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TERM PAPER ON Wine Regions: Italy and U.S.A.
Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the three year degree BHM programme
SUBMITTED TO : LECT. DEEPAK THAKUR
SUBMITTED BY : NITISH NAGPAL ENROLLMENT NO. : A2728910008 BATCH : 2010-2013
DATE OF SUBMISSION :
DECLERATION BY THE STUDENT
This is to certify the work presented in the project entitled “Wine Regions Italy and U.S.A.” by Mr. Nitish Nagpal , in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree Bachelor of Hotel Management (BHM) from Amity University is an authentic work carried out by me with the best of my efforts.
To the best of my knowledge the content of this project is original and authentic being practical to every nature.
Nitish Nagpal BHM Enrollment no. – A2728910008
This is to certify that Project Report titled “Wine Regions Italy and U.S.A.” is a bona fide work carried out by Mr. Nitish Nagpal of BHM - Bachelors of Hotel Management program of Amity School of Hospitality for fulfilment of BHM- Hospitality Management course of amity university, Noida (U.P.)
(Lect. Deepak Thakur)
Date : Place:
for extending his support. He has taken pain to go through the project and make necessary correction as and when needed.4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I owe a great many thanks to a great many people who helped and supported me during the completion of this project. Deepak Thakur the Guide of the project for guiding and correcting various documents of mine with attention and care. My deepest thanks to Lecturer. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to my family. Mr. . my friends and well wishers. I would also thank my Institution. Amity School of Hospitality and my faculty members without whom this project would have been a distant reality. I express my thanks to our Director Mr. Vaskar Sen Gupta.
Introduction 2. Wine Making Process 3. A. History B. Conclusions 7. Appellation System C. History B. Grape Varities C. Recommendations 8.Classification D. Wine A. Bibliography 9. Wines Of U. Appellation System C.A. History B. Wine Regions 5.S. Questionnaires 7 9 26 29 44 44 45 46 68 69 72 75 86 88 90 92 94 6 .5 Index 1. Wine Regions 4. Wines Of Italy A. Findings 6.
are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example. such as barley wineand rice wine (i. Thrace and Rome. Yeast consumes the sugars in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. the term "wine" refers to the higher alcohol content rather than the production process. such as apples and berries.. with the earliest known production occurring around 8. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast.e. usually from grapes. are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. . In these cases. apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically called fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays). and the drink is also used inChristian Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush. sake).000 years ago on the territory of modern-day Georgia. made of fermented fruit juice. acids. enzymes.6 INTRODUCTION Wine is an alcoholic beverage. The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions. Wines made from other fruits. The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars. Others. or other nutrients. Wine has a rich history dating back thousands of years. while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different types of wine. It first appeared in the Balkans at about 4500 BC and was very common in ancient Greece.
but possibly composed even earlier). Georgia. and others.These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera. In Ancient Egypt. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (9th century BC.100 years ago in Armenia. made by fermenting grapes.000 years ago in Georgia and 6. Other notable areas of wine production have been discovered in Greece and date back to 4500 BC. took place as early as 8. Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine. Pressing wine after the harvest.000 years ago in Georgia and 6. McGovern and his colleagues analyzed the heritage of more than 110 modern grape cultivars.000 years ago. Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang. a royal chief vintner. The same sites also contain the world's earliest evidence of crushed grapes. 14th century Through an extensive gene-mapping project in 2006. These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera. Dr. In his writings.100 years ago in Armenia.7 History Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine. dating from the second and first millennia BC. six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y". and narrowed their origin to a region in Georgia. took place as early as 8.Tacuinum Sanitatis.000-year-old ceramic storage jars in Shulavari. Five of these amphoras were designated as from the King's personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Alkman (7th century BC). Chanakya . 2011 in one of Armenia's Vayots Dzor province cave was found a wine making press dating to approximately 6. The first known mentioning of grape-based wines in India was in the late 4th century BC writings of Chanakya who was the chief minister of EmperorChandragupta Maurya. On January 11. where also wine residues were discovered on the inner surfaces of 8. made by fermenting grapes.
condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of grape wine known as Madhu. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, Henan contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. If these beverages, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grape in China, rather than from Vitis vinifera, which were introduced into China some 6000 years later. One of the lasting legacies of the ancient Roman Empire was the viticulture foundation the Romans laid in the lands that today are world renowned wine regions. Areas with Roman garrison towns, likeBordeaux, Trier, and Colchester, the Romans planted vineyards to supply local needs and limit the cost of long distance trading. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church staunchly supported wine, since they required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years, aging it in caves. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine.
Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera, such as Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gamay andMerlot. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%), the result is a varietal, as opposed to a blended, wine. Blended wines are not necessarily considered inferior to varietal wines; some of the world's most expensive wines, from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley, are blended from different grape varieties of the same vintage.
Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids, created by the genetic crossing of two species. Vitis labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar), Vitis aestivalis, Vitis rupestris, Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes usually grown to eat fresh or for grape juice, jam, or jelly, but sometimes made into wine. Hybridization is different from grafting. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera, a root louse that eventually kills the vine. In the late 19th century, most of Europe's vineyards (only excluding some of the driest vineyards in Southern Europe) were devastated by the bug, leading to massive vine deaths and eventual replanting. Grafting is done in every wine-producing country of the world except for Argentina, the Canary Islands and Chile—the only countries not yet exposed to the insect. In the context of wine production, terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used, elevation and shape of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, climate and seasonal conditions, and
the local yeast cultures. The range of possibilities here can result in great differences between wines, influencing the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes as well. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. However, flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines, where consistency is more important. Such producers try to minimize differences in sources of grapes through production techniques such as micro-oxygenation, tannin filtration, cross-flow filtration, thin film evaporation, and spinning cones.
1. Pinot Noir
Pinot noir is a black wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. The name may also refer to wines created predominantly from Pinot noir grapes. The name is derived from the French words for "pine" and "black" alluding to the grape variety's tightly clustered dark purple pine cone-shaped bunches of fruit. Pinot noir grapes are grown around the world, mostly in the cooler regions, but the grape is chiefly associated with the Burgundy region of France. It is widely considered to produce some of the finest wines in the world, but is a difficult variety to cultivate and transform into wine.
Pinot noir's home is France's Burgundy region, particularly on the Côte-d'Or which has produced some of the world's most celebrated wines for centuries. It is also planted in Austria, Argentina, Australia, Azerbaijan, Canada, Chile, north parts of Croatia, the Republic of Georgia, Germany, Italy, Hungary, the Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, New Zealand, South Africa, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Czec h Republic, United States, Uruguay,Ukraine and Slovakia. The United States has increasingly become a major Pinot noir
and new easier-to-grow clones have favoured a lighter. cropping levels (it must be low yielding for production of quality wines). in the right conditions. In the winery it is sensitive to fermentation methods. with so voluptuous a perfume. Pinot noir is also used in the production of Champagne (usually along with Chardonnay and Pinot meunier) and is planted in most of the world's wine growing regions for . Lesser known appellations can be found in Mendocino County's Anderson Valley as well as the Central Coast's Santa Lucia Highlands appellation and the Sta. but changing fashions. textures and impressions that Pinot noir can produce sometimes confuses tasters. windy. they make the blood run hot and the soul wax embarrassingly poetic. The vines themselves are susceptible to powdery mildew. or Grenache. Peter Richardsson of OenoStyle christened it "a seductive yet fickle mistress!" The tremendously broad range of bouquets. soil types and pruning techniques. but less than entirely accurate. like falling in love. more fruit-prominent. harsh vineyard conditions than the likes of Cabernet Sauvignon. This is entirely natural and not a winemaking fault as Pinot noir has a lower skin anthocyanin (colouring matter) content than most other classical red / black varieties. high health. In the vineyard Pinot noir is sensitive to wind and frost. style from California and New Zealand highlights a more powerful. Some viticultural historians believe this shape-similarity may have given rise to the name. and so powerful a punch that. frequently being much lighter than that of other red wines. generalisation. Syrah. extract. the vine can be more than adequately robust. The wine's colour when young is often compared to that of garnet. The leaves of Pinot noir are generally smaller than those of Cabernet Sauvignon or Syrah and the vine is typically less vigorous than either of these varieties. Pinot noir clones in good vineyard sites would not however be so ready to endorse this oft-cited. and when of good clonal lineage and health. Traditional red Burgundy is famous for its savoury fleshiness and 'farmyard' aromas (these latter not unassociated with mercaptans and other reductive characters)." Those who have had experience with contemporary. However. The grape cluster is small and conicocylindrical."  Master Sommelier Madeline Triffon calls pinot "sex in a glass". fruit forward and darker wine that can tend toward Syrah (or even new world Malbec) in depth. raspberry and to a lesser extent currant and many other fine small red and black berry fruits. Its thin skin makes it susceptible to bunch rot and similar fungal diseases of the bunch. flavors. Joel Fleischman of Vanity Fair describes Pinot noir as "the most romantic of wines. the wine tends to be of light to mediumbody with an aroma reminiscent of black and / or red cherry. modern winemaking techniques. These complications have given the grape a reputation for being difficult to grow: Jancis Robinson calls Pinot a "minx of a vine"  andAndré Tchelistcheff declared that "God made Cabernet Sauvignon whereas the devil made Pinot noir. cleaner style. vaguely shaped like a pine cone. with some of the best regarded coming from the Willamette Valley in Oregon and California's Sonoma County with its Russian River Valley and Sonoma Coast appellations. an emerging.11 producer. it is principally grown in Martinborough. and in Burgundy (and elsewhere) infection by leaf roll and fanleaf viruses causes significant vine health problems. In New Zealand. Merlot. increasingly evident. and alcoholic content. Marlborough. Pinot noir wines are among the most popular in the world. In the broadest terms. so sweet an edge. Rita Hills American Viticultural Area in Santa Barbara County. yeast strains and is highly reflective of its terroir with different regions producing sometimes very different wines. Waipara and Central Otago. hot and dry. It is nevertheless much less tolerant of hard.
It is this 'core' around which the sub-varietally identifying colour variations (blanc. however. although given the genetic variability of this longstanding genetic line. both of which contain a mutation making them non-identical to. where he now makes a pink sparkling Wrotham Pinot. As such. Pinot moure and Pinot teinturier. and in 1980 Richard Peterson took cuttings to California. . which local lore said was descended from vines brought over by the Romans. presumably representing a somatic mutation in either the VvMYBA1 or VvMYBA2 genes that control grape berry colour. Pinot blanc may be the original humanselected form of Pinot. Wrotham . Its juice is uncoloured. An experimental Blanc de Noir was made at Oxted. and it is possible that Pinot represents a direct domestication of (hermaphrodite-flowered) Vitis sylvestris. Columelladescribes a grape variety similar to Pinot noir in Burgundy during the 1st century AD. Pinot blanc is a further mutation and can either naturally arise from or give rise to Pinot gris or Pinot noir. Pinot gris is a Pinot colour sport (and can arise by mutation of Pinot noir or Pinot blanc). Pinot noir (as well as of any of the other colour forms of Pinot). if anything. Thus Pinot meunier is a chimera with two tissue layers of different genetic makeup. Vitis sylvestris. It should be noted therefore that almost any given Pinot (of whatever berry colour) can occur as a complete mutation or as a chimera of almost any other Pinot As such. thinking of Pinot as a familial cluster of grapes sharing a fundamental and common genetic core is almost certainly nearest the truth. suggestions that Pinot noir is the fundamental and original form of the Pinots are both misleading and highly tendentious. etc. Pinot noir is also sometimes used for rosé still wines. and mutations of. History. In fact Pinot meunier has been shown to be a chimerical mutation (in the epidermal cells) which makes the shoot tips and leaves prominently hairywhite and the vine a little smaller and early ripening. but this claim has since been refuted. and even vin gris white wines.12 use in both still and sparkling wines. the mutation . Ferdinand Regner has argued that Pinot noir is a cross between Pinot meunier (Schwarzriesling) and Traminer. Champagne) it is generally cropped at significantly higher yields.g.) occur. Pinot meunier cannot be a parent of Pinot noir. Its origins are nevertheless unclear: In De re rustica. gris. Pinot noir grown for dry table wines is generally low-yielding and of lesser vigour than many other varieties. indeed. vines have grown wild as far north as Belgium in the days before phylloxera. noir. vines. whereas when grown for use in sparkling wines (e. Indeed. and. moure.reversion path is multi-directional therefore. In addition to being used for the production of sparkling and still red wine. rouge. violet. it seems likely that chimerical mutations which can generate Pinot gris from other Pinots (principally blanc or noir) may in turn be the genetic pathway for the emergence of Pinot Meunier. Edward Hyams of Oxted Viticultural Research Station was alerted to a strange vine growing against a cottage wall in Wrotham in Kent. along with the more striking chimeric morphological mutation that is Pinot meunier. rose. tenteurier. are also genetically similarly close. and other Pinots. and the interesting further mutations of this variety as Pinot meunier gris and as the non-hairy mutation which the Germans classify as 'Samtrot' (effectively 'Pinot red velvet'). mutants and clones Pinot noir is almost certainly a very ancient variety that may be only one or two generations removed from wild. The general DNA profiles of both Pinot gris and blanc are identical to Pinot noir. Wrotham (pronounced "ruttum") Pinot is an English variety with white hairs on the upper surface of the leaves.
flowering conditions) and in California and New Zealand they give robust. 'Pinot fine' or 'Pinot tordu'. In this latter country. burly. Virus infection and excessive cropping significantly add to delaying of Pinot noir ripening. in the absence of proper identification. although it is claimed it has a higher natural sugar content and ripens two weeks earlier. wines of extraordinary quality continue to be made from the (ex-University of California at Davis) Pommard (principally UCD4) and Wadensvil (UCD 1A and / or 2A) clones. Planted mostly in California it also became established in New Zealand. and very misleadingly. The French Etablissement National Technique pour l’Amelioration de la Viticulture (ENTAV) has set up a programme to select the best clones of Pinot. it remains highly probable that it is simply a locally-distinctive clone of Pinot meunier. In Burgundy. Across the Pinot family. Village appellation. Nonetheless. It was in fact collected in France by Harold Olmo for UCD in the 1950s and was one of the first Pinot noir vines this institution offered as a high health clonal line from about 1962 onward. In general. Claims that the 'Gamay Beaujolais' Pinot noir was brought to California by Paul Masson. and particularly of DNA classification. hot-to-warm. as a (genetic) sub-form significantly inferior to classical. it was always. vineyards and Pinot droit is consequently regarded. weeks between the very earliest (including Précoce) clones and the very latest ripening. Gamay Beaujolais is a Californian misnomer for a UCD clone series of upright-growing ('Pinot droit') Pinot noir. its disposition to poor fruit set in cool flowering conditions can be problematic.13 Pinot is sometimes regarded as a synonym of Pinot meunier. sequenced. Frühburgunder (Pinot Noir Précoce) is an early-ripening form of Pinot noir. However. and even six. these upright growing 'Pinot droit' clones are highly productive (in suitable. ripening in typical climates can be dispersed by as much as four. This program has succeeded admirably in increasing the number of quality clones available to growers. identified at UCD as a 'Gamay Beaujolais' type (of Pinot noir). arguably with very good reason. More than 50 are officially recognized in France compared to only 25 of the much more widely planted cabernet sauvignon. French researchers announced the sequencing of the genome of Pinot noir. In August 2007. decumbent. clonal lines of Pinot. or even non-appellation. and only the fourth flowering plant. It is the first fruit crop to be . and thanks to its long history in cultivation there are nowadays hundreds of different clones in vineyards and vine collections worldwide. in the new world. particularly in Oregon. However. the use of (highly productive) Pinot droit clones is reportedly still widespread in inferior. wines favoured by those who like muscle rather than charm and velvety finesse in their Pinot noir wines. Pinot noir can be particularly prone to mutation (suggesting it has active transposable elements). are not correct.
