I

TAUNTON
'Horne'
NEW
IDEA BOOK
To Nellie nd Seb sian
Text © 2004 by joanne Bouknight
Illustrations (0 2004 b)' The Taunton Pre ss. Inc.
AII rights reserved.
The Taunton Press, Inc. 63 South Main Street, PO Box 5500, Newtown, CT 06470-5506
e-mail: t p@tauntoncom
New Kitchell Idea Baal? was originally published in hardcover
in 2004 by The Taunton Press, Inc.
EDITOR: Stefanie Ramp
j.\ L l-:El D I : ~ l l , ~ : [canner Lecndertse
'" I ERIOR Dbl';;-" Lori Wendin
Lwo: I; Cathy Cassidy
ILL! s TR \ Illl' : Christine Erikson
C(l\T R PH(HOGRAI'IlI-CIl'< Front cover, top row (left to right): © jason NlcConathy; © 2004 carolynbates.corn;
(D ca rolynbat cs.corn; Charles Miller <D The Taunton Press, lnc.; second row: © 2004 carolynbatcs.corn;
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© jason McConathy; © jason McCouathy: Back cover, top: © jason McConathy: bottom row (left to right):
© Rand}' O'Rourke; © 2004 carolynbates.com: © Alise O'Brien photography
Taunton Home® is a trademark of the Taunton Press, Inc.,
registered in the l'S Patent and Trademark Office.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Bouknight, joanne Kellar,
New kitchen idea book / joanne Bouknight.
p, em.
ISBN-13 978-1-56158-642-41 hardcover
ISBN-lO: 1-56158-642-0 hardcover
ISBN-l3: 978-1-56158-693-6 paperback
ISBN-lO 1-56158-693-5 paperback
1. Kitchens--Design and construction. I. Title.
TX653. B69 2004
0+j' .3--dc22
2003020534
Printed in the United States of America
10 9
The following manufacturers/names appearing in the New Kitchen Idea Baal? are trademarks: Mcdex">'
Acknow ledgments
T
he number of people who had a hand in this book would take up much more space than
allowed, so I'll have to amend my long list. My thanks again to Taunton Press, which con­
tinues to combine art and function in all its publications. When writing this book turned out to
be a pain in the neck (thanks to a pinched nerve), Carolyn Mandarano, Maria Taylor, and
Stefanie Ramp were especially generous with time and editorial direction, and Robyn Aitken was
gracious when time ran short. Thanks to the Fine Homebuilding eduor/photographer/line-house
zealots who each took time out to answer questions. Thanks, roo, to Amy Albert at Fine Cooking
for access to her great kitchen photos. Man)' designers, builders, craftspeople, and homeowners
are responsible for these kitchens (and I'm happy to say these are all real kitchens) . My great
thanks to all of you.
For advice, insight , and details, special thanks to Diane Morgan, Flo Braker, Anne Otterson,
Alan Bouknight of Azzarone Contracting Corp., Laura Kaehler and Joeb Moore of Kaehler Moore
Architects , David Lyon of Cooleen Horner Kitchens Bath Tile Stone, and Cynthia Canaday, Peter
Bent el , Paul Beut el , and Carol Bentel of Beruel + Beruel Architects. Man)' thanks to photogra­
phers Carolyn Bates, Jason McConathy, Brian Vanden Brink, and Durston Saylor.
On ce again, my patient and accommodating friends and family tolerated my schedul e for
months. Again-and again-my husband Neil not only filled in for me in so many ways but was
willing to discuss everything kitchen, from subfloors to Sub-Zeros. And finally, our sons Neilie
and Sebastian hav e been remarkably understanding and good-humored. By necessity. they are
learning to cook, starling with the basic food groups of qu esadillas and brownies. Thanks, guys.
Contents
Introduction · L
(hapten
Kitchen Desi gn:
From Looks to Layout 4
Set the Style • 6
Fitting the Kitchen into the House • 13
Configuring the Kitchen 16
Chapter 2
Cabinetry:
The Kitchen Workhorse · 2 2
Cabinet Anatomy 24
Finishing Cabinet Tops and Bottorns > 40
Materials and Finishes 45
Cabinet Accessories • 53
Chapter 3
Open Shelves and Pantri es - 60
Shelves 62
Pantries 71
Chapter 4
Countertopsand Sinks · 78
Countertops and Backspl ash es 80
The Kitchen Sink 109
Doors and Drawers 30
Chapter 5
From Ranges
to Refrigerators· 118
Locating Cooking Appliances 120
Range Options 126
Oven Options 129
Cooktop Options 133
Ventilation 138
Refrigerators 142
Chapter 6
Floors, Walls, and Cei lings ' 148
Choosing a Floor 150
Walls and Ceilings 165
Chapter 7
A Well -Lit Kitchen 168
Natural Light 170
Supplemental Lighting 174
Sources 186
(n ctlt'> • 187
Introduction
W
hen my mother-in-l aw, Doris
Azzarrone, was a girl in Flushing,
Queens, her father Louis built a house to
her mother's specifications . Tess was
adamant: Two kitchens were better than
on e. A formal kitchen was built on the
main living level while a canning kitchen
was built on the ground floor off th e herb
garden . This was the down-and-dirty
kitchen, with a big range, a refrigerat or,
tile countertops and backsplashes , and a
whit e-painted concrete floor with a dr ain
in the middle.
Tess also used the downstairs kitchen
for messy foods such as roasts , fish, and
long-cooking sauces. On Sunday after-
noons th e clinking of pot lids from down-
stai rs would indicate the arrival of future
son-in-law O'Neil Bouknight, taking a
peek at dinner. Tess approved of Neil
because he, too , came from the country-
sid e (she from Campagna, Italy, and he
from South Carolina) and because he
loved home cooking, unlike her four city-
born daughters (Doris included), who
turned up their noses at their mother's
delicious home-spun cooking, now vener-
at ed as ClI cina rll sti ca. "YOli don't know
what's good ," Tess would say.
How wonderful it would be to have a
wat erproof , siainproof space like that can-
ning kit ch en-on e that you could just
hose down after cooking. But many of us
don't work at home the way Tess did,
sewing, keeping house, and cooking.
When we do make meals, we want to be
surrounded by family or friends . And we
multitask-work on the computer, do
bill s, gr ad e pap ers, monitor homework.
Our ide al kitchen must be not only func-
tional like that canning kitchen, but beau-
tiful as well, like the upstairs kitchen.
It is possibl e to achieve that blend of
beauty and utility, as you'll see the
kitchens in this book. Design basics kick
off the book, with subsequent chapters
moving through each of the major ele-
ments of kitchens: cabinets, shelves and
pantri es, counterto ps and sinks, coo king
and cooling appliances , and lighting.
It's easy to spend days, wee ks, or
months, choosi ng surfaces-your
kitchen's fash ionable side-but also spend
time choosing the things that will make
your kit chen work. You love that slender
goosenec k faucet, but are you willing to
have ano ther hole cut in the countertop
(and mor e to clean around) for a separa te
sprayer? And what about hyperpract ical
issues, such as switchplates? If fixture
types are switched separately, for
instance-advisable for flexibl e Iight ing­
you may end up with a formidabl e row of
swi tches . Th is book will hel p you navi­
gate the proper balance of form and fun c­
tion with its hundreds of ph otos supple­
mented by nitty-gritty information col­
lected in drawings and side bars .
Another word of advi ce: Be watchful of
the latest thing. Any new, hot mat eri al
will have new, not-so-hot provider s and
inst allers. Do research, foll ow up recom­
mend ations , and don't be swaye d only by
the bottom line. Take fashi on for wh at it
is-fleeting. Choose what works for you,
whe the r it's an appliance or a finish . Your
cho ice of an un common countertop mat e­
rial may turn up in next year's "hot new
trends" kit chen magazine. Durability is
import ant, but you can repl ace a less­
durable countertop th ree times ove r for
the price of a counterto p that 's as tough
as nails. Keep in mind that most home
lenders suggest limiting a kitche n renova­
tion to 15 percent of the hom e's value. On
the other hand, it's your kit chen , and you
may be working in it for a lifetime.
Ideall y, you've hired a cont ractor you
tru st. If so , hover lightl y. Many contrac­
tor s woul d love their clients to travel to
Antarcti ca during co ns truc tion. Make
sure that you and your cont rac tor agree
about who is responsible for wh at.
Unde rstand that undergoing a kit chen
renovat ion can be an emotional roller
coaster, when every choice is frau ght with
wh at-ifs. every hitch seems like a calami­
ty, and every meal is fast food. But your
kit chen will be finished. When it's fin­
ishe d, stop second-guessing your deci­
sions. Live with your new kitch en befor e
declar ing that the col or of your granite
co unterto ps is an utter disast er. In a week
or two, cha nces are you' ll love it.
[lJl n "l u(lI OI1 3
Kitchen Design:
FroIn Looks
to Layout
C
onsidering how much time is spent in the kitchen, shouldn't it be the most gorgeous
room in the house, with the most sumptuous mat eri als , finishes, and fixtu res? Well ,
that 's becoming the case with modern kit chens. Man y of tod ay's showcase kitchens
boast fine cabine try that rivals the furniture in an English cas tle and flooring as intri cat e and
durable as that in an Itali an church. Even the everyday kitchen is evolving into a high-tech
and highly aesthetic space.
'vVe want our kit ch ens to work well and we also want th em to look goo d, but the beauty
of a kitchen depends on more than just the finishing touches . Consider th e bare bones of the
kit chen, and make a space that's bri ght , well proportioned, and , above all, co mforta ble and
easy to use.
If you are remodeling, the most bang for your buck will co me from co nnecting the
kit chen to th e rest of th e house, which better suits the modern lifestyl e. Thi s, along with
co nfiguri ng th e kit ch en to maximi ze ef ficiency, will ens ur e a space that provides both
pl easure and co nvenience.
A KITCHEN WITH SERIOUS APPLIANCES CAN BE EQUALLY as whimsical with a mix of beautifully designed materials.
This kitchen was loosely based on a circus theme, with harlequin tiles, charmed-snake pulls , and multiple colors.
It's a refined circus, with muted colors of similar value, and stainless steel is the metal finish of choice through­
out. Cabinets are stained or natural maple, cherry, beech, and English sycamore.
5
THISCEDAR-lOG HOUSE ON
THEOREGON COAST is fitted with
a small, modern kitchen. The
kitchen and built-ins are stream-
lined, with flush overlay cabinet
doors, recessed shelving, and
the refr igerator faced with the
paneling.
HERE'SA KITCHEN WITH TRADI-
TIONALDETAILS and a few unusual
twists on convention. Doors and
drawers are inset and paneled
and fitted with traditional butt
hinges, which require more preci-
sion to inst all than adjustable
hinges.
SET THE STYLE
All the parts of a kit ch en wo rk together to
create a look , so you will want to co ns ide r
carefully the design of cabinetry and hard-
ware , flooring, wa ll and ceiling s ur faces,
appliances, counter tops , and lighting.
Th e ki tchens you'll see here run the style
gamut, from sedate to hyper, co lonial to
contempor ar y. Kitchen s classified as tradi-
6 \ Kitchrn Design: f rom Looks to Layoul
tional incl ude co unt ry st yle, rusti c st yle,
Craftsma n s tyle-any s tyle that refle ct s the
past or our nost al gic view of th e past. Mold-
ings, hardware, and light fixt ures tend to
be detail ed or eve n orna te. Co ntemporary
kitch ens tend toward more s trea mline d s ur-
faces and hardwar e and flush joi ne ry, and
are often gloss ier t ha n t rad iti onal -st yle
kitchens, th ou gh that 's not a rule.
A KITCHEN DESIGNED FOR M AJOR
MEAL MAKI NG can be pretty, too.
The matching freezer and refriger­
ator mean business, and a warm­
ing oven anchors the big island .
Two sinks make it easy for two to
work. The window behind the sink
is set back, allowing space for a
mini greenhouse on the sill.
CABINETS LOOK TRADITIONAL
WITH THEIR MUTED BLUE-GREEN
COLOR, inset paneled doors and
drawers, and bases articulated
to look like furniture with legs.The
peninsula is paneled with tradi­
tional beadboard and the counter­
tops are slate. But stainless-steel
appliances-dishwasher drawers,
professional-style range, and
built-in refrigerator-keep up to
date, along with brushed-silver
pulls.
Of course , take a clos e look at most back of leaning heavily on the latest fash­
kitchens and you'll see that the y ar e actually ions is that a kitchen ca n look outdated
eclectic, with a mix of traditional detailing in 10 years- or less . Th e upside is that it's
and contemporar y layouts , lighting, or fin­ often easy to make a dramatic transforma­
ishes. Like clothing s tyles , th e lat est kitchen tion: Just changing hardware, paint colors,
styles ar e gene ra ted by designers and manu­ and accessories can add plenty of style to
facturers who'd like you to think that your a tir ed kitchen.
kitchen is hopel essly out of dat e. The draw-
KitchEn From Loofls to 1.ayout I7
A KITCHEN IN THE VEI N OF THE EUROPEAN FARMHOUSE KITCHEN has rich, rustic finishes . Tile floors, stone walls,
and a massive kitchen table are paired with a massive French range and ceiling-mounted pendants.
Traditional Kitchens
Traditional kitchen s have in commo n a
prevalen ce of natural mat erials and artic u-
lated det ails, as oppos ed to the high-tech
materi als and sleek det ailing commonl y
found in modern-style kit chens. A ge ne ric
traditional kitchen will have wood or SLOne
floors, natural or paint ed wood cabine ts,
and stone, tile, or wood countert ops-or a
synthe tic counterto p material that look s like
stone. Hinges may be exposed a nd moldings
may be elaborate.
If your heart is set on a parti cular historic
s tyle, study the det ails and colors found in
8 I Kitcllell Design: hom Loons to La)'Ollt
houses from that day. If you are leaning
toward a Craftsman-st yle kitchen, for exam-
pl e, you ma y want to go for exposed wood
beams, oak cabinets, and mo ss- gr een tiles.
Take it a step further and make those oak
cabinet s quartersawn with flat-panel doors
Pendant Cr aftsman-st yle light fixtures, oak
floor ing, built-ins , and burnish ed br ass
hardware in th e appropriate style will
complete the look of a Craftsman-period
kit ch en. Read up on hi storical st yles to
find ideas for det ails, col ors , fini sh es, and
sources for refurbished or reproduction
fitt ings , appli an ces , and cabinetry. A good
basic guide to kitchen and house styles is
included on the Kitch en.com Web sit e, the
Internet compan y of the kitchen and bath
indust ry (also see the Sources section on
p. 186).
Of course, it is possibl e to mix mod ern
elements with traditional details. In fact.
THIS SUNNY, COUNTRY-STYLE
KITCHEN IS THE ESSENCE of leisurely
life, with gathered curtains and
cabinet panels , scalloped wall­
cabinet rail, and built-in china
cabinet . Beadboard in panels, on
walls, and on the ceiling are clues
that this house is in the country­
beachsid e, in this case.
THIS ISN'T A TRADITIONAL
KITCHEN IN TERMS OF LAYOUT or
placement in a space, but the
cabinets are traditional, with inset
paneled doors, and the beadboard
is a time-honored wall surface in
century-old beach houses . Bead­
board was used as a wall finish in
unheated houses in lieu of plaster.
today's traditi on al-st yle kit ch en rarely for­
goes space-age appliances and accessori es for
stylistic pu rit y. The tri ck is to recr eat e the
atmosphere of your favorite styl e-cozy and
filled with home-baked pies, for ins tance­
without giving up on conveniences like
single-leve r fauc ets and con vection ovens.
Kitchell Design.· From Loolls to l.amul I9
IN THIS MODERN HOUSE IN
VENICE, CALIFORNIA, space flows
keeping the kitchen and dining
spaceopen to light and air from
a huge operable skylight above.
Joints between materials are
flush , the structure is often
exposed, and geometric shapes
are assembled asymmetrically,
all hallmarks of modern design.
THIS CONTE MPORARY KITCHEN
FITS NEATLY INTOTHECORNER of
a white great room, designated
by an island that's painted gray.
Corner cabinets are simply detailed
with flush-overlay frosted-glass
panels. A custom-made, white-
paneled steel plate is hung from
the ceiling to callout the edge of
the kitchen and to provide task
and ambient lighting.
Modern-style Kitchens
Th e hallmark of a mod ern-st yle kit ch en-
you can also call it a contemporary
kit ch en-is sleek detailing, and it's back in
fashi on agai n. It doesn't matt er if mat eri als
are wood, stone, tile, or the latest high-tech,
factory-made synthetic. What matters is
how the mat er ials are finished and how they
10 IKitchen Design: f l"Om Looks 10 Lay olH
are joined. Rather than using moldings to
cover joints , joints are left visible, ofte n with
a reveal (a narrow slot ) bet ween mat erials.
Modern styl e can require more meticulous
craftsmans hip, as it's harder to make two
mat er ials fl ush than to cover thei r edges
with a molding.
Eclectic Kitchens
If you want to get techni cal about it, most
of us have ecl ect ic kitchens: We mix styl es
without being bothered by co nvention. Your
kitchen may incorporate both wood counter­
tops and stainless-steel backsplashes, but
you consider your kitchen traditional. Or
you don't think twi ce about using recessed
downlights in a Craftsman-s tyle bungalow
kit ch en . Strictly spea king, we use the term
"ecl ecti c" to describe those kit chens that
empl oy purposeful juxtaposit ions of modem
and traditional st yles, or to descr ibe kitchens
that are simply whimsical. An art fully eclec­
tic kit ch en may take many months-or
years- to attain just the right look.
THIS CHEERFUL FAMILY KITCHEN
IS A LIVELY PLACE, with red chairs
and red backsplash tile, a cluster
of colored pans and pots hanging
near the range, and bright white
cabinets. These basic overlay
cabinets are topped with small
cabinets reserved for seasonal
and lesser-used gear.
THESE BLUE-PAINTED CABINETS
ARE TRADITIONALLY STYLED with
elaborate paneled doors, but the
cabinets are flush overlay rather
than inset . The heavy wood Dutch
door and the stone tile floor recall
old European kitchens, but the
smoothtop cooktop and inset
sinks add a contemporary look.
KilcJl£/1 DeSign: From LOa /IS to Layoll ( 111
THIS IS AN INSPIRED WAY TO FINISH
off the edge of a handsome
kitchen. The cabinetry turns the
corner at the right, and that's
where special dishware is stored.
The countertop is raised, perfect
for a buffet layout yet high
enough to hide kitchen debris.
THIS KITCHEN OPENS TOTHE
SECOND flOOR and is highlighted
by skylights shining over a grid of
beams. The beams not only frame
the kitchen space but carry the
pendant lights over the island.
The kitchen steps down to a cozy
family room with a fireplace and a
lowered ceiling.
12 \ Kitchen Design: From Laohs 10 Loyal((
FITTING THE KITCHEN
INTO THE HOUSE
A kit chen sees the most action of any roo m
in the house, so the re's no qu estion that it
requires a close co nnec tion with living
spaces. How the kit ch en me et s the res t of
the house is your cho ice, from a framed
opening with a door to no separati on at all.
For a s tep beyond the bas ic door, the tri ed­
and-true passth rough allows food , if not
people, to move from kitchen to dini ng
room. Or use bas e and wall cabi nets­
opaque or tran sparent-to buffe r the kitchen
from living or d ini ng spaces. Thi s provides
convenient storage for di shes, especially if
doors ope n from both sid es. Connect the
kit ch en with th e rest of the house by making
sp ace for ac tivities that have nothing to do
with coo ki ng, such as working at a computer
or doing arts and craf ts.
A KITCHEN DOESN'T HAVE TO
DRESS IN THE LATEST STYLE to be
well designed . This is a delightful
way to set off a kitchen in a small
house or apartment-as a pavilion
with columns and an entablature.
The plastic-laminate-capped walls
are the ideal height for hungry
onlookers to lean on.
THIS KITCHEN HASTWO PARTS:
THE SERIOUS workspace in the
background and the serving area
with eating spacein the fore­
ground. This bar also servesas the
mail-sorting center, with cubbies
built into the adjacent cabinet.
Kildl cn Dcsign' FlD m Looks ((I Layoll t I 13
THE STAIRPUllS THE KITCHEN
AND DINING SPACE TOGETHER and
makes them the center of atten-
tion. There are certainly plenty of
places to sit, from the table to the
island countertop to a built-in
bench to the side .
THIS KITCHEN FITS INTO HALF OF
A BIG ROOM SEAMlESSlY. in part
because it takes on the detailing
of the stair, which is a major
element in the space. Cabinetry
and sta ir are paneled to match.
14 \ Kitchen Design: from l oohs 10 lay out
THIS DININGAREA ISCALLED OUT BYAN OCTAGONAL caved ceiling with perimeter lighting, a handsome pendant
light fixture, and windows on four sides. It would be hard to find a view to match this one. Multil ight sliding
doorsallow for quick access to the great outdoors. The wood floor is painted with a diamond pattern that
enlargesand enlivens the space.
Kitchen Design: Fro m Loohs 1(1 Lll) Ou t I 1
THIS KITCHEN IS LAID OUTTO SUIT
A PROFESSIONAL BAKER. The rolling
cart is topped with a butcher-
block work surface and provides
storage and cooling space. Multi-
ple cooking sources are clustered
at one end ,joined by a profes-
siona l-grade ref rigerato r.
THERE'S A MAIN CIRCULATION
ROUTE RIGHT THROUGH THIS
KITCHEN, from the breakfast nook
(where the photo was taken) to
the dining room . The food prepa-
ration and cooking workspace is
all on the left so noncooks can
steer clear. The refr igerator is at
the edge of the workspace for
easy access.
CONFIGURING THE KITCHEN
One person's perfect kit chen works pace may
be anot her pe rso n's ki tchen ni ghtmare. A
crackerjack cook may fume when family
members trespass , or may be happier wit h a
sou s-chef or two . A so-so cook may wel-
come helping hands in the wo rksp ace or
may shoo onlooke rs away to work in peace.
Two coo ks in the kit chen will dem and two
16 I Kitchen DeSign : From L o o l ~ s 10 Laymil
subst ant ial workspaces. ideall y wi th two
sinks , not necessar ily of the sa me si ze or
purpose .
Consider how food is cooked in your
kitchen . The cook's pat hs amo ng the impor-
tant nodes sho uld not be so long that cook-
ing. serving. and cleani ng up are chores. If
cooktop pyrot echnics is your sport, make the
cooktop easy to work around by providing
Universal Design Is for Everyone
U
NIVERSALDESIGN is a term coined to cover all kinds of
design, from tools to airports, but it is especially
appropriate to our kitchens, where easy access is
always appreciated. The goal is to create tools and spaces
that are flexible, easy to use, relatively goof-proof, and easy
to maneuver in by everyone, not just the able-bodied. Most
features of universal design are pure common sense. Keep
pantry and refrigerator near where groceries are unloaded,
and make the path taken by food items short and direct.
Make aisles wide enough for comfort, but not too wide for
efficiencY-42 in. to 48 in.
Provide a variety of countertop heights for sitting or
standing. Anyone with back problems should consider mak­
ing counters higher than the standard 36 ln., which allows
for less bending, particularly at the sink. locate most kitchen
storage between 20 in. and 44 in. above the floor, and fit
ampl e counterspace on each side and across
the aisle for food preparation and serving.
Asink sh ould be reasonably clos e to make it
easy to drain pasta or transfer a colander of
green beans to a pot. While it's esse ntial,
HERE'S ATWIST ONTHE USUAL
COUNTERTOP DINING: The eating
surface is at regular table height­
about 30 in.-which allows for
both standard chairs and wheel­
chair use. Aisles and doorways are
wide and the dining space is at the
same level as the terrace, making
circulation easy for everyone.
your kitchen with a sturdy stepstool for accessing the higher,
seasonal stuff. Shallow shelves are easier to access than
deep cabinets, or provide full-extension drawers or pull-out
shelves. Bypass those teeny-weeny button pulls in favor of
levers or wire pulls, which are much easier to handle. Aside­
by-side refrigerator is easier to access overall, or go for refrig­
erator and freezer drawers. likewise, a drawer-style dish­
washer is easy on the back. Single-lever faucets are much
easier to operate than two-handled versions, and a pull-out
hose is ideal for everyone.
And don't forget lighting, regardless of whether you
have eagle eyes or limited vision. Adim kitchen is not
only depressing but dangerous, so install abundant under­
cabinet lighting as well as overall lighting to make cooking
a delight rather than a chore.
the hulking refrigerator doesn't have to be
in the center of the workspace. Positioning
the fridge at the outskirt of the workspace­
near dining, preferably-will keep thirsty
onlookers from interfering with cooks.
Kilcil C/l Dcsign: P"OIll Looks 10 La.\"IlIH I 1
THIS CURVED ISLAND-the
granite countertop is a long oval
and the oiled teak countertop is
biscotti-shaped-defines the bor-
der between the linear kitchen
and the dining area, which itself
faces a salt marsh . Its front is
faced with cherry beadboard . The
three pendant lights and their
curved support reinforce the
shape of the island .
THIS BEEFY ISLAND IS ANAMALGAM
OF A wooo Lutyens-style kitchen
table and white-painted English
cabinetry, with a substant ial
plinth in place of a kickspace. The
straight end of the island is used
for seating, while cabinets below
provide storage for cookware and
serving pieces.
18 IKitchen Design: fro m LOa /IS to Layollt
The Kitchen Island
It's hard to find a new kitch en tod ay that
do esn 't have an island, descendant of the big
farm worktabl e. Today's island is often mor e
than a table: It's a minikitch en in itself, with
cabine ts below and a pot rack above, a sea t-
ing area at one end and a coo kto p or sink at
another end.
An island can be free-floating. su ch as a
butcher-block carl, in which case ther e's no
concern for electrical or gas connecti ons . If
an island is fixed in place. chances are it will
require electrical outlets.
RATHER THAN CANTILEVER
THE COUNTERTOP to make an
unencumbered stretch of eating
space, the designer supported
the countertop on two tall cabi­
nets that act like beefy legs.
These cabinets also provide extra
storage space for dishes.
THERE'S A CHOICE OF SEATING IN
THIS COMFORTABLE KITCHEN , from
the built-in bench to the small
breakfast table w ith gre en chairs.
A lowered ceiling soffit provid es a
sense of shelter, as w ell a s spa ce
for ductwork.
A Place to Eat
It's a rare kit ch en that doesn't have at least
on e sea t for informal d ini ng. Many of us ea t
breakfast, lun ch , and everyday dinner s in
th e ki tche n, and may eve n prefer a s ing le
dining s pace for all mea ls in or next to th e
kit ch en . Keys to an enjoyable eat ing place
are close proxim it y to coo kin g and se rving,
an agreeable view, the right light ing, and
co mforta ble seati ng­ w he t he r freest anding
or built-in .
Kitchcn Design: From Looks to 1"y" uI I 19
Take Measure: Laying Out a Kitchen
T
HESEDAYS THE CLASSIC KITCHEN TRIANGLE-forged between the ubiquitous island has made the triangle a little
range, sink, and refrigerator-has exploded into a more complicated to layout, but it has made it easier to
more complex geometry. The modern kitchen often provide space for extra appliances, such as second sinks
boasts a second cook, the range may be bifurcated into and a refrigerator drawer for drinks.
wall ovens and a cooktop, and two sinks have become the But no matter: While the classic kitchen triangle is sug-
rule. That's not counting the microwave, separate refrig- gested to be between 12ft. and 26 ft. overall, the goal is to
erator and freezer units, or even multiple refrigerator keep the tasks of food preparation, serving, and cleanup
drawers dispersed to different parts of the kitchen. Finally, efficient and easy. Even if you've got a kitchen the size of a
THIS KITCHEN KEEPS TWO COOKS AND SEVERAL ONLOOKERS happy by the intelligent use of countertop space. The
cooktop has two landing spaces as well as a serving countertop to its right. while the baker uses the small
round island forfood prep and for setting hot pans from wall ovens and the much-used wood-fired brick oven.
20 1 Kitrhcn Design: From Laolls to Layout
football field, cluster your major appliances so that you
don't wearyourself out making a meal.
An alwayssolo cook in a galley kitchen will love a 38-in.­
wide aisle,but in any kitchen with multiple inhabitants­
cooks or not-the aisle should be at least 42 in. and up to
48 in.for two cooks. This allows drawers, dishwasher, and
refrlgeratorto be opened with ease, and allows two busy
people to pass each other. Add more room if the aisle backs
up ona seating area.
Acaveat for a two-person kitchen: Don't locate the
main garbage pail under the sink, as the sink is almost
always in use. Put a garbage or compost container where
you prepare food for cooking so that you don't have to
scoop handfuls of peels and trimmings across the kitchen.
Above all,try to steer noncooking traffic around-not
through-the workspace.
Compactor
Large island
Dining
room
Laundry/pant ry
THIS ONE·SIDED BANQUETTE WITH MOVEABLE
SEATING provides dining space in a small getaway
house. The tabletop--supported by two pedestals
and a plate of sheet steel-is rigged to slide away
from the banquette to make it easy for anyone to
get in and out. The bench provides a storage drawer
on one end.
Kirche n Design: from Loohs to Layout 1'21

