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  • Wines of U.S.A
  • Appellation System




Wine Regions: Italy and U.S.A.

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the three year degree
BHM programme







BATCH : 2010-2013





This is to certify the work presented in the project entitled “Wine Regions Italy
and U.S.A.”
by Mr. Nitish Nagpal , in partial fulfilment of the requirement
for the award of the degree Bachelor of Hotel Management (BHM) from
Amity University is an authentic work carried out by me with the best of my

To the best of my knowledge the content of this project is original and authentic
being practical to every nature.

Date :

Place :

Thanking you,

Nitish Nagpal


Enrollment no. – A2728910008



This is to certify that Project Report titled “Wine Regions Italy and U.S.A.” is
a bona fide work carried out by Mr. Nitish Nagpal of BHM - Bachelors of
Hotel Management
program of Amity School of Hospitality for fulfilment of
BHM- Hospitality Management course of amity university, Noida (U.P.)

Guide :

(Lect. Deepak Thakur)

Date :




I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and

supported me during the completion of this project.

My deepest thanks to Lecturer, Mr. Deepak Thakur the Guide of the

project for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and

care. He has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction

as and when needed.

I express my thanks to our Director Mr. Vaskar Sen Gupta, for extending

his support.

I would also thank my Institution, Amity School of Hospitality and my

faculty members without whom this project would have been a distant reality. I

also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family, my friends and well wishers.



1. Introduction


2. Wine

A. History


B. Grape Varities




D. Wine Making Process


3. Wines Of Italy


A. History


B. Appellation System


C. Wine Regions


4. Wines Of U.S.A.


A. History


B. Appellation System


C. Wine Regions


5. Findings


6. Conclusions


7. Recommendations


8. Bibliography


9. Questionnaires




Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural

chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or

other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast.

Yeast consumes the sugars in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Different varieties of grapes

and strains of yeasts produce different types of wine.

Wines made from other fruits, such as apples and berries, are normally named after the fruit from

which they are produced (for example, apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically called fruit

wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays). Others, such as barley

wineand rice wine (i.e., sake), are made from starch-based materials and

resemble beer and spirit more than wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these cases, the

term "wine" refers to the higher alcohol content rather than the production process. The commercial

use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many


Wine has a rich history dating back thousands of years, with the earliest known production occurring

around 8,000 years ago on the territory of modern-day Georgia. It first appeared in the Balkans at

about 4500 BC and was very common in ancient Greece, Thrace and Rome. Wine has also played an

important role in religion throughout history. The Greek god Dionysus and

the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine, and the drink is also used

inChristian Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush.



Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine, made by fermenting

grapes, took place as early as 8,000 years ago in Georgia and 6,100 years ago in Armenia. These

locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera.

Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine, made by fermenting

grapes, took place as early as 8,000 years ago in Georgia and 6,100 years ago in Armenia.These

locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera.

Pressing wine after the harvest;Tacuinum Sanitatis, 14th century

Through an extensive gene-mapping project in 2006, Dr. McGovern and his colleagues analyzed the

heritage of more than 110 modern grape cultivars, and narrowed their origin to a region in Georgia,

where also wine residues were discovered on the inner surfaces of 8,000-year-old ceramic storage

jars in Shulavari, Georgia. Other notable areas of wine production have been discovered in Greece

and date back to 4500 BC. The same sites also contain the world's earliest evidence of crushed

grapes. On January 11, 2011 in one of Armenia's Vayots Dzor province cave was found a wine

making press dating to approximately 6,000 years ago. Literary references to wine are abundant

in Homer (9th century BC, but possibly composed even earlier), Alkman (7th century BC), and others.

In Ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the

name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as from the King's

personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have

also been found in central Asian Xinjiang, dating from the second and first millennia BC.

The first known mentioning of grape-based wines in India was in the late 4th century BC writings

of Chanakya who was the chief minister of EmperorChandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya


condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a

style of grape wine known as Madhu.

A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce

mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC. Pottery jars

from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, Henan contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds

commonly found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be

ruled out. If these beverages, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather

than other fruits, these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grape in

China, rather than from Vitis vinifera, which were introduced into China some 6000 years later.

One of the lasting legacies of the ancient Roman Empire was the viticulture foundation the Romans

laid in the lands that today are world renowned wine regions. Areas with Roman garrison towns,

likeBordeaux, Trier, and Colchester, the Romans planted vineyards to supply local needs and limit the

cost of long distance trading. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church staunchly supported

wine, since they required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years, aging it in caves. An

old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine

from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine.


Grape Varieties

Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera, such as Pinot

Noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay andMerlot. When one of these varieties is used as

the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%), the result is a varietal,

as opposed to a blended, wine. Blended wines are not necessarily considered inferior to varietal

wines; some of the world's most expensive wines, from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley,

are blended from different grape varieties of the same vintage.[citation needed]

Grape vineyard

Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids, created by the genetic crossing

of two species. Vitis labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar), Vitis aestivalis, Vitis

rupestris, Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes usually grown to eat

fresh or for grape juice, jam, or jelly, but sometimes made into wine.

Hybridization is different from grafting. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V.

vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. This is common practice

because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera, a root louse that eventually kills

the vine. In the late 19th century, most of Europe's vineyards (only excluding some of the driest

vineyards in Southern Europe) were devastated by the bug, leading to massive vine deaths and

eventual replanting. Grafting is done in every wine-producing country of the world except

for Argentina, the Canary Islands and Chile—the only countries not yet exposed to the insect.

In the context of wine production, terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used,

elevation and shape of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, climate and seasonal conditions, and


the local yeast cultures. The range of possibilities here can result in great differences between wines,

influencing the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes as well. Many wineries use growing and

production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their

unique terroir. However, flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table

wine or other cheaper wines, where consistency is more important. Such producers try to minimize

differences in sources of grapes through production techniques such as micro-oxygenation, tannin

filtration, cross-flow filtration, thin film evaporation, and spinning cones.

Red Grapes

1. Pinot Noir

Pinot noir is a black wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. The name may also refer to wines

created predominantly from Pinot noir grapes. The name is derived from the French words for "pine"

and "black" alluding to the grape variety's tightly clustered dark purple pine cone-shaped bunches of


Pinot noir grapes are grown around the world, mostly in the cooler regions, but the grape is chiefly

associated with the Burgundy region of France. It is widely considered to produce some of the finest

wines in the world, but is a difficult variety to cultivate and transform into wine.


Pinot noir's home is France's Burgundy region,

particularly on the Côte-d'Or which has produced

some of the world's most celebrated wines for

centuries. It is also planted

in Austria, Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan,

Canada, Chile, north parts of Croatia, the Republic

of Georgia, Germany, Italy, Hungary, the Republic

of Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, New

Zealand, South

Africa, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Czec

h Republic, United

States, Uruguay,Ukraine and Slovakia. The United

States has increasingly become a major Pinot noir


producer, with some of the best regarded coming from the Willamette

Valley in Oregon and California's Sonoma County with its Russian River Valley and Sonoma Coast

appellations. Lesser known appellations can be found in Mendocino County's Anderson Valley as well

as the Central Coast's Santa Lucia Highlands appellation and the Sta. Rita Hills American Viticultural

Area in Santa Barbara County. In New Zealand, it is principally grown

in Martinborough, Marlborough, Waipara and Central Otago.

The leaves of Pinot noir are generally smaller than those of Cabernet Sauvignon or Syrah and the

vine is typically less vigorous than either of these varieties. The grape cluster is small and conico-

cylindrical, vaguely shaped like a pine cone. Some viticultural historians believe this shape-similarity

may have given rise to the name. In the vineyard Pinot noir is sensitive to wind and frost, cropping

levels (it must be low yielding for production of quality wines), soil types and pruning techniques. In

the winery it is sensitive to fermentation methods, yeast strains and is highly reflective of

its terroir with different regions producing sometimes very different wines. Its thin skin makes it

susceptible to bunch rot and similar fungal diseases of the bunch. The vines themselves are

susceptible to powdery mildew, and in Burgundy (and elsewhere) infection by leaf roll

and fanleaf viruses causes significant vine health problems. These complications have given the

grape a reputation for being difficult to grow: Jancis Robinson calls Pinot a "minx of a


andAndré Tchelistcheff declared that "God made Cabernet Sauvignon whereas the devil made

Pinot noir." Those who have had experience with contemporary, high health, Pinot noir clones in good

vineyard sites would not however be so ready to endorse this oft-cited, but less than entirely accurate,

generalisation; in the right conditions, and when of good clonal lineage and health, the vine can be

more than adequately robust. It is nevertheless much less tolerant of hard, windy, hot and dry, harsh

vineyard conditions than the likes of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Merlot, or Grenache.

Pinot noir wines are among the most popular in the world. Joel Fleischman of Vanity Fair describes

Pinot noir as "the most romantic of wines, with so voluptuous a perfume, so sweet an edge, and so

powerful a punch that, like falling in love, they make the blood run hot and the soul wax

embarrassingly poetic."[2]

Master Sommelier Madeline Triffon calls pinot "sex in a glass". Peter

Richardsson of OenoStyle christened it "a seductive yet fickle mistress!"

The tremendously broad range of bouquets, flavors, textures and impressions that Pinot noir can

produce sometimes confuses tasters. In the broadest terms, the wine tends to be of light to

mediumbody with an aroma reminiscent of black and / or red cherry, raspberry and to a lesser

extent currant and many other fine small red and black berry fruits. Traditional red Burgundy is

famous for its savoury fleshiness and 'farmyard' aromas (these latter not unassociated with

mercaptans and other reductive characters), but changing fashions, modern winemaking techniques,

and new easier-to-grow clones have favoured a lighter, more fruit-prominent, cleaner style. The wine's

colour when young is often compared to that of garnet, frequently being much lighter than that of

other red wines. This is entirely natural and not a winemaking fault as Pinot noir has a lower skin

anthocyanin (colouring matter) content than most other classical red / black varieties. However, an

emerging, increasingly evident, style from California and New Zealand highlights a more powerful,

fruit forward and darker wine that can tend toward Syrah (or even new world Malbec) in depth,

extract, and alcoholic content. Pinot noir is also used in the production of Champagne (usually along

with Chardonnay and Pinot meunier) and is planted in most of the world's wine growing regions for


use in both still and sparkling wines. Pinot noir grown for dry table wines is generally low-yielding and

of lesser vigour than many other varieties, whereas when grown for use in sparkling wines (e.g.

Champagne) it is generally cropped at significantly higher yields. In addition to being used for the

production of sparkling and still red wine, Pinot noir is also sometimes used for rosé still wines, and

even vin gris white wines. Its juice is uncoloured.

History, mutants and clones

Pinot noir is almost certainly a very ancient variety that may be only one or two generations removed

from wild, Vitis sylvestris, vines. Its origins are nevertheless unclear: In De re

rustica, Columelladescribes a grape variety similar to Pinot noir in Burgundy during the 1st century

AD, however, vines have grown wild as far north as Belgium in the days before phylloxera, and it is

possible that Pinot represents a direct domestication of (hermaphrodite-flowered) Vitis sylvestris.

Ferdinand Regner has argued that Pinot noir is a cross between Pinot meunier (Schwarzriesling)

and Traminer, but this claim has since been refuted. In fact Pinot meunier has been shown to be a

chimerical mutation (in the epidermal cells) which makes the shoot tips and leaves prominently hairy-

white and the vine a little smaller and early ripening. Thus Pinot meunier is a chimera with two tissue

layers of different genetic makeup, both of which contain a mutation making them non-identical to,

and mutations of, Pinot noir (as well as of any of the other colour forms of Pinot). As such, Pinot

meunier cannot be a parent of Pinot noir, and, indeed, it seems likely that chimerical mutations which

can generate Pinot gris from other Pinots (principally blanc or noir) may in turn be the genetic

pathway for the emergence of Pinot Meunier.

Pinot gris is a Pinot colour sport (and can arise by mutation of Pinot noir or Pinot blanc), presumably

representing a somatic mutation in either the VvMYBA1 or VvMYBA2 genes that control grape berry

colour. Pinot blanc is a further mutation and can either naturally arise from or give rise to Pinot gris or

Pinot noir; the mutation - reversion path is multi-directional therefore. The general DNA profiles of

both Pinot gris and blanc are identical to Pinot noir; and other Pinots, Pinot moure and Pinot teinturier,

are also genetically similarly close. It should be noted therefore that almost any given Pinot (of

whatever berry colour) can occur as a complete mutation or as a chimera of almost any other


As such, suggestions that Pinot noir is the fundamental and original form of the Pinots are both

misleading and highly tendentious. Indeed, if anything, Pinot blanc may be the original human-

selected form of Pinot, although given the genetic variability of this longstanding genetic line, thinking

of Pinot as a familial cluster of grapes sharing a fundamental and common genetic core is almost

certainly nearest the truth. It is this 'core' around which the sub-varietally identifying colour variations

(blanc, rouge, noir, gris, rose, violet, tenteurier, moure, etc.) occur, along with the more striking

chimeric morphological mutation that is Pinot meunier, and the interesting further mutations of this

variety as Pinot meunier gris and as the non-hairy mutation which the Germans classify as 'Samtrot'

(effectively 'Pinot red velvet').