Gouais cross include:Chardonnay. nevertheless. but otherwise distinctly inferior. the nobility and church of northeast France grew some form of Pinot in favoured plots. It should not however be inferred that Pinot noir was the Pinot involved here. Gamay. Aligoté. have also resulted from deliberate human intervention). with the genetic distance between the two parents imparting hybrid vigour leading to the viticultural selection of a diverse range of offspring from this cross (which may. offspring of the Pinot . Melon and eleven others. Auxerrois. however it occurred. Cross-pollination may have resulted from such close proximity.14 Crosses In the Middle Ages. In any case. In 1925 Pinot noir was crossed in South Africa with the Cinsaut grape (known locally by the misnomer 'Hermitage') to create a unique variety called Pinotage. Regions Australia Austria Canada UK France Germany Italy Moldova New Zealand Slovenia Spain Switzerland United States . while peasants grew a large amount of the much more productive. any member of the Pinot family appears genetically capable of being the Pinot parent to these ex-Gouais crosses. Gouais Blanc.
History For many years. It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates from Canada's Okanagan Valley to Lebanon's Beqaa Valley. Despite its prominence in the industry.nɛ so.and to its consistent presentation of structure and flavours which express the typical character ("typicity") of the variety. For most of the 20th century.bɛʁ.the grapes have thick skins and the vines are hardy and resistant to rot and frost . Its popularity is often attributed to its ease of cultivation .vi. Cabernet Sauvignon became internationally recognized through its prominence in Bordeaux wines where it is often blended withMerlot and Cabernet Franc. the grape spread across Europe and to the New World where it found new homes in places likeCalifornia's Napa Valley.ɲɔ ) is one of the world's most widely recognized red wine grape varieties. the grape is a relatively new variety. Australia's Coonawarra region and Chile's Maipo Valley. From France. it was the world's most widely planted premium red wine grape until it was surpassed by Merlot in the 1990s. Cabernet Sauvignon Cabernet Sauvignon (French: [ka. The word "Sauvignon" is believed to be derived from . the product of a chance crossing between Cabernet franc andSauvignon blanc during the 17th century in southwestern France. the origin of Cabernet Sauvignon was not clearly understood and many myths and conjectures surrounded it. Its widespread popularity has also contributed to criticism of the grape as a "colonizer" that takes over wine regions at the expense of native grape varieties. Familiarity and ease of pronunciation have helped to sell Cabernet Sauvignon wines to consumers. even when from unfamiliar wine regions.15 2.
Offspring and White Cabernet While not as prolific in mutating as Pinot noir nor as widely used in production of offspring. In 1961. Carole Meredith. Until recently the grape was rumoured to have ancient origins. registered it under the name of Malian and have sold pale red wines under that name. The DNA evidence determined that Cabernet Sauvignon was the offspring of Cabernet franc and Sauvignon blanc and was most likely a chance crossing that occurred in the 17th century. The vine is one of the last major grape varieties to bud and ripen (typically 1–2 weeks after Merlot and Cabernet franc) and the climate of the growing season affects how early the grapes will be harvested. which increases the . and then subepidermal cells invaded the epidermis to produce Shalistin. by a team led by Dr. whereas Shalistin has no anthocyanins in either layer. Viticulture While Cabernet Sauvignon can grow in a variety of climates. records indicate that the grape was a popular Bordeaux planting in the 18th century Médoc region. Cabernet Sauvignon has been linked to other grape varieties. Malian appears to lack anthocyanins in the subepidermal cells but retains them in the epidermis. with a possible relationship to Carménère which was once known as Grand Vidure. They propagated this mutant. There was also belief that Vidure was a reference to the hard wood (French vigne dure) of the vine.16 the French sauvage meaning "wild" and to refer to the grape being a wildVitis vinifera vine native to France. apparently a corruption of Biturica. In 1977 a vine producing 'bronze' grapes was found in the vineyards of Cleggett Wines in Australia. The team that went on to discover the VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 genes that control grape colour have suggested that a gene involved in anthocyanin production has been deleted in the subepidermis of Malian. The first estates known to have actively grown the variety (and the likely source of Cabernet vines for other estates) were Château Mouton and Château d'Armailhac in the Pauillac. While the period when the name Cabernet Sauvignon became more prevalent over Petite Vidure is not certain. Cleggett registered this "White Cabernet" under the name of Shalistin. Compared to its Cabernet parent. its suitability as a varietal wine or as a blend component is strongly influenced by the warmth of the climate. The grape's true origins were discovered in 1996 with the use of DNA typing at the UC Davis Department of Viticulture and Enology. Many wine regions in California give the vine an abundance of sunshine with few problems in ripening fully. Prior to this discovery. This belief was widely held in the 18th century. In 1991 one of the Bronze Cabernet vines started producing white grapes. a cross of Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache produced the French wine grape Marselan. Other theories were that the grapevine originated in the Riojaregion of Spain. perhaps even being the Biturica grape used to makeancient Roman wine and referenced by Pliny the Elder. when the grape was also known as Petite Vidure or Bidure. this origin had been suspected from the similarity of the grapes' names and the fact that Cabernet Sauvignon shares similar aromas with both grapes—such as the black currant and pencil box aromas of Cabernet franc and the grassiness of Sauvignon blanc.
The Cabernet grape variety has thrived in a variety of vineyard soil types. Cabernet Sauvignon is often harvested a little earlier than ideal and is then blended with other grapes to fill in the gaps. Rutherford Cabernet Sauvignon has been often quoted as giving a sense of terroir with a taste of "Rutherford dust". the soil aspect of terroir was historically an important consideration in determining which of the major Bordeaux grape varieties were planted. The vine itself is prone to vigorous yields. In the Napa Valley wine regions of Oakville and Rutherford. producers can plant the vines on less vigorous rootstock and also practice green harvesting with aggressivepruning of grape clusters soon after veraison. susceptible to the vine diseases Eutypella scoparia and excoriose. In regions where the grape is exposed to excess warmth and over-ripening. under the threat of inclement harvest season weather. In regions that are too cool. delaying ripening. To reduce yields. Cabernet Sauvignon seemed to perform better in the gravel based soil of the Médoc region on the Left Bank.17 likelihood of producing varietal Cabernet wines. particularly when planted on the vigorous SO4 rootstock. there is a potential for more herbaceous and green bell pepper flavours from less than ideally ripened grapes. making the consideration of soil less of concern particularly for New World winemakers. Clay and limestone based soils are often cooler. there is a propensity for the wine to develop flavours of cooked or stewed blackcurrants. It is. In regions where the climate is warmer. In Bordeaux. the soil is more alluvial and dusty. In theSouth Australian wine region of Coonawarra. however. Cabernet Sauvignon has good resistance to most grape diseases. Cabernet Sauvignon has produced vastly different results from grapes vines planted in the region'sterra rosa soil-so much so that the red soil is considered the "boundary" of the wine region. the harvest yields can also have a strong influence in the resulting quality and flavors of Cabernet Sauvignon wine. In regions like Bordeaux. with some controversy from wine growers with Cabernet Sauvignon planted on red soil. In some regions. . there is more emphasis on soil that is less fertile. In general. Excessive yields can result in less concentrated and flavorful wine with flavors more on the green or herbaceous side. aiding ripening. allowing less heat to reach the vines. The gravel soils offered the benefit of being well drained while absorbing and radiating heat to the vines. which promotes less vigor in the vine which can keep yields low. powdery mildew being the most noted exception. In addition to ripeness levels. climate will be more important than soil. While Merlot seemed to thrive in clay and limestone based soils (such as those of the Right Bank regions of theGironde estuary). a particular clone of Cabernet Sauvignon that was engineered to be virus free was noted for its very high yields-causing many quality conscious producers to replant their vineyards in the late 20th century with different clonal varieties. In the 1970s.
18 Regions Bordeaux Italy California South America Australia .
with over 160. with many of the flavors commonly associated with the grape being derived from such influences as terroir and oak. Nonetheless. Viticulturalists Maynard Amerine & Harold Olmoproposed a descendency from a wild Vitis . ampelographers noted that the leaves of each plant have near-identical shape and structure. crisply mineral wines of Chablis.000 acres) worldwide.dɔ. Pierre Galet disagreed with this assessment. History For much of its history.nɛ]) is a green-skinned grape variety used to make white wine. growing Chardonnay is seen as a "rite of passage" and an easy segue into the international wine market.000 hectares (400. France to New World wines with tropical fruit flavors and lots of oak. The Chardonnay grape itself is very neutral. For new and developing wine regions. from England to New Zealand. Chardonnay is an important component of many sparkling wines around the world.19 White Grapes 1. A peak in popularity in the late 1980s gave way to a backlash among those wine drinkers who saw the grape as a leading negative component of the globalization of wine. it remains one of the most widely-planted grape varieties. It is originated from the Burgundy wineregion of eastern France but is now grown wherever wine is produced. Chardonnay Chardonnay (pronounced: [ʃaʁ. including Champagne. believing that Chardonnay was not related to any other major grape variety. a connection was assumed between Chardonnay and Pinot noir or Pinot blanc.It is vinified in many different styles. second only to Airén among white wine grapes and planted in more wine regions than any other grape – including Cabernet Sauvignon. from the lean. In addition to being found in the same region of France for centuries.
In other areas. with extensive leaf cover which can inhibit the energy and nutrient uptake of its grape clusters. In the Meursault region. and it was widely cultivated by peasants in Eastern France. Chardonnay's true origins were further obscured by vineyard owners in Lebanon and Syria. In certain conditions the vines can be very high-yielding. Peurion.20 vinifera vine that was a step removed from white Muscat. Sparkling wine producers tend not to focus as much on limiting yields. they are forced to compete for resources and funnel energy into their grape clusters. Bachet noir. Gamay noir. but the wine produced from such vines will suffer a drop in quality if yields go much beyond 4. along with powdery mildewattacking the thin skin of the grapes. who claimed that the grape's ancestry could be traced to the Middle East. These "successful" crosses included Chardonnay and siblings such as Aligoté. Modern DNA fingerprinting research at University of California. Producers of premium Chardonnay limit yields to less than half this amount. In Burgundy. the premier cru vineyards planted at Meursault-Charmes have topsoil almost 78 inches (2. When Chardonnay vines are planted densely. Millerandage and coulure can also pose problems. the topsoil is only around 12 inches (30 centimeters) above the limestone and the wine from that region is much more powerful. Aubin Vert. in that it reflects and takes on the impression of its terroir and winemaker. which is often long enough for warmer weather to arrive. regions with . now suggests that Chardonnay is the result of a cross between the Pinot andGouais Blanc (Heunisch) grape varieties. Because of Chardonnay's early ripening. Franc Noir de la-Haute-Saône. Sacy and Dameron Viticulture Chardonnay has a wide-ranging reputation for relative ease of cultivation and ability to adapt to different conditions. Knipperlé. Davis.5 tons per acre (80 hl/ha). This "shocks" the vine and delays flowering for up to two weeks.0 m) above limestone and the resulting wines are very rich and rounded. Roublot. minerally and tight. Beaunoir. will be harvested before autumn rain sets in and brings the threat of rot. the amount of limestone to which the Chardonnay are vines exposed also seems to have some effect on the resulting wine. Gamay Blanc Gloriod. soil type can compensate for lack of ideal climate conditions. Melon. In South Africa for example. Vineyard managers counteract this with aggressive pruning and canopy management. it can thrive in wine regions with a short growing season and. It is believed that the Romans brought Gouais Blanc from the Balkans. with the grape rapidly losing acidity as soon as it ripens. since concentrated flavors are not as important as the wine's finesse. though there is little external evidence to support that theory. from where it was introduced to Europe by returning Crusaders. needing longer in the bottle to develop fully. in regions like Burgundy. Another theory stated that it originated from an ancient indigenous vine found in Cyprus. In the nearby Les Perrieres vineyard. Auxerrois. The grape is very "malleable". Harvesting time is crucial to winemaking. It is a highly vigorous vine.
In contrast. South African Chardonnay produced from more sandstone-based vineyards tend to be richer and more weighty. despite having a discernibly warmer climate than France.21 stonier. shaley soils and high clay levels tend to produce lower-yielding and more Burgundian-style wine. Regions France Burgundy Chablis Champagne California New York Canada Australia & New Zealand Italy South Africa .
Muskateller. Croatia. Varities Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains (also called Muscat Blanc. Serbia. Muscat Canelli. Italy. Turkey. Moscatel Rosé. Germany. Sárgamuskotály. Romania. Muscat Lunel. and there are theories that most families within the Vitis vinifera grape variety are descended from the Muscat variety. Azerbaijan. Albania. Greece. Spain. and other places. Israel. This grape is used for the wines: Asti. Moscatell de gra petit and Yellow Muscat). Oregon. Muscat d'Alsace. South Africa. Canada. The breadth and number of varieties of muscat suggest that it is perhaps the oldest domesticated grape variety. Mexico.Slovenia. Moscatel de Grano Menudo. and muscat de Beaumes-deVenise.22 Grapes Used in fortified Wines. Muscat de Frontignan. Muscat Rose à Petit Grains. Portugal. France. California. Moscato Rosa (or Rosenmuskateller) are thought to be closely related colored versions of Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains. clairette de die. Hungary. Moscato Giallo (or Goldmuskateller). Moldova. . raisins and table grapes. Australia. Their color ranges from white to near black. Muscat almost always has a pronounced sweet floral aroma. Muscat The Muscat variety of grapes of the species Vitis vinifera is widely grown for wine. Muscat Frontignan. Muscat Rouge à Petit Grains. It is also used for some Tokaji wines. Moscato Bianco. Muscat grapes are grown around the world are in Cyprus. 1.Bulgaria.
Gordo. Lexia. Muscat Crocant. Moscatel de Valencia. made from the Moscato Bianco (Muscato Canelli) grape of the Piedmont region of Italy. Muscat Gordo Blanco. Moravian Muscat. Muscat Wines Table and sparkling wines Muscat grapes are one of the major varieties grown for table wine in Chile. Slovakia and Hungary. Used for dessert wine of the same name (Muskat Krokan) in Serbia. moscatel or muscatel wines. A dessert wine made from this grape is produced in California and Cyprus. Hanepoot. Orange Muscat. usually served in bars or as an aperitif at restaurants. and is also known for the production of Barbera d'Asti. . Not surprisingly. All together there are a couple of hundred Muscat varieties recorded. Moscato di Amburgo) Used for some Eastern European wine but mainly for table grapes in Italy. Used for dessert wines in California and Australia. and dry wines in Alsace. Moscatel. Muscat of Alexandria (also called Moscatel. Moscatel Romano. with many overlapping synonyms. This region has a DOCGdesignation. Croatia. and Zibibbo) This grape is used for sherry. In Lithuania. The most widespread new wine cultivar in Czech Republic. and is a minor variety in California and Italy. Black Muscat (also called Muscat Hamburg. where it grows only on Pearl Island (Biserno Ostrvo) on Tisza River. Moscatel de Málaga. Austria. and Asti Spumante. Slovenia. Bulgaria. and Ukraine. Muscatel Passito and other Muscatel liqueurs and also as a raisin and table grape. In Italy. Dolcetto d’Asti. has something of an orange aroma. it is widely used in sweeter sparkling wines like Asti. it is also used for making asparkling wine called Alita. Moscato d'Asti is a lightly sparkling (frizzante) variety of Muscat. Their 'grapey' quality makes many wines made from Muscat easy to identify. Australia and France. Muscat Ottonel (also called Moskately) Used for dessert wines in Romania.23 Moscatel de Setúbal and Moscatel de Favaios are the most widely consumed varieties in Portugal.
