44

ANGLICKÁ GRAMATIKA – CVIČEBNICA

Possessive pronouns
(privlastňovacie
zámená samostatne
stojace)

Possessive pronouns
(privlastňovacie
zámená pred podstatným menom)

Personal pronouns
(osobné zámená za
slovesom)

Personal pronouns
(osobné zámená pred
slovesom)

  PERSONAL AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS: I – me – my – mine
(osobné a privlastňovacie zámená)

I (am)

(tell) me

my (book)

(a book of) mine

you (are)

(tell) you

your (book)

(a book of) yours

he (is)

(tell) him

his (book)

(a book of) his

she (is)

(tell) her

her (book)

(a book of) hers

it (is)

(tell) it

its (book)

(a book of) –

we (are)

(tell) us

our (book)

(a book of) ours

you (are)

(tell) you

your (book)

(a book of) yours

they (are)

(tell) them

their (book)

(a book of) theirs

Exercise 44: Read Zuzana’ s story about her trip and fill in the gaps with a pronoun or possessive.

Example: It was my dream to go to Denmark.

I wanted to go there to visit two friends of 1................... , Mária and Jana, who worked there as au pairs.
2

................... had been there for six months. 3................... friends advised me to fly from Bratislava to

Copenhagen. That was the best way for 4................... to travel. I had never flown before so 5...................
was quite nervous. Whenever my family goes on holiday, we always forget to take something with
6

.................... Once, my brother forgot to take 7................... camera, then my grandparents forgot

8

................... bus tickets, but this time, I forgot 9 ................... passport. When I arrived at the airport, the

woman at the check-in desk asked 10................... for the passport, but I couldn’ t find 11................... anywhere. I had to leave the queue and then phone home. My mum answered and told 12................... that I
had left the passport on the hall table. Luckily, 13................... had asked Aunt Lucy to bring 14...................
to me at the airport. She gave me 15................... aunt’ s mobile number. Just as I was dialling the number,
a large customs officer tapped me on the shoulder. I turned round, quite frightened. He asked
16

................... if I had lost something. I was about to answer when I noticed that 17................... was holding

18

................... passport in 19................... hand! Aunt Lucy was standing just behind him and smiling like

an idiot. Aunt Lucy went with 20................... back to the queue at the check-in counter. I was really
nervous, so I was really pleased to have 21................... company. After getting 22................... ticket, I saw

IV.  PRONOUNS (ZÁMENÁ)

45

that I only had a few minutes left. I said goodbye to Aunt Lucy and ran up to the security control. The
woman at the desk took 23................... ticket and asked, “Do 24................... have 25................... passport?”
“Of course,” I answered with a smile.

  REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS (zvratné zámená: seba, sa; myself – sám
seba)
Zvratné zámená majú v angličtine zdôrazňujúcu funkciu. Tvoria sa takto:

myself – on my own: Napr. I will do it myself. I will do it on my own. (Urobím to sám.)
yourself – on your own
himself – on his own
herself – on her own
itself – on its own
ourselves – on our own
yourselves – on your own
themselves – on their own

Exercise 45: Put in the suitable reflexive pronoun.
Example: You don’ t have to help me. I will do it myself.
1. Look at .................................. . You are very pale.
2. Make .................................. at home. (Cíťte sa ako doma.)
3. We have a problem with finances .................................. .
4. My brother never repairs his car .................................. .
5. My grandparents will take care of .................................. .
6. Do you ever talk to .................................. ?
7. They had a great time at the party. They enjoyed .................................. .
8. Shall we decorate your room .................................. ?
9. The restaurant .................................. wasn’ t very nice, but the food was great.
10. I’ ve done it .................................. . Nobody has helped me.

Exercise 46: Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Keď bola Klára malá, sama si ostrihala vlasy.
2. Tú večeru som kúpil ja.
3. Moji susedia si sami postavili dom.
4. Prosím ťa, ponúkni sa.
5. Auto samo o sebe je pekné, ale nie je spoľahlivé.

