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International Communication

International Communication

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Published by: Jesús Vázquez Massot on Oct 03, 2011
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  • Section 1
  • Section 2
  • Section 3
  • Section 4
  • Section 5
  • Section 6
  • Section 7
  • Section 8


1. Making your conversation more interesting: • • • • • • • • Making a Personal Comment Giving Opinions Justifying and Developing Opinions and Arguments Agreeing and Disagreeing Showing Interest Saying “Yes” and “No” Thinking Time and Fillers How to “not” answer a question

2. General conversation skills – useful expressions • • • • • • Conversation Strategies Introductions and Greetings Asking for and Giving Directions Conjunctions / Linking Words Non-sexist Language Indirect Speech

3. Business Presentations • • • • • • Simple Presentations Business Presentation Tips Making Presentations Expressions for Presentations Communication Skills Signposts

4. Interaction in the business world • • • • Business Interaction Formal Meetings Survival Language Idioms in the Business World

5. Social Communication in the business world • • • • Business Socialising Skills 12 Tips for making Small Talk Socialising Language in Business Situations


6. Business Correspondence • • • Structuring a Business Letter Expressions for Business Letters Business Correspondence in English

7. Using the Telephone • • • Telephone English Useful Expressions for making Telephone Calls Tips for getting people to slow down

8. Useful Information • • • • • Complete Grammar Tense Explanations 100 Essential Business Nouns 100 Essential Business Verbs Business Letters Dictionary False Friends - Cognates


Section 1 Making your conversation more interesting: Making a Personal Comment Giving Opinions Justifying and Developing Opinions and Arguments Agreeing and Disagreeing Showing Interest Saying “Yes” and “No” Thinking Time and Fillers • How to “not” answer a question • • • • • • •


they were very bad. 4 . How did he react to the news? You next comment is surprising: • • • As a matter of fact … Strangely enough … Actually … Why did they ask Susan to leave? Your next comment is obvious: • • • Clearly … Obviously … Of course … Actually. but … To be honest. she asked for a transfer. How were the sales figures? You are being honest: • • • Actually … To be honest … Frankly … Unfortunately.Making a Personal Comment When making a personal comment. the following example phrases used at the start of the sentence show the speaker how you feel. What do you think of the new boss? Between you and me I think he is a bit cold and unfriendly. You are uncertain: • • • It seems that … Presumably … Apparently … Apparently he was quite pleased. Something is confidential: • • Between you and me … Don’t repeat this. I think it is a bit too expensive. How did she feel when she was fired? You had some good / bad fortune: • • • I’m pleased / sorry to say … Fortunately / Unfortunately … Luckily / Unluckily … Obviously she was very upset. The new model is a big improvement.

give you a little “thinking time” to organise what you are going to say. indirect language • • • • • • I tend to feel that … It seems to me that … May I come in here? I wonder if I could say something? Well. Joanne? Pablo? Formal meeting • • • How do you feel about that. Paul? What about you. Here are a few examples: Informal. you need to ask other people for their opinions and keep the discussion moving. Pablo? 5 . direct language • • • • • • The point is … Frankly … Basically … I suppose … Actually … Wait a minute … Formal. Joanne? Would you like to add anything. a few opening words will: • • • show other people that you want to start speaking (useful in meetings). Paul? What’s your reaction to that.Giving and Asking for Opinions Although you don’t need any specific phrases to give opinions. from my point of view … Don’t you think that perhaps …? After giving your own opinion. Here are a few examples: Informal discussion • • • What do you think then. show how strongly you feel.

I have no opinion in this matter. … As I see it. because I don't know the situation exactly. … From my point of view … As far as I know … From what I know … I might be wrong but … If I am not mistaken … I believe one can (safely) say … It is claimed that … I must admit that … I cannot deny that … I can imagine that … I believe … I think … I suppose … Personally. but … I am not certain. … I am of the opinion that … I take the view that . I am not convinced that … I have read that … I am of mixed opinions (about / on) … I am of mixed opinions about / on this. but … I am not sure.Useful Expressions for Opinions and Statements Stating your Opinion • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • It seems to me that … In my opinion. I think … That is why I think … I am convinced that … I am certain that … I am sure that … I am not sure. … As far as I understand.. Outlining Facts • • • • • • • • The fact is that … The (main) point is that … This proves that … What it comes down to is that … It is obvious that … It is certain that … One can say that … It is clear that … There is no doubt that … • 6 . My personal view is that … In my experience … As far as I can see.

Add another. For example. • • • All the same … Even so … However … 4. • • • In fact … As a matter of fact … Actually … 3. different idea Smoking should be banned. What’s more. it is a personal freedom so should be allowed in certain places. • • • Besides (that) … What’s more … In addition (to that) … 5. This is a very “sweeping”. • • • For example … If I could give an example … For instance ….Justifying your opinion and Developing an argument Smoking should be banned. Give real / true / surprising information: Smoking is bad for your health. Make a contrast: Smoking in public places should be banned. thousands of people die every year from smokingrelated diseases. However. it is bad for everyone around you too. In fact. Explain by giving an example: Smoking should be banned. alcohol should be banned too. 2. Define more exactly Smoking should be banned. Here are some ways of doing this: 1. • • At any rate … At least … 7 . general statement which needs to be justified in more detail. At least it should be banned in public places.

smoking is a bad for you and those around you. • • • In short … In a word … To put it simply … Using the above techniques is a good way of avoiding the use of the same structures every time you give and justify your opinions. the automatic reply is usually “Because …”.6. Talk generally On the whole. • • • On the whole … In general … As a rule … 8. However. Summarise Smoking is unhealthy. you can improve your conversation drastically! 8 .. For example. Then. • • • • Therefore . expensive and anti-social.. when the person asks “Why?”. As a result .. In a word. Because of this … So … 7. Therefore.. Give a result or consequence Smoking is bad for your health. in answer to the question “What do you think …?” most students tend to reply with “I think …”. bad. by using the various example phrases for giving opinions. it should be banned. coupled with the above techniques.

… I am most concerned about … I should like to repeat once again that … I should like to emphasise that … I would (just) like to add … So all in all I believe that... … Firstly. … Another significant point is that … Finally.. but I also think that … Not only are they …. Additions and Conclusion • • • • • • • • • • • Most probably … It appears to be … It is important to mention that. First. … In contrast to this is … Because of … That is why … After all. … On the other hand. … The reason is that … In that respect … The result of this is that … Another aspect / point is that … It is because … Although it is true that … it would be wrong to claim that … That may sometimes be true. … Second.. … Moreover.Useful Expressions for Linking Arguments Linking arguments • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • First of all. … Secondly. … On the one hand. … Furthermore. As I already indicated … In other words. but … One could argue that …. I come to the conclusion that … • 9 . nor are they … There are various / several / many reasons for this. they are also … They are not …. but … Providing Examples • • • • • Take for example (the case of) … Look at … For instance … For example … Let me give you an example. (In) summing up it can be said that … Weighing the pros and cons. I think … Not only that. … In addition.

Yes. Make a general comment Yes. So do I. I’m not sure I agree with you. so you can use any phrases you wish. 3.Agreeing and Disagreeing “I think Italian food is fantastic.. Yes. 2. I agree. Use another word that means the same (a synonym) Yes. Yes. I think so too. Me too. it’s one of the best in the world. Yes. Yes. 10 . The position of the adverb “really” can change the meaning of the sentence: I really don’t agree with you. I don’t really agree with you.” Agreeing If you agree with someone then it isn’t really a problem. it’s marvellous. 4. it’s absolutely delicious. I really don’t agree with you. Use a standard phrase for agreeing Yes. Disagreeing If you disagree with someone then you need to be more careful. Use a standard phrase for disagreeing I’m afraid I don’t really agree with you. Strong disagreement Less direct disagreement. Don’t be too direct! Here are some examples for the above statement on Italian food: 1. Here are some examples for the above statement on Italian food: 1. all Mediterranean food is. you’re right. Give an example Especially spaghetti I love Italian ice-cream. that’s true. I’m sorry.

but … This is the best way of disagreeing with someone – be positive and agree to a certain extent and then give your own opinion.2. You don’t have to use the actual word “yes” – the idea is to agree at first. but Thai food is better. Perhaps that’s true. but …. Yes …. it’s okay. Well. but I prefer Spanish food. Ask an open question Do you? Really? 4. Ask a negative question Isn’t it all just tomato and herbs? Don’t you think it’s a bit boring ? Isn’t it a little difficult to prepare? Are you sure? Do you think so? 11 . 3.

It is not as simple as it seems.Useful Expressions for Agreeing and Disagreeing Agreement • • • • • • • There are many reasons for … There is no doubt about it that … I simply must agree with that. That seems obvious. What I object to is … Unlike … I think … 12 . but … That is not necessarily so. Under certain circumstances … Disagreement • • • • • • • • • • There is more to it than that. I cannot agree with this idea... I am of the same opinion as … I completely agree with … I absolutely agree with … Qualified Disagreement • • • • • • It is only partly true that. I am of the same opinion. I can agree with that only with reservations. … I am of a different opinion because … I cannot share this / that / the view. The problem is that … I (very much) doubt whether … This is in complete contradiction to … What is even worse.

Showing Interest In conversation. How awful. Yeh. What a surprise. Certainly. What a pity. Sure. I must go and see her.questions: What happened? Why was that? Where did you go? Why has she left? Personal responses: Interest: Pleasure: Agreement: Sympathy: Surprise: No surprise: Really? That sounds interesting. Uhuh. Sure. I’m not surprised. The way you say the words can drastically change the meaning! Look at these dialogues: • • • • I’ve just come back from France. We’re thinking of buying to a larger flat. Really! Fantastic! Great! Wonderful! Wow! Exactly. 13 . Really!/? How interesting! No! Echo questions: Did you? Are they? Was it? Have you? Can’t they? Doesn’t she? Echo words: Four hundred! Six months! All over the world! China! All day! Wh.questions – Where did you go? Where are you thinking of moving to? Personal responses – What a pity. The different techniques used are: • • • • Echo questions (repeating the auxiliary verb) – Have you? Are you? Echo words (repeating key words) – France! Again? Wh. A conversation isn’t just a monologue. Mmm. Have you? France! Where did you go? Mary is in hospital again. No! That’s strange! Good heavens! Mmm. Of course. your intonation and tone of voice are VERY important here. Mmm. it is important to show interest in what the other person is saying. Are you? Where are you thinking of moving to? Mark’s looking for a new job. What a shame. Again? What a pity. Here are some examples of how to show interest: Showing attention: Right. Clearly. Yes. Mmm. Poor you. followed by another monologue – you need to interact and show that you are listening! Remember. I’m not surprised.

Saying “Yes” and “No”
You could answer all of the following questions simply with the words “Yes” or “No”. However, that doesn’t make for a very interesting conversation, does it? Also, it isn’t usually very polite to answer in such a simple, direct way. Look at these examples of how to make you replies more effective. Saying “Yes” 1. Positive reply • • Is this your first time in Bilbao? Yes, it is. I didn’t expect to see so many tourists this time of year. You speak German, don’t you? Yes, that’s right, although I’m not fluent.

2. Agreeing • • It’s really hot today. Yes, it is, isn’t it? It’s boiling. Chinese is a difficult language. Yes, it’s probably one of the most difficult languages.

3. Accepting an offer of help • • Do you want hand with those? Oh, thanks very much. I’d appreciate that. Would you like me to carry that? Oh, that’s very kind of you.

4. Giving permission • • Can I have a glass of water, please? Of course. Help yourself. Could I use your telephone, please? Certainly. Please go ahead.

5. Emphasis • • Will you let me know by next week? Yes, of course. Would let me know if there is a problem? Absolutely.

6. Passing an object

• •

Is the file over there? Yes, here you are. 14

Saying “No” 1. Negative reply: • • Is this your first visit to Barcelona? No, it isn’t, actually, I was here last summer. You can speak English, can’t you? No, I’m afraid not.

2. Disagreeing • • Your sister is very similar to you, isn’t she? Do you think so? He seems quite pleased with the results. Really? I’m not so sure about that.

3. Refusing an offer of help • • Would you like a hand with that? No, thanks. I can manage. Do you want me to carry those for you? No, it’s alright, thanks.

4. Refusing a request • • Please could you give me a lift to the airport? Actually I can’t, it’s a bit inconvenient right now. Can I pay by credit card? I’m sorry, but it’s against company policy.

5. Emphasis • • Will there be any delay with that? No, of course not. Is there likely to be a problem? No, absolutely not.


Thinking Time and Fillers
When you speak you can use certain words and short phrases to give you time to think and to show where you are going in your conversation. These are called “fillers”. Here are some examples showing us what the speaker is expressing: Gaining time to think: Well … … you know … Explaining what you just said: I mean … Well … You, go on a diet! I mean, you’re hardly fat, are you? Are you going to the beach this weekend? Well, you usually do, don’t you? Well, let me see. She was a bit, you know, strange.

Saying something is surprising or true: Actually … In fact … As a matter of fact … Going back to a previous topic: So … Anyway … So, what were you saying about your boyfriend? Anyway, going back to what we were talking about … It’s a really good restaurant, Actually, it’s probably the best in town. Yes, I enjoyed my trip to London. In fact, I’m going again next month. Aliens exist! As a matter of fact I’ve seen one!

Saying something is not worth worrying about: Still … Changing the topic: So … By the way … Anyway … Closing a topic: So … Anyway … Ending the conversation: Anyway … (followed by a long pause) Anyway, I’d better get going or I’ll be late. So, that’s about it, really. Anyway, enough said about that. So, what are you doing this weekend? By the way, did you get the email from the office? Anyway, did you see that film on TV last night? Still, I suppose it could be worse, couldn’t it?

As you can see, many of the words can be used in different contexts. For this reason, tone of voice and intonation are important when you use these words.


Okay. After that you could make suppositions: • • • • • Perhaps … Maybe … It’s possible … I suppose … I might … 4. let me see. I am sure I wouldn’t stay here. Let me see. Good question. what happens if you can’t or don’t want to answer! It is possible that you have no idea of what to say. what would I do? I have absolutely no idea. Then you could go on by admitting that you don’t know (perfectly acceptable): • • • I have (absolutely) no idea. 3. Difficult / Good question.How to “not” answer a question Students always feel they have to answer a question when asked. Mmm. • What would you do if you won the lottery. However. What do you do in these circumstances? Unfortunately. However. You could then repeat or paraphrase the question 3. That’s a difficult / good question. You could finish then with a negative response: • • • … but I definitely + negative grammar … but I’m (quite) sure + negative grammar However + negative grammar Here are some simple examples: • What will you do this weekend if the weather is fine? Mmm. I might travel round the world or perhaps I would buy an island. most tend to stay silent with a confused look on their face while trying to think of something to say! Here are some ideas to help in this situation and “fill the silence”: 1. 2. or maybe I will go to the beach. 17 . and answer it in a positive way. I’m not (really) sure. You could start by using a “filler” phrase: • • • • Mmm. Let me think. I don’t (really) know. but I definitely won’t do any English homework. Wow! That’s a difficult question! Now. I don’t really know. Perhaps I will do the garden.

Section 2 General conversation skills – useful expressions • • • • • • Conversation Strategies Introductions and Greetings Asking for and Giving Directions Conjunctions / Linking Words Non-sexist Language Indirect Speech 18 .

Come in. Congratulations! Who's the lucky guy? Dialogue 2: (between 2 co-workers) Ken: Joe: Ken: Hey. Listen up. sit down. did you hear the news? No. Get a load of this. Dialogue 4: (between a boss and his employee) Jim: Boss: Jim: Boss: Mr. Do you have a minute? Yes. May I have a word with you? Of course. (*to get the sack = to get fired) Dialogue 3: (between a boss and his employee) Boss: Jim: Boss: Jim: Jim. Below are some common expressions that you can use. you need to first get the other person's attention. do you have a minute? Yes. Have you heard the latest? Did you hear the news? Starting a more formal conversation • • • • Can I talk to you? Do you have a minute? Let's sit down and talk. Of course. May I have a word with you? Example dialogues: Dialogue 1: (between 2 friends) Ann: Jim: Ann: Jim: Guess what? What? I'm getting married next month. What news? Tom has got the sack.Conversation Strategies Getting Someone's Attention When you want to start a conversation. Let's sit down and talk. Starting an informal conversation • • • • • • • • Listen (to this). There are many ways to do that. Guess what? Guess what I just found out. 19 . Tanaka. (Americanism) Look at this.

. So you just said. And? .. Go on.Back Channelling Back channelling signals are used in the course of a conversation to indicate to the person we are talking to that you are paying attention. Yes. so I went on a date with my girlfriend ... And? … and these two people are strangers . Uh-huh. Keep going.they are strangers. Yes. Keep going. Example dialogue: Dialogue between 2 friends Jim: Joe: Jim: Joe: Jim: Joe: Jim: Joe: Jim: Joe: Jim: Joe: I had a day off yesterday... Showing you are listening • • • • • Yes. I see. I see... it's about two American people . . and we went to see "Lost in Translation". What's it about? Well... Uh-huh. … and they met by chance in Tokyo.. and . I get the point already.. I know already. I think we've covered that already.. And? When the other person is repetitious • • • • So you just said.. 20 . Encouraging the other person to keep talking • • • Yes. OK. Right. Below are some common expressions that you can use. Right.

. Showing disbelief or surprise • • • • • • Really? No kidding! Are you serious? You're making this up. outrageous. He was in last week's national singing contest. (Informal) Example dialogues: Dialogue 1: (between 2 friends) Joe: May: Joe: Listen to this.and he won first prize! Get out of here! John is tone-deaf! I know. How can you express your surprise or disbelief? What should you say in response? Below are some common expressions that you can use.. A 60-year-old woman gave birth to a baby yesterday in Italy. aren't you? No.Showing disbelief or surprise During a conversation. You're making this up. someone might tell you something that is surprising. And? . it's in the newspaper.. aren't you? No way! (Informal) Are you pulling my leg? (idiom) (to pull someone's leg = to fool someone) Responding to something outrageous or really surprising • • • • • • • You've got to be kidding! You've got to be kidding me! I can't believe it! Unbelievable! Come on! (Informal) Get out of here! (Informal) That blows my mind. Unbelievable! 21 .. or even doesn't seem to be true. Dialogue 2: (between 2 friends) Kim: Ann: Kim: Ann: Kim: Ann: Kim: Ann: Do you remember John? You mean our school friend? That's him.

I agree with you a hundred percent. They are going to ban smoking on the beach in Los Angeles. (informal) Example dialogues: Dialogue 1: (between 2 friends) Jim: Joe: Jim: Listen to this. Indeed! That's for sure. you may agree totally with what the other person said. you may mildly or even strongly disagree with the other person. I’m sorry. (idiom) (Meaning: We agree totally on this) Showing partial agreement • • • You may be right. You're right. Exactly. I'm not sure if I agree with you totally there. perhaps (you're right). You've got that wrong. I think they should do the same here. but . A nose job? Are you for real? 22 . Well. with reservation. On the other hand. I totally agree with you. I couldn't disagree (with you) more. Showing total agreement • • • • • • • • • • • Absolutely. I'm afraid I can't agree with you. Exactly! Dialogue 2: (between 2 friends) Ann: Liz: Guess what? I've made an appointment to have a nose job next week. (informal) You're dead wrong. Really? That's good news. Showing mild disagreement • • It may be so. Showing strong disagreement • • • • • • I'm afraid I disagree with you. Can't argue with that. You might have a point there.. What can you say in each of these situations? Below are some common expressions that you can use. or you may agree partially. but I disagree completely. I couldn't agree with you more.Agreeing and disagreeing In a conversation. Couldn't have said it better.. We see eye to eye on this.

