harder to read. and so on. sign the card (for credit sales). 3. Reasons for acting promptly are easy to identify when a product is seasonal or there is a genuine limit on the offer – time limit. stress the guarantee. Writing copy for yellow pages: a. Stories about how the product was developed or what the organization has done. Make the action sound of easy: fill in the information on the reply card. the sooner they can benefits from it. The last sentence should never be a selfish request for money. put the card and check (if payment is to accompany the order) in the envelope. Action Close (Knot) The action close in the letter must do four things: Tell the reader what to do: Respond. why you are different from your competitors and what associations you belong to. and mention when the customer will get the product. By: M H Lakdawala 112 . One column of short words. Sometimes you can offer a premium or a discount if the reader acts quickly. Offer a reason for acting promptly: Readers who think they are convinced but wait to act are less likely to buy or contribute. And why not ("why not send in a check?"). stress those facts. b. the sooner they contribute funds. d. The larger font makes the name stand out. limited supply. c. Stories about people who have used the product or who need the organization's help 4. and mail the envelope. the sooner their dollars can go to work to solve the problem. Tell your customers the benefits of buying your products/services immediately! There's not much time so you have to grab a potential customer's attention. If you provide an envelope and pay postage. When these condition do not exit. Set the business name big and bold but not in all caps. Tell them how long you've been in business. The action close can also remind readers of the central selling point.2. one column of phrases . End with a positive picture: of the reader enjoying the product (in a sales letter) or of the reader's money working to solve the problem (in a fund raising letter). price rise scheduled. III. Arrange the main services in columns instead of that centered paragraph with bullets. Word pictures of readers using the product and enjoying its benefits. Avoid if ("if you'd like to try…").
second to making broad claims. privacy. If a target group scanning a trade directory looking at a product/ service that appeals to him. c. d. broad claims. Writing copy for trade directory a. f. getting unwanted junk mail and so on. complex. a. And make sure you put your message across with the right tone." "fastest. to the point. IV. By: M H Lakdawala 113 . You have to look through the eyes of the consumer . but what? They may worry about the safety of using a credit card. the testimonials can swing it. f. Forget things like "best. The classified advertisement if written well could at times substitute a display advertisement which would be much more expensive. Proof read: Once your ad goes in the Yellow Pages. as convincingly and as compellingly as possible. or you're wasting your time. Because the worst thing you can do. pretentious language doesn't sell. ordering online. attributed to a person's full name and company. is to express those claims broadly.imagine that they're interested in the product but. Make sure you don't throw street-slang at the IT guy. But make sure they look genuine. is not easy. Writing copy for classified advertisement. or CPU usage patterns at the young game player. People are usually ready to make a purchase or get more information when they use the Yellow Pages. g." "cheapest" and other. The art of writing a powerful advertisement.e. Used contrast (size) and placement/alignment (lower right corner) to emphasize the telephone number (call to action). Copy should be descriptive. b. Proofread! Proofread! Proofread! If you sell "dogs" and your ad says you sell "dots" then you'll have to wait until next year to fix the error. Copy for trade directory should be short. The copy should be benefit.. Another universal technique that works is the use of testimonials. Give Them What They Want. system compatibility. V.Copy using complicated. and lots of them! e. A three sentence praise of features. Business users have very different needs and ways of expressing themselves from the average home user.. g. in three or four lines in such a way that it conveys the message and induces the reader to buy the product. Follow the "3 C's" Rule: Express your offer as Clearly. it's going to stay that way for an entire year.
