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**OSMANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
**

Call No.

W 34

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Accession No.

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This book should be returned on or before the date

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marked below.

DESCRIPTIVE

GEOMETRY

EARLE

F.

WATTS,

S.B.

Associate Professor of Drawing and Descriptive Geometry

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

JOHN

Professor of

T.

RULE,

S.B.

Drawing and Descriptive Geometry Chairman, Section of Graphics

Massachusetts [nstitutc of Technology

New

York

PRENTICE-HALL, INC

COPYRIGHT, 1946, BY

70 FIFTH AVENUE,

PRENTICE-HALL, INC. NEW YORK

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. NO PART OF THIS BOOK MAY BE REPRO-

DUCED IN ANY FORM, BY MIMEOGRAPH OR ANY OTHER MEANS, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER.

First Printing

Second Printing Third Printing Fourth Printing

February, 1946 Julv, 1915 April, 1947 August, 1947

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

in general. Certainly the engineering student should be equally well acquainted with both approaches so that he may choose the better one to suit the specific problem confronting him. Thus the engineering problem at the outset is by graphical accuracy. Algebraic and functional mathematics are. and such solutions are. considerably quicker and simpler than algebraic solutions. or on a The conversion from graphical data to transit. it requires less time in effecting the solution. most engineering problems are capable of being solved graphically. in general. is that the complete graphical solution is absolutely as accurate as the algebraic solution so long as the graphical accuracy is within the accuracy of the empirical data upon which the solution is based. numerical data is made directly from the scale and is limited by the accuracy of the limited ' scale. is a graphical device. and it is more fruitful in yielding hidden relationships. The authors do not believe in limiting the teaching of descriptive geometry to one method of attack. However. Graphical solutions are not capable of absolute accuracy. They do believe that all methods are a part of the subject and that the student does not develop adequate powe unless he is capable of choosing tfce simplest of the iii . whether it be on a thermometer. as is done when either the "direct" or the "Mongean" method is presented alone. A scale. This fact tends to obscure the fact that no solution can be more accurate than the data upon which it is based. in general. are graphical in nature. The great bulk of such theory lies in the descriptive geometry which consequently constitutes the greater part of the volume. It is the conviction of the authors that in The a substantial percentage of It is as accurate cases the graphical method is the preferable method. The present volume is meant to cover the basic material of ele- mentary graphical theory applicable to engineering problems and to develop the ability of the student to solve such problems by the simplest graphical methods. it is more readily understandable. theoretically capable of absolute accuracy. as the algebraic method. on an electric meter.Preface -i-HB specific solutions of problems encountered by the engineer are I based on empirical data which. which needs heavy emphasis. point of importance.

" The latter chapter assumes that the student is acquainted with the elementary plane geometry constructions. great importance in engineering work.iv PREFACE Consequently. preser The n Th chuset diagrams in their full three-dimensional spatial relationships. slides ! mew figures at the ends of some of the chapters ae one-eye en directly from a set of stereoscopic projection slides used by rs. There are fifty he set. W. F. si on stereoscopic drawing has also been placed in the Appenthis subject is not contained in any other text and should be availa Th views the au tion. which may be obtained from the Society for Visual Educa- or for 100 East Ohio Street. T. E. It. chiefly with regard to conies. Goodrich of the Massaie :>ers nstitute of Technology for his general assistance and advice. J. . Since the graphical solution of an engineering problem does not always fall in the field of descriptive geometry. which are available in vectograph form either as prints The slides )jection by means of a standard slide projector. contains only those constructions useful in engineering drawing and certain special constructions. R. which are of A < )ter dix. this book possible solutions of any given problem. on the cuts correspond to those on the slides. Illinois. L. ithors are indebted to Professor A. Chicago 11. . therefore. to point out the various possibilities of attack on the basic attempts group of problems underlying the subject. chapters have been added in the Appendix covering "Precision in Drawing" and the "Properties of Plane Figures.

(52). 77) Intersection of plane and polyhedron (78. 68) Angle between line and plane Angle between an oblique plane and a reference plane (67) (66. 63) Rotation (56-58. 2) Correspondence (3) Representation (4) Position of observer (5) Objects (6) Principal projections (7) Arrangement of views (8) Visualization (9) Examples (10) Visibility (11) Quadrants (12. POLYHEDRONS Definitions (76. 1 II. IV. Problems. 13) Additional views (14-18). 69) Distance from a point to a line (70) Distance between two skew lines To draw a line making given angles with the projection planes (71) Plane making given angles with the projection planes (73) Bear(72) ing and slope of a line (74) Strike and dip of a plane (75). 40) Problem 8: Intersection of two planes (41.Table of Contents OHAPTVB ' PAQB iii PREFACE I. 59) Angle between two lines (55. 87). 61) 1True shape of plane figure (60. GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION (53) 78 True length of line (54. 45) Traces of (35-37) a line (39. 62) Angle between two planes (64. 32 The fundamental problems (19) Problem 1: To assume a point on a line (20) Problem 2: To draw a line through two points (21) Problem 3: To draw a line through a point and parallel to a given line (22) Problem 4: To draw the normal view and end view of a line (23) Oblique view of an object (24) The plane (25) Intersecting lines (26) 6: 'To pass a plane through two intersecting (or parallel) lines Line lying in a plane (28) Principal lines of a plane (29) Lines (27) To assume a point in a plane (31) of maximum inclination (30) Problem 6: To draw Parallel relations between lines and planes (32) the edge view and normal vieW of an oblique plane (33) To execute a Problem plane construction on an oblique plane of space (34) Intersections Problem 7: Intersection of line and plane (38. 44) Traces Definitions of perpendicularity (46) of a plane (42. 101 Problems. IT . III. Problems. ON THE SYSTEMATIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS Change of projection planes (51) 70 Examples Analysis (49) Loci (50) Problems. 79) Intersection of line and polyhedron (80) To draw the views of a polyhedron when the right section and axis are given (81) To find right section (82) Developments (83-85)-*-Intersection of polyhedrons (86. FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS RELATING TO LINES AND PLANES . PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Definitions (1. The tetrahedron V. Problems. 65. 43) Problem 9: Line perpendicular to a plane (47) Problem 10: Plane through a point and perpendicular to a line (48).

. PICTORIAL DRAWING Definition (158) Pictorial view by auxiliary projection (159) Direct measurement (160) Revolved-view method (161. Vectors. Streamlined surof Three Variables. HORIZONTAL PROJECTION Applications (133) Intersection of two planes (134) Intersection of plane and curved Profiles (136) surface (135) Intersection of inclined plane and the ground surface (137. Spherical triangles (196) piece (195) The terrestrial sphere (197) The astronomical triangle (198) 6. CURVED SURFACES Geometrical surfaces (88. 127). Graphical Representation of an Equation 8.vi TABLE OF CONTENTS PAQH CHAPTER VI. Steel Frameworks. (101) VII. SIMPLE SHADOWS Shadows (182) Shadow Shadow of a solid (184) 214 of a point (183) Shadow of a plane figure Perspective shadows (187). Problems.kT (200) face (201). (156) X. Problems. Problems. 117) The convolute (118) The conoid (119) The cylinThe cow's horn (121) The warped cone (122) The droid (120) Double curved surfaces of general general warped surface (123-125) Warped form (126. Conic Lofting. Problems. ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS Cartesian coordinate planes (139) Loci (140) Analytical method (138) Locus of first-degree equation is a plune (141) The plane (142) The straight line (143) The point (144) Direction of a line (145) Distance between two points (146) Equation of line determined by two Intersection of line with the projection planes (149) points (147. Steel chute (193) 220 (189) 3. Hip roof (190) Engine mount (191) Structures. Metrical Problems on the Sphere. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 1 Wood Structures. Skew bridge 4. 168 The plane (130) Horizontal projection (128) The straight line (129) Curved surfaces (131) Surface of the ground (132) 175 IX. 2. (185. Problems.. Problems. 100) Intersecting curved surfaces Development of curved surfaces (102-106). 186) XII. 162) Trimetric proDimetric projection (164) Isometric projection (165jection (163) 171) Perspective projection (172-174) Three-point perspective (175) Two-point perspective (176) One-point perspective (177) Oblique projections (178-181). Roadway (199) 7. Earthwork. 192 XI. PV . Statics (192) Sheet Metal Breeching (194) Uptake and transition 5. 114 89)~7The cone (90) The cylinder (91) The sphere (92) To assume a point in a surface (93) Tangent lines and tangent planes (94-97) Intersection of line and surface (98) Intersection of plane and a surface (99. VIII. SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM 147 surfaces (107-111) Tangent planes (112) Hyperbolic parabThe unparted hyperboloid (114) The helix (115) The oloid (113) helicoid (116. 148) Equation of plane determined by three points (150) Intersection of two planes (151) Intersection of line and oblique plane (152) Angle between two lines (153) Line perpendicular to a plane (154) Equation of a plane perpendicular to a given line (155) Angle between two planes Distance from a point to a plane (157).

II. STEREOSCOPIC DRAWING State of the art (219) Basic problem (220) Stereoscopic drawing defined (221) Limitations of single perspective (222) -Stereoscopic image fixed (223) Terminology (224) Functions of projection pairs Factors affecting image shape (226) Relation of picture plane to (225) Image size and projection pair (227) Locating the picture plane (228) viewing distance (229) Viewing conditions established (230) Drawing size (231) Location of horizon (232) Example (233-242) Sources of ejror (243-247) Apparent intersections (248) Curved surfaces (249) Visibility (250) 268 Lettering (251) Shrinkage (252). PAQK . PRECISION IN DRAWING Precision in drawing (202) 253 Lines (203) Angles (204) Scale (205) Shrinkages (206).TABLE OF CONTENTS vii APPENDICES PPBNDIX I. 295 297 . IV. 256 III. NATURAL TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS TABLE OF CHORDS INDEX 289 V. PROPERTIES OF PLANE FIGURES Metrical properties (208) Projective Properties of plane figures (207) Desargue's theorem (210) Conies (211) Properties properties (209) of conies (212) Hexagon (213) Pascal's theorem (214) Determining the type of conic (215) Line conies (216) Brianchon's theorem (217) Parabolic envelope (218).

B. A plane determined by three points A. B.. V. A plane determined by two intersecting lines a and b is called plane ab. C. AuBn is the top view of the line segment AB. The projection of a line is represented in the same manner.R. . The projection of a point on a plane is represented by a letter for the point and a subscript for the plane. the intersection of plane Q with the is denoted as HQ. . is termed the line AB. AH is the projection of point A on the horizontal plane.. of space are represented . b. . . Q. Thus. required elements by late letters. The line of intersection of two planes is represented by the letters of the two determining planes. given A ff A v A P required P H Pv. . . points A. Unlimited lines of space are represented by small letters: a. In general. Unlimited planes of space are represented by capital letters: H. H . plane . . C. Thus.. is called the plane ABC. P. .Notation POINTS line determined by two A by capital letters: A. Thus. kv is the vertical projection or front view of the unlimited line k. &. B. given elements are denoted by early letters of the alphabet.

If a straight line is passed through any point Fig. an object or structure may be considered as a combination These forms are commonly prisms of elementary geometrical forms. lines. and cylinders. The plane is the projection plane and is represented by the drawing paper. In general. into points.CHAPTER I Principles of Orthographic Projection 1. and warped or twisted surfaces.1 Fig. 2 of space and perpendicular to a plane. and surfaces as the basic geometrical elements. intersects the plane (Figure 1). 2. but may also include pyramids. 1 . Descriptive geometry defined is Descriptive geometry essentially the technique of accurately repre- senting objects by means of drawings and of solving graphically all problems related to their form and position. analyzed Descriptive geometry deals specifically with the graphical representation on a plane (the drawing surface) of the basic geometrical elements and the solution of space problems connected with their representation. The projection of a straight line is determined by the projections of two The projection of an object on a plane is simply the proof its points. surfaces of revolu- These various space figures can be tion. Descriptive geometry provides the theoretical basis for technical drawing. cones. A jection of a sufficient number of lines to define the object (Figure 2). Orthographic projection The concept of projection provides a useful medium for explaining the process of drawing. the point of space is said to be projected orthogonally on the plane at the point where the perpendicular The perpendicular is called the projector.

since it represents the object The as it would appear to the eye if sight lines were assumed parallel. In practice.PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION [Ch. The representation of an object by means of its projections on two mutually perpendicular planes is the system in which we are interested and will be developed in the material point and A immediately following. and. . that the graphical representation of a point correspond to a single point of space. The orthographic projection of the point on the second plane measures the distance between the space point and the first plane.l projection is often called a view in practice. Correspondence The elementary principles of orthographic projection can best be understood by considering the point as the unit of graphical representation. Every point lying in the projector has the same projection. 3 Fig. and as a number. conversely. It may be noted here as a general proposition that the two projection planes can be assumed in any orientation in space so long as they are mutually perpendicular. term orthographic projection usually refers to the general process of representing an object by means of its projections or views as described here. its elevation above mean sea level is given second method for obtaining a correspondence between a space its graphical representation employs a second projection plane taken perpendicular to the first plane (Figure 4). In order that a projection system be useful. it is necessary that a given point of Fig. One method for accomplishing this correspondence is to give the distance between the space point and its orthographic projection by means of an index number attached to the projection (Figure 3). the summit of a hill is located on a map by its geographical coordinates. 3. For example. It is evident that a single projection of a point on a plane does not completely represent the position of the point with respect to the plane. they are taken in some definite position with respect to the object. 4 space have a unique graphical representation. This method is called horizontal projection and has its application in mapping.

In general. The Fi s . and PZ now lie on a single line which is perpendicular to RL. Projection planes 1 and 2 are represented on the drawing surface by assuming them revolved about the reference line RL as The its projections PI an axis so that they lie in a single plane (Figure 6). Also. 4. considered as marks giving on the planes. the presence of a reference line on a drawing indicates is a projection plane on each side of this line and that they were at right angles to each other before revolving. boundary lines are not drawn. Since the planes are considered unlimited in extent. any pair of projections corresponds to a single point of space. (RL). conversely.4] PRINCIPLES It OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION is remains to be shown how the projection system of Figure 4 represented on the drawing surface. These projections. the projections PI and P2. the projections that there . and. This is a consequence of the fact that the point P together with projections Pi and PI lie in a plane which is perpendicular to RL. are the graphical representations of point P. The line in lar planes are assumed as projection planes (Figure 5). 5 Fis-6 each point of space has a unique pair of projections. Figure 7 shows the two projection planes together with the projections of point P as they are actually represented on the drawing paper. point P of space is projected perpendicularly on planes 1 and 2. represent on a plane (the drawing surface) the projections of a point on two mutually perpendicular planes of space To The graphical representation of a space figure is based on the method Two mutually perpendicufor graphically representing a point of space. The important feature of projection drawing is the method for representing on one plane (the drawing surface) the two projections which lie on two mutually perpendicular planes. Thus. which these two planes intersect is called the reference line.

PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION x^ [Ch. 8 Fig. When viewing plane 1. the direction of sight is perpendicular to the P appears as p2 (Figure 11). it and is represented by RL. 7. position of a point of space is interpreted from the conventional projection plane sepa- representation of Figure 7 by considering each is The projection plane here assumed to be between the observer and the object. and point viewing plane 2. and point appears as projection PI (Figure 10). lie on a line perpendicular to the refer- ence Since two mutually perpendicular planes can have an indefinite of positions in space. 6. P and plane 1 is Objects The principal axes of the majority of objects are three mutually perpendicular lines. Position of the observer The rately.PLANE RL 1 Fig. the direction of sight is perpendicular to the plane. The word object as used here means a geometrical solid br a space figure. the set of planes shown in Figures 8 and 9 illustrate the principles of representation as well as the set assumed in number Figures 5 and 5. 9 of a point on the two planes must line. appears edgewise P and plane 2 is When plane.susceptible to geometrical analysis/ The axes of . I RL F! 3 .7 Fig. 11 Since plane 2 in space is at right angles to plane 1. The distance between point measured by the perpendicular from Pi to RL. Plane 1 appears edgewise and is represented by RL. The distance between point measured by the perpendicular from P* to RL. P .

The top view is placed above the front view. These are familiar terms commonly associated with a depth) and height.8] PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION object' are usually related to the earth by making one vertical and the other two horizontal. When an object consists of a combination of geometrical shapes. The principal dimensions of an object are measured parallel to the principal axes and are generally called the width. an reference system oriented with respect to space in Figure 12. the projection plane is called a profile plane. This projection is variously called the horizontal projection. The projection is the profile is The width and height appear on a or side view. dimension. the height being the common 8. Principal projections The principal projections dimensions. Thus. an object are those that show its principal but two of these dimensions can appear orthographic projection. the width and of This provertical projection plane. and the width shows as a dimension common to both views (Figure 14). 13 7. It is evident that in true size in a single depth appear on a horizontal projection plane (Figure 13). top view. and will be assigned as Fig. The top. the front view or front elevation. 12 Fig. . This object can also be represented by its front and side views (Figure 15). more than two views may be required for its representation. and side tiews of the object of Figure 16 are necessary to describe its form clearly. Arrangement of views The top and front views of the object ol Jbigure 13 are represented on the drawing paper by applying the principles of Article 4. When the object is called jection projected on a second vertical plane to show its depth and height. front. or plan.

Visualization Reading a drawing is the mental process of visualizing the object from its projections. I CC Fi 9 . The horizontal. The ancient Egyptians and Greeks made plans and elevations of buildings without recourse to any theory of projection. so far as we know. Vertical. one instinctively draws views of each part of the drawing. Projections of simple objects A few examples of objects represented in orthographic projection will serve to illustrate the principles developed in the preceding paragraphs. A The third dimension single view shows two dimensions of an object. visualizing a top view requires that one build up a mental picture of the object by estimating the relative height of each point and A front view is line of the drawing. The observer should assume that his direction of sight is vertical when looking at a top view. is in the direction of sight and appears in the adjacent view. and profile projection planes will be referred to as H t V. and horizontal when looking at a front view. In setting down on paper a concept of an object. A view should be regarded as the object itself. 10. 14 Fig. which show its various faces in true proportion. and P respectively. 15 9. Thus. visualized by estimating the relative Fig. . 16 depth While the foregoing description of drawing as a process of projection is convenient for the purposes of descriptive geometry.PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION [Ch. it should be noted that the method of representing an object by its top and front views is a natural one.

on the A vertical line projects as a point on the //-plane (Figure 18). and 2 units above is It will be seen that distance forward or to the rear of a given point measured in the top view. the adjacent view is a true-length view. line is perpendicular to If a a plane. The parallel . above or below. 3 units in back and 2 units below A. since the The projection of a of sight is perpendicular to the plane of the figure- Example 3. The use of rectangular coordinates will be treated more extensively in Chapter IX. Straight lines. line EF and true-length projection and also shows the true angle between line is parallel to the profile plane (Figure 21). and RL is the true angle between line CD and the vertical plane. The angle between the horizontal projection. A group of points. Point Ay given angle Point by projections AH and A v of. Dis-LEFTh-RIGHT tance above or below a given point is measured in the front view. Point point A. any second point B can be described with respect to it by stating the distance that B lies to the right or left. The side view G P KP K RL is GK projection of a plane figure on a the figure in its true shape.to itself . profile A E The angle between GP P and is a true-length view. If a point of space A is chosen as an origin. C is 7 2 units in front of. A horizontal line segment appears in true length in the top view (Figure 19). is one vertex of a of. and the 7-plane. Plane figures. and in front or in back of point A. This is a natural system of rectangular coordinates in which directions are related to the observer.101 PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Example 1 (Figure 17). the true angle between line It should be noted that when a line segment is parallel to the reference line in one view. C H Dn. Such a represents plane observer's direction projection is generally called a normal view. A line segment parallel to a plane Example 2. 17 frontal line is defined The front view VF V is a as a line parallel to the F-plane (Figure 20). tri- ABC. . its projection on the plane is a point. the //-plane. A Fig. B is 4 units to the right units to the right of. projects in its true length plane.

A in the F-plane. R is parallel to the profile plane. Since the apex is in back of the base. the lateral edges are hidden in the front view. The top view is the normal view. In Figure 23.. called frontal. One base is in the lateral edges of the prism are vertical. The side Example jff-plane. In Figure 22. The base lies front view is a normal view of the base and shows I**16 the angle between one edge of the base and the ff-plane to be 45. . I plane figure on a plane perpendicular to itself is a straight line. the triangle Q is parallel to the F-plane. HORIZONTAL Fig. The front view shows the true altitude of the prism. HORIZONTAL Fig. the circle view is the normal view. FRONTAL Fig.8 PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION [0. FRONTAL Fig. true length of the altitude appears in the top view. PROFILE Fig. 18 19. the triangle P is horizontal. 4. This projection is called an edge view or line view of the plane. The bases project edgewise in this view. The hexagonal right pyramid (Figure 26). is The front view is a line view. The front view is the normal view. The top view is A a normal view of the base and shows the true angle between one edge of the base and the T-plane to be 30. PROFILE Fig. A H Bu This position Bv VERTICAL Fig. The square right prism (Figure 25}. 22 23 24 Example 5. 20 21 In Figure 24.

25 Fig. In any view of a view are always visible lines. and the foremost edge is visible in the front view. the highest edge of a solid is visible in the top view.Itll PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION TOP VIEW TOP VIEW FRONT VIEW FRONT VIEW Fig. Bjd. 28 plane. the always visible in a view on any projection B TOP VIEW TOP VIEW FRONT VIEW B Fig. and AC are boundary lines of the view and are therefore visible. Edge OC la the highest edge (as can be seen in the front view) and is visible in the top view. 26 11. The boundary lines of the front view 1 are visible. In the top view the edges OA. Thus. Also. an nearest edge to the observer is and hidden drawing of any solid. Visibility of edges of a solid Since only a portion of the surface of a solid can be seen from a given position.. . The general method for determining visibility is illustrated by the tetrahedron (Figure 27). The matter is of correctly representing these visible essential part of the edges the boundary lines of the solid.the projection of a solid usually contains both visible and hidden lines. 27 Fig. Edge AC is the foremost edge (as can be seen hi the top view) and is visible in the front view. OB.

and third quadrants respectively.A. + Bv RL +c v Fig. two projections: one on each plane. second. 12. Both planes and the projections of the points are represented on a . the H. and in the first. thus dividing all space into lie four angles or quadrants.. it may be necessary to extend a space figure through one or both of the projection planes.L. Points A. bility of the front view is determined in a similar fashion. for general purposes. 3 JD Fig. Hence. In this event >?! R.and F-projection planes are considered to be indefinite in extent (Figure 29). The visiis on the line OB.10 PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION tCh. The higher point x their crossing. which is therefore visible in the top view. Every D point of space has. the top view (Figure 28). 29 4. Quadrants In the course of solving a problem. the following procedure is useful. I In the event that the visibility of certain lines of a view cannot be In readily determined by inspection. B 9 (7. assume points x and y on lines AC and OB at Find the front view of these points. fourth. in general. numbered as shown. 30 the projection planes must be extended to both sides of the reference line.

jection. the observer is assumed The points of space AnA Vl RL IS EDGE VIEW OF H. CnCv. The direction of rotation is such as will open the first and third quadrants and close the second and fourth. When viewing any 32). Each pair of projections lies on a projecting line perpendicular to the reference axis. and D If D v (Figure 30). The distance that a point lies in front or in V appears in this view. 32 above H and looking down back of lies (Figure 31). the observer is a point assumed to be in front of F.PLANE -7 Fig. The above or below H appears in this view (Figure F-prodistance that . single plane (the rotated about RL as + BH RL IS EDGE VIEW OF V- PLANE -7 H Fig. When viewing any horizontal projection.12] PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION 11 drawing surface) by assuming that the H-plane is an axis until it coincides with the F-plane. 31 jections A BCD are now described by their pairs of proBuBv.

In most foreign countries. In thirdquadrant projection. This results in placing the front view In first-quadrant proabove the top view on the drawing (Figure 36) jection. Third-quadrant projection places the Arrangement of views The arrangement on the drawing TOP VIEW FRONT VIEW Fig.1 2 PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION t [Ch. the third quadrant (Figure 33). the object is placed in the first quadrant (Figure 35).drawing in the United States. 33 Fi 9 . and to some extent in architectural and structural . the object is always between the observer and the projection i . 35 top view above the front view on the drawing (Figure 34). 34 FRONT VIEW Fi 9 . the projection plane is always between the observer and the object. of the top and front views of an on the position of the object with respect to the projection object depends American practice in engineering drawing places the object in planes. I 1 3.

any third view which is deduced from two given views must be a projection on a plane taken perpendicular to one of the given planes. Given the projections of a point on two planes at right angles to each other/ to determine a third projection on any third plane taken perpendicular to one of the given planes when To determine a profile projection (side view) of a point and frontal projections are given. additional projections are often desirable for clarity or to obtain normal or true-size views of inclined figures. Then lay off on this projector the distance from RL2 to PP equal to the distance from RL1 to PH. PH+ o RL1 * a cr 1-Pp DH i Fig. shall The 15. 14. drawing sheet. When constructing the profile view of an object. 37 Fig. . it is convenient to place RL1 through the front co^jner of the figure in order to eliminate one measurement from the profile-view construction (Figure 39). 38 Given: Projections Pa and P v (Figure 38). Project point P on plane P by drawing a projector through Pv perpendicular to RL2. The profile plane is perpendicular to both the horizontal and frontal projection planes I. Article 15 establishes a method for constructing a third projection of an object if two projections are given. Thus. Take plane P perpendicular to H and V by drawing RL2 perpendicular to RL1. principle of Article 4 that any pair of adjacent projection planes be at right angles in space is always followed. Additional views Although two projections completely represent any object determined by points.15] PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION 13 It is to be noted that changing the quadrant of projection does not alter the views themselves but merely their arrangement on the plane. Special Case: the horizontal (Figure 37).

PRINCIPLES General Case. 39 PPi and PP 3 are parallel to plane 2. such as plane 3 which is taken perpendicular to plane 41). I Given: Projections Pi and P* on planes 1 and 2 (Figures 40 and 41). 41 should be thoroughly understood by the student. Thus. projections of any given point on the the two extreme planes appear equally distant from the respective reference lines. Thus. . which 2. the distances of PI from RL\ and of P 3 from J?L 2 are equal. Take any third plane perpendicular to either 1 or 2. It may be generally stated as follows: In any three successive views. OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION [Ch. It EQUAL Fig. Now 1 and 3 are perto plane 2 and parpendicular 2 to the line of projection PP 2. each of the two extreme planes is perpendicular to the middle plane. the distances of the two outside views of any point from the respective reference lines are equal and represent the distance of this point from the central plane. This process is of fundamental importance in obtaining views. tance from plane 2 as P. Therefore.14 II. may the distance of the point be considered P from since plane Furthermore. Fig. Since adjacent planes are at right angles EQUAL in space. Pi and Pa are the same dis- Consider any group of three consecutive projection planes. we may lay off this distance from RL Z on the projector we have drawn to locateP 8 . Draw RL2 (Figure 2. Draw the projector from P both planes allel perpendicular to RL2. 40 Fig.

respectively. B$.517] PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION 15 16. Figure 42 shows five successive views of a tetrahedron. in Figures 40 and 41 assume that P 2 and P 3 are giVen Take plane 4 perpendicular to plane 3 by drawing RL3. C 3 on the projectors from RL2 at distances equal to the distances of V v A v B v C v from RLl . To draw an auxiliary elevation of the tetrahedron as seen in the direction DE. As. A H B Cn at right angles to the projectors. . . Draw RL2 perpendicular to DE. Draw RLl between the top and front views. perpendicular to RL2. . projections. Thus. Since the above principle applies to any three successive views and since planes 3 M W Fig. Lay off on this projector the distance from RL3 to P 4 equal to the distance from RL2 to P 2. 17. Locate V$. The desired view is the projection of the figure on a plane taken perpendicular to the given direction of sight DE. Series of views This principle may be extended to locate any number of additional projections. Project point P on plane 4 by drawing a projector through P 8 perpendicular to RL3. allowing a convenient space between RL2 and the top view. the distance from JC 3 to equal to the distance from ^5 to RL4. Auxiliary view of an object Example 1 (Figure 43). . ff . 42 721/3 and 5 are each at is right angles to plane 4. and Draw projectors from VH. This plane is perpendicular to the horizontal plane.

16 PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION [O. This plane is perpendicular to the . Example 2 (Figure 44). eliminates one measurement and allows the auxiliary view to be constructed by using three equal distances. Note that measurements may be made e er towar(l or away from the off only one ^ central view. RL1 through FF. it convenient to place the re- ference lines through at least one point of a figure. The desired view is the projection of the object ' on a plane at right angles to CD. instead of above can be seen in Figure 43 that placing it. To draw an auxiliary view of the pyramid as seen in the direction CD. measurement need have been made. It can further be seen that if RL1 had been RL2 taken through CV A V . is In general. placed at the distance of A^B*. I . 43 The speed and accuracy with which an auxiliary view can be drawn It is determined to some extent by the location of the reference line. and the measurement to V laid toward the central view. vertical plane. so long as they are in the same sense in both g> 44 outside views.

every edge or face of the object is visible. a vertical axis may be drawn in the givep views and pro- jected to the auxiliary view for reference purposes. perpendicular to CD.518) PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION 17 Draw RL2 front views. vertical lines. Where such an axis of symmetry exists. The boundary lines is view must be visible. The correct orientation for a view can be indicated subtitles lettered at right angles to by the use of a vertical line of a view. Three different distances are transferred from the top view to the auxiliary view. 45 The auxiliary projection is visualized as a view of the object by turning the drawing so as to bring any vertical lines of the object into a If the object contains no vertical position with respect to the observer. which adjacent to the auxiliary plane Fig. Since the top view 18. . is symmetrical about an axis parallel to JELl. Visualizing auxiliary views The of the visibility rules of Article 11 are followed. Draw RLl between the top and Project the points locating the view on the third plane. the view can be constructed by using a single distance if RLl is auxiliary moved to the position RLl' and if RL2 is moved to RL2'. it is generally more convenient to make the RL coincident with it. also.

the title into a horizontal position. DE and of Any views is particular view of the series properly oriented by^ turning the drawing until the lines BC and appear DE vertical. the view is correctly oriented. planes. . While any good quality 8j. The front view is 3 inches above the lower border. A:2. if the projection planes are their reference lines 4$ assumed folded about into their true positions in space. is designated by "X. the top view is 7 inches above the lower border. The top and front views of a given point are plotted on the sheet by means of three dimensions which are always given in venient.6 locates only the top view of point A. Cambridge. the second is the distance from the top lower border line to the front view. quadrille paper ruled in -J-inch squares is more con(Figure A) is also available.X. Mass. He is below the object and is looking upward. The series of sent an object surrounded views of Figure 45 repreby a set of six The edges BC and projection plaices. bring The subtitle "Auxiliary View" of Figure 44 is lettered at right angles to the vertical axis. lines of indefinite length by lower-case letters. an observer looking perpendicular to plane G would see the object as in Figure 46. the point P 237 (Figure B) is 2 inches to the right of the left border. : * This form is printed by the Technology Store. the third is the distance from the lower the same order. Locating points. are vertical. A specially printed problem sheet Notation.18 PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION [Ch. in general. Thus. or which must be found in the course of the solution. as indicated by the top front views. The line joining the border line to the top view. Problems The problem sheet." Thus. These dimensions are in inches and follow the letter which names the point.X 11-inch paper is suitable. The problems are designed for a working space 8 inches wide and 10 inches high. first is the distance from the left border line to the and front views.* Points are denoted by capital letters. A distance not needed in the solution. AUXILIARY VIEW Pj 9s /g- p or example. I The subtitle "Auxiliary View" of Figure 43 is lettered at right angles When the drawing is turned to to the vertical axis of the pyramid. by capitals.

A .PRINCIPLES OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION Fig.

The shape of a cast-iron base is described as follows: From a block 5 inches wide. estimating the proportions. Draw the principal views of the casting (Figure E). Draw Draw Draw Draw the principal views of the casting (Figure G). B PROBLEMS GROUP ON CHAPTER I A Draw Draw the top. Fig.PRINCIPLES Plotting lines. A line k. as seen in the top view. 1-A4. is described by two unnamed points thus: &:528. a line AB may be described as A: 124 B:337. 1-A1. the principal views of the casting (Figure K). PRINCIPAL VIEWS OF DESCRIBED OBJECTS 1-B1. cut a 1^-inch square hole to a depth of square are parallel to the outside edges of the block. Thus. 2 inches deep. front. the principal views of the casting (Figure H). and side views of the building (Figure C) the principal views of the building (Figure D). GROUP B. inch. and 1 inch high. remove the left and In the center of the top face of the right quarters of the upper half.746 (Figure B). 1-A3. The four outside corners of the block. 1-A6. the principal views of the casting (Figure F). 1-A6. are rounded with a i~ineh . of indefinite length. The sides of the block. OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION segment is [Ck I A line located by the projections of its end points. 1-A7. 1-A2.

PRINCIPLES

OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

21

fig.

C

Fig.

D

Rg.E

Fi 3 .

F

H S .G

Fig.

H

22

radius.

PRINCIPLES

OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

[CU

On

these

same

centers, four -J-inch diameter holes are drilled.

Draw

the top and front views.

inches in diameter and inch long has its axis second cylinder 1^ inches in diameter and l inches long A circular recess 2 inches in diameter and is centered on the front face. inch deep is centered in the back of the Scinch cylinder. A |-inch diameter hole is drilled axially through both cylinders. Four f-inch diameter holes are drilled through the 3^-inch cylinder. These holes are equally spaced on a 2f-inch circle which is concentric with the 3^-inch

1-B2.

A

cylinder 3

horizontal.

A

circle.

Draw

the top and front views.

A cylinder 2 inches in diameter and 3 inches high has the two-thirds of the right and left sides cut away to produce two flat upper A 1-inch diameter hole surfaces which are parallel and 1-J- inches apart.

1-B3.

passes through the centers of the flattened surfaces.

Draw

top, front,

**and side views.
**

1-B4.

A

**3i inches long,
**

in the side

cast angle appears L-shaped in the front view. Each leg 1 inches deep, and % inch thick. The inside corner

is

is

rounded with a -J-inch radius. The upper end of the vertical leg as seen view is semicircular. A -J-inch hole is 'centered -J inch from the upper end of this leg. * The corners of the horizontal leg, as seen in the top view, are rounded with a i-inch radius. A slot ^ X l inches is centered in the left end of this leg. The right end of the slot is semicircular.

1-B5. From a block 4 inches wide, 2 inches high, and l inches deep, the center three-fourths of the upper three-fourths is removed, leaving a The top of the left and piece that appears U-shaped in the front view.

right

1

arms

of this piece, as seen in the side view, are

made

semicircular.

A i-inch hole is

lug

centered f inch from the top of each arm. A cylindrical inch in diameter and \\ inches high is centered on the bottom of

the block.

GROUP

4:036

is 1

C.

PRINCIPAL VIEWS OF GEOMETRICAL ELEMENTS

1-C1.

Draw

the top, front, and right side views of the tetrahedron

:2J,1,8

C:4,2,7

D: 3^,5,8.

is

A :017 is one vertex of the tetrahedron ABCD. Point B inch to the right of, 2 inches in back of, and 3 inches above A. Point C 3 inches to the right of, 4 inches above, and 1 inches in back of A.

1-C2. Point

Point

D is 3f inches to the right of,

1

inch in front

of,

and

1

inch above A.

Draw

is

the top, front, and right side views.

1-C3. Point A :249 is one vertex of the tetrahedron ABCD. Point B 2 inches to the right of, 1 inch in front of, and If inches below A.

PRINCIPLES

Point of A.

OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

23

is i inch to the right of, 1|- inches below, and 3 inches in front Point D is 2 inches to the left of, 2 inches in front of, and 2J inches below A. Draw the top, front, and left side views.

C

1-C4. Divide the working space into four equal rectangles, and place one example in each rectangle. Draw the top and front views of a

AB, 2 inches long and placed as follows: (a) The line is horizontal and makes an angle of 30 with the F-plane. (b) The line is frontal and makes an angle of 45 with the //-plane, (c) The line is profile and makes an angle of 60 with the //-plane, (d) The line is vertical.

line

1-C5. Divide the working space into four equal rectangles, and place one example in each rectangle. Draw the top and front views of a 1-i-inch square placed as follows: (a) The square is horizontal with two (b) The square is frontal with one diagonal vertical, edges frontal, The square is profile with two edges making an angle of 30 with the (c)

//-plane,

(d)

an angle

of

The square is perpendicular to the F-plane and makes 30 with the //-plane. Two edges are frontal.

1-C6. Divide the working space into four equal rectangles, and place one example in each rectangle. Draw the top and front views of the

Each side following plane figures (a) A horizontal equilateral triangle. is 2 inches long, and the left edge is perpendicular to the F-plane. (b) A The upper edge is 1-j- inches long and makes an angle frontal square.

:

of 15

is

with the //-plane, (c) A profile triangle. The upper front edge 2 inches long and makes an angle of 45 with the //-plane. The

Each edge

remaining edges are 1^ inches long, (d) A horizontal regular hexagon. is 1 inch long, and two edges are frontal.

1-C7. Divide the working space into four equal rectangles, and place one example in each rectangle. Draw the top and front views of the Each base is a horizontal following solids: (a) Square right prism.

square 1 inches on each side. The right front edges of the bases make a 30 angle with the F-plane. The altitude is 1 inch, (b) Square right pyramid. The base is a 1^-inch horizontal square, the left front edge making a 15 angle with the F-plane. The vertex is 1 inches below

f

Rectangular right prism. The bases are frontal rectangles, The prism is 2 inches long. The 1^- X 2-inch faces make an angle of 30 with the //-plane, (d) Hexagonal right pyramid. The base is a frontal hexagon, f inch on each side. One diagonal of the base makes a 15 angle with //. The vertex is If inches in front of the

the base,

(c)

X

li inches.

base.

GROUP D.

draw a

**THE COMPLETE REFERENCE SYSTEM
**

(a)

1-D1. Four quadrants, pictorial view of the

//-

In the upper half of the working space and F-projection planes similar to Figure

24

PRINCIPLES

OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

[Ch.

I

inches. Take the left 29, Chapter I, making the F-plane about end of RL as an origin 0, and represent the following points, indicating both the points in space and their orthographic projections on and V:

3X4

H

inch to right of 0, li inches above H, and 1 inch in front of V. inches to right of 0, l inches above H, and f inch behind V. Point C is 2 inches to right of 0, 1 inches below #, and 1 inch in front of V is 3 inches to right of 0, 1 inch below H, and 1 Point inches behind V.

Point Point

A is B is 1

-J-

.

D

In the lower half of the working space, construct the H- and F-projections of points A, B, C, and D, assuming the projection planes revolved into the plane of the drawing paper as in Figure 30. Indicate the in which each point lies. quadrant

(6)

1-D2, First quadrant projection. Divide the working space into four equal rectangles, and place one example in each rectangle. Draw the top and front views of the following solids using first quadrant arrangement: (a) Triangular right prism. The bases are horizontal equilateral inches on each side. The rear lateral face of the prism triangles 1 15 angle with V. The altitude is 1 inch. makes a (6) Rectangular The bases are frontal rectangles inches. A lower right prism. of the prism makes a 30 angle with H. The prism is f inch lateral face The base is a 1^-inch square lying in long, (c) Square right pyramid. the //-plane. One edge of the base makes 15 with the F-plane. The The vertex is 2 inches above the base, (d) Hexagonal right pyramid. base is a frontal hexagon 1 inch on each side. Two edges of the base make a 45 angle with H. The vertex is 1 inches in back of the base.

1X2

GROUP

E.

AUXILIARY VIEWS

1-E1. Draw the top and front views of the tetrahedron A:4i,4,6i C:2,3,8i D:5J,4,9i. Draw an auxiliary view of ABCD B:4i,li,6 taking the direction of sight at right angles to face ABC. Draw an auxiliary view of ABCD on a projection plane taken parallel to face ABD.

1-E2. Line 7:636 0:639 is the axis of a right pyramid. The base a frontal pentagon centered on point 0. Point A 7^,3,9 is one vertex The solid is cut by a frontal plane taken at the mid-point of the base. Draw the top and front views of the frustum and an auxiliary of the axis. view with the direction of sight at right angles to the left lateral face.

is

:

1-E3. Line A: 226 D:229 is a diagonal of the horizontal hexagonal base of a right pyramid. The vertex is 3 inches above the base. The pyramid is truncated by a plane which passes through points P:1,4|,X and Q:4,1^,X, and projects edgewise in the front vi,ew. Draw the top

**and front views
**

in a direction to

**pyramid and an auxiliary view taken show the sloping base in true shape.
**

of the truncated

PRINCIPLES

1-E4. Line

OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

25

A :236 J?:239 is a diagonal of a profile hexagon which is base of two right pyramids. The axis of each pyramid is 2 inches long. Draw the front view, right side view, and an auxiliary view for which the direction of sight is perpendicular to the upper righthand face of the solid. Omit the top view.

the

common

1-E6. Points A :7f,4,10 :7,4,9 (7:71,2,8 Z):7f, 1,10 determine the right-hand base of a right prism. The prism is truncated by a plane which passes through points JK:3f,l,<X" and /S:6f,4,X and is edgewise in the front view. Draw the top, front, and left end views and an auxiliary

**view taken in a direction perpendicular to the inclined base.
**

1-E6.

Line

-A: 5^,3, 6

5:836

is

the front edge of a horizontal rec-

This rectangle is the common base of two right tangle 1^ inches deep. each of 2 inches altitude. Draw the top, front, and left side pyramids,

Also, draw an auxiliary view taking the direction of sight at right to the rear face of the upper pyramid. angles

views.

1-E7.

Line A 226

:

B

:

229 is the axis of a thin cylindrical tube 2 inches

in diameter.

The end at A lies in a vertical plane and makes an angle of 30 with AB. The end at B is perpendicular to the axis. Draw the top

and front views and an auxiliary view taking the direction

right angles to the base through A.

of sight at

C:i,2,8 is the left base of a Triangle A:,2,6 J5:i,3i,8 inches long. A vertical, hole 1 inches in diameter and right prism 3i centered on the lower face is cut through the prism. Draw the top, front, and side views and an auxiliary view which shows the sloping face in true

1-E8.

shape.

1-E9. Points A: 147 J5:447 C:5|,4,8f locate the upper edges of two vertical rectangles 2 inches high. These rectangles are the front faces Two i-inch holes 1 inches of the i inch thick arms of an angle bracket. apart are centered on the front face of the left arm. A hexagonal hole,

inch on a side

is

diagonal of the hexagon

centered on the front face of the right arm. One Draw the top and front views and is vertical.

in true shape.

**an auxiliary view which shows the right arm
**

1-E10.

a diagonal of a frontal hexagonal prism li inches thick. A i-inch diameter hole f inch deep is centered on the top face of the prism. Two inch apart are centered on the |-inch diameter holes f inch deep and diagonal of the lower left inclined face. The upper hole is nearer the front face. Two holes of the same size are similarly located on the lower right-hand face of the prism. Draw the top and front views of the prism and auxiliary views which show the true shape of the lower left and lower

Line

:

A

2^,4,7

B

:

5f ,4,7

is

which forms the front face

of a right

'

right inclined faces.

Show

visible lines only in the top view.

26

PRINCIPLES

OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

[Ch.

I

1-E11, Point A :4,1,7 is the center of the upper face of a prism 4% inches wide, 2 inches deep, and i inch high. The corners of the prism Four f-inch holes as seen in the top view are rounded to a ^-inch radius. A are drilled through the prism on the same centers as the corner radii.

frontal line

zontal,

is

B is

AB, 1% inches long and making an angle of 60 with the horithe axis of a cylindrical hub 1 inches in diameter. The end at perpendicular to the axis. A f-inch hole is drilled along AB. Draw

the top and front views and the necessary auxiliary view. lines only in the top view.

Show

visible

Geometry FROM THE VISUALIZATION OF THE PROBLEM IN SPACE. FROM THE POINT TO THE PLANE. THE ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION OF AN OBJECT ONTO A PLANE IS THE SUM OF THE PROJECTIONS OF ALL THE POINTS ON THE OBJECT O . i THE SPACE MODEL UNFOLDS INTO YOUR PAPER USING THE INTERSECTIONS OF THE PROJECTION PLANES AS FOLDING LINES. Orthographic Projection THE ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION OF A POINT ONTO A PLANE IS THE INTERSECTION WITH THE PLANE OF THE J. CALLED REFERENCE LINES.YOUR. THE GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION SOLUTION OF SPACE PROBLEMS ON A TWO DIMENSIONAL SURFACE . DRAWING PAPER.REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER I 27 Descriptive B >YE OBTAIN THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM ON YOUR PAPER.

Referen ce Qua dran ts A POINT MAY LIE IN ANY OF 4 QUADRANTS FORMED BY 2 PROJECTION PLANES. TO THE REFERENCE LINE. GENERALLY ASSUMED TO BE HORIZONTAL B VERTICAL .28 REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER I Representation of a Point A POINT IN SPACE MAY BE REPRESENTED BY ITS PROJECTIONS ON 2 MUTUALLY X PROJECTION PLANES. RET 3 NOTE THAT THE PROJECTION LINE MUST BE J.