In these cases. I'm sorry. (Informal) Example dialogue: Dialogue between a customer and a computer salesperson Salesperson: Customer: Salesperson: If you buy this computer today.) Could you repeat that? Say that again? (Informal) Come again? (Informal) When someone speaks too fast • • Could you speak more slowly? Slow down! I can't follow you! (Informal) When someone speaks too softly • • Could you speak a little louder? Speak up. I'm not sure if I agree with you totally there. Liz! Looks are everything for a woman. You're dead wrong. You can use some of the phrases below. you'll get a 30% discount. What's important is your personality. Looks are not that important. or may be there are words or expressions you don't know. I'm afraid we don't see eye to eye on this. which means you only have to pay €1598.Ann: Liz: Ann: Liz: Yeah! What's wrong with that? If I look better. It may be because the person speaks too softly. I'll feel better.98. you may not be able to get everything the other person has said. (Meaning: I didn't quite hear or understand that. (*a nose job = cosmetic surgery on the nose) Asking Someone to Repeat In a conversation. I can't hear you.a 30% discount! 23 . Well. it is perfectly OK to let the other person know that you have trouble hearing him/her. Say that again? If you buy this computer today. or too fast. When you want someone to repeat what they just said • • • • • • • • • • I beg your pardon? Pardon me? Excuse me? What did you say? What was that? I'm sorry. I missed that.98 . you only have to pay €1598. I didn't quite get that.

I don't need to go to university. It is a good conversational strategy to check. and ask the person to repeat. I'm not sure I know what you mean. I understand what you're saying.. I don't follow you.Checking For understanding When having a conversation with someone. I know what you mean. we always want to make sure that we understand what each other is saying. Listen. Below are some useful expressions which you can use. if you don't have a good education. if you don't understand. say so. Do you know what I mean? Yeah. you should respond honestly . being asked if YOU understand what the other person is saying..that is. Education is the most thing for you right now. I hear what you're saying. from time to time. if the person you are talking to understands what you are saying. I see what you mean. I don't care how smart you are. I suppose so. I'm with you. Are you serious? Yes! I'm smart. I'm not sure I get your point. When you want to make sure someone understands you • • • • • • • • • • (Do you) understand what I'm saying? (Do you) know what I mean? (Do you) know what I'm talking about? Does that make any sense? Do you follow me? Are you with me? With me so far? You know? You see? Right? When you understand what someone is saying • • • • • • • • I see what you're saying.. on the other hand. I know. I hear you. Example dialogues: Dialogue 1 (between a father and his son) Son: Dad: Son: Dad: Son: Dad: I want to leave school. you can't get a good job these days. 24 . When you don't understand what someone is saying • • • • I don't get it.. When.

how can you point that out? Or. When you want an explanation • • • • What exactly are you trying to say? What do you mean to tell me? What's your point? I didn't get that. That's not what I said. type in the email address. When you are misunderstood • • • • • • That's not what I meant. I didn't say that. 25 . when you are not quite sure what the other person is saying.. you just have to click on this button. You've got me wrong. Example dialogue: Dialogue between a man and his girlfriend Jim: Ann: Jim: I really envy Scott. Dialogue 2: (between a computer instructor and a student) Instructor: To send an email. Do you follow me? I don't get it.Son: OK. or you can select an address from the address book. I didn't mean that. I didn't mean to give you that impression. When someone misunderstood what you said. I see what you mean.. What exactly are you trying to say? Am I not beautiful? No! I didn't say that. What address book? Student: Clearing up misunderstanding Misunderstandings do occur in conversations. His girlfriend is so beautiful. what can you say to encourage the person to give you an explanation? Below are some useful expressions which you can use.

. I disagree. All you care about is work and playing golf and . sometimes we would like to interrupt the other person to add our own view.. and... go ahead. such as the following. to tell our own story or experience. I think you are wrong. I spent the whole evening yesterday with you and our daughter! 26 . I don't agree with you. (strong) Excuse me for interrupting.Interrupting In a conversation. I have a similar experience . or to voice our disagreement. but I don't really agree with you on this point. Dialogue 2: (between a husband and a wife) Wife: Husband: You don't care about me and our daughter anymore.. could I interrupt for a moment? (formal) I wonder if I could comment on what you have just said please? (formal) Interrupt and voice your disagreement • • • Now wait a minute here.... I don't agree with you. Now wait a minute. Hold on a second. (informal) Example dialogues: Dialogue 1: (during a meeting) Chairperson: Staff A: Chairperson: Let's move on to the next item on the Agenda. We can interrupt without being rude by using some useful phrases. Interrupt and add a comment • • • • • • • • May I say something here? Could I just say something? May I add something here? I want to add one thing . Let me tell you a similar story of mine. could I interrupt for a moment? Of course. Sorry. Sorry.

I don’t think so. Good morning. Yes. I think we've already met. Good afternoon. Good bye. No. I haven't.Useful Expressions for Introducing and Greeting People Greeting People • • • • Hello. No. • How do you do? (formal) • How do you do? (reply) Saying Goodbye • • • • • (It was) nice meeting you. … (name). I don't think we've met (before). Good evening. No. I think we have. Bye. I think I have. / Hi. Pleased to meet you. I don't think we have. Take care. I have. Yes. Introducing People • What's your name? • • • My name is … I am … Haven't we met (before)? • • • • • • Yes. 27 . • • • This is … Meet … Have you met …? • • • • Yes. • Hello. See you. I don't think I have. No. (informal) Nice to see you again. • • • Nice to meet you. I think so.

Very well. I’m all right. Not too well. See you soon. I’m exhausted. Not too bad. How are you? How are you doing? How’s it going? How are things? • • • • • • Fine. thank you. I'm okay. Good night.• • • • • • Health • • • • See you later. • • • What's wrong with you? What's the matter with you? Are you all right? • • • I’m tired. I’ve got a cold./thanks. actually. See you next week. Have a good weekend. 28 . See you tomorrow.

Go back. Turn back. Cross … Take the first / second road on the left / right It's on the left / right.Useful Expressions for Asking for and Giving Directions Asking and Giving Directions • • • • • • • • • • • • • How do I get to …? What's the best way to …? Where is …? Please could you tell me where … is? Go straight on (until you come to …). Go along …. Turn left / right (into … street). Go past … Useful words • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • opposite near close to next to between at the end (of) on / at the corner behind in front of behind (just) around the corner traffic lights crossroads junction sign post 29 .

When providing reasons for this reason since to this end so that. When you want to make comparisons similarly likewise in the same way equally. When you want to show differences or similarities yet even so despite notwithstanding. When explaining results as therefore as a consequence thus as a result inevitably hence so 7. 5. When you want to highlight contrast although conversely even so for all that otherwise despite however yet in spite of on the contrary but 4.Linking words 1. When providing examples for example this demonstrates for instance to illustrate in other words by way of illustration such as 8. When drawing conclusions as has been noted to summarise so finally consequently in other words in brief therefore accordingly in short in conclusion 30 . When you want to add to your argument or emphasise a statement and further next also furthermore secondly as well as in addition thirdly moreover additionally 2. for this purpose because 6. 3.

third next finally moreover also to summarise the first … one…. another ….More Linking Words and Phrases Sequence first.. second.. Addition an additional furthermore also as well as Cause for since because of Effect so as a consequence thus hence due to as a consequence of to affect Emphasis undoubtedly obviously admittedly in fact actually particularly clearly Comparison similarly also as and just like likewise too just as like similar indeed generally in theory as a matter of fact theoretically especially as a result therefore consequently to result from as a result of to result in because as in addition what’s more and firstly secondly. thirdly last in addition furthermore in conclusion the second…. 31 .

to be similar to to be alike to compare to/with Contrast however nonetheless although though yet in spite of in comparison whereas on the contrary Example for example that is including to be the same as not only…but also nevertheless still even though but despite in contrast while on the other hand but for instance such as namely 32 .

Transitional Devices To Add: and equally important nor what's more again finally too moreover and then further next in addition besides furthermore lastly first (second.) To Compare: whereas however where vis a vis meanwhile but nevertheless compared to but after all yet on the contrary up against although in contrast on the other hand by comparison balanced against conversely this may be true but To Prove: because obviously besides in any case for evidently indeed that is since furthermore in fact for the same reason moreover in addition To Show Exception: yet in spite of sometimes still despite however of course nevertheless once in a while To Show Time: immediately finally formerly thereafter then first (second. etc. etc.) soon later next after a few hours previously and then To Repeat: in brief as I have said as I have noted as has been noted To Emphasise: definitely indeed naturally perennially unquestionably without reservation extremely in any case surprisingly eternally without a doubt obviously absolutely always never certainly in fact positively forever emphatically undeniably 33 .

C following this after consequently concurrently next second and so on at this time afterward previously thus and then third next now subsequently before this therefore soon and so forth then at this point finally simultaneously hence To Give an Example: for example on this occasion to illustrate for instance in this situation as an illustration in this case take the case of to illustrate in another case to demonstrate To Summarise or Conclude: in brief in conclusion therefore consequently on the whole as I have shown accordingly on the whole summing up as I have said thus to conclude hence as a result 34 . B.To Show Sequence: first A.

Examples mankind Alternatives humanity people human beings human achievements synthetic manufactured machine-made the average person ordinary people staff the stockroom staff-hours man's achievements man-made the common man man the stockroom man-hours Occupations Avoid the use of MAN in occupational terms when persons holding the job could be either male or female.Non-Sexist Language Generic Use Although MAN in its original sense carried the dual meaning of adult human and adult male. Examples chairman Alternatives coordinator (of a committee or department) moderator (of a meeting) presiding officer head chair business executive fire fighter flight attendant police officer businessman fireman steward and stewardess policeman and policewoman 35 . its meaning has come to be so closely identified with adult male that the generic use of MAN and other words with masculine markers should be avoided.

Alternative Anyone who wants to go to the game should bring their money tomorrow. In all but strictly formal uses. a. HIS. critic. executive." When we constantly personify "the judge. Has he had a chance to talk? Could he feel left out? Alternative Let each student participate. everyone. we are subtly conditioning ourselves against the idea of a female judge. 36 . he took the post-test." "the executive. and HIM in such expressions as "the student needs HIS pencil. There are several alternative approaches for ending the exclusion of women that results from the pervasive use of masculine pronouns. anyone) also has the effect of excluding women. c. as appropriate. anybody.Pronouns Because English has no generic singular or common-sex pronoun. Alternate male and female examples and expressions. YOU. we have used HE. Example Anyone who wants to go to the game should bring his money tomorrow. Reword to eliminate gender problems. Has she had a chance to talk? Could he feel left out? e." and so forth. Replace the masculine pronoun with ONE. Alternative The average student is worried about grades. b." "the author. as male by using the pronoun HE. (Be careful not to confuse the reader. Example The average student is worried about his grade. Example If the student was satisfied with his performance on the pre-test. Indefinite Pronouns Using the masculine pronouns to refer to an indefinite pronoun (everybody. Alternative A student who was satisfied with her or his performance on the pre-test took the post-test. d. Example Give each student his paper as soon as he is finished. or (sparingly) HE OR SHE.) Example Let each student participate. Alternative Give students their papers as soon as they are finished. Recast into the plural." "the critic. plural pronouns have become acceptable substitutes for the masculine singular. or author.

If you want to be for polite in formal situations it is better to use an indirect form of address. I wonder if you could tell me where the station is ? Do you happen to know if John came to work yesterday ? Do you have any idea how the machine works ? I was wondering if you could come to dinner tomorrow. The structure of the second part of the phrase is a STATEMENT form and not a QUESTION form. Where is the station? (standard question form) Do you know where the station is. These are examples of direct and indirect speech. NOTE: Please be careful with the structure in an indirect question.Indirect Speech Look at the following phrases: Direct Where is the station? What time does the train arrive? Indirect Could you tell me where the station is? I’d like to know what time the train arrives. (statement form) NOT Do you know where is the station? 37 . Here are some example phrases for indirect speech: • • • • • • (Please) Can / Could you tell me ? I’d like to know … I wonder if you can / could tell me … ? Do you happen to know … ? Do you have any idea … ? I was wondering … Example sentences: • • • • • • Could you tell me when you expect the delivery to arrive? I’d like to know what time the meeting starts.

Section 3 Business Presentations • • • • • • Simple Presentations Business Presentation Tips Making Presentations Expressions for Presentations Communication Skills Signposts 38 .

) Giving examples • • • • For example For instance Let me illustrate To illustrate Conclusion • • • • In conclusion To conclude To summarise To sum up 39 . . First. I'm glad to have this opportunity to .Simple Presentations Introduction • • • • • • • Good morning. evening I'm happy to be here. Today. . . . The focus of my remarks is . I'd like to talk (to you) about . . My topic today is . . . I'd like to share some thoughts on (topic) Main points • • • Let me start by . afternoon. . let me tell you about . . . . . . I've divided my topic into (three) parts: (They are . .

Business Presentation Tips Know Yourself • • • • • • • Strengths Weaknesses Talents Feelings Opinions Nervousness Motivation Know Your Audience • • • • • Demographics Purpose Interests Commonality Individuality Know Your “Stuff” • • • • • Knowledge of Subject Research Personal Experience Preparation Rehearsal Present Yourself • • • • • • • Dress Posture Voice Gestures Body Language Confidence Enthusiasm Present to Your Audience • • • • • Positive Polite Interesting Informative Thought-provoking Present Your Material • • • • • Organisation Clarity Visuals Language Volume 40 .

Use standard English. but: This means that …). Have little breaks in between the sentences to allow your audience to reflect on what has been said.Making Presentations Structure and Content Introduction: General information on the topic Give your listeners an introduction to the topic (some general information) and explain what exactly you are going to talk about in your presentation. Prefer verbs to nouns (not: The meaning of this is that …. 41 . avoid slang and “techy” language. however. (In written texts they are often used to increase the density of information in a sentence.g. I will first explain . In spoken texts.: • an invitation to act • an acknowledgement • a motivation Important Tenses • • • Present Simple Past Simple Present Perfect Tips on Giving a Presentation As listeners cannot take up as many information as readers. (e. Communicate freely (don't read the whole text from a piece of paper). keep the following rules in mind when giving a presentation: • • • • • • • • Keep your sentences short and simple. Illustrate certain aspects of your presentation with pictures and graphics.. This also draws your audience's attention. they make it more difficult for the listeners to follow. Use enumerations starting first / second / third.) Speak clearly and slowly. Use participle constructions sparingly. This way your audience can follow your presentation more easily. Use a rhetorical question from time to time. Actual Presentation Subdivide your presentation into several sub-topics.g. / Then I will … / After that … / Finally… ). Your listeners will think that you've asked them a question and thus listen more attentively. The following tricks will also help you keep your audience's attention: • • • • Outline to the audience how your presentation is structured. Conclusion Try to find a good conclusion. Indicate when you come to another sub-topic (I will now talk about …).. e.

....? Actual Presentation Introducing sub-topics • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Let me begin by explaining why / how . My presentation is about .... Using too many jokes or quotations might not have the effect you want..... Did you know that .... Here is another picture.. I think everybody has heard about . I have read that . Let's (now) find out why / how ...... you can see ... As you can see (in the picture) .. but hardly anyone knows a lot about it. It is claimed that . You might have seen that already.. Legend has it that . You probably know that .. Let the pictures speak for themselves... First / Now I want to give you an insight into ... One can say that . As you probably know... hit the idea to .. The graphic shows that ...... The next picture shows how . At the beginning there was / were ....• A joke or a quotation might also help keeping your audience listening.. .. First / Now I want to talk about . . began when . Let's now move to . I think the picture perfectly shows how / that . The roots of ... Useful Expressions for Presentations Introduction • • • • • • I want to give you a short presentation about .... however. Don't overdo it. That's why I'd like to tell you something about it. .... Hardly anyone knew / knows ... .. Maybe you've already heard about ......... Pictures and graphics • • • • • • • • Let me use a graphic to explain this. Another aspect / point is that .. As I already indicated ...... I'd like to tell you something about . was the first to . 42 . In the next / following picture... go back to ... Many people knew / know .

... Summing up … Finally it can be said that ....... It was / is a very important / special event. I want to repeat that . This proves that ......« That was my presentation on .. All in all I believe that. . In other words. I am now prepared to answer your questions....... It's because . . The reason is that . should not be forgotten..... here you can see . has really impressed me... I hope that one day . I'd (just) like to add .. Let me close by quoting . Final thoughts on a sub-topic • • • • • • • • • • It was a great success for . ». Conclusion • • • • • • • • • • • . who said... The result of this is that .. We should not forget .......• Now.. Do you have any questions? 43 . It is a very important day in the history of .

Perhaps we should begin? Let's get started. let’s make a start. Get people's attention Welcome them Introduce yourself State the purpose of your presentation State how you want to deal with questions 1. Good morning. On behalf of (company). I'd like to report on … What I want to do this morning is to talk to you about … What I want to do is to tell you about … What I want to do is to show you how … 5. State how you want to deal with questions • • • • If you have any questions. my name's … As you know. If we can start. I'm in charge of (department). Welcome them • • • • Welcome to (company). Introduce yourself • • • • My name's … I'm responsible for … For those of you who don't know me. 2. (quite informal) 2. I'd like to welcome you. I'm the (job title). please. people. Perhaps we can leave any questions you have until the end? There will be plenty of time for questions at the end. Get people's attention • • • • • If I could have everybody's attention. Most audience these days prefer a relatively informal approach. However. 44 . Feel free to ask any questions. Presentations tend to be much less formal than they were even twenty years ago. Okay. ladies and gentlemen. 5. State the purpose of your presentation • • • • • • This morning I'd like to present … Today I'd like to discuss … This afternoon. I'll be happy to answer them as we go along. 1. 3. 3. 4. 4.Useful Expressions for Presentations Starting a Presentation In modern English. there is a certain structure to the opening of a Presentation that you should observe. Thank you for coming today.

These words are not difficult to learn but it is absolutely essential that you memorize them and can use them when you are under pressure giving a presentation. just choose a few you feel comfortable with and learn and use those. you ‘go back’. there are certain key words we use to ’signpost’ different stages in our presentation. If I could just summarise a few points from … I don’t have a lot of time left so I’m going to summarise the next few points. Let’s turn now to … When you want to give more details about a topic you ‘expand’ or ‘elaborate’. I’d like to quickly recap the main points of my presentation. you ‘move on’. 1. • • When you want to make your next point. When you want to talk about something which is off the topic of your presentation. To repeat the main points of what you have said. you ‘turn to’. I’d like to digress here for a moment and … Digressing for a moment. you ‘conclude’. I’d like to move on to the next point if there are no further questions When you want to change to a completely different topic. • • 2. • • 3. you ‘recap’. Going back to something I said earlier. • • 8.Of course. I’d like to conclude by … If I may conclude by … 45 . these are only suggestions and other language is possible. • • • 4. I’d like to … When you want to refer back to an earlier point. you ’summarise’. Recapping quickly on what was said … For your final remarks. • • 5. I’d like to expand more on … Would you like me to expand a little more on that or have you understood enough? I don’t want to elaborate any more on that as I’m short of time. you ‘digress’. • • 6. … I’d like to go back to something … said … To just give the outline of a point. I’d like to turn to something completely different. Even within this limited group of phrases. • • 7. Moving on to the next point. Signposting When we are giving a presentation.