46

ANGLICKÁ GRAMATIKA – CVIČEBNICA

  EACH OTHER / ONE ANOTHER
(jeden druhého, jeden druhému atď.)
Exercise 47: What is the difference in meaning between these two sentences?
Translate them into Slovak.
1. Tom and Jane
2. Tom and Jane are
are looking at each other. looking at themselves.

Exercise 48: Complete the sentences with -SELVES or EACH OTHER.
Example: It’ s very nice that your children help each other with their homework.
1. Gavin and Jennifer haven’ t seen .................................. for a long time.
2. My parents love .................................. .
3. Me and my brother never listen to .................................. .
4. Our children always help .................................. when they are in trouble .
5. Selfish people only think of .................................. .

  INDEFINITE PRONOUNS (neurčité zámená)
SOME – (niektorý / nejaký), ANY – (žiadny / akýkoľvek / hociktorý),
NO – (žiadny)
Some + podstatné meno (niektorý, nejaký), somebody, someone (niekto), something
(niečo), somewhere (niekde, niekam) sa používajú:
- v kladných oznamovacích vetách. Napr. There are some apples left.
- v otázkach, na ktoré očakávame kladnú odpoveď. Napr. Will you have some more coffee?
Any + podstatné meno (akýkoľvek, hociktorý), anybody, anyone (hocikto,
ktokoľvek), anything (čokoľvek, hocičo), anywhere (kdekoľvek, kamkoľvek) sa
používajú:
- v kladných vetách zovšeobecňujúcich, t.j. vo význame hocijaký / -á . Napr. Call
anybody to help me. (Zavolaj hocikoho, aby mi pomohol.)

- v otázkach namiesto „some“, vtedy znamenajú nejaký, niekto, niečo, niekde a
niekam. Napr. Is anybody here? (Je tu niekto?)
- v záporných vetách (not any), vtedy znamenajú žiadny, nikto, nič, nikde, nikam.
Napr. There wasn’ t anybody in the house. (Nikto nebol v dome.)

No + podstatné meno (žiadny), none (žiadny), nobody (nikto), no one (žiadny),
nothing (nič), nowhere (nikde, nikam) sa používajú len v zápornom význame.

IV.  PRONOUNS (ZÁMENÁ)

47

Napr. We have no car. (Nemáme žiadne auto.) None of them had arrived. (Nikto
z nich neprišiel.)
Pozor! V anglickej vete môže byť len jeden zápor. Napr. Nobody was there. (Nikto
tam nebol.)
I understand nothing. (Nerozumiem ničomu.)
Prídavné meno

+

Osoba

Vec

Miesto

SOME

SOMEBODY

SOMETHING

SOMEWHERE

Záporná veta -

ANY
NO

ANYBODY
NOBODY

ANYTHING
NOTHING

ANYWHERE
NOWHERE

?

ANY

ANYBODY

ANYTHING

ANYWHERE

Kladná veta

Otázka

Did you know that...? 
1. Would you like some coffee? (očakávame kladnú odpoveď: Yes, please.)
2. Give me anything to drink. (tu anything znamená hocičo)
3. There’ s hardly anybody. (hardly – sotva má negatívny význam)
4. I have never met any Englishman. (never – nikdy má negatívny význam)
5. He ran two kilometres without any break. (without – bez má negatívny význam)

Exercise 49: Complete the sentences with SOME, SOMEBODY, SOMEWHERE,
SOMETHING, ANY, ANYBODY, ANYWHERE or ANYTHING. Not all expressions are used.
Example: I haven’ t heard anything about Miki. Is he OK?

He is fine. Somebody finally gave him work.

1. She left the house without packing ............................................................. .
2. She lives ............................................................. with her boyfriend now.
3. There is ............................................................. waiting for you.
4. It’ s my friend, we’ re going out for lunch. If ............................................................. calls while I am
away, please take the message.
5. Would you like ............................................................. to drink?
6. Can I have ............................................................. beer, please?
7. Gemma keeps all her secrets to herself. She doesn’ t say ...................................................................... to
............................................................. .
8. Can ............................................................. apply to study at university?