THE EUROPEAN WAY. VIEWS ARE GENERALLY CALLED FRONT B TOP OR VBH. Representation of an Object AN OBJECT MAY BE REPRESENTED BY ITS PROJECTIONS JL . ' RL1 THIS IS 1ST ANGLE PROJECTION. ON 2 MUTUALLY PROJECTION PLANES . RL1 THIS IS 3RD ANGLE PROJECTION. .THE AMERICAN WAY.REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER I 29 Representation of an Object AN OBJECT IN SPACE MAY BE REPRESENTED BY ITS PROJECTIONS ON 2 MUTUALLY 1 PROJECTION PLANES.

Auxiliary View of a Point IF 2 VIEWS OF A POINT ARE GIVEN. VIEW IS EQUAL IN THE 2 OUTSIDE VIEWS. A 3RD VIEW CAN BE OBTAINED ON ANY PLANE JL TO EITHER OF THE GIVEN 2 NOTE THAT THE DISTANCE AWAY FROM THE CENTRAL VIEW IS EQUAL IN THE 2 OUTSIDE VIEWS REPRESENTING THE DISTANCE OF THE POINT FROM THE CENTRAL PLANE. RLT RL2 NOTE THAT THE DISTANCE .D AWAY FROM THE CENTRAL . A 3RD PLANE JL TO EACH (PROFILE PLANE) IS FREQUENTLY CONVENIENT. s .30 REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER I Standard Views THE 2 STANDARD PROJECTION PLANES ARE HORIZONTAL a VERTICAL.

REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER I 31 The GeneralS View System GIVEN ANY 2 VIEWS ON 2 MUTUALLY PLANES A 3RD VIEW MAY BE OBTAINED ON ANY PLANE J. TO EITHER OF THE GIVEN 2 .

the mid-point of a line projects into the mid-point of the projection of the line. The application of the fundamental problems to the solution of general space problems is discussed in Chapter III. intersections of surfaces. or drawing. To pass a plane through two intersecting or parallel lines. and the mutual positions of objects. 32 . a pair of projections of the point will on a line which is perpendicular to the reference line. To find the intersection of two planes. or 20. and (2) the construction. To draw a line through two points. 4. These basic operations are few in number" and their graphical representations are regarded as the fundamental problems of descriptive geometry. To draw a true-length view and an end view of a given line. 5. To draw an edge view and a true-shape view of a plane figure. its projection is divided into the same ratio. To find the intersection of a line and plane. To draw a line through a point and parallel to a given line. The fundamental problems 1. developments of surfaces. 7. If a space line is divided in a given ratio. For example. 2. To draw a perpendicular to a plane. in which the geometrical operations in space which lead to the solution are described. 10. 3. Problem 1: To assume a point on a line lie Analysis: If a point lies on a line. To assume a point on a line. every solution is obtained by use of certain basic geometrical operations. 9. in which the operations described in the analysis are carried out by the methods of orthographic projection. analysis. the engineer is concerned with the solution of space problems which involve distances. 19. To pass a plane perpendicular to a line. 8. Although the number of such problems is indefinite. angles. Generally there are two parts to the solution of a problem: (1) the method of solution.CHAPTER II Fundamental Problems Relating to Lines and Planes In addition to representing an object by means of its projections on two or more projection planes. 6.

Pv is found the projector through P a to cut c v drawing Construction B (Figure 4$): Pv is assumed on the front view of the Construction . 49 21. Construction: Let two points A and B be given by AH.and V-projections of two lines are parallel. 50 respectively. Draw ra// through AH and Bit. In their projections on a plane are parallel. . and m v through A v and B v The required space line is represented by the two projections m// . Project P on side view found by laying off the distance yu equal to y P . general. if the H. 47 Fig. Draw the required line k through point A.221 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: LINES AND PLANES 33 by A (Figure 47): Let PH be assumed on Ca. Av\ and B U} Bv (Figure 49). making ka d H and k v parallel to dv. Problem 2: To draw a line throush two points Analysis: The will line passing through the projections of the points on a given plane be a projection of the required line. profile line AB. parallel to Construction (Figure 50): Let the given line and point be d and A. Pa Construct the side view of A B. is of AB. Fig. Problem 3: To draw a line throush a point and parallel to a given line Analysis: If two lines are parallel in space. BH] PH AH T RLl Bv rB P Pv Av Fig. 22. 48 Fig. the lines are parallel in Profile lines are an exception and are space. parallel only when the profile projections of the lines are parallel. and mv.

atid F-planes In this position. one view is a to one of them. Given: Projections AvB Y and AuB H (Figures 51 and 52). II 23.and F-planes. Principle: A line projects in its true length on a plane parallel to the (a) line. Then A^B 3 Also the angle // between A$B$ and RL2 is between line AB and the //-plane. A line projects as a point on a plane perpendicular to the The line and plane will appear perpendicular in the view in which To the line projects in true length. Construction: Take plane 4 perpendicular to AB by drawing RL3 at . ^ END VIE-W Fig. Principle: line. v-tw 51 Construction: Take plane 3 parallel to AB by drawing RL2 is parallel to AffBn. obtain the normal or true-length view of AB. view. the true size of the angle The normal view of AB can also be obtained by taking JSL3 parallel to (b) AvB v . perpendicular If a given or end view and the other a normal or true-length. the end and true-length views can line is in its simplest position it is A when be obtained by proper selection of auxiliary projection planes. Problem 4: To determine the normal view and end view of an with respect to the H. The angle between a line and plane appears in tiue size in a view in which the line projects in true length and the plane projects edgewise. To Project AB on an auxiliary plane taken parallel to AB. point line is inclined to the //.34 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: oblique line LINES AND PLANES ICh. Project AB on plane 3. Note: the true length of AB. determine the end view of AB.

A^B Z (the true-length view of Projections At and B\ coincide. Project AB on plane end view of AB. it is convenient to enclose the object in a rectangular prism as a reference frame and to draw the auxiliary and oblique views of the prism and direction line only. The required view is one in which the line AB appears The normal view and end view of AB is obtained by the as a point. This procedure makes the projection of a large number of points unnecessary and results in a more accurate drawing. Oblique view of an object An oblique view is a viow taken in a direction inclined to the horizontal and vertical planes. 52 right angles to 4. Let it be required to draw a view of the object (Figure 53). 24. method of Article 23. . aw seen in the direction AB. Since the solution of this problem requires the construction of two additional views.524] FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: LINES AND PLANES 35 Fig. The oblique view of the given object is then obtained by constructing it in the reference prism by proportional division. giving the AB). referring to the top and front views for the dimensions.

H true length. 53 oblique view may be correctly oriented with respect to the by turning the drawing so as to bring the vertical edges of the into a vertical position with respect to the observer. Draw a view of AB and the prism to show AB in Draw a view of AB and the prism in which AB appears Construct the oblique view of the given object by pro- portional division.36 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: Construction: (a) (6) (c) LINES AND PLANES [O. The correct object the view may also be indicated by lettering the name position for reading The observer . as a point. Fig.

the condition for intersection that a pair of lines drawn to intersect the given lines have their common point on the same projector (Figure 55). 25. is represented on a drawing by the projecA plane of unlimited extent can be represented tion of its boundary lines. the latter being a convenient form for graphical purposes. The plane plane is generated by a straight line moving so as to touch constantly two intersecting straight lines. A A on a drawing by the projections plane can be uniquely represented by planes (Article 42). In these points are usually joined to form two intersecting lines or practice. LINES AND PLANES 37 of the A located by drawing it at right angles to horizontal line in an oblique view is a known vertical line of the view. projections of the If the common common point lie on the point of two intersecting Fig.8271 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: view on a horizontal line. as such. lines is is 27. A plane usually appears as the face of an object and. the same projector (Figure 54). its intersections with the coordinate 26. a triangle. Problem lines 5: To pass a plane through two intersecting (or parallel) The space operation of passing a plane through two intersecting lines . 55 beyond the limits of the drawing. Intersecting lines If two lines intersect. 54 Fig. of three points not in a straight line.

Lines of maximum inclination The lines of a plane which have the greatest inclination to the H-plane . 56 determined by lines m and n. The system of lines form the frontal lines of the plane (Figure 59).38 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: lines. Let the top view lies in of line ft. Plane R represented by lines d and and ^s On S "H 28. Line kn cuts m n and nn in points An and B H respectively. In general. Fig. the other view can be found. 57 29. II requires no construction beyond the representation two deter- mining plane lines b In Figure 56. Projections of a lying in a given plane If line one view of a line which a plane is given or assumed. The front view of k is determined by points A v and B v . LINES AND PLANES of the [Ch. lying in the plane Fig. the line SF is a horizontal and the line lines of the parallel to the F-plane TF a frontal line of the plane DEF. represented c. The principal lines of a plane The allel a plane which are parto the projection planes are the lines of By Fig. through a given point of a plane one horizontal and one frontal line can be drawn. be given (Figure 57). 58 principal lines of the plane. 30. In Figure 60. Q is by is e. The system of lines parallel to the //"-plane form the horizontal plane (Figure 58).

line is drawn perpendicular to the horizontal line EF. A sphere rolling on a plane and acted upon by gravity alone would follow a line of maximum inclination.) of plane Let line AEF. 60 are perpendicular to the horizontal lines of the plane. Plane 62) slopes down. To assume In order that a point in a plane. AB is a line of maximum inclination. hence. and to the right as indicated by the slope line KLM (Figure maximum KN. . angle K Fig. BCj on the //-plane is at right angles to EF. Thus. -r^ AC > AD be any other line AC -j^. a point in a plane lie 31. 61 ABC > angle ADC. it must lie on a line of the plane. 59 Fi g . The direction of the slope of a plane can be described by reference to this line. In Figure 61. AB (Refer Article 46. Its projection.30] FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: LINES AND PLANES 39 A Cv Fig. Then. forward.

If the plane is represented as a polygon. Draw the so that projections of the random line H H contains AH. lying in plane (Figure 63). containing point L' M L' Fig. In this position. Fig. the normal view gives parallel to A plane is in its simplest position with respect to the H. Parallel relations between lines and planes A N line is parallel to some parallel to a plane if it is line in the plane. in Figure 64.40 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: GHJ LINES AND PLANES [CUI Let the top view of point A. Con- versely. a plane through f line. one projection is a normal view and the other an edge view. is represented by drawing through point parallel to PQ and RS respectively. RS. D VE V 32. 64 33. 63 line a plane is parallel to a line if the plane contains a line parallel to the given Thus. be given. Problem 6: To determine the edge view and the normal view of an oblique plane when it is V-planes one plane and therefore perpendicular to the second. The front view of A DE . line MN and parallel to KL KL is represented by drawing the line K'L parallel to on line MN. D E lies on Av by Obtain D v E v Obtain from A H (Article 20). A plane and through an assumed point (Figure 65) and parallel to two given lines PQ and two lines P'Q' and R'S'.and . projecting .

the edge and normal views can be obtained by selecting appropriate auxiliary planes. Take plane 3 per- Fi g . determining the edge view A*B$C*. Analysis: A plane projects as a straight line on a projection plane taken perpendicular to any line in the plane. A 4 B 4 C 4 is the normal view of the plane and the true-size view of triangle ABC. For convenience. will The normal view of a plane appear on a projection plane taken parallel to the given plane. the projection plane is taken perpendicular to a principal line of the plane. 66 pendicular to line CD by placing RL2 at right angles to CnDn. between A^B^Cz and RL2 is equal to the angle between The angle H plane ABC and the horizontal plane. Project ABC on plane 3. (6) To determine the normal view of Analysis: ABC. Construction: Take plane 4 parallel to ABC by drawing -RL3 parallel to AaBaCa. Construction: plane. When a given plane is inclined to the Hand F-planes. Note: The edge view of ABC can also be drawn on a third plane taken perpendicular to a frontal line of ABC. Project ABC on plane 4. Given: Projections A v B v Cv and A HBaCn (Figures 66 and 67). Draw is Then CnDa the auxiliary line CD parallel to the horizontal the true-length view of CD.33] FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: LINES AND PLANES 41 the true shape of the figure. . (a) To determine the edge view of ABC.

Complete the top and front views of the hexar gon by projection from the normal view. A second diameter projects as the minor axis. is drawn out on the normal view of Example 1 (Figure in the plane of 68). Given: The parallelogram ABCD and point its plane inclined to a projection^ plane Analysis: A. To execute a plane construction on an oblique plane of space In general. II 34. ABC. a plane construction the given plane. . . Given: The triangle Pra\y the normal view of the plane and conas the struct the hexagon in this view on line Bi diameter. To construct a hexagon of diameter BC Iqiuf A EC. Cotistrudion: Draw the horizontal line EF and lay off the diameter of the circle on This diameter is the major axis of the top view of the The minor axis is drawn through OH and at right angles to E aF tt ellipse. circle having The diameter of the circle which is projects as an ellipse on that plane. The minor axis in the top view is a projection of the diameter of the circle constructed on the edge view of ABCD. in its plane. Example 2 (Figure 69)* To construct a circle of given diameter lying in the plane ABCD and centered at point O. The ellipse is constructed on the axes thus determined by the methods of plane geometry. and bertOTnes the parallel to the projection plane projects in true length at right angles to the first major axis of the ellipse. E KFu.42 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: LINES AND PLANES [Ch.

Fig.134] FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: LINES AND PLANES BH 43 ^r^f( fi. 68 Av Gv .

Intersection of two planes (Special Case) The line of intersection of two planes two points which are common to both planes.perpendicular to a projection plane is determined by inspection in the view in B B which the plane appears edgewise. is determined by In this case plane Q. vertical plane Line AB (Figure 70) intersects the Q in point P. 71 .H oblique circle lies axis of the ellipse which represents the front vie\^ of the along the frontal line GvK v and is equal in length to the diameter of the given circle. defined as the locus of all The two surfaces points common to the two is surfaces. general principle involved in problems on intersections in finding the intersection of a line and plane. 35. The minor axis is the projection of the diameter of the circle constructed on the edge view of A BCD. Intersections The determination is of the line in which two surfaces meet line of intersections of is a common The problem of practical drawing. Intersection of a line and plane (Special Case) The point in which a line pierces a plane that is. that employed 36.44 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: The major LINES AND PLANES [Ch. one B B Fig. 37.

38] FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: is LINES AND PLANES Lines 45 of the given planes. AB and AC of plane ABC (Figure 71) pierce plane Q in points D and E respectively. Therefore. it is XY and plane ABC. 72 Fig. The top view of P is obtained by projecting from Pv. Project points M and N to obtain M v and N v Line M VN V cuts X V Y V in P v the front view of with . point P is common to line of intersection. Problem 7: To find the point in which a line intersects an oblique plane First Analysis (Figure 72): Let be the given line vertical plane Q passed through line given plane. . 38. . The X H Y H cutting plane ABC along M HNu. XY and ABC the A XY intersects YH Fig. Line MN cuts XY in the point P. planes ABC and Q intersect along line DE. Second Analysis: Draw an auxiliary view in which the given plane The point in which the given line cuts the edge view projects edgewise. of the plane is the piercing point. perpendicular to a projection plane. Since the required point and plane First Construction (Figure 78): Given: Line of the vertical plane passing through line projection XY ABC. Q XY coincides the point of intersection. . 73 plane ABC in the line MN.

46 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: LINES AND PLANES Second ' [Ch. The point S (Figure 75) in which line k pierces the //-plane is The the horizontal trace of vertical trace. 76 40. The point Sv in which jection of the point in SH is the //-trace of which mv meets the reference line is the vertical proline m pierces the //-plane.ll Construction : Given (Figure 74} Line ZY and plane DEF. Problem 7. The point meets the reference line is the horizontal projection of . By use of an auxiliary view this general case is reduced to the special DH case of Article 36. Also draw F 3 # 3 the projection of YZ on plane The intersection of 3. Fis.1 : To find the traces of a line (Figure 76) Given: The line m. the point T a line is parallel which k pierces the F-plane is the to a projection plane. Draw the auxiliary view in DzEzFa which plane . it will have no in trace on that plane. DEF the line and plane 3 is given Fig. 75 Fig. If fc. appears edgewise. point in which a line intersects a projection plane is the trace of the line. by P in the auxi- liary view. Pa and Pv 74 are found by projecting from 39. Traces of a line P 3. The projection TH in which mH m and lies on the projector through Sv.

F-trace of and TH are always on the reference line. 78 First Construction (Figure 77}: Given: Planes A BCD and EFG. Find the intersection Q of line DC with plane EFG. Fig. Problem 8: To find the intersection of two planes First Analysis: The intersection of two planes is a straight line determined by two points which are common to both planes.41] FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: LINES AND PLANES The projections 47 and lies on the projector through TH. R P and Q of the lies 2 which on the line of intersection of planes P and Q. A point common to two planes may be obtained by finding the point in which a line of one plane pierces the second plane. the plane These lines meet at point 1-2 and 2-3. m Sv 41. The line through points P and Q is com- mon to planes A BCD and EFG. cuts the faces in Figure 78. using the method of Problem 7. . Find the intersection P of line AB with plane EFG. Second Analysis: A third plane which intersects two given planes cuts a line from each of the given planes. The point in which the two lines intersect is common For example. pyramid in lines to the given planes.

Lines RS and in line intersect in point P. the two traces of a plane meet at a point on the reference axis.and F-projection planes are of its horizontal and vertical traces respectively (Figure 80). The traces a plane are particular principal lines of the plane. In general. The line determined by points P and Q is common to planes ABC and DEF. The H. Plane X X ABC and DEF in lines AT and These respectively. Traces of a plane The plane. two lines intersect in point Q. repeat this operation assuming a second cutting plane Y. If the plane is parallel to the reference axis. 80 traces of a given plane are simply the principal lines which lie in the Hand F-projection planes. intersection of one plane with another is called its trace on that The intersections of a plane with the H. a point common to planes ABC and DEF. Fig. 79 42. Plane Y cuts ABC in line RS and EF plane DEF EF.and F- Fig. the traces are parallel (Figure 81). will will have no #-trace.ll Second Construction (Figure 79): Let planes ABC and DEF be given. To determine a second NM common point.48 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: LINES AND PLANES [Ch. the F-trace A plane parallel to the #-plane be an edge view of the plane. Simi- . Assume the cutting perpendicular to the plane cuts planes F-plane.

and C. F-. Fis. 83 Of course. the ff-trace be an edge view of the plane. 81 Traces of planes are commonly denoted by the names of the two determining planes. The intersection of Q and the //"-plane is determined lines by the points 1. points on each trace are required for its location. a trace of the line must lie on a trace of the plane. Thus. and PQ on the H-. 82 Fi s . larly. . and P-planes respectively. it is evident that when a line lies in a plane. but two 5.43] FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: LINES AND PLANES 49 a plane parallel to the F-plane will have no F-trace. Since points 1 and 4 are the /f. The traces of a plane provide a unique representation of a given plane and are useful in certain applications. and AC of plane Q intersect the Jf/-plane.1: To find the traces of a plane Construction (Figures 82 and 83): Let the plane Q be passed through points A.and F-traces of the line AB. a plane Q may have traces HQ VQ. will TRACE ON H (HR) TRACE ON V (VR) Fig. B. 3 in which the AB. 2. Similarly. and 6 where these same lines pierce the F-plane. BC. the intersection of plane Q and the F-plane is determined by points 4. t 43. Problem 8.

kv traces of the required intersection k. The line of intersection is. Q X X pig 86 .ll 44.2: To find intersection of a line traces) and plane (Plane siven by its Analysis: Let the line c and the plane be given (Figure 86). In the front view planes and Q intersect in line dv which is determined by X by drawing HX VX X y Sv and TV. therefore. 84 determined by the two points in which two pairs of traces intersect. Problem 7. is at right angles to RL. The point in the point where line c pierces plane Q. which line d cuts line c is Therefore. c v is the front view of the . P Construction (Figure 87}: Pass the vertical plane through line c to coincide with CH.50 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: given LINES AND PLANES ICh. The horizontal traces IIP and HQ intersect in point S. then the planes must intersect. F. on the line of intersection of the planes. as H. k H is determined by SuTn.2: To find the intersection of two planes (Planes by their traces) Analysis: If in any plane of projection. The point Pv in required piercing point. 45. Pass an auxiliary plane through line c. in general. PH which d v cuts lies on CH. The vertical The points 8 and T are the traces VP and VQ intersect in point T. The line d in which plane intersects plane Q contains every point common to the two planes. it contains the point common to the given line and plane. The intersection of the two traces is a point common to both planes and. is determined by SvT v . Fig. Problem 8. Construction: Let P and Q (Figures 84 and 85) be the given planes. or P. the traces of two planes intersect.

Therefore. (c) A line perpendicular to a plane the plane. which Example 1 (Figure 89).46] FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: LINES AND PLANES 51 Fig. . Definitions of perpendicularity (a) Two planes are perpendicular to each other if if either plane con- tains a line perpendicular to the other plane. two perpendicular lines will appear at right angles in a view is a true-length view of one (or both) of the lines. 87 Fig. If two lines of space are perpendicular. To draw a rom line fr point P which will be perpendicular to the horizontal line MN. point Q to Qv and draw PvQv. 88 46. and conversely (Figure 88). Project MnNn. (b) Two lines are perpendicular to each other either line lies in a plane perpendicular to the other. their orthographic projections on a plane parallel to one of the lines are perpendicular. Construct PriQa at right angles to the true-length view of MN. is perpendicular to every line of lines is The solution of any problem involving perpendicular based on the following theorem: Theorem I.

is perpendicular to plane Q when n v is at right angles to A V C V To draw the normal from point P to ABC. Problem 9: To draw a line perpendicular to a plane Analysis: Since a normal to a plane is perpendicular to every line of the plane* it is perpendicular in particular to every horizontal and frontal line of the plane. 92 edge view. from Theorem I. ] . Consequently. Construct a line through P Hj perpendicular to A HD H and a line through P v perpendicular to A V E V These two lines are the projec- Thus. is perpendicular to any frontal line of the plane. line n nu at right angles to A H B a . AiiBn. 90 47.52 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: LINES AND PLANES tCh. draw a horizontal line AD and a frontal plane line AE. tions of the required normal to plane ABC. a normal to a plane is perpendicular to any horizontal line of the In any front view. RL. 91 Fig. in Figure 91. in any top view. BnCn being the true-length view of line BC. a normal to the plane is at right angles to the Fig. If a plane projects edgewise as a straight line.ll Example 2 (Figure zontal line 90). In plane ABC. To draw a hori- BC which will be perpendicular to the Draw B H Ca at right angles to oblique line AB. The front view B v Cv will be parallel to Cv Fig. . and First Construction (Figure 92): is . Point Q is the foot of the . a normal to a plane plane.

principle of Theorem I. The foot of the perpendicular is point F and is found by the method of Problem 7. Third Construction (Figure 94): To it is parallel (in space) to plane 3. Fig. Draw the normal P 3 Q 3 at right angles to AzBzCz. Therefore. 93 Pis.$481 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: It is is LINES AND PLANES 53 perpendicular. Lines h and / determine the required plane. Pass a plane through the two lines drawn. Choose auxiliary plane 3 so that the plane ABC projects edgewise as A^BsC*. 94 Second Construction (Figure 98): To draw the normal from point P to ABC. of a plane are two particular principal lines of the plane. each of which is per(Theorem I. . Problem 10: To pass a plane through a point and perpendicular to a line Analysis: Through the given point Fig. the point in which the normal intersects plane of ABC. and found by the method Problem 7. 48. Draw the frontal line / perpendicular to k. draw two 95 lines .) To pass a plane through point C and perpenConstruction (Figure 95): Draw the horizontal line h perpendicular to line k by dicular to line k.) pendicular to the given line. (Problem 5. plane Since PaQs is perpendicular to A^B^C^ H Qn is parallel to RL2. P draw a line through point P and per- Q. the H~ and F-projections of a pendicular to plane Since the traces normal to plane Q are perpendictilar to the corresponding traces of the plane.2.

V: li.3f. H.3i. point.4 title 2-B3. a triangular face intersect in a point called the centroid is The vertex of the solid line joining the centroid of a face and the opposite a median of the tetrahedron. II If the traces of the plane through lines h and / are drawn. J5:214 is the front edge of a horizontal rectangle This rectangle is the base of a right pyramid 2 inches Complete the top and front views of the pyramid.9i D 5. (c) Assuming equal weights at points #:. Complete the top and front views.find the position of the center of gravity of the system with respect to point G.54 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: LINES AND PLANES [Ch.4| : K : : M : 2-A2. 2X3 ring to Article 146. FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS (a) 2. . AND 3 2-A1.l. Point B is .4 :3i. Find the prowhich lies in CD and is 1 inch below point C.3.7i #:3. A:lf.lf.H. Find the true-length view and the point view of the line A :335 Measure the true angles between line AB and the #. of This point is the center of gravity of the tetrahedron. Three intersecting edges of a parallelepiped are given by the AB. Line 2 inches deep. Draw the top and front views of the tetrahedron ^1:119 B 236 Show that the four medians of the solid intersect in a : common The medians of the triangle. Of.2i.5^. 1 inch below. are particular horizontal and frontal lines of the plane. FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEM 4 Draw the top and front views of a rectangular right prism inches and a 4-inch altitude.3 and L 5.5.5i J5:i. 3 1 F: 1-J.5. 523 intersect ? 5f . II A. lines GROUP B. jections of point E Given line C 5. C:409 D:756.6f .f. the three prin- mid-point M with A . AD. Given point A :.4 " Auxiliary View" under each auxiliary view drawn in the correct orientation.8.4i (d) Do lines / 4t. faces A BCD and EFGIL 2-A3. and draw an high.7i.3i.and F-traces of a plane line k.7f . and 1 cipal views of line respect to point AB inches to the rear of point A and describe the position of (6) : : Draw its inch to the right of. it will be found that they will be perpendicular to the corresponding projections of This follows from the fact that the H. lettering the opposite parallel Construct the right-side view.3*. Find the a horizontal base having true length of a body diagonal and the true angle that this diagonal makes with the plane of the base.. Letter the subauxiliary view in the direction j&:2i. A :-J.and V- projection planes. 2-B2. PROBLEMS GROUP 1 ON CHAPTER 1. refer2-B1. and AE. 5:547.5i D:lf.. Check the true length by calculation.

" Letter the subtitle Auxiliary View" as in Problem 2-B3. A".X and check in this plane.3i. L:7. Through point J57:2|-. lines which are parallel to the horizontal. and draw an auxiliary view in which the lateral edges project as points.3. Is the figure : : A : D Draw 2-C2.3|. and side views. front. line 2-C4.7 point in which lines d and / meet.2.J: 3. left and right thirds of the upper half of the block are rempved. vertical. enclosing "box" as described in Article 24.7^ Obtain the required view by proportional division of the 1^.8f lie in this plane.4 (7:214 Z):224 #:li-.7i and C:118 lie in a plane.6. The pentagon A:. (a) Through point A draw the line of maximum inclination of plane A :056 B: 129 C:327. 2 inches high. 5:439 C:356.2. draw the line of maximum inclination of plane and find the true angle it makes with the hori- zontal plane.2.2f. 2-B6.FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: is LINES AND PLANES 55 2-B4. 10 (7:716. and side views of the triangle A: 017 Through point #:2. front.3.X. draw a which will pass 7|. (b) Through point jP:825 E JE:649 (?:516. Show that lines A: 135 JS:7. and profile projection planes.X L 7. Points A : K plane is determined by points A: 118 B: 5.9.7i and : M : missing projections. Draw the top and front views and an auxiliary view in the direction F:2i.2.2.1. Draw a view of the tetrahedron 7:534 A: 606 B:707 (7:825 in which the edge VB projects as a point. .6j interthrough the Draw the top. A BCD.2.8f and/:|.4 5:|.7 (?:l-j. 2-C6.X draw in plane A BC. 2-C3. FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS 5 AND 6 : 457 a plane or a skew 046 B 129 C 519 the top.4 the front face of a right prism 2 inches long. 4t. 2-C5. Show that lines d :0. : : : front edges of A 136 B 236 and E 2J 7 F 317 are respectively the two horizontal squares which form the ends of an oblique prism. Find the true angle that this line makes with the horizontal plane. 8. Find the Jf. PLANES.8 and missing projections of K and L. Is the figure quadrilateral? formed by joining the mid-points of the adjacent sides a plane figure? 2-C1.2f. Complete the top and front views of the prism.4i. the fact that line D:5ilf. Mark the true-length views (TL). GROUP C. tangular block 3 inches wide.5.8| lie Find the KL lies in plane sect.4. Point A :018 is the lower left corner of the front face of a rec- . 2-85. Lines : 2-B7.4.f.8. The Draw Q: an auxiliary view of the tee-shaped prism as seen in the direction P: 1.4. and l inches deep. Points .

2-C9. Plane Q C 2.56 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: 2-C7.8 true-size views of the circle.5.3f . the true length of each plane side of the triangle.i. Given the A:4f.3.7 lelogram A 345 :3.9 Show correct visibility F:7i.5.6i F : 6f.2. front. ing the line C:6.U. and true-size views of the hexagon.7. Find point E in which line / 2.3f.8i to the triangles A:f.U. Draw A : B : : 2-C8. K the edge view and the true-size view of the triangle Determine also the true angles between 2.3f .i. : : K : Show 6.51 C 3i. LINES AND PLANES (Ch.and F-projection planes. 2-D8. front.7 pierces the paralcorrect visibility. A :046 .6.5 B 3i.f . Find the line of intersection of the triangle A 1^.4. Draw the top.61 D Q and R.4.6i ABC and the #. front.2.2.6f and the parallelogram!): 118 #:7.8.9 C:6i. mined by points B : 437 C Show 4 2 4.6i K L:346 KM Draw :337 construct a square havthe top.6f.5iandZ>:li. : : : 2-D3. Line PQ is a diagonal of a regular hexagon which lies in the plane determined by points P 634 Q 716 R 824.3i. line common C:6i. Draw the top. Plane R passes : : 5. Line AB is a diameter of a circle which lies in the plane deterA : li. FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS 7 AND 8 2-D1.8 C:509 Z>:5. and normal views M of this square.2.4f. Plane S is determined by points A l.9i. 2-D6.7 F:7.3.3i.5 triangle Solve for same data required in the preceding problem. Find the line of intersection of planes S and T. 2-D2. : INTERSECTIONS.9i C:419. line of intersection of the planes 2-D6.5f #:l.2. Find the through points passes through points A :i..3.4f . 2-C10.9i :308 F:6t.3i.3. Show correct : visibility for line EF. Find the point Q common to line Z>:446 E:75& and the plane passing through points A 336 B 625 C 519.4. i. 2-D7.8 as a diagonal. and the true size of each angle of the triangle.6f -B:2J. GROUP D.5f tf:4i.9 E : 5f .li.2!.4i.9 B : 2|.6. Lrthe plane :i. Find the point P in which line JE?:046 F'AIS intersects triangle 4:017 B 239 C 426. plane T by Z>:4.7 B:4f. : : : 2-C11.2i. 2-D4. and the major and minor axes of the : elliptical views. Find the for the triangles.l. Solve by two different methods.7 B: 4^.6i : : Show correct visibility.l.71 : #:5*.2f .6. Find the line in which the plane passing through triangle 0:435 cuts triangle/): 424 #:508 F:845.

Find the traces S and T on the H.7f pierces the H. 2-E2.5.5.1. draw a pictorial view showing the H.2. to the horizontal. Plane Q is determined by points A .O-- D-|-.6i.5.6i. contains point D:614. for the lines A:i.7i traces.71.and (d) is vertical.2i. Plane Y is determined by points D:355 J?:6}. draw a pictorial view 0.7i. forward to the right.and F-projecTo the right of the orthographic views Origin: 0.7i. H y The plane of triangle 4:2i.and F-planes.and F-planes.9 /y O e 1 KlOl . LINES AND PLANES 57 E.5. vertical.3i and D:3f. Represent the following planes by their traces on the F-projection planes.4 pierces the H.and F-traces of the plane which contains the points 4:4i.5 fi:2}. contains point C:114. and profile projection The reference lines between the H.5.li.5 B 3.8 S and T in which the line which passes and -B:2.and F-planes which contain the following pairs of points: (o) /T\ ^0.5 extended to cut the H. 2-E5. Represent X . and makes 60 with sloping downward to the left. : 2-E7.7i. INTERSECTIONS OF LINES AND PLANES WITH THE PROJECTION PLANES point common is called the origin.FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: GROUP The planes planes.|.2i.f.4. Represent planes Q and R by their H.l.2i K: 5. .atod F-planes.1 Q Origin: 0.74 m (0)^:11.7^.2J.OIJ-.7f Plane R is determined by points D: 7^. A : li. Plane is determined by points A :i.5 F:4f.Si Origin: 0. a portion of line AB. o.5. Find the 2-E4.5.3.2.3^(d) <?:524 FiS.3 2-E3.2J.7 JL/ T\*il : . (a) (6) (c) H.4i.and F-traces.and Fintersect in this point. and the piercing points S and T.5 F: 4^.7i 5:6i. and find the line of intersection of Q and R.2J. as in (a).l.5 C 2i.7-2-.7i. (b) Find the points 8 and T in which the line which passes through points <7:2. Origin: 0. Origiix: 8.9 C:6. : : : .7^.5i. Origin: frontal and contains point 5:668. Plane Plane Plane Q is is R S horizontal and contains point A :279. 2-E6.5 C:3i.9.3i. (a) Find the points through points tion planes.7i.2.7* S"\^~i n O ^7 1 :O-T. C^HASi is Origin: 055.2i Origin: 6. sloping Plane T is perpendicular to F.O Ungin.D^.f. Origin: 055.:lf. and makes 45 with F.and P-planes 2-E1. and between the V. Find the H.5.5 JS?:5.2i. Origin 055. :3i. Origin: To the right of the orthographic views.

5 Origin: 055.58 planes of the FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: : LINES AND PLANES [Ch.5 C:6.5f :5|.10. Plane C:4^.5. backward. inches long and one diagonal horizontal. JKL.5 Represent plane R by its//. representing (a) (6) Z by its traces.1. forward.X is the center of a plane figure which lies in plane Z. K:715 L: 11. a line perpendicular to : : : : : : 2-F2. to plane At point P 2 inches to PQ perpendicular P. Point Q is the left of point- . 2-E10. Plane Plane Plane P Q perpendicular to the //-plane.Z.8 /: 6. (c) Through the mid-point of line F 104 G 323 draw a horizontal line perpendicular to FG.ll X and Y by their //.5 5:41.2.2^. find the line of intersection 2-E8.7f.6.7 pass the following planes. Through 2-E9. (6) Through point -B: 5. 5 B: 6.X.8. in which line D: 3. Q is 2-E12. (d) Through the mid-point of the line K:5Q2 L:714 draw a frontal line which shall be at right angles to KL. Origin 055. and two planes. Origin: 055.X.4.5. Find point K R is determined by points A:?. draw the principal lines of point F:5. between // and F. Origin 055. draw the line of maximum inclination to the horizontal. by its H. Plane Represent W W is determined by points A :|. 5. Represent Point C'A. Perpendicular FUNDAMENTAL PROB- lines. Origin: 055. each plane by its H.5. Plane Z is determined by points J:5i.2^. Find point P in which : line J:2i. determined by points 4:455 J5:125 C:659. P and Q (d) (e) Any Any plane X which slopes Y plane down. perpendicular to the F-plane.4^.and F-traces. which slopes down.7. (a) Through point (7:2^.2?.7^ construct and intersecting line A 168 B 369. PERPENDICULAR LINE AND PLANE.and F-traces. LEMS 9 AND 10 2-F1.9i F: 7^. right. the figure projects as a regular hexagon with sides 11 Draw the top view.and F-traces.5. Point P:4. Plane Represent Q by its //- and F-traces. left.6 intersects plane R. are the //(c) and F-projecting planes of line R parallel to the reference axis Note that planes AB. 10 construct a line intersecting and perpendicular to line C 589 D 769. GROUP F.6i of plane W.1^.8 construct a line lies in plane/: 208 #:549 L:726. 2-E11. E:2$.and F-traces. Through point the plane.5.5 pierces plane Q.bk of plane TF.4. In the front view. Through line A:3f. Origin: 055.

Find the foot of the perpendicular. the axis of a 3*" circle centered circle which makes an acute angle with a projection plane as an ellipse on that plane. R perpendicular to line A :319 2-F6. The line A: 2.8f 2-F4.X.4*. Line F:739 0:437 is centered on point 0. and auxiliary view to show true size. Complete the projections of the prism. leaving walls % inch thick on each side.2. of the prism. LINES AND PLANES 59 2-F3.3*. Draw an auxiliary view the solid. Construct a 2-inch square perpendicular to line J:5*.81 is the axis of a right hexagonal Line C 3*. : B : 319 2-F5.6* 5:3. is cut through thick.7* and two of its sides are L:746. which shows the true shape of face A BCD.4*. The line A : : cylinder.2. located by point A :3*. The triangle A :436 5:648 C:827 is the upper base of a tri- angular prism 1* inches thick. Through point P:5|. Line K: 125 L:427 corner of the base centered on L is the axis of a square right prism. Point -F:5.5.5. a 2-inch square having one diagonal horizontal. The base. When the principal axes of an ellipse are easily found.i. Through point P: 638 pass plane 5:556.2.8f F 5*.FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: A : : : . second diameter Note: A A at right angles to the first projects as the minor axis. 2-F13.8* is the upper edge of a A BCD. The base is a 2*-inch circle. Draw an prism.i. and complete the top : : and front views 2-F12. auxiliary view showing the true shape of the bases. The diameter of the circle parallel projects to the plane projects as the major axis of the ellipse. Draw line 4:2.7f is a diagonal of one base.2*. front view. l*.7* is the center of the base of a right cone. Draw 2-F14.3. 2-F8. Through point P:638 draw a perpendicular to plane A: 157 C 435.2f.3*. The square is centered on point K 9 horizontal.3.7* B 638 is the axis of a 4-inch diameter right the following views of the cylinder: the top view. One 2-F11. The edges of the rectangle perpendicular to AB are front views. 2-F7. is The on 5. is the axis of a right pyramid. Since the axis is .8i B 3*.6* C 7. vertical This rectangle the right face of a right prism * inch A rectangular hole. 2-F9.8* 5:427 the views of the circle. 5. is 2-F10. Line A:4*.6i draw a line perpendicular to triangle Find the foot of the perpendicular. and complete the top and is rectangle 3 inches long. perpendicular to face ABCD.4. points on the curve can readily be located by means of a trammel.6* is the vertex and C: 4.8 5:6.

Plane Q is determined by points A: 155 its J3:515 Represent the plane by H.5 5:1. : . Through point P:3.and F-traces. Pass a plane Q at right angles Find the traces to line A : l.9i draw a line perpendicular to plane Q. Through point P:2J-.4i. Origin: 055.5J through its mid-point. and trammel the plete the projections of the cone.and F-traces of plane R which is by points 4:4f.5J : .5 C:7i.8f construct a line perpendicular to plane R. of the perpendicular. Find the major and minor axes for each base. 2-F17. l. Find the foot determined 2-F16. li.9f Find the traces of plane R.l.5.8f pass a plane R perpendicular to line B 6i.4f.9.4i. Com(7:659. 2-F15. Draw the H. Origin: 055. 1|. the base will project as an ellipse in the principal views. II oblique.9f Origin: 055. of plane Q. 7. and locate the foot of the perpendicular. Origin 055.60 FUNDAMENTAL PROBLEMS: LINES AND PLANES ellipses. Through point P:2. : B and A : 2-F18.5.2.li. [Ch.

ItS . NOTE THAT PLANE 3 IS TAKEN PARALLEL TO AB a PLANE 4 1 TO AB. 2 A LINE PARALLEL TO A PLANE PROJECTS ON THE PLANE ITS TRUE LENGTH. Basic Principles 12 ABB NOTE THAT THE JLS FROM MUST COINCIDE. True Length and End View of a Line GIVEN 2 VieWS OF A UNE TO OBTAIN TRUE LENGTH B END VIEWS.REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER II 61 A UAffl TO A PLANE PROJECTS ON THE PLANE AS A POINT. I.B> ARE OPPOSITE SIDES OF A RECTANGLE a MUST BE EQUAL. NOTE THAT AB & A.

CALLED A NORMAL VIEW. A PLANE JL TO A PROJECTION PLANE PROJECTS AS A STRAIGHT LINE .CALLED AN EDGE VIEW. .62 REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER II ic Principles / 2. ANY PLANE GEOMETRIC CONSTRUCTION MAY BE PERFORMED IN A NORMAL VIEW. A PLANE PARALLEL TO A PROJECTION PLANE PROJECTS ITS TRUE SIZE . Edge and Normal View GIVEN 2 VIEWS OF A PLANE TO OBTAIN THE EDGE B NORMAL VIEWS of a Plane NOTE THAT PLANE 3 IS TAKEN JL TO A PRINCIPAL LINE IN THE GIVEN PLANE a PLANE 4 PARALLEL TO THE EDGE VIEW.

. NOTE THAT IN THE EDGE VIEW THE POINT OF INTERSECTION IS APPARENT. NOTE THAT MN IS THE INTERSECTION OF THE GIVEN PLANE a CUTTING PLANE.REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER II 63 Intersection of a Line & a Plane RL1 USE A CUTTING: PLANE CONTAINING THE LINE a ON EDGE IN ONE VIEW. SINCE XY LIES IN O. MN MUST INTERSECT XY AT P. Intersection of a Line & a Plane (Alternate Method) TO FIND THE INTERSECTION OF A LINE B A PLANiE OBTAIN AN EDGE VIEW OF THE PLANE. 0.

. YIELDING POINTS ON THE DESIRED LINE. A 2ND CUTTING PLANE WILL DETERMINE A 2ND POINT a THUS THE LINE Intersection of 2 Planes (Alternate Method) TO DETERMINE THE INTERSECTION OF 2 PLANES OBTAIN AN EDGE VIEW OF EITHER. NOTE THAT IN THE EDGE VIEW THE INTERSECTIONS WITH IN P ARE APPARENT.64 REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER II Intersection of 2 Planes TO FIND THE INTERSECTION OF 2 PLANES USE 2 CUTTING PLANES ON EDGE IN ONE OF THE VIEWS NOTE THAT THE INTERSECTIONS OF THE GIVEN PLANES WITH THE CUTTING PLANE INTERSECT IN A POINT ON THE DESIRED LINE.

REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER II 65 Traces. of a Line A LINE MAY BE REPRESENTED BY ITS POINTS OF INTERSECTION WITH THE PROJECTION PLANES THESE POINTS ARE THE TRACES OF THE LINE. NOTE THAT ONE VIEW OF EACH TRACE ALWAYS UES ON THE REFERENCE LINE Traces of a Plane A PLANE MAY BE REPRESENTED BY ITS LINES OF INTERSECTION WITH THE PROJECTION PLANES. . THESE LINES ARE THE TRACES OF THE PLANE. NOTE THAT THE TRACES ALWAYS INTERSECT ON THE REFERENCE LINE.

66 REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER II Traces of a line in a Plane IF LIE IN A LINE LIES IN A PLANE. THE TRACES OF THE LINE THE CORRESPONDING TRACES OF THE PLANE. . Traces & Principal Lines THE PRINCIPAL LINES IN A PLANt ARE PARALLEL TO ITS TRACES.

Intersection of 2 Planes By Traces THE INTERSECTION OF ^ PLANES MAY BE DETERMINED BY THE Z POINTS AT WHICH THEIR TRACES INTERSECT.REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER II 67 Plane Determined By 2 Intersecting Lines THE PLANE THROUGH 2 INTERSECTING LINES MAY BE DETERMINED BY ITS TRACES WHICH PASS THROUGH THE TRACES OF THE LINES. .

.68 REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER II Intersection of a Line & a Plane by Traces PLANE THROUGH THE LINE TO OBTAIN THE INTERSECTION OF A LINE 8 A PLANE USE A CUTTING JL TO EITHER PROJECTION PLANE.