Wrotham (pronounced "ruttum") Pinot is an English variety with white hairs on the upper surface of

the leaves. Edward Hyams of Oxted Viticultural Research Station was alerted to a strange vine

growing against a cottage wall in Wrotham in Kent, which local lore said was descended from vines

brought over by the Romans. An experimental Blanc de Noir was made at Oxted, and in 1980 Richard

Peterson took cuttings to California, where he now makes a pink sparkling Wrotham Pinot. Wrotham


Pinot is sometimes regarded as a synonym of Pinot meunier, although it is claimed it has a higher

natural sugar content and ripens two weeks earlier. However, in the absence of proper identification,

and particularly of DNA classification, it remains highly probable that it is simply a locally-distinctive

clone of Pinot meunier.

Pinot noir can be particularly prone to mutation (suggesting it has active transposable elements), and

thanks to its long history in cultivation there are nowadays hundreds of different clones in vineyards

and vine collections worldwide. More than 50 are officially recognized in France compared to only 25

of the much more widely planted cabernet sauvignon. The French Etablissement National Technique

pour l’Amelioration de la Viticulture (ENTAV) has set up a programme to select the best clones of

Pinot. This program has succeeded admirably in increasing the number of quality clones available to

growers. Nonetheless, in the new world, particularly in Oregon, wines of extraordinary quality continue

to be made from the (ex-University of California at Davis) Pommard (principally UCD4) and Wadensvil

(UCD 1A and / or 2A) clones.

Gamay Beaujolais is a Californian misnomer for a UCD clone series of upright-growing ('Pinot droit')

Pinot noir. Planted mostly in California it also became established in New Zealand. In this latter

country, its disposition to poor fruit set in cool flowering conditions can be problematic. Claims that the

'Gamay Beaujolais' Pinot noir was brought to California by Paul Masson. are not correct. It was in fact

collected in France by Harold Olmo for UCD in the 1950s and was one of the first Pinot noir vines this

institution offered as a high health clonal line from about 1962 onward. However, it was always, and

very misleadingly, identified at UCD as a 'Gamay Beaujolais' type (of Pinot noir). In general, these

upright growing 'Pinot droit' clones are highly productive (in suitable, hot-to-warm, flowering

conditions) and in California and New Zealand they give robust, burly, wines favoured by those who

like muscle rather than charm and velvety finesse in their Pinot noir wines. In Burgundy, the use of

(highly productive) Pinot droit clones is reportedly still widespread in inferior, Village appellation, or

even non-appellation, vineyards and Pinot droit is consequently regarded, arguably with very good

reason, as a (genetic) sub-form significantly inferior to classical, decumbent, 'Pinot fine' or 'Pinot

tordu', clonal lines of Pinot.

Frühburgunder (Pinot Noir Précoce) is an early-ripening form of Pinot noir. Across the Pinot family,

ripening in typical climates can be dispersed by as much as four, and even six, weeks between the

very earliest (including Précoce) clones and the very latest ripening. Virus infection and excessive

cropping significantly add to delaying of Pinot noir ripening. In August 2007, French

researchers announced the sequencing of the genome of Pinot noir. It is the first fruit crop to be

sequenced, and only the fourth flowering plant.



In the Middle Ages, the nobility and church of northeast France grew some form of Pinot in favoured

plots, while peasants grew a large amount of the much more productive, but otherwise distinctly

inferior, Gouais Blanc. Cross-pollination may have resulted from such close proximity, with the genetic

distance between the two parents imparting hybrid vigour leading to the viticultural selection of a

diverse range of offspring from this cross (which may, nevertheless, have also resulted from

deliberate human intervention). In any case, however it occurred, offspring of the Pinot - Gouais cross

include:Chardonnay, Aligoté, Auxerrois, Gamay, Melon and eleven others. It should not however be

inferred that Pinot noir was the Pinot involved here; any member of the Pinot family appears

genetically capable of being the Pinot parent to these ex-Gouais crosses.

In 1925 Pinot noir was crossed in South Africa with the Cinsaut grape (known locally by the misnomer

'Hermitage') to create a unique variety called Pinotage.


New Zealand
United States


2. Cabernet Sauvignon

Cabernet Sauvignon (French: [ka.bɛʁ.nɛ so.vi.ɲɔ ) is one of the world's most widely recognized

red wine grape varieties. It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse

spectrum of climates from Canada's Okanagan Valley to Lebanon's Beqaa Valley. Cabernet

Sauvignon became internationally recognized through its prominence in Bordeaux wines where it is

often blended withMerlot and Cabernet Franc. From France, the grape spread across Europe and to

the New World where it found new homes in places likeCalifornia's Napa

Valley, Australia's Coonawarra region and Chile's Maipo Valley. For most of the 20th century, it was

the world's most widely planted premium red wine grape until it was surpassed by Merlot in the 1990s.

Despite its prominence in the industry, the

grape is a relatively new variety, the

product of a

chance crossing between Cabernet

franc andSauvignon blanc during the 17th

century in southwestern France. Its

popularity is often attributed to its ease of

cultivation - the grapes have thick skins

and the vines are hardy and resistant

to rot and frost - and to its consistent

presentation of structure and flavours

which express the typical character

("typicity") of the variety. Familiarity and

ease of pronunciation have helped to sell

Cabernet Sauvignon wines to consumers,

even when from unfamiliar wine regions.

Its widespread popularity has also

contributed to criticism of the grape as a

"colonizer" that takes over wine regions at

the expense of native grape varieties.


For many years, the origin of Cabernet Sauvignon was not clearly understood and many myths and

conjectures surrounded it. The word "Sauvignon" is believed to be derived from


the French sauvage meaning "wild" and to refer to the grape being a wildVitis vinifera vine native to

France. Until recently the grape was rumoured to have ancient origins, perhaps even being

the Biturica grape used to makeancient Roman wine and referenced by Pliny the Elder. This belief

was widely held in the 18th century, when the grape was also known as Petite Vidure or Bidure,

apparently a corruption of Biturica. There was also belief that Vidure was a reference to the hard

wood (French vigne dure) of the vine, with a possible relationship to Carménère which was once

known as Grand Vidure. Other theories were that the grapevine originated in the Riojaregion of Spain.

While the period when the name Cabernet Sauvignon became more prevalent over Petite Vidure is

not certain, records indicate that the grape was a popular Bordeaux planting in the 18th

century Médoc region. The first estates known to have actively grown the variety (and the likely

source of Cabernet vines for other estates) were Château Mouton and Château d'Armailhac in

the Pauillac.

The grape's true origins were discovered in 1996 with the use of DNA typing at the UC Davis

Department of Viticulture and Enology, by a team led by Dr. Carole Meredith. The DNA evidence

determined that Cabernet Sauvignon was the offspring of Cabernet franc and Sauvignon blanc and

was most likely a chance crossing that occurred in the 17th century. Prior to this discovery, this origin

had been suspected from the similarity of the grapes' names and the fact that Cabernet Sauvignon

shares similar aromas with both grapes—such as the black currant and pencil box aromas of

Cabernet franc and the grassiness of Sauvignon blanc.

Offspring and White Cabernet

While not as prolific in mutating as Pinot noir nor as widely used in production of offspring, Cabernet
Sauvignon has been linked to other grape varieties. In 1961, a cross of Cabernet Sauvignon
and Grenache produced the French wine grape Marselan. In 1977 a vine producing 'bronze' grapes
was found in the vineyards of Cleggett Wines in Australia. They propagated this mutant, registered it
under the name of Malian and have sold pale red wines under that name. In 1991 one of the Bronze
Cabernet vines started producing white grapes. Cleggett registered this "White Cabernet" under the
name of Shalistin. Compared to its Cabernet parent, Malian appears to lack anthocyanins in the
subepidermal cells but retains them in the epidermis, whereas Shalistin has no anthocyanins in either
layer. The team that went on to discover the VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 genes that control grape
colour have suggested that a gene involved in anthocyanin production has been deleted in the
subepidermis of Malian, and then subepidermal cells invaded the epidermis to produce Shalistin.


While Cabernet Sauvignon can grow in a variety of climates, its suitability as a varietal wine or as a

blend component is strongly influenced by the warmth of the climate. The vine is one of the last major

grape varieties to bud and ripen (typically 1–2 weeks after Merlot and Cabernet franc) and the climate

of the growing season affects how early the grapes will be harvested. Many wine regions in California

give the vine an abundance of sunshine with few problems in ripening fully, which increases the


likelihood of producing varietal Cabernet wines. In regions like Bordeaux, under the threat of

inclement harvest season weather, Cabernet Sauvignon is often harvested a little earlier than ideal

and is then blended with other grapes to fill in the gaps. In some regions, climate will be more

important than soil. In regions that are too cool, there is a potential for more herbaceous and

green bell pepper flavours from less than ideally ripened grapes. In regions where the grape is

exposed to excess warmth and over-ripening, there is a propensity for the wine to develop flavours of

cooked or stewed blackcurrants.

The Cabernet grape variety has thrived in a variety of vineyard soil types, making the consideration of

soil less of concern particularly for New World winemakers. In Bordeaux, the soil aspect of terroir was

historically an important consideration in determining which of the major Bordeaux grape varieties

were planted. While Merlot seemed to thrive in clay and limestone based soils (such as those of

the Right Bank regions of theGironde estuary), Cabernet Sauvignon seemed to perform better in

the gravel based soil of the Médoc region on the Left Bank. The gravel soils offered the benefit of

being well drained while absorbing and radiating heat to the vines, aiding ripening. Clay and limestone

based soils are often cooler, allowing less heat to reach the vines, delaying ripening. In regions where

the climate is warmer, there is more emphasis on soil that is less fertile, which promotes less vigor in

the vine which can keep yields low. In the Napa Valley wine regions of Oakville and Rutherford, the

soil is more alluvial and dusty. Rutherford Cabernet Sauvignon has been often quoted as giving a

sense of terroir with a taste of "Rutherford dust". In theSouth Australian wine region of Coonawarra,

Cabernet Sauvignon has produced vastly different results from grapes vines planted in the

region'sterra rosa soil-so much so that the red soil is considered the "boundary" of the wine region,

with some controversy from wine growers with Cabernet Sauvignon planted on red soil.

In addition to ripeness levels, the harvest yields can also have a strong influence in the resulting

quality and flavors of Cabernet Sauvignon wine. The vine itself is prone to vigorous yields, particularly

when planted on the vigorous SO4 rootstock. Excessive yields can result in less concentrated and

flavorful wine with flavors more on the green or herbaceous side. In the 1970s, a particular clone of

Cabernet Sauvignon that was engineered to be virus free was noted for its very high yields-causing

many quality conscious producers to replant their vineyards in the late 20th century with different

clonal varieties. To reduce yields, producers can plant the vines on less vigorous rootstock and also

practice green harvesting with aggressivepruning of grape clusters soon after veraison.

In general, Cabernet Sauvignon has good resistance to most grape diseases, powdery mildew being

the most noted exception. It is, however, susceptible to the vine diseases Eutypella

scoparia and excoriose.



South America


White Grapes

1. Chardonnay

Chardonnay (pronounced: [ʃaʁ.dɔ.nɛ]) is a green-skinned grape variety used to make white wine. It

is originated from the Burgundy wineregion of eastern France but is now grown wherever wine is

produced, from England to New Zealand. For new and developing wine regions, growing

Chardonnay is seen as a "rite of passage" and an easy segue into the international wine market.

The Chardonnay grape itself is

very neutral, with many of the

flavors commonly associated

with the grape being derived

from such influences

as terroir and oak.It is vinified in

many different styles, from the

lean, crisply mineral wines of

Chablis, France to New World

wines with tropical fruit flavors

and lots of oak.

Chardonnay is an important

component of many sparkling

wines around the world,

including Champagne. A peak

in popularity in the late 1980s gave way to a backlash among those wine drinkers who saw the

grape as a leading negative component of the globalization of wine. Nonetheless, it remains one of

the most widely-planted grape varieties, with over 160,000 hectares (400,000 acres) worldwide,

second only to Airén among white wine grapes and planted in more wine regions than any other

grape – including Cabernet Sauvignon.


For much of its history, a connection was assumed between Chardonnay and Pinot noir or Pinot

blanc. In addition to being found in the same region of France for centuries, ampelographers noted

that the leaves of each plant have near-identical shape and structure. Pierre Galet disagreed with this

assessment, believing that Chardonnay was not related to any other major grape

variety. Viticulturalists Maynard Amerine & Harold Olmoproposed a descendency from a wild Vitis


vinifera vine that was a step removed from white Muscat. Chardonnay's true origins were further

obscured by vineyard owners in Lebanon and Syria, who claimed that the grape's ancestry could be

traced to the Middle East, from where it was introduced to Europe by returning Crusaders, though

there is little external evidence to support that theory. Another theory stated that it originated from an

ancient indigenous vine found in Cyprus.