Muscat de Frontignan. a brandy-like drink made in Peru and Chile. sweet fortified Moscatels are produced in a number of regions. Among these wines is Moscatel de Setubal a sweet fortified wine from the Setúbal Peninsula inPortugal. sweet fortified muscat wines are produced in the Rutherglen region. where orange muscat and black muscat varieties form the basis of premium dessert wines. a brandy-like drink made in Greece. . Muscat de Rivesaltes. Muscat is successfully grown in California's east-central San Joaquin Valley.Muscat de Mireval.24 Dessert and fortified wines Muscat grapes are used to make a variety of sweet dessert wines in various parts of the world. Moscatel de Favaios is a Moscatel from the Douro Region. with older wines made according to the solera system . A Moscatel Madeira wine has also been produced on the island of Madeira. these are fortified wines. Muscat de Lunel. Brandies and liqueurs Muscat wine is also the basis for Pisco. where the grape and the wines produced from it are known as Moscatel or Muscatel. it is one of only three grapes varietals allowed for this purpose. France also produces a number of sweet fortified vins doux naturels from muscat grapes. In Australia. Moscatels made in these countries are typically sweet and fortified. notably Malaga and Jerez. and Muscat de St-Jean Minervois. though some sweetlate harvest and noble rot wines are also made from Muscat grapes. A variety of muscat is one of the varietals used in the production of sherry and according to Spanish law. although Moscatel has become increasingly rare there over the last century. In Spain. such as Muscat de Beaumes-de-Venise. Muscat is widely grown in Portugal and Spain. A blend of Muscatel wine and mead is called Muscadore. and are sometimes made using the solera system. and Metaxa. Muscato is not classified as a dessert wine. Typically. Officially.
25 Regions Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bulgaria Cyprus Croatia Czech Republic France Greece Hungary Italy Japan New Zealand North Africa Portugal Romania Moldova Serbia Spain South Africa Turkey Ukraine United States .
Washington. Mosel and Chianti are all legally defined names reflecting the traditional wines produced in the named region. By Appellation Historically. Rioja. Santa Barbara and Willamette Valley.) if there appears next to the term the actual appellation of origin. for example. based on the international trademark agreements included in the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. Oregon and Walla Walla. sweetness and vintage. Practices vary in different countries and regions of origin. commonly known as the Napa Declaration on Place. wines have been known by names reflecting their origin. The appellation system is strongest in the European Union. etc.S. while the signatory regions from the EU were: Champagne. Paso Robles. grower's organizations without such protection. DC. but a related system. Sherry. In most of the world.26 Classification of wines The classification of wine can be done according to various methods including. winemakers to use certain generic terms (Champagne. The AVA designations do not restrict the type of grape used. a legal definition called semi-generic has enabled U. place of origin or appellation. Australia and Western Australia signed the Declaration at a ceremony in Washington. such as Napa Valley. and sometimes style: Bordeaux. restricts the use of certain regional labels in America. The signatory regions from the US were Napa Valley. These naming conventions or "appellations" (as they are known in France) dictate not only where the grapes in a wine were grown but also which grapes went into the wine and how they were vinified. Some classifications enjoy official protection by being part of the wine law in their country of origin. but not limited to. More recently. while other have been created by. However. The Declaration was signed in July 2005 by four United States winegrowing regions and three European Union winegrowing regions. Cognac (the commune where Cognac is produced). orvarietal used. Chianti Classico. Douro (the region where Port wine is produced) and Jerez (the region where Sherry is produced). This is a "declaration of joint principles stating the importance of location to wine and the need to protect place names". wine labeled Champagne must be made from grapes grown in the Champagne region of France and fermented using a certain method. . vinification methods and style. wine regions in countries with less stringent location protection laws such as the United States and Australia have joined with well-known European wine producing regions to sign the Napa Declaration to Protect Wine Place and Origin. and many practices have varied over time. the American Viticultural Area. in the United States. The list of signatories to the agreement expanded in March 2007 when Sonoma County. Victoria. Tokay.Hock.
or "Méthode Champenoise". which is almost always clear. To have this effect.27 By Vinification methods and style Wines may be classified by vinification methods. champagne is legally defined as sparkling wine originating from a region (Champagne. Other international denominations of sparkling wine include Sekt or Schaumwein (Germany). and Spumante (Italy). These include classifications such as red or white wine. Examples of semi-sparkling synonym terms are Frizzante in Italy. . The latter designation was outlawed for all wines other than Champagne (which for obvious reasons does not bother to utilize it) in Europe in 1994. "Méthode Traditionelle". whereby the skin is left in contact with the juice during fermentation. semi-sparkling or still. but rather by the presence or absence of the grape skin during fermentation.Vino de Aguja in Spain and Petillant in France. Some countries such as the UK impose a higher tax on fully sparkling wines. White wine can be made from any colour of grape as the skin is separated from the juice during fermentation. In most countries except the United States. A white wine made from a very dark grape may appear pink or 'blush'. where the gas is caught and remains in the wine. Towns "Reims. are known as teinturier. once in an open container to allow the carbon dioxide to escape into the air. Cava (Spain). for example alicante bouchet. and a second time in a sealed container. A form of Rosé is called Blanc de Noirs where the juice of red grapes are allowed contact with the skins for a very short time (usually only a couple of hours). Semi-sparkling wines are sparkling wines that contain less than 2. Sparkling wines that gain their carbonation from the traditional method of bottle fermentation are labelled "Bottle Fermented". Sparkling and still wines Sparkling wines such as champagne. sparkling.5 atmospheres of carbon dioxide at sea level and 20 °C. Red wine is made from red (or black) grapes. The color of wine is not determined by the juice of the grape. contain carbon dioxide which is produced naturally from fermentation or force-injected later. the wine is fermented twice. Grapes with colored juice. but its red color is bestowed by a process called maceration. fortified and dessert wines. Épernay") in France. Still wines are wines that have not gone through the sparkling wine methods and have no effervescence.
Madeira and Sherry. a fermentative process will transform the alcohol into acetic acid resulting in wine vinegar. When a usual wine bottle is opened and the wine is exposed to oxygen. These include Sauternes from Bordeaux.S. Ice Wine is made from grapes that are harvested while they are frozen. as they are already fermented. 'vino da tavola' (in Italian).." depending on their colour. Dried grape wines. numerous wines from Loire such as Bonnezeaux and Quarts de Chaume. are made from grapes that have been partially raisined after harvesting. Other styles Table wines may have an alcohol content that is no higher than 14% in the U. Late harvest wines such as Spätlese are made from grapes harvested well after they have reached maximum ripeness. Examples include Port.5% and 14% alcohol by volume. or it has bubbles. In other countries good quality sherry wine is used for cooking. Cooking wine typically available in North America is treated with salt as a preservative and food colouring. Table wines are usually classified as "white. . Thus. Fortified wines are often sweeter. providing nice flavour to the dish and a tasty sauce. It is intended for use as an ingredient in food rather than as a beverage. and generally more alcoholic wines that have had their fermentation process stopped by the addition of a spirit. 'Tafelwein' (in German) or 'vino de mesa' (in Spanish). which may be opened and used occasionally over a long period of time. Tokaji Aszúfrom Hungary. it is a table wine or a light wine." "red." or "rosé. such as brandy. The salt in cooking wine inhibits the growth of the microorganisms that produce acetic acid.28 Dessert and fortified wine Dessert wines range from slightly sweet (with less than 50 g/L of sugar) to incredibly sweet wines (with over 400 g/L of sugar). In Europe. This does not happens in fortified wines. Cooking wine or Cooking sherry can refers to inexpensive grape wine or rice wine (in Chinese and other East Asian cuisine). such as Recioto and Vin Santo from Italy. This will preserve a bottle of cooking wine. are cheaper wines that often on the label do not include the information on the grape variety used or the region of origin. and Beerenauslese. light wine must be within 8. or have had additional spirit added after fermentation. which translate to 'table wine' in English. Botrytized winesare made from grapes infected by the mold Botrytis cinerea or noble rot. In Europe 'vins de table' (in French). unless a wine has more than 14% alcohol.
grown in a single specified year. and are accordingly dated as such. In the European Union. a mixture of 70% Chardonnay and 30% Viognier must be called Chardonnay-Viognier rather than Viognier-Chardonnay. there is some disagreement and research about the significance of vintage year to wine quality. A varietal wine is wine made from a dominant grape such as a Chardonnay or a Cabernet Sauvignon. Cooking wine is considered a wine of such poor quality.g. a minimum of 85% is required if the name of a single varietal is diplayed. it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption. they are not widely used by professional chefs.. By Vintage or Varietal A vintage wine is one made from grapes that were all. . The wine may not be entirely of that one grape and varietal labeling laws differ. However. In the United Statesa wine needs to be composed of at least 75% of a particular grape to be labeled as a varietal wine. and this recommendation is given in many professional cooking textbooks as well as general cookbooks. or primarily. that it is unpalatable by itself and intended for use only in cooking. Most professional chefs prefer to use inexpensive but drinkable wine for cooking. Many chefs believe there is no excuse for using a low quality cooking wine for cooking when there are quality drinkable wines available at very low prices. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion of wine that is not from the labeled vintage.29 Cooking wines are convenient for cooks who use wine as an ingredient for cooking only rarely. However. as they believe the added preservative significantly lowers the quality of the wine and subsequently the food made with that wine. and if two or more varietals are mentioned. these varietals combined must make up 100% and they must be listed in descending order. E. Consequently. There is a school of thought that advises against cooking with any wine one would find unacceptable to drink.
The science of wine and winemaking is known as oenology and the oldest known winemaking operation. it may also be made from other fruit or non-toxic plant material. or vinification. is the production of wine. Mead is a wine that is made with honey `being the primary ingredient after water. Winemaking can be divided into two general categories: still wine production (without carbonation) and sparkling wine production (with carbonation). estimated to be 8. was discovered in Georgia. starting with selection of the grapes or other produce and ending with bottling the finished wine. . Although most wine is made from grapes.000 years old.30 Wine Making Winemaking.
.Rosé wines are either made from red grapes where the juice is allowed to stay in contact with the dark skins long enough to pick up a pinkish color (blanc de noir) or by blending red wine and white wine. White and rosé wines extract little of the tanninscontained in the skins. Red wine is made from the must (pulp) of red or black grapes that undergo fermentation together with the grape skins. the grapes are taken into a winery and prepared for primary ferment. Occasionally white wine is made from red grapes. White wine is made by fermenting juice which is made by pressing crushed grapes to extract a juice.31 Process After the harvest. the skins are removed and play no further role. At this stage red wine making diverges from white wine making. this is done by extracting their juice with minimal contact with the grapes' skins.
trapping carbon dioxide and creating the characteristic bubbles. Many wines of comparable quality are produced using similar but distinctly different approaches to their production. high proof brandy is added when making port wine. some of these steps may be combined or omitted to achieve the particular goals of the winemaker. Variations on the above procedure exist. The time from harvest to drinking can vary from a few months for Beaujolais nouveau wines to over twenty years for top wines. or adding a substance to kill the remaining yeast before fermentation is completed. The next process in the making of red wine is secondary fermentation. for example. With sparkling wines such as Champagne. freezing the grapes to concentrate the sugar (ice wine).32 To start primary fermentation yeast is added to the must for red wine or juice for white wine. only about 10% of all red and 5% of white wine will taste better after five years than it will after just one year. The carbon dioxide is lost to the atmosphere. This can be done by harvesting late (late harvest wine). the yeast converts most of the sugars in the grape juice into ethanol (alcohol) and carbon dioxide. treatment. the press wine blended with the free run wine at the wine maker's discretion. However. Depending on the quality of grape and the target wine style. quality is dictated by the attributes of the starting material and not necessarily the steps taken during vinification. This process decreases the acid in the wine and softens the taste of the wine. The wine is kept warm and the remaining sugars are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide. This is a bacterial fermentation which converts malic acid to lactic acid. this practice imparts oak aromas to the wine. The process produces wastewater. The decision to harvest grapes is typically made by the . Sweet wines are made by ensuring that some residual sugar remains after fermentation is completed. The wine must be settled or clarified and adjustments made prior to filtration and bottling. and lees that require collection. During this fermentation. Red wine is sometimes transferred to oak barrels to mature for a period of weeks or months. Harvesting and Destemming Harvest is the picking of the grapes and in many ways the first step in wine production. a technique known as süssreserve. and disposal or beneficial use. After the primary fermentation of red grapes the free run wine is pumped off into tanks and the skins are pressed to extract the remaining juice and wine. an additional fermentation takes place inside the bottle. pomace. Grapes are either harvested mechanically or by hand. In other cases the winemaker may choose to hold back some of the sweet grape juice and add it to the wine after the fermentation is done. which often takes between one and two weeks.
mechanical harvesting of premium winegrapes is more common because of general labor shortages. strike the fruiting zone of the grapevine to dislodge the grapes from the rachis. then destemmed. but also. In other countries (such as Australia and New Zealand). Some winemakers remove leaves and loose debris from the grapevine before mechanical harvesting to avoid such material being included in the harvested fruit. depending on the trellis system and grapevine canopy management. and some debris exit the bottom. tannin development (seed color and taste). In the United States mechanical harvesting is seldom used for premium winemaking because of the indiscriminate picking and increased oxidation of the grape juice. Stems exit at the end. where they are first crushed.canes. seeds. Overall disposition of the grapevine and weather forecasts are taken into account. may include moldy grapes. acid (TA or Titratable Acidity as expressed by tartaric acid equivalents) and pH of the grapes. berry flavor. rocks and even small animals and bird nests. . and with a minimum investment of manpower per harvested ton. Mechanical harvesters have the advantage of being able to cover a large area of vineyard land in a relatively short period of time. Other considerations include phenological ripeness. especially leaf stems and leaves. skins.33 winemaker and informed by the level of sugar (called °Brix). using firm plastic or rubber rods. Mechanical harvesters are large tractors that straddle grapevine trellises and. metal debris. Grape clusters are fed into the machine. while juice. A disadvantage of mechanical harvesting is the indiscriminate inclusion of foreign non-grape material in the product. The corkscrew-shaped feed auger sits on top of a mechanical crusher-destemmer.
Depending on the winemaking procedure. Generally when making white wine the fruit is only crushed.34 Central component of a mechanical destemming. Paddles above the small circular slots rotate to remove the larger chunks of stems. In the United States. Manual harvesting has the advantage of using knowledgeable labor to not only pick the ripe clusters but also to leave behind the clusters that are not ripe or contain bunch rot or other defects. as is done with some German Trockenbeerenauslese. However. Destemming is the process of separating stems from the grapes. Some small amount of stem particles are usually desired to be kept with the grapes for tannin structure. Crushing and Primary (Alcoholic) Fermentation Crushing is the process when gently squeezing the berries and breaking the skins to start to liberate the contents of the berries. For red winemaking. a mechanical crusher/destemmer is used. in larger wineries. The decision about destemming is different for red and white wine making. Grapes are pulled off the stems and fall through the holes. In traditional and smaller-scale wine making. avoids this step altogether with the grapes being individually selected. the harvested grapes are sometimes crushed by trampling them barefoot or by the use of inexpensive small scale crushers. This can be an effective first line of defense to prevent inferior quality fruit from contaminating a lot or tank of wine. Manual harvesting is the hand-picking of grape clusters from the grapevines. Single berry harvesting. These can also destem at the same time. These accumulate at the edge of the press. stems of the . Destemming is the process of removing the grapes from the rachis (the stem which holds the grapes). and in many cases these boxes are consolidated into ½ ton bins or two-ton bins for transport to the winery. this process may be undertaken before crushing with the purpose of lowering the development of tannins and vegetal flavors in the resulting wine. The presence of stems in the mix facilitates pressing by allowing juice to flow past flattened skins. grapes are traditionally picked into 30 pound boxes. the stems are then placed in the press with the berries.