GIVEN AB OR M 1 CD Q P PARALLEL TO CD THEN ApB? WILL BE JL Perpendicular Relationship of a Line & a Plane A LINE IS JL TO A PLANE. /S JL TO . THEIR PROJECTIONS 70 ON ANY PLANE PARALLEL ONE OF THE LINES ALSO C WILL BE 1. IT WILL PROJECT I 70 PRINCIPAL LINES IN THE PLANE.REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER II 69 Perpendicular Relationship of Lines in Space 2 LINES IN SPACE ARE CONSIDERED 1 IF EITHER LIES IN A PLANE TO THE OTHER. IF WEN ABLQ. THEN A.B. ED IN Q PARALLEL 70 P.

and the method of application of the fundamental problems may be far from obvious. construction.CHAPTER III On 49. from certain given geometrical elements. Analysis the Systematic Solution of Problems geometrical problem requires that. In this type of problem. solution of a problem consists of The is space geometry the fundamental problems of dascriptive geometry. the construction elements used being those described in the fundamental problems. by the method of orthographic projection. This systematic attack on a problem is valuable in that it employs and develops the type of spatial visualization that is useful in the invention and design of mechanical arrangements. The graphical solutions of certain basic problems of considered out the constructions indicated. one is concerned with the operations in space which lead to the solution rather than with the orthographic projections. . The analysis of a problem may be likened to building a model of the problem. The construction is the graphical representation. Many problems of descriptive geometry are variations of one of the fundamental problems. These problems involve the postulates of construction on which all graphical methods rest. In the analysis. one find other elements that satisfy specified conditions. The method of solution for these cases is clear once the fundamental problem involved is recognized. however. Also. it may be noted that the process of analyzing a problem in terms of fundamental concepts and proceeding logically therefrom illustrates a pattern of thinking applicable to problems in any field. becomes the however. Any space problem capable of solution can be solved by analyzing it in terms of the fundamental problems and carrying are of the space operations described in the analysis. the discovery of an analysis first and most difficult part of the solution. Very often. problems are of a more complex nature. the method of making an There are certain procedures. A The systematic and the twq parts the analysis a statement of the geometrical analysis operations which are required to effect the solution. Since problems vary greatly in their nature. that one can follow which generally will yield a 70 result. analysis cannot be set forth in exact terms.

the locus of a point equally distant from two given points is a plane which passes through the midpoint of the line segment joining the given points and is also perpendicular to the line. 50. auxiliary geometrical elements may be introduced in order to establish new relations which may suggest the solution. . Q. usually .51] SYSTEMATIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS 71 imagine the problem solved. B. B. First. for example: To find a point equidistant from four given points A. Thus. and Z>. the analysis that yields the simplest construction is . study the relations between the given parts of the problem with the help of the fundamental problems to find the key to the solution. the possibility of using must be considered. In this study. A locus is a geometrical element which contains every point that satisfies a given condition and no other points. it may be determined by the intersection of loci. and D. when the given data lies in an unfavorable position with respect to the For example.and F-projection planes can be measured readily in the auxiliary view in which the two lines project as points. Solutions based on the use of auxiliary projection planes will employ either Problem 4 or Problem 6 of the fundamental problems. The locus of a point equidistant P AB The B and C is a plane Q perpendicular to line BC at its mid-point. which do not lie in a plane. the true distance between two parallel projection planes. If this attempt is not successful. When the element required in a problem is a point or line. A problem may be capable of several different analyses. The from dicular to line locus of a point equidistant from A and B is a plane perpenat its mid-point. straight lines which are inclined to the //. 51. is a plane R perpendicular locus of a point equidistant from C and The intersection of the three loci P. C. C. For practical purposes. Then. and at its mid-point. to line D CD R determines the point which is equidistant from points A. A general case may often be reduced to a special case having a simple solution by choosing suitable auxiliary The auxiliary-view method of solution is especially useful views. Loci loci or new simplifying views Geometrical loci are often useful in devising a solution for a problem. Change of projection planes The method of attack introduction of auxiliary projection planes provides another on a problem. and make a sketch showing the and required elements. This view is obtained by the method of Problem 4.

(Problem 1. the mid-point of AB. .) 10. 96 Analysis: The locus of a point equidistant from points is A and B is a plane Q which is perpendicular to the line A B at its mid-point. Locate point M. Examples A few examples will serve to illustrate the principles described above. Pass plane Q through point M and perpendicular to AB. line The point P in which k cuts this plane the required point. Example given points 1. Ill the best solution since greater precision can be expected from a simple construction than from an elaborate one.) 4. A To find a point on a and B. Find point P in which line k pierces plane Q. not on k.) 2. line AB projects in true length. In this view.) Fij. 97 3. 1. (Problem 2. Second Construction (Figure 97): The auxiliary projection plane 3 is taken parallel to line AB.72 SYSTEMATIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS [Ch. (Problem 7. (Problem First Construction (Figure 96). 52. Draw line AB. line k which is equidistant from two Fig.

Draw line m through P and perpendicular to plane ABC. Example 2. Example skew lines b 4. k and the cinele C be given. (Problem 1. Example 3. line through point P and intersecting the and . Analysis: 1. To find the shortest distance between a straight line and a . To draw a c. and m. Construct a view of the line and circle in which the line Analysis: (Problem 4. circle. 98 Construction (Figure 98): The radius of the arc centered on ki and tangent to the curve C* is the shortest distance between line k and circle C. (Problem 5.) Construction (Figure 99). is edgewise. Pass a plane through line t and perpendicular to plane ABC. Let the line Fig. (Problem Pass a plane through lines t 3. The shortest line R between the point view of the line and the curve is the required distance.) P in line t. Assume any point 9. Line k intersects plane Q at P 3 a projection of the required point.) projects as a point.) 2.SYSTEMATIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS 73 and the plane Q perpendicular to A B at the mid-point M.

6. Q 3. P is a point of a given straight line not intersecting lines the above construction provides a method for drawing a straight given straight lines. m parallel to lines a and b 3. 4. Construction (Figure 100). Pass plane Find point Q through lines m and n. R in which plane Q cuts line e. It is evident that an infinite number of lines can be drawn which will satisfy the conditions. 5. 4. any point may be assumed on d and a line drawn through 1. through which plane Q cuts line lines c. Through point P draw lines respectively. line to intersect three Fig. Assume point P on line d. Assume point Pass plane D on line b. it parallel to plane ab and cutting and n line e. 1. .74 Analysis: SYSTEMATIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS [Ch. The point in which this plane cuts line c is the second point which determines the required line. Find point E in PD and b. 2. Note: If b and c. Draw line PR. To draw a line parallel to plane ab and Analysis: The required line lies in a plane parallel to plane ab and is determined by the points in which this plane cuts lines d and e. HI line b is The locus of every line passing through P and intersecting a plane. 100 intersecting lines Example d and e. PE is the required line. Draw line PE. Therefore. 2.

through the given Let the lines r. onal is line AK. 2. Through point line r 1 K draw K r. Analysis: 1. To construct parallelepiped having been given the directions of three concurrent edges and the body diago- nal passing corner. Construction (Figure 101). Pass a plane lines s Q through and t. parallel to line 3. t. Example a 6. in- tersecting in point A be given The body diag(Figure 102). . s. Draw allel lines to s lishing face 5.52] SYSTEMATIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS 75 Fig. Find point D in which r' from D parand t. 101 The aggregate of all lines intersecting d and c and parallel to plane ab is a curved surface called the hyperbolic paraboloid. and . estab- intersects plane Q. parallel to Pi 8 102 Draw from C r and from K parallel to $ to establish point G. 4. A BCD.

4:146 A. Line. Through point P draw line k which intersects line d and is Point P: 718. 3-A2. A 3-A6j Find the locus of a point which is equidistant from points :619 5:857. Origin: 055.41. Line d:4f. 1.76 6. Construction (Figure PROBLEMS GROUP ON CHAPTER III A. Plane Q: 51.51. 4:245 /3-All^Through the given given plane Q.71. SYSTEMATIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS ICh. 3-A4.5. and 4:2.0t Line jr: 41. 3-A9. Pass plane Q through point E and parallel to plane W. Find the lines in which planes Q and R cut the H.l.l. which plane Q cuts the //. 21.7i.9.41.8.5f. ll.7 5:41.3. Find the lines in 5:41. 3-A7. establish- 7. 425. Line w:f.1. m pass a plane P perpendicular to the 629. Find four equidistant parallel planes which contain. 51. WRITE ANALYSES AND CARRY OUT CONSTRUCTIONS FOR THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS 3-A1.5. Three non-intersecting edges of a parallelepiped lie along the given lines q.2.71. Line r:457. Find the intersections of the locus with H. lines s <: Construct line q parallel to line m and intersecting the skew and t. 219.5i D D: 61.4f. ( 3-A10^ Project the 5:456 P:217 Q:549 line segment #:626. Q and R.i. Line s:318. Line g:247.21.3f. 6.71. (' 337.11.71 C:5f.4i. parallel to plane Q. 3.7. Origin: 055. Point P:*. the points in that order. 736.31. 71. 3.9. Line c:2i.and F-proOrigin: 055. Plane Q:047. Linem:41.51. line AB on the triangle PQIf.51.3l.5.8J.41. 71.9f. Through a given point P draw line k which intersects the skew lines c and d. Line *:1. equidistant from points 3-A8.41. Draw the top and front views of the parallelepiped. ill Draw from B parallel ing F and E. Point Plane TP:1. B.l.and F-projection planes. 3-A3.71. Line d:329. is jection planes.5. Find the locus of a point which B:329 C:768. Through the given skew lines / and g pass two parallel planes. Draw EF completing to r and from G and K parallel to t.5. 625. 6.31.3.3. 645. 538. .3|.71. 41.7. the parallelepiped. Lino/: 11. and s. r.1. C.5. 3-A6. 71.and F-projection planes.G.

2J.2.4i. Line t 4. C.2.5l B: l.li. Given four points A. not lying in the same plane. Pass a plane through the line which cuts the dihedral angle in two lines which are perpendicular.6i A :i. C:2. : : 3-A13.5$.2i. STRUCTIONS MAY BE WRITE ANALYSES OF THE FOLLOWING PROBLEMS. JB.5. D.6i. B. Find an auxiliary projection plane on which two given skew lines will project parallel. 3-B7. 3-B6.3*. and equally distant from 3-B2.2f.9. 7. Pass a plane through a given point three given points. secting line t. Pass a sphere through points Z>:2*. and D.6.l. B. 3-B8. On a given line find a point equidistant from two given points. Determine a plane which points.SYSTEMATIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS 77 3-A12. Find the point on the circle through A.6i 3-A14. Through point C draw line k perpendicular to and interPoint C l. Draw a line which is symmetrical to a given being with respect to a given plane. . Draw a line cutting three given skew lines in such a that the points of intersection determine two equal segments. manner the symmetry 3-B6. 4:2.l.2i. :3i. 3-B4.7f D:5. is equally distant from four given 3-B3. Given a dihedral angle and a line lying in one face. line.5i C:4*. and C which is nearest point D. C. CARRIED OUT BY ASSUMING SUITABLE DATA CON- 3-B1. Pass a sphere through the given points A.6i GROUP B.

construction is . a rigid figure. (2) to find the angle between two lines. simplified by taking RL1 through A v and &L2 is coinciding with 78 view A 8 #3 A H B a ^The normal the true length of line . (6) to find the distance from a face). (3) to* find the distance from a point to a line. the measurement of a plane figure is reduced by a system of triangulation to the solution of a triangle. and the measurement of a space figure is reduced to the measurement of a tetrahedron. point to a line (slant height of a (7) to find the distance between two skew lines non-intersecting edges of (two the tetrahedron). In space geometry. 103 First Analysis: Let line First Construction (Figure 103): The AB. (3) to find the angle between two planes. a rigid figure. The graphical solutions of these problems are obtained by application of the fundamental problems developed in Chapter II.CHAPTER IV Graphical Computation 53. (2) to find the angle between two lines. To find the length of a line AB be the Construct the given segment. normal view of AB by the method of Fundamental Problem 4 (Article 23). The tetrahedron Problems which concern the determination of linear and angular measurements are known as metrical problems. 54. There are three problems on the triangle: (1) to find the length of a line. (5) to find the distance from a point to a plane (an altitude of the tetrahedron). F1 9 . the tetrahedron. There arc seven metrical problems connected with the tetrahedron: (1) to find the length of a line. In plane geometry. is analogous to the triangle of plane geometry. (4) to find the angle between a line and a plane.

Point P. The fundamental 58. 56. The method of rotation provides a simple. alternate is An or planes- 57. The path is a circle whose plane is perpendicular to the axis. between two lines Construct the normal First Analysis: Let the given lines be g and k. f . tance from the axis. rotated about atfis AB. Rotation method for determining normal views of oblique lines to rotate the line or plane into parallelism with one of the projection planes. The rotation of a point about a vertical axis (Figure 105) PC. moves in a horizontal circle of radius Points P and P" represent the two possible projections of P when it is rotated into the frontal plane containing AB. The principle of rotation construction of the method of rotation consists in a space point into a projection plane about an axis which lies rotating A point rotated about an axis moves at a constant disin that plane.58] GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION To Find the angle 79 55. direct solution for the two preceding problems. Fig. view of the plane figure gk by the method of Fundamental Problem 6 (Article 27). 104 First Construction (Figure 104): kj is The true angle between lines g and measured between g* and A: 4 .

The true length by assum- of line pig 107 AB may also be obtained and perpendiing the axis through point cular to the vertical plane. . This construction for true length is usubecomes ally simplified by omitting the revolved top off view (Figure 107) and setting the distance OB' equal to AnB H Example 2 (Figure 108) . Rotate point about a vertical axis through until B A AB The parallel to the vertical plane. The angle // is the true angle between AB and the horizontal plane. 106 59. To find the true length of line AB. f revolved front view (A v B ) is the true-length view.80 GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION 1&.IV Fig. To find the true length of a line Second Analysis: An oblique line projects in its true length when rotated into parallelism with the vertical or horizontal plane about an axis through one point of the line. Line is A AB rotated parallel to the horizontal plane and projects in true length in . Second Construction: Example 1 (Figure 106).

Rotation of a point about a horizontal axis (Figure 111) Given: Point as P and the horizontal line AB. Find the true lengths of lines AB. 60. Fig. 109 61. This triangle is congruent to the space triangle. BC. The process of triangulation has important applications in the layout and development of surfaces. and AC by method of Problem struct the triangle (Figure 110) using the lengths found for the three sides.61] GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION The angle 81 the top view. To find the true shape of a plane figure by triangulation To find the true shape of triangle ABC Con- (Figure 109). ABC The true shape of any polygon can be found by dividing the figure into triangles and then laying off these triangles in true size. an axis until it lies in the horizontal plane To rotate P about which contains AB. AB . angle between V is the true B' BH AB and the vertical plane. 4.

with its center at CH. . 111 points in which are PR and SR. (Figure 112). The top views of these two points The view is construction of Figure 111 can be made. Project P and AB to the auxiliary view obtaining P 3 and In this view. RL2 cuts the circle. IV The path of rotation is a circle. circle projects in true shape in an auxiliary view in which the axis AB projects as a point.82 GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION [Ch. point P rotating about AB describes a circle of Point P lies in the horizontal plane containing AB at the ^Cs. this circle projects The as a straight line perpendicular to AnBn.more compact RL2 perpendicular to A uB H and through P H constructed as before. In the top view. Take RLl through A V B V and RL2 at right angles to radius ir. by taking The auxiliary .

The rotated view AnB R C R the true shape of ABC. First Construction (Figure 113): To find Fig. figure is which the rotated must be con- tained in the plane and be either in the projection plane or parallel to it. In this case. 113 . A HD H . Rotate points of Figure 111. the projections of the horizontal line AD. the circle which represents the path of rotation will project as a tal line as straight line in the front view. obtaining R B B and C about A D as an axis by the and C.6*] GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION 83 A point can be rotated about a fron- an axis in a similar fashion. and RL2 perpendicular to view is Take RLl through A V D V . Fig. 62. The auxiliary view A zB$C$ is an edge method of the triangle. 112 Draw the true shape of the triangle ABC. To find the true shape of a plane figure by the method of rotation its lel Analysis: true shape to a A plane figure appears in when rotated into or paralThe axis about projection plane.

63. dicular to B V T V This construction avoids the overlapping views of the preceding example. ABC. The line drawn through B v and T v represents the Rotate point C about intersection of triangle ABC and the F-plane. Analysis: To find the true angle between lines in the plane Draw a horizontal line ancf rotate the given lines into a horizontal plane about as an axis. Produce line CA to intersect the F-plane at point T. . . BvTv by the method of Figure 112. Construction (Figure lid): Point B is rotated about the construction of Figure 112. The true angle is B. The segments and AB AD BD to BR by rotate to AuB R and DnB R respectively. The true size of the AD AB ABC AD angle ABC is measured in the rotated view. To find the angle between two lines (rotation method) and EC (Figure 115). Draw B V C R and of rotation perpen- \ \ /JRUE\\ CR / X V / / The rotated figure A R B V C R is the true shape of ABC. IV Second Construction (Figure 114): To find the true shape of triangle The triangle is to be rotated into the F-plane about its trace on the F-plane.84 GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION [Ch. obtaining C R TvCs. Take RL through BH. Find A R by the line which represents its path .

and VAC is equal Second Analysis: The dihebetween two planes is measured by the plane angle cut from the two planes by a third plane passed perpendicular to their line of intersection. First Construction (Figure VA 116): The true angle between planes to J3 3 A 3 C 3 dral angle VAB . To find the angle between two planes Let it First Analysis: The true size of the dihedral angle appears in a view in which the line be required to find the angle between planes VAB and VAC. Assume point p Pass plane P line 2. Let it be required to find the and angle between planes VAB on VAC 1. X through P and perpendicular to VA. (Figure 117). . between two planes to the common two planes Construct in projects as a point.64] GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION 85 Fig. the view of line VABC which projects as a point. 115 I 64.

cuts planes 4. PQ and PR in which plane VAB Second Construction (Figure 117): The plane angle QPR is rotated about the hori- QR so as to bring point P into the horizontal plane ABC. Pass plane intersection of Z perpendicular to the line of faces. zontal line 65. 118 . Find true size of QPR. Solution of a general case using both first and second analyses Construction true size of the (Figure 118): To find the dihedral angle between two adjacent sloping faces of the frustum of a square pyramid.GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION 3. cuts the plane angle from the given true size of this angle can be found by rotating it into a horizontal plane uS K H or by constructing the normal view WSX The W X by auxiliary projection. [Ch. The required dihedral angle is measured by QP'R. two adjacent Plane Z appears edgewise in the view in which the intersection projects in its true length and faces. IV Draw lines X and VAC respectively. Fig.

to CnDu. Construction (Figure 119): iliary Aux- Let it be required to find the angle between plane ABC and line AP. View 3 edgewise and line AP RL3 is taken parallel Plane ABC projects in true shape in View 4. View 5 shows ABC edgewise and line AP is in true length. The Fig. 120 angle <f> the true angle between AP and plane ABC. to -Aa-BsCa. 11 9 66. . angle between a line and plane appears in the view in which the plane projects edgewise and the line projects in true length. Draw the horizontal CD in ABC. 7L4 is taken parallel to AJ**.66] GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION 87 BH Fig. To find the ansle between and plane Analysis: The angle between a line and a plane a line is defined as tho angle between the line arid its proThe true jection on the plane. RL2 is taken per- pendicular shows ABC obliquely. plane View Method.

H X and ST angle between lines the angle between planes and Q. 122 Analysis: The angle between any two planes is measured in a plane and Q intersect in perpendicular to their line of intersection. The angle between planes F and Q is and apft 3' is rotated into the H-plane about HX as an axis. and Q forms a right triangle. included between planes H. Find point C in which line AB pierces plane PQR. To find the angle between an oblique plane and either reference plane Let it be required to find the angle between plane Q and the 77and F-planes (Figures 121 and 122). The true size of this angle is a and is The is HX H found by rotating the triangle into the F-plane about VX as an axis.88 Construction GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION (Figure 120): [Ch. IV Rotation Method. about is readily accomplished by finding the TL of AC ( = AC') and laying off between line AB AM AM ACR = AC'. and ST. Planes Assume any auxiliary plane X. 121 Fig. pears in true size when the triangle The above construction can be reversed to solve the following prob- . The required angle is ACK M. V. Draw the line from point A and perpendicular to plane PQR. perpendicular to HQ. Rotate the triangle AMC This operation as an axis until AC appears in true length. having the line ST as its hypotenuse. The angle between planes Q and V is measured on a plane F. VX. The line HQ. H ^ / ^ Fig. The portion of plane Y included between planes H. perpendicular to FQ. F. 67. and Q is a right triangle portion of plane having the sides HX. To find the angle and plane PQR.

It is there- . To find the angle between planes Q and R. Through any assumed point of space draw a perpendicular to each plane. Angle line AB of the plane of the rotated triangle mn. triangle Draw a frontal AOB. Let the trace (Figure 123) and the angle ft between planes be given.69] GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION 89 lem: Given one trace of a plane and the angle that the plane makes with either projection plane. Find the true size of -AvOnBv is equal to the angle between planes Q and R. 69. Through point O draw line m perpendicular to plane Q. Pass plane Y perpendicular to VR. Assume the projection of a point of space 0. 68. Draw the trace HR to pass through point Sir. making the angle /3 with . 124 Example (Figure 124). to find the other trace. as an axis. To find the angle between two planes (Planes given by their traces) Analysis: The dihedral angle between two planes is equal to the angle between their respective normals. Rotate plane and VR V R Y into the //-plane about the triangle to be formed reference line. H and V. HY the reference line. To determine the angle between a line and a plane (Plane given by its traces) Analysis:^ The angle between the angle between a line and a plane S is defined as the line and its projection on the plane. rotates to T R on the Through T R draw line T B S//. Point T. the known vertex of by planes R. and line n perpendicular to plane R (Problem 9). ' R Fig. Determine the angle between these lines.

Construct the in this view by the method of Fig. OyPn is the required Second Analysis: Let the given point and line be P and k respectively. 71. Construct A V From any O S and line b. To find the angle between plane on line b draw a normal m to plane S. Find true length of PQ. To find the distance from a point to a line The distance from a point the length of the perpendicular from the point is to a line to the line. cuts plane Z. Second Construction (Figure 127). TV. (Article 23). in which the given lines tire oblique. Second Analysis: The distance between two skew lines a and 6 is equal . First Construction (Figure 126): Let P be the given point and k Draw A: 3 the normal view of line k. 1. the true shape of triangle AOB. Draw line PQ. OP and find its true length. Pass a plane Z through point P and perpendicular to line k. 3. 4. Find the point Q in which line A. find the shortest distance between two skew lines First Analysis: Using the principle of Theorem I. Example (Figure 126). I. Draw OaPa perpendicular to & 3 Complete Theorem . The angle between line 6 and plane S is <t>. IV between the line and a normal to the plane. point frontal line AB to form the triangle AOB. 125 perpendicular from the point to the line Find the true length of the perpendicular. equal to the true length of UV. The complement of AOB is found graphically. 70. Draw the R BV . First Analysis: Draw a view of the line and point in which the line projects in its true length. Project the given lino. A general case. P on the auxiliary plane 3. the common perpendicular ran be drawn in the view in which one of the given lines The distance between the lines is projects as a point (Figure 128). can be reduced to this simple case by the method of Problem 4. 2. .90 fore the GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION complement of the angle [Ch. the projections of line distance.

126 Fi 9 . 127 Fig.70] GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION 91 Fi 3 . 128 .

1. The shortest distance between lines a and 6 appears in this view. Construct a view in which plane ax projects edgewise. Pass a plane through lines a and x. Assume a point P on line a. each of which contains one of the given lines. Through point P draw line x parallel to line 6.IV to the distance between two parallel planes. 4.92 GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION [Ch. SHORTEST DISTANCE BETWEEN LINES a&b . 2. 3.

must equal graphically OA This is found right = <. The following constructions describe relationships between a line or plane and the projection planes. . 72. in their true lengths in this view. Construct a$x$. XB. having the angle A is the length of the vertical Distance by constructing the OX OX projection of the required element. assuming any convenient The length A for elements (Figure 1 30) problem now is to select the particular element. These constructions are special cases of certain of the preceding metrical problems. . greater than + = problem when + <) is is less than 90. Lines a and b project lines. sible (0 is - It will be noted there are to this Fig. the edge view of plane ax. The projection of the common perpendicular to lines a and b will project as a point on a projection plane taken parallel to a 3 and bs. determining the proThen the required line is foifr OB. of this cone that makes the angle with the vertical plane. <f> It is evident that the length of the verti- cal projection of the required element cos <t>. triangle A OX. . Take RL3 parallel to a 3 6 3 and construct a 4 b*. and is also plane through represented by 63. determining 6 3 line 6 and parallel to line a appears edgewise. if If <t>) there are two solutions. This length is transferred to the cone by describing arc jection OvB v . 130 pos(6 solutions 0) 90.72] GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION 93 Second Construction (Figure 129): Let a and 6 represent two skew Through any point of line a draw line x parallel to line b. In view 3 a Project line b on the auxiliary plane 3. or elements. make izontal plane. Draw elements the horizontal and vertical pro- jections of a right circular cone whose the angle 8 with the hor. The distance between the parallel projections as and 63 is the shortest distance between lines a and b. There no solution (0 + 90. . Pass a plane through lines a and x. is The projection k\ in which they cross the end view of the common perpendicular. To draw the projections of a line making specified angles with the projection planes To find the line through point y which makes the angle with the hori- zontal plane and the angle <t> with the vertical plane.

94 GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION [Ch. 131 struct this normal with the horizontal plane and (90 Con</>) with the vertical plane. It may be expressed as an When given as a ratio. Through a given point to pass a plane which makes specified angles with the principal projection planes Let it be required to pass a plane through point which makes the angle 6 with a horizontal plane. The bearing often given in engineering data by its bearing of a line is the direction of its horizontal It is expressed in degrees projection with respect to the meridian. by Pass the plane FOR through point O and perpendicular to line OB by method of Problem 10. The slope in per cent is the rise or 100 feet (Figure 132). IV 73. Strike and dip of a plane Strike direction and dip are terms used in mining and geology to describe the and slope of a plane. Plane POR is the required plane. 0) Fig. or a per cent. Bearing and slope of a line The position of a line is and slopo or grade. It is evident that values of (0 + 0) must lie between 90 and 180. The strike of a plane is the direction of a . fall (in feet) in a horizontal distance of 75. OB through point the method of Article 47. The slope or grade of a line is its inclination to the horizontal plane. and the angle <t> with a vertical plane The normal to this plane makes an angle of (90 (Figure 131). 74. a ratio. measured east or west of the meridian. horizontal distance to the rise or drop of the line in that distance. it is the ratio of a angle.

132 Fig. 4-A3. Find the true shape of the triangle A: 126 5:218 (7:434 by the method of triangulation. ON CHAPTER IV NORMAL VIEW OF A LINE OR PLANE FIGURE BY ROTATION 4-A1.5 Lay off the side DE along the right-hand border. 133 PROBLEMS GROUP A.2. is determined if one of its -H Fig.5.4:078 A:3.8& by the method of triangulation.4. (c) Find the true length of line /?:023 F:304 and the true angle it makes with a frontal plane through point /?.751 GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION 95 horizontal line of the plane. (b) Find the true length of line C:678 /):8.5.6f jF:2. dip of a plane is the angle the plane makes with a horizontal plane The and is measured downward (Figure 133). (a) Find the true length of line . (d) Find the true length of line (/:035 K :803 and the true angle it makes with a frontal plane through point G. A plane points and its strike and dip are given. (6) :4i.4. and is generally given by its bearing.10 and the true angle it makes with a horizontal plane through point C. 4-A2. (a) To execute a plane construction on an oblique plane of space. Determine the true shape of the plane quadrilateral (7:046 D: 1. Construct a li-inch square in .10 and the true angle with a horizontal plane through point A.

. Draw the top.2f. ANGLE BETWEEN Two PLANES A CD and BCD 4-C2. A :556 .4. Find the true size of the dihedral angle between the faces B 215 C 238 D 346. faces. Produce sides of Method: Lay out square square to cut sides of the quadrilateral.8 ft :5f. Two sides of the square are to be parallel to DE. One corner of the square is inch from line in the true-shape view. Rotate triangle 4:256 B: 658 C:4.4. using the method of rotation. and rotate them back into the front view. GKOUP B. A : 1 J. 4-A6.4^ and #-C: 0^.3. The roof planes make an angle of 45 with the horizontal.96 GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION [Ch.4. One rear corner a horizontal rectangle is located at point The inlet. 4-A6. B : 416 : 1 5:619 4-C4. and Draw the top and front J. of the tetrahedron A 036 : : : : The inlet to a symmetrical hopper is 3 inches wide and 2 inches deep. Find the true size of the angle #:345 4-B3.7f 4-B4.3.1 4-C1. The plate of a hip roof is represented by the trapezoid A :016 C 5 9 Z>:()1 9. Find the true size of the angle P:4i.i.6 #:i>*. find the true size of the dihedral angle between two adjacent The 1 4-C3.5i C:6l. Find the true size of the angle A 127 (7:616.7i (7:6. outlet is a 1-J- X i-inch horizontal rectangle 2 inches below the views. front. Find the points of tangency and the major and minor axes of the elliptical views.H. Construct a 2 J-inch diameter circle tangent to lines A 1^.9i Q:2f.r)} triangle into the horizontal plane containing line AB. Find the true size of the dihedral angle between planes C: 825 and/): 437 #:749 F:816. : 4-A7. and side views of the roof. Find the true size of the dihedral angles between the roof planes. Locate these intersection points DE on the top and front views of the quadrilateral by proportional division. and 1 inch from CD. . 4-B2. :0.5 into the frontal plane Draw bisectors of interior angles in the passing through point C.H.8i.3J.6 L:4f. 4-A4.6j.4 (7:545 into the horizontal plane passing through point C.2i. Check solution by rotating ft:3&.5 : #:4. IV the piano CDEF.inch sides are frontal.4.2.i.5.2.9.2^.3^. normal view. GUOUF C.01. Rotate triangle 236 #:3.8t :3. ANGLE BETWEEN Two LINES 4-B1. Construct a normal view of triangle P:416 Q:548 72:839.2J. Find the true size of the angle A : 1. 4-B6. Find the truo size of the angle /:3.

9f F:6*.4t.5 its //a. making an with the //-plane. . Points A : M GROUP E.(>i 0:8.and F-traces.7f pass plane R which slopes downward.2.7i and the plane the face of tho triangle P : 1 29 Q : 71G R : 750. line Y 3i. 4-D2. 7?: 61 5 C:7.8i B:8.5.7^ and 4-D4. Origin: 055. Plane R makes 62 with // and 42 with V. Find the true size of the dihedral angle between the pianos G:7i.3-J . Find the true size of the angle between the plane of tho roc4:517 B 747 C 749 D 5 19 and the line E 337 F 0. Plane Represent plane angle ft Q is Q by Q determined by points -1:^.4.3.5 F 7.3.l. Through point C:437 pass plane Q which slopes downward. Find the angles a and ft as described in the preceding problem for the plane determined by points 4^.6t : R : 0. H. and to the left.81 and :4|.7 A light ray passes through points //: 0^. forward. Through point />:4.4|. Represent plane R by its H. Find the true between Q and the //-plane.8f F:2. If .3i.9* C:7i3f.5f L:5.7| and D:4. an angle of 30 with the V-plano.5 S : 2.lf.5f X:7t.7JK :3f .(>i.4J.5. the //-plane and 45 with the F-plane.7i #:7|.8. OBLIQUE LINES AND PLANES angle of 45 4-E1. Find the true size of the dihedral angle between planes A :4i.2f .5. and sloping downward. Origin: 055.7.1i.5.Gi and the line yl:4iH.4i. size of the dihedral angle and F-traces. 4-E2.) is the upper end of a line 3 inches long which The line makes 30 with slopes downward.41. 4-D3. and to the right.l. (Four solutions. Origin: 055. backward. 8t B: 6. backward.3. D : : : GROUP D. 4-D6.7i and 3/:C>U.5. Find the size of tho anglo botwcon tho lino A: 150 fi:4.9i CD and ABC of the tetrahedron A:\.2^.5 E 1.l-]-. Plane Q makes an angle of 07 with // and 38 with V.5.3. Find the anglo between triangle Z 6J. 4-E4. tangle ANGLK BETWEEN A LINE AND AN OBLIQUE PLANE : : : : : 4-D1. and the dihedral "F-plane.4f.01.9.Rl C:4^. Find the angle of incidence and tho path of the reflected ray. Represent plane Q by its //. Find tho true J5:3i.8 T : : 4-D6. 4-C6. Through point A :437 draw a lino 3 inches long. between and the 4-C8. Point /?:34G 4-E3.GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION 97 4-C5.2.and V-traces. H.9 and C:4f.7 lio in a plane mirror.3i.8.7. 4-C7.3f.9f size of the angle between the piano J0:i.4|.8* ^:5.l. Find tho true sizo of tho anglo bctweon tho edgo #:2f. and to tho right.

i*.3i. 7.6 4-F7.4i. Through point Pass plane B draw line k parallel to 2.3-J-.4:5. the top and front views Solve by drawing a view parallel. Find the shortest distance between point C:2f. Find points R and S in which lines m and n intersect plane W. Through point C draw line m perpendicular to plane W.9 common perpendicular and C:l. . Determine the minimum clearance between these wires. 3. At point Q.7t Z):i. plane taken through point B.4:136 4. where line RS cuts. 5. Find the shortest distance between the skew lines fi:219 and C:237 A:048 />:35 J. >4:i. Find tho shortest distance between point P:226 and line Solve by rotating the figure PAB into the horizontal /i:735. Find the #:5. IV GROUP PERPENDICULAR DISTANCES 4-F1.7:019 the positions of a guy wire and a lead wire of an antenna system.98 GRAPHICAL COMPUTATION F.4. 1 in which the projections of AB and CD : 349 and L 158 16 represent respectively 4-F8. 4-F10.(>2 ABC. Draw the views of the line PQ which represents the shortest Z?:3.' 4 and C:li. 6. Find the shortest distance between the skew lines r #:U. PQ between lines .5J-. Lines .l.1 9 distance between point true-lengt h view of PQ. P:014 and line . Scale i inch = 1 foot. ( Solve by drawing a view in which one of the given lines projects as a point. A :404 4-F3. Find the shortest distance between the skew lines L : 409 M : G37 and K: 720 5:810.7 Base the construction on the CD.8i- 4-F4.3i. 4-F5.2f. 4-F6.2. Compute the volume of the tetrahedron V : 156 A : 329 B : 515 C:617.i.5.7 : D:3i. line AB. 4-F9.. 4. A :i. Mark the /1: 247 4-F2.Gf and line Solve by drawing a normal view of the triangle /J:2J-. following analysis 1 . [Ch. Find the shortest distance between point C:037 and line #:225. Through point D draw line n perpendicular to plane W. draw line t parallel to m and meeting line CD in point P. Draw appear of the perpendicular common to AB and CD. W through lines AB and k. Draw line RS. Draw the line which : : K M ' represents this shortest distance in each view.

REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER IV 99 Basic Principle of Rotation THE ANY POINT ROTATED ABOUT ANY AXIS DESCRIBES A CIRCLE IN PLANE THROUGH THE POINT JL TO THE AXIS. Rotation of a Line into a Projection Plane ROTATE THE LINE ABOUT AN INTERSECTING AXIS 1 TO ONE PROJECTION PLANE B PARALLEL TO OR CONTAINED IN THE OTHER. RL1 NOTE THAT WHEN AB BECOMES PARALLEL TO THE V . THE RADIUS BEING THE DISTANCE FROM THE POINT TO THE AXIS.

RL1 NOTE THAT THE PLANE IS TRUE SIZE IN THE ROTATED VIEW.100 REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER IV Rotation of a Plane A PLANE MAY BE ROTATED TO BE PARALLEL TO A PROJECTION PLANE BY USING A PRINCIPAL LINE IN THE PLANE AS AN AXIS. Perpendicular Common to 2 Skew Lines RL2 TO DRAW THE COMMON 1 BETWEEN 2 SKEW LINES IN SPACE OBTAIN AN END VIEW OF EITHER LINE. NOTE THAT THE COMMON X APPEARS JL TO B IN VIEW 3 a TO A IN VIEW 4. GEOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS IN THE PLANE SUCH AS THE ANGLE BETWEEN 2 LINES CAN BE DIRECTLY MEASURED IN THIS VIEW. .

the tetrahedron. cube. The prism has two polygons called ends or bases which are congruent parallel. the solid is a rectangular right prism. faces intersects is a vertex. 101 The basic problem .CHAPTER V Polyhedrons 76. laterals. The triangular faces meet in a common point A line connecting the apex and the center of the base called the apex. otherwise. The point in which a set of When all the faces of a solid are congruent. The solid is a right pyramid when the axis is perpendicular is the axis. 78. and icosahedron. The term is commonly used. To find the intersection of a Analysis: The line plane and a polyhedron of intersection is determined by the points in which is. The solid is oblique. same number of sides. the figure is irregular. All other polyhedrons are irregular. A plane polygon formed by a set of edges is a face. making all called faces. The prismoid has two parallel ends or bases which are dissimilar polygons having the. it is the other surfaces parallelograms which arc a right prism when each face is a rectangle. to the base. Regular polyhedrons bounded by pianos are called polyhedrons. prism. when the bases and faces When the bases are rectangles. The boundary planes intersect to form the edges of the solid. pyramid. The faces are plane quadriThe frustum of a pyramid is a limiting case of a prismoid. There are five regular polyhedrons. axis is parallel to one set of edges. all other faces are triangles. Thus. it is oblique. the edges of the solid pierce the given plane. the surface of the solid that is the polyhedron. Solids which are it is the figure is a regular polyhedron. dodecahedron. Irregular polyhedrons When The and the faces of a solid are not congruent. The description of a prism includes the shape of a base. to describe either the surface or the solid. Precisely. and prismoid are common examples of this class. octahedron. 77. however. axis. The pyramid can have any polygon for one face called the base. the solid is a parallelepiped. otherwise. Many polyhedral forms occur in nature as crystals. A line connecting the centers of the bases is an The and faces are parallelograms.

102 POLYHEDRONS [Ch. 79. true shape of the section taken parallel to the section. The points 1. 07?. The found by projecting it on a plane Second Construction: Let the pyramid (Figure 135) be intersected by the plane QRST. There are two general methods for solving this problem: 1. Second Analysis). 3 in which the edges 0/1. 3. The top and front views of the line of intersection are found by projection from the auxiliary First Construction: Let the by the plane Draw Fi 9 . and 4 are QRST determined similarly by planes F. The points in which the lateral edges of the pyramid Pass the pierce the plane are found by the method of Problem 7.V therefore. Z. OC pierce the plane cf aro determined in this view. 134 is view. 2. pyramid 0-ABC (Figure 134) be intersected the Auxiliary View 3 in which the plane projects cf. and W. Cutting Plane Method (Article 38. edgewise. Plane X in line 5-9. represented by its trace HX y through line OC. the one of finding the point in which a line pierces a plane. Auxiliary View Method (Article 38. First Analysis). Given the plane ABC and a hexagonal prism Analysis: The points in which the edges of the prism intersect the plane are easily found in this example without the use of an auxiliary . The point lv in which lines 5v-9v and intersects plane OvCv intersect is a point on the intersection. vertical plane X. 2. Points 2.

The polygon having those by points as vertices represents the section cut from the prism by plane view. 135 Z A PROFILE Fig. planes Y and Z determine 1-2-3-4-5-6 is the required . Ov 12 V llv Qv Fig. edgewise in the profile view. points 3. The hexagon Similarly. intersection.79] POLYHEDRONS 103 Find the point in which each edge of the prism pierces the plane the method of Fundamental Problem 7. 5 respectively. 136 Construction (Figure 186): The cutting plane X. ABC.ABC. 6 knd 4. determines the points 1 and 2 in which the two front edges of the prism intersect plane .

v in the points which a line intersects a polyhedron Given: The prismoid line k and the ABCD-EFGH.104 POLYHEDRONS 80. To find [Ch. The square bases . The points P and Q in which line k crosses the edges of the section are the points in which line k intersects the solid. The true size of the right sec- tion appears in the view in which the axis projects as a point. and complete the required views by projecting from this view. Analysis: Pass a vertibal plane through line k. and Q lie on the edges of this section. Find the section cut from the solid by this plane. Construction (Figure 138): A Fig. 138 square right prism is constructed on a given line AB as an axis. s. Construction (Figure 137): A vertical plane through line k cuts the prismoid in the section Points P 1-2-3-4. Therefore. The right section appears edgewise in the view in which the axis projects in its true length. construct the right section on the end view of the given axis. 137 81 To draw the views when the right tion and axis of the . of a secsur- prism face are given A nalysis: Draw the normal and end views of the axis.

and qne diagonal 105 of each base is are centered on points horizontal. Draw line the horizontal line c through point B and perpendicular to lie AB. Line c projects as a point in this view. Any plane passed perpendicular to these edges projects edgewise in the first lateral edges of the . a The true size of a right section of a solid appears in the view in which the axis of the solid projects as a point. One diagonal of the base centered on B will Take RL2 parallel to A H Bn and draw the normal view of AB. To find the right section of a solid Analysis: A right section of a solid is a section cut by a plane perpendicular to the axis or center line of the solid. 139 The right-section plane appears edgewise and percross section. Points in which edges of the solid pierce the section plane are found in this view. It is commonly called Fig. or right section with one diagonal coinciding with line 4. Construct the true-shape view of the base of AB. along line c. 82. Take RL2 parallel to the first Draw the auxiliary view showing the X prism in true length. Take J?L3 perpendicular to A 3#s and draw the point projection Line c projects to c*. pendicular to the axis in a view showing the axis in true length. Complete the views by use of the existing relationships. lateral edges of the prism* in the top view. and the bases appear perpendicular to A 3-83.82] POLYHEDRONS A and B. Construction (Figure 139): To find the projections and true shape of a right section of a triangular oblique prism.

v The top and auxiliary view and cuts the edges in points 1. Line AB is the axis of a rectangular prism having face widths equal to a and 6. 2. Take RL2 perpendicular to the top view of AB. Fig. The base at Complete the top and front views by projection. B . front views of the right section are found by projecting points 1. 140 Example 2 (Figure 140). The base at point B is a right section. the long edges of the base being parallel to line XY. The second auxiliary view represents the true shape of section 1-2-3. using the given dimensions and making the longer sides parallel to line XT. and 3 from the auxiliary vie\v. 2. Construct the end view of the prism. will appear at right angles to the top view of AB. The second auxiliary view is located by taking ItL3 parallel to the edge view of the right section. The end at point A is cut to fit against the plane Q. Draw the auxiliary view of AB (a point) and line XY. and 3.106 POLYHEDRONS [Ch.

by Project the edges of the bases at right angles to the top view of the Draw view A\ constructing axis AB (this being the true-length view). edges 4-1 along this arc. 3'-4'. since the working dimensions of sheet-metal structures are of ten the inside dimensions. the surface of the solid very closely. Connect these points to -. only the purely geometrical of the material. are laid out The views 83. is equal to a. usually shows the inside of the surface. set off the true lengths of the basal l'-2'. The lateral edges of view F are parallel to the top view of AB and the width of the face is made equal to a. consists and the faces are laid out in sequence.84] POLYHEDRONS of the 107 prism in which the lateral faces appear in true size a combination of projection and rotation. . In practical work. strike an arc. Also. / . Starting at point 1'. Developments A and development of a polyhedron is a drawing which shows the true size It represents the surface When a cut open along certain edges and folded out into a single plane. | \\{4 P L^^ DEVELOPMENT of the development. The surface is opened along the edge 0-1. The true angle of the bevel cut on the narrow face is equal to ft. the lateral edges parallel to the top view of AB and making the width The true angle of the bevel cut on the wide face of the face equal to b. The rectangular base may be attached to any basal edge 2'-^. certain allowances must be made for seams and "crowding" due to the thickness In the following examples. is cut from sheet material and properly bent. The 1' lateral edges are equal Assume the point CT as the vertex of the development. in length. ^^ form the faces. Development by triangulation The development of the lateral faces Right Pyramid (Figure 141)of four triangles. 84. the development relative position of each face of the solid. it reproduces development. aspects of development will bo treated. Using the true length of 0-4 as a radius and point 0' as the center.

difference in elevation between the ends of the line as its altitude. The upper base of the pyramid neglected at the outset. The points of the upper base are located on the development by laying off the true distance from the vertex of the pyramid to each point. is Thus. construct the lateral the pyramid by triangulation. The surface is cut open along its f O'-l'. and the surface of the oblique pyramid with vertex at O is developed. Frustum of a Pyramid (Figure 143). faces of shortest edge 0-1. the frustum of a pyramid is developed by dividing each trapezoidal face into two triangles. For example. surface is shown in this development. .108 POLYHEDRONS [Ch. It is convenient to have the vertex of the development coincide with point O of the true-length diagram.V Truncated Pyramid (Figure 142). the true length of the segment O-5 is equal to O'-5'. seen that the true length of an edge is equal to the hypotenuse of a is and the right triangle having the horizontal projection of the line for its base. Using the true lengths now available. 142 is O vPv and setting off P'-l' equal to O#-l*. the true length of edge 0-1 found by drawing O'P* equal to 1' 2' 4' 3" TRUE LENGTH DIAGRAM Fig. This distance is transferred to edge O'-l" on the development locating point 5". the true lengths of the " It will be lateral edges are assembled in a "true-length diagram. For convenience. The development is macle by laying off each One half of the lateral triangle in true size and in its proper sequence. When the vertex is inaccessible. The true length The true lengths of the basal edges appear in the top view.