Modern DNA fingerprinting research at University of California, Davis, now suggests that Chardonnay

is the result of a cross between the Pinot andGouais Blanc (Heunisch) grape varieties. It is believed

that the Romans brought Gouais Blanc from the Balkans, and it was widely cultivated by peasants

in Eastern France. These "successful" crosses included Chardonnay and siblings such

as Aligoté, Aubin Vert, Auxerrois, Bachet noir, Beaunoir, Franc Noir de la-Haute-Saône, Gamay Blanc

Gloriod, Gamay noir, Melon, Knipperlé, Peurion, Roublot, Sacy and Dameron


Chardonnay has a wide-ranging reputation for relative ease of cultivation and ability to adapt to

different conditions. The grape is very "malleable", in that it reflects and takes on the impression of

its terroir and winemaker. It is a highly vigorous vine, with extensive leaf cover which can inhibit the

energy and nutrient uptake of its grape clusters. Vineyard managers counteract this with aggressive

pruning and canopy management. When Chardonnay vines are planted densely, they are forced to

compete for resources and funnel energy into their grape clusters. In certain conditions the vines can

be very high-yielding, but the wine produced from such vines will suffer a drop in quality if yields go

much beyond 4.5 tons per acre (80 hl/ha). Producers of premium Chardonnay limit yields to less than

half this amount. Sparkling wine producers tend not to focus as much on limiting yields, since

concentrated flavors are not as important as the wine's finesse.

Harvesting time is crucial to winemaking, with the grape rapidly losing acidity as soon as it ripens.

This "shocks" the vine and delays flowering for up to two weeks, which is often long enough for

warmer weather to arrive. Millerandage and coulure can also pose problems, along with powdery

mildewattacking the thin skin of the grapes. Because of Chardonnay's early ripening, it can thrive

in wine regions with a short growing season and, in regions like Burgundy, will be harvested before

autumn rain sets in and brings the threat of rot.

In Burgundy, the amount of limestone to which the Chardonnay are vines exposed also seems to

have some effect on the resulting wine. In the Meursault region, the premier cru vineyards planted

at Meursault-Charmes have topsoil almost 78 inches (2.0 m) above limestone and the resulting wines

are very rich and rounded. In the nearby Les Perrieres vineyard, the topsoil is only around 12 inches

(30 centimeters) above the limestone and the wine from that region is much more

powerful, minerally and tight, needing longer in the bottle to develop fully. In other areas, soil type can

compensate for lack of ideal climate conditions. In South Africa for example, regions with


stonier, shaley soils and high clay levels tend to produce lower-yielding and more Burgundian-style

wine, despite having a discernibly warmer climate than France. In contrast, South African Chardonnay

produced from more sandstone-based vineyards tend to be richer and more weighty.







New York


Australia & New Zealand


South Africa


Grapes Used in fortified Wines.

1. Muscat

The Muscat variety of grapes of the species Vitis vinifera is widely grown
for wine, raisins and table grapes. Their color ranges from white to near black. Muscat almost
always has a pronounced sweet floral aroma. Muscat grapes are grown around the world are -
in Cyprus, Hungary, Romania, Croatia, Moldova,Bulgaria, Serbia, Israel, France,

Germany, Portugal, Greece, Spain, Australia, South Africa, California, Oregon, Canada,
Italy, Albania, Turkey, Azerbaijan,Slovenia, Mexico, and other places. The breadth and number of
varieties of muscat suggest that it is perhaps the oldest domesticated grape variety, and there are
theories that most families within the Vitis vinifera grape variety are descended from the Muscat


Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains (also called Muscat Blanc, Muscat Canelli, Muscat Frontignan,

Moscato Bianco, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat d'Alsace, Muskateller, Moscatel de Grano

Menudo, Moscatel Rosé, Muscat Lunel, Sárgamuskotály, Moscatell de gra petit and Yellow

Muscat). This grape is used for the wines: Asti, clairette de die, and muscat de Beaumes-de-

Venise. It is also used for some Tokaji wines.

Muscat Rose à Petit Grains, Muscat Rouge à Petit Grains, Moscato Giallo (or Goldmuskateller),

Moscato Rosa (or Rosenmuskateller) are thought to be closely related colored versions of Muscat

Blanc à Petits Grains.


Moscatel de Setúbal and Moscatel de Favaios are the most widely consumed varieties in

Portugal, usually served in bars or as an aperitif at restaurants.

Muscat of Alexandria (also called Moscatel, Moscatel Romano, Moscatel de Málaga, Muscat

Gordo Blanco, Hanepoot, Lexia, Moscatel, Gordo, and Zibibbo) This grape is used for sherry,

moscatel or muscatel wines, Moscatel de Valencia, Muscatel Passito and other

Muscatel liqueurs and also as a raisin and table grape.

Muscat Ottonel (also called Moskately) Used for dessert wines

in Romania, Bulgaria, Austria, Slovenia, Croatia, and Ukraine, and dry wines

in Alsace, Slovakia and Hungary.

Black Muscat (also called Muscat Hamburg, Moscato di Amburgo) Used for some Eastern

European wine but mainly for table grapes in Italy, Australia and France. A dessert wine made

from this grape is produced in California and Cyprus.

Orange Muscat. Used for dessert wines in California and Australia. Not surprisingly, has

something of an orange aroma.

Muscat Crocant. Used for dessert wine of the same name (Muskat Krokan) in Serbia, where it

grows only on Pearl Island (Biserno Ostrvo) on Tisza River.

Moravian Muscat. The most widespread new wine cultivar in Czech Republic.

All together there are a couple of hundred Muscat varieties recorded, with many overlapping


Muscat Wines

Table and sparkling wines

Muscat grapes are one of the major varieties grown for table wine in Chile, and is a minor variety

in California and Italy. In Italy, it is widely used in sweeter sparkling wines like Asti. Their 'grapey'

quality makes many wines made from Muscat easy to identify. Moscato d'Asti is a lightly sparkling

(frizzante) variety of Muscat, made from the Moscato Bianco (Muscato Canelli) grape of

the Piedmont region of Italy. This region has a DOCGdesignation, and is also known for the

production of Barbera d'Asti, Dolcetto d’Asti, and Asti Spumante. In Lithuania, it is also used for

making asparkling wine called Alita.


Dessert and fortified wines

Muscat grapes are used to make a variety of sweet dessert wines in various parts of the world.

Typically, these are fortified wines, though some sweetlate harvest and noble rot wines are also made

from Muscat grapes. Officially, Muscato is not classified as a dessert wine.

Muscat is widely grown in Portugal and Spain, where the grape and the wines produced from it are

known as Moscatel or Muscatel. Moscatels made in these countries are typically sweet and fortified.

Among these wines is Moscatel de Setubal a sweet fortified wine from the Setúbal Peninsula

inPortugal. Moscatel de Favaios is a Moscatel from the Douro Region. A Moscatel Madeira wine has

also been produced on the island of Madeira, although Moscatel has become increasingly rare there

over the last century.

In Spain, sweet fortified Moscatels are produced in a number of regions, notably Malaga and Jerez,

and are sometimes made using the solera system. A variety of muscat is one of the varietals used in

the production of sherry and according to Spanish law, it is one of only three grapes varietals allowed

for this purpose.

Muscat is successfully grown in California's east-central San Joaquin Valley, where orange muscat

and black muscat varieties form the basis of premium dessert wines.

France also produces a number of sweet fortified vins doux naturels from muscat grapes, such

as Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise, Muscat de Rivesaltes, Muscat de Frontignan, Muscat de

Lunel,Muscat de Mireval, and Muscat de St-Jean Minervois.

In Australia, sweet fortified muscat wines are produced in the Rutherglen region, with older wines

made according to the solera system.

Brandies and liqueurs

Muscat wine is also the basis for Pisco, a brandy-like drink made in Peru and Chile, and Metaxa,

a brandy-like drink made in Greece.

A blend of Muscatel wine and mead is called Muscadore.



Czech Republic
New Zealand
North Africa
South Africa
United States


Classification of wines

The classification of wine can be done according to various methods including, but not limited
to, place of origin or appellation, vinification methods and
style, sweetness and vintage, orvarietal used. Practices vary in different countries and regions of
origin, and many practices have varied over time. Some classifications enjoy official protection by
being part of the wine law in their country of origin, while other have been created by, for example,
grower's organizations without such protection.

By Appellation

Historically, wines have been known by names reflecting their origin, and sometimes

style: Bordeaux, Rioja, Mosel and Chianti are all legally defined names reflecting the traditional wines

produced in the named region. These naming conventions or "appellations" (as they are known in

France) dictate not only where the grapes in a wine were grown but also which grapes went into the

wine and how they were vinified. The appellation system is strongest in the European Union, but a

related system, the American Viticultural Area, restricts the use of certain regional labels in America,

such as Napa Valley, Santa Barbara and Willamette Valley. The AVA designations do not restrict the

type of grape used.

In most of the world, wine labeled Champagne must be made from grapes grown in the Champagne

region of France and fermented using a certain method, based on the international trademark

agreements included in the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. However, in the United States, a legal definition

called semi-generic has enabled U.S. winemakers to use certain generic terms

(Champagne,Hock, Sherry, etc.) if there appears next to the term the actual appellation of origin.

More recently, wine regions in countries with less stringent location protection laws such as the United

States and Australia have joined with well-known European wine producing regions to sign the Napa

Declaration to Protect Wine Place and Origin, commonly known as the Napa Declaration on Place.

This is a "declaration of joint principles stating the importance of location to wine and the need to

protect place names". The Declaration was signed in July 2005 by four United States winegrowing

regions and three European Union winegrowing regions.

The signatory regions from the US were Napa Valley, Washington, Oregon and Walla Walla, while the

signatory regions from the EU were: Champagne, Cognac (the commune where Cognac is

produced), Douro (the region where Port wine is produced) and Jerez (the region where Sherry is


The list of signatories to the agreement expanded in March 2007 when Sonoma County, Paso

Robles, Chianti Classico, Tokay, Victoria, Australia and Western Australia signed the Declaration at a

ceremony in Washington, DC.


By Vinification methods and style

Wines may be classified by vinification methods. These include classifications such as red or white

wine, sparkling, semi-sparkling or still, fortified and dessert wines. The color of wine is not determined

by the juice of the grape, which is almost always clear, but rather by the presence or absence of the

grape skin during fermentation. Grapes with colored juice, for example alicante bouchet, are known

as teinturier. Red wine is made from red (or black) grapes, but its red color is bestowed by a process

called maceration, whereby the skin is left in contact with the juice during fermentation. White wine

can be made from any colour of grape as the skin is separated from the juice during fermentation. A

white wine made from a very dark grape may appear pink or 'blush'. A form of Rosé is called Blanc de

Noirs where the juice of red grapes are allowed contact with the skins for a very short time (usually

only a couple of hours).

Sparkling and still wines

Sparkling wines such as champagne, contain carbon dioxide which is produced naturally from

fermentation or force-injected later. To have this effect, the wine is fermented twice, once in an open

container to allow the carbon dioxide to escape into the air, and a second time in a sealed container,

where the gas is caught and remains in the wine. Sparkling wines that gain their carbonation from the

traditional method of bottle fermentation are labelled "Bottle Fermented", "Méthode Traditionelle",

or "Méthode Champenoise". The latter designation was outlawed for all wines other than Champagne

(which for obvious reasons does not bother to utilize it) in Europe in 1994.

Other international denominations of sparkling wine include Sekt or Schaumwein

(Germany), Cava (Spain), and Spumante (Italy). Semi-sparkling wines are sparkling wines that

contain less than 2.5 atmospheres of carbon dioxide at sea level and 20 °C. Some countries such as

the UK impose a higher tax on fully sparkling wines. Examples of semi-sparkling synonym terms

are Frizzante in Italy,Vino de Aguja in Spain and Petillant in France. In most countries except the

United States, champagne is legally defined as sparkling wine originating from a region (Champagne,

Towns "Reims, Épernay") in France. Still wines are wines that have not gone through the sparkling

wine methods and have no effervescence.


Dessert and fortified wine

Dessert wines range from slightly sweet (with less than 50 g/L of sugar) to incredibly sweet wines

(with over 400 g/L of sugar). Late harvest wines such as Spätlese are made from grapes harvested

well after they have reached maximum ripeness. Dried grape wines, such as Recioto and Vin

Santo from Italy, are made from grapes that have been partially raisined after harvesting. Botrytized

winesare made from grapes infected by the mold Botrytis cinerea or noble rot. These

include Sauternes from Bordeaux, numerous wines from Loire such as Bonnezeaux and Quarts de

Chaume, Tokaji Aszúfrom Hungary, and Beerenauslese. Ice Wine is made from grapes that are

harvested while they are frozen. Fortified wines are often sweeter, and generally more alcoholic

wines that have had their fermentation process stopped by the addition of a spirit, such as brandy, or

have had additional spirit added after fermentation. Examples include Port, Madeira and Sherry.