It also results in an increase in the pH of the juice which may be desirable for overly acidic grapes. Crushed grapes leaving the crusher. If increased skin extraction is desired.35 grapes are usually removed before fermentation since the stems have a relatively high tannin content. Removal of stems first means no stem tannin can be extracted.) On occasion. usually for three to 24 hours. but not so much as to cause excessive shearing or tearing of the skin tissues. in addition to tannin they can also give the wine a vegetal aroma (due to extraction of 2-methoxy-3isopropylpyrazine which has an aroma reminiscent of greenbell peppers. In these cases the grapes pass between two rollers which squeeze the grapes enough to separate the skin and pulp. It is possible to produce white (colorless) wines from red grapes by the fastidious pressing of uncrushed fruit. This is to avoid any extraction of tannin from either the skins or grapeseeds. notably with "delicate" red varietals such as Pinot noir or Syrah. . as well as maintaining proper juice flow through a matrix of grape clusters rather than loose berries. a winemaker might choose to crush the grapes after destemming. Most red wines derive their color from grape skins (the exception being varieties or hybrids of nonvinifera vines which contain juice pigmented with the dark Malvidin 3. a red vinifera grape. This was a practice more common in the 1970s than today. This is more acceptable if the stems have 'ripened' and started to turn brown. This serves to extract flavor and tannin from the skins (the tannin being extracted to encourage protein precipitation without excessive Bentonite addition) as well as Potassium ions. In some cases. In some circumstances winemakers choose to crush white grapes for a short period of skin contact. though still practiced by some Sauvignon blanc and Chardonnay producers in California.5-diglucoside anthocyanin) and therefore contact between the juice and skins is essential for color extraction. all or part of the grapes might be left uncrushed (called "whole berry") to encourage the retention of fruity aromas through partial carbonic maceration. which is derived from Pinot noir. Red wines are produced by destemming and crushing the grapes into a tank and leaving the skins in contact with the juice throughout the fermentation (maceration). which participate in bitartrate precipitation (cream of tartar). the winemaker may decide to leave them in if the grapes themselves contain less tannin than desired.) Most white wines are processed without destemming or crushing and are transferred from picking bins directly to the press. This minimizes contact between grape juice and skins (as in the making of Blanc de noirs sparkling wine.
A cap of grape skins forms on the surface of fermenting red wine. The primary. For red wines. This can make the wine sweet when a dry wine is desired. often visible as a powdery appearance of the grapes. . and fermentation continues as if the wine maker was making a white wine. so to achieve a 12% alcohol concentration. This fermentation is often initiated by inoculation with desired bacteria. The temperature during the fermentation affects both the taste of the end product. chaptalization is subject to local regulations. One of the main problems with the use of wild ferments is the failure for the fermentation to go to completion. but since this can give unpredictable results depending on the exact types of yeast that are present. During or after the alcoholic fermentation. or alcoholic fermentation can be done with this natural yeast. The must is then pressed. about half a gram of alcohol is produced. Frequently wild ferments lead to the production of unpleasant acetic acid (vinegar) production as a by product. If the sugar content of the grapes is too low to obtain the desired alcohol percentage. the yeast cells feed on the sugars in the must and multiply. the temperature is typically 22 to 25 °C. as well as the speed of the fermentation. The sugar percentage of the must is calculated from the measured density. during which specific strains of bacteria (lactobacter) convert malic acid into the milder lactic acid. During the primary fermentation.36 In the case of rosé wines. sugar can be added (chaptalization). For every gram of sugar that is converted. the must weight. with the help of a specialized type of hydrometer called a saccharometer. the must should contain about 24% sugars. and for white wines 15 to 18 °C. producing carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. In commercial winemaking. the fruit is crushed and the dark skins are left in contact with the juice just long enough to extract the color that the winemaker desires. that is some sugar remains unfermented. cultured yeast is often added to the must. a secondary. Yeast is normally already present on the grapes. or malolactic fermentation malolactic fermentation can also take place.
and seeds). Pressing is not always a necessary act in winemaking. put the top plate in place and lower it until juice flowed from the wooden slats. as pressed juice can represent between 15%-30% of the total juice volume from the grape. Since the early 1990s. most wineries do use presses in order to increase their production (gallons) per ton. Typically this free-run juice is of a higher quality than the press juice. However. Presses act by positioning the grape skins or whole grape clusters between a rigid surface and a moveable surface and slowly decrease the volume between the two surfaces. pressed juice or wine tends to be lower in acidity with a higher pH than the free-run juice. Because basket presses have a relatively compact design.) The press operator would load the grapes or pomace into the wooden cylinder. whereas tannins are found primarily in the pericarp. Before the advent of modern winemaking. This process continued until the press operator determined that the quality of the pressed juice or wine was below standard.0 Bar. if grapes are crushed there is a considerable amount of juice immediately liberated (called free-run juice) that can be used for vinification.37 Pressing Ancient winepress in Migdal HaEmek. often rendering the pressed juice excessively tannic or harsh. or all liquids had been pressed. As the juice flow decreased. most presses were basket presses made of wood and operated manually." As the pressure increases the amount of tannin extracted from the skins into the juice increases. called making "press cuts. Modern presses dictate the duration and pressure at each press cycle. usually ramping from 0 Bar to 2. the plate was ratcheted down again. with a moveable plate that can be forced downward (usually by a central ratcheting threaded screw. Sometimes winemakers choose pressures which separate the streams of pressed juice. the press cake offers a relatively longer pathway for the juice to . Because of the location of grape juice constituents in the berry (water and acid are found primarily in the mesocarp or pulp. modern mechanical basket presses have been revived through higher-end producers seeking to replicate the gentle pressing of the historical basket presses. Basket presses are composed of a cylinder of wooden slats on top of a fixed plate. Pressing is the act of applying pressure to grapes or pomace in order to separate juice or wine from grapes and grape skins. with the pressing area in the center and the collection vat off to the bottom left. or skin.
the wine is separated from the dead yeast and any solids that remained (calledlees). and transferred to a new container where any additional fermentation may take place. in that case the must may be pressed as well. the cap needs to be mixed through the liquid each day. As the skins are the source of the tannins. With rose. the must is pressed after primary fermentation. Pigeage Pigeage is a French winemaking term for the traditional stomping of grapes in open fermentation tanks. the liquid is separated from the must before fermentation . These tartrate crystals look like grains of clear sand. Cod and heat stabilization Cold stabilization is a process used in winemaking to reduce tartrate crystals (generally potassium bitartrate) in wine. grapes are put through a crusher and then poured into open fermentation tanks. which separates the skins and other solid matter from the liquid. To make certain types of wine. the skins may be kept in contact for a shorter period to give color to the wine. Antique Wooden Wine Press in front of World Heritage Vineyards With red wines.38 travel before leaving the press. After a period in which the wine stands or ages. or "punched." which traditionally is done by stomping through the vat. and may . It is believed by advocates of basket presses that this relatively long pathway through the grape or pomace cake serves as a filter to solids that would otherwise affect the quality of the press juice. This layer of skins and other solids is known as the cap. and are also known as "wine crystals" or "wine diamonds". With white wine. the grape skins are pushed to the surface by carbon dioxide gases released in the fermentation process. They are formed by the union of tartaric acid and potassium. Once fermentation begins.
The wine can be racked during this process to remove the lees. the fermentation continues very slowly. Oak could be added as chips used with a non-wooden barrel instead of a fully wooden barrel. This is carried out either as an intentional procedure in which specially cultivated strains of such bacteria are introduced into the maturing wine. or have the complete fermentation done in stainless steel. a process which can be enhanced by cold stabilization to prevent the appearance of (harmless) tartrate crystals after bottling. Amateur winemakers often use glass carboys in the production of their wine. depending on the goals of the winemakers. or oak barrels. The wine is kept under anairlock to protect the wine from oxidation. During "heat stabilization". This will cause the crystals to separate from the wine and stick to the sides of the holding vessel. When the wine is drained from the vessels. preventing them from precipitating in the bottled wine. the grapes being used. During the cold stabilizing process after fermentation. . and the intentions of the winemaker. Secondary(Malolactic) Fermentation and ageing During the secondary fermentation and aging process.2–14. They may also form in wine bottles that have been stored under very cold conditions.5 to 54 liters (1. the tartrates are left behind. This process is mainly used in cheaper wine. these vessels (sometimes called demijohns) have a capacity of 4. Depending on the desired taste.39 appear to be sediment in the wine. The result of these processes is that the originally cloudy wine becomes clear. which takes three to six months. Potassium bitartrate will also precipitate. The secondary fermentation usually takes place in either large stainless steel vessels with a volume of several cubic meters. Unoaked wine is fermented in a barrel made of stainless steel or other material having no influence in the final taste of the wine. unstable proteins are removed by adsorption onto bentonite. the temperature of the wine is dropped to close to freezing for 1–2 weeks. though they are not.3 US gallons). The kind of vessel used depends on the amount of wine that is being made. it could be fermented mainly in stainless steel to be briefly put in oak. Proteins from the grape are broken down and the remaining yeast cells and other fine particles from the grapes are allowed to settle. Malolactic Fermentation Malolactic fermentation occurs when lactic acid bacteria metabolize malic acid and produce lactic acid and carbon dioxide. or it can happen by chance if uncultivated lactic acid bacteria are present.
8 Brix.) Generally. but mostly likely somewhere less than 50%. this last test is limited to white wines. it is usually not 100%.8 grams per 100 ml or 18 grams per liter. Sensory tests will also be performed and again in response to these a wine maker may take remedial action such as the addition of a protein to soften the taste of the wine. Also one Be° is equal to 1. The French Baumé (Be° or Bé° for short) has the benefit that one Be° gives approximately one percent alcohol. residual sugar. pH. This helps with deciding how much sugar to add if the juice is low in sugar: to achieve one percent alcohol add 1. acids and tannins. White wines are at the discretion of the winemaker. Specific gravity. so 20 Bx means that 100 grams of juice contains 20gm of dissolved compounds. In response to the results of these tests. If a malolactic fermentation is used on white wines. Laboratory tests Whether the wine is aging in tanks or barrels. Common tests include °Brix. Additional tests include those for the crystallization of cream of tartar (potassium hydrogen tartrate) and the precipitation of heat unstable protein. However. This process is called chaptalization and is illegal in some countries (but perfectly acceptable for the home winemaker. whereas lactic acid is perceived as more gentle and less sour. for the making of dry table wines a Bx of between 20 and 25 is desirable (equivalent to Be° of 11 to 14. depending on the desired final product. tests are run periodically in a laboratory to check the status of the wine. for example the addition of more sulfur dioxide.) . These tests are often performed throughout the making of the wine as well as prior to bottling. titratable acidity. but also because it is an indirect index of grape maturity. total sulfur. Brix (Bx for short) is measured in grams per hundred grams of solution. free or available sulfur. that is 1. because malic acid in higher concentration generally causes an often unpleasant harsh and bitter taste sensation. sometimes called Total Soluble Solids (TSS). °Brix is one measure of the soluble solids in the grape juice and represents not only the sugars but also includes many other soluble substances such as salts. due to the fact that red wines have a higher acidity that needs to be softened. There are other common measures of sugar content of grapes. Oechsle (Germany) and Beaume (France). a winemaker can then decide on appropriate remedial action. volatile acidity and percent alcohol. sugar is by far the compound in greatest quantity and so for all practical purposes these units are a measure of sugar level.40 Malolactic fermentation can improve the taste of wine that has high levels of malic acid. The level of sugar in the grapes is important not only because it will determine the final alcohol content of the wine. This is the reason why some chardonnays can taste "buttery". All red wines go through 100% malolactic fermentation.8 grams of sugar per one hundred grams. Lactic acid is an acid found in dairy products.
A Brix test can be run either in the lab or in the field for a quick reference number to see what the sugar content is. Brix is usually measured with a refractometer while the other methods use a hydrometer. Generally, hydrometers are a cheaper alternative. For more accurate use of sugar measurement it should be remembered that all measurements are affected by the temperature at which the reading is made. Suppliers of equipment generally will supply correction charts. Volatile acidity test verifies if there is any steam distillable acids in the wine. Mainly present is acetic acid but lactic, butyric, propionic, and formic acids can also be found. Usually the test checks for these acids in a cash still, but there are new methods available such as HPLC, gas chromatography and enzymatic methods. The amount of volatile acidity found in sound grapes is negligible, since it is a by-product of microbial metabolism. It's important to remember that acetic acid bacteria require oxygen to grow. Eliminating any air in wine containers as well as a sulfur dioxide addition will limit their growth. Rejecting moldy grapes will also prevent possible problems associated with acetic acid bacteria. Use of sulfur dioxide and inoculation with a low-V.A. producing strain of Saccharomyces may deter acetic acid producing yeast. A relatively new method for removal of volatile acidity from a wine is reverse osmosis. Blending may also help—a wine with high V.A. can be filtered (to remove the microbe responsible) and blended with a low V.A. wine, so that the acetic acid level is below the sensory threshold.
Blending and Fining
Different batches of wine can be mixed before bottling in order to achieve the desired taste. The winemaker can correct perceived inadequacies by mixing wines from different grapes and batches that were produced under different conditions. These adjustments can be as simple as adjusting acid or tannin levels, to as complex as blending different varieties or vintages to achieve a consistent taste. Fining agents are used during winemaking to remove tannins, reduce astringency and remove microscopic particles that could cloud the wines. The winemakers decide on which fining agents are used and these may vary from product to product and even batch to batch (usually depending on the grapes of that particular year). Gelatin has been used in winemaking for centuries and is recognized as a traditional method for wine fining, or clarifying. It is also the most commonly used agent to reduce the tannin content. Generally no gelatin remains in the wine because it reacts with the wine components, as it clarifies, and forms a sediment which is removed by filtration prior to bottling.
Besides gelatin, other fining agents for wine are often derived from animal and fish products, such as micronized potassium casseinate (casein is milk protein), egg whites, egg albumin, bone char,bull's blood, isinglass (Sturgeon bladder), PVPP (a synthetic compound), lysozyme, and skim milk powder. Some aromatized wines contain honey or egg-yolk extract. Non-animal-based filtering agents are also often used, such as bentonite (a volcanic clay-based filter), diatomaceous earth, cellulose pads, paper filters and membrane filters (thin films of plasticpolymer material having uniformly sized holes).
The most common preservative used in winemaking is sulfur dioxide, achieved by adding sodium or potassium metabisulphite. Another useful preservative is potassium sorbate. Sulfur dioxide has two primary actions, firstly it is an anti microbial agent and secondly an anti oxidant. In the making of white wine it can be added prior to fermentation and immediately after alcoholic fermentation is complete. If added after alcoholic ferment it will have the effect of preventing or stopping malolactic fermentation, bacterial spoilage and help protect against the damaging effects of oxygen. Additions of up to 100 mg per liter (of sulfur dioxide) can be added, but the available or free sulfur dioxide should be measured by the aspiration method and adjusted to 30 mg per liter. Available sulfur dioxide should be maintained at this level until bottling. For rose wines smaller additions should be made and the available level should be no more than 30 mg per liter. In the making of red wine sulfur dioxide may be used at high levels (100 mg per liter) prior to ferment to assist stabilize color otherwise it is used at the end of malolactic ferment and performs the same functions as in white wine. However, small additions (say 20 mg per liter) should be used to avoid bleaching red pigments and the maintenance level should be about 20 mg per liter. Furthermore, small additions (say 20 mg per liter) may be made to red wine after alcoholic ferment and before malolactic ferment to overcome minor oxidation and prevent the growth of acetic acid bacteria. Without the use of sulfur dioxide, wines can readily suffer bacterial spoilage no matter how hygienic the winemaking practice. Potassium sorbate is effective for the control of fungal growth, including yeast, especially for sweet wines in bottle. However, one potential hazard is the metabolism of sorbate to geraniol a potent and very unpleasant by-product. To avoid this, either the wine must be sterile bottled or contain enough sulfur dioxide to inhibit the growth of bacteria. Sterile bottling includes the use of filtration.
Filtration in winemaking is used to accomplish two objectives, clarification and microbial stabilization. In clarification, large particles that affect the visual appearance of the wine are removed. In microbial stabilization, organisms that affect the stability of the wine are removed therefore reducing the likelihood of re-fermentation or spoilage. The process of clarification is concerned with the removal of particles; those larger than 5–10 micrometers for coarse polishing, particles larger than 1–4 micrometers for clarifying or polishing. Microbial stabilization requires a filtration of at least 0.65 micrometers. However, filtration at this level may lighten a wines color and body. Microbial stabilization does not imply sterility. It simply means that a significant amount of yeast and bacteria have been removed.
