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DOTTORATO DI RICERCA IN FISICA
XX CICLO
N NN Nonl onl onl onlinear Piezoelectric inear Piezoelectric inear Piezoelectric inear Piezoelectric Generators Generators Generators Generators
for Vibration Energy Harvesting for Vibration Energy Harvesting for Vibration Energy Harvesting for Vibration Energy Harvesting
Francesco Cottone
Relatore Coordinatore
prof. Luca Gammaitoni prof. Maurizio Busso
A.A. 2006/2007
ii
iii
…To My Family
4
Acknowledg Acknowledg Acknowledg Acknowledge ee ements ments ments ments
I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor, Prof. Luca Gammaitoni,
whose experience, understanding, vast knowledge, ideas and patience, helped me
considerably at every step of this journey. I’ve appreciated, in particular, his great
availability whenever I needed and his constants encouragements. I would like to
thank Dr. Helios Vocca for the assistance, useful discussions he supplied at all levels
of the research project and most of all for his unavoidable irony (specially about the
religious issues). A very special thanks goes out to Dr. Paolo Amico for his skill and
the fruitful conversations and to Dr. Flavio Travasso for his real sympathy, lifestyle
and the many hours spent together in the “cold” laboratory! After the beast, I would
like to thank the beauty of our team who is Dr. Anna Dari for his exigent questions
about all human knowledge! She has been a constant source of inspiration and
incitement for me. Thanks to Chiara Molinelli for his continuous encouragements
and friendship. I would like to thank Dr. Ludovico Carbone for being a great advisor.
Appreciation also goes out to Dr. Leone Bosi and Dr. Igor Neri for the kindness and
all of their computer and technical assistance throughout my doctorate work. I would
like to thank Dr. Michele Punturo who made me know the research team and the
VIRGO project. Again, I have been honored to receive some useful suggestions by
Prof. Fabio Marchesoni.
5
My special thanks to my university friends: Alessio, Filippo, Marco, Ruggero for
the great time I had with them and to all my colleagues. I enjoyed their friendship
and their support. I wish to thanks all my nearest friends Carlo, Ciro, Matteo, Daniele
together with all others which have been near me for moral support.
Finally, I doubt that I would not ever have been able to make such adventure
without the fundamental support and affection of my family. I owe them my eternal
gratitude. I also wish to thanks my fiancée, Martina, for her love and encouragement
specially in the last days of this hard work!
6
Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract
Ambient energy harvesting has been in recent years the recurring object of a
number of research efforts aimed at providing an autonomous solution to the
powering of small scale electronic mobile devices. Among the different solutions,
vibration energy harvesting has played a major role due to the almost universal
presence of mechanical vibrations: from ground shaking to human movements, from
ambient sound down to thermal noise induced fluctuations. Standard approaches are
mainly based on resonant linear oscillators that are acted on by ambient vibrations. In
spite of continuous optimizations and improvements, such linear oscillatorbased
transducers present severe limitations like narrow bandwidth, need for continuous
frequency tuning, high resonant frequency at MEMS dimensions and low efficiency,
also independently by transduction technique used (piezoelectric, electromagnetic or
electrostatic). Here we propose a new method based on the exploitation of the
dynamical features of stochastic nonlinear oscillators. In particular, this work has
concerned the theoretical study, numerical and finite element modeling,
implementation and experimental test of stochastic bistable piezoelectric oscillators
employed for scavenging energy from vibrational noise. Such a concept is shown to
outperform standard linear oscillators and to overcome some of the most of present
approaches. Experimental tests have been carried out on a simple physical model
based on a bistable stochastic driven piezoelectric beam under repulsive magnetic
7
field and are in excellent agreement with all numerical expectations. We demonstrate
that the power performances of piezoelectric transducer in nonlinear dynamical
regime are almost greater by an order of magnitude as compared to linear dynamical
behaviour. In effect, the bistable system shows the ability to adsorb vibrational
energy from a wide bandwidth, mostly at lower frequencies. Moreover, this method
is not only restricted to bistable systems but even better to other kind of nonlinear
systems that should be investigated. We prove that the method proposed here is quite
general in principle and could be applied to a wide class of nonlinear oscillators and
different energy conversion principles. Finally, there are also potentials for realizing
micro/nanoscale power generators that is the natural continuation of this research
work.
8
Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1 ITRODUCTIO .................................................................................................... 9
1.1 MOTIVATIONS: MOBILE MICROPOWERING ............................................................................ 9
1.2 POWER DEMAND OF MICRO AND NANODEVICES .................................................................. 15
1.3 POTENTIAL POWER SOURCES .............................................................................................. 19
1.3.1 Energy storage systems ................................................................................................. 20
1.3.2 Power distribution methods .......................................................................................... 29
1.3.3 Power harvesting methods ............................................................................................ 31
1.4 COMPARISON OF POWER SOURCES ...................................................................................... 40
CHAPTER 2 VIBRATIO DRIVE MICROGEERATORS ............................................... 45
2.1 EXISTENT VIBRATION TO ELECTRICITY CONVERSION METHODS.......................................... 45
2.1.1 Electrostatic generators ................................................................................................ 46
2.1.2 Electromagnetic generators .......................................................................................... 51
2.1.3 Piezoelectric generators ............................................................................................... 54
2.1.4 Energy density of transduction mechanisms ................................................................. 60
2.2 DYNAMICS OF LINEAR TRANSDUCER: LINEARITY AND TRANSFER FUNCTION ...................... 61
2.3 NONLINEAR ENERGY HARVESTING SYSTEMS IN A DUFFINGLIKE POTENTIAL.................... 66
2.3.1 The inverted piezoelectric pendulum ............................................................................ 69
2.4 BISTABLE PIEZOELECTRIC BEAM IN A REPULSIVE MAGNETIC FIELD .................................... 74
2.4.1 Energy balance ............................................................................................................. 78
CHAPTER 3 UMERICAL AALYSIS AD EXPERIMETAL RESULTS...................... 81
3.1 ANALYSIS OF BISTABLE STOCHASTIC OSCILLATORS .......................................................... 81
3.1.1 umerical Approach ..................................................................................................... 81
3.1.2 Simple Duffing Oscillator ............................................................................................. 82
3.1.3 Theoretical Considerations ........................................................................................... 92
3.2 PIEZOELECTRIC DUFFING GENERATOR ............................................................................... 95
3.3 PIEZOELECTRIC INVERTED PENDULUM IN A MAGNETIC FIELD ......................................... 109
3.3.1 Experimental Setup and Characterization .................................................................. 110
3.3.2 Finite Element Analysis .............................................................................................. 114
3.3.3 umerical and Experimental Results .......................................................................... 117
CHAPTER 4 COCLUSIOS .................................................................................................. 126
4.1 EFFECTIVENESS OF NONLINEAR APPROACH VERSUS LINEAR ............................................. 126
4.2 MINIATURIZATION PERSPECTIVES OF NONLINEAR POWER HARVESTING SYSTEMS ............ 130
APPEDICES ................................................................................................................................... 137
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................. 147
9
Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 1
Introduction Introduction Introduction Introduction
1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 Motivations: mobile Motivations: mobile Motivations: mobile Motivations: mobile micro micro micro micropowering powering powering powering
Feynman's vision seems to be finally realized thanks to ever more sophisticated
microelectronics. Last decade have seen an incredible development of miniaturized
devices and today micro and nanoscale machines are yet incorporated in all kinds of
electronic devices. The strong expansion of multibilliondollar market of portable
electronics has led to large research efforts in size reduction as power consumption
as well. Nowadays the MEMS (MicroElectroMechanicalSystems) and emerging
EMS (Nano ElectroMechanical Systems) technology have permitted the
development of so called smart devices: submillimeter wireless sensor and
actuators. These micro devices have wide applications that cover from military
applications to the industry of consumption. Initial research was mainly funded by
Chapter 1. Introduction
10
DARPA in military research projects focused to the realization of selforganized
wireless networks of a large number of sensor nodes (e.g.,Smart Dust, NEST[1]). A
wireless sensor network could be defined as a wireless, ad hoc, multihop,
unpartitioned network of heterogeneous, tiny, mobile sensor nodes that could be
randomly distributed in the area of interest and they may make use of existing
communication infrastructures [2]. Each node can be an autonomous complete
complex system with sensors, actuators, memory, processor, radio or optical
communication interface and power supply. More recently those devices have been
employed in wide variety of civilian applications such as environmental monitoring,
biomedical sensors, RFID, interactive control, integrated biology, agriculture,
structural monitoring, sensing harmful chemical agents, location of person,
transports.
source
destination
Streaming Data to/from
the Physical World
Figure 1.1
Multihop Wireless Sensor etwork
Chapter 1. Introduction
11
Wireless autonomous sensors and actuators with sizes under a centimeter and
below already surround us in an almost invisible way and in a forthcoming future for
example intelligent clothing and bodyarea networks could monitor our health
parameters. The data that's collected by miniaturized pressure sensors built into
buildings, roads, bridges and railways will be used by construction engineers. It's
almost impossible to find areas of our civilization that will not be affected.
While modern electronics continue to reduce past boundaries of integration,
increasing density and shrinking the systems, however, arise the problem of scaling
in the same time the onboard power supply [3]. Research continues to develop ultra
low power circuit [4] and higher energydensity batteries but the amount of energy
available is not infinite and limits the system's life. Extended life is critical in many
systems with limited accessibility, such as biomedical implants or microsensors
inserted in building structure.
a
b
c
d
Figure 1.2
a) Intel Mote b) Implantable sensor
c) Smart Dust d) Intel chip
Chapter 1. Introduction
12
For a series of motives, these devices cannot be easily powered by ordinary batteries:
• almost impossible to built micro/nano scale batteries
• unpractical to replace a large number of batteries in a microdevices once
these have finished their charge
• batteries of these devices dispersed in the environment in large quantities
will produce a significant pollution
• prohibitive cost of wiring power for dense network of nodes
It’s need to develop alternative methods of power these wireless microdevices that
must be economical, efficient and ecological. There are different ways to address the
problem:
• improve energy density of storage systems
• develop innovative methods to deliver power to nodes (e.g. wireless
power transmission[5])
• develop selfpowering nodes that harvest and convert the energy directly
from the ambient [6]
In the last years many efforts have been done to scale down power energy
devices. Fuel cells technologies, micro heat engine or micronuclear batteries, for
example, promise energy densities several time higher than chemical batteries and
are capable of far higher maximum power output [7]. Electronic Radio Frequency
Identity tags, smart cards and other many passive electronic devices are yet powered
by a close energy transmitted to them to perform their operations [8]. However, this
Chapter 1. Introduction
13
method is not a good solution when considering dense networks of wireless nodes. In
fact, it is not suitable for distances beyond 510 meter where high power transmitter
is required with a consequent efficiency loss. In that case, this technology would
probably present a health risk and may exceeds local or international regulations of
maximum radiofrequency human exposition.
The best solution to avoid battery replacement is that each node must be
autonomous and selfpowered, adsorbing for example a renewable source of energy
continuously from the ambient [9] (solar, vibrations, electromagnetic, thermal), but
this method is that less explored as fully as the powering by storage systems.
For such reasons a large research effort has been devoted in designing onboard
power generators that could supply the necessary amount of energy when and where
necessary. Among the different energy sources available in a generic environment,
kinetic energy available through random vibration is probably the most common
form. Random vibrations come in a vast variety of forms, amplitude, spectral shapes
and durations. It is quite difficult to imagine a single generator that is capable of
harvesting energy from sources as diverse as wind induced movements, seismic
ground shaking and car motion.
Present working solutions for vibrationtoelectricity conversion are based on
oscillating mechanical elements that convert kinetic energy into electric energy via
capacitive, inductive or piezoelectric methods[10], to mention the most common
physical principles exploited. Linear oscillators are usually designed to be resonantly
tuned to the ambient dominant mechanical frequency. However, in the vast majority
of cases the ambient vibrations come with their energy distributed over a wide
Chapter 1. Introduction
14
spectrum of frequencies, with significant predominance of low frequency
components. This is the case for example of the omnipresent seismic vibrations. In
order to take advantage of such energy spectral distribution it is necessary to tune the
oscillator resonant frequency as small as possible. Due to the geometrical/dynamical
constraints that the dimensions of the device pose, the efficiency of such mechanical
resonant oscillator is sometimes seriously limited.
To overcome these difficulties we propose a different approach based on the
exploitation of the nonlinear properties of nonresonant oscillators. Specifically we
demonstrate that a bistable oscillator, under proper operating conditions, can provide
better performances compared to a linear oscillator in terms of the energy extracted
from a generic wide spectrum vibration. This dissertation is focused on exploitation
of stochastic nonlinear dynamics with a focus on bistable systems for improving
powering scavenging methods, useful for lowconsumption devices at the micro and
submicron scale.
The starting point is power demands constraints of mobile computing electronics
with a special focus on wireless sensor node but in perspective open to all MEMS
and NEMS (Nano ElectroMechanical Systems) world powering issues. In the next
paragraphs of this chapter will be shown a survey of state of the art techniques and
methodologies about mobile powering. Then, will be reviewed various potential
power sources with a focus on vibration noise. In chapter two will be discussed the
existents vibrationtoelectricity conversion methods, the theory of linear oscillator
Chapter 1. Introduction
15
and will be showed the idea to take advantage from nonlinear dynamics of a bistable
piezoelectric oscillator in order to obtain an hyper efficient vibration energy
harvesting system. Numerical simulations, Finite Element Analysis and experimental
test of some bistable piezoelectric systems will be presented in chapter three. Finally
in chapter four will be exposed the conclusions: a comparison of performances of
nonlinear vs linear energy harvesting systems and perspectives of implementation of
these generators at micro and nanoscale.
1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 Power Power Power Power demand demand demand demand of of of of micro micro micro micro and nano and nano and nano and nanodevices devices devices devices
The Moore’s law states that the transistors doubling every couple of years and the
Bell’s law that a new computing class born every ten years. Although electronics
became smaller and smaller, enabling today’s mobile technologies explosion, in
parallel the need for energy scaledown became a serious challenge. Semiconductor
miniaturization is followed by the decrease in the power demand of single transistors,
but this savings is being counteracted by a higher structural density of transistors and
higher power leakage caused by quantum effects (fig. 1.3). In order to decrease the
thermal dissipation and consequently the working temperature of processor, it has
been push down as much as possible the supply voltage. In the next figures it’s
shown the historical exponential increment of transistors, power consumption for a
processor and the decrement of the supply voltage[11].
Chapter 1. Introduction
16
Figure 1.3 Upper: integrated circuit complexity
Lower left: processor power (Watt) active and leakage.
Lower right: processor supply voltage, (ITEL source)
For the mini scale down to nano level the development of ultralow energy
consumption electronic devices constitutes a great challenge as for the macro scale as
well. A PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) or a cellular with a battery capacity of 1500
mAh is significantly more energy efficient than a PC using about 200250 W and
likewise a Notebook (23  54 W) but the performance of portable power supply
systems is the major limitation on the amount of applications and computing
performance provided by portable electronics. The power demand constraints can be
Chapter 1. Introduction
17
classified as a function of the overall average linear size but the functionalities and
computing performances do not necessarily follow the same trend.
Device class Linear size Power Requirements
Server, workstation 50cm90cm above 100 W
Desktop PC 2050cm 200300 W
Notebook PC 2035cm 2050 W
Handled 110cm 80m W10 W
Wireless Sensor Node 0.11cm 100 µW100 mW
Nanodevices
Nanorobots
0.011µm 0.1100 µW
Table 1.1
Comparison of power demand of electronics devices
Since the main subject of this work regards the physics of energy harvesting
systems that is crucial for lowscale powering, we now shift our attention to the
micro and nanoworld area. The main important features for subcentimeter or sub
millimeter devices, that constitutes a great challenge, is the availability of small,
lightweight, lowcost, energy efficient electronics while the computing performance
is not always critical. The main goals for the wireless sensor nodes are that they must
be smaller than one cubic centimeter, weigh less than 100 grams, and cost
substantially less than one dollar. Even more important, the electronic components
of the node must use ultralow power to extend the battery life and to avoid frequent
replacement. However, The huge success in reducing the size of MEMS, in effects, is
limited by a lack of similar reductions in power supplies. Although new nano
Chapter 1. Introduction
18
materials are improving the battery technology, its energy density doesn’t follow the
exponential curve as the Moore’s law for miniaturization process and performance.
In order to explore the possibility of energy scavenging techniques for selfpowering
device many WSN (Wireless Sensor Nodes) researchers have provided new
specifications. The most important specifications for the power supply system are the
total size and average power dissipation of an individual node (i.e. for a PicoNode
that communicates over a 10 meters range in PicoRadio network system[12]): the
size of a node must be overall less than 1cm
3
and the target average power
dissipation of a completed node must be below 100µW. This power constrain is
particularly difficult, and it is likely that several technology efforts will be necessary
to achieve this goal but this is the upper limit that will address the energy harvesting
studies. Therefore, it’s a measure of acceptability for an energy scavenging system
design. This does not mean that power system solutions which don’t meet this
feature are not worthy of further exploration, but simply that this constrain will
constitute a desirable limit or standard for the most projects of wireless sensor nodes.
Going into more tiny dimensions, in the domain of EMS from 10nm to 3µ µµ µm the
there are even more problems about energy issue. Energetics represent a serious
limitation in nanotechnology robot design. Mechanical motions, pumping, electronic
process, computing, chemical transformations etc. require energy. Nanodevice could
in the next future metabolize in vivo local glucose and oxygen for energy, or power
could be externally supplied from a sound wave of radiofrequency sources. Heat
dissipation is also a major question in nanomachine design, particularly when large
numbers of nanomachines are deployed in vivo. It’s interesting to envisage a
Chapter 1. Introduction
19
possible estimate orderofmagnitude of nanorobots power consumption. An energy
harvesting nanosystem could use organism metabolism as an energy reservoir.
Freitas [13] makes an estimation using as a first crude approximation the power law
P=(4.13)m
3/4
, where ‘m’ if mass of organism to calculate the available power
density. Supposing P=100 Watts for an m= 70 kg human body mass and assuming
water density for nanorobots, then P = 23pW for a 1 µ µµ µm
3
nanorobot, therefore a
power density of d~2x10
7
watts/m
3
. For nanorobots chemically powered by an
oxyglucose engine it’s need to consider the fundamental limits on power density that
are imposed by diffusion limits on glucose molecules. For a spherical nanorobot of
radius r
n
~0.5 micron in arterial blood plasma it is possible to estimate a maximum
chemical power density of d~10
9
watts/m
3
or 0.1nW/µ µµ µm
3
.
1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 Potential power sources Potential power sources Potential power sources Potential power sources
The current state of research on vastly different potential power sources for micro
and nano systems is not so simple to discuss. Furthermore there are many good
works about this topic[10, 14, 15] and it’s not the aim of this thesis to do an ulterior
deep inspection. Here we want only to make a survey and a comparison among
storage systems and renewable sources. Power sources are distinguished as energy
storage systems, power distribution methods or power harvesting methods,
which enable microdevices to be completely selfsustaining. We will deem that a
power source acceptable when it’s capable of providing power density on the order
Chapter 1. Introduction
20
of 100µ µµ µW/cm
3
for at least ten years of duration. For a sake of simplicity the
principal metric which we will use in this work for evaluating power sources is
power per volume, specifically µW/cm
3
and J/cm
3
for energy density.
1.3.1 1.3.1 1.3.1 1.3.1 E EE Energy nergy nergy nergy storage storage storage storage systems systems systems systems
Today there are many forms of energy storage that may be used in microsystems
such as wireless sensor node dependently by the type of energy: electrochemical,
electromagnetical, chemical, nuclear, kinetics. Each of these forms present
advantages and disadvantages. The more recent storage systems suitable to be
embedded on board of wireless node can be summarize here:
• Batteries and Microbatteries
• Ultracapacitors
• Microfuel cells
• Microheat engines
• Nuclear Radioactive power sources
From the first zinccopper cell invented by A. Volta in 1779 to the last years the
electrochemical battery has seen constant technological improvements and today, as
never before, it is the most diffused mean of energy storage for medium scale devices
and household hardware. In effects, this device are probably the easiest and most
practical solution for electronic devices because its flexibility and availability.
Chapter 1. Introduction
21
Among its major advantages there is the stability of the output voltage that allow to
the systems to run directly without any power transformation, so reducing the
dissipation of extra energy. As we have already stressed, the energy density and
lifetime are the crucial features that discriminate the various storage systems.
Common batteries are grouped in the two main classes: primary and secondary
batteries. Primary even called disposable batteries reversibly transform chemical
potential energy to electrical energy, once the initial supply of chemical agents is
exhausted, energy cannot be further restored to the battery by electrical means.
Secondary batteries can be recharged, that is, have their chemical reactions reversed
by supplying electrical energy to the cell, restoring their original composition.
Among the disposal most commercial batteries we find Zinccarbon, Zincair,
Alkaline, Mercury, and Lithium. These are most commonly used in portable devices
with light current drain, mostly in circuits where electric power is used intermittently
such as sensors, alarm, radio communication, small calculators but even in a fairly
high and constant consumption electronics like hearing aids and watches. Among
that we have listed, Lithium batteries are the most expensive but they possess high
energy density (2880 J/cm
3
), high voltage (34V per cell) and almost the best
duration. For example, a lithium battery with a capacity of 1000mAh can provide
energy to a wireless sensor node with an average consumption of 100µW for at least
one year. For these reasons the Liion battery is one of best readytouse solution for
powering current wireless sensor nodes.
Rechargeable batteries have less energy density (Lithiumion 1080 J/cm
3
) than
nonrechargeable ones but for their intensive use are mostly employed in notebook
Chapter 1. Introduction
22
computer, cell phones, PDA’s, digital camera and so on. In the context of micro
sensor devices another primary power source must be used to charge them. It’s clear
that periodically connect the nodes to a power grid is almost impossible. Indeed it
could be possible to recharge the onboard battery by solar cell as a possible solution.
However, we must taking into account of the extra dissipation due to the control
electronics for charging process. In any case, the more electrolyte and electrode
material there is in the cell, the greater the capacity of the cell. Thus the capacity of a
cell scale with its size a this is the principal reason for that it doesn’t follow the
miniaturization historical trend (Fig. 1.4).
Figure 1.4  Historical ICT improvements
with battery energy density trend [16]
Chapter 1. Introduction
23
1.3.1.1 1.3.1.1 1.3.1.1 1.3.1.1 B BB Batteries atteries atteries atteries
Going beyond this trend requires developing innovative storage technologies or
searching for a new energy source but recently, battery research seems to find a
rebirth helping by nanotechnology. A research team at Rensselaer Polytechnic
Institute has implemented a “paper battery” designed to function as both a lithium
ion battery and a supercapacitor by infusing carbon nanotubes into a cellulose
substrate with a lithium hexafluorophosphate solution[17]. The nanotubes works as
one electrode and the lithium metal that cover the white side of the film is the other.
The sheets can be twisted, rolled, folded, or modeled in to numerous shapes with no
loss of efficiency or stacked, like printer paper to boost total output (every film can
produce 2.5volts of electrical potential). Their light weight and the inexpensive
material make them attractive for portable electronics, aircraft, automobiles and
medical devices. In addition, they are biodegradable a major drawback of chemical
cells. This discover can revolutionize the microbatteries research field. In fact, the
possibility to stack many layers solves the problem of low surface area and low
current output typical of the small electrode of an cubic centimeter inchip
battery[18]. Either bidimensional thin film or threedimensional microbattery with
electrode surface of 34cm
2
could have maximum current throughput of 20mA at
4.2volts but there are problems of inherent nonuniformity of current[19], durability
and of containing aqueous electrolyte.
Chapter 1. Introduction
24
1.3.1.2 1.3.1.2 1.3.1.2 1.3.1.2 Micro Micro Micro Micro F FF Fuel cells uel cells uel cells uel cells
Another promising storage device is the micro fuel cell that new state of the art
fabrication technologies have permitted to realize. The main important feature is that
their energy density is higher than an order of magnitude then conventional batteries
(18 kJ/cm
3
Vs 2 kJ/cm
3
of ordinary battery) . This technology can drive a cellular
phone on standby for 6 months as opposed to 2 weeks with lithium ion batteries, a
notebook computer for a week. At large scale fuel cells can produce sufficient power
for an electric car engine or an house backup energy system. These devices differ
from conventional electrochemical cells and batteries. Both technologies involve the
conversion of potential chemical energy into electricity. But while a conventional
cell or battery employs reactions among metals and electrolytes whose chemical
nature changes over time, the fuel cell actually converts the chemicals hydrogen and
oxygen into water or another fuel such as methanol from which extracting hydrogen
(DMFC Direct Methanol Fuel Cells), and in the process it produces electricity
leaving nothing but an empty reservoir or cartridge. A proton membrane separate the
proton from the hydrogen atom and with electrons recombine with oxygen atoms on
the other side. Micro fuel cells also offers an higher power density (100mW/cm
2
for µDMFC up to 250mW/cm
2
of UltraCell RMFC [20] has demonstrated in 2005)
than microbattery thanks to high surface to volume ratio but seems to operate good
only at higher temperatures. So, even if at large scale these device have reached 45
90% of efficiency, at micro scale they show of it only a 20% of maximum efficiency
for methanol type. Although these technologies presents many advantages and are
Chapter 1. Introduction
25
attractive for the microscale world, they are not yet mature. There are also
disadvantages like not so small size (the most commercial are of to order of
centimeter), high costs, membrane corrosion, bad tolerance to wide temperature
range.
1.3.1.3 1.3.1.3 1.3.1.3 1.3.1.3 U UU Ultra capacitors ltra capacitors ltra capacitors ltra capacitors
A middle way between rechargeable batteries and common electric capacitors is
represented by ultracapacitors. They are like capacitors that store electrostatic
energy via charge separation but using electrodeelectrolyte interface instead of
classical dielectric layer. No chemical reactions are involved in their energy storage
mechanism so that they provide a very high efficiency. Because of their very long
lifespan (even one million recharge cycles), short charging, high performance to
release high power in a short time, they are attractive for many applications even
working in parallel with classical batteries. While they reach significantly higher
power density (10kW/kg) their energy density if only one order of magnitude lower
then common battery (∼ ∼∼ ∼100J/cm
2
Maxwell Technologies, NEC). Many applications
that need high power peak performance can benefit from ultracapacitors but they
could be employed in wireless sensor nodes only working in conjunction with
ordinary batteries as a secondary power sources. This imply more energy dissipation
due to the power control electronics. Furthermore, they are already limited by high
costs.
Chapter 1. Introduction
26
1.3.1.4 1.3.1.4 1.3.1.4 1.3.1.4 Micro H Micro H Micro H Micro Heat eat eat eat E EE Engines ngines ngines ngines
The energy density of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel is of the order of 30kJ/cm
3
so, if
a tiny engine can convert it into electrical power, such a technology would provide at
almost 10 times the energy density of a Liion battery. Nowadays, the micro heat
engine research field is one of the most funded all over the world. Many approaches
have been taken such as millimeterscale gas turbine engine[21], MEMSscale
Wankel rotary engine[22, 23], free and loaded piston internal combustion engine[24],
thermophotovoltaic microgenerator[25] and recently the very innovative smallest
piezoelectric heat engine called P3[26].
a
B
Figure 1.5  a) SiC coated MEMS Wankel engine components.
b) The P3 vapor cycle heat engine concept
The P3 is based on a thin film piezoelectric PZT transducer that convert fuel
energy into electrical. It is capable to run off a variety of sources, from diesel fuel to
solar energy or even waste heat from an hot surface or an exhaust pipe. A voltage 4V
and 1mW of power have been achieved with membrane generators 9mm
2
in area and
23 µm thick[27]. The power performance predicted for micro heat generators ranges
from 0.1 to 20W within a linear dimension of some millimeter up to 510cm.
However, this so large power output does not always represents a benefit, specially
for wireless sensor micro node where the power request is small whereas their
Chapter 1. Introduction
27
autonomy in time, that depends on energy storage density, is more important. So, the
engine would intermittently charge up a secondary battery or capacitor. If the energy
efficiency doesn’t overcome 20% the energy density of about 7 kJ/cm
3
gains only a
factor 23 relative to a LiIon battery. Furthermore, devices that burn fuel potentially
involve issues with heat, exhaust pollution, noise, thrust, or safety.
1.3.1.5 1.3.1.5 1.3.1.5 1.3.1.5 Nuclear Nuclear Nuclear Nuclear micro micro micro micro  batteries batteries batteries batteries
More exotic emerging power technologies like nuclear micro/nanobatteries have
great potentialities as an onboard MEMS power supply. For example, an alpha or
lowenergy beta emitter can provide energy to MEMS for decades dependently only
by the halflife of radioisotope (
63
Ni source has an halflife of 100.2 years). In
effects, nuclear energy density is 3 to 5 orders of magnitude greater than chemical
energy density (∼ ∼∼ ∼10
5
kJ/cm
3
Vs 7kJ/cm
3
of Lithium battery). The radioactive
material could be in both solid and liquid form: current best candidates as nuclear
sources of electric charges are, for example,
63
i,
3
H,
210
Po. Evidently, no gamma
emitters are possible sources such as
238
U for commercial application because of the
heavy shielding needed to avoid heath risks and electronics damages. There are two
main viable methods under investigation and at micronscale some prototypes have
been realized. The first concept is that of a semiconductor junctiontype battery[28]
that make use of betavoltaic effect. The second concept is based on self
reciprocating cantilever[29, 30]. The betavoltaic effect is the generation of
electrical potential due to net positive charge flow of the βparticle induced electron
Chapter 1. Introduction
28
hole pairs (EHPs). As electric field of the depletion region sweeps the induced
charges across the junction a resulting current is created from n to ptype layer.
a b
c
Figure 1.6
a) Betavoltaic microbattery based on a pnjunction with the the inverted pyramid tank of
Liquid 63iCl/HCl solution. b) View of the bulkicromachined inverted pyramid array.
c) Picture of a packaged sample of betavoltaic microbattery based on a planar Si pndiode with
electroplated 63i [28].
In the cantilever concept, the emitted charged α or β particles are collected by a
cantilever plate faced in front of radioisotope source. The increasing electric force
created deflects the beam until it contacts a groundelectrode. After this point the
beam initiate to oscillate while the plate restarts to collects other charges for another
cycle. In this mode, the cantilever became like an intermittent oscillator and its
kinetic energy can be converted into electrical by means of piezoelectric material or a
magnetic transducer (fig. 1.7a).
Chapter 1. Introduction
29
a
b
Figure 1.7 – a) Drawing of a 63i radioisotope piezoelectric cantilever.
b) Sensor microchip with onboard PZT nuclear generator [30].
Although these technologies are particular attractive for longlasting applications
(i.e. space missions, pacemakers or any other medical implantable microsensors),
they have no high efficiency: only 0.5% it’s been demonstrated for betavoltaic
working prototypes up to 2% for a 2cm x 1cm x 0.5cm PZT nuclear resonator.
Moreover, they are not yet suitable for high power devices. The electric power of
them range from 10nW/cm
3
for betavoltaic technology to about 10µ µµ µW/cm
3
of PZT
cantilever resonator type.
1.3.2 1.3.2 1.3.2 1.3.2 Power distribution Power distribution Power distribution Power distribution methods methods methods methods
Direct power distribution to sensor nodes or generic mobile devices is an other
viable method in addition to energy stock method. In this case, the energy density or
power density per unit volume is not a good metric to measure the performances
because the power received primarily depends by the efficiency of the power
transferred to them. The effectiveness of this method is on the effective quantity of
the power adsorbed over that transmitted.
Chapter 1. Introduction
30
1.3.2.1 1.3.2.1 1.3.2.1 1.3.2.1 Electromagnetic Radio Frequency Distribution Electromagnetic Radio Frequency Distribution Electromagnetic Radio Frequency Distribution Electromagnetic Radio Frequency Distribution
Wireless Power Transmission through RF electromagnetic field is not a new idea.
Wireless technologies were being investigated and implemented by many physicists
during the early 1900s. Nikola Tesla designed his own transmitter with power
processing capability some five ordersofmagnitude greater than those of its
predecessors. Then, in a demonstration performed by Bill Brown between 1969 and
1975 a microwave ray of 30Kw was beamed over a distance of 1 Mile at 84%
efficiency. After that, far field wireless power transfer systems based on traveling
microwaves have had no great success because of the health and safety risks due to
strong interaction of focalized microwave beam with biological tissues. However
with the use of resonant coupling, wavelengths produced are far lower making it no
more dangerous than being exposed to radio waves. For instance, WiTricity
(WirelessElectricity) technology developed recently by a MIT research group[5] is
based on near field inductive coupling through magnetic fields like RF ID tags. They
were able to transfer 60 watts with ~40% efficiency over distances at about 2 meters.
Nevertheless, this technology is not suitable for midrange and longrange (510
meters and beyond) power distribution. The power transmitted to a node is expressed
by P(r) = Po λ
2
/(4πr
2
) where ‘Po‘ is the transmitted power, ‘λ’ is the wavelength of
the signal and ‘r’ is the distance between transmitter and receiver. Assuming a
maximum distance of 10 meters in the frequency band of 2.42.485 GHz and that a
single node consumes at max 100µW, the power transmitter needs to emit 1014
watts of radiofrequency radiation. Consequently, the safety limitation would need to
Chapter 1. Introduction
31
be exceeded to power a dense wireless sensor network. Besides, as the power
transmitted fall more realistic as 1/r
4
indoor the efficiency will follow the same trend
as well.
1.3.2.2 1.3.2.2 1.3.2.2 1.3.2.2 Wires, acoustic Wires, acoustic Wires, acoustic Wires, acoustic, lasers , lasers , lasers , lasers
The advantages of distribute power to sensor nodes by means of wires are very
limited. For example, it would be convenient method only in new architectures or
devices where the power grid for sensors should be foreseen in the design. But for
dense sensor network this way is not practicable due to high costs, prohibitive
maintenance and reduced flexibility.
Extracting energy from acoustic wave could be feasible power source only for
ultralow power devices or nanodevices. In effects, a sound wave of 100 dB has a
power density less then 1µW/cm
2
that is far from the 100µW/cm
3
target discussed
before. Finally, if at first glance deliver energy to sensors with a laser directly
focused toward them is possible, this method does not present so many benefits and
it is very complex and expensive for sensing applications.
1.3.3 1.3.3 1.3.3 1.3.3 Power Power Power Power harvesting methods harvesting methods harvesting methods harvesting methods
Doubtless, the most attractive way to provide “perpetual” power to sensor
avoiding the refueling and making it completely selfsupporting seems to be the
“energy harvesting” method. In fact, a power scavenger would be limited only by
failure of its own electromechanical components. On the other hand, these methods
Chapter 1. Introduction
32
are not yet deeply explored because of the complex variety of environments, each
one with its forms of renewable energy source. So that, there is not a unique solution
suitable for all environments and applications. Unlike energy reservoirs, power
scavenging sources provide the energy for the time during which the source is in
operation. Therefore, they are primarily characterized by the power density, rather
than energy density.
1.3.3.1 1.3.3.1 1.3.3.1 1.3.3.1 Solar source Solar source Solar source Solar source
Solar energy of an outdoor incident light at midday holds an energy density of
roughly 100mW per square centimeter and up to 0.15mW/cm
2
on cloudy days.
Instead, the lighting power density in indoor environments ranges from about
0.45mW/cm
2
provided by a 60W desk lump down to 0.010mW at the surface of an
office desk[12]. Commercially offtheshelf single crystal solar cells offer
efficiencies of about 15% and up to 2040% for the state of the art expensive
research cells. However, these type of solar cells are not suitable for indoor
environments because they are affected by severe degradation of the open circuit
voltage[31]. Thinfilm polycrystalline cells are not expensive but show efficiencies
of only 10 – 13%. A cadmium telluride (CdTe) thinfilm cell type has a very wide
spectral response. So, it has good performance in both indoor light conditions and
outdoor environment with an efficiency that ranges from 8 to 13%.
Chapter 1. Introduction
33
a
b
Figure 1.8
a) Integrated beacon circuit with an onboard 3x2cm
2
Panasonic BP213318 CdTe solar cell [32]
b) 16 mm
3
mockup with an integrated millimeter solar panel (Smart Dust [33])
For these reasons, it is selected which best candidate as a power generator that can
operate directly or in conjunction with rechargeable battery for wireless sensor
applications (fig. 1.8a). Even though it needs a proper power electronics to transform
the current for the battery and to optimize its lifespan. More cheaper plastic organic
photovoltaic devices have been recently fabricated[34] and exhibit an efficiency of
2.5%. This is too low for our scopes but researchers promise to reach values like that
of the inorganic cells at an half cost.
1.3.3.2 1.3.3.2 1.3.3.2 1.3.3.2 A AA Air flow ir flow ir flow ir flow
The wind flow power goes as cubic power of its velocity “v” and it is direct
proportional to air density “ρ” and cross sectional area “A” by the relation
P=(1/2)ρAv
3
. Assuming an air density of 1.22 Kg/m
3
at standard atmospheric at a
velocity between 2m/s and 6m/s the power density ranges from about 20µW/cm
2
to
10mW/cm
2
for a conversion efficiency of 20%. But we must take into account that at
Chapter 1. Introduction
34
low velocity the efficiency normally does not overcome 5%. Unlike largescale
windmills have reached efficiency of 40% thanks to even more sophisticated material
technology and shapes, at small scale the research is currently quite poor because the
applications are bonded to airy environments.
1.3.3.3 1.3.3.3 1.3.3.3 1.3.3.3 Temperature grad Temperature grad Temperature grad Temperature gradients ients ients ients
Several approaches to convert thermal gradients into electricity are currently
under investigation (through Seebek effect, thermocouples, piezothermal effect).
All of those have the efficiency related to the Carnot law expressed by equation
η=(T
max
T
min
)/T
max
. So that, for a temperature difference of 10°C the efficiency is
about 3.3%. Considering a silicon device with thermal conductivity of 140W/mK,
the heat power that flow through conduction along a 1cm length for a ∆T=5°C is
7W/cm
2
. Hence, the electric power obtained at Carnot efficiency will be
117mW/cm
2
. At first sight this could be seems an excellent result but the real devices
have efficiencies well below the simple Carnot rule.
Exploiting the Seebeck effect
some research groups[35, 36] have implemented a silicon microthermoelectric
generator µTEG capable of generating from 10 up to 40µW/cm
2
at 10˚C temperature
differential. Others[37] groups have recently demonstrated a thermoelectric
efficiency factor of 0.83 µW/K
2
cm
2
. A more efficient approach that has already been
catalogued as “micro heat engine” is that of external combustion engine, in which
thermal power is convened to mechanical power by means of a thermodynamic cycle
that approaches the ideal vapor Carnot cycle. Mechanical power is converted into
Chapter 1. Introduction
35
electrical power using a thinfilm piezoelectric membrane generator. This called P3
thermo engine[26, 27] is theoretically capable of ~ 1 mW/mm
2
and over.
1.3.3.4 1.3.3.4 1.3.3.4 1.3.3.4 Human power Human power Human power Human power
The energy burnt by an average human body every day is about 10.5MJ that
corresponds to an average power dissipation of 121 Watts within an interval of
80 1600 Watts . Many research groups and industries are currently working on the
most efficient technologies to tap the energy worn by human body. For example,
piezoelectric insert embedded into a shoe can capture energy "parasitically" from
footfalls (theoretically available from 58 Watts up to max 68W) while walking[38].
However, the efficiency of this technology does not overcome on the average 17%,
excluding some advanced prototype, so that the effective mean power harvested is
about 1.5 Watt. Wristwatches powered by both the kinetic energy of a moving arm
and the heat flow from the surface of the skin are yet available. These make use of
the so called Inertial Power Generators based on 2 gram “proof” mass mounted off
center on a spindle. As the user moves during the day, the mass rotates on the spindle
and winds the mechanism. Some models such as ETA Autoquartz SelfWinding
Electric Watch or Seiko AGS system Seiko creates 5µW on average when the watch
is worn and 1mW when the watch is forcibly shaken. But generally, also scaled up
these kind of scavenging energy systems do not produce more that 10mW. While it is
possible to obtain a power density of 300µ µµ µW/cm
2
(mostly from walking energy
scavenging), the problem of a no loss transmission of electrical energy to wearable
Chapter 1. Introduction
36
sensors still remain. So, these ways could be both impractical and not cost efficient
when applied to dense network of sensor nodes.
1.3.3.5 1.3.3.5 1.3.3.5 1.3.3.5 Pressure variations Pressure variations Pressure variations Pressure variations
Another renewable power source could comes from atmospheric pressure and/or
thermal variation. The possible energy available E for a fixed volume V and a
pressure variation of ∆P is merely given by the equation E=∆P*V . If the pressure
varies of 677 Pa once per day the available power density would be 7.8nW/cm
3
.
While, considering that a pressure changing due to temperature variation for a fixed
volume of ideal gas follow the state equation ∆P=mR∆T/V where m is the mass of
the gas (i.e. Helium) and R a gas constant, for a ∆T=10°C thermal variation per day
the corresponding energy change would be 1.4 Joules, which is about 17 µW/cm
3
.
So, we are tens time below desirable power density for sensor nodes. Although there
are yet some devices that incorporate power supply system that make use of phase
changing of a fluid like “Atoms clock”, however, there are no recent advances in
implementing largescale systems.
1.3.3.6 1.3.3.6 1.3.3.6 1.3.3.6 Vibration Vibration Vibration Vibrations ss s
The first important virtue of random mechanical vibrations as a potential power
source is that it is present almost everywhere. Mechanical vibrations occur in many
environments such as building, transports, terrains, humans activities, industrial
environments, military devices and so on. Their characteristics are various: spectral
Chapter 1. Introduction
37
shape from low to high frequency, amplitude and time duration are manifolds
dependently by the surroundings. Theory and experiments of many research work
shows that the power density that can be converted from vibrations is about
300µ µµ µ/cm
3
. Another strong point is that as solar the vibration source is a renewable
source as well, so, it has no lifetime and in addition it is not limited to the sunlight
areas. In order to establish how much power comes from vibrational excitation
Roundy[10] from Berkley and a other MIT groups[16] have performed a
characterization of most common environments like typical office building,
manufacturing plant, machines, human activities and household appliances.
Figure 1.9  List of vibration sources [10] .
In figure 1.9 are shown a list of vibration sources measured with a standard
accelerometer and ordered from greatest amplitude of acceleration to least.
Frequently, the most of vibrational energy is located at fairly low frequencies (below
500Hz). As an example, vibration spectra of a microwave casing, illustrated in figure
1.10, shows sharp peaks in magnitude around 120Hz and 250Hz. Even for a milling
Chapter 1. Introduction
38
machines the peaks of fundamental mode fall around 70Hz with few higher
harmonics close to 150 and 200Hz. Likewise for a wooden deck the first vibration
modes appear at 350Hz and at 240Hz for a refrigerator. The sharp peaks at low
frequency indicate the fairly sinusoidal shape of displacement and acceleration signal
in time domain. While their narrowness is proportional to quality factor Q of the
oscillating system.
Figure 1.10 Displacement and acceleration spectra
for a turned on microwave oven and milling machine [10].
Another important characteristic that is common to most vibration source is that
the power spectrum tends to fall off as ω ωω ω
2
. Other source such as water jet assisted
drilling gives rise, as the most of macroscopic systems, to large mechanical
vibrations in bandwith below 1KHz. Vibration spectrum of this source measured
with an accelerometer by a group[39] have two main resonant peaks to consider and
those peaks at about 400 Hz and 1400Hz. Many meso and microscaled energy
Chapter 1. Introduction
39
scavenging generators have been developed in the last five years by an increasing
number of research groups[4, 9, 10, 16, 38, 4042]. Three are the principal concepts
to convert mechanical vibration power into electrical one: piezoelectric, electrostatic,
electromagnetic. These models will be more deeply analyzed in the next chapter.
The predicted power density that a such kind of microscaled generators can extract
from vibrational source ranges from 4µW/cm
3
(human motion—Hz) up to on
800µW/cm
3
(machines—kHz). But, we take into account that excitation is highly
dependent by the environment. All of these works are addressed to realize
scavenging generators that must be tuned to the fundamental vibration frequencies
of the source, where the most of energy of the vibration spectrum is sited. This
constitute a great limit. In facts, although larger structures can achieve relatively
higher power densities (for instance, a simple shakedriven flashlight can delivers 2
mW/cm
3
at 3 Hz), at small scale the narrowtuned oscillator posses a natural
resonance frequency ω
n
of some kilohertz (roughly ω ωω ω
n
=k/m where k is the effective
elastic constant and m the inertial mass). Far from fundamental frequency of the
environment, that’s for hypothesis within a band below 300400Hz, the resonator is
mismatched and the efficiency falls down.
a
b
Figure 1.11 a) SEM photo of the fabricated cantilever prototype[43].
Chapter 1. Introduction
40
b) cross section of piezoelectric cantilever.
For example, a demonstrated prototype showed in figure 1.11 of a 5mm cantilever
piezoelectric resonator with a inertial Nickel mass 0.02 grams has a natural
frequency of about 608Hz and its power output is 2.16 µW. In order to obviate to
frequency detuning problem we have exploited the properties of nonlinear dynamic
oscillator that will be discussed in a comprehensive manner in chapter 2 and 3.
1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 C CC Comparison of power sources omparison of power sources omparison of power sources omparison of power sources
In order to make a direct comparison between fixedenergy source, such as
batteries and fuel cells, and renewable energy sources, it is difficult to use the same
metric. Because some sources like batteries are benchmarked by energy density
while other are characterized by power density such as solar cells. Some devices do
not need of the third dimension so, they can be characterized by power per square
centimeter rather then cubic centimeter.
Chapter 1. Introduction
41
Table 1.2 – Comparison of various potential power sources.
Green highlighted are renewable energy sources while the red ones
are the fixed energy alternatives. S. Roundy [15]
Roundy et al. have analyzed the characteristic of various power sources so far
discussed (tab. 1.2, fig.1.12). This is a starting point for the choice of optimal way for
sensors. How it has been already stated before, it’s improbably that any single
solution will satisfy all applications, because each method has its own constraints.
Solar cells require sunlight, thermal gradients need sufficient temperature variation,
and vibrationbased systems need sufficient vibration sources. Conversely vibration
sources are generally omnipresent and can be readily found in inaccessible locations
such as building walls or inside of machines.
Chapter 1. Introduction
42
Figure 1.12 – Average power available Vs time from batteries
and scavenged energy sources. S. Roundy [15]
It can be noted that solar and vibration power density can be range within an
interval of 101000µW because of environmental conditions (outdoor or in indoor
office light condition for solar cells, low level vibrating environment) but they are no
function of lifetime. While both energy drain and leakage determine a variation in
time for chemical batteries with inflection point for rechargeable types. So that,
within one year the batteries can support efficiently a wireless sensor nodes
(assuming a 100µW of consumption) but going beyond 2 year arise the refilling
problem for those rechargeable and over 5 year the primary batteries cannot provide
the same power level of solar cells or vibrationbased generators. Others interesting
indicators for a comparison among the various methods (especially for batteries) are
the specific power defined as power over weight ratio and specific cost per watt.
Chapter 1. Introduction
43
Figure 1.13  (a) the specific power range and
(b) the power density for different methods.
Figure 1.14  Specific cost of all energy storage systems. Flipsen[44].
Besides the combustion engines that have the highest specific power (fig. 1.13),
the renewable power sources converted by means piezoelectric and photovoltaic
transducers present performances comparable with fuel cells. In any case, these
Chapter 1. Introduction
44
methods do not have the problem of high noise output, toxic exhaust fumes and
instability of electrical power from the system typical of combustion engines. On the
front of costeffective the piezoelectric seems to be the worst solution (fig 1.14) but
this research was been conducted for power demands in 100mW–30W, then for
mesoscaled devices. Instead, for micro devices both specific power and cost
effective are not so critical, while, size scalability and lifespan are the most important
parameters.
In the next chapter we deal of existent methods for vibration to electricity
conversion with a focus on theoretic mathematical models for linear, nonlinear
bistable oscillators and vibration noise source as a basis from which simulations and
the experiments have been implemented.
45
Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2 Chapter 2
Vibration Vibration Vibration Vibration driven driven driven driven
microgenerators microgenerators microgenerators microgenerators
2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 Existent vibration to electricity conversion Existent vibration to electricity conversion Existent vibration to electricity conversion Existent vibration to electricity conversion
methods methods methods methods
There are three possible devices that can transform ambient vibrations into
electrical energy:
• variable capacitor (electrostatic fields)
• electromagnetic inductor (electromagnetic fields)
• piezoelectric transducer (straining a piezoelectric material)
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
46
These three methods are commonly used for inertial sensors (i.e. accelerometers)
as well as for actuators. The best transducers systems should be those that can
maximize the coupling between the kinetic energy of the source and the conversion
mechanism dependently entirely upon the characteristics of the environmental
vibrations. Vibration kinetic energy is best suited to generators with the mechanical
component attached to an inertial casing which acts as the fixed frame. The case
transmits the vibrations to a suspended inertial mass producing a relative
displacement between them.
A brief analysis of strength and weakness points of the existent transducer models
will be outlined in this paragraph. Further details on dynamic and equivalent circuit
models will be explained in the next paragraph 2.2. with particular focus on
piezoelectric cantilever model.
2.1.1 2.1.1 2.1.1 2.1.1 Electrostatic generators Electrostatic generators Electrostatic generators Electrostatic generators
This conversion methods is based on use of a variable capacitor. It simply consists
in two plates which are electrically isolated from each other by a dielectric (typically
air, vacuum or an insulator). Unlike the simple fixed capacitor the metallic plates of
variable capacitor can be in motion in order to vary its capacitance. As the separation
between the plates (typically nanometer or microns for a MEMS) varies the energy
stored in the charged capacitor changes due to the work done by an external vibrating
force. The capacitance for a parallel plates capacitor in term of the insulator
dielectric constant k=ε/ε
0
is given by:
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
47
0
A
C k
d
ε =
(2.1)
where A is the plate surface, d the relative distance, ε and ε
0
are the permittivity of
the dielectric material and vacuum, while, the voltage across the plates is expressed
by definition from
/ V Q C = (2.2)
hence,
0
Qd
V
A ε
= (2.3)
and the electrostatic energy stored within capacitor that is given by
2 2
1 1 1
2 2 2
E QV CV Q C = = = (2.4)
At constant voltage, in order to vary the energy it’s needed to counteract the
electrostatic force between the mobile plates that is
2
2
1
2
e
AV
F
d
ε = (2.5)
then, the mechanical work against this electric force done by an external force like
vibrating excitation is transformed into electrostatic potential energy when varying
the capacitance. A current flow through a load shunted to plates in order to balance
the fixed voltage. A similar method like fixed voltage is that of charge constrained,
with the difference that if a constant charge is held into the plates (i.e. by means of a
battery or another capacitor), the electrostatic force is given by
1 2
2
e
d
F Q
A ε
= (2.6)
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
48
but in general, the voltage constrained offers more energy than the charge
constrained approach. A manner to increase the output electrical energy for the
charge constrained method is add a capacitor in parallel with the variable harvesting
capacitor. This parallel storage capacitor effectively constrains the voltage on the
energy harvesting capacitor. A base circuit was designed by Roundy (fig. 2.1) where
C
v
is the variable capacitor, C
par
the parasitic capacitance associated with the variable
capacitance and interconnections, finally, the switches which transfer the electric
current toward the storage capacitor and regulate the charging that can be substitute
by diodes.
Figure 2.1  Simple circuit sketch for an electrostatic converter.[10]
The maximum potential energy per cycle that can be harvested by this configuration
is expressed as first approximation by the following formulas
max 2
min
1
2
par
in
par
C C
E V C
C C
  +
= ∆