Cabinetr

The Kite en
Workhorse
C
abinetry rul es the kitc he n roost. Cabi ne t style sets the ton e for how a kit chen
looks and cabinet layout makes all the difference in how a kit ch en fun ctions. And
how much cabinets cost es tablis hes yo ur kitche n budge t-up to 70 pe rcent in
remodels. Whether remodeling or st arting from scr atch, cho ose cabinets early on, as that
decisi on affects how lon g the job tak es and se ts th e stage for choos ing flooring, counrer tops,
ap pliances , and a score of other elements.
Take advantage of the countless cabi net configura tions available, mi xin g and ma tching
types and styles if you wish. Arm yo urself with a basi c kn owledge of the interrelated part s
that make up cabine ts, including cases, doors, drawers , and hardwar e. The n di ve into the
arra y of options for door and drawer styles, materials, an d colors. Browse home-desi gn
magazin es and the Internet as a start , then visit local kit ch en-design sho ps and home cen ­
ters, and take kitchen tours. After pinning down st yle choi ces, look insi de cabinets-online,
on paper, or in a shop- to discover the amazing array of accessories that can make your
final choi ce of cabinets work most efficiently.
THESE ELEGANT, CREAMY-WHITE PAINTED CABINETS were custom built to fit this tall room , reaching from floor to
ceil ing. Multipiece cornice molding makes a smooth transition between cabinet tops and ceiling, while a bull­
nosetrim and a valence conceals light fixtures. Base cabinets were given false legs to look like unfitted cabinets.
23
Cabinet Anatomy
E
ACH PART OF A CABI NET CONTRIBUTES to its overall style and function.
First, there's the basic box, call ed the case. Cases are built either as
face-frame cabinets or frameless cabinets. Face-frame cabinets are
traditionally Ameri can and are still the most popular st yle manufactured.
A frame of horizontal rails and vertical stiles covers the exposed edge of
the case and contributes significantly to its strength. Doors can either be
set into the frame or overlay it.
A frameless cabinet-born in Europe in the 1950s to speed production
and conserve wood-acquires strength from a thicker case and hence
requires no stiffening face frame. A frameless cabinet is a simple box, and
its doors and drawers nearl y cover the case completel y. Frameless cabinets
have long been ass ociated with modern st yles , but todays frameless cabi -
nets can easily be made to look traditional with panels and molding.
CABINETS PLAY A MAJOR ROLE IN THIS KITCHEN ,
from the two-story wall cabinets and stacked-
drawer base cabinets to the phalanx of ceiling-
hung cabinets over the island. These are smartly
backed with translucent panels to allow light to
shine into the kitchen workspace. A continuous
shelf under the eating counter is a handy addi-
tion that allows easy access to cookbooks.Iinens,
or even homework.
24 \ Cabinetry: The Kitchen Wol"llhorse
THESE FRAMELESS CABINETS
HAVE FLAT-SLAB DOORS and draw­
ers, each with veneer carefully
positioned to show off the figure
of the wood.
THIS WALL CABINET IN A FARM­
HOUSE KITCHEN is a truly tradi ­
tional face-frame case, which
doesn't need a back for strength.
FRAMElESS EURO-STYLE CABINETS
LIKE THESE FREQUENTlY have a tall
toespace. The flush overlay doors
and drawers feature a shallow
frame-and-panel design for subtle
contrast. Cabinets stop short of
the ceiling to leave a reveal.
Cabinetry: The Kitchen Workhorse I25
Cabinet Sources
K
ITCHEN CABINETS CAN COME FROM MANY SOURCES, from a
one-person shop to a multiacre factory. They vary
greatly in price, depending on whether they're
custom, stock, or something in between, but there's a wide
range of options now available for every budget.
Stock cabinets are the most basic cabinet choice, and
they are available off the shelf or within a few weeks from
home centers and lumberyards or through a kitchen-
products dealer or contractor. The cabinets can be installed
by the dealer, a contractor, or you. Stock cabinets are built
as individual components in standard sizes and increments,
so filler pieces may be required to cover gaps between cabi-
net cases. Styles, finishes, hardware, and accessories vary
widely, but can't be customized. Understandably, stock cabi-
nets are about half the cost of many custom-manufactured
cabinets.
Semicustom and custom cabinet manufacturers also
offer a fixed but wide range of styles, finishes, hardware,
26 ICabinetry: The Ki!chen Workhorse
ELABORATE CABINET MOLDINGS embellish tops
and edges of these semi-custom cabinets.
THE INSET DRAWERS INTHIS ISLAND face away
from the busy workspace, making it eas ier for
the designated table setter to access cutlery and
linens. The cherry cabinetry is hand rubbed for a
traditional look.
accessories, sizes, and configurations, but the range of
choices is much broader and there's wiggle room for custom-
made pieces. Quality is generally very good to premium;
delivery takes two to twelve weeks. Semicustom cabinets
have fewer available options and cost about 2s-percent
less than cabinets from custom manufacturers.
Of course, you can hire a cabinetmaker to build custom
cabinets, with or without the help of an architect or kitchen
designer. Shop-built cabinets can be built in larger sections
to fit specific site-measured situations. Shop-built cabinets
generally take longer than manufactured cabinets-from
six to twenty weeks-but not always. The shop will install
the cabinets. Don't be shy about obtaining and querying
the references that a potential cabinetmaker gives you.
When ordering cabinets, ask for plans and elevations of the
specific cabinetry, and request-or prepare for yourself-
a list that calls out each cabinet, its accessories, and its
hardware.
ITTOOK CLEVER DESIGNWORKTO
FITTHE CABINETS IN THIS CORNER,
with typical wall-hung cabinets at
right butting into a china-cabinet­
style wall cabinet at left. Doors
and drawers are inset into beaded
face frames, and cabinet hard­
ware is nickel plated, from door
knobs to bin pulls to butt hinges.
A MIXOF THETRADITIONALAND
THECONTEMPORARY, these cabi­
nets have inset frame-and-panel
doors without a center post and a
bead board backsplash. The wall of
built-in cabinetry acts as pantry
storage.
THIS COLONIAL-STYLE HUTCH ISBUILT
FROM HAND·PLANED PINE that's
stained a walnut color. The cabinet
case is face -frame, and each drawer
is inset into the face frame.The
outside edge of the cabinet is
beaded, and shelves have mu ltiple
beads for a subtle contrast.
Cabinetry: The Kitchen WorHorse 1 2
THESE MODULAR FRAMELESS
CABINETS COMBINE FRAME-AND-
FLAT-PANEL doors and drawers in
base cabinets with translucent-
glass doors on wall cabinets. The
European-height toe kick is about
9 in. high. The unusual proportion
of the wide doors on the cabinets
to the left of the wall oven pro-
vide visual interest to the bank of
cabinetry.
BASIC CABINET TYPES
FRAMELESS CABINETS FACE-FRAME CABINET
Doors and drawers
overlay the case completely
(flush or full overlay).
Framelesscabinet
gets its strength f rom
a stronger cabinet case.
Frameless cabinets
usually have standard
4-in.-high to espaces;
European-style frame-
The f ace frame
strengthens
cabinet case.
Doors and drawers
can be i nset
or overlay.
less cabinets often
have taller to espaces.
Traditional
face-frame
hinges are
exposed and
not adjustable.
but concealed,
adjust able hinges
are available, too.
28 I Cabinetry T h ( ~ Ki tchen Wor'hllOrsc
••
••
- ---
Sizing up Cabinets
M
OST MANUFACTURED BASE CABINETS are
just shy of 2 ft. deep and are
34';' in. high to receive a 1'/. in.
countertop; wall cabinets are 12in. deep and
30 in. high. But that doesn't mean you can't
customize your cabinets. Position them where
they suit you best. For years the standard wall
cabinet has been placed 16 in. to 18 in. above
the countertop, but for a serious cook, or a tall
one, this may not be high enough. More suit­
able may be a wall cabinet 24 in. above the
countertop or even no wall cabinets at all,
replaced instead by open shelves or a separate
pantry, especially if the look is traditional.
(Wall cabinets over sinks should be at least
30 in. above the countertop).
If you like deep countertops-say 30 in.­
install standard 2-ft.-deep base cabinets 4 in.
to 5 in. proud of the wall. The countertop will
cover the gap in the back, but be sure to
specify extradeep panels for any exposed
cabinet sides so that there won't be a visible
gap between cabinet and wall. Custom-built
cabinets can certainly be specified at 30 in.
deep, but deep cabinets are tougher to ac­
cess, and 3o-in. drawers require especially
sturdy hardware and construction.
Custom -built wall cabinets can also be
built taller to suit taller cooks or lower for
bakers, who tend to prefer kneading and
rolling out pastry with fully extended arms.
Another tack is to drop the wall cabinet all
the way down to the countertop, creating a
china-cabinet effect. Researchers say that the
most useful storage space is between hip
height and shoulder height, so a china cabinet
dropped into the lineup of base cabinets may
be more suitable than ordinary wall cabinets.
...
KEEPING THEWALL CABINETS
HIGH IN THIS KITCHEN makes
it easier for a tall cook to
use the sink. The frameless
cabinets feature beadboard
panels in flat frames. The
big drawer under the wall
oven handles pots.
THESE FRAMELESS CABINET DOORS RUN STRAIGHT
to the ceiling, with a slight reveal. The trim on
the recessed ceiling light is as narrow as possible
so that doors can swing freely.
Cabillel ry : The Kil, liell I 29
Doors and Drawers
D
OO RS .\ ND DRAWElb SET THE STYLI' for a kit chen. Doors and drawers
can be fl at-slab (also called one-piece) or frame-and-panel; frames
can be beaded , flat , or carved, and panels can be flat , beaded ,
raised, and more. In short , cl oors and drawers can take on any look you like.
Keep in mind that all doors and drawers on frameless cabinets must be
full overlay (see drawing on p. 32) to cover the edge of the case. For face-
frame cabinets, reveal overlay doors, which show part of the face frame, are
the most common and least expensive style. Inset cl oors are more painstaki ng
to make and hang than ove rlay doors, but are standa rd in hist orical styles.
As you choose dra wer and door styles, conside r hard ware, too. Pull s,
hinges, and drawer slides have a big impact on looks, cost, and durabilit y:
Some styles require a long lead time; order them in the early stages of design.
30 \ Cabillctry: The Kitchell Workhorsc
IN THIS KITCHEN OF BLUE-
STAINED CABINETRY, one face -
frame case is fitted with wood
runners and pull-out baskets for
easy access to a few essentials.
THESE UNIQUE CABINETS ARE A
MIXTUR E of opaque and transpar-
ent, allowing a limited view of the
dining room through clear-glass
upper cabinets and steel -mesh
door panels on the backside that
open int o the din ing room, allow-
ing plates to go back and fort h.
This palette of bicolored framed
doors and drawers makes cab inets
that are both lively and t ailored.
ROW UPONROWOF APOTHECARY­
STYlE DRAWERS are fitted with
ring pulls for an unusual take on
the basic base cabinet. The key
here isto decideon a logical order
for easyaccess, so you don't have
to playa memory game with
drawer contents.
THIS SYMMETRICAL COMPOSITION
IS ANCHORED at each side by large,
frame-and-flush-panel doors in
both the wall and base cabinets,
with the same panel design
applied to the range hood. The
homeowner liked the simpler
look of doors, so pull-out shelves
are used instead of stacks of
drawers in the base cabinets.
Cabi ncu' ': The Kitchell WorkhcH" c I 3'
A GALLERY OF DOORS
COMPAR ING
INSET TO
OVER LAY
A flat-slab or single-
piece door is most often
veneered.
Flat frame with recessed
flat panel ; often called
Shaker or Colonial style
Flat f rame with beadboard;
painted , stained, or natural
V-groove boar ds with back-
ing or edge-glued planks
without f rame
Extra wide f lat f rame with
recessed panel
' '/
'"
Frame with mitered corners and
raised panel ; frame and panel
may be simple, as shown, or may
be beaded, carved, or embell -
ished in other w ays.
A f lat-s lab door with mo ld-
ing appli ed
Beaded frame and panel ; beading
can be int egral or applied and may
be on the frame or panel.
1- 11- 1
1 11_ 1
1_ 1=
Frame wit h glass panel ; gl ass
can be single- or mu lti paned.
te xtured or clear.
Inset doors and
drawers f it wit hin
t he face frame .
Reveal overl ay
doors and drawers
part ially overlap
the face frame.
Flush overlay
doors and drawers
cover a frame less
cabin et case.
32 I Cabillrt ry: The Kitchell Wo,hh ol se
:
THISWAll FUll OF FRAMElESS
CABINETS with overlay doors
makes a stunning counterpoint
to the open shelves in th e center.
The wire pulls on the doors add
an interesting rhythm to the wall.
The stone ti le floor matches the
tone of the cabinets, giving the
kitchen a serene ambi ence .
THIS WAll OFDISH CABINETRY IS
BUilTwith the tradit ional setup
of solid cabinets at the base and
glazed cabinets above. Drawers
are overlay, while doors are inset
with a frame-and-double-panel
pattern that goes almost all
the way to the floor. But the
multipaned wall cabinets are
the stars here, and beaut ifully
proportioned.
Cabinetr\,; Tile Kitcilen I s
THIS WALL FULLOF FRAMELESS
CABINETS with overlay doors
makes a stunning counterpo int
to the open shelves in the center.
The wire pulls on the doors add
an interesting rhythm to the wall.
The stone tile floor matches the
tone of the cabinets, giving the
kitchen a serene ambience.
THISWALLOF DISHCABINETRY IS
BUILTwith the trad it ional setup
of solid cabinets at the base and
glazed cabinets above. Drawers
are overlay, while doors are inset
with a frame-and-double-panel
pattern that goes almost all
the way to the floor. But the
multipaned wall cabinets are
the stars here, and beautifully
proport ioned .
Cahilletry: TIle KlCcllf/ 1 I V O " i 1 J O I ~ " I
,
I
THESE HOMEOWNERS CAN HAVE THEIRBOOKSAND COOK, TOO. A
healthy collect ion of cookbooks is close at hand, yet there's still room
behind the piano-h inged swinging bookshelf for bulkier cooking tools
that aren 't necessarily used every day.
34 \ C<l hilletry: Tile Kitchell WorllllOlse
THIS KITCHEN CORNER ISCOM­
POSED to look good and take ad­
vantage of potentially lost space.
Fixed dowels keep wine at hand in
a narrowslot . while two doors­
openingin opposite directions for
different purposes-take the
spacenext to the refrigerator.
THE SCULPTURAL HARDWARE ON
THESE CABINETS has the presence
of knobs but acts like pulls, as it
takes a hooked finger to open
doors and drawers . The reveals
at the ceiling and toespace are
black, visually connecting the
cab inets, refr igerator. and
countertop. The cabinets over
the sink are recessed. making
it more comfortable to use that
workspace. while the textured­
glass panels add sparkle to
the colored glassware inside.
THESEFRAMELESS BEECH CABI·
NETS ARE CAREFULLY COMPOSED
and crafted to operate smoothly
and iook elegant. Edge pulls (seen
on mirrored doors of built-In med­
icine cabinets) and cylinder pulls
are stainless steel.
BECAUSE IT15 THE CENTERPIECE OF A BUSY KITCHEN,
th is island cabine t is round t o smooth traffic flow.
Curved stainless doors conceal goods on adj ust able
shelves, while the opposite side cont ains a drawer
wi thin a drawer. Curved doors, wh ich are thin layers
of poplar plywood clad with a st ainless-st eel skin,
slide on custom-made track hardware. Interior s are
veneered w ith maple.
A LOOK AT DRAWERS
._.
II
c.
I
A fl at -slab drawe r over A dr awer with beaded
a flat f rame-and-panel edge over a f rame-
door, inset in face- and-rai sed-panel
frame case doo r, i nset in face-
fr ame case
=
t
(
=
A bank of sam e-size
fla t -slab dr awers,
overlayin g a fr ame-
less case
Gradu at ed-si ze
dr awers with beaded
edges. inset i n race-
f rame case, w ith
inte rme dia te rai ls
[
F
R
Graduat ed-si ze
drawe rs with beaded
edge s, i nset in face-
f rame, but with out
intermediate rails
36 ICl nillelrv: The Kilchell Wor!lhorse
I
Drawer Slides
D
RAWERS ARE SUPPORTED BY, and glide on, slides (or glides). The
industr y standard for a good-quality drawer slide is a side­
mounted, epoxy-coated (for reduced noise) steel slide with
nylon rollers. Less-expensive slides are mounted at the lower edge of
the drawer side, while heavy-duty slides fit on the side. Heavy-duty
ball bearings last longer and are more stable than nylon rollers, but
they also cost more.
Full-extension slides add to cost, but many designers automatically
specify them because they expose the contents of the entire drawer to
view when opened. They are essential for big pot and pan drawers. To
save money, consider using full-extension slides on just the top drawers.
Self-closing drawer slides allow the drawer to shut automatically when
it is 3 in. or 4 in. from the closed position.
For historical authenticity, or if you just don't like the look of side­
mounted steel slides, go for either undermounted steel slides or wood
slides, which glide in wood slots in the drawer sides. Undermounted
drawer slides are expensive, especially full-extension models. While
they take up some of the available drawer depth, they do allow for a
slightly wider drawer. Since they're less exposed than side-mounted
slides, they will stay cleaner than side-mounted slides.
LARGE POT DRAWERS
LIKE THESE require sturdy
drawer slides, and side­
mounted slides are gen­
erally more efficient than
bottom-mounted slides.
It's critical to specify full­
extension slides for pot
drawers to make all
items easy to access.
THIS NARROW, CUSTOM-DESIGNED
DRAWER keeps cooking oils stand­
ing up straight in the front while
hot pads and mitts stack up
behind.
Drawers versus Pull-Outs
D
RAWERSARE BIG THESE DAYS, both in
status and in size. Drawers have
always been the ideal storage
containers for cutlery, paper goods, uten-
sils, linens, spices, and odds and ends, and
they are gaining popularity as vessels for
pots, pans, and cooking ingredients, such
as oils and vinegars, as well.
But there's still a case to be made for
cabinets with doors and pull-out shelves.
Some cooks like pull-out shelves because
they can hold a range of objects, and since
the edges of a pull-out shelf are just 2 in.
to 4 in. high, stuff can't be overstacked,
so everything is accessible. On the other
hand, you have to open the door, then pull
out the shelf-unlike a drawer, which
takes a single operation to access the
contents.
TALL CABINETS SUIT THE TALL
COOK WHO WORKS HERE, and
the large pot drawers are
pretty handy. too.
THESE HANDSOME PULL·OUT
SHELVES are made of 'I,· in.
dovetailed maple. The
shelves are adjustable
to suit the heights of a
va riety of contents.
THESE DEEP DRAWERS HANDLE THE
FAMILY'S DAILY DISHES and are easy
to reach from the dishwasher
and easy to access from the
dining room .
38 \ Cabinclry: Thc Kurh cn Workhorse
A STANDMIXERCAN TAKE UP A
LOT OF ROOM on a countertop, but
it 's also a heavy load to haul from
a cabinet . Here's a sweat-free so­
lution: Store the mixer on a shelf
that rises to the occas ion from a
base cabinet to countertop he ight
on specialized hardware.
THIS SMALL KITCHEN MAKES USE
OF EVERY SPACE, including the
angled cabinet, which is ideal for
storing flat items, such as pa ns,
trays. and cutting boards. Cabi­
nets are frameless, but the doors
are traditional, with maple frames
and Honduras mahogany panels.
Hinges
T
HEVAST MAJORITY OF CABINET DOORS
SWING, much to the delight of kids
of all ages, who invariably swing­
and lean-as they survey cabinet con­
tents for good stuff. The European
cabinet revolution in the 1950S that
brought us frameless cabinets also
brought the concealed cup hinge,
a complicated-looking hinge that
allows a cabinet door to be easily
adjusted, both during installation
and years later, when a door might
have sagged. These days, concealed
adjustable hinges are also available
for face-frame cabinets. Larger con­
cealed hinges may require a mounting
block on the inside of the face frame.
A more expensive but cleaner detail
is to run the mounting block the full
vertical length of the inside of the
face frame.
Despite the ease of installation and
operation of concealed cup hinges,
butt hinges are a traditional favorite
for inset doors and are a less obtrusive
alternative on glass -paneled cabinets,
where the hinge is always in view.
As with any system, the most prob­
lematic components of a cabinet are
the parts that move. That puts hinges
at the top of the list (drawer slides are
a close second), so don't skimp on
quality here. Or bypass hinges alto­
gether and go for that restaurant­
kitchen standard, the sliding door.
Cabinelrv: The Kildl CTI Work/Ill/Sf I 39
Finishing Cabinet Tops and Bottoms
A
s YOU Ii OI\I E IN Il l\; YOUR F,\\'ORITE CAOINET STYIL 'S , consider how
they will [it into the room at top and bottom. Trimming cabinet
tops and bottoms contributes more to styl e and function than it
might seem. Cabinets can stop short of the ceiling or go all the way up to
be trimmed by crown molding or [inished off with a reveal, which is a
narrow slot between two surfaces. Cabi net bottoms may incorporate a
toespace or, less commonly, may sit on a wide base (cabinetmakers call it
TINYCElllNG·HUNG CABINETS
a plinth). MAKEATHREE-DIMENSIONAL frieze
around the kitchen. While visually
While thinking outside (or above and below) the box is easy with cus-
interesting, they don't provide
10m cabine try, it's also quite expensive ; there's an ever-incr easing ran ge of
easily accessed storage and should
nonstandard cabinets available through s tock and se micustom sourc es be filled with rarely used items.
that offer interesting details without the sticker shock.
40 ILuhinctry: I he Kirchell \Vorl/horse
RECLAIMED BARN LUMBER­
mostly pine with some hemlock­
was custom sawn to make this
hutch/television cabinet combo
in the dining room. The top of the
cabinets received special atten­
tion, with a dark-stained diamond
inlay, crown molding, and a crown
of greenery.
A DETAILED INLAY TRIMS CROWN
MOLDING and the rail over the
microwave to give a distinctive
edge to these cherry face-frame
cabinets. Toespaces are framed
by canted legs. A peek under the
wall cabinets offers a glimpse
at unusual, triangular task-light
fixtures.
Cabi llclrv: The Kitchell W(l r!l!lorsr I 4'
THISBUILT-IN, FULL-HEIGHT
CABINET provides a contrast to its
flanking neighbors with a curved
top. large pulls , and natural pine
finish . Stopping the elaborately
trimmed cab inet tops just short
of the soffit gives the cabinets
more of a furniture look.
THESE CABINETS MEETTHECEIL-
ING AND FLOOR in several different
ways. Cherry dish cabinets at left
abut an overhanging soffit for a
sheltered look, while cookware
cabinets are flush with the soffit,
which continues across the sink
with recessed task lighting.
A ROW OF UPPERCABINETS
STRETCHES from wall to wall
across the tops of the maple wall
cabinets. Sandblasted glass is the
material of choice in the framed
doors and sliding panels.
42 ICnbinetry: Til e Kilchen Workhorse
Considering Cabinet Tops
O
mN, WALL CABINm DON'T REACH TOAN 8-FT. CEILING, partly
because tall cabinets cost more, and partly because
items stored up high are hard to reach. Open cabinet
tops are ideal, however, for decorative pottery or baskets,
little-used kitchen tools, plants, a painted frieze, or windows­
natural light that enters a room from a high window provides
the most desirable light year-round, and it bounces off the
ceiling to multiply the effect.
Cabinets can also meet a lowered drywall or wood­
trimmed soffit that contains lighting and ductwork. For a
more traditional look, cover a flush-fitting lowered soffit
with a super-deep crown molding to tie the cabinetry visu­
ally to the ceiling. If household members are prone to allergy
or asthma, consider taking the cabinets to the ceiling or to a
lowered soffit to avoid surfaces that collect dust.
Cabinets that reach the ceiling or a soffit often require
trimming to hide the joint. An elaborate molding can make
the cabinet look more like furniture. Another option is to
make a narrow slot (called a reveal) between the cabinet and
the soffit or ceiling.
THESE NATURALLY FINISHED CABINETS RECEIVE a jolt of brightness from the white tr im. Ceiling-hung cabinets
over the island display a collection of copperware and provide a buffer between eating and workspace.
Cabi ll cli y: The Kil c!JCII Worll!lQ' ''' I 4:
Tackling Toespaces
T
HETOESPACE (also called a toekick, kickspace, or kick-
plate) is made by a separate recessed platform that
supports the cabinet . American-made face-frame
cabinets and most frameless cabinets have a 4-in.-high,
3-in.-deep toespace. European cabinets often have tall
toespaces, from 5 in. to 9 in. high, which many people like
for the sense of lightness the look imparts and because
it's easier to clean around cabinets without damaging
doors and drawers. But a tall toes pace means less interior
cabinet space, unless the toes pace itself is fitted with a
drawer or a pull-out skid or step stool (you can configure
4-in.-high toespaces the same way.)
Toespaces can provide a space for heat/air registers and
ductwork for a central system, or even for installation of
individual toes pace heaters. The blowers in toespace
heaters can be noisy, however, so research the options
carefully.
FINISHING CABINET BOTTOMS
This is a typical toespace Extra-tall European
at front with a flat cabinet toes pace trim board
side and shoe molding on usually covers adjustable
each side. cabinet legs.
The toespace ison
the front and side;
A traditional cabinet
the side can be panel ed
wit h no toespace can
to match the f ront.
sit on a plinth, wh ich
can be tr immed simply,
as shown , or with
elaborate mold ing .
Toespaces aren't required. The ongoing popularity of
the unfitted kitchen, where pieces are designed to look as
if they were collected over time, has spawned the cabinet
plinth, which is a wide base that supports the cabinet case,
as well as cabinet legs, where stiles of the cabinet frame
are continued to the floor to make feet with a toespace in
the center. Cabinets with no toespaces are hard to stand
at, so it's best to increase the overhang of the countertop
and be sure your drawers have full-extension guides.
The toes pace also acts as a bumper against overzealous
mopping and vacuuming. If you opt for no toes pace, con-
sider adding at least a 4-in.-tall base trim to your cabinet.
This detail can also apply to the sides of a cabinet, where
it's not common to have a toespace. Here, a base trim
provides a natural paint break or a change of material that
allows for easier repairs if the bottom of the cabinet is
damaged by man or beast.
The toespace trim Cabinet fram e
is cont inued along flat cont inues to the floor
side with trim board. to become a leg.
A corner pilaster
provides a visual leg for
the cabinet ; th e curved
cabinet bottom disguises
the toespace.
When a toespace is not
desired, consider recessing
the cabinet under the sink;
a handsome deta il at
a farmhouse sink.
44 I Cabinelry: The Kitchen Wo, hhorsc
Materials and Finishes
T
HE CHAR\1 Of CABIl': E"I S is that th ey can take on j ust abo ut any ap­
pearan ce you want, but tha t ver satility is also what keeps us up at
night tryi ng to decide whi ch materials and finis hes ar e j us t right.
Most of today's ki tche ns are nat ur al wood, wh ether so lid or vene ered onto
the cabi ne t case , do ors, and d rawers .
Solid wood and wood veneers, of course, do need finishing. Thi s may be
a stain (for col or , not protection) tha t's finished with a protective coat ing­
typically a catalyt ic conversion varnish applied off-site. Cabinets ca n also be
paint ed or sprayed wi th high-gloss pol yest er finish for a flash of color or
high style. Cabi nets can also be veneered with met al , plasti c laminat e, or
rigid Thermofoil (RTF). As a rul e, s tained finish es are easier to tou ch up
than paint ed finish es; bo th are easier to repair than Thermofoil, plast ic lam ­
inate, metal, and high -gloss pol yest er finishes.
THIS DIN ING ROOM IS ALMOST
ENTIRELY FILLED with cabinets, and
the rema inder is pan eled to
match cabinet doors. The lower
part of the cabinet has sliding
doors, which make good sense
because they don 't swing into
the circulation path.
THESE BUILT-IN CABINETS ARE
DESIGNED in the unfi tted kitchen
st yle, with var ious-size pieces, a
full-height cupboard, and varying
cabinet feet. The more elaborate
tr im on the cupboard, wh ich fea­
tures bullnosing, fluted pilasters,
a n elaborate crown molding, and
curved cabinet feet , makes it a
focal point.
CaIJi nwy; Tile Kirchen I45
COMBINING PAINTED CABINETRY
GIVES A KITCHEN an unfitted look,
as if pieceswere added over time.
Here, the freestanding island and
china hutch are green, while the
built-in cabinetry is natural
maple, creating a pleasing visual
counterpo int. Porcelain knobs on
all cabinetry unify the kitchen.
46 I Cabillt'uv : The Kitchell Worhhorst'
THIS IS NOT YOUR MOTHER'S STOCK CABINETRY,
unless she's an artist. These custom-designed and
crafted cabinets look like sculpture, but they are
really a combination of frame-and-panel doors and
flat-slab doors and drawers. Wire pulls are designed
with both whimsy and easy access in mind.
A Look at Wood
L
IGHT, EVEN-GRAINED MAPLE is currently
the most popular wood for cabinet
doors and drawers; in second place
is oak, a traditional favorite that is darker
and often highlighted with light flecks,
especially quartersawn oak. Cherry, an
elegant wood that darkens with time, is
in third place, and hickory, pine, and pecan
follow, chosen for their comfortable,
country look. As a rule, hardwood species
age more gracefully than softwoods,
which may crack and are softer with wider
grain. But using wood as a veneer over
plywood, MDF, or particleboard ensures
that any species can make the grade as a
cabinet surface.
Period kitchens may call for certain
species, but bending the rules is allowed.
Artsand Crafts kitchens were often quar-
tersawn oak, though cherry is a fine alter-
native if detailed properly. Douglas fir was
common at the turn of the 19th century,
and pine and maple were Colonial fav-
orites. Cherry and pine are ideal for Shaker-
style cabinets. For a truly authentic period
look,ask for hand-applied finishes.
Most cabinetmakers and manufacturers
recommend having wood cabinets finished
inthe factory or shop. This minimizes the
shrinking or swelling that can occur when
the cabinet moves from shop to residence,
allows for better control of the finishes,
and permits the use of finishes that can't
be safely applied in a residence. Cabinets
that are to be painted on site should at
least be primed before delivery.
WOOD IS THECABINET MATERIAL of choice for
truly traditional design, but MDF is easy to
shape, so you'll see many cab inet details carried
out in MDF. This cabinet is wood, however, and
mostly solid at that; the beadboard is solid wood,
while the cabinet door is veneer-core plywood.
CHERRY FROM FLOOR TO CEILING WITH A NAR-
ROW GRANITE interlude makes this a warm and
elegant kitchen. These unusual cabinets are a
face -frame/frameless hybr id, with the case visi-
ble on the sides and top but not the bottom.
Cabi llct ry: The Kitchell lVorhhorsc I 47
- - -
THIS UPPER CABINET IS PART of a
new built-in china cabinet . An
art ist gave the cabinet a "faux-
relic" finish with many layers of
paint. Panels and frame are solid
wood, and panel products are
wheat -straw particleboard and a
medium-density fiberboard called
Medex"", both formaldehyde free.
TH ISKITCHEN IS INA NEIGHBOR-
HOOD SURROUNDED BYORCHARDS,
so rampant dust precluded the
use of intricate cabinetry with
panels and molding. The easy-to-
cleanchoicewas rigidThermofoil
(RTF), a heat-formed laminate
that wraps around the cabinet
parts to forma permanent bond.
HAND-RU BBEDFINISHING BRINGS
OUTTHE NATURAL BEAUTY of wavy
cherry in th is New Mexico kitchen .
Custom-made by a local cabinet -
maker, thes e Shaker-style cabinets
are fitted with cher ry knobs on
lower cab inets and walnut knobs
on upper s.
a c c>
IL
- - ~ l f ;
uauO
~
- -
l
-
=
48 I -uhllll'tl\,: The Kilchl'1l WOlhhorse
What's In a Cabinet Case?
F
ACEFRAMES, DOOR FRAMES, AND DRAWER FACES are often
constructed of solid wood, but cabinet cases rarely
are. The sides, bottoms, and tops of a case­
whether face-frame or frameless-are commonly built
from sheet goods, also called sheet stock, engineered
wood, or panel products. Sheet goods are made from
wood, wood by-products, and even nonwood sources. The
most common are plywood, MDF, and particleboard. All
ofthese materials make cases that are significantly more
dimensionally stable than solid wood.
Plywood (the stuff in cabinets is called veneer-cored
plywood) is stronger and more water resistant than other
panel products, and it holds screws better, weighs less, and
is easier to curve-but it also costs more. A new twist on
plywood is combined-core plywood, a sandwich of ply­
wood and MDFor particleboard. This panel is smoother
than plywood and lighter than MDF.
Many cabinetmakers use MDFor particleboard alone for
moderate and low budgets, and some cabinetmakers actu­
ally prefer these materials because they are dimensionally
stable and provide a smooth face for plastic laminate and
wood veneer.
Regardless of what it's made of, a case needs to be fin­
ished inside and out with some type of material for both aes­
thetics and durability. The finish can range from paint to
wood veneer to laminates. Here's the lowdown on some of
the most common choices: Wood veneers are available in
many species; maple and beech are common for the interior
of custom-quality cases. Laminates include vinyl and paper
films, melamine, and high-pressure plastic laminate.
Melamine that is heat-fused onto particleboard makes an
ideal interior surface for a cabinet case. It's half the price of
hardwood plywood, washable and tough, cheaper than high­
pressure laminate, and won't peel-unlike films and foils,
which are not water resistant.
THESECUSTOMCABINETS ARE CONSTRUCTED
from solid wood and veneer-core plywood.
CHERRY CABINETRY WOODWORK MESHES SEAM·
LESSLY, with window trim. Eventhe chairs are
cherry, and the effect is balanced nicely by the cool
colors of marble, gray paint. and black appliances.
Cabillc/ly: The Kit, hell \\'"r/III< II ' " 4
ANYONE WITH A CHEMICAL SENSI-
TIVITY TOTHE OUTGASSING that
can occur with most new wood
cabinets will appreciate metal
cabinets. They needn't be the
garden variety, as evidenced here
by these sleek, high-gloss lemon-
yellow numbers.
AWHEAT-COLORED KITCHEN
TAKES ITS WARMTH and texture
from bead board panels in inset
framed doors, as well as from the
textures found in the wallpaper,
tile backsplash, and curtains.
50 ICuhifl clry: The Kilchell Workhorse
NATURALMAPLEAND YELLOW-PAINTED FRAMELESS
CABINETS make a sunny galley kitchen. Stainless-steel
appliances, sink, and clock and the exposed steel
structure add a cool contrast to the warm colors of
cabinetry, backsplash, and floor.
WHITE-PAINTEDWOOD CABINETS
ARE COVERED with metal-framed
translucent glass to give the cabi­
nets a soft, ethereal look. Interior
shelves are glass.
Glass Doors
G
LASSISA FAVORITE DOOR PANEL for wall cabinets that
store glassware and dishes, but glass doors cost
two to three times as much as solid doors. It's possible
to save money by ordering cabinets "prepared for glass"
and have glass supplied locally, even from a shower­
door supplier. Clear-glass cabinets require a finer finish
on cabinet interiors than textured-glass doors.
STEEL AND WOOD COEXIST PEACEFULLY IN THISAIRY, elegant
kitchen. Cabinets are stainless steel with translucent glass
panels above and solid doors below. The carefully chosen
contents add abstract color to the kitchen.
Cab/lld r)" I'll .. Kikll"11 \\ ,' rhll tJrst' 151
THESE CABINETS ARE CUSTOM
BUILT AND FEATURE BEADBOARD
paneling highlighted with well-
placed lighting that finishes the
inside of the wall cabinets. Pull-
out baskets make casual drawers .
THIS ISA CONTEMPORARY KITCHEN
FROM FLOOR TOCEILING, from the
matte tile laid diagonally to the
single-pane windows. Cabinets
have flush joints, smooth surfaces,
and metal details.
52 \ Cabil1clIy: The Kitchell W(1r!l/liHSf
Cabinet Accessories
T
HE DOORS .\ N O DRAWER S 0 I A CABINET may grab atte ntion for thei r
aest he tic pizzazz, but wha t kee ps atten tion in a kit ch en is how
well the cabinets are fitt ed to work efficientl y. Hardworking acc es­
sories, from ap pli an ce garages to lazy Susans , sho uld be design ed to sui t a
cook's work meth od , storage needs , and budget.
Cabinet accessories wort h consid era tio n inclu de slide-out and pull-out
shelves , verti cal slOTS for trays an d baking sheets, goo d-size spi ce drawers,
an d small-item racks that fit on the inside of cab inet doors. Most house­
holds would also benefit from cabine t accessor ies gea red toward recy­
cli ng, such as pull-ou t twin t rash receptacles and unde rcabine t bins for
compost. Man y of these accessories are available as aftermarket products,
but building them in makes for a bett er-integrated , an d frequent ly more
dur abl e, accessory.
A CUSTOM-MADE DRAWER is fit­
ted with a maple insert for sort ing
cutlery. Full-extension drawer
slides allow for easy access to the
back compartments.
THERE 'S A PLACE FOR EVERY·
THING IN THIS PINE HUTCH, which
features closed-door storage
above, along with an open dish
rack and dr awer s fitted with
cutlery slots below. Custom cab i­
netry details include dovetailed
corners on the drawer box and
rounded top edges on the drawer
sides. The bead on the edge of the
cabinet face frame is integral, not
glued or na iled on .
.ubi/,,-C/'\': fI" /\i ld" ' /I 53
THIS DINING SPACE (AND A KITCHEN
NOT IN VIEW) OVERLOOKS the family
room in a ski house, so cooks
aren't separated from the hubbub,
but they aren't bothered, either. A
cabinet makes a storage space for
dishes and makes a more secure
railing than simple metal rails; the
green-tinted concrete countertop
is backed by a wood backsplash to
prevent falling objects.
54 1Cabinetry: The Kitchell lVorhll<ns e
CAKE FLOUR, SUGAR, AND ALL-
PURPOSE FLOUR are ea sy to scoop
from this specially designed
drawer fitted with Plexiglas
boxes that won't leak. Baker's
basics like salt, baking powder
and soda, vanilla, and frequently
used flavorings are kept in the
right slot.
THIS DRAWER, POSITIONED AT A
BAKING WORKSPACE , has adjust-
able Plexiglas dividers that keep
cake and tart pans aligned and
easy to retrieve.
Storing Spices
THESE CABINETS OPEN UP TO REVEAL MULTILAYERED spice storage right near the professional-style range. Shelves are fixed and spaced
to allow various-size spices. and the door shelves have a safety rail. The substantial solid cherry cabinets keep out heat and light
when closed, and the active cooks check spices for freshness.
S
TORING SPICES can make a jumbled mess if not given
some forethought, but there's no one cabinet acces­
sory that suits everyone. Here are some things to
consider: light and heat are enemies of spice life, so keep
only much-used spices out in the open and near the range;
the others need a home in the dark. (Even a cabinet right
next to a hardworking stove gets too much heat for long­
term storage, though it's fine for spices that see frequent
use and replacement.)
Some cooks like the uniformity of same-size jars lined
up on a rack built to size, while other cooks collect spice
jars and tins of all types and sizes. A drawer with slanted
shelves or racks allows for a slight variation in jar size,
while a deeper drawer accommodates spice containers of
all sizes-though they'll be standing up, so you have to be
willing to label the tops.
Accessories tailor-made for spices, such as wall-cabinet
lazy Susans, racks that drop down from the bottom of a
wall cabinet, and back-of-door shelves, are available not
only as built-ins but as aftermarket products. Chapters 3
and 5 offer more spice-storage ideas.
Cabi nctry: TlJ c Kitchen WorhJwr'Sc , 5
THIS HANDY CABINET NEXT TO
THE COOKTOP is filled with slot s
for pans and baking sheets. The
half-height slots keep smaller
items from getting lost.
Accessories for
Recyclables and Trash
T OaK FOR PULL-OUT GARBAGE and recycling bins, slide-out
.Ltrays for trash cans, composting drawers, and other
options for dealing with kitchen waste. It's possible to
purchase these accessories after cabinets are in place,
but it's much easier to figure in trash as the cabinets
are designed. Consider where you prep food and locate
the wet garbage can close by, even right under the
countertop, so the bin can be pulled out with a foot and
the trimmings swept in. The same goes for compost
containers. Think in terms of locating recycling bins in a
handy but out-of-the-way spot, preferably next to the
outside door-a mudroom off the kitchen would be a
perfect spot.
56 \ C"bind .-.\': The Kitchcll W(lrJlilO'SC
IT'S COMMON TO SEEVERTICAL SLOTS BUILT into cabinet i nt eriors, but this
kitchen is filled entirely with drawers. Toaccommodate flat it ems,a large
drawer is fitted with slots.
THIS DRAWER IS THE BRAINCHILD
OF A PASTRY CHEF, but it's a model
for anyone with a collection of
small baking tools. Plexiglas divi­
ders fit into the drawer without
requiring any customizing of the
drawer itself, so th e drawer could
be used for other types of kitchen
tools if desired.
A MAGNETIC STRIPFIXED IN A
DRAWER NEAR THE COOKTOP keeps
knives clean, neat, and out of
sight while easy to access.
DRAWER DIVIDERS LIKE THESE
CAN KEEP cooking tools untan­
gled. Slots to the back are easy to
reach when the drawers open
completely on full-extension
hardware.
Cabilletl)': The K Il Chfll n '", lllu1/' " , 57
Corner Accessories
O
NLY THOSEWITH GALLEYKITCHENS-
which have no corners-don't
have to think about how to fit a
base-cabinet corner to make that big,
dark space easier to access. Cabinetmak-
ers offer a range of accessories, including
lazy Susans and swing-out, pull-out racks.
The best lazy Susans are fitted with a high
ledge or a curved backing to keep items in
place. Remember that the more moving
parts, the more expensive the accessory.
On wall cabinets the corner is not as
tough to access because cabinets aren't as
deep. Still, if the corner cabinets are fitted
with open shelves and no doors, objects
will be easier to access and the kitchen
will look more spacious.
THE CONTENTS OF THESE CABINET CORNERS are
completely accessible with sturdy wire shelves
that swing out. Wire shelves keep items visible
ONE OF THE SIMPLEST WAYS TO DEAL WITH CORNER cabinets is to fit them with standard
and allow for air circulation.
doors, as shown here, and run fixed shelves into the corner.
58 \ CCi billt"IIy:"ll1e Kitchell Wo rkhorse
A PANTRY THAT' S CLOSE AT HANO
IS ATIME- ANDSTEp·SAVER for any­
one. Here , a fu\\ -hei'f,h\ ~ u \ \ - o u \
cabinet handles that job next to
the refrigerator, keep ing storage
situated in one place in the
kitchen of a professional cook­
book writer.
Cuhi ll etry: Til e Kit cll fll \\ 'ol1l1l or5,' I5 ~
Open Shelves
and Pantries
W
hile cabinets are a kitchen mai ns tay, pro viding invaluable clos ed storage space,
open shelving is a useful and visually appealing alte rna tive wo rth incorpo r­
ating into any kitchen design . Open shelves are perfect for sho wing off ki tche n
treasures and dis hwa re, and they can make ret rieving and putting things away fast and simple.
On the downside, open sh elves allow contents to get dirty or dusty fast er, and neatness- or
the lack of it- is always on disp lay.
Whi le collec tions of pottery, cookbooks , and neat stacks of dishes and mugs look cha rm­
ing on open she lves, not everything warrants a look-see, espec ially wh en kitchens are open
to living areas. Enter the pant ry, where kit ch en essentials are on displ ay for easy access but
safe ly behind a door when not in use. Pan tr ies do n't have to be se parate roo ms as in days of
yore; they can be designed in all sizes, from walk- in to lean- in, pull-out to roll-out, for any
kit ch en , big or s mall .
BUILT-IN MAPLE SHELVES ARE THE CORNERSTONE of this bright kitchen, providing display space for decorat ive
pieces as well as space for everyday dishes. Positioning the shelves in front of the window allows the home­
owners to have their storage and see through it, too.
61
Shelves
W
HETHEI{ YOL;' RE DESIGNING :\ KITCHE" fROM SCR,H CH or j us t want
to spruce things up , she lves offer a lot of bang for the buck
in terms of aes the tics and funct ion. An open shelf or two can
easily be wedged betwee n wall studs . above a door, or along a st ai rway.
It's impo rtant to match the fun cti on of the shel f with the design of the
shelf, cons idering s ize, method of support , ma terial, and finish. Displ ay
decorataive items on sh elves that look good , too, such as glass she lves, or
paint ed or stained wood shelves with a wide edge band and curved brackets.
Heavy objects-canned goods, stacks of plat es, and cast-iron pa ns-require
closely spaced supports and strong shelves, such as plywood. Veneer or
paint can make the beefiest she lves look grea t. Adj ustable sh elves offer
Hexibility while fixed shelves offer a more traditi onal appearance.
62 \ Open Shelves and Pal1 tr ies
THESE CUBBY·SIZE SHELVES LOO K
WAVY, but that's an illusion made
by curvy trim appl ied to the shelf
sides. Petal -faced drawers provide
conta ined storage for napkin rings
or oth er loose ite ms, while open
shel ves create pretty but useful
display space and storag e for
colorful mugs and linens.
--­
~ - - .
OPt'll Shelvesand Palllr ics I6
A SINGLE BANDOF OPEN BOXES AFFORDS sturdy shelf
space for storage jars within and baskets above.
Boxes are thick, bead-edged, and painted solid
wood, and a cleat helps support the upper edge
of the shelves.
THESE THICK MAPLE SHELVESARESUPPORTEDon
threaded metal rods and hung from the ceiling
structure, creating a sleek, elegant system for
storing da ily dishes and glassware.
Sizing up
Open Shelves
S
HELVES CAN BE AS NARROW as 2 in. or as
wide as 2 ft., but here are some
standard guidelines: Allow 8 in. mini-
mum for cookbooks, 8 in. to 15in. for
dishware, and 12in. to 18 in. or more
for large items such as roasting pans,
slow cookers, and the like. If you space
shelves far apart, you'll be tempted to
stack dishes and glasses too high.
Better to space more shelves closer
together, which makes it safer and
easier to access dishes.
Narrow, open shelves from the
countertop to just above head height
provide easy-to-reach storage. Over a
much-used workspace, keep a 12-in.-
deep shelf about 30 in. above the
countertop, the standard at sinks
and cooktops (this is a great spot for
undershelf task lighting). Any shelves
at your head height and lower should,
of course, be shallow, as they can
obstruct use of the workspace below.
64 \ Open Shelves and Panrri n
THESE UPPER cabinets are designed as open shelves,
with decorative v-groove-board backs. Cases are face-
frame and shelves are solid wood; the top shelf on
the left has an edge band. The West-coast cabinet-
maker used local woods for much of the cabinets,
includ ing alder, spalted maple, elm , and cherry-,
THISTHICK PRECAST SHELF, tinted green, fills a niche
between cabinets to make a handy shelf. Undercabi-
net lighting spotlights a potted plant, but any decora-
tive object would look good.
ANYCHANGE INTHE PLANE OFA
SURFACE can be an opportunity for
storage. Here, a granite counter­
top steps up an inch to store
everyday dishes, and the wood
countertop provides both a
protective roof and an informal
space to eat.
TO GIVE THE EFFECT OFA FREE­
STANDING HUTCH, a built-in base
cabinet is topped with an arch­
topped, face-frame cabinet case
with fixed shelves. The inside
back of the case is finished with
beadboard paneling for a
traditional look.
Open Shelves (lilt! l ' u l l r r i ~ 5 I65
Wood Shelves
T
HEMOST COMMON SHElF MATERIALS are wood and wood­
like materials, such as plywood, medium-density
fiberboard, and particleboard. All of these materials
are widely available in various thicknesses and all are easy
to transform with stain or paint. Before storing heavy
objects like cookbooks or a stack of plates, you'll want to
consider the strength of the shelving material and the
support system it requires. After making sure shelves will
stay up, consider what finishes you'd like to give them.
Wood and panel products can all be supported by the
same methods, but the spacing of supports will depend
on the type of material, the thickness of the shelving, and
the edge treatment. Solid wood is stiffer than the same­
thickness MDF and particleboard, but not as stiff as ply­
wood. Plywood is dimensionally more stable than wood,
too, so it is less likely to warp with humidity changes.
All of these materials will be considerably stiffer with an
edge band of wood or plywood attached to the front (the
edge band acts like a supporting beam; see drawing on
the facing page). The traditional way to support shelves­
whether solid wood or panel-product shelves-is with a
cleat, a solid-wood strip attached to the wall and running
the length of the shelf to help prevent widthwise sag.
When sturdy shelving is required, brackets can be added
at one or more points across the midspace of the shelf; in
fact, if brackets are spaced closely enough, there's no need
for a cleat.
Panel products can be veneered with wood, and both
wood and panel products can be finished with paint, stain,
or a clear or tinted varnish or polyurethane. After shelves
are freshly painted-gloss or semigloss works best-it's
best to wait a while before loading. Wait at least as long
as the paint-can label suggests, then lay sheets of waxed
paper loosely on the shelves before stocking them. After a
week or two, slide out the waxed paper.
THEFIXED, BULLNOSED SHELVES IN THISWALK-IN
PANTRY are supported by cleats on beadboard panel­
ing, and they've been spaced to accommodate items
of varying heights. It's easier to scan the pantry qu ickly
when shelves are narrow. A ribbed-glass door blurs
contents (good for those messy days).
66 IOp"11 Shd ws and Panlr in
A LOOK AT FIXED SHELVES
·v'
Ath ick shelf ac -
but not w . h qui res st rength
to a wood stiffness h erg t b b .
.' " To add con .
ollow-core doo y elng built like
"
look, attach b rs. For a modern
"
ce iling or by! support ing from
.