As we are short of time. If you realise that what you are saying makes no sense. What I meant is this. Sorry. the point I am trying to get across is this. 1. Let me just recap on that. So just to give you the main points. Sorry. perhaps I did not make that quite clear. there is a certain structure to the opening of a Presentation that you should observe. If you have been going too fast and your audience is having trouble keeping up with you. If you have been too complicated and want to simplify what you said. However. • • 4. • • 7. • • If you get your facts wrong. • • 6. Presentations tend to be much less formal than they were even twenty years ago. • • 5. How do you say '…' in English? If you are short of time. I am terribly sorry. my mind has gone blank. What I meant to say was this. Here are some ways to do this: talk about = to speak about a subject • • Today I'd like to talk about … I'm going to be talking to you about … 46 . • • 3. what is the word I am looking for? Sorry. Sorry. So. So. I should just mention one other thing. If you have forgotten to make a point. Stating your purpose It is important to state your purpose clearly when you start. I want to recap briefly on what I have been saying. If I can just go back to the previous point. Let me rephrase that to make it quite clear. Sorry.Survival Language In modern English. basically. this is just a quick summary of the main points. If you cannot remember the term in English. basically. • • 2. Most audience these days prefer a relatively informal approach. what I am saying is this. there is something else that I forgot to mention.

report on = to tell you about what has been done. • • I'm going to be reporting on … Today I will be reporting on …

take a look at = to examine • • First, let's take a look at … Before …, I'd like to take a look at …

tell you about = to speak to someone to give them information or instructions • • First, I will tell you about … When I have finished, … will then tell you about …

show = to explain something by doing it or by giving instructions. • • The object of this morning's talk is to show you how to … Today I'm going to show you how to …

outline = to give the main facts or information about something. • • I'd like to outline … I will only give you a brief outline …

fill you in on = to give some extra or missing information • • I'd like to quickly fill you in on … When I have finished …, … will fill you in on …

give an overview of = to give a short description with general information but no details. • • Firstly, I would like to give you a brief overview of … I'll give you an overview of …

highlight = draw attention to or emphasize the important fact or facts. • • The results highlight … I'd now like to go on to highlight …

discuss = to talk about ideas or opinions on a subject in more detail. • • I'm now going to go on to discuss … After a brief overview of …, I'd like to discuss … in more detail.


Communication Skills
1. Delaying Strategies: • • • • • • • • • • I can answer that directly I’ll need time to think about that. That’s a very interesting question, because … That’s a difficult question to answer, because To be honest, that’s a difficult question, because That’s a very good question. The reality is that … What do you mean by that? Well, it depends on what you mean. Well, if you ask me, it all depends on your circumstances Well....

2. Presenting a number of arguments: • • • • • • • • • • • First of all, … Firstly, … Well, to start with ... To begin with, … I’d start by … For a start, … There’re two points here. Firstly, .... Secondly, ... There are two problems here. … Moreover, ... .... You also have to consider ... Also, ... Again, that depends on .... I prefer …, but ...

3. Giving an opinion on a topic: Expressing a strong opinion • • • • • • • In my opinion, … In my view, … I strongly believe … I definitely think … Don’t you think … ? Well, if you ask me, … Well, I think ...

Expressing a strong value ( It’s / They’re + value adjective) • • • • • It’s nonsense … It’s a scandal, … It’s perfect for … It’s wrong to … They’re ideal for …


Expressing certainty • • • • • • • • • According to ... Actually, … In fact, … Clearly, … So … Without doubt, … There’s no doubt … Well, there’s no doubt that … Surely, …

Expressing high probability • • • • • • I expect … I believe … I doubt whether / if … I doubt that … I’d have thought … There now seems to be …

Expressing fair probability • • • • • • I guess … I suppose … I think it’s probably … There’s probably a good argument for … They’re probably … I’m beginning to think …

4. Agreeing: Expressing complete agreement • • • Exactly. Precisely. Absolutely

Expressing conditional agreement • • I’d agree with you if … I’d certainly agree if …

5. Disagreeing: Expressing complete disagreement • • • • I’m sorry, but I disagree entirely. I’m afraid I can’t agree. I’m sorry, but I don’t really agree. On the contrary, …


Using irony to express disagreement • • • Come off it! (very informal) Come on! (very informal) Do you really think so?

Dismissing an argument as irrelevant or improbable. • • • That isn’t the point. That’s highly debatable. That’s highly unlikely.

Disagreeing diplomatically (through doubt) • • • • I wonder whether that’s the case. Isn’t it … ? I’m not sure that it works like that. I’m not so sure about that. Well, I’m not sure whether /if …

Disagreeing in part ( appeal to logic ) • • • • • But surely, … Not necessarily, … Don’t you … ? That doesn’t necessarily follow. That isn’t strictly true.

6. Countering: Countering directly (through antithesis) • • • • • But … But who can say … ? But why … ? But if … But surely, …

Countering politely (through agreement followed by antithesis) • • Well yes, but … Yes, but …

Countering politely (through partial agreement followed by antithesis) • • • • • • • That may be so, but … That may be true, but … That might have been the case once, but … Well, maybe, but … You may be right, but … I can see your point, but … Perhaps that’s true, but …


why … ? Even so. … Countering using the Negative Yes/No Question • • • • Aren’t they … ? I wonder whether that’s the case. that depends on … Countering using "after all" "at least" "even so" both for concession and antithesis • • • • • • Why … ? After all. • • • • • • • If …. would you … ? In that case. … What if … ? After all. … At least … But at least … Well. it’s obvious that . You’d only … if … It’d be O. why … ? What if … ? And what happens if … ? What would happen then if … ? If this …. but it is . So you … ? So you don’t … ? 51 . even so. Don’t you think … ? 7. then how … ? Then why shouldn’t ? That’s why … Then can you tell me … ? Deduced questions and conclusions with sentence adverbials "In that case" and "so" • • • • In that case.• I see what you mean. if … Questions based on conditions with sentence adverbials " then" and "so" • • • • • … so why … ? But if …... However … Countering using "well" both to cast doubt and for antithesis • • • Well you might as well argue that … Well. Logical Argument: Questions or conclusions based on conditions with "if".K. so well and good. you know how they get round that one… Well. it may not be …. Isn’t it rather … ? Well...

• • • • • • What’s wrong with … ? What do you mean? What do you mean by … ? How do you mean? How come? In what way? Clarification through "Why" / "Why not" Questions inviting reason. Expressing Solutions and Alternatives • • • • • The solution is to … The best way to … To …. Clarification: Clarification through short Yes/No Questions inviting illustration or example.8. you really have to . I’m talking … Are you saying … ? What I’m saying is … What are you trying to say? That may be so. • • • Why do you say that? Why’s that? Why not? Clarification / Reiteration through reference to subject • • • • • • • Are we talking about … ? That isn’t the point. the alternative is to … 52 . but … To come back to the main point. … 9.. You can … You see.. illustration or example. • • • And are they right? Can you be a bit more specific? Does that happen? Clarification through "What" or "How" Questions inviting illustration or example. There are many choices.

the new Finance Manager. I'm going to give you an overview of . The focus of my remarks is . They are no part of the actual information being given. My name is ________ and I represent _______ Let me take a minute to introduce myself./afternoon/evening I'm _________. . that’s all I want to say about … Any questions so far? Before the next topic • • • • Right. . . . I've already met some of you. . . . . . I’m going to talk to you today about … I’ll be talking about … I’ll be dealing with … So. I'd like to say a few words about . signposts are short phrases which help your listeners follow the direction and flow of what you are saying. Today. I'm ______ Dealing with topics: Introducing a topic • • • • • • • • • • • I'm here to talk about . The main reason I'm here today is . finally I’d like to turn to … To conclude. Let me start by telling you a little about our company. . . . let’s start by … Let’s move to the first point … Ending a topic: • • Ok. let’s move on to … That brings us to … Before going on to.Signposts in Presentations In a presentation. I’d like to deal with … 53 . I'd like to introduce . but for those I haven't . Here are some examples: Beginning a presentation: Introduction It is common to greet the audience and introduce yourself when giving presentations: • • • • • • Good morning. I’d just like to mention … If I can just side-track for a moment … Final topic • • Ok.

. . Firstly … Secondly … Thirdly … First … second … and third … I also mentioned … 54 . . That brings us to . Therefore So Generalising • • • • • Generally Usually As a rule Most of the time In most cases Highlighting • • • • • • Actually In fact As a matter of fact In particular Particularly Especially Giving Examples • • • For example For instance Such as Finishing the presentation: Summarising • • • • • • • • So. . Giving Reasons • • • • This is why . . . . to sum up … To summarise … In brief … Concluding … To conclude … In conclusion … I’ve talked about tree main areas. The main reason is .Showing organisation: Sequencing: • • Let's move on to . .

let’s stop there. And now.Ending • • • Right. Okay. I think that covers everything. if anyone has any questions. Follow-up • • Are/Were there any questions? We have just a few minutes for questions Note some of the different ways of saying “discuss” mention cover consider talk about look at mention deal with explain turn to 55 . I’d be happy to try and answer them.

Section 4 Interaction in the business world • • • • Business Interaction Formal Meetings Survival Language Idioms in the Business World 56 .

It all comes down to this: Asking for input • • • • • • What should we do about it? What needs to be done? What do you think we should do? What are we going to do about it? Do you have any suggestions? Any ideas? Making Recommendations • • • • I recommend that . . . . . I suggest that . Asking for Information Information about company • • • • What does your company do? What is your specialty? What do you specialise in? What is your main line of business? • • • • We produce marketing materials. . . . 57 . the most important thing is . I would like to propose that . . . The main problem we need to solve is . Our primary concern is . . . . The crux of the matter is . . . . . . (As I see it). We design software. What are your major products? What services do you provide? • • • We produce office machines. We specialise in art and design. We provide technical support. . . . We really need to take care of .Useful Expressions for Business Interaction Analysing Problems Focusing on the main problem/issue • • • • • • • • • What is the main problem? What is the real issue (here)? (I think) the major problem is . Why don't we .

Information about Price • • • • What are you asking for this? What does this sell for? How much is it? How much does it run? • • • This (one) sells for €5. It's our best selling refrigerator. Thanks for taking the time to talk with us. This one goes for €2. This model comes with several features. It was nice meeting you.Information about products • • • Could you give me some (more) information on this? What can you tell me about this (product)? Tell me about this one / model. but I have to go now. I highly recommend this one.695. Follow up • • • • • • • • • I'll give you a call. Closing a Conversation Pre-closing • • • • • • • • It's been nice talking to you. This one is the best in its class. We're really pleased with its performance. I'll have my secretary arrange an appointment. I'll send you an e-mail. This particular one has two components. Could you send me a brochure / some more information? Could I contact you by e-mail / at your office? How do I get in touch with you? How can I reach / contact you? 58 . It's an excellent computer. I'll put a package in the post for you. Brown.900. • • • • • • • • This is one of our top brands. We'll send out that information right away. It's been great talking with you. Thanks for the information / the tour / your time. I really enjoyed meeting you. This one is priced at €9.900. Mr. I'm afraid I have to leave now. I'm sorry.

Rodney be in tomorrow? Is he available next Wednesday? 59 . Could I schedule a time to meet with Mr. White will be away until Friday. Let's start by .Closing • • • • • • • • I look forward to seeing you again. . . Dr. Black. She's free any day but Wednesday. His schedule is open all day Monday. Let's keep in touch by e-mail. Call me if you have any questions. . We'll be in touch. Here's my e-mail/office number. What's next on the agenda? Does anyone have any comments? Any comments? Are there any comments on that? What do you think? Good idea. Let me give you my business card. See you next week. I'd like to schedule a meeting with Ms. . Will Mr. . . The next item on the agenda is . Thomson. Discussing Agenda Items • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Let's start with . . . Elton? What time is best for you? When would be a good time for you? Would 9:00 on Thursday be okay? He'll be in on Tuesday. Does everyone agree on that? Making Appointments • • • • • • • • • • • • I'd like to make an appointment with Dr. Let's look at item number one. . Let's move on to number two. The first item on the agenda is . Good point. We need to discuss . . We'll see you on Friday.

or . . . . We haven't discussed . Okay. . . We need to discuss . We need to go on to the next item. How about Friday at 4:00? Thursday at 10:00 will be fine. . Wait a minute. . Monday at 8:00 is not good for me. . . Let's move on to the next topic. First. The next item (of business) is . Don't you think we need to . . Moving on • • • • • • Let's move on to Item 2. . . We need to move on. . 60 . Tuesday morning at 9. . .• • • • • • • • • • • Does he have any openings on Tuesday? Does she have any time on Thursday? Sorry. The first thing on the list is . I think we should . her calendar is full on Monday. The first item on the agenda is . Meetings and Discussions Getting started • • • Let's get started. Wednesday is not possible. . we need to talk about . . Not so fast. . . . . We need to talk about . Shall / Should we move on? Pausing the Discussion • • • • Before we move on. . Presenting Options • • • We have several alternatives: We have two options: We could either . He doesn't have time on Tuesday. Friday at 11:00 sounds good. . She will be out on Wednesday. . Talking about discussion items • • • • The first thing we need to discuss is . . We haven't (yet) . .

We could . . So. . I’m afraid I disagree. I don't quite follow you. How about . Maybe we should . We're going to . Asking for Opinions • • • • What do you think. That's it then. . . I don't think that's a good idea. . Why don't we . . I suggest . I think . . . . . .Asking for Clarification • • • • • What to you mean by . That's not such a good idea. Giving Feedback • • • • • • • • (I think) that's a good idea. we've decided to . Martha? Any thoughts on that? Any ideas? Checking for Consensus • • Do we all agree (on that)? Does everyone agree? Summarising • • • • In summary. . The conclusion is . You have a good point. . Sorry. . Could you clarify that? Could you elaborate on that? Making a Suggestion / Proposal • • • • • • I think we should . . (then) Closing the meeting • • That's all for today. George? What's your opinion on that. (informal) The meeting is adjourned. but . . . . . (very formal) • 61 . I didn't get what you meant by . . . . . You have a good point. . . . I agree. . I don't really agree with you.

date and place for the next meeting Thanking participants for attending Closing the meeting The following pages focus on each part of the meeting and the appropriate language for each situation.Discussing Items • • • • Introducing the first item on the Agenda Closing an item Next item Giving control to the next participant V .Introductions • • • • Opening the meeting Welcoming and Introducing participants Stating the Principal Objectives of a meeting Giving Apologies for someone who is absent II . participants) Agreeing on the ground rules for the meeting (contributions. The following sections provide useful language and phrases for conducting meetings and making contributions to a meeting.Useful Phrases for Formal Meetings Introduction to Meetings One of the most common requirements of business English is holding formal meetings in English.) IV . decision-making. 62 .Beginning the Meeting • • • Introducing the Agenda Allocating roles (secretary.Finishing the Meeting • • • • • Summarising Finishing up Suggesting and Agreeing on time. timing. etc. Formal meetings generally follow a more or less similar structure and can be divided into the following parts: I .Reviewing Past Business • • Reading the Minutes (notes) of the last meeting Dealing with recent developments III .

if there is nothing else we need to discuss.Running a Meeting The following phrases are used to conduct a meeting. I'd like to make sure that we . let's go over the report from the last meeting. Shall we get down to business? Is there any other business? If there are no further developments. can you tell us how the XYZ project is progressing? Jack. 63 . First.. let's move on to today's agenda. She is in. everyone. Opening: • • Good morning / afternoon.. Our main aim today is to . which was held on (date) Here are the minutes from our last meeting.. which was on (date) Dealing with recent developments: • • • • Jack.. These phrases are useful if you are called on to conduct a meeting.. Giving Apologies for someone who is absent: • • • I'm afraid. I've called this meeting in order to .. (name of participant) can't be with us today. I'd like to move on to today's topic.. I have received apologies for absence from (name of participant). (name of participant) . Unfortunately. will not be with us to day because he . how is the XYZ project coming along? John..... have you completed the report on the new accounting package? Has everyone received a copy of the Tate Foundation report on current marketing trends? Moving forward: • • • • So. let's get started / start the meeting / start.. If we are all here.... Reading the Minutes (notes) of the last meeting: • • • To begin with I'd like to quickly go through the minutes of our last meeting.. Welcoming and Introducing: • • • • • Please join me in welcoming (name of participant) We're pleased to welcome (name of participant) I'd like to extend a warm welcome to (name of participant) It's a pleasure to welcome (name of participant) I'd like to introduce (name of participant) Stating the Principal Objectives: • • • • We're here today to . who is in (place).

..... third. So. (name of participant) point 2. would you mind taking notes today? Agreeing on the ground rules for the meeting: • • • • • • We will hear a short report on each point first..... . would you like to begin? Shall we begin with . I'd suggest we start with. . . second... 64 . lets . I'd suggest we .. I suggest we go round the table first. lastly. Shall we take the points in this order? If you don't mind...... We'll have to keep each item to 15 minutes. (name of participant)... Let’s skip item 1 and move on to item 3 I suggest we take item 2 last. and (name of participant) point 3.. Now we come to the question of. First.. would you mind taking the minutes? (name of participant) has kindly agreed to give us a report on . Introducing the first item on the Agenda: • • • • • • • So... Shall we leave that item? Why don't we move on to... I'd like to go in order today. The next item on today's agenda is. let's .. the first item on the agenda is Pete.. .... Allocating roles: • • • • • (name of participant) has agreed to take the minutes. Why don't we start with.Introducing the Agenda: • • • • • • Have you all received a copy of the agenda? There are X items on the agenda. let's start with . If nobody has anything else to add. (name of participant). There will be five minutes for each item. (name of participant).. followed by a discussion of . Next item: • • • • Let's move onto the next item Now that we've discussed X.. (name of participant) will lead point 1. would you like to introduce this item? Closing an item: • • • • I think that takes care of the first item. Let's make sure we finish by .

Giving Control to the next participant: • • • I'd like to hand over to (name of participant).. Thanks for your participation. Summarising: • • • • • • Before we close today's meeting. (day)... (name of participant) is going to take us through . I'd like to introduce (name of participant) who is going to . I declare the meeting closed. the .. Excuse me for interrupting.. Thank you all for attending. (day). To sum up. why don't we quickly summarise what we've done today.. In brief. it looks as though we've covered the main items. (date) of. Now. let me just summarise the main points. date and place for the next meeting: • • • • Can we set the date for the next meeting. Let me quickly go over today's main points. .. Is there any other business? Suggesting and Agreeing on time.. Let's next meet on .. The meeting is closed... Shall I go over the main points? Finishing up: • • • • Right. May I have a word? If I may. These phrases are useful for expressing your ideas and giving input to a meeting. Next.... we'll see each other next . .. 65 .. . Closing the meeting: • • • The meeting is finished. Getting the Chairperson's attention: • • • • (Mister / Madam) chairman. What about the following Wednesday? How is that? Thanking participants for attending: • • • I'd like to thank Marianne and Jeremy for coming over from London. Participating in a Meeting The following phrases are used to participate in a meeting. please? So. .. who is going to lead the next point. .. I'd like to wrap this meeting up.. I think. (month) at . the .. the next meeting will be on . If there are no other comments.. Let's bring this to a close for today. .. (month) at . . OK. (date) of.. ..

.. I have to agree with (name of participant)..• May I come in here? Giving Opinions: • • • • • I'm positive that. Agreeing: • • • • I totally agree with you........... I (really) feel that.? Commenting: • • • • • That's interesting . Clarifying: • • • • • Let me spell out... I see it differently. I tend to think that. The way I see things. I suggest / recommend that... 66 . I'd just like to repeat that.... Exactly! That's (exactly) the way I feel. We should... Up to a point I agree with you.. Have I made that clear? Do you see what I'm getting at? Let me put this another way.. (I'm afraid) I can't agree Advising and Suggesting: • • • • • Let's.. (name of participant) can we get your input? How do you feel about. Do you (really) think that. I see what you mean... In my opinion. Good point! I get your point.... How / What about. Disagreeing: • • • Unfortunately... If you ask me.. Asking for Opinions: • • • • Are you positive that.. Why don't you. but..... I never thought about it that way before.

Requesting information: • • • • Please, could you... I'd like you to... Would you mind... I wonder if you could...

Asking for repetition: • • • I'm afraid I didn't understand that. Could you repeat what you just said? I didn't catch that. Could you repeat that, please? I missed that. Could you say it again, please?