+
\ ¹
(2.7)
max
1
2
in
E V V C = ∆ (2.8)
with ∆C=C
max
C
min
and V
max
which represents the maximum allowable voltage
across a switch.
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
49
Up to now, there are three kinds of electrostatic generators (fig.2.1) that are based
on both constrained charge and voltage[44, 45]: Inplane overlap varying, Inplane
gap closing, Outofplane gap closing.
a
b
c
Figure 2.2 – a) inplane overlap varying b)inplane gap closing
c) Outofplane gap closing
For the inplane overlap topology (a) the capacitance changes by changing overlap
area of interdigitated fingers that implements the multiplates capacitor. While for
the other two types the capacitance changes by changing gap between fingers (b) or
large plates (c). In Table 2.1 it is shown the electrostatic force variation for the three
configurations in function of the displacement x of the inertial mass.
Table 2.1  Electrostatic force variation for the three configurations.[46]
For the Outofplane gap closing type there are several problems. The gap x must
become very small in order to obtain a large capacitance change but, as the fluid
damping force is proportional to 1/x
3
, the loss becomes very large as the plates move
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
50
close together. A possible solution may be to set the MEMS device under very low
pressure. Furthermore, this design concept exhibits the problem of shortcircuit
contact as the plates get close together. Inplane gap closing converter solves this
problem. For this type of configuration the motion of plates is in the plane of the
substrate, therefore, the minimum dielectric gap, and thus the maximum capacitance
can be precisely fixed by incorporated mechanical stops. As it has been investigated
by Roundy[47] (fig. 2.2) the Inplane gap closing type offers the highest power
output with an optimized design producing 100 µW/cm
3
; outofplane gap closing is
the next highest and the last in performances is inplane overlap varying. It can be
noted that the maximum power occurs at very small dielectric gaps.
a
b
Figure 2.3 –Power output vs. dielectric gap for
a) inplane overlap varying and b) inplane gap closing converter
for different device thicknesses.
The planar design of an electrostatic converter has the potential to be tightly
integrated with silicon based microelectronics that are readily available. Therefore,
the scalability of its size through MEMS technology is the first reason why
electrostatic converter is attractive. On the other hand, one of the principal negative
side is the high working frequency (∼510KHz) of these generators. Nevertheless,
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
51
recently some groups [48] reports on MEMS electrostatic converter with high
electrical damping capable to operate over a wide low frequency range (<100 Hz): a
silicon microstructure of volume 81mm
2
×0.4mm with a 2×10
−3
kg inertial mass
driven by a vibration amplitude of 95µm at 50Hz is capable to produce a scavenged
power of 70 µW.
Figure 2.4 –Interdigitated fingers of MEMS prototype variable capacitor.[47]
Many other group are focusing in realization of low frequency operating converters
like Tashiro [49] which has developed an honeycomb structured electrostatic
generator that harnesses ventricular motion operating at heart beat frequency 12Hz
with the aim of driving a cardiac pacemaker permanently. Anyway the power output
for a square centimeter variable capacitors that have been developed so far range
from 10 to 100µW.
2.1.2 2.1.2 2.1.2 2.1.2 Electromagnetic Electromagnetic Electromagnetic Electromagnetic generators generators generators generators
Amirtharajah et al.[9] have previously proposed and developed electromagnetic
generators that exploits the relative motion of an electrical conductor in a magnetic
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
52
field produced by a permanent magnet. The device simply consists of a mass m
connected to a spring with elastic constant k that is attached to a rigid case (fig. 2.5).
The ambient vibration excites the housing which transmits the mechanical
displacement to the inertial mass. The consequent variation of magnetic flux through
the coil generates an inducted current in accordance with Faraday’s law. In this way
the part of kinetic energy stored in the movement of massspring system is converted
into inducted current (fig. 2.5a).
a
b
Figure 2.5 – a) Drawing of inductor generator, Amirtharajah [9]
b) Crosssection of the waferscale electromagnetic generator proposed by Williams[50]
There are many other preferable configurations: for example with the magnets
attached to a cantilever beam acting as inertial mass[51] or that proposed by
Williams et al. in fig. 2.5b.
Faraday’s Law states that the induced electromagnetic field produced by a
changing magnetic flux Φ
B
is given by
B
d
dt
ε
Φ
= − (2.9)
hence, for a coil moving through a perpendicular constant magnetic field, the
maximum open circuit voltage across the coil is
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
53
oc
dx
V Bl
dt
= (2.10)
where is the number of turns in the coil, B is the strength of the magnetic field, l is
the length of a winding and x is the relative vertical distance between the coil and
magnet. Making a few assumptions: baseline vibrations of 2.25 m/s
2
at 120 Hz,
maximum device size is 1cm
3
, and about the magnetic field intensity and coil design,
it can easily be shown that output voltage does not overcome 100mV. Far more
realistic estimates of present technology range within 50mV, otherwise always less
then 1 Volt. For a typical 5mm x 5mm x 1mm device, the predicted power generation
was 1µW for an excitation frequency of 70Hz, and 100µW at 330Hz. Though the low
voltage represents an bad limit, because it requires a rectifier and transformation
electronics to be raised, electromagnetic transduction has some strength sides. First,
high output current levels are achievable. Second, unlike electrostatic conversion, no
separate voltage source is needed to get the process started. Moreover, the almost
total absence of mechanical contact between any parts improves reliability and
reduces mechanical damping.
There is a wide variety of magnetic springmass concepts implemented with
various types of material[5053] that are well suited and proven in cyclically stressed
applications. Some of those with size of 5mm x 5mm x 1.5mm achieves 35mW of
maximum power at 12.6KHz of resonant frequency. But, at submicron scale, many
problem arise relatively to the implementation of planar permanent magnets,
minimum line and space for coils fabrication and most of all limited amplitude of
vibrations (∼10µm).
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
54
2.1.3 2.1.3 2.1.3 2.1.3 Piezoelectric Piezoelectric Piezoelectric Piezoelectric generators generators generators generators
Piezoelectric ceramics have been used in many applications for many years to
convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The direct piezoelectric effect was
early demonstrated by Jacques and Pierre Curie in 1880. They found that when
certain ceramic crystals were subjected to mechanical strain, they became electrically
polarized and the degree of polarization was proportional to the applied strain.
Conversely, these materials deform when exposed to an electric field. Materials
which show piezoelectricity are widely available in many natural and manmade
forms: single crystal quartz, cane sugar, Rochelle salt, piezoceramic materials (e.g.
Lead Zirconate Titanate, PbTiO
3
, BaTiO
3
composites [54]), thin film (e.g. sputtered
zinc oxide), screen printable thickfilms based upon piezoceramic powders [55],
polymeric materials such as polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) [56] and nanostructured
material[57].
Figure 2.6  Piezoelectric elementary cell; (1) before poling (2) after poling.
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
55
The origin of the piezoelectric phenomenon is due to the asymmetry in the cell unit
of the material. When it is subjected to mechanical distortion along one direction,
aligned electric dipoles are formed due to spontaneous separation of electronic
clouds from their individual atomic center and this lead to a macroscopic net
polarization of the crystal lattice (fig. 2.6). The compressive and tensile stresses
along one single direction will generate a parallel electric field and a consequent
force that opposes to the length variation. It is also reciprocal, the same crystal
exposed to an electric potential will experience an elastic strain causing its length to
decrease or increase according to the field polarity. Each of these effects result
almost linear within small length variation relative to the crystal size.
Figure 2.7  Behaviour of piezoceramic material. a) onpolarized state, b) polarized state,
c) electric applied after poling.[58]
Groups of dipoles with parallel orientation form the so called Weiss domains
(fig.2.7). the raw piezoelectric material has these domains randomly oriented.
Applying an electric field (> 2KV/mm), the material expands along the axis of the
field and contracts perpendicular to that axis. After poling action the material
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
56
presents a remanent polarization (which can be degraded by exceeding the
mechanical, thermal and electrical limits of the material) and it is grown in the
dimensions aligned with the field and it’s contracted along the axes normal to the
electric field. When an electric voltage is applied to a poled piezoelectric material,
the Weiss domains increase their alignment proportional to the voltage causing the
expansion/contraction of the piezoelectric material. In this way the piezoelectric solid
is ready to work as a sensor of actuator transducer.
The coupling between the electrical and mechanical behaviour of the material has
been approximated by static linear relations between electrical and mechanical
variables:
E
T
s d
d ε
= +
= +
S T E
D T E
(2.11)
where: S is a strain tensor, T is a stress tensor, E is an electric field vector, D is an
electric displacement vector, s
E
is an elastic compliance matrix when subjected to a
constant electric field E, d is a matrix of piezoelectric constants, ε
T
is a permittivity
measured at a constant stress.
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
57
Figure 2.8 – otation of axes
The Piezo ceramics structure is anisotropic, thus the piezoelectric effects is
dependent on direction. To identify directions the axes, termed 1, 2, and 3, are
introduced (analogous to X, Y, Z of the classical right hand orthogonal axial set).
The axes 4, 5 and 6 identify rotations (shear). The direction of polarization (3 axis) is
established during the poling process by a strong electrical field applied between two
electrodes. When a compressive strain is applied perpendicular to the electrodes that
extract the voltage the d
33
coefficient determines the electromechanical coupling
whilst if a transverse strain is applied parallel to the electrodes piezoelectric
generator exploits the d
31
couplingcoefficient. Though compressive strain can
produce much more high voltage then that transverse, however, is not a practical
coupling mechanism for vibration energy harvesting in the majority of applications.
In general, the elements of piezoelectric beams or films are coupled in the transverse
direction because such a configuration is more practical and it multiplies the applied
mechanical stress.
3
(y)
(z)
2
1 (x)
4
5
6
d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
o
f
p
o
l
a
r
i
z
a
t
i
o
n
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
58
Table 2.2  Coefficients of common piezoelectric materials [46].
Table 2.2 shows the fundamental constants that characterize piezoelectric material
such as k, g, ε εε ε and s. The matrix element k
ij
is defined as the ratio
e
i
ij m
j
E
k
E
= (2.12)
between the electrical energy E
i
e
stored along the iaxes and the mechanical input
energy E
i
m
along the jaxes. This describes the efficiency of energy conversion of
the material between electrical and mechanical form in a given direction. The matrix
g
ij
is defined as the electric field generated per unit of mechanical stress, or the strain
developed for an applied charge density. Finally, ε εε ε is the electrical permittivity of
the material which is defined as the dielectric displacement per unit electric field and
s which is the compliance matrix namely the strain produced per unit of stress. In
figure 2.9 an equivalent circuit of a piezoelectric element that works as a voltage
generator (on right) and a conceptual design of a common cantilever implementation
of transducer (on left) are represented.
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
59
Figure 2.9 – Conceptual design and equivalent circuit of piezoelectric generator.
The voltage source represents the voltage that develops due to the excess surface
charge on the crystal. The series capacitor C
p
represent the capacitance of the
piezoelectric layer which is proportional to the film permittivity and area and
inversely proportional to the film thickness. R
p
represents the internal piezoelement
resistance and R
L
a purely resistive load. Assuming that the mechanics take place
along a single axis then each variable or constant is treated as a single scalar quantity
rather than a tensor. The open circuit voltage that results from an external mechanical
stress σ on piezoelectric beam with thickness t is defined by the expression
out
d t
V σ
ε
⋅
= − (2.13)
while the average power dissipated by a simple resistive load will be P
L
=V
L
2
/2R
L
. In
reality, we have to consider an input impedance of power electronics attached to the
generator rather than a simple purely resistance.
Among the main advantages of piezoelectric transducers we find the possibility of
direct generation of suitable voltages and currents [44], small mechanical damping
material and unlike the variable capacitors they do not necessitate of separate voltage
source. Moreover, the recent manufacturing process has permitted to implement
V
p
C
p
R
p
R
L
Piezoelectric generator
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
60
piezoelectric MEMS with thin film under one millimeter[59] but some problems of a
decrement of piezoelectric coupling and an high resonant frequency still remain.
2.1.4 2.1.4 2.1.4 2.1.4 Energy density of transduction mechanisms Energy density of transduction mechanisms Energy density of transduction mechanisms Energy density of transduction mechanisms
A fundamental starting point to benchmark the three methods so far showed can
be made by considering the theoretical inherent energy density and summarizing the
strength and weakness side of each one. The following table realized by Roundy et
al. [10] shows the practical and theoretical maxima of energy density for each
transduction techniques.
Table 2.3  Summary of maximum energy density of three types of transducers
From the table 2.3 it jumps to the eye at once the gap between practical power
density of piezoelectric mechanism that is 17.7mJ/cm
3
and the other techniques that
produce only 4mJ/cm
3
. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages points of each
mechanicaltoelectrical energy conversion method which have been discussed are
summarized in the following table 2.4.
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
61
Table 2.4  Summary of the comparison of the three transduction mechanisms. [15]
From this comparison it is clear that the most desirable conversion method results
that piezoelectric one which presents the major number of advantages. So, it is for
these reasons that this is currently the best choice to realize the micro vibration
driven generator for energy harvesting to power sensor nodes.
On this basic choice a generic theory of linear and nonlinear resonator with
piezoelectric coupling will be discussed in the next paragraphs. Anyhow, the nucleus
of this thesis, that is the idea to exploit the nonlinear dynamics to enhance the
efficiency of energy conversion, can be also applied to electromagnetic and
capacitive techniques.
2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 Dynamics of linear Dynamics of linear Dynamics of linear Dynamics of linear transducer transducer transducer transducer: : : : linearity and linearity and linearity and linearity and
transfer transfer transfer transfer function function function function
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
62
Making use of the linear system theory it is possible to express a simple generic
model for the conversion of kinetic energy of a mass that undergoes to a vibrating
excitation into electrical energy. Vibration converters can be seen, in effects, as
secondorder springmass oscillators. Figure 2.10 shows a generic model proposed
early by Williams and Yates[50] of such a system based on a seismic mass, m, on a
spring of stiffness, k.
Figure 2.10 – Drawing of a generic vibrationtoelectricity transducer.
The energy losses by friction are related to the internal mechanical damping which is
expressed by d
m
, while, d
e
defines the electrical induced damping coefficient due to
the electromechanical conversion. For simplicity, it can be assumed that the inertial
mass m of generator is much smaller then the vibrating mass of ambient (wall, floor,
machine) and that the vibration source is an infinite energy reservoir. In this mode
the vibrating source is unaffected by the movement of the generator. An external
vibration moves out of phase with the inertial mass when the generator housing is
vibrated at resonance resulting in a net displacement that we call for simplicity x(t),
between the mass and the frame. If we consider the displacement y(t) of the vibrating
y(t)
m
k
d
m
+d
e
x
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
63
housing rather than the external force, the differential equation of motion for the
mass m is the next
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
m e
mx t d d x t kx t my t + + + = − ɺɺ ɺ ɺɺ (2.14)
the force on the mass is equal to the force on the massspringdamper, that, for a
sinusoidal vibrating excitation is
0
( ) sin( ) f t my Y t ω = − = ɺɺ (2.15)
The simple steadystate solution for the mass displacement of the equation (2.14) is
2
0
2 2
2
( ) sin( )
( )
e m
x t Y t
d d k
m m
ω
ω φ
ω
ω
= −
+    
− +
 
\ ¹ \ ¹
(2.16)
setting d
T
=d
m
+d
e
the total damping coefficient, the phase angle φ is given by
1
2
tan
T
d
k m
ω
φ
ω
−
 
=

−
\ ¹
(2.17)
Maximum energy can be extracted when the excitation frequency is tuned to the
natural frequency of the system that is given by
/
n
k m ω = (2.18)
The instantaneous kinetic power p(t) transferred to the mass is the product of the
force on the mass and its velocity.
( ) ( )[ ( ) ( )] p t my t y t x t = − + ɺɺ ɺ ɺ (2.19)
Taking the Laplace transform of equation 2.14 and 2.19, the transfer function is
2
2 2
( )
( )
( ) 2 ( )
xf
e m n n
X
H
Y i
ω ω
ω
ω ω ω ζ ζ ω ω
= =
− + + +
(2.20)
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
64
and the power dissipated by total electromechanical damping ratio, namely
ζ
T
=(ζ
e
+ζ
m
)=d
T
/2mω
n
, is expressed by
2 2
2
( )
diss T n T n xf
P m X m f H ω ζ ω ζ ω ω = = ⋅
ɺ
(2.21)
that is
3
2 3
0
2
2 2
1 2
T
n
diss
T
n n
m Y
P
ω
ζ ω
ω
ω ω
ζ
ω ω
 

\ ¹
=
(
(    
( − +
(  
( \ ¹ \ ¹ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
(2.22)
At natural resonance frequency, that is ω=ω
n
, the maximum power is given by
2 3
0
4
n
diss
T
mY
P
ω
ζ
= (2.23)
or as a function of excitation acceleration amplitude A
0
=ω
n
2
Y
0
.
2
0
4
diss
n T
mA
P
ω ζ
= (2.24)
For steadystate solutions like these, power remains limited and does not tend to
infinite as the damping ratio tends to zero. Separating parasitic damping ζ
m
and
transducer damping ζ
e
for a particular transduction mechanism forced at natural
frequency ω
n
, the power can be maximized from the equation
2
2
4 ( )
e
el
n m e
m A
P
ζ
ω ζ ζ
=
+
(2.25)
for fixed acceleration amplitude A, when the condition ζ ζζ ζ
e
=ζ ζζ ζ
m
is verified.
Mechanical dissipation cannot be avoided in a real system and as a matter of fact
it can be regulated to improve the conversion mechanism. As we can see from the
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
65
graph 2.11, for a sufficient acceleration, increasing the total damping coefficient will
results in a broader bandwidth response or the oscillator which loss the power
transferred. So, the damping factor control the selectivity of the device.
Figure 2.11 – Frequency spectrum of power generation
around the resonance frequency of the generator for different damping factor
It is clear from 2.22 that the inertial mass of generator should be maximized within
the geometrical constrains in order to obtain the maximum electrical output. For a
given acceleration level, power output is inversely proportional to the frequency.
Furthermore, it is necessary to know the spectral shape of vibration noise source well
to properly design the transfer function of a linear resonator. So, it is critical that the
natural frequency of a linear generator match the fundamental frequency of the
driving vibrations. Unlikely, it is not always simple to find a source that concentrate
the vibrational energy around a single frequency constantly. Often, the most part of
kinetic energy (like that of a seismic vibration) is present at low frequency or in a
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
ω/ω
n
P
o
w
e
r
ζ=0.05
ζ=0.1
ζ=0.2
ζ=0.3
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
66
wide bandwidth that changes in time. For instance, inside a car tyre or on aircraft the
spectral power density could vary a lot in time domain. Up to now, there are no so
many solutions to face up this limitation. Systems with active tuning or multimodal
resonator are under investigation [60, 61] but they present some problems of size
scaling and energy losses due to the control electronics and mechanical configuration
for autotuning process.
This linear model proposed by Williams and Yates is only a first approximation
and neglects the details of transduction mechanism. It is a fairly good model for
electromagnetic transducers, but we must consider that the electromechanical
coupling term is not always linear (most of all for piezoelectric system) and
necessarily proportional the velocity as the mechanical damping as well.
Nevertheless, the relationships 2.222.24 are useful to characterize linear generators
and this model can be a starting point to compare the efficiency between linear and
nonlinear harvesting devices. In facts, it’s quite simple to calculate the electro
mechanical induced damping term ζ
e
for each type of conversion mechanism in first
approximation.
More detailed conversion models for a piezoelectric system in linear and
nonlinear regime will be discussed in the next paragraphs.
2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 N NN Nonlinear onlinear onlinear onlinear E EE Energy nergy nergy nergy Harvesting S Harvesting S Harvesting S Harvesting Systems ystems ystems ystems in a in a in a in a
Duffing Duffing Duffing Duffing  like potential like potential like potential like potential
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
67
For the purpose to explain the main idea on which is based our research, we show
the basic dynamic model of a bistable damped oscillator which is forced by random
vibration noise. For the sake of simplicity we restrict ourselves to onedimensional
case. The equation of motion of a massspring damped oscillator which is moving in
a constant Duffinglike[62] potential is
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
dU x
mx t x t t
dx
η σξ = − − + ɺɺ ɺ (2.26)
where m is the inertial mass that we can normalize to 1, η is the damping coefficient,
σξ is the stochastic external excitation and the conservative Duffing potential is the
quartic well
2 4
( )
2 4
x x
U x a b = − + (2.27)
from such a potential the 2.26 differential equation becomes the Langevin equation
3
( ) ( ) ( ) x t x t ax bx t δ σξ = − + − + ɺɺ ɺ (2.28)
Accounting the driven random force, for instance, a Gaussian distributed white noise
with zeromeanvalue and variance σ
2
that is
( ) ( ') 2 ( ') t t t t ξ ξ δ = − , the stochastic
differential equation 2.28 cannot be calculated analytically but only numerically. For
now, here we only give the basic equations and qualitatively description. As it can be
seen from figure 2.12, for a fixed b>0 and a<<0 the potential resemble to quadratic
harmonic well and in fact the oscillator behaves likewise a linear resonator. With a
close to zero the potential still has only one equilibrium position at x=0, but the basis
shape of the well becomes even more flat until the critical condition a=0 is reached.
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
68
Figure 2.12 – Biquadratic potential well for fixed b>0 and various values of a.
When a>0 bistability arises with the formation of two relative energy minima at
/ x a b
±
= separated by a potential barrier with height
2
/ 4 U a b ∆ = . In this way,
maintaining b fixed at a positive value and varying a it is possible to pass from a
linear dynamical regime to more complex soft/strong nonlinear dynamical behavior
of the oscillator. Dependently by the statistical characteristics of noise such as
standard deviation σ σσ σ and its autocorrelation time, a certain dynamical regime can
outperforms the kinetic energy transfer from the source to the system.
a<<0
a=0
UHxL
x
4 2 2 4
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
barrier height
a>0
a>>0
UHxL
x
4 2 2 4
20
20
40
60
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
69
Inserting inside the oscillator an electromechanical transduction mechanism we
obtain a scavenging energy generator whose dynamics is tunable by few parameters
and it will able to adsorb vibrating energy from a narrow or wide frequency
bandwidth. Bistable systems have been extensively studied in the presence of noise
both in the classical[63] and in the quantum domain[64], but some aspects related to
the energy spectrum and dynamics requires a deeper insight into the stochastic
dynamics of the oscillator because analytical descriptions do not exists. These will be
explained with the help of simulations and experiments discussed in the next chapter.
We are going to expose in the next paragraphs the basic models of bistable vibration
based transducers which were used in the simulations and experimental tests.
2.3.1 2.3.1 2.3.1 2.3.1 The i The i The i The inverted nverted nverted nverted piezoelectric piezoelectric piezoelectric piezoelectric pendulum pendulum pendulum pendulum
The inverted pendulum is one of the simplest mechanical bistable device to
realizing at macroscopic scale. So, it has been chosen to test the main concept of the
present work. If part of its bar is made by a flexible piezoelectric beam it realizes a
nonlinear vibrationbased energy harvesting system. A basic model of an inverted
pendulum with a restoring spring is sketched in fig. 2.12. An effective mass is
attached at the upper tip of a rigid bar with a global moment of inertia I. The
clamping base is forced to vibrate by a random shaking force f(t). Looking the
system from to the reference frame of the clamping base, for the sake of simplicity,
the inertial mass m sees as a stochastic force ξ(t) applied to itself. Furthermore, the
mass is subjected to a restoring elastic force relates to the effective stiffness K
eff
and
it is damped by a viscous force relates to the coefficient η. Using a piezoelectric
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
70
laminated beam as a support, it works also as a transducer element. Then, it will be
included in the model as electromechanical coupling term which is characterized by
effective piezoelectric coefficient K
v
and its inherent capacitance C
p
.
Figure 2.13 – a) Basic models of a vibrating inverted pendulum
and b) its equivalent with piezoelectric element
In the mechanical inverted pendulum represented in figure 2.13a, the motion
equation in the unidimensional angular variable θ is
sin ( )
eff
I K mgl t θ θ ηθ θ ξ = − − + +
ɺɺ ɺ
(2.29)
Approximating the periodic term with the Taylor series expansion around θ=0
3
sin (1/ 6) θ θ θ ≈ − to the second order, we obtain the stochastic Duffing equation
3
1
( )
6
eff
mgl K
mgl
t
I I I I
η
θ θ θ θ ξ
−  
= − − +

\ ¹
ɺɺ ɺ
(2.30)
which can be written
3
'( ) a b t θ θ θ δθ ξ = − − +
ɺɺ ɺ
(2.31)
setting the following parameters:
X
a)
x
b)
k η
m
ξ(t)
V
p
I
f(t)
piezoelectric element
Y
ξ(t)
k
mg
θ
l
x
f(t)
m
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
71
1
'
;
6
;
mgl Keff
a
I
I I
mgl
b
I
η
δ ξ ξ
−
=
= =
 