Other styles

Table wines may have an alcohol content that is no higher than 14% in the U.S.. In Europe, light

wine must be within 8.5% and 14% alcohol by volume. Thus, unless a wine has more than 14%

alcohol, or it has bubbles, it is a table wine or a light wine. Table wines are usually classified as

"white," "red," or "rosé," depending on their colour. In Europe 'vins de table' (in French), 'vino da

tavola' (in Italian), 'Tafelwein' (in German) or 'vino de mesa' (in Spanish), which translate to 'table

wine' in English, are cheaper wines that often on the label do not include the information on the grape

variety used or the region of origin.

Cooking wine or Cooking sherry can refers to inexpensive grape wine or rice wine (in Chinese and

other East Asian cuisine). It is intended for use as an ingredient in food rather than as a beverage.

Cooking wine typically available in North America is treated with salt as a preservative and food

colouring. In other countries good quality sherry wine is used for cooking, providing nice flavour to the

dish and a tasty sauce.

When a usual wine bottle is opened and the wine is exposed to oxygen, a fermentative process will

transform the alcohol into acetic acid resulting in wine vinegar. This does not happens in fortified

wines, as they are already fermented. The salt in cooking wine inhibits the growth of the

microorganisms that produce acetic acid. This will preserve a bottle of cooking wine, which may be

opened and used occasionally over a long period of time.


Cooking wines are convenient for cooks who use wine as an ingredient for cooking only rarely.

However, they are not widely used by professional chefs, as they believe the added preservative

significantly lowers the quality of the wine and subsequently the food made with that wine. Most

professional chefs prefer to use inexpensive but drinkable wine for cooking, and this recommendation

is given in many professional cooking textbooks as well as general cookbooks. Many chefs believe

there is no excuse for using a low quality cooking wine for cooking when there are quality drinkable

wines available at very low prices.

Cooking wine is considered a wine of such poor quality, that it is unpalatable by itself and intended for

use only in cooking. There is a school of thought that advises against cooking with any wine one

would find unacceptable to drink.

By Vintage or Varietal

A vintage wine is one made from grapes that were all, or primarily, grown in a single specified year,

and are accordingly dated as such. Consequently, it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and

traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption. However, there is

some disagreement and research about the significance of vintage year to wine quality. Most

countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion of wine that is not from the labeled vintage.

A varietal wine is wine made from a dominant grape such as a Chardonnay or a Cabernet Sauvignon.

The wine may not be entirely of that one grape and varietal labeling laws differ. In the United Statesa

wine needs to be composed of at least 75% of a particular grape to be labeled as a varietal wine. In

the European Union, a minimum of 85% is required if the name of a single varietal is diplayed, and if

two or more varietals are mentioned, these varietals combined must make up 100% and they must be

listed in descending order. E.g., a mixture of 70% Chardonnay and 30% Viognier must be called

Chardonnay-Viognier rather than Viognier-Chardonnay.


Wine Making

Winemaking, or vinification, is the production of wine, starting with selection of the grapes or other

produce and ending with bottling the finished wine. Although most wine is made from grapes, it may

also be made from other fruit or non-toxic plant material. Mead is a wine that is made with honey

`being the primary ingredient after water.

Winemaking can be divided into two general categories: still wine production (without carbonation)

and sparkling wine production (with carbonation).

The science of wine and winemaking is known as oenology and the oldest known winemaking

operation, estimated to be 8,000 years old, was discovered in Georgia.



After the harvest, the grapes are taken into a winery and prepared for primary ferment. At this stage

red wine making diverges from white wine making. Red wine is made from the must (pulp) of red or

black grapes that undergo fermentation together with the grape skins. White wine is made by

fermenting juice which is made by pressing crushed grapes to extract a juice; the skins are removed

and play no further role. Occasionally white wine is made from red grapes, this is done by extracting

their juice with minimal contact with the grapes' skins.Rosé wines are either made from red grapes

where the juice is allowed to stay in contact with the dark skins long enough to pick up a pinkish color

(blanc de noir) or by blending red wine and white wine. White and rosé wines extract little of

the tanninscontained in the skins.


To start primary fermentation yeast is added to the must for red wine or juice for white wine. During

this fermentation, which often takes between one and two weeks, the yeast converts most of

the sugars in the grape juice into ethanol (alcohol) and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is lost to

the atmosphere. After the primary fermentation of red grapes the free run wine is pumped off into

tanks and the skins are pressed to extract the remaining juice and wine, the press wine blended with

the free run wine at the wine maker's discretion. The wine is kept warm and the remaining sugars are

converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The next process in the making of red wine is secondary

fermentation. This is a bacterial fermentation which converts malic acid to lactic acid. This process

decreases the acid in the wine and softens the taste of the wine. Red wine is sometimes transferred

to oak barrels to mature for a period of weeks or months, this practice imparts oak aromas to the

wine. The wine must be settled or clarified and adjustments made prior to filtration and bottling.

The time from harvest to drinking can vary from a few months for Beaujolais nouveau wines to over

twenty years for top wines. However, only about 10% of all red and 5% of white wine will taste better

after five years than it will after just one year. Depending on the quality of grape and the target wine

style, some of these steps may be combined or omitted to achieve the particular goals of the

winemaker. Many wines of comparable quality are produced using similar but distinctly different

approaches to their production; quality is dictated by the attributes of the starting material and not

necessarily the steps taken during vinification.

Variations on the above procedure exist. With sparkling wines such as Champagne, an additional

fermentation takes place inside the bottle, trapping carbon dioxide and creating the characteristic

bubbles. Sweet wines are made by ensuring that some residual sugar remains after fermentation is

completed. This can be done by harvesting late (late harvest wine), freezing the grapes to

concentrate the sugar (ice wine), or adding a substance to kill the remaining yeast before

fermentation is completed; for example, high proof brandy is added when making port wine. In other

cases the winemaker may choose to hold back some of the sweet grape juice and add it to the wine

after the fermentation is done, a technique known as süssreserve.

The process produces wastewater, pomace, and lees that require collection, treatment, and disposal

or beneficial use.

Harvesting and Destemming

Harvest is the picking of the grapes and in many ways the first step in wine production. Grapes are

either harvested mechanically or by hand. The decision to harvest grapes is typically made by the


winemaker and informed by the level of sugar (called °Brix), acid (TA or Titratable Acidity as

expressed by tartaric acid equivalents) and pH of the grapes. Other considerations include

phenological ripeness, berry flavor, tannin development (seed color and taste). Overall disposition of

the grapevine and weather forecasts are taken into account.

The corkscrew-shaped feed auger sits on top of a mechanical crusher-destemmer. Grape clusters are fed into the

machine, where they are first crushed, then destemmed. Stems exit at the end, while juice, skins, seeds, and some

debris exit the bottom.

Mechanical harvesters are large tractors that straddle grapevine trellises and, using firm plastic or

rubber rods, strike the fruiting zone of the grapevine to dislodge the grapes from the rachis.

Mechanical harvesters have the advantage of being able to cover a large area of vineyard land in a

relatively short period of time, and with a minimum investment of manpower per harvested ton. A

disadvantage of mechanical harvesting is the indiscriminate inclusion of foreign non-grape material in

the product, especially leaf stems and leaves, but also, depending on the trellis system and grapevine

canopy management, may include moldy grapes,canes, metal debris, rocks and even small animals

and bird nests. Some winemakers remove leaves and loose debris from the grapevine before

mechanical harvesting to avoid such material being included in the harvested fruit. In the United

States mechanical harvesting is seldom used for premium winemaking because of the indiscriminate

picking and increased oxidation of the grape juice. In other countries (such as Australia and New

Zealand), mechanical harvesting of premium winegrapes is more common because of general labor



Central component of a mechanical destemming. Paddles above the small circular slots rotate to remove the larger

chunks of stems. Grapes are pulled off the stems and fall through the holes. Some small amount of stem particles are

usually desired to be kept with the grapes for tannin structure.

Manual harvesting is the hand-picking of grape clusters from the grapevines. In the United States,

grapes are traditionally picked into 30 pound boxes, and in many cases these boxes are consolidated

into ½ ton bins or two-ton bins for transport to the winery. Manual harvesting has the advantage of

using knowledgeable labor to not only pick the ripe clusters but also to leave behind the clusters that

are not ripe or contain bunch rot or other defects. This can be an effective first line of defense to

prevent inferior quality fruit from contaminating a lot or tank of wine.

Destemming is the process of separating stems from the grapes. Depending on the winemaking

procedure, this process may be undertaken before crushing with the purpose of lowering the

development of tannins and vegetal flavors in the resulting wine. Single berry harvesting, as is done

with some German Trockenbeerenauslese, avoids this step altogether with the grapes being

individually selected.

Crushing and Primary (Alcoholic) Fermentation

Crushing is the process when gently squeezing the berries and breaking the skins to start to liberate

the contents of the berries. Destemming is the process of removing the grapes from the rachis (the

stem which holds the grapes). In traditional and smaller-scale wine making, the harvested grapes are

sometimes crushed by trampling them barefoot or by the use of inexpensive small scale crushers.

These can also destem at the same time. However, in larger wineries, a mechanical

crusher/destemmer is used. The decision about destemming is different for red and white wine

making. Generally when making white wine the fruit is only crushed, the stems are then placed in the

press with the berries. The presence of stems in the mix facilitates pressing by allowing juice to flow

past flattened skins. These accumulate at the edge of the press. For red winemaking, stems of the


grapes are usually removed before fermentation since the stems have a relatively high tannin content;

in addition to tannin they can also give the wine a vegetal aroma (due to extraction of 2-methoxy-3-

isopropylpyrazine which has an aroma reminiscent of greenbell peppers.) On occasion, the

winemaker may decide to leave them in if the grapes themselves contain less tannin than desired.

This is more acceptable if the stems have 'ripened' and started to turn brown. If increased skin

extraction is desired, a winemaker might choose to crush the grapes after destemming. Removal of

stems first means no stem tannin can be extracted. In these cases the grapes pass between two

rollers which squeeze the grapes enough to separate the skin and pulp, but not so much as to cause

excessive shearing or tearing of the skin tissues. In some cases, notably with "delicate" red varietals

such as Pinot noir or Syrah, all or part of the grapes might be left uncrushed (called "whole berry") to

encourage the retention of fruity aromas through partial carbonic maceration.

Crushed grapes leaving the crusher.

Most red wines derive their color from grape skins (the exception being varieties or hybrids of non-

vinifera vines which contain juice pigmented with the dark Malvidin 3,5-diglucoside anthocyanin) and

therefore contact between the juice and skins is essential for color extraction. Red wines are

produced by destemming and crushing the grapes into a tank and leaving the skins in contact with the

juice throughout the fermentation (maceration). It is possible to produce white (colorless) wines from

red grapes by the fastidious pressing of uncrushed fruit. This minimizes contact between grape juice

and skins (as in the making of Blanc de noirs sparkling wine, which is derived from Pinot noir, a red

vinifera grape.)

Most white wines are processed without destemming or crushing and are transferred from picking

bins directly to the press. This is to avoid any extraction of tannin from either the skins or grapeseeds,

as well as maintaining proper juice flow through a matrix of grape clusters rather than loose berries. In

some circumstances winemakers choose to crush white grapes for a short period of skin contact,

usually for three to 24 hours. This serves to extract flavor and tannin from the skins (the tannin being

extracted to encourage protein precipitation without excessive Bentonite addition) as well

as Potassium ions, which participate in bitartrate precipitation (cream of tartar). It also results in an

increase in the pH of the juice which may be desirable for overly acidic grapes. This was a practice

more common in the 1970s than today, though still practiced by some Sauvignon blanc and

Chardonnay producers in California.


In the case of rosé wines, the fruit is crushed and the dark skins are left in contact with the juice just

long enough to extract the color that the winemaker desires. The must is then pressed, and

fermentation continues as if the wine maker was making a white wine.

Yeast is normally already present on the grapes, often visible as a powdery appearance of the

grapes. The primary, or alcoholic fermentation can be done with this natural yeast, but since this can

give unpredictable results depending on the exact types of yeast that are present, cultured yeast is

often added to the must. One of the main problems with the use of wild ferments is the failure for the

fermentation to go to completion, that is some sugar remains unfermented. This can make the wine

sweet when a dry wine is desired. Frequently wild ferments lead to the production of unpleasant

acetic acid (vinegar) production as a by product.

A cap of grape skins forms on the surface of fermenting red wine.

During the primary fermentation, the yeast cells feed on the sugars in the must and multiply,

producing carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. The temperature during the fermentation affects both the

taste of the end product, as well as the speed of the fermentation. For red wines, the temperature is

typically 22 to 25 °C, and for white wines 15 to 18 °C. For every gram of sugar that is converted,

about half a gram of alcohol is produced, so to achieve a 12% alcohol concentration, the must should

contain about 24% sugars. The sugar percentage of the must is calculated from the measured

density, the must weight, with the help of a specialized type of hydrometer called a saccharometer. If

the sugar content of the grapes is too low to obtain the desired alcohol percentage, sugar can be

added (chaptalization). In commercial winemaking, chaptalization is subject to local regulations.