Asking for clarification: • • • • I don't quite follow you. What exactly do you mean? I'm afraid I don't quite understand what your are getting at. Could you explain to me how that is going to work? I don't see what you mean. Could we have some more details, please?

Asking for verification: • • • You did say next week, didn't you? ('did' is stressed) Do you mean that...? Is it true that...?

Asking for spelling: • • Could you spell that, please? Would you mind spelling that for me, please?

Asking for contributions: • • • • • We haven't heard from you yet, (name of participant). What do you think about this proposal? Would you like to add anything, (name of participant)? Has anyone else got anything to contribute? Are there any more comments?

Correcting information: • • • • • Sorry, I think you misunderstood what I said. Sorry, that's not quite right. I'm afraid you don't understand what I'm saying. That's not quite what I had in mind. That's not what I meant.

Keeping the meeting on target (time, relevance, decisions): • • • • We're running short of time. Well, that seems to be all the time we have today. Please be brief. I'm afraid we've run out of time.


• • • • • • • •

Let's get back on track, why don't we? That's not really why we're here today. Why don't we return to the main focus of today's meeting. We'll have to leave that to another time. We're beginning to lose sight of the main point. Keep to the point, please. I think we'd better leave that for another meeting. Are we ready to make a decision?


Idioms in the Business World
A list of idioms can be useful, since the meaning of an idiom cannot be deduced by knowing the meaning of its constituent words. For example, someone might know perfectly well what a bucket is and also understand the meaning of the verb "to kick," completely; however, unless they had already encountered the meaning of the phrase or were able to tell from the context the phrase appears in, they would not know that “to kick the bucket” is one of the many colourful idioms in the English language meaning to die. The phrase, "enough money to choke a horse," would not be an idiom because the meaning of the phrase can readily be deduced from knowing the meaning of the individual words that make it up. Note that idioms are not the same as aphorisms or proverbs, such as, "a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush" or sagacious recommendations like, "don't count your chickens before they hatch". English has a tremendous stock of idioms. They can be a source of confusion and frustration to non-native users of the language. When speaking to people who have recently learned English it might aid their ability to comprehend if one avoids idioms. However, most native English speakers have internalised a large repertoire of idioms which they use often and without thinking much about them so it can be very difficult to censor all idioms from one's speech.

Negotiation Idioms
at stake

something to be lost or gained

There was a lot at stake during the negotiations between the nurses and the government. back down give up a claim, not follow up on a threat

The state government backed down on their threat to stop giving money to the city government. back out get out of an agreement, fail to keep a promise

The developer backed out of the negotiations for building the new town hall. back to the drawing board go back to start something from the beginning

The negotiations for the contract failed so we had to go back to the drawing board. ball is in someone's court be someone else's move or turn

The ball was in the union's court after the company made their final offer. beat around the bush talk about things without giving a clear answer

The manager spent the meeting beating around the bush and never really said anything important.


70 . break off stop or end suddenly The government decided to break off talks about extending the free trade agreement. come to terms reach an agreement After negotiating all night the government and the company agreed on a new arrangement. bone of contention the subject or reason for a fight The length of the project was a major bone of contention between the two parties. call off stop. bring off perform successfully We were unable to bring off the deal to buy the new computer system for our company. quit. call the shots be in charge During the meeting it looked like the vice-president was calling the shots.bog down slow to a stop The negotiations bogged down when the union said they would not negotiate. cancel The meeting was called off because everybody was busy dealing with urgent business. break down fail. card up one's sleeve another plan or argument saved for later I thought that the negotiations would be unsuccessful but my boss had another card up his sleeve that we didn't know about. stop The negotiations broke down late last night when both sides refused to compromise. break through be successful after overcoming a difficulty Finally there was a breakthrough in the talks aimed at ending the school teacher's strike. close ranks unite and fight together During the meeting the opposite side closed ranks and refused to compromise on any issue. bring up begin a discussion of or mention something I tried hard not to bring up the subject of sales commissions during the meeting. cave in weaken and be forced to give up The company was forced to cave in to the demands of the workers for more money.

nearing a deadline The negotiations continued down to the wire but finally they ended successfully. 71 . drive a hard bargain make an agreement to one's advantage. make longer The talks between the company and the lawyers dragged on for three weeks. draw up put in writing. idea or answer I was praised by my boss when I came up with some good ideas during the meeting.come up become a subject for discussions or decision Nothing related to the problems of quality came up during the meeting. write something in its correct form The lawyers drew up a contract for the new housing development on the government land. bargain hard The sales manager from the other company always drives a hard bargain and it is difficult to negotiate with him. cover ground talk about the important facts and details of something The number of questions seemed endless and we were unable to cover much ground during the meeting. drag on prolong. cut (someone) off stop someone from saying something We tried to outline our proposal but we were constantly cut off by our noisy opponents. common ground shared beliefs or interests There was little common ground between the two sides and the negotiations did not go well. drag one's heels act slowly or reluctantly The government has been dragging their heels in talks with the union about their new contract. draw the line set a limit to what will be done The union was willing to compromise on the salary issue but they drew the line at talking about health benefits. make an agreement We were able to cut a deal and left the meeting in a positive mood. down to the wire running out of time. come up with produce or find a thought. cut a deal arrange a deal.

fifty-fifty equally. we were forced to get behind his proposals at the meeting. follow through finish an action that you have started Our boss said that conditions and wages would improve soon but he never followed through with his promise. get behind (a person or idea) support. get to the heart of find the most important facts or central meaning of something We spent the morning trying to get to the heart of the problem with the computer supplier. 72 . help Although we didn't agreed with the president. evenly We shared the expenses with the other company fifty-fifty. want to say something I couldn't understand what the opposing negotiators in the meeting were really driving at. force one's hand make someone do something or tell what one will do sooner than planned We decided to force the hand of the opposing side at the bargaining sessions as we wanted to finish the negotiations quickly. get to the bottom of find out the real cause of something It has been very difficult getting to the bottom of the problems in the company. get the message understand clearly what is meant I don't think that the other side really got the message regarding the direction the negotiations were heading.drive at mean. fall through fail. not happen The deal for the new machinery fell through and we will have to look for another supplier. get down to brass tacks begin the most important work or business Let's get down to brass tacks and begin talking about the new contract. be ruined. face down confront boldly and win The government decided to face down the striking transportation workers. get down to business start working or doing the business at hand We decided to get down to business and try to finish the work quickly.

hard-nosed very strict. hang in the balance have two equally possible results. give in stop fighting or arguing and do as the other person wants After eight weeks of negotiations we gave in and agreed to sell at a large discount. hold out on refuse information or belongings to which someone has a right The new manager has been holding out on the company and will not tell anyone his plans.give ground move back or retreat from a position We bargained hard but the other sales representatives refused to give ground. go over well be liked or successful My idea went over very well with the new managers. 73 . stubborn The three negotiators took a hard-nosed position during the talks for a new contract. not be faithful or loyal The company went back on their word to give the employees a salary increase. go back on turn against. refuse to give up The union has been holding out for a better deal and they do not plan to end their strike. go over like a lead balloon fail to generate a positive response The sales manager's latest proposal went over like a lead balloon at the meeting. give-and-take sharing. hammer out work out by discussion and debate The negotiations lasted all night but finally we were able to hammer out an agreement. be uncertain The outcome of the election hung in the balance after the two top candidates had the same number of votes. try as hard as possible After going for broke at the meeting last night we finally reached an agreement. hold out for something keep resisting. a giving up of part of what you want to make an agreement After a lot of give-and-take we finally reached an agreement regarding the property transfer. go for broke risk everything on one big effort.

make headway make progress We have been bargaining hard and are finally making headway in reaching a new agreement. pull off succeed in doing something difficult or impossible The contract seemed impossible to win but we managed to pull it off. secret I told my boss off the record that I would not be returning after the summer holiday. deal honestly He laid his cards on the table during the meeting to dispose of the excess inventory. nail down make certain or sure We worked hard to nail down an agreement to finish the staff room as soon as possible. meet someone half-way compromise The asking price for the chemicals was too high but we met the salesmen half-way. iron out solve or resolve some problems After reaching an agreement we spent a few hours ironing out the final details. off the record not to be published or told. play into one's hands be or do something that another person can use against you By losing his temper our manager played into the hands of the other side during the meeting. play hardball with (someone) act strong and aggressive about an issue with someone The union representatives have been playing hardball during the contract talks. imagine We decided to give up on finding a solution to the problem but at the last moment we were able to pull a solution out of a hat. 74 . paint oneself into a corner get into a bad situation that is difficult or impossible to escape The negotiations were difficult but we won when the other side painted themselves into a corner over the faulty warranty policy.in the bag certain The contract for the new insurance policies is in the bag. lay one's cards on the table let someone know one's position openly. invent. pull out of a hat get as if by magic.

Section 5 Social Communication in the business world • • • • Business Socialising Skills 12 Tips for making Small Talk Socialising Language in Business Situations 75 .

... A. The following list contains key functions and useful language for basic socialising in a business context.? What do you think of our weather? Could I take your coat / umbrella? 76 .. Introductions: • • • • • • My name's ... It's a pleasure (to meet you).. Greeting people: • • • • • How do you do? (formal) How are you? (informal) How are you doing? (informal) (So / Very) Nice / Good to meet you. I'd like to introduce you to . We're pleased to welcome you (all) to .... I'm (position/job) I'd like to introduce myself .? Small talk: • • • • • • How was your flight / trip? How's the hotel? Did you have any problems / trouble finding us? How's the weather in .. Basic socialising Welcoming: • • • Welcome to .. Have you met .. Let me introduce myself .. I'm ...Business Socialising Skills Look at these various situations in which people socialise in a business context. We haven't met yet.. • • • • • • • • • • Welcoming Greeting people Introductions Small talk Getting to know each other Typical everyday contact Making arrangements Having drinks Holding discussions Saying goodbye Successful socialising depends on the appropriate language and skills. It's a pleasure to welcome you (all) to ....

... Nice to see you again. suit you? Would ..? What's your home town like? What do you do in your spare time? Typical everyday contacts: • • • • • • • • How are you? How are things? It's (going) fine.. I'll pick up the tab.. Cheers! The drinks are on me..... Let me just confirm that .. Could I propose a toast to . Holding conversations: • • I wanted to ask you about .? Would you like to attend . Having drinks: • • • • • • • I'd like to get the next round of drinks. I was wondering if . Could we arrange a meeting / dinner for ..... ? Would you be interested in .? Here's to ...? Would you like to come to … ? What about … ? How about … ? Would . I'm treating you.? How did you get into this line of business? How do you like living in .? Could I ask a favour of you? Could you do me a favour? Making arrangements: • • • • • • • • • • • • • We'd like to invite you to . 77 ......00pm? That sounds fine / great... thanks. I look forward to seeing you then. I was wondering if ... be convenient? Shall we say (about) 7. Would you mind if .• • Would you care for something to drink? How do you take your coffee / tea? Getting to know each other: • • • • • How long have you been working for .....

” 2.. Thank you very much for . General language points 1.. 4. That reminds me ... “Let me . Thanks so much for … It was nice / a pleasure to meet / see you. Bye.” or “Allow me to …” are common ways of asking permission to assist or to do something for someone.. would and may. Have a good flight / trip. temporary) contrast. with could.” “Right now I'm working on .” .... I really do need to wrap this up now.... “I lived and worked in London for 3 years. e. Socialising contexts use the present simple (habitual) and present continuous (now. “I work for .g. are popular in the language used for business or formal socialising. 3. I look forward to . By the way . Have a safe journey back! B. 78 .. e.. Do you see what I mean? Do you see what I'm getting at? So are you saying .” “I've lived in Dublin since I started my new job in 2001.. Please get in touch soon.• • • • • • • While we're on the subject . and the past simple (finished) and present perfect (unfinished) contrast.. Polite forms..the second conditional form. Use particular polite phrases such as “I was wondering if I could borrow your pen” or “Would you mind if I borrowed your pen?” .. Take care....? Saying goodbye: • • • • • • • • • • • • I'm afraid I really must be on my way. I'd like to mention . I'll give you a call / email you.g. Goodbye.

?" Stay away from negative or controversial topics... and refrain from long stories or giving a lot of detail in casual conversation. If you've met the host before. As you prepare for a function.. but the ability to connect with people through small talk is an acquired skill. one of the best ways to approach them is to be introduced by someone they respect.. offer your name to ease the pressure. Be the first to say "Hello. come up with three things to talk about as well as four general questions that will get others talking.conversations: 1." Smile first and always shake hands when you meet someone. try to remember things about them. For example: • • "Charles Bartlett? Lynn Schmidt -.?" "Have you heard . 2. Make an extra effort to remember names and use them frequently. For example: • • "Attendance looks higher than last year.good to see you again. Have something interesting to contribute. Use the following tips for starting . Take your time during introductions. Never glance around the room while they are talking to you. leading with: • • • "What do you think of . If there are people you especially want to meet. However. Get the other person talking by leading with a common ground statement regarding the event or location and then asking a related open-ended question. 8. such as their passion for a sport or a charity you're both involved in.. Ask a mutual friend to do the honours.and ending . Maintain eye contact. 79 . Stay focused on your conversational partner by actively listening and giving feedback. 5.?" "What is your opinion on . Listen more than you talk – vitally important. many people have never learnt the art of listening! 7.12 tips for making Small Talk Being able to connect with others through small talk can lead to big things. 4. 6.” “How long have you been coming to these conventions?" You could also ask them about their trip in or how they know the host." If you're not sure the other person will remember you. Keeping abreast of current events and culture will provide you with great conversation builders.. 3.

You’re … . I understand you … Right. If someone hands you a business card. For example: • • "I need to check in with a client over there. purse or wallet to show it is valued. Have a few exit lines ready so that you can both gracefully move on. observe and listen. Directing a conversation • • • • • • • That reminds me … I must just … I couldn’t help noticing … While we’re on the subject of … By the way. Will you excuse me? I’m afraid I’ll have to be going. put it away in a shirt pocket. accept it as a gift. Is that the time? 80 ." "I didn’t have lunch today. aren’t you? You must be … Hello again. so I need to visit the buffet. [name] asked me to give you her regards. Uh huh. … We haven’t met." More useful phrases for Small Talk Opening a conversation: • • • • • • • Excuse me. Hold it in both hands and take a moment to read what is written on it. 11. You don't want to spoil the dynamics with an unsuited or ill-timed remark. When you're done.9. even when you're not. Watch your body language. 10. I’m … Long time no see. People who look ill at ease make others uncomfortable. Before entering into a conversation that's already in progress. … Talking of … Funny you should say that because … Showing interest • • • • • Really? I see. Closing a conversation • • • • It was nice talking to you. 12. Act confident and comfortable.

What time should I be there? Oh. I have to work. Can I take a rain check on that? (*rain check: if someone invites you to dinner on a night that you are busy. but I already have plans tonight. Please come over for dinner tonight.Socialising Making. Would you like me to bring anything? Thank you very much! I'd be delighted to. do you know what to say in English when someone invites you? Here are some common expressions you can use. I'm busy tonight. When should I be there? Yes! Want me to bring something? I'd love to. Accepting. and Declining an Invitation Do you know how to invite someone to your house for dinner or party? Or. Inviting someone to come to your house for dinner (informal) • • • • Do you want to come over for dinner tonight? Want to pop over for a quick dinner? How about coming over for dinner tonight? Care to come over for dinner tonight? Inviting someone to come to your house for dinner (more formal) • • • • • Would you like to come over for dinner tonight? Would you care to join us for dinner at our house tonight? I was just wondering if you would like to come over for dinner tonight. "Can I take a rain check?" This means that you hope they will invite you again on another night. 81 . Do I need to bring anything? Declining an invitation (informal) • • • I can't. Accepting an invitation (informal) • • • • • Of course. Accepting an invitation (more formal) • • • Thank you! I'd love to. but I'm afraid I'm busy tonight. What time? Why not? When do you want me to be there? Sure. you can say. I have an appointment. I'd love to. I'll bring dessert. certainly! Thank you.) Declining an invitation (more formal) • • I'd love to. We'd be delighted to have you over for dinner tonight. Tonight's no good.

See you this evening then. Well. Dialogue 2: (between 2 friends) Sam: Tom: Sam: Tom: Want to come over for a quick meal tonight? Not tonight. Enjoy your evening! You too. OK. Bill. Great! Could you come over at around 6? Of course. I'd love to. Delighted to have you here. Yes! Thank you for asking. Good seeing you again. I have a date. but I have another appointment tonight. why not? What time do you want me to be there? Around 6. I'm so glad you could come. that's too bad. (formal) 82 . I’m afraid. Oh. Do I need to bring anything? No. my husband and I were just wondering if you would like to come over for dinner this evening. We're delighted to have you here. maybe next time then. Well. No problem. Do you want to pop over after work? Sure. Enjoy your evening! Host . what can you say to welcome them? Here are some common expressions: Welcoming a Guest • • • • I'm so glad to have you here. Dialogue 4: (a parent is making an invitation to her son's teacher) Jan: Bill: Jan: Bill: Mr. OK. Welcoming a guest whom you haven't seen for a while • • • It's so good to see you after all this time. Bill. It's a pleasure to see you again. Want me to bring something? No. my husband and I were just wondering if you would like to come over for dinner this evening.Greeting a guest If you are the host and your guest has arrived at your house. but thanks for asking. Oh. Can I take a rain check? OK. Dialogue 3: (a parent is making an invitation to her son's teacher) Jan: Bill: Jan: Bill: Jan: Bill: Mr.Example dialogues: Dialogue 1: (between 2 co-workers) Ann: Jim: Ann: Jim: Ann: Bob and I are having a little get-together at our place tonight. thank you! I'd be delighted to. Just bring yourself.

Make yourself comfortable. What would you like? Can I get you something to drink? Guest . Make yourself comfy. (formal) Making a visitor feel at home • • • • • Make yourself at home. You have a wonderful place here. Offering a visitor something to drink • • • Would you like some coffee or tea? Let me get you something to drink. It's nice of you to invite me to your house tonight. Please sit down. Come on in. look who's here! Well. Please come in. 83 .What to say What to say upon arrival at the host's • • • • • • • Thank you for inviting me tonight. Where can I put my coat? You have a beautiful home. What a beautiful home you have! I love your sofa. This chair is more comfortable.Making a visitor feel at home Asking a guest to come inside the house • • • • Come right in. look who's here! Wow! Am I surprised to see you! What brings you here? What a delightful surprise! What a nice surprise! Host . (informal) (comfy = short for comfortable) Would you like to take off your coat? Here. Would you like to sit over here? Sit over here. let me take your coat.Welcoming an unexpected guest • • • • • • Hey. Offering a visitor a seat • • • • Please have a seat. Please do come in.