\ ¹
=
(2.32)
From the equation 2.31 we have two cases. One equilibrium position exists for
mgl<K
eff
(a<0) that corresponds to linear behavior with m exactly above the rotation
axis for θ=0. Two equilibrium positions: one at right and one left when mgl>K
eff
(a>0) that may be approximately calculated equating the opposing torques and are
equal to
1,2
6(1 / )
eff
K mgl θ ≈ ± − or in terms of reduced parameter
1,2
/ a b θ ≈ ± .
Adding an effective piezoelectric coupling term K
θ
V(t) that can be derived by
structural geometry (relations 2.35) of the piezoelectric bender [6, 65, 66], the
governing equations system are so expressed:
3
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) '( )
( ) ( ) ( )
p
p p p
t a t b t t K V t t
C V t K t I t
θ
θ
θ θ θ δθ ξ
θ
¦ = − − − +
¦
´
= −
¦
¹
ɺɺ ɺ
ɺ ɺ
(2.33)
Where I
p
is the current flowing in the equivalent circuit that could be assumed a
purely resistive parallel load impedance (figure 2.9b) so that I
p
(t)=V
p
/R
L
. Otherwise,
it could be used a more complex ACDC harvesting electronic circuit (i.e. rectifier
sketched in fig. 2.14) and with a more efficient current regulator system such as
SSDS Synchronous Switch Damping on Short[6].
Figure 2.14 – A typical ACDC harvesting circuit
R
out
C
e
V
c
Piezoelectric transducer
V
p
I
p
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
72
As it has been previously mentioned, the piezoelectric pendulum can be easily
implemented using a bimorph piezoelectric beam as shaft with a rigid steel or
tungsten mass attached to its tip. This is the configuration that we have chosen for
experimental setup which is outlined in figure 2.15.
Figure 2.15 – Basic design of the Inverted Piezoelectric Pendulum.
Choosing as more practical observable the structural deflection ‘x’ in the
configuration of figure 2.15 rather than ‘θ’, the dynamical coupled equations (2.33)
accordingly become the (2.34)
3
1
( ) ( ) 2 / * ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
eff
v
a eff b p
p
p c
L b
K
K
x t F x t K m x t F x t V t t
m m m
V t
V t K x t
R C
δ σ ξ
¦  
= − − + − + ⋅ ⋅
¦ 
¦ \ ¹
´
¦
= −
¦
¹
ɺɺ ɺ
ɺ
ɺ
(2.34)
where it has been considered that the ratio x/l
b
<<1, hence, from the Taylor series
expansion
1
tan ( / ) /
b b
x l x l θ
−
≈ ≈ truncated at first order.
The effective coefficients
related to material constants and particular structural geometry selected can be
derived making use of modal analysis, Euler beam equation piezoelectric linear
m
bimorph
piezobender
s
s
t
r
a
i
n
t
p
t
sh
l
m
l
b
m
deflection
x
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
73
theory. Some of them can be calculated or measured directly by an experimental
setup. Using the equations of piezoelectric linear theory 2.11 applied to piezo
cantilever modeling[61, 67] the electromechanical coupling constants are given by:
31
1
31 1
1
2
a)
2
b)
3( / 2 / 2)
c)
( )
4
d)
( / 2 / 2)(4 3 )
eff
v
p
E
p p
c
p
p h
b c b
p h b m
K d a
K
t k
t d Y k
K
a
t t
k
l l l
I
k
t t l l
ε
=
=
+
=
+
=
+ +
(2.35)
that are defined as
K
v
the first coupling term of the piezoelectrostatic restoring force K
v
V
p,
K
c
the second coupling term relating the voltagedisplacement ratio,
k
1
the average strain to vertical displacement S/x,
k
2
the input force to average induced stress ξ/σ
in
.
The parameters F
a
and F
b
of 2.34 are used to tuning the shape of elasticgravity
bistable potential and they depend in this case by the gravity acceleration g and
stiffness K
eff
. Moreover, d
31
, ε
p
, Y
E
p
and I are respectively dielectric displacement
coefficient, absolute dielectric constant, piezoelectric elastic modulus and composite
moment of inertia of the beam. While, the other are geometrical parameters showed
in fig. 2.15.
The choice of a bistable system as nonlinear system somehow simplifies the
implementation of experimental test, but it is not restrictive at all. As we will see
later, it could be possible to imagine oscillating systems which work in other kinds of
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
74
anharmonic potentials for our scope. For example, oscillators moving on a periodic
or complex multistable potential well are alternative systems that shall be
investigated.
2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 Bistable Bistable Bistable Bistable P PP Pie ie ie iezoelectric zoelectric zoelectric zoelectric beam beam beam beam in a in a in a in a repulsive repulsive repulsive repulsive
magnetic field magnetic field magnetic field magnetic field
Even though we chose a commercial material with an high mass density (i.e.
tungsten
74
110
W density 19 gr/cm
3
), below millimetric dimensions the gravity force
becomes negligible respect to the elastic restoring force of a piezocantilever.
Moreover, it is unpractical to constrain the orientation of a wireless sensor with its
energy harvesting generator along only the axis of gravity force. An alternative
bistable system feasible on both the macro and micro scale is an oscillator in a
constant magnetic field that creates the bistable potential. A magnetic force acting to
inertial mass on the beam end could be generated by a proper combination of
permanent magnets and/or coils. This force can be repulsive or attractive in order to
counteract or reinforce the restoring elastic force of the beam. In this way, we can
adjust the shape of the potential well passing from mono to bistable dynamics. In
figure 2.16 is represented a modified version of design in fig.2.15 that implements a
piezoelectric beam with permanents magnets.
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
75
Figure 2.16 –Piezoelectric inverted pendulum with permanent magnets
In the hypothesis of a relative distance ∆>>h
m
larger then the size of each magnet,
we can assume the interaction between two permanents magnets likewise of two
“point” magnetic dipoles. The force between two dipoles having the same magnetic
moments M and their axes aligned equals[68]
2 4
0
3 / 2
m r
F a M r µ π = ± (2.36)
where µ
0
is the magnetic permeability, r is the dipoledipole relative distance and a
r
is the unit radial coordinate vector. This supposition is not ever valid since it depends
by the specific configuration. For short distance, in facts, the magnetic force goes as
square of the distance. Nevertheless, the experimental test was resulted in better
agreement with 2.36 rather than the inverse square of distance law. Making another
permanents
magnets
l
m
l
b
m
∆
Y
X
ξ(t) excitation
Piezo bender
‘x
d
’ deflection
θ
M
2
M
1
a) b)
r
h
m
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
76
strong assumption that the deflection x
d
is small relative to the beam length l
b
, we can
consider the two dipole always aligned. In this case the tangential magnetic force can
be neglected, then, the radial component of the magnetic force sees by tip magnet M
1
projected along its cartesian coordinates results
0 1 2
2 2 5/ 2
3
2 ( )
m
M M x
F
x
µ
π
=
+ ∆
(2.37)
where the magnetic moment are considered in antiparallel configuration. So the
conservative energy of the system is expressed
( )
2 2 0 1 2
2 2 3/ 2
1
( , )
2 2 ( )
eff
M M
U x K x
x
µ
π
∆ = + ∆ +
+ ∆
(2.38)
Accordingly , the mass normalized governing equations of the system 2.39.
0 1 2
2 2 5/ 2
a) ( ) ( / ) ( ) 2 / * ( )
3 ( )
(1/ ) ( / ) ( ) (1/ ) ( )
2 ( ( ) )
( )
b) ( ) ( )
eff eff
v
c
L b
x t K m x t K m x t
M M x t
m K m V t m t
x t
V t
V t K x t
R C
δ
µ
σ ξ
π
¦
¦
= − − + ≈
¦
¦
≈ + ⋅ − + ⋅ ⋅
´
+ ∆
¦
¦
= −
¦
¹
ɺɺ ɺ
ɺ
ɺ
(2.39)
The dynamics and stability points of the system are now controlled by the relative
magnets distance ∆ that now plays the same role of the parameter a in Duffing
potential 2.27 as it can be seen from the plot 2.17. Adjusting this parameter the
system passes from quasilinear monostable to bistable behavior. For large ∆ the
system oscillates around the minimum located at zero displacement. When ∆ reaches
a critical value the potential well becomes flat, thus, the system remains monostable
but shows an anharmonic dynamics. After ∆ has overcomes this critical value, the
potential shows two minima separated by a rising barrier with the decreasing of ∆.
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
77
Figure 2.17 – Effective potential at different values of parameter ∆ ∆∆ ∆.
The position of two minima can be computed by differentiating the energy
expression (2.38) respect to x.
5
2 2
2
( , )
3 ( )
eff m
U x
K x xK x
x
−
∂ ∆
= − + ∆
∂
(2.40)
5 7 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2
( , )
3 ( ) 15 ( )
eff m m
U x
K K x K x x
x
− −
∂ ∆
= − + ∆ + + ∆
∂
(2.41)
with
2
0
/ 2
m
K M µ π = considering magnets with equals magnetic moments.
Expanding 2.38 in Taylor series around the x=0
2
0 0
2 3 5
( , ) (0, ) ' (1/ 2) '' ...
1
.. 3 ...
2
x x
eff m eff m
U x U U x U x
K K K K
= =
− −
∆ = ∆ + + + =
= ∆ + ∆ + − ∆ +
(2.42)
The condition whereby the point x=0 becomes maximum is
10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
x (a. u.)
U
(
x
)
∆ = 5
∆ = 7
∆ = 8
∆ = 10
∆ = 15
∆ = 20
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
78
1
5
5
3
3 0
m
eff m
eff
K
K K
K
−
 
− ∆ < ⇒ ∆ <


\ ¹
(2.43)
Setting
1/ 5
(3 / )
m eff
K K α = , when α ∆ > there is an absolute minimum and the
excited system must oscillates around it with frequency
( )
2 5
0
0
(1/ ) '' (1/ ) 3
eff m
x
m U m K K ω
−
=
= = − ∆ (2.44)
In the limit case for ∆ → ∞ the angular frequency becomes
2
0
/
eff
K m ω = namely the
classical resonant frequency for a linear harmonic oscillator.
For α ∆ < the potential has three different zeroes derived by the equation U’(x)=0,
and apart x=0, the others two are
( )
2/ 5
2
3 /
m m eff
x K K = ± − ∆ (2.45)
The barrier height is derived from the difference ∆U=U(0)U(x
m
) thus
3
5
2 3
1 5
2 2 3
eff
eff m m
m
K
U K K K
K
−
 
∆ = ∆ + ∆ −

\ ¹
(2.46)
Where for a decreasing ∆ the cubic term dominates the concurrent square term.
2.4.1 2.4.1 2.4.1 2.4.1 Energy balance Energy balance Energy balance Energy balance
Consider now the energy balance. Let 2.39a be multiplied by xɺ and 2.39b be
multiplied by
p
V . Integration of the addition of these two equations from time t
i
to t
f
gives the equation of the energy balance
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
79
2 2 2
2 2 5/ 2 2
1 1 1
2 2 2
( )
f
f f f
i i i
i
f f f
i i i
t
t t t
eff p p
t t t
t
t t t
m p p
t t t
xdt mx K x C V
K x x xdt x dt V I dt
σξ
η
−
= + + + ≈
≈ − + ∆ + +
∫
∫ ∫ ∫
ɺ ɺ
ɺ ɺ
(2.47)
where, considering a purely resistive load the electrical converted energy term is
2
2 2
1 1
2 2
f f f
f f
i i
i i i
t t t
t t
p
v p p p p p p p
t t
L t t t
V
K V xdt C V V I dt C V dt
R
= + = +
∫ ∫ ∫
ɺ (2.48)
and the last integral represents the electrical energy dissipated on pure resistive load
R
L
. The physical meaning of all terms in energy balance equation (2.47) is described
in the following table 2.5.
Expression Physical meaning
f
i
t
t
xdt σξ
∫
ɺ Input energy
2
1
2
f
i
t
t
mxɺ Kinetic energy
2
1
2
f
i
t
eff
t
K x Elastic energy
2 2 5/ 2
( )
f
i
t
m
t
K x x xdt
−
− + ∆
∫
ɺ Magnetic energy
2
f
i
t
t
x dt η
∫
ɺ Mechanical losses
2
1
2
f f
f
i
i i
t t
t
v p p p p p
t
t t
k V xdt C V V I dt = +
∫ ∫
ɺ Converted electrical energy
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
80
Table 2.5 – Energetic terms definitions
The relationships discussed here allow us to carry out an analytic interpretation of
important characteristics of the nonlinear oscillator: the frequency of oscillation, the
rate of the intrawell jump e the distribution P(x) of the position as a function of
noise strength. On the other hand, being the excitation a random force, the motion
equations become stochastic nonlinear differential equations that can be solved only
through numerical methods whose results will be exposed in the next section. The
energy balance and efficiency will be computed through numerical evaluation of the
time averaged integral of mechanical x and electrical V variables multiplied by the
velocity xɺ . As it be easily seen from the expression 2.46 and numerically computing
the discrete average value of the power terms in table 2.5, in order to evaluate the
enhancement of the electrical and mechanical energy, the important observables such
as transferred mechanical energy and electrical converted energy are essentially
related to the rootmeansquared value of x
rms
and V
rms
. These were numerically
simulated and in the next section will be shown and compared with experimental
results.
81
Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Chapter 3 Chapter 3
Numerical Analysis And Numerical Analysis And Numerical Analysis And Numerical Analysis And
Experimental Results Experimental Results Experimental Results Experimental Results
3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 Analysis of Analysis of Analysis of Analysis of B BB Bistable istable istable istable Stochastic Stochastic Stochastic Stochastic Oscillators Oscillators Oscillators Oscillators
3.1.1 3.1.1 3.1.1 3.1.1 Numerical Approach Numerical Approach Numerical Approach Numerical Approach
The nonlinear model of the piezoelectric generator in a Duffinglike potential,
presented in paragraph 2.3, is described by nonlinear stochastic Langevin equations
(2.33), since the oscillator was assumed to be driven by random excitation. In order
to solve such an equation system, it is necessary to recur to numerical integration
methods. In particular, we used the Euler−Maruyama method for discrete numerical
integration of stochastic differential equations [69]. Without giving a deeper insight
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
82
of this method, we want to describe now the statistical properties of the vibration
noise source, the equations used and the structural parameters of the prototype
model. A concise explanation of the numerical integration method is shown in
appendix A.1. Unlike the linear analysis of precedent works in which a vibration
source tuned to the natural frequency of the harvesting system was postulated, here
we have considered/examined a stochastic driving force like an exponentially
correlated Gaussian noise ECG. It can be defined as a stochastic process which
satisfies the following differential equation [70]
( ) 1
( )
e
e w
c
d t
g t
dt
ξ
ξ σ
τ
= − + (3.1)
where G
w
(t) is a Gaussian white noise with zero mean and δautocorrelation
( ) 0
( ) ( ') ( ')
w
w w
g t
g t g t t t δ
=
= −
(3.2)
and correlation time τ
c
. While the autocorrelation function of process ξ
e
is given by
2
( ) ( ') exp ' /
e e e c
t t t t ξ ξ ξ τ = − − (
¸ ¸
(3.3)
with
2 2
/ 2
e c
ξ σ τ = .
3.1.2 3.1.2 3.1.2 3.1.2 Simple Duffing Oscillator Simple Duffing Oscillator Simple Duffing Oscillator Simple Duffing Oscillator
First of all, we want to study the phenomenology of the simple noncoupled
inverted pendulum; therefore, we can start from the noncoupled prototype Duffing
equation (2.31) in the onedimensional variable x, where we assumed m=1
3
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( ) x t ax t bx t x t γ σξ = − − + ɺɺ ɺ (3.4)
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
83
In order to perform a numerical integration, we must discretize in time this nonlinear
stochastic differential equation SDE. Let the time interval
  0,T be divided by
points t
j
for j=1,.., with positive integer and ( / )
j
t j T j t = = ∆ , and, let the
above second order SDE be turned into a system of two first order differential
equations
3
2 1 1 2
1 2
2 X aX bX X
X X
γ σξ ¦ = − − +
¦
´
=
¦
¹
ɺ
ɺ
(3.5)
where
1 2
, X x X x = = ɺ . As integral forms this equations system becomes
0 0
0
3
2 2 0 1 1 2
1 1 0 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
t t
t t
t
t
X t X t aX s bX s X s ds s dW s
X t X t X s ds
γ σξ
¦
( = + − − +
¦
¸ ¸
¦
´
¦
= +
¦
¹
∫ ∫
∫
(3.6)
Adopting the EulerMaruyama method (A.11), we are now able to rewrite it in terms
of discrete equations for two contiguous time steps t
i
, t
i+1
3
2 1 2 1 1 2
1 1 1 2
( ) ( ) [ ( ) ( ) 2 ( )] ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
i i i i i i i
i i i
X t X t aX t bX t X t t t W
X t X t X t t
γ σξ
+
+
¦ = + − − ∆ + ∆
¦
´
= + ∆
¦
¹
(3.7)
This equation system can be easily numerically computed by means of a simple
code. A proper time step ∆t has been chosen sufficiently small to prevent the
summation from diverging at the end point t=T since from (A.12) the error results
1/ 2
: ( )
strong
t
e X X T C t
∆
= Ε − ≤ ∆ . Furthermore, we accounted for a sampling error that
decreases as 1/ , taking a sufficiently large number of samples . Instead, we
neglected the inherent errors in the random number generator and the floating point
roundoff errors.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
84
Digital simulation programs shown in A.2 were realized in MATHLAB
®
code.
This choice for code language was made for various reasons: the ease of use, the
possibility to run the simulation on parallel architecture and the abundant
mathematics tools for signal analysis, random generators function and flexible
plotting procedures.
(The) listing 1 in the file wise_duffing.m (A.2) is structured as a function with the
following sections:
1. Declaration of constants
2. Generation of exponentially correlated Gaussian noise
3. Initialization and integration of nonlinear SDE system
4. Plotting
5. Saving
The input parameters of the function: T, damp, Fa, Fb, sigma, tau represent
respectively the time interval, the damping coefficient, quartic potential parameters
(a, b), noise intensity and autocorrelation time of the exponentially correlated
Gaussian noise. Keeping fixed parameter b of the quartic well and varying a, we
examined the dynamics of the Duffing oscillator for different potential shapes and
noise strength σ. The parameters used for the first test are listed in table 3.1.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
85
Parameter Value
σ [0.025,1] with step 0.025
γ 0.05
m 1 [Kg]
T 100500 [s]
∆t 10
4
[s]
τ 0.1 [s]
a [1,1] with step 0.025
b 1
Table 3.1 –Parameters for Duffing model.
Some realizations of simulated displacement x versus time are shown for a
negative coefficient ‘a’ in fig. 3.1 and for its positive values in fig. 3.2. It is obvious
that the quartic well is similar to the parabolic one (fig. 2.12) while a<0, therefore,
the oscillator behaves like a linear springmass damped system and most of the noise
power is located near its resonance frequency.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
86
Figure 3.1 – Displacement [m] Vs. Time at noise magnitude σ σσ σ=0.1, γ γγ γ=0.05 and a<0.
The well base becomes even more flattened as the ‘nonlinear’ parameter ‘a’
approaches to zero. According to the relation (2.44), The first vibration mode
presents a pulsation ω
0
proportional to a , that is
2
0
0
(1/ ) '' (1/ )
x
m U m a ω
=
= = − . It
is worth stressing that passing from quasiharmonic to nonharmonic potential, the
oscillation amplitude enhances, even keeping constant the intensity of excitation
force. In the case of simple inverted physical pendulum as a Duffing oscillator,
parameter a is derived from the moment of inertia and the effective elastic constant
(2.32); thus, if we want to vary only this parameter taking b fixed, it is sufficient to
change the effective elastic constant of the oscillator.
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
1
0
1
time [sec]
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
1
0
1
time [sec]
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
1
0
1
time [sec]
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
1
0
1
time [sec]
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
a=0.05
a = 1
a =0.5
a=0.25
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
87
Figure 3.2  Displacement Vs. Time at noise magnitude σ σσ σ=0.1, γ γγ γ=0.05 and a>0.
Displacement traces for positive values of a shown in fig. 3.2 give reason of the
origin of two equilibrium positions at / x a b
±
= separated by a barrier with height
equal to
2
/ 4 a b. Therefore, the monostable oscillation around zero is substituted by
intrawell jumps between the two minima. These jumps occur with even more low
frequency as the barrier height increases. Indeed, when the potential barrier grows,
the jump probability decreases exponentially according to Kramer’s escape rate [71]
given by
2
min max
(1/ 2 ) ''( ) ''( ) exp( / )
jump c
P U x U x U π σ τ
±
= −∆ (3.8)
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
1
0
1
time [sec]
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
2
0
2
time [sec]
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
2
0
2
time [sec]
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
2
0
2
time [sec]
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
a = 1
a = 0.05
a = 0.25
a = 0.5
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
88
where σ and τ
c
are respectively the intensity and the autocorrelation time of the
excitation noise. After that, a critical value of barrier height has been crossed, the
system is constrained to oscillate mostly around one of the local minima with very
rare jumps. The variance of the random variable x accounts for the average
magnitude of vibrations around its mean value along a time series and it is given by
2
2 2 2 2
x rms
T
T
x x x x σ = − = − (3.9)
This is an important quantity for analyzing the dynamics and energy balance, as we
will see later. The experimentally measured value of the variance (or rms if we have
zero mean) is thus affected by the measurement time. If the measurement time is
long enough, compared to the inverse of Kramer’s rate, then the measured rms
coincides with the rms of the equilibrium process. On the contrary, if the
measurement time is significantly shorter than the inverse of Kramer’s rate, the
system is confined around one local minima and thus a lower rms is measured.
Figure 3.3 below contains the measured standard deviation STD(x)=σ
x
versus a at
different values of noise intensity. Each value is calculated over a realization of x
series of
4 6
/ 500/10 5 10 T t
−
= ∆ = = ⋅ samples for 100 values of a. We must point
out that the time step ∆t affects in a crucial way the numerical convergence of the
solution of the SDE. Taking a sufficient small integration step size ∆t is one of the
key things for ensuring precision of the EulerMaruyama approximation to equation
(3.4), but at the same time it is necessary to find a trade off with the computing time.
Indeed, this one can grow as a polynomial function of matrix size.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
89
Figure 3.3  Standard deviation in arbitrary units of displacement as a function of ‘a’ ,
b=1 fixed and noise strength σ σσ σ = 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 .
This plot shows clearly the dynamical behavior discussed above. Three distinct
regimes can be identified:
1) a << 0. The potential is monostable and the dynamics is characterized by
quasilinear oscillations around the minimum located at x=0. There is a slight
growing of the vibration amplitude when passing from the quasilinear to the
flattened potential for a d 0.
2) a > 0. A raising peak in the nonlinear region around zero where the dynamics
is characterized by frequent jumps between the forming two wells.
3) a >> 0. The potential is bistable with a very pronounced barrier between the
two wells. There is an abrupt drop due to an insurmountable potential barrier
∆U over a critical value of a. The dynamics is mainly trapped inside one
minimum. As we have stated before, this depends on the length of the finite
1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
a
S
T
D
(
x
)
σ = 0.025
σ = 0.05
σ = 0.075
σ = 0.1
quasilinear region
nonlinear region
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
90
time series on which we measure the rms. In fact, for an infinite time interval,
the jumps between the two minima would not terminate and the variance
would grow indefinitely. Such a behavior could be seen as a high pass
filtering effect, indeed, the low frequencies are primarily generated by intra
well jumps in the bistability regime.
Figures 3.4 and 3.5 show the x standard deviation Vs parameter a and
excitation noise variance σ
2
.
Figure 3.4 – STD(x) versus ‘a’ and square of noise strength σ σσ σ=[0.05,0.2]
b =1 and autocorrelation time τ ττ τ
c
=0.1[s].
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
91
Figure 3.5 – Top view. The solid black line traces the fitting curve
2
3 a σ = from
theoretical prediction of the maximum shift.
The top view of the 3D plot 3.4 clearly shows the evolution of the maximum σ
x
. The
solid line is a theoretical prediction obtained with the following argument. The root
of the variance of x in regime 3 can be roughly modelled as governed by two main
contributions: i) the raising, mainly due to the growth of the separation between the
two minima; ii) the drop, mainly due to the decrease in the jump probability
measured by the crossing probability defined in (3.13), caused by the increase of the
potential barrier height ∆U. The solid black line remarks the dependence of the
maximum from parameters a and σ whose form is explained in the next theoretical
analysis. Since in a purely open circuit case the output voltage V
p
of a Duffing
piezoelectric oscillator is directly proportional to displacement x, as shown by the
equations (2.33) and (2.34), the larger the standard deviation ( )
x
STD x σ = is, the
larger average extracted voltage V
p
is. Indeed, for the open circuit case we get
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
92
2
2
2 2 2 2
p
p p
V p p x
p p
K K
V V x x
C C
σ σ
(
= − = − =
¸ ¸
(3.10)
The remarkable result shown by fig. 3.23.33.4 is that the vibration magnitude in
nonlinear region is six times larger than that in a linear region for some value of
noise amplitude. The increasing of the average mechanical and converted electrical
power output will follow the same trend since they are proportional to the root mean
square of the displacement and electric potential. These results will be discussed in
details in the next paragraphs.
3.1.3 3.1.3 3.1.3 3.1.3 Theoretical Considerations Theoretical Considerations Theoretical Considerations Theoretical Considerations
An attempt of theoretical interpretation of the curve in fig. 3.2 and 3.3 could be
made starting from qualitative considerations and statistical properties of the bistable
system under observation. First of all, since it is simulated and measured in a finite
time interval, we cannot consider a stationary state persisting for an infinite time.
Therefore, the rate of intrawell jumps in a bistable regime depends on the rate
between Kramer’s time and the total interval of time ∆T over which the dynamics is
generated. For a<<0 we identify quasilinear behavior or RMS of x that can be easily
characterized; for a>>0 we are in an entrapment region of x around one of the two
minima and even in this case the dynamics is quite similar to that of a linear
oscillator oscillating close to its stable equilibrium position. Instead, for the intra
well jumping region at positive a not far from zero, the interpretation appears more
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
93
complex. So we can try to approximate the variance σ
x
using the root mean square of
the state variable x for a stationary bistable system[71, 72] driven by a additive
random noise, multiplied by Kramer’s jump rate (3.8). The approach is the
following.
Let the variance be
2 2
2 2 2
; x rms st
st
x x x x σ = − = − (3.11)
The rms value of variable x in stationary case corresponds to
2
2 2
;
( )
( )
st
rms st
st
st
x P x dx
x x
P x dx
∞
−∞
∞
−∞
= =
∫
∫
(3.12)
and the stationary probability distribution is given by
2 2 4
0 0 2
1
( ) exp( ( ) / ) exp
2 4
st c
c
a b
P x U x x x
ξ
ξ
σ τ
σ τ
(
 
= − = −
(

\ ¹
(
¸ ¸
(3.13)
with
0
as a normalization constant. Assuming positive values for a,b,
2
c ξ
σ τ and
computing the integral (3.12), we get a function of a,b,
2
c ξ
σ τ as a combination of
modified Bessel functions I
n
(r) of the first kind:
3 1 1 3
2 4 4 4 4
1 1
4 4
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
st
I I I I
x
I r I r
r r r r
a
b
− −
−
+ + +
=
+
(3.14)
with r expressed by
2
2 2
1 1
2 2 2
c c
a U
r
b
ξ ξ
σ τ σ τ
∆
= = (3.15)
which represents the half ratio between barrier height and noise strength.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
94
The relation (3.14) is a positive monotonic function in variable a proportional to
the square position of the minimum
2
/ x a b
±
= , keeping the other parameters fixed.
To make qualitative considerations we equate
2 2
rms
x x
±
≈ as a first approximation.
Moreover, by virtue of the arguments discussed above, we can consider the squared
mean of x as the product between the complementary Kramer’s jump probability
P
jump
and
2
x
±
, because, as the intrawell jumps decrease, the oscillations will happen
even more around one of the two local minima. Otherwise, this mean will be null for
the symmetry of the potential.
2
2
(1 )
jump
T
x P x
±
( ≈ −
¸ ¸
(3.16)
In this way, the equation (3.11) becomes equal to
2
2 2 2 2 2
;
(1 ) ( )
x rms st jump jump
x x x P x P x σ
± ± ±
( = − ≈ − − = ⋅
¸ ¸
(3.17)
and, computing the jump probability times
2
x
±
for the Duffing potential, it results
2
2 2
2
1
exp
4
x jump
c
a a
x P
b b
ξ
σ
σ τ
±
(
 
≈ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅
(

( \ ¹
¸ ¸
(3.18)
where is a constant that can be properly chosen in order to fit the numerically
simulated curve
2
( ; , , )
x c
f a b
ξ
σ σ τ = .
For the sake of identifying the dependence of the maximum position, we compute
the partial derivative of σ
x
with respect to a,
2 2
2
0,
1 1
0
2 2
c c
x
U U
c
a
a a
e e
b b ab
ξ ξ
σ τ σ τ
ξ
σ
σ τ
∆ ∆
− −
∂
=
∂
 
+ − =


\ ¹
(3.19)
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
95
obtaining that σ
x
reaches a maximum when
2
c
a b
ξ
σ τ = (3.20)
for a given noise intensity.
As it can be seen from the solid line in figure 3.5, the theoretical prediction
obtained by this formula is in good agreement with the numerical calculus.
3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 Piezoelectric Piezoelectric Piezoelectric Piezoelectric Duffing Duffing Duffing Duffing G GG Generator enerator enerator enerator
So far, we have discussed some important features of the nonlinear dynamics of a
bistable system our idea is based on. This model, anyway, does not yet incorporate
mechanicalintoelectrical conversion terms. Right now, we want to examine a
generic Piezoelectric Duffing Generator (PDG) whose equivalent electrical circuit is
the same designed in fig. 2.9; so, we have to simulate the two coupled equations
(2.34) with coefficient relationships (2.35) in the case of a pure resistive load. The
model geometry is the same exposed in figure 2.15. The governing equations are
really those of a simple inverted pendulum shaken by a vibrating force at clamping
base containing the Duffing term
3
/ ( )
a b
k m F x F x − responsible to control the
bistability.
Note that in the case of the inverted pendulum this term arises from the gravity
force applied on the mass, therefore, the coefficients F
a
and F
b
are function of mass
and moment of inertia, hence, they are not uncoupled. It is not possible to vary these
parameters independently, and most of all a subcentimeter inverted pendulum is
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
96
unpractical to use. Nevertheless, apart from the gravity, an other conservative force
directed toward the clamping base can reproduce the repulsive effect that
counterbalances the elastic restoring force. This mechanism can be realized by using,
for example, elastic spring, electrical or magnetic field. Thus, for now, in order to
study the dynamical and electrical behavior more generically, we have opportunely
chosen these parameters of a simulated mathematical model to change the bistability
of the Duffing potential and observe displacement and output voltage.
Using a dimensionless form of such an equations system makes the numerical
simulation much easier. After a little algebra, we can express the new form with
reduced coefficients:
2
3
2
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
d x t dx t
ax t bx t V t t
dt
dt
dV t dx t
V t
dt dt
ζ σξ
¦
= − − −Θ +
¦
¦
´
¦
= Θ −Ω
¦
¹
ɶ
ɶ
ɶ ɶ
ɶ ɶ ɶ
ɶ ɶ ɶ ɶ
ɶ ɶ
ɶ ɶ
ɶ
ɶ ɶ
ɶ
ɶ
ɶ
ɶ ɶ
(3.21)
where all variables , , x V t
ɶ
ɶ
ɶ and parameters are dimensionless.
To achieve this form we made the choice of the following unknowns
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
/
t t
t
x t t
x t
x
V t t
V t
V
t t t
ξ
ξ
ξ
⋅
=
⋅
=
⋅
=
=
ɶ
ɶ
ɶ
ɶ
ɶ
ɶ
ɶ
ɶ
ɶ
ɶ
(3.22)
With following reduced parameters
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
97
2
0
0
/
/
1
6
con
2
/
v
c
a
b
v c
C
L p L P C
t m K
K m x
K x
V K K
a F
F
b b
b x
K K
K
t m K
R C R C
ξ
ζ ζ
τ ω
τ ω
=
= ⋅
=
= −
= =
=
Θ =
Ω = = = =
ɶ
(3.23)
where Ω represents the ratio between the piezoelectric cutoff frequency
c
ω and
the natural frequency at short circuit
0
/ K m ω = in the limit of linear oscillator that
is for a=1 and b=0. This influences the electrical power dissipated on load. So, Ω is
the dimensionless cutoff frequency of the equivalent piezoelectric circuit. Actually,
the piezoelectric element works as an high pass filter and, as it will be shown next,
the bistability pushes the power absorption from noise towards low frequencies.
Likewise, for dimensional equation, if the piezoelectric cutoff frequency
c
ω is
relatively high, for a high bistability it brings a loss of electrical power transferred to
the resistive load, because most of it is filtered lying at a bandwidth under
c
ω .
Moreover, the opencircuit situation corresponds to the limit case of 0 Ω = , that is
the situation of infinite load resistance for real model or infinite capacitance and the
electric voltage V
ɶ
is directly proportional to displacement xɶ . The other important
piezoelectric coefficient Θ regulates the mechanicaltoelectrical conversion
strength and derives from the electrical and geometrical piezobender characteristics.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
98
In order to evaluate the power balance, starting from dimensional governing
equations (2.34), where the first is multiplied by mass and velocity and the second
one by the electrical potential, then, using the set (3.23) we obtain the following
dimensionless average power formulas listed in the table 3.2 below.
Power expression Description
1
v
in
c p
K dx
P
K C dt
σξ = ⋅
Ω
ɶ
ɶ ɶ
ɶ
Average Input Power
2
el
P V =
ɶ ɶ
Average Electrical power
dissipated on resistive load
2
1
v
loss
c p
K dx
P
K C dt
ζ
 
=

Ω
\ ¹
ɶ
ɶ ɶ
ɶ
Average power dissipated by
mechanical friction
m in loss el
P P P P = − −
ɶ ɶ ɶ ɶ
Average total mechanical power
(potential plus kinetic)
Table 3.2 – ormalized power expressions.
The resulting mean power terms and efficiency are simulated for a set of plausible
parameters listed in table 3.3. Simulations were made simultaneously running many
time series for equal and/or different parameter space on a 20nodes computer
cluster. Then, averaging the statistical observables of the same constants and
parameters series.
Dimensionless Value Description
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
99
parameters
σ 0.01– 0.2 step 0.0025 noise strength
t
ɶ
0 – 2000 step 0.001
normalized time
ζ
ɶ
0.02 – 0.4
damping
a (1,1) step 0.01 potential parameter
b 1 potential parameter
Ω
0.011–1 dimensionless cutoff frequency
Θ 0.336
coupling coefficient
Physical parameters Value Description
τ
ξ
0.1 [s] noise autocorr. time
K
eff
1.16 – 26.6 [N/m] effective elastic constant
t
p
, t
sh
0.278e3 , 0.2e3 [m] geometrical thicknesses
lb, le, lc,
lm,Wb
200e3, 60e3, 10e3,
140e3, 4e3 [m]
geometrical dimensions
m 0.0182 [Kg] effective inertial mass
f
0
1.27 – 6.67 [Hz] natural frequency
C
p
1.10x10
7
[F] piezoel. capacitance
R
L
1100 [Mohm] load resistance
τ
c
=R
L
C
p
11 [s] discharge time
d
31
190x10
12
[ m/V]
longitudinal piezoelectric strain
coefficient
(material PSI5A4E Lead
Zirconate Titanate)
ε
p
1800 elative dielectric permittivity
K
v
1.85 [N/V] coupling coefficient
K
c
1.859x10
3
[V/m] coupling coefficient
Table 3.3 – Model parameters
The dimensionless electromechanical coupling coefficients Ω and Θ were
derived from a realistic set of physical parameters (table 3.3) of a physical
macroscopic model similar to our prototype test model (exposed in the next
paragraph), but these can be varied in order to investigate many different geometry
and material properties. Let us give a glance of some displacement and voltage
simulated outlines that show in time domain the dependency between them as a
function of bistability parameter ‘a’ and, in particular by Ω.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
100
Figure 3.6 – Displacement and voltage traces of PDG model with Ω=0.014
for linear case (upper) a= 1, and strong nonlinear (lower) a=0.8, ζ
ɶ
=0.1, σ =0.2.
Note that at equal noise intensity the bistable regime shows an amplified
oscillation due to the mix of intrawell jump and vibration close to each local
minimum. Unless a little discharge effect, the voltage trace follows with almost
direct proportionality the displacement of the bender. This result is quite obvious
considering the second linear equation (3.21), because, a relative cutoff frequency
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
normalized time
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
normalized time
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
a = 1
a = 1
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
2
1
0
1
2
normalized time
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
normalized time
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
a = 0.8
a = 0.8
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
101
value of Ω∼1 means that the converted electrical energy residing at lower
frequencies is swept out by the piezoelectric high pass filter.
Figure 3.7  Displacement and voltage traces
with Ω=1.13, bistable parameter a=0.4, ζ
ɶ
=0.1 and σ =0.1.
This high pass filtering effect is straightway visible in figure 3.7, where a
frequency
0
/ 1
c
ω ω Ω = > was chosen and, jumps apart, the voltage bistability
completely disappears. Even more clearly, the following plots 3.8 and 3.9 remark a
strong dependence of the harvested electrical power on the cutoff frequency. As it
can be seen from these figures, while the position variance does not experience an
important variation as a function of Ω, the rootmeansquare normalized voltage
strongly depends by it. In fact, for Ω<<1 the power peak in the bistability region
(a>0) is maximized like that of variance, whereas, for even more Ω~1 close to one,
it drops and there is no difference in harvesting efficiency between the linear and
nonlinear dynamics cause to power filtering.
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
2
0
2
normalized time
n
o
r
m
.
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
0.2
0
0.2
normalized time
n
o
r
m
.
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
a = 0.4
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
102
Figure 3.8  Displacement variance for different
parameter Ω and with ζ
ɶ
=0.1 and σ =0.1.
Figure 3.9 –Mean electrical power computed as RMS normalized voltage (see tab. 3.2)
at different ratios Ω and for ζ
ɶ
=0.1 and σ =0.1.
1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
a
<
x
2
>