A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year, and labeled as such. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion that is not from the labeled vintage. Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color, palate, nose, body and development. High-quality wines can improve in flavor with age if properly stored. Consequently, it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption. In the United States, for a wine to be vintage dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (such as "Sonoma Valley"), it must contain at least 95% of its volume from grapes harvested in that year. If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Climate can have a big impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. Thus, vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. Superior vintages, from reputable producers and regions, will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages. Some vintage wines, like Brunellos, are only made in better-than-average years. For consistency, non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage, which helps wine makers sustain a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. One recent study
vintage year may not be as significant to perceived wine quality as currently thought. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging. but rather serve to chill wine to the perfect temperature for drinking. Bottling A final dose of sulfite is added to help preserve the wine and prevent unwanted fermentation in the bottle. are becoming increasingly popular. In an active wine cellar. and fortified. including red. Wine is a natural. flavor. white. These refrigerators keep the humidity low. and so must be carefully located. all types of wine. Storage Wine cellars. although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it. vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. which is below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. although alternative wine closuressuch as synthetic corks and screwcaps. usually under 50%. temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system. Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars. when exposed to heat. The wine bottles then are traditionally sealed with a cork. Lower humidity levels can dry corks out over time. which are less subject to cork taint. light. sparkling. can spoil. The final step is adding a capsule to the top of the bottle which is then heated for a tight seal. or wine rooms if they are above-ground. . and complexity as they age. others 59 °F (15 °C). are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. They are available in capacities ranging from small 16-bottle units to furniture pieces that can contain 400 bottles.44 suggests that for normal drinkers. allowing oxygen to enter the bottle and reduce the wine's quality. wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled. When properly stored. perishable food product. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 °F (13 °C).
During this time. Italian wine is exported largely around the world and has market share of over 10% in most Asian countries like India. and was well established when the extensive Greek colonization transpired around 800 BC. Italy is one of the world's foremost producers. a country which is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world. Italy is the second largest wine producer after France. due to the inhabitants being besotted with Italian wine. Large-scale. drinking it unmixed and . Italians lead the world in wine consumption by volume with 70 literes per capita consumption. according to Pliny. Grapes are grown in almost every region of the country. it wasn't until the Greek colonization that wine-making flourished. Etruscans and Greek settlers produced wine in the country long before the Romans started developing their own vineyards in the 2nd century BC. in AD 92. Viticulture was introduced into Sicily and southern Italy by the Mycenaean Greeks.45 Wine of Italy Italian wine is wine produced in Italy. It was during the Roman defeat of the Carthaginians (acknowledged masters of wine-making) in the 2nd century BC that Italian wine production began to further flourish. especially from Gaul where trade was intense. Exports to the provinces were reciprocated in exchange for more slaves. Wine is extremely popular in Italy. 20 litres in Australia. responsible for approximately onefifth of world wine production in 2005. compared to 25 litres in the US. pioneering large-scale production and storage techniques like barrel-making and bottling. More than 1 million vineyards are under cultivation. at nearly six billion liters. viticulture outside of Italy was prohibited under Roman law. emperor Domitian was forced to destroy a great number of vineyards in order to free up fertile land for food production. 40 millilitres in China and 9 millilitres inIndia. slave-run plantations sprang up in many coastal areas and spread to such an extent that. Roman grapegrowing and winemaking was prolific and well-organized. History Although vines had been cultivated from the wild Vitis vinifera grape for millennia. and in 2008 the country surpassed France for the title of world's biggest producer for the first time in a decade.
which produced 26%. The main difference between a DOC and a DOCG is that the latter must pass a blind taste test for quality in addition to conforming to the strict legal requirements to be designated as a . This appellation was created in 1992 for wines that were considered to be of higher quality than simple table wines. In the same year. Italy's share in dollar value of table wine imports into the U.Denotes wine from a more specific region within Italy. As the laws on provincial viticulture were relaxed. was 32%. especially Gaul (present day France) andHispania. to the point that Italy ultimately became an import centre for provincial wines. with two falling under the EU category Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWPSR) and two falling under the category of 'table wine'.S. The DOC system began in 1963. Italy's market share has rapidly increased in recent years.46 without restraint. Along with Australia. Depending on the vintage. Italian Appellation System Italy's classification system has four classes of wine. and France's was 20%. and the permitted grapes are also more specifically defined. "Super Tuscan" wines such as Tignanello were labeled Vino da Tavola. Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) . but which did not conform to the strict wine laws for their region. Australia's was 24%. like biturica (ancestor of the Cabernets). In 2005. modern Italy is the world's largest or second largest wine producer. It was customary to mix wine with a good proportion of water which may otherwise have been unpalatable. seeking to establish a method of both recognizing quality product and maintaining the international and national reputation of that product. making wine drinking a fundamental part of early Italian life. The four classes are: Table Wine: Vino da Tavola (VDT) . made for local consumption. These vineyards became hugely successful. production was about 20% of the global total.Denotes simply that the wine is made in Italy. This coincided with the cultivation of new vines. second only to France. The label usually indicates a basic wine. QWPSR: Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) Both DOC and DOCG wines refer to zones which are more specific than an IGT. Before the IGT was created. vast vineyards began to flourish in the rest of Europe.
roughly from Northwest to Southeast: Italian administrative regions . their cuisines reflect their indigenous wines. Barbaresco. among others. and vice-versa. transparent rules were made regarding requirements for DOCG entry. Among these are appellations appreciated and sought after by wine lovers around the world: Barolo. and Brunello di Montalcino (colloquially known as the "Killer B's"). The 36 DOCG wines are located in 13 different regions but most of them are concentrated in Piedmont and Tuscany. The regions are. imposing new limits regarding the production of grapes per hectare and minimum natural alcohol levels. Understanding of Italian wine becomes clearer with an understanding of the differences between each region. Italian Wine Regions Italy's 20 wine regions correspond to the 20 administrative regions. The overall goal of the system is to encourage producers to focus on quality wine making.47 wine from the area in question. After the sweeping wine laws of 1992.
The main grape variety for wines labeled Soave.A heavily acidic variety from Liguria. Currently.Grown on the southwest coast of Italy. musty whites. Malvasia Bianca . Moscato . Fiano . Catarratto .Common in Sicily . which has been grown there since the 15th century. dry white wine from the Veneto wine region of Italy.An ancient Phoenician variety found in southern Sardegna. the wines are vinified to pair with a cuisine rich in seafood. Light and tart wines that are drunk as an apertif in their homeland. Bianco (White) Arneis .500 distinct producers of Soave. this is a crisp. The following is a list of the most common and important of Italy's varieties. the wines from this grape can be described as dewy and herbal. it is mainly used in the slightly-sparkling (frizzante). Can range from easy quaffers to funky. .A crisp and floral variety from Piedmont. has documented over 350 grapes and granted them "authorized" status.Another white variety that peeks up in all corners of Italy with a wide variety of clones and mutations. There are more than 500 other documented varieties in circulation as well.Grown mainly in Piedmont. often with notes of pinenut and pesto. Pigato . Garganega . there are over 3. Nuragus .this is the most widely planted white variety in Salaparuta. two Germanic varietals that are grown in Trentino Alto-Adige. It's a very popular wine that hails from northeast Italy around the city of Verona. Not to be confused with moscato giallo and moscato rosa. semisweet Moscato d'Asti.48 Key Italian Wine Varieties Italy's Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MIRAF).
In its still version. Mostly. full of peachiness and minerality. Ribolla Gialla . it yields the top wine of Friuli. It is known as Ugni Blanc in France. they are pale. but trebbiano from producers such as Valentini have been known to age for 15+ years. The main problem with the grape is that to satisfy the commercial demand.red recently. its wines are characterized by crispness and cleanness. The name comes from "verde" (green). which is always higher than 13°. Grechetto. In the sparkling version. . Coda de Volpe. Catarratto. including Frascati. but in a good producers' hands. these wines are decidedly old-world. as well as the delicate aromas. plus a minimum percentage of other white grapes and may be still.This is grown in the areas of Castelli di Jesi and Matelica in the Marche region and gives its name to the varietal white wine made from it. Grillo.49 Pinot Grigio . Currently. Passerina . easy drinking wines. Picolit. a good body and highly acidic. Thus this wine is surprisingly long-lived. one appreciates the acidic profile. Cortese. As a hugely mass-produced wine. Wines are particularly popular to accompany fish and seafood.A variety distantly related to Sauvignon Blanc. which is typical of these grapes. Falanghina. whereas the passito wine version is the most surprising.This is the most widely planted white varietal in Italy. It is grown throughout the country. and Vernaccia. Inzolia. with aromas of pineapple and mustiness. Pecorino . with distinctive ―exaggerate‖ hues that make it more similar to red wines: strong sugar content highlights the alcohol percentage. the grapes are harvested too early every year. with a special focus on the wines from Abruzzo and from Lazio. It turned out to be a bold white wine. Vermentino . Tocai Friulano . it is usually delicate and mild. leading to wines without character. Traminer. Verdicchio . the pleasant stream of tiny bubbles makes the freshness of this wine even more enjoyable.A hugely successful commercial grape (known as Pinot Gris in France).A Slovenian grape that now makes its home in Friuli.This is widely planted in northern Sardinia and also found in Tuscan and Ligurian coastal districts. Verduzzo. powerful and pleasantly sharp. Other important whites include Carricante. sparkling or passito. the wine can grow more full-bodied and complex. Trebbiano . enabled the peculiar features of the wine that was only produced purely in the past to be revealed locally and then to the general public.mainly derives from Passerina grapes (it may even be produced purely with these). as the EC has demanded it changed to avoid confusion with the Tokay dessert wine from Hungary. there is a bit of controversy regarding the name. The white wines are noted for their high acidity and a characteristic nutty flavour with a hint of honey.
The wines are now meticulously vinified. this is the principal grape which makes the famous wines of the Veneto: Valpolicella and Amarone. the wines are often both rustic and powerful. wild blackberries and herbs permeate the wine." With a new generation of wine makers. and a food-friendly acidity. and many others. Riesling. sometimes aged in French barrique becoming "Barbera Barricato". Flavors of concord grape. Thick skinned and spicy.Along with the varietals rondinella and molinara. aged Barbera gets the name "Barbera Superiore" (Superior Barbera). A sweet and perfumed wine. Malvasia Nera . Gewürztraminer (sometimes called traminer aromatico). sometimes elaborated in the passito style.50 Non-native varieties that the Italians plant include Chardonnay. and syrupy fruits. suitable for everyday drinking. Valpolicella wine has dark cherry fruit and spice. Some Amarones can age for 40+ years and command spectacular prices. and is extremely high in alcohol (16% and up) and full of raisin. Barbera . there was celebration when the acclaimed Amarone di Valpolicella was finally awarded its long-sought DOCG status. The wine has bright cherry fruit. Petite Arvine. the wine is now called Amarone. and Pavia. most famously around the towns of Asti and Alba. a very dark color.The most widely grown red wine grape of Piedmont and Southern Lombardy. Rosso (Red) Aglianico . The name is derived from Hellenic. . Corvina . and intended for the international market.Considered the "noble varietal of the south. but the ease in which it grows and makes great wines. In December 2009. referring not to the taste of the wine. After the grapes undergo passito (a drying process). Dolcetto . The wines of Barbera were once simply "what you drank while waiting for the Barolo to be ready. so it is considered a Greek transplant.Red Malvasia varietal from Piedmont. this is no longer the case." it is primarily grown in Campania and Basilicata. prune. its name means "little sweet one"".A grape that grows alongside Barbera and Nebbiolo in Piedmont.
The grape of this name is not to be confused with the Tuscan town of Montepulciano. and cedar. a sharp contrast to the many inferior bottles produced in the past. high-alcohol. Negroamaro . and light tannin. it is only planted on 250 hectares. it produces the most renowned Barolo and Barbaresco.The most noble of Italy's varieties. truffle. roses. Rosso di Montalcino. along with the lesser-known Sforzato. The name (meaning "little fog") refers to the autumn fog that blankets most of Piedmont where Nebbiolo is chiefly grown. where it is blended with Bordeaux varietals (Cabernet Sauvignon. A difficult grape variety to cultivate. and full of dark red fruits. but the wines produced from it (either blended with Sangiovese as Rosso di Montefalco or as a pure Sagrantino) are worldrenowned. explain why this red wine is the main one of the products of outstanding excellence of this land. and is regarded by many wine enthusiasts as the greatest wine of Italy. jammy. resulting a wine primed for the international market in the style of a typical California cabernet: oaky. Inferno and Sassellamade in Valtellina. Inky purple.A native to Umbria. modern-styled "Super-Tuscans".The name literally means "black and bitter". the pride of Tuscany. More recently. Sagrantino . made in province of Cuneo. Rosso di Montepulciano. with rustic brooding fruit and heavy tannins. and tar. Its wines develop silky plum-like fruit. The wines are known for their elegance and power with a bouquet of wild mushroom. Sangiovese . The quality of nero d'avola has surged in recent years. A widely planted grape with its concentration in the region of Puglia. friendly acidity. made in Vercelli's province. toasty. which are the symbol of a tradition of great Italian wines that perfectly match the farming . inky. extracted version of this wine. Sangiovese is also the backbone in many of the acclaimed. Rosso Piceno . the wines are full of cherry fruit. Montepulciano and Sangiovese. and many others.Nearly unheard of in the international market until recent years. Nebbiolo . Traditionally produced Barolo can age for fifty years-plus. and a ripe.51 Montepulciano . Brunello di Montalcino. It produces Chianti (Classico). fruit-forward profile. it is the backbone of the Salice Salentino: spicy. a land that is ideal for cultivating these grape varieties. producers have been creating a rich. Montefalco Rosso. it is most widely planted on the opposite coast in Abruzzo. earth. Traditionally made. Ghemme and Gattinara.Italy's claim to fame. and Cabernet Franc) and typically aged in French oak barrels. Nero d'Avola . Merlot. and where it achieves the most successful results. these wines can age for many years. this native varietal of Sicily is gaining attention for its plummy fruit and sweet tannins.Its origin and the use of the blend of two grape varieties.
Cabernet Sauvignon. and Syrah are also widely grown.52 culture bound to the consumption of meat. even more so in this area where the esteemed Marche cattle breed is highlighted also in simple dishes accompanied by Rosso Piceno Superiore. Pignolo. Refosco. Pescara and Teramo Trebbiano d'Abruzzo provinces of Chieti. being subdivided into its two constituent parts. Schiopettino. Pescara and Teramo Basilicata Aglianico del Vulture produced in the province of Potenza Matera produced in the province of Matera Terre dell'Alta Val d'Agri produced in the province of Potenza Calabria . L'Aquila. Primitivo (Zinfandel in California). Merlot. Abruzzo Controguerra produced in the province of Teramo Montepulciano d'Abruzzo produced in the provinces of Chieti. Lagrein. in alphabetical order by region: the wine-making regions of Italy are equivalent to its twenty administrative regions. Gaglioppo. however. Lambrusco. Monica. L'Aquila. Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (or just Trentino-Alto Adige). List of Italian DOC Wines List of Italian Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) wines. Schiava. and Uva di Troia. Other major red varieties are Ciliegolo. "International" varieties such as Cabernet Franc. Nerello Mascalese. Teroldego.