I couldn't get a taxi. are they? Are you still playing volleyball? Saying Goodbye 84 . wasn’t it? Manchester are not doing so well this season. Here are some common topics for small talk. (Fill me in = Tell me everything) How's your son doing? How old is he now? Your daughter must be in her teens now. Many students find it hard to start a conversation. isn't it? It's cold and windy out. Sorry to be late. How's she doing? Seen any good films lately? Read any good books lately? Starting a conversation using the weather • • • • • • • Nice weather today. and expressions that can be used to start such conversation topics. what's new with you? How have you been? What have you been doing lately? What's new? Fill me in. Have you been waiting long? Small Talk In a social situation. Asking a question to start a conversation • • • • • • • • So. I got stuck in traffic. we often use "small talk". I got lost. isn't it? What a storm we had last night! What a blizzard! It's hot and humid today. isn't it? Horrible weather. I missed the train / bus. Sorry I'm late. Sorry I'm late. isn't it? Starting a conversation using sports • • • Great game last night. Sorry to have kept you waiting. Sorry to be late. What to say for late arrival • • • • • • • • Sorry I'm late. isn't it? Lovely weather.• • I love your living room / kitchen / study. The bus / train was late. I love your wallpaper. I was looking for a place to park. The traffic was terrible! Sorry to be late.

say. Thank you for having me over. it's getting late. I have to get up early tomorrow. I'm afraid I have to go. I'd better get going. (formal) It's been a delightful visit. Glad you could come. informal) Guest . (informal) Time to hit the road. (a big day = a busy day) I'd better be off. I had a lovely evening. time to go. I'd better get going. Guest . Thanks for the food and drinks! Thanks for the good food and good company. Let's do this again soon. a party or your host's? As a host. Thanks for asking me over. We have to do this more often. We have to do this again sometime. (formal) Thank you for coming. Thanks for dropping by. (formal) Thanks for a lovely time.Stating you have to leave • • • • • • Well.As a guest. (idiom. what should you say when you want to leave. Host . Thanks. It's a long drive home. I have a big day tomorrow.Saying goodbye • • • • • • • • • It's been our pleasure to have you here. Well. Come back soon. what should you say in return? Here are some common expressions for saying goodbye. I had a great time. (formal) Thank you for inviting us.Thanking your host • • • • • • • • Thanks for a lovely evening. 85 .

Great. How's everything? Good evening. There aren't enough hours in the day. (Meaning: I'm very busy) Very busy. 86 . I'm snowed under. ranging from informal to formal ones. Expressing you're healthy and fine • • • • I'm fine. Below are some common expressions. Expressing you're busy • • • (I've) been busy. How have you been? Greeting someone you haven't seen for a while • • • • I haven't seen you in ages! How have you been? How're things going? How are you getting along? Long time no see! (Informal) Greeting someone you are surprised to see • • • Fancy meeting you here! Never thought I'd see you here! What a surprise to see you here! Responding to "How are you?" When we greet someone we know. we usually will ask the question "how are you" or "how have you been?" Below are some useful responses. (I) can't complain. How are you today? Good afternoon. Couldn't be better.Useful Expressions Greetings There are many English expressions for greetings. Informal greetings • • • • • Hi! Hello! What's up? What's new? How's it going? More formal greetings • • • Good morning.

Simple good-byes • • • Bye. Naomi. Lousy. ranging from informal to formal ones. Introducing (Ichiro to Naomi) • • • • • Naomi. Below are some common expressions. What a pleasure to meet you. could you tell me your name again? Saying Good-Bye There are many English expressions for saying good-bye. do you know Ichiro? What to say when you've just been introduced • • • • Nice to meet you. Naomi. Bye for now. I didn't catch your name.Expressing you have been doing OK (neutral) • • • • So-so. Could be better. (formal) What to say when you didn't catch someone's name • • • I'm sorry. this is my friend Ichiro. Good-bye. I'd like you to meet Ichiro. Naomi. Same as always. Not so good. Naomi. Plodding along. (this is) Ichiro. (informal) Expressing you have not been doing well • • • • • Not too great. I'm glad to meet you. Not too well. What's your name again? Sorry. (Meaning: very bad) (slang) Introductions How do you introduce your friend to someone else? Below are some useful English expressions. Same as usual. have you met Ichiro? Naomi. I'm sorry. (formal) A pleasure. 87 . Ichiro.

Talk to you soon. (It was) good to see you. (formal) It's a pleasure to have met you. (slang) More formal good-byes • • • • (It was) nice to see you. (formal) 88 .• • • • • • • See you later. See ya. See you soon. See you around. Good-bye. Take care. (formal) It's been a real pleasure. Take care. See you again. Saying goodbye to someone you have just met • • • • Nice meeting you. Bye. Good-bye. alligator. (informal) See you later. It was a pleasure meeting you. See you tomorrow / next week. (It was) nice talking to you.

no problem. . . but . . ? Would you mind verb-ing . I'm sorry. . . I don't have time right now. I have some bad news. I don't know how to tell you this. . . (for me) ? Would you please . ? Do you have a minute? Can you spare a few minutes? Could you do me a favour? Could I ask you a favour? Can I ask you to . I didn't realize that . . I hate to tell you this. Prefacing bad news • • • • I'm sorry (I have) to tell you this. . . . I'm sorry. • • That's okay. . . but . ? I need some help (if you have time). I'd be glad to. (I'm) sorry.? Could you possibly . . . Asking for Help • • • • • • • • • • • Could you . but . . Unfortunately. No problem. . Regretfully. .Business Language General Useful Expressions Apologising • • • • • I'm sorry. . . . . Please accept my apologies. . . . . . If you're not too busy) … • • • • Okay. I made a mistake. . . (Formal) written apologies • • • We regret to inform you that . Sorry. . . I'm busy at the moment. Of course. 89 . I didn't mean to .

. We manufacture . I'd like you to meet my co-worker.Introductions Informal • • • • • • • • This is my boss. this is Teresa. . Allow me to introduce myself/my colleague. . Ms. Have you met. How do you do? • • It's a pleasure meeting you. More Formal • • • • • I'd like to introduce you to my dear friend. . Jason? Jason. I work for ABC Company. Company Description • • • • • • What company do you work for? Which company are you with? Who do you represent? What is the name of your company? Where are you located? What business are you in? • • • • • • • • • • • • The name of our company is . firm handshake. Pleased to meet you. Jared. . this is my secretary. this is David Porter from Aerospace Inc. . . . Collin. . I'm Jill Watson. Our major products are . Our headquarters is in . Winters Let me introduce you to my colleague. Mr. I'm Greg. Our company is located in . Mr. Pleasant. Collin Beck. We are in the computer business. Stratford. • • • Good to meet you. I don't believe we've met. Hi. . Dean Richards. We produce . . . Barbara. . We're in computers We sell . . . I represent (the) XYZ (company). Mrs. Important body language to remember: Smile. Richards. eye contact. this is Susan Palmer. 90 . Nice to meet you. I'm with ABC. . My pleasure.

(job-general) I'm in sales. (specific) I'm a consultant for YXL.Describing Business Activities What do you do at ABC Company? • • • • I am in charge of marketing. (general) I'm in the toy business. Describing Jobs • • • • • What do you do? What do you do for a living? What is your occupation? What type of work do you do? Where do you work? • • • • • I'm a salesman. I'm responsible for sales. What company do you work for? • • • I work for (company name) I work at (general) I'm with (industry) What do you do there? What do you do at (company name)? • • • • • • I'm a software engineer. I program computers. (job title) I work in the sales department. (place in company) I'm in customer service. (general area) I work as an instructor. (industry) I'm a contractor at JBX. We're in the insurance business. What does your company do? • • • • We design software. I recruit and train employees. I build houses. We produce small appliances. (specific job) I clean the restrooms. Job Responsibilities • • • What do you do (in your job)? What is your main job? What are you in charge of? 91 . We build storage units.

. We are developing . This is priced at . . We are marketing . Describing Products • • • • • Tell me about (this product) What can you tell me about (this product)? Can you give me some information/details about this? What is special/unique about this? What are the specifications? • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Let me tell you about . I usually answer telephones. Describing Projects • • • What are your current projects? What are you working on (at present)? What are your major initiatives in this area? • • • • • • We are currently working on . . . . . This is one of our latest designs. . This particular model . It is made of . . . We are building . . . . I take care of corporate accounts. .• • • • • • I am in charge of training employees. . This one features . . This costs . . . . . This comes with . . I mainly write reports. We are in the process of . . . . . . . with it This has/contains . We are designing . . It can be used for . . 92 . . . This is our (newest) product. . You can use it to . . . This is equipped with . . I repair jet engines. . You can . I am responsible for watering the plants. .

. 93 . . We hope to . I can't tell you that (right now). . We'll get to that in a few minutes. . . We project . . Let me explain. Thank you. . . Forward-Looking Statements • • • • • What are your plans for the future? What are your projections for the next quarter? What do you expect to achieve (in the near future)? What are your (sales) projections for next six months? What are your goals for the coming year? • • • • • • • • • We expect . . Can we save that until later? Expressing Appreciation • • • • • • • • Thanks. I appreciate it. . . . . I appreciate your lending me the chain saw. . . . . . ? • • • • • • • • • • • • Well. I appreciate your hospitality. . . . Why . Here's what happened: There's a (good) reason for this: The reason is . Thank you very much. We will be (verb-ing) . We plan to . We'll come to that later. Can you tell me why . Thanks for the tour. . . Thank you for the nice gift. . We should . What happened . . . According to our projections. Our projections are .Explaining • • • • Can you explain . . I'm sorry. . Can I get back to you on that? I'll explain (a little) later. If all goes as planned. Let me tell you why . .

. . . No. I'd like to invite you . . Juice would be fine. Thanks. . Would you like one of these? Can I get you something? What can I get you something to drink? • • • • • • • No thank you Yes. . ? I wonder if you would like to . Let me get you a/some . (tonight). . . . . Okay. Would you like to go? How about (verb-ing) . ? Do you want to . please. .Invitations Informal • • • • • • • Would you like to . . . Thanks anyway. . . . . . Have a/some . . . If you have time. Would you like to try . . Offering Informal • • • • • • • Cigarette? Would you like some coffee? How about a glass of water? Here. 94 . I was wondering if you would like to . . . More Formal • • • • Would you care for some . . . . We'd be delighted / honoured to have you as our guest at . . More Formal • • • • • I'd like to invite you to . We're going to . Would you like to join us for (event) at (time) ? We'd be glad to have you accompany us . . Sure. . Would you like to come along? There's a . Let me offer you . Thanks. I really shouldn't. . . . .

. Would you mind (verb+ing) . . . Terms of Payment • • • • • • • • I'd like to pay (in) cash. Could you possibly . . . . . 95 . . I'll put it on my credit card. . . . . Would you be so kind as to . . Can I charge it to my credit card? Could you put that on my bill? Could I put that on my account? Could you send me an invoice? Could you bill me (for that)? May I … • pay in cash • pay by cheque • pay by credit card • pay with a credit card • pay in instalments • pay in one lump sum Could you deliver it to my office? Do you charge for shipping? Do I need to pay for postage and handling? How long will it take? • • • • Welcoming Visitors Welcoming • • Welcome to Cando Enterprises. . Could you do me a favour? More Formal • • • Could I ask you to . . Could you . (name of company) Welcome to London. Would you mind if I asked you to . . . . . Would you . (name of city) I'm John Taylor. Would you please .Requesting Informal • • • • • • • Please .

A: How was your flight? B: Okay. 2.Meeting someone you don't know (example conversations) 1. That's right. Blanks? B: Yes. Terius. but very long. 3. A: B: A: B: A: B: You must be Ms. A: Are you Mr. 96 . Hi. We talked on the telephone. It's nice to meet you in person. Welcome to Sydney. Welcome to Suntech. I'm Kevin Chen of Myotex Industries. Thank you. B: Nice meeting you too. I am. It's a pleasure to meet you. A: B: A: B: Patricia Murphy? Yes. your directions were very clear. Welcome to Taiwan. I'm Brad Wilson. A: I'm Jane Placid. Did you have any problems finding this place? No.

Section 6 Business Correspondence • Structuring a Business Letter • Expressions for Business Letters • Business Correspondence in English 97 .

in English the name is only put at the end of the letter. American English In American English. the sender's address is usually placed in the top right corner of the letter. Sender's Address in a Business Letter Don't write your address if you use paper with a ready-printed sender's address. don't adopt the English way. (Don't include your name here. If the order is different in your culture. the recipient's address starts two lines below the sender's address (or two lines below the date if the sender's address isn't placed in the top left corner). Position: on the left • British English In British English. below the signature. • 2. only give the following information: house number. Date in a Business Letter • British English Write: 30 October 2003 Position: on the right. telephone. street. If you write your own address. the recipient's address starts on the same line as the date or one line below the date. area code. street place area code COUNTRY (in capital letters)In American English.) Note: The order for sender's addresses in English is: house number. place. the date can also be put in the top left corner) American English Write: October 30.. street. keep to the structure used in your country. one line below the sender's address (in letters with a readyprinted sender's address. 2003 Position: top left corner (sometimes centred) • 3. American English Position: In American English the sender's address is usually placed in the top left corner.. house number. area code. • British English Position: In British English. separated by a comma. • 98 . the area code is usually at the same level as the place.Structuring a Business Letter 1. place. country. or at the end of the letter. Recipient's Address in a Business Letter Ms / Miss / Mrs / Mr / Dr . below the date.

In this case. in American English) gender unknown (esp. Salutation in a Business Letter If you know the person's name: • • Dear Ms / Miss / Mrs / Mr / Dr + surname Dear Mr Miller You can also write the person's full name. also used to address an unmarried woman Note: The abbreviations Mr. • Dear Mr Miller or Dear Mr Miller. • Dear Chris Miller If you don't know the person's name: There are several possibilities to address people that you don't know by name: Salutation Dear Sir / Dear Sirs Gentlemen Dear Madam Ladies Dear Sir or Madam Ladies and Gentlemen To whom it may concern When to use male addressee (esp. in British English) female addressee (esp.) in American English. leave out the title (Mr/Mrs). in British English) male addressee (esp. Miller: Ms. This way of writing the salutation is very handy if you don't know the gender of the person. use a colon: • Dear Mr. 99 . write the salutation as follows: • Dear Sue Punctuation In British English. Miss or Mrs? • • • Mrs – to address a married woman Miss – to address an unmarried woman (rarely used now) Ms – to address a woman whose marital status you don't know. In this case. In American English. Mrs etc. in American English) Business partners often call each other by their first names. in British English) gender unknown (esp. don't use any punctuation mark or use a comma. in American English) female addressee (esp. in American English) gender unknown (esp.4. are usually written without full stops (Mr) in British English and with full stops (Mr.

the subject line can also be placed between the recipient's address and the salutation (with a blank line in between). Body of a Business Letter Capitalise the first word of the text (even if the salutation ends with a comma). • American English Use 'sincerely'. American English In American English. • 6. There are three common methods to distinguish the subject line from the body of the letter: • • • • Use "Subject:" or "Re:" Type the subject in bold letters Type the subject in capital letters British English The subject line is usually placed between the salutation and the body of the letter (with a blank line in between). If you did not use the recipient's name in the salutation. The text is left-justified and a blank line is put after each paragraph. Content • • • first paragraph: introduction and reason for writing following paragraphs: explain your reasons for writing in more detail. so that the reader immediately knows what your letter is about. use 'Yours sincerely'. provide background information etc. however. last paragraph: summarise your reason for writing again and make clear what you want the recipient to do Note: Your text should be positive and well structured. It is not common to indent the first line of a paragraph. 7. 100 . You may want to use one. Subject Line in a Business Letter A subject line is not really necessary. Closing a Business Letter • British English If you used the recipient's name in the salutation.5. use 'Yours faithfully'. no matter if you used the recipient's name in the salutation or not ('faithfully' is not common in American English).

If you didn't punctuate the salutation. Wexley: Dear Jane Wexley: Dear Jane: Gentlemen: Ladies: Ladies and Gentlemen: To whom it may concern: Closing Closing Yours sincerely / Sincerely yours Yours faithfully / Faithfully yours Sincerely. Position: Write the greeting two lines below the last paragraph and left-justify it. you can either list all enclosed documents separately or just write the word 'Enclosure' below the signature. Enclosure in a Business Letter If you wish to enclose documents. 8. don't punctuate the greeting. / Sincerely yours.Examples of Salutations and their suitable Closings British English Salutation Dear Ms Wexley Dear Jane Wexley Dear Jane Dear Sir Dear Sirs Dear Madam Dear Sir or Madam American English Salutation Dear Ms. Sincerely. If the date is centre-justified. In emails you could also write: • • • Regards Kind regards Best wishes Note: If you end the salutation with a comma or colon. use a comma after the greeting. Leave 4 blank lines after the greeting (space for the signature) and write the sender's name below that space. however. / Sincerely yours. do also centre-justify the greeting. 101 .

102 . We look forward to your reply.Expressions for Business Letters Basic layout Salutation – Addressee known • Dear Ms / Miss / Mrs / Mr / Dr … Salutation – Addressee unknown • • • • • • • Dear Sir / Dear Sirs Gentlemen Dear Madam Ladies Dear Sir or Madam Ladies and Gentlemen To whom it may concern First Paragraph • • • • We have received your letter dated … Many thanks for … / Thank you (very much) for … This is to confirm … We hereby inform you … Final Paragraph • • • If you have any questions. do not hesitate to contact us. Closing – Addressee known • Yours sincerely / Sincerely yours Closing – Addressee unknown • • Yours faithfully / Faithfully yours Sincerely / Sincerely yours Specific expressions Request • • • • • • • • We got your address from … Your advertisement has come to our attention. We are looking forward to hearing from you soon. We were told that you produce … We intend to buy … / We are considering the purchase of … We have a steady demand for … We would like to know more about … Could you please send us information about …? Please send us your catalogue/catalog.

/ Our order is enclosed. Your delivery arrived in perfect condition on … Thank you very much for executing our order professionally. / Enclosed you will find our offer. … for … Thank you for your order. Invoice • • • Please find enclosed invoice no. Reminder • • • • • • According to our records. We hereby inform you that your goods will be delivered tomorrow. Order • • • • • • Enclosed please find our order. We look forward to doing business with you again. We look forward to receiving your order. We hereby send you our offer. We would like to place the following order: We herewith order the following items: We require the goods urgently. We are pleased to make the following offer: We assure you that your order will be dealt with promptly. Please send your payment promptly. 103 . Please let us know when we can expect the delivery. Dispatch Note • • • • We are pleased to inform you that your goods were sent today. We would appreciate if you cleared your account within the next days. we have not yet received a remittance for above invoice. If you have already sent your payment. Acknowledgement of Receipt • • • We have received your delivery.Offer • • • • • • • We are pleased to hear that you are interested in our products. This is to remind you that above invoice is still unpaid. Enclosed please find our offer. please disregard this letter. May we remind you that your payment is overdue for three months. We would be grateful if you could deliver as soon as possible. We look forward to doing business with you again. Please let us know your requirements as soon as possible. We hope that the goods will arrive in perfect condition.

Sample Sentences: Introduction of Product / Service. . Please return the enclosed envelope with your payment. please feel free to contact me at . I would be very grateful if you could send me this information. . I look forward to hearing from you. and would like to know . Thank you for your assistance. . • • • I am writing to tell you about . (Our new product) is coming out next month.Useful Expressions for Business Correspondence Common Phrases for Business Letters Request for information • • • • • • I am writing to inquire about . 104 . I read / heard . to the address below / above. . . . . This product / service is designed to (help you) . If you have further questions. If you require assistance. Could you please send me . I want(ed) to congratulate you on your new position. Sample Sentences: Requests • • • • • Could you please send me your most recent brochure? Could you fax me the results of the market survey? I would like to order ten copies of the book Business Objectives. please contact: If I can be of more help. Response to request • • • • • • Thank you for your interest / inquiry Enclosed is the information you requested. . . . . You can learn more about this at . . . I enjoyed having lunch with you last week while I was in New York. . Sample Sentences: Goodwill • • • • • Thank you for your hospitality. I am writing in reference to . . Congratulations on your promotion to General Manager. . . I was happy to hear that contract negotiations went well. .