<
x
>
2
Ω = 0.01
Ω = 0.1
Ω = 0.5
Ω = 1
1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.035
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
P
o
w
e
r
Ω = 0.01
Ω = 0.1
Ω = 0.5
Ω = 1
a
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
103
Figure 3.10 – ormalized conversion efficiency
at different ratios Ω and for ζ
ɶ
=0.1 and σ =0.1.
So, in order to utilize this voltage amplification effect in real applications, it is
highly desirable to project the piezoelectric device and harvesting circuit with an
1 Ω << as low as possible. Also the noise spectrum and, therefore, its autocorrelation
time is an important parameter to know. Indeed, the lowest
ξ
τ is, the more noise
energy lies at high frequencies, probably far away from the cutoff frequency for a
certain design. This second optimization condition can be defined for dimensional
equation as 1/
c c ξ ξ
ω τ ω ω << ⇒ << . But relating the dynamical response of such a
bistable system to this parameter together with noise strength
ξ
σ is quite complex
and needs to be further investigated. Actually, the probability of diffusion over the
intrawell barrier depends on the product
2
ξ ξ
σ τ and we must bear in mind that the
system is not linear, so that its behavior changes with the noise strength. As it was
1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
a
E
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
c
y
Ω = 0.01
Ω = 0.1
Ω = 0.5
Ω =1
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
104
seen in the previous paragraph 3.1, the position variance
2
2
x x −
of a bistable
system increases as much as the intraminima distance
2
/ 4 U a b ∆ = while the noise
strength and autocorrelation time make possible the diffusion over the potential
barrier. This constrain corresponds to having
2
/ 1 U
ξ
σ τ ∆ > . The broadening of RMS
displacement x for a bistable system is a well known phenomenon, but looking at the
next plots 3.103.11 it is remarkable how much the harvested electrical power gets
advantage from it.
Figure 3.11 – Variance of normalized displacement Vs a,
with Ω=0.014 and ζ
ɶ
=0.1.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
105
Figure 3.12 – ormalized electrical power
dissipated by resistive load.
Figure 3.13 – ormalized conversion efficiency
given by electrical power over noise input power.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
106
It is noticeable that, for a fixed noise intensity
2
σ , bistable sector (a>0) shows up
an enhancement around a factor fivesix of the harvested power with respect to the
monostable zone (a<<0). In terms of conversion efficiency (fig. 3.12) defined as the
ratio between electrical power dissipated on load and input power supplied by the
mechanical noise (as described in table 3.2), we have the same amplification in
nonlinear zone. In this plot it is better visible that the peak shifts as the square root of
2
σ on the plane (
2
σ ;a) just like the relationship (3.20) predicts.
Figure 3.14 – Efficiency (top view of plot 3.12).
A spectral analysis helps us to confirm what we have so far stated and permits to
retrieve much information about generated power as a function of normalized
frequency for different potential shape. At a fixed RMS of the Gaussian noise σ =0.1
and b=1, varying the potential parameter 1<a<1, we performed the spectra of
normalized position and voltage by means of an FFT algorithm, respectively plotted
in figure 3.15 and 3.16. When a=1, the conservative potential is paraboliclike and
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
107
for small vibration close to equilibrium the oscillator behaves like a linear harmonic
oscillator. As the potential well becomes even more flattened as a∼0 approaches to
zero, the peak of resonance moves toward low frequencies and widens.
Figure 3.15  SingleSided Amplitude Spectrum of ( ) x t
ɶ
ɶ Vs a and
normalized frequency 1/ t ω =
ɶ
ɶ (3D and top view).
Figure 3.16  SingleSided Amplitude Spectrum of ( ) V t
ɶ
ɶ
Vs a and
normalized frequency 1/ t ω =
ɶ
ɶ (3D and top view).
In the range of bistability (a>0), until the barrier height is relatively small, the
intrawell jumps are frequent and we get a broadening of the power peak down to
very low frequency in both position amplitude and voltage. As a consequence within
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
108
a frequency band ω ∆ ɶ the mean converted electrical power increases being equal to
the integral of square voltage amplitude
2
( ) ( )
el
P V d
ω
ω ω ω
∆
∆ =
∫
ɶ
ɶ
ɶ ɶ ɶ . This is directly
reconfirmed by the previous graphs 3.1214 where the average power was computed
in time domain. The entrapment of the system within one of the two potential
minima roughly happens for a≥0.5 and depends on the choice of factor
2
ξ
σ τ as we
have previously mentioned. After that, increasing a the two wells become even more
narrow, the system restarts to become harmoniclike and the amplitude peaks of
displacement and voltage shift toward higher frequency. Thus, the harvested power
quickly goes down as the subtended area becomes even more narrow.
Up to now, we have discussed many aspects of a Duffing model used in
conjunction with a piezoelectric transducer to show the effectiveness of the key idea
on improving the energy harvesting from vibrations. But, by virtue of theoretical and
practical considerations made at the beginning of this chapter, a piezoelectric bender
in an elastomagnetic tunable potential is a better way to implement a bistable
system. Let us discuss the experimental observations of such a model compared with
the simulations in the next paragraph.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
109
3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 Piezoelectric Inverted Pendulum Piezoelectric Inverted Pendulum Piezoelectric Inverted Pendulum Piezoelectric Inverted Pendulum in a in a in a in a
Magnetic Field Magnetic Field Magnetic Field Magnetic Field
As previously mentioned, one of the simplest technique to implement bistable
piezoelectric device for energy harvesting is using a piezoelectric beam with a
magnetic tip coupled with magnetic coil or permanent magnet placed at a certain
distance. Setting properly the magnetic dipole alignment and the distance or field
intensity, we can reproduce monostable or bistable dynamics through a repulsive
force. The physical model has been exposed in paragraph 2.4 and the geometry is the
same drawn in picture 2.16. The choice of a vertical pendulum configuration was
made to reduce at the minimum the influence of the gravity force on inertial mass
avoiding asymmetry. As a matter of fact, the bistability is yielded by magnetic
interaction rather than gravity which can be neglected in this case (the inertial mass
attached to piezobender is relatively small). Moreover, we have the great advantage
as regards to Duffing oscillator to be able to control only one parameter (for example
the relative distance between magnets) to tune the potential and regulate the
nonlinear dynamics. In addition, this is an easytorealize design that can work at
small scale yet. Indeed, at submillimetric size and small masses, the gravity force is
negligible and the device orientation does not constitute a problem.
Now, we’re going to describe the real macroscopic model used for the
experimental tests, the experimental setup and the comparison of numerical and
experimental results.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
110
3.3.1 3.3.1 3.3.1 3.3.1 Experimental Setup Experimental Setup Experimental Setup Experimental Setup and and and and Characterization Characterization Characterization Characterization
The following picture shows a schematic draw of the apparatus employed in the
experiment. Here are described the piezoelectric bender, the excitation system and
read out electronics.
Figure 3.17 – Experimental apparatus.
The inverted pendulum is realized with a fourlayer piezoelectric beam (mod.
T434A4302 4Layer Bender by Piezo system inc.) made of Lead Zirconate Titanate
xy micrometric stage
NI DAQ 16bit
LabView sw
clamping
reading displ. x
r
CCD Laser
displacement sensor
excitation coils
Vout  Piezoelectric
4 layers piezoelectric
micrometric xyz base
Power supply
excitation magnets
Ch1 displ.
“x”
Ch2 Vout
across RL
Ch3 noise
Low noise
filter
RL Load variable resistance
tip magnets
∆
beam
defl. x
x
m
tip displ.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
111
(PSI5A4E) 40 mm long, clamped at one end. The pendulum base position can be
adjusted via a micrometric xyz displacement system. The pendulum mass is a 60mm
long steel beam with three magnets (dipole magnetic moment M=0.051±0.002 Am
2
)
attached. The tip magnet is faced by a similar magnet with inverse polarities placed
at a distance ∆ and held in place by a massive structure. The distance ∆ can be
adjusted via a micrometric displacement control system.
a)
b)
Figure 3.18 – Photos of experimental setup.
a) global view. b) excitation coils.
The displacement is measured via an optical readout with a CCDLaser
displacement sensor (KEYENCE model LK501/503) with sensitivity of
1mV/10micron. The signal from the displacement sensor is sampled by a digital
signal processing board (DSPB) controlled by a personal computer with sampling
frequency 1Mhz (National Instruments interface DAQ). The output voltage signal
from the piezobender is measured through terminals of a variable load resistor R
L
placed in parallel with output contact of beam and sampled by the DSPB. The
digitalized signals are stored in the computer memory for postprocessing
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
112
elaboration. The DSPB is also employed to drive a current generator that produces,
through a couple of coils, the magnetic excitation that mimics the ground vibration.
The signal generated by the DSPB is filtered and conditioned in order to reproduce
the desired statistical properties. The design parameters of the test model are
displayed in table 3.4.
oise parameters Value Description Source
σ 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 [mN] RMS noise effective force Calculated by fitting
τ
ξ
0.1 [s] noise autocorr. Time set
f
s
1 [MHz] sampling frequency set
ζ 0.016 ±0.002
Loss factor measured
Model parameters Value Description
K
eff
26.6±0.5 [N/m]
effective elastic constant measured
f
0
6.6±0.1 [Hz]
(6.58±0.05 FEA)
first mode frequency measured and FEA
m 0.0155 [Kg] effective inertial mass modal analysis
t
p
, t
sh
0.278e3 , 0.2e3
[m]
geometrical thicknesses specific properties
lb, le, lc,
72.4e3, 60e3,
12.9e3 [m]
geometrical dimensions specific properties
lm,Wb 143e3, 4e3 [m] geometrical dimensions specific properties
S
1
=lx
r
/lb 2.32 geometrical scale factor calculated
S
2
=(lm+lb)/lb 2.97 geometrical scale factor calculated
M
0.051±0.002
[Am
2
]
magnetic moment measured
C
p
1.10x10
7
[F] piezoel. Capacitance specific properties
R
L
1100 [Mohm] load resistance set
τ
c
=R
L
C
p
1.411 [s] discharge time set
d
31
190x10
12
[ m/V]
longitudinal piezoelectric
strain coefficient
(material PSI5A4E Lead
Zirconate Titanate)
specific properties
ε
p
1800
elative dielectric
permittivity
specific properties
k
31
0.33 coupling coefficient specific properties
K
v
1.85 [N/V] coupling coefficient Calculated
K
c
1.859x10
3
[V/m] coupling coefficient Calculated
Table 3.4 – Test model parameters
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
113
Some of them are derived from the relations (2.35) and modal analysis, others
from the technical data of the piezoelectric material and by measurements. The
damping factor ζ has been extracted from averaging a series of ring down
measurements carried out at open circuit. Figure 3.16 shows a sample of fitted ring
down of RMS voltage referred to displacement channel.
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
0,0
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1,0
Data: QFACTOR_B
Model: ExpDec1
Chi^2/DoF = 0.00055
R^2 = 0.99155
y0 0 ±0
A1 0.8543 ±0.02275
t1 1.46707 ±0.07524
r
m
s
(
v
o
l
t
)
Time (s)
Ring down
Fit
ζ= 1/ω
0
τ = 0,016
f
0
= 6,67 Hz
25 30 35 40 45 50 55
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Fit ω
2
=k(1/m) k=27,09 (err 0,8)
ω
2
(
s

1
)
1/m (Kg
1
)
Figure 3.19 – (Upper) Ring down sample of RMS voltage of
displacement channel at open circuit. (Lower) Fitted elastic constant.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
114
The effective elastic constant and mass was retrieved by modal analysis, that is
varying the inertial mass attached to the piezobender and measuring the variation of
first mode natural frequency.
3.3.2 3.3.2 3.3.2 3.3.2 Finite Element Analysis Finite Element Analysis Finite Element Analysis Finite Element Analysis
The dynamical behavior of the real model and powering speculations are
supported by finite element analysis carried out both on magnetic force interaction
and global piezomechanics features of the prototype using COMSOL multiphysics.
Since it is quite complex to derive an exact analytical expression to describe all
the magnetic forces between two real permanent magnets in relative motion at
different configuration and angles, we first computed the axial repulsive force with
2D finite element analysis of the magnetostatic field and then searched a suitable
fitting function.
0,000 0,005 0,010 0,015 0,020 0,025
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Data: Br33dic2_B
Model: magnetic_force
Equation: 6e7*(P1^2)/abs((P2+x))^P3
Weighting:
y No weighting
Chi^2/DoF = 13.94691
R^2 = 0.91776
P1 0.05 ±0
P2 0.00562 ±0.00038
P3 4.83888 ±0.0531
f
o
r
c
e
(
N
)
∆ (m)
Figure 3.20  (left) FEM of magnetic flux density.
(right) Repulsive axial force between magnets computed by FEA and
fitted by the relation (2.37).
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
115
Figure 3.20 on the left shows the magnetic field flux streamline and intensity in
air domain computed via finite element modelling for one of the many
configurations, whereas on the right it shows the fitting of repulsive force data along
the vertical axis for magnets with aligned dipoles using the relation (2.37). We must
specify that this analytical relation is valid for magnetic force between two aligned
dipoles at relative long distance (r>>d where d is the linear dimension of a magnet),
whereas for short distance the proper law approximately goes as the inverse square of
the distance [68]. Anyway, for small oscillations and at medium relative distance ∆,
the fourth order polynomial function seems to fit better the FEA and experimental
data than the inverse square law. Actually, we should also consider the term which
accounts for the angle between the two magnetic dipoles, but in first instance it is
possible to neglect it. The resulting dynamical behaviour and modal analysis of our
model has been tested even with mechanical FEM of the piezopendulum.
Figure 3.21 – FEM and tip displacement Vs time from monostable to bistable dynamics.
f0=6.58 Hz
first vibrational mode
20000 degree of
freedom
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
116
In figure 3.21 there are plots of dynamical response of the pendulum subjected to
vibrating noise at different bistable potential barrier height or rather from no
magnetic interaction (∆>20mm) to relative strong repulsion force (relative close
distance ∆∼10mm) before the total trapping around one stable position. The
decreasing of the jumps frequency with an increasing potential barrier at even
smaller distance is clearly visible. The mechanical power density spectrum (fig. 3.22)
of the two extreme situations: quasilinear behavior for negligible repulsive force
(w=0.001) and strong nonlinearity with (w=0.1) respectively correspond to having a
narrow peak and a broader power density distribution on frequency domain.
Figure 3.22 – Mechanical power spectrum for ∆ ∆∆ ∆>20mm (norm. barrier height w=0.001)
and ∆ ∆∆ ∆∼ ∼∼ ∼10mm (w=0.1).
Evidently, the subtended area of the bistable power spectrum is much more than
that of linear case at low as well as at high frequencies, hence, the finite element
model further confirms
for bistable dynamics with respect to linear
3.3.3 3.3.3 3.3.3 3.3.3 Numerical Numerical Numerical Numerical and and and and
As for the acquisition of experimental
analysis has been carried out on two signals: displacement signal
piezoelectric output voltage
hoc LabView program.
controlled NIDAQ (channel 3) and
order to obtain the desired exponentially correlated Gaussian distribution with
various autocorrelation time
figure 3.23 below. We have conjectured as a first step
distributed force in frequency domain for two
on how much energy could be extracted form a
generally dwells at low frequency rather than at high ones.
Figure 3.23
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
117
the efficiency enhancement on power transfer to the system
with respect to linear dynamics.
and and and and Experimental Results Experimental Results Experimental Results Experimental Results
As for the acquisition of experimental data, a realtime statistic and spectral
nalysis has been carried out on two signals: displacement signal x
piezoelectric output voltage V
out
across the resistive load R
L
(channel 2)
program. Whereas the noisy input force is generated via software
DAQ (channel 3) and then the signal conditioned by pass
order to obtain the desired exponentially correlated Gaussian distribution with
various autocorrelation time τ ττ τ
c
=0.0010.1s. An example of its spectrum is sho
. We have conjectured as a first step this kind of uniformly
distributed force in frequency domain for two principal reasons: we want to
on how much energy could be extracted form a wide spectrum and the most part of it
generally dwells at low frequency rather than at high ones.
23 – Power Spectral density of input noise with τ ττ τ
c
=0.1s.
umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
efficiency enhancement on power transfer to the system
time statistic and spectral
(channel 1) and
(channel 2) made by ad
Whereas the noisy input force is generated via software
the signal conditioned by passband filter in
order to obtain the desired exponentially correlated Gaussian distribution with
spectrum is shown in
kind of uniformly
reasons: we want to speculate
wide spectrum and the most part of it
=0.1s.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
118
The displacement variance and RMS voltage were computed on time interval ∆T of
1000 seconds with a sampling frequency f
s
of 1MHz. The agreement between
experimental data and numerical simulation performed through MATLAB program
piezo_magnetic.m listed in (A.2) seems to be very good. Indeed, as we can see from
fig. 3.25, the experimental distribution of moving position x of the mass is very close
to the one expected from the numerical simulation: say within the relative
experimental error: about 78% in both axis directions (error bars are not plotted to
avoid confusion due to the large number of experimental points). This plot reports
the distribution of moving mass for effective driving noise rms σ=1.2
mN at three
decreasing magnet distance ∆=24, 10, 7 mm which corresponds to an increasing
repulsive force and respectively to regimes of monostable quasiharmonic, bistable
and high intrawell barrier height potential when the pendulum is bounded around
one minimum. The relative maxima of displacement distribution (fig. 3.24) perfectly
follow the stable equilibrium positions corresponding to the potential energy (fig.
3.24b). This is derived from the expression (2.38) slightly adjusted considering some
geometrical scaling factors which connect the various position points (x, x
r
, x
m
) of the
system as shown in fig. 3.24a which are
1 r
x s x = ,
2 m
x s x = , with
1
/
r
s lx lb = and
2
( ) / s lm lb lb = + .
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
119
a)
b)
Figure 3.24 – a) System outline. b) Effective magnetoelastic potential of the oscillator
with respect to scanned beam position x
r
and relative magnets distance ∆ ∆∆ ∆.
15 10 5 0 5 10 15
0,0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
d
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
displacement (mm)
∆ = 7 mm
∆ = 10 mm
∆ = 24 mm
Figure 3.25 – (Dotted) experimental distribution of x
r
displacement
with RMS noise σ σσ σ=1.2 m (σ σσ σ/m=0.08 ms
2
) at ∆ ∆∆ ∆=7,10,24 mm.
(Solid line) simulated distribution.
Y
∆
l
m
l
b
lx
r
x
r
x
m
x
X
CCD
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
120
Finally, the most important confirmation of what we have claimed so far, that is the
efficiency enhancement of the harvesting power, is shown in the following plots. In
fig. 3.26 we plot the standard deviation
x
σ computed on values of the stochastic
displacement x(t) as obtained by the numerical solution of the Langevin equation of
motion (solid line) and by the experimental data (scatter) for three different rms of
effective noisy force (σ =0.3,0.6,1.2 mN) applied to effective mass of the oscillator.
The agreement between the experimental data and the model is very significant.
5 10 15 20 25
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
σ = 1,2 mN
σ = 0,6 mN
σ = 0,3 mN
σ
x
(
m
m
)
∆ (mm)
Figure 3.26 – (Scatter) standard deviation
x
σ of experimental displacement
Vs magnets vertical distance ∆ ∆∆ ∆. (solid) numerical prediction.
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
121
In parallel, as we would have expected, the correspondent values of rootmean
squared voltage Vrms (fig. 3.27) across the resistive load R
L
(100 MOhm for this
test) show the same trend with the same maximum peak position as well as .
5 10 15 20 25
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
σ = 1,2 mN
σ = 0,6 mN
σ = 0,3 mN
V
r
m
s
(
V
o
l
t
)
∆ (mm)
Figure 3.27  – (Scatter) experimental data of voltage RMS across the load
Vs magnets vertical distance ∆ ∆∆ ∆. (solid) numerical prediction.
As we previously analyzed in paragraph 2.4, looking at the plots (3.2526) we can
easily identify the three different regimes:
1) when ∆ is very large the dynamics is characterized by quasilinear
oscillations around the minimum located at zero displacement, at the vertical
position of the pendulum. This condition accounts for the usual performances
of a linear piezoelectric generator.
x
σ
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
122
2) when ∆ is very small, the potential energy is bistable with a very pronounced
barrier between the two wells. In this condition and for a fixed amount of
noise, the pendulum swing is almost exclusively confined within one well and
the dynamics is characterized once again by quasilinear oscillations around
the minimum of the confining well.
3) in between these two regimes there is a range of distances ∆ where the
x
σ
(and the V
rms
as well) reaches a maximum value. Such a regime is
characterized by a bistable potential with two clearly separated wells. In this
condition, the pendulum dynamics is highly nonlinear and the swing reaches
its largest amplitude with noise assisted jumps between the two wells.
It is more evident, even by looking at the plot of effective harvested power
(fig.3.28) (that dissipated across the load
2
/
e rms L
P V R = ), that the maximum values
of the rms exceed by a factor that ranges between 2 and 6 the value obtainable
when the magnet is far away and thus the pendulum operates in linear condition.
This behavior amounts at a potential gain for energy harvesting between 200%
and 600% compared to the standard linear oscillators, depending on the noise
intensity and on the other physical features of the pendulum. Moreover we would
like to briefly comment about two other important features: a) the maximum
position shifts toward larger distances ∆ when the noise intensity increases. b) In
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
123
the low∆ regime, the rms values seem to reach a plateau that is smaller than the
similar plateau reached by the rms values in the large ∆.
5 10 15 20 25
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
σ = 1,2 mN
σ = 0,6 mN
σ = 0,3 mN
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c
a
l
P
o
w
e
r
(
1
0

7
w
a
t
t
)
∆ (mm)
Figure 3.28 – Electrical harvested power (dissipated on resistive load
2
/
e rms L
P V R = )
Vs magnets vertical distance ∆ ∆∆ ∆.
These features further support all the considerations presented in chapter 2 about
the stochastic dynamics and potential energy. In particular, when ∆ is very large the
potential ( , ) U x ∆ shows a single minimum. The librational frequency around this
minimum is derived from (2.44) that is
0 0
0
/ 2 1/ 2 '' /
x
f U m ω π π
=
= = =6.49 Hz (for
∆=30mm). Both the measured value 6.6±0.1 Hz and that simulated by FEM
6.58±0.05 are in good agreement to the limit case ∆ → ∞ when
0
(1/ 2 ) / f K m π ≈ .
The value here can be estimated in the linear oscillator approximation as
proportional to
0
ω σ [73]. On decreasing ∆, ω
0
decreases and then the value
x
σ
x
σ
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
124
increases. The potential becomes bistable when ∆ is lower than the critical value
1/ 5
2
(3 / )
c m eff
K s K ∆ = : two distinct minima arise at piezobender displacement
( )
2/ 5
2
3 /
m eff
x K K
±
= ± −∆ separated by a maximum at x=0. The agreement between
the analytical and experimental values is almost perfect: for example, at ∆=0.007mm,
analytical minima results
r
x
±
=±0.0067 (where the modified formula with geometrical
ratios
( )
2/ 5
2
1 2 2
( / ) 3 /
r m eff
x s s K s K
±
= ± − ∆ has been used in fig. 3.29 and
experimental ones are
r
x
±
=±(0.0067±0.0001). From this point, the oscillator jumps
now between the two minima and the increases proportional to
r
x
±
. As
demonstrated by the relation (2.46), by decreasing ∆ the potential barrier height
(0) ( )
r
U U U x
±
∆ = − grows proportional to ∆
−3
.
Figure 3.29 – Barrier height ∆ ∆∆ ∆U and minimum
position shift
r
x
±
versus ∆ ∆∆ ∆.
x
σ
Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results
125
The continuous growth of the
x
σ is interrupted when, due to the increase of the
barrier height, the noise induced jump dynamics between the two minima becomes
less and less effective. By further decreasing ∆ the barrier height is so large that the
jump probability becomes negligible and the pendulum swing is permanently
confined within one well. Such a trapping condition happens at smaller values of ∆
(larger barrier) when the noise is larger. This explains the observed shift of the
maximum position toward smaller ∆ as observed in a). Here the dynamics is almost
linear with small oscillations around the potential local minima (x
+
or x