53 Bivongi produced in the provinces of Reggio Calabria and Catanzaro Cirò produced in the province of Crotone Donnici produced in the province of Cosenza Greco di Bianco produced in the province of Reggio Calabria Lamezia produced in the province of Catanzaro Melissa produced in the province of Crotone Pollino produced in the province of Cosenza Sant'Anna di Isola Capo Rizzuto produced in the provinces of Crotone and Catanzaro San Vito di Luzzi produced in the province of Cosenza Savuto produced in the provinces of Cosenza and Catanzaro Scavigna produced in the province of Catanzaro Verbicaro produced in the province of Cosenza Campania Aglianico del Taburno produced in the province of Benevento Aversa Asprinio produced in the provinces of Caserta and Napoli Campi Flegrei produced in the province of Napoli Capri produced in the province of Napoli Castel San Lorenzo produced in the province of Salerno Cilento produced in the province of Salerno Costa d'Amalfi produced in the province of Salerno Falerno del Massico produced in the province of Caserta Galluccio produced in the province of Caserta Guardiolo produced in the province of Benevento Ischia produced in the province of Napoli Penisola Sorrentina produced in the province of Napoli Sannio produced in the province of Benevento Sant'Agata dei Goti produced in the province of Benevento Solopaca produced in the province of Benevento Taburno produced in the province of Benevento Vesuvio produced in the province of Napoli Emilia-Romagna .
Forlì and Ravenna Friuli-Venezia Giulia Carso produced in the provinces of Gorizia and Trieste Colli Orientali del Friuli produced in the province of Udine Colli Orientali del Friuli Cialla produced in the province of Udine Colli Orientali del Friuli Rosazzo produced in the province of Udine Collio produced in the province of Gorizia Friuli Annia produced in the province of Udine Friuli Aquileia produced in the province of Udine Friuli Grave produced in the provinces of Pordenone and Udine Friuli Isonzo produced in the province of Gorizia Friuli Latisana produced in the province of Udine . Forlì and Ravenna Trebbiano di Romagna produced in the provinces of Bologna.54 Bosco Eliceo produced in the provinces of Ferrara and Ravenna Cagnina di Romagna produced in the provinces of Forlì and Ravenna Colli Bolognesi produced in the provinces of Bologna and Modena Colli Bolognesi Classico Pignoletto produced in the province of Bologna Colli di Faenza produced in the provinces of Forlì and Ravenna Colli di Imola produced in the province of Bologna Colli di Parma produced in the province of Parma Colli di Rimini produced in the province of Rimini Colli di Scandiano e di Canossa Colli Piacentini produced in the province of Piacenza Colli Romagna Centrale produced in the provinces of Ravenna and Forlì Lambrusco di Sorbara produced in the province of Modena Lambrusco Grasparossa di Castelvetro produced in the province of Modena Lambrusco Salamino di Santacroce produced in the province of Modena Pagadebit di Romagna produced in the provinces of Ravenna and Forlì Reggiano produced in the province of Reggio Emilia Reno produced in the provinces of Bologna and Modena Romagna Albana Spumante (Bianco Spumante) produced in the provinces of Bologna. Forlì and Ravenna Sangiovese di Romagna produced in the provinces of Bologna.
55 Lison Pramaggiore an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Pordenone (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) and Venezia and Treviso (Veneto) Lazio Aleatico di Gradoli produced in the province of Viterbo Aprilia produced in the province of Latina Atina produced in the province of Frosinone Bianco Capena produced in the province of Roma Castelli Romani produced in the province of Roma Cerveteri produced in the provinces of Roma Cesanese del Piglio or Piglio produced in the province of Frosinone Cesanese di Affile produced in the province of Roma Cesanese di Olevano Romano produced in the province of Roma Circeo produced in the province of Latina Colli Albani produced in the province of Roma Colli della Sabina produced in the provinces of Rieti and Roma Colli Etruschi Viterbesi produced in the province of Viterbo Colli Lanuvini produced in the province of Roma Cori produced in the province of Latina Est! Est!! Est!!! di Montefiascone produced in the province of Viterbo Frascati produced in the province of Roma Genazzano produced in the provinces of Frosinone and Roma Marino produced in the province of Roma Montecompatri Colonna produced in the province of Roma Nettuno produced in the province of Roma Orvieto an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Viterbo (Lazio) and Terni (Umbria) Tarquinia produced in the provinces of Roma and Viterbo Velletri produced in the provinces of Latina and Roma Vignanello produced in the province of Viterbo Zagarolo produced in the province of Roma Liguria .
Milano and Pavia San Martino della Battaglia an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Brescia (Lombardia) and Verona (Veneto) Scanzo produced in the province of Bergamo Terre di Franciacorta produced in the province of Brescia Valcalepio produced in the province of Bergamo Valtellina Rosso produced in the province of Sondrio Marche .56 Cinque Terre Cinque Terre Sciacchetrà produced in the province of La Spezia Colli di Luni an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of La Spezia (Liguria) and of Massa-Carrara (Toscana) Colline di Levanto produced in the province of La Spezia Golfo del Tigullio produced in the province of Genova Riviera Ligure di Ponente Rossese di Dolceacqua Val Polcevera produced in the province of Genova Pornassio Lombardia Botticino produced in the province of Brescia Capriano del Colle produced in the province of Brescia Cellatica produced in the province of Brescia Garda an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Brescia and Mantova (Lombardia) and Verona (Veneto) Garda Colli Mantovani produced in the province of Mantova Lambrusco Mantovano produced in the province of Mantova Lugana an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Brescia (Lombardia) and Verona (Veneto) Oltrepò Pavese produced in the province of Pavia Riviera del Garda Bresciano produced in the province of Brescia San Colombano al Lambro produced in the provinces of Lodi.
Ascoli Piceno.57 Bianchello del Metauro produced in the province of Pesaro-Urbino Colli Maceratesi produced in the province of Macerata Colli Pesaresi produced in the province of Pesaro Esino produced in the provinces of Ancona and Macerata Falerio dei Colli Ascolani produced in the province of Ascoli Piceno Lacrima di Morro d'Alba produced in the province of Ancona Offida produced in the province of Ascoli Piceno Rosso Conero produced in the province of Ancona Rosso Piceno produced in the provinces of Ancona. Asti and Cuneo Barbera d'Alba produced in the province of Cuneo Barbera d'Asti produced in the province of Asti Barbera del Monferrato produced in the provinces of Alessandria and Asti Boca produced in the province of Novara Bramaterra produced in the provinces of Biella and Vercelli Canavese produced in the provinces of Biella. Fermo and Macerata Verdicchio dei Castelli di Jesi produced in the provinces of Ancona and Macerata Verdicchio di Matelica produced in the provinces of Ancona and Macerata Molise Biferno produced in the province of Campobasso Molise produced in the provinces of Campobasso and Isernia Pentro di Isernia produced in the province of Isernia Piemonte Albugnano produced in the province of Asti Alta Langa produced in the provinces of Alessandria. Torino and Vercelli Carema produced in the province of Torino Cisterna d'Asti produced in the provinces of Asti and Cuneo Colli Tortonesi produced in the province of Alessandria Collina Torinese produced in the province of Torino Colline Novaresi produced in the province of Novara .
Torino and Vercelli Fara produced in the province of Novara Freisa d'Asti produced in the province of Asti Freisa di Chieri produced in the province of Torino Gabiano produced in the province of Alessandria Grignolino d'Asti produced in the province of Asti Grignolino del Monferrato Casalese produced in the province of Alessandria Langhe produced in the province of Cuneo Lessona produced in the province of Biella Loazzolo produced in the province of Asti Malvasia di Casorzo d'Asti produced in the provinces of Alessandria and Asti Malvasia di Castelnuovo Don Bosco produced in the provinces of Alessandria and Asti Monferrato produced in the provinces of Alessandria and Asti Nebbiolo d'Alba produced in the province of Cuneo Piemonte produced in the provinces of Alessandria.58 Colline Saluzzesi produced in the province of Cuneo Cortese dell'Alto Monferrato produced in the provinces of Alessandria and Asti Coste della Sesia produced in the provinces of Biella and Vercelli Dolcetto d'Acqui produced in the province of Alessandria Dolcetto d'Alba produced in the province of Cuneo Dolcetto d'Asti produced in the province of Asti Dolcetto delle Langhe Monregalesi produced in the province of Cuneo Dolcetto di Diano d'Alba produced in the province of Cuneo Dolcetto di Dogliani produced in the province of Cuneo Dolcetto di Ovada produced in the province of Alessandria Erbaluce di Caluso produced in the provinces of Biella. Asti and Cuneo Pinerolese produced in the provinces of Cuneo and Torino Rubino di Cantavenna produced in the province of Alessandria Ruché di Castagnole Monferrato produced in the province of Asti Sizzano produced in the province of Novara Valsusa produced in the province of Torino Verduno Pelaverga produced in the province of Cuneo Puglia Aleatico di Puglia produced throughout the region .
Brindisi and Taranto Matino produced in the province of Lecce Moscato di Trani produced in the provinces of Bari and Foggia Nardò produced in the province of Lecce Orta Nova produced in the province of Foggia Ostuni produced in the province of Brindisi Primitivo produced in the provinces of Brindisi and Taranto Rosso Barletta produced in the provinces of Bari and Foggia Rosso Canosa produced in the province of Bari Rosso di Cerignola produced in the province of Bari Salice Salentino produced in the provinces of Brindisi and Lecce San Severo.59 Alezio produced in the province of Lecce Brindisi produced in the province of Brindisi Cacc'e mmitte di Lucera produced in the province of Foggia Castel del Monte produced in the province of Bari Copertino produced in the province of Lecce Galatina produced in the province of Lecce Gioia del Colle produced in the province of Bari Gravina produced in the province of Bari Leverano produced in the province of Lecce Lizzano produced in the province of Taranto Locorotondo produced in the provinces of Bari and Brindisi Martina produced in the provinces of Bari. produced in the province of Foggia Squinzano produced in the provinces of Brindisi and Lecce Sardegna Alghero produced in the province of Sassari Arborea produced in the province of Oristano Campidano di Terralba produced in the provinces of Cagliari and Oristano Cannonau di Sardegna produced throughout the region Carignano del Sulcis produced in the province of Cagliari Girò di Cagliari produced in the provinces of Cagliari and Oristano Malvasia di Bosa produced in the province of Nuoro Malvasia di Cagliari produced in the provinces of Cagliari and Oristano .
Caltanissetta and Palermo Contessa Entellina produced in the province of Palermo Delia Nivolelli Nero d'Avola produced in the province of Trapani Eloro produced in the provinces of Ragusa and Siracusa Erice produced in the province of Trapani Etna produced in the province of Catania Faro produced in the province of Messina Malvasia delle Lipari produced in the province of Messina Mamertino di Milazzo produced in the province of Messina Marsala produced in the province of Trapani Menfi produced in the provinces of Agrigento and Trapani Monreale produced in the province of Palermo Moscato di Noto Naturale produced in the province of Agrigento Moscato di Pantelleria produced in the province of Trapani Moscato di Siracusa produced in the province of Siracusa Riesi produced in the province of Caltanissetta Salaparuta produced within the communal territory of Salaparuta in the province of Trapani Sambuca di Sicilia produced in the province of Agrigento Santa Margherita di Belice produced in the province of Agrigento Sciacca produced in the province of Agrigento .60 Mandrolisai produced in the provinces of Nuoro and Oristano Monica di Cagliari produced in the provinces of Cagliari and Oristano Monica di Sardegna produced throughout the region Moscato di Cagliari produced in the provinces of Cagliari and Oristano Moscato di Sardegna produced throughout the region Moscato di Sorso Sennoriproduced in the province of Sassari Nasco di Cagliari produced in the provinces of Cagliari and Oristano Nuragus di Cagliari produced in the provinces of Cagliari. Nuoro and Oristano Sardegna Semidano produced throughout the region Vermentino di Sardegna produced throughout the region Vernaccia di Oristano produced in the province of Oristano Sicilia Alcamo produced in the provinces of Palermo and Trapani Contea di Sclafani produced in the provinces of Agrigento.
Prato and Siena Colli di Luni an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Massa-Carrara (Toscana) and of La Spezia (Liguria) Colline Lucchesi produced in the province of Lucca Cortona produced in the province of Arezzo Elba produced in the province of Livorno Montecarlo produced in the province of Lucca Montecucco produced in the province of Grosseto Monteregio di Massa Marittima produced in the province of Grosseto Montescudaio produced in the provinces of Livorno and Pisa Morellino di Scansano produced in the province of Grosseto Moscadello di Montalcino produced in the province of Siena Orcia produced in the province of Siena Parrina produced in the province of Grosseto Pomino produced in the province of Firenze Rosso di Montalcino produced in the province of Siena Rosso di Montepulciano produced in the province of Siena San Gimignano produced in the province of Siena Sant'Antimo produced in the province of Siena Sovana produced in the province of Grosseto Val d'Arbia produced in the province of Siena . Firenze.61 Toscana Ansonica Costa dell'Argentario produced in the province of Grosseto Barco Reale di Carmignano produced in the provinces of Firenze and Prato Bianco della Valdinievole produced in the province of Pistoia Bianco dell'Empolese produced in the provinces of Firenze and Pistoia Bianco di Pitigliano produced in the province of Grosseto Bianco Pisano di San Torpè produced in the province of Pisa Bianco Vergine della Valdichiana produced in the provinces of Arezzo and Siena Bolgheri produced in the province of Livorno Candia dei Colli Apuani produced in the province of Massa-Carrara Capalbio produced in the province of Grosseto Colli dell'Etruria Centrale produced in the provinces of Arezzo. Pistoia. Pisa.
62 Val di Cornia produced in the provinces of Livorno and Pisa Vin Santo del Chianti produced in the provinces of Arezzo. Labels typically use the German form. or Caldaro) a DOC produced both in the provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino Valdadige an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of South Tyrol. Prato and Siena Vin Santo del Chianti Classico produced in the provinces of Firenze and Siena Vin Santo di Montepulciano produced in the province of Siena Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol South Tyrol Wines from South Tyrol have official designations in both the Italian and German languages. Pistoia. Pisa. Südtirol. Trentino and Verona (Veneto) Umbria Assisi produced in the province of Perugia Colli Altotiberini produced in the province of Perugia Colli Amerini produced in the province of Terni . or Kalterer) (Italian: Lago di Caldaro. Trentino and Verona Trentino Casteller produced in the province of Trentino Teroldego Rotaliano produced in the province of Trentino Trentino produced in the province of Trentino Trento a sparkling wine produced in the province of Trentino Lago di Caldaro or Caldaro (German: Kalterersee or Kalterer) a DOC produced both in the provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino Valdadige an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of South Tyrol. Firenze. or Südtiroler (Italian: Alto Adige) produced in South Tyrol Kalterersee.
63 Colli del Trasimeno produced in the province of Perugia Colli Martani produced in the province of Perugia Lago di Corbara produced in the provinces of Perugia and Terni Montefalco produced in the province of Perugia Orvieto an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Terni (Umbria) and Viterbo (Lazio) Rosso Orvietano produced in the province of Terni Torgiano produced in the province of Perugia Valle d'Aosta Valle d'Aosta Veneto Arcole produced in the provinces of Verona and Vicenza Bagnoli di Sopra produced in the province of Padova Bardolino produced in the province of Verona Bianco di Custoza produced in the province of Verona Breganze produced in the province of Vicenza Colli Berici produced in the province of Vicenza Colli di Conegliano produced in the province of Treviso Colli Euganei produced in the province of Padova Corti Benedettine del Padovano produced in the provinces of Padova and Venezia Gambellara produced in the province of Vicenza Garda an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Verona (Veneto) and Brescia and Mantova (Lombardia) Lison Pramaggiore an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Venezia and Treviso (Veneto) and Pordenone (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) Lugana an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Verona (Veneto) and Brescia (Lombardia) Merlara produced in the province of Padova Montello e Colli Asolani produced in the province of Treviso Monti Lessini produced in the province of Vicenza Piave produced in the provinces of Treviso and Venezia .
