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# SCHOOL OF COMPUTER SCIENCES UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA

## CPT111 Principles of Programming

Semester I, Academic Session 2011/2012 Chapter 2 Programming Exercises

1.

(Computing the volume of a cylinder) Write a program that reads in the radius and length of a cylinder and computes volume using the following formulas: area = radius * radius * volume = area * length Here is a sample run: Enter the radius and length of a cylinder: 5.5 12 The area is 95.0331 The volume is 1140.4

2.

(Converting Celsius to Fahrenheit) Write a program that reads a Celsius degree in double, converts it to Fahrenheit, and displays the result. The formula for the conversion is as follows: fahrenheit = (9 / 5) * celsius + 32 (Hint: In C++, 9 / 5 is 1, so you need to write 9.0 / 5 in the program to obtain the correct result.) Here is a sample run: Enter a degree in Celsius: 43 Fahrenheit degree is 109.4

3.

(Converting US Dollars to Euros) Write a program that reads an amount in US dollars, converts the amount entered to Euros, and displays the result, \$1.00 USD is equivalent, for this purpose, to 0.755 EUR. Here is a sample run: Enter an amount in US Dollars: 42.06 42.06 USD = 31.7553 EUR

4.

(Converting pounds into kilograms) Write a program that converts pounds into kilograms. The program prompts the user to enter a number in pounds, converts it to kilograms, and displays the result. One pound is 0.454 kilogram. Here is a sample run:

## Enter a number in pounds: 55.5 The kilograms is 25.197

5.

(Financial application: calculating sales tax) Write a program that accepts a subtotal and a sales tax rate and computes the sales tax and the total amount due. Prompt the user for the subtotal and the sales tax rate. Enter a subtotal: 43.19 Enter a sales tax rate percentage: 11 The sales tax is \$4.75 The total due is \$47.04

6.

(Summing the digits in an integer) Write a program that reads an integer between 0 and 1000 and adds all the digits in the integer. For example, if an integer is 932, the sum of all its digits is 14. (Hint: Use the % operator to extract digits, and use the / operator to remove the extracted digit. For instance, 932 % 10 = 2 and 932 / 10 = 93.) Here is a sample run: Enter a number between 0 and 1000: 999 The sum of the digits is 27

7.

(Finding the character of an ASCII code) Write a program that receives an ASCII code (an integer between 0 and 128) and displays its character. For example, if the user enters 97, the program displays character a. Here is a sample run: Enter an ASCII code: 69 The character is E

8.

(Converting an uppercase letter to lowercase) Write a program that prompts the user to enter an uppercase letter and converts it to a lowercase letter. (Hint: In the ASCII table, uppercase letters appear before lowercase letters. The offset between any uppercase letter and its corresponding lowercase letter is the same. So you can find a lowercase letter from its corresponding uppercase letter, as shown below.) int offset = 'a' 'A'; char lowercase = (char) (uppercase + offset); Here is a sample run: Enter an uppercase letter: T The lowercase letter is t

9.

(Financial application: monetary units) Rewrite Listing 2.10, ComputeChange.cpp, to fix the possible loss of accuracy when converting a double value to an int value. Enter the input as an integer whose last two digits represent the cents. For example, the input 1156 represents 11 dollars and 56 cents.

10. (Financial application: calculating interests) If you know the balance and annual percentage interest rate, you can compute the interest on the next monthly payment using the following formula: interest = balance x (annualInterestRate / 1200) Write a program that reads the balance and annual percentage interest rate in this order and displays the interest for the next month. Here is a sample run: Enter balance and interest rate (e.g., 3 for 3%: 1000 3.5 The interest is 2.91667

11. (Financial application: calculating the value of an annuity) Write a program that reads in the payment for each compounding period, the interest rate that would be compounded for each period of time, and the number of payment periods. The program then displays the future value of the annuity using the following formula: futureValue = payment numberOfPaymentPeriods * (1 + interestRate)numberOfPaymentPeriods 1 /

(Hint: Use the pow(a, b) function to compute a raised to the power of b.) Here is a sample run: Enter payment amount: 1000 Enter interest rate: 3.04 Enter number of payment periods: 48 Future value is: \$4130.72

12. (Financial application: compound value) Suppose you save \$100 each month into a savings account with annual interest rate 5%. So, the monthly interest rate is 0.05 / 12 = 0.00417. After the first month, t he value in the account becomes 100 * (1 + 0.00417) = 100.417 After the second month, the value in the account becomes (100 + 100.417) * (1 + 0.00417) = 201.252 After the third month, the value in the account becomes (100 + 201.252) * (1 + 0.00417) = 302.507 and so on. Write a program to display the account value after the sixth month.