) with
x
σ
value proportional to σ ω
±
with ω
±
2
= ′ ′ U (x
±
) m. Being ω
±
>ω
0
we have
, 0 , x x
σ σ
∆→ ∆→∞
< as observed in the experiment.
All these considerations about the nonlinear stochastic dynamics are inline with
those previously exposed for the Duffing piezoelectric oscillator. The sole difference
is the expression of the conservative potential. The role of the distance ∆ ∆∆ ∆ is played in
the Duffing case by the parameter a. Basically, the three dynamical regimes are the
same as well as the noticed efficiency enhancement. Also in this case, we notice a
maximum values of the
2
rms
V a factor 36 grater than the value obtainable in quasi
harmonic domain.
In the next chapter we will synthesize again the key results of the thesis subject
and take a glance to the possible solutions based on this concept. The implementation
designs and miniaturization issues are also outlined with some design example
(bistable piezoelectric membrane) for which we have made an early inspection
through finite element analysis.
126
Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Chapter 4
Conclusions Conclusions Conclusions Conclusions
4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 E EE Effectiveness of ffectiveness of ffectiveness of ffectiveness of non non non nonlinear linear linear linear approach approach approach approach versus versus versus versus
linear linear linear linear
In spite of the fact that a growing interest and many studies have been recently
focused on vibration energy harvesting, most of these are left restricted within the
optimization techniques of conversion efficiency, transduction mechanism and
material research. Up to now, the fundamental transduction mechanism of the
vibrating mechanical energy into electrical energy is ever modelled as a linear
oscillator coupled with piezoelectric, electrostatic or electromagnetic system. All of
these inspections have been based on the maximization of the kinetic energy transfer
around its first resonant mode and of electromechanical coupling constants. This
Chapter 4. Conclusions
127
common approach is clearly optimal for a well known shaking source whose energy
is primarily centered around single frequencies, however, most of the power of many
random vibration sources is spread over a large spectral bandwidth and most of all at
frequencies under hundred hertz [10, 31, 38, 61, 74, 75]. This is also the reason
whereby it is complex to obtain an efficient submicro scale transducer, inasmuch,
the resonant frequency of the system is inversely proportional to its geometrical
dimension with a consequent mismatch between the driven frequency and natural
frequency of the device. Some attempts to design energy scavengers with a wider
bandwidth under investigation concern the use of a chain of different springmass
dampers [61]. The various oscillators in this sort of chain have resonant frequencies
almost overlapped such that at least one element is in resonance over the desired
frequency range. Others groups are improving the signal processing and storing
techniques of the output voltage of the piezoelectric element (synchronized switch
damping[76]). By the way, both these approaches present severe limitations such as
the scale reduction, dispersive control electronics and poor efficiency in the case of
wide band multimodal excitation. Moreover, the linear model elaborated by Williams
et al. [50] can describe quite well the behaviour of electromagnetic transducer whose
efficiency depends basically by the velocity of inertial mass, whereas, it’s not
completely valid for piezoelectric beam conversion technique that needs to maximize
its displacement and to reduce its cutoff frequency as much as possible in order to
obtain the maximum harvested power.
The pivot idea we’ve presented here concerns the use of nonlinear oscillators
instead of linear ones. The exploitation of the their dynamical features permit to
Chapter 4. Conclusions
128
strongly improve the absorption of the ambient vibrational energy from a wideband.
Our work has been focused in particular on the use of a Duffinglike bistable
oscillator coupled with piezoelectric element, but the key principle can be explored
even for other nonlinear systems and transduction mechanisms.
Summarizing here the most important points of this work:
We have proposed a new method of energy harvesting from ambient
vibrations based on the utilization of the dynamical features of nonlinear
stochastic oscillators.
We have demonstrated that the overall efficiency of this method, by
applying it to a piezoelectric beam in a Duffinglike potential, can be
grater than a factor six with respect to a linear oscillator concept. The
maximum peak of the generated power is obtained for a certain trade off
among noise variance, intrawells distance and barrier height, while the
piezoelectric cutoff frequency must be as low as possible to avoiding
energy filtering.
The nonlinear oscillator doesn’t need to be tuned on a precise resonance
frequency, but it’s able to extract kinetic energy from a wide bandwidth
of noise, specially at low frequencies.
Chapter 4. Conclusions
129
Early theoretical considerations have been done about the power peak
position as a function of potential and noise variance and they explain
quite well the phenomenology of the oscillator dynamical behaviour.
The experimental results of a piezoelctric bistable oscillator in a repulsive
magnetic field were compared successfully with numerical simulations.
We have proven that the method proposed here is quite general in
principle and could be applied to a wide class of nonlinear oscillators and
different energy conversion principles.
The outcomes here obtained need to be understood at the light of a more
comprehensive theoretical interpretation. On the other hand, stochastic bistable
systems cover a wide range of physical and biological phenomena so that they are
under crescent interest far beyond their application as energy harvesting methods.
Potentials for realizing micro/nanoscale power generators are currently under
investigations, even though these studies are mainly focused on materials research
and various kinds of microlithography techniques [57, 77]. Our concept can be easily
applied to every system even at small scale. Indeed, while the physics remains
regulated under the classical mechanics laws, our results could be easily transferred
to submicro world. Moreover, the nonlinear stochastic concept could be also
inspected even in quantum domain, but this lies outside the scope of this work.
Chapter 4. Conclusions
130
4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 Miniaturization p Miniaturization p Miniaturization p Miniaturization perspectives of nonlinear erspectives of nonlinear erspectives of nonlinear erspectives of nonlinear
power harvesting power harvesting power harvesting power harvesting systems systems systems systems
Finally we would like to emphasize that the results obtained here can led to a
significant increase in energy harvesting performances also in the small scale
domain. Thanks to an even more advanced miniaturization technology (RIE dry
etching, wet chemical etching and UVLIGA etc.) a crescent number of research
groups are making evident progress in the realization of microelectromechanical
systems for energy scavenging. For example, Jeon et al.,[40] developed a 170µm x
260µm PZT beam that is able to generate 1µW of continuous electrical power to a
5.2MΩ resistive load at 2.4V dc. Although, the corresponding energy density
(0.74mWh/cm
2
) is comparable to the lithium ion batteries, this power output is
obtained under a driving force precisely tuned on its first resonant frequency of
13.9kHz, that is not easily to find in common ambients.
a)
b)
Figure 4.1 – a) SEM of the fabricated PMPG device with bond pads (Jeon [40]).
b) Micrograph of a 500 µ µµ µm PMPG of TIMA labs, Ammar et al. [78]
Chapter 4. Conclusions
131
Other submillimeter MEMSbased micro piezoelectric generator with cantilever
design has been developed by Fang et al.[79], which results in about 2.16µW (0.89V
AC peakpeak) of power output under a resonant operating frequency of 608Hz with
strength of 1g acceleration. But this relatively low voltage is not practicable to
present applications. Beeby et al.[46, 51] tested a micromachined electromagnetic
silicon generator with a 300µm wide paddle beam that gives a natural frequency of
6.4 kHz. Although its output voltage of 0.36V could be amplified, even in this case,
the actual power density is not still promising. Going down to more tiny scales,
various interesting energy harvesting systems are under investigations. A direct
current nanogenerator has been fabricated by Wang et al.[57] using an array of 50
nm radius x 600 nm length zinc oxide nanowires. It is capable to produce a
respectable voltage of 0.3 V enough to drive the metalsemiconductor Schottky diode
at the interface between atomic force microscope tip and the ZnO NW.
Nanopiezotronics is recently making giant steps and permits to implement
submicrometer devices capable to produces electric power from pulsating blood
vessels, acoustic waves, flowing blood or a beating heart. With some adjustments,
the nonlinear dynamical concept shown here can be quite easily applied to all these
present linear designs, even down to nanoscale, in order to make them working on
nonlinear regime. On the other hand, nanomechanical Duffinglike resonators have
been yet realized and studied for other purposes by some research groups [80, 81].
Inserting micromagnets into the tip of cantilever piezoelectric beams as outlined in
fig. 2.16, it’s not difficult to tailor a suitable bistable potential to the bandwitdth of
background stochastic noise. And unified array structure of these parallel/serial
Chapter 4. Conclusions
132
combined cantilevers could disclose promising performances. Moreover, there are
lots of ways and different designs to produce a bistable dynamics by means of
permanent magnets. Some possible configurations are suggested in fig. 4.2.
Figure 4.2 – Clusters of bistable piezoeletric beams.
A) perpendicular repulsive force configuration.
B) transversal attractive force configuration.
In the picture above shown there are two possible configuration of permanent
magnets: a) represents a perpendicular repulsive configuration mentioned above
while in b) the piezobeams counteract each other their elastic restoring force via
transversal attractive magnetic force.
piezo beams
B – transversal magentic piezobeams cluster
permanent
magnets
A – perpendicular magentic piezobeams cluster
permanet magnets
+ −
− + − + − +
Vout
Iout
piezo beams
stochastic force
stochastic force
Chapter 4. Conclusions
133
Unlike the cantilever geometry, we could think to an array of thin film
piezoelectric membranes. Each one with an appropriate inertial mass attached to the
centre. The bistable dynamics could be created, without accessory magnets, simply
contracting one of its edge on its parallel plane as outlined for example in fig.4.3.
Figure 4.3 – Bistable piezoelectric thinfilm membrane.
For now, we restrict ourselves to describe an early study of dynamical bistable
behaviour through finite element modelling of such idea. A 20mm length x 0.1 mm
thickness PZT membrane model with a steel sheet inside of thickness 0.05mm is
plotted in fig. 4.4. It was compressed setting its vertical edge displacement by 0.01
0.1mm with respect to relaxed position. Applying then a perpendicular force
(sinusoidal and/or stochastic) pointed to its center, for different compression levels of
the edges, we’ve computed the time series distribution of central point displacement.
Furthermore, introducing a differential pressure across the two sides, it is possible to
settle the symmetry of bistability. This design is similar to that of a pressure sensor
and in effects it can works both as generator/sensor and actuator, with the essential
difference that, in this case, its dynamic is bistable and not monostable (see fig. 4.5).
stochastic force
seismic mass
piezoelectric
membrane
Chapter 4. Conclusions
134
Exploiting its residence time, it is possible to estimate the pressure difference
between the two sides without encounter the typical problems of calibration of
common pressure sensors [82].
Figure 4.4 – FEM of a piezoelectric membrane displacement.
The geometrical scale XY are not equal for a better viewing.
Chapter 4. Conclusions
135
0 2 4 6 8 10
1,0
0,5
0,0
0,5
1,0
d
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
m
m
)
Time (s)
∆P = 100mbar
∆P = 1000mbar
∆P = 2000mbar
Figure 4.5 – Membrane displacement under
a sinusoidal driving force at different differential pressures.
Actually, one of the major difficulty of such a kind of model thought as energy
harvester is to know exactly the elastic potential which is not perfectly conservative.
Moreover, piezoelectric material is subjected to aging, so its piezoelectric and elastic
properties present hysteresis and variation in time. Nevertheless, such a configuration
could be a promising and simpler solution than magnetic piezoelectric cantilever and
needs to be investigated even in clustered configurations.
136
137
Appendices Appendices Appendices Appendices
A.1 A.1 A.1 A.1 Euler Euler Euler Euler  Maruyama method Maruyama method Maruyama method Maruyama method
Let a generic onedimensional stochastic differential equation be
( , ) ( , )
t
t t t
dX
F X t G X t
dt
ξ = + (A.1)
where X
t
is a stochastic process, F is in generally a nonlinear function that describes
the deterministic evolution and the term ( , )
t t
G X t ξ is a stochastic Gaussian term with
( , )
t
G X t a generic function of X
t
. Integrating this equation 3.1 we obtain
0
0 0
( ) ( )
t t
t s s s
X X F X ds G X ds ξ = + +
∫ ∫
(A.2)
Where F is a Riemann integrable function. Instead the last term represents a
stochastic noise multiplied by a function of process X
t
which cannot be easily
integrated. It can be shown that a Gaussian process
t
ξ with uniform spectrum
satisfies the expression (A.3) [83]
0
t
s t
ds W ξ =
∫
(A.3)
in which W
t
indicates a Wiener stochastic process defined in the interval [0,T] as
continue function with the following properties (A.4):
138
1) (0) 0 1;
2) 0
;
3) 0
t s
2
W with probability
for s t T the random variable given by increment
W W is normally distribuited with zero mean and variance
t s
for s t u v T the increments variable give
σ
=
≤ < ≤
−
= −
≤ < < < ≤
t s v u
n by increment
W W and W W are indipendents. − −
(A.4)
From this relations the stochastic term of the (A.2) can be expressed as
0
( )
t
W
s s
G X dW
∫
(A.5)
hence, it can be seen like a limit of the Riemann sum
( ) ( ) ( )
1
1
( )
n n n
i i i
n
n
i
S G W W
τ τ τ
−
=
= −
∑
(A.6)
Where
( ) ( ) ( )
1
,
n n n
i i i
t t τ
−
( ∈
¸ ¸
. But the summation limit depends by the choice of these
integrations extremes[71], so this algorithm sets the problem to use a proper
criterion. Among the various consistent methods of integration the most successful
results that of Itô and Stratonovich that set
( ) ( ) ( )
1
(1 )
n n n
i i i
t t τ α α
−
= − − (A.7)
where the Itô integration corresponds to equal α=0, while the Stratonovich
integration corresponds to α=1/2.
The Euler−Maruyama method consists in the integration of the stochastic term of
the equation (A.2) on Brownian process ( ) W t , thus, in the Wiener increment dW(t)
139
0
0 0
( ) ( ( ), ) ( ( ), ) ( )
t t
s s
X t X F X s s ds G X s s dW s = + +
∫ ∫
(A.8)
these two integrals can be discretized as follows. Let a time interval
  0,T be divided
by points t
j
for j=1,.., with positive integer and ( / )
j
t j T j t = = ∆ .Then, as
limit for 0 t ∆ → of the Riemann summations
1 1
1
0 0
( ( ), )( ) ( ( ), )
j j j j j j
j j
F X t t t t F X t t t
− −
+
= =
− = ∆
∑ ∑
(A.9)
and, for the stochastic part choosing the Itô integration
1 1
1
0 0
( ( ), )( ) ( ( ), )
j j j j j j j
j j
G X t t W W G X t t dW
− −
+
= =
− =
∑ ∑
(A.10)
where we have placed ( )
j j
W W t = , hence
1 j j j
dW W W
+
= − is the jth increment of the
discrete Wiener process ( ) W t . Finally, the EulerMaruyama approach is essentially
the discrete integration of the equation (A.8) that becomes
1 1
0
0 0
( ) ( ( ), ) ( ( ), ) .
j j j j j
j j
X T X F X t t t G X t t dW
− −
= =
= + ∆ +
∑ ∑
(A.11)
A method is said to have strong order of convergence equal to γ if there exists a
constant C such that the expected value:
( )
n
X X C t
γ
τ Ε − ≤ ∆ (A.12)
for any fixed
  0, n t T τ = ∆ ∈ and t ∆ sufficiently small. Keeping in mind that ( ) X τ
is the possible analytic value and X
n
is the simulated variable. It can be shown that
the EM method has strong order of convergence γ=1/2.
140
A.2 A.2 A.2 A.2 Simulation programs Simulation programs Simulation programs Simulation programs
Listing n.1
File: wise_duffing.m
function wise_duffing(serial,T,damp,Fa,Fb,sigma,tau,plt1,plt2,sav)
try
tic
% dependent parameters
% Declaration of the time steps integration
h=0.0005; % time step dt [s] (integration step size)
N=ceil(T/h); % number of steps
t=(0:h:T); % t is the time vector
%% generation of exponentially correlated noise
epsilon=zeros(1,N);
dW=sqrt(h)*randn(1,length(t)); % brownian increment
randn('state', sum(100*clock)); % set inintial state
for g = 1:N
epsilon(g+1) = epsilon(g)*(1h/tau) + randn*h;
end
epsilon = epsilon/std(epsilon);
epsilon = epsilon  mean(epsilon);
%% Inizialization and Integration of nonlinear SDE system
Std_x = zeros(length(Fa),length(sigma)); %standard deviation
Y=zeros(size(t)); % place to store locations Y
X=zeros(size(t)); % place to store locations X
for k=1:length(sigma)
141
pos = 0.0;
Y(1)= 0.0; % initial conditions
for j=1:length(Fa)
X(1)= pos;
Y(1)= 0.0;
for i=1:N
Y(i+1)=Y(i)+Fa(j)*X(i)*hFb*X(i)^3*h2*damp*Y(i)*h...
+sigma(k)*epsilon(i)*dW(i);
X(i+1)=X(i)+Y(i)*h;
end
pos=X(length(X));
if plt1
figure(1);
clf
plot(t,X,'r')
hold on
xlabel('time [sec]');
ylabel('displacement');
end
Std_x(j,k)= std(X,1); %standard deviation of position
end
end
%% plotting
if plt2
figure(1);
clf
plot(Fa,Std_x);
xlabel('nonlinear parameter');
ylabel('Xrms');
figure(2)
surf(sigma.^2,Fa,Std_x,'EdgeColor','none');
xlabel('sigma^2');
ylabel('nonlinear parameter');
zlabel('Xrms)');
end
%% saving in Pavg.mat
if sav
suffix = ['n' num2str(serial) 'date' date '_numerical'];
save(['num_' suffix '.mat'],'T','Fa','Fb','Std_z','damp','sigma','tau');
end
142
toc
catch
lasterror
end
Listing n.2
File: piezo_magnetic.m
function []=piezo_magnetic(T,damp,mag,dy,scale,sigma,plt1,plt2,sav)
try
tic
%% CONSTANTS DECLARATION
lz = 168e3; % reading position of deflection
% constants for piezo PZT5A4E T434A4302 piezo.com
e_r = 1800; % relative dielectric constant (at 1Khz)
e_0 = 8.85e12; % F m^1 vacuum dielectric permittivity
e_p = e_0*e_r; % piezoelectric absolute permittivity
d_31 = 320e12; % m/v piezoelectric strain coefficient
mu0=4*pi*1e7;
% model design parameters
lm=143e3; % length of the mass [m]
hm=4e3; % Height of the mass
Wm=4e3; % with of the mass
density=7800; % Kg/m^3 material density of inertial mass
lb=72.4e3; % length of the cantilever beam
lc=12.9e3; % length of the beam under clamp
Wb=5.1e3; % with of cantilever, it as been assumed that
le=lb
le=lblc; % length of electrode
143
Tp=0.33e3; % thickness of piezoelectric layer
Tsh=0.2e3; % Thickness of the center shim
thk=Tp*2+Tsh; % thickness of the beam
m_mag = 0.49e3; %magnet mass
m_mass = 15.1e3; %mass attached [Kg]
m_beam = 2.6e3; %mass of beam
m_clamp = thk*lc*Wb*7900; %clamped mass
m = m_mass+m_mag+m_beam; % inertial mass
Cp=5.2e10; % N/m^2 Elastic Young modulus
for piezoelectric material PZT5H [Pa]
Csh=2.0e11; % Young modulus of the center shim material [Pa]
Rl=100e6; % load resistance [Ohm]
% dependent parameters
b=Tp/2+Tsh/2; % distance between
piezoelectric layer and shim layer
I=2*((Wb*Tp^3)/12+Wb*Tp*b^2)+((Csh/Cp)*Wb*Tsh^3)/12; % moment of inertia
of composite beam
a=4; % a=1 series config, a=4 double parallel configuration
% average strain to input force
k1=(2*I)/(b*(2*lb+lmle));
% average stress to vertical displacement
k2=3*b*(2*lb+lmle)/(lb^2*(2*lb+3/2*lm))/2;
Cb=112e9; % measured effective piezoelectric capacitance
K=26.6; % measured effective elastic constant
% voltage coefficient for diff. equation
Kv=K*d_31*a/(2*Tp*k2);
% coupling term between voltage and displacement
Kc=2*Tp/2*d_31*Cp*k2/(a*e_p);
%piezoelectric coupling coefficient
k_31=d_31^2*Cp/e_p
% Declaration of the time steps integration
h=0.0001; % time step of sampling
N=ceil(T/h); % number of steps
t=(0:h:T); % t is the time vector
%% GENERATION OF EXPONENTIALLY CORRELATED GAUSSIAN NOISE
epsilon=zeros(1,N);
tau=0.1; % colored noise correlation time [sec]
dW=sqrt(h)*randn(1,length(t)); % brownian increment
randn('state', sum(100*clock)); % set inintial state
144
for g = 1:N
epsilon(g+1) = epsilon(g)*(1h/tau) + randn*h;
end
epsilon = epsilon/std(epsilon);
epsilon = epsilon  mean(epsilon);
%% Inizialization and Integration of nonlinear SDE system
Pavg = zeros(length(dy),length(sigma)); %electrical power
Pavg_z = zeros(length(dy),length(sigma)); %mechanical power
pos = 0.0;
sf =lz/lb; %scale factors for delfection at reading position point
sf2 = (lb+lm)/lb*scale;
k_mag = 3*mu0/(2*pi)*mag^2*sf2;
% initialization
Y=zeros(size(t)); % place to store locations Y
Z=zeros(size(t)); % place to store locations Z
V=zeros(size(t)); % voltage function
for k=1:length(sigma)
pos = 0.0;
Y(1)= 0.0; % initial velocity
V(1)= 0.0; % initial voltage
for j=1:length(dy)
Z(1)= pos;
Y(1)= 0.0; % initial velocity
V(1)= 0.0; % initial voltage
for i=1:N
Y(i+1)=Y(i) 
(K/m)*Z(i)*h+3*mu0/(2*pi*m)*mag^2*Z(i)*sf2/((sf2^2*Z(i)^2+(dy(j))^2)^2.5)*h
2*damp*sqrt(K/m)*Y(i)*h...
(Kv/m)*V(i)*h+sigma(k)*epsilon(i)*dW(i)/m;
Z(i+1)=Z(i)+Y(i)*h;
V(i+1)=V(i)+Kc*(Z(i+1)Z(i))1/(Rl*Cb)*V(i)*h;
end
pos=Z(length(Z));
Z = Z*sf;
[dist,xout]=hist(Z,15e3:0.1e3:15e3);
dist=dist/sum(dist)*20;
if plt1
figure(1);
clf
subplot(2,1,1);
plot(t,Z,'r')
hold on
xlabel('time [sec]');
145
ylabel('displacement');
subplot(2,1,2);
plot(t,V,'k')
hold on
xlabel('time [sec]');
ylabel('voltage');
end
%standard deviation of voltage Vrms and position variance
Pavg(j,k) = std(V);
Pavg_z(j,k)= std(Z);
end
end
%% plotting
if plt2
figure(1);
clf
subplot(2,1,1);
plot(t,Z,'r')
hold on
xlabel('time (s)');
ylabel('displacement (m)');
subplot(2,1,2);
plot(t,V,'k')
hold on
xlabel('time (s)');
ylabel('voltage (V)');
hold off
figure(2);
clf
subplot(2,1,1);
plot(dy,Pavg);
xlabel('dy');
ylabel('STD(V)');
subplot(2,1,2);
plot(dy,Pavg_z);
xlabel('dy ');
ylabel('STD(Z)');
figure(3);
clf
bar(xout,dist);
xlabel('x (mm)');
ylabel('distribution');
hold on
end
xout=xout';
dist=dist';
%% saving in Pavg.mat
if sav
146
suffix = ['date' date '_num'];
save(['num_' suffix '.mat'],'T','dy','Pavg','Pavg_z','K','damp'...
,'m','mag','Kv','Kc','Cb','sf','sf2','f_n','Rl','k_31','d_31','sigma');
save('distribution.txt','dist','ascii');
end
toc
catch
lasterror
end
147
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ii
…To My Family
iii
Again. A very special thanks goes out to Dr. Luca Gammaitoni. I would like to thank the beauty of our team who is Dr. understanding. Thanks to Chiara Molinelli for his continuous encouragements and friendship. his great availability whenever I needed and his constants encouragements. Paolo Amico for his skill and the fruitful conversations and to Dr. Flavio Travasso for his real sympathy. 4 . whose experience.Acknowledge Acknowledgements I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor. Ludovico Carbone for being a great advisor. Igor Neri for the kindness and all of their computer and technical assistance throughout my doctorate work. Michele Punturo who made me know the research team and the VIRGO project. Prof. ideas and patience. Leone Bosi and Dr. Helios Vocca for the assistance. helped me considerably at every step of this journey. I would like to thank Dr. I would like to thank Dr. useful discussions he supplied at all levels of the research project and most of all for his unavoidable irony (specially about the religious issues). I’ve appreciated. Fabio Marchesoni. in particular. I have been honored to receive some useful suggestions by Prof. vast knowledge. I would like to thank Dr. Anna Dari for his exigent questions about all human knowledge! She has been a constant source of inspiration and incitement for me. Appreciation also goes out to Dr. lifestyle and the many hours spent together in the “cold” laboratory! After the beast.
Ruggero for the great time I had with them and to all my colleagues. Finally. I also wish to thanks my fiancée. I doubt that I would not ever have been able to make such adventure without the fundamental support and affection of my family. I owe them my eternal gratitude. Daniele together with all others which have been near me for moral support. Ciro. Filippo. Matteo. I wish to thanks all my nearest friends Carlo.My special thanks to my university friends: Alessio. Martina. I enjoyed their friendship and their support. Marco. for her love and encouragement specially in the last days of this hard work! 5 .
Among the different solutions. vibration energy harvesting has played a major role due to the almost universal presence of mechanical vibrations: from ground shaking to human movements. also independently by transduction technique used (piezoelectric. In spite of continuous optimizations and improvements. implementation and experimental test of stochastic bistable piezoelectric oscillators employed for scavenging energy from vibrational noise. from ambient sound down to thermal noise induced fluctuations. numerical and finite element modeling. electromagnetic or electrostatic). Here we propose a new method based on the exploitation of the dynamical features of stochastic nonlinear oscillators. Standard approaches are mainly based on resonant linear oscillators that are acted on by ambient vibrations.Abstract Ambient energy harvesting has been in recent years the recurring object of a number of research efforts aimed at providing an autonomous solution to the powering of small scale electronic mobile devices. Experimental tests have been carried out on a simple physical model based on a bistable stochastic driven piezoelectric beam under repulsive magnetic 6 . In particular. such linear oscillatorbased transducers present severe limitations like narrow bandwidth. need for continuous frequency tuning. this work has concerned the theoretical study. Such a concept is shown to outperform standard linear oscillators and to overcome some of the most of present approaches. high resonant frequency at MEMS dimensions and low efficiency.
there are also potentials for realizing micro/nanoscale power generators that is the natural continuation of this research work. We prove that the method proposed here is quite general in principle and could be applied to a wide class of nonlinear oscillators and different energy conversion principles.field and are in excellent agreement with all numerical expectations. the bistable system shows the ability to adsorb vibrational energy from a wide bandwidth. Finally. In effect. Moreover. 7 . this method is not only restricted to bistable systems but even better to other kind of nonlinear systems that should be investigated. We demonstrate that the power performances of piezoelectric transducer in nonlinear dynamical regime are almost greater by an order of magnitude as compared to linear dynamical behaviour. mostly at lower frequencies.
51 Piezoelectric generators ....1 2....3 umerical and Experimental Results .................. 40 VIBRATIO DRIVE MICROGE ERATORS ... 126 MINIATURIZATION PERSPECTIVES OF NONLINEAR POWER HARVESTING SYSTEMS ..............................................1 EXISTENT VIBRATION TO ELECTRICITY CONVERSION METHODS..............................................3 1......3 2......................................................................................................... 61 NONLINEAR ENERGY HARVESTING SYSTEMS IN A DUFFINGLIKE POTENTIAL............ 31 COMPARISON OF POWER SOURCES ...................... 95 3.................................................................. 74 Energy balance ..................... 46 Electromagnetic generators .......................................... 78 UMERICAL A ALYSIS A D EXPERIME TAL RESULTS........................................1...........................3............3.........................2 1.................................................................................. 66 The inverted piezoelectric pendulum ...........................................................1........................1..............................................................................1 ANALYSIS OF BISTABLE STOCHASTIC OSCILLATORS ..........3......................................................................................1 4........................2 Simple Duffing Oscillator ................... 81 3... 45 Electrostatic generators ........1..........4................................2 2..... 137 BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................... 81 CHAPTER 3 3......3.................. 147 8 ...............2 CO CLUSIO S ...............................................................4 I TRODUCTIO ............................3 PIEZOELECTRIC INVERTED PENDULUM IN A MAGNETIC FIELD ..........3 1..................... 15 POTENTIAL POWER SOURCES ......2 1............................1 Experimental Setup and Characterization .....................1 1.........................................................3... 126 EFFECTIVENESS OF NONLINEAR APPROACH VERSUS LINEAR ...........................................Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 1........................1................ 82 3.................................................2 Finite Element Analysis ............... 130 APPE DICES ....1 1..........................................................................................................................................1 2................... 60 DYNAMICS OF LINEAR TRANSDUCER: LINEARITY AND TRANSFER FUNCTION ....................................... 19 Energy storage systems .......1..1 2..........3.3........................ 92 3......................... 45 CHAPTER 2 2....................................................................... 117 CHAPTER 4 4............................................ 81 3.................................................................................... 9 POWER DEMAND OF MICRO AND NANODEVICES ..................................................... 109 3................................................................................................................................2 2............................................................... 20 Power distribution methods .............4 2.. 114 3...............1..............................2 PIEZOELECTRIC DUFFING GENERATOR ..................................1 umerical Approach ..................... 110 3...................................................... 69 BISTABLE PIEZOELECTRIC BEAM IN A REPULSIVE MAGNETIC FIELD.............3 2....................................................................................3 Theoretical Considerations ......................................... 9 MOTIVATIONS: MOBILE MICROPOWERING ....4 2. 54 Energy density of transduction mechanisms ............................................................................................ 29 Power harvesting methods ......
Chapter 1 Introduction 1. Initial research was mainly funded by 9 . Nowadays the MEMS (MicroElectroMechanicalSystems) and emerging EMS (Nano ElectroMechanical Systems) technology have permitted the development of so called smart devices: submillimeter wireless sensor and actuators.1Motivations: mobile micropowering micropowering Feynman's vision seems to be finally realized thanks to ever more sophisticated microelectronics. Last decade have seen an incredible development of miniaturized devices and today micro and nanoscale machines are yet incorporated in all kinds of electronic devices. These micro devices have wide applications that cover from military applications to the industry of consumption. The strong expansion of multibilliondollar market of portable electronics has led to large research efforts in size reduction as power consumption as well.
interactive control. biomedical sensors.. source Streaming Data to/from the Physical World destination Figure 1. agriculture. sensing harmful chemical agents.1 Multihop Wireless Sensor etwork 10 . actuators. Each node can be an autonomous complete complex system with sensors.Chapter 1. RFID. structural monitoring. location of person. unpartitioned network of heterogeneous. NEST[1]). Introduction DARPA in military research projects focused to the realization of selforganized wireless networks of a large number of sensor nodes (e.g. A wireless sensor network could be defined as a wireless. processor. transports. ad hoc. memory. multihop. tiny. mobile sensor nodes that could be randomly distributed in the area of interest and they may make use of existing communication infrastructures [2].Smart Dust. More recently those devices have been employed in wide variety of civilian applications such as environmental monitoring. integrated biology. radio or optical communication interface and power supply.
bridges and railways will be used by construction engineers. Introduction Wireless autonomous sensors and actuators with sizes under a centimeter and below already surround us in an almost invisible way and in a forthcoming future for example intelligent clothing and bodyarea networks could monitor our health parameters. It's almost impossible to find areas of our civilization that will not be affected. however. Research continues to develop ultralow power circuit [4] and higher energydensity batteries but the amount of energy available is not infinite and limits the system's life. such as biomedical implants or microsensors inserted in building structure. Extended life is critical in many systems with limited accessibility. increasing density and shrinking the systems.2 a) Intel Mote b) Implantable sensor c) Smart Dust d) Intel chip 11 . roads. arise the problem of scaling in the same time the onboard power supply [3]. a c b d Figure 1. The data that's collected by miniaturized pressure sensors built into buildings. While modern electronics continue to reduce past boundaries of integration.Chapter 1.
these devices cannot be easily powered by ordinary batteries: • • • • almost impossible to built micro/nano scale batteries unpractical to replace a large number of batteries in a microdevices once these have finished their charge batteries of these devices dispersed in the environment in large quantities will produce a significant pollution prohibitive cost of wiring power for dense network of nodes It’s need to develop alternative methods of power these wireless microdevices that must be economical. efficient and ecological. smart cards and other many passive electronic devices are yet powered by a close energy transmitted to them to perform their operations [8].Chapter 1. this 12 . There are different ways to address the problem: • • • improve energy density of storage systems develop innovative methods to deliver power to nodes (e. for example. However.g. Electronic Radio Frequency Identity tags. wireless power transmission[5]) develop selfpowering nodes that harvest and convert the energy directly from the ambient [6] In the last years many efforts have been done to scale down power energy devices. Fuel cells technologies. promise energy densities several time higher than chemical batteries and are capable of far higher maximum power output [7]. Introduction For a series of motives. micro heat engine or micronuclear batteries.
Among the different energy sources available in a generic environment. vibrations. to mention the most common physical principles exploited. Present working solutions for vibrationtoelectricity conversion are based on oscillating mechanical elements that convert kinetic energy into electric energy via capacitive. In that case. seismic ground shaking and car motion. inductive or piezoelectric methods[10].Chapter 1. this technology would probably present a health risk and may exceeds local or international regulations of maximum radiofrequency human exposition. spectral shapes and durations. In fact. in the vast majority of cases the ambient vibrations come with their energy distributed over a wide 13 . For such reasons a large research effort has been devoted in designing onboard power generators that could supply the necessary amount of energy when and where necessary. it is not suitable for distances beyond 510 meter where high power transmitter is required with a consequent efficiency loss. amplitude. thermal). Linear oscillators are usually designed to be resonantly tuned to the ambient dominant mechanical frequency. The best solution to avoid battery replacement is that each node must be autonomous and selfpowered. Introduction method is not a good solution when considering dense networks of wireless nodes. electromagnetic. Random vibrations come in a vast variety of forms. It is quite difficult to imagine a single generator that is capable of harvesting energy from sources as diverse as wind induced movements. adsorbing for example a renewable source of energy continuously from the ambient [9] (solar. kinetic energy available through random vibration is probably the most common form. However. but this method is that less explored as fully as the powering by storage systems.
In order to take advantage of such energy spectral distribution it is necessary to tune the oscillator resonant frequency as small as possible. Introduction spectrum of frequencies. under proper operating conditions. Due to the geometrical/dynamical constraints that the dimensions of the device pose. The starting point is power demands constraints of mobile computing electronics with a special focus on wireless sensor node but in perspective open to all MEMS and NEMS (Nano ElectroMechanical Systems) world powering issues. In chapter two will be discussed the existents vibrationtoelectricity conversion methods. will be reviewed various potential power sources with a focus on vibration noise. In the next paragraphs of this chapter will be shown a survey of state of the art techniques and methodologies about mobile powering. the theory of linear oscillator 14 . Then. can provide better performances compared to a linear oscillator in terms of the energy extracted from a generic wide spectrum vibration. This dissertation is focused on exploitation of stochastic nonlinear dynamics with a focus on bistable systems for improving powering scavenging methods. useful for lowconsumption devices at the micro and submicron scale. This is the case for example of the omnipresent seismic vibrations. To overcome these difficulties we propose a different approach based on the exploitation of the nonlinear properties of nonresonant oscillators. the efficiency of such mechanical resonant oscillator is sometimes seriously limited. with significant predominance of low frequency components. Specifically we demonstrate that a bistable oscillator.Chapter 1.
In order to decrease the thermal dissipation and consequently the working temperature of processor. Although electronics became smaller and smaller. it has been push down as much as possible the supply voltage.2Power demand of micro and nanodevices The Moore’s law states that the transistors doubling every couple of years and the Bell’s law that a new computing class born every ten years.Chapter 1. Semiconductor miniaturization is followed by the decrease in the power demand of single transistors. nanodevices 1. Finite Element Analysis and experimental test of some bistable piezoelectric systems will be presented in chapter three. Finally in chapter four will be exposed the conclusions: a comparison of performances of nonlinear vs linear energy harvesting systems and perspectives of implementation of these generators at micro and nanoscale. Numerical simulations. Introduction and will be showed the idea to take advantage from nonlinear dynamics of a bistable piezoelectric oscillator in order to obtain an hyper efficient vibration energy harvesting system. power consumption for a processor and the decrement of the supply voltage[11].3). but this savings is being counteracted by a higher structural density of transistors and higher power leakage caused by quantum effects (fig. 15 . enabling today’s mobile technologies explosion. 1. In the next figures it’s shown the historical exponential increment of transistors. in parallel the need for energy scaledown became a serious challenge.
The power demand constraints can be 16 . Introduction Figure 1.3 Upper: integrated circuit complexity Lower left: processor power (Watt) active and leakage.Chapter 1. Lower right: processor supply voltage. A PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) or a cellular with a battery capacity of 1500 mAh is significantly more energy efficient than a PC using about 200250 W and likewise a Notebook (23 . (I TEL source) For the mini scale down to nano level the development of ultralow energy consumption electronic devices constitutes a great challenge as for the macro scale as well.54 W) but the performance of portable power supply systems is the major limitation on the amount of applications and computing performance provided by portable electronics.
weigh less than 100 grams. The main goals for the wireless sensor nodes are that they must be smaller than one cubic centimeter. lowcost. However. energy efficient electronics while the computing performance is not always critical. is limited by a lack of similar reductions in power supplies. The main important features for subcentimeter or submillimeter devices. is the availability of small.011µm Power Requirements above 100 W 200300 W 2050 W 80m W10 W 100 µW100 mW 0.11cm 0. in effects. and cost substantially less than one dollar. Even more important. that constitutes a great challenge.Chapter 1. the electronic components of the node must use ultralow power to extend the battery life and to avoid frequent replacement.1100 µW Table 1. The huge success in reducing the size of MEMS. Although new nano 17 . Introduction classified as a function of the overall average linear size but the functionalities and computing performances do not necessarily follow the same trend. we now shift our attention to the micro and nanoworld area. lightweight.1 Comparison of power demand of electronics devices Since the main subject of this work regards the physics of energy harvesting systems that is crucial for lowscale powering. workstation Desktop PC Notebook PC Handled Wireless Sensor Node Nanodevices Nanorobots Linear size 50cm90cm 2050cm 2035cm 110cm 0. Device class Server.
computing. This power constrain is particularly difficult. it’s a measure of acceptability for an energy scavenging system design. Going into more tiny dimensions. and it is likely that several technology efforts will be necessary to achieve this goal but this is the upper limit that will address the energy harvesting studies.e. chemical transformations etc. electronic process. require energy. Mechanical motions. It’s interesting to envisage a 18 . pumping. Energetics represent a serious limitation in nanotechnology robot design. Introduction materials are improving the battery technology. Nanodevice could in the next future metabolize in vivo local glucose and oxygen for energy. The most important specifications for the power supply system are the total size and average power dissipation of an individual node (i. In order to explore the possibility of energy scavenging techniques for selfpowering device many WSN (Wireless Sensor Nodes) researchers have provided new specifications. or power could be externally supplied from a sound wave of radiofrequency sources. but simply that this constrain will constitute a desirable limit or standard for the most projects of wireless sensor nodes. Therefore. Heat dissipation is also a major question in nanomachine design.Chapter 1. for a PicoNode that communicates over a 10 meters range in PicoRadio network system[12]): the size of a node must be overall less than 1cm3 and the target average power dissipation of a completed node must be below 100µW. particularly when large numbers of nanomachines are deployed in vivo. in the domain of EMS from 10nm to 3µm the µ there are even more problems about energy issue. This does not mean that power system solutions which don’t meet this feature are not worthy of further exploration. its energy density doesn’t follow the exponential curve as the Moore’s law for miniaturization process and performance.
then P = 23pW for a 1 µm3 nanorobot. where ‘m’ if mass of organism to calculate the available power density. µ 1. For a spherical nanorobot of radius rn~0. Freitas [13] makes an estimation using as a first crude approximation the power law P=(4. For nanorobots chemically powered by an oxyglucose engine it’s need to consider the fundamental limits on power density that are imposed by diffusion limits on glucose molecules.3Potential power sources The current state of research on vastly different potential power sources for micro and nano systems is not so simple to discuss. Supposing P=100 Watts for an m= 70 kg human body mass and assuming water density for nanorobots. which enable microdevices to be completely selfsustaining. 15] and it’s not the aim of this thesis to do an ulterior deep inspection. power distribution methods or power harvesting methods.13)m3/4 . Introduction possible estimate orderofmagnitude of nanorobots power consumption. Power sources are distinguished as energy storage systems.1nW/µm 3. We will deem that a power source acceptable when it’s capable of providing power density on the order 19 .Chapter 1. Here we want only to make a survey and a comparison among storage systems and renewable sources. therefore a power density of d~2x107 watts/m3. Furthermore there are many good works about this topic[10. 14.5 micron in arterial blood plasma it is possible to estimate a maximum chemical power density of d~109 watts/m3 or 0. An energy harvesting nanosystem could use organism metabolism as an energy reservoir.
Introduction of 100µW/cm3 for at least ten years of duration. In effects. 1. it is the most diffused mean of energy storage for medium scale devices and household hardware. kinetics. Volta in 1779 to the last years the electrochemical battery has seen constant technological improvements and today.Chapter 1.3. For a sake of simplicity the µ principal metric which we will use in this work for evaluating power sources is power per volume. as never before. specifically µW/cm3 and J/cm3 for energy density. this device are probably the easiest and most practical solution for electronic devices because its flexibility and availability.1 Energy storage systems Today there are many forms of energy storage that may be used in microsystems such as wireless sensor node dependently by the type of energy: electrochemical. electromagnetical. chemical. 20 . nuclear. Each of these forms present advantages and disadvantages. The more recent storage systems suitable to be embedded on board of wireless node can be summarize here: • • • • • Batteries and Microbatteries Ultracapacitors Microfuel cells Microheat engines Nuclear Radioactive power sources From the first zinccopper cell invented by A.
Zincair. For these reasons the Liion battery is one of best readytouse solution for powering current wireless sensor nodes.Chapter 1. For example. once the initial supply of chemical agents is exhausted. have their chemical reactions reversed by supplying electrical energy to the cell. and Lithium. Secondary batteries can be recharged. alarm. so reducing the dissipation of extra energy. the energy density and lifetime are the crucial features that discriminate the various storage systems. that is. Common batteries are grouped in the two main classes: primary and secondary batteries. Mercury. These are most commonly used in portable devices with light current drain. Among that we have listed. Lithium batteries are the most expensive but they possess high energy density (2880 J/cm3). Primary even called disposable batteries reversibly transform chemical potential energy to electrical energy. high voltage (34V per cell) and almost the best duration. a lithium battery with a capacity of 1000mAh can provide energy to a wireless sensor node with an average consumption of 100µW for at least one year. Introduction Among its major advantages there is the stability of the output voltage that allow to the systems to run directly without any power transformation. small calculators but even in a fairly high and constant consumption electronics like hearing aids and watches. energy cannot be further restored to the battery by electrical means. Alkaline. Among the disposal most commercial batteries we find Zinccarbon. As we have already stressed. Rechargeable batteries have less energy density (Lithiumion 1080 J/cm3) than nonrechargeable ones but for their intensive use are mostly employed in notebook 21 . radio communication. restoring their original composition. mostly in circuits where electric power is used intermittently such as sensors.