During or after the alcoholic fermentation, a secondary, or malolactic fermentation malolactic

fermentation can also take place, during which specific strains of bacteria (lactobacter) convert malic

acid into the milder lactic acid. This fermentation is often initiated by inoculation with desired bacteria.



Ancient winepress in Migdal HaEmek, with the pressing area in the center and the collection vat off to the bottom left.

Pressing is the act of applying pressure to grapes or pomace in order to separate juice or wine from

grapes and grape skins. Pressing is not always a necessary act in winemaking; if grapes are crushed

there is a considerable amount of juice immediately liberated (called free-run juice) that can be used

for vinification. Typically this free-run juice is of a higher quality than the press juice. However, most

wineries do use presses in order to increase their production (gallons) per ton, as pressed juice can

represent between 15%-30% of the total juice volume from the grape.

Presses act by positioning the grape skins or whole grape clusters between a rigid surface and a

moveable surface and slowly decrease the volume between the two surfaces. Modern presses dictate

the duration and pressure at each press cycle, usually ramping from 0 Bar to 2.0 Bar. Sometimes

winemakers choose pressures which separate the streams of pressed juice, called making "press

cuts." As the pressure increases the amount of tannin extracted from the skins into the juice

increases, often rendering the pressed juice excessively tannic or harsh. Because of the location of

grape juice constituents in the berry (water and acid are found primarily in the mesocarp or pulp,

whereas tannins are found primarily in the pericarp, or skin, and seeds), pressed juice or wine tends

to be lower in acidity with a higher pH than the free-run juice.

Before the advent of modern winemaking, most presses were basket presses made of wood and

operated manually. Basket presses are composed of a cylinder of wooden slats on top of a fixed

plate, with a moveable plate that can be forced downward (usually by a central ratcheting threaded

screw.) The press operator would load the grapes or pomace into the wooden cylinder, put the top

plate in place and lower it until juice flowed from the wooden slats. As the juice flow decreased, the

plate was ratcheted down again. This process continued until the press operator determined that the

quality of the pressed juice or wine was below standard, or all liquids had been pressed. Since the

early 1990s, modern mechanical basket presses have been revived through higher-end producers

seeking to replicate the gentle pressing of the historical basket presses. Because basket presses

have a relatively compact design, the press cake offers a relatively longer pathway for the juice to


travel before leaving the press. It is believed by advocates of basket presses that this relatively long

pathway through the grape or pomace cake serves as a filter to solids that would otherwise affect the

quality of the press juice.

Antique Wooden Wine Press in front of World Heritage Vineyards

With red wines, the must is pressed after primary fermentation, which separates the skins and other

solid matter from the liquid. With white wine, the liquid is separated from the must before fermentation

. With rose, the skins may be kept in contact for a shorter period to give color to the wine, in that case

the must may be pressed as well. After a period in which the wine stands or ages, the wine is

separated from the dead yeast and any solids that remained (calledlees), and transferred to a new

container where any additional fermentation may take place.


Pigeage is a French winemaking term for the traditional stomping of grapes in

open fermentation tanks. To make certain types of wine, grapes are put through a crusher and then

poured into open fermentation tanks. Once fermentation begins, the grape skins are pushed to the

surface by carbon dioxide gases released in the fermentation process. This layer of skins and other

solids is known as the cap. As the skins are the source of the tannins, the cap needs to be mixed

through the liquid each day, or "punched," which traditionally is done by stomping through the vat.

Cod and heat stabilization

Cold stabilization is a process used in winemaking to reduce tartrate crystals (generally potassium

bitartrate) in wine. These tartrate crystals look like grains of clear sand, and are also known as "wine

crystals" or "wine diamonds". They are formed by the union of tartaric acid and potassium, and may


appear to be sediment in the wine, though they are not. During the cold stabilizing process after

fermentation, the temperature of the wine is dropped to close to freezing for 1–2 weeks. This will

cause the crystals to separate from the wine and stick to the sides of the holding vessel. When the

wine is drained from the vessels, the tartrates are left behind. They may also form in wine bottles that

have been stored under very cold conditions.

During "heat stabilization", unstable proteins are removed by adsorption onto bentonite, preventing

them from precipitating in the bottled wine.

Secondary(Malolactic) Fermentation and ageing

During the secondary fermentation and aging process, which takes three to six months, the

fermentation continues very slowly. The wine is kept under anairlock to protect the wine from

oxidation. Proteins from the grape are broken down and the remaining yeast cells and other fine

particles from the grapes are allowed to settle. Potassium bitartrate will also precipitate, a process

which can be enhanced by cold stabilization to prevent the appearance of (harmless) tartrate crystals

after bottling. The result of these processes is that the originally cloudy wine becomes clear. The wine

can be racked during this process to remove the lees.

The secondary fermentation usually takes place in either large stainless steel vessels with a volume

of several cubic meters, or oak barrels, depending on the goals of the winemakers. Unoaked wine is

fermented in a barrel made of stainless steel or other material having no influence in the final taste of

the wine. Depending on the desired taste, it could be fermented mainly in stainless steel to be briefly

put in oak, or have the complete fermentation done in stainless steel. Oak could be added as chips

used with a non-wooden barrel instead of a fully wooden barrel. This process is mainly used in

cheaper wine.

Amateur winemakers often use glass carboys in the production of their wine; these vessels

(sometimes called demijohns) have a capacity of 4.5 to 54 liters (1.2–14.3 US gallons). The kind of

vessel used depends on the amount of wine that is being made, the grapes being used, and the

intentions of the winemaker.

Malolactic Fermentation

Malolactic fermentation occurs when lactic acid bacteria metabolize malic acid and produce lactic

acid and carbon dioxide. This is carried out either as an intentional procedure in which specially

cultivated strains of such bacteria are introduced into the maturing wine, or it can happen by chance if

uncultivated lactic acid bacteria are present.


Malolactic fermentation can improve the taste of wine that has high levels of malic acid, because

malic acid in higher concentration generally causes an often unpleasant harsh and bitter taste

sensation, whereas lactic acid is perceived as more gentle and less sour. Lactic acid is an acid found

in dairy products. This is the reason why some chardonnays can taste "buttery". All red wines go

through 100% malolactic fermentation, due to the fact that red wines have a higher acidity that needs

to be softened. White wines are at the discretion of the winemaker, depending on the desired final

product. If a malolactic fermentation is used on white wines, it is usually not 100%, but mostly likely

somewhere less than 50%.

Laboratory tests

Whether the wine is aging in tanks or barrels, tests are run periodically in a laboratory to check the

status of the wine. Common tests include °Brix, pH, titratable acidity, residual sugar, free or available

sulfur, total sulfur, volatile acidity and percent alcohol. Additional tests include those for the

crystallization of cream of tartar (potassium hydrogen tartrate) and the precipitation of heat unstable

protein; this last test is limited to white wines. These tests are often performed throughout the making

of the wine as well as prior to bottling. In response to the results of these tests, a winemaker can then

decide on appropriate remedial action, for example the addition of more sulfur dioxide. Sensory tests

will also be performed and again in response to these a wine maker may take remedial action such as

the addition of a protein to soften the taste of the wine.

°Brix is one measure of the soluble solids in the grape juice and represents not only the sugars but

also includes many other soluble substances such as salts, acids and tannins, sometimes called Total

Soluble Solids (TSS). However, sugar is by far the compound in greatest quantity and so for all

practical purposes these units are a measure of sugar level. The level of sugar in the grapes is

important not only because it will determine the final alcohol content of the wine, but also because it is

an indirect index of grape maturity. Brix (Bx for short) is measured in grams per hundred grams of

solution, so 20 Bx means that 100 grams of juice contains 20gm of dissolved compounds. There are

other common measures of sugar content of grapes, Specific gravity, Oechsle (Germany) and

Beaume (France). The French Baumé (Be°or Bé°for short) has the benefit that one Be°gives

approximately one percent alcohol. Also one Be°is equal to 1.8 Brix, that is 1.8 grams of sugar per

one hundred grams. This helps with deciding how much sugar to add if the juice is low in sugar: to

achieve one percent alcohol add 1.8 grams per 100 ml or 18 grams per liter. This process is called

chaptalization and is illegal in some countries (but perfectly acceptable for the home winemaker.)

Generally, for the making of dry table wines a Bx of between 20 and 25 is desirable (equivalent to Be°

of 11 to 14.)


A Brix test can be run either in the lab or in the field for a quick reference number to see what the

sugar content is. Brix is usually measured with a refractometer while the other methods use a

hydrometer. Generally, hydrometers are a cheaper alternative. For more accurate use of sugar

measurement it should be remembered that all measurements are affected by the temperature at

which the reading is made. Suppliers of equipment generally will supply correction charts.

Volatile acidity test verifies if there is any steam distillable acids in the wine. Mainly present is acetic

acid but lactic, butyric, propionic, and formic acids can also be found. Usually the test checks for

these acids in a cash still, but there are new methods available such as HPLC, gas chromatography

and enzymatic methods. The amount of volatile acidity found in sound grapes is negligible, since it is

a by-product of microbial metabolism. It's important to remember that acetic acid bacteria require

oxygen to grow. Eliminating any air in wine containers as well as a sulfur dioxide addition will limit

their growth. Rejecting moldy grapes will also prevent possible problems associated with acetic acid

bacteria. Use of sulfur dioxide and inoculation with a low-V.A. producing strain of Saccharomyces

may deter acetic acid producing yeast. A relatively new method for removal of volatile acidity from a

wine is reverse osmosis. Blending may also help—a wine with high V.A. can be filtered (to remove the

microbe responsible) and blended with a low V.A. wine, so that the acetic acid level is below the

sensory threshold.

Blending and Fining

Different batches of wine can be mixed before bottling in order to achieve the desired taste. The

winemaker can correct perceived inadequacies by mixing wines from different grapes and batches

that were produced under different conditions. These adjustments can be as simple as adjusting acid

or tannin levels, to as complex as blending different varieties or vintages to achieve a consistent taste.

Fining agents are used during winemaking to remove tannins, reduce astringency and remove

microscopic particles that could cloud the wines. The winemakers decide on which fining agents are

used and these may vary from product to product and even batch to batch (usually depending on the

grapes of that particular year).

Gelatin has been used in winemaking for centuries and is recognized as a traditional method for wine

fining, or clarifying. It is also the most commonly used agent to reduce the tannin content. Generally

no gelatin remains in the wine because it reacts with the wine components, as it clarifies, and forms

a sediment which is removed by filtration prior to bottling.


Besides gelatin, other fining agents for wine are often derived from animal and fish products, such as

micronized potassium casseinate (casein is milk protein), egg whites, egg albumin, bone char,bull's

blood, isinglass (Sturgeon bladder), PVPP (a synthetic compound), lysozyme, and skim milk powder.

Some aromatized wines contain honey or egg-yolk extract.

Non-animal-based filtering agents are also often used, such as bentonite (a volcanic clay-based

filter), diatomaceous earth, cellulose pads, paper filters and membrane filters (thin films of

plasticpolymer material having uniformly sized holes).


The most common preservative used in winemaking is sulfur dioxide, achieved by adding sodium

or potassium metabisulphite. Another useful preservative is potassium sorbate.

Sulfur dioxide has two primary actions, firstly it is an anti microbial agent and secondly an anti oxidant.

In the making of white wine it can be added prior to fermentation and immediately after alcoholic

fermentation is complete. If added after alcoholic ferment it will have the effect of preventing or

stopping malolactic fermentation, bacterial spoilage and help protect against the damaging effects of

oxygen. Additions of up to 100 mg per liter (of sulfur dioxide) can be added, but the available or free

sulfur dioxide should be measured by the aspiration method and adjusted to 30 mg per liter. Available

sulfur dioxide should be maintained at this level until bottling. For rose wines smaller additions should

be made and the available level should be no more than 30 mg per liter.

In the making of red wine sulfur dioxide may be used at high levels (100 mg per liter) prior to ferment

to assist stabilize color otherwise it is used at the end of malolactic ferment and performs the same

functions as in white wine. However, small additions (say 20 mg per liter) should be used to avoid

bleaching red pigments and the maintenance level should be about 20 mg per liter. Furthermore,

small additions (say 20 mg per liter) may be made to red wine after alcoholic ferment and before

malolactic ferment to overcome minor oxidation and prevent the growth of acetic acid bacteria.

Without the use of sulfur dioxide, wines can readily suffer bacterial spoilage no matter how hygienic

the winemaking practice.

Potassium sorbate is effective for the control of fungal growth, including yeast, especially for sweet

wines in bottle. However, one potential hazard is the metabolism of sorbate to geraniol a potent and

very unpleasant by-product. To avoid this, either the wine must be sterile bottled or contain enough

sulfur dioxide to inhibit the growth of bacteria. Sterile bottling includes the use of filtration.



Filtration in winemaking is used to accomplish two objectives, clarification and microbial stabilization.

In clarification, large particles that affect the visual appearance of the wine are removed. In microbial

stabilization, organisms that affect the stability of the wine are removed therefore reducing the

likelihood of re-fermentation or spoilage.