48

ANGLICKÁ GRAMATIKA – CVIČEBNICA

9. I have never been to ............................................................. English-speaking country.
10. I can hear ............................................................. calling for help.

Exercise 50: Translate the following indefinite pronouns into English and then
make sentences using them.
1. každý –

............................

2. hocikto – ............................

3. niekto –

............................

4. nikto –

............................

5. všetko –

............................

6. hocičo –

............................

7. niečo –

............................

8. nič –

............................

9. všade –

............................

10. hocikde –

............................

11. niekde – ............................

12. nikde –

............................

JOKE
Laugh with me...

Some employees bought their boss a gift for his birthday. Before opening the gift,
the boss shook it slightly, and noticed that it was wet in the corner. Touching his
finger to the wet spot and tasting it, he asked: “A bottle of wine?”
His employees replied: “No.”
Again, he touched his finger to the box and tasted the liquid.
“A bottle of Scotch?”
His employees replied again: “No.”
Finally the boss asked: “I give up. What is it?”
His workers responded: “A puppy.”
Source: http://www.myenglishpages.com/

EVERY / EACH (každý)
Every + podstatné meno (každý), everybody, everyone (každý), everything (všetko),
everywhere (všade) sa používa sa vtedy, ak máme na mysli väčšie množstvo.
Pozor! every = každý – nemôže sa používať samostatne, musí po ňom nasledovať
podstatné meno, má funkciu prídavného mena. everyone = každý a everybody =
každý – môžu stáť samostatne, majú funkciu podstatného mena.
Napr. I love flowers. I would buy every flower in this shop. (vo význame všetky –
I would buy all the flowers in this shop.)
Each – (každý individuálne) sa používa vtedy, ak máme na mysli malé množstvo,
vec jednu po druhej. Po each nemusí nasledovať podstatné meno.
Napr. The flowers cost 2 pounds each. OR: Each flower costs 2 pounds. (vo význame
každý)

IV.  PRONOUNS (ZÁMENÁ)

49

Exercise 51: Fill in the gaps with EVERY or EACH.

Example: My mother grows many flowers. Each flower is different.
1. Charlie has to take antibiotics ............................ six hours.
2. The Robinsons go to Croatia ............................ year.
3. There were three applicants for the job. ............................ applicant had different experience.
4. ............................ player must wear a helmet in this game.
5. I saw ............................ film in this DVD rental shop.

EITHER / NEITHER / BOTH (každý z dvoch / ani jeden z dvoch / obaja)
Either
- v spojení either of the znamená ten i ten, každý (z dvoch)
Napr. Either of the two examples are correct. (Každý z tých dvoch príkladov je
správny.)
- vo väzbe either… or znamená buď… alebo
Napr. You can either stay or go now. (Môžeš buď zostať alebo odísť.)
Neither
- v spojení neither of the – žiadny (z dvoch), ani jeden.
Napr. Neither of the two men can speak English. (Ani jeden z tých dvoch mužov
nehovorí po anglicky.) – vo väzbe neither… nor znamená ani… ani.
Neither Ben nor Jim could fix our car. (Ani Ben ani Jim nám nevedeli opraviť
naše auto.)
Both
- v spojení both (of the) znamená obaja (z dvoch)
Napr. Both (of the) cars are good. (Obe autá sú dobré.)
Exercise 52: Complete the sentences with EITHER / NEITHER / BOTH.
Example: These students were late and neither of them apologised.

1. I like this red and that blue pullover. I will take ................................. of them.
2. ................................. Peter nor Mike came to our party.
3. ................................. you’ l l go to bed or I’ l l call your father.
4. ................................. of my parents were born in March.
5. ................................. of us are getting old.
6. I invited Nicole and Peter to come over, but ................................. of them had time.