Note that not all of Italy’s twenty regions produce wines with DOCG status. Italy and in part of the comune of Tarcento Colli Orientali del Friuli Picolit (Passito). produced in the province of Udine. Cremant. Pinot Noir Rosé). in the area of Ramandolo. Spumante rosé and Spumante cremant). Northern regions Friuli-Venezia Giulia Ramandolo (Bianco). Pinot Noir. produced in the province of Pavia Sforzato di Valtellina or Sfurzat di Valtellina (Rosso). in the commune of Nimis. produced in the province of Udine Lombardia Franciacorta (as Spumante.64 Prosecco produced in the province of Treviso Riviera del Brenta DOC produced in the provinces of Padova and Venezia San Martino della Battaglia an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Verona (Veneto) and Brescia (Lombardia) Soave produced in the province of Verona Valdadige an inter-regional DOC produced in the provinces of Verona (Veneto) and of Bolzano and Trento (Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol) Valpolicella produced in the province of Verona Vicenza produced in the province of Vicenza Vin Santo di Gambellara produced in the province of Vicenza List of Italian DOCG Wines A list of the 47 Italian DOCG (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) wines ordered by region. produced in the province of Sondrio . produced in the province of Brescia Oltrepo Pavese Metodo Classico (as Rosé.
Spumante and Tranquillo). Maroggia. Grumello. produced in the province of Cuneo Dolcetto di Ovada Superiore or Ovada (Rosso). produced in the province of Verona Recioto di Soave (Bianco as normale. Cuneo and Alessandria Barbaresco (Rosso as normale and Riserva). Classico and Spumante).65 Valtellina Superiore (Rosso as normale and Riserva) with the option to indicate one of the subregions Inferno. Sassella and Valgella. produced in the province of Verona Recioto di Gambellara (Bianco) Recioto della Valpolicella  Prosecco Produced in certian zones of Prov di Treviso Malanotte Raboso Superiore Produced in the Piave area Piedmont Asti in the sub-appellations Asti (Bianco) and Moscato d'Asti (Bianco). with the option to indicate one of the sub-regions: Nizza in the region surrounding Nizza Monferrato Tinella in the region surrounding Costigliole d'Asti Colli Astiani in the region surrounding Vigliano d'Asti Barbera del Monferrato Superiore (Rosso). produced in the province of Asti. or the sub-region Stagaflassi for wine bottled in Switzerland Veneto Amarone della Valpolicella  Bardolino Superiore (Rosso). produced in the provinces of Asti and Alessandria Barolo (Rosso as normale. produced in the provinces of Asti. produced in the province of Cuneo Brachetto d'Acqui or Acqui (Rosso as normale and Spumante). produced in the province of Cuneo Barbera d'Asti (Rosso as normale and Superiore). produced in the province of Vercelli Gavi or Cortese di Gavi (Bianco as Frizzante. produced in the province of Verona Soave Superiore (Bianco as normale. produced in the provinces of Asti and Alessandria Dolcetto di Dogliani Superiore or Dogliani (Rosso). produced in the province of Alessandria Gattinara (Rosso as normale and Riserva). Classico and Riserva). produced in the province of Sondrio. produced in the province of Alessandria Ghemme (Rosso as normale and Riserva). produced in the province of Novara . Riserva and Chinato).
66 Roero (Bianco as Roero Arneis and Roero Arneis Spumante. produced in the province of Siena Carmignano (Rosso as normale and Riserva). amabile. Forlì-Cesena and Ravenna Central regions Abruzzo Montepulciano d'Abruzzo. dolce. produced in the province of Torino Dolcetto di Diano d'Alba or Diano d'Alba (Rosso). produced in the provinces of Bologna. Marche Conero (Rosso only as Riserva). produced in the province of Asti Alta Langa (Sparkling. produced in the province of Cuneo Ruchè di Castagnole Monferrato (Rosso). traditional method). produced in the provinces of Firenze and Prato . produced in the province of Ancona Vernaccia di Serrapetrona (Rosso as Dolce and Secco). Asti and Cuneo Emilia Romagna Albana di Romagna (Bianco as secco or asciutto. Rosso as normale and Riserva). produced in the province of Teramo and named after the typical grape Lazio Cesanese del Piglio. produced in the provinces of Alessandria. Red. produced in the province of Macerata Tuscany Brunello di Montalcino (Rosso as normale and Riserva). passito and passito riserva). produced in the province of Cuneo Erbaluce di Caluso or Caluso (Bianco). some sparkling is produced. grown in the Prenestina hills southeast of Rome.
produced in the province of Grosseto Aleatico dell'Elba (Passito). produced in the provinces of Firenze and Siena Colli Aretini as normale and Riserva produced in the province of Arezzo Colli Senesi as normale and Riserva. produced in the province of Avellino using the Fiano grape. produced in the province of Avellino Taurasi (rosso also as Riserva). produced in the province of Firenze Colline Pisane as normale and Riserva. produced in the province of Perugia Torgiano Rosso Riserva (Rosso only as Riserva). Firenze. produced on the Island of Elba.67 Chianti (Rosso as normale and Riserva). produced throughout the Chianti region with the exception of the classico sub-region. produced in the provinces of Arezzo. produced in the province of Pisa Montalbano as normale and Riserva. Prato and Siena. produced in the province of Perugia Southern regions Campania Fiano di Avellino (bianco). produced in the province of Firenze Chianti Superiore. Greco di Tufo (bianco. Pisa. produced in the province of Siena Vino Nobile di Montepulciano (Rosso as normal and Riserva). produced in the province of Avellino .  Vernaccia di San Gimignano (Bianco as normale and Riserva). also as spumante). Pistoia. produced in the province of Siena Colli Fiorentini as normale and Riserva. Pistoia and Prato Montespertoli as normale and Riserva. produced in the province of Pisa Rufina as normale and Riserva. with the option to indicate one of the subregions: Classico as normale and Riserva. Umbria Sagrantino di Montefalco (Rosso as Secco and Passito). produced in the province of Siena Morellino di Scansano (Rosso as normale and Riserva). produced in the provinces of Firenze.
Catania and Ragusa. Wines of U. wine production is undertaken in all fifty states. American wine has been produced for over 300 years. Today. produced in the provinces of Caltanissetta. .68 Sardinia Vermentino di Gallura (Bianco as normale and Superiore). produced in the provinces of Nuoro and Sassari Sicily Cerasuolo di Vittoria (Rosso as normale and Classico).S.A.
The United States is the fourth largest wine producing country in the world after France. The first vines of Vitis vinifera origin planted in what is now the United States were planted in Senecu in 1629.100.69 with California producing 89 percent of all US wine. but it was the introduction of the European Vitis vinifera by European settlers that led to the growth of the wine making industry. settlers would later discover that the wine made from the various native grapes had flavors which were unfamiliar and which they did not like. By 1842 Nicholas Longworth was growing 1. Vitis riparia. Vitis rotundifolia. the discovery in 1802 of the native Catawba grape led to very successful wine-making in Ohio.200 acres (4. The Illustrated London News described Catawba as "a finer wine of the hock species and flavor than any hock that comes from the Rhine" and wrote that sparkling Catawba "transcends the Champagne of France. Spain and Turkey.9 km ) of Catawba grapes and making the country's first Sparkling wine. which is near the present day town of San Antonio. In 1858. 2 History The History of American wine began when first Europeans to explore parts of North America which they called Vinland because of the profusion of grape vines they found. and Vitis amurensis. With more than 1. However. the United States is the fifth most planted country in the world after France. New Mexico. Italy. However.500 km ) under vine. The North American continent is home to several native species of grape." But the successful operations in Ohio 2 . and Spain. including Vitis labrusca.000 acres (4. This led to repeated efforts to grow familiar Vitis vinifera varieties. Italy. Vitis vulpina.
By 1851 he had 40. Agoston Haraszthy bought 520 acres (2. By the late 19th century. it is a grape of "very modest" quality.000 vines under cultivation and was producing 1. Therefore. Charles LeFranc established what became the very successful Almaden Vineyards. where he planted Cabernet Sauvignon. but they make very poor quality wine. the missionaries used the Mission grape. In contrast to Vallejo and most others. Paul Masson. Jean-Louis Vignes. Haraszthy planted his vines on dry slopes and did not irrigate them. The first secular vineyard was established inLos Angeles by an immigrant from Bordeaux. the State Legislature commissioned Haraszthy to travel to Europe and purchase a diversity of grapevines. In 1865 the Urbana Wine Company (which marketed its wine under the Gold Seal label) was established. In 1852." He wrote Report on Grapes and Wines in California.1 km ) near Vallejo's vineyards. He also urged the government to collect cuttings from Europe and distribute them to growers in California. wines from the Finger Lakes were winning prizes at wine tastings in Europe. The Finger Lakes region of New York State developed a successful wine-making industry beginning in the early 1860s when the Pleasant Valley Wine Company began using carefully selected derivatives of native grapes to produce wine. 1880 saw the establishment of the Taylor Wine Company. where mildew was not a problem. he imported vines from France. The land on which Krug founded his winery was part of his wife's (Carolina Bale's) dowry.70 ceased when fungus disease destroyed the vineyards. founding the first winery in the Napa Valley. the value of dry farming to creating superior wine is generally recognized. In 1857. Krug learned the trade of the vintner as an apprentice to Haraszthy in the Sonoma Valley. He did so.000 vines of 300 different varieties. and obtained 100. Major wine production shifted to the Sonoma Valley in northern California largely because of its excellent climate for growing grapes. which is called Criolla or "colonialized European" in South America. Some growers responded by moving north to the shores of Lake Erie and its islands.000 L) of wine per year. and many others.000 US barrels (120. Krug expanded on what he learned from Haraszthy and began a winemaking tradition in the Napa Valley. the first vineyard and winery was established by Spanish missionaries in 1769. Originally a Prussian political dissident. In 1861. former commander of the presidio of Sonoma. Today. became the first large-scale winegrower in the valley. Haraszthy has been called the "Father of Modern Viticulture in California. a manual on vineyard management and wine making procedures in which he urged experimentation with different grape varieties in different soils and different parts of the state. Pinot Noir. Krug 2 . LeFranc produced good wine as did his son-in-law. California wine In California. Dissatisfied with the Mission grape. Semillon. In 1861 Charles Krug founded his namesake winery and began making wine. California has two native grape varieties. Although a Vitis vinifera. General Mariano Vallejo.
000. Napa Valley wines won 20 of the 34 medals or awards (including four gold medals) won by California entries. The results of their success would be demonstrated decades later at the Paris wine tasting in 1976. offered academic degrees in viticulture. Davis. Severe frosts. the San Francisco earthquake that destroyed an estimated 30. Charles Wetmore and Jacob Beringer. He was also a mentor for Karl Wente. the Napa Valley demonstrated leadership in producing quality wine.000. In 1935.000 US gallons (110. fortified (high alcohol) wine.71 became an important leader of winemaking in the Napa Valley. consulted with grape growers and winemakers. Because making up to 200 US gallons (760 L) of wine at home per year was legal.000. 81% of California's production was sweet wines. the nation's 200th anniversary.000 US gallons (340.000. Unfortunately. quality grapes do not ship well. Early on. During the 1970s a system was established to identify appellations of origins.000 US gallons (15. vineyards had been neglected or replanted in poor quality grapes.000 L) before Prohibition to 90. grape growers prospered. Leading the way out of the abyss was research conducted at the University of California. American wine making reemerged in very poor condition. Prohibition Some wineries managed to survive by making wine for religious services.000. of which 93 are in California. Many talented winemakers had died. Consumers now demanded cheap "jug wine" (socalled dago red) and sweet.000 L) five years after the imposition of the law. the outbreak of the phylloxera louse which destroyedVitis vinifera vines. such production increased from an estimated 4. all of whom became important vintners. The reputation of the state's wines suffered accordingly. Faculty published reports on which varieties of grapes grew best in which regions of the state. Before Prohibition dry table wines outsold sweet wines by three to one.000. At the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889.000 L) of wine in storage. an economic depression. and from within a recognized AVA. held seminars on winemaking techniques. This was the high point that was followed by 40 years of natural and human-caused disasters. so producers ripped out their vines and replaced them with tough but poor quality grapes such as Alicante Bouschet and Alicante Ganzin. using the term American Viticultural Areas (AVA). . and promoted the production of quality wines. However. and Prohibition had changed Americans' taste in wines. There are 165 AVAs. Following Prohibition. and the disaster of nationalProhibition from 1920 through 1933. The use of individual vineyard names guarantees that 95% of any wine using a vineyard name must be made from grapes grown in that vineyard. An AVA guarantees that a minimum of 85% of the wine in the bottle comes from grapes grown in that AVA. but after the ratio was more than reversed.
  For the sake of wine labeling purposes. American wine making reemerged in very poor condition. fortified (high alcohol) wine. and promoted the production of quality wines. held seminars on winemaking techniques. with 668 million gallons (25. Faculty at the universities published reports on which varieties of grapes grew best in which regions. In June 1980. Appellation System The early American appellation system was based on the political boundaries of states and counties. and Prohibition had changed Americans' taste in wines. Appellation labeling laws . There were 187 distinct AVAs designated under U. but after the ratio was more than reversed. law as of April 2007. Tobacco and Firearms (now Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau) developed regulations to establish American Viticultural Areas (AVA) based on distinct climate and geographical features. most notably the Champenois. Davis and some of the state universities in New York. Consumers now demanded cheap "jug wine" (socalled dago red) and sweet.S. all the states and county appellations were grandfathered in as appellations. Leading the way to new methods was research conducted at the University of California. Today the American wine industry faces the growing challenges of expanding international exports and dealing with domestic regulations on interstate sales and shipment of wine. consulted with grape growers and winemakers.3 million hectoliters) of wine being consumed in the United States in 2004. In 1935. Changing taste in the American palate has also helped to foster this growth. vineyards had been neglected or replanted with table grapes. success by Californian winemakers help to secure foreign investment dollars from other winemaking regions. In the 1970s and 1980s. offered academic degrees in viticulture.72 Following the repeal of Prohibition. Many talented winemakers had died. In September 1978 the Bureau of Alcohol. 81% of California's production was sweet wines. the Augusta AVA in Missouri was established as the first American Viticultural Area under the new appellation system. Before Prohibition dry table wines outsold sweet wines by three to one.
Port. a label can have a multi-county designation so long as the percentages used from each county are clearly on the label.C.  Semi-generic wines An example of American wines using semi-generic labels of burgundy. For a County Appellation. With the larger state and county appellations the laws vary depending on the area. at least 85% of the grapes used to produce the wine must be grown in the AVA. Madeira. If grapes are from two or threecontiguous counties. Wines with this designation are similar to the French wine vin de table and can not include a vintage year. Current U.S. Marsala. Chianti. even though these names arerestricted in Europe. Malaga. counterparts through World Trade Organization negotiations to eliminate the use of these semigeneric names. chablis. Sauternes(commonly spelled on U. States the State Appellation requires 75% of the grapes in the wine to be grown in the state. laws allow American made wines to be labeled as "American Burgundy" or "California champagne". D. wine labels as Sauterne or Haut Sauterne). laws only restrict usage to include the qualifying area of origin to go with these semi-generic names. . European Union officials have been working with their U. Other semigeneric names in the United States include Claret.S.73 In order to have an AVA appear on a wine label..S. For the majority of U. etc. U. Sherry and Tokay.S. If grapes are from two to three contiguous states a wine can be made under a multi-state designations following the same requirements as the multi-county appellation. Texas requires 85% and California requires 100%. Moselle. including Puerto Rico and Washington. By law this is the only appellation allowed for bulk wines exported to other counties. 75% of the grapes used must be from that county. Chablis. Rhine wine. American wine or United States is a rarely used appellation that classifies a wine made from anywhere in the United States.S.
with wineries allowed to sell directly to consumers on site at the winery. Consumer demand for varietals has essentially dried up the market for semi-generic wines. The exception is very inexpensive sparkling wines that are sometimes labeled "California champagne. Three Tier Distribution Following the repeal of Prohibition. at least 95% of grapes must be from a particular vintage for that year to appear on the label. the federal government allowed each state to regulate the production and sale of alcohol in their own state. Some states allow interstate sales through e-commerce. Fighting varietals have largely replaced the jug wines that were often labeled with semi-generic names." Other U.5 liter bottle. .74 Fighting varietals Fighting varietal is a term that originated in California during the mid 1980s to refer to any inexpensive cork-finished varietal wine in a 1. In the 2005 case of Granholm v. wholesaler and consumer. For the majority of states this led to the development of athree-tier distribution system between the producer. For bottles labeled by varietal at least 75% of the grape must be of the varietal. Labeller Laws In the United States. Prior to the early 1970s. all grapes had to be from the vintage year. the requirement is 90%. All labels must list the alcohol content based on percentage by volume. The outcome of the Supreme Court decision was that states could decide to allow out of states wine sales along with in state sales or ban both altogether. the Supreme Court of the United States struck down state laws banning interstate shipments but allowing in-state sales. InOregon. American wine labels are also required to list if they contain sulfites and carry the Surgeon General's warning about alcohol consumption. Depending on the state there are some exceptions. Heald.S.