iii. By: M H Lakdawala 114 . It should induce the reader to read the advertisement. But art of conveying a powerful. v. e. the classified advertisement is a powerful way of conveying your message and sell a product. Generally readers respond to advertisements with names and phone numbers than blind advertisements. services. attractive. and supplies used in the production of other goods and services. B2B Advertising Business-to-business advertising is where business houses uses advertising to attract custom from other businesses rather the general public. any other print media or internet. There are four important ingredients in good classified advertisement. materials. You should remember that the reader is not looking at what you say. i. which involves goods. This area includes: (1) Industrial advertising. c. which is directed to farmers as business customers of various products and services. resources. Then it has to induce him to take action. (3) Professional advertising. which is directed to wholesalers and retailers who buy the advertised product for resale to consumers. and. attention grabbing message is a challenge in itself. It has to grab the attention of the reader. 6. The readers will be scanning hundreds of advertisements at a furious pace. d. ii. Then create a desire in him to possess the product. Classified advertisement gives you very little room to convey your message. There would be other advertisements vying with you with equally catchy words to lure him away. and supplies purchased and used by businesses. Your advertisement has to make him stop and get the attention. which is directed to members of various professions who might use or recommend the advertised product. The first two or three words have to be really catchy. Advertisements in bold letters would get more attention but more expensive. iv. to buy the product. rather than to consumers An area of advertising for products. Definition: Advertising directed to other businesses. resources. (4) Agricultural advertising. but what he wants. Whether it is newspaper.b. The choice of your words should make him to believe it is exactly what he is looking for. VI. services. (2) Trade advertising. Next it has to make him interested in the product.
" By: M H Lakdawala 115 . 3. Some believe that the online medium will shift the B2B paradigm. People are receptive to appropriate marketing messages at work. on the job during the day. Gaining attention and market share through emotional appeals to business buyers is now emphasize. the advertisers are after instant transactions. but it does so by striking fear in their hearts. they must look at a longer time line to determine the effectiveness of their approach. a rational way to be. as B2B customer behavior is precisely tracked.B2B is traditionally focused on relationships. Because B2B advertisers are not necessarily looking for an instant purchase. But the same Internet users (B2B Target). In B2B. analyzed. That means less emphasis on generating transactions and more on providing customers with a consistent stream of information and service. are better focused. and responded to with advertising that more directly galvanizes sales. Basing B2B appeals on facts and logic is no longer considered the only way to market. This approach appeals to those who value reliability. They are involved in solving a specific problem. What type is your target? Understanding the psychographics or logic system of your particular business target. customers don't usually click and purchase. That is why click-through rates are not particularly effective in measuring B2B ad effectiveness. Factors to keep in mind while writing copy for B2B Advertisement: 1. whether chemists. Not only is the B2B purchasing cycle longer. An advertiser that properly targets the message will be successful. but also there is usually more than one person making the decision. doctors or data systems managers. AT&T advertised its services to businesses through emotionpacked scenarios where managers desperately rue their decisions to switch phone companies. The ad viewer might pass the information along to someone else or save the information for future reference. may be expedited by convening several focus groups of typical prospects. The goal of advertising should be to make that job easier. Consumer online advertising works because they are on their own time and are more willing to be diverted to different types of activities. With B2C. For example. 2.
other aspects of B2C advertising – such as positioning and brand awareness – are being increasingly emphasized also in B2B advertising. however. Creating B2B Advertising By: M H Lakdawala 116 .4. Lately.
a luxury usually not provided with regular editorial. whereas publicity is placed without payment to the media company and with no control over the copy. usually without a byline credit. a newspaper or magazine) which is in fact created by a company to market its products. Sometimes euphemisms describing the advertorial as a "special promotional feature" or the like is used. The tone is usually closer to that of a press release than of an objective news story: advertisers will not spend money to describe the flaws of their products. A major difference between regular editorial and advertorial is that clients usually have content approval of advertorials. One familiar example are airline in-flight magazines which usually feature reports about travel destinations to which the airline flies. The differences may be subtle.Chapter: 10 Different types of copy I. Advertorials commonly advertise new products or techniques—such as a new design for golf equipment or a new form of laser surgery. By: M H Lakdawala 117 . Advertorial An advertorial is an advertisement written in the form of an objective opinion editorial. Many newspapers and magazines will assign staff writers or freelancers to write advertorials. and disclaimers—such as the word "advertisement"—may or may not appear. Most publications will not accept advertisements that look exactly like stories from the newspaper or magazine they are appearing in. and presented in a printed publication —usually designed to look like a legitimately and independent news story." Advertorials differ from publicity advertisements because the marketer must pay a fee to the media company for the ad placement. A related practice is the creation of material that looks like traditional media (for instance. The term "advertorial" is a portmanteau of "advertisement" and "editorial.