50

ANGLICKÁ GRAMATIKA – CVIČEBNICA

7. ................................. you wake up or I am leaving.
8. ................................. Sue and Peter are sick.
9. Hugo and Gregor can’ t speak Spanish. ................................. of them can speak Spanish.
10. He didn’ t drink and he didn’ t eat. He ................................. drank nor ate.

  RELATIVE CLAUSES AND PRONOUNS:
who, what, which, that, whose (vzťažné vety a zámená)
Who – ktorý – sa používa len pri osobách. Napr. That is the girl who lives in London.
(To je to dievča, ktoré býva v Londýne.)
Whom – od ktorého, ktorému, o ktorom, s ktorým – sa používa len pre osoby – po
predložkách (from whom, to whom, about whom, with whom). Napr. Is that the
boy about whom you were talking? = Is that the boy who you were talking about?
(To je ten chlapec, o ktorom ste hovorili?)
Which – ktorý – sa používa len pre veci, používa sa po rôznych predložkách
(of which, to which). Napr. Did you get the letter which we sent you from New
York? (Dostali ste list, ktorý sme vám poslali z New Yorku?) The room which we
entered was very beautiful. (Miestnosť, do ktorej sme vstúpili, bola prekrásna.)
That – ktorý – sa používa pre osoby i veci. Napr. Who is that man that is speaking? (Kto je ten muž, ktorý reční?), hlavne po 3. stupni prídavných mien, napr.:
Shakespeare is the greatest dramatist that has ever lived. (Shakespeare je najväčší
dramatik, ktorý kedy žil.), po radových číslovkách (first, second, third...) a po
neurčitých zámenách (all, every, some, any).
Pozor! Ak sú vzťažné zámená who, which, that predmetom vzťažnej vety, možno ich
vynechať.
Písanie čiarok:
Tom McDowel, who left Ireland a long time ago, lives in Chicago.
Those who left at the same time live in other parts of the States.
Keď podčiarknuté časti viet vynecháme, zmení sa význam vety?
Tom McDowel lives in Chicago. – NEZMENÍ
Those live in other parts of the States. – ZMENÍ (Nie je jasné, kto sú those.)
ČIARKY ÁNO: Ak ide o doplnkovú informáciu, ktorá po vynechaní nezmení význam vety.
ČIARKY NIE: Ak ide o dôležitú určujúcu informáciu, ktorá po vynechaní zmení význam vety.
Ďalší príklad:
The students, who worked hard, are rewarded. Škola odmení všetkých študentov.
The school rewards students who work hard. Iba tí, ktorí tvrdo pracovali, budú odmenení.

IV.  PRONOUNS (ZÁMENÁ)

51

Exercise 53: Correct the mistakes in the following sentences.
1. The man which lives opposite is a car mechanic.
2. My brother lives in Prague has two sons.
3. Josh goes to school who is nearby.
4. This is the tea who I drink every day.

Exercise 54: Translate the following sentences into Slovak.
1. The man who lives nearby is a doctor.
2. The man, who lives nearby, is a doctor.
3. My brother, who lives in Prague, has two sons.
4. My brother who lives in Prague has two sons.

Exercise 55: Read the text about the life of Sylvester Stallone. Complete the sentences with WHO, WHICH, WHERE or WHOSE.
Example: Stallone created many famous movie characters who are very physically strong.
1. He was born in a family ................................. had an Italian background.
2. The facial defects, ................................. existed from his birth, left him with speech problems.
3. He was a sickly child ................................. suffered from rickets.
4. His younger brother, ................................. name was Frank, became a movie actor.
5. When Sylvester was 5, his parents moved to Maryland ............................... he spent a difficult time.
6. He attended about 12 schools from ................................. he was expelled for bad behaviour.
7. At the age of 15, he moved to Philadelphia ................................. he stayed with his mother and her
new husband.
8. He became more interested in sports ................................. helped him to build up his body.
9. In 1969, he moved to New York ................................. he had a variety of odd jobs.
10. Later, he wrote some scripts, some of ................................. produced.
11. Many people, ................................. like Stallone’ s acting, remember him best for the roles of Rocky
and Rambo.
12. The film Rocky, ................................ script was also written by Stallone, was his first major success.