144 nient point on the axis of the prism. allows the true lengths of the lateral edges which appear in the front view to be carried across directly to the developments of these edges. a right section of the prism develops into a straight line which to is perpendicular parallel the _ edges. and equal to the perimeter of the right section. Each Literal face of the prism unfolds The parallel edges of the prism produce parallel lines in the de- velopment. the right section is taken at any conveFig. . Since lengths and angles on the faces are preserved in the development. The perimeter of the right section is given in the top view.851 POLYHEDRONS 109 DEVELOPMENT 2. Parallel line developments in true size The prism (Figure 144)and in sequence. is This called its r\ straight line the girth length is line. In Figure 144. as shown. Placing the development opposite the front view. 143 85.3 Fi g .

Each is determined by two groups of points: the points in which the z OG B Fig. The piercing points for edges BE and CF are points found in a similar manner. are found in the front view. edges of the prism pierce the faces of the pyramid. in The points 2 and 4. or one may be represented as a complete solid and the second cut away 87. Intersection of solids POLYHEDRONS [Ch." The angular K section points of the inter- are points in determined by the which the edges of each solid pierce the faces of the other. the lines formed of their surfaces is the intersection of the solids.V When by the intersection H one solid cuts into or penetrates another. a to fit against it. The points 10 and 11 in which edge VL of the pyramid pierces the surface of the prism are found by use of the vertical cutting plane Q. Intersecting polyhedrons may be regarded as hollow surfaces. which edge 146).110 86. To find the intersection of pyramid and prism Analysis: The intersection consists of one or two polygons. Example 1 (Figure through line EH EH pyramid. basic problem involved is that of finding the intersection of a line and polyhedron (Article 80). \ 145 146). AD of the horizontal cutting plane passed cuts a square from the surface of the prism and 7 in which edge meets the square are A X . DG and FK are found in a similar manner by use of the cutting planes cutting plane passed of the prism cuts a triangle from the surface of the meets this triangle are points 1 and 1' in which edge A horizontal X Y and Z. Example 2 (Figure through edge AD pyramid. VB pierces the surface of the prism. and the points in which the edges of the pyramid The pierce the faces of the prism. The The piercing points for edges points on the intersection of the solids. The points 1 on the intersection. Cutting plane Q also locates the points 4 and 5 in which edge VII pierces the prism.

1-2-4-5-6 The polygons and 7-8-10-12-11 represent the intersection CL H of the solids. be found that these edges do not intersect the prism.3i.2i.7i cuts the of the tetrahedron P:138 Q:3f. the pyramid is cut away to receive the prism.6| B:6i.87] POLYHEDRONS If 111 it ll a vertical cutting plane is passed through edges VG and VK.5 R'A$.3. K 146 L The prism is complete. Show . Find the points in which line A:l|. INTERSECTIONS 5-A1. PROBLEMS GROUP surface ON CHAPTER V A.8f.l. G Fig. correct visibility.4$.7 S:6^.

which is below the plane determined by points /:147 Find the true shape of the oblique section. The long edges of the base are 3 inches.2. Line C:f . Point C:i. 7 and having a slope of 60 downward and forward. Line 4:lf. Point V: 4.8 D:5. find the lines of intersection. 5-B3..X.6 locates one corner of the front base. Draw the top view and true-shape view of the oblique section. Line E'A15 F: 4. diagonal Complete the : 4 B : top and front views..2. A diagonal of the base is horizontal and 2 inches long. GROUP B. 5-A3.112 5-A2.9 section of an I-Beam which are inch thick. The edges of the base are 1 inches The front and rear lateral faces are vertical.7.8 6i. Line C 538 D 726 is the axis of a square right pyramid.Z.8 is the axis of a square right. Draw the top and front views and the true-shape view of the section cut from the pyramid by the plane which of a right passes through the points P : 129 Q : : 327 R : : 146. Complete the top and front views. Assuming that the prism pyramid. SOLIDS IN OBLIQUE POSITIONS 6-B1.3. intersection of the two prisms. Line 4:217 5:319 is a left side of a horizontal rectangle which forms the base of a right pyramid 3 inches high.3f.7 J?:4i.8 is the axis of a right hexagonal prism. Line 4:239 B: 3^. Find the lines of long. ~ The beam is the upper edge of a vertical cross 2 inches high. 5-B2.6f is the axis of a hexagonal right prism. 5-A4.3. 5-A5.4| Q: 3^. one corner being located at E 4.v parallelogram 4:017 5:216 C:417 D:218 is the base pyramid 4 inches high.3.3^.5 is the diagonal of a frontal square. prism. : : : The Com- plete the top and front views. Draw section cut from the tetrahedron the top and front views and the true-shape view of . is cut to fit against the 5-A7. of each base is frontal and 1 inches long.2J.3. .7f is a diagonal of one horizontal square base of a right prism 5 inches high.1. Line 4:116 5:318 is right prism 3 inches high. 5-B4. base is centered on point C. Line One 5^. Line 4:136 5:2^. Complete the top and front views. POLYHEDRONS The [Ch.7 is the vertex and C:628 is the center of the base of a hexagonal right pyramid. 5-A6.i. Draw the diagonal of one square base of a the views of the portion of the prism K : 246 L:4.the V 347 A 426 B 229 C 017 by the : : plane passing through points P : 517 R : 1 19 S : 246. The flanges and web terminated by a plane passing through line is is P:l.3^. The square is the right section of a prism which intersects the pyramid.

of The lines A: 037 two frontal rectangles 14 inches high. making the joint along the shortest edge. the true shape of a right : #:137 and EillQ F: 21 9 are the lower edges These rectangles are the open Complete the top and front views.5. Line J:li. One corner on a horizontal plane located 1 inch below point J. EFGH. HDAE.7. Place point B in the center of the sheet. Lay out faces in the following order: CGHD. the lower base contains points 72:1.24. 5-C2. (6) Find the projections and true shape of the right section of the prism determined by the plane perpendicular to the axis AB at its mid-point.3. . Each base appears edgewise in the front view.4. Develop the parallelepiped of problem 2. 5-C3.84 is the axis of a prism. FBCG.POLYHEDRONS of the cube rests 113 6-B5.8i is an axis of a cube. : 6-C6.2. ends of a pipe connection.7.A3 by triangul^tion. The lower base lies in a horizontal plane through point B.4.64 B 24.5.1^. The upper base contains points P:157 and Q: 24. Complete the top and front views of the prism. Develop the surface of the prism. along the shortest edge. the top and front views of the cube. (a) Line A 4. Determine section.2. (c) Develop the lateral surface of the prism. and draw edge CG parallel to the left edge of sheet. and develop the surface of the pipe.2. The line A 017 : B 317 is the diagonal of the horizontal regular base of an oblique pyramid having its vertex at F:347. : 6-C4. 6-C5.74 /:2. Develop the lateral Make the joint surface which lies between the base and plane RS. The base centered on point A is a frontal rectangle 1 X 14 inches with the 14-inch sides vertical. Complete GROUP C. ABCD. Develop the surface of the tetrahedron of problem 1-Cl.7 is a diagonal of a horizontal hexagon which forms a right section of a truncated regular hexagonal prism. Locate point C at i.7 qjid S: 2^. hexagonal The pyramid is truncated by a plane passing through points R:237 and 8:327 and perpendicular to a frontal plane. AEFB. Line A: 127 D: 24. DEVELOPMENT 6-C1.

of such surfaces as there are ways of conThe infinity of lines which represent trolling the movement of a line. It is generated by the rotation of a plane curve about a straight line as an axis. double curved surface. Also. Representation of surfaces Surfaces existing within definite limitations are generally represented by the projections of the limiting lines. the sphere is the most common double curved surface. line is a ruled surface. Two ruled surfaces. the various positions of the moving line are called elements of the surface. and cylinders are representative A surface which can be generated only by a curved line is a of this class. Surfaces are divided into two general classes. Right sections of a surface of revolution surface A may There are as many kinds The sphere is an example of this class. and plane together with the use of the special geometric properties of the surfaces under consideraThe majority of problems on curved surfaces can be illustrated tion. cones. The cone and cylinder typify the ruled surface. depending on the form A surface which can be generated by a straight of the generating line. can be regarded as surfaces of revolution since they can be generated by revolving a straight line about an axis. Surfaces of indefinite extent are represented by the projections of a sufficient number of elements or 114 . objects turned on a lathe are bounded by surfaces of revolution. 89. The surface of revolution is the most common double curved surface.CHAPTER VI Curved Surfaces 88. elementary surfaces with which almost everyone is familiar. and sphere. Any given surface may have more than one axis. An axis of a surface is a line so placed that the section cut from the surface by any plane containing the axis will be symmetrical with respect to it. line. or it may are circles. cylinder. Planes. have none. by examples involving the cone. the circular right cone and cylinder. Solutions of problems on surfaces are obtained by means of the fundamental problems on the point. Geometrical surfaces be the locus of a line moving according to some law.

directrix. A cylindrical surface be open or closed and is classified as circular. is a section or base of the is cone. but one nappe is considered. 90. as circular. two equivalent surfaces are generated simultaneously on opposite sides of the vertex. that be continuous or have two ends. These are the nappes of the cone. cone of revolution is formed when either of two intersecting lines is revolved about the other as an axis. which cuts every element. and the cone Ordinarily. "depending upon the shape of its right section. A A plane Q. The cone is a ruled surface generated by a straight line which passes a fixed point and moves so that it always intersects a curved through The fixed point is the vertex. of the cone. is plane S. A 91. cuts the surface in a circle. and the curved line is the directrix line. and so forth.represented by the projections of one of its bases and the limiting lines of each view. parabolic.91] CURVED SURFACES 115 sections of the surface to reveal the nature of some desired portion of the surface. will cut the surface in A cylinder of revolution is generated revolved about the other as an axis. A plane perpendicular to the it cuts in a right section. The intersection of a conical surface by a plane. containing the vertex of a conical surface and intersecting the surface. plane 7?. elliptical. The cone The surface may be open or closed. parallel to the elements of a cylinder and intersecting the surface. A plane perpendicular to may the elements cuts the surface in a right section. cuts the surface in Fig. . is the directrix represented by the projections of the vertex. It is often convenient to regard the cylinder as a limiting case of a . A section of the surface by a plane which intersects every element is taken as a base of the cylinder. The cylinder The cylinder is a ruled surface generated by a moving straight line which remains parallel to its initial position and always intersects a curved line. and the limiting elements of each view. and so The cylinder is forth. axis of the surface Conical surfaces are classi- fied according to the character of their right sections. when either of two parallel lines A straight lines Si and s 2 (Figure 148). perpendicular to the axis of a cone of revolution. When the genmay erating element is of indefinite length. 147 straight lines q\ and # 2 (Figure 147).

The sphere is generated by revolving a circle about a diameter as a both a double curved surface and a surface of revolution The limiting line of any given view is the projection of the great circle which is parallel to the projection plane. the term sphere may describe either a surface or a solid. this projection of an element of the surface. The second projection of the assumed point lies on this element. in a double curved surface. 148 Fig. The sphere It is axis. plane.116 CURVED SURFACES [Ch. 149 92. A solid which is bounded by a surface bears the same name as the surface. and its intersection with the sphere is a meridian circle (Figure 149). . element will generally be a straight line. It is evident that the cone and cylinder degenerate into a plane when the directrix becomes a straight line or when the vertex lies in a plane with the directrix. a surface is a two-dimensional magnitude. VI cone having its vertex at infinity. draw the corresponding In the case of a ruled surface. Fig. Thus. Every section of a sphere is a A plane containing the vertical axis of a sphere is a meridian circle. One projection of a point in a surface can be assumed at Through this assumed projection. Draw the projection of this element in the other view. area but not thickness. It has Strictly speaking. it may be a circle or other curved line. 93. To assume a point Analysis: in a surface random.

152). PH. Draw element O vPv. 152 Fig. Since P may PH on the surface of a cylinder. 153 or rear side of the cone. 150 Fig. cutting base in point 1 or 2. 151 R9 on either . on the upper or lower side of the . lie P H may lie Example 2 (Figure Given: either To find Pv. To find (GIVEN) Fig.93] CURVED SURFACES Construction: 117 Given: P v on the surface of a 151). This element has two possible positions since P may lie on either the front Example 1 (Figures 150 and cone. Draw the projection O^r-1 and 0//-2. line.

of the circle r. 153). given point and the . the straight line cut from the plane will be tangent to the curved line cut from the surface. (b) A tangent to a plane curve lies in the plane of the curve. The second line determining the plane is drawn through the point Q where the vertex pierces the plane of the base. similar to Given: P v on the surface of a sphere. and point B is until it coincides with A point A remaining fixed. surface which 95. point P. that of Example 1. Example 3 (Figure find To PH. VI surface. if any section plane be passed. tangent to a curved surface if it has at least one point which. (a) If moved along the curve . 96. which is tangent to the base mined by the clement OS at point S. Tangent lines and tangent planes Definitions: a secant line cuts a curve in points A and B.118 CURVED SURFACES The construction is [Ch. The required plane is deterand the line T. To pass a plane tangent to a^cone (or cylinder) at a given point in the surface Analysis: The tangent plane will contain the element of the surface through the given point and a line tangent to the base at the point in which the element intersects the base. The projections of point The point S lies on the frontal great circle of the sphere. horizontal plane R through Pv cuts the surface of the lie on the projections sphere in the circle r. through ment (or elements) of the passes through the point. Pv has two possible locations. To pass a plane tangent to a cone (or cylinder) through a given point without the surface Analysis: Since the required plane must contain the vertex of the it will contain the line passing through the vertex and the given cone. (d) The plane tangent at any point to a ruled surface will contain the rectilinear ele(c) A plane is in common with the surface. the secant becomes tangent to the curve at point A. A P 94. Construction (Figure 154): Let P be the point at which the plane T is to be tangent to the cone. line joining the a tangent to the base.

98]

CURVED SURFACES

is

119

If the given surface is a cylinder, the auxiliary line PQ to the axis of the cylinder.

drawn

parallel

Construction (Figure 155}: Draw line OP, intersecting the plane of the base of the cone in point Q. Draw lines QA and QB tangent to the

base of the cone.

Planes

The elements

of

tangency are

OQA and OQB are each tangent OA and OB respectively.

to the cone.

Fig.

156

**97. To pass a plane tangent to a sphere (or surface of revolution)at a given point in the surface
**

Analysis: Construct a cone of revolution tangent to the sphere and containing the given point. Pass a plane tangent to the cone at the

given point, using the construction of Article 95. Construction (Figure 156): Let point P be given in the surface of Draw the horizontal circle of the sphere passing through the sphere. P. Using this circle as the base, construct the cone which is point

tangent to the sphere. The axis of the cone is vertical with vertex at point 0. The plane tangent to the cone is determined by the element OP and the tangent T to the base circle.

**98. To find the intersection of a line and surface
**

Analysis: A plane passed through the given line will intersect the given surface in a line. The points in which the given line cuts this of intersection are the points in which the line pierces the surface.

The plane should be

located so as to cut straight lines or a circle

when

120

CURVED SURFACES

[CH.VI of

a

**This problem is a general case of possible. line and plane).
**

Construction:

Problem 7 (Intersection

Example

1

(Figure 157).

Line and Cone.

To find

the points in

which line k intersects the surface of the cone. Draw any line through the vertex 0, intersecting line A; at A. Pass a plane through- lines k of this plane with the plane of and OA. Find the intersection cuts the base of the base of the cone. The points B and C, in which

X

HX

HX

Bv

F! 3 .

Cv

157

the cone, locate the elements OB and 0(7, which are cut from the cone by plane X. The points P and Q, in which line k intersects OB and OC, are the points where line k pierces the surface of the cone.

**99. To find the intersection of a plane with a ruled surface
**

Analysis: Points common to the plane and the given surface can be found by the use of auxiliary cutting planes. A cutting plane passing through an element of the surface cuts the given plane in a straight The point where this line intersects the element is a point of the line.

required intersection.

The process of finding points on the line of intersection can also be described as follows Represent the given surface by a system of elements. Find the points in which the elements pierce the given plane by the method of Article 38. A smooth curve drawn through these points

:

represents the line of intersection.

99]

CURVED SURFACES

121

Example 2. The Intersection of a Plane and Cylinder. Method Let the cylinder (Figure 158) be intersected by the plane KM.

L A

vertical plane F, parallel to the axis of the cylinder, cuts the surface in elements 2 and 4. Plane Y also cuts plane in line t. Line t cuts on the intersection. Additional elements 2 and 4 in points B and Since the cutting points are located by planes X, Z, and so forth. planes are parallel, the auxiliary lines t, u, and so forth are parallel. Example 3. Intersection of a Plane and Circular Cylinder. Method 2.

KM

D

and less than 90 plane which makes an angle greater than with the axis of a circular cylinder cuts an ellipse from the surface.

Any

Fig.

158

length of the minor axis of the ellipse is equal to the diameter (D) The length of the major axis is Z)/sin 6, where 6 is the angle between the plane and the axis. In Figure 159, the true angle

of the cylinder.

The

of the cylinder are first located in the projected to the frbnt and top views.

between the cylinder and plane appears in the front view. Elements end vie\v of the cylinder and then

The point in which each element pierces the plane is determined in the front view. The true shape of the ellipse determined by these points

appears in the top view. Since the major and minor axes of the ellipse are given by lines 1-5 and 3-7 respectively, the curve could be constructed by a plane geometry construction such as the trammel method. Example 4. General Case (Figure 160). Let the oblique plane

A BCD

intersect the circular cylinder

which has for

its axis

the oblique

122

CURVED SURFACES

(Ch.

VI

Fis.

159

NORMAL

VIEW

Fig.

160

line

PQ. This general case can be reduced to the special case of Figure 159 by obtaining a view in which the plane projects edgewise and the

line projects its true length.

Having given the top and front views, take RL2 perpendicular to Plane ABCD projects edgewise in view 3. the horizontal line CaE ff

.

5100]

CURVED SURFACES

123

Take J?L3 parallel to 9 Plane A projects obliquely. in true shape in view 4. Draw JRL4 parallel to P^Q\. In view 5, projects projects in its true length. projects edgewise and line plane and plane is given by this The true angle between the axis

Line

PQ

B D^

BCD

A BCD

PQ

PQ

A BCD

view.

The

4 and

5.

solution developed for Figure 159 can now be applied to views The major and minor axes of the ellipse are lines 1-2 and 3-4

respectively.

**100. To find the intersection of
**

Analysis:

a

plane and a surface of revolution

passed perpendicular to the intersects the surface in a The points in which the circle and the given plane in a straight line. circle and line cut by the same plane intersect are points on the required

series of cutting planes is

A

axis of the surface.

Each cutting plane

section.

Construction:

Exkmple

1 (Figure 161).

**Let the cone of revolution be intersected
**

view.

by the plane zontal plane

AB which appears edgewise in the front P cuts the cone in the circle T and the

The

hori-

plane in the line

cuts the circle T in points 2 and 6 on the line of intersection. Line Additional points on the intersection are determined by planes Q and R. Point 1 is the highest point on the curve and lies on the contour element.

.

M

M

Since the angle between plane and the axis of the cone is equal to that between the elements and the axis, the intersection is a parabola.

AB

The top view

of the parabola is

symmetrical about the center

line S.

124

CURVED SURFACES

[Ch.

VI

true shape of the parabola is obtained by drawing an auxiliary view on a projection plane taken parallel to AB.

The

The cone of revolution is cut by the 162). This problem is reduced to the preceding basic oblique plane case by drawing an auxiliary view in which the plane ABC projects edgewise. The construction of Example 1 is carried out in the auxiliary and top views. The front view of the intersection is projected from the

Example 2 (Figure

ABC.

Fig.

162

top view.

intersection

**Since the plane
**

is

ABC

cuts every element of the cone, the

an ellipse. The top view of the ellipse is symmetrical about line S which is drawn parallel to RL2. Example 3 (Figure 163). Plane and Torus. The torus is a surface generated by revolving a circle about a line outside the circle as an axis. The torus is intersected by a vertical plane S. Frontal cutting planes cut circles from the torus. The intersection is a single curve. Certain positions of the plane produce an intersection consisting of two curves. Example 4 (Figure 164). Plane and Turned Solid. The surface is intersected by planes R and Q. Frontal cutting planes cut circles from the turned surface. Each plane cuts sections composed of two

parts.

It should be located so as to cut the given surfaces in simple lines if possible. The auxiliary cutting surface may be a plane. The points in surface selected to cut lines from the given surfaces. straight lines or . or sphere. Points common to two surfaces are found by use of an auxiliary surfaces. namely. cylinder. A single auxiliary surface will determine one set of points. the plane being used most frequently. Fig.101] CURVED SURFACES 125 101. 163 which the lines cut from one surface intersect those cut from the other are on the line of intersection. Intersecting curved surfaces The line of intersection of two curved surfaces is in general a space The line is determined by the points which are common to both curve.

the vertex of the cone and is parallel to the elements of the cylinder cuts Plane Q cuts the cylinder in straight-line elements from each surface. and 167.126 CURVED SURFACES common cases [Ch. VI The location of cutting planes for three circles. . The cone is cut in elements OA and OB. BE' and CC". Plane Q. elements CC' and DD'. 164 These demerits intersect to determine four points common to both cylinders. 166. A plane which contains Circular Cone and Cylinder (Figure 166). cuts elements A A'. This surfaces. trated in Figures 165. of is illus- Two Cylinders (Figure 165). edgewise 1 in the front view. A plane which is parallel to the elements each cylinder cuts straight lines from the surfaces. set of elements intersect each other in four points which are common to the cone and cvlinder. DD from the given Fig.

circle are The two points In which the element cuts the taining the element EE'. intersects tne Plane K is also tangent to the cylinder.101] CURVED SURFACES COTE' 127 B A cutting plane R. consurface in the circle F. . perpendicular to the axis of the cone. on the line of intersection of the surfaces. A plane which contains the vertex of each cone cuts each surface in straight-line elements. Two Cones (Figure 167).

5. the cutting planes P. Additional points are located by planes 8. Four 'points common to both cones are determined by the two sets of elements. Plane CAB cuts curve along line BC in the points F and (7. . . Construct the profile view OD Fig. therefore. R. Draw a line A B. VI in Draw line OQ. These elements intersect in points 3.128 CURVED SURFACES [Ch. in points D and E and plane of the base of cutting the base of cone cone Q in point B. intersects the plane of the base of cone base of cone Q. in the elements QF and QG. and P. 168 A series of auxiliary cutting surfaces is necessary to sufficient number of points to define the entire intersection determine a between two curved surfaces. 3'. this base and OE. cutting planes are taken parallel to the axes of the two intersecting cylinders. The axes of the given cylinders are parallel to the F-plane. As in Figure 165. in point C. Two Cylinders (Figure 168). R. Therefore. and 5' respectively. and. taken parallel to V. Plane Q cuts the vertical cylinder in elements A and B Q cuts the horizontal cylinder in elements C and D. and S. A plane passed through lines AC and cuts cone AB in elements of the base of cone Q. project edgewise in the top and side views. Example 1. Q. which point A the plane of the .

tangent to the circle view The points 4.2' 3' on the line of intersection. at which the line of . Fig.6' and 7. and and l'. 170 located from the assumed circular section Rn. taken The plane T. as Q. where the contour elements of of the cylinder. through parallel to V through the axis of the cylinder.2 sections from both surfaces. are determined by the planes R and JR'. the cylinder pierce the sphere. locating points 6. the center of the sphere and parallel to the F-plane. Cylinder and Sphere (Figure 169). 3 on the intersection. are determined by the plane S. cuts the cylinder in the elements E and F. Q'.5 and 4'. taken perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder.5'.11011 CURVED SURFACES 129 Example 2. cut circular These circles intersect in the points 1.7'. The highest and lowest points. Auxiliary planes.

of these points lie on the edge view of plane Q. Surfaces of Revolution with Intersecting Axes (Figure solution is determined in the view in which the axes of both 5. 3. 1-2-3-4-5-6. To find the highest and lowest The plane Q . as Q. Two Therefore. This is the highest point in in the front view. Auxiliary planes are taken parallel to the axis of the cylinder and perpendicular A plane. Example 3. The AB. therefore. coincides with the quadrilateral base A uB nC uD //. the limiting planes S and 7 parallel to and tangent to the cylinder and torus respectively. 2. through the axis of . point of tangency 5 is projected to plane R. face The points 8 and 8' where the Fi 3 . Other limiting points are found in a similar manner.130 intersection is CURVED SURFACES [Ch. 171 tangent to the contour of the sphere are found by using the meridian plane line of intersection is T of the sphere. the plane X. containing the contour elements F and A of the cylinder. The visible points on the front half of the cylinder. //. Example 4. sections are points of intersection. Sphere and Prism (Figure 170). of highest point on face AB found by drawing the This circle r// tangent to A nB H circle lies on the sphere. on the line intersection. and 4. VI of the line of intersection lie tangent to the contour of the sphere. only this view . The chosen giving six points. and determines a plane R which is found the prism is . projected at q a and from the prism which. V the torus and parallel to Example The 172). in the top view. locating points 7 and 8. lie in their line cuts a circle from the sphere. surfaces are parallel to the projection plane. cuts the cylinder in the elements to the axis of the torus. A and B and y the torus in circles of C and /). These sections intersect in the top view in points The front views 1. secant planes include the T following: planes R and Q. common to both solids and. Torus and Elliptical Cylinder (Figure 171). The points on the line of intersection. Any auxiliary cutting to the //-plane intersects the sphere in a circle and the prism plane parallel The intersections of the boundary lines of these in a quadrilateral.

and let the R be taken as typical.101] CURVED SURFACES 131 shown in Figure 172. If the given surfaces are of such a size that they are tangent to the is tangent to cone 73. The contour of two separate curves. in point 3. in the circles S and T L\ These circles appear the cone edgewise. S and U in- tersect in point 1 circles T and V. revolution and cutting the surface intersects it in t\vo circles. be seen that R intersects A in the circles U and V] the cone B. the two lines of intersection join as shown in the following example. The auxiliary cutting surfaces used in this A sphere having its center in the axis of a surface of case are spheres. Example 6. Other points are found by the use of The limitadditional spheres. ing points 4 and 5 are deter- Fi 9 . elements on the cones determine limiting points on the curves. Any The intersection consists same sphere. Intersection of Surfaces. Circles . Special Case (Figure 173). in point 2. and so forth. describe a series of spheres which cut the given sphere It will surfaces. 172 mined by the sphere Q which sphere smaller than Q will not cut cone B. is With the intersection of the axes as a center. circles S and V. Cones and cylinders enveloping the same sphere intersect in plane curves .

Approximate developments of other curved surfaces can be made. These are suffi- ciently precise for many practical purposes. 103. Sheet-metal elbows and breechings are generally designed to utilize this Fabrication of such structures is simplified when cross secprinciple. tions are circular and joints are plane curves. To develop a cone (Figure 174) The method of development used for the pyramid (Article 84) can be applied to the cone. The lines of intersection are straight lines which the axes of the given surfaces appear in true length. of single curvature. VI which are conic sections. the cone. and a surface known as the convolute which is described in the following chapter. Development of curved surfaces The only curved surfaces capable of exact development are those about which a sheet of flexible material can be wrapped without stretching Exact development is thus limited to the surfaces or other distortion. namely. The intersections of the surfaces illustrated are ellipses which appear in the view in edgewise in the front views. OF CHORDS s. 174 .132 CURVED SURFACES [Ch. 102. ^ //*-? /4 V//' x / ^ / 2}/ TRUE LENGTHS v I/ W / w / i- A 2 3 1 TRUE LENGTHS OF ELEMENTS % / / \ ' { 9\ / ^-. cylinder.

. The right cone (Figure 175) can be developed without approximation since the base expands into a circular arc having the slant height of the cone as its radius. The length of the expanded base line is equal to the perimeter of the base of the cone. by using short chords. To develop a cylinder (Figure 176) The method of development used for the prism (Article 85) can be applied to the cylinder. however. A smooth curve of the developed elements represents the base line of the cone expanded to the development of the surface. is The angle at the vertex of this development (the sector angle) equal to 360 X radius of base slant height 104. The true-size view of the right section of the cylinder is divided into a number of equal parts (twelve in this case). This error can be kept small. The surface is then developed as a many-sided pyramid. The chord between two con- secutive points of the base is used to measure the distance between the ends of two consecutive elements on the development. There will be an error in this length due to the use of basal chords in laying drawn through ends DEVELOPMENT 1' Fig. and elements division points. 175 off the elements.104] CURVED SURFACES of the cone is 133 The base divided into a of the surface are drawn through the number of parts.

The DEVELOPMENT 4' 5' Fis. 176 DEVELOPMENT -TTdFig. The chord between two consecutive .134 and elements CURVED SURFACES of the surface are [Ch. taken from the true-size view points of the base is used to the elements on the girth line. into a straight line on the development. 177 is spacing of the elements on the girth line of the right section. The surface is then developed The right section expands This is the girth line. Points should be taken sufficiently space close on the right section to keep the error in the length of the girth line small. and as a many-sided prism. VI drawn through the division points. the elements are perpendicular to it.

ellipsoid. the length of calculating the girth line is irD. and each gore developed as a cylindrical surface. A symmetrical half of the surface is developed. This trapezoid is divided into two triangles and the surface developed approximately as a many-sided is pyramidal frustum. Approximate developments Surfaces that are theoretically non-developable may be developed approximately by considering that the surface is made up of small porDouble curved surfaces may be approxitions of developable surfaces. mated by small portions of cones or cylinders. these surfaces can be cut by a series of parallel planes into zones and each zone developed as * a conical frustum. To develop the frustum of a cone (Figure 178) The upper It is assumed that the vertex of the cone is inaccessible. or torus can be divided into narrow gores by a series of meridian planes. In Figure 177.106] CURVED SURFACES 135 of a circular cylinder can be made accurate by the length of the girth line. and lower bases of the frustum are divided into a number of parts starting with the same element. The development 105. A sphere. It is divided into twelve equal parts to correspond to the twelve divisions of the right section. The gore shown in Figure 179 is tangent to the surface of the sphere . 178 approximated by the trapezoid formed by the two elements and the two basal chords joining their ends. 106. The surface between two consecutive elements DEVELOPMENT Fig. Also.

pass a plane Y tangent to the cone.81 pass two planes.6i. 179 is and represents one-twelfth of the hemisphere. Point (7:3^. A horizontal circle.8 6-A3.8 pass two . (b) Through point #:5i.7i the apex of a right circular cone. VI DEVELOPMENT 8' Fig. an intermediate zone PROBLEMS GROUP C:417. Represent the plane by its H. Point C:4. Find the intersections of planes Origin: 055. 6-A2.7i is the center of the 3-inch base and A l.and F-projection planes.6 the apex of a right circular cone.l. is to the cone. each tangent to the cone. by its 6-A4.6^ is the center of the 3-inch base and point is the apex of a right circular cone.2i.l. Through point P:3. Point C:3. (a) Through point :3i.2^. Q and R : with the H.and F-traces. Origin: 455. Through point P: 3. Represent each plane element of tangency and the tangent to the base curve. pass a plane Q tangent 6-A1.2. ON CHAPTER VI TANGENT PLANES A 2 inches in diameter and centered on point the base of a right cone 3 inches high.8i is is the center of the 2-inch base and A : li. which lies in the surface of the cone. Through point B:31.X.X.2J. A. The of conical surface 6-7-8-9 approximates one-fourth of the surface of the sphere. 4:1.3.7f pass plane (c) R tangent to the front surface of the cone. which lies in the surface of the cone.2^. The quarter circle lv-5v the right section and l'-5' the stretch-out of the cylindrical surface.2f.136 CURVED SURFACES ICh.3.

Line A :258 JB:218 is the axis of a reducing connection which has the form of a frustum of a right cone.^.3f. Develop the surface of the cone omitting Points A:1. equally spaced on the base.2. Represent each plane by its H.9f and point C:3.f. Pass a plane tangent to the sphere at each position of P. GROUP B. Point C:5i. X Represent plane (6) W (a) by its 77- and F-principal lines through point P. Point C:J^. 6-B5.X. Line (7:557 7): 3 18 is the axis of a cylinder.f.5f. 6-B4.61 lies in the upper portion of the surface of a by the rotation of the l^-inch frontal circle centered line /:4. each tangent to the cone. slopes downward to the right. Represent each plane of tangency and the tangent to the base curve.7 and 7?:2f. base. 6-A7. A and B measured on the surface Calculate the sector angle.CURVED SURFACES planes. line in the front view.and F-principal lines drawn through point P.li. lies 6-B3. Find the two possible positions of P.7i as an axis.X. The upper and lower bases are 3^-inch and 4-inch circles respectively.6 lies in the surface of a 3-inch diameter sphere centered at point 0:427. the Find the shortest distance between of the cone. Find the line of intersection between the cone and the plane determined by line A :. by its H.X.1.7i on C:2f. Represent the plane by (a) its 77. 137 by the element torus generated 6-A6.9i Draw twelve elements of the surface JB:5f. makes an angle of 60 with the base and projects as a Develop the surface of the cone which between the base and the sloping plane.X. The base : cen- tered on point C is a horizontal 2-inch circle. Point P:5i. . Pass a plane tangent to the torus at point P. Through point P 3.8 is the center of the horizontal 2^-inch circular base of an oblique cone.and F-principal lines through P. Point C:218 of a right cone 4 inches high.X. Origin: 055.lf.9^ is the vertex.7 in the upper side of the surface of the cylinder. is DEVELOPMENT AND PLANE SECTIONS the center of the 3-inch horizontal circular base 6-B1. Divide the base into sixteen parts.7 is the center of the horizontal 3-Hnch circular base of an oblique cone.7i about 7:4.8 lie in the surface of the cone. construct a tangent plane W. Point P:3%.4i. 6-B2. Develop one quarter of the surface by triangulation.4i. Origin: 055. or (6) its 77. THE CONE. The cone is truncated by a plane which passes through point E: If . The vertex is at A:2f.6. Point F: 8. Find the line .5. Point 0:2.and F-traces.7f is the center of the horizontal 3-inch circular base of an oblique cone having its vertex at 0:7f. 6-A6.6i.and F-traces.3f.3.

9f inches high.i. and G-BG by actual sectioning of a cone.3. Develop the surface omitting the bases. vertical plane with the Draw 1 of the cylinder. 6-B6. and slopes forward to the right. Line 4:1. by use of plane geometry definitions.) Parabola. foci Find the true shape of the elliptical section. left edge of sheet. . axis. :5. the focus and directrix of the curve. showing the angle with the base as the elements. Through point E:3. Calculate the length of 2 elements of the surface. profile equally spaced on the right section. Point C:2%. Locate center at Ifj7i. Locate the center at 4.3f .VI D : 6. : .X pass a base of a right cone plane which makes a 45 angle with the axis of the cone. Take the major (See Article 211). Use 12 elements plane. 6-B7. A : DEVELOPMENT AND PLANE SECTIONS is 6-C1.3f. and draw the true-shape view of the section. Through point J:2f. Locate the and directrices. Draw the transverse (c) Hyperbola. of problem G-B7.%.7f between the cone and the plane determined by points F 8. The base at B lies in a at A is a If-inch horizontal circle. Line A of two nappes.8 J5:4^.i-.9| is the vertex. Point C:2f. with the axis.138 of intersection CURVED SURFACES [Ch.41.8 is the axis of an elliptical cylinder. showing (See Article 211). Construct. The two bases are each The two nappes of the cone are cut by a profile 4 inches in diameter.7% is the center of the 4-inch horizontal circular base of a right cone 3-J inches high. plane taken f. (/. THK CYLINDER.2^-.%. the conies found in problems G-B4. slopes downis the center of the 5-inch horizontal circular ward to the right.with major axis parallel to (a) Ellipse. shape of the section and the foci and directrices of the curve.9f 5:5f.7i. which passes through point and slopes backward to the right.3 . Draw a view showing the true 6-B8.0f is the axis of a cone of revolution Y Point C :5J. problem G-B6.G1. . axis and foci from the front view of Locate the focus at 5.9 Find the true shape of the section. GROUP eter.71. and appears edgewise in the front view.5f E : 4i. G-B5.i. from the front view of problem 6-B8.X pass a receding plane which slopes upward to the left and makes the same line of intersection. Take the foci and vertices axis parallel to lower edge of the sheet. Make joint on shortest element.inch to the left of the axis. Complete the plan. The base 6-C2.Draw the axis parallel Take the focus and directrix from the front view to top edge of sheet. 6-B9. Line 125 The front base lies in B: 128 a the axis of a cylinder 1^ inches in diam- A makes an angle of 45 The rear base lies in a makes an angle of 30 Develop the lateral surface the girth line. vertical plane which passes through point B. C.

2.4. the center of the 2-inch horizontal circular base of a right cone 3 inches high. THE SPHERE.9. and side views of the cone and cylinder. Find the line of intersection between the plane A :047 jB:519 745 and a right circular cylinder 2 inches in diameter having the line D-A17 E: 457 for its axis.6.7i B: 3. Point 0:437 is the center of a 3f-inch sphere.7 is the center of a 3-inch sphere. 4. center of a hemisphere 8 inches in diameter. Approximate development of sphere. Divide the front half of the surface in twelve equal meridian sections. P:l.7 JB:5f. Complete the top and front views of the cylinder. DEVELOPMENT AND PLANE SECTIONS 6-D1.6.2J. The lower base of a cylinder is a 2^-inch horizontal circle Point D: 5. for each cone.5 C: (if . Develop the surface of one gore.3^. .6 lies on the axis of the centered on point (7:2. Line C : 4 r. Point D:2.4. The upper base is a 2-inch horizontal circle centered on point C.2.71. Divide the surface into eight zones of equal width. Approximate the spherical surface with a cylindrical surface tangent to the sphere along the center lino of one gore. 6-C5. Point C:2J-.7*. or gores.1. section-line the portion Considering of each solid which is cut by the plane. 6-D3. Draw the top and front views of the sphere and the great circle passing arid E.(>>8* E : Of . front. through points D 6-D2. ' Encircle the points which are common to both surfaces.2|. GROUP E. Line A:. Find the line of intersection between the sphere and the plane containing points X:f.7 5:71. and develop the Calculate the sector angles front half of each of the four upper zones.7i is axis of a circular right cylinder 2 inches in diameter. Point C:419 is the center of a hemispherical dome 6 inches in diameter. Point (7:4J9 is the Draw front view only. GROUP D. the cone and cylinder as solids. The upper base lies in the plane which passes through points cylinder.5i Q:4. 6-D4. Pass a of the cylinder intersecting the base of the cutting plane through the vertex of the cone and parallel to the axis cone 1 inch in front of point C.7 5:2i4f.li. : 6-C4. Complete the top and front views.8.1^.. The lower base lies in the plane passing through points Q:3f.X on the front of the surface. Draw the top.4i Jt: 5.2. Approximate development. Develop the surface of the cylinder. INTERSECTIONS Point (7:217 is ^6-El.CURVED SURFACES C 139 6-C3.5.Y is on the back and point 7:3-. Cutting Planes.8^ is the axis of a cylinder.l.

6-E5. Find the line of intersection of the solids. Line D:316 E: 3. Draw the top. The diameters 3.4.7 \ 4^. 6-E10.9 is the axis of a 2-inch right circular cylinder. The altitude is 3 inches. Line A : a right cone.1. .4. 6-E4. Line in diameter.4.5.7 #:317 is the axis of the frustum of the upper and lower bases are 4 and 2 inches respectively. Find the line of intersection between the two surfaces. Find the line 6-E8. Draw the left half of the surface of cylinder AB.3.4^.2}-.2^. The radius of each base is equal to CD.6 is the axis of a right cylinder.6 Determine the 7:2.7 is the axis of the frustum of an oblique cone. Line C 3.2. The upper base is horizontal and 2 inches in diameter. A : 5.8f.5 B: 5. front.2^. 1. and side views representing the cylinder and the front half of the cone.7^ the axis of an oblique cylinder. Line (7:417 D: 6^. intersection of the two surfaces. portion which are common to both surfaces.5.lf . and find the line in which this surface cuts cylinder CD.8 is the axis of a right cylinder If inches in diameter.0 J is the axis of a right Find the line of intersection between cylinder 3 inches in diameter. of Two Cones.^.3f .1 40 CURVED SURFACES [Ch.1. Point ^4:3.2^. its vertex at 0:7.4^. Of is the center of the 5-inch horizontal base of a cone of revolution. Line D: 2. Line 5:5^.8 Line C : If .8 B : 3^. of 6-E9.6 C:lf.7 D : the axis of a right cylinder 3 inches 5|. Line C:3^. Cone arid Cylinder. Line A:5f. front. Cutting Planes. Encircle the points of each solid which is cut by the plane.6f D: 8. Point C: 4. Line yi:7. The altitude is 4 inches. 6-E7. the two cylinders. and side views of the cone and cylinder of problem 6-E1. 6-E6.7 is The horizontal bases is are 3 inches in diameter. A : 3^. VI 6-E2.4^. The upper base is a 1^-inch horizontal The lower base is a 4-inch horizontal circle.2^. Pass a cutting plane perpendicular Section-line the to the axis of the cone and f inch above the base.9 The 3^-inch is the axis of a right cylinder 2 inches horizontal circle centered at (7:317 is the base of an oblique cone having of intersection of the surfaces. Draw the top. Find the line of circle. Find the line of intersection between the two surfaces.7i #:5>1>7| i the axis of a right cylinder 3 inches in diameter. line of intersection of the two surfaces.7 is the center of the 3-2-inch horizontal base a cone of revolution.7 is the axis of a right cylinder is 2 inches in diameter. Point (7:219 is the center of the 4-inch horizontal circular bane of a right cone 4 inches high.3. Line in diameter.T.7^ : #:4. D : the axis of an oblique cylinder. 6-E3.

7 2f inches in diameter.5.7i C:3i. Find the line of intersection between the two surfaces.7 is the axis of a right prism.l.3^.7 centered at D.7^.4i. The triangle A :4.\. Complete the views showing the line of 6-E19.7f is the base of a right prism which is cut to fit the surface of the cone.i.|.%s. 4^.7% is C: 4. Point D:417 is the center of the 4-inch horizontal circular base of a right cone 3 inches high.CURVED SURFACES 141 is the axis of a right cylinder 6-E11. Line #:3. Point A :4. 6-E13.4f. .5 #:2. One diagonal of each base is frontal. 6-E17. The 2^-inch horizontal circle. center /):5. Line A: 4. Draw the top and front views of the torus and find the line of intersection between this surface and the receding plane J:\-%. Cone and Cylinder Enveloping is : Same Sphere.X. Line #:4. is the open end of a vertical pipe which intersects the bend. Line B:3|. 6-E12.2f.8 is the center of a 4-inch sphere.4.X K:5.2. With point a cylinder tangent an axis. the axis of a right cone having a Line D: 1-J.7i E:fi%. Draw the lines Draw tho normal view intersection of the cone and the cylinder. The bases are regular hexagons If inches on a side. The base is a 4-inch circle centered at point C.is the center of a Find the intersection of the surfaces.li. 3 inches in diameter. centered at A:lf.2f . Draw the top and front views showing the line of intersection. 6-E20. The 2^-inch horizontal circle.8 line of intersection is is the axis of a right cylinder the center of a 4-inch sphere. axis.7 is the center the two surfaces. of a 4^-inch sphere. the center of a 4-inch sphere. the axes of one ellipse. Line C: 4.7f is the axis of a right cone.5.2. Tlui is a 4-inch circle centered at B. 6-E18. /i:7(>9 as Point (7:459 the center of a 2-inch sphere.7 is the axis of a right cone. A torus is generated by revolving a 2-inch frontal circle centered at point A: 2^.7f is B: 4..7f C:5^. the axis of a right cone having a 4-inch diameter base Find the intersection of the surfaces.2.71 is circular base 5 inches in diameter centered at C.2J. is revolved about the axis B:410 C: 419 to form a 180 pipe bend.7 5:4. Find the between the two surfaces. On line A HO to this sphere. Point Find the intersection of 6-E15. 7:489 as a vertex draw and FZ):429 as an of of draw a cono tangent to the sphere. base 6-E14.i. 2.7| C:3.7 Z>:4. 3-i-inch sphere.7-J. Point A :3f .2^.6 about a vertical axis through point #:42(). Find the intersection of the surfaces.7. Omit the top view in this problem.7f C:3|.^. Line J5:3f. intersection.7 Point A :3f.4f.5.5.4f. Point A:3. 6-E16.

Determine the shape of the hole in the square /uirfaces means of a development.8 1 : the upper end of the vertical axis of a This cylinder intersects a square pipe having J-5nch circular cylinder. VI 6-E21. pipe by . 558. The ends of the square pipe are as its axis the line A 1 28 B : perpendicular to AB.1 42 CURVED SURFACES is ICh. and one diagonal of each end is horizontal and 2 Find the line of intersection of the cylinder with the upper inches long. Point C:2. of the prism.6.

REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER VI 143 .

144 REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER VI .

REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER VI 145 .