->:

r_. rontedge.
For strong b
aSlc
'
_ '
Inhstall metalstatdantdry shelving,
s elves on ar sand su
sftandards brackets.
e
or a cleaner look wall
Brackets ar
longer sp e essential for
I ans carry'
oads. Notch bing heavy
cleat. Shelf racket s to recet
can be rem
ovable
rve
.
Supporting a sh If
wood or pi e on a contin
the di t ywood cleat d uous
IS a nce a she lf oubles
can span.
For a conte
pin or bar look,
hidden withPports can be
and att ach din the she lf
e to studs,
An L-sha ed
IS inset shelf
drywall is
6:
support Invisible
Shelf can slide in t o
Into wood b d dadoes cut
ext oar sat 'd
ra support ' Sl es: for
along the b .provide a dad
ack, too. 0
Shelf . ' 11 pins in d
support for holes prov ide
recessed walls -.span shelves in
or In cabinet cas es.
Shelf ca n fit . ,
of cabinet within frame
ca se
OR
Shelf can ext d
case or wall past fra meless
more prom'inence
OpCII SIJ d ves and Pa ntri n I 6
II
THIS ISLAND IS HOME TO A GRID
OF FIXED SHELVES of naturally fin-
ished solid maple set in a cream-
colored stained case. It provides
ideal storage for dishes, which can
be quickly grabbed and plated at
mealtime.
Adjustable or Fixed Shelves?
M
AKING SHELVES IN CABINETRY fixed or adjustable af-
fects how they look and how well they work.
Adj ust able shelves can be handy for growing
families or changing buying habits, especially in a pantry.
European-style frameless cabinet cases have adjustable
shelves, which can be adjusted by 32-mm increments by
moving support pins up or down; the same system can be
used for face-frame cabinetry. Adjustable shelves can get
quite a workout duri ng t he setup phase, and the move
from storing baby-food jars to storing packages of Ramen
noodles may come sooner than you think.
For showcasing decorative objects, fixed shelves seem
more purposeful, even architecturally noteworthy them-
selves (and there won't be 32-mm on-center holes up the
sides). A period kitchen requires fixed open shelving for
authenticity.
EVERYDAY DISHESAND ART CERAMICS PROVIDE a
visual focus in this nicely proportioned fixed shelving,
which separates a large dininglliving space from the
kitchen.
68 I Opl'lI h" l1", all<1 f'all i r ies
SHELVES CAN BE DESIGNED FOR
SPECIFIC TASKS, such as storing a
collection of much -loved and
often-used rolling pins as shown
here. The back lip of each chan -
neled shelf allows easy attach-
ment and th e front lip holds in
the rolling pin.
WIDE SHELVE Sthat are spaced
close together make the ideal
storage system for linens, These
shelves pullout to make it easier
to put away tablecloths and
placemats, which are too floppy
and large to slide easilyint o
fixed shelves .
ANGLEDSTEEL BRACKETSATIACHED
TOTHE SIDES of this mobile island
hold baking sheets, which then
act as shelves that hold smaller
flat items. During a major baking
session the cart can be turned
into a cooling rack as well.
Open She/n's Cln d Pantries , 69
Glass Shelves
G
lASS SHELVES MAKE BRIGHT AND ELEGANT
open shelving, especially to show
off glassware and fine dishware.
A boon in perpetually overcast climates or
in rooms without a lot of windows, glass
allows light to bounce around. Glass type
and thickness should be taken into ac-
count before specific shelving is chosen;
here are a few hints.
The edges of a glass shelf figure
prominently in its overall look, so edge
treatment and glass type should be care-
fully considered. Standard clear glass
actually has a greenish tinge, which is
especially apparent at the edge, so if you
prefer a clearer glass, look for low-iron
Starfire glass.
Glass shelves can be strong, but they
have limits. A shelf with a light load and
short span can be 1/. in. thick, but longer
spans and heavier loads require a thick-
ness of 'f, in. or more, plus intermediate
supports. A glass fabricator or cabinet-
maker can recommend the appropriate
thickness for your particular needs.
RATHER THAN FITTING THIS SPACE NEXT TO A WINDOW with a closed
cabinet, the architect designed short-span glass shelves, which allow
light to bounce around and highlight decorative dishware. Glass is
supported on stainless posts made in a local metal shop and set into
angled solid-maple brackets, which in turn are affixed to maple-
plywood backsplash panels.
70 \ OpenShelves and Pa lll r ies
Pantries
T
HE PANTRY ADDS MUCH NEEDED :> I LJ RAGt to todays kit chens. Buying
in bul k has br eathed new life into the pantry, as has the boom in
multiethni c coo king, wh ich req uires more she lf space for new
ingredients and specialized kit ch en too ls. Th ankfull y, a pantry ca n be fit
into most kit ch ens , whe the r as a 3-i n. shelf bet ween st uds or as a walk-i n
version .
Retrofit a broom close t with U-shaped narrow shelves or reconfigure
cabinetry to inclu de a base-cabinet or floor-to-ceil ing manufactured pull- ou t
pantry (make sure the pull -out hard ware can handl e a heavily loaded 6-ft.-
tall uni t). Astep-in pantry can fit in the same amount of storage for a smaller
price tag. The walk-in pantry is the quee n of pantries, especially if a st ret ch
of counte rtop can perfo rm double dut y as a workspace or temporary bar.
THIS HISTORIC WALK -IN PANTRY
IN A large farmhouse in Vermont
is an example of how handsome
and functional a dish pantry can
be. Basecabinets are fitted with
both closed shelving for larger
pieces and drawers for silverware
and linens. Shelves are supported
on cleats and corner posts.
NARROW, ADJUSTABLE SHELVES,
WHICH OFFER easily accessed stor-
age, line a small walk-in pantry,
also home to the microwave.
A pocket door is a space-saving
choice in this tight corner.
SHALLOW BUILT-IN PANTRY
SHElVES WITH GUARDRAILS make
good use of th is space alongside
the stair between the lower level
and the kitchen.
Sizing up Pantry Shelves
P
ANTRY SHELVES SHOULD BE DEEP ENOUGHto hold one to four items front to
back, but shallow enough to see contents easily. Go for 4 in. to 8 in.
for cans, 8 in. to 10 in. for cookbooks, 12 in. for cereal boxes, and deeper
for really big stuff, such as bulk bags of dog food.
Take a cue from grocery stores and stack items front to back first,
then side-to-side. Not all the pantry has to be at grab-and-go height;
take shelves all the way to the ceiling for storing light-weight bulk items,
such as paper towels and picnic baskets, and keep a stepstool handy.
72 I Open Shelvcs and PCIlItI·ics
THIS PANTRY, SITUATED OFFTHE BACK DOOR OFTHE
HOME, works as a drop-off spot for groceries and
makes putting dry goods away a breeze. Shallow
adjustable shelves on the back wall are a practical
two-cans deep, while 2-ft.-wide cabinets and shelves
at right handle dishes and larger objects.
WHY HIDE DISHESIN CABINETS WHENYOU can show
them off? This eclectic collection is a centerpiece at a
major int e rsect ion between kitchen, dining room, and
living room. The refin ished doors were salvaged from
an old house and fitted with simple inset ring pulls
and no latches.
Open Slicll'l's alld Pan tries I 73
THECABINETS IN THIS CHEERFUL
PANTRY have the same Shaker-
style doors as the kitchen cabinets
but are maple instead of cherry.
Continuing in a lighter tone, the
countertop is white solid surface
and the adjustable shelves are
painted white.
THISWALK-IN PANTRY IS FinED
WITH FACE·FRAME cases and fixed
shelves supported on cleats and
strengthened by a corner post.
The traditional design of wide-
base cabinets provides potential
workspace.
74 \ Open Shelvesand Pantr ies
THIS PANTRY PROVIDESSTORAGE
SPACE FOR DISHWARE, cookware,
and baking tools; a microwave is
squeezed in, too, for occasional
menial tasks, such as defrosting.
THESE SIDE-BY-SIDE PANTRIES ARE FinED with the same type of
shelves and support systems, but the shelves are conf igured and spaced
in different ways. All shelves are '.I. -in. plywood faced with a ,,/,-in. edge
band and laminated with melamine to make a tough surface. Support is
provided by metal brackets that can be adjusted along metal standards
attached to the wall. A U-shaped configuration works well with smaller
items, whether dishes or jars, and deeper, stra ight shelves handle large
serving pieces.
Opel1 Shelves and Pan tries I75
Butler's Pantries
T
HE BUTLER'S PANTRY is a traditional room that has seen a rebirth,
even though butlers are largely extinct. Positioned between the
dining room and the strictly utilitarian kitchen, the butler's
pantry acted as a transition between the formal public space and the
working space. Cabinets were nicely finished for storing dishes, glass-
ware, cutlery, and linens, and a sink was provided for washing dishes
and glassware. loday's butler's pantry offers the same transition and
spacefor storing dishware, and gives the cook some respite from
interlopers, especially if the space is fitted with a small refrigerator
and a bar.
76 I Open Shelves and Pantries
THIS BUTLER'S PANTRY ALSO PROVIDES
a cozy workspace for baking, with a
niche for a mixer and a lowered
counter perfect for making pastry and
kneading dough.
THISBUTLER'S PANTRY FIT FOR COMPANY
offers both closed and open storage for
the family dishes, including thick plate
rails wide enough to hold serving
pieces. The stainless-steel countertop
with integral sink caps a dishwasher,
cabinets, and an undercabinet refriger-
ator designated for beverages.
THIS PUll·OUT PANTRY BUILT
INTO CUSTOMCABINETRY requires
sturdy hardware to carry the load
of canned goods and other heavy
food items. Because shelves are
narrow, this pantry allows for
quick and easy retrieval.
THIS FORMER CHINA closet finds
a new life as a wine cellar. Simple
plywood cases are fitted with
slide-out shelves. The room, kept
cool year-round, also serves as
storage space for soft drinks,
chocolate, and cold storage when
party preparations are underway.
01'1' 11 S!tehn (lm/Pa l1 n i.. I n
Countertops
and Sinks
I
t's fair to say that the countert op is like the ca rpenter's workbe nch: It's whe re we lay out
supplies, peel and cho p, roll and kn ead, mix and se rve . It needs to be to ugh, level ,
smooth, and large eno ugh for the work we do. It's not eno ugh to be big, tou gh , and ver-
satile, however ; couruertops have to look goocl, too . But the cho ices are dizzying, not on ly
for countert op mat erial bu t also for finish and edge treatments , co nnec tions to sinks, and
connec tions to backspl ash es. Today, a good answer is multipl e cho ice, and selecting different
countert op materials to suit different tasks is freq ue ntly the answer.
Choosing a countert op is best done whe n choosing a si nk so t he two fun ct ion , visua lly
an d prac tically, in concert wi t h one ano t her. It may not be a s howstopper like a ran ge, bu t a
si nk is t he hardest -wo rking item in a ki tche n, so you won't regret spending a little more for
a st ur dy, big-en ou gh , good- looking sink-or two . It 's not surpri sin g that two-thirds of new
kitche ns have a second sink-it's a great way to preserve kitchen harmon y.
GENEROUS COUNTERTOPS AND TWO SINKS make this a comfortable kitchen for a fam ily. Each sink has a tall
gooseneck faucet that makes it easy to fill big pots. The granite coun tertop overhangs just enough to invite
sitt ing on bar stools, the perfect spot for homework, conve rsat ion, or an informal meal.
Countertops and Backsplashes
S
Uf-FI C1EN-J. l.OMFORT;\ Il I. I' COUNTER SPACE is crucial in the ki tche n.
The accompa nying backspl ash serves many pur poses. from visual
inte res t , to wall pro tection, to eas ing cleanup. The materials cho -
sen for both s ho u ld be ca ref ully consi dered on all fron ts, fro m budget,
to durabil ity, to looks .
A kitchen needs at least one 36-in. cont inuous courue rtop, preferabl y
si nk-side. For two cooks, doubl e that , but keep th e workspaces separ ate if
possible. Refrigerat ors and cooktops need landing sp aces (15 in. or more
if possible) on one or two sides.
Counrertop heigh t s ho uld be dict ated by preferen ce and the purpose
the sur face will serv e. Whi le th e s tandard is 36 in., a couruertop used fo r
cutt ing should be from 4 in. to 6 in . below your bent el bow Kneading
bread and rolling pas try arc easi er on lower surfaces, while dining coun-
tertops can range from table height (29 in. to 30 in.) to 42 in.
BACKSPLASH HEIGHTSSHOULD BE
VARIED to suit the needs of a
particular area. This granite back-
splash stops just under the win-
dowsill , which is a little higher
than usual to avoid wate r damage.
For the rest of th e backsplash
area, the wall is f inished with
bead board, a hard ier surface than
painted gypsum board.
80 I COIl II[cr! nps (wd Si ll ks
COUNTERTOP HEIGHTS IN THIS
KITCHEN vary to suit the task,
with a 42-in. -high countertop
anchoring the end of a U-shaped
configuration of maple cabinets.
The cant ilevered stone counter
with eased edges gets necessary
support from wood brackets.
THESE SPANISH TILES, CALLED
NIMES TACO, are patterned after
Indian fabric designs. They are
commonly used as accent
tiles, but here they make a rich
patchwork backsplash behind a
professional-style range.
Corl/l ro r"I ' ) ,111,/ 5;11 11 181
UNCOMMON COUNTERTOP
MATERIALS ARE THE HALLMARK in
this handsome kitchen . In the
foreground is a 3-in.-thick teak
countertop with eased edges.
Countertops at the cooktop and
side cabinets are Durango lime-
stone, finished with a sealer.
Side-counter backsplashes are
the same Durango with inlaid
squares of mother-of-pearl in
alternating colors.
PAINTED BEADBOARD PROVIDES
THEPRIMARY BACKSPLASH material
in this kitchen, but at the range
tile makes a handsome heat - and
moisture-proof backsplash. The
saying on the hood , " Who art
thou with footsteps rude/that
darst within my cell intrude,"
is the coda of a hardworking
solo cook.
82 I COl" llrr LO ps (j/1(1 Sinlls
A MEDLEY OF COUNTERTOP
MATERIALS AND TEXTURES harmo-
nize in this handsome fam ily
kitchen. Honed slate makes an
elegant countertop, backsplash,
and aproned sink, while pol ished
granite covers the island-except
for a good-size chunk carved out
to fit a lowered end -grain
butcherblock.
HAND-PAINTED TILES MAKE A HEAT-
PROOF ANDdecorat ive backsplash
alongside and above the profes -
sional range in th is kitchen that's
home to cookbook authors. A
wooden pull-out cutt ing board pro-
vides space for slicing and dicing,
saving the granite countertops for
other tasks.
Counlcr /ops {/I,dSink-
A CHANNEL WAS CARVED INTO
THIS GRANITE COUNTERTOP for the
sole purpose of holding eggs-
a clever detail designed by the
owner, who is a professional cook-
book writer and baker.
TO KEEP KNIVES CLOSE TO THE
CUTTING BOARD yet safely out of
reach, a slot was cut out of thi s
granite countertop to accommo-
date a plastic box fitted with a
wood cap. The wood cap contains
slots fitted to the various sizes
of blades, and the box can be
removed to empty any crumbs.
84 I CO ll lllC Il <lI'S (mel Sill/IS
I
PLASTIC LAMINATE & SOLID-SURFACING
LIGHT COLORS BRIGHTEN AN
URBAN San Francisco kitchen
wit h no windows. Light , square-
edged solid-surface countertops
and rectangular, sandblasted -
glass tiles make a cool contrast
to the warmer colors of Sitka
spruce and Douglas fir cabinets.
A HOUSE IN THE NORTHWEST WITH A DESIGN based
on national parks vernacular uses less-expensive
modern materials that are in sympathy with native
stone and wood. The countertops are solid -surface in
a neutral stone color. A second-level countertop con-
ceals lighting and dish storage on the cooking side.
COUII (r rt op' <lIJd Silllzs I 8S
r
PLASTIC-LAMINATE COUNTERTOPS & BACKSPLASHES
A fact ory backsplash
is inexpensive and makes
a w atert ight connect ion
t o the count ert op.
The brown li ne seen i n a
plastlc-larni nat e self-edge
will be hardl y visible if lami-
nat e is dar k and patterned,
like thi s. Solid-core laminate
has no dark core but is more
expensive and br ittle.
A bevel-edge plasti c-laminate
mo lding in th e same or
contrast ing color is glued
to the count ertop edge so
that no dark lines show.
A wood or metal edge trim
and a backsplash of a different
material can give plastic
laminate the look of a more
expensive countertop material.
THERE'S NOREASON TOSTICK WITHJUST one solid -surface color or texture i n a kitchen. Perimet er cabinets are
topped w ith a light gray solid-surface with a ston elik e pattern. For accent , the islan d countertop is topped with
a dark gray pattern.
86 ICoun[rrwps and Sinks
THECOUNTERTOP ALONG THE WALL
INTHISCOMFORTABLE kitchen is
plast ic laminate with a bull nosed
wood nosing and wood trim at
the bottom of the tile backsplash.
The island is solid-surface with
enough overhang to make stand-
ing at the counter easy.
Plastic Laminate
P
LASTIC LAMINATE may not be the latest rage, but it's still
used in most kitchens for the same reasons that it
surged to prominence in the mld-aoth century: It is
easy to install, is easy to clean, has good stain resistance,
and is economical. The downside? Plastic laminate is not
impervious to stains, can't be cut on without damage, can't
be repaired, and scorches easily, though high-wear, extra
thick,fire-retardant plastic laminate is available for more
money.Also,while plastic laminate itself resists water, if
water gets into a seam it can damage the substrate, so it's
imperative to seal the sink cutout and all other joints.
One aesthetic drawback to plastic laminate-the dark
lineofthe Kraft-paper core visible along a square edge-
can easily be covered by an edge band of wood or metal or
by beveling the plastic laminate. If you want a more inter-
esting look, digital printing now allows laminate to mimic
stone, wood, and other materials with great accuracy.
THIS PLASTIC-LAMINATE COUNTERTOP HAS BEEN
ENHANCED with wood trim and is inset with a
wood knife holder, which keeps knives safe but
at hand near the cooktop.
COII/lIn rol" e1/1{l 'iillh I 87
Solid-Surfacing
A
Lin LE OVER 35YEARS OLD, solid-surfacing is made
from polyester or acrylic resin in addition to a
mineral filler. Its homogenous quality allows
minor scratches to be sanded away, and it is nonporous,
easy to clean, highly stain resistant, and can be formed
with integral sinks and backsplashes. Solid-surfacing
edges can take just about any profile, and it can be
I
I I
formed with color accents at edges or anywhere else on
the surface.
Drawbacks to solid-surfacing are its high relative cost (it
can cost 10 times as much as plastic laminate and as much
as some stones) and its vulnerability to heat-don't set a
hot pot directly on solid-surfacing, as there's a slight possi-
bility it can melt or crack.
A WHITE SOLID-SURFACE COUNTERTOP WITH EASED EDGES brightens an urban kitchen that has only one window.
Flat white 4-in.-square tile makes a water- and heatproof backsplash. The space is between the cabinets is filled
with flat trim topped with crown molding and painted a darker gold to match the softwood floor.
88 I COUlJ(crtops and Sinll s
BULLNOSED SOLlD·SURFACE
MAKES A DURABLE, easy-to-clean
countertop for one Lof a big
kitchen island. This countertop
prov ides food prep and buffet
space that serves the bilevel
wood-topped leg of the island.
SO LID-SURFACE COUNTERTOPS & BACKSPLASHES
Solid- surface countertop edges can be shaped to
manyprofiles or can be given wood or metal tr im.
Asquare edge with A single thickness can be An integral backsplash
slightl y eased corner s shaped with a bullnose, can be fabr icated with
isastandard profile for bevel , or more complex the countertop.
asingle th ickness. profile, such as this
ogee edge.
~ ~ ~
A solid -surface backsplash
can also be a separate piece.
Here, bullnosed wood trim
makes a narrow shelffor spices.
So lid surfacing can be This double-l ayer edge Stripes of contrast ing This edge is doubled and
doubled at the edge for has an ogee on top and colors or more complex given a bullnose profile.
a beefier look.This profile a Dupont profile on the patterns can be inlaid
is beveled top and bottom. bottom layer. in the shop.
COUll t crto ps and Sinfzs 189
WOOD
THIS ISLAND IS WELL-USED EDGE·
GRAINED BUTCHER BLOCK, while a
traditional end -grain chopping
block by the range looks beefy but
has taken on a more subordinate
role as a landing place for hot
pots and a place to store tools.
THESE WOOD COUNTERTOPS ARE
FACE-GRAIN- not for cutting an-
sa they received several coats of
polyurethane. For looks and water
resistance, the soapstone sink is
lowered and surrounded by a
soapstone rim and backsplash.
90 \ Counz crrops and Sinks
WOOD COUNTERTOPS
Traditional butcher block has end grain
exposed. This makes a strong surface
for chopping but is porous .
Butcher block with edge grain exposed
ma kes a surface that is less porous and
not quite as tough as end-grain butcher
block. Hard maple is commonly used
for it s st rengt h and dense grain.
A RUSTIC RETREAT ONTHE ST.
LAWRENCE RIVER has a kitchen
island w ith enough workspace
for the whole family. All counter­
tops are thick edge -grained wood
with eased edges for comfortable
leaning. The big farmhouse-style
sink with grooved drainboard is
soapstone.
I
,/
Face-grain (also called board or plank)
countertops are not strong enough to be
used for chopping but make handsome
surfaces for oth er uses.
Nosings can be square (also called flat),
square with eased edges, radiused, bullnosed,
or given profiles like more complex wood trim.
CO Ul1 tcr£Ops al1d Si l1f1s I 9'
The Beauty and Bane of Wood
W
OOD OF MANY SPECIES can work beautifully as a
countertop material if it is properly finished
and maintained. In addition to its visual
warmth and soft sound, it's easy on dishes and glassware
and can be shaped into many profiles and configurations;
on the downside, it's susceptible to water damage and
scarring and costs around twice as much as plastic lami­
nate. Choosing the proper type of wood countertop and
finish will help ensure both aesthetic appeal and longevity.
Butcher block is one of the most common types of wood
countertops, but the term "butcher block" has more than
one meaning. It traditionally refers to end-grain butcher
block, which is porous and thus considered unsanitary for
restaurant work (but you may feel otherwise, considering
some recent studies indicating that wood cutting boards
may retain less bacteria than plastic). Today, residential
butcher block refers to l'/.-in. hard-maple strips laminated
together with edge grain up. Edge-grain butcher block is
less porous than end grain but not as hard, so while you
can cut on it, it'll splinter more than end grain.
Face-grain wood (wider boards) is too soft for cutting
but makes a handsome serving or eating countertop. Many
species, such as cherry, teak, or oak, can be used for this
type of countertop, since you won't be cutting on it.
Your happiness with a wood countertop depends both
on a love for the patina it will develop and on diligent
maintenance. Sand out scratches or consider them part of
the character. Awood countertop used for chopping fruits
and vegetables (cut meats only on portable, washable cut­
ting boards) can be left unsealed and maintained with
periodic rubdowns with mineral, tung, linseed, or other
nontoxic oil.
Wood's Achilles heel is susceptibility to water damage.
Rather than air drying wood countertops, dry them thor­
oughly with dish or paper towels. Wood that won't be
used for cutting can be sealed with countertop-friendly
polyurethane (undersides, too, to prevent warping), and
any wood countertop around a sink requires several coats
on all surfaces.
INTHISWARM-COLORED
KITCHEN ALL COUNTERTOPS are
edge-grain butcherblock. To
continue the theme of warm
tones, the range hood, towels,
faucets, hammered bar sink,
and light fixtures are all cop­
per or brass. In contrast, an
immense, bright-white
ceramic farmhouse sink is
the centerpiece.
92 I COLlIltCn OpS Cl nd Sinils
METALS
THIS CUSTOM·MADE STAINLESS­
STEEL COUNTERTOP has an integral
sink and backsplash, with a large
bowl for big pots and pans and
a smaller bowl for washing
vegetables.
METAL COUNTERTOPS & BACKSPLASHES
Stainless steel, zinc, and copper make waterproof countertops,
especially if formed with integral backsplashes. Stainless steel
Quilted metal
is heatproof, wh ile copper and zinc may require protection
backsplash or
from very hot pots and pans. Unlike stainless steel, copper metal tiles/
and zinc will acquire a patina. Copper is often given
applied to
Integral backsplash
backing
an instant patina with heat or chemicals .
bends back to make
a q-in. backsplash .
Tile or another
Bent integral
material can
backsplash
complete the
backsplash .
A t-in , or thicker A marine edge is A metal countertop A bullnosed metal
square bent edge is angled upward to can be bent over the nosi ng is strong
a standard nosing. contain spills. edge of substrate and comfortable
and covered with to lean against.
wood tr im .
Countcrrops all d Sinh; I93
Stainless Steel and Other Metals
T
HE ULTIMATE IN RESISTANCE to water, staining, and heat
is, of course, stainless steel, the countertop of
choice in restaurants everywhere. It can be shaped
and seamed to provide an integral nosing, as well as an in­
tegral backsplash and sink. Stainless steel has a long, long
life, and after the first few months, when every fingerprint
and scratch shows up, it will develop a patina that hides
minor scratches.
The strongest stainless-steel countertops are ie gauge
to ta gauge (the lower the number, the thicker the steel).
Whatever the gauge, a stainless-steel countertop should
be set or formed around plywood or medium-density fiber­
board ('/. in. is recommended) to add strength and mute
the sound.
Other metals making their way into today's kitchens in­
clude copper and zinc, although these are softer and more
prone to staining, unlike stainless steel. These materials
are ideal for a backsplash, which doesn't see the action
that a countertop does.
ALL OF THESE COUNTERTOPS ARE STAINLESS STEEL, but they've all received different edge treatments to suit
the task. The sink and food-prep countertops have a marine edge, which is both strong and helpful in pre­
venting drips. Around the range the countertop has a square edge. The backsplash helps redirect steam and
greaseinto the center downdraft vent.
94 I Countcltops and Sinhs
I
ORI GINAL TO AN EARLY- 2oTH-CE NTURY BOSTON
HOU SE. t his kitchen cabinet has a new st ainless- steel
countertop, and t he cab inet received fresh pa int and
pulls made from st ock mo lding pa int ed black. Don' t
look for a dishwasher, as the owner/arc hitect opted
for washing dishes by hand.
SQUARE -EDGED COPPER MAKES AN O UT-O F-THE ­
ORDINARY count ertop mat erial that's at hom e in
a tradit ionally styled kitchen with wh ite t ile
and a soapstone farmer's sink.
Coulltertops alld Sillils I 95
I
TILE
THESE BRIGHT GLASS TILES MAKE
A CHEERFUL, STYLISH BACKSPLASH
in a colorful kitchen, while the
solid-surface countertop is a calm­
ing presence. Wood trim hides the
joint between countertop and
backsplash,
TILE WITH A METALLIC GLAZE AND
UNEVEN TEXTURE makes a decora ­
t ive backsplash that complements
the more traditional crackle­
glazed beadboard paneling in this
eclectic kitchen.
96 I COlO1 ter lo ps and Sinhs
THESE SATIN·FINISH. ETCHED-GLASS TILES WERE
CHOSEN after the owners ran a test on different
glass finishes. They sprayed a nonstick spray to each
sample tile, then cleaned it with glass cl eaner to
see if there was streaking or residue. They found
that glossy glass tiles showed more streaks and
sandblasted tiles retained residue.
COll l l calops Cln d Si nk.1 I9i
Tile
T
iLE' SGREATEST ASSETS are its looks and
flexibility. It can take on practically
any shape, color, and size, and just
a few tiles can add spice to a kitchen. Tile
is also resistant to heat and hence makes a
great backsplash behind a cooktop. Glazed
tile and glass tile are nonabsorbent, so
they resist staining and water (stone tile
often needs a sealer to be nonabsorbent).
It is grout that makes tile less than
perfect, as grout can stain easily. Stain­
resistant additives and color can be incor­
porated into cement-based grout to
improve its performance, or grout can be
sealed. Epoxy grout is more expensive
than cement-based grout, tends to yellow,
and is a bear to work with, but it is harder
and more resist to staining and mildew.
Because the joint is the vulnerable part
of a tile countertop, it makes sense to
go for the narrowest joint possible, but
before assuming you can go with hairline
joints, consider the regularity of your
tile-handmade will be more variable,
stone tile more precise. The larger the tile
and smaller the joint, the more even the
surface will be, a consideration If stem­
ware is set on the counter. In any case,
equip a tile countertop with cutting
boards.
The cost of tile ranges from economical
-for the handy homeowner with discount
tile-to expensive, with glass and hand­
painted art tile at the peak. Glass tile, the
new darling of kitchen design, has a won­
derful, luminous look, but if tile is translu­
cent throughout, the setting bed must be
perfect.
THIS BACKSPLASH IS TUMBLED MARBLE WITH INSET ceramic tiles, each
with a charming bas-relief face . Contrasting mosaic stone tile fills and
frames the arched recess over the downdraft ventlbacksplash. The
countertop is honed "Absolute Black" granite with a Dupont profile.
98 I Count ertops and Si nks
TILE COUNTERTOPS & BACKSPLASHES
Coved tile makes The backsplash
~ s a good locat ion
or smaller or
art tiles .
V-cap t ile
nosing conta i
spills, This j O i ~ t S
requires a thick
mortar bed,
TO GIVE THE LOOK
WITHOUT THE OF SOLID SLATE
EXPENSE I '
are laid With'S ate tiles
a same-c I
grout and fin' h 0 or cement
IS ed with
edge and sl te-tl a self-
a e-tile backsplash,
THE RED, CEMENT
USED IN THIS K -BASED GROUT
ITCHEN t
hides dirt bett no only
er than hit
but also gives th w I e grout
softer ese red t iles a
• more monolith' I
hands IC ook-a
orne contrast t h '
figured granite 0 t e highly
countertop.
C(Jl(rJLatops Cln d Sinks I 9
STONE
THIS WESTERN KITCHEN HIGH-
LIGHTS ROUGH TEXTURES, from
the coarse-edged stone-slab
countertops to the tumbled
stone-tile backsplash. Cut-
ting boards on such a rough
countertop are essential.
,
.
.
~ : - L \
I : ..::-... ..,... .. ...
100 I COl" l tf l COpS and Sil1 b
THE GRANITE COUNTERTOPS AT LEFT
AND ONTHE ISLAND HAVE thin, eased
nosings and a high-gloss finish,
but they still look at home with
rough-hewn posts and beams.The
surface surrounding the cooktops
is honed black granite.
AS ANODTO TEXAS GEOLOGY,
COUNTERTOPS INTHIS Houston
house are slab limestone. The
raised and curved bar shields
kitchen debris from diners.
The countertop to the left of
the cooktop drops to make a
computer niche.
Incorporating Stone In the Kitchen
S
TONEISTHE GRANDMOTHER OF ALL COUNTERTOP MATERIALS, not
only because it's the work surface of the ancients,
but because stone is so darn old-hundreds of mil-
lions of years old for granite, and a mere million or so for
slate. Stone is loved for its solidity, its wide range of colors
and figures, and its toughness.
Stone is generally available in two sizes: 2 cm and 3 cm,
although you can double up on the edges of a countertop
to make it look like 4 cm. Edge profiles for granite and
marble range from the almost square with eased edges to
bullnosed to highly profiled with an ogee and a Dupont
combined (see drawing on p. 102). Just remember that pro-
filed edges are priced by the inch.
Finishes range from rough (recommended only for a
backsplash) to honed, which is soft and smooth but not
highly reflective, to polished, which is smooth as glass and
highly reflective.
Stone may be hard, durable, classy looking, heat resis-
tant, and resistant to scratching, but nothing's perfect,
and stone has its bugaboo: Many stones can stain if not
sealed properly and regularly. Both the sealer type and
the maintenance schedule depend on the stone and your
comfort level with how stone can change color over time
with use. Just because a stone is soft does not mean it is
porous; soapstone is soft but less porous than most types
of granite.
Stone is expensive, so it should be accompanied by
good service, but it's also popular, so new stone shops are
popping up to take your business. Always check recent ref-
erences.lt's best not to buy stone just from looking at a
sample, and certainly not from a photo, unless you have
absolute trust in the stone vendor; instead, visit the stone
yard to view cut slabs up close. Some designers and con-
tractors require their clients to sign off on the slab after
seeing it in person. Be aware of where any seams will go
and how stones will look when joined. Beflexible about
joints and realize that thin stretches of stone-between
undermount sinks, for example-are more prone to break-
age than wide stretches, and a 3-cm stone slab is less frag-
ile than 2 cm.
If a stone-slab countertop is cost-prohibitive, look for
stone tiles, and be sure they are from the same source, as
the same-name stone can vary from source to source.
large stone tiles require a sturdy, stiff substrate. Another
alternative to solid stone is composite stone (see sidebar
on p. lOS).
A CENTER ISLANDIS IDEAL FORASTONE COUNTERTOP. as it's not only
a visual centerpiece but it 's close to both sink and cooktop. This piece
of stone is generous but not so big it needs a seam.
COlInl ertops and Sinns I101
EVEN IFTHE SECOND BOWL IS
TINY, A TWO-BOWL SINK allows
washing dishes and rinsing veg-
etables to be separated. This
stainless -steel sink is under-
mounted in a granite countertop,
making it easy to sweep water or
crumbs int o the sink.
STONE COUNTERTOP EDGES
Granite, marble, and limestone slabs are available in thicknesses of 2 cm (about v,in.) and 3cm (about 1,/, in.).
Soapstone and slate are available in '/,-in.,l-in., and l'/.-in. slabs. Thinner slabs require a plywood substrate.
A z-crn slab with profiled
A flat profile with
wood trim below edge. A 3-cm slab with
'/.. -in. eased edges.
a full bullnose .
Dupont profile
Ogee profile
~ p m f H '
Ogee profi le
Dupont profil e
~
Fillet profile
A z-crn slab can be doubled just at the edge to
give i t a beefy look. Seams won't be not iceable if
edges are profiled or the lower edge is recessed.
~
102 I Countcrtops and Si nks
Soapstone and Slate
S
OAPSTONE IS EXTREMELY DENSE and won't stain as much as
unsealed granite, plus it is softer (it consists of talc, a
soft stone, streaked with quartz), so stains can be
sanded out. Soapstone darkens from a bluish color to a rich
charcoal; you can make that change more uniform
throughout a slab or tiles by applying mineral oil periodi-
cally.like slate, soapstone has a more authentic old-house
look than granite. It is easily worked and thus can be given
edges of various profiles, but a squared, slightly eased
edge offers the most traditional look. Soapstone also
makes a handsome farmhouse-style sink.
Slate is subtle and soft in appearance, although it can
have a visible figure, and it's good at hiding dirt. like soap-
stone, it looks at home in any traditional American kitchen,
such as Arts and Crafts, Shaker, or Colonial style. Slate is
fairly soft as a material and shouldn't be cut on; it can also
chip if you drop a heavy object on it, so consider easing the
edges for a more resistant nosing design. It's available in
SOAPSTONE IS RELATIVelY SOFT
AND CAN BE EASILY CUT and
shaped on site, as these counter-
tops were. In keeping with the
traditional aspect of the soap-
stone, Douglas-fir wall cabinets
have hand-blown seeded glass,
which provides an old-world
character.
THISCUSTOM-DESIGNED STAINLESS-
STEel SINKhas two layers for two-
level food preparation. The gran ite
strip in front of the sink is a sepa-
rate piece seamed to the counter-
top on either side; though the sink
could be cut from a single piece of
granite, the chance of breakage at
these fragile joints would be high .
black, green, red, gray, and purple. Much slate for counter-
tops needs no sealer-eheck with the supplier. Slate looks
best honed rather than polished, and typically has a square
edge with slightly eased corners.
Countertops and Si nks 110
THIS COZY KITCHEN HAS ANAPPEAUNG lWD-TONE
SCHEME, with chunky soapstone countertops atop dark
cabinets fitted with black hardware. The soapstone
farmhouse sink is for food preparation, while an under-
mount stainless-steel sink takes on cleanups.
HONED SLATE MAKES A COOl -TONED BACKSPLASH and
countertop material in this kitchen filled with con-
trasting warm-toned cabinetry. The piece behind the
range has a wilder figure than the backsplash slabs
on either side, creating a focal point.
104 I COlln tcl/ops and 511111 s
About Composite Materials
C
OM POSITE MATERIALS HAVE THE LOOK OF
STONE but they are man-made
from minerals or stone and poly-
mers (solid-surfacing is a composite, but
it has a big enough following to be in its
own category). Fiber-cement countertops,
such as the well-known Fireslate (one
of several types used for lab counters),
are strong and resistant to heat but not
always resistant to staining, so they must
be sealed periodically.
Engineered stone is a new composite
countertop material that mixes go-plus-
percent ground-up quartz or granite with
a resin binder. These countertops are non-
porous, like solid-surface, but heat resis-
tant, scratch resistant, and supremely
durable, like solid stone. Many colors
and patterns are available and the finish
can be polished, honed, or sandblasted.
Engineered-stone countertops have the
look of stone to a large extent, but expect
uniformity in this composite material,
unlike solid stone, which often differs
from slab to slab.
A NEW HOUSE IN NEW MEXICO
HAS AN OLD-WORLD CHARM,
thanks to a combination of new
and old materials. The soft green
countertops are Fireslate, a com-
pos ite stone used in laboratories.
To provide stain res istance,
they're given a coat of tung oil
twice a year. The pot rack is an
old gate hung from the ceiling,
and the island cabinetry is a
Japanese tansu chest.
COU/l cacops and Sin/Is 110
CONCRETE
INA ROWHOUSE KITCHEN,
charcoal-tinted concrete coun-
ters were wisely precast after
the sink was purchased and
measured. The front of the sink
was cast with joints to preclude
cracks. Periodic waxing reduces
the porosity of the countertop.
CONCRETE HAS A LIGHTER SIDE,
AS SEEN IN THIS lively family
kitchen. Countertops for the
raised bar and the base cabinets
were precast with a square edge.
Thewarm tint blends with the
warm-tone woods, floor,copper
pendants, and bright tile accents
in the backsplash.
106 I C(l Unl crtops Qlld Si nks
THIS THICK, GREEN-TINTEDCON-
CRETE COUNTERTOP WAS PRECAST
on site and lifted int o place on
cabinets original to this 1920S
bungalow. Concrete gives way to
a lowered butcherblock counter
next to the restored 1940S range.
The Versatility of Concrete
C
ONCRETE HAS LONG INTRIGUED DESIGNERS and builders , and
recently homeowners have become enamored of
this chameleon-like material. Colors are infinite
and can be integral or applied, finishes can be glossy, satin,
or matte, and edges are just as varied. But this miracle
countertop has some caveats. First, concrete must be
sealed for food use, either with a topical sealer (better at
protecting against stains but vulnerable to scratches and
heat) or a penetrating sealer (easy to apply and reapply,
more natural looking, and not damaged by scratches or hot
pots, but susceptible to staining or etching by acids).
Second-and more critical-the quality of the finished
work is directly related to the skill of the artisans, although
an amateur with patience and a love for concrete can make
a beautiful countertop. Paradoxically, this makes concrete
one of the most accessible and one of the hardest to per-
fect of all countertop materials. See p. 186 for an excellent
resource for making precast concrete countertops.
CounterlOps and Sinks I1° 7
THIS CONCRETE COUNTERTOP
LOOKS CHUNKY but is in fact only
about 'J,-in. thick across the coun -
tertop.lts thickened edge was
formed by a 2-in.-diameter PVC
pipe ripped int o th irds. Unhappy
w ith commercial staining prod-
ucts, the owner/architect rubbed
his coffee into the raw concrete ,
liked it, and applied several addi -
tional coats. He sealed the stain
with a water-based floor sealer.
CONCRETE COUNTERTOPS
Both cast-in-place and precise concret e must be reinforced with mesh and reinforcing bars. Reinforcing bars and mesh that is
closer than 1'1,-in. from th e surface may "ghost " (show through), but epoxy -coated reinforcing may reduce th is tendency.
Square concrete edges
should be eased slightly
Concrete can be colored through
to prevent chipp ing .
the body or tinted after placing .
This cant ilevered
concrete is t apered,
both for looks and
to reduce mass.
If subst rat e
Cabinet casesbui lt from '/,- in.
is exposed,
plywood are best for support ing
cover with a
thick concrete countertop s.
strip of dark
plastic laminate
or met al (not aluminum).
Concrete countertops require sealing before use;
the type of sealer depend s on the desired look ,
the use of the count ertop, and the pref erred
maintenance method. Always use cutt ing boards.
108 I COUl1lerl OpS al1d Sil1ks
The Kitchen Sin],
D
l ) N'T ::. KI MP ON SI NK :,IZE, especially not the prime sink in a mu ch -
used kitchen. A big sink acc ommodates big pots and pans ,
whereas the old standard (two bowls of the same size) doesn't
suit heavy-duty cooking. A two-bowl setup with one large sink-big
enough for a roasting pan or cookie sheet-and an adja cent IS-in. bowl
makes sens e if you like to keep a dish drainer in the seco nd bowl rather
than on the counter. Consider the divider between a multibowl sink, too .
If it's lower than the rim, there's less chance of overOow-not that you
would ever leave the fauc et running.
Sinks can be mounted under the counter (under rnount), integral with
the countertop, or drop in (the farmhouse sink, with its exposed apron, is
in a class by itself). Drop-in sinks are generall y less expe nsive than under-
mount sinks, but undermounts have a cleaner look and make it eas y to
brush crumbs into the sink.
THIS SALVAGED APRON SINKWAS
MEANTTO BE UNDERMOUNTEDon
the sides, but the designer/owner
liked the look of the rounded cor-
ners so he butted the concrete
countertop to the sink. The nickel-
plated brass plate for the faucet
includes a centered air switch for
the garbage disposal.
THISRECLAIMED CERAMIC SUR-
GEON'S SINK FINDS a new home as
a second sink in a new hutch that
was built to look old. White sub-
way tiles make a handy ledge.
Countertops are soapstone.
COUI1 lalOps and Si nks 1 109
Sink Materials
S
TAINLESS STEel ISTHIS MILLENNIUM'S FAVORITE SINKfor good
reason. Stainless-steel sinks are easy on dropped
dishes and glassware, can handle hot pots, come in
many sizes and shapes, and are easy to care for (brushed is
a lot easier than shiny). They are also relatively immune to
going out of style. The best residential quality stainless is
18 gauge (thicker than 20 gauge) and has an 18110 content
(meaning 18% chromium and 10% nickel). But 20 gauge is
perfectly acceptable, especially for a second sink. look for a
sound-dampening undercoating. Stainless-steel sinks
aren't necessarily uniform in looks: Some look silvery, some
look more subdued, and brushed finishes vary. Stainless
steel can be easily scratched, but over time it becomes uni-
formly scratched, so the fingerprints that drive you crazy at
first will diminish over time.
Enameled cast-iron sinks look great and are tough as
nails-especially to dropped dishes. Asoft rack or cushion
at sink bottom and laid across the dividing dam can solve
this problem. These sinks are relatively pricey and come in
many colors, but white is both timeless and stylish. Most
models are self-rimming (undermount models require
proper support). Enameled cast-iron sinks are thick, so a
bowl will be smaller inside than a stainless-steel sink with
the same outside dimensions.
Ceramic sinks are similar to enameled cast iron in looks,
but not as strong or resistant to chipping. Hand-painted
farmhouse-style ceramic sinks make an artful, if somewhat
fragile, statement in a kitchen.
Solid-surface sinks are typically integral with a solid-
surface countertop, making a watertight assembly. They
AN ENAMelEDCAST-IRON SINK
LOOKS RIGHT at home in this bright
kitchen. A rubberized pad over the
sink's dividing dam makes it less
likely for the family scullery crew
to break dishes. Apull-out sprayer
and easy-to-use looped lever aid in
wash-up chores.
ASTAINLESS-STEel BAR SINK FINDS
THE PERFECT SITUATION at the edge
of th is workspace, across from the
refrigerator and easily accessed
from the informal eating space.
110 I CO li ntcrtops and Sinks
are softer and more prone to staining and scratching than
most sinks, but blemishes can also be sanded out. Solid-
surface sinks can handle boiling pasta water but not a hot
cast-iron pan.
Composite sinks are hardier than solid-surface because
they are mostly stone mixed with a little acrylic resin and
hence boast the heat-resistant, scratch-resistant qualities
of stone. Composite sinks have a leg up on stone sinks,
though, because they are not porous.
Stone sinks can look integral (they aren't really integral,
asall the parts are glued together rather than molded to-
gether) or they can be separate, like a farmhouse-style sink
with a front apron. Like a stone countertop, a stone sink
will often require a sealer.
TO THE RIGHTOF THESOAPSTONE
SINK, THE COUNTERTOP is grooved
to provide a subtle drainboard.
The porous soapstone makes a
perfect surface for countertop and
backsplash around the sink. To
make a softer landing for dishes
coming out of the two flank ing
dishwashers, countertops there
are wood. The graceful gooseneck
faucet is supplemented by a
sprayer and a separate tap for
hot water.
C(}UnlCrlOps and Sinlls 1111
THIS STAINLESS -STEEL, APRON·
STYLE SINK HAS A RAILED RACKfor
soaps and an extended ledge for
holding the faucet , hot water tap,
and sprayer.
USINGGRANITE FOR COUNTERTOPS
AND SINKSLETS the material's pat-
tern take center stage in this
kitchen. The countertops overlap
the sinks to create visual int erest
with a shadow and to make the
sinks easier to install.
112 ICOu,,(crlO ps a"d Si ,,1is
FITTING SINK TO COUNTERTOP
An inexpensive stainless­
steel sink clips into place
and is trimmed by a separate
stainless-steel rim .
A self-rimming stainless­
steel sink clips into the side
of any type of countertop.
A porcelain -enamel cast-iron
sink is caulked where it rests
on the countertop.
A porcelain enamel cast-iron
sink can be flush mounted
into a tile countertop
(also called a tile-in sink) .
An undermount sink w ith no
reveal (also called a flu sh reveal)
is attached to the bottom of a
solid countertop, such as stone ,
composite material , seal ed wood,
concrete, or solid surface.
An undermount sink with a
reveal is attached to a concrete
countertop. The top lip of the
si nk is visible.
Solid-surface and composite­
material countertops can be shop
fabricated with integral sinks.
ss
s
Stainless-steel integral sinks
are completely seamless.
SOAPSTONE COUNTERS AND SINK,
ARE WARM-LOOKING, durable, and
relatively soft, and hence more
forgiving to glassware than gran­
ite. This custom-made sink is 33in.
by 22 in ., with 11/4-in. sides and a
l'j,-in . bottom. The drain is offset
to allow room for a pull-out waste
bin below. The sink's apron is
chiseled with a Latin inscription
meaning "Hunger, the best season­
ing," the nightly answer to kids
who say,"I'm starving!"
Faucet Fundamentals
C
HOOSE FAUCETS AND SINKS INTANDEM WITH COUNTERTOPs.lf
you can't decide between a more expensive sink or
a fancy faucet, consider the better sink, as it's a lot
easier to put in a new faucet after the fact.
Self-rimming sinks have holes punched or formed into
the back ledge for a faucet and accessories, while some
undermount sinks have ledges for faucet holes and others
require that holes be made in the countertop behind. A
faucet can be controlled by separate hot and cold controls
(called valves) that are either centerset, with valves and
spout clustered over a single hole, or widespread, with
valves set 4 in. or 8 in. apart, Some farmhouse sinks require
the faucet to be mounted in the backsplash. Afaucet can
also be controlled by a single lever, which is easier to
operate, even by an elbow. Supplemental foot- or knee­
operated faucet controllers that work by water pressure can
allow you to use water without touching the faucet at all,
which is handy when working with raw meat or chicken.
Consider how far the faucet extends over the sink and
compare faucet dimensions with those of the sink. A taller
or longer faucet can swivel between two or even three
bowls, and a tall curved spout allows space for tall pots.
A pull-out sprayer can extend the length and height of a
faucet by several feet. The newly hip commercial swing
spout with a 3-ft. flexible hose can turn any sink into a
restaurant scullery, but respect its far-reaching spray.
AHAND-PAINTEDFARMHOUSE SINK PROVIDESA FOCUS IN this bright kitchen. while a stainless-steel undermount sink adds
prep space. The elegant gooseneck faucet clusters hot , cold, and purified water, while a separate sprayer provides supplemental
rinsing power.
114 COUll ie rt IJpS alld Sill/IS I
Ifyou opt for a gooseneck faucet or any style without a
pull-out sprayer, make sure a hole will be available for a sepa­
rate sprayer. Likewise, provide holes for any other sink or coun­
tertop accessories, such as soap dispensers or purified water
or hot water taps that aren't part of the faucet assembly. A
water-purification system that has its own tap will be easier
to troubleshoot than a system built into the main faucet.
If construction is still going on after fittings have been
installed, make it clear that the pull-out sprayer is oft-limits
for cleaning up: Most pull-out sprayers look like metal but are
actually plastic, and paint solvent can damage the surface. If
you opt for a brass sprayer, be aware that it can break or chip a
ceramic sink if dropped; a soft sink mat and extra caution are
helpful here.
THIS SPACE IS A MODERN
SCULLERY NEXTTO THE MAIN
KITCHEN area and accessible by
the opening visible in the back­
ground at the left. A small dish­
washer is positioned so that
glassware and dishes can be easily
put away, and a wood countertop
allows for a soft landing for fragile
dishes. The commercial faucet
makes it fun to wash up in the
slate sink.
THE ARCHITECT/HOMEOWNER
CHOSE THIS CHICAGO FAUCET for
its industrial heft. The double­
jointed spout can be positioned
wherever it's needed in the sink.
The faucet escutcheon affixes to
the glass-tile backsplash, making
a neat back edge to the sink.
Counter /<J fl\ unciSin l1s I, , ~
THEARCHITECT/OWNERSOFTHIS KITCHEN CHOSE SLATE for both sink and countertop, citing its subtle, soft color
and affinity with their Craftsman-style house. A bonus is that they've found this type of slate to be practically
maintenance free, as its soft, mottled appearance hides dirt and it does not require sealing.
,,6 1 COUlllcrlops alld 5illliS
Dishwashers
I
T' s RARE TO FIND A KITCHEN WITHOUT A DISHWASHER and increas-
ingly common to find a kitchen with two dishwashers.
Two dishwashers can take the form of dishwasher
drawers stacked or flanking the sink, or two full-size dish-
washers flanking the sink or taking up residence at two
separate sinks. Most new dishwashers are significantly
quieter than older models, but as a rule, money will buy a
bit more peace and quiet.
THE DISHWASHER, SINK, AND DISH CABINET make a
tight trio in this kitchen , but there's enough space to
load and unload the dishwasher comfortably. Awood
countertop is gentle on dishes, although most dishes
head straight into the glass-door cabinets.
MOST DISHWASHERS SIT DIRECTLY ON THE FLOOR,
but if a dishwasher is positioned on a ls-in .-high
platform, it's much easier to load and unload. The
countertop is, of course, higher than the standard