The process of clarification is concerned with the removal of particles; those larger than 5–10

micrometers for coarse polishing, particles larger than 1–4 micrometers for clarifying or

polishing. Microbial stabilization requires a filtration of at least 0.65 micrometers. However, filtration at

this level may lighten a wines color and body. Microbial stabilization does not imply sterility. It simply

means that a significant amount of yeast and bacteria have been removed.


A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year, and

labeled as such. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion that is not from the labeled

vintage. Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color,

palate, nose, body and development. High-quality wines can improve in flavor with age if properly

stored. Consequently, it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an

especially good vintage wine for future consumption.

In the United States, for a wine to be vintage dated and labeled with a country of origin or American

Viticultural Area (AVA) (such as "Sonoma Valley"), it must contain at least 95% of its volume from

grapes harvested in that year. If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage

requirement is lowered to 85%.

Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste.

Climate can have a big impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the

same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. Thus, vintage wines are produced to be

individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. Superior

vintages, from reputable producers and regions, will often fetch much higher prices than their average

vintages. Some vintage wines, like Brunellos, are only made in better-than-average years.

For consistency, non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage, which helps wine

makers sustain a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. One recent study


suggests that for normal drinkers, vintage year may not be as significant to perceived wine quality as

currently thought, although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it.


A final dose of sulfite is added to help preserve the wine and prevent unwanted fermentation in the

bottle. The wine bottles then are traditionally sealed with a cork, although alternative wine

closuressuch as synthetic corks and screwcaps, which are less subject to cork taint, are becoming

increasingly popular. The final step is adding a capsule to the top of the bottle which is then heated for

a tight seal.


Wine cellars, or wine rooms if they are above-ground, are places designed specifically for the storage

and aging of wine. In an active wine cellar, temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate

control system. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled, and so must be carefully located.

Wine is a natural, perishable food product; when exposed to heat, light, vibration or fluctuations in

temperature and humidity, all types of wine, including red, white, sparkling, and fortified, can spoil.

When properly stored, wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma, flavor,

and complexity as they age. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine

is 55 °F (13 °C), others 59 °F (15 °C). Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars. They are

available in capacities ranging from small 16-bottle units to furniture pieces that can contain 400

bottles. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging, but rather serve to chill wine to the perfect

temperature for drinking. These refrigerators keep the humidity low, usually under 50%, which is

below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. Lower humidity levels can dry corks out over time,

allowing oxygen to enter the bottle and reduce the wine's quality.


Wine of Italy

Italian wine is wine produced in Italy, a country which is home to some of the oldest wine-producing

regions in the world. Italy is one of the world's foremost producers, responsible for approximately one-

fifth of world wine production in 2005. Italy is the second largest wine producer after France, and

in 2008 the country surpassed France for the title of world's

biggest producer for the first time in a decade, at nearly six billion

liters. Italian wine is exported largely around the world and has

market share of over 10% in most Asian countries like India. Wine

is extremely popular in Italy. Italians lead the world in wine

consumption by volume with 70 literes per capita consumption,

compared to 25 litres in the US, 20 litres in Australia, 40 millilitres

in China and 9 millilitres inIndia. Grapes are grown in almost

every region of the country. More than 1 million vineyards are

under cultivation.

Etruscans and Greek settlers produced wine in the country long

before the Romans started developing their own vineyards in the 2nd century BC. Roman grape-

growing and winemaking was prolific and well-organized, pioneering large-scale production

and storage techniques like barrel-making and bottling.


Although vines had been cultivated from the wild Vitis vinifera grape for millennia, it wasn't until

the Greek colonization that wine-making flourished. Viticulture was introduced into Sicily and southern

Italy by the Mycenaean Greeks, and was well established when the extensive Greek colonization

transpired around 800 BC. It was during the Roman defeat of the Carthaginians (acknowledged

masters of wine-making) in the 2nd century BC that Italian wine production began to further flourish.

Large-scale, slave-run plantations sprang up in many coastal areas and spread to such an extent

that, in AD 92, emperor Domitian was forced to destroy a great number of vineyards in order to free

up fertile land for food production.

During this time, viticulture outside of Italy was prohibited under Roman law. Exports to the provinces

were reciprocated in exchange for more slaves, especially from Gaul where trade was intense,

according to Pliny, due to the inhabitants being besotted with Italian wine, drinking it unmixed and


without restraint. It was customary to mix wine with a good proportion of water which may otherwise

have been unpalatable, making wine drinking a fundamental part of early Italian life.

As the laws on provincial viticulture were relaxed, vast vineyards began to flourish in the rest of

Europe, especially Gaul (present day France) andHispania. This coincided with the cultivation of new

vines, like biturica (ancestor of the Cabernets). These vineyards became hugely successful, to the

point that Italy ultimately became an import centre for provincial wines.

Depending on the vintage, modern Italy is the world's largest or second largest wine producer. In

2005, production was about 20% of the global total, second only to France, which produced 26%. In

the same year, Italy's share in dollar value of table wine imports into the U.S. was 32%, Australia's

was 24%, and France's was 20%. Along with Australia, Italy's market share has rapidly increased in

recent years.

Italian Appellation System

Italy's classification system has four classes of wine, with two falling under the EU category Quality

Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWPSR) and two falling under the category of 'table wine'. The

four classes are:

Table Wine:

Vino da Tavola (VDT) - Denotes simply that the wine is made in Italy. The label usually indicates

a basic wine, made for local consumption.

Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) - Denotes wine from a more specific region within Italy. This

appellation was created in 1992 for wines that were considered to be of higher quality than simple

table wines, but which did not conform to the strict wine laws for their region. Before the IGT was

created, "Super Tuscan" wines such as Tignanello were labeled Vino da Tavola.


Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC)

Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG)

Both DOC and DOCG wines refer to zones which are more specific than an IGT, and the permitted

grapes are also more specifically defined. The DOC system began in 1963, seeking to establish a

method of both recognizing quality product and maintaining the international and national reputation

of that product. The main difference between a DOC and a DOCG is that the latter must pass a blind

taste test for quality in addition to conforming to the strict legal requirements to be designated as a


wine from the area in question. After the sweeping wine laws of 1992, transparent rules were made

regarding requirements for DOCG entry, imposing new limits regarding the production of grapes per

hectare and minimum natural alcohol levels, among others.

The overall goal of the system is to encourage producers to focus on quality wine making.

Italian Wine Regions

Italy's 20 wine regions correspond to the 20 administrative regions. Understanding of Italian wine

becomes clearer with an understanding of the differences between each region; their cuisines reflect

their indigenous wines, and vice-versa. The 36 DOCG wines are located in 13 different regions but

most of them are concentrated in Piedmont and Tuscany. Among these are appellations appreciated

and sought after by wine lovers around the world: Barolo, Barbaresco, and Brunello di

Montalcino (colloquially known as the "Killer B's").

The regions are, roughly from Northwest to Southeast:

Italian administrative regions


Key Italian Wine Varieties

Italy's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MIRAF), has documented over 350 grapes and granted

them "authorized" status. There are more than 500 other documented varieties in circulation as well.

The following is a list of the most common and important of Italy's varieties.

Bianco (White)

Arneis - A crisp and floral variety from Piedmont, which has been grown there since the 15th


Catarratto - Common in Sicily - this is the most widely planted white variety in Salaparuta.

Fiano - Grown on the southwest coast of Italy, the wines from this grape can be described as

dewy and herbal, often with notes of pinenut and pesto.

Garganega - The main grape variety for wines labeled Soave, this is a crisp, dry white wine from

the Veneto wine region of Italy. It's a very popular wine that hails from northeast Italy around the

city of Verona. Currently, there are over 3,500 distinct producers of Soave.

Malvasia Bianca - Another white variety that peeks up in all corners of Italy with a wide variety of

clones and mutations. Can range from easy quaffers to funky, musty whites.

Moscato - Grown mainly in Piedmont, it is mainly used in the slightly-sparkling (frizzante), semi-

sweet Moscato d'Asti. Not to be confused with moscato giallo and moscato rosa, two Germanic

varietals that are grown in Trentino Alto-Adige.

Nuragus - An ancient Phoenician variety found in southern Sardegna. Light and tart wines that

are drunk as an apertif in their homeland.

Pigato - A heavily acidic variety from Liguria, the wines are vinified to pair with a cuisine rich in



Pinot Grigio - A hugely successful commercial grape (known as Pinot Gris in France), its wines

are characterized by crispness and cleanness. As a hugely mass-produced wine, it is usually

delicate and mild, but in a good producers' hands, the wine can grow more full-bodied and

complex. The main problem with the grape is that to satisfy the commercial demand, the grapes

are harvested too early every year, leading to wines without character.

Ribolla Gialla - A Slovenian grape that now makes its home in Friuli, these wines are decidedly

old-world, with aromas of pineapple and mustiness.

Tocai Friulano - A variety distantly related to Sauvignon Blanc, it yields the top wine of Friuli, full

of peachiness and minerality. Currently, there is a bit of controversy regarding the name, as the

EC has demanded it changed to avoid confusion with the Tokay dessert wine from Hungary.

Trebbiano - This is the most widely planted white varietal in Italy. It is grown throughout the

country, with a special focus on the wines from Abruzzo and from Lazio, including Frascati.

Mostly, they are pale, easy drinking wines, but trebbiano from producers such as Valentini have

been known to age for 15+ years. It is known as Ugni Blanc in France.

Verdicchio - This is grown in the areas of Castelli di Jesi and Matelica in the Marche region and

gives its name to the varietal white wine made from it. The name comes from "verde" (green).

The white wines are noted for their high acidity and a characteristic nutty flavour with a hint of


Vermentino - This is widely planted in northern Sardinia and also found in Tuscan and Ligurian

coastal districts. Wines are particularly popular to accompany fish and seafood.

Passerina - mainly derives from Passerina grapes (it may even be produced purely with these),

plus a minimum percentage of other white grapes and may be still, sparkling or passito. In its still

version, one appreciates the acidic profile, which is typical of these grapes, as well as the delicate

aromas. In the sparkling version, the pleasant stream of tiny bubbles makes the freshness of this

wine even more enjoyable, whereas the passito wine version is the most surprising.

Pecorino - red recently, enabled the peculiar features of the wine that was only produced purely

in the past to be revealed locally and then to the general public. It turned out to be a bold white

wine, with distinctive ―exaggerate‖ hues that make it more similar to red wines: strong sugar

content highlights the alcohol percentage, which is always higher than 13°, a good body and

highly acidic. Thus this wine is surprisingly long-lived, powerful and pleasantly sharp.

Other important whites include Carricante, Catarratto, Coda de Volpe,

Cortese, Falanghina, Grechetto, Grillo, Inzolia, Picolit, Traminer, Verduzzo, and Vernaccia.


Non-native varieties that the Italians plant include Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer (sometimes

called traminer aromatico), Petite Arvine, Riesling, and many others.

Rosso (Red)

Aglianico - Considered the "noble varietal of the south," it is primarily grown in Campania and

Basilicata. The name is derived from Hellenic, so it is considered a Greek transplant. Thick

skinned and spicy, the wines are often both rustic and powerful.

Barbera - The most widely grown red wine grape of Piedmont and Southern Lombardy, most

famously around the towns of Asti and Alba, and Pavia. The wines of Barbera were once simply

"what you drank while waiting for the Barolo to be ready." With a new generation of wine makers,

this is no longer the case. The wines are now meticulously vinified, aged Barbera gets the name

"Barbera Superiore" (Superior Barbera), sometimes aged in French barrique becoming "Barbera

Barricato", and intended for the international market. The wine has bright cherry fruit, a very dark

color, and a food-friendly acidity.

Corvina - Along with the varietals rondinella and molinara, this is the principal grape which makes

the famous wines of the Veneto: Valpolicella and Amarone. Valpolicella wine has dark cherry fruit

and spice. After the grapes undergo passito (a drying process), the wine is now called Amarone,

and is extremely high in alcohol (16% and up) and full of raisin, prune, and syrupy fruits. Some

Amarones can age for 40+ years and command spectacular prices. In December 2009, there was

celebration when the acclaimed Amarone di Valpolicella was finally awarded its long-sought

DOCG status.

Dolcetto - A grape that grows alongside Barbera and Nebbiolo in Piedmont, its name means "little

sweet one"", referring not to the taste of the wine, but the ease in which it grows and makes great

wines, suitable for everyday drinking. Flavors of concord grape, wild blackberries and herbs

permeate the wine.

Malvasia Nera - Red Malvasia varietal from Piedmont. A sweet and perfumed wine, sometimes

elaborated in the passito style.


Montepulciano - The grape of this name is not to be confused with the Tuscan town

of Montepulciano; it is most widely planted on the opposite coast in Abruzzo. Its wines develop

silky plum-like fruit, friendly acidity, and light tannin. More recently, producers have been creating

a rich, inky, extracted version of this wine, a sharp contrast to the many inferior bottles produced

in the past.