. . Helpful Hints for Business Letters Before writing a business letter. I would just like to confirm the main points we discussed . I am writing in reference to . If we can be of assistance. . Please refer to the enclosed invoice / brochure. . Sample Sentences: Collection • • • • According to our records . . consider the following: Objective(s) • • • Why am I writing this letter? What do I hope to accomplish? What action do I want from my reader? Your Audience • Who will read this letter? 105 . . . . . Your request for … has been approved. please don't hesitate to ask.Sample Sentences: Reference • • • • I am writing in regard to . Sample Sentences: Offering Assistance • • We would be happy to . . Sample Sentences: Confirmation • • • I am writing to confirm . . .. Sample Sentences: Notification • • • • I am writing to let you know that . I am happy to inform you that . Please send payment as soon as possible. . Your monthly instalment is past due. . . I would like to confirm what we discussed last Friday. I hope you have had a chance to look over the materials we sent. . I would like to inform you of a recent policy change. Please be aware / informed that . Our records show that . . ..

etc. 106 . initiate action) Polite requests • Please .• • • How can I appeal to the reader's interest? What attitude might the reader have toward this information? Will the reader consider this good news or bad news? Organisation • • • • What information should be included first/last? What details does the reader need to know? Does my conclusion motivate the reader to do something? Do I end the letter in a positive and polite manner? Professionalism • • • Do I use a professional business letter format? Do my language and style show a positive attitude toward the reader/the company/the product/the information. . colleague. Establish a connection Supporting details Time frame (sequence of events) 4. Context (What background information does the reader need?) • • • • Bring the reader up to date first. persuade. . Message (What do you want the reader to know or do?) • • What do you hope to accomplish with the letter (inform. etc. company) Some one you don't know (To whom it may concern. Receiver (Who are you writing this to?) • • • Someone you know (friend. business partner. Dear Sir / Madam) How do you expect the receiver to respond? 2. Will my reader be offended by anything in the letter? Proofreading • • • Are there any spelling errors.? Is the format of the letter appropriate? Have I signed my name? Writer's Checklist For Business Letters: 1. colleague.) 3. Sender (Who are you?) • • What is your relationship to the reader / receiver(s)? What role are you assuming in the letter? (friend. typos. group.

5. . informal note 6. memo. Other recipients (Are there others who need to be informed of this communication?) • cc: courtesy copy 107 .• • • Would you mind . . . Would you be so kind as to . e-mail. . formal business letter. . . Could you please . Medium (What is the appropriate format?) • Fax. Tone (What tone do you wish to convey?) • • • • • • • • informative polite business-like friendly humble assertive urgent irate 7.

planning. memo. and writing letters. and therefore respond to. Business people also read letters on a daily basis. Types of business correspondence: letter. 108 . the letters you receive. known as the sender to a person/group. fax.Business Correspondence in English Business letters are formal paper communications between. to or from businesses and usually sent through the Post Office or sometimes by courier. Here are some examples of senders and recipients: • • • • • • business to business business to consumer job applicant to company citizen to government official employer to employee staff member to staff member Why write business letters? There are many reasons why you may need to write business letters or other correspondence: • • • • • • • • • • • • • to persuade to inform to request to express thanks to remind to recommend to apologise to congratulate to reject a proposal or offer to introduce a person or policy to invite or welcome to follow up to formalise decisions Read through the following pages to learn more about the different types of business letters. and how to write them. known in business as the recipient. Some write many letters each day and others only write a few letters over the course of a career. Letters are written from a person/group. You will learn about formatting. but they will also help you learn to read. email Who writes business letters? Most people who have an occupation have to write business letters. These pages are designed to help you write business letters and correspondence. Business letters are sometimes called "snail-mail" (in contrast to email which is faster). as well as how to spot your own errors.

Best wishes) Leave three to fives spaces for a handwritten signature cc: (meaning "copies to") comes after the typed name (if necessary) enc: (meaning "enclosure") comes next (if necessary) Fold in three (horizontally) before placing in the envelope Use right ragged formatting (not justified on right side) Formatting Business Letters Block format is the most common format used in business today. though some variations are acceptable (for example between European and North American business letters). nothing is centred. The sender's address.5 cm margins on all four sides Use a simple font such as Times New Roman or Arial Use 10 to 12 point font Use a comma after the salutation (Dear Ms. Here are some basic guidelines: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Use A4 (European) paper or letterhead Use 2. 2006 Recipient’s Address Spacey Plastics Co. Bond. the recipient's address. With this format. Ltd 22 Chilton Road London SE11 8PL England Recipient’s Reference (if any) Your ref: 123 109 . like this: Sender’s Address (may be printed company logo and address) La Ronda SL C/ Marfil 33 1º 2ª 08800 Vilanova i la Geltrú Barcelona Date 5th December.Business Letter Formats There are certain standards for formatting a business letter.) Lay out the letter so that it fits the paper appropriately Single space within paragraphs Double space between paragraphs Double space between last sentence and closing (Yours sincerely. the date and all new paragraphs begin at the left margin.

Second paragraph..Sender’s Reference (if any) Our ref: abc Salutation Dear Ms. Closing Your sincerely.. where for example paragraphs are indented or the date is typed on the right hand side. Director Copy to cc: Brian Waldorf Enclosure Enc: catalogue There are other. Third paragraph. Title (typed) José Rodriguez. 110 ... Jones. Signature (hand written) Maria Rodriguez Name... slightly different ways of formatting a business letter. Subject Forthcoming Exhibition Body of Letter First paragraph.

.. Second paragraph.. Third paragraph. Closing Signature (hand written) Name..Here is a blank format layout for you to use: Sender’s Address (may be printed company logo and address) Date Recipient’s Address Recipient’s Reference (if any) Sender’s Reference (if any) Salutation Subject Body of Letter First paragraph.. Title (typed) Copy to Enclosure 111 ..

Internal electronic mail may be formatted more like a memo than a formal letter. Most word document programs contain an envelope labelling function to help you. The text portion of the memo is generally in block format. "Date". Memos should include "From". so your own email address and the subject line would be lost if you had not included them in the body of the email. Here are a few differences: • • • • • • • Choose a subject line that is simple and straightforward. In contrast to letters. like this: [Company logo] MEMORANDUM From: [name or initials] To: [name or initials] Date: Subject: [short description] Message starts here. • often • with • bullet • points Formatting Business Email When using email in business. Use the "cc" address line to copy more than one person with your correspondence. Formatting Business Memos Memos are short internal business letters. phone and fax number. and may be typed or handwritten. sent to other staff within the same company. beneath the salutation (as with a letter). "To". business name and address.Formatting Envelopes for Business Letters It is best to type an envelope for a business letter. The system will automatically let you know when someone has opened your email. Repeat the subject line in the body of the email. memos do not usually contain salutations or closings. 112 . All you need to do is indicate the size of envelope you are using and type the correct information in the appropriate fields. include your typed name. Remember that people often print out emails. Memos are becoming less common as electronic mail becomes more common. Instead of a signature. and website if appropriate. and below it include your email address. most of the guidelines for standard formatting in business letters apply. Refrain from using key words that might cause an email to go into another person's trash box.. A memo (or memorandum) may also be posted somewhere inside a company for all to see.. You can request a receipt for important letters. "Subject" and the message itself.

Here is an example outline: 113 . After the main content of your letter you would include information on how you can be contacted. Your request or requirement should be very clear. prices. Are you writing to more than one person. a business letter should be clear and concise. 2. Jot down your answers to create an outline before you start writing. but there will almost always be a general reason for the letter. The end of the letter is also a place to express gratitude. 5. During the planning stage. 4. Double check details rather than relying on your memory. Others are written in response to a letter that has been received. to someone you don't know. or offer sympathy. addresses. You may also need to find out the updated address and title of the recipient. Do I require a response? Many types of business letter require a response. Are there specific details I need to include? Gather any dates. such as an email address and a phone number.Planning a Business Letter A business letter is not a place for chit-chat. Identify your main goal and what you hope to accomplish. How can I organise my points logically? Think about how you would organise your thoughts if you were speaking rather than writing to the recipient. 1. By taking time to plan your letter. You may need to introduce yourself briefly in the letter if the recipient does not know you. You may want to provide more than one option. Who am I writing this letter to? Identifying your audience always comes first. how should the recipient contact you? Indicate this information clearly as well. In some cases you may even need to provide a deadline for a response. You may cover more than one thing in one business letter. times or other information that you may need to include before you write your letter. ask yourself a few simple questions. or to someone you have known for a long time? This will help you determine how formal the letter needs to be. you will save time in the writing and proofreading stages. Why am I writing this letter? The main reason for the letter should be understood from the subject line and first few sentences. 3. Second you would state your concern or reason for writing. If you do require a response. Unlike business conversations where a certain amount of small talk is used to break the ice. First you would introduce yourself. This is a good time to confirm the correct spelling of first and last names. names. Before you start writing. determine whether or not you require an action or response from the recipient. wish good-luck.

5. Provide my reason for writing: "I have heard from a number of board members that you may be interested in staying on for a second term. Stockton on Tees. Board members who stay for two terms are sometimes asked to take on extra duties. plus possible extra duties) Third Paragraph: Provide deadline for response and how to contact me.Example Letter Plan 1. Cleveland. Jacobson First paragraph: Introduce myself briefly--remind Karen where we met before. 3. TS19 0TB 2. The Flying Club Address: 44 Windermere Drive. Recipient Karen Jacobson Acquaintance (met twice before. Reason • • • To invite a board member to remain on the board for a second term. Specific details • • If she decides to stay on she will need to be available for the national meeting on 5 November. 4. No other volunteers have come forward to take over at the end of September. Other members suggested that she has enjoyed this position and has been thinking about staying on. We would be very pleased to have you stay on for another year. Closing: Express thanks to Karen for volunteering her time this year • • • 114 . She can contact me by email or phone." Second paragraph: Explain what type of commitment this position will involve this year (once a month meetings. Organisation • • • • Return address of our institution Karen Jacobson's title and address Salutation: Dear Ms. Response • • She will need to respond by 1 September. such as taking minutes or hosting social events. national meeting. briefly) Title: President.

. Dear Valued Customer. The easier a letter is to read. An effective letter in business uses short. 2.Writing a Business Letter The term "business letter" makes people nervous. I came across an advertisement for your company in The Star today. This is not the case. Many people with English as a second language worry that their writing is not advanced enough for business writing. You will need to use smooth transitions in your sentences. Dear Sir. When you don't know the name of a person and cannot find this information out you may write. Here are some examples: • • • • • I hope you are enjoying a fine summer. I appreciate your patience in waiting for a response. Salutation First and foremost. It is standard to use a comma after the salutation. Dear Madam.. Dear Ms. After your short opening. Dear Sirs. Use Mrs. Use Ms. Dear Sir or Madam. You should also confirm the gender and proper title. Dear Editor-in-Chief. Under less formal circumstances. "To Whom It May Concern" instead of Dear Sir or Madam. It is also possible to use no punctuation mark at all. First paragraph In most types of business letter it is common to use a friendly greeting in the first sentence of the letter. or after a long period of correspondence it may be acceptable to address a person by his or her first name. We would like to invite you to a members only luncheon on April 5th. the better. make sure that you spell the recipient's name correctly. Powell. Here are some common ways to address the recipient: • • • • • • • • • Dear Mr. for women and Mr. It was a pleasure meeting you at the conference this month. Thank you for your kind letter of January 5th. if you are 100% sure that a woman is married. 1. simple sentences and straightforward vocabulary. for men. Dear Frederick Hanson. 115 . state the main point of your letter in one or two sentences: • • • • I am writing to enquire about. Mackenzie. I am writing with reference to … I am interested in the job opening posted on your company website.

Sincerely. don't write an extra paragraph just to make your letter look longer. embed this sentence in the second paragraph rather than opening with it. 4.3.. Enclosed you will find. Here are some common phrases used when closing a business letter: • • • • • • • • • I look forward to. your contact information should also be in this paragraph. I appreciate any feedback you may have.. reminders.. Please feel free to contact me by phone or email. 116 . Here are some common ways to express unpleasant facts: • • • We regret to inform you. Thank you for taking this into consideration. 5.. I would also remind you that the next board meeting is on February 5th. If in doubt.. However. Sincerely yours. If necessary. Please respond at your earliest convenience.. If you are including sensitive material. Final paragraph Your last paragraph should include requests.. After careful consideration we have decided. Formal: • • • • Yours truly. and notes on enclosures.. Closing Use a comma between the closing and your handwritten name (or typed in an email). The “etiquette” for closing formal letters is usually as follows: If your salutation is doesn’t include the name of the person: • Yours sincerely.. such as rejecting an offer.. it is best to use one of the standard closing phrases detailed above. Second and third paragraphs Use a few short paragraphs to go into greater detail about your main point. Yours sincerely.. For further details. here are some other common ways to close a letter.... It is with great sadness that we. If you require more information. If your salutation includes the name of the person: • Yours faithfully. If one paragraph is all you need.

Best regards. however. All the best. Warm regards. Double-check gender and spelling of names. would instead of will). Day-Month-Year is conventional in many countries. Use active voice whenever possible.g. Ask direct questions. Rewrite any sentence or request that sounds vague. July 5th. 2007) 117 . Regards. Use polite modals (for example.• Yours faithfully. Writing Tips • • • • • • • • • Use a conversational tone. Always refer to yourself as "I". to avoid confusion. Don't forget to include the date. write out the month instead of using numbers (e. Best wishes. Best of luck . Less formal: • • • • • • • Thank you. Don't use "we" unless it is clear exactly who the pronoun refers to.

Section 7 Using the Telephone • Telephone English • Useful Expressions for making Telephone Calls • Tips for getting people to slow down 118 .

don't be afraid to answer it! The fear of talking on the phone in a second language will disappear if you practise often. The hardest part about using the phone in a language that is not your own is the fact that you cannot see the other person's eyes. Although you might not be aware of it. ring. to telephone the person who telephones to call someone who called you first a screen that shows you who is calling a phone that is not attached to the wall (you can walk short distances with it at home or in the garden) to press the buttons on the phone the sound the phone makes when you pick it up a book that alphabetically lists local phone numbers of people and businesses to put the receiver down and end a call a telephone that you can take with you a person who answers telephone-related questions a small machine you wear that makes a noise (or vibrates) when someone wants you to call them a telephone. answer answering machine to say "hello" into the phone when it rings something that you can record a message on if the person you are calling isn't home a beeping sound that tells the caller that the other person is already on the phone with someone else a telephone conversation.. in faceto-face conversation you lip-read and watch for smiles. Listening to someone on the telephone is like doing a section from a taped recording in class. Remember. to telephone engaged signal call caller call back/phone back call display cordless phone dial dial tone directory/phone book hang up mobile / cell phone operator pager phone 119 .Telephone English If the phone rings in English. Telephone Terms Here are some of the words and terms that we use to talk about telephoning. The only difference is that you have to talk back! Here we will look at some of the words and expressions that we use for telephoning.. practice makes perfect! Ring. frowns and moving hands. mouth and body movements (body language).

to make that sound the sound-piece that alerts a person that a call is coming through ring ringer Telephone Language Here are some typical phrases that you can use in a telephone conversation. (informal) Please hold and I'll put you through to his office. Jane speaking. (informal) Hang on one second. All of our operators are busy at this time. One moment please. Please hold for the next available person. (informal) Hello. I'll get him. Speaking.* *The person answering says this if the caller does not recognize their voice. Hi. it's Gerry from the dentist's office here.phone booth/pay phone pick up receiver a place where you can pay to use a telephone in public to answer the phone the piece on the phone that you speak into and listen from the sound a phone makes when somebody calls. How can I help you? Doctor's office. Green. please? (informal) Can I talk to your sister? (informal) May I speak with Mr. Answering the phone • • • Hello? (informal) Thank you for calling Midland Health. Making special requests • • Could you please repeat that? Would you mind spelling that for me? 120 . Asking to speak with someone • • • • • Is Fred in? (informal) Is Jackson there. It's Lisa calling. please? Would it be possible to speak to the doctor? Connecting someone • • • • • Just a minute. Introducing yourself • • • • Hello George. this is Julie Madison calling.

Could you please return my call as soon as possible. extension 12. Would you like to leave a message? He's at lunch at the moment. can you tell him his wife called. My English isn't very good. I don't think he has my number. this is Richard calling for Lisa. Please leave a message after the beep. that's okay. Leaving a message on an answering machine • • • Hi Mike. Who’s calling please? He's busy right now. Can you please hold for a minute? I have another call. could you ask him to call Brian when he gets in? Do you have a pen handy. It's Yvonne. When do you expect her back in the office? Thanks. please. 121 . Thomson's office. No. Lisa's not here at the moment. is that right? I'll make sure he gets the message. Please give us a ring whenever it's convenient. Can you call me back? I think we have a bad connection. Thank you. Thanks.• • • • Could you speak up a little please? Can you speak a little slower please. Hello Maxwell. Yes. Talk to you soon. My number is 555 3456. Our hours are 9am to 5pm. Did you say 17 Charles Road? You said your name was John. it's James from Newton’s here. Leave me a message and I'll get back to you as soon as I can. this is Elizabeth. Confirming information • • • • • Okay. Call me! (informal) Hello. I'll call back later. You've reached 555 6789. Leaving a message with someone • • • • • • Yes. Let me repeat that just to make sure. Taking a message for someone • • • • • • • Sammy's not in. I'm sorry I'm not available to take your call at this time. Who's this? (informal) I'm sorry. Can you call again later? I'll let him know you called. This is Clare from the doctor's office calling. Finishing a conversation • • Well. I just wanted to let you know that you're due for a check-up this month. or leave a message after the tone. Thank you. Thanks for calling. Hi. I’d better be going. My number is 555 5689. Thank you for calling Dr. Bye for now. Listening to an answering machine • • • Hello. I'll make sure she gets the message. Can I ask who's calling? I'm afraid he's stepped out. Please call back during these hours. Monday to Friday. I've got it all down.

or role play different scenarios in a business environment. If you are nervous about using the phone in English. 3. Telephone Tips 1. Practise with a friend Ask another student to practise talking on the phone with you. Call a salon to book a hair appointment. Some large cities have free recordings you can call for information in different languages. Bye. 4. I'll talk to you again soon. However. you can call and listen to recorded messages in English. Try to talk for at least fifteen minutes. Many ESL speakers make the mistake of being 122 . Keep your telephone in an area that is away from other noise distractions such as a radio or television. You might choose one night a week and take turns phoning each other at a certain time. Don't be afraid to remind the person to slow down more than once. If you don't have access to a telephone. Call for a pizza delivery instead of going out to eat. Use businesses and recordings There are many ways to get free telephone English practice. 2. it may be even more difficult for the person you are talking with to understand you. Learn the appropriate expressions that English speakers use when they don't hear something properly.) Some products have free phone numbers on the packaging that you can call for information. If you are in an English-speaking country.• • • • I have to let you go now. (Make sure that you aren't going to get charged for these numbers first. Speak slowly and clearly Listening to someone speaking in a second language over the telephone can be very challenging because you cannot see the person you are trying to hear. It is amazing how much people lip-read without realizing. You may not realise that your pronunciation isn't clear because your teacher and fellow students know and understand you. and then call back and check if your notes are accurate. Learn telephone etiquette (manners) The way that you speak to your best friend on the phone is very different to the way you should speak to someone in a business setting. Write down what you hear the first time. 5. Even native speakers ask each other to repeat and confirm information from time to time. You can talk socially. This is especially important if you are taking a message for someone else. I’d better go. you can practise by setting two chairs up back to back. I have another call coming through. I'm afraid that's my other line. you may notice yourself speaking very quickly. Pay special attention to your weak areas (such as "r's" and "l's" or "b's" and "v's") when you are on the phone. After business hours. Practise or write down what you are going to say and take a few deep breaths before you make a phone call. Make sure you understand the other speaker Don't pretend to understand everything you hear over the telephone. The most important thing about practising telephone English is that you aren't able to see each other's mouths. Think of a question you might want to ask and call the free number! You will have to give your name and address. Make sure you have a pen handy so that you can repeat the information and check your comprehension. use the phone in your everyday life.