146 REVIEW FIGURES FOR CHAPTER VI .

they may be alike. only a few of which bear Through a given point of space. (b) Second Method. a set of lines drawn parallel to the successive positions of the generating element of a warped surface form a conical surface. may be generated. This characteristic motion of the generating makes the accurate development of a warped surface impossible. These directrices may be straight lines or curves. The motion of a straight line in space can be completely controlled by requiring that it always intersect three other lines called the linear line directrices of the surface. If the linear directrices are straight lines. the plane positions describe a plane rather than a cone. 108. If one or more of the directrices are curved lines. Warped surfaces A ruled surface generated by a straight line which moves in such a manner that no two consecutive positions lie in the same plane is called a warped or twisted surface. Any ruled surface thus may be generated by a straight line moving so as to intersect three given linear directrices. Generation of warped surfaces (a) First Method.CHAPTER VII Surfaces of General Form 107. 147 . The motion of the generating line of a warped surface may be such that a set of lines drawn through a fixed point and parallel to its successive In this case. Every warped surface can be generated by a positions of the generating line will moving lie straight line which always intersects three linear directrices so selected that in the no two consecutive same plane. a given warped surface may be generated either by a line moving in contact with three linear directrices. when substituted for one of the three linear directrices. only two types of warped the unpartcd hyperboloid and the hyperbolic surfaces can be generated. is called a cone director. variety of warped surfaces specific names. This cone. or by a line touching two linear directrices and parallel to an element of & cone director. becomes the plane director of the warped surface and may be substituted for any one of the linear directrices. an unlimited paraboloid. Thus. or they may differ from each other.

a smooth curve drawn through the points in which the elements of the surface* pierce the plane. Plane section of a warped surface The intersection of a plane and a warped surface will be. 110. Tangent planes plane tangent to a warped surface at a given point will contain In general. the second projection of the point is found on the other projection of the element. the plane will be tangent to the surface at but one point. Locating a point in a warped surface One projection of a point in the surface can be assumed at random. and elsewhere 1 1 2. . in general. the element of the surface which passes through the point. This is possible when In this case. and but one straight-line element can be drawn through a given point in the surface. warped surface which cannot be generated by the use of three straight-line directrices is singly ruled. A be secant to the surface. Otherwise. In a doubly ruled surface. A 111. A warped surface is doubly ruled when two straight-line elements can be drawn through any point in the surface. a plane tangent at a given point may be determined by one straight-line element of the surface drawn through the point and the tangent to any curve lying in the surface and containing the given point. If an element of the surface can be readily drawn through this assumed point. the surface can be regenerated. Since only the unparted hyperboloid and the hyperbolic paraboloid have straight-line directrices. element of either generation intersects every element of the other generation. these are the only doubly ruled surfaces. tangent to the surface at some it will point. Classification of warped surfaces Warped ruled surfaces can be divided into two general groups.148 SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM [Ch. every line. doubly and singly ruled. it the three directrices of a surface are all straight lines. in general.Vll 109. if three positions of the generating element are taken as directrices and any one of the original directrices is used as a generating In a doubly ruled surface. a plane tangent to the surface at a given point will contain the two straight-line elements of the surface which pass through the given point. In a singly ruled surface. the second projection of the point must be found by means of a section of the surface cut by a plane containing the given point. will be seen that. Any plane containing an element of a warped surface will be.

the plane director. in two branches of a hyperbola. 180 plane F. Seven elements The surface has an axis k which is of the ruling parallel to Y are shown. and the vertical plane is the plane director. Z cuts the surface the plane director will cut the surface in elements and also divide the directrices proportionally. elements of the surface can Any series of planes parallel to be found by dividing the directrices proportionally and joining the points of division. The frontal section plane through the axis intersects the surface The horizontal section plane in the parabola AEC. when not a straight line. The hyperbolic paraboloid of Figure 181 is determined by the directrices A B and CD. lines AD and BC may be considered as directrices and Fis. parallel to AB and CD. Lines and CD are directrices. The . positions of a generating element which moves parallel to a given plane director and constantly intersects two given straight-line directrices. parallel to the line of intersection of the director planes. The hyperbolic paraboloid The hyperbolic paraboloid takes its name from the fact that any plane section of the surface. Each directrix is divided into five equal parts. is either a parabola The surface may be represented by drawing several or a hyperbola. and the elements of one ruling are represented. Since the surface Seven elements of the ruling parallel to AB X X is doubly ruled. if the directrices are lines of definite length. Therefore. are drawn.113] SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM 149 113. A symmetrical portion of the surface is shown in Figure 180.

is It elliptic hyperboloid. The surface is symmetrical. its front view is found by means of the section t cut from the by the vertical plane X. The point of AB nearest the axis will describe the circle which is called the circle of the gorge. plane tangent to the hyperbolic paraboloid. 182 Since this surface evident that the line except that it symmetrical with respect to the axis k. AB Fig. at a given point in the surface A surface. Points A and B describe the circles x z respectively. it is (Figure 183). one principal axis. to choose the directrices so that the possible The elliptical cross section becomes a circle. can be rotated to generate is CD .150 SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM [Ch. Example 4. This obtained when three straight-line directric. Let the line vertical axis k. Any plane containing having face surface is the axis cuts the surface in a hyperbola. The unparted hyperboloid The unparted hyperboloid doubly ruled surface in which motion of the generating line Fi g . cut the surface in an ellipse. which is placed the same as AB has the opposite inclination. lines is described in Article 52. A plane perpendicular to the axis will.es are taken generally The method of constructing a line to intersect three given at random. is For sometimes known as the this reason. successive positions of the generating element are represented. Eight ?/. AB Each point and (Figure 182) rotate about the of line will de- AB scribe a circle perpendicular to k. contains the elements of each ruling which pass through the point. The hyperboloid of revolution is most easily constructed by rotating one straight line about another not in the same plane. in general. 114. If the top view of the point P (Figure 181) which lies in the surface is given. the surface hyperboloid then becomes a surface of revolution. VII second ruling can be drawn similarly by taking AD and BC as directrices and dividing these lines into a number of equal parts. is a the may be controlled by three straight-line 181 directrices so selected that the sur- has no plane director.

184 apparent contour of the front view the frontal plane the surface. The helix r P contains one element of each One of the most important w arped surfaces has for one of its directrices a space curve called the helix. 115. The the hyperbola which represents B Fig. and at the same time moves uniformly in a direction parallel to the line. rotates uniformly around this line as an axis. MN. The hyperboloid of revolution can be represented by a series of Let parallel circles (Figure 181). In Figure It will be noted that each 183. The hyporboloid is thus doubly ruled. elements of each ruling are drawn. determined by the points in which A". the helix may be defined as the path of a point which remains at a constant distance from a straight line. describe a circle having at right AB its will plane angles to line k.115] SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM 151 the same surface. In its usual form. eight. the generatk be the axis and AB Each point of ing line. containing the axis cuts the parallel circles of A plane tangent to the surface at point generation drawn through the point. Any distance traversed by the generating point in its motion parallel to the . projection of an element of one system is also a projection of an element of the second system. 183 is Fi g .

of rotation gives a left-handed curve. Since the respective motions of point P around and parallel to k are uniform. The F-projcction for the position given by 3 //will lie on the The remaining third horizontal from the top. observer. Therefore. and P centered on k a represent the path of rotation. direction The helix of Figure 185 is right-handed. the distances Divide the traversed by P in these two motions will be proportional. When the direction of motion view) is of the generating point (in the circular clockwise as is it moves away from the The helix may (?. H . point P will have advanced -^ of the lead. When the cylinder is developed. Starting from 1 H at the end of T^ of a . A positions are located in a similar manner. circle and the lead into the same number 11 12 of equal parts. 3 . 185 The opposite right-handed. 1.' Let the circle axis. The circle. will be the //-projection of At the same time.) Development of the helix. the straight line 1.. 2 V will be located by projecting from 2 H to the second horizontal line from the top. 2. Let the vertical line k (Figure 185) the generating point. the base of this cylinder is the circle the same axis. H . the length tangent to the helix will make the angle of the tangent line between the point of tangency and will be equal to the length of the helix between this point and H. this curve will develop into the straight line 1-13 which makes the angle 6 with the development of the base. (c) Fig. be regarded as drawn on the surface of a right circular cylinder having In Figure 186. Since every element of the helix makes the same angle 6 with the plane of the base every line with H. is FORM [Ch. every portion of the helix is equally inclined to the //-plane. as 12. smooth curve joining the points l v to 13 V is the F-projection of the helix. Since the axial advance of the point P is uniform. L the lead. this base will develop into lying in //. and draw horizontals through the points that divide the lead. the helix helix (Figure 187).. Also. VM The axial advance for one complete revolution axis is of the generating point the lead or pitch of the helix. Let line t be tangent Angle is the helix Tangent line to the angle.152 axis is SURFACES OF GENERAL the axial advance. projection of the helix on any plane perpendicular to the a (a) be the Construction of the helix. Since every portion of the helix is equally inclined to the plane of the base. complete revolution 2# the generating point.

187 evident that any given point of the The surface thus obtained is a warped . Draw tv through 3 V and SF. S-D//. >Sv is on the RL. Make 3#S// circle at point 3//. The screw surface or helicoid In its most common form. 186 to the helix at It will D and pierce // at point $. of 186) be given. surface and is not developable. 116. be seen that the length of the //-projection of t. The length of t is A BCD. equal in length to the arc 1//-3*.116] SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM 153 234 678 10 11 12 1 XX XX 13 Fig. the screw surface or helicoid is generated by a straight line which slides uniformly along a fixed straight line or axis with which it makes a constant angle and at the same time rotates uniformly around that axis. Any plane perpendicular to the axis may be used as the base of the curve. is Fig. Since point S is in //. The //-projection the tangent t will be tangent to the . is equal to the arc A-D H Let point 3 (Figure (d) To draw a tangent to a helix at a given point. It generating line describes a helix.

Z)/S generated by a moving In the pic- . the helicoid is composed of two nappes separated by the axis of the In the following illushelix. 188 P which passes through and the helicoid.. or helical convolute The developable helicoid or helical convolute is straight line which remains always tangent to a helix. trative nappe face is is problem. does When the constant angle between the generating line and the axis is 90. IS' y 117. and several positions of the *> generating 1 line. the surface is an is oblique helicoid. The helix b is determined by the intersection of the cyis linder Fi g . torial illustration (Figure 187). and A positions CU. Since the generatrix is of indefinite length.154 SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM [Ch. 118. the surface generated A the right helicoid. Let the helix a (Figure 188) be the directrix and line k the axis of a right helicoid. The developable helicoid. The tangent at P to the helix b passing through P.. BV. VII second form of the helicoid is obtained when the generating line not intersect the axis but remains at a constant distance from it. is the helical director. helical directrix. the line in which of the generating line. the surface intersects the plane // taken perpendicular to the axis of A BCD 70S . When the constant angle is other than 90. A plane tangent at P is point ele- determined by the e ment line t 'and the line t. shown. Tangent planes The principles of Article 112 apply to the helicoid. only one The sur- usually represented by its axis.

. Fig. Let the helix a (Figure 189) be (a) Construction of the convolute. and find their given.. the elements are produced indefinitely on cither side. Since the convolute is the surface at a given point a single curved surface. 8. a plane tangent to is tangent along the entire length of the . 189 A smooth curve b drawn through these traces traces on the //-plane.. represents the intersection of the surface with //.118] SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM If 155 the helix. and may be regarded It will be seen that bn is the involute of as the base of the convolute. two The surface is single curved and is therefore capable of development. nappes of the surface are formed. 1. the circle a H . Draw tangents to the helix at points 0.

the helix into a number of equal parts and draw the elements A 1. Y a . . ure 191). Let it be required to develop a (b) Development of the convolute. W'X'y X'Y' these segments . and the curve BCDEFG . Assume that the elements intersect as follows: B2 and C3 meet in W\ C3 and 4 meet in X. are equal. becomes its involute. are equal since they are the true sizes of the angles F E Fig. XH. a circle drawn tangent to will represent the development of a portion of the helix. a portion being shown in Figure 191. Hence. This assumption is nearly exact. 190 of the //-projection Fig.. 191 which are equal. I and so forth. the tangent circle becomes the exact development of the helix. Z)4 and E5 meet in F. . Also. nitely small.156 SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM [Ch. 52. becoming entirely true when the divisions of the helix are infi- The surface can now be developed by triangulation. . the true development of a helical convolute . portion of the helical convolute Divide represented in Figure 190. and so forth. The tangent plane will also contain a line tangent to the base at the point in which the element intersects the base. When the divisions of the helix are infinitely small. WH.. the lengths Therefore. Examining the development (Figit can be seen that the angles W'.X'jY'. VII element passing through the point.

118] SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM 157 Fig. 193 .

and This radius can be found graphically as follows: is the helix angle. To With radius construct the exact development of the surface. is a warped surface having a plane director and two linear one of which is a straight line and the other. of the helix. it is necessary to determine the radius of the development R = and the development of a portion of the NT helix A-V. drawn tangent to the arc A'C' at point C" completes the development. -2 / . . In order to develop the surface. 8'-9' distances O'-l'. Con- struct the involute of this arc. and so forth. the radius of curvature B NP NS NS NT NS of the helix (d) is equal to NT. VII bounded by a circle and its involute. The required development is the surface between the circular arc and its involute.158 is SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM [Ch. where R is the radius of the cylinder containing the helix. lay off = R] draw making the angle with JVP. 1-2. (Figure 190) In any convenient position in the 7-projection. A circular arc passing through point B' The element C'D* represents the developed edge of the convolute. The radius of (c) To find the radius of the development of the helix. Draw ST perpendicular to NS'. The . Calculus). Then dicular to NP. the element AB is drawn in true length tangent to the arc. Make the . draw a circular arc (Figure } NT l / 192). then Therefore. These lengths may be taken from the development of the helix. The conoid The conoid directrices. The surface between elements AB and CD represents one turn or flight of the convolute. 119. portion of a helical convolute lying between the helical directrix and a circular cylinder (Figure 193) having the same The been used in practice as the working surface of a screw axis has conveyor. R (Figure 194) is constructed by striking a circle of and laying off along the arc the developed length of the helix At point A'. The radius of the circle is equal to the radius of curvature of the helix. = sec 8 = R sec 2 6. locating point B'. equal to the true lengths of the segments 0-1. a curve. and is equal to R sec 6 (by Diff. The development radius A'C'. 2 curvature of a helix is constant. also draw PS perpen.R sec 6. .

a warped surface having three linear directrices. mathematical theory of is also involved in the optics. The curved directrices are circles which . 195 196 120. A simple form of the cylindroid is represented The ellipses c and d are the directrices. Fig. The plane tangent at P is determined therefore by the element e and line which is tangent to the ellipse at P. in structural work between an arch and a Transition connections between flat ceiling. and the circle right conoid of Figure 195 has the straight line The plane director is frontal. If the ellipse d were moved forward to the director is horizontal. the surface is an oblique conoid. t A horizontal plane Z passing through P cuts the surface in an ellipse. A P P P. plane tangent to will contain the element of the surface the surface at a given point through and a line tangent to some curve of the surface passing through The AB c for directrices.121] SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM 159 surface is called a right conoid when the straight-line directrix is perpendicular to the plane director. and the plane in Figure 196. 1 21 . The cylindroid has been used in architectural work as a transition surface between two nonparallel arches. The cow's horn cow's horn is The two curved and one straight. the cylindroid would become a cylinder. position d'. otherwise. and circular openings may have a conoisquare The conoid can be used as a transition surface The conoid dal form. d i / Fig. The cylindroid The cylindroid is a warped surface having a plane director and two curved linear directrices.

The warped cone The warped directrices. 123.197 trices be the curves a. Vll in parallel planes. 6. The straight-line directrix is at right angles to the plane of the circles and intersects the line join- simple form of this ing their centers. Pass a vertical cylinder through directrix a. determined by the intersection of e v and a v locates the element of the surface which passes through point P. P2. in general. cone has three linear circular (or elliptical) lie two and one straight. 198). draw the elements PI. and c (Figure Through any point P in directrix c. Other elements are found . similarly. (a) To find the element of a general warped surface. surface is represented in Figure 197. cutting the conical surface in the curve e. and P4 determining a conical surface. The point Q. / A 1 22. The general warped surface The warped surface having three curved directrices chosen at random will. P3. The circles in nonparallel planes. bear no special name. . the line joining their centers is the straight-line directrix. Let the given direcFis.160 SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM lie [Ch.

is assumed in the front view. Pass a smooth curve through points W. Draw chords PW. and 4. The top which view of lies in the curve n cut from the surface by a plane the F-plane. X' r in which curve -Z cuts the arc k lies on the which passes through point P. The plane v and is perpendicular to passes through D X t D tangent to the surface at D contains the element passing through D and the line tangent to the curve n at point D. and g arc four elements of the surface. larly in ship and airplane construction. as on either side of P. and c (Figure 200). PX. and using any convenient radius. lying in the surface. A surface of this character is represented by the projections of its limiting contours together with a set of sections of the surface cut by a . /. X. Double curved surfaces of general form Many structures are composed in part of double curved surfaces which do not permit classification into the geometrical forms bearing Curved surfaces of this general form are used particuspecific names. 126. tangent t Lay off l-W = PW] 2-X' = PX. 199 produced 3-F' f . Lines d e. lying With P as center. Z. A tangent to a it plane curve of unknown properties line Let be required to construct a tangent to curve at point P (Figure 199). Plane tangent to the surface a general warped surface at a given point in Let the directrices of a warped surface be the curves a. in points 1. 2. strike the arc k intersecting the chords W. Y and Z The point B . The tangent t to curve n is found by the construction described in the preceding paragraph.125] 1 SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM C 161 24. A y point D. Assume several points on curve C. Fig. F. The element k containing point D is found by the method of Article 123. 4-Z' = PZ. PF. = PF. PZ. W . 6. 3. 1 125.

6. is section. called In a framed structure. Example 1 (Figure 202). X VX Plane X cuts line k in point P. the buttock lines are sections cut by a set of profile planes. Construction (Figure 202). 127. In practice. Analysis: Pass plane through line k by drawing through k v cuts the contours in points 1. Intersections eral Intersection of developable or warped surfaces with surfaces of genform may be reduced to the problem of determining the intersection and a general surface. these frontal sections are usually lines since the ribs of the structure follow these lines. Project these points to the profile view and draw a smooth line X' through them. 5. In order to test a designed surface for smoothness or "fairness. Line X' . the streamlined surface of Figure 201 represented by the limiting contours or boundary curves of the top and profile views and the set of frontal sections which appear in true shape in the front view." frame two additional sets of lines called water lines and buttock lines are commonly drawn. This is the required point of intersection. The water lines are sections cut by a set of horizontal planes. 200 Thus. 4. 2. the front view shows the left half of each forward section and the right half of each rear or after series of parallel planes. these sections might repreof a line sent frames of a structure such as the hull of a ship or the fuselage of an airplane. To avoid confusion. To find the point in which line k cuts the surface represented by the series of contours or sections A-B-C-D-E-F. VII Fig. .162 SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM [Ch. Line and General Surface. 3.

127] SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM 163 A CO LJ cc N \ 8 2 t a. ZJ CD UJUJ sL^i .

SIDE VIEW 203 .Vil ABCDEF ABCDEF PROFILE VIEW Fig.164 SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM [Ch. 202 DEVELOPMENT FRONT VIEW Fig.

165 Example 2 (Figure general surface it is given by Cylinder and Surface of General Type. Project as diameter. The auxiliary view of the intersection is projected from the front view. Planes X. Lines A: 31.7 are linear directrices of a hyperbolic paraboloid. The plane director is frontal. Plane U cuts the line U' (profile view) from the surface A-G. The cylinder is now represented in the front and side views by eight The line of intersection is determined by the points in which elements.6.. obtaining the projection J 3 3 and JtK*. Draw intersection.9 5:31.l. Draw the top view of each line of number of elements of the second ruling. 7-A2.5f.6 and directrices of a hyperbolic paraboloid.91 #:7i.H. front. jE7:3. Draw the edge view of the circular base on K$ as center and perpendicular to J 3 K 3 Construct the end view of the cylinder on J\Kt as center. and Locate eight equally spaced elements 1 .. Lines 4:1. M W 9 structed by the method of Article 104. plane U is passed through element 1. these elements to the front and side views. equally spaced elements.71 of Represent the surface by ten the surface pass a plane tangent to the surface at this point. in the front view. second | inch below the apex.8 are linear director is vertical The plane directrices of a hyperbolic paraboloid.8 fl:2f. 7-A3.6. Thus.5. The point 1' in which U' cuts the profile view of element I is a point on the profile view of the intersection. Let the plane be represented by the two elements of the surface which contain E. Divide AB into ten equal parts. PROBLEMS GROUP A.9l B:2f. and parallel to lines AC and BD. The piercing point for each element is found by the method of Example 1. 8. Yy and Z determine the piercing points of the remaining elements.5t.1.127] SURFACES OF GENERAL FORM 203). and draw elements of the surface through these points. the elements pierce the surface A-B-G. The front view of the intersection is projected from the profile view.7 and 0:5.6 >:5i. the first i inch above and the side views. Represent the surface by thirteen equally spaced Draw .l. Let be required to find the intersection of this surface with a circular cylinder having line JK as its axis and diameter of M. The pattern or development of the surface of the cylinder may be con- K . A the parallel sections A-B-C-D-E-F-G. Show the same the top. and right Assume two horizontal planes. Through point C:856 D:819 are the linear The plane director is profile. Draw the true-length view and the end view of line JK. Lines A:l.Jf. profile elements. ON CHAPTER VII THE HYPERBOLIC PARABOLOID 7-A1.9l and C:2f.11.

4f . P : 7. front. #.616 m:458. draw the front views of the lines of GROUP B. 7-A4. Through points A and D pass a plane perpendicular to the vertical projection plane.8J taken through point 7-B2.f . Lines A : 1 47 B 2. and at the same time remain parallel to a horizontal plane.4f.71 The directing circles in diameter.3.41.166 SURFACES OF GENERAL left side FORM [Ch. Intersect the surface by frontal planes taken 1.2$.9 D 756 are linear directrices of a hyperbolic paraboloid.5. 2.4i are The plane the surface in the top and front views Represent by thirteen equally spaced elements. Lines AD and BC are elements of the surface.9^ P:li. . and find the section cut by a frontal plane Q directrices of 7-B1.8. Complete the top and front views by drawing five additional intermediate elements of the surface.. A surface is generated by a line which moves so as to touch constantly lines A: 010 73:259 and C:619 Z>:856.) and C 5. Find a straight line k which intersects each of the four skew lines a:l. 7-B3. and in views. The 4. inches in front of point 0. Lines j:2. 7-A6. and intersection.7f. Represent a portion of the surface by a set of elements.i. THE UNPARTED HYPERBOLOID ft:258. (Use method of rotation. 71.1.!. 1 inch.4.4.l. Determine the top and front views of the point P in which line R : 2.1.10.8f . showing at least 9 elements.9^ X:f>|. and find the line in which this plane cuts the surface. A : 4. line Find the true size of the curve cut by a vertical section plane through US. Repre: B sent the surface between circles of A and B by 24 equally spaced elements one ruling.9i.2i.3f.71 is the axis of a hyperboloid of revolucentered on points A and B are each 4 inches circle of the gorge is ! inches in diameter.418 are the linear an unparted hyperboloid.9 : : : E:3. Vll the top.9i &:4i.4f.7.5f d:i.9 and 7:6^. Omit hidden lines in each* view.6l. Draw the top and front views of the surface.G R : 5 1 9 intersects the surface. Line tion.8i c:6i.4i.3i.X which lies in the surface. and find its intersection with the surface. is horizontal. Through point E pass a plane tangent to the surface at this point. Lines director 0:1^. and 3 linear directrices of a rectangular hyperbolic paraboloid. Find the* top view of point 7-A5.2. Assume a frontal plane IT inches back of point C.5.7. Represent the tangent plane by the elements of the surface which pass through point E.().8i.

In one turn.4. Represent the portion of one nappe of the surface which lies between point E and a horizontal plane through point D. The required line k will contain one of these points. 7-C2.4. The directing Line A :247 7i:047 is is right-handed. X : intersection of the plane . and show the trace of the convolute on the horizontal plane through D.447 is the axis of a right holicoid.A . Line A:4. Show 16 positions of the generating element.inches. and the is helicoid. Line a:417. helix .7 is an element of the surface. Line c:417. representing both nappes and LincP 2^.4. Draw the portion of one turn of one nappe of the surface which lies within a 4-iiich cylinder concentric with the r Construct a plane tangent to the helicoid at point P:3. 24 equally spaced elements of one nappe. There are. helicoid. 7-C1. Q 5J-. GROUP The THE HELICOID is the axis of a right helicoid of 3-inch pitch. Line 0:447 D:247 is one element of the surface. : . Line d:4. Line O:447 C:(>47 is an element directing Draw one turn of one nappe of the portion of the surof the surface. : 1 . show 7-C5. FORM 167 Suggestion: Let three of the given lines be directrices of a warped Find the points in which the fourth line intersects this surface.447 is the axis of a right helicoid.6.7 directing helix is right-handed B: 6^. Line &:417.447 face lying between a 4-inch and a l^-inch cylinder. Line C:545 D:515 is the axis of a left-handed helix having a pitch of 3 inches and a diameter of l. Draw 13 elements. in general. The directing is left-handed and has a 3-inch pitch. solutions.4^. The cylinders are concentric with the helicoid. an element of the surface.SURFACES OF GENERAL surface. two C. The helix is the directrix of a convolute which starts at point E 5.6-f. A" showing 16 positions of the generating element Find the is the edge view of a plane perpendicular to the F-plane.7 and has a 3-inch pitch. Draw the front view and a partial top view of H turns of the portion of the surface which lies between a 5-inch and a 1-inch diameter cylinder. helix is right-handed. Draw one turn. the axis of an oblique holicoid. and the pitch is 3 inches.5f.4^.f 7. The 7-C4. helix 7-C3.

and negative when below it. the true length of line on a vertical plane with the horizontal (a) is found by projecting AB AB taken parallel to the given horizontal projection (F gure 206).CHAPTER VIII Horizontal Projection 128. This plane is called the datum plane and is usually taken to represent the mean level of the sea. zero when in the A scale of distance must always plane. in map 129. Fig. Horizontal projection Horizontal projection is a system of representation used principally making. the drawing. Point P (Figure 204) is five units above the accompany datum plane. The straight line A straight line is represented by the projections of two of its points. 205 object can always be constructed from the information contained in and its angle the horizontal projection. A single horizontal projection plane is employed. A line is graduated by marking off points which are integral distances 168 . A point of space is located by its horizontal projection together with an index number which denotes the position of the point above or below the datum plane in terms of some given unit of distance. The index number is positive when the point is above the plane. Two mutually perpendicular lines are drawn on the On a map. these lines would represent //-plane for reference purposes. Thus. vertical projection of an including their index numbers (Figure 205). a meridian and a parallel of latitude. A o SCALE L- 10 10 SCALE 204 Fig.

tours of the plane. or two parallel lines. A plane can be mapped by means PQ (Figure 208) be a line of of a series of horizontal lines which line in the plane at integral distances from the datum plane. provide a graphical representation of the plane. The method of proportional division venient in determining the subdivisions (Figure 207). and. 206 Fig. the plane is most conveniently represented by Thus. 208 Fig.130] HORIZONTAL PROJECTION 169 Fis. . 209 graduated as in Figure 209. when indexed according to their distances from the datum plane. Let line maximum The Fig. is In horizontal projection. 207 is from the datum plane. intersecting lines. The plane The plane may be two lie represented by the projections of three of its points. and lines are drawn through the points These lines are horizontals or conof division at right angles to PQ. 1 con- 30. slope of a given plane. the plane in Figure 210 is a line of maximum slope (Article 30).

In some solutions (as in determining the true length of a line. . or more simply. 1 32. and surfaces can be solved as conveniently by horizontal projection as by a two-view drawing. 211 131. The form of the ground surface is represented on a map by the use of contours (Figure 212). Figure 206). A contour line is vals. it is points of equal height above a level line on the ground. For example. Surface of the ground Any general surface can 'be represented in horizontal projection by the method outlined in the preceding paragraph. 133. Each contour the is a line which contains all mean level of the sea. Also many problems concerning points. The 210 are used in geological mapping to represent a plane symbols formed by the face of a layer of rock.170 represented HORIZONTAL PROJECTION by the of Figure h. Applications of horizontal projection Horizontal projection has its chief application in map making. the cone of Figure 211 is represented by the horizontal projections of a set of circles cut from the cone by horizontal planes at unit interThe circles are contour lines of the surface. ^Yh-V Fig. The strike is a level line through a with given point of the plane. w-f-v 210 Fi 3 . Curved surfaces curved surface is represented by a series of sections cut from the by planes taken at integral distances from the datum plane. defined as the locus of the points of a surface which are equally distant surface A from the datum. Vlll projection of the line of maximum slope AB. The dip is the inclination of the plane the horizontal. lines.

the horizontals at level 7 intersect in point P. only a few examples will be given.134] it will HORIZONTAL PROJECTION be found that the construction 171 is equivalent to drawing a vertical Since the principles involved in solving a problem in horizontal projection are the same as those employed in a two-view draw- projection. draw a horizontal of the plane. ing. Fig. Analysis: Graduate each line. The horizontals drawn at level 1 intersect in point Q. 212 Fig. The line of intersection is determined by P and Q. 213 1 34. At the same level on each line. Intersection of two planes To find the line of intersection between the planes given by their lines of steepest slope AB and CD (Figure 213}. The horizontals at the same level cut each other in a point which lies on the line of intersection of the planes. .

The profile 137. Fis. It is drawn as an elevation with the vertical scale exaggerated. Analysis: The line of steepest slope is graduated to conform to the levels of the given contours of curved surface. AC BD of plane ABC is found by graduating the line D with point B.172 HORIZONTAL PROJECTION [Ch. and draw straight lines to represent the vertical projection of each contour line given in the map (Figure 215). The points in which the lines of the plane meet the contour lines. found in the same manner. lie on the required line of intersection. The profile along line A -A is determined by the vertical projections of the points in which along line B-B is A -A cuts the contour lines of the map.214 Use a convenient vertical scale. Analysis: Draw the projections of a number of horizontal lines of the plane and having the same index numbers as the contour lines.Vlll 135. Other horizontals . the horizontal of the plane cuts a contour of the surface in two points which lie on the required AB intersection. The horizontal line and joining its * 600-foot point are drawn parallel to BD. having the same indices. and horizontals are drawn through the points of division. Profiles A vertical section of the ground is called a profile. Intersection of plane and curved surface To find the intersection of the plane given by the line of steepest slope and the curved surface represented by its contour lines (Figure 214). 136. Intersection of inclined plane and ground surface To find the intersection of the plane ABC and the contoured surface (Figure 216). At each level.

215 Fig. 216 .137] HORIZONTAL PROJECTION 173 Fig.

Lines BA and CD are lines of maximum Find the line of intersection of slope for planes P and Q respectively.A . y distances from the datum plane.50 inches below the datum.X. foot.X.3 is Point B:l. Line AB is a line of maximum Draw a system of contours of Q taken at integral slope of the plane Q.75 feet above datum. Assuming that the vein is a plane within a limited area. the two planes. the line of intersection would represent the line of Vlll probable outcrop.fi is 1. Locate the plan of point C which lies on AB at a distance of 8. Line AB is a line of maximum Draw a system of contours of H. 8-A3.X.3 is ON CHAPTER 10 feet above the datum plane.1 74 HORIZONTAL PROJECTION [Ch. Point A :3.7 is 7. Point inches above datum.25 inches above the datum. PROBLEMS 8-A1. r 8-A4. Point B:3.X.X. Draw I 8-A2.X. and dip of Rj assuming north at top of sheet and meridian parallel to left edge.75 inches above the datum plane. and C might be points in the outcrop of a thin vein of rock.A .X. r Point (7:7. Point A:tt. points A. .X. Vlll In practice.7 is 3f inches above datum.2 is 9.4 is ^ inch above datum. Point A:2.G is 2 inches below datum. B.50 feet above the datum. Find its true length and its true angle with a horizontal plane. Point the plan of line AB.2 is 2. Scale: 1 inch = B:7.75 inches above the datum plane. Point B:7.7 is 2. Find the strike slope of the plane R. Point A:2. /):5.

arid OZ which are the axes of a system of rectangular of space analytic geometry. check of the solution. OF. the method of solving problems. and in the latter. analytical. tolerances obtainable graphically are generally well within the tolerances Tn cases where analytical results are necessary. In graphical method provides an independent from one form of representation to order that one may pass readily the other. 139. Analytical method Descriptive geometry and space analytic geometry include the same In the former. . is subject matter. the of physical data. certain portions of descriptive geometry and analytic geometry will be correlated. Cartesian coordinate planes Three mutually perpendicular pianos constitute the reference planes These planes intersect in a point called the planes also intersect one another in the three lines OX. The origin of coordinates.CHAPTER IX Analytic Solutions 138. The instrumental precision of graphical The graphical methods is sufficient for most practical problems.

It will be noted that only two orthographic projections are needed to fix the location of a point given by three coordinate dimensions. and Z-axes are taken as positive forward.4) -X- Y Fig. The distances A-A P .2. y. vertical.and F-planes about the axis OX and the P. and lines.-3) A (3.176 ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS When profile.and Y-planes respectively the x. and A-Aa are to the right of the origin. horizontal..-2. upward. 21 8a PLAN 0. . IX coordinates (Figure 217). [Ch. A-Av. t-Y) B (-4. The coordinate planes are represented on the drawing surface by rotating the H. Y-. the X-. and the cartesian coordinate planes are they are identical to the principal Considered as directed projection planes of descriptive geometry. XH YH Zv x ELEVATION PROFILE Fig. 21 8b and g-coordinates of the space point A.

The 2 2 3 2 = 4 represents a sphere with center at the origin y equation x for every point in this plane is equal to zero. Thus. This method for the axes is useful when the problem extends beyond a single representing quadrant and leads to overlapping views. The profile projections 3) lies in the third quadrant. 141. the Y0#-plane is represented by x = 0. Similarly. cuts the . P is 140. and every point whose ^-coordinate is zero lies in the XOF-plane. in general. . in one point. The plane X'O'Y'. The locus of every nates is a plane first degree equation in rectangular coordi- Ax + By + Cz + D ~ represents a = 0. method for representing the reference axes is shown The top and front views of a point are assumed to the origin.141] ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS OZ (Figure 218a). and z = inter- sect in the point (0. found by placing The first degree equation surface (Figure 219). A (3. represent If a profile view OH'. assumed. 177 about the axis are given The coordinates of a point of space and 2. the surface intersects the FZ-plane in the line 6 = By + Cz + D = 0. of points. Lines a and 6 meet in a point on the Z-axis. x = 0. the equation z = is the equation of the A'OF-plane (Figure 217) since the ^-coordinate the XOZ-plane is y = 0.0). taken parallel to and Zi units from XOY.4) denotes a point in the first quadrant. Thus. the front views through O v and the profile views of the axes are drawn. the planes x = 0. simultaneous equations generally represent a line. Three 'simultaneous equations usually represent a definite Two number If the equations represent planes. The line may be straight or curved. yielding the projections A // and A v Point B( 4. the surface intersects the XZ-plane Placing y in the straight line a = Ax + Cz + D = 0.0. A single equation between the coordinates of a point in space generally represents a surface. Placing x = 0. by three measurements in the order x. y = 0. both x and y equal to / zero. Each equation represents a surface. the origin of coordinates. An alternative in Figure 2186. 2.2. the equation of + + and radius equal to 2. Thus. and the points common to both represent the line of intersection of the two surfaces. The point is 77 units o from the origin. y = 0. of A and B are not shown. The top views of the three axes are drawn through is desired. . y. the three planes intersect. depending on the form of the surfaces. Loci An equation represents a locus if the coordinates of every point of the locus satisfy the equation and every point Avith coordinates satisfying the equation lies on the locus.

the plane passes the origin. z = VQ = = HQ = = The + Wy x 30.178 surface in ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS the line [Ch. and Z-axes are 6. the F-intercept ^ and the ^-intercept is ^r Thus. 1 5 The tion ABC 2? traces of the plane are plotted in orthographic projec- by assigning some conven- Fig. This y determines the point in which Placing x = point also lies in line a. the through plane is parallel to the corresponding axis. This point also lies in line b. Therefore. is The D] y //-trace of z this plane Similarly. and z. z = z\. 3. The plane The plane is represented an- alytically by a first degree equation of the form Ax By + + Fi 2<|9 Cz 0. tercepts on the X-. in- for its //-trace. y. The plane cuts zero. = D. y Z> z . D . is having y. and 5 respec- tercept The intively (Figure 220).and ^-coordinates equal to is the X-axis in a point Therefore. when y of the line Ax + Cz = represents the F-trace the plane. the surface D = is the By + Cz locus of a straight line which moves so as to touch constantly Ax + + two intersecting straight lines. 142. IX 0. 220 ient unit of length to the values of x. Placing determines the point in which line k intersects XZ-plane. F-. line k intersects the FZ-plane. the X-interccpt equal to -r- Similarly. If the constant term equals zero. Ax + By + Cz + D = represents a plane. found by placing = 0. Since z\ k = Ax -^ By + Czi +D = = can have any value. If the coefficient of any variable equals zero. form of the equation of is: a plane x . the plane Q = 5x Gz = 30 has the line + + 2y = 6. and y 5z + 62 for its F-trace.

//-trace. y P-projection planes are 2 and = 0. == 5x + 4y = 20 has the line IIR = 5# and 7/2 == x = 4. and x = respectively. and infinity respectively (Figure Thus. = 0. The plane S the its = = 5y 4. F-. mined by two general equations of the form A\x + B\y + C\z = D\. ?/ = for its 7-trace. tho . line is deter- 353 If the line. and intercepts on the X-. F-. cepts on the X-.143] ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS 179 S-5y+4z=-20 R=5x+4y=20 VS 'X Fig. straight line 143. 4. 5. and VS = The = = for 7-trace. The equations of the //-. and therefore requires two equations Thus. the plane R + 4?/ = 20. The inter- 221). z + 2 4z = y 20 has for its line HS = y = 5. The In rectangular coordinates. a for its Pl g< representation. and 5 Z-axes respectively (Figure 222).and 7-projecting planes of the . and A z x + B z y + C& = Z) 2 determining planes are the //. e == for its //-trace. are infinity. and Z-axes are 4. Y-. a straight line is determined by the intersection of two planes. Y/ 222 221 Fig.

andc = line PQ (z 2 2i). 6. and c be given by the letters a. Z> 3 . The point of In general. The cosines 146. and (# 2 written a = their lengths are = (y% 1). Direction of (a) a straight line Direction Components. Example. These are the direction angles of the line. 6. we say that has the direction a:b:c. 0. PQ.and % 7-projections of the tively. 224 Let the angles (b) Direction Cosines. a. bj the same and c are the direction The edges components of the line . /3. and c parallel to the coordinate axes. by the simultaneous solution of the three equations. yi):(zz any point on this line. 8y = 4 is represented 12 and the V-trace 144. determine a line (Figure 224). Let points P(x\y\z\) and Construct a rectangular prism with PQ as a diagonal and edges a. is The posi- tive direction of each edge as that of the parallel axis. The line ra 8y = 12. the length PQ is equal to + 62 +c 2 or PQ147. b t/i). between line PQ (Figure 224) and a. a point a point: is determined by three planes. Equations of a line determined by two points through points P(xiy\z\) and Q(x?y&t) has for its Let R(xyz) be components (x* x\): (2/2 1). IX C zz = 2 respecBiy = DI and A zx equations have the form These equations locate directly the //. Then the direction components of RP are line passing A direction .z C 2z = = /) 2 . + = 22 graphically by the //-trace of the plane 3# of the plane x = 2z = 4 (Figure 223). 145. and 7 respectively. Hence.180 ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS [Oi. The distance between two points Referring to Figure 224.. a. Fi 3 . and 7 are the direction cosines of the line. The coordinates P~ A 3x are given C. A& + ^ 3# + D line. of a.

148] ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS 181 . 225 of -the line Analytic Solution: The equations are: m passing through points and B(x^y^z 2 ) x y 2/2 - and These equations represent the plane projectors of line dicular to the //. m which are perpen- . Since PQ and RP are parts of the same xi):(y yi):(z line. (x - - x Therefore. the direction components of the two segments are proportional. represented by projections m// and Fis.and F-planes respectively. Problem.Zi). To pass a line through is two points its Graphic Solution: The line m v which contain the projections of the given points A and B (Figure 225). - y 22 - (1) It follows that a line through a point (o^^i) and parallel to a line having the direction components a:b:c has for its equations: x a Xi _ y 6 yl _ "" 2 gt c (2) 148.

and C z z = Z> 2 The //-trace (S) is a point he A \x B^y = D\. point in which line The projections SH and T v are the tions Sv and Tn are always on OX. S = + C zz == D 2 and T f of points fhe simultaneous solution of each S and T. IX intersects the 149. and A^x V + + . 1 The point R in which line m m pierces the profile plane is the profile trace. -plane projectors of the line Analytic Solution: Let the //. which a line projection planes v meets Graphic Solution (Figure 286): The point Sv in which pierces the is the vertical projection of the point in which line The projection S/i is on mn and the projector through Sv. T m + Therefore. set of equations gives the coordinates . The point Tn in which m tt meets OX is the horizontal projection of the m OX m TV is on mv. projectors of m and the two plane projectors of the line The F-trace (7 ) is the point common to the two plane and the F-plane.1 82 ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS To find the points in Kh. common to three pianos the //-plane. The projecpierces the F-plane. Problem. m Fig. //-plane.es of the line. 226 ' horizontal and vertical trac.

y = 6.0) and the F-plane in point points /.0. Represent the line k which passes through Determine the coordinates of the -4(1. 1 = y 2 - 3 or or 9-3 6 x 2x y __ y = 32 2 7-1 10-6 c = 16. and draw line k. and 2 = 0. . 2 - 82 = -16. 6. //-trace (S) and the F-trace (T).3. IX.9.149] ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS 183 Example (Figure 227). To find the traces of line /c : xPoint S s - y 3z 2 = -2 = -16 = 0.2.10). Graphic Solution: Plot points A and B. A x simultaneous solution gives = 8. 227 of the line k are: Analytic Solution: The equations x x - 1 7-1 and Therefore. Line pierces the //-plane in point S( 8.4). XH Fig.6) and (7.

= 2.82 = -16 2/ A x simultaneous solution gives = 0. ^ = 0. and Z-axes are and 6. simplified. The traces of line E are S' and T' H v and VQ are the traces of the 8' line VQ by T v and T' HQ v by Sa and a required plane. intercepts on the X-. B = A = .31. Therefore. The coordinates of any point which lies in this plane + By + Cz + D =0 determined by points P(xiyiZi). 2. (1) when divided by D. IX Therefore. The traces of line . 2. E.4). Draw DF are Line HQ is determined Sa and TV. and F gives the three simultaneous equations When When solved. 0.90. -4A +2B + 8C = 1.43 . B' and C'. 9 Analytic Solution: The equation form Ax + By + Cz = 1. the equation of plane The respectively.-6.0). m . substitute these coordinates for x. by three points 50.3. #(-3.ft. C = . 2 t/2^2).0. Through E draw a parallel to DF. 39i/ + Q becomes 142 = -90. line and F(5.2). and z in Q(x equation (1). 7-trace s T(. . where x. and 2 = 4. Find its by points intercepts on the X-. Example (Figure 228). and . Y-j and Z-axes. 2. Represent the plane determined JO(-4. satisfy this equation. Equation of a plane determined (a) Point Equation of a Plane.2. F-. Substituting the values of coordinates of points D.4 respectively. of the required plane has the general and z are the coordinates of any point in the plane. Y. and R(xzy&$). The position of the plane represented by Ax depends on the relative values of the This equation takes the form A'x + B'y + C'z + 1 = coefficients.2. ( 1 2z _ y _2 . #-trace s x S(-8. -3A + B + 3C = 1.and Z-axes are 2.H.1.' these values are substituted in the general expression Ax and + By + Cz = 1. y.8).1 84 ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS [Ch. DF.7. 5A + 7B + 20 .1. Graphic Solution: Represent the plane by two parallel lines. and solve the resulting three equations for A'.9. To find the equation of the plane Substitute the values obtained in equation (1).3). y. The intercepts on the X-.