Nebbiolo - The most noble of Italy's varieties. The name (meaning "little fog") refers to the autumn

fog that blankets most of Piedmont where Nebbiolo is chiefly grown, and where it achieves the

most successful results. A difficult grape variety to cultivate, it produces the most

renowned Barolo and Barbaresco, made in province of Cuneo, along with the lesser-known

Sforzato, Inferno and Sassellamade in Valtellina, Ghemme and Gattinara, made in Vercelli's

province. The wines are known for their elegance and power with a bouquet of wild mushroom,

truffle, roses, and tar. Traditionally produced Barolo can age for fifty years-plus, and is regarded

by many wine enthusiasts as the greatest wine of Italy.

Negroamaro - The name literally means "black and bitter". A widely planted grape with its

concentration in the region of Puglia, it is the backbone of the Salice Salentino: spicy, toasty, and

full of dark red fruits.

Nero d'Avola - Nearly unheard of in the international market until recent years, this native varietal

of Sicily is gaining attention for its plummy fruit and sweet tannins. The quality of nero d'avola has

surged in recent years.

Sagrantino - A native to Umbria, it is only planted on 250 hectares, but the wines produced from it

(either blended with Sangiovese as Rosso di Montefalco or as a pure Sagrantino) are world-

renowned. Inky purple, with rustic brooding fruit and heavy tannins, these wines can age for many


Sangiovese - Italy's claim to fame, the pride of Tuscany. Traditionally made, the wines are full of

cherry fruit, earth, and cedar. It produces Chianti (Classico), Rosso di Montalcino, Brunello di

Montalcino, Rosso di Montepulciano, Montefalco Rosso, and many others. Sangiovese is also the

backbone in many of the acclaimed, modern-styled "Super-Tuscans", where it is blended with

Bordeaux varietals (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Cabernet Franc) and typically aged in

French oak barrels, resulting a wine primed for the international market in the style of a typical

California cabernet: oaky, high-alcohol, and a ripe, jammy, fruit-forward profile.

Rosso Piceno - Its origin and the use of the blend of two grape

varieties, Montepulciano and Sangiovese, explain why this red wine is the main one of the

products of outstanding excellence of this land, a land that is ideal for cultivating these grape

varieties, which are the symbol of a tradition of great Italian wines that perfectly match the farming


culture bound to the consumption of meat, even more so in this area where the esteemed Marche

cattle breed is highlighted also in simple dishes accompanied by Rosso Piceno Superiore.

Other major red varieties are Ciliegolo, Gaglioppo, Lagrein, Lambrusco, Monica, Nerello

Mascalese, Pignolo, Primitivo (Zinfandel in California), Refosco, Schiava, Schiopettino, Teroldego,

and Uva di Troia.

"International" varieties such as Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Syrah are also

widely grown.

List of Italian DOC Wines

List of Italian Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) wines, in alphabetical order by region:

the wine-making regions of Italy are equivalent to its twenty administrative regions, Trentino-Alto

Adige/Südtirol (or just Trentino-Alto Adige), however, being subdivided into its two constituent parts.


Controguerra produced in the province of Teramo

Montepulciano d'Abruzzo produced in the provinces of Chieti, L'Aquila, Pescara and Teramo

Trebbiano d'Abruzzo provinces of Chieti, L'Aquila, Pescara and Teramo


Aglianico del Vulture produced in the province of Potenza

Matera produced in the province of Matera

Terre dell'Alta Val d'Agri produced in the province of Potenza



Bivongi produced in the provinces of Reggio Calabria and Catanzaro

Cirò produced in the province of Crotone

Donnici produced in the province of Cosenza

Greco di Bianco produced in the province of Reggio Calabria

Lamezia produced in the province of Catanzaro

Melissa produced in the province of Crotone

Pollino produced in the province of Cosenza

Sant'Anna di Isola Capo Rizzuto produced in the provinces of Crotone and Catanzaro

San Vito di Luzzi produced in the province of Cosenza

Savuto produced in the provinces of Cosenza and Catanzaro

Scavigna produced in the province of Catanzaro

Verbicaro produced in the province of Cosenza


Aglianico del Taburno produced in the province of Benevento

Aversa Asprinio produced in the provinces of Caserta and Napoli

Campi Flegrei produced in the province of Napoli

Capri produced in the province of Napoli

Castel San Lorenzo produced in the province of Salerno

Cilento produced in the province of Salerno

Costa d'Amalfi produced in the province of Salerno

Falerno del Massico produced in the province of Caserta

Galluccio produced in the province of Caserta

Guardiolo produced in the province of Benevento

Ischia produced in the province of Napoli

Penisola Sorrentina produced in the province of Napoli

Sannio produced in the province of Benevento

Sant'Agata dei Goti produced in the province of Benevento

Solopaca produced in the province of Benevento

Taburno produced in the province of Benevento

Vesuvio produced in the province of Napoli



Bosco Eliceo produced in the provinces of Ferrara and Ravenna

Cagnina di Romagna produced in the provinces of Forlì and Ravenna

Colli Bolognesi produced in the provinces of Bologna and Modena

Colli Bolognesi Classico Pignoletto produced in the province of Bologna

Colli di Faenza produced in the provinces of Forlì and Ravenna

Colli di Imola produced in the province of Bologna

Colli di Parma produced in the province of Parma

Colli di Rimini produced in the province of Rimini

Colli di Scandiano e di Canossa

Colli Piacentini produced in the province of Piacenza

Colli Romagna Centrale produced in the provinces of Ravenna and Forlì

Lambrusco di Sorbara produced in the province of Modena

Lambrusco Grasparossa di Castelvetro produced in the province of Modena

Lambrusco Salamino di Santacroce produced in the province of Modena

Pagadebit di Romagna produced in the provinces of Ravenna and Forlì

Reggiano produced in the province of Reggio Emilia

Reno produced in the provinces of Bologna and Modena

Romagna Albana Spumante (Bianco Spumante) produced in the provinces of Bologna, Forlì and


Sangiovese di Romagna produced in the provinces of Bologna, Forlì and Ravenna

Trebbiano di Romagna produced in the provinces of Bologna, Forlì and Ravenna

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Carso produced in the provinces of Gorizia and Trieste

Colli Orientali del Friuli produced in the province of Udine

Colli Orientali del Friuli Cialla produced in the province of Udine

Colli Orientali del Friuli Rosazzo produced in the province of Udine

Collio produced in the province of Gorizia

Friuli Annia produced in the province of Udine

Friuli Aquileia produced in the province of Udine

Friuli Grave produced in the provinces of Pordenone and Udine

Friuli Isonzo produced in the province of Gorizia

Friuli Latisana produced in the province of Udine


Lison Pramaggiore an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Pordenone (Friuli-Venezia

Giulia) and Venezia and Treviso (Veneto)


Aleatico di Gradoli produced in the province of Viterbo

Aprilia produced in the province of Latina

Atina produced in the province of Frosinone

Bianco Capena produced in the province of Roma

Castelli Romani produced in the province of Roma

Cerveteri produced in the provinces of Roma

Cesanese del Piglio or Piglio produced in the province of Frosinone

Cesanese di Affile produced in the province of Roma

Cesanese di Olevano Romano produced in the province of Roma

Circeo produced in the province of Latina

Colli Albani produced in the province of Roma

Colli della Sabina produced in the provinces of Rieti and Roma

Colli Etruschi Viterbesi produced in the province of Viterbo

Colli Lanuvini produced in the province of Roma

Cori produced in the province of Latina

Est! Est!! Est!!! di Montefiascone produced in the province of Viterbo

Frascati produced in the province of Roma

Genazzano produced in the provinces of Frosinone and Roma

Marino produced in the province of Roma

Montecompatri Colonna produced in the province of Roma

Nettuno produced in the province of Roma

Orvieto an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Viterbo (Lazio) and Terni (Umbria)

Tarquinia produced in the provinces of Roma and Viterbo

Velletri produced in the provinces of Latina and Roma

Vignanello produced in the province of Viterbo

Zagarolo produced in the province of Roma



Cinque Terre

Cinque Terre Sciacchetrà produced in the province of La Spezia

Colli di Luni an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of La Spezia (Liguria) and of

Massa-Carrara (Toscana)

Colline di Levanto produced in the province of La Spezia

Golfo del Tigullio produced in the province of Genova

Riviera Ligure di Ponente

Rossese di Dolceacqua

Val Polcevera produced in the province of Genova



Botticino produced in the province of Brescia

Capriano del Colle produced in the province of Brescia

Cellatica produced in the province of Brescia

Garda an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Brescia and Mantova (Lombardia) and

Verona (Veneto)

Garda Colli Mantovani produced in the province of Mantova

Lambrusco Mantovano produced in the province of Mantova

Lugana an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Brescia (Lombardia) and Verona


Oltrepò Pavese produced in the province of Pavia

Riviera del Garda Bresciano produced in the province of Brescia

San Colombano al Lambro produced in the provinces of Lodi, Milano and Pavia

San Martino della Battaglia an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Brescia

(Lombardia) and Verona (Veneto)

Scanzo produced in the province of Bergamo

Terre di Franciacorta produced in the province of Brescia

Valcalepio produced in the province of Bergamo

Valtellina Rosso produced in the province of Sondrio



Bianchello del Metauro produced in the province of Pesaro-Urbino

Colli Maceratesi produced in the province of Macerata

Colli Pesaresi produced in the province of Pesaro

Esino produced in the provinces of Ancona and Macerata

Falerio dei Colli Ascolani produced in the province of Ascoli Piceno

Lacrima di Morro d'Alba produced in the province of Ancona

Offida produced in the province of Ascoli Piceno

Rosso Conero produced in the province of Ancona

Rosso Piceno produced in the provinces of Ancona, Ascoli Piceno, Fermo and Macerata

Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi produced in the provinces of Ancona and Macerata

Verdicchio di Matelica produced in the provinces of Ancona and Macerata


Biferno produced in the province of Campobasso

Molise produced in the provinces of Campobasso and Isernia

Pentro di Isernia produced in the province of Isernia


Albugnano produced in the province of Asti

Alta Langa produced in the provinces of Alessandria, Asti and Cuneo

Barbera d'Alba produced in the province of Cuneo

Barbera d'Asti produced in the province of Asti

Barbera del Monferrato produced in the provinces of Alessandria and Asti

Boca produced in the province of Novara

Bramaterra produced in the provinces of Biella and Vercelli

Canavese produced in the provinces of Biella, Torino and Vercelli

Carema produced in the province of Torino

Cisterna d'Asti produced in the provinces of Asti and Cuneo

Colli Tortonesi produced in the province of Alessandria

Collina Torinese produced in the province of Torino

Colline Novaresi produced in the province of Novara


Colline Saluzzesi produced in the province of Cuneo

Cortese dell'Alto Monferrato produced in the provinces of Alessandria and Asti

Coste della Sesia produced in the provinces of Biella and Vercelli

Dolcetto d'Acqui produced in the province of Alessandria

Dolcetto d'Alba produced in the province of Cuneo

Dolcetto d'Asti produced in the province of Asti

Dolcetto delle Langhe Monregalesi produced in the province of Cuneo

Dolcetto di Diano d'Alba produced in the province of Cuneo

Dolcetto di Dogliani produced in the province of Cuneo

Dolcetto di Ovada produced in the province of Alessandria

Erbaluce di Caluso produced in the provinces of Biella, Torino and Vercelli

Fara produced in the province of Novara

Freisa d'Asti produced in the province of Asti

Freisa di Chieri produced in the province of Torino

Gabiano produced in the province of Alessandria

Grignolino d'Asti produced in the province of Asti

Grignolino del Monferrato Casalese produced in the province of Alessandria

Langhe produced in the province of Cuneo

Lessona produced in the province of Biella

Loazzolo produced in the province of Asti

Malvasia di Casorzo d'Asti produced in the provinces of Alessandria and Asti

Malvasia di Castelnuovo Don Bosco produced in the provinces of Alessandria and Asti