You should use the same modals you would use in a formal "face-to-face" situation. 6. but it is something that you will be able to use in any country. Sometimes just one word such as "could" or "may" is necessary in order to sound polite. Practise dates and numbers It only takes a short time to memorise English Phonetic Spelling. You should also practise saying dates and numbers aloud.too direct on the telephone. Take the time to learn how to answer the phone and say goodbye in a polite manner. as well as all the various ways one can start and end a conversation casually. It is possible that the person on the other line will think that you are being rude on purpose if you don't use formal language in certain situations. 123 .

please? It's about … I'm calling about … Could you please tell … I phoned? Could you give … a message. … is not available at the moment. … is on holiday (this week).Useful Expressions for Making Telephone Calls Answering the phone • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • … (company). Could I have your name. … (company). please? Could I help you? Maybe I can help you? Making a phone call • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • … here. I'll pass you over to … (department). There's no reply. … is speaking on another line. … will be back any minute. Could I speak to …. please? Am I speaking to …? Could you put me through to …. Would you like to hold? Could you try again later / tomorrow? Can I take a message? Would you like to leave a message for …? If you give me your phone number. I'm afraid. Good afternoon. / … speaking. I must have dialled the wrong number. … (name) speaking. How can I help you? I'm afraid you have dialled the wrong number. please? Would you mind telling me what you're calling about? Hold the line. I'll try again. Sorry. … (company). … is out for lunch. If you hold the line. I'll put you through. … will call you back. I'm sorry. but the line is engaged. Good morning. … is away on business. Who would you like to speak to? What does it concern. … isn't in (yet). / This is … This is … (company). please? Could you ask … to call me back? Do you know when … will be back? Will … be in the office tomorrow? I'll try again later / tomorrow. Maybe you could help me? 124 .

but I can’t hear you. please? Could you speak louder. I can hardly hear you. please? Sorry? Pardon? I’m afraid I don’t understand. please? Could you spell that. please? Could you repeat that. Could you speak more slowly. The line is bad. 125 . but my English isn’t very good.Problems on the phone • • • • • • • • • • • • • I’m afraid that my English isn't very good. I didn't get that. I’m sorry. I’m sorry.

I'll give her the message as soon as possible. Goodbye. Just be sure to use it with colleagues and not with a boss :-)! Key phrases • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Good morning. repeat each piece of information as the person speaks. I didn't catch that. By repeating each important piece of information or each number or letter as the spell or give you a telephone number you automatically slow the speaker down.. I’ll put you through Would you like to call back later? I'm afraid / sorry she's not in the office today. Bye. I'm afraid /sorry he's away on business. please? Could you spell that for me. Native speakers. Sorry. please. If the person does not slow down begin speaking your own language! A sentence or two of another language spoken quickly will remind the person that they are fortunate because THEY do not need to speak a different language to communicate. especially business people. I'd like to leave a message for . Am I disturbing you? I am on another line. I'll put you through. You're welcome.Tips for Getting People to Slow Down! One of the biggest problems is speed. What was your name again. Could I take your name please Hang on. this is Juan Nuñez calling from Spain. I look forward to hearing from you soon. This is an especially effective tool. Do not say you have understood if you have not. Thank you. When taking note of a name or important information. Used carefully. Can I take a message? Can she call you back when she gets in? I'm calling about … I'm returning your call. Just a moment.. Here are some practical tips to get native speakers of English to slow down! Immediately ask the person to speak slowly. I'll get back to you on that. I'd like to speak to Mr / Ms Johnson. Ask the person to repeat until you have understood. I'm sorry. please? Thank you for your help. please. tend to speak very quickly on the telephone. Remember that the other person needs to make himself/herself understood and it is in his/her interest to make sure that you have understood. please? Could you speak more slowly. Can we arrange an appointment? Does Thursday suit you? Let me check my diary. If you ask a person to explain more than twice they will usually slow down. this exercise in humbling the other speaker can be very effective. the line's busy / engaged. 126 .

Here's how to handle this new technology in a business environment. To minimise annoyance on the other end of the line. include on your voicemail the hours when you can be reached in person.conversations between two people . too.into public places. in case the signal fades and we lose contact.except maybe having your lunch put on hold with a muttered. • • • • 127 . If you wouldn't stand up and leave the room to place a call in the middle of a meeting. There is no phone booth.. "Hang on a second. the first thing I have to tell them is that I'm on my mobile phone. if I call someone. Here's a crash course in mobile phone etiquette: • There's nothing more annoying than being interrupted by that shrill musical ring in the middle of a lunch meeting . Keep your message brief and repeat your phone number twice. speak slowly so important information isn’t lost. However. They are useful if you're on the road because people can reach you at all times. then you shouldn’t answer a mobile phone. They bring private acts . Despite the obvious advantages of a mobile phone. So. If you're in meetings all day.. Some people use their mobile phones as watches. Mobile phones are convenient. just in case. or when you will return messages. There are other bad habits to watch for.Practice good mobile phone etiquette. not only do they have to leave the machines on so that they know what time it is. the rule of thumb is to use the same etiquette you would on a standard business phone line. but they're constantly looking at it. Hello?" Mobile phones have changed the way we interact. You should turn your mobile phone off in that same meeting. but they can also be incredibly annoying. no shield between the talker and the world around him. Mobile phones have pros and cons.

Cognates 128 .Section 8 Useful Information • • • • • Complete Grammar Tense Explanations 100 Essential Business Nouns 100 Essential Business Verbs Business Letters Dictionary False Friends .

100 Essential Business English Nouns 100 commonly-used nouns you should know and be able to use if you work in an Englishspeaking business environment. advantage advice authorisation budget comparison confirmation customer debtor deficit description distribution enquiry estimate facilities feedback growth increase interest knowledge margin mistake opinion output permission price profit reduction repairs result risk schedule stock supply transport advertise agenda bill change competition costs deadline decision delivery difference employee environment experience factory goal guarantee industry inventory limit market objective option payment possibility product promotion refund report retailer salary share success support turnover advertisement apology brand commission competitor creditor debt decrease department disadvantage employer equipment explanation fall goods improvement instructions invoice loss message offer order penalty preparation production purchase reminder responsibility rise sales signature suggestion target 129 .

accept advertise approve borrow buy cancel check complete convince decrease dismiss divide encourage exchange fix improve install join lower measure order own pay prevent promise purchase receive refuse remove respond sell shorten succeed vary add advise authorise break calculate change choose confirm count deliver dispatch drop establish extend fund increase invest lend maintain mention organise pack plan process promote raise recruit reject reply return send split suggest admit afford avoid build call charge for complain consider decide develop distribute employ estimate fall get worse inform invoice lengthen manage obtain owe participate present produce provide reach reduce remind resign rise separate structure write 130 .100 Essential Business English Verbs Here are 100 commonly-used verbs you should know and be able to use if you work in an English-speaking business environment.

Writing Business Letters These core vocabulary reference sheets focusing on writing business letters provide key words and phrases . to act on behalf of to agree with always at your service as agreed as far as I'm concerned as far as the payment is concerned as follows as per invoice as per to the conditions as per your request as requested as soon as possible at your convenience at your earliest convenience at your expense awaiting your reply be able to be authorised to be characterised by be confident in be delighted to be held responsible for be in arrears with payments be in difficulty ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 131 . Please try to translate the specific words and phrases into your native tongue as each phrase has a very specific translation in different languages and can often not be literally translated.

letter of complaint come to a decision ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ come to an agreement .following our letter goods listed below greeting half-price have the pleasure to have the power to ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 132 .attachment fix an appointment following your instructions from order receipt further to our letter .to reach an agreement ___________________________________ complimentary close cope with the competition correspond to the sample correspond with covering letter due to oversight enclosure .be interested in be late be overrun with orders be prepared to .to be willing to before the date we agreed upon Best regards body of the letter circular letter claim .

accordingly in due time .in due course in good condition in our favour in partial payment in reply to your letter in the absence of inform in due time inside address let someone know in advance letter opening .beginning of the letter letter heading .heading look forward to looking forward to an early reply looking forward to hearing from you make the goods available meet a demand meet customer's requirements meet the demand Messrs notify in advance about on advanced payment on arrival of the goods on behalf of on condition that .hereby in case of need in compliance with .provided that on delivery ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 133 .

to meet the quality take into consideration the aim of this letter the following items ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 134 .on receipt of the order on short notice on written request order to be confirmed our best attention our offer is still open outside address pay the maximum attention to the matter payable in advance please allow us please send us please send us your instructions prices are increasing reach the destination refer to return a letter to the sender sell at the best send under separate cover sender address short term similar to sample .up to sample stop negotiations submit a sample suit the quality .

our kindest regards we sent you we thank you in advance we wish to inform you that we would appreciate it if you could answer ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 135 .the goods are available in our warehouse the goods are not similar to sample the goods are sold out the goods arrived in good conditions the letter remained unanswered the matter in reference the meeting was cancelled to our mutual benefit to the kind attention of under separate cover up to an amount of utmost care we acknowledge receipt of we apologise again for we apologise for we apologise for the delay we apologise for the mistake we are sorry to have to we are sorry to inform you we have received we hope we'll receive the goods soon we look forward to your kind reply we must apologise for we remain .

between the salutation and signature small dark dots used to set off items in an unnumbered list important letters that sender pays extra block format body bullets certified mail 136 .in reference to with the compliments of with the utmost care with two weeks' notice within 30 days within which without delay without notice would you please let us have would you please let us know you ordered you requested you sent us Yours faithfully (GB) ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Business Letter Vocabulary attachment extra document or image that is added to an email most common business letter format.without commitment with reference to . all paragraphs begin at the left margin the content of the letter. single spaced.we would appreciate your reply with no obligation .

easy to understand gets to the point quickly private demonstrating consideration and kindness marketing letters addressed to a large audience where one blank line is left between lines of text extra document or image included with a letter uses set formatting and business language. presented in short form as block format. diplomatic direct mail. personal diplomacy.postage for in order to receive a notice of receipt coherent concise confidential. but date and closing are centred notice to recipient that appears on an logo margin memorandum (memo) modified block format left justified notation 137 . junk mail logical. opposite of casual the set up or organization of a document a word or phrase that indicates what the text below will be about extra spaces (usually 5) at the beginning of a paragraph casual recipient's mailing information margins straight and even text. always begins at the same place double space format enclosure formal format heading indent informal inside address justified letterhead specialized paper with a (company) logo or name printed at the top symbol or image that identifies a specific organization a blank space that borders the edge of the text document sent within a company (internal).

"on the other hand") punctuation reader-friendly recipient right ragged salutation sensitive information semi-block format sincerely single spaced format spacing tone transitions 138 . enthusiastic) words or phrases used to make a letter flow naturally (e.g.envelope (e. "furthermore".g. not left-justified term used before a name when formally closing a letter where no blanks lines are left in-between lines of text blank area between words or lines of text the feeling of the language (e. "confidential") postage proofread the cost of sending a letter by post read through a finished document to check for mistakes marks used within or after sentences and phrases (e. full stops.g. "Dear Mr Jones") content in a letter that may cause the receiver to feel upset paragraphs are indented.g.g. serious. commas) easy to read the person who receives the letter format in which text on the right side of the document ends at slightly different points (not justified) greeting in a letter (e.

Water freezes at 0° C or 32° F. Here. In the next examples. we are talking about facts. we use the present simple and not the present continuous. Do you usually have bacon and eggs for breakfast? Here. we are talking about future facts. no. It's raining. She's thinking about leaving the company. somebody is trying to steal that man's wallet. • • • • We have two children. we are talking about regular actions or events. I think you are right. Do you understand what I am trying to say. The plane leaves at 5. Are you doing enough revision for your exams? 139 . Here. you're driving too fast. Does the class begin at 10 or 11 this week? Here.00 tomorrow morning. the action is taking place at the time of speaking. Although these feelings can be short-term. • • • • Oh . usually found in a timetable or a chart.00 every evening. The project doesn't start for another 3 weeks. • • • • They drive to the office every day. Slow down. the action is true at the present moment but we don't think it will be true in the long term. we are talking about our thoughts and feelings at the time of speaking. What does this expression mean? The Thames flows through London.Present Simple We use the present simple to talk about actions we see as long term or permanent. Who is Kate talking to on the phone? Look. The news usually starts at 6. • • • We're looking for a new house. She doesn't come here very often. Present Continuous We use the present continuous to talk about present situations which we see as short-term or temporary. In the following examples. • • • • Christmas Day falls on a Monday this year. It is a very common and very important tense. • • • • They don't ever agree with us. She doesn't want you to do it.

We are having a special dinner at a top restaurant for all the senior managers. • • • • • I'm seeing her at 6. I'm trying to hear what they are saying . In these examples. Look at these examples : • • • • I don't usually have cereals for breakfast but I'm having some this morning because there is nothing else. My parents live in Washington but I'm just visiting. Present plans for the future: We're having dinner with them next week .30 next Monday Thoughts and feelings about the time of speaking: I don't feel very well. in all these examples. Note how. When he was living in New York.30. He's coming next week. • • • We lived in Japan for five years.• They're considering making an appeal against the judgment. the action is at a definite time in the future and has already been arranged. Facts known about the future: We leave at 8. he went to all the bars and clubs he could. Facts: The sun rises in the east. Things which are true at the moment but not always: We're looking for a new flat. She was in London from Monday to Thursday last week. You will often find the past simple used with time expressions such as these: 140 . I often cycle to work but I'm taking the car this morning because it's raining very hard. The Present Continuous is used for: • • • The time of speaking ('now'): Shh. we use the present continuous to talk about events which are temporary/limited in time and the present simple to talk about events which are habits/permanent. Past Simple The past simple is used to talk about actions and states which we see as completed in the past. I'm thinking about having my hair cut short but I don't think my husband will be very happy about it. We use it to talk about a specific point in time. They aren't arriving until Wednesday. Isn't she coming to the dinner? Present Simple or Continuous The Present Simple is used for: • • • • Regular actions or events: He plays tennis most weekends.

Were you expecting him to get the job? I was thinking about you the other day. She was walking in the street when she suddenly fell over. I was having a cup of coffee when I remembered I was supposed to be in a meeting! Past Simple or Continuous The past simple and the past continuous both refer to completed actions in the past. 141 .• • • • • • • • • • yesterday three weeks ago last year in 2002 from March to June for a long time for 6 weeks in the 1980s in the last century in the past Past Continuous The past continuous is used to talk about past events which took place for a period of time. were you sleeping? I was just making some tea. He asked her but she didn't know anything. We were just talking about it before you arrived. most of the time. We often use it to describe a "background action" when something else happened. very few people were using mobile phones. we use the past simple. The past continuous is used only when you want to emphasize the continuity of the action. They were really trying hard but couldn't do it. I only found out a few minutes ago.) • • • • • While I was driving home. • • • • • • They were still waiting for the plane when I spoke to them. Richard was trying desperately to phone me. He was talking to me on the phone and it suddenly went dead. When we are talking about such actions. • • • • They lived in Florida for 6 years. Would you like some? I was thinking about her last night. The company was growing rapidly before he became chairman. In the 1990s. Sorry. (If we want to talk about a past event as a simple fact. we use the past simple. The company took on more than 100 people last year. It is used to emphasize the continuing process of an activity or the period of that activity. • • • • Jack was talking about it all evening. This is by far the most common way of talking about the past.

The past continuous to talk about the "background action" and the past simple to talk about the shorter completed action. • • • • We've been to Singapore a lot over the last few years. We can use it to look back on the recent past. • • • • Have you ever been to Argentina? Has he ever talked to you about the problem? I've never met Jim and Sally. They have cancelled the meeting. • • • • • It was snowing hard when we left home. The sales team has doubled its turnover. They don't know yet. 142 .) We use the present perfect when we want to look back from the present to the past. we often use the words 'ever' (in questions) and 'never'. Present Perfect (Please note that British and American English have different rules for the use of this tense. I don't have one. The company was doing well when I last visited it. it is often acceptable to use the past simple in some of these examples. • • • • I've broken my watch so I don't know what time it is. She's done this type of project many times before. I've just done it. She hasn't arrived yet. In American English. The explanation and exercises here refer to British English. She's taken my copy. Everybody was taking a break when I arrived. When we look back on the more distant past. They've already met. We've never considered investing in Mexico. She was going out to an appointment when I saw her. Have you spoken to him yet? Have they got back to you yet? It can also be used to look back on the more distant past. I was reading the report when you rang. • • • • • • • We've already talked about that. When we look back on the recent past. we often use the words 'just' 'already' or the word 'yet' (in negatives and questions only). They've often talked about it in the past. We've mentioned it to them on several occasions over the last six months.

143 . I've been working too long on computer. • • They've been working here for a long time but Andy has worked here for even longer. 'for days'. He's been telling me about it for days. we use the simple form. Have you been sleeping properly? I've got a stiff neck. Present Perfect Simple or Continuous Often there is very little difference between the present perfect simple and the present perfect continuous. The present perfect continuous is often used with 'since'. 'over the last few months'. They're on strike He hasn't been talking to me for weeks. I've been looking at other options recently. the kitchen is a mess. They haven't been working all week. both are equally acceptable. 'for'. The university has been sending students here for over twenty years to do work experience. 'all week'. I wish he would stop. • • • I've been learning Spanish for 20 years and I still don't know very much. She's been having a hard time. we use the continuous form. He's written a very good report. You haven't been getting good results over the last few months. In many cases. • • I've made fifteen phone calls this morning. It can refer to an action that has not finished. It can refer to a series of actions. He's been phoning me all week for an answer. To emphasise the action. • • • • • • • I've been wanting to do that for ten years. I've been waiting for him for 30 minutes and he still hasn't arrived. 'lately'. Who has been cooking? You look tired.Present Perfect Continuous This tense is used to talk about an action or actions that started in the past and continued until recently or that continue into the future: We can use it to refer to an action that has finished but you can still see evidence. I've lived here for 10 years and she has been living here for 12 years. He's been working here since 2001. We've been working hard on it for ages. • • • Oh. 'recently'. To emphasise the result of the action. • • • She's been writing to her regularly for a couple of years. • • We've been working really hard for a couple of months.

You've been calling your boyfriend in Australia. • • The phone bill is enormous. it is often considered acceptable to use the past simple in some of these examples. She's been trying to convince him for 20 minutes but she hasn't managed to yet. Have you been running? When you use the words 'ever' or 'never'. In American English. The comments and the exercises here refer to correct grammar for British English. I had too much to eat at lunchtime. When an action is finished and you can see the results. 'last year'. I started work here in 1989. He came in a few moments ago. • • • • We spoke to him yesterday. Present Perfect or Past Simple (Remember that British and American English have different rules for the use of the present perfect. We use time expressions like are 'ever'. 'in 1999' with the past simple. • • • I've been reading this book for two months but I've only read half of it. 'ago'. These sentences are in the past with no connection to the present. haven't you? You're red in the face. My stomach hurts. • • • I first got to know him 10 years ago. Have you ever heard anything so strange in your life. She joined the company in 1999.) The past simple is used to talk about actions in the past that have finished. use the continuous form. It's very difficult to read. use the simple form. The present perfect simple to look back on actions in the past from the present. It talks about 'then' and definitely excludes 'now'. • • I don't know them. We use time expressions like 'yesterday'. • • • I've known him for 10 years. They've been talking about this for month and they still haven't found a solution. I've worked here since 1987. We made our last purchase from them over a year ago. 144 . Now look at these same situations seen from the present.Look at the difference in these examples. I've never met them. It always includes 'now'. 'since' with the present perfect. I've eaten too much. 'never'.