36 in., but not so high that it can't be used for many
kitchen tasks.
American dishwashers start at half the price of Euro-
pean models, but many are willing to pay for quieter
motors and superior filtering systems. European models
(and some high-end American models) continuously filter
water so that only clean water is circulated. This takes two
pumps, which are quieter than one large pump but need
cleaning periodically. As another bonus, two-pump dish-
washers tend to have more room for dishes.
Dishwasher tubs are plastic or stainless steel, with
stainless tubs costing more but looking good for much
longer. More expensive models have stainless-steel arms,
while cheaper models use other metals or plastic. Most
dishwashers can be fitted with a panel to match (or con-
trast) cabinetry.
COUIl/frlapS alld Si ll /IS 1117
From. Ranges
to Refrigerators
C
ooking and cooling appliances are the kitchen equivalent of cars- big mac hines
with lot s of style. High per formance plays a big pa rt in choosing appliances, along
with qu iet mo to rs an d ease of cleaning. Indust rial -style stai nless- stee l cooki ng and
coo ling mac hines are taking center stage, but close behind are appli an ces that ar e almost
invi si ble, like smooth top cooktops and fridges with integr at ed panels.
While most of us still make mea ls in an d on our ranges , se parate cooktops and wall ove ns
are ga ini ng momen tum, and we've mad e perman ent space for mi crowaves. Fu el choice
depends on avail ability and cooki ng preference, with gas coo ktops and elec tric ovens top-
ping the po lls for serious cooks. High -heat coo king requires ac tive vent ilation to make it
eas ier for eve ryone to brea the (espec ially in air-tight houses) , to keep moisture and grease
from se tt ling , and to prevent coo ki ng odors from lingering.
A refrigerator with well-designed storage and dur able parts is essenti al, because one that 's
badl y configur ed, no isy, and temper amental wi ll dri ve you crazy. Tod ay's refrigerators are
qu iet er, full of user-friendl y feat ur es , and more ene rgy efficient than their predecessor s.
PRO-STYLE COOKTOPS DON'T HAVE TOTAKE OVER THEKITCHEN-this one is a standard 30 in . wide. The stainless -
steel drawers were designed to fit the space under the cooktop, making it look like a range at first glance, but
the ovens are in a wall across the kitchen.
119
Locating Cooking Appliances
L
OCAl'! , COOKTOI' :' . ~ N D OVENS affects how they work and how
cooks function . A cooktop against the wall is much bett er for effi-
cient venting by both hood and downdraft systems, plus you've got
a great space to make an artful backsplash. If you do prefer an island
cookiop, consider an 8-in. to lO-in. jump in countertop heights to pro-
vide a bit of a wall to send smoke and steam to a vent. For built-ins, con-
sider stacking a convection oven , a microwave, and a warming oven all in
one wall to co nsolidate he at.
THIS RANGE LOOKS AS IF IT IS TUCKED INTO AN
ALCOVE but it's really an illusion created by the
design of the stone hood. Rather than fussing
over the fact that the range is deeper than the
2-ft .-deep cabinets, the designer accentuated the
range front by applying wood "legs " to the sides.
120 I h O/ll Ranges co R(!rig<Tacors
COOKTOP AND OVEN ARE NOT
STACKED BUT ARE ClUSTERED
in the cooking workspace of a
kitchen in the RockyMountains.
The masonry heater in the corner
energizes a hot plate that can
keep tea kettles and plates warm.
A STRUCTURAL WAll WAS
REMOVED and a fake beam
added to make a symmetrical
entry to this renovated kitchen.
The cooktop and ventilation hood
take center stage in the new
design . A drop-in cooktop allows
for a big, beautiful tumbled-stone
tile backsplash to incorporate
mosaics. Big drawers below hold
pots and pans.
SEPARATE COOKTOP AND WALL OVENS ARE SLEEK
accompaniments to a contemporary kitchen. Going
for wall ovens instead of a range allows ovens to be
positioned at a more comfortable height .
POSITIONING THE RANGE IN AN ALCOVE helps direct
the heat, moisture, and grease from the cooktop and
oven to a range hood, making for more efficient vent -
ing. The arched soffit and flanking cabinets make this
range the centerpiece of the kitchen, recalling the
tremendous kitchen fireplaces i n old manors.
122 I From Ranges to Refrigerators
THIS BIG, FABULOUS LA CANCHE
TAKES CENTER STAGE in the kitchen
of a cookbook author. The range
has copious amounts of counter-
top space-green-tinted concrete
on each side and granite on the
13-ft. island. Cabinets are veneered
with micori , an African hardwood.
POSITIONING A COOKTOP
AGAINST A WALL with plumbing
possibilities allows for installation
of a pot-filler faucet so that large
pots can be filled at the cooktop.
If only it were as easy to lug a
boiling pot of pasta to the sink.
HOW DO YOU PROVIDE COUNTER-
TOPS FOR A PROFESSIONAL-STYLE
RANGE in a 200-year-old house
and still keep that Colonial flavor?
Just line the insides of flip-down
cabinet doors with stainless steel
to make instant countertop land-
ing space.The modest, thoroughly
unmodern style and proportions
of the flanking cabinets tone
down the range and keep it from
looking flamboyant.
From Ranges to ReJIigera tors I12 3
POT RACKS
A PLASTIC-COATED WIRE GRID
WITH HOOKS makes a fine pot
rack. The black, red, and white
tools and pans add color and
texture to this bright kitchen.
THERE IS HARDLY A MOREGRATI FYING SIGHT to a
cook than beautiful kitchen tools, and these hang
-
from hooks on a stainless-steel pipe. It's tougher to
keep them clean if they are hung in the open, but
convenience and good looks win out over house-
keeping any day.
124 I From l ~ a / 1 g c s /0 R(frigcw tors
AN ENTHUSIASTIC HOME COOK DESIGNED her kitchen
with the idea that everything had to be easy to
access. Her impressive collection of beautiful (and
beautifully shined) pots and pans extends the length
of the island countertop, where the cooktop reigns.
THIS SIMPLE POT RACK IS MODEST but holds just
enough pots and pans for easy access. Pot lids store
nicely on pot handles.
FrOI1l Ranges to R"jrigc/dcors 125
I
Range O pti011S
A
RA ' E CON OUDATF_ Til E HEAT, takes up the least room overall,
and costs less than a separate cooktop and wall oven of the same
quality. The most common mod el is 30 in. wide and has four
burners and a single oven. It's commonly a slide-in model with a raised
backguard. Cont rols for oven and coo ktop are located on the cooktop sur-
face or on an apro n. Knobs on aprons are easier to clean than knobs on
cooktops; electronic keypads are even easier to clean . Drop-in ranges often
have no backguard and offer the option of a cabinet drawer below the oven.
Wider ranges-from 36 in. to 60 in.-are tempting for their vari ed cook-
top and oven options. Some manufacturers even offer dual -fuel ranges with
a gas cooktop and electric oven-along with a considerably high er price tag.
126 I hom Rallges to R'Jrigeralors
AN AGA RANGE LIKETHIS ONEIS
ALWAYS READYTO GO, with multi-
ple ovens capable of being set to
various temperatures, from warm
to hot . The flue circulates a con-
stant flow of air through the
cooker, venting odors and smoke
outside.
THESE SIMPLE INSET CABINETS
ARE A SUBTLE FOIL for the punch of
a professional-style range. Unlike
its super-hot restaurant cous in, a
professional-style range has insu-
lated sides, which don't require
clearance from cabinetry.
ARANGE COULD HAVE FIT HERE,
but instead separate cooktop and
wall-oven units are stacked to
mak e a streamlined alternative
cooking space. Separate compo-
nents also make a lighter burden
to haul to a second-floor kitchen.
The backsplash runs the full
length and height of the wall for
extra protection.
Commercial or Pro-Style?
C
OMMERCIALRANGEs-true profes-
sional models-may be tempting
to the homeowner because of their
blast-furnace power and relatively low
price tags compared to professional-style
home ranges. But today's professional-
style ranges have lots of firepower and
industrial good looks, along with safety
features that you won't find on a commer-
cial range.
The restaurant, or commercial, range is
not insulated like a pro-style home range,
so it can't be positioned near cabinets. Its
pilot lights are always on (some do have
electronic ignition), whereas pro-style
ranges feature electronic igniters. other
drawbacks? Commercial ranges are deeper
(almost 3 ft. deep if they have convection
ovens), knobs are not child safe, and ovens
have no windows, lights, or broilers.
You will see some commercial ranges in
this book (all owned by people who have
cooked in restaurants), but many munici-
palities don't allow-and insurance com-
panies won't cover-eommercial ranges
in homes.
ATRUE PROFESSIONAL
RANGE IS AHOT BEAST, so it
stands a requisite 3 in. from
cabinetry, as seen here. Some
cooks love the unbridled heat
and are undaunted by hot
surfaces, no oven windows.
and always-on pilot lights.
YOU MIGHT THINK THIS IS
APROFESSIONAL RANGE that
found its way into a residen-
tial kitchen, but it's really a
professional -style range,
fitted with family-friendly
features such as insulated
sides and oven windows.
Fro m R C I / I ~ " s to Refrigerators 1127
A BR ICK BACKSPLASH AND A
RANGE HOOD with lights top this
Aga range. The hobs (burners) are
covered to retain heat until ready
to use, while the simmer plate at
left has a range of heat available.
THISVINTAGE GLENWOODRANGE
HAS FEATURES that few modern
American ranges have, but that
many European models offer. A lid
covers the burners when not in
use and an assemblage of oven
sizes, particularly small ovens,
offer energy efficiency.
THISOLD RANGEHAS BEEN
RESTORED to handle today's cook-
ing needs, and it makes a great
retro statement surrounded by
white cabinets and subway tile.
128 I From R a / l . ~ c s 10 R,)r igcralOrs
_ c ,
i ,U I . '
Oven Options
O
VE, S .-\RE THE LEAST EFFICl Ei' T COOKIN APPLIANCES- s tandard
large-cavit y ovens may use only 10 to 28 percent of the energy
expended-but they cost littl e to run. As maller cavity improves
efficiency and moisture retention. Several mid-to -h igh- end manufacturer s
offer ranges with a small ove n paired with a large ove n, typi call y si de -by -
s ide but occasiona lly s tacked.
The conventiona l oven is a radi ant, or thermal, oven , which cook s by a
combina tion of rad iant energy from a heat source an d natural con vect ion
from heat ed ai r. If yo u broil frequentl y, look for adj us table broiler temper-
atures and an element with more loops, whi ch allow for mor e even br oiling.
THIS WIDEFIVESTAR RANGE HAS
TWO BIG GAS OVENS and two broil-
ing drawers . The lower counter to
the left is sized to accommodate
younger cooks learning the ropes.
frolll Ranges to 1129
Microwave Options
A
MICROWAVEOVEN ISTHE MOST COMMON
SECOND OVEN in kitchens today. In
addition to the basic models,
there are several microwave-combination
ovens that join microwave cooking with
other types of heat. The variations include
microwave/convection ovens, microwave/
halogen ovens, and microwave/toaster
ovens, which take microwaves beyond
reheating and making popcorn into the
realms of baking, browning, roasting,
toasting, and even grilling. A medium-size
(1.2 to 1.6 cu. ft.) combination oven can
handle roasts and whole chickens.
Over-the-range (OTR) microwaves
remain popular in small kitchens and can
have a recirculating vent built into the
bottom, but such vents are not strong
enough for heavy-duty cooktop wizardry.
OTR microwaves are also too high for
some cooks and may pose traffic conflicts
in two-cook kitchens.
Built-in microwave ovens look attrac­
tive, but most models are deeper than
1s-in. wall cabinets; that's why more
micro-wave ovens are making an appear­
ance in base cabinets or island cabinetry.
The right-hinged microwave door remains
as elusive as Bigfoot, but several micro­
wave and microwave-combination ovens
hinge on the bottom (not OTR models),
which can be handy for undercounter or
countertop use.
WHENTHEMICROWAVE IS
NEEDED, a flip-up door slides
completely out of the way
into the cabinet. At other
times the microwave is hidden
behind the flipper door.
RATHER THAN TAKE UP
COUNTERTOP SPACE in a small
kitchen, a microwave oven
fits into a cabinet with a trim
kit that allows for ventilation.
The compactly designed cor­
ner is packed with a pantry
at left, cookbook shelves and
a phone cubby, a bulletin
board, several drawers, and a
niche behind the microwave
for the cat to dine.
130 I hom Ranges to Refrigerators
A GRAND LA CORNUE RANGE
WITH MULTIPLE OVENS holds court
under a vent hood that's paneled
to match the cab inets. It makes
sense to hang pots over an island
so they stay clean and won't inter­
fere with cooking or ventilation.
These copper pots hang from a
copper frame and gr id.
Ovens: Gas
or Electri c?
C
HOOSING A FUEL SOURCEFORAN OVEN
doesn't seem to rile up cooks as
much as the cooktop heat source, but
there's still a decided tilt toward elec­
tric ovens. Electric ovens produce a
more even heat (particularly convec­
tion ovens, which are electric). Gas
ovens have a moister heat, which can
be a bonus, and they have a slight
edge in terms of installation cost; an
electric oven requires a zzo-volt circuit
while a gas oven uses a standard
no-volt circuit.
If location matters, keep in mind
that wall ovens are electric while
range ovens can be either gas or elec­
tric. Whichever you choose, don't base
your choice on a model that says it will
preheat in just minutes-nearly all
ovens need an additional 10 to 20 min­
utes after they signal readiness to be
truly heated through and through.
THESE WAll OVENS ARE POSI­
TIONED higher than most to make
them comfortable for a tall cook.
The pro-style cooktop has a down­
draft vent .
FlOm Ranges to R.jrigemtor, I ,.
NOSTALGIC FOR HER EXPERIENCE
cooking in an Italian brick oven, a
Rhode Island cook had this wood­
fired brick oven installed in a con­
temporary kitchen. The flue on
the outside of the oven effectively
exhausts the smoke from the
wood fire so that heat isn't lost
from the oven itself. The owners
bake everything in this oven,
including cakes,casseroles,roasts,
and, of course, pizza.
THIS MICROWAVE FITSINTO A
GENERIC-SIZE COMPARTMENT,
allowing for easy replacement
if necessary. The leftover space
makes a first-rate spot to store a
cutting board for use on the slate
countertop. The wall opens to the
primary dishwashing sink. An Aga
range is the centerpiece of the
cooking part of the kitchen.
The Warming
Oven
A
WARMING OVEN can be a much­
appreciated addition to a family
kitchen, where activity and mealtime
schedules tend to get complicated.
Even though some standard-size ovens
can be set to the low temperatures of
a warming oven, the smaller chamber
of the latter keeps food moist longer,
and most models have an adjustable
humidity control.
Check the temperature range of
models as you shop; bakers, for in­
stance, may wish for a temperature
below 100°F for proofing bread.
Location should be based on use.
A warming oven directly below or
across from the cooktop or oven makes
things easy for the cook, but putting
it between the kitchen and dining area
gives family members easier access.
A WARMING DRAWER FITS EASILY INTO THIS
ISLAND, which is situated in a triangle with
both cooktop and wall ovens, and it's easy to
access from the dining area.
Cooktop Options
N
O"! l ) NLY ARE MO -T :-' 1EAI MADE UN A COOKTOP, but it's also a high­
visibi lity ite m, so it makes se nse to choose one wi th the right
balan ce of looks , performa nce, and ease of cleaning. The first
decision used to be betwee n gas or electric, but whi le most cooktops ar e
still either all gas or all electr ic, there are now dua l-fue l coo ktops that
combine gas burners with elec tric elements below ceramic glass .
Another thing to cons ider is control locat ion . Apron co ntrols are easier
to clean and won't get in the way of cooki ng, but they' re more acc ess ible
to kids (many models have lock -out features). Cooktop contro ls can be
eas ier to access, but they take up valua ble cooktop space. Controls on th e
bac kguard are relati vely chi ldproof, but th ey can ge t mighty dirty and can
be blocked by big pot s. Th e cho ice of knobs or elec tronic control pads
depends on looks an d wha t you're comfortabl e operati ng.
THIS SMOOTHTOP COOKTOP WITH
A DOWNDRAFT VENT is so subtle
that you'd hardly notice it s pres­
ence, except for the gently arched
cabinet above, where a light is
hidden.
A CERAMIC·GLASS SMOOTHTOPIS
SET IN TILE in a family kitchen. A
raised wall behind w ill help the
downdraft vent work more eff l­
ciently and shield cooking from
other activities.
Fm'JI Ranges to Refrigerators '3
Gas Cooktops
I
N ADDITION TO BEING CHEAPER to operate in many parts of
the country, the biggest advantage of gas cooktops is
that they provide immediate, easily adjustable heat
that can be instantly turned off. They can take on many
shapes and styles, and grates can cover the whole cooktop
or just the burner. The continuous grate allows pots to sit
anywhere, but also makes more surfaces to clean. Matte
black grates are much easier to keep looking clean than
light-colored grates.
Today's gas burners can be sealed, which many people
prefer because spills stay on the surface instead of pooling
into a netherworld below, and heat is more efficiently
directed to the pan (an unsealed burner can lose as much
as 1/4 of its heat). Some manufacturers offer a combination
of burners on the same cooktop, from as low as 400 Btu
(British thermal units) to 18,000 Btu (15,000 Btu is the max
for most pro-style cooktops). Both these extremes tend to
be found on pricier professional-style cooktops; standard
gas cooktop burners run from g,ooo to 12,000 Btu maxi­
mum. Some cooks prefer the flexibility of all burners hav­
ing the same power.
Many cooks supplement burners with cooktop acces­
sories such as grills and griddles. Agrill can be adapted for
griddle cooking simply by using a cast-iron griddle on top.
Simmer plates (also called French plates) cover a high-Btu
burner (plates are removable for direct cooking) to provide
various levels of heat for pots and pans-high in the center
and simmering at the edges. Wok rings allow for steady
wok cooking over the hottest gas burners. Cooktop rotis­
series are available for a few high-end models.
A DROP-IN GAS COOKTOP
HAS JUST A MODICUM of the
industrial look but all the
speed and adjustability of a
pro-style gas range. This
drop-in cooktop doesn't have
a pop-up downdraft vent, but
a range hood is more efficient
anyway-and it's a thing of
beauty with a copper patina.
'34 I From Rangesto ReJrigeratol"5
A RANGE WITHA VIEWMAKES IT
TOUGHER for a range hood to do
an efficient job, but an 8-in. jump
in countertop heights helps fun-
nel steam and grease upward.
This detail also shields counter sit-
ters from the cooktop. The range
hood is slim and elegant enough
not to be a visual obstruction, and
it is wide enough to provide effec-
tive ventilation. Hood lights are
essential here, since no other task
lighting is available.
A LARGE COOKTOP CAN TAKE UPA
BIGCHUNKOFTHE ISLAND, but it
provides maximum capacity for
people who take their cooking
seriously. It has a grill and four
burners and two downdraft vents
(black, rather than white, was a
good choice here).
THIS DOWNDRAFT GAS COOKTOP
ISSET in a soapstone-topped
island. The design of this kitchen
is in keeping with the rest of the
house, inspired by the English
architect C.F.A. Voysey, who was
known for designing Arts and
Crafts-style rnanors.
From Ranges to Rr./ rigera tllr, I '35
A HIGH -POWERED WOK BURNER
15A DREAM OF MANY, and here the
dream has come true. Both the
range and the wok cooker are
professional appliances-not
professional-style-so they require
extra attention and forethought
in the planning stages. A serious
ventilation system hides behind
the wood valence.
Electric Cooktops
P
OPULAR SMOOTHTOPS have ceramic-glass surfaces that
cover radiant-heat electric coils, disks, or ribbons.
High-priced, super-fast smoothtops may feature
halogen lights or induction elements. Some love the way
smoothtops clean and some dislike how easily they show
smudges. Electric burners have been beefed up to suit
high-heat cooking; the maximum is about 2,4oow, which
equals a lS,ooo-Btu gas burner. For safety, an electric cook-
top should have indicator lights that show which burners
are on or still hot. Lookfor a bridge element or elongated
burners that allow for big containers, such as a roasting
pan, and use cast iron pans on these tops with caution, as
they can scratch the surface.
Induction cooktops are better known in Europe and
restaurant kitchens. An induction cooktop has a smooth
ceramic-glass top and uses electricity to generate a mag-
netic field that reacts with a ferrous pot or pan, which in
turn heats the food. When the pan is taken off the burner,
only residual heat from the pan remains, so you won't burn
your hand on the cooktop. Chefs use induction cooktops
frequently for the quick reaction time (rivaling gas), super-
high heat, and low simmer. One drawback to an induction
cooktop (aside from a high price tag) has been that only
flat-bottomed, ferrous cookware heats properly. That com-
plaint has been addressed with the introduction ofthe
wok-friendly induction cooktop, which features a concave
burner that heats the whole wok in true stir-fry fashion.
A SMOOTHTOP ELECTRIC COOKTOP IS AN IDEAL look for a contempo-
rary kitchen. Locating it in a peninsula makes it tougher to ventilate,
but that job is beautifully handled by a sleek-looking stainless-steel
cylinder with glass surround.
136 I f lo"\ Ranges to Rc:{l-igemtors
TWO SEPARATETWO-BURNER
COOKTOPS on a maple countertop
provide plenty of cook ing power
for a small family, supplemented
by a microwave below the
counter and wall ovens (not seen)
that share the same landing space
as the microwave.
A VIEW OF NARRAGANSETT BAY IS
TOO GOOD to miss for an enthusi -
astic cook, so this professional-
style cooktop is situated on a
large island with a curved, raised
countertop behind it. The raised
countertop makes a subtle barrier
between cook ing and observing.
Cabinets below the cooktop apron
contain deep drawers for pots
and pans.
From Ranges to Refr igerators I ' 3 ~
Ventilation
HOOSIN , r HE PROPER SIZE VENT dep ends on th e size and locat ion of
C
the cooktop, the type of vent, wh at kind of cooking you do, and
the configur ation of th e exhaust pipe. A cooktop in an alcove
allows for mu ch more efficient venting than a cook top in an island, which
is subject to cross drafts. Th e closer a hood is to the coo ktop, th e better it
wo rks , but tha t may not suit tall cooks . Some cooktops are fitted wi th
downdraft ventilati on systems integr ated into the coo ktop, or with a
pop-up or fixed vent along the back . Man y homeown ers like downdraft
vents for islands because they thin k a big hood will bloc k the view, but an
island makes it tougher for downdraft vents to work well. It may be
necessary to beef up the fan of an isl and downdraft vent.
138 I From Ranges to Ref rigerators
THESE RANGE-HOOD LIGHTS
SHINE NOT ONLYon the cooktop
but on brilliant Spanish tiles. The
racks are bolted through the t il e
into 2x6 blocks that were retrofit-
ted between studs.
A RANGE HOOD CANTAKE ONTHE
RAIMENT of its surroundings. This
hood is fitted w ith trim to match
the cab inetry.
VENTING COOKTOPS
AN ISLAND COOKTOP NEEDS MORE VENTILATION.
Island ventilat ion systems have to fight cross currents,
so beef up the fan or make the hood opening wider and lower.
CHIMNEY-STYLE RANGE HOODS
The most effective way to vent cooktops.
Hoods can be installed from 18in. to 36 in. above the cooktop,
depending on fan power. It's easy to remember: low power, ~ - - - ~
lower hood; high power, higher hood.
~
The wider the hood,
the higher it can
be positioned.
Extend the hood 3 in. past the cooktop for
more effective ventilation. A wider hood
can be installed higher above the cooktop.
SURFACE-MOUNTED
DOWNDRAFT VENTS
Can be located in the center
or back of the cooktop. These are
slightly less effective than pop-up
downdraft vents .
POP-UP DOWNDRAFT VENTS
Work we ll for lower pans and
low-fat cooking. These are often
chosen when a range hood is deemed
unsightly, but they aren 't as effective.
From Ranges to Refri gerators 1 139
MUCH BIGGER THANTHECOOK-
TOP ITCOVERS, this copper hood
is more than mere ventilation. It
also provides task lighting for the
whole island and ambient light-
ing for the whole kitchen.
THIS FURNITURE-LIKE HOOD
COVER HIDES a high-powered ven-
tilation system so that it's easyto
cook on a pro-style cooktop while
maintaining the look of a genteel,
traditional kitchen.
GLASS EXTENDS THE REACH OF
THIS VENT HOOD without adding
bulk and makes a sparkling sur-
face for lighting. A full tile back-
splash with a row of handmade
copper and silver accent tiles picks
up metallic flecks in the granite
countertop. The tile continues
past the edge of the hood to pro-
vide full protection from steam
and grease.
'40 I From Ranges to Ref rigerators
A MILE-LONG HOOD VENTS A
MULTITUDE of cooking appliances,
including two cooktops and two
ovens. Two wall ovens add eve n
more cooking power to this
log house.
LOCATING THE RANGEAGAINST
THE BACK OF A FIREPLACE allows
the range hood to piggyback on
the chimney space, and the wall
makes for much more eff icient
vent ing, along with sh ield ing
cooking from the din ing room.
From Rall.'-:cs CO RrJrigcrarors 114"
Refrigerators
T
HI' RI· FRIGERATOR has the freezer on top, which is the leas t
expe nsive and mos t co mmo n mod el. However, a bo tto m-freezer
refrigerator is easier on yo ur bac k; look for a model wi t h a pu ll-
out drawer, as fixed she lves are tou gh to access . Side -by-s ide models are
the least efficient as far as energy and space go , but are po pular (see the
sideba r on the faci ng page) . Having a sepa rate full -height freezer an d
fridge might be the best choice for ac tive cooking and entertaini ng.
Besides offering pl enty of space, this ad mitt edly expens ive arrangement
ensures that ther e's no crossbreeding of temperatur es or smells .
Fridges can be bui lt in or freestand ing. Freest an ding models are less
expensive and bulkier-they ' ll s tan d out from the cabinetry Built -in
refrige rators-these are usually sid e-by-side or bottom freezer- are taller
t han freestanding mode ls but not as deep, so they can be designed flush
wit h cabinetry and filled with matchi ng panels.
DESPITE ITS RETRO CHARM , IF YOU OPENED up
this fr idge you 'd see humidity-control crispers,
slide-out glass shelves, and bins with gallon -Size
st orage-all the bells and wh istl es found in the
most modern refrigerators. Both the Heartland
refrigerator and its mate, a range with electr ic
solid-disk cooktop, have an enamel finish with
nickel-pl at ed trim.
142 I Fmm 10 Re[rigclalOI s
A BUILT·IN REFRIGERATOR CAN BE
FITTED WITH ANY KIND of panel to
take on any look you like. This
fridge is finished in the wh imsical
style throughout the kitchen.
Pros and Cons of Side-by-Sides
S
IDE- BY- SIDE REFRIGERATORS fill many needs, but may not
be for everyone. Side-by-side aficionados will argue
that their model is easier on the back because you
can organize both fridge and freezer with most-used items
around eye level. Other virtues are that side-by-side doors
are narrower and therefore don't swing out far, narrow
shelves are easier to pull out to access and wash (if pull-
out shelves are available), they more easily accommodate
in-door ice and water dispensers and optional water filters
(these can take up as much as a quarter of available freezer
space, however), and they're more accessible to people
with physical disabilities (it might give parents pause to
know that little kids find them easier to open, too).
Still, in addition to costing more to buy and run, many
side-by-side models aren't wide enough on either side for
party platters or big frozen pizzas, and if your heart is set
on a counter-depth model, a standard 36-in. side-by-side
may not have enough room overall. Tosolve the riddle
of which model to buy, measure the space you have
A SIDE-BY-SIDE FRIDGE MAKES SENSE in a smaller kitchen like this
available for the fridge and for door swings, and try out
one. Open doors take up lessaisle room. This built-in model is 24 in.
favorite pans and party platters in refrigerators at an
deep and 3 ft. wide .
appliance store.
FIOIII Rallgcs co R'Jrigenltn rs 1 143
A SIDE-BY-SIDE REFRIGERATOR
ALLOWS DINERS easy access to cold
water and ice on the outside and
food on the inside. The brilliance
of the stainless steel provides a
cool color contrast to the warm
tones of cabinetry, wall, and floor.
IT'S HARD TO IMAGINE THAT
THIS REFRIGERATOR once had black
panels. Nowit is paneled with
reclaimed, refinished barn
lumber, mostly pine. Handles are
branches that are sanded and
polyurethaned.
'44 I hom Range> co Rcjrigrraco,",
Look at the
Yellow Tag
T
HAT YEllOW TAG on each refrigerator
in an appliance showroom is the
EnergyGuide, which allows consumers
to compare energy costs. Numbers on
the tag include the energy use ofthe
model in kilowatt-hours per year
(kWh/year). A refrigerator rated for
425 kWh/year has an estimated power
use of ten roo-watt light bulbs left on
for 425 hours. Another number on the
tag estimates annual cost in dollars,
but the federal average for energy use
may not relate to what you pay in your
municipality, which can be as much as
three times the U.S.average rate.
Depending on the age of your cur-
rent refrigerator, buying a new model
can actually be a money-saving enter-
prise over a few years. New refrigera-
tors have a federally imposed mandate
to be much more efficient than their
ancestors, even those made just a
year ago. See the Sources section on
p. 186 for the government's Energy
Star program.
Refrigerator Drawers
T
HE REFRIGERATOR DRAWER is a brilliant
revolution in cooling technology.
A refrigerator or freezer drawer
can be placed just about anywhere conve-
nience dictates. In a smaller kitchen,
freezer drawers can be paired with an
undercounter refrigerator to keep walls
free of cabinetry or appliances.
THIS NEW HOUSE IN NANTUCKET
HAS THE CHARACTER of a summer
cottage but all the conveniences
are under the counter, hidden
behind cabinet doors. An under-
counter refrigerator and two
refrigerator drawers are built into
the Island.
A CORNER OF THE KITCHEN!
DINING AREA DESIGNATED for the
appreciation of wine is fitted with
a wine cooler. These units can be
controlled to maintain the perfect
temperature for whatever type
of wine you chose. A lock is a
handy feature.
A FULL-SIZE REFRIGERATOR AND A
SEPARATE FREEZER are built into a
10-ft.-tall cabinet with frosted-
glass doors and birch veneer case
and doors. The assembly is scaled
to fit a large kitchen built for big
parties.
THIS HIGH-EFFICIENCY REFRIGER-
ATOR (SUNFROST) ISFINISHED with
a copper veneer that has been
given a patina with heat and
chemicals. Handles are turned
walnut. Countertops are solid
surface and stainless steel.
WHAT COULDBE MOREIDEAL
THAN AN ALL-FREEZER unit and an
all-refrigerator unit side-by-side?
These have a landing space oppo-
site and to the right. Compressors
are on the bottom, so there's
room for cabinetry above.
146 I from Ranges to Refrigerators
BUILT-IN REFRIGERATORS LIKE THIS ONE HAVE COM-
PRESSORS at the top to reduce the depth of the appli-
ance. That makes for a fairly toasty atmosphere, so
this wine-storage cabinet is for everyday wines.
THIS BIG COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATOR ADDS A PLEAS-
ING contrast in this refined log house. The refrigerator
half has a glass door for easy viewing, while the
freezer has a solid stainless door.
from Ranges 10 Rrf, I"
Floors, Walls,
and Ceilings
S
ur round ing all th e handsome cabine tr y, generous co untertops, and sp arkling appli-
ances is the skin of th e kit ch en : floor, wa lls, an d ce iling. Glossy or matte, smooth or
rough textured, these surfaces will have a si gnificant role in shaping the style and
ambience of the kitchen, not to me nt ion ease -or difficulty- of maintenance. Flo ors,
especially, require as much deliberati on as choosing a cooktop or a countertop.
Conside r floor, wall, and ceiling fini sh es ear ly in the design process . Flooring is a key
playe r in coordinating constructi on sc hedu les , and it's also important to kn ow if any special
finish es. suc h as veneer plaster, wainscoti ng, or beadboard pan eling, will be applied before
plumbi ng, HVAC, and electrical are roug hed out in wall s a nd cei lings .
Fina l fini sh es, suc h as paint , wa llpa pe r, an d t rim , ca n wai t until lat er in the building
process, which is a bl essing. As a real -life kitch en tak es sha pe, it ofte n looks different from
its represen tati on on pap er a nd in 3- D co mp uter modeli ng, an d th e qu ality of light and
s pace might s uggest so me adj us tme n ts to finis hes.
AVARIETY OF COtORS ANDTEXTURES ONFLOORS,walls, and ceilings br ighten an almost all -wood kitchen. In
keeping with the Craftsman-style details, the floor is strip oak, stained to be medium dark . The ceiling acquires
a pizzazz of it s own with elaborat e molding on the beams and painted beadboard in the recesses. Around the
cooking alcove, the wall is finished with skim-coat plaster that's given a painted, weathered appearance that
recalls the days of cooking in a fireplace.
' ~
Choosing a Floor
C
HOOSI NC A FLOOR DEPE"IDS ON Yl1UR COMFORT LEVEL, not on ly
with standing but with maintenance, as a kitch en floor takes a
thrashing. Also consider looks, cost, and ins talla tion tec hniques.
Resilien t lloor s offer easy installation and eco no my, wh ile so lid wood co n-
tinues to have cac he t- especially reclaimed wide-board floo rs : Lamina te
flooring and floating floors ar e new kid s on th e bl ock wit h a growing fol-
lowing, while tile and s tone ar e old favorit es, ren own ed for being no t on ly
beau tiful , but tough aga ins t wat er, s tains , and wear and tear. Concret e is
both a new favori te and an old one, as mid-20t h-century Mod ern ism is
seei ng a renaissance.
Many flooring types ca n be inst all ed over exis ting Iloors if the Iloor is
intac t and smoo th, but it's wo rt h co ns ult ing a n ex pert firs t. If a new floor
is going in ove r an old floor, have lloormg or a sa me- height s ub lloo r
inst all ed under moveabl e appliances to ease repair or repl acemen t.
RECTANGULAR FIELDTILES-
USED IN THE BACKGROUND-
are light-colored slate, while
dark slate squares make a
border around the island.
Dark and light tiles fill in with
a diagonal checkerboard.
Slate, like most stone, must
be sealed to prevent staining.
150 I Floors, Walls, and Ceilings
TILE AND WOOD ABUT IN A
HANDSOME, PRACTICAL way in a big
family kitchen and eating area.
Tile bordered by stone covers the
workspace, while wood finishes
off the eating and family areas.
A BLUE ANILINE DYE FOlLOWED
BY SATIN POlYURETHANE finishes a
strip-maple floor to make a sur-
face that shimmers. It makes a
cool contrast to cream-colored
cabinetry and solid-surface
countertops. Bythe way, refrigera-
tor drawers in the foreground are
disgu ised with wood panels.
Which Comes First,
Cabinets or Floor?
yoU WON'T FIND A CONSENSUSON the
.1 issue of whether to install cabinets
or flooring first. If cabinets go in first,
the floor won't get damaged by
dropped tools or equipment, and
expensive flooring materials are not
hidden under cabinets. But installing
the floor first makes the job easier, and
labor will cost less because flooring
materials won't need to be fitted
around the base cabinets. Flooring can
help protect the structure against
leaking appliances, too, and the appli-
ances won't be hemmed in by flooring,
nor will there be awkward flooring
changes if cabinets are removed dur-
ing remodeling.
In the case of an especially expen-
sive flooring material, an alternative is
to mark the cabinet footprints and fill
those portions with plywood to the
thickness of the finished floor, being
sure to account for recessed toe kicks
on cabinets and appliances. Make
sure the installed floor is well protected
during the rest of construction,
however.
Floors, Walls, and Ceilings Il'
RESILIENT FLOORING
THISKITCHEN FEATURES TWOMATE RIALSdesigned to look like slate but are much less
expensive. Ceramic t ile on backsplash and countertops mimics slate and the textured vinyl-
tile flooring looks uncannily like slate laid with no grout lines.
'52 1 1'100'-5. Walls. <lnd Ceilings
C
Vinyl, Linoleum, and Cork Flooring
LASSIFIED AS A FLEXIBLE, thin material that is glued to
the subfloor, resilient flooring includes vinyl tile,
sheet vinyl, linoleum, cork, and rubber. Many of
these flexible materials are also available glued to a plank
or tile-sized panel and installed as floating floors (see the
sidebar on P.155).
Vinyl is the easiest to install and is hence the most com-
mon kitchen flooring. It's also relatively soft underfoot. Be-
cause it has few or no joints (some rolls are as wide as
12ft.), sheet vinyl is more water resistant than vinyl tile.
The cheapest vinyl is flimsy, tends to yellow, and is easy to
scratch, but high-priced vinyl flooring is very durable, color-
fast, and handsome-and still a lot less expensive than
most flooring materials. Inlaid colors and patterns have a
much th icker layer of color than surface-printed styles.
Avoid rubber- or latex-backed mats or area rugs as the
backing can stain a vinyl floor.
linoleum is made from linseed oil and pulverized, natu-
rally occurring materials, including cork, wood, and Iime-
stone.linoleum was upstaged by vinyl for years, but it has
come into its own again with a no-wax surface and many
rich colors. Available in sheets up to 7 ft. wide and in 13-in.
tiles, linoleum has through-the-body color and it is
durable, quiet, hypoallergenic, and easy on the standing
cook's feet and legs. Its price tag is higher than vinyl, how-
ever, and it requires an expert to install in glue-down form.
Cork has seen a century of service as a warm-looking,
quiet, reasonably durable, and comfortable floor-and it
still does, but with enhanced performance. loday's cork
flooring is sealed with urethane so that it is moisture-
resistant and doesn't require the regular waxing that older
cork floors did. Cork is traditionally installed as solid tiles
that are glued down; now it is also available as floating-
floor planks, with a layer of cork laminated to a substrate.
LINOLEUM TILES LAID IN A
CHECKBOARO PATTERN make
a warm-looking, hypoaller-
genic, and comfortable floor.
loday's easy-care linoleum is
finished in the factory and
doesn't need the frequent
waxing that sent linoleum
into reti rement in the
mid-rqoos.
FIOClI"S, Wei/Is. Cl iid CC illll:':' 115
Laminate Flooring
L
AM INATE FLOORING is made up of a clear wear layer, a photographed paper layer, a
product-panel core, and a backing, preferably a water-resistant plastic. The photo-
graphed layer can look like anything, but wood, stone, and tile are by far the most
common. Flooring is available as planks (these look like wood), square tiles (stone),
and occasionally larger rectangular blocks that look like stone or wood.
Laminate floors are relatively comfortable to stand on and can be very durable and
water resistant, depending on the quality of the laminate sandwich and the installation
method. In most cases laminate flooring is installed as a floating floor (see the sidebar
on the facing page).
154 IFloors , Walls, and Ceilings
CORK MAKESA RICH-LOOKING,
ELEGANT FLOOR, and it's so easy
on the feet . This cork floor creates
a warm cont rast with the cool
wh ite and stainless st eel sur-
roundings.lt 's a tree product,
of course, so cork looks at hom e
with wood countertops
IN THIS URBAN KITCHEN. LARGE
VINYL TILES make a st onel ike fl oor
in accord with st one drawer and
door knobs and stone count ertops.
What Is a Floating Floor?
F
LOATING FLOORS CAN BE SOUD WOOD, engineered in a floating floor are linked together by glue or by
wood, cork, vinyl, linoleum, bamboo, or rub- various mechanical connections-look for words
ber, but not brittle materials. Afloating like "click" and "lock." Glue may be a better choice
floor doesn't really hover, it just isn't attached to in a kitchen that will see lots of cooking. The
the substrate. Floating-floor manufacturers say pe rimeter of a floating floor must be shy of the
their floors can be installed over a plywood sub- wall by a few millimeters to allow for expansion.
strate or a concrete slab (vapor barrier required), or Floating floors can almost float if installed on a
just about any old flooring material that's reason- thin layer of resilient foam.
ably smooth, flat, and dry. Individual planks or tiles
Individual pieces
Top layer is any fairly
are t il es. boards.
f lexi ble material : wood .
or large panels.
cork, vinyl. lin oleum ,
bamboo, or rubber.
Pieces are jo ined by a
Base is a panel product
mechanical connect ion
such as medium-density
such as tongue-and-groove.
fiberboard.
Joints are glued for a more
water-resistant fl oor.
Inst all over plywood. concrete slab.
or preexist ing f looring that is smoot h
and flat . Inst all over a layer of resil ient
foam f or more cushioni ng.
F!oO/s. IValis. al1d C' il i llg' I'55
WOOD FLOORS
THIS OLD PINE FLOOR GETS A
FACE·lIFT with a checkerboard
pattern painted with trans lucent
white and blue glaze. Polyure­
thane protects the paint layer.
RUNNING THIS WIDE -PLANK PINE
FLOOR from the family/dining
area through the kitchen makes
the space appear more generous .
More formal pine-strip flooring
takes over at the edge of the
kitchen and covers the living
room floor.
A WIDE-PLANK PINE FLOOR COM­
PLETESthe all-wood effect in this
breakfast room filled with pine
wainscoting and oak furniture.
156 I Fl oors, Walls, alld Ceilillgs
More on Wood Floors
W
OO HAS SEEN A REVIVAL as kitchen floor material
in North America, appreciated for its tradi­
tional beauty, resilience underfoot, and abili­
ty to be refinished. The downside of wood is that it is rela­
tively soft and can be scratched, especially when big dogs
and sand are prevalent. But wood floors can look great in
an active kitchen if properly finished.
Strip flooring--'/.-in.-thick and 2'/,-in. -wide-is the
most common wood flooring, while plank flooring-from
3 in. to 10 in.-is more expensive but much admired. Be
aware that in low humidity, wide-plank floors will develop
wider gaps than strip flooring. Most wood floors are hard­
wood, with red and white oak the standard species for
strip flooring. Oak is dimensionally stable relative to other
species, and it is receptive to sanding, staining, and finish­
ing. Plank flooring is available in oak, maple, cherry, and
hickory, while hardier softwoods, such as heart pine and fir,
make beautiful traditional plank floors.
Proper installation and finishing make all the difference
in a long-lasting wood floor. Before it is installed, wood
flooring must become acclimated to the house (acclima­
tion time depends on climate, wood species, and the age of
the wood). Oil-based urethane makes a softer, deeper­
looking finish that's easy to touch up but takes longer to
dry, while water-based urethane has a milder odor, dries
quickly (this can also make it tricky to apply), and makes a
harder skin on the surface. Moisture-cured urethane makes
the toughest and most moisture-resistant finish, but it is
expensive and difficult to apply, not to mention toxic
smelling during curing. Grit and water can damage any
wood floor finish, so frequent vacuuming and prompt
attention to spills are important. Area rugs can help out
in front of the sources of water and grime, such as sinks
and cooktops.
All wood floors expand and
contract with humidity changes.
Floors should be laid shy of wall s
to allow for th is expansion .
Cover jo ints w ith baseboard.
To keep especially wide
boards from cupping, ends
can be screwed to subflooring
and capped with wood plugs.
Strips, panels, or parquet tiles can
be installed as glue -down systems
or floating-floor systems.
Thin layer of wood is laminated to plywood backing .
STRIP FLOORING
2'I-in.-wide and 'I. -in.-t hick strip
flooring with tongue-and-groove
edges nailed to subfloor.
PLANK (BOARD) FLOORING
Planks are 3 in. to 7 in. or wider
and 'I -i n. to loin. th ick with
tongue-and -groove edges nailed
to subfl oor. Planks can be random
width or same w idth.
ENGINEERED WOOD FLOORING
Engineered wood is more stable
than solid wood but can't be
ref ini shed as many t imes.
Floors. Walls. Clll d Cciling.; I 157
Engineered Wood
E
NGINEERED- WOOD FLOORING is really
a version of plywood with a top
layer of wood laminate that's thick
enough to refinish two or three times.
Individual pieces can look like single
strips or planks or can look like several
strips glued together. Products are
available prefinished or unfinished and
as glue-down systems or floating-floor
systems. Engineered-wood floors are
more dimensionally stable than wood
and are permitted below grade, where
conditions may be damp, so they can
be a good choice in the kitchen.
THIS WIDE-BOARDSOFTWOOD
FLOOR IN A 2oo -YEAR-OLD house
received a soft blue-green paint
that brightens the floor with a
minimum of labor.
A DARKSTAIN TAKES THISOAK­
STRIP FLOOR from ordinary to
interesting and provides a chro­
matic balance between the light
cabinets and black countertops.
STRIP-WOOD FLOORING STOPS AT
THETHRESHOLD of this contempo­
rary kitchen. From there, the floor
is built up of end-grain wood
blocks laminated together. End­
grain wood is hard as nails and
should last a long, long time.
158 I Fl oors, Wolls, and CeilIngs
Bamboo Floors
I
T MAY TECHNICALLY BEA GRASS rather than a tree, but
bamboo has only a bit more cellulose than wood
and shares many characteristics. Bamboo is touted
as an environmentally friendly flooring, as"timber"
bamboo is plantation grown and grows like wildfire
(it's not the speciesthat pandas eat).
Becauseit isnarrow, bamboo is laminated verti­
cally and horizontally. Vertical-grain bamboo has a
IN A TEXAS HILL-COUNTRY
HOUSE, MESQUITE is a natural
for flooring. This dining room
floor is richly figured and durable.
Kitchen flooring is slate tile and
walls are limestone.
STRIP-WOOD FLOORING IS A
WARM, RELATIVELY easy to clean,
comfortable flooring for a kitchen.
It's especially appropriate in a
traditionally styled kitchen.
-
linear look-think edge-grain butcher block-while
horizontal-grain bamboo shows the distinctive
bamboo knuckles. Edgescan be square (unfinished)
or microbeveled (finished), and unfinished bamboo
can be stained (with certain dye-based stains) and
finished like wood. Glue-down, nail-down, and
floating-floor systems are available.
fl oof'>, Wall , . and Cd /in);s I'59
TILE & STONE FLOORS
THE TILE FLOOR IN THIS RENO­
VATED KITCHEN reflects light from
new skylights. These 12-in.-square
ceramic tiles are textured for ease
of walking and standing , and
gro ut lines are tinted a gray­
green, which hides dirt better
whil e complement ing th e gr eens
in surrounding elements.
,60 I Flocl/'s, W(d/s, and Ceilings
More on Tile and Stone
T
ILEANDSTONE FLOORS ARE BEAUTIFUL, durable, and
long-lived, but hard on both dropped dishes and
your legs and back, although they can be soft­
ened up a bit with area rugs. Tile's toughness and
thermal qualities make it a favorite in beach-house
kitchens and in the warm climates of the Southwest
and West. Any kind of tile or stone retains heat, so it is
ideal for radiant-heat floors. Stone is as strong as tile,
but it isn't always as resistant to stains and water, so
most stones must be sealed periodically. Tile that looks
like stone is a hardy and more economical alternative.
Not all tile is the same. Ceramic tile has a glazed
layer over a white clay body, while porcelain tile and
quarry tiles have color through the body so chips won't
be as apparent. Grout lines are the weak link in stone
and tile floors and should always be sealed to reduce
the tendency to stain. Choose a tinted grout over white
grout for additional defense against wear and tear.
Larger tiles, whether stone or ceramic, look elegant and
have the added benefit of fewer grout lines. One popu­
lar trend is to lay tiles close together with thin or no
grout lines.
GLAZED CERAMIC TILE CAN LOOK LIKE STONE, but it's actually
easier to care for, as it needs no sealant and is less expensive.
This subdued tile makes a backdrop for a dramatically grained
stone countertop.
THIS BOLDTILE PATTE RN FITS PERFECTLY in a large
kitchen with soaring ceilings, a huge arched window,
and a statuesque china hutch.
TILE LENDS ITSELF TO A BORDER
DESIGN, but here a wood border is
used around cabinets. The foot or
so of wood makes a more com ­
fortable place to stand and work
and also gives the tile a more
prominent role.
,62 Fl oo' s. Walls. and Ceilings
THIS DURANGO LIMESTONE IS FAIRLY POROUS, but a
sealer applied periodically makes it easy to care for.
Countertops and backsplashes are made from the
same limestone, although the backsplash is inset
with squares of dark and light mother-of-pearl
squares.
CONCRETE FLOORING
THIS CONCRETE FLOOR IN A BUSY
FAMILY KITCHEN is fin ished mini­
mally, with two coats of boiled
linseed oil, a finish that isn't as
stainproof as sealer, but that
makes a softer sheen. The slab is
imbedded with radiant-heat
polyethylene tubing. Color was
added to the concrete after
pouring, allowing for the use of
two colors. The border pattern ties
together the kitchen cabinets and
gives an impression similar to a
large oriental rug.
Floors, Willi" (/nd Ceilings [ If
A GRID OF WOOD STRIPS IS CAST
INTO THE blue -t inted concrete
floor to effectively make small
concrete slabs. Providing such
control joints minimizes or even
prevents cracking.
More on Concrete
C
ONCRETE IS CAPTIVATING because of its chameleon-like
quality in taking on color and texture and its
compatibility with both traditional and modern
kitchens. It's a durable surface, particularly when sealed,
and it's ideal for radiant-heat flooring because tubing can
be integral with the floor. Keep in mind that placing a con­
crete floor callsfor a pause in kitchen construction, so plan
accordingly. Concrete takes several days to prep, place, and
cut control joints, and then it must not be covered for at
least ten days. When it is covered, avoid debris and over­
lapping joints that can telegraph onto the curing slab.
Concrete can look luxurious with color added. Pigments
added to the mix will be uniform, while color that is trow­
eled on after placing or acid etched after curing can be uni­
form or intentionally mottled in the manner of marble or a
watercolor painting.
A concrete floor will thrive with proper preparation and
maintenance. Membrane sealers protect against acids and
oils, which are tough on concrete, but are shiny and can
scratch easily (some concrete aficionados liken these to
plastic slipcoverson a couch). Penetrating sealers are less
resistant to acids and oils, but they don't scratch like mem­
brane sealers and they allow color and texture to show.
Whatever the sealer, it must be reapplied periodically.
164 I Floor:;. Walls. Clnel Ceilings
Concrete will crack,
so plan for control joints.
Concrete is ideal for
radiant-heat tubing.
Color can be integral w ith
concrete mix or can be applied
during or after curing. Seal
concrete to minimize staining.
Rule of thumb for locating joints:
multiply concrete thickness in
inches times 32and divide by 12.
A z-in . slab will need a S-ft . grid
of control joints.
Joints should be sawn
soon after concrete is
placed. or joints can be
formed by casting metal
or wood strips in a grid
or decorative pattern.
In a kitchen. sawn control
joints are often grouted
to prevent debris from
falling in.