228 of Normal equation of a plane. (6) a plane on the The equation of the plane is Let the length of the normal to the plane through the origin be equal to p. The direction angles of this normal are given by a. F-. = cos y. = cos . and 7. ^ p. Let the intercepts X-. and Z-axes be represented by a. (2) When (1) is multiplied by *p 7+T . Then. - = cos .150] ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS 185 XH Fig. VP (3) . b. and c. j8.

and F-pr ejections of the line of intersection k of planes P~ Q = 3z 5x + . 44x 42* 25x S3y y = is 75. the equation of the vertical projecting plane of line k results. (1) (2) Horizontal projecting plane of k: 3(1) 7(2) Oo. 15. AC The direction components #2 of BC and are. (5) (2). Vertical projecting plane of k: 14(1) 5(2) When eliminated from (1) and + - 70y 70*/ - 98z 15z + When (6) and (7) are added. an equation in x and y results which If y is the equation of the horizontal projecting plane of the line k. eliminated from (1) and (2). (4) This is the normal equation of the plane. . IX When + y cos ft + z cos 7 = p. if the angle between AB AC is 8.Uy + When 15y QSy 5y 7z = 3z = 10. Intersection of two planes Two = planes P = A& + B& + C& = the line Di and Q sA 2 x + B y + C& 2 Z>2 intersect in = 01 = Z). bi'.1 86 ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS the values of (2) are substituted in x cos a (3).Cz C\. in S7x - 83z = -140. eliminated. between two lines (Figure 229) line Given: Line AB having direction components ai:6i:ci and having direction components a 2 :6 2 :c 2 . 151. To find the point Analytic Solution: which a lin? intersects an of oblique plane the ^) 2 . z is eliminated from (1) and (2). 1 53. = -65. we have by trigonometry.75. . therefore. (3) (4) When (3) and (4) are added. The coordinates point c plane yla^ Q = A\x + B\y + C\z = D\ and the line + C 32 = Z>3 are given by the simultaneous To find the angle P common to ^ A^x + B y = z solution of the three equations. + 2\z = 105. Example. (6) (7) (8) 152. + - 35x - 2iz = -30. If z is is (1) (2) For points in the line of intersection these equations are simultaneous. Find the equations of the H. [Ch. CLi'.b* Then.

aO 2 + (1). Ax. #i):(2/ 2 (2) Since is PQ is any straight line of the given piano. 2 . (3) direction a line perpendicular to a plane Let P(xiyiZ L ) and Q(x^y^z 2 ) be any two points in the plane ZfC 2 A (xyz) By + Cz = 0. 0. 2AB AC AC 2 = + (c 2 b\ + - + d) c\. the direction A:B:C [Refer to Article 153.155] ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS COS V 187 = AB 2 + AC 2 BC* (D al Since and = a\ + b* + cl BC* = (at . Ax% Subtracting the first + + + By. Then. (3). Cz2 +D = +D = expression from the second gives: Xi) B(l/z 2/l) A(X2 + C(2 2 2i) = 0.3 B ~C (3) 155. Equation of a plane through a given point and perpendicular to a given line Let the plane pass through the point P(xiy L Zi) and be perpendicular If Q(xyz) is any point of the to a line having the direction A:B:C. by substitution in Vaf If lines (2) c\ c\ AB and AC and are perpen(2) dicular. reduces to + 154. 229 Substituting the coordinates of P and Q in (1) we have: 0. The direction components (#2 of PQ are y\)'-(z2 Zi). The equations of a line through a given point #(37/323) and perpenD = are Cz dicular to the plane Ax By + + + x x3 A _ " y 3/3 _ z_ 2.] perpendicular to the plane. . The + c lC2 = of 0). (1) Fig. #2/2 + + Cz. cos = 0.

(3). Hence/ 1 AiA 2 + BJ1 2 + CiC 2 = 0. 156. Angle between two planes Let 6 be the angle between planes : B.188 ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS [Ch. Distance from a point to a plane (Figure 230) Let P(xiyiZi) be the point and Ax + By + Cz +D = the plane. intersecting the given plane in point coordinates of R are (x\y\z).Ci and A 2 :B% Cz respectively. (y it is perpendicular to line QP which lies in the plane. Therefore. Draw PR The Fig. cos 6 = 0. parallel to OZ. by Article 153. The directions of the perpendiculars to the given planes are Ai'. A If 2 BZ C2 (2) the two planes are perpendicular. V COS fl __ 7_i (2) r_z: I + (1) c\ If the two planes arc parallel.y B The angle between the planes z y + C& + D = + C z + Z) = l 2 2 0.Si) = the equation of the required plane. (3) 57. 72.Since the given line is perpendicular to the plane.Bi'. is equal to the angle between the perpen- diculars to the planes from any assumed point. it follows from Article 153. IX Xi): required plane. 230 . : Hence. that is A(x - Xi) + B(y - 7/1) + C(z . the direction components of line QP are (x ~ yi)'-( z z i).

6z = the traces of the planes T:x 4z = 6. are 0:0:1. Origin: 9-A2. The The The distance direction PQ = PR cos direction components components cos of of PQ PR A:B:C. 3. T. The reference planes may be represented as in Figure 218a or Figure 2186 of Article 139. + B + C* 2 (1) PROBLEMS by ON CHAPTER IX The problems of this group are to be solved graphically and checked an analytic solution. On and Ov are separated. 40. front. 1. on the horiinch. Scale: Unit 15. and R in which line d pierces the + .7 or 455. x Draw 4. = *'* 0. Origin: 4. V-. 9-A3. 9-A1. and pierces the H-.2. . the representation of Figure Coordinates given in parentheses are cartesian coordinates and are to be measured from the given origin. 4. in 9-A4.7 or 555. = R which the line b Scale: Unit = i inch.157] ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS find 2. Draw the H. + 102 = 20. The location on the problem When sheet of the origin of coordinates is given in each problem. OH and Ov GROUP R:Sx A. 189 To substitute Xi and y\ in equation of plane. and side views of the line d:5x 8y = Find the points S. = ~ Ax " g * ~ D > . T. Draw l&y of the planes Scale: Q:8x + IGy + + Wz = and S:Sx + Wy + Wz zontal and vertical reference planes. and P-reference planes. Whence. +z = the top. Hence. Figure 218&. REPRESENTATION OF THE LINE AND PLANE the traces 0. Then. 2x Sz 24.and F-projections of the line b:3x + 5y = 30. and W:3y Draw +z = 1 U:Wx 15y + + inch. = -20 Unit = 1 2. the method of representation is according to coincide. When 218a is to be used.2. Origin: 419 or 455. = r C __ - (refer to Article 153) and PQ = PR cos 6 = A:ri \/A* jl ffiM^*lJ^. 5. Find the points S. + ** + C* + D c are 2. \j Length of PR = * - .

Scale: Unit = i inch. and XOY. and side views of the line which passes through points C(2. and FOZ-planes.9f or 455. 15y lOz = 9-A1L Find the line of intersection of the planes P:Wx + I5y + Qz = 90 and Q:5x A solid is enclosed by planes P and 62 = 60.3|.3.9. Scale: inch. Find the section cut from this Q Section-line the cut surface. and XOZ.and F-coordinate planes. vertical. R.16) and 5(8. Origin: 429 or 455. front. Scale: Unit 90 Write the equations of the projecting planes i inch..1).8. XOZ-.6 or 455. Origin: 419 or 455. and H in which the line pierces the XOY-. XOZ-. Q Find its passes through points A (035). Find the coordinates of the point K which is common to planes P.1 90 ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS Scale: Unit [Ch. 9-AU. Origin: and side views of the line k :x 4. C(. is common to the - Sy - 4z = -12 Q:2x = 36. F-. front. Plane J3). and P-reference planes. . Q. Scale: Unit =* Origin: 428. Origin: 4.9^ or 455. Find the coordinates of the point planes P:6x K which 2z inch. Find the line common to the planes P: lOx = and Q:x +y+ 2z = 12. T.-8. and FOZ-reference planes.6.-4) and D(828). Find the points S. Find the traces on the horizontal. 2x z = 0. 9-A13. 9-A12. Origin: 428 .9. Origin: i. 5y and the //. traces on planes XOY i (-6. T. of the line.8. Find the the plane M:x +y+ point P in which line b: (-2. 9-A10. and W. Find the coordinates of the intercepts. Scale: Unit = 1 Origin: 455. 9-A8. solid by the plane W:Qx + 142 = 84. Origin: 4. Scale: Unit = i inch. common + 12. 7|. and profile coordiwhich is determined by points W and inch.6) intersects 2z = 12. Draw the top.2. and C(8.2.2) (14.2.3^. Draw the top and front views of the line which passes through Determine the points S and T in points ^(-12. Find the line R:3x y + 4z = of the line. Scale: Unit = inch. IX XOY-. = i inch. 9-A7. 4. (064). and ft in which k pierces the H-. Origin: 2. 2y = Find the points 5. Q. nate planes for the oblique plane 4(028). 9-A6.9. 9-A6.4). Scale: Unit = Origin: Unit = i inch.10. which the line pierces the horizontal and vertical reference planes. Scale: Unit = i inch. Draw the top. Draw the projections of and #:9i/ + 8z +y the tetrahedron which is enclosed by - = -2 planes P. Scale: Unit = i inch.4). to planes Q:2x + 2y z = 12 and Write the equations of the projecting planes and find the coordinates of its traces on XOY and XOZ. 9-A9. Find the coordinates of the intercepts.

-l. Through point P (2. 5(3. Origin: 4. Find the true size R:2x Unit = of' the dihedral angle between plane 3z = 30 and the horizontal reference plane.4^. 4) construct a perpendicular 2% = 2.-2) or 455. Line the prism.5^ or 455.5i 9-C2. Origin: 455. 9-B5. 3. Origin: 419 or 455. . Oi. DISTANCES 9-B1. xi yi zi 1 A (201) 5(440) Note: Volume of tetrahedron = 22/22 3 2/3 z3 1 #4 y\ 24 1 Scale: Unit = 1 inch. Scale: Unit = 1 inch.3^.2y + 3z 191 K = common 3. Find the shortest distance from the origin to plane R:3x 3z 4y = 12. Find the perimeter of the triangle A: 157 5:319 C:736. Find the true size of the angle D: 226 #:545 jP:728.-4).0) pass a plane N perpendicular to line Origin: A(0. Find the true size of the dihedral angle between plane Q:3x 3z = 30 and the vertical reference plane.ANALYTIC SOLUTIONS 9-A16.4. to line d:(.30y . 9-C3.1. 4. Origin: 119. 5y + Origin: 419 or 455. Find the true size of the angle A :236 5:3.0. GROUP C. Through point A( 3. + + - 9-B4. Find the point and plane W:3x . Origin: 4.5 or 455.3i) Scale: Unit = 1 inch.1). ANGLES 9-C1. 9-C4. 1 . GROUP B. Scale: Unit = 1 inch. * + 9-C6.7^ C:5. Scale: 3y i inch.5i 9-B6.-4. Find the foot of the perpendicular to plane Q:2x y and the shortest distance from point A to plane Q.7 is the lower front edge of a prism 2 inches : deep and 4 inches high.4|.4^. Find the true length of a body diagonal of 9-B2. Find the true size of the dihedral angle between planes 1052 = 840. Scale: Unit = I inch.l|.4. Scale: Q:l5x . Origin: 455 or 419.8z = -120 and 72:60z 56y + + Unit = t inch. 9-B3. A : 217 B 5. Scale: Unit = iinch. Find the volume of the tetrahedron F(034) C(523).

such as perspective or oblique. or parallel to. 231 192 . and trimetric are in this class or it may be some other form of projection.CHAPTER X Pictorial 1 Drawing 58. Isometric. and trimetric projections presuppose an object whose surfaces lie predominantly in. dimetric. three mutually perpendicular planes. In the sense used here. The projection itself may be an orthographic projection in which the object has some specified orientation with respect to the projection plane isometric. dimetric. ELEVATION Fig. the orthographic projection of such an object on any oblique projection plane is a pictorial drawing. the intersections of which establish three mutually perpendicular axes. Definition of pictorial drawing The term pictorial drawing is used to describe a projection of an object which permits ease of visualization.

the angle of inclination may be expressed as a scale factor. the ratio of the length of the projection of any line segment on that plane to its true length is a constant. Pictorial view by direct measurement Consider a cube whose edges are of unit length (Figure 232).view method. Pictorial view by auxiliary projection Such a drawing may be obtained consequently from two orthographic views by inserting an arrow in the desired direction of sight and obtaining a view in this direction by auxiliary projection (Figure 231). Consequently. line to a plane. 160. This is thtf desired pictorial view. The three edges in the oblique view will make angles of a. A projection on any oblique plane may be obtained by the auxiliary. 232 . Such views are classified according to the inclination of the axes For any given angle of inclination of a to the oblique projection plane. 90. and /3 with the horizontal. and the edges will have scales of -y > y > and y ELEVATION Fis.160] PICTORIAL DRAWING 193 159.

each along proper axis. 161. X and D are the projected lengths of the unit edges on the oblique plane.194 respectively. Determine the points of intersection of the perpenoblique plane. If. 233 . This process is described more fully later its for isometric drawing. Since any line parallel to an axis projects at the scale of that axis. DRAWING [Ch. A drawing of any object may be made on this plane by direct measurement. directly Consider the cube in Figure 233 to be projected on the oblique Construct perpendiculars from points on the cube to the plane Q. Pictorial view by revolvcd-vicw method object may be projected on any oblique plane by projecting onto that plane as represented by its traces. the entire object may be drawn by measurements along the axes or along linos parallel to them. discrete points being located by their three coordinates from the origin. Any NORMAL VIEW OF OBLIQUE PLANE ELEVATION Fig. the most common form of this class of pictorials. PICTORIAL where W. by constructing the three axes at the specified angles and using the specified scales. without reference to orthographic views.

their relation to these trams is established. We may thus construct the three views lying in a single plant and orient them so that the vertical edges of the cube appear vertical (Figure This establishes the direction of the two horizontal axes. The directions of the axes may be established also from the projection 1 on the oblique plane. and are right angles. of the origin YOZ XY. and YZ show the the plan. To do this. Hence. XOZ. diculars with the oblique plane.and F-planes Join the points. This may be done by constructing semicircles on XZ. 234 The //. 234). the relation of the plan and elevation to HQ and VQ will be the same as in Figure 233. a true view of the oblique plane may be obtained by revolving the oblique plane around VQ into the F-plane. is shown by its three traces together with one point (P) HQ Since the plan and elevation in Figure 233 are normal views containing and VQ respectively. The projectors . The directions of the axes in the OvXv and OvZv (Figure 235) elevation and OnXn and 0//F// in The width parallel to the X-axis in the plan and elevation (Figure 234) now make angles of a and with the horizontal. they will appear as such when rotated into the oblique plane. the normal view of the oblique plane of the object. Since the angles XOY.161] PICTORIAL DRAWING 195 Fig. In Figure 233. will as diameters and projecting directions on the semicircle perpen- dicular to the diameter. when the three views are revolved into a single normal view. the front and top views may now be revolved into the oblique containing plane so that all three views lie in a single plane.

236 this manner. 162.196 PICTORIAL DRAWING [Ch. of and with 90 re- spectively the traces hori- The The are immaterial omitted. Choice of oblique plane The image received by the eye from an object in space view in which parallel lines in space converge in the view. 235 to onto the oblique plane will be perpendicular will the traces make angles of 90 horizontal. and and 6 with the A pictorial view of any object may consequently be made on this oblique plane directly from a plan and elevation by placing the widths in the two views at angles of a and ft respectively with the horizontal and projecting at angles zontal. is a perspective Since parallel . X Fig. and may two be views be spaced in any convenient manner. Figure 236 shows a pictorial obtained in may Fis.

Thus. Isometric projection Since isometric projection class of projections. Dimetric projection A dimetric drawing is obtained when two inclined to the oblique projection plane. Two of the axes are equally of the scales are conse- quently equal. This specifies that in obtaining a dimetric from orthographic views. and the angles between these projections will be equal.165] lines PICTORIAL remain DRAWING 197 parallel in pictorials of the above type. 165. If three mutually perpendicular lines are equally inclined to a plane. three axes have different and the three scales are 164. each angle must be 120. they appear to be This distortion increases rapidly in the direction distorted. visually of the line of sight. sum of the angles is 360. Once a standard is set. The This is best achieved it is choice of an oblique plane is by placing the parallel to the axis so that made to minimize this distortion. The necessary condition for this is that the perpendicular to the oblique plane through the origin shall make equal angles with two of the axes. since the defined as a plane perpendicular to the diagonal of a cube whose three perpendicular edges project into the isometric axes. The projection plane. Trimetric projection The general case discussed above. may be . 163. called the isometric plane. 0. The processes described for isometric are also applicable to dimetric and trimetric with proper attention to scales and angles. the projection of the arrow representing the line of sight shall make an angle of 45 with the reference line between the two views in either one of the orthographic views. scales may be made and triangles cut to the angles a. minimum dimension of the object having the maximum inclination to the projection plane. This is a matter of individual preference. and to reduce to a minimum the work of making such drawings. it will is the most important of this general be treated at greater length. the projections on that plane of equal lengths of each line will bo equal. Any specific orientation of the oblique plane may be chosen as a standard for making a number of pictorial drawings. when the inclinations to the oblique projection plane different. yields a trimetric drawing.

the scale is a constant in the isometric view. of true length.198 PICTORIAL DRAWING [Ch. may alwaj^s be obtained The desired direction of sight is. that of the diagonal . This view is obtained from two standard orthographic views by drawing a view in which the long diagonal appears as a point. as in Figure 237. Since an isometric view it is specified position.65 per cent. Isometric by auxiliary projection an orthographic view on a plane in a from the orthographic views by auxiliary-view methods. 237 166. 167. of all lines parallel to the three axes This scale A/2 is V3 7- > or 81. RL Fi s . Isometric scale Sinco equal distances along the three axes project equally. X Figure 237 shows a view of this cube projected on the isometric plane.

Thus. Since HQ makes an angle of 60 with VQ and the axis OX makes an angle of 45 with VQ. insert an arrow in this direction. rotated into a single view and a normal in the general case. Figure 238 represents the plan and elevation of an object. horizontal. to obtain the isometric view of an object. and top views. This will be the isometric view. obtaining a normal view the traces and locating the plan and elevation in the same relation to the traces as in the original views.168] PICTORIAL DRAWING 199 a cube whose faces are parallel to the vertical. and profile Such a diagonal appears at 45 to the reference line in the front planes. projected onto the isometric plane represented by its traces The object HQ and VQ. this can be done best by of that portion of the isometric plane bounded by . of 168. the latter makes an angle of 15 with HQ or the horizontal. ELEVATION The view three views now may be As of this obtained. and obtain a view in which the arrow appears on end. Isometric by revolved view An is isometric may be obtained by the rcvolved-view method.

up to the left.X Figure 239 shows the position of the three views with relation to each other after revolution.200 PICTORIAL DRAWING [Ch. will be found very useful when two standard views of the object to be drawn are available. with the The view. paired intersections of the projectors determine the isometric profile or right side The right. up to the right. 239 horizontal. The above method . An isometric view may thus be obtained from a front and top view by the following procedure: Place the front view so that the width makes an angle of 15 with the horizontal. It should orthographic be noted that this method yields a view in the isometric scale. up to the left. HORIZONTAL Fi 9 . up to the and projecting at 30 to the horizontal. view may be at 15 front or the top by placing the depth used in place of either the to the horizontal. Draw projectors from the points of the front view at an angle of 30 to the horizontal. Place the top view so that the width makes an angle of 45 up to the left. Draw vertical projectors.

Isometric by direct measurement Since the scales along the three axes are equal. Since only lines parallel to the three axes are at equal scale. 241 from the It is it the object is irregular. any lines not parallel to any axis must be constructed by taking coordinates along the axes to locate points on the line. The width and depth and left. an isometric projection may be constructed by direct measurement from the object. 240 ments along the axes are made at scaled at 30 is full scale. up to the right and the height scaled vertically up. When frequently convenient with an irregular object to consider as contained in a rectangular box (Figure 241). The box is drawn . are to the horizontal. this may be accomplished by offsets In Figure 240.169] PICTORIAL DRAWING 201 169. origin. and measure- Fig. Fig. The origin is generally taken at a lower front corner of the object. The isometric is at full scale. the point P is located by its three coordinates from the origin.

A square whose edges are parallel to the two axes which are parallel to the plane of the circle is circumscribed around the circle. B. and projecting at 30 to the horizontal. Fig. The square is obtained in the isometric view (Figure 243). 1 70. the origin is placed at a top and depth axes inclined 30 down from the origin (Figure 242). the top view remaining as before. down to the right. 242 By front corner and the width the direct-measurement method. The arcs will be tangent to the edges of the square at the feet of the perpendiculars. Construct perpendiculars from the corners A and B of the short diagonal to the opposite sides. This may be done by the revolved. . These perpendiculars intersect in two points. Ej and F as centers. Circles in isometric Circles may be constructed in isometric by obtaining a sufficient number of points to construct the resultant ellipse. Using A. down to the left. 1 71 . The isometric is at full scale. Inverted isometric It is occasionally desirable to represent the object in isometric as seen from below rather than from above.X first.view method by placing the front view so as to make an angle of 15 with the horizontal. draw a circular arc from each. and the points whore the object touches the box are located on the surfaces of the box.202 PICTORIAL DRAWING [Ch. it is customary to use an approximate method when the circle lies parallel to one of the principal pianos. E and F. However.

the projectors from the points may be made to The law for orthographic follow any law which will yield a useful result. the intersection of the line with the plane is said to be a projection of the point on the plane. the most realistic forms of pictorial projections. shall pass through a single point called the center of projection or the station point. The intersections of these lines with P are points determined and connected properly. is drawn from a point to a plane. Figure 244 shows the two standard orthographic views of a perspective system. This yields the perspective projection on plane P. When a number of points are involved. The image received by the retina of the eye is substantially a perspective projection. such as those P P delineating an object. intersection of the plane . the line OZ. 243 172. Perspective projection If a line. Lines are drawn from on the object to 0. The object is projected to the oblique plane P using the origin of all O as the center of projection. Vanishing points Consider any vertical line parallel to the axis OZ such as AB.172] PICTORIAL DRAWING 203 Fig. Tt is. the same retinal image as the object. the optical center of the lens being the center of projec- When a perspective projection is viewed by the eye from the tion. projection is that all the projectors tion plane. the bundle of projectors coincides with the bundle that would have existed had the eye viewed the object from the same The perspective projection consequently produces substantially center. or projector. center of projection. The ABO with the projection plane P contains the perspective projection ApB P of this line on plane P. projection is that all the projectors shall be perpendicular to the projec- The law for perspective. therefore. Since the plane ABO contains the line AB and the point 0. of coordinates 173. it must contain the line Since Z is parallel to AB through the point 0. that is.

x CENTER OF PERSPECTIVE D ELEVATION Fig. P P Thus.204 PICTORIAL DRAWING [Ch. therefore. Similarly. such as AC. the three families of lines respectively parallel to each of the three coordinate axes each pass through a common point. the perspective projections of all lines parallel to OZ pass through also in the plane P. . Similarly. such as AD. pass through the point F. the perspective contains projection of any line parallel to OZ must pass through the point Z. all parallel lines converge to a point in a perspective projection. a common point Z. and the projections of all lines parallel to parallel to OF. 244 it must lie on the intersection of the two planes which the perspective projection of AB. This line intersects the plane in one point. pass through the point X. the planes established by any random family of parallel lines and the point must contain the parallel line through 0. OX Thus. Similarly. that is. The perspective projections on of all the lines of the family. the projections of all horizontal frontal lines. must pass through this point.

As the point on the line approaches infinity. All rectilinear objects have in general three principal vanishing points.. showing the three vanishing points X.. consider (Figure 246) inclined to the projection plane. intersecting this plane at point A and continuing to infinity. yield the perspective projection of the line A P B P C P . or picture plane. Thus. and Z. Figure 245 shows a normal view of the plane P in Figure 244. the projection of the infinite point on the line is the point of intersection VP of the parallel line through P with the projection plane. at A the projector approaches parallelism with the line. Projectors from successive points on this line.174] PICTORIAL DRAWING 205 These points are known as vanishing points. The plan and elevation are rotated into the plane P. Y. the projection of the infinite point on any line parallel to ABC will similarly .. starting to the center of perspective P and progressing toward infinity. 174. one for each dimension. Meaning of a vanishing point To understand line ABCD clearly the meaning of a vanishing point. Furthermore.

X p-ypyBp < cr^ Cp Dp Ep N ^ \ \\ \ Fi g . This point the family of lines parallel to AB. that it is it is parallel to very convenient to orient the projection plane so one dimension. 1 Thus. Furthermore. This is probably the most common form In architectural views of houses. the vanishing point of the family of vertical lines is at infinity. Two-point perspective However. usually the vertical. of perspective. for best results the picture plane should be oriented perpendicular to the projector from the center of the object to the center of perspective. all inclined to The resultant A perspective projection is meant to be viewed as a picture with In normal viewing. 246 be the same point VP. Such an orientation demands three-point perspective. it is linear objects so that the desirable in general to look obliquely at the principal surfaces of rectimaximum total surface will be visible. this form of 76. for instance. In such a case. it is common practice to insert the picture plane in a vertical position to obtain a two-point . perspective usually yields the most natural picture. erally is placed so that its line of vision to the center of the picture is perpendicular to the plane of the picture. is consequently the vanishing point of 175.206 PICTORIAL P DRAWING ICh. Thus. the eye genthe eye at the center of projection. Such a system is called two-point perspective. perspective projection is called a three-point perspective. and the projections of all vertical lines become vertical. Three-point perspective Rectilinear objects having their principal dimensions the projection plane have three principal vanishing points.

176] PICTORIAL DRAWING 207 When the station point is taken so that the projector from center of the object is not perpendicular to the picture plane. The elevation of the object is used solely to obtain the heights of such piercing points and thus may be located conveniently anywhere Two points are immediately obtainto one side at the proper elevation. not annoying. The //-views of the two vanishing points VP are obtained by drawing lines through SPn parallel to the horizontal directions of the edges of the object. This method of . Since the picture plane if is vertical. These lines meet the picture plane at VPH ELEVATION Fig. horizontal line (such as AB) of the object. able on the perspective view of every horizontal line the piercing point S and the vanishing point VP V The desired segment of the line then . extended to the picture plane. VPv any is then at the elevation of SPv. Figure 247 shows a two-point perspective with the picture plane Certain vertical and containing the forward vertical edge of the object. 247 VPn. The distorperspective. can be obtained by projectors from the plan view. the the eye normally is not placed at the proper viewing point. tion introduced by this is. in general. The vanishing points of horizontal lines simplifications arc possible. will pierce this plane in a point S at the same elevation as the line AB on the object. are obtained first.

208 PICTORIAL DRAWING [Ch. 1 77. The value of oblique projection lies in the fact that the projection plane may be oriented parallel to one face of the object which will project its true size and shape while the receding dimension becomes visible at some chosen angle with the horizontal and at some chosen ratio . all lines project parallel. One-point perspective It is further possible to orient the projection plane parallel to the plane of vertical two principal dimensions. if a sufficient bundle of parallel lines exists. and all horizontal frontal lines project PUN PICTURE PLANED HORIZON ELEVATION Fi S . X Vertical lines are projected from the plan view and the desired segment intercepted by horizontal lines through the end points. Oblique lines may be obtained from their end points or. 248 parallel. Such a perspeccalled one-point perspective. the frontal plane. In such a case. where the eye normally looks perpendicular to the far wall. 178. Figure 248 shows a one-point Only the profile lines yield perspective. Perspectives of interiors of rooms. can be executed most conveniently in one- point perspective. tive is a vanishing point. Oblique projections The law for oblique projection is that all projectors shall be parallel to each other but not perpendicular to the projection plane. their vanishing point may be determined.

179] PICTORIAL DRAWING 209 of foreshortening. the irregularities of projection. We desire to develop the oblique projection so that receding lines will project at an angle of a with the horizontal and at some desired ratio of foreshortening. 249 angle a is established by the choice of the plane X. Oblique projection from plan and elevation Suppose we are given the plan and elevation of the object in Figure 250 with the reference line through the front surface. Thus. the principal surface of the AB object may be drawn in its true size. Consequently. and the receding dimension may be taken at any angle and scaled at any desired ratio of foreshortening. and the ratio of is established by the direction of the foreshortening of the line projector within the plane X. in oblique projection. in this Draw projectors from points on instance. Objects in which a great majority of the detail and of shape appear in one surface are best suited for oblique Consider the cube shown in orthographic plan and elevation in through line AB making an Figure 249. . Any projector from B to the vertical plane angle will intersect the vertical plane along VX. Consider a receding plane a with the horizontal. the lying in plane X X ELEVATION Fig. 179. one half their true length.

X the elevation making an angle a with the horizontal. with the horizontal is taken usually at 30 or 45. that from A. Oblique projection by direct measurement In practice. r r o AV BV Pis. 181. Note that the elevation. 180. lay off A V B' equal to $AB. On a projector from a point in the front surface. V Draw B H B' Find B' This is the desired direction of projection in the H H plan view. the front surface only of the object in elevation. The visible portions of the second frontal surface are Draw drawn as a normal view around any point which may be obtained in this surface. actually must be omitted to avoid overlapping the oblique projection. except for the front surface. When the lines in the receding direction project full scale. when the is projectors make an angle of 45 called a cavalier projection. Forms of oblique projection The angle a. that is. 250 and elevation respectively to develop the complete oblique projection. draw projectors at the angle a and lay off the lengths of receding lines at the required scale along these projectors. the drawing .210 PICTORIAL DRAWING [Ch. Draw all projectors parallel to BuB a and B v B v in the plan . it is obvious that the plan and elevation need not appear on the drawing paper as the oblique can be developed from measurements. . with the projection plane.

Remove the right and left thirds of the lower three-fourths of the prism to form a T-block. isometric projection using the IN. oblique drawing of the object described in prob- lem 1-B2. PROBLEMS GROUP A. 10-A6. L GROUP B. and construct method of Article 168. . 10-A2. lem 1-B4. 10-A7. appear at one-half scale. With point 5:634 as the center of projection. Make an Make an lem 1-B5. Line A 169 B 469 is the upper front edge of a prism 4 inches high and 1 inch deep. Make an Make an isometric drawing of the object described in probisometric drawing of the object described in probisometric drawing of the object described in prob- lem 1-B3. 10-A4. Make an oblique drawing of the object described in problem Remove an upper quarter of the object in order to show the Draw its recess in the back. 1-B2. the Cabinet drawings reduce the distortion inherent in oblique projection. the given elevations of the Bridge Pier (Figure L). 10-A5. 10-A3. construct the perspective view of the block on a frontal picture plane taken through line AB. PERSPECTIVE DRAWING : : 10-B1. 32I- Fig. ON CHAPTER X ISOMETRIC AND OBLIQUE PROJECTION 10-A1.181] PICTORIAL DRAWING 211 When drawing lines in the receding direction is called a cabinet drawing. Make an isometric drawing of the object described in prob- lem 1-B1.

Pentagons DRAWING tCh. Construct the perspective inch = 1 view by the visual-ray method. in diameter centered at point C:337.2. .5 is the lower front corner of a building having a rectangular floor plan 16 feet X 20 feet. Note that the perspective >S:3.1. 10-B8.f.1. V-j and P-traces of the picture plane. 10-B3. Using point 0:3^. The upper side of the prism is cut to fit against the cylinder forming a support. This is the forward to pierce the picture (c) Extend line vanishing point of AB. Find the distance between the center of projection and the picture plane. front view. perspective view on a frontal plane taken through point C.2. and P-projection planes pass through point 0.3^.6 E: 2^. -g- foot.4 as the center of projection.3.4 as the center of projection. draw a cylinder. and draw the //-.5 1 prism Let the H-. draw the 1 perspective view of line A: 236 5:539. is produced indefinitely. V-. This is the viewing distance.4. Make a three-point perspective drawing of the Bridge Pier Select a suitable center of projection. X C:l|. each 3 inches long. since line horizon. The point of sight O is 38 feet in front of and 6 feet above point A Draw the top and side views of the building.6 D: 2^. the vanishing point on the :li.4.5i is the lower front edge of a right inches high and It inches deep. construct a three-point perspective of the prism. (a) Using point S: 4. draw the perspective view of each prism on a picture plane : A 126 :136 taken through the front laces. The picture plane is Find the trace and the vanishing point of front of point A.21 2 PICTORIAL 10-B2. (Figure L).4.7? B 3f 1. omitting the front view. which has no overhang. The true-shape view of the picture plane is to be drawn at the top of the problem sheet.3 as the center of projection.3. Scale: : . With point /S:4t. and AB plane in point 0. : . The height of the side walls is 10 feet. 10-B5. The 20-foot side of the building makes an angle of 30 with the vertical plane through point A. Point A 2^. 10-B4.2J. 1. making the //-trace about 5 inches long. Using point as the center of projection.. Line A:0. Note AB is horizontal. (b) Consider that line : : AB find the perspective of the point which lies at infinity.4. 10-B7.6 J:736 #: 726 represent the front bases of two right prisms. Draw the horizon. Line A:2%. draw the perspective view of line A 227 B 519 on a frontal plane taken 1 inch in front of point A. A similar support is placed inch from the back end of the Using point $:6.3 as the center of projection. The gable roof. of coincides with its 10-B6.6 and F:5. inch in line is AB. The front end of a right cylinder is a frontal circle 2 inches The cylinder is 3 inches long. that.6 G:5.7 is the lower front edge of a right prism i inch deep. has a rise of 8 feet and a span of 16 feet.6 H: 6^.

Fig.P. Fig. X 17 inches.. . P. size: 11 DRAWING M. 213 Sheet Make a two-point perspective drawing of Figure X 17 inches. o . I i 2 3 t IN. a i 234 IN.PICTORIAL 10-B9. N .P. P. size: 11 Make a two-point perspective drawing of Figure N. M Sheet 10-B10.

on certain classes of architectural drawings and may be applied to any orthographic or pictorial view. The intersection of the shadow surface with any other surface is called the cast a light source. The the shadow of the object. their projections making an angle of 45 with the reference both the top and front views. is a ruled surface which has the shade line as its directrix. 214 . In some instances. The line which separates the lighted from the darkened surface of an It is evident that the shadow surface object is called the shade line. Shadows Shadows are added occasionally to a drawing when a more realistic They are used most frequently representation of an object is desired. common to assume light rays which slope downward.CHAPTER XI Simple Shadows 182. it is rays. or. backward. The object is assumed to be illuminated by light falling in parallel Although any convenient direction of light may be chosen. If an opaque object is is placed in the of the object is lighted while the other space from which light is cut off is a volume rather than an area and is sometimes called the umbra. and to -SHADE LINE -SHADOW OR UMBRA CAST SHADOW Fig. simply the shadow. often. in which case the rays will be divergent. a point source of light might be used. The shadow field of is shadow . 251 line in the right. one side in shade (Figure 251).

shadow of point A on the horizontal plane falls at A'. Shadow of a plane figure The triangle ABC (Figure 254) intercepts light from the point source plane.184] SIMPLE cast SHADOWS its 215 oblique pro- The shadow of an object can be considered as In the jection on a given plane. of triangle Assuming the conventional direction of DEF (Figure 255) on the horizontal plane the D'E'F'. P casting the shadow A'B'C' on the horizontal The shadow is determined by the points in which rays through vertices A. the shadow is a central or perspective projection of the object. as in the case of the sun. 84. 253 If a light ray has the direction d (Figure 252). The shadow the is the //-trace of the ray. case of a point of light. planes (see Article 12). is parallel. Taking the conventional direction (Figure 253) on the F-plane 1 is for light rays. the rays light. line. The boundary of the shadow is the projection of the shade 183. B y and C meet the horizontal plane. When become shadow the light source is distant. Therefore. 252 Fig. Shadow of a point The surface on which a shadow is to be cast generally is taken below or in back of the object. the projectors being the light rays. in the study of shadow projection. the shadow of line AB the line A'B'. . it is common to place the object in the first quadrant of the projection BH Fig.

255 4.5 PLAN .216 SIMPLE SHADOWS [Ch. XI .

is The surface of the cylinder to the right of line 5-6 1 in shade.187] SIMPLE SHADOWS 217 185. 186. The 5. The lower boundary of this shadow is a curved line passing through points 5-8-9. This shade projected on the frontal plane completing the shadow. give the shadow bounded by line l-2'-3'-4'. 87. the light ray passing through the point does not intersect the prism in any other point. The lower edge of the cap also casts a shadow on the column. Perspective shadows Let the perspective view of the vertical line AB be given (Figure 258). and 7 lie on the shade line of the column. A point is on a shade lines of a prism lie along its edges. 257 The shade line of the cap is determined by points 1-2-3-4 which. projected on the frontal plane. is to be PLAN ELEVATION . Point B lies on the ground plane passing through the horizon. 6. Shadow of a prism Let it be required to find the shadow of a prism (Figure 256) on the The conventional direction of light is assumed. Points 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9 determine the shade line The shade if line The oblique projection of these points on the of the given prism. Points line is portion of the cap to the right of line 2-3 is in shade. A suitable . horizontal plane determines the boundary line of the shadow. horizontal plane. Shadow of a cylinder The shadow of the cylindrical column and cap (Figure 257) cast on a frontal plane through the axis of the cylinder.

HORIZON. 260 . 259 Fig.218 SIMPLE <VP. XI HOR. VP. 258 f\g. SHADOW B A'^-SHADOW Fig. SHADOWS [Ch.

the traces on the ground plane of vertical planes containing the rays are parallel and vanish in point VPz. and the is in shade. A'B represents the shadow of the vertical line AB. The light source The parallel rays vanish in point VP\. The vertical face 1-2-6 is The prism back in of the prism. / / edges 6-2-1-4-5 represent the shade line. . 259). VP\ is below the horizon (Figure The shadow of the vertical line CD is C'D. Point A' is determined by intersection of the ray VP\-A and the trace VP^-B of the vertical direction of light rays.187] SIMPLE is SHADOWS 219 chosen by assuming a vanishing point for the parallel of point A on the ground plane is the point A' in which the ray through point A meets this plane. on the ground plane. When horizon. The shadow 6-2 -l'-4 -5 is determined by the method just described. the light source is in back of the object. VP\ is above the when in front of the object. Since the light rays are parallel. The shadow plane passing through this ray. Point D lies in the of Figure 260 rests horizontal plane.Points VPi and FP 2 He on the same vertical line.

and technical work. Structures Wood 189. The illustrations are selected to exemplify problems in different classes of engineering 1 . To allow space for is fastening the rafters to the plate.CHAPTER XII Practical Applications 188. IAMING SQUARE BEVEL CUT HIP RAFTER JACK RAFTER --RUN Fig. Hip roof The hip roof (Figure 201) illustrate the general method is a common structure. the lower edge of each roof plane raised a certain distance (h) above the top of the plate. The pitch of a roof is the rise at its center divided by the span of the roof. 261 The roof planes intersect at the ridge and the hip rafters. 220 . and is used here to for obtaining the true shapes of the various members of a structure framed with timbers. Examples The following examples will serve to illustrate the application of the principles developed in the preceding chapters to particular practical problems. The inclination of a roof plane is stated generally in terms of its vertical rise in a given horizontal distance called its run.

Thus. using a base of 12. common and hip rafters. the line of intersection is found as in Figure 263. The top .189] PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 221 Angles are laid off on a timber by means of a framing square having two arms which are divided into inches and fractions. elevation. are now JR 2 . plane Q cuts the roof planes in two lines which meet in the A l9 ' plan view in point X tt . An angle is usually given by its tangent. The top and front views of the ridge. horizontal slope angle of $2. Line AnXn is the line of intersection of R\ and h of the plate (Figure 262) is drawn at a given distance below the edge of the roof. When the (a) True roof slopes are equal. the bevel cut for a rafter having a rise of 10 and a run of 12 is marked by placing the square on the timber as in Figure 261. Having been given the rise and run of two roof planes. a drawing is made showing the plan. line AB are makes an angle view. Roof plane R\ has an angle of Roof plane R% has a slope Si. 262 size of hip rafter. Fig. of 45 with the edge of the plate in the plan When the slopes unequal. and adjacent true-length view of their line of intersection A B (Figure 262).

XII drawn to scale (Figure 20 1). 264 Fig. An auxiliary view drawn with the direction its of sight perpendicular to the wide face of the hip rafter length and the angle for the bevel cuts on the wide face. Sheathing laid across the rafters will meet on this line. 265 dicular to the narrow face of the hip rafter shows the angle for the bevel cuts on the narrow face. shows true A second auxiliary view drawn with the direction of sight perpen- PLAN Fig. . It will be noticed that the top of the hip rafter lies below the line AB which represents the intersection of the roof planes. however.222 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS [Ch.

(6) of the portal Refer to Article 33. PLAN ELEVATION Fi 3 . The following information is required: (a) The true shape of the portal framework A BCD. . is found by drawing a normal view floor of The angle a between ABCD and the the bridge appears in true size in the view in which the common line AD projects as a point. The angles to which these plates are bent are determined from the center line drawings of the framework. (b) the dihedral angle between the plane of the portal A BCD and the plane of the floor of the bridge. 223 (b) A view taken in a direction perpendicular to the wide face of the jack rafter (Figure 265) shows its true length and the angle for the bevel cuts on the wide face. Skew bridge Structures framed with rolled sections require bent steel plates for connections at the joints. The true shape of ABCD. 266 Let the plan and elevation of one end of a skew truss bridge be given (Figure 266). Refer to Article 64. An auxiliary view taken in a direction perpendicular to the narrow face of the rafter shows the angle for the bevel cut on that face. 2.190] PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS True size of jack rafter. (c) the dihedral angle between the plane of the portal A BCD and the plane of the truss (a) ABE. Steel Frameworks 190.

problem stated above can be solved for angles a and /3 by drawing the traces of the plane of the portal and finding the angle between the portal plane and the //. make solutions for angles on a separate drawThis allows the use of a larger scale and greater precision. The true lengths are BJSi and B^F*. (b) To find the angle between is plane of the engine ring with the profile plane. . . Construct the normal view of plane BEF. Engine mount ture. may be applied to many similar The engine A BCD by (a) ring (Figure 268) is connected to the bulkhead eight tubes represented by their center lines. frontal. the included angle is 6. the true length of tubes EFGH To find BE and BF and their included angle.and F-reference planes by the method of Article 67.224 (c) PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The angle 13 [Ch. The Rotate the line BE into parallelism angle a between the rotated line BE R and is the edge view of the engine ring the required angle. the trace BC of the portal plane are VP is parallel to AB and and horizontal is trace HP parallel to BC 191 (Figure 267). The BE and the plane of the engine ring. The ing. 267 frontal Since lines AB and respectively. The mounting for a radial airplane engine is a typical tubular strucThe methods used for determining the lengths of various members of connection and the angles at points airplane structures. Refer to Article 33. Xll between A BCD and plane ABE appears in true size in the view in which the common line AB projects as a point. It is often desirable to \ Fl g .

268 line To find the angle between tube BE and the bulkhead A BCD. analysis for this solution is given in Article 52.81921 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 225 Fig. knowing the length of the body diagonal and the directions of three concurrent edges. Thus. 3. Draw n perpendicular to plane A BCD. Statics In space. a force can be resolved in three directions. In mechanics. as a vector. is the body diagonal. Vectors 192. Refer to (c) - Article 66. The magnitudes of the components can be determined by the methods of descriptive geometry. Rotate BE about n as an axis. in order to resolve a given force in three given The directions. . we have the problem of constructing a parallelepiped. it can be shown that three components of a given force lie along the edges of a parallelepiped of which the given force. The angle between bringing it into the true-length position B PE X BpEx and the edge view ApBpCpDp is the required angle. Example 6.

QS. A second method for the resolution of a force in three directions breaks the resulting force polygon into . When the vectors forming a force sides parallel to. of the W W The magnitudes of the forces in members a. and equal Draw the front and side views of vector OR parallel to draw in length to 3000 pounds on the force scale. Fig. it will be seen that the force problem can be solved by drawing a skew quadrilateral having three On same direction as. 269 examining the completed drawing. 6. the forces are in equilibrium. Such a figure is called a force polygon. and RS respectively. and c respectively. XII Let it be required to find the forces acting on the members a. of these vectors give the SIDE VIEW FRONT VIEW FORCE SCALE -IBS. and in the The polygon point in the same direction around the polygon. and c frame which supports the weight (Figure 269).two force triangles and thus allows its construction without reference to a parallelepiped. and c parallel to frame members a. fr. The true lengths magnitudes of the components. Through point lines a. fourth and closing side of the quadrilateral is the balancing force. 6. Construct the views of the parallelepiped as outlined in Article 52.226 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS [Ch. and c are represented by OQ. If one vector is drawn in a contrary direction. it represents the resultant of the remaining forces. the three given vectors. . 6. The arrows shown in Figure 269 represent the components of OR.

192] PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS members a. and parallel off Assume the top and front views of a draw line OA of any convenient length Through to w. determined by the intersection of HX and HY. 270 One point on point Q Q is fc is given by the intersection P of a. to the resultant of the forces in the directions b and in the plane of is Since this resultant the line k which also the plane of b a. 227 To find the forces in and c. making OvAv parallel to Wv and OaAn parallel to WH. it lies along SCALE -IBS. b. w and and and c. the plane be cuts it in HY. Given: Tripod frame abc acted upon by 1000 pounds force with direction w (Figure 270). b. A second found by passing a horizontal plane to cut the given members. using a suitable This distance is laid off on the normal view of OA and then Lay on OA force scale. Fig. The plane aw Point is cuts this //-plane in HX. Construction of force polygon. the intersection of these planes. . a distance representing 1000 pounds. point of space 0. and c. of forces The resultant must lie having directions w and a is equal and opposite c.

giving the vector w'. Sheet-Metal Structures 193. and c (not shown here) represent the forces in frame members a 6. &'.228 projected to at 0. Steel chute A chute (Figure 271) enters a wall at point A and passes through The cross section of the chute is a square of given che floor at point B. and c. The arrowhead is f Complete the force triangle w'k'a' by drawing vectors k and a' parallel to frame members a and k respectively. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS [Ch. XI! O V A V and On AH. The true lengths of vectors a'. 271 . ELEVATION Fig. the arrows have the same sense in each view of the f y force polygon. Since the system is assumed to be in equilibrium. Complete the force triangle k'b'c' by drawing vectors V and c' parallel to frame members b and c respectively. 4.

which represents the F rotated through a 90 angle. aligned with the right section. Each section is cylindrical and equal in diameter. for the half development is For convenience. Cylinder EF is developed by using circle F as the front half of circle equal parts. ABj CD. in which AB appears as a point. where they appear in true length. The perimeter of the right section appears in the second auxiliary view. Intermediate section. The center lines BC and BE are at right angles. The floor is represented by RL2. Construct each cylindrical section of the at the intersection of the axes. shapes of the wall and floor openings and the development of the surface are required. the girth line 1-7 This line. draw a semicircle having its (a) End section. The development of the surface is constructed using the information contained in the two auxiliary views (see Article 85). The developed elements (b) of the cylinder are drawn through these points. Example 6. On point F as a center. and these views are completed by drawing the edges of the The chute parallel to the center line AB. points of the right section are projected back to the plan and elevation. is divided into six Lines drawn through points 1-7 of the semicircle and parallel to center line EF represent equally spaced elements on the surface of the cylinder.194] PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 229 The views showing the true size having two edges parallel to the floor. are made equal in length. D. The length of the girth line for one half of the developed surface is equal to -- The girth line is divided in six equal parts. right section. diameter equal to the circle F. Draw the true-length view of the center line AB. This semicircle. At any convenient point on A^B^ construct the square of given size with edges 1-2 and 3-4 appearing as points and thus parallel to the floor. and EF centers. On points B. A square right section will appear at right angles to the true-length view of A B. Since the joint line between cylinders BE and EF bisects the angle BEF. and E as draw spheres having diameters equal to the diameter of circle A. 194. Breeching The circular openings at A. The edges of the chute are now projected to the first auxiliary view. A right section is cut at a convenient point on BE. Y tangent to the spheres drawn The lines of intersection for adjoining pieces are found as described in Article 101. and F (Figure 272) are connected by a symmetrical Y of uniform cross section. C. equally spaced elements of the cylinder BE will meet the elements of the cylinder EF on this line. The square projects in true size in the view AiBt. .

The surface of the transition section is composed of four triangles and four portions of oblique cones. Uptake and transition piece Four boilers of a ship are connected to a smokestack by means of ducts called uptakes (Figure 273). Each piece of this structure is developed from full-size drawings (a) made on a mold loft floor. XII 65432 DEVELOPMENT 4 Fig.230 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS [Ch. The uptakes terminate in a single rectangular opening. 195. A structure called a transition section joins this rectangular opening to the elliptical end of the stack. The stack is elliptical at the base. The conical surfaces are divided into small areas and developed by . 272 equal in length to irD . Development of transition section. is divided into six equal parts and the developed element of the surface drawn through the points. The cylinder AB is developed in a similar manner. using its circle A as right section.

5195] PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 231 .

and the smooth curve AB is drawn along the edge. as E-l. and the ing three. In order that a trihedral a. and so forth. angle may be constructed. From point E a series of radii. and so forth. making A'-l' = A-l. The plate of one of the uptakes is com(b) Uptake development. is the hypotenuse confusion. cal triangle opposite the vertices A. a corresponding joined to the center The ABC The sides of the spheritrihedral angle. If each vertex of a spherical triangle of the sphere by a straight line. 0-ABC. l'-2' = 1-2. The angles of the spherical triangle are measured by the dihedral angles of the trihedral angle. and C are denoted by the letters and c respectively. only one half of the surface is developed. of the ellipse. These true lengths are drawn to the right of the view in order to avoid The true length of any given line. The true girth line of the girth line X'Y' is taken from the longitudinal elevation by length means of a batten. The points at which elements are assumed are marked The XY at the same time. elements of the cone are drawn. are struck. equal to the true lengths of the elements El to EB. The base curve is divided into six equal parts. b. Line X'Y' becomes the base line for the development. XII The cone having its vertex at is typical of the remaintriangulation. Spherical triangles circles is is portion of a spherical surface bounded by three arcs of great a spherical triangle. B. The elements are laid off in true length at the proper points along X'Y The remaining plates of the uptake can be developed in a similar manner. 1 . as given in the plan view. of a right triangle having for its altitude the difference in elevation between the points E and 1 and for its base the length of the plan view of E-l. are now set off on the development. 5. 1-2. is formed (Figure 274). The lengths of the segments A-l. In practice. The batten then is laid on the development so that these points lie on the proper radii. The cylindrical portion is posed divided into small areas by drawing a series of elements of the surface. These sides are measured by the face angles of the trihedral angle. any one face angle must be less than the sum . The development is started by constructing the triangle A'E'G' equal to A EG. K a plane and a cylindrical surface. of is drawn at right angles to the elements. this operation is accomplished by bending a thin batten to fit the plan view of the quarter ellipse and marking the points between A and B. E AB The true length of each element is found by the right-triangle method.232 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS [Ch. Metrical Problems on the Sphere 196. Since the transition piece is symmetrical.

233 is of the The development of the faces a circular sector. six cases in which the given data are as Three face angles. Angle A vOvB v is equal to is The trihedral c. Any convenient radius may be used. one . case 6 reduces to case 1. three elements are given. B v OvCY is equal to a. This path is a circular arc k in the top view. 2. now formed by folding the faces into their correct positions in space. its radius being equal to the radius of the sphere (Figure 275). and an opposite dihedral angle. line through Cx and perpendicular to represents the path of rotation in the front view for point Cx. and C. and the included dihedral angle. an adjacent and an opposite dihedral One face angle and the two adjacent dihedral angles. three cases only are given since by use of the corresponding polar triangle (described at the end of this section). until the outside edges meet in the edge OC of the solid angle. line through C Y and perpendicular to BO represents A AO A the path of rotation of point Cy. To find: A. face angles face angles first Two Two angle. Three face angles. rotate faces AOC and BOC about BO respectively. Solutions for the Case 1. 6. Three dihedral angles. 3. possible. 5. and case 4 to 3. and c (Figure 276). 4. 6. more than one solution may be DEVELOPMENT These considerations lead to follows: 1. One face angle. case 5 to 2. B. Given: Angles a. The spherical triangle or trihedral angle is composed of six elements: It can be constructed if any three dihedral angles and three face angles.196] PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS remaining face angles. A v OvCx is equal to b. The remaining elements can be deduced from those given. The two lines intersect in CV. In certain cases. Construct the development of the trihedral angle making edge OA vertical. Allowing face edges AO and A OB to remain fixed.

the determining points of the trihedral angle in two views. of face BOC. XII vertex of the spherical triangle. . the dihedral angle A is given by BnA H Cn. The We now have projector through Cv intersects the arc k u in point CH. The following construction. precise. however. Also. This CD DCE DCE . is somewhat shorter and thus more BOG project edgewise. The dihedral angle B is found by drawing the BH Fi9- 276 auxiliary view in which line OB projects as a point. Bi/Cjij effect of the BvCv. and faces AOB and Angle B is given by A 3 J5 3 C 3 The dihedral angle C can be found in an auxiliary view in which edge OC projects as a point. perpendicular to on the development If the two faces are CyDy perpendicular AOC. and faces BOG and AOC project edgewise. On the development CX V . draw of face to CrOv. Then. and AvCv are added here merely to improve the pictorial drawing. Since edge AO is a point in the top view. They are not required in the constructions' for the values of the dihedral angles. draw line C X E V now rotated to their true line and CE will form an angle which positions in space. lines measures the dihedral angle C. The true size of angle is found by rotation to be DvCnEv and is equal to the required angle C.234 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The other vertices are [Ch. A and B.

A more compact form of the solution for this shown in Figure 277. and the partial top and auxiliary views of angles A and B are inverted to avoid overlapping. Ov Fig. Cx rotates to CV. AOB remain fixed on the 7-plane. is AuOnCn. as an Through CV draw a line perpendicular OvBv and intersecting the circular arc AyB v produced at CV. On the vertical projection plane draw the development of the two given faces of the trihedral angle making to Allowing face about AO and A OB = c.196] PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS is 235 rotation performed easily since D V C R and E V C R are equal to D VC Y and problem is E v Cx respectively. Unnecessary lines are omitted. CH. 278 Case 2. . b. the remaining angles can to be found as in Case 1. 277 Fig. the given dihedral angle A. and c (Figure 278). rotate face AOC as an axis until the angle between the two faces is equal to AOC = 6 If a reference line is taken through Cx. Two face angles and the included dihedral angle. the top view of face AOCj after rotation. which lies on the projector through CH. Given: A. it may be more convenient to regard the views of angles A and B as right sections of the dihedral angles rotated into the vertical projection plane. In this construction. The face angle a is found by rotating the face BOG about OB axis until it lies in the 7-plane. Let AO be a vertical line of any convenient length. Angle BvOyCy is equal to the required angle a. In the front view. Since the three face angles are now known.

a ship followrequire the solution of a spherical triangle. HQ K HA a which represents complete one solution. Through edge BO. This arc cuts H and K' indicating two different HJ solutions to this problem. same angle. XII Two face angles and an opposite dihedral angle. Given: B. and c (Figure 279). taking edge AO vertical. Such a course has a constant a straight line The rhumb line or loxodromic curve plots as . The the top view of plane angle A between faces A OB and AOC appears in the top view. b. Rotate face AOC about AO as an axis until edge . ing the simplest course steams on a rhumb line. there would be one solution if the arc was tangent to HQ. struction for Case 1. pass a plane Q which makes the given angle B with the vertical projection plane (Article 67).236 Case 3. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS [Ch. no solution if the arc failed to cut HQ. The terrestrial triangle Many problems involving measurements on the earth's surface For example. Rotate triangle AOK about AO Produce V C X to cut the RL in x an axis until line OK lies in plane Q. This is an ambiguous case. point A. This line cuts The remaining angles are found as in the conV V in CV. Draw the development of the given faces AOB and AOC on the vertical Assume the reference line RL through plane. K 197. This plane contains the face BOG. in rotation of K. This position is determined by drawing the circular arc which represents the top view of the path of K K. OC as lies in plane Q. Evidently. draw the line A OK containing face OA C in its true position. a line on the sphere which cuts every meridian at the bearing. The front view of edge OC lies along V V A line through Cx and perpendicular to AO represents the path of rotation of point Cx. To K K .

7 A great circle course >S2 & and T from their is represented on a sphere by plotting points known longi- (Figure 281). 196). a form map in which meridians and are straight lines at right angles to each other (Figure 280). The distance /S7 in degrees. These short courses are rhumb lines. 7 . included dihedral angle P are given. meridian arcs P/S and co-latitudes tively. The PT T are the respec- of /S and is is The arc /ST the length of the course and measured by the face angle angle O-PST. In practice. The dihedral angle at the pole is equal to the difference in longitude tude and latitude between points 8 and T. 281 ing a meridian or the equator) and plots as a curve on a mercator chart. A great circle course cuts the meridians at varying angles (except a course follow- Fi 3 . is 282 The solution of this triangle (Figure 282) falls under Case 2 (Article The course angle at S is equal to C. The problem to be solved may be stated as follows In the triangle : P/S7 7 .197] PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS of 237 parallels on a mercator chart. initial SOT of the trihedral The angle C of the bearing for the course S!F is equal to the dihedral angle at S. equal to the face angle . The shortest course between two points is the arc of a great circle. the great circle course is approximated by following a series of tangents or chords of the arc plotted on the mercator chart. sides SP and TP and the Fig. 280 Fig. The side ST and the angle S are to be determined.

Points P. 8. above an observer at zenith of is the the to observer. 198. at The dihedral angle Z is measured by the arc AB and represents the bearing or azimuth of the star. the earth is regarded as a sphere on which 1 degree of arc on a great circle is equal to 60 nautical miles. This angle is called the local hour angle of the star and represents the angle between the observer's meridian and the star's meridian. cuts the celestial sphere in the celestial equator. The sides of the triangle have the following values: PZ = PS = ZS = 90 90 90 - Latitude. Declination. A plane through point right It is and at cuts the angles OZ sphere in the celestial horizon. The plane of the earth's equator extended. the hour circle PSR rotates about the polar axis PO. Altitude. (a) The determination of time. The point Z vertically with the earth. XII For the purposes of navigation. and the . becomes the polar axis of the celestial sphere PO. hour circle. Point $ celestial and The points P. S. The dihedral angle at P is measured by the arc QR. QZ is equal to the latitude of the observer. The arc Fig. or at the rate of 15 per hour. and Z are joined to O to form a trihedral angle. extended.238 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS [Ch. assumed that the earth sphere are fixed in space and that the heavenly bodies move on the surface of the celestial sphere. and Z form the vertices of a spherical triangle called the astronomical triangle. The astronomical triansle The celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere of infinite radius concentric One hemisphere is shown in Figure 283. The meridian circle PSR is called an represents the sun. The polar axis of tho earth. The arc RS is the star's declination or angle above the equator. the astronomical triangle reduces to a line. point R on the celestial equator moving through 360 in 24 hours. 283 represents the position of a star on tho celestial sphere. When S When the hour circle of the sun moves into coincidence with the observer's meridian. the earth being a point at O. The arc BS is the altitude of the star or its angle abovo the horizon.

therefore. finds the altitude of the sun to be 4400'. angle is constructed (Figure 284) using the following values: Angle PvOvSy Angle PvOvZv Angle ZvOvSx = = = 90 90 90 . Find the local hour angle sun and the local apparent time at the observer's meridian. . requires the use of a chronometer which shows the civil time at the Greenwich civil time Greenwich meridian. This angle. The construction of Case 1 The development of the trihedral (Article 196).II = 46. or adding made in the afternoon.H. Since the observation is after noon. ' for the angle at P yields a value of 4747' for the L.H. to Greenwich apparent time by applying the equation of time. The declination of the sun at the time of observation Fis. the apparent time at a given instant differs by a small amount from the civil time shown on a chronometer. . An observer in latitude 4200 N. M.198] PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS is 239 time noon (or midnight). This difference varies from day to day and is called the equation of time. which is longitude. converted to hours. gives 3*1 l^S*. changed s . The solution of this problem leads to a trihedral angle 0-PSZ in which the three face angles are known.A is when the 0. local apparent time. is employed.A.D = 70. When / it to 12 o'clock the L. The observation time is P. the time 12 o'clock noon. The hour of the day at the observer's meridian is found by subtracting the local hour angle (converted to hours) from 12 o'clock when the irregular observation observation is is is made in the morning. the local apparent time is The construction The determination of longitude (b) The determination of longitude. Example. Owing to the slightly motion of the sun.L = 48. 284 is of the 2000' N.

Since OA' to planes OA C and OAB and OB' are perpendicular OBC and OA C respectively.T. and the local hour angle of the star. The triangle is solved for the co-altitude and the azimuth of the star. 18 55 OO h h m m B B 15 ll 08 m 8 h 3 43 52 = 5558'.A'B'C' are called supplementary angles.T. The line of position method used in modern navigation assumes the known elements of the astronomical triangle to be the co-latitude of the observer. 285 In a given trihedral angle 0-ABC (Figure 285) draw a radius of the sphere OA' perpendicular to the plane OBC and on the same side as point A. a' That 180 is = 180 - A. .0 West. Long. This gives two sides and the included angle. The earth slopes A (Figure 286). L. and c' of the polar triangle are the supplements of the corresponding sides of the primitire triangle. the G. the plane angle A OB f f is the sup- plement of the dihedral angle between these planes.240 If PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS [Ch. Thus. as found above. 6 - B'\ \ c = 180 - C'. it can be shown that ABC = 180 the polar triangle of A'B'C'. h m 8 If. Fig. 0. Also. in the previous example. the co-declination of the star. Earthwork 199. tices of the polar triangle of ABC. (c) Supplementary trihedral angles. respectively. the between this time and the local apparent time. Therefore a = 180 - A'. the sides a'j b'. XII difference the Greenwich apparent time of the observation is noted. serves to determine the longitude of the observer. The trihedral angles 0-ABC and 6. V = is B] f c' = 180 - C.A. perpendicular to faces and C' now define the ver- Points A'. B'.A. Roadway proposed roadway 40 feet wide is to follow the center line ABC The road is level and at elevation 45. is 18 55 00 . r Construct radii OB' and OC in a similar manner. then G.A.T.

199] PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 241 $ <N .

PV = director and two linear directrices. 7. Tempera- PV ture is in Centigrade units this on the absolute its scale. is V = 50. POT located When P = 0. of the Graphical Representation of an Equation of Three Variables 200. using the equation by values for the variables: P The equation 152 cm.) Length 5 units 3 units 5 units be used for a directrix. The intersection of each level plane with the earthwork is projected from the cross section to the map. is a surface of the type xy In order to kz. and OT are assumed (Figure 287). a straight lino. a hyperbolic paraboloid. the 35-foot ground contour cuts the 35-foot contour fill in point D. T = 760. Volume is in cubic centimeters. then 10. V = 7 50. 10. Pressure is given in centimeters of mercury. when V is a constant. It is located When P = by two 152. Represent following maximum orthographic projections. Any straight line cut from the surface P(o) Therefore. becomes kP = by a plane can In this case. For example. cm (2 Atmos.000.000 cc. PV = KT = 1 0. Xll both cut and fill. at the same level meet are points in the Points in which line of cut or fill. draw the elements of this surface. Three mutually perpendicular axes OP. = 10.0002'.0007 referred to rectangular coordinates. the second directrix Let a line in of the profile plane its points. earthwork has boon completed.000. in the cut arid the bottom of the slope in the Determine the top of the slope fill when the. The earthwork contours circular arcs are straight lines between points A and B and contour lines between points B and C.0007\ origin. V = 50. OK.000 T represents the pressure.) 700 C (Abs. the equation Let 7 = 0. Thus. it is necessary to determine its plane . T = 760. one directrix is a vertical line through the then 5P = T. T = at 0. Construct a cross section of the roadway and represent the level planes which correspond to the contours of the ground. Axis The following scale values are arbitrarily assigned: Maximum 50 152 liters Valve OV OP OT (a) Directrices.242 arc to be 1^ to 1 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS in [Ch.volume-temperaThe equation ture relationship for a given quantity of helium gas. .

Thus. Twelve equally spaced horizontal elements are drawn in the front view and projected to the side and top views. The orthographic views of the surface can now be completed. . According to the given equa- 10 20 30 (Liters) 40 TEMPERATURE (Abs. and elements These are lines of constant ruling are drawn through these points. FRONT VIEW 287 lines of equal pressure tion. front. and side views. 152. These lines can be regarded as having elements of the surface. When the surface is intersected by horizontal form P = k (constant). plane parallel to the vertical projection plane will cut the surface = constant. in a hyperbola of the form Any PV Isothermals are plotted for T = 38. 228. = 2 = and horizontal elements passing through points of the second (Atmos. This is an isothermal line. The (b) planes of the two linear directrices are located in the top. the intersections are straight lines the equation kV = 10.200] PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 243 Plane director.) are divided into five equal parts. The P P volume and are called isochors. horizontal lines of the surface represent and are called isobars. and 456. 76.OOOT.) VOLUME - 50 SIDE VIEW" Fig. the plane director is horizontal.

and 65. Fairing the given lines. Stations The problem is to fair the given lines and locate the upper and lower shoulder lines and the profile view of the half-breadth line in such a manner that any transverse section will fair together longitudinally with the given sections. conic section is a fair curve. 2. The upper and lower center lines. The top view of the half-breadth line. 48. Conic Lofting 201. 0. the following lines are given: 1.244 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS [Ch. Appendix 2. These points together with the end points give five points through which a conic is constructed. of a construction means . 25. 11. conic is determined by five elements. a conic can be passed through any five points or through one point and tangent to each of two lines at given points. By A A based on Pascal's Theorem. Five transverse sections taken at stations and 65 are points. The lower center line and the half-breadth lines are faired in the same manner. XI! The oblique projection of this surface (Figure 288) is constructed with Dimensions on the cross the cross axis OT taken at an angle of 30. Fig. axis are plotted half size. The method of conic lofting consists in finding the conic that contains the critical points of the curve given in the three-view drawing.view drawing of the streamlined surface (Figure 289). 3. 288 8. The transverse sections locate three points on the upper center line. Streamlined surface In the three.

A plane passing through the axis of the surface and the tangent point T\ on section 25 fixes the tangent points for r \ .201] PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 245 In the front view. each transverse section is enclosed in a rectangle formed by four tangents.

D. transverse section is faired by selecting a control or shoulder point Point S\ is taken as the upper shoulder in each quadrant of the curve. a plane through the axis and T$ on section 25 locates the tangent T* for section 11. The three upper shoulder points are projected to the profile just view. now are faired by using the tangent and control points found.] . of a bridge portal. section 11 in shoulder point S 3 The lower shoulder points are located by assuming the planes Y and Z.246 section 48 at T*.B :.i. The tangent points thus established in the front view are projected to the correspond- ing sections in the profile view. The conic passed through these three points. The corners Draw the top . is and A X . The control points for the curves are obtained from are constructed in the top view. T^ and T 8 .l. Each section is tangent to the upper and lower sides of the rectangle at the center point.9 determine the corners of the portal bracing lie at points C. line. front. Hip roof framing. rafters. Points A :i. give five points through which a together with the end points This curve is the profile view of the half-breadth conic is constructed. the top.9J.6J.6 C:5i. The tangent points T\. Xll Similarly. E:329. Draw jack rafter. Any intermediate section now can the planes of the shoulder lines. which contain the axis of the surface. The upper and lower center lines and the half-breadth lines give the height and breadth In the front view.l. The lower shoulder end points Sections 11 and 48 line is found in a similar fashion.and C:3i. and a conic is constructed which passes through Si point A tangent to the sides of the rectangle at points TI and C. Points A : l. Skew bridge portal. symmetrical to X. together with the and 65. The upper and lower center lines also be constructed. 12-A2. ON CHAPTER Xll AB FRAMEWORKS 12-A1. PROBLEMS GROUP A.2^.X 6-inch timbers. The rise of each roof plane is 8 inches per 12 inches of of the roof span. and side views of the ridge pole. and F: 526. and 05. Let h = 4". of the half : breadth lines locate the tangent points on vertical sides of each rectangle.6 and D: 3^. jacks are 3. plane passed through point Si and the axis of the solid cuts A plane W. and a pair of jack rafters located at the center Construct the true-size views of the hip rafter and a of the hip rafter. Scale: 1 inch The hip = 1 foot.2i. cuts section 48 in its shoulder point $2.i. rafter The common and and ridge are 3X8 inches. on section 25. is the upper shoulder line.6JLine is equal to one half locate the plate at a corner of a building. two common one hip rafter. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS [Ch. the planes respectively of the enclosing rectangle. run.9 B:3.

which represents the resultant of these forces. Draw the top. The flanges and web are inch thick. VECTORS 12-B1. Resolve the vector 137 R : 728 into components which c: on the lines a: 137. : 12-A3.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS and front views width in Figure 266. Three forces acting at point P:457 have the directions The value of each force is 250 pounds.4.5. The line A: 239 J5:3i. 4000 pounds acts at point 0:4.9 and a three-piece elbow. A vertical force of the tripod frame 0-4:1. section of an I-beam which GROUP B. A 2-inch frontal circle is centered at C: 1.7 of 0-#:5.417. locate the center line of joint Points A: 049 on shortest element. using a panel of 16 feet.3. lie 12-B3. : P-A 138 P-B 525 and P-C 649.435 and 137.li. : and find the resultant.2^.2. The ends of a 2- X 6-inch frontal These semicircles are centered rectangle are rounded to a 1-inch radius. Draw the top and front views of : : 12-B2. Find the Scale: 1 inch = 1000 pounds. Three forces acting at point P:316 are represented in projecFind the vector tion by the vectors P-A 204 P-:449 andP-(7:507. tude.8 J-.6. the bracing as shown Find (a) The true shape of the portal (6) the true angle between the plane of the portal and the floor of the bridge.4^. Find the top view and the true-shape view of the oblique section.3. the vectors which represent the forces. Make a pattern for one cylindrical portion and the adjacent plane surface. GROUP C. Use twelve elements. Scale: inch = 1 foot.10 J3:l. and (c) the true angle between the plane of the portal and the plane of a truss.9 (7:3.H. of the portal 247 and a portion of the trusses. at points A: 1. The rectangle with rounded ends and the circle form the openings of a sheet-metal transition piece.9 is is the upper edge of a vertical cross 2 inches high.7 force in each leg of the frame. Draw . Force scale: 1 inch : = 100 pounds.7 and sloping 60 downward and forward. Transition connection.3.l. 12-C2. SHEET-METAL STRUCTURES Circular elbow. Show a right section of one of the oblique cylinders which form a portion of the transition surface. . and cylindrical and 2 inches in diameter.4 Q:3|.3.4. B: 1. front. Each piece is D:319 Draw the front view only. develop the center piece of the elbow.10. 12-B4.10 6: 137. and make 12-C1.1^. and side views. and determine its magniForce scale: 1 inch = 100 pounds.9 and 0-<7:7. The beam is terminated by a plane passing through the line P: 1.

chute which passes through a floor at point B and a wall at point A.3^. A: 219 and C:619 are the centers of pipes.2. between the two openings. A :0. 12-C5. Develop the portion between the floor and the wall. is Condenser exhaust connection.6 This circular-ended opening is to be A : connected to a If-inch diameter horizontal circle centered at (7:3. Scale: inch = 1 foot. and determine the true shape of the hole which must be cut in the floor and the wall.6 F:3f.6i as . Draw a developable transition surface to connect the two openings. of the chute of problem 12-C8 which Line lies 12-C10. Develop one half of an intermediate section of the breeching of Problem 12-C6.5. Redraw this section locating its center line 2 inches from left side of sheet.^. Line C: l.7i are the open ends of two pipes. keeping the vertex of the cone on the sheet.9 is the upper edge of a profile rectangle 2 inches high.i.3.0. Line C:358 D:3.6 F :3.4. The line A l. 12 -C7.248 12-C3. [Ch. The rectangle A: 016 5:416 C:419 Z):019 and the 2-inch horizontal circle centered at C:2.7 axis of a If-inch diameter circular pipe. Design a F-connection to join these two pipes to a third pipe having its open end represented by the horizontal 3-inch circle centered at 5:479.7 by a developable transition piece. 12-C4. and develop one half of the surface. Draw the views of the chute.li.7i B 519 is the center line of 3. Transition connection. Chute.4. sloping downward to the right.8 and B 1.4. XII A horizontal opening is formed by : two semicircles of J-inch radius centered at points which are joined by two tangents. Two sides of the square are horizontal.4.6 is the front edge of a horizontal transition connected Draw the top and front views of a rectangular opening 3 inches deep. The design is to use circular cones and cylinders intersecting in plane curves. Develop one half of the surface. Development of breeching. Join these two openings by a quarter bend having line J5?:3. The plane of the upper end of the pipe makes an angle of GO with the center line.5. The cross section of the chute is a square which is 3 feet on each side.6 B: the upper edge of a frontal rectangle 2 inches high. Transition connection. 12-C8. horizontal 2-inch circles that are the ends of two Draw the front view only.7 is the D:l. Represent the floor by a horizontal plane through B and the wall by a profile plane through A. Points the surface. : : 12-C9. Draw the top and front views of the connection. Breeching. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Transition connection. and develop one half of 12-C6. 1. Line J:2f.

The declination of the sun at the time of If the observation observation is 21S. 304 W.. If the Greenh wich apparent time is 18 05. Long. find the longitude of be 15 the ship. C = 45. b =F 30. find the longitude of the ship. 7703' W.. b = 45. The sight declination being 14N. their chords. and C. Solve for A. and C. A navigator in Lat. c. Find the initial bearing of the course. Given: a 12-D3. b = 60. Given: A = 45. Solve for a. and c.. Find the local apparent time. b = 30. Given: A = 135. Solve for A. course from 12-E2. 12-E3. a sphere sheet using a sphere of 4-inch radius.). A mariner observes the altitude of the sun to be 57. Long. In this case. of the upper surface by triangulation.). 12-E1. and C = 60. 42N. c = 75. b = 30. 2118 / N. 12-D5. 7400' W. 4310 W. c = 45... 249 The upper and lower surfaces are to be helicoidal Develop the sides. c. and xthe angles a = 45. B.5 m . 4043' N. 12-E5. 12-D2.).) to Liverpool 5324' N. 12-D7. SPHERICAL TRIANGLES The following problems may be solved on theSi11 -inch problem For greater precision. 2254' S. its The latitude of the ship is 35N. X 12-D1. 12-D6. and C. 12-D4. Solve for c. Given: a = 60. Determine the length in nautical miles of the great circle course from San Francisco (Lat. Solve for B. a = 30.) to Honolulu (Lat. C = 105. angles should be measured by of 10-inch radius is suitable. a = 30. and c. (Lat. Long. b = 30. 6 = 30. 3748' N. TERRESTRIAL AND CELESTIAL SPHERES GROUP E. 12-E4. 15755' W. Find the initial and final bearings (Lat. of the course. = 60. and G. Long. Find the local apparent time. Given: a = 45. Determine the length in nautical miles of the great circle New York (Lat. Solve for J5. 12224' W.0 Greenwich apparent time. and the sides an approximate development GROUP D. and make cylindrical. Given: angles A. 6. Given: A = 30. / Long. 12-D8.. B. B.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS its axis. observes the altitude of the sun to on a morning sight. Solve for A. C = 120. / An airplane is to travel a great circle course from Washington 38*54' N. B. B. h m is taken at 13 56. is taken before noon. Solve for A. B = 120. Given: a = 30. Long.) to Rio de Janeiro (Lat. . and c.

. Foundation. At what hour (local apparent time) will the sun rise in (At sunrise (Lat. Determine the distance from point A to the center of the tee and the true inch = 1 foot. 37N. of the foundation assuming it built to bed rock. of the meridian at a morning observa15S. and its local honr angle at the time of found to be 30. Point A: 526 is on the center line of a level highway 20 feet wide. Pipe connection. A culvert direction crosses the road The center line of the bottom is to carry this stream under the road. Scale: 1 inch = 50 feet Line A: 436 B: 736 is the front edge of the top of a proposed foundation for a rectangular and has an elevation building 100 X 150 feet. 12-F4. 12-F3. the true length of the center line of the bottom of the culvert between bearing N45W. Line AB bears due east A test pit sunk at a point K. 100 feet east of A and 50 feet of 100. be 36 at the time of observation. A vein of ore Point 5:546 is on the surface is located by the drill holes -A. Scale: 1 inch = 20 feet.250 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS [Ch. The north-south line is parallel to the left edge of the sheet. The planet Venus is east is Its declination is observation planet. north of A. and its local hour at a twilight observation. and its strike line ran N60E.. struck bed rock at a depth of 55 feet below the top of the foundation wall.. bearing due north. The slope of the earth fill is 1J horizontal to 1 vertical. Point B Point C is 288 feet north S. MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS 12 -Fl. Culvert. the star Denebola is west of the meridian Its declination is 15N. and (7.) Boston 12-E7. Scale: 1 inch = 100 feet.00. Find the angle is calculated to altitude of the star and its azimuth. Mining problem. of the ground. An examination of the rock indicated that it dipped 15 mine the front view Deterin a northwesterly direction. tion. 4221') if its decimation at sunrise is 18N. The bed of a stream in a northwesterly below A. At sea in Lat.3ias The connection is to be made by means of a tee fitting. and sloping 15 per cent downward at a point 15 feet directly the sides of the fill. XII 12-E6.0. A straight steam pipe which passes through point P:003 is to be connected into a pipe having ^4:125 J3:3.? and sunset the sun's altitude is 0. its center line. 12-E8. Scale: 12-F2. is Point A is 390 feet north and 214 feet west of point 95 feet north and 293 feet west of point S. distance from point P to the tee.. Find the altitude and azimuth of the GROUP F. JB. Determine of the culvert will follow the center line of the stream bed.

front. .2f. 1. Lines AB and CD represent the center lines of two intersecting square tubes.lf. C = 2950 '. $ inch above. The ends of all pipes are cut perpen: dicular to their center lines. 2. Locate point C 2f inches to the right.4i. 'i Determine the following information. Find the thickness of the vein on the wall) of Use 11. and tabulate results. (Project AB and CD on a to both lines. Frame joint. Locate the front view of point A 1. Find the shortest crosscut (horizontal) from S to the vein. B = 2865 \ feet. visible lines only in the front view. point. of pipes The ends sides of AB and CD. and show complete visibility Object lines and reference lines are to be full weight. and 2f inches to the rear of point A. :3A. feet. Note that certain inside edges will be visible in the top and front views. 7 251 Elevation of 8 = 3000 feet. Find the strike and dip of the vein. Two opposite faces of tube CD are parallel to center line AB. Given: Line AB and point C. 11X17 inches. Find the depth of a vertical shaft from S to the vein. 3. If inches below. and the ends of the tubes One edge of tube AB passes are cut at right angles to the center lines. (Locate point A in the auxiliary view 5i inches from A in the top view. and auxiliary views of the tubes.7*. Draw the top. Draw the projections of a line CD perpendicular to AB.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS and 146 feet east of point S. Size of sheet.5.7. 4. Each tube is 1^ inches square. Show in the other views. which are connected by a third pipe with line EF as a center line. 12-F5.) Draw the second auxiliary view which shows line CD in true length and A B as a Draw AB and CD in the form of center lines. All projectors are to be very fine sharp lines. Find the shortest incline from S to the vein.inches to the rear of point A 2.1. and the EF of pipe fit against the surfaces are in the plane of sides of pipes EF . through center line CD. A = 2632 feet. Solution II: the vein on edge. 12-F6. 11 X 17 inches. and 1-J. 3. Draw the project ions of the common perpendicular EF between lines A li. Size of sheet.9f D: 41.nr and C:2i. Locate point B 2f inches to the right. Determine the above information from plan and eleva- Solve by using an auxiliary projection showing the Drill hole at point C pierces lower side (foot plane of vein at elevation 2920. auxiliary view. 2* inches from the left-hand border line and 2} inches from the lower border line.) Lines AB and CD are the projection plane parallel center lines of two pipes 1 inches square. Solution I: tion. The top view of point A is 6i inches above the lower border line. Cross connection.X 17-inch sheet for Solution II.

point A is necessary. XII AB The complete projections showing cross section of pipe EF is thus a visibility in all views. Kh.94 X: 64.1 inch.94 5:7. B.54 represents a force which the plane determined about an axis through point C.4.252 PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS and CD. A :24.2.41 is an aileron control cable.1. and temperature along an axis through and perpendicular to plane Planes parallel to P07 cut the surface in equilateral hyperbolas and represent pressure-volume relations for a given temperature. PV = -fjr P07.1^. and jY:3. Y: 11. If . The cables arc shown in their The required clearance between these cables is desired positions. and 3 inches from plane P07.4. (Scale of drawing as plotted is existing clearance not sufficient.34.lf.6. volume along 07.2&. Size of sheet.4A 5:10. and only vertical displacement is permitted.3|4 is an elevator control cable.94 and 7:64.1.4-}t D: 10. 1 inch = 100 pounds. 2 inches. This equation is represented in geometrical form by the above surface.7 is the center line of an airplane fuselage. . 11 X 17 inches.4.34. Draw Line Line X: 2. The pressure-volume-temperature Jrelationship for an ideal gas is given by the characteristic equation 12-F10. P: 14. 12-F8.44 are a rectangular hyperbolic paraboloid.54 C : 728.1. 12-F9.2. 2. The plane director is horizontal. Pressure is measured along axis OP.34. Draw the curves cut from the surface by frontal planes taken 1. Represent the surface by 13 elements taken inch apart in the elevation.1. Line C:24.7 12-F7. and C:l. rotates in If relocation of The vector 4:4. is by points A.94 linear directrices of constant. and Find the moment if the force scale is A reflected from a plane mirror ray of light passing through points A 348 B 426 : : M: 1. show the new position of cable AB. is 14 inches = 1 foot.64 Find the path of the reflected ray. rhombus. Lines 0:14. Clearance problem.) If the only the end A of the aileron cable can be moved.

the accuracy of the instruments used.005 inch in width. Therefore. An interesting test is to determine how many separate parallel lines one can draw between two parallel lines a given distance apart. the simplest construction possible should be used. this amount by use of special materials. The drawing should be compact. the graphical solution will be as becomes one his own accurate as a numerical or algebraic solution would be. " arid any "line on a drawing is a rough approximation to a Euclidian line. and overlapping views may not be objectionable. and the eyesight and care of the draftsman. is The tolerances within which results can be obtained are of factors. therefore. It is possible to reduce the width about half of 0. If this is done. including the scale at which the work done. a mathematical line cannot have material existence. the draftsman should be acquainted with the tolerances which he may expect from all the factors involved in his Some of these factors are discussed in the following articles. Lines by Euclid. drafting. a pencil line may be made to serve most In geometrical constructions. Precision in I in Drawing of absolute drawing As stated in the Preface. If the lines are drawn as close as possible but clearly separated. using graphical methods. Drafting mistakes may be avoided by carefully lettering all points of the construction. When a quantity is to be found by graphical methods. it will be found that the distance between the lines will be approximately equal to line. a graphical solution is not capable accuracy. Since most engineering data are obtained from instruments which dependent on a variety contain scales of one sort or another and which are themselves subject to physical errors. The problem of the draftsman. of choosing his scale and his working materials and adjusting care to insure that the graphical solution itself is more accurate than the empirical data." 253 .APPENDIX Precision 202. a line need not exceed practical purposes. the possible accuracy with which problems using these data can be solved is predetermined before the numerical or the graphical solution is begun. A as defined breadth. the effects of weather on the drawing paper. however. is "that which has length without Hence. With reasonable care. 203.

205. 291 204. Fiftieths can be read without the aid of a magnifying glass and the hundredths estimated very closely. If the widths of the lines and spaces are 0. The table of chords (Appendix IV) thus was constructed from a table of sines.05 inch. Angles An angle can be measured or constructed by use of a table of tangents In both cases. Scale with a needle point. inch. Fig. of the point.005 inch.10 inch wide. I the width of the lines. This or chords.005 6 is the angle between the two lines (Figure nearly ^ 290). This must be a fine line and be longer than the required measurement. suitable for this work. Transferring measurements from the scale to the drawing by means of dividers is to be avoided. Since the accuracy with which a line can be measured is substantially If distances are set off read to the nearest 0.005 inch.01 inch. . for the chord method is Small protractors are unsuitable for precise graphical solutions. then X= SITl where 0. The chord of an angle is equal to twice the sine of half the angle when the radius is unity. measured with a probable which is about 0. measurements may be The needle-point impression must be very A measuring scale on which the inch is 'divided into 50 parts is small. ten lines can be drawn in a space 0. When E inch and (9 = 5. a base of 10 inches is convenient. of one degree. If E is the amount of lateral error in locating one of the lines and X is the error in the position The distance between two points can be error as small as the width of the scale mark. X = 0.254 PRECISION IN DRAWING [App. The possible error in the position of a point P determined by two intersecting lines depends on the error in the lateral position of one of the lines and the size of the angle of intersection. The construction results in a probable error of 3^ to ^ indicated in Figure 291. Measurements should be set off on a line already drawn. 290 Fis.

drafting should be done on metal surfaces. in general. humidity. and age. 206. A draftsman working with problems that require high accuracy should be acquainted with the relative percentage of shrinkages of various materials. Thus. a scale which is only slightly greater than the smallest that will yield the desired accuracy and show method of solution.206] PRECISION IN DRAWING 255 a fixed quantity. If the scale is doubled. the percentage error will be cut in half. the accuracy of any given solution will be linearly proportional to the scale at which it is drawn. . increase in scale gives increased accuracy up to the limits of the drafting instruments available. Shrinkages All drawing surfaces are subject to change in shape from such factors change in temperature. The draftsman should clearly the choose. For very high accuracy. Solutions which require considerable time should be worked on under similar atmospheric conditions when this is possible. Short solutions which take only a few hours generally are done under uniform conditions and as are consequently very little subject to these factors unless the solution is one which may be filed for scaling at some future date.

angle. Elementary geometry is. in general. Properties of plane figures Although a study of plane figures is not strictly within the field of descriptive geometry. The properties of eollinearity and concurrency are thus preserved in projection. The properties of geometrical figures are of two classes: metric and projective. Metrical properties Metrical properties are those involving the notions of length. from exhaustive. properties of figures that are conserved only under rigid motions of the figure.APPENDIX II Properties of Plane Figures 207. not generally mentioned in courses in elementary geometry. a metrical geometry. Thus. a knowledge of their properties is desirable since in the solution of a space problem. and area. sections of solids are plane figures. 208. Projective properties Projective properties of a figure are those which remain unchanged in For example. It is changed. the length of a line segment is not altered by changits position in space. in merely a few of the relationships having immediate application in graphical work are It is hoped that an introduction to some of the properties of presented. 256 . It may be noted that the projection of any space figure on a plane is a plane figure composed of points relationships exist. ing 209. cause the interested student to investigate this material further in the standard works on protective geometry. however. and their correct representation often requires an understanding of their geometric properties. For example. a group of points on a straight line will always projection. will plane figures. lines project into concurrent lines. The projections of concurrent project into a group of collinear points. in its projection on a plane taken at an oblique angle to it. The following discussion is far and lines between which certain plane fact. plane figures are often involved.

lying pyramid. axis of homology. Also. The figure ABC-A'B'C . to be in perspective position when placed as shown. Line QR is the trace of the section plane on the plane of the base of the points 3 1 and respectively. and BC and JB'C". Fig.210] PROPERTIES OF PLANE FIGURES 257 210. the sides AC and A'C'. Desargue's theorem // two triangles lying in a plane are so placed that the straight lines joining the corresponding vertices intersect in a point. then the corresponding sides intersect in three points which lie on a straight line. Point is the center The triangles are said of projection and line 1-3 the axis of homology. tive of ABC. to plane 72. . Desargue's theorem is illustrated in Figure 292. the arrangement shown in Figure 293 can be thought of as a pyramid 0-ABC intersected by a plane R in the section A'B'C'. if and A'B' in plane on line QR. point 2 will lie on line QR which is the plane Q intersection of the two planes which contain the figures ABC and A'B'C'. of the pyramid becomes the center of projection and the line QR the If the space configuration of Figure 293 figure If the center of projection (Figure 293) is moved to 1 the projectors become parallel. in a point 2. if infinity. Obviously. the which represents Desargue's triangle theorem results. will intersect in will intersect. Similarly. since AB lies in 72. since colThe vertex linearity and concurrency are preserved in the projection. 292 they produced. is projected on a plane. The relationships of Figure 292 can be deduced from a space figure in which the triangles If the triangle ABC of plane Q are in different planes (Figure 293). the projection A'B'C' is the perspecis projected from point It is evident that since AB and A 'B' are in the same plane.

258 PROPERTIES OF PLANE FIGURES [App. 294 . 293 Fig. II Fig.

the fixed points. the sum of whose distances from two fixed points. of the cone. The parabola is the locus of points equally distant from a fixed point. the directrix. The hyperbola difference of whose distances from two Theorem. infinite number of ellipses is the locus of points. 211. The triangle theorem now is represented by Figure 294. and and hyperbolas.and 7-projections of any triangle ABC (Figure 295) are related protectively. the corresponding sides of each view produced visualized as must intersect in three collinear points.211] PROPERTIES OF PLANE FIGURES 259 a solid. the two points of tangency are the foci of the section cut by the plane. and a fixed line. element of such a cone is is an ellipse. . one parabola. a plane which rotates about a suitably chosen line can cut from a cone one an is circle. becomes a prism. In the one situation where the plane perpendicular to the axis of the cone. is called the foci. the focus. the foci. Since the H. Thus. and two spheres are inscribed in the cone tangent to the plane. The conic sections may be defined metrically as follows: The ellipse the locus of points. the section is a circle. Conies The most important plane curves are those known as conies or conic They may be derived from the intersection of a plane with a cone of revolution. constant. If a cone of revolution is intersected by a plane. The intersection formed by a plane which cuts both nappes of the cone is a In the particular case where the plane is parallel to an element hyperbola. is constant. the straight lines in which the section plane is intersected by the planes of the circles of contact of the spheres and cone are the directrices of the conic section. the section is a parabola. The intersection formed by a plane which cuts every sections.

therefore. 72 and S intersect the section plane Q in the directrices d and foci The plane X (Figure 297) intersects the cone in a hyperbola. having directrices F and F' and d and d'. If plane Y (Figure 297) is moved parallel to itself until it contains the vertex of the cone. the ellipse shrinks to a point. the hyperbola degenerates into two through intersecting straight lines. (Figure 297) cuts a parabola from the cone. if plane is moved 'parallel to itself until it passes the vertex of the cone. when the In Figure 297. but one focus F and The plane Y d. the parabola degenerates into a straight line. one directrix Fi 9 . The inscribed spheres are tangent to plane Q at the foci F and F'. X 21 2. 296 Fi 9 .260 PROPERTIES OF PLANE FIGURES [App. 297 Three limiting or degenerate conies are formed cutting plane contains the vertex of the cone. There is but one inscribed sphere tangent to Y and. The planes R and S are the planes of the circles of contact of the spheres and cone. Degenerate conies. II The plane Q (Figure 296) cuts an ellipse from the right circular cone. following properties of conies are particularly useful in graphical . If in Figure 296 plane Q moves parallel to itself until it passes through the vertex of the cone. Planes d'. Properties of conies The work.