. Rocky Mountain Region – Notably Idaho and Colorado Southwestern United States – Notably Texas and New Mexico Midwestern United States – Notably Missouri. Pennsylvania. and North Carolina. Depending on the state there are some exceptions. with wineries allowed to sell directly to consumers on site at the winery. Some states allow interstate sales through e-commerce. Regions There are nearly 3. northern New York and Ohio East Coast of the United States – Most Notably Virginia and notables such as New Jersey. For the majority of states this led to the development of a three-tier distribution system between the producer. Washington and Oregon. and at least one winery in each of the 50 states. Heald. In the 2005 case of Granholm v. the Supreme Court of the United States struck down state laws banning interstate shipments but allowing in-state sales. Illinois and Minnesota Great Lakes region – Notably Michigan. wholesaler and consumer. the federal government allowed each state to regulate the production and sale of alcohol in their own state.000 commercial vineyards in the United States.75 Largest Producers Following the repeal of Prohibition. New York State. The outcome of the Supreme Court decision was that states could decide to allow out of states wine sales along with in state sales or ban both altogether. West Coast – The majority of American wine production occurs in the states of California.
American Viticultural Areas range in size from the Ohio River Valley AVA at 26. elevation. California. . an AVA specifies only a geographical location from which at least 85% of the grapes used to make a wine must have been grown. 1980. Petitioners are required to provide such information when applying for a new AVA. Prior to the installation of the AVA system. Historical or current evidence that the boundaries are legitimate. wine appellations of origin in the United States were designated based on state or county boundaries. Missouri. The Augusta AVA near the town of Augusta. The TTB defines AVAs at the request of wineries and other petitioners. There were 198 AVAs as of January 2010. . but these appellations are distinct from AVAs. and physical features are distinctive. soil. 2 Requirements Current regulations impose the following additional requirements on an AVA: Evidence that the name of the proposed new AVA is locally or nationally known as referring to the area. with boundaries defined by the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB).000 square miles (67. All of these appellations were grandfathered into federal law and may appear on wine labels as designated places of origin. however. at only 62 acres (25 ha). AVAs are more similar to the Italian Indicazione Geografica Tipica than other European appellation of origin systems American Viticultural Area designations do not limit the type of grapes grown. Evidence that growing conditions such as climate. be used by the petitioner to justify uniqueness of place when proposing a new AVA. and are also required to use USGS maps to both describe (using terms from the map) and depict the boundaries. was the first recognized AVA.76 American Viticultural Area An American Viticultural Area is a designated wine grape-growing region in the United States distinguishable by geographic features. gaining the status on June 20. the method of vinification. Unlike most European wine appellations of origin. or the crop yield. Some of those factors may.000 km ) across four states. to the Cole Ranch AVA in Mendocino County. United States Department of the Treasury.
For example. the Santa Clara Valley AVA and Livermore Valley AVAs are located within the territory of the San Francisco Bay AVA. which are surrounded by.77 Once an AVA is established. at least 85% of the grapes used to make a wine must be grown in the specified area if an AVA is referenced on its label. but are specifically excluded from. All of these AVAs are included in the geographic boundaries of the Central Coast AVA with the exceptions of Ben Lomond Mountain AVA and Santa Cruz Mountains AVA. Arroyo Grande Valley Arroyo Seco Ben Lomond Mountain . which is itself located within the Central Coast AVA. State or county boundaries — such as for Oregon or Sonoma County — are not AVAs. A vineyard may be in more than one AVA. even though they are used to identify the source of a wine. List Of California AVAs Central Coast and Santa Cruz Mountains General locations of California's wine regions. AVAs are reserved for situations where a geographically defined area has been using the name and it has come to be identified with that area. the larger regional AVA.
there is no large regional AVA designation that includes the entire Central Valley wine growing region. Rita Hills Santa Ynez Valley York Mountain Central Valley Unlike other regions of California.78 Carmel Valley Central Coast Chalone Cienega Valley Edna Valley Hames Valley Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara Lime Kiln Valley Livermore Valley Monterey Mt. Harlan Pacheco Pass Paicines Paso Robles San Antonio Valley San Benito San Bernabe San Francisco Bay San Lucas San Ysidro District Santa Clara Valley Santa Cruz Mountains Santa Lucia Highlands Santa Maria Valley Sta. .
Alexander Valley Anderson Valley Atlas Peak Bennett Valley Benmore Valley Calistoga Chalk Hill Chiles Valley Clear Lake Cole Ranch Covelo Diamond Mountain District Dos Rios Dry Creek Valley Green Valley of Russian River Valley Guenoc Valley High Valley Howell Mountain Knights Valley Los Carneros McDowell Valley Mendocino Mendocino Ridge Mt. Veeder Napa Valley North Coast Northern Sonoma Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley Oakville Potter Valley Red Hills Lake County . Seiad Valley Trinity Lakes North Coast All of these AVAs are included within the geographic boundaries of the six-county North Coast AVA.79 Alta Mesa Borden Ranch Capay Valley Clarksburg Clements Hills Cosumnes River Diablo Grande Dunnigan Hills Jahant Lodi Madera Merritt Island Klamath Mountains These AVAs are located in the southern Klamath Mountains of far northwestern California.
Washington.80 Sierra Foothills All of these AVAs are contained entirely within the geographic boundaries of the Sierra Foothills AVA. Antelope Valley Cucamonga Valley Leona Valley Malibu-Newton Canyon Ramona Valley Saddle Rock-Malibu San Pasqual Valley Sierra Pelona Valley List of Pacific Northwest AVAs A list of American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) in the Pacific Northwest states of Oregon. California Shenandoah Valley El Dorado Fair Play Fiddletown South Coast All of these AVAs are contained entirely within the geographic boundaries of the South Coast AVA. and Idaho: .
Oregon Dundee Hills. Washington Rattlesnake Hills. Washington Puget Sound. Washington Lake Chelan. Washington Multi-state Columbia Gorge. Washington Red Mountain. Oregon Yamhill-Carlton District. Washington Yakima Valley. Washington Wahluke Slope. Oregon and Washington Columbia Valley. Idaho and Oregon Walla Walla Valley. Oregon Chehalem Mountains. Oregon Eola-Amity Hills. Oregon and Washington List of East Coast AVAs A list of American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) on the East Coast of the United States: . Oregon Southern Oregon. Oregon Washington See also: Washington wine Horse Heaven Hills. Oregon Red Hill Douglas County. Oregon McMinnville. Oregon Ribbon Ridge. Oregon Rogue Valley. Washington Snipes Mountain AVA. Oregon Umpqua Valley. Washington and Oregon Snake River Valley.81 Oregon See also: Oregon wine Applegate Valley. Oregon Willamette Valley.
Massachusetts Outer Coastal Plain. Maryland Central Delaware Valley. Virginia Virginia's Eastern Shore. and Rhode Island Swan Creek. North Carolina Warren Hills. Ohio. Long Island.e. New York Finger Lakes. Virginia List of AVAs in other regions A list of American Viticultural Areas (AVAs) in the American Heartland (i. New Jersey Western Connecticut Highlands. North Carolina Cayuga Lake. and Pennsylvania Lancaster Valley. not on the Atlantic or Pacific coast): . New York The Hamptons. New York North Fork of Long Island. Maryland Martha's Vineyard. New York. New York Niagara Escarpment. Connecticut. Pennsylvania Lehigh Valley. New York Long Island. New York Virginia See also: Virginia wine Monticello. Virginia North Fork of Roanoke. Virginia Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. Connecticut Yadkin Valley. Virginia Rocky Knob.82 New York See also: New York wine Other east coast AVAs Catoctin. Massachusetts. Maryland & Pennsylvania Haw River Valley. New Jersey Shenandoah Valley. North Carolina Lake Erie. New York Seneca Lake. Pennsylvania Linganore. New Jersey & Pennsylvania Cumberland Valley. Virginia and West Virginia Southeastern New England. New York Hudson River Region.
and West Virginia Ozark Highlands. Ohio. Kentucky. Michigan Lake Michigan Shore. Texas Mesilla Valley. and Tennessee Ohio River Valley. Missouri Ozark Mountain. Virginia and West Virginia Sonoita. Indiana. . Wisconsin Loramie Creek. New Mexico Mississippi Delta.83 Texas See also: Texas wine Other states Alexandria Lakes. Texas Michigan See also: Michigan wine Fennville. Louisiana. Mississippi. Texas Texas Hill Country. New Mexico and Texas Texas Davis Mountains. Iowa. and Oklahoma Shawnee Hills. Michigan AVAs in Michigan. Arizona Upper Mississippi Valley. Minnesota Altus. Arkansas Augusta. Arkansas Arkansas Mountain. Texas Fredericksburg in the Texas Hill Country. Illinois Shenandoah Valley. Ohio Grand Valley. Texas Escondido Valley. Michigan Leelanau Peninsula. Colorado Hermann. Minnesota. Ohio Middle Rio Grande Valley. Colorado Bell Mountain. West Virginia Lake Wisconsin. Texas Texoma. George. Illinois and Wisconsin West Elks. New Mexico Mimbres Valley. Missouri. Missouri Isle St. Arkansas. Missouri Grand River Valley. Michigan Old Mission Peninsula. Ohio Kanawha River Valley. Texas Texas High Plains.
just that the vineyard is within a set geographical boundary. The Tax and Trade Bureau regulates the AVAs. FINDINGS . Wine regions in the US are controlled by American Viticultural Area. There are no grape type requirements for an AVA . and Oregon wine regions offer wines to challenge any other in the world. or AVA. the United States has become a powerhouse in the world of wine. The Napa Valley. Other US wine regions have equally as promising wines being offered.84 United States Wines It was not that long ago that only French wines were considered "good". 85% of grapes labelled as an AVA must actually come from within that AVA area. AVAs can contain other AVAs and can overlap each other. Sonoma Valley. In the last few decades.
072 325.017% . Production by state Production of still wine per state in 2009 was as follows: 2009 production of still wine State Arizona California Colorado Connecticut Florida Georgia Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Missouri Montana Nebraska Production (gal) 79. and at least one winery in each of the 50 states.016% 0.295 634.195 114.023% 0.002% 0.767 43.006% 0.511 222.114% 0.000 commercial vineyards in the United States.702 317.263% 0.010% 0.864 69.288 Production (%) 0.043% 0.145% 0.011% 89.034.272 17.429 125.871.016% 0.041 813.031% 0.269.178% 0.311 1.874 604.85 There are nearly 3.384.046% 0.309 1.566 162.018% 0.112 1.280% 0.574 124.045% 0.797 1.038 307.992.514 114.085% 0.196% 0.
746 1. Italian wine is exported largely around the world and has market share of over 10% in most Asian countries like India.370% 100 % Italy is the second largest wine producer after France.497 23.558 816. 40 millilitres in China and 9 millilitres inIndia.648 482.417.902% 0.747 6.305 675. Wine is extremely popular in Italy.155% 0.227.241% 0.068% 0.861 287.173% 0.115% 0.614 26.073% 3.162.012% 0.530 1.040% 0. compared to 25 litres in the US. at nearly six billion liters.340% 0.915 516.115 0.632. . Italians lead the world in wine consumption by volume with 70 literes per capita consumption.86 New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania South Dakota Tennessee Texas Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Others Sum 1.121 47.007% 0.692% 0.231. 20 litres in Australia.095% 0.964 1.006% 0.102. and in 2008 the country surpassed France for the title of world's biggest producer for the first time in a decade.958 44.257.757.163% 3.962 2.104 711.711.054 88.
87 CONCLUSIONS Italy is the largest wine producer in the world and its wines are of different styles. especially from Piedmont and Tuscany. and fruity red wine. fullbodied. It is well known for its robust. made from number of grape varieties. The regions of the Italy wines are – Aosta Valley (Valle D'Aosta) Piedmont (Piemonte) Liguria Lombardy (Lombardia) Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Friuli-Venezia Giulia Veneto Emilia-Romagna Tuscany (Toscana) Marche (Le Marche) Umbria Lazio Abruzzo Molise Campania Basilicata Apulia (Puglia) Calabria Sicily (Sicilia) Sardinia (Sardegna) . The best wine of Italy comes from its northern regions.
S. Washington. The other states that produce considerable amount of wines are New York. Modern winemakers with new technology and the use of new blends of grapes have drawn the attention of wine lovers. is well recognized for its range of wines all over the world. Napa Valley and Sonoma are the most popular wine-producing areas of California. and Oregon.S. The regions of the U.A.88 California in the U. wines are : Alabama Wineries Alaska Wineries Arizona Wineries Arkansas Wineries California Wineries Colorado Wineries Connecticut Wineries Delaware Wineries Florida Wineries Georgia Wineries Hawaii Wineries Idaho Wineries Illinois Wineries Indiana Wineries Iowa Wineries Kansas Wineries Kentucky Wineries Louisiana Wineries Maine Wineries Maryland Wineries Massachusetts Wineries Michigan Wineries Minnesota Wineries Mississippi Wineries Missouri Wineries Montana Wineries Nebraska Wineries Nevada Wineries New Hampshire Wineries New Jersey Wineries New Mexico Wineries New York Wineries North Carolina Wineries North Dakota Wineries Ohio Wineries Oklahoma Wineries Oregon Wineries Pennsylvania Wineries Rhode Island Wineries South Carolina Wineries South Dakota Wineries Tennessee Wineries Texas Wineries Utah Wineries Vermont Wineries Virginia Wineries Washington Wineries West Virginia Wineries Wisconsin Wineries Wyoming Wineries .A.
89 RECOMMENDATIONS Some of the famous Italian wines – BARDOLINO VALPOLICELLA SOAVE RECIOTO RECIOTO AMARONE GAMBELLARA MERLOT DEL PIAVE PROSECCO PROSECCO SPUMANTE .
A.90 Some of the famous U. wines are CHARDONNAY SAUVIGNON BLANC BIBLIOGRAPHY .S.
org/wiki/Sparkling_wine indianwine.com/mumbai/drink/best-indian-wines-830228 www.com/ www.about.htm www.com/od/.org/wiki/Wine en.com/ www.thewinesocietyofindia./tp/best-india-wines-vineyards.indianwineacademy.all-about-wine.com/ goindia.com/ BOOKS – FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE (S.com/ sulawines.yorkwinery.wikipedia.com/ www.frenchwinesfood..com/ www.N.sommelierindia.91 WEBSITES - en.nandivalleywinery.cnngo..com/ www.wikipedia.com/ www. BAGACHI & ANATI SHARMA) .
What are the Constituents of Grape? . What is Wine? Q.92 FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE OPERATIONS (R.SINGARAVELAVAN) FOOD & BEVERAGE SERVICE (D.LILICRAP) ARTICLES & MAGAZINES WINE ENTHUISIAST (WINE MAG) QUESTIONARRIES Q.
Name any 10 wine-producing regions of Italy and explain each briefly? Q. Write a detailed note on wines of California and its AVAs? Q. Name some Faults in Wine? Q. What are the Methods of making Wine? Q. What is Malolactic Fermentation? Explain. Explain the growth wine industry in California? Q. How Pink colour comes to the Rosey wine? Q. Explain the Process involved in making Red Wine? Q.93 Q. What is AVA? Explain. Explain the wines of Piedmont and Tuscany? Q. Q. Q. How are Italian Wines Classified? Q. What are the Factors influencing the character of wine? .
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