Walls and Ceilings
TIt E IMPACT WALLS ,\ NIl CEI Lh HAVE on the ambience
of a kitchen, give them attention early in the design process. Faux
painting and stenciling add color and interest, while wallpaper,
wainscoting, and other surface-applied treatments not only add style, but
can provide a durable surface. Take into account the orientation of your
kitchen when choosing colors. A north-facing kitchen benefits from light,
warm colors, while a south-facing kitchen may call for a cooler hue. If
paint or wallpaper is the choice for a backsplash, go for satin or glossy
paint or water-resistant wallpaper for ease of cleaning.
A ceiling offers opportunity for structural-or faux structural­
embellishment. Exposed beams provide a place to hang pots and light
fixtures and add warmth and coziness to a tall space. A coved ceiling
makes a room more formal and spacious, and it can be embellished
with a painted frieze and concealed lighting.
A WOOD-PANELED FRIEZE AT THE
TOP OF THE WALL cabinets adds an
unexpected touch with stenciled
gold lines from Frost's poem,
The Road Not Taken, perhaps to
encourage the family to cook
outside the box.
AT JUST OVER 9 FT. HIGH, THIS
RICH RED CEILING enlivens a large,
curved kitchen, adding depth and
preventing the space from feeling
too big. Countertops are soap­
stone and strip-wood flooring is
Douglas fir.
f'/OlJrS. Wed Is. (lild I,65
PAINT TAKES THIS KITCHEN INTO
WHIMSICALREALMS, along with
the fancifully cut wood applied to
cabinets and walls.
THE GLOSSY, WHITE BEADBOARD
CEILING in this airy kitchen reflects
light from corner windows and
cove lights, making a bright bal ­
ance to the wood tones of floor
and cabinets.
THE DRAMA AND BEAUTY OF A
TREE-TRUNK POST called for some­
thing more than the standard
drywall ceiling. A gently arched
strip-oak ceiling calls up the image
of curves on a boat. Coved edges
provide space for lighting and
beveled skylights are custom
designed to fit the ceiling.
,66 I rloors, Walls, and Ceilings
WHITE OAK FLOORS WITH A
GLOSSY FINISH and glossy white
paint on ceilings reflect light
beautifully in this renovated
Craftsman-style kitchen . New
shallow box beams (mahogany to
match th e cabinets) are fitted
with custom -designed Arts and
Crafts-styl e ceiling fixtures.
THESE EMBOSSED METAL CEI LING
TILES with met al cove trim make a
dazzling and heat -resistant
kitchen ceiling.
A BASEMENT DOOR THAT DOESN'T
GET MUCH USE doubles as wall
space when it is glazed with
panes of commercial -grade chalk­
board to make a family message
center in a busy kitchen .
Floors. Walls. ulld Ccilillgs 1 167
A Well-Lit
Kitchen
A
kitchen ca n be fitte d wi th the finest of mat erials and the lat est ap pliances, but il'll
be a dis ma l place if badly lit day or night. Lighting mak es a radical difference in
how easy- and pleasant- it is to cook, ea t, clean up , and socialize. For mu ch of
the day direct and diffuse sunlight add wa rmth and at mosphe re, especi ally we lco me in the
morn ing. If light is pr ized but heal is not, cons ide r seasona l s hading by wa y of ove rha ngs
and trees , and install interior s hades or cu rtains.
Regardless of how muc h natural light your ki tche n receiv es, artifici al light is crucial
as well. Task light ing is essen tia l for safe and pleasa nt cooking, whil e ambient lighting is
essential for well -being, and well-placed accent lighting provides th e ga rn ish. All kitchens­
especially those that open to the dining roo m or famil y room-will benefi t from lighting
that 's adj us table. If task, ambient , and ornament al lighting are wired separately, an adjace nt
d inn er party can be ba t hed wit h light while scullery wo rk s tays in s hadow. Carefully zo ned
lighting, along wi th economi ca l light fixtures , can reduce yo ur elec trica l bi ll, too.
A BALANCE OF TONESAND LIGHT SOURCES makes this a beaut ifully lit kitchen. The high ceilng is darker to keep
it fro m floating away, and the porthol e window is deep to make for more diffuse light. Tiny halog en downlights
are recessed in soffits for task and amb ient lighting. The dishwashing workspace is bumped out to provide a cor­
ner full of windows.
Natural Light
W
INDOWS ENLARGEA KITCHt:Nby ex tending the view, and add a
qu al it y of light that art ificial fixtures can't mar ch . Guidelines
suggest that windows eq ua l 10 percent of the floor are a, but
that 's a bar e-and dark-min imum. The tren d to repl ace wall cabinets
with windows mak es for a brighter kit ch en .
Ho w a kit chen is oriented affects window size an d placem ent. Nort h
light can be pleasantl y diffuse for working a t a co unre rt op. South- faci ng
windows provide solar heating in winter months whe n th e sun is lower in
the s ky. To kee p out s umme r hea t, provid e a deep roof overhan g or
sh ades. Windows faci ng east or west are a mixed bl essing. Mo rn ing s un
can be a delight, bu t west-facing windows need sh ad es to lessen the glare
of afternoon sun. Windo ws on facing or interse ctin g wa lls mak e light
that 's bri ghter yet less glaring than a single, large window. Windows close
to a wall , cei ling, or counterto p bounce light off those s urfaces.
WAll-TO-WAll. BACKSPLASH -TO-
CEILINGGLASS allows a full view of
the woods from this kitch en.
Glass panels arejoined simply at
the corner. It 's a more fragile de-
tail than fitting w indow fr ames
into a standard wall, but it really
brings in the outdoors.
'70 I A Well-Lit Kitchell
THIS BAY OF NARROW, DOUBLE-
HUNG WINDOWS is supplemented
by windows on the adjacent wall,
making a light-filled, cheerful
kitchen that's easy to work in.
Tiny low-voltage halogens and
recessed downlights dramatically
light the kitchen at night.
THIS 2-FT. BY 6-FT . SKYLIGHT WELL
HAS SPLAYED sides to reflect light
throughout the kitchen. The sky-
light is glazed w ith a double layer
of translucent fiberglass panels.
Low-voltage halogen fixtures
slide on a curved track for easy
adjustments.
A SOUTH-FACING CLERESTORY
WINDOW above this dining area
allows sunlight to bounce off the
upper wall and diffuse through-
out the space. Randomly placed
glass blocks bring in more soft
light in an artful way.
A Well-Lil KilCh cll 1171
THIS DINING AREA DIRECTlY OFF
THE KITCHEN is defined by an
octagonal coved ceiling with
dimmable perimeter lighting,
a pendant light, and windows
that let in a phenomenal view.
MORNING LIGHT IS WElCOME IN
THIS COUNTRY HOUSE, so the nar-
row window above the range isn't
fitted with shades. The south-
facing window over the sink does
have protect ion from a porch
overhang. Light ing is provided by
pendants, recessed downlights,
and range-hood lights.
172 \ A Well-Lit Kitchen
A REDESIGNED WINDOW ON A WEST-FACING WALL
helps soften the afternoon sun . The whole window
area was bumped out and framed at the top with a
steel angle that takes up less room than the old 2X
wood header. Aglass-block panel and new casements
set at the outside edge of the bump-out help screen
the setting sun.
SKYLIGHTS ON BOTH SIDES OF A GABLED ROOF
brighten this kitchen in the woods; trees help
keep sunlight diffuse. At night, sconces shine on
the gable end and sides, and the yellow paint
keeps the ambience warm.
A Well·1.it I\ ird lell 1 173
Supplemental Lighting
M
AKE M O ~ T KITCHEN LI GHTI N , T A ~ K LIGHTING . Position task lighting
in front of you by us ing undercabinet lights , adj us table wall -
mounted fixtures, or downlights 10 in. to 12 in. from wall
cabinet s. Ambient light is best wh en diffuse, as its job is to br ighten the
kit chen ove rall. It can come from a cent ral fixture, down lights, well-pl aced
and ab un da nt above-cabine t fixtures, or several sour ces at once. Fixtures
that bounce light off ceili ngs and wa lls are more efficient than recessed
downlights , which can leave the ceiling dark. Accent lighting acids ambi ence.
Different so urces of ligh t mak e for a more versat ile kitch en . Wiring
gro ups of light fixtures separately allows a kitchen to multitas k, es pecia lly
with dimming control s. Be aware that dark surfaces absorb light and
glossy surfaces make sh arp reflections. Light , matt e surfaces reflect light
diffu sely.
SEVERAt TYPES OF LIGHTS GIVE
THIS KITCHEN the look of a tra in
car. Surface-mounted ceiling
lights add a decorative touch to
the ceiling, while a smaller sur-
face-mounted fixture punctuates
the line above the door. More
modest, small downligh ts provide
ta sk lighting, supplemented by
undercabinet lighting and a
window.
174 IA Well-Lit Kit< hen
THIS WOOD-FILLED KITCHEN GETS
ABUNDANT DAYLIGHT, which is
supplemented by several pendant
incandescent light fixtures to en-
sure adequate lighting at night or
on gloomy days.The undercabinet
lighting is switched at the fixture
rather than at the wall, which
makes the switch lessvisible but
also a bit harder to locate.
THERE'S NO POINT IN HAVING A
TALL CEILING without making use
of that extra space above the cab-
inets. Adding this curved-top
clerestory window makes the
window at the sink extraordinary,
while the windows above the cab-
inets on each side bounce light off
the ceiling.
CORNER WINDOWS DOUBLE THE
BRIGHTNESS in this kitchen by
bouncing light off three surfaces.
Eachwindow has a complemen-
tary light above so that at night
light will come from the same
place. Copper pendants and wall-
mounted fixtures provide addi-
tionaI lighting. Undercabinet
lights supplement task li ghti ng.
A Well ·Li l Kitchen '7
I
About Bulbs
W
HILETHE STYLE OF FIXTURE YOU CHOOSE influences
the look of a kitchen, the type of bulb used
gives the overall luminescent effect. Use the
following as a guide to choosing the best lighting sources
for your needs.
Incandescent bulbs comprise a large category that
includes any type with a filament, including standard
tungsten and halogen bulbs. However, the standard incan-
descent bulb, called an A-type bulb, is what we'll discuss
here. Although it costs little, it's expensive to operate
because it is inefficient and short-lived (only 10% of the
energy generated from an incandescent bulb produces
light; the rest is heat). Incandescents remain popular
because the warm color is flattering to people and food
and they are easy to dim. But halogen, xenon, and new,
improved fluorescent bulbs are changing people's
buying habits.
Fluorescent bulbs are cooler than incandescent bulbs,
four times as efficient, and last ten times longer. Forget the
ghastly green fluorescents in your elementary school class-
room, or even that old 2-ft. fluorescent in an overhead
kitchen fixture--today's residential fluorescent bulbs can
be compact enough for use in recessed down lights, in
lamps, and under cabinets, and, even better, they can make
people and food look natural. Color is measured by the Color
Rendering Index (CRI) figure, which rates how realistic ob-
jects will look under that light, or the Kelvin rating, which
measures color temperature. look for a CRI of 82 or above
or a Kelvin rating of 3,oooK or lower.
The compact fluorescent lamp (CFl) has been a major
boost to saving energy. These bulbs are roughly the same
size as an A-type incandescent, so you can relamp many
incandescent fixtures with CFls. CFls are expensive, but
many electrical utility companies offer rebates or fixtures
themselves at lower cost. In any case, CFls can save
75 percent per fixture and they last ten times as long as
incandescent bulbs.
A COMBINATION OF BULB
TYPES MAKES FORVERSATILE
lighting. Incandescent down-
lights and fluorescent under-
cabinet lights combine to
provide task lighting and
ambient light. White blinds
help reflect light from wall-
washer downtlghts, and the
light stone tiles magnify the
amount of light given off by
the undercabinet lights.
176 IA We/I-U I KilcilC Il
Halogen bulbs are relatively expensive but put out
more light than incandescents and have exceptional color
rendition and beam control, making them all-around can-
didates for ambient and task lighting. Halogen bulbs are
available in line-volt fixtures (120 volt) or low-voltage fix-
tures (12 volt). Low-voltage halogens, found in miniature
recessed down lights and undercabinet lights, require a
transformer to step down from line voltage. Xenon lamps,
the new kids on the block, are touted as being cooler and
longer lasting than halogens, but they still run warmer and
are lessefficient than fluorescents.
Don't be tempted to ignore that little label inside a re-
cessed light fixture that indicates the maximum wattage.
It's safer to have more fixtures than risk the fire hazard of
using a bulb that's too hot for the fixture.
THESE PETITE HALOGEN PEN·
DANTS ARE HUNG by black wires
that mimic the black cables tying
the roof together. Although these
are low voltage, halogen bulbs
provide a powerful amount of
light for their size, and their color
mimics daylight.
SURFACE-MOUNTED INCANDES -
CENTFIXTURES with translucent
lenses and low-voltage halogen
pendants provide abundant task
and ambient light, supplementing
the ribbon of windows in this
bright kitchen. Both incandescent
and halogen bulbs are easy to
dim, so the ambience can change
with the time of day and task
at hand.
A Well-Lil Kirchcll I'7
WINDOWS CARVED INTOTHE
STAINLESS-STEEL BACKSPLASH
brighten an urban kitchen, while
low-voltage halogen lighting sup-
plies sparkle. Alow-voltage mono-
rail track system holds adjustable
fixtures. The suspended plate over
the cooktop and matching ledge
atop the wall cabinets hold indi-
vidual halogens. Undercabinet
fixtures boost task lighting .
AN ARCHED TRELLIS MAKES A
STYLISH SCREEN BETWEEN kitchen
and dining room, and it's a clever
place to hang halogen lights. Dur-
ing the day light streams in from
kitchen and dining room windows.
178 IA Well-Lit Kitchel1
Dimming Lights
D
IMMING LIGHT FIXTURES CANCHANGE MOOD,
make lighting options more flexible,
and reduce energy use (on occasion, halo-
gen lights should be run at full brightness
for a few minutes to preserve lamp life).
Different scenarios have different lighting
needs, easily handled by dimming light
fixtures. At dinner the center of the table
should be lit, as if from a campfire. When
you are making dinner, light the perimeter
of the kitchen so that work can be done.
Integrated dimming systems allow you to
preset various lighting scenarios that can
be called up with the touch of a button or
with a remote-control device.
Undercabinet Lighting
U
NDERCABINET LIGHTING can provide the brightest task lighting on countertops, as it's
situated directly over and fairly close to the work surface. Halogen puck lights or
thin tubes, flexible rope lights, and pencil-thin fluorescent tubes with or without lenses
are popular choicesfor undercabinet fixtures. Some fixtures allow for the first unit to be
hardwired while adjacent fixtures plug one into the next. Maintaining a low profile is
important, and a valence added to or designed into cabinets will help hide fixtures.
Keeping the fixture closeto the front of the cabinet helps conceal the fixture and will
cause lessglare on the countertop.
HIDDEN LIGHT SOURCES ARE THE
KEY IN THIS KITCHEN, The ceiling
grid adds texture and a place to
tuck panels of tiny lights, while
undercabinet and over-sink light-
ing is concealed by cabinets and
valences.
LIGHTING IS BOTH SUBTLEAND
SHOWY in this high-ceilinged
kitchen. A two-light pendant
brings light to the island counter-
top. Range-hood lights illuminate
both cooking tasks and a decora-
tive tile backsplash, Adjustable
recessed halogen downlights
highlight the bay-window wall.
A \I 'd /-Lil Kildll 'll I, ~
THIS PATTERNED STAINLESS-STEEL
DOOR LIFTS UPto display an array
of small appliances. A ribbon of
t iny lights ill uminat es the interior
for easier access.The cabinet also
holds a bank of receptacles .
DOWN LIGHTS WERE NOT PART
OF THE DESIGN PALETTE in this
Craftsman-style kitchen, so
surface-mounted, period-style
fixtures fit the bill.
Lighting Inside
Cabinets
C
ABINETSWITH GLASS DOORS always
benefit from inside lighting-use
glass shelves, too, for extra sparkle.
low-voltage light fixtures, suchas
puck lights and rope lights, work well
inside cabinets because they are small.
low-voltage fixtures can be operated
by a touch switch or with wiring affixed
to a hinge or hidden metal strip sothat
lights turn on automatically when the
door is opened. Another candidate for
cabinet lighting is the notoriously dark
and difficult-to-rummage-through cor-
ner base cabinet.
THE MINIATURE STRIP LIGHTS IN THESE
GLASS CABINETS and the strip halogens in the
toespace provide a dramatic glow in the
evening, after kitchen work is done.
180 IA Well-Lil Kilchen
EACH OF THE CEILING LAYERS IN THIS KITCHEN is fitted with white-
trimmed recesseddownlights for max imum visual impact and illumina-
tion. Additional lighting is supplied by two pendants over the island and
by undercab inet lighting.
IN THIS TEXAS HILL COUNTRY HOUSE, deep overhangs are critical for
keeping out the sun and glare. The window over the refrigerator faces
south , but the window is small. Low-voltage lights provide a cheerful
glow at the sink.
Locating Pendants
L
IGHTING AN ISLAND OR PENINSULA with
pendant lighting can provide both
task and ambient lighting. and a trans-
lucent shade will add soft light to the
ceiling, too. Keep the bottom of a pen-
dant at about 36 in. above an island
and 30 in. above a dining table-44 in.
to 50 in. if the ceiling is especially
high. Measure well to assure that the
fixture is within the boundaries ofthe
table or island. A pendant fixture is
especially pleasing if it can be
dimmed.
A \Vdl-L. i r Kire/lt'li I,8
Recessed Downlights
D
OWNLI GHTS ARE PERFECT FOR ALL KITCHEN TASKS, includ-
ing washing surfaces of wall cabinets and walls,
adding task lighting to countertops, providing am-
bient light, and accenting decorative objects. But use them
with care. Take a look at the size, configuration, and color of
the trim and select the bulb that provides the beam spread
and illumination level you need. Also pay attention to where
down lights are positioned. A downlight that's out of line
with its neighbors will forever make you wince. Choose re-
cessed fixtures that are as airtight as possible to reduce heat
loss and keep moisture from migrating into the attic or a wall
cavity; select Ie-type fixtures for contact with insulation.
For accent lighting, consider adjustable lenses or lamps
with narrow beams. To minimize the look of downlights,
use the much smaller low-voltage down light lamps, which
have apertures as small as 2 in. look for trims that match
the ceiling or frosted lenses that cover the bulb.
Supplement downlights with sconces or other sources
of uplighting to keep the ceiling from looking dark. Some
homeowners avoid downlights and prefer to go with pen-
dants, sconces, swing-arm fixtures, and other surface-
mounted or suspended fixtures.
SOFFITS CANBEA HANDY LOCATION FOR RECESSED downlights and provide task lighting over the peninsula. glass-shaded pendants add
help bring the light closer to working surfaces. While downlights flair and lightness.
182 IA Well-Lit Kitchcll
THESE HALOGEN LIGHTS ARE
DESIGNED TO BE SEEN rather than
hidden. The four semi recessed
fixtures add sparkle to cabinets
that open from both sides. Three
halogen fixtures create task
lighting for the countertop.
LIGHTFIXTURES OVER A KITCHEN
ISLAND are made from wood
turned on a lathe, in keeping with
Southwest and Japanese-style
designs found throughout this
Vermont timber-frame house.
IN THISCITY KITCHEN AN OPAQUE
ROMANSHADE keeps out glaring
western sun in the summer and
provides privacy at night. Surface-
mounted halogens provide night-
time task lighting over the sink,
while undercabinet puck lights
provide day and night task lighting
on countertops.
A Well-Lil Kirchen I,83
LIGHTING UPPER CABINETS IS
COMMON, but why not light base
cabinets that face the dining area,
too? This top-lit island cabinet has
glass shelves that allow light to
bounce around.
THIS BROOKLYN CARRIAGE HOUSE
WAS RENOVATED to reflect its
mixed residential and industrial
neighborhood. In keeping with
the industrial setting, the archi-
tect designed a pendant light
fixture with metal tubing, small
halogen reflectors, and a metal
frame carrying a curved plastic
lens that diffuses light.
,84 I A Well-Lit Kitchell
Fitting In Receptacles
F
INDING A PLACE FOR ELECTRICAL OUTLETS
shouldn't be an afterthought. To
minimize the effect of receptacles,
try to cluster them behind where appli-
ances will sit, or camouflage covers with
faux painting or matching material.
Another alternative is to tuck plug molding
(also called strip receptacles) under wall
cabinets (keep in mind that cords will
hang down from under the cabinet). Both
plug molding and receptacles can become
a design feature with stainless steel or
decorative plates.
Receptacles in islands can not be
placed face up, nor be placed under an
overhang deeper than a few inches. If
your island has two countertop levels,
you've got a built-in backsplash, perfect
for receptacles and safer than below the
countertop because cords won't be hang-
ing over the countertop. Sans backsplash,
an island can be designed with decorative
legs that incorporate receptacles so that
you don't lose precious storage space to
an electrical box. Building codes usually
require ground-fault circuit interrupter
(GFCI) receptacles in kitchens, not just
around the sink.
IT' S TOUGH TO FIND A PLACE FOR
RECEPTACLES in an island, as
there's no backsplash and space is
packed with drawers or appli -
ances. Here, a str ip of easy-to-
reach plug molding fits below the
countertop. Box beams provide
not only a sheltering look but util-
ity, as halogen lights are recessed
into the undersides.
II II..." . / it Kitd,,' " 1'85
Sources
In the search for kitche n in fo r-
mation there is much t reas ure to
be had if you dig in th e right
pla ces. Books can be read , reread,
co vered with sti cky not es , and
haul ed from pl ace to place. Mag-
azines are good so urces , not just
for anicl es and product source
lis ts, but also fo r ads sho wing the
latest products . The Web is , well,
a web, with both threads of gold
and threads woven int o the em-
pe ror's new clothes . Keep in
mind that there is no globa l fact
c hec ker, nor ar e sou rces always
attributed properl y. Th e best re-
source is actual ex pe rienc e. Go
cook on the range you covet, go
to a stone yard and touch that
gra nite you've onl y seen in pho-
tographs. You ca n get vi carious
ex perie nce from Web forums (sec
below) . All of th ese sources re-
quire a nit er , and th at filter is
your own go od sens e.
Taunton Press Publ icat ions
I admit my bias for Taunt on Press
publications-e-l 'vc su bsc ribed to
Fine Homebuilding si nce issue 4
and refuse to lend a Single copy.
And, of course, this is a Taunton
book. Nonetheless , Taunton is a
great resource for anyo ne doing
new-kitchen research . Look to
Taunton books a nd magazines for
design inspiration, for help in
cho os ing kit ch en stu ff, and for
hands-on just abo ut every aspect
of making kit ch ens.
Look esp eci ally for the Fine
Homebuilding annual Kitchen &
Balhs issues , which come out
on ce a yea r in th e fall. These
magazin es are keepers. Each issu e
has on e or two articles about
choosing kit ch en elements , al on g
with several featured kitchens
with in-depth info about design
and materials .
There are many Taunton books
that involve kitch ens; here a re
just a few:
Cheng, Fu-Tung, with Eric
Ol sen. Concrete Count erlOps.
Newt own, CT: The Taunton
Pr ess, 2002.
Handsome enough [or th e co ffee
tabl e and useful enough to hold
op en with a length of reb ar as you
form a countert o p, thrs boo k
offers a co mbi natio n of inspira-
tiona l and hands-on ex pe rti se in
making precast concret e co unter-
tops (t he re is an appendi x about a
cas t-in-p lace couruertop) . Chen g
is an artis t and concret e is hi s
means of ex pres si o n. Hi s passi on
for co nc rete will get yo u thinking,
" I can do this, too! " It is not as
easy as it looks, but Che ng is
upfront about concret e's tempera-
ment al nature.
Susanka, Sarah. Not So Big Solu-
tions for Your Home, Not So Big
House, Creating ti,e Not So Big
House, The Not So Big House
Collection. Newtown, CT: The
Taunton Press.
Web Sites
The Web has compl etel y cha nge d
the wa y we do research o n kitc hen
design and building, for home-
own ers , designers , and builders.
You can buy anythi ng , from a
kn ob to expertise. As with all pur-
chases and all advice, let the buyer
bewar e. Web sites run by non-
profit organizations ca n offer lots
of information wi t ho ut ad vert is-
ing, but don't expect obj ecti vit y, as
every source has a po int of view.
Many Web site's FAQ pages and
links to other Web s ites ca n be
go od sources of informa t ion.
Here a re some sit es I' ve found
int eresting or useful-and some-
times both:
americanlightingassoc .com
Links to lighting co nsu lta nts and
s howro oms and provides lighting
tips a nd information.
www.appliance .com
This site offers applia nc e buyer 's
guides (written by manufacturers) ,
lists of s u ppliers, an d links to
appl ian ce rep air sour cs, mergy
s uppliers , and govern ment
agencies .
www.build.com
This "' Buil d i ng and Home
Improve ment Di rec to ry" has
been a ro u nd si nce 1994, offer ing
links to man ufacturers of build-
ing product s , o nline merchant s
of home product'>. building
publicati ons , and a big list of
builders, desi g ners , real estat e
agents , an d mort gage brokers .
www.energyst ar .gov
This governme nt agency man -
ages th e ENERGY STAR program
that c ites appli ance, that exceed
federal e fficie ncy <tandards . You
can find applia nces that make
the cut as we ll as the store, that
ca rry tbem.
www.hgt v.com
Th is good-looking site offer s a
det ail ed program guide to th e
Home &: Garden television s ho w,
s ho rt vid eo tips , DIY projects ,
crafts . a nd message boards .
www.homeponfolio.com
A direct ory of home product s
offer ed by registered manufac-
turer s and retailers, a desi gn er
d ir ec tory, message boards, a nd
arti cl es abo u t design, lighting,
a nd ca bi ne t layout.
www.ifl oor.com
This s ite bills itself as "the In ter-
net s Flooring Sto re,' and it ca rries
Just abo ut every lloor typ e you
co uld imagine for a kit ch en . I
haven't bou ght flooring her e, but
I've made us e of their det ailed
information about flooring types
and installati on .
www.kitchens.com
The National Kitchen a nd Bath
Associ ation operates thi s s ite
gear ed to the consumer. It has
gu id elines for des ign-look for
th e NKBAS 40 kit chen-l ayout
guidelines as well as gu ides to
ch oosing appliances , co unter -
to ps , floo r." and o t her kit chen
e lements .
hup.z/otkos.corn
Oikos means "house" in Greek
an d is the root of "ecology" and
"economy." T his Web site, sub-
ti tled "Green Building Source ,"
is aimed at prol ession ais. but it
in cludes links to sus ta inable ma-
terials and products and en ergy-
effici ent publi cati ons and news .
www.pcriod-horncs .corn
This Web sit e is run by Period
Names Magazine, one of Clem
Lab ine's resourceful publications
(Clem Labinf 's Traditional Build-
i llg focuses o n co mmercia l and
CiVIC project s, but it's relevant to
houses, too). It provides links to
the actual Web site, of manufac-
turers who make product'> for
pre-1940 hou se s and new homes
built in traditi onal s ty les .
www.superkitchens.com
This site has lot s of dt'si gn info
about material s , layouts, and
trends . all fro m th e viewpoint
of its o wner, Kr aftM aid Cabi-
netry, Inc.
www.taunton.com
Stan her e to go to The Taunto n
Prc-,-., FiliI' HomebUilding. Fine
Woodworning, and Fi,1C Cooning,
where you'll find Web extras, a
few post ed arti cles from the mag-
azines . and links to a n eve r-grow-
ing list of manufacturers, publica-
tions about building, and
information si tes . Don't bypass
the Iorurns-c- vlireakurne" lor Fin e
Nomebuilding, "Knots" for Fine
Woodworfling, and " .ooks Talk"
for Fine Cooning- where you can
get advice about everyt hing in -
volvi ng kitch en s . You won't find a
richer so urce of opinions on
building th an th e generous an d
ardent regul ars at "Brcaktime, "
nor will you find a more pas sion-
at e dis cussi on of gas versus el ec-
tri c cooktops than on the Web
pages of "Coo k's Talk ."
186 \
Credits
CHAPTER,
p. 4: Design:lou Ann Bauer. SanFranci sco, CA,
Cabinetry:AndrewJacobson, Designin Wood,
Pet aluma,CA, Photo: III davidduncanliving-
stan.com.
p. 6, (to p) Desfgn. Obi e Bowman. Healdsburg.
CA,Photo:€) TheTaunton Press, Inc.;(bottom)
Design:Mark Hutker &Associates Architects,
Inc.,Vineyard Havenand Falmouth, MA, Photo:
«l Brian vanden Brink, Photographer 2004,
p. 7' (t op) Design , BrooksBerry Associat es. SI-
l ouis,MO; (bottom) Photo: <0Alison O'Brien
photograp hy.
p.B: Photo , © Jason McConathy.
P.9 ' (rig ht ) Photo, © Brian Vanden Brink. pho -
t ograph er 2004; (left ) Design, Mark Hutker &
Assoc iatesArchitects,lnc.,VineyardHaven and
Falmouth,MAtPhoto:<!) Brianvanden Brink,
Phot ographer 2004.
p. 10' (right) Design: Glen Irani, Venice. CA.
Photo: David Ericson; (left) Design:VanDam
Architecture and Design, Portland, ME,
@ BrianVandenBrink. Photographer2004 .
p. 11, (righ t) Design , Rol and 8att en, Linda Reeve
MaCintyre, and RolfKielman, Shelburne,Vf ,
Photo, © 2004 carolynbates.com; (left) Design ,
Bottjer, Photo:© 2004 carolynbates.com.
p. 12' (left) neslgn : Becht, Photo, © 2004 car -
olynbates.com: (right) De<ign, Paul Bilgen and
Robso n Bilgen, Ha ncock. Vl, Photo: IV 2004 ca r-
otynbates.corn.
P.'3' (nght) Design, Whitten Architects, Port-
land, ME, Photo:© Brian Vanden Brink, Photog-
rapher 2004-; {left} Design: Damian Baumhover,
SanDiego,CA, phot o. er TheTauntonPress.lnc,
P.14 ' (to p) Design, West on Hewrtson Archrtect s
tnc., Hingham, MA, Photo: (!) BrianVanden
Brink. Phot ographer 2004 ; (bottom) Design,
Jeremiah Eck., Boston, MA, Photo;€I Brian
VandenBrink, Photographer 2004 .
p. 1S: Design: DominicM ercandante,Belfast,
ME. Photo, © Brian Vanden Brink, Phot ograph er
2004·
p. ,6 , (left ) Design, Flo Braker, Photo, © The
TauntonPress, tnc., (right) Design: David D.
Quillen, Photo:© TheTaunton Press,
p. 17: Design: Ed Pierce &: JanGoodrich, Benning-
ton, VT, Photo: (()2004 ca rclynbates.com.
p. ,8, (t op) Design, Duo Dickinson. Madison. CT,
Photo , Chri s Green; (bottom) Design,
Architect s llC , Photo o H.
Du-st on Saylor.
p"9dtop) Design , West on Hewrtson Architects
Inc.,Hingham, MA, Photo:(D 2004 carolyn-
bates .com; (bottom) Design , Koemer, Photo,
() 2004 carolynbates.com.
p. 20 : Cabinetmaker:Thompson& Brouillette
Inc., Providence, RI, Architect:ShahinBanin,
Providence,RI, Photo; €I TheTaunton Press.
p. 21 ; Design: GeoffreyT. Prentiss,Photo:© The
Taunton Inc.
CHAPTER 2
p. 22:Design: Kaehler Moore Architects,
Greenwich, CT, Photo: © H. Durston Saylor.
p. 24: Design: Cullen,Photo: @ 20 0 4 carolyn-
bates.com.
p. 25' (t op left ) Design, 0 '2. Phot ", © Jason
McConathy; (t op right) Design, Singer. Photo,
<D 2004 carolynbat e<i .com; (bott om) Photo,
,g,Jason McConathy.
p. 26, (left) Design, Milford Cushman. Cushman
+ Beckstrom , Inc . Stowe, VT; (right) Photo ,
© Jaso n McConathy.
p. 27' (to p left) Design , The Kennebec Gompany.
Bath,ME, Photo ( ourtesyKennebecCompany,
photo by Steve Fazio; (t op right) Design, Weston
HewrtsonArchitectsInc.,Hingham, MA, Photo:
© BrianVanden 8rink, Photographer2004;
(bott om) Photo © Brian Vanden Brink, Photo-
grapher2004.
p. 28; Design: Sa m ue l Van Dam, Photo: IVBrian
VandenBrink, Photographer 2004 .
P.29 ' (t op) Design, Cotter Woodwork ing , Inc,
Speonk, NY, Photo , <lJ Randy O'Rou rke; (bottom)
Design;M-l, Photo:¢) JasonMcConathy.
P. 30 ' (to p) Design , Botje r, Phct c. O 200 4 car-
olynbates.com; (bottom) Design , Mark Hutker
& Associates Architects,lnc., VineyardHaven
and Falmouth, MA. Photo: © BrianVanden
Brink, Photographer 2004.
P. 3" (to p) Phot o. © Jason McConathy; (bo ttom)
Design: Kearney, Photo:e 2004 carolyn-
bates.com.
p. 33' (left) Design , Davi d lyon for Coll en Horner
Kitchen BathTIleStone,Pewaukee, WI, Photo:©
Al ise O'Brien photography ; (right) Phot o,
li) Brian VandenBrink, Photographer 2004.
p. 34: Photo:© Brian va nden Brink. Photograph-
er 2004 .
p. 35' (to p left) Design, H-3, Phoh©Jason Mc-
Gonat hy; (right) Design , Kaehler Moore Archi-
tects, Greenwich, CT, Photo;© H. Durston Say-
lor; (bott om left ) Design, Paul and Peggy
Duncker,Jac kson Hole, WV,Photo: © The
Taunton Press,Inc.
p. 36:Cabinetmaker:Thompson & Brouillette
tnc., Providence,RI,Architect:ShahinBarzin.
Providence,RI,Photo: €>The TauntonPress,tnc.
P.37:(left) Design: Diane Morgan, owner-Archi-
tect , M argie Sander s, Portland. OR; Phot o,
© The Taunt on Press, Inc.; (ri ght) Design, Flo
Braker,Photo: © The Taunton Press, Inc..
P-38. (t op) Design, Cotter Woodworking tnc.,
Speonk. NY. Photo, © Randy O'Rourk e; (botto m
left ) Design, Rob Thal lon, Eugene,ORPhot o,
© The Taunton Press, tnc., (bottom rig ht )
Design;Cott er Woodworki ng Inc.,Speonk, NY,
Pho t o, e Randy O'Rourke.
p. 39 ' (t op) Design, Ann e Otterson, CA, Archi ·
tect: Robert Moser,Photo:<0TheTaunton press,
tnc.: (bo ttom) Design ,f rank W. Riepe, Sudbury.
MA, Photo: @TheTaunton Press,lnc
P.40 :Design;William McClay, Warren,VT, Pho-
to:«) 2004 carolynbates.com.
P-4" (left) Design, David Rogers, AuSable Valley
woodworks,Keesville,NY, Photo: ® Nancie
8attaglia; (right) Design, Tom Moore, Und erhill
Center, VT, Photo:@2004 carolynbates.com.
p. 42' (t op left) Desig n, Brook sBerry and Associ
ates, St.l ouis,MO, Photo: e AlisonO'Brienpho-
tography; (top right) Cabi net maker; Thomp son
& Brouillette Inc., Providence, RI,
Architect: Shahin Barzin, Providence, RI, Photo:
«rt he t aunton Press;(bottom) Design 10 Oakes
Interiors, Borton,MA, Photo: CD BrianVanden
Brink, Photographer 2004 .
P. 43: Design; DennisLarsson, MI, Photo:<S) 2004
carolynbates.com.
P.45' (top) Design , M alcom Appleton.Architec -
tural Association,Wai1. sfield, VT,Photo:© 2004
caroly nbat es.com; (bottom) Design, Mildord
Cushman, Cushman+ Beckstrom, Inc..Stowe,
VT and Rockport, ME, Phot o, © 2004 caro lyn -
bates.com.
p. 46, (left) Design, Andy Mall ow. Phot o,
© 2004 carolynbates.comj (right) Design:
William McClay,Warren,VT, Photo;© 2004 car-
olynbates.com.
p. 47' (t op) DeSign, broo ksBerry and Associat es,
SI-loiu is. MO, Phot o, © Ali son O'Brien photog-
raphy ; (bottom) Design ' Jefferson Riley. Cent er-
brook Archi t ect s, Cent erbr ook . CT, Phot o,
@ Brian Vanden Brink,Photographer2004 .
p. 48,(left ) Design, Frost Cabinets, SI- Paul, MN ,
cabinet finish; KimSheridan, MN, Photo:e The
Taunt on Press. Inc ; (t op right) Design , Taos Red
Cabinet 8. Construction Co., Inc., EI Prado, NM ,
Photo, © 2004 Terry Thomp son; (bottom rig ht)
Design: DeAnnMartin, Builder: Mark Fletcher,
Madera,CA, Cabinet s: Premoule, Ontario,
Canada, Photo: (()TheTaunton Press,lnc.
p. 49 ' (left) Design , M orningstar M arble &
Granite, Inc., Topsham,ME,Photo:© BrianVan·
den Brin k, Phot ographer 200 4; (right ) Design ,
DominicMercadanteArchitect, Belfast,ME,
Photo;€I Brian Vanden Brink, Photographer
2004·
p, 50 ' (t op) Phot o, ill Jason McConathy; (bottom)
Design:Quinn Evans Architects, Washington,
DC, and AnnArbor,MI , Photo:lDBrian Vanden
Brink,Photographer 2004 .
p. 5" (top left) Design, Kaehl er Moore Archi-
tects,Greenwich, CT,Photo: 13)H. DurstonSay
lor; (bottom left) Design .w tr ncn Scott Arch i-
tect, Portland, ME, Photo;© Brian Vanden Brink,
Phot ogra pher 2004; (bottom righ t) Phot o,
C) Jaso n Mc Con athy.
P.52' (top) Design, Mark Hutker & Associates
Architects,Inc., Vineyard Haven, MA, Photo:
<D Brian Vanden Brink,Photographer 2004;
(bott om)
P.53' (t op) Design , Cotte r Woodwor king. lnc. .
Speonk, NY, Phot o, III Randy O'Rourke; (bottom)
Design, David Rogers. AuSable Vall ey Wood-
works, Keesville. NY,Photo:@ Nancte Battaglia.
p.$4' (t op) Design, Flo Braker. Photo: Ii) The
Taunton Prevs.fn c.: (bottom left) Design: Patrick
Kane, BlackRiverDesign, Montpelier,VT, Photo;
1!.1 200 4 caroiynbates.com; (bottom right) De-
sign:FloBraker, Photo: © TheTaunton Press,
Inc..
P.SS: Photo:@BrianVanden Brink, Photo-
grapher 20 04 .
p.s6, (to p) Design, Ann e Otterson. CA; Architect ,
Robert Mosher, CA, Photo.(:)TheTaunton Press,
lnc.: (bottom) Design; Diane Morgan, Owner.
Margie Sanders, architect, Portland, OR, Photo:
€> The TauntonPress,lnc..
p, S7' (top left ) Design, Flo Braker, Photo: © The
Taunt on Press, tnc.: (to p right and bottom)
Design:DianeMorgan, Owner: Margie Sanders.
archrtect, Portland. OR, Photo, © The Taunton
Press, Inc..
P.S8, (left) Design , Di ane Morgan, Owner;
Margie San de rs, architect, Portland, OR, Photo;
CD TheTaunton Press, lnc.: (right) Design; Brown,
Photo: e 2004 carolynbates.com .
P.59 Design:Diane Morgan, Owner;Margie
Sanders. architect, Portland. OR.Photo:@The
TauntonPress,lnc..
CHAPTER 3
p. 60 : Design; Mark Hutker & AssociatesArchi-
tects,Inc.,VineyardHaven and Falmouth, MA,
Photo:© BrianVandenBrink,Photographer
2004 .
p. 62: Design: Noel Bangor, ME and
LaurelTewes,Great Barrington,MA, Photo:
© 2004 carolynbates.com.
p. 63' (to p) Desig n, Craig Hervey. Hou seright
Construction, Newberry,VT,Photo: © 2004 (a r-
ol ynbates.com; (bo ttom) Phot o, © Jason
M cCon athy .
p. 64,(to p) Design, Rob Hetler Cabinetmaker,
Greenb ank , WA, Photo, CO Bill Ruth ; (bottom)
Design: Nina Burnham and Clem Donahue,
Berkeley. CA, Coneret., Flying Turtle cast
ConCfete, Berkeley, CA, Photo:© The Taunton