300 . Lines through the center of an ellipse or hyperbola The diameters of a are diameters. Fig. A tangent to an ellipse or hyperbola bisects the angle between the two focal radii which intersect in the point of 298). bisects a diameter of a conic system of parallel chords A (Figure 300). 298 Diameters. Fig. 299 Fig.212] PROPERTIES OF PLANE FIGURES 261 Tangents. tangency (Figure tangent to a parabola bisects the angle between the focal radius and diameter A which pass through the point of tangency (Figure 299). are at right angles to the parabola directrix.

When each of two diameters of an ellipse is are parallel to the tangent at the extremity of the other. Chords from any point an ellipse to the ends of the transverse axis are called supplementary.262 PROPERTIES OF PLANE FIGURES [App. the diameters . I Conjugate diameters. Supplementary chords. tangent at point P is found by drawing the chord AC parallel to PO and mentary chords are . Each of a pair of conjugate diameters of bisects every chord parallel to the other. 301 said to be conjugate (Figure 301). A pair of supple- Fig. The proposition gives a simple construction for a tangent to an ellipse. 302 This parallel to a pair of conjugate diameters.

point of tangency. with radius equal to the semi-major axis. The axis found by bisecting a pair of chords which are perpendicular to the The focus is determined by the property that the tangent bisects the angle between a diameter and the focal radius through the diameter. The axes are found as in the case of the ellipse. strike a circle which cuts the ellipse in four points. and its mid-point is the center of the ellipse (Figure 303). Draw a pair of parallel chords. To find axes and foci when the curve only is given. Hexagon A hexagon is a plane figure composed of six points. intersects the major axis in the foci. sixty different hexagons can be constructed on six given points. . Their bisector is a diameter of the ellipse. The axes of the ellipse are drawn through its center and parallel to the sides of the rectangle determined by the four points. no four of which Since are collinear. From the center of the ellipse. An arc struck off from the end of the minor axis. (a) P parallel to the supplementary chord EC (1) (Figure Ellipse. eter determined by is The parallel to these chords at the end of the diamthem will be the tangent at this point.213] PROPERTIES OF PLANE FIGURES 263 the tangent through 302). 303 Fig. the six lines which form the sides of the hexagon may be taken in any order. Fig. 213. and the six lines which connect them (Figure 305). (8) Hyperbola. 304 (2) Parabola (Figure 304) A diameter is obtained by bisecting a pair of parallel chords.

(a) To construct a conic passing through five given points. The fact that the opposite sides of the The sixth point lies on the conic. hexagon intersect found by use of the on the Pascal Line. Any five points determine a particular conic.264 'PROPERTIES OF PLANE FIGURES [App. . The five given points are taken as five vertices of a I Fig. labeling them X and Y respectively. 306 sixth vertex is hexagon inscribed in the conic. This construction can readily be checked by the student using a the conic. 305 214. II Fig. Given: Points 1-2-3-4-5 (Figure 307). intersect in three points which lie on a The straight line circle as is often called Pascal's Line. Pascal's theorem provides a useful construction for a conic when five points are known. producing them to intersect at 0. Draw lines 1-2 and 4-5. *Diaw lines 2-3 and 3-4 as control axes. Pascal's theorem The three pairs of opposite sides of a hexagon inscribed in a conic straight line (Figure 306).

Similarly. and the conic is now determined by one point and two point-tangents. and Y determined by lines 2-3 Draw control axes X and 3-4 respectively. Point 3 (Figure 308). Produce tangents ti and t* to intersect in point O. is repeated after moving the Pascal Line to a new moves along the conic until it coincides with point 2. 307 1-2-3-4-5-6 This construction position. the 2. These lines intersect in point 6. chord 4-5 becomes a tangent to the conic at point 4.214] PROPERTIES OF PLANE FIGURES 265 Through point 0. it is seen that the conic is determined by five elements which may be points or tangents. if The conic is now cides with point 5 moves until it coinpoint 4. Points Fig. If point 1 form an inscribed hexagon. Draw one position of the Pascal Line cutting the control axes in points a and 6. 308 point-tangents. . chord 1-2 becomes a tangent to the conic at point determined by three points and one point-tangent. and point 6 is on the conic. (6) To construct a conic hav- ing given one point and two Fig. Join points 5-a and 1-6. Given: Tangents h and t*\ points of tangency 2 and 4. draw the random Pascal Line Z^ cutting the control axes in points a and 6. In each case.

a sixth tangent can be constructed by use of Brianchon's theorem. The line determined by points A-B-C-D AD X A B X E tangent to the conic. and F is a sixth tangent 5 in point E. 217. This theorem on the line conic is analogous to Pascal's theorem on the point conic. Join the opposite vertices A-D. Determine of AB. 310 (Figure 811). is OM M OM 216. Any curve cutand D is an between ting curve cutting ellipse. and when described in this manner. To given vertices a conic having 1-2-3-4-5 tangents and Fig. conic also may be con- A sidered as the envelope of a continuous set of tangent lines. II Draw conic. it is known as a line conic. A line conic is determined by five tangents. Other tangents may be found by altering the position of point X on line AD. Brianchon's theorem // scribed a to hexagon is circuma coniCj the lines opposite joining vertices the pairs of pass through a point construct P (Figure 810). The tangents intersect in point 0. Determining the type of conic from a portion of the curve Draw chord AB of the curve and tangents to the curve at points A and B (Figure 309). Line conies A Fig. and 4-a intersecting in point 5. Through point C draw any line cutting and cuts line through in point and line 1 in point F. . a point on the required 21 5. conic determined by the 309 locus of a point is called a point conic. and when these are given. Any between and Z) is a hyperbola. If the curve cuts M OM in its mid-point Z). and the mid-point draw OM.266 PROPERTIES lines 2-fe OF PLANE FIGURES [App. the curve a parabola.

The conic which forms each quarter is determined by two point-tangents and a control point. The lines connecting the corresponding numbered points are tangents to the parabola. curves. Divide OA and OB into the points same number of equal parts. of conies. numbered as shown. Parabolic envelope The parabola determined by two as a line conic. distance along tangent l'-l to the point of tangency C bears the The same Fig. 313 ratio to l'-l as the distance 5-1' bears to B-O. it is The conic constructions which have been described are useful in laying out molds or templets for structures requiring fair or smooth Thus. point-tangents is constructed easily Let the tangents OA and OB be given together with the of tangency A and B (Figure 312). . the fuselage cross section of Figure 313 is made Four tangents forming a trapezoid enclose the cross up section.218] PROPERTIES OF PLANE FIGURES 267 'D Fi g . C-l' is equal to the parabola is tangent to line 2-2' at Similarly. one fourth of its l'-l. mid-point. tangent to 3-3' three fourths the distance from 3'. For example. 311 218.

If the scene were replaced by its perspective projection on the window. our two perspective projections on the window produce the same retinal images as the scene. the scene would yield a new projection on the window and a new retinal image which would differ from the first. If the projection were perfect. Certainly better methods than those developed The following discussion of stereoscopic drawing here are possible. If. however. Furthermore. or by the use of polarized light. State of the art is by no means both of theory and practice have not yet complete. the mind will interpret them as a single threedimensional image provided that each eye is limited to seeing only the projection intended for it. This may be accomplished by a number of means. notably with a stereoscope. Stereoscopic drawing defined is the process of drawing the two proper perspecand orienting them correctly with respect to each other Stereoscopic drawing tive projections 268 . since no existing textb9ok contains anything more than a mention of the possibility of making such drawings.APPENDIX III Stereoscopic Drawing 219. However. In normal binocular vision. Many problems been solved adequately. this eye were closed and the other eye opened. 221 . 220. the eye would be unable to detect any change. the projection would produce the same retinal image as the scene produced. the window may be considered as a picture plane and the eye as a station point. The problem of stereoscopic presentation thus becomes that of presenting the two proper perspective projections in such a manner that each eye sees only the projection intended for it. the differences between the two retinal images of the space scene are interpreted by the mind in terms of depth. it is felt that a chapter setting forth the present state of the art as practiced by the authors should be included in this volume. many practical aspects of the subject can be treated only sketchily. Since the observer being aware of only one image in three dimensions. Basic problem When a scene is viewed through a window by a single eye. by the anaglyphic process using red and green dies and filters.

of spheres each of which would produce the same projecthe same projection could be produced by non-spherical fact. the two projections placed as shown in Figure 315. A single perspective projection thus is shapes. 315 rays from the two eyes through the two projections of any point can meet only at one point in space. Stereoscopic image fixed A be any one second perspective projection viewed by the other eye might also of an infinite 'number of spheres. shape. and each viewed by the proper eye only. and so forth on the line EP from the eye through P. 222. 314 infinite tion. P". either concave or convex. can represent together only the one sphere 8. such as P. a stereoscopic image is fixed in size. might represent any one of the infinite number of points P'. . Thus.223] STEREOSCOPIC by one of the DRAWING 269 for viewing above means. not in size or shape. No other size. and location.> possible. Any point in this projection. The process differs from single in the added factor of maintaining the proper perspective projection relationship between the two views. number In fixed in direction only. since the two (LEFT EYE) (RIGHT EYE) Fig. shape/ or location i. 223. Limitations oF single perspective Consider the single perspective projection of a sphere (Figure 314). However. The projection as a whole might represent any one of an PICTURE PLANE Fig.

the An original object in space following terminology will be used.270 224. Pifn all joining always parallel to EtE R (Figure 316a). Thus. they perceive a stereoscopic image in space. The following facts appear: 1. Functions of projection pairs Consider an object point P in space (Figure 316). Consider the line Pifn as P is moved in space. 316 taken parallel to the line E^En. two station points E L and E R representing the position of the two eyes. that is. we will speak of an object or an object point which Properly viewing the projection pair yields an yields a projection pair. Terminology STEREOSCOPIC DRAWING [App. stereograph is a projection pair obtained image from an object and yielding an image which may or may not be congruent A to the object. to two station points yielding two projections on a picture plane. P yields the projection pair PL and PR. When the projection pair is viewed properly by the two eyes. or an image point. and a picture plane (c) FRONT VIEW M Fi s . 225. Ill In discussing the process of obtaining a stereoscopic image. projects These projections will be called a projection pair. the lines projection pairs in a stereograph must be parallel to each other is .

B' the stereoscopic image left projection is moved closer to the right A' L L are the point ER . Factors affecting image shape Consider an object line AB perpendicular to the picture plane. Its projections Fi S . treated in the same manner. will remain parallel to itself since its projection pairs. shorter. become the left is and become moved away from the right A' B' AB L L In both instances. If the sider the separation between the two projections to be altered. between the eyes. 317 . and the distance PrPn yield an image point farther from the eyes and vice versa (Figure 316c). pairs lie in the picture plane. the images of all superimposed projection picture plane. of the line AB will change in direction and also . conEL and . Now. image will increase 226. longer. which we assume always to be 2. parallel to the picture plane (Figure 3166). A L B L and the line A R B R When viewed with the eyes at the image AB is coincident with the object AB. If the point P is moved away from the station points. and which would pass through EL if extended (Figure 317). On the other hand. It will if Thus. conversely. direction. the depth of a point in a stereoscopic is a function of the separation between its projection pair. 3.226] STEREOSCOPIC line DRAWING shall 271 and to the horizontal. all projection pairs of equal separation yield images which lie in a single plane parallel to the In particular. A"B". Thus. A'B'\ if will change in direction the resultant image changes in direction and in length. If we pass a plane Q through P. end points always have the same separation of change in length and location but not in we have a projection pair which yields an image . every point in this plane will have a projection pair separated by a distance equal to PiJP/?. the image of a projection pair of a horizontal line parallel to the picture plane.

shape. Actually. It can similarly be shown that size. this cannot be done with complete freedom because of problems of eyestrain. the image image becomes deeper and farther. they focus for the distance to the screen. the location. . a given projection pair may be shown at any size provided the proper viewing distance and separation for that size are used. shape. and location of a stereoscopic a function of the separation of the two projections.272 STEREOSCOPIC if DRAWING [App. while their convergence distance. Ill square (Figure 318). and we image changes case. Thus. The same phenomenon occurs if the projections are magnified or reduced (the projection pair of the CORRECT IMAGE SQUARE IMAGE INCREASED SEPARATION T-IMAGE L -IMAGE DECREASED SEPARATION ^ Fig. Locating the picture plane In normal vision. respectively. If the eyes move closer to the picture plane. If a picture plane is inserted parallel to the line between the station points and moved to remain parallel. theoretically. the two projections on the picture plane will remain exactly the same shape but will and separation. the eyes always focus and converge for the same In viewing a stereograph. the image becomes shallower and nearer. image 228. and location are functions of the viewing distance. it is is in size. size. the eyes replace the station points and view the projections obtained on the picture plane at any position it may have assumed. and alter the separation between the pair. Relation of picture plane to projection pair Assume any object in space and two station points fixed in position with respect to it. Though this is a simplified always true that the shape. or to infinity if a lens stereoscope is used. 318 in its relative same point being superimposed). 227. the resultant alter in size If will coincide with the object. if they move farther away. the image increasing or decreasing depth to width and height as it is magnified or reduced.

This leads to the most satisfactory results and should be approached where possible. the same image remembering that reasonable changes in magnification still may yield if the separation and viewing distance are altered properly. Thus. in the plane of the screen. As we bring the picture plane to the front of the distance the picture plane to the rear of the the convergence distance becomes shorter than the focal distance. The final size or sizes of the stereograph. to inability to fuse the two projections. However. if carried far enough. we shall assume that we are attempting to obtain a properly shaped and located image. if projection onto a screen is contemplated. In developing the theory of stereoscopic drawing. If the final stereograph is of a form in which the separation cannot be altered to adjust to the magnification this is true of the vectograph the distortions introduced will be acceptable within the above limits and for viewing distances commensurate with any room in which such a screen is generally used. 230. one for a stereoscope and slide. whose projection pair is to be superimposed in viewing. 229. Drawings for a 6-foot screen viewed frpm 12 feet can be handled on screens from 4 to 8 feet. we mean the size on the screen. the focal distance vergence distance. By this size of the actual projection to is meant the be viewed. in the discussion that follows. Unless a lens stereoscope is used. This difference in is held to a minimum if we place the picture plane through the center of the object. a drawing to be made or to be viewed in a stereoscope cannot into a 6-inch vectographic print in general be successfully projected. we establish: 1. In actual practice.230] STEREOSCOPIC DRAWING 273 This is not a natural condition. Thus. in making a stereoscopic drawing. Viewing conditions established Before starting a stereoscopic drawing. varies over the depth of the image. object. and as becomes increasingly shorter than the con- we move The standard practice in stereoscopic photography is to place the front point of the object. generally the fore point. not on the lantern If more than one size is contemplated. and consequently of the image. considerable latitude is permissible. object. we will fix the relation of our image to the screen at the outset by establishing a point in the object. . Both of these lead to eyestrain and. we choose in advance the on the screen upon which it is to be projected and the distance at which we desire to view it. Image size and viewing distance size of the final stereograph either in a stereoscope or Thus. eyestrain increases as the difference in distance between focus and convergence increases.

For instance. the plane in the resultant image which we wish to coincide with the screen or the stereograph. as understood in ordinary perspective. Location of horizon In viewing stereographs. All points behind this will have their projections separated positively and will appear behind the screen. we lay out the viewing distance perpendicular to the picture plane on a line through the center of the object. station point without any other change. usually to coincide with the plane of superposition. particularly in stereoscopes. Consequently the drawing interocular.274 STEREOSCOPIC DRAWING [A PP . Problems of accuracy. that is. any introduce annoying distortions. The desired viewing distance. 2. scope 231. is used. this size may be reduced as requirements of accuracy are not as great. The distance between the human eyes. Thus. or distance between station points in our original drawing. dictate that all stereoscopic drawings should be made so that the original projections on the drawing board are from 12 to 24 inches wide. For viewing in small stereoscopes. the line of sight to the center of the image is almost invariably substantially perpendicular to the picture plane. We construct a plan and elevation at the chosen size and with a chosen orientation. placing the picture plane where convenient. if we desire a perspective of a house. to be discussed later. always should be located through the vertical center of the object. picture plane. this should be two 3. 232. In general. Next. All points in front of the plane of superposition will have their projections crossed over and will appear in front of the screen in the final image. HI one for a screen. The plane of the points whose projections are to be superimposed. When a lens stereoto three times the final width of the stereograph. must be 2 inches times the scale so that when the stereograph becomes its final size. In making a stereograph. this practice should . this can be taken care of by the use of an additional See Article 242. our horizon. is fixed by nature and averages about 2 inches. the interocular will become 2 inches. looking from slightly above. Because of the increased reality of stereographic images. The ratio of the size of the drawing to the final size of the stereograph is the scale of the drawing. The drawing interocular is then laid out parallel to the one-half on each side of the center line. it should be the focal length of the stereoscope. called the interocular. the normal single perspective practice is to raise the horizon above the house so that the resultant perspective should be viewed departure from this may at an angle to its plane. Drawing size We are now ready to decide on a size for the original drawing.

The near 234. Example us consider an example. inserting an arrow to indicate the desired direction of sight. We wish to view this from 30 We wish to the right of the front and from 30 above the horizontal. substantially. to construct the stereographs for a 6-foot screen To clarify the above discussion. Insert the picture plane through the front side view for projection. means that our plan and elevation are not the normal ones but.$234 STEREOSCOPIC DRAWING 275 be avoided. We are going to construct the house having a width of 18 inches on the drawing board. in general. This. corner perpendicular to the arrow. Obtain a top view looking parallel to the picture plane. ^-PICTURE PLANE ELEVATION Fig. auxiliary views parallel to our picture plane. let point of the house is to be in the plane of the screen. Next obtain an This is the required auxiliary view showing the arrow in true length. 319 . Necessary orthographic views Construct the normal front and top views (Figure 319). 233. viewed from 12 feet. We have the plan and elevation of a house.

5 inches X and a X TOP VIEW 22" SIDE VIEW SCREEN VIEWING W. * 6 FT.3 or J inch. . the screen width. Thus. in 235.3 is our scale.3 or 43. two points f inch apart centered on station points. 03 2. Determining scale Orient these two views on the drawing board (Figure 320).276 STEREOSCOPIC DRAWING [Ap P .50x3 Fig. This inches is 0. 12 FT DLST. from the picture plane. 236. width 0. This point in the elevation represents both In the plan view. drawing interocular of 2. Obtaining first perspective to develop the perspective We are now ready from one of these station points EL .3 of 6 feet. 0.2 inches establishes a viewing distance of 144 inches 0. mark points 43. The 22 of the house taken parallel to the picture plane is 22 inches. 320 Draw lines through the center of the object in the two views perpen- dicular to the picture plane. this point are the two station points E L and Eg. On these lines.2 inches.

Where easily available. Obtain the lateral positions of the points by projection onto the picture plane in the top view and the elevations by projecting in the side view. and pair the points. they should be used in obtaining the first view. if an error is made in If an error the separation of the projection pair of any point. and so forth. X Flp. errors in depth will be reduced to a minimum. If. and so forth. the second perspective is developed from the first by direct measurement of the proper separation of projection pairs. The two strips thus may be oriented at right angles to each other and the points paired.8 inch. P each projection pair at the picture plane. a large depth error In the example with which we are working. However. This is the curve of separation. Figure 320 illustrates one simple method of obtaining the perspective. Set these distances off from their parallel to the picture plane obtaining 1-1'. vanishing points tend to become inaccessible. IP . and divide the line over the depth of the object X. 3'. it is inadIt is not visable to obtain the second perspective in the same way. We have seen that every point at the same depth has the same separation of its We can determine the proper separation for various projection pair. possible second perspective Whatever method is used to obtain the for Method of any given amount is made in both perspectives in the same the error in the image will not be a depth error and will be of the direction.005 inch. It is convenient to label all points and project them on a strip of paper in both views. Figure 321 illustrates the method of obtaining a curve of separation. at the size at which we are working. to draw a line to much closer on the average than 0. however. The separation . F2p. Project each division point to the into equal parts F.. Draw a line perpendicular to the picture plane through one station point EL in the top view. However. . 237. 1. to 1. Scale the separation of second station point yielding F.005 inch will result in a depth error of about 0. 0. many errors considerably larger than this will inevitably occur. first perspective. for point 2. . respective points on Fair a smooth curve through the points so obtained: 2-2'. Curve of separation This is best accomplished by means of a curve of separation. this distance . a ratio of 160 both perspectives are developed independently. 2'. 2 XY .. For point 1.238] STEREOSCOPIC DRAWING 277 Any method of perspective may be used. a separation error of results. We shall 'proceed here without their use. is XY Fl'. If 238. order of the error in the perspective. Rotate the elevations through 90. depths by projecting points at these depths to both station points. and so forth.

along This It will be noted that by this method no large depth error. particularly no reversal in depth between two points. taken parallel to the picture plane. first perspective. draw a line to away from the curve of separation at a distance somewhat greater than the full width of the first perspective. .278 STEREOSCOPIC DRAWING [App. 321 points on the top view. that is. between ST and compass the curve of separation. Set these off the lines from the corresponding points in the determines the second perspective. For point C. distance. can occur so long as the curve of separation is smoothly faired and the measurements are carefully made. The segment of this line through each point between ST and the curve of separation now becomes the distance between the projection pair of this point. Through XY [ARBITRARY CONSTANT I TO PREVENT OVERLAP t- Fig. draw lines parallel to the Measure very accurately with a beam picture plane (Figure 322). this is C'C". ST parallel In order that the two projections shall not overlap. the distance between projection pairs. small substantially a straight line. Developing second perspective Through points on the first perspective. I of the projection pair of any point will be the. 239. draw lines parallel to the picture plane. Except for very deep objects or for objects which XY extend considerably forward from the plane of superposition. the curve If it is drawn as a straight line. between and the curve of separation at the depth of the point. errors in depth will occur in the image which will in general not be is detectable.

In our example. Considerable practice the ability to correct a stereoscopic pair visually. upper corner of the house. the forward . and must be done with extreme care. Correcting errors We have now completed of any errors which may have our projection pair except for the correction occurred. is necessary to acquire 241. The following should be observed: Superposition of the proper point. Points that appear too deep may be brought forward by reducing the distance between their projection pairs until they appear correctly. Registration The tion. the relative depths of points with respect to each other will not be altered. Noticeable errors may be corrected by direct observation of the stereoscopic image. 1.241] STEREOSCOPIC DRAWING XL. projections now may be prepared in the desired form for projecCareful registry is necessary. 322 240. This may be done best under a mirror stereoscope large enough to handle the two original projections. 279 Fig. Such corrections involve very small shifts of lines and points. Though the image as a whole will be distorted.

Sources of error Many drawing all sources of error are due to the fact that in a stereoscopic the shading. 3 ft. 2J- inches. in. the following conditions existed: Drawing Size Viewing Distance Interocular 22 43 2 75 . . If the 3. 2 5 in. in. ft. Final 6 ft. E LER ER E' R It Viewing Distance 12 6 ft.25 ~ 2M 9 - Since our drawing sizes are already determined.o ~ ^ ns1 . while the bottom will recede. A may cause a bad leaning effect. the top of the image o rotation of 2 or 3 come forward. Multiple sizes If it is desired to have more than one size of stereograph. R Suppose we now introduce a third station point E' such that We now have three scales : E LER is w * &i v *" ' 75 (T i? * ==: ~^ Q f\ == U. . The pair must be vertically oriented with respect to each other. The only fixed factor is the human interocular of 2^ inches. Errors due to faulty vertical registry are discussed in Article 246. ft. 12 ft. 243. but the ratio between the two must remain 1 to 2. 2 ft. this can be accomplished by the introduction of one more station point leading to a second curve of separation and a third projection. We thus have three possible stereoscopic pairs for the following conditions: Pair Final Size 6 ft. HI 2. 4 can be seen readily that the third station point may be located to yield any desired final size or any desired viewing distance. 242. The pair must not be rotated with respect to each other. Three station points will yield three pairs which will fulfill most requirements. in. the two new scales determine our new final conditions. will tops are rotated inward and the bottoms outward. color.280 STEREOSCOPIC DRAWING [A PP . and minute details of normal vision . V P" ExE* L5 2M OR6 ' ' ELE _2. In our example. It is usually advisable to choose the three station points to yield one pair for projection and one pair for hand-held vectographs or small stereoscopes.

Horizontal lines Note that the depth error for any given drafting error is minimum for vertical lines and approaches infinity as the line approaches the horizontal. A R Assume an error of A perpendicular to the line in locating with point one view of the line. to everyday vision. -PROPER POSITION -ACTUAL POSITION DR Fi g . Therefore. The line. considerably less at the ends.245] STEREOSCOPIC DRAWING 281 are lacking. the eyes now will assume point AL to be paired with B' The error in horizontal separation is therefore R A R B' or A cosec a. the . B . the eye lacks a continuous field of discreet points which automatically are paired properly by the brain so that The following errors are the perfect fusion and interpretation result. a perfectly smooth horizontal line lies at an indeterminate depth as the two eyes have no information concerning the proper points to phenomenon common This pair except at the ends of the line. 245. the line will appear deeper along its length than at its ends. In fact. they scan error is. Where . C and D. instant can see sharply only a very small segment of the line. 323 This error will be present except at the ends of the line. . Since the eyes at any thus. As they do this. If the lines are perfectly smooth. Drafting error Consider the projection pair of any random frontal line inclined at an Point A L should be paired angle a with the horizontal (Figure 323). the tendency of the eyes is to It is. advisable in orienting objects for stereoscopic drawings to avoid horizontal lines and lines approaching the horizontal as much as possible. and the error in depth will be many times this amount. is a well-known binocular When a horizontal line is present. where the eyes are forced to adjust for the vertical error and to fuse CL with C' R . therefore. 244. most important ones generally encountered. place it at -the same depth as any line it may cross. This effect can partly be overcome by putting discrete points on the line which the eyes will be forced to pair properly.

282

STEREOSCOPIC

DRAWING

[App.

ill

7

(A)

/

POORLY ORIENTED

\

(B)

PROPERLY ORIENTED

Fig.

324

not possible, short lines are preferable to long ones. Discrete points may be added where necessary. The drawing shown in Figure 324 should be oriented as in (b) rather than as in (a).

this

is

246. Vertical

errors

Even though a stereoscopic pair is perfectly drawn, a vertical error in the registration of the two projections will introduce errors in image

shape. In the case of inclined lines, this error is exactly similar to that introduced by a drafting error when drawing a line. In Figure 325, a

POSITION

POSITION

Fig.

325

vertical error of A yields a separation error tion of the line to the horizontal.

A

cot a where a

is

the inclina-

surfaces.

This error becomes particularly annoying when dealing with curved The two halves of the projection pair of a circle are ellipses In the circle shown, A is the near point and B the far point. 326). (Figure

As the eye scans from A through C or D to jB, the separation continuously

247]

r

STEREOSCOPIC

PROPER POSITION

DRAWING

283

-ACTUAL POSITION

Fig.

326

increases, increases.

and the depth

of

the image, consequently, continuously

A' B' L L Suppose the left projection were slightly lowered. Points the separaNote that R C' and D' will now fuse with A' B' C' and DR R R L L tion for C and D has decreased to bring the images of C and D forward while that of A and B has increased putting the images of A and B back. Thus, the entire circle becomes distorted; portions may become even in a completely reversed in depth. This may be observed quite easily stereoscope by drawing such a circle and moving one projection slowly up and down. The phenomenon can be controlled best by accurate registry

,

,

.

,

,

,

,

and by introducing as many discrete points as possible, forcing the eyes It will to adjust for the vertical error throughout the entire figure. be noted that in such a circle, a portion must be inevitably very closely horizontal and, thus, very difficult to control in depth.

247. Edge view planes

line segment plane in a stereoscopic drawing should intersect the the station points. If the drawing is of a transparent object, between

No

*L

L

"\

/

BR

LEFT

PROJECTION

Fig.

RIGHT PROJECTION

Fig.

327a

327b

284

STEREOSCOPIC

DRAWING

[A PP

.

Ill

one side of the plane will be visible to one eye and the other side to the other (Figure 327a). The order of vertical lines in the projection pair (Figure 3276), is now reversed. "This leads to confusion in

interpretation as the eyes, in the absence of the'minutia of color and This is, of course, shading, do not know which projections to pair. a condition possible to create in normal binocular vision where it leads

to the

If

same confusion.

the object

is

in the plane

may

opaque, details be visible to one

LEFT PROJECTION

Fig.

RIGHT

eye and not to the other. For instance, Figure 328 shows a projection pair of a house in which the plane of one side intersects the line

PROJECTION

segment between station points.

328

The window

in this plane

is

visible

only to the left eye. It, therefore, has no fixed depth and will float in space. In fact, individuals with a master right eye may fail to see it entirely.

**248. Apparent intersections
**

for crossing lines to appear as actually intersecting in not eliminated fully by the avoidance of horizontal lines. This is particularly true if the drawings are inked drawings in which the lines The fusion of the ink at the point necessarily must have some width.

The tendency

is

space

of

apparent intersection eliminates the edges of the forward

line.

Such

IMPROPER

Fig.

PROPER

329

edges always exist in space vision. Thus, if the eyes concentrate their attention at this point, the true separation of the lines is likely to be lost.

stereograph.

Figure 329a represents a magnified intersection of lines as inked on a Suppose L is the forward line in space. Its edges, AB and CD, would be visible in space, but they do not appear on the stereoSmall as this fault appears, it causes a very annoying confusion graph.

}

249]

STEREOSCOPIC

DRAWING

if

285

lines

i

in viewing the stereograph, particularly horizontal.

one of the

approaches the

This confusion can be eliminated best by using a razor blade to make breaks in L%, the rear line where it passes behind LI, as shown in Figure 3296. Every intersection which is not a true intersection in space

should be treated in this manner on the finished stereograph.

**249. Curved surfaces
**

In dealing with plane surfaces, if two or more lines are shown in any plane, the psychological tendency is to read the plane into the picture. Thus, in Figure 330, only three lines are shown in each face of the pyramid,

yet the mind interprets them as being plane faces, not as merely triangles

of wire.

On

a curved surface without shading, the mind does not readily

Fig.

331

286

STEREOSCOPIC

DRAWING

[App.

II

Thus, the sphere interpolate the proper surfaces into the empty spaces. in Figure 331 would not be interpreted as a sphere but as two circular loops of wire with open spaces between. Consequently, in the

shown

**absence of shading, enough lines must be shown to permit the mind to
**

in the intervening surfaces. Closed surfaces of uniform curvature, either single or double, such as cylinders or spheres, should be drawn with a minimum of four properly

fill

Figure 332 contains six loops. of changing curvature, the number of lines required the complexity of the surface. depends upon

chosen loops.

With surfaces

Fig.

332

250. Visibility

a stereoscopic drawing is that simple be treated as though they were transparent. geometrical figures may In such a case the problem of visibility docs not arise. The invisible lines on an opaque object can be shown only by some

of the great values of

One

The usual method of using short dashes is not arbitrary convention. satisfactory because the illusion of reality in a stereoscopic image makes such lines look like a series of unattached wires. Furthermore, such

laborious process.

dashes must be shown by projection pairs properly coordinated, a very It is possible to show lines in back of surfaces by the

use of distinctly different line weights, but this makes the object transIt is best either to treat the object as entirely transparent or t'o parent.

treat

it

as

opaque and omit hidden

lines entirely.

251. Lettering

all

The simplest method of lettering a stereoscopic drawing is to make the lettering frontal. If this is done, the two halves of the projection

252]

STEREOSCOPIC

DRAWING

287

and a lettering machine or printed letters used, the pair being given the proper separation to locate the image at the desired depth. The most convenient and simplest procedure is to make all the

pair of each letter are identical,

may be

**lettering in one plane,
**

tion.

on a transparent acetate overlay, over one projec-

When the pair is photographed, the same overlay may be registered

over both views with a separation to place it in any desired plane. Where a letter refers to a point back in the image, arrows may be drawn from the position the letter will occupy in the drawing when the overlay The projection pair of is registered, to the projection pair of the point.

the arrow then automatically produces an image from the letter in the frontal plane to the image of the point. This procedure not only greatly reduces the work of lettering but insures better registry.

It is possible, though extremely tedious, to place letters on the surfaces In this case, the letters become part of the object and of the object.

**must be projected and drawn by the same method and with the same care
**

that the projection pair of the object

is

drawn.

252. Shrinkage

One of the chief difficulties in obtaining an accurate drawing is due Unless to the shrinkage of the paper on which the drawing is- made. both projections are made at the same time under similar atmospheric

conditions, a difference in size is very likely to result. serious depth and vertical errors.

This leads to

takes

Since a stereoscopic drawing consisting of even a few lines usually many hours to draw, the possibility of completing the pair under

It is thus advisable to use a exactly similar conditions is not great. material of very low shrinkage or one of uniform shrinkage with the

projection pair on the same piece. Frosted cellulose acetate has been found very satisfactory for this Ordinary drawing or tracing papers almost invariably cause purpose.

difficulties.

Since minor corrections under a mirror stereoscope are nearly always necessary for first-rate work, it is also desirable to draw lines in such a way that they may be erased and shifted easily. The best practice for

purpose is to use black scotch tape instead of ink for the lines. Such may be cut to any desired width, and it may be laid very rapidly on cellulose acetate. It can be removed instantly without leaving any trace and without effecting the sticking quality of the tape. Thus, a black scotch tape line may be shifted with great ease and rapidity, whereas an ink line requires much time and trouble.

this

tape

Thus, if the original drawings are made in pencil on acetate and the lines finally covered with tape, they may be corrected with a minimum effort.

.

APPENDIX IV Natural Trigonometric Functions to Four Places .

.290 NATURAL TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS [A PP IV .

NATURAL TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 291 .

292

NATURAL TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

[A PP IV

.

NATURAL TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

293

294

NATURAL TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

[A PP IV

.

APPENDIX

= Twice

V

Table of Chords

The Tabulated

Quantities

the Sine of Half the Arc

295

296

The Tabulated

TABLE OF CHORDS

Quantities

[A PP .V

=

Twice the Sine of Half the Arc

Index

Circle of the gorge, 150 Circles in isometric, 202 Civil time, 239

Analysis, 70 Angle between:

Cone:

definitions of, 115

and plane, 87, 89 line and projection plane, 53 oblique and projection planes, planes from traces, 89 two lines, 79, 84, 186 two planes, 85, 188

line

development

88, 94

of,

132

intersection of two, 127 intersection with cylinder, 126

**Angles, precision in drawing, 254 Applications, practical, 220 Auxiliary views: examples of, 15 method of, 14 orientation of, 17 series of, 15
**

visualizing, 17

**plane tangent to, 118 warped, 160 Cone director, 147 Conic lofting, 244 Conies, 259
**

construction of: by Brianchon's point, 266 by Pascal's lines, 264

degenerate, 260

directrices of,

259

Axes:

isometric, 197 principal, 4

**259 line, 266 point, 266
**

foci of,

Axis:

of curved surface, 114 of homology, 257

properties of, 260 Conjugate diameters of conic, 261

Conoid, 158

of prism, 101 of pyramid, 101

Contour

line,

170

Azimuth, 238

B

Base:

of cone, 115 of prism, 101

**Convolute, 154 Coordinates, cartesian, 175 Cosines, direction, 180 Cow s horn, 159
**

;

**Curve of separation, 277 Curved surfaces in stereoscopic drawing,
**

285

Cylinder:

definitions of, 115

Bearing:

of line, 94 of star, 238

development

intersection intersection intersection intersection

of,

133

Breeching, 229 Brianchon's theorem, 266

of two, 126, 128 with cone, 126

C

Cabinet projection, 211 Cartesian coordinates, 175 Cavalier projection, 210

Celestial horizon, 238 Celestial sphere, 238

with sphere, 129 with torus, 130 plane tangent to, 118 shadow of, 217 Cylindroid, 159

D

Desargue's theorem, 257 Descriptive geometry, definition

of, 1

Center of projection, 204 Chords, table of, 295 Circle, 259

Development:

approximate, 135

297

170 Hour circle. 7 Horizontal lines in stereoscopic drawing. 182 line and polyhedron. 107 of cone. 252 Hip Hip rafter. 259 Force polygon. 8 Fundamental problems. 243 . 233 Diameter parallel line. 101 line and projection plane. 233 Dimetric drawing. 259 End view of line. 242 of time. 197 Dip of plane. 92 Double curved surface. 238 stereoscopic. 180 of straight line. 179. 243 Isochors. 269 Interocular. 119 plane and curved surface. 135 of helix. 180 of three variables. 147. 180 two skew lines. 123 plane and warped surface. 240 Edge view of plane. stereoscopic. 154 Helicoid. 274 Intersection of: curved surfaces. 8. 261 development Hexagon. 114 Ellipse. 162 Errors. 239 Image. 233 Foci of conic sections. 32 G Great circle course. 132 of cylinder. 263 of. 120 plane and surface of revolution. 34 Engine mount. 274 Horizontal line. 45. 47. 182 line and surface. 238 5.298 Development (cont. 184. 44. 50 pyramid and prism. 259 of warped surface. 187 Directrices: of cone. 150 of. : 221 220 Horizon celestial. 131 Face angles of spherical triangle. 1 1 5 of conic sections. stereoscopic. 130 Intersections in stereoscopic drawing. 259 Hyperbolic paraboloid. 7 two planes. 45. 172 plane and polyhedron. 284 Isobar. 180 of line perpendicular to plane. definition Hyperbola. 230 of uptake. 133 of frustrum of a cone. 94 Direction components. 178. 283 Element: of general warped surface. 107 definition of. 132 of convolute. 224 Equation: of plane. 237 H Helical convolute. 148 planes from traces. 172 plane and cylinder. 160 of surface. 50. 90 point and plane. applications of. 149 Hyperboloid. 121 plane and ground. 156 INDEX Frontal view. 188 two points. roof. 279 and plane. 287 Horizontal projection. 125 cylinder and general surface. of curved surfaces. 151.}\ by triangulation. 153 Helix. 101 plane and ruled surface. 152 Dihedral angle of spherical triangle. 187 of point. 186 two surfaces of revolution. 165 line arid cone. 168 Distance between: point and line. 171. 114 E Earthwork. 120 line and general surface. 158 233 of transition section. 226 Frontal line. 152 of spherical triangle. 41 Edge view planes in stereoscopic drawing. 110 line surfaces tangent to sphere. 109 of conic.

169 isometric. 168 normal and end view of of. 201 Isometric circles. 179 in horizontal projection. 52 plane to a line. 94 direction components of. 101 irregular. 81 Prism: definition of. 178. 236 M Mercator chart. 194 of position. 147. maximum inclination. 37 Point: in cartesian coordinates. 94 definition. 116 in warped surface. 116 Metrical properties of plane : of. line. 184 through twc points. 206 bearing and slope contour. 243 Parabola. 7 Local apparent time. 17 Origin of coordinates. 215 through two intersecting to assume a point in. 41 equation of. 197 parallel to line. 17 stereoscopic drawings. 83 . 181 types of. 198 by direct measurement. 253 by by rotation. 101 regular. 101 Normal view. 223 Lettering: of views. 208 Oblique view of object. 239 figures. 201 by revolved view. 215 Polyhedrons: intersection with line. 41 Precision in drawing. 34 of plane. 202 Isometric scale. 198 Isothermal line. 4 Orientation of views. 38 shadow Loxodromic curve. 33 parallel to plane. strike and dip of. 203 Pictorial drawing: by auxiliary projection. 53 Perspective: one-point. 206 two-point. 104 intersection with plane. 176. 264 Perpendicular: definitions of. 180 in plane. 177 Longitude. 40 lines. K)4 38 37 242 edge and normal view definition of. 193 by direct measurement. in a plane. 240 parallel to given line. 259 Parabolic envelope. of. 40 principal lines of. 217 three-point. 238 Loci. properties of. 256 in horizontal projection. 208 Jack rafter. 197 299 O Oblique projection. 286 Line: shadow. 40 in surface. 40 precision in drawing. 116 plane. 237 Meridian circle. 253 principal. 34 39 Perspective projection. 71. 202 Isometric drawing. 193 by revolved Plane: view. 51 line to a plane. 170 of. position of. 32 of. 180 in cartesian coordinates. 101 triangulation. 175 by auxiliary projection. 35 Observer. 148 on figures.INDEX Isometric box. 7 of line. 199 Isometric. 115 of. inverted. 239 Local hour angle. 256 representation 3 shadow N Nappes. 267 Pascal's theorem. director.

211 cavalier. 1 225 Station point. 94 celestial. 147 bcale. 233 Statics. 232 definition of. 270 plane tangent to. plotting of. 2. 81 principle of. Right section of a 105 assuming point on. 119 Spherical triangle: definition of. Stereoscopic image shape. 270 Stereoscopic drawing. 1 H. 232 solutions of. . 217 of cylinder. 7 Profile plane. 255 in stereoscopic drawings. 215 surface. 10 R Reference line. 2?3 Projection: cabinet.): end view of. 118 152 plane to cone.): of plane. 110 Stereograph. definition of. V. 208 development 135 orthographic. 261 Rhumb line. 217 Tangent: definitions of. 119 line to helix. definition of.300 Prism (con/. 114 singly ruled. 6 Protective properties of plane figures. 118 plane to helicoid. 279 sources of. 110 intersection with sphere. 270 Projection planes. 101 intersection with prism. 18 Profile line. effect on precision. I Slope of Sphere: line. and P. 214 Shadows. 280 Q Quadrants. 270 Stereoscopic viewing conditions. Steel frameworks. 132 double curved. 148 warped. 153 Shade line. 287 Single curved surface. 114 Skew bridge. 268 multiple sizes of. 238 of. 148 Roadway. 271 Stereoscopic terminology. 204. principal. 114 in horizontal projection. 215 of point. functions of. 244 3 Strike of plane. 254 Screw surface. 170 representation of. 2 intersection with cylinder. 116 horizontal. 214 in perspective. 5 Projection pair: 1. 116 definitions of. 223 Pyramid: definition of. 280 Stereoscopic errors: correcting of. 279 Supplementary chords of a Surface: conic. 162 doubly ruled. 168 oblique. 101 Problems. 214 Shadow: cast. 273 Streamline surface. 80 Ruled surface. 172 Profile view. 154 plane to sphere. 129 intersection with prism. 130 metrical problems on. 114 of. 210 definition of. 6 INUtX Shadow (cant. 236 solid. 256 Projector. 104 intersection with pyramid. 240 Rotation: development normal view by. 94 Registration oi stereoscopic pairs. 5 Profiles. 214 Sheet-metal structures. 79 true length by. 130 right section of. 79. definition of. 228 Shrinkages: effect on precision. 105 Prismoid. 83 of point. definitions of.

81 Trigonometric functions. 147 general. 240 Trimetric drawing. 225 Vertical line. 230 Wood locating point in. 80 : Vanishing points. 107 normal view by. 13 orientation of. 238 spherical. 148. 232 terrestrial. method 6 Warped Warped cone. 5. 150 Uptakes.): 301 plane to warped surface. 236 Tetrahedron. 148 structures. 34. 238 . 161 to any plane curve. 289 Trihedral angle. 130 Trace: of line. 14 Torus. 17 obtaining additional. 12 auxiliary. 286 of.INDEX Tangent (cont. 230 Triangle astronomical. 7 Views: arrangement of. 160 surfaces. 9 Visualization. 14 lettering of. 48 Transition piece. of 'solid. 124 intersection with cylinder. 220 Zenith. 261 Terrestrial triangle. 214 Unparted hyperboloid. 14 Visibility: in stereoscopic drawing. 78 visibility of. 12 principal. 236 Triangulation: development by. 7. 5 series of. 204 Vectors. 232. 46 of plane. 78 by rotation. 160 U Umbra. 161 to conic. 197 True-length view. 15 three-view system. 9 Three-view system.

Microunde sem 1

Curs MEE

CID Bibliografie

descriptive geome

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prezente tci anul 2

colegi

Mee2

MEE

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MPE

citirea-biblie-intr-un-an5

regim disociat

Revista franceza

Youpi

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Scufita rosie

Mary Poppins

08 - Inductoare

07 - Condensatore

06 - Rezistoare

Condensatoare

Magnetita Si Elemente Galvanice

Fizica Seminar

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