13. (Health application: computing BMI) Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure of health on weight. It can be calculated by taking your weight in kilograms and dividing by the square of your height in meters. Write a program that prompts the user to enter a weight in pounds and height in inches and display the BMI. Note that one pound is 0.45359237 kilogram and one inch is 0.254 meter. Here is a sample run: Enter weight in pounds: 95.5 Enter height in inches: 50 BMI is 26.8573

14. (Science: calculating energy) Write a program that calculates the energy needed to heat water from an initial temperature to a final temperature. Your program should prompt the user to enter the water amount in kilograms and its initial and final temperatures. The formula to compute the energy is Q = M * (final temperature initial temperature) * 4184 where M is the weight of water in kilograms, temperatures are in degrees Celsius, and energy Q is measured in joules. Here is a sample run: Enter the amount of water in kilograms: 55.5 Enter the initial temperature: 3.5 Enter the final temperature: 10.5 The energy needed is 1.62548e+06

15. (Science: wind-chill temperature) How cold is it outside? We need to know more than the temperature alone. Other factors, including wind speed, relative humidity, and sunshine, play important roles in determining coldness outside. In 2001, the National Weather Service (NWS) implemented the new wind-chill temperature to measure the coldness using temperature and wind speed. The formula is twc = 35.74 + 0.6215ta 35.75v0.16 + 0.4275tav
0.16

where ta is the outside temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and v is the speed in miles per hour. twc is the wind-chill temperature. The formula cannot be used for wind speeds below 2 mph or temperature below 58F or above 41F. Write a program that prompts the user to enter a temperature between 58F and 41F and a wind speed greater than or equal to 2 and displays the wind-chill temperature. Use pow(a, b) to compute v0.16. Here is a sample run: Enter the temperature in Fahrenheit: 5.3 Enter the wind speed miles per hour: 6 The wind-chill index is 5.56707

16. (Printing a table) Write a program that displays the following table: a 1 2 b 2 3 pow(a, b) 1 8

3 4 5

4 5 6

81 1024 15625

17. (Geometry: distance of two points) Write a program that prompts the user to enter two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) and displays their distances. The formula for computing the distance is . Note that you can use pow(a, 0.5) to compute . Here is a sample run: Enter x1 and y1: 1.5 -3.4 Enter x2 and y2: 4 5 The distance of the two points is 8.764131445842194

18. (Geometry: area of a hexagon) Write a program that prompts the user to enter the side of a hexagon and displays its area. The formula for computing the area of a hexagon is Area = s2, where s is the length of a side and = 1.732. Here is a sample run: Enter the side: 5.5 The area of the hexagon is 78.5895

19. (Geometry: area of a triangle) Write a program that prompts the user to enter three points (x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3) of a triangle and displays its area. The formula for computing the area of a triangle is s = (side1 + side2 + side3)/2; area = Here is a sample run: Enter three points for a triangle: 1.5 -3.4 4.6 5 9.5 -3.4 The area of the triangle is 33.6

20. (Physics: acceleration) Average acceleration is defined as the change of velocity divided by the time taken to make the change, as shown in the following formula: a = Write a program that prompts the user to enter the starting velocity v0 in meters/second, ending velocity v1 in meters/second, and the time span t in seconds, and displays the average acceleration. Here is a sample run: Enter v0, v1, and t: 5.5 50.9 4.5 The average acceleration is 10.0889

21. (Physics: finding runway length) Given an airplane's acceleration a and take-off speed v, you can compute the minimum runway length needed for the airplane to take off using the following formula: length = Write a program that prompts the user to enter v in meters/second and acceleration a in meters/seconds2 and displays the minimum runway length. Here is a sample run: Enter v and a: 60 3.5 The minimum runway length for this airplane is 514.286