52

ANGLICKÁ GRAMATIKA – CVIČEBNICA

  SO am I (aj ja), NEITHER / NOR am I (ani ja)
+ kladná veta
I am hungry.
I am having lunch.
I was hungry.
I was having lunch.

+ aj ja
So am I.
So was I.

- záporná veta
I am not hungry.
I am not having lunch.
I was not hungry.
I was not having lunch.

I ate a lot.

So did I.

I did not eat a lot.

I will eat a lot.

So will I.

I will not eat a lot.

I can drive.

So can I.

I cannot drive.

I could drive.

So could I.

I could not drive.

I would like to drive.

So would I.

I wouldn’ t like to drive.

- ani ja
Nor am I.
Neither am I.
Nor was I.
Neither was I.
Nor did I.
Neither did I.
Nor will I.
Neither will I.
Nor can I.
Neither can I.
Nor could I.
Neither could I.
Nor would I.
Neither would I.

Exercise 56: What is the difference in meaning between these two sentences?
Translate them into Slovak.
1. A: I’ m happy. B: So am I.

2. A: I’ m not happy. B: Nor am I. / Neither am I.

Exercise 57: Complete the sentences with SO am / can / do / did I, etc. or
NEITHER am / can / do / did I, etc.
Example: A: I am tired. B: So am I.

1. A: I hate football. B: ............................................................................... I.
2. A: I have never been to Germany. B: ............................................................................... I.
3. A: Susan got lost. B: ............................................................................... I.
4. Peter can’ t come, and ............................................................................... his girlfriend.
5. I haven’ t expected it, and ............................................................................... my mother.
6. I wasn’ t ready to have a baby, and ............................................................................... my husband.
7. My parents haven’ t got a car, and ............................................................................... my father-in-law.
8. Tom studies hard and ............................................................................... his sister.

IV.  PRONOUNS (ZÁMENÁ)

53

9. A: Peter, you are late. B: ............................................................................... you.
10 A: I am thirsty. B: ............................................................................... I.

Exercise 58: Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Je mi ľúto. Aj mne.  ............................................................................................................................................
2. Bolo mi ľúto. Aj mne.  ........................................................................................................................................
3. Roger vie hrať bowling. Aj ja.  .........................................................................................................................
4. Roger vie hrať bowling. Aj jeho žena.  ...........................................................................................................
5. Nešli sme tam. Ani my.  ....................................................................................................................................
6. Nemám rád čaj. Ani oni.  .................................................................................................................................
7. Rád by som šiel lyžovať. Aj my.  ......................................................................................................................
8. Stratil som pas. Aj moje deti (stratili pas).  ...................................................................................................
9. Jedlo bolo hrozné. Aj víno.  ..............................................................................................................................
10. Jedlo bude hrozné. Aj víno.  .............................................................................................................................

JOKE
Laugh with me...

For weeks a six-year-old lad kept telling his first-grade teacher about the baby
brother or sister that was expected at his house.
One day the mother allowed the boy to feel the movements of the unborn child.
The six-year old was obviously impressed but made no
comment. Furthermore, he stopped telling his teacher about the impending event.
The teacher finally sat the boy on her lap and said,
“Tommy, what about that baby brother or sister you
were expecting at home?”
Tommy burst into tears and confessed: “I think mommy ate it!”
Source: http://www.myenglishpages.com/

XI.  PASSIVE VOICE (TRPNÝ ROD)

125

5. The window has been recently cleaned .................... our cleaner.
6. The window was cleaned .................... anti-fog liquid.
7. The birthday cake was made .................... biscuits.
8. The birthday cake was made .................... my grandmother.


SAY / TELL / TALK / SPEAK
(povedať / rozprávať (sa) / hovoriť)
He says: “We should go”.
He says that we should go.
He says to us that we should go.