p. 6S' (t op) Design , Mark Hutker & Associates
Architects, Inc.,Vineyard Haven and Falmouth,
MA, Phot o, © Brian Vanden Brink . Phot og rapher
2004; (bottom) Photo: © BrianVanden Brink,
Photographer 2004 .
p. 66 : Photo: CD BrianVandenBrink,Photogra-
pher 200 4.
p. 68, (to p) Design , Drysdale Associat es. Inte rior
Design, Photo:© Brian Vanden Brink. Photogra-
pher 2004; (bottom)Design , Jeremiah Eck.
Boston, MA, Photo: CO TheTauntonPress,lnc.
p. 69 ' (all photos) Design , Flo Braker, Photo,
© The Taunton Press, Inc..
p. 70: Design; ShahinBarzin, Providence, RI, Pho-
to:<D The Taunton Press.
p.1l : Design: BobBenz,curator.Billings Farm,
Woodstock, VT, Photo:® 2004 carolyn-
bates.com.
p. 72. (left ) Design, Jim Hun tington, Charl otte,
VT. Photo, 11:> 2004 caro lynbates.com; (rig ht)
SandraVitzhum. Montpelier, VT, Photo;
Cl 2004 carolynbates.corn
p.73' (t op) De' ign, Frost cabinet s. 51-Paul, MN,
Archit ect : M j( h.l cl Sha ratt, Minnt"apoft'i"MN,
Phot o, (l The Taunt on Press, lnc.: (bott om) Pho-
to;() Brian VandenBrink, Photographer2004.
p.14' (left ) De' ign, Rob Thallon. Phot o, () The
Taunton Press.tnc., (right) Design:Mlldord
Cushman, Cushman + Beckstrom.tnc., Stowe,
VT and Rockport. ME. Phot o: () 2004 carolyn'
bates.corn.
P.7S(top left and bottom right) Design,Anne
Otterson, Architect: RobertMosher,Photo:
© The Taunton Press, In<-; (t op right ) Design,
Flo Braker.Photo: If) TheTauntonPrevs. Inc .
p. 76 (left) Desi gn, Kochman, Reidt and Haigh.
Stonington, MA Photo:@Steve Rosenthal;
(right) Dominic P. Mercandante,Archrtect Bel ·
fast, ME, Photo: Brian Vanden Brink . Phot og-
rapher 2004 .
p. n (left) Design , Diane Mor gan, owner;
Margie Saunders. archi t ect . Portl and,OR; (right)
Design:Anne Otterson, CA,Photo:e The
TauntonPress,tnc..
CHAPTER 4
p. 78: Design: BlooksBerry and St.
tou ts,MO, Photo:<D AlisonO'Brien photogra -
phy.
p. 80: Design: Roland Birdseye Builders, Rich-
mond VT, Photo:oX> 2004 carofynbat es.com
p, 8" (to p) Design . Houses & Barn s by John ub -
by. Photo:<D BrianVandenBrink,Photographer
2004; (bottom) Design , Patri cia RyanMadson. EI
Granada, CA,Photo:CITheTaunton press,Inc.
p. 82' (left) Photo, Il'J Brian Vanden Brink , Pho-
t ographer 2004; (right) Design , David l yon for
Colleen Horner Kitchen BathTile Stone, Pewau-
kee. WI, Photo: Cl Ali son O'Br ien phot ography.
p.83' (t op) DeSign, Weston Hewtt scn Architects
Inc" Hingham, MA, Photo:toBrian Vanden
Brink , Photographer 2004; (bottom) Photo,
Brian VJnden Brink, Photographer 2004.
p. 84' (top and bottom) Design , Flo Braker,
Photo:© TheTaunton Press, Inc..
p. 85' (top) Design, Andre Rothblatt, San Francis-
co,CA, Photo:e TheTauntonPress, lnc.,
(bott om) Design, Will Foster, Monte sano. WA,
Photo: © TheTaunton Press.
p, 81' (top) Phot o, <I> Brian Vand en Brink , Phot o-
grapher 2004; (bottom) Design;Anne Otterson,
owner,Robert architect, LaJolla, CA,
© TheTaunton Press, Inc..
p. 88: Design;Weston HewitsonArchitectsInc.,
Hingham, MA, Photo:© 2004 carolyn-
bates.com.
p. 89; Design: RocCalvanoAIchitect, BarHar-
bour, ME, Photo;if) The TauntonPress,Inc.
p. 90 ' (top) Photo , © Todd caverly, ph ot ograph·
er, BrianVandenBrink photos2004; (bottom)
Design: ChrisGlass.,Ar(hitect , Photo:© Brian
Vanden Brink, Photographer 2004 .
p. 9' Design, Grate r Architects. pc . Clayt on, NY,
Photo;©The Taunton Press.
p. 92: Design:Jackson house,Photo:<D 2004 car-
olynbates.com.
p. 93: De-sign: Jeffand li saGovoni. Bur1ington,
VT,Photo:tD2004 carolynbates.oom.
p. 94; Design;Jeffand LisaGovoni, Burlington,
VT, Photo;© 2004 carolynbates.com.
p. 95 ' (t op) Desig n, Ann Finnerty. Boston, MA,
Photo , I1lThe Taun t on Press. Inc.; (bott om)
Design:Vermont Vernacular, ArchitectandGen-
erJI Contractor, Ea\ t Calais,VT, Photo:
() 2004 carolynbates.com.
p. 96, (left) Photo, III Jason McConalhy; (ri ght)
Design; BradRabinowitz, Architect, Burlington,
VT, Photo; (!) 2004 carolyn bates.com.
p. 97. (t op and bottom) Interior Design, Marlene
Chargin, Fresno, CA, Kitchen Design: De Ann
Mart in, Builder; Mark Fletcher, Madera, CA,cab-
inets: Premoule,Ontario,Canada,Photo;
© The Taunton Press, Inc.
p. 98 : Photo : @Brian Vanden Brink , Photo-
grapher 2004,
p. 99 ' (right) Design , Rob Thallon, Eugene , OR.
Phot o: © The Taunton Press, Inc.; (left) Design :
Morningst ar Marble & Granite, tnc., Topsham ,
ME, Brian Vande n Brink , Photographer
2004·
p. 100, (t op left ) Design , T·., Photo, © Jason
McConathy ; (t op right) Design, Brian Cooper,
builder, Photo: @BrianVanden Brink, Photogra-
pher 2004; (bottom) Design, SCott Ballard,
Houston, TX, Photo: () The Taunton Press Inc.
p. t 01;Design , Rob Thallon, Eugene, OR, Photo , ©
The Taunton Ptes s.Jnc.
p. 10 2: Design : Weston Hewitson Archf tect s Inc.,
Hingham, MA, Photo: © Brian vanden Brink ,
Photographer 2004 .
p.IO) (top) Phot o, © Brian Vanden Brink. Phot o-
grapher 2004 ; (bott om) Design .fohn Malick,
Emeryv ille , CA, Photo: ([) The Taunton Press. Inc.
p. 104 ' (top ) Deslgn: Dan Scully, Arch itect , Phot o.
© Brian Vanden Brink, Photographer 2004; (bot-
tom) Design: GKW Working Design, Stowe, VT,
Photo : €I 2004 carolynbates.corn.
p. 105' Design ; Jon Dick,ARCHAEO, Santa Fe,
NM , Photo : ll) The Taunton Press.Inc.
p.,06: (left) Design: Mark Mulligan, Cambridge,
MA , Photo , Chri s Green; (right) Photo , © Steve
Rosentha l.
p. 107Design: Nina Birnbaum and Clem Don -
ahue, Photo : @TheTaunton Press,lnc.
p. 108 (left and right) Design, Frank xarrema n,
Bai nbridge,WA, Phot o: «>The Taunton Press.
p. 109: (top) Design - Nina Birnbaum and Clem
Donahue, Photo : © The Taunton Press, Inc.; {bot -
tom ) Design , Frost cabinets, 51.Paul, MN,cabi-
net fini'sh: Kim Sheridan, MN , Phot o: © The
Taunton Press.fnc.
p.TTO: Design, Woodstock Kitchens & Bath s,
Essex Junction, VT, Photo: © 2004 carolyn-
bate s.com .
p. m : (left) Photo, © Jason McConathy; (right)
Design : Drysdale Associates, Interi or Design,
Phot o: <S:l Brian Vanden Brink , Photographer
20 04.
p. 112: (top) Design : Diane Morgan. Portland. OR,
Photo: €I The Taunton Press,lnc.; (bottom) De--
sign: Morningstar Marble & Granite, tnc., Icp-
sham, ME, Phot o: © Brian Vanden Brink , Pho-
tographer 2004.
p. 113: Design : Jim Garramone, Evanst on, lI,
Photo : @TheTaunton Press,lnc.
p. 114: Photo : © Jason McConathy.
P.TT5: (t op) Design, Molli Moran, MA, Photo:
© 2004 carolynbat es.com; (bottom) Design : An-
dre Rothblatt. San Francisco, CA,Phot o:
() The Taunton Press,Inc.
p, 116: Design: Pete de Giro lamo, Sale rno, Living·
st an Architect s; Conn ie de Griol amo,
San Diego, CA,Photo: @The Taunt on Press-Inc.
p. "7: (t op) Photo, © Jason Mc Con athy;
(bottom) Design : RocCalvano Architect, Bar
Harbour ,ME , Photo: @Br ianVanden Brink.
Phot ographer 2004.
CHAPTER 5
p. 118 Design: Kaehler Moore Architects,
Greenwich, CT,Photo; <S:l H. Dur st on Saylor .
p. 120; Photo: (<)Jason McConathy.
p. 121: (top) Design: Damian Baumhover, San
Di ego, Ca, Photo:© The Taunt on Inc.; (bot-
tom ) Photo: <D Jason McConathy.
p. 122: (t op ) Photo : © Jason McConathy; (bot ·
tom) Design : Frost Cabinets, 51.Paul,MN, ca bi·
net fi nish: Kim Sheridan, MN, Photo : @The
Taunton Press,Inc.
p. ")' (top left) Diane Morgan with architect
Marg ie Sander s, Portland, OR. ubinetmaker: Si-
mon, Toney and Fisher, Portl and, OR, Concrete
counters: Eric Butler, lighting: Paul Scardin a;
(right ) Design: Jim Garramon e, Evanst on, Il,
Photo: © The Taunton Press,Inc. (bottom left)
Design: Rothchild, Photo: © Brian Vanden Brink,
Photographer 2004.
188 I Credits
P.' 24: (top) Design, Roland Batten Arch it ect l
linda Reeve M acIntyre, Shelburne, VT, Phot o:
© 2004 carolyn bat es.com; (bottom) Design:
Malcom Appl et on. Architectural Associ at ion &
Barbara Strattas,Waitsfi eld. VT. Photo : @ 2004
carolynbate s.com .
p. 12S: (t op) Design : Anne Otterson, owner,
Robert Mosher,a rchitect,La lo lla, CA, Phot o-
The Taunton Press, tnc.: (bott om) Phot o:
CD 2004 carolynbates.corn.
p.126: (top) Design: Vermont Vernacular, East
Calais, VT, Photo: © 2004 carolynbat es.com,
(bottom) Design, Dana Ennis, Ascutn ey, VT, Pho-
to: lD 2004 carolynbat es.com.
p.121: (to p) Design: Oliver 2, Phot o: © Bri an Van -
den Bri nk. Photographer 2004; (cent er)
Design , 1.Graham Goldsmith Arch itect s PC,
Burlington, VT, Phot o: © 20 04
carolynbates.com ,(bottom) Design : Brad Rabi -
nowit z, Architect, Burl ington, VT, Photo: @2004
carolyn bat es.com.
p, ,,8, (left ) Design , Nason Singer,lAughing
Bear Associates, Montpel ier, VT, Photo: Il) 2004
carolynbat es.com; (top right) Design , Cushman
& Beckman, Stowe, VT, Photo: ® 20 04 carolyn-
bate s.com, (bottom right) Phot o: © Jason
M cConathy.
p. "9: Design: Woodstock Kit chen s & Bath s,
Essex Junction, VT, Photo: CD 2004 carolyn-
bate s.com .
p. 1)0 : (t op) Design, Diane Morg an , Phot o:
([) The Taunt on Press, Inc.; (bottom) Design:
Frank W. Riepe, Sudbury, MA, Photo : © The
Taunt on Press,Inc.
p. I ) " (to p) Design : M ildord Cushma n, Cushman
+ Beckstrom, Inc., Stowe, vrand Rockport , ME,
Photeo<D 2004 caro lynbates .com ; (bottom) Pho-
t o: (0 Jason McConathy.
p.rgz : (top) Design : Earth st one St ove.A rchitect :
Shahin Barzin, Photo : €I The Tau nton Press; (bot-
tom left) Design: Jim Huntington, Charl otte, VT,
Photo: © 2004 carolynbat es.com; (bottom
right) Interior design : Marlene Char gin, Fresno,
CA; Kitchen design : De Ann M art in ; Builder:
Mark Fletcher, Madera, CA; Warming oven:
Dacor: Phot o: €I The Taunton Press, lnc.
P_l)): (top) Design : David Luce, Wil son Archi -
tect s. Waterbury, VT. Photo: © 2004 carolyn-
bate s.com; (bottom) Design : Kenne th Bennett.
Essex, Junct ion , VT and larry Kruse, North
Woods Joinery, j effe rsonvil le. VT, Phct o. O 2004
carolynbates.corn.
p.l)4' Photo: © Jason M cCon athy,
p. ')5' (top left) Robson Bilgen Archit ect s,
Hancock,VT, Photo : () 2004 carolynbat es.com;
(bottom left) Photo: Cl Jason McConathy; (right)
Design, John M alick , Emel}'Ville, CA, Photo:
€> The Taunton Press.
p. 1)6: (t op) Photo , © Brian vanden Brink, Photo-
grapher 2004; (bottom) Peter Morr is
Archit ect'S,. Verge nnes, VT, Photo: ® 200 4
carolynbates.com .
p. '37: (left) Architect : Roland Batt en, Builder:
John Seibert, Birdseye Buildi ng Company, Rich-
mond VT, Phot o: © The Taunton Press; (right)
ubinetmaker :Th ompson & Brou illette Inc.,
Providence, RI, Architect : Shahin Barzin, Provi-
dence , RI, Phot o' 10The Taunt on Press.
p. ,)8: (top) Design : Ron and Patri<ia Ryan Mad-
son, EI Granada, CA,Cooktop, DCS,Rangehood,
WindCraft , Photo: () The Taunton Press,lnc;
(bottom) Photo: () 2004 carolynbat es.com.
p. '40' (left) Design : Jim Bischoff, Photo: © The
Taunton Press, Inc.; (t op right) Design: Weston
Hewitson Arch itect s Inc., Hi ngha m, MA, Phot o:
@ Brian Vanden Brin k, Photographer 2004 ;
(bottom right) Design : Neilson & Taylor. Pho t o:
€I Brian Vanden Brink, Photographer 2004 .
p. 141:(left) Design; Joh n Mart in, Builder: Tim
Bullock, Phot o: €I Brian Vanden Bri nk, Phot o-
grapher 2004 ; (right) Design : Design :Jim Hunt-
ington, Charl otte, VT, Phot o: IV 2004 carolyn-
bates.com.
p. '42: Michael Dugan, Essex Junction ,VT, Photo:
© 2004 carolynbates.com .
p. '4) : (t op) Design , Noel Tewes, Bangor, ME and
la urel Tewes. Great Barr ington, MA. Phot o: ',1
2004 carolynbat es.com; (bottom) Phot o:
© Jason McConathy.
p. ' 44 : (top) Photo, © Jason McConathy ; (bot -
t om) Design , David Roge " , Au Sable Valley
Woodworks, Keesvill e, NY, Photo:@Nancie
Battagl ia.
p. 145(top ) Phot o: © Jason McConathy; (bot -
tom) Design , Bentley & Church ill Architects, Sia-
conset, MA, Refrigerators: Sub-Zero. Photo: TIm
O'Brien.
p. 146: (top left) Design: Shiloh Millworks,
Phoenix, AZ, Photo: © Robert Romaneck, Shiloh
Millworks, SCott sdal e, AZ, Photo by Steve
Thompson; (t op right) Design, Taos Red cabinet
& Construction Co.•Inc., EI Prado, NM, Photo:
© 2004 Terry Thompson; (bottom) Design:
brooksBerry Associates. 51.Loui s.MO; (bottom)
Photo, (l Ali son O'Br ien photography.
p. 147: (top) Design : HutnerlRolinick, Photo,
o Brian Vande n Brink. Photographer 2004;
(bottom) Design ; John Mart in, Builder: Tim
Bullock, Phot o: €I Bri an Vand en Bri nk, photo-
grapher 2004.
CHAPTER6
p. '48:Design . Frost ca bi nets, 51.Paul, MN,
Photo: (0 The Taunton Press, Inc.
p. 'So , Phot o : © Randy O'Rourke .
p. '5" (t op) Phot o, © Steve Rosent hal ; (bottom)
Design : Ed Pierce and Jan Good rich, Benn ing -
ton. VT.
p. 152:Design: Thunder Mill Design, Montpelier,
VT.
p, 153: Design : Rob HetJer,Cabi netmaker. Green -
bank, WA, Phot o, © Bill Ruth.
p. '54 : Design : Ell iott & Elliott Arch itects, Phot o:
© Brian Vand en Brin k, Photographer 2004.
p. '55: Design : Craftsmen Unl imited, tnc.,
Burlington, VT, Photo: 2004 carolyn-
bates.com.
p. '56 : (left) Phot o: © 20 04 carolynbates.corn:
(t op right) Design : Phillips Wolcott,Architect,
Stowe , VT; (bottom right) Design , Brad Rabino -
witz, Architect, Bur lington, VT, Phot o: €I 2004
carolynbates.com .
p. IS8: (left) Jane langmuir. Int eri or Design ,
Provid ence, RI, Phot o: €I Brian vanden Brink,
Phot ographer 2004; (t op right) Phot o. © Jason
Mc Conathy; (bottom right) Design : Peter Rose,
Arch it ect . Phot o: €IBrian Vanden Brink, Phot o-
grapher 20 04 .
p. '59: (left) Design : M ac White from Michael G.
Imber,Architect, San Antonio, TX. Photo: Cl The
Taunton Press, Inc.; (right) Design: Brad Rabino-
witz, Architect , Burlington, VT. Photo: IV 20 04
carolynbate s.com.
p. 160: Dl.'Sign: Damian Baumhover, San Diego,
CA. Photo : © The Taunton Press, Inc.
p.16 I: (left) DeSign, Houses & Barns by John lib-
by, Photo: @Bria n Vanden Brink. Photographer
2004; (right) Phot o, Jerry Thompson.
p. 162: (left) Design: Mostue & Associates,
Arch it ecture, Inc., Photo: © Steve Rosent ha l;
(ri ght ) Design: DaVid l yon for Colleen Horner
Ki tchen Bath Til e Stone, Pewaukee, WI , Photo: €I
Al ison O'Brien photography.
p. 163: Design : Paul Dunck er and Peggy Dunker,
Jackson Hole, WY, Photo : oV The Taunt on Press,
Inc.
P.164 : Phot o: © Aaron Pennock.
p. ,65 : (to p) Design, David Coleman, Seatt le, WA,
Photo : © 200 4 caro lynbates.com; (bottom) Pho-
t o: 0 2004 carolynbat es.com.
p. 166: (left) Design : SCholz & Barclay Architects,
Photo: CD Brian Vanden Brink. Phot ographer
2004; (t op right) Photo, © 2004 carolynba·
t es.com; (bottom right) Design: South Moun-
t ain Com pany, Martha's Vi neyard, MA, Phot o:
€I Bri an Vanden Brink. Photographe r 1004 .
p.t67' (top left) De>lgn: Pete de Girolamo, Sater-
no, Livingston Arch it ect s: San DII!gO,CA, Photo:
© The Taunton Press, Inc.; (bottom left] Photo:€l
Brian Vanden Brink , Phot ographer 2004: (right)
J.esign:Jim Garramone, Evanston , IL. Photo: €)
The Taunt on Press. Inc,
CHAPTER7
p. 168; De.,;i GI1: Mark Hut ker & Assccretes Archi-
tects.tnc•.Vineyard Haven and F.lI'mouth, MA,
Photo'. I!') Bli an Vanden Brink , Photographer
2004 ·
p. 170 : Phot o: €I 2004 carcl ynbat es.com.
p. ' 71: (t op left ) Inte rior Design : Ma rlene Char-
gin , Fresno, CA. Ki t chen Design: De Ann MJrt in,
Builder: Mark Fletcher, MaderJ. Cn.Cabinet s:
Premoule, Ontario, Canada, photc. D The
taunt on Press, Inc; (bottom left) Phot o: €I Jason
McCon "thy; (right ) Berry Lanford. Albuquerque,
NM, Phot o: () The Taunt on Press,Inc.
P.I72 : (left ) Design : Oorrumc Mercandante,
Belfast, ME, Photo: lI) Bri an Vanden Brink ,
Phot ogr apher 2004; (right) Design :Ma rk Hut k-
er & Associate s Architects. Inc., Vineyard Haven
and Falmouth, MA. Phot o: @Brian Vanden
Brink , Photographer 2004 .
p. 17): (t op) Design.Prank W. Riepe, Sudbury, MA,
Phot o: cD The Taunton Press. tnc.: (bott om ) De-
sign: M ostue YAssociates, Archrtects , Inc.,
Somerv ill e. MA , Phot o: () St eve Rosentha l.
p. 174: Design : Mildord Cushman, Cushman +
Beckstrom, Inc., Stowe, VT and Rockport, ME,
Photo: <D 2004 carolynbates.com.
p. 175: (t op left ) Design: F-I, Photo : () Jason
McConathy: (bottom left) Design: Roland
Batt en, Shelburne, VT, Photo: © 200-4carolyn-
bat escom; (ri ght) Design: H. H. Benedict , Shafts -
bury, VT, Phot o: © 200 4 carolynbat es.com.
p. 176: Design : Nancy McCoy. Lighting Designer,
San Francisco,CA, Photo: «> The Taunton Press.
p. vrt . (top) Phot o: Cl Jason McConathy;
(bottom) DeSign : Mark Hutker & Associat es
Arch itects, tnc., Vi neyard Haven and Falmout h,
MA, Photo : @Brian Vanden Brink , Phot ogr apher
200 4·
p. 178: (left) Design: brooks8erry and Associat es
Kit chen s and Baths, St.loiuis, MO, Photo :
© Al ison O'Brien photography; (right) Photo :
€:IJason McConathy.
p. '79 : (left) Design: AxeI 8erg, Builder, Photo :
€I Brian Vanden Brink, Photographer 200 4;
(rig ht) Design: John Morris, Camden. ME, Photo :
€> Brian Vanden Brink . Photographer 2004 .
p. 180: (top) Design: Diane Morgan, owner;
Marg ie Sanders, architect , Portland. OR,
Cabinet makers: Simon, Toney and Fischer, Pho-
t o: © The Taunton Press, Inc., (bott om left ) De-
sign: Pete de Girolamo, Salerno, lNingst on Ar-
chitects; San Diego, CA, Phot o: ® The Taunton
Press,Inc. (bottom right) Design : Nancy McCoy,
lighting Designer, san Francisco, CA, Photo: ©
The Taunton Press.
p. ,8" (left) Design : Brad Rabinowi12,Architect,
Bur lington, VT, Phot o: © The Taunton Press, Inc..;
(ri ght ) Design, MacWhit e from Michael G.
Imber, Architect, San Ant on io, TX,Phot o: €I The
Taunton Press,Inc.
p. 182: Design : Mark Hutker & Associat es Archi -
tects,lnc., Vineyard Haven and Falm outh. MA,
Phot o: <D Brian Vanden Brink , Photo grapher
2004 ·
p. 18), (top left) Design: Dam i,n Baum hover,
San Diego, CA. Phot o: l.. i:)The Taunt on Press-Inc.;
(bottom left) Photo <i) dJvidduncanliv ing -
ston.com; (right) Design: Kat e St evens, Sellers
and Company Archit ects, Warren, VT, Photo:
(5) The Taunton Press.
p. •84 ' (top) Phot o ©
davidduncanliv i ngst on,com ; (bottom) Design:
Coburn Architect ure. Broo klyn , NY,Photo: (0 The
Taunton Press, Inc.
p. 185: Design :Van Dam Arch itecture and de-
sign, Portland, ME. Photo: Ii) Brian Vanden Brink,
Photographer 2004.
HOUSE & HOME
TAUNTON
OTHER BOOKS
.Horne'
IN THE SERIES
Taunton's Idea Books
NEW Design Ideas for Your Home, Inside and 0
" Fab ulou . 1t work like a reference manual f r
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-Lynette]ennings, creator and host of Lynette Jennings Design
NEW
KITCHE
IDEA BOOK
With over 350 color photographs from today's leading design
and architects, this book will help you create a kitchen for an)
and budget. It's all here: new appliance technology and cabin
fixtures and faucets, doors and counter materials, sinks, pulls,
ins, and bookcases. By using the New Kitchen Ideo Book, you c
create the kitchen of your dreams.
JOANNE KELLAR BOUKNIGHT is
the author of Taunton 'sHome
Visit our website at www.taunton.com
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Storag e Idea Book and a contribu-
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tor to Fine HomebUIlding maga-
ISBN 978-1-56158-693-6
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51995
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To Nellie nd Seb sian