the content is a commercial message designed to represent the viewpoints and to serve the interest of the sponsor. Famous infomercial personalities include: Cher.Product placement is another form of non-obvious paid-for advertising. 30 seconds). advertisers do not solicit a direct response from viewers. Infomercials are designed to solicit a direct response. II. In normal commercials. Sam Stall and Julia Spalding highlights the history of such memorable products as the Flowbee. Political and media advisor Fred Dutton developed a strategy to publish Mobil Oil's opinion as an advertisement on editorial pages across the country. The ad response is delivered directly to television viewers by infomercial advertisers through the television ad. and/or employ scientist-like characters or celebrities as guests or hosts in their ad. Infomercial Infomercials are television commercials that run as long as a typical television program (roughly 28 minutes. By: M H Lakdawala 118 . Infomercials are often made to closely resemble actual television programming. are normally shown outside of peak hours. Daisy Fuentes. the Chia Pet. The word infomercial is a portmanteau. a form of direct response marketing (not to be confused with direct marketing). therefore. Mobil Oil felt its efforts to gets its side of the story out through the American press was failing. Because of the sometimes sensational nature of the ad form. Cheryl Tiegs. The book As Seen on TV (Quirk Books) by Lou Harry. Infomercials. and Ginsu knives. The strategy proved successful in getting its message out to both the public as well as politicians and Mobil Oil quickly became identified with this unique advertising strategy. George Foreman (with the George Foreman Grill). brand their product in the market place amongst potential buyers. which is formed by combining the words "information" and "commercial". but. and are. Jack Lalanne. consumer advocates recommend careful investigation of the claims made within any infomercial ad and investigation of the company sponsoring the subject product of the infomercial before purchasing the featured product or products. which is specific and quantifiable. Tony Robbins. repeat basic ideas. with minimal acknowledgement that the program is actually an advertisement. As in any other form of advertisement. Ron Popeil. such as late at night or early in the morning. Infomercial advertisers may make use of flashy catchphrases (such as "Set it and Forget it"). Chuck Norris. instead. This strategy was first popularized during the energy crisis of the 1970s. and Kevin_Trudeau. also known as paid programming (or teleshopping in Europe). usually talk shows.
Every language has evolved to have many different kinds of functionality. Comparative advertising improves the quality of information available to consumers enabling them to make well-founded and more informed decisions relating to the choice between competing products/services by demonstrating the merits of various comparable products. Market transparency is also deemed to benefit the public interest as the functioning of competition is improved resulting in keeping down prices and improving products. From an analytic point of view. In order to achieve this objective. III. By: M H Lakdawala 119 . The comparison made by the advertiser will necessarily flow from such a description. Copy for different languages The most important factor to be kept in mind for writing copy for different language is the context of the readers' general knowledge of language. (These statements are true only if the comparative advertising is objective. It is a sales promotion device that compares the products or services of one undertaking with those of another. it seems to make most sense to understand "normal language" to include the variety of styles of language that mature speakers and readers control.Infomercials are for the largest part shown late night to early morning between 2:00am and 6:00am. 1. IV. against which we can view advertising language. All comparative advertising is designed to highlight the advantages of the goods or services offered by the advertiser as compared to those of a competitor. or with those of other competitors. the message of the advertisement must necessarily underline the differences between the goods or services compared by describing their main characteristics. Based on this information. consumers may make informed and therefore efficient choices. Comparative advertising can stimulate competition between suppliers of goods and services to the consumer's advantage.) Comparative advertising which aims to objectively and truthfully inform the consumer promotes the transparency of the market. A copy writer must have some conception of what is meant by "normal language". Function of comparative advertising Comparative advertising should enable advertisers to objectively demonstrate the merits of their products. each of which corresponds to different situations and styles of use. Comparative advertising is a special form of advertising. Comparative advertising. This will form the backdrop of everyday language in its many functions.
2. 3. our unconscious knowledge of language is much greater than our conscious knowledge of it. By: M H Lakdawala 120 . While writing copy the facts about language that are immediately accessible to the average person only should be use. Like many aspects of human being and human behavior. Focus on creative possibilities language allows.
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