digital camera and so on. we must taking into account of the extra dissipation due to the control electronics for charging process.4 . In the context of microsensor devices another primary power source must be used to charge them. It’s clear that periodically connect the nodes to a power grid is almost impossible. Figure 1. PDA’s.4). 1. the more electrolyte and electrode material there is in the cell. Indeed it could be possible to recharge the onboard battery by solar cell as a possible solution. In any case. Thus the capacity of a cell scale with its size a this is the principal reason for that it doesn’t follow the miniaturization historical trend (Fig. Introduction computer.Historical ICT improvements with battery energy density trend [16] 22 . cell phones.Chapter 1. However. the greater the capacity of the cell.
like printer paper to boost total output (every film can produce 2. battery research seems to find a rebirth helping by nanotechnology. automobiles and medical devices. A research team at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has implemented a “paper battery” designed to function as both a lithiumion battery and a supercapacitor by infusing carbon nanotubes into a cellulose substrate with a lithium hexafluorophosphate solution[17]. In addition. Introduction 1. The sheets can be twisted. the possibility to stack many layers solves the problem of low surface area and low current output typical of the small electrode of an cubic centimeter inchip battery[18].1.1 Batteries Going beyond this trend requires developing innovative storage technologies or searching for a new energy source but recently.Chapter 1. In fact. folded. 23 . durability and of containing aqueous electrolyte. rolled.2volts but there are problems of inherent nonuniformity of current[19].5volts of electrical potential). This discover can revolutionize the microbatteries research field. The nanotubes works as one electrode and the lithium metal that cover the white side of the film is the other. aircraft. Their light weight and the inexpensive material make them attractive for portable electronics. or modeled in to numerous shapes with no loss of efficiency or stacked. Either bidimensional thin film or threedimensional microbattery with electrode surface of 34cm2 could have maximum current throughput of 20mA at 4. they are biodegradable a major drawback of chemical cells.3.
Micro fuel cells also offers an higher power density (100mW/cm2 for µDMFC up to 250mW/cm2 of UltraCell RMFC [20] has demonstrated in 2005) than microbattery thanks to high surface to volume ratio but seems to operate good only at higher temperatures. This technology can drive a cellular phone on standby for 6 months as opposed to 2 weeks with lithium ion batteries. These devices differ from conventional electrochemical cells and batteries.3. at micro scale they show of it only a 20% of maximum efficiency for methanol type. At large scale fuel cells can produce sufficient power for an electric car engine or an house backup energy system. Although these technologies presents many advantages and are 24 . Introduction 1.2 Micro Fuel cells Another promising storage device is the micro fuel cell that new state of the art fabrication technologies have permitted to realize. Both technologies involve the conversion of potential chemical energy into electricity. The main important feature is that their energy density is higher than an order of magnitude then conventional batteries (18 kJ/cm3 Vs 2 kJ/cm3 of ordinary battery) . and in the process it produces electricity leaving nothing but an empty reservoir or cartridge. So. even if at large scale these device have reached 4590% of efficiency. But while a conventional cell or battery employs reactions among metals and electrolytes whose chemical nature changes over time. A proton membrane separate the proton from the hydrogen atom and with electrons recombine with oxygen atoms on the other side. the fuel cell actually converts the chemicals hydrogen and oxygen into water or another fuel such as methanol from which extracting hydrogen (DMFC Direct Methanol Fuel Cells).Chapter 1.1. a notebook computer for a week.
Introduction attractive for the microscale world. Furthermore. There are also disadvantages like not so small size (the most commercial are of to order of centimeter). NEC). 25 . While they reach significantly higher power density (10kW/kg) their energy density if only one order of magnitude lower then common battery (∼100J/cm2 Maxwell Technologies. Because of their very long lifespan (even one million recharge cycles). No chemical reactions are involved in their energy storage mechanism so that they provide a very high efficiency. high costs.1.3 Ultra capacitors A middle way between rechargeable batteries and common electric capacitors is represented by ultracapacitors. 1. high performance to release high power in a short time. they are not yet mature. They are like capacitors that store electrostatic energy via charge separation but using electrodeelectrolyte interface instead of classical dielectric layer. short charging.Chapter 1. Many applications ∼ that need high power peak performance can benefit from ultracapacitors but they could be employed in wireless sensor nodes only working in conjunction with ordinary batteries as a secondary power sources. they are attractive for many applications even working in parallel with classical batteries.3. This imply more energy dissipation due to the power control electronics. bad tolerance to wide temperature range. they are already limited by high costs. membrane corrosion.
Chapter 1.1 to 20W within a linear dimension of some millimeter up to 510cm. b) The P3 vapor cycle heat engine concept The P3 is based on a thin film piezoelectric PZT transducer that convert fuel energy into electrical.1. It is capable to run off a variety of sources. a B Figure 1. thermophotovoltaic microgenerator[25] and recently the very innovative smallest piezoelectric heat engine called P3[26]. The power performance predicted for micro heat generators ranges from 0.4 Micro Heat Engines The energy density of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel is of the order of 30kJ/cm3 so. Many approaches have been taken such as millimeterscale gas turbine engine[21]. free and loaded piston internal combustion engine[24]. A voltage 4V and 1mW of power have been achieved with membrane generators 9mm2 in area and 23 µm thick[27]. specially for wireless sensor micro node where the power request is small whereas their 26 . Introduction Heat 1.3.a) SiC coated MEMS Wankel engine components. if a tiny engine can convert it into electrical power. this so large power output does not always represents a benefit. However. such a technology would provide at almost 10 times the energy density of a Liion battery. the micro heat engine research field is one of the most funded all over the world. Nowadays.5 . from diesel fuel to solar energy or even waste heat from an hot surface or an exhaust pipe. 23]. MEMSscale Wankel rotary engine[22.
exhaust pollution. 63 i. the engine would intermittently charge up a secondary battery or capacitor.1. thrust. The second concept is based on selfreciprocating cantilever[29. The radioactive ∼ material could be in both solid and liquid form: current best candidates as nuclear sources of electric charges are. If the energy efficiency doesn’t overcome 20% the energy density of about 7 kJ/cm3 gains only a factor 23 relative to a LiIon battery. 210 Po. There are two main viable methods under investigation and at micronscale some prototypes have been realized. Introduction autonomy in time.Chapter 1. nuclear energy density is 3 to 5 orders of magnitude greater than chemical energy density (∼105kJ/cm3 Vs 7kJ/cm3 of Lithium battery). The first concept is that of a semiconductor junctiontype battery[28] that make use of betavoltaic effect. Furthermore. an alpha or lowenergy beta emitter can provide energy to MEMS for decades dependently only by the halflife of radioisotope (63Ni source has an halflife of 100. devices that burn fuel potentially involve issues with heat. for example.3.5 Nuclear microbatteries micro More exotic emerging power technologies like nuclear micro/nanobatteries have great potentialities as an onboard MEMS power supply. is more important. The betavoltaic effect is the generation of electrical potential due to net positive charge flow of the βparticle induced electron 27 . no gamma emitters are possible sources such as 238U for commercial application because of the heavy shielding needed to avoid heath risks and electronics damages. 3H. 30]. that depends on energy storage density. Evidently. 1. For example. In effects. noise. So.2 years). or safety.
28 . b) View of the bulkicromachined inverted pyramid array. Introduction hole pairs (EHPs).Chapter 1. c) Picture of a packaged sample of betavoltaic microbattery based on a planar Si pndiode with electroplated 63 i [28]. the emitted charged α or β particles are collected by a cantilever plate faced in front of radioisotope source. In the cantilever concept. As electric field of the depletion region sweeps the induced charges across the junction a resulting current is created from n to ptype layer. c a b Figure 1.7a). the cantilever became like an intermittent oscillator and its kinetic energy can be converted into electrical by means of piezoelectric material or a magnetic transducer (fig.6 a) Betavoltaic microbattery based on a pnjunction with the the inverted pyramid tank of Liquid 63 iCl/HCl solution. 1. The increasing electric force created deflects the beam until it contacts a groundelectrode. After this point the beam initiate to oscillate while the plate restarts to collects other charges for another cycle. In this mode.
pacemakers or any other medical implantable microsensors). Introduction a b Figure 1. they are not yet suitable for high power devices. b) Sensor microchip with onboard PZT nuclear generator [30].5% it’s been demonstrated for betavoltaic working prototypes up to 2% for a 2cm x 1cm x 0. The electric power of µ them range from 10nW/cm3 for betavoltaic technology to about 10µW/cm3 of PZT cantilever resonator type. In this case. space missions. The effectiveness of this method is on the effective quantity of the power adsorbed over that transmitted. 1.2 Power distribution methods Direct power distribution to sensor nodes or generic mobile devices is an other viable method in addition to energy stock method. they have no high efficiency: only 0. the energy density or power density per unit volume is not a good metric to measure the performances because the power received primarily depends by the efficiency of the power transferred to them.e.Chapter 1. Moreover.7 – a) Drawing of a 63 i radioisotope piezoelectric cantilever.3.5cm PZT nuclear resonator. 29 . Although these technologies are particular attractive for longlasting applications (i.
However with the use of resonant coupling.Chapter 1. Wireless technologies were being investigated and implemented by many physicists during the early 1900s. this technology is not suitable for midrange and longrange (510 meters and beyond) power distribution. Then. far field wireless power transfer systems based on traveling microwaves have had no great success because of the health and safety risks due to strong interaction of focalized microwave beam with biological tissues. For instance. the power transmitter needs to emit 1014 watts of radiofrequency radiation. Assuming a maximum distance of 10 meters in the frequency band of 2.1 Electromagnetic Radio Frequency Distribution Wireless Power Transmission through RF electromagnetic field is not a new idea.2. in a demonstration performed by Bill Brown between 1969 and 1975 a microwave ray of 30Kw was beamed over a distance of 1 Mile at 84% efficiency. Nevertheless. After that.42. wavelengths produced are far lower making it no more dangerous than being exposed to radio waves. the safety limitation would need to 30 . WiTricity (WirelessElectricity) technology developed recently by a MIT research group[5] is based on near field inductive coupling through magnetic fields like RF ID tags. They were able to transfer 60 watts with ~40% efficiency over distances at about 2 meters. Consequently. Introduction 1.3.485 GHz and that a single node consumes at max 100µW. ‘λ’ is the wavelength of the signal and ‘r’ is the distance between transmitter and receiver. Nikola Tesla designed his own transmitter with powerprocessing capability some five ordersofmagnitude greater than those of its predecessors. The power transmitted to a node is expressed by P(r) = Po λ2/(4πr2) where ‘Po‘ is the transmitted power.
as the power transmitted fall more realistic as 1/r4 indoor the efficiency will follow the same trend as well. Besides. On the other hand. 1. In effects. these methods 31 . if at first glance deliver energy to sensors with a laser directly focused toward them is possible. it would be convenient method only in new architectures or devices where the power grid for sensors should be foreseen in the design.2 Wires. a power scavenger would be limited only by failure of its own electromechanical components.Chapter 1.2. In fact. a sound wave of 100 dB has a power density less then 1µW/cm2 that is far from the 100µW/cm3 target discussed before. lasers The advantages of distribute power to sensor nodes by means of wires are very limited. For example. Finally.3.3. But for dense sensor network this way is not practicable due to high costs. Extracting energy from acoustic wave could be feasible power source only for ultralow power devices or nanodevices. this method does not present so many benefits and it is very complex and expensive for sensing applications. the most attractive way to provide “perpetual” power to sensor avoiding the refueling and making it completely selfsupporting seems to be the “energy harvesting” method.3 Power harvesting methods Doubtless. 1. Introduction be exceeded to power a dense wireless sensor network. acoustic. prohibitive maintenance and reduced flexibility. acoustic.
3. rather than energy density.Chapter 1. there is not a unique solution suitable for all environments and applications. each one with its forms of renewable energy source. they are primarily characterized by the power density. Instead. Thinfilm polycrystalline cells are not expensive but show efficiencies of only 10 – 13%. Introduction are not yet deeply explored because of the complex variety of environments. Unlike energy reservoirs.45mW/cm2 provided by a 60W desk lump down to 0. 1. it has good performance in both indoor light conditions and outdoor environment with an efficiency that ranges from 8 to 13%.1 Solar source Solar energy of an outdoor incident light at midday holds an energy density of roughly 100mW per square centimeter and up to 0.010mW at the surface of an office desk[12]. However. So that. 32 . power scavenging sources provide the energy for the time during which the source is in operation. So. the lighting power density in indoor environments ranges from about 0.15mW/cm2 on cloudy days. A cadmium telluride (CdTe) thinfilm cell type has a very wide spectral response. these type of solar cells are not suitable for indoor environments because they are affected by severe degradation of the open circuit voltage[31]. Commercially offtheshelf single crystal solar cells offer efficiencies of about 15% and up to 2040% for the state of the art expensive research cells.3. Therefore.
More cheaper plastic organic photovoltaic devices have been recently fabricated[34] and exhibit an efficiency of 2.8 a) Integrated beacon circuit with an onboard 3x2cm2 Panasonic BP213318 CdTe solar cell [32] b) 16 mm3 mockup with an integrated millimeter solar panel (Smart Dust [33]) For these reasons.3. 1.8a). But we must take into account that at 33 . it is selected which best candidate as a power generator that can operate directly or in conjunction with rechargeable battery for wireless sensor applications (fig.5%.3.Chapter 1. Introduction b a Figure 1. This is too low for our scopes but researchers promise to reach values like that of the inorganic cells at an half cost.22 Kg/m3 at standard atmospheric at a velocity between 2m/s and 6m/s the power density ranges from about 20µW/cm2 to 10mW/cm2 for a conversion efficiency of 20%. Assuming an air density of 1. Even though it needs a proper power electronics to transform the current for the battery and to optimize its lifespan. 1.2 Air flow The wind flow power goes as cubic power of its velocity “v” and it is direct proportional to air density “ρ” and cross sectional area “A” by the relation P=(1/2)ρAv3.
the heat power that flow through conduction along a 1cm length for a ∆T=5°C is 7W/cm2. Others[37] groups have recently demonstrated a thermoelectric efficiency factor of 0. Exploiting the Seebeck effect some research groups[35. All of those have the efficiency related to the Carnot law expressed by equation η=(TmaxTmin)/Tmax. piezothermal effect).3. the electric power obtained at Carnot efficiency will be 117mW/cm2. in which thermal power is convened to mechanical power by means of a thermodynamic cycle that approaches the ideal vapor Carnot cycle.Chapter 1. Unlike largescale windmills have reached efficiency of 40% thanks to even more sophisticated material technology and shapes. Considering a silicon device with thermal conductivity of 140W/mK. gradients 1. A more efficient approach that has already been catalogued as “micro heat engine” is that of external combustion engine. for a temperature difference of 10°C the efficiency is about 3. 36] have implemented a silicon microthermoelectric generator µTEG capable of generating from 10 up to 40µW/cm2 at 10˚C temperature differential. at small scale the research is currently quite poor because the applications are bonded to airy environments. At first sight this could be seems an excellent result but the real devices have efficiencies well below the simple Carnot rule. thermocouples. Hence.3 Temperature gradients Several approaches to convert thermal gradients into electricity are currently under investigation (through Seebek effect.83 µW/K2cm2. Introduction low velocity the efficiency normally does not overcome 5%.3.3%. So that. Mechanical power is converted into 34 .
These make use of the so called Inertial Power Generators based on 2 gram “proof” mass mounted offcenter on a spindle. the efficiency of this technology does not overcome on the average 17%. While it is possible to obtain a power density of 300µW/cm2 (mostly from walking energy µ scavenging). But generally. 1. so that the effective mean power harvested is about 1. This called P3 thermo engine[26. the problem of a no loss transmission of electrical energy to wearable 35 . For example.5 Watt. Many research groups and industries are currently working on the most efficient technologies to tap the energy worn by human body.3. 27] is theoretically capable of ~ 1 mW/mm2 and over.5MJ that corresponds to an average power dissipation of 121 Watts within an interval of 80 1600 Watts. piezoelectric insert embedded into a shoe can capture energy "parasitically" from footfalls (theoretically available from 58 Watts up to max 68W) while walking[38].Chapter 1. Introduction electrical power using a thinfilm piezoelectric membrane generator.4 Human power The energy burnt by an average human body every day is about 10. the mass rotates on the spindle and winds the mechanism. Some models such as ETA Autoquartz SelfWinding Electric Watch or Seiko AGS system Seiko creates 5µW on average when the watch is worn and 1mW when the watch is forcibly shaken. excluding some advanced prototype.3. However. also scaled up these kind of scavenging energy systems do not produce more that 10mW. Wristwatches powered by both the kinetic energy of a moving arm and the heat flow from the surface of the skin are yet available. As the user moves during the day.
for a ∆T=10°C thermal variation per day the corresponding energy change would be 1. military devices and so on. these ways could be both impractical and not cost efficient when applied to dense network of sensor nodes. which is about 17 µW/cm3.e. transports.3.4 Joules. 1. terrains.3. So.3. So.Chapter 1. humans activities. Their characteristics are various: spectral 36 . While. Vibrations 1. Helium) and R a gas constant. there are no recent advances in implementing largescale systems. considering that a pressure changing due to temperature variation for a fixed volume of ideal gas follow the state equation ∆P=mR∆T/V where m is the mass of the gas (i.5 Pressure variations Another renewable power source could comes from atmospheric pressure and/or thermal variation. The possible energy available E for a fixed volume V and a pressure variation of ∆P is merely given by the equation E=∆P*V . Although there are yet some devices that incorporate power supply system that make use of phase changing of a fluid like “Atoms clock”. If the pressure varies of 677 Pa once per day the available power density would be 7. however.3. Mechanical vibrations occur in many environments such as building. Introduction sensors still remain.6 Vibrations The first important virtue of random mechanical vibrations as a potential power source is that it is present almost everywhere. industrial environments.8nW/cm3. we are tens time below desirable power density for sensor nodes.
Frequently. illustrated in figure 1. the most of vibrational energy is located at fairly low frequencies (below 500Hz). In order to establish how much power comes from vibrational excitation Roundy[10] from Berkley and a other MIT groups[16] have performed a characterization of most common environments like typical office building.List of vibration sources [10] . Another strong point is that as solar the vibration source is a renewable µ source as well. vibration spectra of a microwave casing. shows sharp peaks in magnitude around 120Hz and 250Hz. Introduction shape from low to high frequency. Even for a milling 37 . Theory and experiments of many research work shows that the power density that can be converted from vibrations is about 300µ/cm3. manufacturing plant. In figure 1.10. machines. so.Chapter 1. As an example.9 are shown a list of vibration sources measured with a standard accelerometer and ordered from greatest amplitude of acceleration to least. it has no lifetime and in addition it is not limited to the sunlight areas. amplitude and time duration are manifolds dependently by the surroundings.9 . Figure 1. human activities and household appliances.
Chapter 1. as the most of macroscopic systems. Figure 1. Another important characteristic that is common to most vibration source is that the power spectrum tends to fall off as ω2. Vibration spectrum of this source measured with an accelerometer by a group[39] have two main resonant peaks to consider and those peaks at about 400 Hz and 1400Hz. Other source such as water jet assisted drilling gives rise. Many meso and microscaled energy 38 . Introduction machines the peaks of fundamental mode fall around 70Hz with few higher harmonics close to 150 and 200Hz. Likewise for a wooden deck the first vibration modes appear at 350Hz and at 240Hz for a refrigerator.10 Displacement and acceleration spectra for a turned on microwave oven and milling machine [10]. to large mechanical vibrations in bandwith below 1KHz. The sharp peaks at low frequency indicate the fairly sinusoidal shape of displacement and acceleration signal in time domain. While their narrowness is proportional to quality factor Q of the oscillating system.
38. 10. Three are the principal concepts to convert mechanical vibration power into electrical one: piezoelectric. b a Figure 1. But. Introduction scavenging generators have been developed in the last five years by an increasing number of research groups[4. Far from fundamental frequency of the environment. we take into account that excitation is highly dependent by the environment. at small scale the narrowtuned oscillator posses a natural resonance frequency ωn of some kilohertz (roughly ωn=k/m where k is the effective elastic constant and m the inertial mass). The predicted power density that a such kind of microscaled generators can extract from vibrational source ranges from 4µW/cm3 (human motion—Hz) up to on 800µW/cm3 (machines—kHz). 16. In facts. electromagnetic. that’s for hypothesis within a band below 300400Hz.11 a) SEM photo of the fabricated cantilever prototype[43].Chapter 1. 4042]. 39 . These models will be more deeply analyzed in the next chapter. This constitute a great limit. the resonator is mismatched and the efficiency falls down. 9. electrostatic. All of these works are addressed to realize scavenging generators that must be tuned to the fundamental vibration frequencies of the source. a simple shakedriven flashlight can delivers 2 mW/cm3 at 3 Hz). where the most of energy of the vibration spectrum is sited. although larger structures can achieve relatively higher power densities (for instance.
40 . such as batteries and fuel cells.4Comparison of power sources In order to make a direct comparison between fixedenergy source.16 µW. it is difficult to use the same metric.11 of a 5mm cantilever piezoelectric resonator with a inertial Nickel mass 0. and renewable energy sources.Chapter 1. Because some sources like batteries are benchmarked by energy density while other are characterized by power density such as solar cells. Introduction b) cross section of piezoelectric cantilever.02 grams has a natural frequency of about 608Hz and its power output is 2. 1. they can be characterized by power per square centimeter rather then cubic centimeter. a demonstrated prototype showed in figure 1. For example. In order to obviate to frequency detuning problem we have exploited the properties of nonlinear dynamic oscillator that will be discussed in a comprehensive manner in chapter 2 and 3. Some devices do not need of the third dimension so.
and vibrationbased systems need sufficient vibration sources. it’s improbably that any single solution will satisfy all applications.2 – Comparison of various potential power sources. Conversely vibration sources are generally omnipresent and can be readily found in inaccessible locations such as building walls or inside of machines. How it has been already stated before.1. Introduction Table 1. Green highlighted are renewable energy sources while the red ones are the fixed energy alternatives.Chapter 1. 41 . have analyzed the characteristic of various power sources so far discussed (tab. thermal gradients need sufficient temperature variation. fig. 1. S. Solar cells require sunlight.12).2. This is a starting point for the choice of optimal way for sensors. Roundy [15] Roundy et al. because each method has its own constraints.
While both energy drain and leakage determine a variation in time for chemical batteries with inflection point for rechargeable types. 42 .Chapter 1. Introduction Figure 1. So that.12 – Average power available Vs time from batteries and scavenged energy sources. within one year the batteries can support efficiently a wireless sensor nodes (assuming a 100µW of consumption) but going beyond 2 year arise the refilling problem for those rechargeable and over 5 year the primary batteries cannot provide the same power level of solar cells or vibrationbased generators. low level vibrating environment) but they are no function of lifetime. S. Others interesting indicators for a comparison among the various methods (especially for batteries) are the specific power defined as power over weight ratio and specific cost per watt. Roundy [15] It can be noted that solar and vibration power density can be range within an interval of 101000µW because of environmental conditions (outdoor or in indoor office light condition for solar cells.
13 . In any case.13). the renewable power sources converted by means piezoelectric and photovoltaic transducers present performances comparable with fuel cells. these 43 .(a) the specific power range and (b) the power density for different methods. Besides the combustion engines that have the highest specific power (fig. Introduction Figure 1. Flipsen[44].Specific cost of all energy storage systems.Chapter 1. Figure 1. 1.14 .
Introduction methods do not have the problem of high noise output. toxic exhaust fumes and instability of electrical power from the system typical of combustion engines. 44 . while.Chapter 1.14) but this research was been conducted for power demands in 100mW–30W. Instead. size scalability and lifespan are the most important parameters. nonlinear bistable oscillators and vibration noise source as a basis from which simulations and the experiments have been implemented. for micro devices both specific power and costeffective are not so critical. In the next chapter we deal of existent methods for vibration to electricity conversion with a focus on theoretic mathematical models for linear. On the front of costeffective the piezoelectric seems to be the worst solution (fig 1. then for mesoscaled devices.
1Existent vibration to electricity conversion methods There are three possible devices that can transform ambient vibrations into electrical energy: • • • variable capacitor (electrostatic fields) electromagnetic inductor (electromagnetic fields) piezoelectric transducer (straining a piezoelectric material) 45 .Chapter 2 Vibration driven microgenerators 2.
The best transducers systems should be those that can maximize the coupling between the kinetic energy of the source and the conversion mechanism dependently entirely upon the characteristics of the environmental vibrations. Vibration kinetic energy is best suited to generators with the mechanical component attached to an inertial casing which acts as the fixed frame. 2.1.1 Electrostatic generators This conversion methods is based on use of a variable capacitor. with particular focus on piezoelectric cantilever model. The capacitance for a parallel plates capacitor in term of the insulator dielectric constant k=ε/ε0 is given by: 46 .2. vacuum or an insulator).Chapter 2. Further details on dynamic and equivalent circuit models will be explained in the next paragraph 2. A brief analysis of strength and weakness points of the existent transducer models will be outlined in this paragraph.e. accelerometers) as well as for actuators. Unlike the simple fixed capacitor the metallic plates of variable capacitor can be in motion in order to vary its capacitance. Vibration driven microgenerators These three methods are commonly used for inertial sensors (i. It simply consists in two plates which are electrically isolated from each other by a dielectric (typically air. As the separation between the plates (typically nanometer or microns for a MEMS) varies the energy stored in the charged capacitor changes due to the work done by an external vibrating force. The case transmits the vibrations to a suspended inertial mass producing a relative displacement between them.
1) where A is the plate surface. A current flow through a load shunted to plates in order to balance the fixed voltage. Vibration driven microgenerators C = kε 0 A d (2. while. with the difference that if a constant charge is held into the plates (i.5) then.6) 47 .4) At constant voltage. A similar method like fixed voltage is that of charge constrained. by means of a battery or another capacitor). ε and ε0 are the permittivity of the dielectric material and vacuum. V= Qd ε0 A (2.e.3) and the electrostatic energy stored within capacitor that is given by 1 1 1 E = QV = CV 2 = Q 2C 2 2 2 (2.2) hence. in order to vary the energy it’s needed to counteract the electrostatic force between the mobile plates that is 1 AV 2 Fe = ε 2 2 d (2. the voltage across the plates is expressed by definition from V = Q/C (2. d the relative distance. the electrostatic force is given by 1 2d Fe = Q 2 εA (2.Chapter 2. the mechanical work against this electric force done by an external force like vibrating excitation is transformed into electrostatic potential energy when varying the capacitance.
Cpar the parasitic capacitance associated with the variable capacitance and interconnections.Simple circuit sketch for an electrostatic converter.[10] The maximum potential energy per cycle that can be harvested by this configuration is expressed as first approximation by the following formulas 1 2 Cmax + C par E = Vin ∆C Cmin + C par 2 1 E = VmaxVin ∆C 2 (2. 2. the voltage constrained offers more energy than the charge constrained approach. A manner to increase the output electrical energy for the charge constrained method is add a capacitor in parallel with the variable harvesting capacitor. This parallel storage capacitor effectively constrains the voltage on the energy harvesting capacitor.1 .Chapter 2.1) where Cv is the variable capacitor. A base circuit was designed by Roundy (fig. finally. Vibration driven microgenerators but in general.7) (2.8) with ∆C=CmaxCmin and Vmax which represents the maximum allowable voltage across a switch. 48 . the switches which transfer the electric current toward the storage capacitor and regulate the charging that can be substitute by diodes. Figure 2.
[46] For the Outofplane gap closing type there are several problems. a b c Figure 2. there are three kinds of electrostatic generators (fig. Vibration driven microgenerators Up to now. Table 2.1 it is shown the electrostatic force variation for the three configurations in function of the displacement x of the inertial mass. Outofplane gap closing.2 – a) inplane overlap varying b)inplane gap closing c) Outofplane gap closing For the inplane overlap topology (a) the capacitance changes by changing overlap area of interdigitated fingers that implements the multiplates capacitor. The gap x must become very small in order to obtain a large capacitance change but.Chapter 2.1) that are based on both constrained charge and voltage[44.1 . While for the other two types the capacitance changes by changing gap between fingers (b) or large plates (c).Electrostatic force variation for the three configurations. Inplane gap closing. 45]: Inplane overlap varying. as the fluid damping force is proportional to 1/x3. the loss becomes very large as the plates move 49 . In Table 2.2.
Chapter 2. 50 . the minimum dielectric gap. Furthermore. For this type of configuration the motion of plates is in the plane of the substrate.2) the Inplane gap closing type offers the highest power output with an optimized design producing 100 µW/cm3. A possible solution may be to set the MEMS device under very low pressure. Vibration driven microgenerators close together. As it has been investigated by Roundy[47] (fig. Therefore. It can be noted that the maximum power occurs at very small dielectric gaps. the scalability of its size through MEMS technology is the first reason why electrostatic converter is attractive.3 –Power output vs. and thus the maximum capacitance can be precisely fixed by incorporated mechanical stops. outofplane gap closing is the next highest and the last in performances is inplane overlap varying. this design concept exhibits the problem of shortcircuit contact as the plates get close together. 2. one of the principal negative side is the high working frequency (∼510KHz) of these generators. Inplane gap closing converter solves this problem. The planar design of an electrostatic converter has the potential to be tightly integrated with silicon based microelectronics that are readily available. a b Figure 2. therefore. On the other hand. Nevertheless. dielectric gap for a) inplane overlap varying and b) inplane gap closing converter for different device thicknesses.
4 –Interdigitated fingers of MEMS prototype variable capacitor.2 Electromagnetic generators Amirtharajah et al. Anyway the power output for a square centimeter variable capacitors that have been developed so far range from 10 to 100µW.[9] have previously proposed and developed electromagnetic generators that exploits the relative motion of an electrical conductor in a magnetic 51 .Chapter 2. 2.4mm with a 2×10−3kg inertial mass driven by a vibration amplitude of 95µm at 50Hz is capable to produce a scavenged power of 70 µW. Vibration driven microgenerators recently some groups [48] reports on MEMS electrostatic converter with high electrical damping capable to operate over a wide low frequency range (<100 Hz): a silicon microstructure of volume 81mm2×0.[47] Many other group are focusing in realization of low frequency operating converters like Tashiro [49] which has developed an honeycomb structured electrostatic generator that harnesses ventricular motion operating at heart beat frequency 12Hz with the aim of driving a cardiac pacemaker permanently.1. Figure 2.
in fig. Faraday’s Law states that the induced electromagnetic field produced by a changing magnetic flux ΦB is given by ε =− dΦB dt (2.Chapter 2.5). 2. 2.5 – a) Drawing of inductor generator. the maximum open circuit voltage across the coil is 52 . 2. Vibration driven microgenerators field produced by a permanent magnet.5a). Amirtharajah [9] b) Crosssection of the waferscale electromagnetic generator proposed by Williams[50] There are many other preferable configurations: for example with the magnets attached to a cantilever beam acting as inertial mass[51] or that proposed by Williams et al. The device simply consists of a mass m connected to a spring with elastic constant k that is attached to a rigid case (fig. for a coil moving through a perpendicular constant magnetic field.5b.9) hence. The ambient vibration excites the housing which transmits the mechanical displacement to the inertial mass. The consequent variation of magnetic flux through the coil generates an inducted current in accordance with Faraday’s law. In this way the part of kinetic energy stored in the movement of massspring system is converted into inducted current (fig. b a Figure 2.
high output current levels are achievable. Second. the almost total absence of mechanical contact between any parts improves reliability and reduces mechanical damping. many problem arise relatively to the implementation of planar permanent magnets.6KHz of resonant frequency.Chapter 2. maximum device size is 1cm3. electromagnetic transduction has some strength sides. There is a wide variety of magnetic springmass concepts implemented with various types of material[5053] that are well suited and proven in cyclically stressed applications. unlike electrostatic conversion. at submicron scale. and about the magnetic field intensity and coil design.25 m/s2 at 120 Hz. and 100µW at 330Hz. l is the length of a winding and x is the relative vertical distance between the coil and magnet.10) where is the number of turns in the coil. Making a few assumptions: baseline vibrations of 2.5mm achieves 35mW of maximum power at 12. Some of those with size of 5mm x 5mm x 1. Far more realistic estimates of present technology range within 50mV. But. Moreover. the predicted power generation was 1µW for an excitation frequency of 70Hz. For a typical 5mm x 5mm x 1mm device. 53 . minimum line and space for coils fabrication and most of all limited amplitude of vibrations (∼10µm). no separate voltage source is needed to get the process started. it can easily be shown that output voltage does not overcome 100mV. First. because it requires a rectifier and transformation electronics to be raised. Vibration driven microgenerators Voc = Bl dx dt (2. Though the low voltage represents an bad limit. B is the strength of the magnetic field. otherwise always less then 1 Volt.
Vibration driven microgenerators 2. they became electrically polarized and the degree of polarization was proportional to the applied strain. PbTiO3. piezoceramic materials (e.6 .Piezoelectric elementary cell. screen printable thickfilms based upon piezoceramic powders [55].g. They found that when certain ceramic crystals were subjected to mechanical strain.1. BaTiO3 composites [54]). Figure 2. Materials which show piezoelectricity are widely available in many natural and manmade forms: single crystal quartz. these materials deform when exposed to an electric field. Conversely. Lead Zirconate Titanate. sputtered zinc oxide). cane sugar. (1) before poling (2) after poling. polymeric materials such as polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) [56] and nanostructured material[57]. thin film (e.g. Rochelle salt.3 Piezoelectric generators Piezoelectric ceramics have been used in many applications for many years to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.Chapter 2. The direct piezoelectric effect was early demonstrated by Jacques and Pierre Curie in 1880. 54 .
the same crystal exposed to an electric potential will experience an elastic strain causing its length to decrease or increase according to the field polarity. Applying an electric field (> 2KV/mm). Figure 2. b) polarized state. the raw piezoelectric material has these domains randomly oriented.[58] Groups of dipoles with parallel orientation form the so called Weiss domains (fig. When it is subjected to mechanical distortion along one direction. aligned electric dipoles are formed due to spontaneous separation of electronic clouds from their individual atomic center and this lead to a macroscopic net polarization of the crystal lattice (fig.6). Each of these effects result almost linear within small length variation relative to the crystal size. It is also reciprocal. c) electric applied after poling.Chapter 2.7 . After poling action the material 55 . the material expands along the axis of the field and contracts perpendicular to that axis. 2. The compressive and tensile stresses along one single direction will generate a parallel electric field and a consequent force that opposes to the length variation.2. a) onpolarized state. Vibration driven microgenerators The origin of the piezoelectric phenomenon is due to the asymmetry in the cell unit of the material.7).Behaviour of piezoceramic material.
T is a stress tensor. sE is an elastic compliance matrix when subjected to a constant electric field E. D is an electric displacement vector. E is an electric field vector. When an electric voltage is applied to a poled piezoelectric material. Vibration driven microgenerators presents a remanent polarization (which can be degraded by exceeding the mechanical. d is a matrix of piezoelectric constants. 56 . thermal and electrical limits of the material) and it is grown in the dimensions aligned with the field and it’s contracted along the axes normal to the electric field.Chapter 2. In this way the piezoelectric solid is ready to work as a sensor of actuator transducer. The coupling between the electrical and mechanical behaviour of the material has been approximated by static linear relations between electrical and mechanical variables: S = s ET + dE D = dT + ε T E (2.11) where: S is a strain tensor. εT is a permittivity measured at a constant stress. the Weiss domains increase their alignment proportional to the voltage causing the expansion/contraction of the piezoelectric material.
8 – otation of axes The Piezo ceramics structure is anisotropic. is not a practical coupling mechanism for vibration energy harvesting in the majority of applications. however. The direction of polarization (3 axis) is established during the poling process by a strong electrical field applied between two electrodes. When a compressive strain is applied perpendicular to the electrodes that extract the voltage the d33 coefficient determines the electromechanical coupling whilst if a transverse strain is applied parallel to the electrodes piezoelectric generator exploits the d31 couplingcoefficient. the elements of piezoelectric beams or films are coupled in the transverse direction because such a configuration is more practical and it multiplies the applied mechanical stress. In general. and 3. Vibration driven microgenerators (z) 3 6 direction of polarization 5 2 (y) 4 (x) 1 Figure 2. termed 1. 5 and 6 identify rotations (shear). 2. 57 . Though compressive strain can produce much more high voltage then that transverse.Chapter 2. Y. are introduced (analogous to X. To identify directions the axes. thus the piezoelectric effects is dependent on direction. Z of the classical right hand orthogonal axial set). The axes 4.
or the strain developed for an applied charge density. ε and s.2 .2 shows the fundamental constants that characterize piezoelectric material such as k. Vibration driven microgenerators Table 2. Table 2. In figure 2.Coefficients of common piezoelectric materials [46]. The matrix element kij is defined as the ratio kij = Eie Em j (2. Finally. 58 .9 an equivalent circuit of a piezoelectric element that works as a voltage generator (on right) and a conceptual design of a common cantilever implementation of transducer (on left) are represented. The matrix gij is defined as the electric field generated per unit of mechanical stress.Chapter 2. This describes the efficiency of energy conversion of the material between electrical and mechanical form in a given direction. ε is the electrical permittivity of the material which is defined as the dielectric displacement per unit electric field and s which is the compliance matrix namely the strain produced per unit of stress.12) between the electrical energy Eie stored along the iaxes and the mechanical input energy Eim along the jaxes. g.
The voltage source represents the voltage that develops due to the excess surface charge on the crystal. In reality. The series capacitor Cp represent the capacitance of the piezoelectric layer which is proportional to the film permittivity and area and inversely proportional to the film thickness. Moreover. Assuming that the mechanics take place along a single axis then each variable or constant is treated as a single scalar quantity rather than a tensor. Vibration driven microgenerators Piezoelectric generator Cp Rp Vp RL Figure 2. small mechanical damping material and unlike the variable capacitors they do not necessitate of separate voltage source. The open circuit voltage that results from an external mechanical stress σ on piezoelectric beam with thickness t is defined by the expression Vout = − d ⋅t ε σ (2.Chapter 2. Rp represents the internal piezoelement resistance and RL a purely resistive load. Among the main advantages of piezoelectric transducers we find the possibility of direct generation of suitable voltages and currents [44].13) while the average power dissipated by a simple resistive load will be PL=VL2/2RL.9 – Conceptual design and equivalent circuit of piezoelectric generator. the recent manufacturing process has permitted to implement 59 . we have to consider an input impedance of power electronics attached to the generator rather than a simple purely resistance.
Summary of maximum energy density of three types of transducers From the table 2. Table 2.4 Energy density of transduction mechanisms A fundamental starting point to benchmark the three methods so far showed can be made by considering the theoretical inherent energy density and summarizing the strength and weakness side of each one. 60 . Finally.1. Vibration driven microgenerators piezoelectric MEMS with thin film under one millimeter[59] but some problems of a decrement of piezoelectric coupling and an high resonant frequency still remain. The following table realized by Roundy et al. [10] shows the practical and theoretical maxima of energy density for each transduction techniques.7mJ/cm3 and the other techniques that produce only 4mJ/cm3.3 it jumps to the eye at once the gap between practical power density of piezoelectric mechanism that is 17.Chapter 2.3 . 2.4. the advantages and disadvantages points of each mechanicaltoelectrical energy conversion method which have been discussed are summarized in the following table 2.