Text © 2004 by joanne Bouknight Illustrations (0 2004 b)' The Taunton Pre ss. Inc. AII righ ts res erved.

The Taunton Press, Inc. 63 South Main Street, PO Box 5500 , New to w n , CT 06470-5506 e-mail: tp@tauntoncom

New Kitchell Idea Baal? was originally published in hardcover

in 2004 by The Taunton Press, Inc.

j.\ L l-:E l

EDITOR: Stefanie Ramp D I :~l l , ~: [canner Lecndertse '" I ER IOR Dbl';;-" Lori Wendin I; Cathy Cassidy

Lwo :

ILL! s TR \ Illl' : Christine Erikson C(l\T R PH(HO GRAI'IlI-CIl'< Front cover, top row (left to right): © jason NlcConathy; © 2004 carolynbates.corn; (D ca rolynbat cs.corn ; Charles Miller <D The Taunton Press, lnc.; second row: © 2004 carolynbatcs.corn; Amy Alben © The Taunton Press, lnc. : © 2004 carolynbatcs.corn; Amy Albert © The Taunton Press, l nc., third row: Amy Albert <'0 The Taunton Press, l nc., Photo courtesy Kennebec Company, photo by Steve Fazio; © jason McConathy; © jason McCouathy: Back cover, top: © jason McConathy: bottom row (left to right):

© Rand}' O'Rourke; © 2004 carolynbates.com: © Alise O'Brien photography
Taunton Home® is a trademark of the Taunton Press, Inc., registered in the l'S Patent and Trademark Office. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bouknight, joanne Kellar, New kitchen idea book / joanne Bouknight. p, em. ISBN-13 978-1-56158-642-41 hardcover ISBN-lO: 1-56158-642-0 hardcover ISBN-l3: 978-1-56158-693-6 paperback ISBN-lO 1-56158-693-5 paperback 1. Kitchens--Design and construction. I. Title. TX653. B69 2004 0+ j' .3--dc22 2003020534 Printed in the United States of America 10 9

The following manufacturers/names appearing in the New Kitchen Idea Baal? are trademarks: Mcdex">'

My thanks again to Taunton Press. Alan Bouknight of Azzarone Contracting Co rp. Paul Beut el . Maria Taylor. and homeowners are responsible for these kitchens (and I'm happy to say these are all real kitchens ). and Robyn Aitken was gracious when time ran short. guys. and details. Anne Otterson. By necessity. David Lyon of Cooleen Horner Kitchens Bath Tile Stone.Acknow ledgments T he number of people who had a hand in this book would take up much more space than allowed .. and Carol Bentel of Beru el + Beruel Architects. craftspeople . Jason McConathy. Man)' thanks to photogra­ phers Carolyn Bates. roo. special thanks to Diane Morgan. Thanks. . When writing this book turned out to be a pain in the neck (thanks to a pinched nerve). from subfloors to Sub-Zeros. Again-and again-my husband Neil not only filled in for me in so many way s but was willing to discuss everything kitchen. so I'll have to amend my long list. Flo Braker. which con­ tinues to combine art and function in all its publications . and Durston Saylor. our sons Neilie and Sebastian hav e been remarkably understanding an d good-humored. insight. Man)' designers. Thanks to the Fine Homebuilding eduor/photographer/line-house zealots who each took time out to answer questions. to Amy Albert at Fine Cooking for access to her great kitchen photos . Peter Bent el. My great thanks to all of you. my patient and accommodating friend s and family tolerated my schedul e for months . On ce again . Laura Kaehler and Joeb Moore of Kaehler Moore Architects . starling with the basic food groups of qu esadillas and brownies. And finally. they are learning to cook. Brian Vanden Brink. builders. Carolyn Mandarano. For advice. and Cynthia Canaday. Thanks. and Stefanie Ramp were especially generous with time and editorial direction .

Contents Introduction · L Finishing Cabinet Tops and Bottorns Materials and Finishes 45 Cabinet Accessories • 53 > 40 (hapten Kitch en Design: From Looks to Layout 4 Set the Style • 6 Fitting the Kitchen into the House • 13 Configuring the Kitchen 16 Chapter 3 Open Shelves and Pantri es .60 Shelves 62 Pantries 71 Chapter 2 Cabinetry: The Kitchen Workho rse · 2 2 Cabinet Anatomy 24 Doors and Drawers 30 Chapter 4 Counterto ps and Sinks · 78 Countertops and Backsplash es 80 The Kitchen Sink 109 .

and Cei lings ' 148 Choosing a Floor Walls and Ceilings Chapter 7 150 165 129 133 A Well-Lit Kitchen 168 Natural Light 170 174 Cooktop Options Ventilation Refrigerators 138 Supplemental Lighting 142 Sources (n ctlt'> • 186 1 87 .Chapter 5 Chapter 6 From Ranges to Refrigerators · 118 Locating Cooking Appliances Range Options Oven Options 126 120 Floors. Walls.

with subsequent chapters movin g through ea ch of the major ele ments o f kitch en s: cabinets . shelves and don't know what's go od . and long-cooking sauces . as you'll see the kitchens in this book. On Sunday aftern oon s th e clin king of pot lids from downstai rs would indicate the arrival of future son -in-law O'Neil Bouknight. A formal kitchen was built on th e main living level while a ca n n ing kitch en was built on the ground floor o ff th e herb gard en . And we multitask-work on the computer. How wonderful it would be to have a wat erp ro of . d o bill s. "YOli Wh en we do make meals. Doris Azzarrone. gr ad e pap ers. who turn ed up their noses at their mother's delicious hom e-spun cooking.Introduction W hen my mother-in-law. keepin g house. Tess also used the downstairs kitchen for messy foods such as roasts . taking a pe ek a t dinner. we want to be surrounded by family or friends . fish. This was the down-and-dirty kitchen. with a big range. her father Louis built a house to her mother's specifications . Tess was ad am ant: Two kitchens were better than on e. and cooking. was a girl in Flushing. but beautiful as well." Tess would sa y. came from the countrysid e (s he from Campagna. Italy. mon itor homework. It is possible to achieve that blend of be auty and utility. now venerat ed as ClI cina rll sti ca. siainproof space like that canning kit ch en-on e that you could just hose down a fte r cooking. sewing. a refrigerat or. like the upstairs kitchen. Design basics kick off the book. But many of us don 't work a t home the way Tess did. unlike her four cityborn daughters (Doris included). an d a whit e-painted concrete floor with a dr ain in th e middle. Our ide al kitchen must be not only functional like that ca n n ing kitchen . tile countertops and backsplashes . and he from South Carolina) and because he loved hom e cooking. Tess approved of Neil becau se h e. too . . Queens.

Choose wh at works for you . Another word of advi ce: Be watchful o f the latest thing. Your cho ice o f an un common co u n terto p mat e­ rial may turn up in next year's "ho t new trends" kit ch en magazin e. or months. [lJl n "l u (lI OI1 3 . suc h as switchplates? If fixture types are sw itched separately. Any new. it's your kit ch en . Th is book will hel p yo u navi­ gate the proper balance o f form a nd fun c­ tion with its hundreds o f ph o tos su pp le­ mented by nitty-gritty information co l­ lected in drawings and side ba rs . foll ow u p recom­ mend ations . co u n terto ps and s in ks. It's easy to spe nd da ys. and don't be swaye d only by th e bottom lin e. wee ks. not-so -hot provid er s and inst allers. Man y contrac­ tor s woul d love th eir clients to travel to Antarcti ca during co ns truc tion. Make su re th at yo u and you r co nt rac tor agree abo ut who is resp onsible for wh at. But your kit ch en will be finished. hover lightl y. choosing surfaces-your kitchen 's fash ionable side-but also spe nd tim e ch oosing the things that will mak e your kit ch en work. You love that s lender goosenec k faucet. and lighting. c ha nces are yo u'll love it. whe the r it's an a pplia nce or a fin ish . Do research. Keep in mind that most home lenders suggest limiting a kitche n renova­ tion to 15 percent o f th e hom e's value. but are you willing to have ano ther hole cut in the countertop (and mor e to clean around) for a se para te sprayer? And what about hyperpract ical issues. Unde rs ta nd that undergo in g a kit ch en ren ovat ion can be an emotional ro ller coas ter. Ideall y. s top second-guessing your d eci­ sions . When it's fin­ ishe d. Durability is im port an t.pantri es. every hitch seems lik e a calam i­ ty. and every meal is fast food. and you may be wo rking in it for a lifetime . Live with your new kitch en befor e declar ing th at th e color o f your gra nite co u nte rto ps is a n utter disast er. coo king and coo ling applia nces . for ins tance-adv isable for flexibl e Iight in g­ you may e nd up with a formidabl e row o f swi tc hes . On the other hand. hot mat eri al will have new. In a week or two . If so . you've hired a co nt racto r you tru st. Tak e fashion for wh at it is-fleeting. but you can repl ace a less­ durable counterto p th ree tim es ove r for the price of a cou n terto p th at 's as tough as nails. when every choice is frau ght with wh at-ifs.

.

shouldn't it be the most go rgeo us room in th e house. with th e most sumptuous mat eri als . charmed-snake pulls . will ens ur e a space that provid es both pleasure and co nven ience .Kitchen Design: FroIn Looks to Layout boast fine cabine try th at rivals th e furniture in a n English cas tle and flooring as intri cat e and durable as that in an Itali an church . beech. th at 's becoming the case with mod ern kit chens. Man y of tod ay's showc ase kitchens A KITCHEN WITH SERIOUS APPLIANCES CAN BE EQUALLY as whimsical with a mix of beautifully designed materials. It's a refined circus. and . Cabinets are stained or natural maple. and stainless steel is the metal finish of choice through­ out. This kitchen was loosely based on a circus theme. Even the eve ryday kitchen is evolv ing into a h igh-tech and highly aesthetic sp ace. finish es . and English sycamore. and make a sp ace that's bri ght . above all. co m forta ble and easy to use. a lo ng with co n figuri ng th e kit ch en to ma ximi ze ef fic iency. If you are remodeling. 'v want o ur kit ch ens to work well and we a lso want th em to look goo d . and fixtu res ? Well . well proportioned . C o nsidering how much tim e is spent in the kitch en. but the beauty Ve of a kitch en depends o n more than just the finishing touch es . cherry. with muted colors of similar value. and multiple colors. Thi s . which better suits the mod ern lifestyle. the most bang for your buck will co m e from co nnecting th e kit chen to th e rest of th e house. Consider th e bare bon es of the kit chen. with harlequin tiles. 5 .

THIS CEDAR-lOG HOUSE ON THEOREGON COAST is fitted with a small. so yo u w ill wan t to co ns ide r carefu lly th e d esign o f cab inetry and hardware . The kitchen and built-ins are streamlined . HERE'S A KITCHEN WITH TRADITIONALDETAILS and a few unusual twists on convention. which require more precision to inst a ll than adjustable hinges. recessed shelving. Th e kitch en s yo u'll see here run th e sty le gam ut. and the refr igerator faced w ith the paneling. Moldings . th ou gh th at 's not a rule . Kitch en s classified as tradi- tional incl ude co u nt ry st yle. Co n te m po rary kitch en s tend to ward more s trea m line d s urfaces and hardwar e and flush joi ne ry. applia nces. and a re o fte n gloss ier tha n trad iti o nal-st yle k itchens. and light fixtures tend to be d etailed o r eve n orna te . wa ll an d ce iling s ur faces. modern kitchen. a nd lighting. C rafts ma n s tyle-any s tyle th at refle cts th e past o r our nost algic view o f th e past. ru sti c st yle. from seda te to hyp er. Doors and drawers are inset and paneled and fitted with traditional butt hinges. SET THE STYLE All th e pa rts of a kit ch en wo rk togethe r to crea te a look . co u n ter to ps . hardware. with flush overlay cabinet doors. floorin g . 6 \ Kitchrn Design: f rom Looks to Layoul . co lo nial to contempor ar y.

th e lat est k itchen styles ar e ge ne ra ted by design ers a nd manu­ facturers who'd like you to think that your kitchen is hopel essly out of date. a nd ac cesso ries can add plenty of style to a tir ed kitchen . with a mix of traditional d etailing and contemporar y layouts . lightin g. But stainless-steel appliances-dishwasher drawers. too. inset paneled doors and drawers.~I1 : From Loofls to 1. professional-style range. T he draw- back of leaning heavily on the latest fash­ ions is that a kitchen ca n look outdated in 10 yea rs.o r less .A KITCHEN DESIGNED FOR M AJOR MEAL MAKING can be pretty. Of course . Two sinks make it easy for two to work. along with brushed-silver pulls. The window behind the sink is set back. CABINETS LOOK TRADITIONAL WITH THEIR MUTED BLUE-GREEN COLOR. allowing space for a mini greenhouse on the sill. and bases articulated to look like furniture with legs.The peninsula is paneled with tradi­ tional beadboard and the counter­ tops are slate . The matching freezer and refriger­ ator mean business. Like clothing s ty les . and built-in refrigerator-keep up to date. Th e up side is th at it's o ften easy to make a dramatic tran sforma­ tion : Just changin g hardware.ayout I7 . or fin­ ishes. take a clos e look at most kitchens and you'll see that the y ar e actually eclectic. KitchEn Dcs i. paint co lors. and a warm­ ing oven anchors the big island .

fini sh es. and ston e . built-ins . natural or painted wood ca bine ts. A ge ne ric tradition al kitchen will have wood o r SLOne floors . Traditional Kitchens Tradition al kitchen s have in co m mo n a prevalen ce of natural mat erials and a rtic ulated det ails.gr een tiles. col ors . and cabin etry. and mo ss. rustic finishes . and sources for refurbished or reproduction fitt ings . for exam ple. or wood co u n tert o ps-o r a sy n the tic co u n terto p material th at look s like stone. oak cabin ets. and burnish ed br ass hardware in th e appropriate sty le will co m ple te the look o f a Craftsman-period kit ch en. as oppos ed to the high-tech materi als a nd sleek det ailing commonl y found in modern -style kit chens . and a massive kitchen table are paired with a massive French ra nge and ceiling-mounted pendants.A KITCHEN IN THE VEI N OF THE EUROPEAN FA RM H OUSE KITCHEN has rich. Ta ke it a step furth er and make th ose oak cabin ets quartersawn with flat-panel doors Pendant Cr aftsman-style light fixtures. applian ces . Read up o n historical st yles to fin d ideas for det a ils . tile. yo u ma y want to go for exposed wood beams . oak floor ing. Hinges may be ex pose d a nd moldings may be elaborate. stud y the det ails and colors found in houses from that day. A good 8 I Kitcllell Design: hom Loons to La)'Ollt . If you are leaning tow ard a Craftsm an-st yle kitch en. If yo u r heart is set on a parti cular historic s tyle. Tile floors. stone walls.

scalloped wall­ cabinet rail. but the cabinets are traditional.com Web sit e. In fact. and the beadboard is a time-honored wall surface in century-old beach houses . and built-in china cabinet . Beadboard in panels . the Intern et compan y of th e kitch en a nd bath indust ry (also se e th e Sources sec tion on p. it is possibl e to mix mod ern elements with tradition al details. with inset paneled doors. for ins tance­ without giving up on co nven ience s like sing le-leve r fauc ets and con vection ovens. basic guide to kitchen and house s tyles is tod ay's traditi on al-st yle kit ch en rarely for­ goes sp ace-age appliances and accessories for s tylistic pu rit y. I9 . 186).with gathered curtains and cabinet panels .am ul includ ed on th e Kitch en.· From Loolls to l. and on the ceiling are clues that this house is in the country­ beachsid e. Of cou rse . The tri ck is to recr eat e th e atmosphere of you r favorite styl e-cozy and filled with hom e-b aked pies. Kitchell Design. COUNTRY-STYLE of leisurely life. on walls. in this case. Bead­ board was used as a wall finish in unheated houses in lieu of plaster.THIS SUNNY. KITCHEN IS THE ESSENCE THIS ISN'T A TRADITIONAL KITCHEN IN TERMS OF LAYOUT or placement in a space.

Modern styl e ca n require more meticulous craftsmans h ip . space flows keeping the kitchen and dining spaceopen to light and air from a huge operable skylight above. sto ne. Modern-style Kitchens Th e hallma rk o f a mod ern-st yle kit ch enyou can also call it a contemporary kit ch en-is sleek detailin g. designated by an island that's painted gray. tile. A custom-made. an d it's back in fashi on agai n. o r th e latest h igh-tech . Corner cabinets are simply detailed with flush-overlay frosted-glass panels. and geometric shapes are assembled asymmetrically. as it's harder to make two mat er ials flush than to cove r thei r edges with a moldin g. whitepaneled steel plate is hung from the ceiling to callout the edge of the kitchen and to provide task and ambient lighting. THIS CONTE MPORARY KITCHEN FITS NEATLY INTO THE CORNER of a white great room. Joints between materials are flush . What matters is how th e mat er ials are finish ed and how they are joined .IN THIS MODERN HOUSE IN VENICE. CALIFORNIA. It doesn 't matt er if mat eri als are wood. ofte n with a reveal (a narrow slot ) bet ween mat e rials. joints a re left visible. Rath er than using moldin gs to co ver joints . 10 I Kitchen Design: f l"O m Looks 10 Lay olH . factory-made syn th etic. all hallmarks of modern design. the structure is often exposed.

most of us have ecl ect ic kitchens: We mix styl es without being bothered by co nven tion. KilcJl£/1 DeSign: From LOa /IS to Layoll( 111 . but you cons ider your kitchen traditional. Strictly spea king. a cluster IS A LIVELY PLACE. Your kitch en ma y incorporate both wood counter­ top s and stainless-steel backsplashes. THESE BLUE -PAINTED CABINETS ARE TRADITIONALLY STYLED with elaborate paneled doors. but the cabinets are flush overlay rather than inset. and bright white cabinets.Eclectic Kitchens If you want to get technical abou t it. The heavy wood Dutch door and the stone tile floor recall old European kitchens. Or you don't think twi ce about using recessed downlights in a C raftsma n-s tyle bungalow kit ch en . or to d escr ibe kitchens that are simply whimsical. of colored pans and pots hanging near the range. These basic overlay cabinets are topped with small cabinets reserved for seasonal and lesser-used gear. but the smoothtop cooktop and inset sinks add a contemporary look.to attain just th e right look. we use the term "ecl ecti c" to describe those kitch ens that empl oy purposeful juxtaposit ions of mod em a nd traditional st yles. An artfully eclec­ tic kit ch en may tak e many months-or years. THIS CHEERFUL FAMILY KITCHEN with red chairs and red backsplash tile.

THIS IS AN INSPIRED WAY TO FINISH off the edge of a handsome kitchen. 12 \ Kitchen Design: From Laohs 10 Loyal(( . THIS KITCHEN OPENS TOTHE SECOND flOOR and is highlighted by skylights shining over a grid of beams. The beams not only frame the kitchen space but carry the pendant lights over the island . perfect for a buffet layout yet high enough to hide kitchen debris. The kitchen steps down to a cozy family room with a fireplace and a lowered ceiling. The cabinetry turns the corner at the right. The countertop is raised. and that's where special dishware is stored .

How th e kit ch en me ets the res t of th e hou se is your cho ice . from a fram ed open ing with a door to no sep aration at all. Thi s provides conven ien t storage for dishes. Or use bas e and wall cabi nets­ opa q ue or tran sp arent-to buffe r th e kitche n from livin g o r d ini ng spac es. if not people. The plastic-lam inate -capped walls are the ideal height for hungry onlookers to lean on. This is a delightful way to set off a kitchen in a small house or apartment-as a pavilion with columns and an entablature. so the re's no qu estion that it req u ires a close co n nec tion w ith living s paces . Fo r a s te p beyond th e bas ic d oor. th e tri ed­ and-true passth rough allows food . Kildl cn Dcsign' FlD m Looks ((I Layo ll t I 13 . Co n nect the kit ch en with th e rest of the house by making sp ace for ac tivities th at have nothing to do with coo ki ng. A KITCHEN DOESN'T HAVE TO DRESS IN THE LATEST STYLE to be well designed . to move from kitchen to d ini ng room .FITTING THE KITCHEN INTO THE HOUSE A kit ch en sees th e m ost ac tio n of any roo m in the house. especially if d oors ope n fro m both sid es . suc h as working at a compu ter o r doing a rts and c raf ts. THIS KITCHEN HASTWO PA RTS: THE SERIOUS workspace in the background and the serving area w ith eating space in the fore­ ground . This bar also servesas the mail-sorting center. with cubbies built into the adjacent cabinet.

which is a major element in the space. because it takes on the detailing of the stair. Cabinetry and sta ir are paneled to match. 14 \ Kitchen Design: from l oohs 10 lay out .THE STA IR PUllS THE KITCHEN AND DINING SPACE TOGETHER and makes them the center of attention. from the table to the island countertop to a built-in bench to the side . There are certainly plenty of places to sit. THIS KITCHEN FITS INTO HALF OF A BIG ROOM SEAMlESSlY in part .

The wood floor is painted with a diamond pattern that enlargesand enlivens the space.THIS DINING AREA ISCALLED OUT BYAN OCTAGONAL caved ceiling with perimeter lighting. It would be hard to find a view to match this one. a handsome pendant light fixture. and windows on four sides. Multil ight sliding doorsallow for quick access to the great outdoors. Kitchen Design: Fro m Loohs 1(1 Lll) Ou t I1 .

The THERE'S A MAIN CIRCULATION ROUTE RIGHT THROUGH THIS from the breakfast nook (where the photo was taken) to the dining room . A cra ckerjack cook may fume w hen family mem bers tres pass . ideall y wi th two sinks . and cleani ng up are chores. Co nsider how food is cooked in your kitch en . not necessar ily of th e sa me size or purp ose . CONFIGURING THE KITCHEN O ne person 's perfect kit ch en works pace may be anot her pe rso n's ki tchen nightm are.THIS KITCHEN IS LAID OUTTO SUIT rolling cart is topped with a butcherblock work surface and prov ides storage and cooling space. Two coo ks in th e kit ch en will dem and two subst ant ial worksp aces . If coo k top pyrot echnics is your spo rt. KITCHEN. The food preparation and cooking workspace is all on the left so noncooks can steer clear. or ma y be hap pier wit h a sou s-ch ef or two . serving. Th e cook's pat hs amo ng th e imp ortant nod es sho uld not be so lon g that cooking. The refr igerator is at the edge of the workspace for easy access. mak e the coo kto p easy to work arou nd by providing 16 I Kitchen DeSign : From Lool~s 10 Lay mil . A so -so cook ma y we lcome helping hands in th e wo rksp ace or ma y shoo onlooke rs away to work in peace.joined by a professiona l-grade ref rige rato r. A PROFESSIONAL BAKER. Multiple cooking sources a re clustered at one end .

Single-lever faucets are much easier to operate than two-handled versions. regardless of whether you have eagle eyes or limited vision.-which allows for both standard chairs and wheel­ chair use. but it is especially appropriate to our kitchens. where easy access is always appreciated. a drawer-style dish­ washer is easy on the back. Shallow shelves are easier to access than deep cabinets. which are much easier to handle. locate most kitchen storage between 20 in.Universal Design Is for Everyone HERE'S A TWIST ON THE USUAL COUNTERTOP DINING: The eating surface is at regular table height ­ about 30 in. Provide a variety of countertop heights for sitting or standing. Most that are flexible. which allows for less bending. above the floor. or provide full-extension drawers or pull-out shelves. to 48 in. Positioning th e frid ge at the outskirt of the workspace­ near d ining. or go for refrig­ erator and freezer drawers. relatively goof-proof. and make the path taken by food items short and direct. likewise. While it's esse ntial. Kilcil C/l Dcsign: P"OIll Looks 10 La. but not too wide for efficiencY-42 in. and fit ampl e co un terspace on each side a nd across the aisle for food preparation and se rving. Make aisles wide enough for comfort. A side­ by-side refrigerator is easier to access overall. Bypass those teeny-weeny button pulls in favor of levers or wire pulls. and a pull-out hose is ideal for everyone. and easy features of universal design are pure common sense. from tools to airports. U NIVERSAL DESIGN is a term coined to cover all kinds of your kitchen with a sturdy stepstool for accessing the higher. Aisles and doorways are w ide and the dining space is at the same level as the terrace. particularly at the sink. And don't forget lighting. A dim kitchen is not only depressing but dangerous. the hulking refrigerator doesn't have to be in the ce nter of the workspace.\"IlIH I 1 . preferably-will keep thirsty onloo kers from interfering with cooks.. seasonal stuff. The goal is to create tools and spaces to maneuver in by everyone. A sink sh ould be reasonably clos e to make it easy to drain pasta or transfer a colander of green beans to a pot. easy to use. not just the able-bodied. design. so install abundant under­ cabinet lighting as well as overall lighting to make cooking a delight rather than a chore. making circulation easy for everyone. and 44 in. Anyone with back problems should consider mak­ ing counters higher than the standard 36 ln. Keep pantry and refrigerator near where groceries are unloaded.

which itself faces a salt marsh . The three pendant lights and their curved support reinforce the shape of the island . a sea ting area at one end and a coo kto p or sink at another end. with ca bine ts below and a pot rack above. with a substantial plinth in place of a kickspace. su ch as a butcher-block carl. while cabinets below provide storage for cookware and serving pieces. If an island is fixed in place . in which case th er e's n o con cern for electrical or gas conn ecti on s .The Kitchen Island It's hard to find a new kitch en tod ay th at do esn 't have an island . THIS BEEFY ISLAND IS AN AMALGAM OF A wooo Lutyens-style kitchen table and white-pa inted English cabinetry. descendant o f th e big farm worktable. 18 I Kitchen Design : fro m LOa /IS to Layollt . An island can be free-floating. Tod ay's island is often mor e th an a table: It's a minikitch en in itse lf. THIS CURVED ISLAND-the granite countertop is a long oval and the oiled teak countertop is biscotti-shaped-defines the border between the linear kitchen and the din ing area. chan ces a re it will require electrical outlets. The straight end of the island is used for seating. Its front is faced w ith cherry bead board .

Many of us ea t breakfast. lun ch . and may eve n prefer a s ing le dining s pace for all mea ls in or next to th e kit ch en . Kitchcn Design: From Looks to 1 "y" uI I 19 . the right light ing.RATHER THAN CANTILEVER THE COUNTERTOP to make an unencumbered stretch of eating space. from the built-in bench to the small breakfast table w ith gre en chairs. the designer supported the countertop on two tall cabi­ nets that act like beefy legs. These cabinets also provide extra storage space for dishes. Keys to an enjoyab le eat ing place are close proxim it y to coo kin g a nd se rving. A Place to Eat It's a rare kit ch en that doesn't have at least on e sea t for informal d ini ng. A lowered ceiling soffit provid es a sense of shelter. and co mforta ble seati ng­ w he the r freest anding or built-in . as w ell a s spa ce for ductwork. and everyday dinn er s in th e ki tche n. THERE'S A CHOICE OF SEATING IN THIS COMFORTABLE KITCHEN . an agreeable view.

separate refrig- wall ovens and a cooktop. Finally. Even if you've got a kitchen the size of a boasts a second cook. or even multiple refrigerator drawers dispersed to different parts of the kitchen. and two sinks have become the erator and freezer units. the range may be bifurcated into rule. 20 1 Kitrhcn Design: From Laolls to Layout . The modern kitchen often the ubiquitous island has made the triangle a little more complicated to layout. the goal is to keep the tasks of food preparation. such as second sinks and a refrigerator drawer for drinks. THIS KITCHEN KEEPS TWO COOKS AND SEVERAL ONLOOKERS happy by the intelligent use of countertop space. but it has made it easier to provide space for extra appliances. and refrigerator-has exploded into a more complex geometry. That's not counting the microwave. sink. overall. The cooktop has two landing spaces as well as a serving countertop to its right.Take Measure: Laying Out a Kitchen T HE EDAYS THE CLASSIC KITCHEN TRIANGLE-forged between S range. and 26 ft. serving. while the baker uses the small round island forfood prep and for setting hot pans from wall ovens and the much-used wood-fired brick oven. and cleanup efficient and easy. But no matter: While the classic kitchen triangle is suggested to be between 12ft.