We had been playing tennis for only a few minutes when it started raining. • • • He phoned me to say that they had already paid the bill. We use it when reporting things said in the past. (US) I've just done it. I hadn't known the bad news when I saw him. Past Perfect The past perfect simple is used to talk about what happened before a point in the past.• • • I've never seen so many people here before. (US) We can use the time phrase 'for' with both forms. I thought we had already decided on somewhere for our holidays. Past Perfect Continuous We use the past perfect continuous to look back at a situation in progress. It is often used when we report what people had said/thought/believed. • • • • • • I haven't done it yet. Typical time expressions used with the present perfect in British English but often used with the past simple in American English are 'already'. Have you ever been more surprised? I've done a lot since we last talked about it. Before I changed jobs. He was out of breath when he arrived because he had been running. (UK) I didn't do it yet. • • • • She had already spoken to him before I had time to give him my version. (US) I've already done it. It looks back from a point in the past to a time further in the past. She said she thought John had moved to Italy. 145 . but with different meanings. (UK) I already did it. • • • It had been snowing for a while before we left. I've lived in Paris for a couple of years and still love it. 'just'. The company had started the year very well but was hit badly by the strikes. We had been thinking about buying a new house but then we decided to stay here. • • • It was a good time to invest. We use it to say what had been happening before something else happened. Inflation had been falling for several months. I checked with our customers but they still hadn't received the delivery. I had been working on a plan to reduce production costs. (UK) I just did it. 'yet'. • • I lived in Paris for a couple of years before I moved here.

'maybe'. It's going to rain soon. • • • • Look out! That cup is going to fall off. Future (will) Some people have been taught that 'will' is 'the future' in English. Future (going to) There is no one 'future tense' in English. Next year. Look at those black clouds. We use 'going to' when we want to make a prediction based on evidence we can see now. We're going to make a loss.I told you I had been looking for some new clothes. • • When I retire I'm going to go back to Barbados to live. Sometimes when we use 'will' we are not talking about the future. Often we add 'perhaps'. 'possibly' to make the belief less certain.' .• • • 'I've been trying to call you all day. I'll be 50. You're going to need to stop soon. 'We've been shopping. • • • • The sun will rise over there tomorrow morning. Notice that this plan does not have to be for the near future. I'm not going to talk for very long. I'm going to be boss of my own successful company. There are 4 future forms. • • • • • I'm going to see him later today.' .They said they had been shopping. We can replace 'going to go' by 'going'. We're going to have lunch first. The one which is used most often in spoken English is 'going to'. 'I was looking for some new clothes. She's going to the exhibition tomorrow. It always is. Sometimes when we talk about the future we cannot use 'will'. There won't be any snow.' . • I'll probably come back later. She's going to see what she can do. I'm certain.She said she had been trying to call me all day. not 'will'. This is not correct. It's too warm. 'probably'. You look very tired. • • I'm going out later. In ten years time. These figures are really bad. We use 'going to' when we want to talk about a plan for the future. We can use 'will' to talk about future events we believe to be certain. 146 . They're going to launch it next month. That plane will be late.

If you are making a future prediction based on evidence in the present situation. At the moment of making a decision. I hope you won't make too much noise. I'll possibly come but I may not get back in time. Once you have made the decision. The boss won't be very happy. 147 . It's going to be another warm day. We're not going to get in for hours. I won't tell him. Look at the queue. I'll answer that. 'I hope'. I promise. • • • • Not a cloud in the sky. • • • • The President will serve for four years. I'll phone you when I get there. Perhaps we'll meet again some day. Sarah. use 'going to'. Harry. If we are not so certain about the future. • • I'll call Jenny to let her know. I think she'll do well in the job. we use 'will'. I hope you'll enjoy your stay. use 'will'. The traffic is terrible. 'possibly'. talk about it using 'going to'. The thought has just come into our head. • • • • I think I'll go to bed now. I'll come and have a drink with you but I must let Harry know. we use 'will' with expressions such as 'probably'. We often use 'will' with 'I think' or 'I hope'. I'm certain he'll do a good job. I'll go. We're going to miss our flight. I'm sure you'll like her. We use 'will' at the moment we make a new decision or plan. Will or going to When we want to talk about future facts or things we believe to be true about the future. Be careful! You're going to spill your coffee. 'I think'. • • • • I hope you'll visit me in my home one day. She'll probably be a great success.• • • He'll possibly find out when he sees Jenny. I think we'll get on well. I'm going to call her about the meeting. Maybe it will be OK. I need Jenny's number. I'm going to have a drink with Simon. • • • • Bye.

30. 'will' is referring to events happening at the present. Will you have another cup of coffee? When we use 'will' referring to the present. I'll get it. / I'm doing it. Or so she says. My plane is leaving at 8. • • • • • • My planes leaves at 6 in the morning. / I'm seeing him I'm going to do it. I've tried everything and I'm really exhausted. 148 . You will do as I say. however. We can also use the present continuous to talk about these. We're seeing David at 5 and then I'm having dinner with Simon. • • • The car won't start. I'm leaving on Wednesday. Will . Next birthday she'll be 32.00. The sun is rising at 6. when we use the present continuous. However. In these examples. • • • • I've bought my ticket. The sun rises a minute earlier tomorrow. The bosses are giving everyone an end of year bonus. the idea being expressed is usually one of 'showing willingness' or 'will power'. I'll tell her about it. • • My baby won't stop crying. The shop is closing at 7. I'll probably visit Sue when I go to Oxford. We use the present simple to talk about events in the future which are 'timetabled'. • • I'm going to see him. She's picking me up at the station. • • • If I speak to her. If that's the phone. The shop opens at 9.other uses Older textbooks often refer to 'will' as 'the future tense' and this has confused a lot of learners. In many situations when we talk about future plans we can use either the present continuous or the 'going to' future. I am the boss. there is more of a suggestion that an arrangement has already been made. but present simple is more usual.32 tomorrow.30. It is important to remember that when we talk about the future we cannot always use 'will' and that when we use 'will' we are not always talking about the future. Here 'will' is clearly referring to the future.Present forms for the future We use the present continuous to talk about things that we have already arranged to do in the future.

The phone's ringing. 'shall' was used as an alternative to 'will' with 'I' and 'we'. Formerly. I won't forget this. My car won't go any faster than this. I wish he would leave me alone. I'll phone him back immediately. 149 . orders. particularly in American English. • • A cat will always find a warm place to sleep. subjective future. 'will' is normally used. We use 'will' for requests. We use 'will' for deduction. • • • • I'll do it at once. Shall We don't use 'Shall' very frequently in modern English. in older grammar. We use 'will' for habit. Read the rest of this only if you want to know more about how some older speakers still use 'shall'. Notice that the negative of 'shall' can be 'shall not' or 'shan't' – though the second one is now very rare in American English. • I shall go to see the boss and I shall ask him to explain this decision. invitations and offers. That will be Mark. They are all to do with the present or are 'timeless'. It is used to make offers and suggestions and to ask for advice. We use 'will' to make promises or threats. Look again at all of these examples of 'will'. it has an idea of a more personal. • • I expect he'll want us to get on with it. I'll get my own back some day. • • • • What time shall we meet? Shall we vote on it now? What dress shall I wear? Shall I open the window? You only really need to know that about 'shall' in modern English. Today.• I need quiet to write this but he will keep on talking to me. • • • • Will you give me a hand? Will you please take a seat? Will you have some cake? I'll help you. When we do use 'shall'.

Do sit down. Don't go to work. For example: • • I speak English every day at work. We use the passive form to say what happens to people and things. Tell him how you feel. I repaired the flat tire on the car. Make the imperative 'more polite' by adding 'do'. Tell me everything you know . Take a left and then a right. Stay at home and rest up. The Passive form We use the active form to say what the subject does. • • • Have a word with him. • • • Stand up straight. The imperative can be used to make an invitation. The Imperative The imperative is used to give a direct order. They're delicious.• • I don't like these people and I shall not go to their party. to say what is done to them. • • • Take three tablets every morning. The imperative is used to give instructions. Open your book. I shan't object if you go without me. • • • Do shut up. • • • Go ahead. The imperative is used on signs and notices. Speak to her about it. Get better. Pull Use the imperative to give friendly informal advice. Make yourself at home. • • • Pay here. I'll be there shortly. Take that chewing gum out of your mouth. Do come to our party. Do not touch. Have a biscuit. Come in and sit down. For example: 150 .

If unemployment is rising. The shirts were made in Turkey. we can use: If / When / Unless plus a present form PLUS present simple or imperative • • • If he gets there before me. Unless prices are rising. go on the London Eye. you don't really understand how fantastic it is. In the condition clause. go and have a coffee. ask him to wait. If they say they want it. If we take the car. For example: • • The car was damaged while it was parked on the street. I was informed by the Human Resources Manager only two days ago. it's not a good investment. Zero Conditional When we talk about things that are generally or always true. we can use a variety of present forms. it'll be difficult to park. people tend to stay in their present jobs.• • English is spoken here. Unless you've been there yourself. • • • • If Sue comes. If you lend me some money. • • • Unless he asks you politely. In the result clause. it'll be lots of fun. please don't make so much noise. take plenty of sun cream. First Conditional The First Conditional is used to talk about future events that are likely to happen. you have to pay for your drinks and snacks. Notice that 'unless' means the same as 'if not'. there can only be the present simple or imperative. It'll be very hot. we'll have to give it to them. • • • • • • If you visit London. a small car is big enough for one person. When you go on holiday. refuse to do any more work on the project. 151 . When you fly budget airline. Note that we are not talking about a specific event but something which is generally true. When I've finished an article. Unless you need more space. The car is being repaired. If you've done that. I always ask Kate to read it through. We use the passive form when we don't know who did the action. We use the passive form when what was done is more important than who did it. When I'm concentrating. I'll pay you back tomorrow. For example: • • It was approved by Gerry last week.

I'll tell her. If she hasn't heard the news yet. Otto thinks these things are possible. I'd visit the Great Wall. you can get a lift home with him. If he comes. Note the form 'If I were you' which is often used to give advice. we'll have wasted a lot of time and money. we'd have big problems. I'd buy a big house. • • • If I went to China. If I had millions dollars. If I were you. Second Conditional The Second Conditional is used to talk about 'impossible' situations. • • If I were you. I'd have sushi every day. Note that the choice between the first and the second conditional is often a question of the speaker's attitude rather than of facts. 152 . If he's feeling better. If they were to enter our market. The "future clause" can also contain other modal verbs such as 'can' and 'must'. The Second Conditional is also used to talk about 'unlikely' situations. Peter doesn't. I'll go on the London Eye. you should tell him. If we don't get this deal. If everyone had clean water to drink. I'd go back to school and get more qualifications. you must go. • • • If I go to London again.) • • • If she were happy in her job. she wouldn't be looking for another one. If I was the President. • • • If you have never been to Paris. If you were in my position. I'm going to tell him everything. Peter – If I won the lottery. I'd reduce taxes. Note that after I / he/ she /it we often use the subjunctive form 'were' and not 'was'.The 'if' clause can be used with different present forms. The "future clause" can contain 'going to' or the future perfect as well as 'will'. If there were no hungry people in this world. we would be able to go to the concert in Hyde Park. I'll buy a big house. there would be a lot less disease. it would be a much better place. I'd look for a new place to live. I'd give a lot to charity. you'd understand. Compare these examples. he'll be back at work tomorrow. If he doesn't know yet. • • • • If we were in London today. • • • I will be very angry if he doesn't come. If I see him. If I lived in Japan. • Otto – If I win the lottery. (Some people think that 'were' is the only 'correct' form but other people think 'was' is equally 'correct' .

Perhaps if the opportunity had arisen. she would be here by now.) If I had seen him at the meeting. Peter – If my team won the Cup. • • • • If I had seen him at the meeting. Notice that the main clause can contain 'would'. If I had had time. Note that the main clause can contain 'would' 'could' or 'might. I would do it differently. ("if I'd been there. Also note that sometimes the 'if clause' is implied rather than spoken.) If I had paid more attention in class.) If I had seen him at the meeting. I would want to buy. I would commute by train. • • • What would I do without you? ("if you weren't here") Where would I get one at this time of night? ("if I wanted one") He wouldn't agree. I might have asked him. If I spoke to him directly. I'll buy champagne for everybody. 'could' or 'might.• • Otto – If I get promoted. I would have understood the lesson. I'd buy champagne for everybody. we would have had to rebuild the kitchen. If they were thinking of selling.") I wouldn't have said that. I would have asked him. • • • • If I had worked harder at school. ("if I asked him") Third Conditional We can use the Third Conditional to talk about 'impossible' conditions. I might be able to persuade him. If we met up for lunch. If she were coming. ("if you had asked me but you didn't. If we had bought that house. • • • If I had the chance to do it again. I could have asked him. Also notice that sometimes the 'if clause' is implied rather than spoken. I'd throw a big party.") 153 . I would have got better grades. ("if he had tried that with me. (But he wasn't there so I didn't. I would have gone to see him. (But I'm not sure. But I didn't have time. • • • I'd have done it.") He wouldn't have let him get away with that. we would have got there on time but we were late. If we had caught the earlier train. ( But he wasn't there so it wasn't possible. impossible because they are in the past and we cannot change what has happened. • • • If I was still working in Brighton. I'll throw a big party. Note that the 'If clause' can contain the past simple or the past continuous. Peter – If I got promoted. we could go to that new restaurant. Otto – If my team win the Cup.

You're making too much noise. We wish you a merry Christmas. It's raining. I wish you would be quiet. You keep interrupting me. I wish it wasn't raining. I wish it were Saturday today. I wish I hadn't gone. we cannot use 'wish' and must use 'hope'. However. • • • He won't help me. I hope everything will be fine in your new job. I wish he were here. I've eaten too much. In more formal English. much less common. I wish I got invited to parties. I hope you have a safe and pleasant journey.Wish Let's start off with the easy part. you must use 'hope '. I wish I wasn't going to visit her later. He wishes he lived in Paris. that we have regrets about the present situation. Where 'will' means a future event. I wish I hadn't eaten so much. I wish you a safe and pleasant journey. In the case of 'will' . I'm going to visit her later. much more formal and much. 154 . ' I wish to' can mean the same as 'I want to' but it is much. I wish you wouldn't do that. Notice that the verb tense which follows 'I wish' is 'more in the past' than the tense corresponding to its meaning. I never get invited to parties. I hope some buses will still be running. • • I wish to make a complaint. the main use of 'wish' is to say that we would like things to be different from what they are. You can also use 'wish' with a noun to 'offer good wishes'. I wish to see the manager. • • • • • • I'm too fat. Notice that when you want to offer good wishes using a verb. • • • I wish I were taller. • • I wish you all the best in your new job. We hope you have the best of luck. They wish they'd chosen a different leader. • • • • We wish you the best of luck. • • There's a strike tomorrow. we use the subjunctive form 'were' and not 'was' after 'wish'. • • • I wish I was rich. where 'will' means 'show willingness' we use 'would'. I wish I was thin. I went to see the latest Star Wars film. I wish he would help me.

able) discusión. que se dice confidant) sufrir de estreñimiento (y no estar constipado. tarde o temprano (y no eventualmente que se dice by chance. que se dice to attend) globo (y no balón. pero que en realidad en inglés significan otra cosa. que se dice fun) economía (y no económico. que se dice nowadays. que se dice to have a cold/chill) consejo (y no conciliar. possibly) salida (y no éxito. que se dice funny) tienda de comestibles (y no grosería. que se dice school) orden. que se dice desert) desviación (y no diversión. que se dice cheap) avergonzado/a (y no embarazada.False Friends . pelea (y no argumento. que se dice to reconcile) engaño (y no decepción. que se dice smoke) gracious grocery cortés (y no gracioso. que se dice folder) dibujos animados. que se dice to warn) advice apt argument arm assessment to assist balloon bank billet brave camp carpet cartoon casualty consejos (y no aviso. que se dice casual. tira cómica (y no cartón. que se dice warning. notice) propenso (y no apto. sino que se refiere al director de la orquesta o al cobrador que se encuentra en los autobuses. Aquí se encuentra una lista de los false friends o cognados más conocidos. que se dice driver) seguro de sí mismo (y no confidente. que se dice pregnant) definitivo o posible (y no eventual. que se dice ticket o note) valiente (y no bravo. que se dice disappointment) postre (y no desierto. que se dice facultad. que se dice bench) alojamiento militar (y no billete. at present) anunciar (y no advertir. que se dice shape) vapor o gas (y no fumar. English actual actually to advertise Correct Spanish Translation real. que se dice coincidence) collar necklace) college command commodity conductor confident (to be) constipated council deception dessert diversion economics embarrassed eventual eventually exit fabric form fume cuello de las prendas de vestir (y no collar. que se dice commando unit) mercancía o materia prima (y no comodidad.la institución (y no banco de plaza. colegio universitario (y no colegio. efectivo (y no actual. que se dice cardboard) víctima o herido (y no casualidad.Cognates Se denominan false friends (falsos amigos) o cognates (cognados) a las palabras que por escribirse de la misma forma (o parecida) en español son confundidas. que se dice consultancy) ayudar (y no asistir a un lugar. que se dice current) en realidad (y no actualmente. mandato (y no comando. que se dice success) tela (y no fábrica. Por ejemplo. alegría. que se dice fierce) base militar o campamento (y no campo en general. que se dice qualified. que se dice comfort) director de orquesta o cobrador (y no conductor. que se dice gun) evaluación (y no asesoría. "conductor " en inglés no significa conductor. que se dice field) alfombra (y no carpeta. que se dice plot) brazo (y no arma. que se dice ball) banco . que se dice factory) formulario (y no forma. que se dice rudeness o rude 155 . incidental) finalmente.

que se dice long) conferencia (y no lectura. que se dice to stir) reanudar. que se dice relatives) conservante (y no preservativo. que se dice oven) expresión idiomática (y no idioma. genial (y no terrorífico. que se dice to move) vagabundo (y no trampa. que se dice bookshop) lujo (y no lujuria. prensa (y no media. que se dice terrifying) traducir (y no trasladarse. continuar o reasumir (y no resumir. eliminar (y no remover. que se dice to summarise or to sum up) ensalada (y no salado. que se dice condom) abandonar. pésame (y no simpatía. comprensión. que se dice friendliness. anuncio (y no noticia. affection) objetivo (y no tarjeta. que se dice to bother or to annoy) nota. que se dice jealous) 156 . que se dice to remove or to put away) de tamaño normal (y no regular. que se dice contact lens) biblioteca (y no librería. que se dice bigger. que se dice stocking) tristeza (y no miseria. que se dice bread) padres (y no parientes. cazuela (y no pan. que se dice absurd idea) una vez (y no once. que se dice subject) pecado (y no sin. que se dice to remember) quitar. que se dice food poisoning) involucrar (y no envolver. que se dice event) apoyar (y no soportar. que se dice not so good) maleducado. que se dice without) pala (y no espada. older) medios. que se dice trap) entusiasta (y no celoso. que se dice rough) darse cuenta (y no realizar. que se dice to make / to do) grabar (y no recordar. que se dice eleven) cacerola. que se dice sword) éxito (y no suceso. que se dice poverty) abusar sexualmente (y no molestar. que se dice uninhabited) ebrio (y no intoxicado. que se dice wrap) grande (y no largo. que se dice sensitive) sensible (y no sensitivo. descortés (y no rudo. que se dice reading) lenteja (y no lentilla. que se dice sensible) firma (y no asignatura. que se dice a piece of news) aparición (y no ocurrencia.horn idiom inhabitant intoxicated involve large lecture lentil library luxury mayor media misery to molest notice occurrence once pan parents preservative to quit regular rude to realise to record to remove to resume salad sane sensible sensitive signature sin spade success to support sympathy target terrific to translate tramp zealous word / expression) cuerno (y no horno. que se dice lust) alcalde (y no mayor. que se dice card) fenomenal. que se dice to put up with) compasión. que se dice healthy) sensitivo (y no sensible. que se dice salty) cuerdo (y no sano. dejar (y no quitar. que se dice language) habitante (y no inhabitado.

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