So. On this basic choice a generic theory of linear and nonlinear resonator with piezoelectric coupling will be discussed in the next paragraphs. the nucleus of this thesis.2Dynamics of linear transducer: linearity and transfer function 61 . [15] From this comparison it is clear that the most desirable conversion method results that piezoelectric one which presents the major number of advantages. Anyhow.4 .Summary of the comparison of the three transduction mechanisms. Vibration driven microgenerators Table 2. transducer: 2. can be also applied to electromagnetic and capacitive techniques.Chapter 2. it is for these reasons that this is currently the best choice to realize the micro vibrationdriven generator for energy harvesting to power sensor nodes. that is the idea to exploit the nonlinear dynamics to enhance the efficiency of energy conversion.
as secondorder springmass oscillators. The energy losses by friction are related to the internal mechanical damping which is expressed by dm . while. machine) and that the vibration source is an infinite energy reservoir. in effects.10 – Drawing of a generic vibrationtoelectricity transducer. An external vibration moves out of phase with the inertial mass when the generator housing is vibrated at resonance resulting in a net displacement that we call for simplicity x(t). m.Chapter 2. on a spring of stiffness. Vibration converters can be seen.10 shows a generic model proposed early by Williams and Yates[50] of such a system based on a seismic mass. In this mode the vibrating source is unaffected by the movement of the generator. For simplicity. between the mass and the frame. it can be assumed that the inertial mass m of generator is much smaller then the vibrating mass of ambient (wall. Vibration driven microgenerators Making use of the linear system theory it is possible to express a simple generic model for the conversion of kinetic energy of a mass that undergoes to a vibrating excitation into electrical energy. If we consider the displacement y(t) of the vibrating 62 . k. k x m dm+de y(t) Figure 2. floor. Figure 2. de defines the electrical induced damping coefficient due to the electromechanical conversion.
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
housing rather than the external force, the differential equation of motion for the mass m is the next
ɺɺ ɺ ɺɺ mx (t ) + ( d m + d e ) x (t ) + kx (t ) = − my (t )
(2.14)
the force on the mass is equal to the force on the massspringdamper, that, for a sinusoidal vibrating excitation is
ɺɺ f (t ) = − my = Y0 sin(ωt )
(2.15)
The simple steadystate solution for the mass displacement of the equation (2.14) is x(t ) =
ω2
(d e + d m )ω k 2 −ω + m m
2 2
Y0 sin(ωt − φ )
(2.16)
setting dT =dm+de the total damping coefficient, the phase angle φ is given by
φ = tan −1
dT ω 2 k −ω m
(2.17)
Maximum energy can be extracted when the excitation frequency is tuned to the natural frequency of the system that is given by
ωn = k / m
(2.18)
The instantaneous kinetic power p(t) transferred to the mass is the product of the force on the mass and its velocity.
ɺɺ ɺ ɺ p (t ) = − my (t )[ y (t ) + x(t )]
(2.19)
Taking the Laplace transform of equation 2.14 and 2.19, the transfer function is
X (ω ) ω2 H xf (ω ) = = 2 Y (ω ) −ω 2 + 2iω (ζ e + ζ m )ωn + ωn
(2.20)
63
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
and the power dissipated by total electromechanical damping ratio, namely
ζT=(ζe+ζm)=dT/2mωn, is expressed by
ɺ2 Pdiss (ω ) = mζ T ωn X = mζ T ωnω 2 f ⋅ H xf
that is
2
(2.21)
Pdiss
ω mζ T Y0 ω 3 ωn = 2 ω 2 ω 1 − + 2ζ T ωn ωn
2
3
2
(2.22)
At natural resonance frequency, that is ω=ωn , the maximum power is given by
Pdiss
3 mY0 2ωn = 4ζ T
(2.23)
or as a function of excitation acceleration amplitude A0=ωn2Y0.
Pdiss
mA02 = 4ωnζ T
(2.24)
For steadystate solutions like these, power remains limited and does not tend to infinite as the damping ratio tends to zero. Separating parasitic damping ζm and transducer damping ζe for a particular transduction mechanism forced at natural frequency ωn, the power can be maximized from the equation
Pel =
mζ e A2 4ωn (ζ m + ζ e )2
(2.25)
for fixed acceleration amplitude A, when the condition ζe=ζm is verified. Mechanical dissipation cannot be avoided in a real system and as a matter of fact it can be regulated to improve the conversion mechanism. As we can see from the
64
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
graph 2.11, for a sufficient acceleration, increasing the total damping coefficient will results in a broader bandwidth response or the oscillator which loss the power transferred. So, the damping factor control the selectivity of the device.
6
5
ζ=0.05 ζ=0.1 ζ=0.2 ζ=0.3
4
Power
3
2
1
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
ω/ωn
Figure 2.11 – Frequency spectrum of power generation around the resonance frequency of the generator for different damping factor
It is clear from 2.22 that the inertial mass of generator should be maximized within the geometrical constrains in order to obtain the maximum electrical output. For a given acceleration level, power output is inversely proportional to the frequency. Furthermore, it is necessary to know the spectral shape of vibration noise source well to properly design the transfer function of a linear resonator. So, it is critical that the natural frequency of a linear generator match the fundamental frequency of the driving vibrations. Unlikely, it is not always simple to find a source that concentrate the vibrational energy around a single frequency constantly. Often, the most part of kinetic energy (like that of a seismic vibration) is present at low frequency or in a
65
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
wide bandwidth that changes in time. For instance, inside a car tyre or on aircraft the spectral power density could vary a lot in time domain. Up to now, there are no so many solutions to face up this limitation. Systems with active tuning or multimodal resonator are under investigation [60, 61] but they present some problems of size scaling and energy losses due to the control electronics and mechanical configuration for autotuning process. This linear model proposed by Williams and Yates is only a first approximation and neglects the details of transduction mechanism. It is a fairly good model for electromagnetic transducers, but we must consider that the electromechanical coupling term is not always linear (most of all for piezoelectric system) and necessarily proportional the velocity as the mechanical damping as well. Nevertheless, the relationships 2.222.24 are useful to characterize linear generators and this model can be a starting point to compare the efficiency between linear and nonlinear harvesting devices. In facts, it’s quite simple to calculate the electromechanical induced damping term ζe for each type of conversion mechanism in first approximation. More detailed conversion models for a piezoelectric system in linear and nonlinear regime will be discussed in the next paragraphs.
Systems 2.3Nonlinear Energy Harvesting Systems in a DuffingDuffinglike potential
66
For now.12. For the sake of simplicity we restrict ourselves to onedimensional case. η is the damping coefficient.26 differential equation becomes the Langevin equation ɺɺ(t ) = −δ x (t ) + ax − bx 3 + σξ (t ) ɺ x (2.Chapter 2. As it can be seen from figure 2.26) where m is the inertial mass that we can normalize to 1. here we only give the basic equations and qualitatively description.27) from such a potential the 2.28 cannot be calculated analytically but only numerically. σξ is the stochastic external excitation and the conservative Duffing potential is the quartic well U ( x) = −a x2 x4 +b 2 4 (2. With a close to zero the potential still has only one equilibrium position at x=0. but the basis shape of the well becomes even more flat until the critical condition a=0 is reached. for instance.28) Accounting the driven random force. The equation of motion of a massspring damped oscillator which is moving in a constant Duffinglike[62] potential is ɺɺ ɺ mx(t ) = −η x(t ) − dU ( x) + σξ (t ) dx (2. the stochastic differential equation 2. we show the basic dynamic model of a bistable damped oscillator which is forced by random vibration noise. a Gaussian distributed white noise with zeromeanvalue and variance σ 2 that is ξ (t )ξ (t ') = 2δ (t − t ') . 67 . for a fixed b>0 and a<<0 the potential resemble to quadratic harmonic well and in fact the oscillator behaves likewise a linear resonator. Vibration driven microgenerators For the purpose to explain the main idea on which is based our research.
a certain dynamical regime can outperforms the kinetic energy transfer from the source to the system. Vibration driven microgenerators 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 4 2 U Hx L a<< 0 a= 0 x 2 4 60 40 20 U Hx L a> 0 4 2 20 2 4 barrier height x a>> 0 Figure 2. maintaining b fixed at a positive value and varying a it is possible to pass from a linear dynamical regime to more complex soft/strong nonlinear dynamical behavior of the oscillator.Chapter 2. Dependently by the statistical characteristics of noise such as standard deviation σ and its autocorrelation time. When a>0 bistability arises with the formation of two relative energy minima at x± = a / b separated by a potential barrier with height ∆U = a 2 / 4b . In this way.12 – Biquadratic potential well for fixed b>0 and various values of a. 68 .
Chapter 2. it has been chosen to test the main concept of the present work. but some aspects related to the energy spectrum and dynamics requires a deeper insight into the stochastic dynamics of the oscillator because analytical descriptions do not exists.12. the inertial mass m sees as a stochastic force ξ(t) applied to itself. Bistable systems have been extensively studied in the presence of noise both in the classical[63] and in the quantum domain[64]. inverted 2. Using a piezoelectric 69 . These will be explained with the help of simulations and experiments discussed in the next chapter. Furthermore. the mass is subjected to a restoring elastic force relates to the effective stiffness Keff and it is damped by a viscous force relates to the coefficient η. Looking the system from to the reference frame of the clamping base. An effective mass is attached at the upper tip of a rigid bar with a global moment of inertia I. A basic model of an inverted pendulum with a restoring spring is sketched in fig. We are going to expose in the next paragraphs the basic models of bistable vibration based transducers which were used in the simulations and experimental tests. The clamping base is forced to vibrate by a random shaking force f(t). If part of its bar is made by a flexible piezoelectric beam it realizes a nonlinear vibrationbased energy harvesting system. for the sake of simplicity. Vibration driven microgenerators Inserting inside the oscillator an electromechanical transduction mechanism we obtain a scavenging energy generator whose dynamics is tunable by few parameters and it will able to adsorb vibrating energy from a narrow or wide frequency bandwidth. 2.1 The inverted piezoelectric pendulum The inverted pendulum is one of the simplest mechanical bistable device to realizing at macroscopic scale.3. So.
31) setting the following parameters: 70 . it will be included in the model as electromechanical coupling term which is characterized by effective piezoelectric coefficient Kv and its inherent capacitance Cp. Then.13 – a) Basic models of a vibrating inverted pendulum and b) its equivalent with piezoelectric element In the mechanical inverted pendulum represented in figure 2.30) ɺɺ θ = aθ − bθ 3 − δθɺ + ξ '(t ) (2. we obtain the stochastic Duffing equation ɺɺ θ = which can be written mgl − K eff I mgl 3 η ɺ 1 θ − θ + ξ (t ) θ − 6I I I (2.Chapter 2.29) Approximating the periodic term with the Taylor series expansion around θ=0 sin θ ≈ θ − (1/ 6)θ 3 to the second order. Vibration driven microgenerators laminated beam as a support. it works also as a transducer element. ξ(t) m x Y θ mg l X k ξ(t) m k x η f(t) b) f(t) a) I Vp piezoelectric element Figure 2. the motion equation in the unidimensional angular variable θ is ɺɺ ɺ Iθ = − K eff θ − ηθ + mgl sin θ + ξ (t ) (2.13a.
it could be used a more complex ACDC harvesting electronic circuit (i. 65. b = I 6I η 1 δ = .9b) so that Ip(t)=Vp/RL.33) Where Ip is the current flowing in the equivalent circuit that could be assumed a purely resistive parallel load impedance (figure 2. 66].2 ≈ ± a / b . 2. One equilibrium position exists for mgl<Keff (a<0) that corresponds to linear behavior with m exactly above the rotation axis for θ=0. the governing equations system are so expressed: ɺɺ ɺ θ (t ) = aθ (t ) − bθ 3 (t ) − δθ (t ) − Kθ V p (t ) + ξ '(t ) ɺ ɺ C pV p (t ) = Kθ θ (t ) − I p (t ) (2.e. Two equilibrium positions: one at right and one left when mgl>Keff (a>0) that may be approximately calculated equating the opposing torques and are equal to θ1.14 – A typical ACDC harvesting circuit Rout Vc 71 . ξ'= ξ a= I I (2. Ip Vp Ce Piezoelectric transducer Figure 2.14) and with a more efficient current regulator system such as SSDS Synchronous Switch Damping on Short[6]. rectifier sketched in fig.31 we have two cases. Vibration driven microgenerators mgl mgl − Keff .2 ≈ ± 6(1 − K eff / mgl ) or in terms of reduced parameter θ1. Adding an effective piezoelectric coupling term KθV(t) that can be derived by structural geometry (relations 2.Chapter 2.35) of the piezoelectric bender [6.32) From the equation 2. Otherwise.
Vibration driven microgenerators As it has been previously mentioned. the piezoelectric pendulum can be easily implemented using a bimorph piezoelectric beam as shaft with a rigid steel or tungsten mass attached to its tip. the dynamical coupled equations (2. The effective coefficients related to material constants and particular structural geometry selected can be derived making use of modal analysis.15 rather than ‘θ’. This is the configuration that we have chosen for experimental setup which is outlined in figure 2.34) K eff Kv 1 3 ɺ x ɺɺ(t ) = Fa − x(t ) − 2δ K eff / m * x(t ) + Fb x (t ) − Vp (t ) + ⋅ σ ⋅ ξ (t ) m m m (2.34) V (t ) = K x(t ) − V p (t ) ɺ ɺ c p RL Cb where it has been considered that the ratio x/lb<<1.33) accordingly become the (2. tsh s lm m deflection x bimorph piezobender strain lb m tp Figure 2. Euler beam equation piezoelectric linear 72 .Chapter 2. Choosing as more practical observable the structural deflection ‘x’ in the configuration of figure 2. hence.15 – Basic design of the Inverted Piezoelectric Pendulum. from the Taylor series expansion θ ≈ tan −1 ( x / lb ) ≈ x / lb truncated at first order.15.
d31. The parameters Fa and Fb of 2. absolute dielectric constant. k1 the average strain to vertical displacement S/x.11 applied to piezocantilever modeling[61. Kc the second coupling term relating the voltagedisplacement ratio. 67] the electromechanical coupling constants are given by: a) K v = b) K c = c) d) k1 = k2 = K eff d 31a 2t p k1 t p d31YpE k1 aε p 3(t p / 2 + th / 2) lb (lc + lb ) 4I (t p / 2 + th / 2)(4lb + 3lm ) (2. εp. but it is not restrictive at all. Using the equations of piezoelectric linear theory 2. The choice of a bistable system as nonlinear system somehow simplifies the implementation of experimental test. Moreover.35) that are defined as Kv the first coupling term of the piezoelectrostatic restoring force KvVp. Vibration driven microgenerators theory. 2. the other are geometrical parameters showed in fig.Chapter 2. it could be possible to imagine oscillating systems which work in other kinds of 73 .34 are used to tuning the shape of elasticgravity bistable potential and they depend in this case by the gravity acceleration g and stiffness Keff. As we will see later. Some of them can be calculated or measured directly by an experimental setup. While.15. k2 the input force to average induced stress ξ/σin . piezoelectric elastic modulus and composite moment of inertia of the beam. YEp and I are respectively dielectric displacement coefficient.
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
anharmonic potentials for our scope. For example, oscillators moving on a periodic or complex multistable potential well are alternative systems that shall be investigated.
iezoelectric 2.4Bistable Piezoelectric beam in a repulsive magnetic field
Even though we chose a commercial material with an high mass density (i.e. tungsten
74 110
W density 19 gr/cm3), below millimetric dimensions the gravity force
becomes negligible respect to the elastic restoring force of a piezocantilever. Moreover, it is unpractical to constrain the orientation of a wireless sensor with its energy harvesting generator along only the axis of gravity force. An alternative bistable system feasible on both the macro and micro scale is an oscillator in a constant magnetic field that creates the bistable potential. A magnetic force acting to inertial mass on the beam end could be generated by a proper combination of permanent magnets and/or coils. This force can be repulsive or attractive in order to counteract or reinforce the restoring elastic force of the beam. In this way, we can adjust the shape of the potential well passing from mono to bistable dynamics. In figure 2.16 is represented a modified version of design in fig.2.15 that implements a piezoelectric beam with permanents magnets.
74
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
Y
hm
∆
permanents magnets
M2 r θ M1
ξ(t) excitation
lm m ‘xd’ deflection lb Piezo bender
X a) b)
Figure 2.16 –Piezoelectric inverted pendulum with permanent magnets
In the hypothesis of a relative distance ∆>>hm larger then the size of each magnet, we can assume the interaction between two permanents magnets likewise of two “point” magnetic dipoles. The force between two dipoles having the same magnetic moments M and their axes aligned equals[68]
Fm = ± ar 3µ 0 M 2 / 2π r 4
(2.36)
where µ0 is the magnetic permeability, r is the dipoledipole relative distance and ar is the unit radial coordinate vector. This supposition is not ever valid since it depends by the specific configuration. For short distance, in facts, the magnetic force goes as square of the distance. Nevertheless, the experimental test was resulted in better agreement with 2.36 rather than the inverse square of distance law. Making another
75
Chapter 2. Vibration driven microgenerators
strong assumption that the deflection xd is small relative to the beam length lb, we can consider the two dipole always aligned. In this case the tangential magnetic force can be neglected, then, the radial component of the magnetic force sees by tip magnet M1 projected along its cartesian coordinates results
Fm = 3µ 0 M 1 M 2 x 2 2π ( x + ∆ 2 )5 / 2
(2.37)
where the magnetic moment are considered in antiparallel configuration. So the conservative energy of the system is expressed
U ( x, ∆ ) =
µ MM 1 K eff ( x 2 + ∆ 2 ) + 0 2 1 22 3/ 2 2 2π ( x + ∆ )
(2.38)
Accordingly , the mass normalized governing equations of the system 2.39.
a) ɺɺ(t ) = −( K / m) x(t ) − 2δ K / m * x(t )+ ≈ ɺ x eff eff 3µ0 M 1M 2 x(t ) − ( K v / m)V (t ) + (1/ m) ⋅ σ ⋅ ξ (t ) (2.39) ≈ +(1/ m) ⋅ 2 2π ( x(t ) + ∆ 2 )5 / 2 V (t ) ɺ ɺ b) V (t ) = K c x(t ) − RL Cb
The dynamics and stability points of the system are now controlled by the relative magnets distance ∆ that now plays the same role of the parameter a in Duffing potential 2.27 as it can be seen from the plot 2.17. Adjusting this parameter the system passes from quasilinear monostable to bistable behavior. For large ∆ the system oscillates around the minimum located at zero displacement. When ∆ reaches a critical value the potential well becomes flat, thus, the system remains monostable but shows an anharmonic dynamics. After ∆ has overcomes this critical value, the potential shows two minima separated by a rising barrier with the decreasing of ∆.
76
u.42) The condition whereby the point x=0 becomes maximum is 77 . ∆) 2 2 = K eff x − 3 xK m ( x + ∆ ) 2 ∂x 5 7 − − ∂ 2U ( x.12 0.38 in Taylor series around the x=0 U ( x. 5 − ∂U ( x.14 ∆=5 ∆=7 ∆=8 ∆ = 10 ∆ = 15 ∆ = 20 0.41) with K m = µ 0 M 2 / 2π considering magnets with equals magnetic moments..08 0.17 – Effective potential at different values of parameter ∆. ∆) = K eff − 3K m ( x 2 + ∆ 2 ) 2 + 15 K m x 2 ( x 2 + ∆ 2 ) 2 ∂x 2 (2....) Figure 2.02 10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 x (a. 2 (2. Expanding 2. Vibration driven microgenerators 0.06 0. = .38) respect to x. The position of two minima can be computed by differentiating the energy expression (2.40) (2.04 0.1 U(x) 0. = 1 K eff ∆ 2 + K m ∆ −3 + K eff − 3K m ∆ −5 + .. ∆) = U (0. ∆) + U ' x = 0 x + (1/ 2)U '' x =0 x 2 + .Chapter 2.
1 Energy balance ɺ Consider now the energy balance.39b be multiplied by V p .43) Setting α = (3K m / K eff )1/ 5 .Chapter 2. and apart x=0. For ∆ < α the potential has three different zeroes derived by the equation U’(x)=0. Vibration driven microgenerators K eff 3K − 3K m ∆ −5 < 0 ⇒ ∆ < m K eff 5 1 (2.45) The barrier height is derived from the difference ∆U=U(0)U(xm) thus K eff 5 1 5 ∆U = K eff ∆ 2 + K m ∆ −3 − K m 2 2 3K m 3 (2. 2.4.39a be multiplied by x and 2.44) In the limit case for ∆ → ∞ the angular frequency becomes ω02 = K eff / m namely the classical resonant frequency for a linear harmonic oscillator. when ∆ > α there is an absolute minimum and the excited system must oscillates around it with frequency ω02 = (1/ m) U '' x =0 = (1/ m) ( Keff − 3K m ∆ −5 ) (2. Let 2.46) Where for a decreasing ∆ the cubic term dominates the concurrent square term. Integration of the addition of these two equations from time ti to tf gives the equation of the energy balance 78 . the others two are xm = ± ( 3K m / K eff ) 2/5 − ∆2 (2.
The physical meaning of all terms in energy balance equation (2.47) is described in the following table 2.47) ɺ ɺ ≈ − K m ∫ x( x 2 + ∆ 2 )−5/ 2 xdt + ∫ η x 2 dt + ∫ Vp I p dt ti ti ti where.Chapter 2.5. considering a purely resistive load the electrical converted energy term is tf f f V p2 tf tf 1 1 ɺ K vV p xdt = C p V p2 + ∫ V p I p dt = C p V p2 + ∫ dt ∫ ti ti 2 2 RL ti ti ti t t (2.48) and the last integral represents the electrical energy dissipated on pure resistive load RL. Expression tf Physical meaning Input energy ɺ ∫ σξ xdt ti tf 1 ɺ m x2 ti 2 tf 1 K eff x 2 ti 2 Kinetic energy Elastic energy tf ɺ − K m ∫ x( x 2 + ∆ 2 ) −5 / 2 xdt ti tf Magnetic energy ɺ ∫ η x dt 2 ti tf tf 1 ɺ kvV p xdt = C p V p2 + ∫ V p I p dt ∫ ti 2 ti ti tf Mechanical losses Converted electrical energy 79 . Vibration driven microgenerators tf 2 2 ɺ ɺ2 ∫ σξ xdt = m x t + Keff x t + C p Vp t + ≈ ti i i i 1 2 tf 1 2 tf 1 2 tf tf tf tf (2.
Vibration driven microgenerators Table 2. The energy balance and efficiency will be computed through numerical evaluation of the time averaged integral of mechanical x and electrical V variables multiplied by the ɺ velocity x . in order to evaluate the enhancement of the electrical and mechanical energy. On the other hand. As it be easily seen from the expression 2. being the excitation a random force. These were numerically simulated and in the next section will be shown and compared with experimental results.46 and numerically computing the discrete average value of the power terms in table 2. 80 .5.5 – Energetic terms definitions The relationships discussed here allow us to carry out an analytic interpretation of important characteristics of the nonlinear oscillator: the frequency of oscillation.Chapter 2. the rate of the intrawell jump e the distribution P(x) of the position as a function of noise strength. the motion equations become stochastic nonlinear differential equations that can be solved only through numerical methods whose results will be exposed in the next section. the important observables such as transferred mechanical energy and electrical converted energy are essentially related to the rootmeansquared value of xrms and Vrms.
1 Numerical Approach The nonlinear model of the piezoelectric generator in a Duffinglike potential. it is necessary to recur to numerical integration methods.Chapter 3 Numerical Analysis And Experimental Results 3.33). is described by nonlinear stochastic Langevin equations (2. we used the Euler−Maruyama method for discrete numerical integration of stochastic differential equations [69].3.1Analysis of Bistable Stochastic Oscillators 3. In order to solve such an equation system. In particular. Without giving a deeper insight 81 . since the oscillator was assumed to be driven by random excitation.1. presented in paragraph 2.
2) and correlation time τc. A concise explanation of the numerical integration method is shown in appendix A.31) in the onedimensional variable x.1) where Gw(t) is a Gaussian white noise with zero mean and δautocorrelation g w (t ) = 0 g w (t ) g w (t ') = δ (t − t ') (3. where we assumed m=1 ɺɺ(t ) = ax(t ) − bx 3 (t ) − 2γ x + σξ (t ) ɺ x (3. we want to describe now the statistical properties of the vibration noise source. While the autocorrelation function of process ξe is given by ξe (t )ξe (t ') = ξe2 exp t − t ' / τ c − with ξe2 = σ 2τ c / 2 .3) 3. here we have considered/examined a stochastic driving force like an exponentially correlated Gaussian noise ECG .1. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results of this method. we want to study the phenomenology of the simple noncoupled inverted pendulum.4) 82 . Unlike the linear analysis of precedent works in which a vibration source tuned to the natural frequency of the harvesting system was postulated.Chapter 3. (3. the equations used and the structural parameters of the prototype model. therefore.2 Simple Duffing Oscillator First of all. It can be defined as a stochastic process which satisfies the following differential equation [70] d ξ e (t ) 1 = − ξ e + σ g w (t ) τc dt (3.1. we can start from the noncoupled prototype Duffing equation (2.
we are now able to rewrite it in terms of discrete equations for two contiguous time steps ti.T ] be divided by points tj for j=1. we neglected the inherent errors in the random number generator and the floating point roundoff errors. X 2 = x .12) the error results strong e∆t := Ε X − X (T ) ≤ C ∆t1/ 2 .7) This equation system can be easily numerically computed by means of a simple code... Let the time interval [ 0. and. Instead.6) Adopting the EulerMaruyama method (A. we accounted for a sampling error that decreases as 1/ . we must discretize in time this nonlinear stochastic differential equation SDE.Chapter 3.5) (3. ti+1 X 2 (ti +1 ) = X 2 (ti ) + [aX 1 (ti ) − bX 13 (ti ) − 2γ X 2 (ti )]∆t + σξ (ti )∆Wi X 1 (ti +1 ) = X 1 (ti ) + X 2 (ti )∆t (3.. taking a sufficiently large number of samples . 83 . As integral forms this equations system becomes t t 3 X 2 (t ) = X 2 (t0 ) + ∫ aX 1 ( s ) − bX 1 ( s) − 2γ X 2 ( s) ds + ∫ σξ ( s)dW ( s) t0 t0 t X (t ) = X (t ) + X ( s)ds 1 0 ∫ 2 1 t0 (3. let the above second order SDE be turned into a system of two first order differential equations X 2 = aX 1 − bX 13 − 2γ X 2 + σξ ɺ ɺ X1 = X 2 ɺ where X 1 = x. with positive integer and t j = j (T / ) = j ∆t . A proper time step ∆t has been chosen sufficiently small to prevent the summation from diverging at the end point t=T since from (A. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results In order to perform a numerical integration.11). Furthermore.
noise intensity and autocorrelation time of the exponentially correlated Gaussian noise.1. random generators function and flexible plotting procedures. Initialization and integration of nonlinear SDE system 4. b). damp. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results Digital simulation programs shown in A. we examined the dynamics of the Duffing oscillator for different potential shapes and noise strength σ. the possibility to run the simulation on parallel architecture and the abundant mathematics tools for signal analysis. sigma. 84 .2) is structured as a function with the following sections: 1. tau represent respectively the time interval.Chapter 3. Keeping fixed parameter b of the quartic well and varying a. Fb. Generation of exponentially correlated Gaussian noise 3. Saving The input parameters of the function: T. quartic potential parameters (a. Declaration of constants 2.m (A. the damping coefficient. Fa.2 were realized in MATHLAB code. This choice for code language was made for various reasons: the ease of use. The parameters used for the first test are listed in table 3. Plotting 5. (The) listing 1 in the file wise_duffing.
umerical Analysis And Experimental Results Parameter Value σ γ m T ∆t τ a b [0. therefore.1 [s] [1.05 1 [Kg] 100500 [s] 104 [s] 0. 3.2.1] with step 0. the oscillator behaves like a linear springmass damped system and most of the noise power is located near its resonance frequency.Chapter 3.025 1 Table 3.1 –Parameters for Duffing model.025 0.12) while a<0. It is obvious that the quartic well is similar to the parabolic one (fig.025. 85 . Some realizations of simulated displacement x versus time are shown for a negative coefficient ‘a’ in fig.1] with step 0.1 and for its positive values in fig. 2. 3.
05 displacement 1 0 1 0 50 100 150 200 time [sec] 250 300 350 400 Figure 3. that is ω0 = (1/ m) U '' x =0 = −(1/ m) a . if we want to vary only this parameter taking b fixed. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results a = 1 displacement 1 0 1 0 50 100 150 200 time [sec] 250 300 350 400 a =0.5 displacement 1 0 1 0 50 100 150 200 time [sec] 250 300 350 400 a=0. 86 . In the case of simple inverted physical pendulum as a Duffing oscillator. According to the relation (2. Time at noise magnitude σ=0.1.1 – Displacement [m] Vs.05 and a<0.25 displacement 1 0 1 0 50 100 150 200 time [sec] 250 300 350 400 a=0.44). γ=0. The well base becomes even more flattened as the ‘nonlinear’ parameter ‘a’ approaches to zero. thus. even keeping constant the intensity of excitation force.32). it is sufficient to change the effective elastic constant of the oscillator. the oscillation amplitude enhances. parameter a is derived from the moment of inertia and the effective elastic constant (2. It is worth stressing that passing from quasiharmonic to nonharmonic potential. The first vibration mode presents a pulsation ω0 proportional to 2 a .Chapter 3.
25 displacement 2 0 2 0 50 100 150 200 time [sec] 250 300 350 400 a = 0.Chapter 3. when the potential barrier grows.1. Displacement traces for positive values of a shown in fig. 3. Therefore.05 displacement 1 0 1 0 50 100 150 200 time [sec] 250 300 350 400 a = 0. These jumps occur with even more low frequency as the barrier height increases.Displacement Vs. Indeed. the jump probability decreases exponentially according to Kramer’s escape rate [71] given by Pjump = (1/ 2π ) U ''( xmin ± ) U ''( xmax ) exp(−∆U / σ 2τ c ) (3.2 give reason of the origin of two equilibrium positions at x± = a / b separated by a barrier with height equal to a 2 / 4b . umerical Analysis And Experimental Results a = 0.5 displacement 2 0 2 0 50 100 150 200 time [sec] 250 300 350 400 a=1 displacement 2 0 2 0 50 100 150 200 time [sec] 250 300 350 400 Figure 3. Time at noise magnitude σ=0.8) 87 .2 . γ=0.05 and a>0. the monostable oscillation around zero is substituted by intrawell jumps between the two minima.
The variance of the random variable x accounts for the average magnitude of vibrations around its mean value along a time series and it is given by σ x2 = x 2 T − x 2 T 2 = xrms − x 2 (3. as we will see later. the system is constrained to oscillate mostly around one of the local minima with very rare jumps. the system is confined around one local minima and thus a lower rms is measured.Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results where σ and τc are respectively the intensity and the autocorrelation time of the excitation noise. We must point out that the time step ∆t affects in a crucial way the numerical convergence of the solution of the SDE. this one can grow as a polynomial function of matrix size. Taking a sufficient small integration step size ∆t is one of the key things for ensuring precision of the EulerMaruyama approximation to equation (3. After that. if the measurement time is significantly shorter than the inverse of Kramer’s rate.9) This is an important quantity for analyzing the dynamics and energy balance. 88 . Figure 3. but at the same time it is necessary to find a trade off with the computing time. If the measurement time is long enough. Indeed. compared to the inverse of Kramer’s rate. Each value is calculated over a realization of x series of = T / ∆t = 500 /10 −4 = 5 ⋅106 samples for 100 values of a. a critical value of barrier height has been crossed.4). The experimentally measured value of the variance (or rms if we have zero mean) is thus affected by the measurement time. On the contrary. then the measured rms coincides with the rms of the equilibrium process.3 below contains the measured standard deviation STD(x)=σx versus a at different values of noise intensity.
umerical Analysis And Experimental Results 0. This plot shows clearly the dynamical behavior discussed above.025. b=1 fixed and noise strength σ = 0. The dynamics is mainly trapped inside one minimum.3 . 3) a >> 0.5 σ = 0. There is an abrupt drop due to an insurmountable potential barrier ∆U over a critical value of a.075 σ = 0.05 σ = 0. The potential is monostable and the dynamics is characterized by quasilinear oscillations around the minimum located at x=0.1 STD(x) 0. 0.5 a Figure 3.6 0.Standard deviation in arbitrary units of displacement as a function of ‘a’ .5 1 1.3 0.05.Chapter 3.025 σ = 0. As we have stated before. this depends on the length of the finite 89 .5 0 0. The potential is bistable with a very pronounced barrier between the two wells.075. A raising peak in the nonlinear region around zero where the dynamics is characterized by frequent jumps between the forming two wells.4 0. There is a slight growing of the vibration amplitude when passing from the quasilinear to the flattened potential for a d 0.1 . 0. 2) a > 0. 0.7 0. Three distinct regimes can be identified: 1) a << 0.1 0 1 quasilinear region nonlinear region 0.2 0.
Figures 3.1[s]. the jumps between the two minima would not terminate and the variance would grow indefinitely.05.5 show the x standard deviation Vs parameter a and excitation noise variance σ2. Such a behavior could be seen as a high pass filtering effect. indeed. for an infinite time interval.4 – STD(x) versus ‘a’ and square of noise strength σ=[0. Figure 3. the low frequencies are primarily generated by intrawell jumps in the bistability regime. In fact. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results time series on which we measure the rms.Chapter 3. 90 .0.2] b =1 and autocorrelation time τc=0.4 and 3.
Since in a purely open circuit case the output voltage Vp of a Duffing piezoelectric oscillator is directly proportional to displacement x.13). ii) the drop. Indeed. mainly due to the decrease in the jump probability measured by the crossing probability defined in (3. for the open circuit case we get 91 . as shown by the equations (2.Chapter 3. The solid black line remarks the dependence of the maximum from parameters a and σ whose form is explained in the next theoretical analysis.5 – Top view. caused by the increase of the potential barrier height ∆U. The solid line is a theoretical prediction obtained with the following argument. The root of the variance of x in regime 3 can be roughly modelled as governed by two main contributions: i) the raising. the larger the standard deviation σ x = STD ( x ) is.33) and (2. The solid black line traces the fitting curve a = 3 theoretical prediction of the maximum shift. mainly due to the growth of the separation between the two minima.4 clearly shows the evolution of the maximum σx. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results Figure 3. σ2 from The top view of the 3D plot 3.34). the larger average extracted voltage Vp is.
Therefore. 3.23.3 Theoretical Considerations An attempt of theoretical interpretation of the curve in fig.3 could be made starting from qualitative considerations and statistical properties of the bistable system under observation. since it is simulated and measured in a finite time interval. Instead. for a>>0 we are in an entrapment region of x around one of the two minima and even in this case the dynamics is quite similar to that of a linear oscillator oscillating close to its stable equilibrium position.Chapter 3.1. The increasing of the average mechanical and converted electrical power output will follow the same trend since they are proportional to the root mean square of the displacement and electric potential. for the intrawell jumping region at positive a not far from zero. For a<<0 we identify quasilinear behavior or RMS of x that can be easily characterized. 3. we cannot consider a stationary state persisting for an infinite time. First of all. These results will be discussed in details in the next paragraphs. 3.33. the rate of intrawell jumps in a bistable regime depends on the rate between Kramer’s time and the total interval of time ∆T over which the dynamics is generated.2 and 3.10) The remarkable result shown by fig.4 is that the vibration magnitude in nonlinear region is six times larger than that in a linear region for some value of noise amplitude. the interpretation appears more 92 . umerical Analysis And Experimental Results 2 σ V = Vp2 − Vp p 2 = K 2 x2 − x 2 = p σ x Cp Cp Kp (3.
multiplied by Kramer’s jump rate (3. st = x 2 st = −∞ ∞ ∫ x P ( x)dx 2 st (3. The approach is the following. we get a function of a. σ ξ2τ c as a combination of modified Bessel functions In(r) of the first kind: x 2 st a = 2b I 3 ( r ) + I 1 ( r ) + I 1 ( r ) + I 3 (r ) − 4 − 4 4 4 I 1 (r ) + I 1 (r ) − 4 4 (3. 93 .st − x 2 (3.8). Let the variance be σ x2 = x 2 st − x 2 2 = xrms . σ ξ2τ c and computing the integral (3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results complex.Chapter 3. So we can try to approximate the variance σx using the root mean square of the state variable x for a stationary bistable system[71. 72] driven by a additive random noise.15) which represents the half ratio between barrier height and noise strength.b.13) with 0 as a normalization constant.12) st −∞ ∫ P ( x)dx and the stationary probability distribution is given by Pst ( x) = 0 exp(−U ( x) / σ ξ2τ c ) = 0 1 a b exp 2 x 2 − x 4 4 σ ξ τ c 2 (3.12). Assuming positive values for a.b.14) with r expressed by r= a 2 1 ∆U = 2σ ξ2τ c 2b 2 σ ξ2τ c 1 (3.11) The rms value of variable x in stationary case corresponds to ∞ x 2 rms .
b. it results 2 σ x2 ≈ x± ⋅ ⋅ Pjump = a ⋅ b 1 a2 exp 2 σ ξ τ c 4b (3. by virtue of the arguments discussed above. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results The relation (3. Moreover.Chapter 3.14) is a positive monotonic function in variable a proportional to 2 the square position of the minimum x± = a / b . computing the jump probability times x± for the Duffing potential.17) 2 and. the equation (3. Otherwise.18) where is a constant that can be properly chosen in order to fit the numerically simulated curve σ x2 = f ( a. ∂a − 2 1 a a 1 σ τ e ξc+ − b 2b σ ξ2τ c 2 ab ∆U − σ ξ2τ c =0 e ∆U (3. x 2 T ≈ (1 − Pjump ) x± 2 (3. σ ξ . For the sake of identifying the dependence of the maximum position. 2 2 To make qualitative considerations we equate xrms ≈ x± as a first approximation.st − x ≈ 2 2 2 x± − (1 − Pjump ) x± = ⋅ ( Pjump x± ) 2 (3. this mean will be null for the symmetry of the potential. we can consider the squared mean of x as the product between the complementary Kramer’s jump probability 2 Pjump and x± . we compute the partial derivative of σx with respect to a. because.19) 94 . ∂σ x = 0.τ c ) . the oscillations will happen even more around one of the two local minima.11) becomes equal to 2 σ x2 = xrms. as the intrawell jumps decrease. keeping the other parameters fixed.16) In this way.
3. the theoretical prediction obtained by this formula is in good agreement with the numerical calculus.Chapter 3. the coefficients Fa and Fb are function of mass and moment of inertia. therefore. we have to simulate the two coupled equations (2.15. (3. anyway. we want to examine a generic Piezoelectric Duffing Generator (PDG) whose equivalent electrical circuit is the same designed in fig. 2. so. hence. and most of all a subcentimeter inverted pendulum is 95 . The governing equations are really those of a simple inverted pendulum shaken by a vibrating force at clamping base containing the Duffing term k / m( Fa x − Fb x 3 ) responsible to control the bistability.20) As it can be seen from the solid line in figure 3. does not yet incorporate mechanicalintoelectrical conversion terms. they are not uncoupled. Right now.2Piezoelectric Duffing Generator So far.5. Note that in the case of the inverted pendulum this term arises from the gravity force applied on the mass. This model. It is not possible to vary these parameters independently. we have discussed some important features of the nonlinear dynamics of a bistable system our idea is based on.35) in the case of a pure resistive load. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results obtaining that σx reaches a maximum when a = bσ ξ2τ c for a given noise intensity.9.34) with coefficient relationships (2. The model geometry is the same exposed in figure 2.
Nevertheless. apart from the gravity. electrical or magnetic field. Using a dimensionless form of such an equations system makes the numerical simulation much easier. tɶ and parameters are dimensionless.21) To achieve this form we made the choice of the following unknowns ɶ ξ (tɶ ) = ɶ x(tɶ ) = ξ (tɶ ⋅ t ) ξ (3. in order to study the dynamical and electrical behavior more generically.22) x(tɶ ⋅ t ) x V (tɶ ⋅ t ) ɶ V (tɶ ) = V ɶ =t/t t With following reduced parameters 96 . an other conservative force directed toward the clamping base can reproduce the repulsive effect that counterbalances the elastic restoring force. elastic spring. Thus. for now. for example. we have opportunely chosen these parameters of a simulated mathematical model to change the bistability of the Duffing potential and observe displacement and output voltage. After a little algebra. we can express the new form with reduced coefficients: d 2 x(ɶ) ɶt ɶ ɶ ɶ dx(t ) − ΘV (tɶ ) + σξ (tɶ ) ɶ ɶ ɶ ɶ3 ɶ2 = ax(tɶ ) − bx (tɶ ) − ζ ɶ dt dt ɶ ɶ dx(tɶ ) dV (tɶ ) ɶ =Θ − ΩV (tɶ ) dtɶ ɶ dt ɶ ɶ where all variables x . umerical Analysis And Experimental Results unpractical to use. (3.Chapter 3. This mechanism can be realized by using. V .
umerical Analysis And Experimental Results t = m/ K ξ = K / m⋅ x x = V Kv Kc K a = Fa − 1 Fb 6 con b = 2 b x ζɶ = 2ζ b= Θ= Ω= Kv Kc K t m / K τ 0 ωC = = = τ C ω0 RLC p RL CP (3. that is the situation of infinite load resistance for real model or infinite capacitance and the ɶ ɶ electric voltage V is directly proportional to displacement x . 97 . This influences the electrical power dissipated on load. if the piezoelectric cutoff frequency ωc is relatively high. The other important piezoelectric coefficient Θ regulates the mechanicaltoelectrical conversion strength and derives from the electrical and geometrical piezobender characteristics. Moreover. as it will be shown next. Ω is the dimensionless cutoff frequency of the equivalent piezoelectric circuit. for a high bistability it brings a loss of electrical power transferred to the resistive load. because most of it is filtered lying at a bandwidth under ωc . Actually. the opencircuit situation corresponds to the limit case of Ω = 0 .Chapter 3. So.23) where Ω represents the ratio between the piezoelectric cutoff frequency ωc and the natural frequency at short circuit ω0 = K / m in the limit of linear oscillator that is for a=1 and b=0. Likewise. the bistability pushes the power absorption from noise towards low frequencies. for dimensional equation. the piezoelectric element works as an high pass filter and.
where the first is multiplied by mass and velocity and the second one by the electrical potential.23) we obtain the following dimensionless average power formulas listed in the table 3.34). Simulations were made simultaneously running many time series for equal and/or different parameter space on a 20nodes computer cluster. using the set (3. averaging the statistical observables of the same constants and parameters series. starting from dimensional governing equations (2.2 below.2 – ormalized power expressions.3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results In order to evaluate the power balance. Power expression Description ɶ Kv 1 ɶ dx ɶ Pin = ⋅ σξ K cC p Ω dtɶ Average Input Power Average Electrical power dissipated on resistive load 2 ɶ ɶ Pel = V 2 ɶ Ploss ɶ K v 1 dx = ζɶ ɶ K c C p Ω dt Average power dissipated by mechanical friction Average total mechanical power (potential plus kinetic) ɶ ɶ ɶ ɶ Pm = Pin − Ploss − Pel Table 3.Chapter 3. then. Then. The resulting mean power terms and efficiency are simulated for a set of plausible parameters listed in table 3. Dimensionless Value Description 98 .
6 [N/m] 0.01– 0. Let us give a glance of some displacement and voltage simulated outlines that show in time domain the dependency between them as a function of bistability parameter ‘a’ and.336 Value 0. 4e3 [m] 0.16 – 26. in particular by Ω .02 – 0.001 0. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results parameters σ tɶ ζɶ a b 0.2 step 0.011–1 0.278e3 .859x103 [V/m] Table 3. time effective elastic constant geometrical thicknesses geometrical dimensions Ω Θ Physical parameters τξ Keff tp.Chapter 3.27 – 6. but these can be varied in order to investigate many different geometry and material properties.3 – Model parameters The dimensionless electromechanical coupling coefficients Ω and Θ were derived from a realistic set of physical parameters (table 3.2e3 [m] 200e3. 99 . lm.0182 [Kg] 1.67 [Hz] 1.01 1 0.0025 0 – 2000 step 0.Wb m f0 Cp RL τc=RLCp d31 εp Kv Kc effective inertial mass natural frequency piezoel. le. capacitance load resistance discharge time longitudinal piezoelectric strain coefficient 12 190x10 [ m/V] (material PSI5A4E Lead Zirconate Titanate) elative dielectric permittivity 1800 coupling coefficient 1. 10e3.10x107 [F] 1100 [Mohm] 11 [s] noise strength normalized time damping potential parameter potential parameter dimensionless cutoff frequency coupling coefficient Description noise autocorr.1) step 0.1 [s] 1. lc.4 (1. tsh lb. 60e3. 140e3.85 [N/V] coupling coefficient 1. 0.3) of a physical macroscopic model similar to our prototype test model (exposed in the next paragraph).
Unless a little discharge effect.8. the voltage trace follows with almost direct proportionality the displacement of the bender.4 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 normalized time 350 400 450 500 a = 1 2 displacement 1 0 1 2 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 normalized time 350 400 450 500 a = 0.8 1 0. σ =0.5 1 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 normalized time 350 400 450 500 a = 1 0.2.5 voltage 0 0.014 ɶ =0.5 1 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 normalized time 350 400 450 500 a = 0. a relative cutoff frequency 100 .5 0 0. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results 1 displacement 0.6 – Displacement and voltage traces of PDG model with Note that at equal noise intensity the bistable regime shows an amplified oscillation due to the mix of intrawell jump and vibration close to each local minimum. This result is quite obvious considering the second linear equation (3.21).Chapter 3.1.4 0.2 0. for linear case (upper) a= 1. because.8 Ω =0. ζ Figure 3. and strong nonlinear (lower) a=0.2 voltage 0 0.