Monferrato produced in the provinces of Alessandria and Asti

Nebbiolo d'Alba produced in the province of Cuneo

Piemonte produced in the provinces of Alessandria, Asti and Cuneo

Pinerolese produced in the provinces of Cuneo and Torino

Rubino di Cantavenna produced in the province of Alessandria

Ruché di Castagnole Monferrato produced in the province of Asti

Sizzano produced in the province of Novara

Valsusa produced in the province of Torino

Verduno Pelaverga produced in the province of Cuneo


Aleatico di Puglia produced throughout the region


Alezio produced in the province of Lecce

Brindisi produced in the province of Brindisi

Cacc'e mmitte di Lucera produced in the province of Foggia

Castel del Monte produced in the province of Bari

Copertino produced in the province of Lecce

Galatina produced in the province of Lecce

Gioia del Colle produced in the province of Bari

Gravina produced in the province of Bari

Leverano produced in the province of Lecce

Lizzano produced in the province of Taranto

Locorotondo produced in the provinces of Bari and Brindisi

Martina produced in the provinces of Bari, Brindisi and Taranto

Matino produced in the province of Lecce

Moscato di Trani produced in the provinces of Bari and Foggia

Nardò produced in the province of Lecce

Orta Nova produced in the province of Foggia

Ostuni produced in the province of Brindisi

Primitivo produced in the provinces of Brindisi and Taranto

Rosso Barletta produced in the provinces of Bari and Foggia

Rosso Canosa produced in the province of Bari

Rosso di Cerignola produced in the province of Bari

Salice Salentino produced in the provinces of Brindisi and Lecce

San Severo, produced in the province of Foggia

Squinzano produced in the provinces of Brindisi and Lecce


Alghero produced in the province of Sassari

Arborea produced in the province of Oristano

Campidano di Terralba produced in the provinces of Cagliari and Oristano

Cannonau di Sardegna produced throughout the region

Carignano del Sulcis produced in the province of Cagliari

Girò di Cagliari produced in the provinces of Cagliari and Oristano

Malvasia di Bosa produced in the province of Nuoro

Malvasia di Cagliari produced in the provinces of Cagliari and Oristano


Mandrolisai produced in the provinces of Nuoro and Oristano

Monica di Cagliari produced in the provinces of Cagliari and Oristano

Monica di Sardegna produced throughout the region

Moscato di Cagliari produced in the provinces of Cagliari and Oristano

Moscato di Sardegna produced throughout the region

Moscato di Sorso Sennoriproduced in the province of Sassari

Nasco di Cagliari produced in the provinces of Cagliari and Oristano

Nuragus di Cagliari produced in the provinces of Cagliari, Nuoro and Oristano

Sardegna Semidano produced throughout the region

Vermentino di Sardegna produced throughout the region

Vernaccia di Oristano produced in the province of Oristano


Alcamo produced in the provinces of Palermo and Trapani

Contea di Sclafani produced in the provinces of Agrigento, Caltanissetta and Palermo

Contessa Entellina produced in the province of Palermo

Delia Nivolelli Nero d'Avola produced in the province of Trapani

Eloro produced in the provinces of Ragusa and Siracusa

Erice produced in the province of Trapani

Etna produced in the province of Catania

Faro produced in the province of Messina

Malvasia delle Lipari produced in the province of Messina

Mamertino di Milazzo produced in the province of Messina

Marsala produced in the province of Trapani

Menfi produced in the provinces of Agrigento and Trapani

Monreale produced in the province of Palermo

Moscato di Noto Naturale produced in the province of Agrigento

Moscato di Pantelleria produced in the province of Trapani

Moscato di Siracusa produced in the province of Siracusa

Riesi produced in the province of Caltanissetta

Salaparuta produced within the communal territory of Salaparuta in the province of Trapani

Sambuca di Sicilia produced in the province of Agrigento

Santa Margherita di Belice produced in the province of Agrigento

Sciacca produced in the province of Agrigento



Ansonica Costa dell'Argentario produced in the province of Grosseto

Barco Reale di Carmignano produced in the provinces of Firenze and Prato

Bianco della Valdinievole produced in the province of Pistoia

Bianco dell'Empolese produced in the provinces of Firenze and Pistoia

Bianco di Pitigliano produced in the province of Grosseto

Bianco Pisano di San Torpè produced in the province of Pisa

Bianco Vergine della Valdichiana produced in the provinces of Arezzo and Siena

Bolgheri produced in the province of Livorno

Candia dei Colli Apuani produced in the province of Massa-Carrara

Capalbio produced in the province of Grosseto

Colli dell'Etruria Centrale produced in the provinces of Arezzo, Firenze, Pisa, Pistoia, Prato and


Colli di Luni an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Massa-Carrara (Toscana) and of

La Spezia (Liguria)

Colline Lucchesi produced in the province of Lucca

Cortona produced in the province of Arezzo

Elba produced in the province of Livorno

Montecarlo produced in the province of Lucca

Montecucco produced in the province of Grosseto

Monteregio di Massa Marittima produced in the province of Grosseto

Montescudaio produced in the provinces of Livorno and Pisa

Morellino di Scansano produced in the province of Grosseto

Moscadello di Montalcino produced in the province of Siena

Orcia produced in the province of Siena

Parrina produced in the province of Grosseto

Pomino produced in the province of Firenze

Rosso di Montalcino produced in the province of Siena

Rosso di Montepulciano produced in the province of Siena

San Gimignano produced in the province of Siena

Sant'Antimo produced in the province of Siena

Sovana produced in the province of Grosseto

Val d'Arbia produced in the province of Siena


Val di Cornia produced in the provinces of Livorno and Pisa

Vin Santo del Chianti produced in the provinces of Arezzo, Firenze, Pisa, Pistoia, Prato and


Vin Santo del Chianti Classico produced in the provinces of Firenze and Siena

Vin Santo di Montepulciano produced in the province of Siena

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol

South Tyrol

Wines from South Tyrol have official designations in both the Italian and German languages. Labels

typically use the German form.

Südtirol, or Südtiroler (Italian: Alto Adige) produced in South Tyrol

Kalterersee, or Kalterer) (Italian: Lago di Caldaro, or Caldaro) a DOC produced both in the

provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino

Valdadige an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of South Tyrol, Trentino and Verona


Casteller produced in the province of Trentino

Teroldego Rotaliano produced in the province of Trentino

Trentino produced in the province of Trentino

Trento a sparkling wine produced in the province of Trentino

Lago di Caldaro or Caldaro (German: Kalterersee or Kalterer) a DOC produced both in the

provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino

Valdadige an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of South Tyrol, Trentino and Verona



Assisi produced in the province of Perugia

Colli Altotiberini produced in the province of Perugia

Colli Amerini produced in the province of Terni


Colli del Trasimeno produced in the province of Perugia

Colli Martani produced in the province of Perugia

Lago di Corbara produced in the provinces of Perugia and Terni

Montefalco produced in the province of Perugia

Orvieto an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Terni (Umbria) and Viterbo (Lazio)

Rosso Orvietano produced in the province of Terni

Torgiano produced in the province of Perugia

Valle d'Aosta

Valle d'Aosta


Arcole produced in the provinces of Verona and Vicenza

Bagnoli di Sopra produced in the province of Padova

Bardolino produced in the province of Verona

Bianco di Custoza produced in the province of Verona

Breganze produced in the province of Vicenza

Colli Berici produced in the province of Vicenza

Colli di Conegliano produced in the province of Treviso

Colli Euganei produced in the province of Padova

Corti Benedettine del Padovano produced in the provinces of Padova and Venezia

Gambellara produced in the province of Vicenza

Garda an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Verona (Veneto) and Brescia and

Mantova (Lombardia)

Lison Pramaggiore an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Venezia and Treviso

(Veneto) and Pordenone (Friuli-Venezia Giulia)

Lugana an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Verona (Veneto) and Brescia


Merlara produced in the province of Padova

Montello e Colli Asolani produced in the province of Treviso

Monti Lessini produced in the province of Vicenza

Piave produced in the provinces of Treviso and Venezia


Prosecco produced in the province of Treviso

Riviera del Brenta DOC produced in the provinces of Padova and Venezia

San Martino della Battaglia an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Verona (Veneto)

and Brescia (Lombardia)

Soave produced in the province of Verona

Valdadige an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Verona (Veneto) and of Bolzano

and Trento (Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol)

Valpolicella produced in the province of Verona

Vicenza produced in the province of Vicenza

Vin Santo di Gambellara produced in the province of Vicenza

List of Italian DOCG Wines

A list of the 47 Italian DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) wines ordered by

region. Note that not all of Italy’s twenty regions produce wines with DOCG status.

Northern regions

Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Ramandolo (Bianco), produced in the province of Udine, in the area of Ramandolo, in

the commune of Nimis, Italy and in part of the comune of Tarcento

Colli Orientali del Friuli Picolit (Passito), produced in the province of Udine


Franciacorta (as Spumante, Spumante rosé and Spumante cremant), produced in the province

of Brescia

Oltrepo Pavese Metodo Classico (as Rosé, Cremant, Pinot Noir, Pinot Noir Rosé), produced in

the province of Pavia

Sforzato di Valtellina or Sfurzat di Valtellina (Rosso), produced in the province of Sondrio


Valtellina Superiore (Rosso as normale and Riserva) with the option to indicate one of the sub-

regions Inferno, Grumello, Maroggia, Sassella and Valgella, produced in the province of Sondrio,

or the sub-region Stagaflassi for wine bottled in Switzerland


Amarone della Valpolicella[1]
Bardolino Superiore (Rosso), produced in the province of Verona

Recioto di Soave (Bianco as normale, Classico and Spumante), produced in the province

of Verona

Soave Superiore (Bianco as normale, Classico and Riserva), produced in the province of Verona

Recioto di Gambellara (Bianco)

Recioto della Valpolicella[1]
Prosecco Produced in certian zones of Prov di Treviso

Malanotte Raboso Superiore Produced in the Piave area


Asti in the sub-appellations Asti (Bianco) and Moscato d'Asti (Bianco), produced in the provinces

of Asti, Cuneo and Alessandria

Barbaresco (Rosso as normale and Riserva), produced in the province of Cuneo

Barbera d'Asti (Rosso as normale and Superiore), produced in the province of Asti, with the

option to indicate one of the sub-regions:[1]

Nizza in the region surrounding Nizza Monferrato

Tinella in the region surrounding Costigliole d'Asti

Colli Astiani in the region surrounding Vigliano d'Asti

Barbera del Monferrato Superiore (Rosso), produced in the provinces of Asti and Alessandria

Barolo (Rosso as normale, Riserva and Chinato), produced in the province of Cuneo

Brachetto d'Acqui or Acqui (Rosso as normale and Spumante), produced in the provinces

of Asti and Alessandria

Dolcetto di Dogliani Superiore or Dogliani (Rosso), produced in the province of Cuneo

Dolcetto di Ovada Superiore or Ovada (Rosso), produced in the province of Alessandria

Gattinara (Rosso as normale and Riserva), produced in the province of Vercelli

Gavi or Cortese di Gavi (Bianco as Frizzante, Spumante and Tranquillo), produced in the

province of Alessandria

Ghemme (Rosso as normale and Riserva), produced in the province of Novara


Roero (Bianco as Roero Arneis and Roero Arneis Spumante, Rosso as normale and Riserva),

produced in the province of Cuneo

Erbaluce di Caluso or Caluso (Bianco), produced in the province of Torino

Dolcetto di Diano d'Alba or Diano d'Alba (Rosso), produced in the province of Cuneo

Ruchè di Castagnole Monferrato (Rosso), produced in the province of Asti

Alta Langa (Sparkling, traditional method), produced in the provinces

of Alessandria, Asti and Cuneo

Emilia Romagna

Albana di Romagna (Bianco as secco or asciutto, amabile, dolce, passito and passito riserva),

produced in the provinces of Bologna, Forlì-Cesena and Ravenna

Central regions


Montepulciano d'Abruzzo, produced in the province of Teramo and named after the typical grape


Cesanese del Piglio, grown in the Prenestina hills southeast of Rome. Red, some sparkling is



Conero (Rosso only as Riserva), produced in the province of Ancona

Vernaccia di Serrapetrona (Rosso as Dolce and Secco), produced in the province of Macerata


Brunello di Montalcino (Rosso as normale and Riserva), produced in the province of Siena

Carmignano (Rosso as normale and Riserva), produced in the provinces of Firenze and Prato


Chianti (Rosso as normale and Riserva), produced in the provinces

of Arezzo, Firenze, Pisa, Pistoia, Prato and Siena; with the option to indicate one of the sub-


Classico as normale and Riserva, produced in the provinces of Firenze and Siena [2]

Colli Aretini as normale and Riserva produced in the province of Arezzo

Colli Senesi as normale and Riserva, produced in the province of Siena

Colli Fiorentini as normale and Riserva, produced in the province of Firenze

Colline Pisane as normale and Riserva, produced in the province of Pisa

Montalbano as normale and Riserva, produced in the provinces of Firenze, Pistoia and Prato

Montespertoli as normale and Riserva, produced in the province of Pisa

Rufina as normale and Riserva, produced in the province of Firenze

Chianti Superiore, produced throughout the Chianti region with the exception of the classico


Vernaccia di San Gimignano (Bianco as normale and Riserva), produced in the province of Siena

Vino Nobile di Montepulciano (Rosso as normal and Riserva), produced in the province of Siena

Morellino di Scansano (Rosso as normale and Riserva), produced in the province of Grosseto

Aleatico dell'Elba (Passito), produced on the Island of Elba.


Sagrantino di Montefalco (Rosso as Secco and Passito), produced in the province of Perugia

Torgiano Rosso Riserva (Rosso only as Riserva), produced in the province of Perugia

Southern regions


Fiano di Avellino (bianco), produced in the province of Avellino using the Fiano grape.

Greco di Tufo (bianco, also as spumante), produced in the province of Avellino

Taurasi (rosso also as Riserva), produced in the province of Avellino



Vermentino di Gallura (Bianco as normale

and Superiore), produced in the provinces

of Nuoro and Sassari


Cerasuolo di Vittoria (Rosso as normale

and Classico), produced in the provinces

of Caltanissetta, Catania and Ragusa.

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