SAY
povedať niečo niekomu

1. say: “…………”
2. say that
3. say TO + komu

TELL
povedať niečo niekomu

tell + komu (bez predložky) Tell me the truth. (Povedz mi pravdu.)
– tell somebody a story, a secret, the truth, a lie, the time...
– tell somebody where, when, what...
– tell somebody about something

TALK
rozprávať(sa)

1. talk
2. talk TO + komu
3. talk about

SPEAK
hovoriť

1. speak
Do you speak English?
2. speak TO + komu I spoke to him about it.

(Hovoril som s ním o tom.)

He talked for an hour. (Hodinu rozprával.)
He talked to me for an hour.
We were talking about you on the bus.

Exercise 162: Fill in the gaps with SAY / TELL / TALK / SPEAK.
Example: Could you tell me the time, please?
1. Do you ............................ English?
2. What did you ............................ ?
3. At lunch we often ............................ about work.
4. I ............................ : ”You’ re standing on my toe.”
5. Don’ t ............................ to me!
6. I can’ t ............................ when he returns home.
7. ............................ me the truth.
8. Do not ............................ me the same story again, it is frightening.

126

ANGLICKÁ GRAMATIKA – CVIČEBNICA

Exercise 163: Fill in the gaps with the appropriate form of SPEAK, SAY,
TELL or TALK.
Example: You didn’ t tell  me where to send the money.
1. We ................................................... about you last night.
2. Did you hear what Marco ................................................... about Isabelle?
3. I can’ t ................................................... German.
4. I’ ve had an argument with Anna, so she isn’ t ................................................... to me at the moment.
5. Who ................................................... you ................................................... to? Is it Kate?
6. Did anyone ................................................... you what the homework was, Tom?
7. Tom, ................................................... me the answer to number six!
8. I didn’ t hear you. What ................................................... you ...................................................?
9. ................................................... up! I can’ t hear you.
10. I ................................................... that I loved learning languages.

Exercise 164: Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Povedz mu, aby bol ticho.

6. Rozprávali sme sa o škole.

2. Kto to povedal?

7. Rozprávaj sa so mnou.

3. Kto ti to povedal?

8. O čom to hovoriš?

4. Povedali ste to lekárovi?

9. Čo si vravel?

5. Hovorili sme o tebe.

10. Buď ticho! (Nepovedz ani slovo!)

1. ........................................................................

6. ...................................................................................

2. ........................................................................

7. ...................................................................................

3. ........................................................................

8. ...................................................................................

4. ........................................................................

9. ...................................................................................

5. ........................................................................

10. ...................................................................................

XI.  PASSIVE VOICE (TRPNÝ ROD)

127

Exercise 165: Put in SAY / SPEAK / TELL / TALK in the appropriate form.
Example: I   am talking  to John Henkler about languages.

He 1...................................... that he finds the different languages people 2...................................... fascina­
ting. He should know what he 3...................................... about because his mother 4.....................................
Dutch and his father 5................................... English. I think this is confusing, but he 6..................................
that at home they all 7...................................... in English. If his mother’ s parents were still alive,
it  would  be even more strange. They were both born in Belgium. Her father 8......................................
French and her mother Flemish. John hopes that he 9.............................. Dutch soon. He 10........................
................. me that he is taking lessons so that he can 11..................................... to his cousins. He doesn’ t
know if his cousins can 12...................................... English, but I bet they can.

JOKE
Laugh with me...

    Source: http://www.myenglishpages.com/

One day there was a rabbit and a snake who were both growing old and could not
remember what animal they were.
  “OK I‘ll describe you and then see if you can guess what you are,” said the snake.
  “That‘s a good idea,” said the rabbit.
  “You are white, fluffy and you have big ears and feet,” said the snake.
  “Oh good, I‘m a rabbit! So the rabbit says: “You are long, slim and have a forked
tongue.”
  “Oh NO, I‘m a lawyer!”