while the position variance does not experience an important variation as a function of Ω . displacement 2 a = 0. norm. voltage 0 0.7 .2 norm.8 and 3.4 0 2 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 normalized time 350 400 450 500 0. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results value of Ω ∼1 means that the converted electrical energy residing at lower frequencies is swept out by the piezoelectric high pass filter. In fact.9 remark a strong dependence of the harvested electrical power on the cutoff frequency.Displacement and voltage traces with Ω =1. Even more clearly. As it can be seen from these figures. ζɶ =0. for even more Ω ~1 close to one. the following plots 3.Chapter 3. the voltage bistability completely disappears.7. the rootmeansquare normalized voltage strongly depends by it.4.1 and σ =0. it drops and there is no difference in harvesting efficiency between the linear and nonlinear dynamics cause to power filtering. where a frequency Ω = ωc / ω0 > 1 was chosen and.1. This high pass filtering effect is straightway visible in figure 3. whereas. bistable parameter a=0.2 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 normalized time 350 400 450 500 Figure 3.13. 101 . for Ω <<1 the power peak in the bistability region (a>0) is maximized like that of variance. jumps apart.
035 σ =0.015 0.8 .1 and 0.Chapter 3.02 0.5 0 0.3 0. 3.5 2 a Figure 3.5 1 1.01 0. 102 .5 2 2 <x ><x> 0.2 0.5 0 0. 0.1 Ω = 0.1.4 0.1.5 Ω=1 Normalized Power 0.03 Ω = 0.2) at different ratios Ω and for ζɶ =0.005 0 1 0.5 Ω=1 0.1 Ω = 0.1 0 1 0.5 1 1.01 Ω = 0.6 Ω = 0.Displacement variance for different parameter Ω and with ζɶ =0.025 0.5 2 a Figure 3.7 0.9 –Mean electrical power computed as RMS normalized voltage (see tab.01 Ω = 0.1 and σ =0. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results 0.
Also the noise spectrum and. Indeed. the more noise energy lies at high frequencies.5 Ω =1 10 3 1 0. in order to utilize this voltage amplification effect in real applications.5 1 1. so that its behavior changes with the noise strength. the lowest τ ξ is.01 Ω = 0. the probability of diffusion over the intrawell barrier depends on the product σ ξ2τ ξ and we must bear in mind that the system is not linear. it is highly desirable to project the piezoelectric device and harvesting circuit with an Ω << 1 as low as possible. As it was 103 . therefore.10 – ormalized conversion efficiency at different ratios Ω and for ζɶ =0. This second optimization condition can be defined for dimensional equation as ωc << 1/ τ ξ ⇒ ωc << ωξ .1. So.Chapter 3. Actually.1 and σ =0. its autocorrelation time is an important parameter to know. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results 10 0 10 1 Efficiency 10 2 Ω = 0.5 0 0. But relating the dynamical response of such a bistable system to this parameter together with noise strength σ ξ is quite complex and needs to be further investigated.1 Ω = 0. probably far away from the cutoff frequency for a certain design.5 2 a Figure 3.
11 – Variance of normalized displacement Vs a.1. but looking at the next plots 3.014 and ζɶ =0. The broadening of RMS displacement x for a bistable system is a well known phenomenon. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results seen in the previous paragraph 3. This constrain corresponds to having σ 2τ ξ / ∆U > 1 . the position variance x2 − x 2 of a bistable system increases as much as the intraminima distance ∆U = a 2 / 4b while the noise strength and autocorrelation time make possible the diffusion over the potential barrier.Chapter 3.1. Figure 3.103. with Ω =0. 104 .11 it is remarkable how much the harvested electrical power gets advantage from it.
Chapter 3.13 – ormalized conversion efficiency given by electrical power over noise input power.12 – ormalized electrical power dissipated by resistive load. Figure 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results Figure 3. 105 .
umerical Analysis And Experimental Results It is noticeable that. varying the potential parameter 1<a<1.12) defined as the ratio between electrical power dissipated on load and input power supplied by the mechanical noise (as described in table 3. In terms of conversion efficiency (fig. for a fixed noise intensity σ 2 . In this plot it is better visible that the peak shifts as the square root of σ 2 on the plane ( σ 2 .14 – Efficiency (top view of plot 3.16. the conservative potential is paraboliclike and 106 . At a fixed RMS of the Gaussian noise σ =0. bistable sector (a>0) shows up an enhancement around a factor fivesix of the harvested power with respect to the monostable zone (a<<0). we have the same amplification in nonlinear zone. A spectral analysis helps us to confirm what we have so far stated and permits to retrieve much information about generated power as a function of normalized frequency for different potential shape. 3. When a=1.12).Chapter 3.15 and 3.20) predicts. Figure 3. we performed the spectra of normalized position and voltage by means of an FFT algorithm. respectively plotted in figure 3.2).a) just like the relationship (3.1 and b=1.
ɶ ɶ Figure 3. the intrawell jumps are frequent and we get a broadening of the power peak down to very low frequency in both position amplitude and voltage. the peak of resonance moves toward low frequencies and widens. As the potential well becomes even more flattened as a∼0 approaches to zero.Chapter 3.SingleSided Amplitude Spectrum of x (t ) Vs a and normalized frequency ɶ ω = 1/ tɶ (3D and top view). ɶ ɶ Figure 3.SingleSided Amplitude Spectrum of V (t ) Vs a and normalized frequency ɶ ω = 1/ tɶ (3D and top view).16 .15 . until the barrier height is relatively small. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results for small vibration close to equilibrium the oscillator behaves like a linear harmonic oscillator. As a consequence within 107 . In the range of bistability (a>0).
This is directly ∆ɶ reconfirmed by the previous graphs 3. by virtue of theoretical and practical considerations made at the beginning of this chapter. Thus.5 and depends on the choice of factor σ 2τ ξ as we have previously mentioned.Chapter 3. But. increasing a the two wells become even more narrow. a piezoelectric bender in an elastomagnetic tunable potential is a better way to implement a bistable system. the harvested power quickly goes down as the subtended area becomes even more narrow. the system restarts to become harmoniclike and the amplitude peaks of displacement and voltage shift toward higher frequency. Up to now. The entrapment of the system within one of the two potential minima roughly happens for a≥0. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results ɶ a frequency band ∆ω the mean converted electrical power increases being equal to ɶ the integral of square voltage amplitude Pel (∆ω ) = ɶ ∫ω Vɶ (ω ) 2 ɶ d ω . 108 . After that.1214 where the average power was computed in time domain. Let us discuss the experimental observations of such a model compared with the simulations in the next paragraph. we have discussed many aspects of a Duffing model used in conjunction with a piezoelectric transducer to show the effectiveness of the key idea on improving the energy harvesting from vibrations.
16. the bistability is yielded by magnetic interaction rather than gravity which can be neglected in this case (the inertial mass attached to piezobender is relatively small). Setting properly the magnetic dipole alignment and the distance or field intensity. one of the simplest technique to implement bistable piezoelectric device for energy harvesting is using a piezoelectric beam with a magnetic tip coupled with magnetic coil or permanent magnet placed at a certain distance. The physical model has been exposed in paragraph 2. we’re going to describe the real macroscopic model used for the experimental tests. we can reproduce monostable or bistable dynamics through a repulsive force. at submillimetric size and small masses. Now. As a matter of fact.3Piezoelectric Inverted Pendulum in a Magnetic Field As previously mentioned.Chapter 3. 109 . Moreover. The choice of a vertical pendulum configuration was made to reduce at the minimum the influence of the gravity force on inertial mass avoiding asymmetry. the experimental setup and the comparison of numerical and experimental results. this is an easytorealize design that can work at small scale yet. In addition. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results 3. Indeed. we have the great advantage as regards to Duffing oscillator to be able to control only one parameter (for example the relative distance between magnets) to tune the potential and regulate the nonlinear dynamics.4 and the geometry is the same drawn in picture 2. the gravity force is negligible and the device orientation does not constitute a problem.
reading displ. “x” excitation coils NI DAQ 16bit LabView sw 4 layers piezoelectric Ch3 noise Power supply Low noise filter clamping Vout . x Ch1 displ. xr CCD Laser displacement sensor excitation magnets beam defl. xy micrometric stage ∆ tip magnets xm tip displ. Here are described the piezoelectric bender.3. T434A4302 4Layer Bender by Piezo system inc. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results 3.) made of Lead Zirconate Titanate 110 .1 Experimental Setup and Characterization The following picture shows a schematic draw of the apparatus employed in the experiment.Chapter 3.Piezoelectric RL Load variable resistance micrometric xyz base Ch2 Vout across RL Figure 3. the excitation system and read out electronics. The inverted pendulum is realized with a fourlayer piezoelectric beam (mod.17 – Experimental apparatus.
The pendulum base position can be adjusted via a micrometric xyz displacement system.Chapter 3. b) a) Figure 3. The signal from the displacement sensor is sampled by a digital signal processing board (DSPB) controlled by a personal computer with sampling frequency 1Mhz (National Instruments interface DAQ). b) excitation coils. The distance ∆ can be adjusted via a micrometric displacement control system. clamped at one end. The digitalized signals are stored in the computer memory for postprocessing 111 . The pendulum mass is a 60mmlong steel beam with three magnets (dipole magnetic moment M=0.18 – Photos of experimental setup. The tip magnet is faced by a similar magnet with inverse polarities placed at a distance ∆ and held in place by a massive structure. The output voltage signal from the piezobender is measured through terminals of a variable load resistor RL placed in parallel with output contact of beam and sampled by the DSPB.002 Am2) attached. The displacement is measured via an optical readout with a CCDLaser displacement sensor (KEYENCE model LK501/503) with sensitivity of 1mV/10micron. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results (PSI5A4E) 40 mm long. a) global view.051±0.
The design parameters of the test model are displayed in table 3.10x107 [F] 1100 [Mohm] 1.411 [s] Description RMS noise effective force noise autocorr. 4e3 [m] 2. 12. 60e3. 0.1 [Hz] (6.1 [s] 1 [MHz] 0.5 [N/m] 6. Capacitance load resistance discharge time longitudinal piezoelectric strain coefficient 190x1012 [ m/V] (material PSI5A4E Lead Zirconate Titanate) elative dielectric 1800 permittivity coupling coefficient 0.6.2 [mN] 0.4 – Test model parameters specific properties specific properties Calculated Calculated 112 .6±0.6±0.33 coupling coefficient 1.0155 [Kg] 0. 0.4.9e3 [m] 143e3.2e3 [m] 72. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results elaboration. The signal generated by the DSPB is filtered and conditioned in order to reproduce the desired statistical properties.58±0.Chapter 3.051±0. tsh lb.05 FEA) 0. σ τξ fs oise parameters ζ Model parameters Keff f0 m tp. le. lc. through a couple of coils. lm.016 ±0.002 Value 26.3.97 0.32 2.002 [Am2] 1.Wb S1=lxr/lb S2=(lm+lb)/lb M Cp RL τc=RLCp d31 Value 0. 1.85 [N/V] coupling coefficient 1. The DSPB is also employed to drive a current generator that produces.4e3. Time sampling frequency Loss factor Description effective elastic constant first mode frequency effective inertial mass geometrical thicknesses geometrical dimensions geometrical dimensions geometrical scale factor geometrical scale factor magnetic moment Source Calculated by fitting set set measured measured measured and FEA modal analysis specific properties specific properties specific properties calculated calculated measured specific properties set set specific properties εp k31 Kv Kc piezoel.278e3 .859x103 [V/m] Table 3. the magnetic excitation that mimics the ground vibration.
4 y0 A1 t1 0 ±0 0.0 0 2 4 6 Time (s) 8 10 12 1000 900 800 700 Fit ω =k(1/m) k=27. (Lower) Fitted elastic constant.16 shows a sample of fitted ring down of RMS voltage referred to displacement channel.99155 f0= 6. 113 .2 0. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results Some of them are derived from the relations (2.19 – (Upper) Ring down sample of RMS voltage of displacement channel at open circuit.0 0.Chapter 3.016 Ring down Fit Data: QFACTOR_B Model: ExpDec1 Chi^2/DoF = 0.07524 0. 1. others from the technical data of the piezoelectric material and by measurements.6 rms (volt) 0.35) and modal analysis. The damping factor ζ has been extracted from averaging a series of ring down measurements carried out at open circuit. Figure 3.46707 ±0.8543 ±0.00055 R^2 = 0.8) 2 ω (s ) 1 600 500 400 300 200 25 30 35 40 1 2 45 50 55 1/m (Kg ) Figure 3.09 (err 0.02275 1.8 ζ= 1/ω0τ = 0.67 Hz 0.
we first computed the axial repulsive force with 2D finite element analysis of the magnetostatic field and then searched a suitable fitting function. (right) Repulsive axial force between magnets computed by FEA and fitted by the relation (2.83888 force (N) 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 0.020 0.000 0.94691 R^2 = 0.Chapter 3.00562 4.0531 ∆ (m) Figure 3. 3.005 0.2 Finite Element Analysis The dynamical behavior of the real model and powering speculations are supported by finite element analysis carried out both on magnetic force interaction and global piezomechanics features of the prototype using COMSOL multiphysics.010 0.015 0. that is varying the inertial mass attached to the piezobender and measuring the variation of first mode natural frequency. 100 90 80 70 60 Data: Br33dic2_B Model: magnetic_force Equation: 6e7*(P1^2)/abs((P2+x))^P3 Weighting: y No weighting Chi^2/DoF = 13.(left) FEM of magnetic flux density.05 ±0 0.00038 ±0.3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results The effective elastic constant and mass was retrieved by modal analysis. 114 . Since it is quite complex to derive an exact analytical expression to describe all the magnetic forces between two real permanent magnets in relative motion at different configuration and angles.025 ±0.20 .91776 P1 P2 P3 0.37).
we should also consider the term which accounts for the angle between the two magnetic dipoles. the fourth order polynomial function seems to fit better the FEA and experimental data than the inverse square law. for small oscillations and at medium relative distance ∆. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results Figure 3.37). The resulting dynamical behaviour and modal analysis of our model has been tested even with mechanical FEM of the piezopendulum.58 Hz first vibrational mode 20000 degree of freedom Figure 3.Chapter 3. Anyway.21 – FEM and tip displacement Vs time from monostable to bistable dynamics. 115 . f0=6.20 on the left shows the magnetic field flux streamline and intensity in air domain computed via finite element modelling for one of the many configurations. whereas for short distance the proper law approximately goes as the inverse square of the distance [68]. Actually. whereas on the right it shows the fitting of repulsive force data along the vertical axis for magnets with aligned dipoles using the relation (2. but in first instance it is possible to neglect it. We must specify that this analytical relation is valid for magnetic force between two aligned dipoles at relative long distance (r>>d where d is the linear dimension of a magnet).
hence.Chapter 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results In figure 3. barrier height w=0.21 there are plots of dynamical response of the pendulum subjected to vibrating noise at different bistable potential barrier height or rather from no magnetic interaction (∆>20mm) to relative strong repulsion force (relative close distance ∆∼10mm) before the total trapping around one stable position.001) and strong nonlinearity with (w=0.22) of the two extreme situations: quasilinear behavior for negligible repulsive force (w=0. The decreasing of the jumps frequency with an increasing potential barrier at even smaller distance is clearly visible. The mechanical power density spectrum (fig.001) and ∆∼10mm (w=0. Evidently.1). Figure 3. the finite element 116 . 3.1) respectively correspond to having a narrow peak and a broader power density distribution on frequency domain.22 – Mechanical power spectrum for ∆>20mm (norm. the subtended area of the bistable power spectrum is much more than that of linear case at low as well as at high frequencies.
1s. An example of its spectrum is shown in sho figure 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results model further confirms the efficiency enhancement on power transfer to the system for bistable dynamics with respect to linear dynamics.1s. 3.0010.3 Numerical and Experimental Results As for the acquisition of experimental data. Figure 3. We have conjectured as a first step this kind of uniformly .23 below.23 – Power Spectral density of input noise with τc=0.3. a realtime statistic and spectral time analysis has been carried out on two signals: displacement signal x (channel 1) and nalysis piezoelectric output voltage Vout across the resistive load RL (channel 2) made by ad hoc LabView program.Chapter 3. distributed force in frequency domain for two principal reasons: we want to speculate on how much energy could be extracted form a wide spectrum and the most part of it generally dwells at low frequency rather than at high ones. Whereas the noisy input force is generated via software controlled NIDAQ (channel 3) and then the signal conditioned by passband filter in DAQ pass order to obtain the desired exponentially correlated Gaussian distribution with various autocorrelation time τc=0. 23 117 .
3. 7 mm which corresponds to an increasing repulsive force and respectively to regimes of monostable quasiharmonic. bistable and high intrawell barrier height potential when the pendulum is bounded around one minimum. xm = s2 x . 3.Chapter 3. with s1 = lxr / lb and s2 = (lm + lb) / lb . 3. 3.24) perfectly follow the stable equilibrium positions corresponding to the potential energy (fig.38) slightly adjusted considering some geometrical scaling factors which connect the various position points (x. This plot reports the distribution of moving mass for effective driving noise rms σ=1.24a which are xr = s1 x .24b). This is derived from the expression (2. Indeed. The agreement between experimental data and numerical simulation performed through MATLAB program piezo_magnetic. as we can see from fig.2) seems to be very good. xr. the experimental distribution of moving position x of the mass is very close to the one expected from the numerical simulation: say within the relative experimental error: about 78% in both axis directions (error bars are not plotted to avoid confusion due to the large number of experimental points). umerical Analysis And Experimental Results The displacement variance and RMS voltage were computed on time interval ∆T of 1000 seconds with a sampling frequency fs of 1MHz. 118 . The relative maxima of displacement distribution (fig.25. 10.2 mN at three decreasing magnet distance ∆=24. xm) of the system as shown in fig.m listed in (A.
4 0.7 0.1 0. 119 .6 0. σ (Solid line) simulated distribution.0 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 ∆ = 7 mm ∆ = 10 mm ∆ = 24 mm distribution displacement (mm) Figure 3. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results Y ∆ xm b) xr lxr lm CCD x lb X a) Figure 3.Chapter 3.3 0. 0. b) Effective magnetoelastic potential of the oscillator with respect to scanned beam position xr and relative magnets distance ∆.10.2 m (σ/m=0.08 ms2) at ∆=7.25 – (Dotted) experimental distribution of xr displacement with RMS noise σ=1.24 mm.5 0.24 – a) System outline.2 0.
(solid) numerical prediction. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results Finally.6.6 mN σ = 0.0.26 we plot the standard deviation σ x computed on values of the stochastic displacement x(t) as obtained by the numerical solution of the Langevin equation of motion (solid line) and by the experimental data (scatter) for three different rms of effective noisy force ( σ =0. 3. that is the efficiency enhancement of the harvesting power.1. the most important confirmation of what we have claimed so far.3 mN 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 10 15 ∆ (mm) 20 25 Figure 3. The agreement between the experimental data and the model is very significant.2 mN σ = 0. 9 8 σx (mm) σ = 1. is shown in the following plots.Chapter 3.2 mN) applied to effective mass of the oscillator.26 – (Scatter) standard deviation σx of experimental displacement Vs magnets vertical distance ∆. In fig. 120 .3.
This condition accounts for the usual performances of a linear piezoelectric generator. 6 Vrms (Volt) 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 10 15 ∆ (mm) σ = 1.3 mN 20 25 Figure 3. (solid) numerical prediction.27 . as we would have expected.Chapter 3. the correspondent values of rootmeansquared voltage Vrms (fig. 121 . 3.4. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results In parallel.27) across the resistive load RL (100 MOhm for this test) show the same trend with the same maximum peak position as well as σ x .– (Scatter) experimental data of voltage RMS across the load Vs magnets vertical distance ∆. at the vertical position of the pendulum. As we previously analyzed in paragraph 2. looking at the plots (3.2526) we can easily identify the three different regimes: 1) when ∆ is very large the dynamics is characterized by quasilinear oscillations around the minimum located at zero displacement.2 mN σ = 0.6 mN σ = 0.
Chapter 3. This behavior amounts at a potential gain for energy harvesting between 200% and 600% compared to the standard linear oscillators. 3) in between these two regimes there is a range of distances ∆ where the σ x (and the Vrms as well) reaches a maximum value.3. b) In 122 .28) (that dissipated across the load Pe = Vrms / RL ). Moreover we would like to briefly comment about two other important features: a) the maximum position shifts toward larger distances ∆ when the noise intensity increases. even by looking at the plot of effective harvested power 2 (fig. It is more evident. In this condition. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results 2) when ∆ is very small. the pendulum swing is almost exclusively confined within one well and the dynamics is characterized once again by quasilinear oscillations around the minimum of the confining well. depending on the noise intensity and on the other physical features of the pendulum. that the maximum values of the rms exceed by a factor that ranges between 2 and 6 the value obtainable when the magnet is far away and thus the pendulum operates in linear condition. In this condition and for a fixed amount of noise. Such a regime is characterized by a bistable potential with two clearly separated wells. the potential energy is bistable with a very pronounced barrier between the two wells. the pendulum dynamics is highly nonlinear and the swing reaches its largest amplitude with noise assisted jumps between the two wells.
1 Hz and that simulated by FEM 6.3 mN Electrical Power (10 watt) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 ∆ (mm) 7 20 25 Figure 3.6 mN σ = 0.2 mN σ = 0. These features further support all the considerations presented in chapter 2 about the stochastic dynamics and potential energy.49 Hz (for ∆=30mm). umerical Analysis And Experimental Results the low ∆ regime. ω 0 decreases and then the σ x value 123 . The librational frequency around this minimum is derived from (2.28 – Electrical harvested power (dissipated on resistive load Pe = Vrms / RL ) 2 Vs magnets vertical distance ∆.6±0. 40 35 σ = 1. Both the measured value 6.05 are in good agreement to the limit case ∆ → ∞ when f 0 ≈ (1/ 2π ) K / m .Chapter 3.44) that is f0 = ω0 / 2π = 1/ 2π U '' x =0 / m =6. the rms values seem to reach a plateau that is smaller than the similar plateau reached by the rms values in the large ∆ . On decreasing ∆. when ∆ is very large the potential U ( x. In particular.58±0. The σ x value here can be estimated in the linear oscillator approximation as proportional to σ ω 0 [73]. ∆ ) shows a single minimum.
The agreement between the analytical and experimental values is almost perfect: for example. 3. the oscillator jumps now between the two minima and the σ x increases proportional to xr± . From this point. As demonstrated by the relation (2.29 – Barrier height ∆U and minimum ± position shift xr versus ∆. by decreasing ∆ the potential barrier height ∆U = U (0) − U ( xr± ) grows proportional to ∆−3 .0067±0.0067 (where the modified formula with geometrical ratios xr± = ±( s1 / s2 ) ( 3K m s 2 / K eff ) 2/5 − ∆2 has been used in fig. analytical minima results xr± =±0.46). The potential becomes bistable when ∆ is lower than the critical value ∆ c = (3K m s2 / K eff )1/ 5 : two distinct minima arise at piezobender displacement x± = ± ( 3K m / K eff ) 2/5 − ∆ 2 separated by a maximum at x=0.Chapter 3.0001). umerical Analysis And Experimental Results increases. 124 . at ∆=0.29 and experimental ones are xr± =±(0. Figure 3.007mm.
The sole difference is the expression of the conservative potential. the noise induced jump dynamics between the two minima becomes less and less effective. In the next chapter we will synthesize again the key results of the thesis subject and take a glance to the possible solutions based on this concept. Here the dynamics is almost linear with small oscillations around the potential local minima (x+ or x) with σ x value proportional to σ ω ± with ω ± 2 = U ′′(x ± ) m . The implementation designs and miniaturization issues are also outlined with some design example (bistable piezoelectric membrane) for which we have made an early inspection through finite element analysis. 125 . Being ω ± > ω 0 we have σ x . Basically. due to the increase of the barrier height. the three dynamical regimes are the same as well as the noticed efficiency enhancement. The role of the distance ∆ is played in the Duffing case by the parameter a.Chapter 3. Also in this case. umerical Analysis And Experimental Results The continuous growth of the σ x is interrupted when. This explains the observed shift of the maximum position toward smaller ∆ as observed in a).∆→0 < σ x . Such a trapping condition happens at smaller values of ∆ (larger barrier) when the noise is larger. we notice a 2 maximum values of the Vrms a factor 36 grater than the value obtainable in quasi harmonic domain. By further decreasing ∆ the barrier height is so large that the jump probability becomes negligible and the pendulum swing is permanently confined within one well. All these considerations about the nonlinear stochastic dynamics are inline with those previously exposed for the Duffing piezoelectric oscillator. ∆→∞ as observed in the experiment.
Chapter 4 Conclusions nonlinear 4. transduction mechanism and material research. All of these inspections have been based on the maximization of the kinetic energy transfer around its first resonant mode and of electromechanical coupling constants. most of these are left restricted within the optimization techniques of conversion efficiency. Up to now.1Effectiveness of nonlinear approach versus linear In spite of the fact that a growing interest and many studies have been recently focused on vibration energy harvesting. electrostatic or electromagnetic system. the fundamental transduction mechanism of the vibrating mechanical energy into electrical energy is ever modelled as a linear oscillator coupled with piezoelectric. This 126 .
75].Chapter 4. whereas. 61. Some attempts to design energy scavengers with a wider bandwidth under investigation concern the use of a chain of different springmass dampers [61]. 38. The exploitation of the their dynamical features permit to 127 . inasmuch. however. The various oscillators in this sort of chain have resonant frequencies almost overlapped such that at least one element is in resonance over the desired frequency range. the linear model elaborated by Williams et al. dispersive control electronics and poor efficiency in the case of wide band multimodal excitation. By the way. Conclusions common approach is clearly optimal for a well known shaking source whose energy is primarily centered around single frequencies. both these approaches present severe limitations such as the scale reduction. The pivot idea we’ve presented here concerns the use of nonlinear oscillators instead of linear ones. [50] can describe quite well the behaviour of electromagnetic transducer whose efficiency depends basically by the velocity of inertial mass. 74. the resonant frequency of the system is inversely proportional to its geometrical dimension with a consequent mismatch between the driven frequency and natural frequency of the device. Others groups are improving the signal processing and storing techniques of the output voltage of the piezoelectric element (synchronized switch damping[76]). most of the power of many random vibration sources is spread over a large spectral bandwidth and most of all at frequencies under hundred hertz [10. 31. Moreover. it’s not completely valid for piezoelectric beam conversion technique that needs to maximize its displacement and to reduce its cutoff frequency as much as possible in order to obtain the maximum harvested power. This is also the reason whereby it is complex to obtain an efficient submicro scale transducer.
Summarizing here the most important points of this work: We have proposed a new method of energy harvesting from ambient vibrations based on the utilization of the dynamical features of nonlinear stochastic oscillators. The maximum peak of the generated power is obtained for a certain trade off among noise variance. but it’s able to extract kinetic energy from a wide bandwidth of noise. 128 . intrawells distance and barrier height. can be grater than a factor six with respect to a linear oscillator concept. while the piezoelectric cutoff frequency must be as low as possible to avoiding energy filtering. The nonlinear oscillator doesn’t need to be tuned on a precise resonance frequency. by applying it to a piezoelectric beam in a Duffinglike potential. Our work has been focused in particular on the use of a Duffinglike bistable oscillator coupled with piezoelectric element. but the key principle can be explored even for other nonlinear systems and transduction mechanisms. We have demonstrated that the overall efficiency of this method. Conclusions strongly improve the absorption of the ambient vibrational energy from a wideband. specially at low frequencies.Chapter 4.
our results could be easily transferred to submicro world. Moreover. stochastic bistable systems cover a wide range of physical and biological phenomena so that they are under crescent interest far beyond their application as energy harvesting methods. the nonlinear stochastic concept could be also inspected even in quantum domain.Chapter 4. even though these studies are mainly focused on materials research and various kinds of microlithography techniques [57. On the other hand. We have proven that the method proposed here is quite general in principle and could be applied to a wide class of nonlinear oscillators and different energy conversion principles. but this lies outside the scope of this work. Potentials for realizing micro/nanoscale power generators are currently under investigations. Indeed. The outcomes here obtained need to be understood at the light of a more comprehensive theoretical interpretation. 129 . Conclusions Early theoretical considerations have been done about the power peak position as a function of potential and noise variance and they explain quite well the phenomenology of the oscillator dynamical behaviour. 77]. The experimental results of a piezoelctric bistable oscillator in a repulsive magnetic field were compared successfully with numerical simulations. while the physics remains regulated under the classical mechanics laws. Our concept can be easily applied to every system even at small scale.
Ammar et al.74mWh/cm2) is comparable to the lithium ion batteries.) a crescent number of research groups are making evident progress in the realization of microelectromechanicalsystems for energy scavenging. a) b) Figure 4. wet chemical etching and UVLIGA etc.4V dc.. Jeon et al.Chapter 4. Thanks to an even more advanced miniaturization technology (RIE dry etching. the corresponding energy density (0. this power output is obtained under a driving force precisely tuned on its first resonant frequency of 13. [78] 130 .2Miniaturization perspectives of nonlinear power harvesting systems Finally we would like to emphasize that the results obtained here can led to a significant increase in energy harvesting performances also in the small scale domain. Conclusions perspectives 4. For example. b) Micrograph of a 500 µm PMPG of TIMA labs.1 – a) SEM of the fabricated PMPG device with bond pads (Jeon [40]).[40] developed a 170µm x 260µm PZT beam that is able to generate 1µW of continuous electrical power to a 5.9kHz. Although. that is not easily to find in common ambients.2MΩ resistive load at 2.
even down to nanoscale. in order to make them working on nonlinear regime. It is capable to produce a respectable voltage of 0.[57] using an array of 50 nm radius x 600 nm length zinc oxide nanowires. the actual power density is not still promising. Although its output voltage of 0.[79]. Going down to more tiny scales.16µW (0. Nanopiezotronics is recently making giant steps and permits to implement submicrometer devices capable to produces electric power from pulsating blood vessels. various interesting energy harvesting systems are under investigations. nanomechanical Duffinglike resonators have been yet realized and studied for other purposes by some research groups [80.16. 81].36V could be amplified. Conclusions Other submillimeter MEMSbased micro piezoelectric generator with cantilever design has been developed by Fang et al. And unified array structure of these parallel/serial 131 . But this relatively low voltage is not practicable to present applications.[46.Chapter 4. With some adjustments.4 kHz. On the other hand.89V AC peakpeak) of power output under a resonant operating frequency of 608Hz with strength of 1g acceleration. the nonlinear dynamical concept shown here can be quite easily applied to all these present linear designs. flowing blood or a beating heart.3 V enough to drive the metalsemiconductor Schottky diode at the interface between atomic force microscope tip and the ZnO NW. Beeby et al. it’s not difficult to tailor a suitable bistable potential to the bandwitdth of background stochastic noise. which results in about 2. Inserting micromagnets into the tip of cantilever piezoelectric beams as outlined in fig. acoustic waves. 51] tested a micromachined electromagnetic silicon generator with a 300µm wide paddle beam that gives a natural frequency of 6. 2. even in this case. A direct current nanogenerator has been fabricated by Wang et al.
132 . B) transversal attractive force configuration.2 – Clusters of bistable piezoeletric beams.2. In the picture above shown there are two possible configuration of permanent magnets: a) represents a perpendicular repulsive configuration mentioned above while in b) the piezobeams counteract each other their elastic restoring force via transversal attractive magnetic force. A) perpendicular repulsive force configuration. there are lots of ways and different designs to produce a bistable dynamics by means of permanent magnets. 4. Conclusions combined cantilevers could disclose promising performances. Moreover. A – perpendicular magentic piezobeams cluster permanet magnets stochastic force piezo beams + − + − + − + − Vout Iout B – transversal magentic piezobeams cluster stochastic force permanent magnets piezo beams Figure 4. Some possible configurations are suggested in fig.Chapter 4.
3.010.4. without accessory magnets. in this case.3 – Bistable piezoelectric thinfilm membrane.5). 4.05mm is plotted in fig.1 mm thickness PZT membrane model with a steel sheet inside of thickness 0. The bistable dynamics could be created. 4.4. we could think to an array of thin film piezoelectric membranes.1mm with respect to relaxed position. For now. its dynamic is bistable and not monostable (see fig. we’ve computed the time series distribution of central point displacement. Each one with an appropriate inertial mass attached to the centre.Chapter 4. 133 . Applying then a perpendicular force (sinusoidal and/or stochastic) pointed to its center. It was compressed setting its vertical edge displacement by 0. we restrict ourselves to describe an early study of dynamical bistable behaviour through finite element modelling of such idea. Furthermore. for different compression levels of the edges. A 20mm length x 0. simply contracting one of its edge on its parallel plane as outlined for example in fig. it is possible to settle the symmetry of bistability. Conclusions Unlike the cantilever geometry. with the essential difference that. introducing a differential pressure across the two sides. This design is similar to that of a pressure sensor and in effects it can works both as generator/sensor and actuator. seismic mass piezoelectric membrane stochastic force Figure 4.
it is possible to estimate the pressure difference between the two sides without encounter the typical problems of calibration of common pressure sensors [82]. The geometrical scale XY are not equal for a better viewing.Chapter 4. 134 . Conclusions Exploiting its residence time. Figure 4.4 – FEM of a piezoelectric membrane displacement.
such a configuration could be a promising and simpler solution than magnetic piezoelectric cantilever and needs to be investigated even in clustered configurations.0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (s) Figure 4.5 0.5 – Membrane displacement under a sinusoidal driving force at different differential pressures. piezoelectric material is subjected to aging.0 displacement (mm) 0. 135 . so its piezoelectric and elastic properties present hysteresis and variation in time. one of the major difficulty of such a kind of model thought as energy harvester is to know exactly the elastic potential which is not perfectly conservative. Conclusions ∆P = 100mbar ∆P = 1000mbar ∆P = 2000mbar 1. Nevertheless.0 0. Moreover.Chapter 4. Actually.5 1.
136 .
2) Where F is a Riemann integrable function.1 EulerMaruyama method Let a generic onedimensional stochastic differential equation be dX t = F ( X t . Instead the last term represents a stochastic noise multiplied by a function of process Xt which cannot be easily integrated. t )ξt dt (A.1 we obtain X t = X 0 + ∫ F ( X s )ds + ∫ G( X s )ξ s ds 0 0 t t (A.3) [83] ∫ ξ ds = W s 0 t t (A. t )ξt is a stochastic Gaussian term with G ( X t .4): 137 . t ) a generic function of Xt. t ) + G ( X t .Appendices EulerA. It can be shown that a Gaussian process ξ t with uniform spectrum satisfies the expression (A. F is in generally a nonlinear function that describes the deterministic evolution and the term G ( X t .1) where Xt is a stochastic process.3) in which Wt indicates a Wiener stochastic process defined in the interval [0. Integrating this equation 3.T] as continue function with the following properties (A.
But the summation limit depends by the choice of these integrations extremes[71]. 2) for 0 ≤ s < t ≤ T the random variable given by increment Wt − Ws is normally distribuited with zero mean and variance σ 2 = t − s.7) where the Itô integration corresponds to equal α=0. so this algorithm sets the problem to use a proper criterion.1) W (0) = 0 with probability 1. ti( n ) . Among the various consistent methods of integration the most successful results that of Itô and Stratonovich that set τ i( n ) = (1 − α )ti(−n1) − α ti( n ) (A. thus. in the Wiener increment dW(t) 138 . The Euler−Maruyama method consists in the integration of the stochastic term of the equation (A.4) From this relations the stochastic term of the (A.5) hence.2) on Brownian process W (t ) .2) can be expressed as Wt ∫ G( X )dW s 0 s (A. (A. 3) for 0 ≤ s < t < u < v ≤ T the increments variable given by increment Wt − Ws and Wv − Wu are indipendents.6) n Where τ i( n ) ∈ ti(−1) . it can be seen like a limit of the Riemann sum S n = ∑ Gτ ( n ) (Wτ ( n ) −Wτ ( n ) ) i =1 i i i −1 n (A. while the Stratonovich integration corresponds to α=1/2.
It can be shown that the EM method has strong order of convergence γ=1/2.X (t ) = X 0 + ∫ F ( X s ( s). Keeping in mind that X (τ ) is the possible analytic value and Xn is the simulated variable.12) for any fixed τ = n∆t ∈ [ 0. t j )dW j j =0 j =0 −1 −1 (A.8) these two integrals can be discretized as follows. hence dW j = W j +1 − W j is the jth increment of the discrete Wiener process W (t ) . with positive integer and t j = j (T / ) = j ∆t .11) A method is said to have strong order of convergence equal to γ if there exists a constant C such that the expected value: Ε X n − X (τ ) ≤ C ∆t γ (A.9) and. j =0 j =0 −1 −1 (A.10) where we have placed W j = W (t j ) .. t j )(W j +1 − W j ) = ∑ G ( X (t j ). t j )∆t j =0 j =0 −1 −1 (A. Let a time interval [ 0. t j ) dW j . 139 . the EulerMaruyama approach is essentially the discrete integration of the equation (A. t j )(t j +1 − t j ) = ∑ F ( X (t j ). t j )∆t + ∑ G ( X (t j ).T ] be divided by points tj for j=1. for the stochastic part choosing the Itô integration ∑ G ( X (t j ). as limit for ∆t → 0 of the Riemann summations ∑ F ( X (t j ).8) that becomes X (T ) = X 0 + ∑ F ( X (t j ).Then. s)ds + ∫ G ( X s ( s ). s)dW ( s) 0 0 t t (A. T ] and ∆t sufficiently small... Finally.
1 File: wise_duffing.2 Simulation programs Listing n.0005.Fa. %% Inizialization and Integration of nonlinear SDE system Std_x = zeros(length(Fa).m function wise_duffing(serial.plt1. % brownian increment % set inintial state for g = 1:N epsilon(g+1) = epsilon(g)*(1h/tau) + randn*h. % time step dt [s] (integration step size) % number of steps % t is the time vector %% generation of exponentially correlated noise epsilon=zeros(1.damp. sum(100*clock)).N). dW=sqrt(h)*randn(1. %standard deviation % place to store locations Y % place to store locations X for k=1:length(sigma) 140 . randn('state'.length(t)). N=ceil(T/h). epsilon = epsilon .tau.plt2. Y=zeros(size(t)).mean(epsilon).length(sigma)).A.sav) try tic % dependent parameters % Declaration of the time steps integration h=0.Fb. end epsilon = epsilon/std(epsilon). X=zeros(size(t)). t=(0:h:T).T.sigma.
'EdgeColor'.X. ylabel('nonlinear parameter'). end end %% plotting if plt2 figure(1).0.'r') hold on xlabel('time [sec]').'Fb'.'sigma'. figure(2) surf(sigma.mat'].'Std_z'.'T'. xlabel('nonlinear parameter'). end pos=X(length(X)). xlabel('sigma^2').mat if sav suffix = ['n' num2str(serial) 'date' date '_numerical'].Fa.k)= std(X. end Std_x(j.Std_x).0. end %standard deviation of position 141 . save(['num_' suffix '. ylabel('displacement').0. +sigma(k)*epsilon(i)*dW(i). clf plot(Fa.pos = 0. if plt1 figure(1). Y(1)= 0.'damp'. Y(1)= 0. X(i+1)=X(i)+Y(i)*h.Std_x.. ylabel('Xrms'). zlabel('Xrms)').1). end %% saving in Pavg.'Fa'. clf plot(t.'tau').^2.'none'). for i=1:N % initial conditions Y(i+1)=Y(i)+Fa(j)*X(i)*hFb*X(i)^3*h2*damp*Y(i)*h. for j=1:length(Fa) X(1)= pos..
hm=4e3. mu0=4*pi*1e7.mag.damp. lb=72. le=lb le=lblc.sigma.2 File: piezo_magnetic.1e3.scale.9e3. e_0 = 8. % % % % length of the mass [m] Height of the mass with of the mass Kg/m^3 material density of inertial mass % length of the cantilever beam % length of the beam under clamp % with of cantilever. Wm=4e3.plt2. lc=12. Wb=5.com e_r = 1800.plt1.toc catch lasterror end Listing n. % model design parameters lm=143e3. it as been assumed that % length of electrode % % % % relative dielectric constant (at 1Khz) F m^1 vacuum dielectric permittivity piezoelectric absolute permittivity m/v piezoelectric strain coefficient 142 . d_31 = 320e12.dy. e_p = e_0*e_r.85e12.4e3. % reading position of deflection % constants for piezo PZT5A4E T434A4302 piezo.sav) try tic %% CONSTANTS DECLARATION lz = 168e3.m function []=piezo_magnetic(T. density=7800.
Tp=0.33e3; Tsh=0.2e3; thk=Tp*2+Tsh; m_mag m_mass m_beam m_clamp = = = =
% thickness of piezoelectric layer % Thickness of the center shim % thickness of the beam %magnet mass %mass attached [Kg] %mass of beam %clamped mass % inertial mass
0.49e3; 15.1e3; 2.6e3; thk*lc*Wb*7900;
m = m_mass+m_mag+m_beam; Cp=5.2e10; Csh=2.0e11; Rl=100e6;
% N/m^2 Elastic Young modulus for piezoelectric material PZT5H [Pa] % Young modulus of the center shim material [Pa] % load resistance [Ohm]
% dependent parameters b=Tp/2+Tsh/2; piezoelectric layer and shim layer I=2*((Wb*Tp^3)/12+Wb*Tp*b^2)+((Csh/Cp)*Wb*Tsh^3)/12; of composite beam a=4; % distance between % moment of inertia
% a=1 series config, a=4 double parallel configuration
% average strain to input force k1=(2*I)/(b*(2*lb+lmle)); % average stress to vertical displacement k2=3*b*(2*lb+lmle)/(lb^2*(2*lb+3/2*lm))/2; Cb=112e9; K=26.6; % measured effective piezoelectric capacitance % measured effective elastic constant
% voltage coefficient for diff. equation Kv=K*d_31*a/(2*Tp*k2); % coupling term between voltage and displacement Kc=2*Tp/2*d_31*Cp*k2/(a*e_p); %piezoelectric coupling coefficient k_31=d_31^2*Cp/e_p % Declaration of the time steps integration h=0.0001; N=ceil(T/h); t=(0:h:T); % time step of sampling % number of steps % t is the time vector
%% GENERATION OF EXPONENTIALLY CORRELATED GAUSSIAN NOISE epsilon=zeros(1,N); tau=0.1; dW=sqrt(h)*randn(1,length(t)); randn('state', sum(100*clock)); % colored noise correlation time [sec] % brownian increment % set inintial state
143
for g = 1:N epsilon(g+1) = epsilon(g)*(1h/tau) + randn*h; end epsilon = epsilon/std(epsilon); epsilon = epsilon  mean(epsilon); %% Inizialization and Integration of nonlinear SDE system %electrical power Pavg = zeros(length(dy),length(sigma)); Pavg_z = zeros(length(dy),length(sigma)); %mechanical power pos = 0.0; sf =lz/lb; %scale factors for delfection at reading position point sf2 = (lb+lm)/lb*scale; k_mag = 3*mu0/(2*pi)*mag^2*sf2; % initialization Y=zeros(size(t)); Z=zeros(size(t)); V=zeros(size(t)); % place to store locations Y % place to store locations Z % voltage function
for k=1:length(sigma) pos = 0.0; Y(1)= 0.0; V(1)= 0.0; for j=1:length(dy) Z(1)= pos; Y(1)= 0.0; V(1)= 0.0; for i=1:N
% initial velocity % initial voltage
% initial velocity % initial voltage
Y(i+1)=Y(i) (K/m)*Z(i)*h+3*mu0/(2*pi*m)*mag^2*Z(i)*sf2/((sf2^2*Z(i)^2+(dy(j))^2)^2.5)*h2*damp*sqrt(K/m)*Y(i)*h... (Kv/m)*V(i)*h+sigma(k)*epsilon(i)*dW(i)/m; Z(i+1)=Z(i)+Y(i)*h; V(i+1)=V(i)+Kc*(Z(i+1)Z(i))1/(Rl*Cb)*V(i)*h; end pos=Z(length(Z)); Z = Z*sf; [dist,xout]=hist(Z,15e3:0.1e3:15e3); dist=dist/sum(dist)*20; if plt1 figure(1); clf subplot(2,1,1); plot(t,Z,'r') hold on xlabel('time [sec]');
144
ylabel('displacement'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(t,V,'k') hold on xlabel('time [sec]'); ylabel('voltage'); end %standard deviation of voltage Vrms and position variance Pavg(j,k) = std(V); Pavg_z(j,k)= std(Z); end end %% plotting if plt2 figure(1); clf subplot(2,1,1); plot(t,Z,'r') hold on xlabel('time (s)'); ylabel('displacement (m)'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(t,V,'k') hold on xlabel('time (s)'); ylabel('voltage (V)'); hold off figure(2); clf subplot(2,1,1); plot(dy,Pavg); xlabel('dy'); ylabel('STD(V)'); subplot(2,1,2); plot(dy,Pavg_z); xlabel('dy '); ylabel('STD(Z)'); figure(3); clf bar(xout,dist); xlabel('x (mm)'); ylabel('distribution'); hold on end xout=xout'; dist=dist'; %% saving in Pavg.mat if sav
145
suffix = ['date' date '_num'].'damp'.'T'.'ascii').'K'.'Rl'.'mag'.'f_n'..'sigma').'dist'.mat'].'sf2'.'sf'. end toc catch lasterror end 146 . save(['num_' suffix '.'m'.'Kc'.'Pavg'.'Kv'.'Pavg_z'. .'Cb'.'k_31'.txt'.. save('distribution.'dy'.'d_31'.
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