An alwayssolo cook in a galley kitchen will love a 38-in. dishwasher. Acaveat for a two-person kitchen: Don't locate the main garbage pail under the sink. Above all. Kirche n Design: from Loohs to Layout 1'2 1 .cluster your major appliances so that you don'twearyourself out making a meal.but in any kitchen with multiple inhabitants­ cooks or not-the aisle should be at least 42 in. Add more room if the aisle backs up on a seating area.­ wide aisle.football field.for two cooks. and up to 48 in. as the sink is almost always in use. This allows drawers. The tabletop--supported by two pedestals and a plate of sheet steel-is rigged to slide away L aundry/pant ry from the banquette to make it easy for anyone to get in and out. and allows two busy people to pass each other. Compactor Large island Dining room THIS ONE ·SIDED BANQUETTE WITH MOVEABLE SEATING provides dining space in a small getaway house . The bench provides a storage drawer on one end . Put a garbage or compost container where you prepare food for cooking so that you don't have to scoop handfuls of peels and trimmings across the kitchen. and refrlgeratorto be opened with ease.try to steer noncooking traffic around-not through-the workspace.

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reaching from floor to ceiling. Base cabinets we re given false legs to look like unfitted cabinets. C abine try rul es th e kitc he n roo st. And how m uc h ca binets cost es tablis hes yo ur kitche n b udge t -u p to 70 pe rce n t in THESE ELEGANT. look insi de cabine ts-o nline. Arm yo urself with a basi c kn owledge of th e interrelated part s th at mak e up ca bine ts . drawers . Tak e adv antage o f th e co u n tless cabi ne t co n figura tio ns ava ilab le. T he n di ve into th e arra y of op tions for d oor and drawer styles. or in a s ho p. th en vis it local kit ch en-d esign sho ps and hom e ce n ­ ters. After pinning down st yle choi ces. Multipiece cornice molding makes a smooth transition between cabinet tops and ceiling. Wheth er rem odeling or st a rting from scr atch . Ca bi ne t s tyle sets th e ton e for how a kit ch en looks and cabinet layout makes all the difference in how a kit ch en fun ctions. on pap er. includ ing cases. CREAMY-WHITE PAINTED CABINETS were custom built to fit this tall room .to discov er th e a mazing array of accesso ries th at ca n mak e your final ch oi ce of ca bin ets work most efficiently. cho ose ca bine ts ea rly on. Browse home-design magazin es a nd the Internet as a s ta rt . doors. mi xin g and ma tch ing types and s tyles if you wish. a nd hard war e. and a score of other elements.Cabinetr The Kite en Workhorse • • remodels. an d co lors. ap plia nces . as th at decisi on a ffects how lon g th e job tak es a nd se ts th e stage for cho os ing floorin g. and take kitchen tours. while a bull­ nose trim and a valence conceals light fixtures. co u n rer to ps. 23 . materials.

Doors can either be set into the frame or overla y it. Frameless cabinets have long been ass ociated with modern st yles . 24 \ Cabinetry: The Kitchen Wol"llhorse . and its doors and drawers nearl y cover the case completel y. A frameless cabinet-born in Europe in the 1950s to speed production and conserve wood-acquires strength from a thicker case and hence requires no stiffening face frame . call ed the case. E ACH PART OF A CABIN ET CONTRIBUTES to its overall style and function. A frameless cabinet is a simple box . Cases are built either as face-frame cabin ets or frameless cabinets. These are smartly backed with translucent panels to allow light to shine into the kitchen workspace.Iinens.Cabinet A natomy traditionally Ameri can and are still the most popular st yle manufactured . A frame of horizontal rails and vertical stiles covers the exposed edge of the case and contributes significantly to its strength. A continuous shelf under the eating counter is a handy addition that allows easy access to cookbooks. but toda ys frameless cabi nets can easily be made to look traditional with panels and molding. First. CABINETS PLAY A MAJOR ROLE IN THIS KITCHEN . there's the basic box. or even homework. Face-frame cabinets are from the two-story wall cabinets and stackeddrawer base cabinets to the phalanx of ceilinghung cabinets over the island.

FRAMElESS EURO-STYLE CABINETS LIKE THESE FREQUENTlY have a tall toespace. Cabinets stop short of the ceiling to leave a reveal. THIS WALL CABINET IN A FARM­ HOUSE KITCHEN is a truly tradi ­ tional face-frame case. each with veneer carefully positioned to show off the figure of the wood. The flush overlay doors and drawers feature a shallow frame-and-panel design for subtle contrast. which doesn't need a back for strength. Cabinetry: The Kitchen Workhorse I 25 .THESE FRAMELESS CABINETS HAVE FLAT-SLAB DOORS and draw­ ers.

Styles. from a accessories.Cabinet Sources ELABORATE CABINET MOLDINGS embellish tops and edges of these semi-custom cabinets. so filler pieces may be required to cover gaps between cabinet cases. making it eas ier for the designated table setter to access cutlery and linens. Understandably. Stock cabinets are built as individual components in standard sizes and increments. and request-or prepare for yourselfa list that calls out each cabinet. one-person shop to a multiacre factory. with or without the help of an architect or kitchen designer. stock cabinets are about half the cost of many custom-manufactured cabinets. The shop will install the cabinets. and configurations. its accessories. you can hire a cabinetmaker to build custom cabinets. hardware. Quality is generally very good to premium. but can't be customized. and they are available off the shelf or within a few weeks from home centers and lumberyards or through a kitchenproducts dealer or contractor. and accessories vary widely. The cherry cabinetry is hand rubbed for a trad itional look. finishes. The cabinets can be installed by the dealer. Don't be shy about obtaining and querying the references that a potential cabinetmaker gives you. When ordering cabinets. stock. a contractor. They vary greatly in price. ask for plans and elevations of the specific cabinetry. but there's a wide range of options now available for every budget. Of course. THE INSET DRAWERS IN THIS ISLAND face away from the busy workspace. Semicustom cabinets have fewer available options and cost about 2s-percent less than cabinets from custom manufacturers. delivery takes two to twelve weeks. sizes. and its hardware. depending on whether they're 26 I Cabinetry: The Ki!chen Workhorse . finishes. K ITCHEN CABINETS CAN COME FROM MANY SOURCES. but the range of choices is much broader and there's wiggle room for custommade pieces. Shop-built cabinets generally take longer than manufactured cabinets-from six to twenty weeks-but not always. custom. Stock cabinets are the most basic cabinet choice. or you. hardware. or something in between. Semicustom and custom cabinet manufacturers also offer a fixed but wide range of styles. Shop-built cabinets can be built in larger sections to fit specific site-measured situations.

The cabinet case is face -frame. The wall of built-in cabinetry acts as pantry storage. ITTOOK CLEVER DESIGNWORK TO FITTHE CABINETS IN THIS CORNER. Cabinetry: The Kitchen WorHorse 1 2 . and each drawer is inset into the face frame .THIS COLONIAL-STYLE HUTCH ISBUILT FROM HAND·PLANED PINE that's stained a walnut color. with typical wall-hung cabinets at right butting into a china-cabinet­ style wall cabinet at left. from door knobs to bin pulls to butt hinges. Doors and drawers are inset into beaded face frames.The outside edge of the cab inet is beaded. A MIX OF THETRADITIONALAND THE CONTEMPORARY. these cabi­ nets have inset frame-and -panel doors w ithout a center post and a bead board backsplash. and shelves have mu ltiple beads for a subtle contrast. and cabinet hard ­ ware is nickel plated.

The face frame strengthens cabinet case. The unusual proportion of the wide doors on the cab inets to the left of the wall oven pro vide visual interest to the bank of cabinetry. high.-high to espaces. The European-height toe kick is about 9 in. BASIC CABINET TYPES FRAMELESS CABINETS Doors and drawers overlay the case completely (flush or full overlay).THESE MODULAR FRAMELESS CABINETS COMBINE FRAME -ANDFLAT-PANEL doors and drawers in base cabinets with translucentglass doors on wall cabinets. too. but concealed . Framelesscabinet gets its strength f rom a stronger cabinet case. Frameless cabinets usually have stand ard 4-in. adjust able hinges are availab le. FACE-FRAME CABINET Traditional face -frame hinges are exposed and not adjustable. European-style frameless cabinets often have taller to espaces. 28 I Cabinetry Th(~ Ki tchen Wor'hllOrsc . Doors and drawers can be inset or overlay.

deep. If you like deep countertops-say 30 in. •• it easier for a tall cook to use the sink. The countertop will cover the gap in the back. Another tack is to drop the wall cabinet all the way down to the countertop. to 5 in. above the countertop or even no wall cabinets at all. THESE FRAMELESS CABINET DOORS RUN STRAIGHT KEEPING THE WALL CABINETS HIGH IN THIS KITCHEN makes M OST MANUFACTURED BASE CABINETS are just shy of 2 ft.-deep base cabinets 4 in. proud of the wall. high. with a slight reveal.. deep and are 34'. The big drawer under the wall oven handles pots . so a china cabinet dropped into the lineup of base cabinets may be more suitable than ordinary wall cabinets. above the countertop). For years the standard wall cabinet has been placed 16 in. or a tall one. (Wall cabinets over sinks should be at least 30 in.--- •• .Sizing up Cabinets countertop. but deep cabinets are tougher to ac­ cess. Custom-built cabinets can certainly be specified at 30 in. and 3o-in. high to receive a 1'/.. especially if the look is traditional. in. . Position them where they suit you best. replaced instead by open shelves or a separate pantry. but for a serious cook.' in. II Ii (n~ e I 29 .­ install standard 2-ft. The frameless cabinets feature beadboard panels in flat frames. drawers require especially sturdy hardware and construction. More suit ­ able may be a wall cabinet 24 in. to 18 in. this may not be high enough. liell \\ '" . who tend to prefer kneading and rolling out pastry with fully extended arms. Custom -built wall cabinets can also be built taller to suit taller cooks or lower for bakers. Researchers say that the most useful storage space is between hip height and shoulder height. deep and 30 in. above the countertop. But that doesn't mean you can't customize your cabinets. wall cabinets are 12 in. The trim on the recessed ceiling light is as narrow as possible so that doors can swing freely. Cabillel ry : The Kil. to the ceiling. but be sure to specify extradeep panels for any exposed cabinet sides so that there won't be a visible gap between cabinet and wall. creating a china-cabinet effect.

flat . a nd pan els can be flat . an d mo re. For faceframe cab ine ts. but are s tanda rd in hist orical styles. As you choose dra wer and door styles. cloors an d drawe rs can take on any look yo u like. and durabilit y: Some sty les require a lon g lead time. This palette of bicolored framed doors and drawers makes cab inets that are both lively and tailored . frames can be beaded . cost. or carved . 32) to cover the edge o f the case.\ N D DRAW Elb SET THE STYLI' for a kit ch en. hin ges. order them in the ea rly stages of design. conside r hard ware. THESE UNIQUE CABINETS ARE A MIXTUR E of opaque and transparent. a llow- ing plates to go back and fort h. one face frame case is fitted with wood runners and pull-out baskets for STAINED CABINETRY. In sh ort . allowing a limited view of the d ining room through clear-glass upper cabinets and steel -mesh door panels on the back side that open into the din ing room . Pulls.Doors and Drawers raised . IN THIS KITCHEN OF BLUE- D OO RS . easy access to a few essentials. Doors and drawers can be fl at-slab (a lso called one-piece) or fram e-and-panel. bead ed . 30 \ Cabillctry: The Kitche ll Workhorsc . reveal ove rlay doors. are the most co mmo n and least expensive style. Inset cloors are more painstaki ng to ma ke and han g than ove rlay doo rs. which show part of the face frame. too. and drawer slid es have a big impact on looks. Keep in mind that all doors an d drawers on fram eless cabine ts mu st be full overlay (see drawing on p.

Cabincu' ': The Kitchell WorkhcH" c I 3' . so pull-out shelves are used instead of stacks of drawers in the base cabinets. so you don't have to playa memory game with drawer contents. with the same panel design applied to the range hood. The homeowner liked the simpler look of doors.THIS SYMMETRICAL COMPOSITION IS ANCHORED at each side by large. frame-and-flush-panel doors in both the wall and base cabinets. ROW UPON ROW OF APOTHECARY­ STYlE DRAWERS are fitted with ring pulls for an unusual take on the basic base cabinet. The key here isto decideon a logical order for easyaccess.

hh ol se . beading can be integral or applied and may be on the frame or panel. glass can be single. 111 . 32 I Cabillrt ry: The Kitchell Wo. sta ined. te xtured or clear. often called Shaker or Colonial style Extra wide f lat f ram e with recessed panel Beaded frame and panel .or mu lti paned . carved. Frame wit h glass panel . or may be beaded . A flat-slab or single piece door is most often veneered. or em bell ished in other w ays.A GALLERY OF DOORS COMPAR ING INSET TO OVER LAY Inset doors and drawers f it wit hin t he face frame . V-groove boar ds with backing or edge -glued planks witho ut f ram e A f lat-s lab door with mo lding app lied Reveal overlay doors and drawers partially overlap the face frame. '" 1 1= _ Flat f rame w ith beadboard . Flat frame w ith recessed flat panel . fram e and pan el may be simple.- 1 1_ 1 ' '/ Flu sh overlay doors and drawers cover a frame less cabin et case. painted . as shown. or natural Frame with mitered corners and raised panel .

while doors are inset w ith a frame -and -double-panel pattern that goes almost a ll the way to the floo r. and be aut ifully proportioned..THISWAll FUll OF FRAMElESS CABINETS with overlay doors makes a stunning counterpoint to the open shelves in th e center. But the multipaned wall cabinets a re the stars here. Cabinetr\. Drawers are overlay. The stone ti le floor matches the tone of the cabinets. Tile Kitcilen lVorhli 'J I ~ " I s: . The wire pulls on the doors add an interesting rhythm to the wall. giving the kitchen a serene ambi ence . THIS WAll OF DISH CABINETRY IS BUilT with the trad itional setup of solid cabinets at the base and glazed cabinets above.

THIS WALL FULL OF FRAMELESS CABINETS with overlay doors

makes a stunning counterpo int to the open shelves in the center. The wire pulls on the doors add an interesting rhythm to the wall. The stone tile floor matches the tone of the cabinets, giving the kitchen a serene ambience.

THISWALLOF DISH CABINETRY IS BUILT with the trad it ional setup

of solid cabinets at the base and glazed cabinets above. Drawers are overlay, while doors are inset with a frame-and-double-panel pattern that goes almost all the way to the floor. But the multipaned wall cabinets are the stars here, and beautifully proportioned .

Cahilletry: TIle KlCcllf/ 1 IVO "i1 J O I~ "

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THESE HOMEOWNERS CAN HAVE THEIR BOOKSAND COOK, TOO. A

healthy collect ion of cookbooks is close at hand, yet there's still room behind the piano-h inged swinging bookshelf for bulk ier cooking tools that aren 't necessarily used every day.

34 \ C<l hilletry: Tile Kitchell WorllllOlse

THE SCULPTURAL HARDWARE ON THESE CABINETS has the presence

of knobs but acts like pulls, as it takes a hooked finger to open doors and drawers .The reveals at the ceiling and toespace are black, visually connecting the cab inets, refr igerator. and countertop. The cabinets over the sink are recessed . making it more comfortable to use that workspace. while the textured­ glass panels add sparkle to the colored glassware inside.

THESE FRAMELESS BEECH CABI· NETS ARE CAREFULLY COMPOSED

and crafted to operate smoothly and iook elegant. Edge pulls (seen on mirrored doors of built-In med ­ icine cabinets) and cylinder pulls are stainless steel.

THIS KITCHEN CORNER IS COM­ POSED to look good and take ad­

vantage of potentially lost space. Fixed dowels keep wine at hand in a narrow slot . while two doors­ opening in opposite directions for different purposes-take the spacenext to the refrigerator.

Curved stainless doors conceal goods on adj ust able shelves. overlayin g a fr ameless case R Grad uat ed-si ze d rawe rs w ith bead ed edge s. inset in facefr ame case = A bank of sam e-size fla t -sla b dr aw ers. inset in faceframe case A dr aw er with beaded edge over a f rameand-raised-p anel doo r. slide on custom -made track hardware. while the opposite side cont ain s a drawer wi thin a drawer. th is island cabine t is round t o smooth traffic flow. but with out inte rme diate rails 36 I Cl nillelrv: The Kilchell Wor!lhorse .BECAUSE IT15 THE CENTERPIECE OF A BUSY KITC HEN. A LOOK AT DRAWERS . II c. in set in racef rame case. in set in face f rame. wh ich are thin layers of poplar plywood clad with a stainless-steel skin. Interior s are veneered w ith maple. = t [ ( F Gradu at ed -size dr aw ers with bead ed edges ._. Curved doors. w ith inte rme dia te rai ls I I A fl at-slab drawe r over a fla t f rame-and-panel door.

epoxy-coated (for reduced noise) steel slide with LARGE POT DRAWERS LIKE THESE require sturdy drawer slides. while heavy-duty slides fit on the side. they will stay cleaner than side-mounted slides. slides (or glides). Since they're less exposed than side-mounted slides. consider using full-extension slides on just the top drawers. While they take up some of the available drawer depth. D RAW ERS ARE SUPPORTED BY. It's critical to specify full­ extension slides for pot drawers to make all items easy to access. especially full-extension models. and glide on. Full-extension slides add to cost. To save money. THIS NARROW. They are essential for big pot and pan drawers.Drawer Slides nylon rollers. which glide in wood slots in the drawer sides. For historical authenticity. or 4 in. or if you just don't like the look of side­ mounted steel slides. they do allow for a slightly wider drawer. Heavy-duty ball bearings last longer and are more stable than nylon rollers. CUSTOM-DESIGNED DRAWER keeps cooking oils stand­ ing up straight in the front while hot pads and mitts stack up behind. but they also cost more. and side­ mounted slides are gen­ erally more efficient than bottom-mounted slides. from the closed position. The ind ustr y standard for a good-quality drawer slide is a side ­ mounted. . Self-closing drawer slides allow the drawer to shut automatically when it is 3 in. go for either undermounted steel slides or wood slides. but many designers automatically specify them because they expose the contents of the entire drawer to view when opened. Undermounted drawer slides are expensive. Less-expensive slides are mounted at the lower edge of the drawer side.

·in. both in status and in size. pans. and cooking ingredients. you have to open the door. then pull out the shelf-unlike a drawer.Drawers versus Pull-Outs containers for cutlery. dovetailed maple. But there's still a case to be made for cabinets with doors and pull-out shelves. and the large pot drawers are pretty handy. On the other hand. and odds and ends. such as oils and vinegars. THESE DEEP DRAWERS HANDLE THE FAMILY'S DAILY DISHES and are easy to reach from the dishwasher and easy to access from the dining room . linens. so everything is accessible. paper goods. 38 \ Cabinclry: Thc Kurh cn Workhorse . and they are gaining popularity as vessels for pots. high. which takes a single operation to access the contents. spices. Some cooks like pull-out shelves because they can hold a range of objects. too. utensils. and since the edges of a pull-out shelf are just 2 in. The shelves are adjustable to suit the heights of a va riety of contents. stuff can't be overstacked. D RAWER SARE BIG THESE DAYS. to 4 in. as well. Drawers have always been the ideal storage THESE HANDSOME PULL·OUT SHELVES are made of 'I. TALL CABINETS SUIT THE TALL COOK WHO WORKS HERE.

including the angled cabinet. Cabi­ nets are frameless. and cutting boards. such as pa ns. butt hinges are a traditional favorite for inset doors and are a less obtrusive alternative on glass -paneled cabinets. who invariably swing­ and lean-as they survey cabinet con­ tents for good stuff. trays. where the hinge is always in view. with maple frames and Honduras mahogany panels. A more expensive but cleaner detail is to run the mounting block the full vertical length of the inside of the face frame. but it's also a heavy load to haul from a cabinet . That puts hinges at the top of the list (drawer slides are THIS SMALL KITCHEN MAKES USE OF EVERY SPACE. which is idea l for storing flat items. a close second). Or bypass hinges alto­ gether and go for that restaurant­ kitchen standard. when a door might have sagged. so don't skimp on quality here. These days. Here's a sweat-free so ­ lution: Store the mixer on a shelf that rises to the occas ion from a base cabinet to countertop he ight on specialized hardware. Cabinelrv: The Kildl CI Work/Ill/Sf T I 39 .Hinges T HE VAST MAJORITY OF CABINET DOORS SWING. Despite the ease of installation and operation of concealed cup hinges. Larger con­ cealed hinges may require a mounting block on the inside of the face frame. a complicated-looking hinge that allows a cabinet door to be easily adjusted. both during installation and years later. As with any system. concealed adjustable hinges are also available for face-frame cabinets. but the doors are traditional. the sliding door. much to the delight of kids of all ages. A STAND MIXER CAN TAKE UP A LOT OF ROOM on a countertop. the most prob­ lematic components of a cabinet are the parts that move. The European cabinet revolution in the 1950S that brought us frameless cabinets also brought the concealed cup hinge.

they don't provide easily accessed storage and should be filled with rarely used items. Cabinets can stop short of the ceiling or go all the way up to be trimmed by crown molding or [in ish ed off with a reveal. YOUR F. which is a narrow s lot between two s u rfaces. may sit o n a wide base (cabine tma kers call it TINY CElllNG·HUNG CABINETS MAKEA THREE-DIMENSIONAL frieze a plinth). less com mo nly. Trim ming cabinet tops and bottoms contributes more to styl e and function than it might seem . While thinking outside (or above and below) th e box is easy with cus10m cabine try. there's an eve r-in cr easing ran ge of nonstandard cabinets available through s tock a nd se m icus tom s ourc es that offer interesting details without the sticker shock .\\'O RIT E CAOIN ET STYIL 'S .Finishing Cabinet Tops and Bottoms A s YOU Ii OI\I E IN Il l\.While visually interesting. it's also quite expensive . around the kitchen . 40 I Luhinctry: I he Kirchell \Vorl/horse . Cabi ne t bottoms may incorporate a toespace or. consider how they will [it into the room at top and bottom .

Cabi llclrv : T he Kitchell W(l r!l!lorsr I 4' .RECLAIMED BARN LUMBER­ mostly pine with some hemlock­ was custom sawn to make this hutch/television cabinet combo in the din ing room . and a crown of greenery. with a dark-stained diamond inlay. crown molding.The top of the cabinets received special atten­ tion. Toespaces are framed by canted legs. triangular task-light fixtures. A DETAILED INLAY TRIMS CROWN MOLDING and the rail over the microwave to give a distinctive edge to these cherry face-frame cabinets. A peek under the wall cabinets offers a glimpse at unusual.

FULL-HEIGHT CABINET provides a contrast to its flanking neighbors with a curved top. Cherry dish cabinets at left abut an overhanging soffit for a sheltered look. large pulls . Sandblasted glass is the material of choice in the framed doors and sliding panels. Stopping the elaborately trimmed cab inet tops just short of the soffit gives the cabinets more of a furniture look. which continues across the sink w ith recessed task lighting .THIS BUILT-IN . A ROW OF UPPER CABINETS STRETCHES from wall to wall across the tops of the maple wall cabinets. while cookware cabinets are flush with the soffit. and natural pine finish . 42 I Cnbinetry: Til e Kilchen Workho rse . THESE CABINETS MEETTHECEILING AND FLOOR in several different ways.

Ceiling-hung cabinets over the island display a collection of copperware and provide a buffer between eating and workspace. plants. and it bounces off the ceiling to multiply the effect. and partly because items stored up high are hard to reach. WALL CABINm DON'T REACH TOAN 8-FT. If household members are prone to allergy or asthma. CEILING. however. An elaborate molding can make the cabinet look more like furniture. little-used kitchen tools. For a O mN. cover a flush-fitting lowered soffit with a super-deep crown molding to tie the cabinetry visu­ ally to the ceiling. Another option is to make a narrow slot (called a reveal) between the cabinet and the soffit or ceiling. Cab ill cli y: The Kil c!JCII Worll!lQ' ''' I 4: . Cabinets can also meet a lowered drywall or wood ­ trimmed soffit that contains lighting and ductwork. partly more traditional look. for decorative pottery or baskets. Cabinets that reach the ceiling or a soffit often require trimming to hide the joint. Open cabinet THESE NATURALLY FINISHED CABINETS RECEIVE a jolt of brightness from the white tr im. or windows­ natural light that enters a room from a high window provides the most desirable light year-round. a painted frieze.Considering Cabinet Tops tops are ideal. consider taking the cabinets to the ceiling or to a lowered soffit to avoid surfaces that collect dust. because tall cabinets cost more.

The blowers in toespace heaters can be noisy. A corner pilaster provides a visual leg for the cabinet . where stiles of the cabinet frame are continued to the floor to make feet with a toespace in the center. plate) is made by a separate recessed platform that supports the cabinet. a base trim provides a natural paint break or a change of material that allows for easier repairs if the bottom of the cabinet is damaged by man or beast. from 5 in. or even for installation of individual toes pace heaters.-high. If you opt for no toes pace. the side can be panel ed to match the f ron t.-high toespaces the same way. which is a wide base that supports the cabinet case.-deep toespace. A traditional cabinet w it h no toes pace can sit on a plinth. This detail can also apply to the sides of a cabinet. wh ich can be tr immed simply. a handsome deta il at a farmhouse sink. has spawned the cabinet plinth. or w ith elaborate mold ing . Cabinets with no toespaces are hard to stand at. Cabinet fram e cont inues to the floor to become a leg. American-made face-frame FINISHING CABINET BOTTOMS This is a typical toespace at front with a flat cabinet side and shoe molding on each side. T HETOESPACE (also called a toe kick. 3-in. as shown . 44 I Cabinelry: The Kitchen Wo. to 9 in. so it's best to increase the overhang of the countertop and be sure your drawers have full-extension guides. European cabinets often have tall toespaces. however.-tall base trim to your cabinet. or kick- Toespaces aren't required. The toes pace is on the front and side. kickspace. But a tall toes pace means less interior cabinet space. consider recess ing the cabinet under the sin k.) Toespaces can provide a space for heat/air registers and ductwork for a central system. Extra-tall European toes pace trim board usually covers adjustable cabinet legs. Here. where pieces are designed to look as if they were collected over time.Tackling Toespaces cabinets and most frameless cabinets have a 4-in. as well as cabinet legs. The toes pace also acts as a bumper against overzealous mopping and vacuuming. th e curved cabinet bottom disguises the toespace . The ongoing popularity of the unfitted kitchen. consider adding at least a 4-in. The toespace trim is cont inued along flat side with trim board . so research the options carefully. hhorsc . unless the toes pace itself is fitted with a drawer or a pull-out skid or step stool (you can configure 4-in. high. where it's not common to have a toespace. which many people like for the sense of lightness the look imparts and because it's easier to clean around cabinets without damaging doors and drawers. When a toespace is not desired.

no t protection) tha t's finished w ith a protective coat ing­ typically a catalyt ic co nvers io n varnish applied off-site. which make good sense because they don 't swing into the circulation path . Tile Kirchen \Vo. wh eth er so lid o r vene ered o n to the cabi ne t case . m akes it a focal point. and cu rved cabinet feet. do need finishing. or rigid The rmofoil (RTF). Cab inets ca n also be paint ed o r sprayed wi th high -gloss polyest er finish fo r a flash o f co lor o r high style. a full-height cupboard. and varying cabinet feet.. Solid wood and woo d ven eers . Thi s may be a sta in (fo r col or . plast ic lam ­ inate. do ors. and the rema inder is pan eled to ENTIRELY FILLED match cabinet doors. bo th are eas ier to repair than Thermofo il. me tal. with var ious-s ize pieces. hh ". of co urse . and high -gloss pol yest er fin ishes. Cabi nets ca n also be veneered with metal . but tha t ver satility is a lso what ke ep s us up at night tryi ng to decide whi ch materials and finis h es ar e j us t right. plasti c laminat e. a n elabo rate crown molding. THIS DIN ING ROOM IS ALMOST with cabinets. THESE BUILT -IN CABINETS ARE DESIGNED in the unfi tted kitchen st yle.Materials an d Fin ishes T H E CHAR\1 O f CA BIl': E"I S is th at th ey ca n ta ke o n j ust abo ut any ap­ pearan ce yo u want. The lower part of the cabinet has sliding doors. CaIJi nwy. wh ich fea ­ tures bullnosing. fluted pilasters. s ta ined finish es are eas ier to tou ch up than pa int ed finish es. As a rul e. and d rawers . The more elaborate tr im on the cupboard . Most o f today's ki tche ns are nat ur al woo d . ~ t' I 45 .

Porcelain knobs on all cabinetry unify the kitchen.THIS IS NOT YOUR MOTHER'S STOCK CABINETRY. unless she's an artist. Here. while the built-in cabinetry is natural maple. COMBINING PAINTED CABINETRY GIVES A KITCH EN an unfitted look. Wire pulls are designed with both whimsy and easy access in mind. These custom-designed and crafted cabinets look like sculpture.the freestanding island and china hutch are green. as if pieces were added over time. 46 I Cabillt'uv : The Kitchell Worhhorst' . creating a pleasing visual counterpo int. but they are really a combination of frame-and-panel doors and flat-slab doors and drawers.

Cabinets that are to be painted on site should at least be primed before delivery.A Look at Wood is oak. however. country look. This cabinet is wood. But using wood as a veneer over plywood. but bending the rules is allowed. but MDF is easy to shape. EVEN-GRAINED MAPLE is currently WOOD IS THE CABINET MATERIAL of choice for the most popular wood for cabinet doors and drawers.ask for hand-applied finishes. a traditional favorite that is darker and often highlighted with light flecks. MDF. This minimizes the shrinking or swelling that can occur when the cabinet moves from shop to residence. and pecan follow. For a truly authentic period look. CHERRY FROM FLOOR TO CEILING WITH A NARROW GRANITE interlude makes this a warm and L IGHT. chosen for their comfortable. and hickory. or particleboard ensures that any species can make the grade as a cabinet surface. Cherry and pine are ideal for Shakerstyle cabinets. allows for better control of the finishes. Cabillctry: The Kitchell lVorhhorsc I 47 . though cherry is a fine alternative if detailed properly. is in third place. while the cabinet door is veneer-core plywood. Artsand Crafts kitchens were often quartersawn oak. pine. Most cabinetmakers and manufacturers recommend having wood cabinets finished in the factory or shop. especially quartersawn oak. in second place truly traditional design. and mostly solid at that. w ith the case visible on the sides and top but not the bottom. Cherry. an elegant wood that darkens with time. which may crack and are softer with wider grain. elegant kitchen. Douglas fir was common at the turn of the 19th century. As a rule. and pine and maple were Colonial favorites. so you'll see many cab inet details carried out in MDF. These unusual cabinets are a face -frame/frameless hybr id. Period kitchens may call for certain species. the beadboard is solid wood. and permits the use of finishes that can't be safely applied in a residence. hardwood species age more gracefully than softwoods.

48 I -uhllll'tl\. IL ~ - .: The Kilchl'1l WOlhhorse . both formaldehyde free . An art ist gave the cabinet a "fauxrelic" finish with many layers of paint.The ea sy-toclean choice was rigidThermofoil (RTF). u auO = TH IS KITCHEN IS IN A NEIGHBOR HOOD SURRO UNDED BYORCHARDS . thes e Shaker-style cabinets are fitted with cher ry knobs on lower cab inets and walnut knobs on upper s. Custom -made by a local cabinet maker. THIS UPPER CABINET IS PART of a new built-in china cabinet . so rampant dust precluded the use of intricate cabinetry with panels and molding. and panel products are wheat -straw particleboard and a medium-density fiberboard called Medex"". a heat-formed laminate that wraps around the cabinet parts to form a permanent bond.HAND-RU BBED FINISHING BR INGS OUTTHE NATURAL BEA UTY of wavy cherry in th is New Mexico kitchen .-~ - - l - a c c> - lf. Panels and frame are solid wood.

and it holds screws better. and won't peel-unlike films and foils. a case needs to be fin­ ished inside and out with some type of material for both aes­ thetics and durability. Even the chairs are cherry. Melamine that is heat-fused onto particleboard makes an ideal interior surface for a cabinet case. or panel products. Here's the lowdown on some of the most common choices: Wood veneers are available in many species. The most common are plywood. bottoms. engineered wood. but cabinet cases rarely are. wood by-products. constructed of solid wood. It's half the price of hardwood plywood. AND DRAWER FACES are often Many cabinetmakers use MDF or particleboard alone for moderate and low budgets. The sides. and the effect is balanced nicely by the cool colors of marble. cheaper than high­ pressure laminate. and black appliances. MDF.What's In a Cabinet Case? whether face-frame or frameless-are commonly built from sheet goods. All ofthese materials make cases that are significantly more dimensionally stable than solid wood. and is easier to curve-but it also costs more. weighs less. also called sheet stock. The finish can range from paint to wood veneer to laminates. melamine. and even nonwood sources. DOOR FRAMES. Cabillc/ly: The Kit. and high-pressure plastic laminate. Regardless of what it's made of. and some cabinetmakers actu­ ally prefer these materials because they are dimensionally stable and provide a smooth face for plastic laminate and wood veneer.hell \\'" r/III< II ' " 4 . F ACE FRAMES. and particleboard. A new twist on plywood is combined-core plywood. a sandwich of ply­ wood and MDFor particleboard. which are not water resistant. washable and tough. Laminates include vinyl and paper films. Plywood (the stuff in cabinets is called veneer-cored plywood) is stronger and more water resistant than other panel products. This panel is smoother than plywood and lighter than MDF. Sheet goods are made from wood. CHERRY CABINETRY WOODWORK MESHES SEAM· LESSLY. with window trim. and tops of a case ­ THESE CUSTOM CABINETS ARE CONSTRUCTED from solid wood and veneer-core plywood. maple and beech are common for the interior of custom-quality cases. gray paint.

A WHEAT-COLORED KITCHEN TAKES ITS WARMTH and texture from bead board panels in inset framed doors. and curtains. tile backsplash. high-gloss lemonyellow numbers. as evidenced here by these sleek. 50 I Cuhifl clry: The Kilchell Workhorse . They needn't be the garden variety.ANYONE WITH A CHEMICAL SENSITIVITY TO THE OUTGASSING that can occur with most new wood cabinets will appreciate metal cabinets. as well as from the textures found in the wallpaper.

and clock and the exposed steel structure add a cool contrast to the warm colors of cabinetry. Stainless-steel appliances.. backsplash. Cabinets are stainless steel with translucent glass panels above and solid doors below. ethereal look. Clear-glass cabinets require a finer finish on cabinet interiors than textured-glass doors. but glass doors cost two to three times as much as solid doors. The carefully chosen contents add abstract color to the kitchen. Cab/lld r)" I'll . NATURALMAPLE AND YELLOW-PAINTED FRAMELESS CABINETS make a sunny galley kitchen.' rhll tJrst' 15 1 . Glass Doors G LASS ISA FAVORITE DOOR PANEL for wall cabinets that store glassware and dishes. STEEL AND WOOD COEXIST PEACEFULLY IN THIS AIRY. even from a shower­ door supplier.WHITE-PAINTED WOOD CABINETS ARE COVERED with metal-framed translucent glass to give the cabi­ nets a soft. sink. Interior shelves are glass. Kikll"11 \\ . elegant kitchen. It's possible to save money by ordering cabinets "prepared for glass" and have glass supplied locally. and floor.

THESE CABINETS ARE CUSTOM BUILT AND FEATURE BEADBOARD paneling highlighted with wellplaced lighting that finishes the inside of the wall cabinets. smooth surfaces. and metal details. from the matte tile laid diagonally to the single-pane windows. Cabinets have flush joints. THIS ISA CONTEMPORARY KITCHEN FROM FLOOR TOCEILING. 52 \ Cabil1clIy: The Kitchell W(1r!l/liHSf . Pullout baskets make casual drawers .

Full-extension drawer slides allow for easy access to the back compartments. A CUSTOM-MADE DRAWER is fit­ ted with a m aple insert for sorting cutlery. Cabinet accesso ries wo rt h co nsid era tio n in clu de slide -ou t a nd pu ll-o u t she lves . s uc h as pull-ou t twin trash recep tac les and u nde rcab ine t bins for compost. accessory. Hardworkin g acc es­ sories .Cabinet Accessories T H E DOOR S . s ho u ld be de sign ed to s ui t a cook's wo rk meth od . from ap pli an ce ga rages to lazy Susans . goo d-size spi ce drawers. Man y of these accessories are availab le as afterm ark et produ cts. verti cal slOTS for trays an d baking sheets. but building th em in makes for a bett er-integrated .ubi/. along with an open dish rack and dr awer s fitted w ith cutlery slots below. .\ N O DRAWER S 0 I A CABIN ET may grab a tte n tio n for thei r aest he tic pizzazz. not glued or na iled on . Custom cab i­ netry details include dovetailed corners on the d rawer box and rounded top edges on the drawer sides. an d frequent ly more dur abl e. which features closed-door storage above. a nd budge t. storage needs . THERE 'S A PLACE FOR EVERY· THING IN THIS PINE HUTCH.' c 53 . The be ad on the edge of the cabinet face fram e is integral. an d sma ll-item racks that fit on th e inside of cab in et doors.. Most hou se­ hold s would also ben efit from ca bine t accessor ies gea red to ward recy­ cli ng . but w ha t kee ps atten tion in a kit ch en is how well th e ca bine ts are fitt ed to work efficientl y.-C/'\': fI" /\i ld" '/I \\ ~ " Idll" .

THIS DIN ING SPACE (AND A KITCHEN NOT IN VIEW) OVERLOOKS the family room in a ski house.CAKE FLOUR. A cabinet makes a storage space for dishes and makes a more secure railing than simple metal rails. AND ALLPURPOSE FLOUR are ea sy to scoop from this specially designed drawer fitted with Plexiglas boxes that won 't leak . SUGAR. so cooks aren't separated from the hubbub. has adjust- able Plexiglas dividers that keep cake and tart pans aligned and easy to retrieve. 54 1Cabinetry: The Kitchell lVorhll<ns e . the green-tinted concrete countertop is backed by a wood backsplash to prevent falling objects. vanilla. either. and frequently used flavorings are kept in the right slot. but they aren't bothered. POSITIONED AT A BAKING WORKSPACE . Baker's basics like salt. baking powder and soda. THIS DRAWER.

Shelves are fixed and spaced to allow various-size spices. so you have to be willing to label the tops. Accessories tailor-made for spices. so keep only much-used spices out in the open and near the range. such as wall-cabinet lazy Susans. Chapters 3 and 5 offer more spice-storage ideas.Storing Spices THESE CABINETS OPEN UP TO REVEAL MULTILAYERED spice storage right near the professional-style range. and back-of-door shelves. though it's fine for spices that see frequent use and replacement. consider: light and heat are enemies of spice life.) Some cooks like the uniformity of same-size jars lined up on a rack built to size. and the door shelves have a safety rail. (Even a cabinet right next to a hardworking stove gets too much heat for long­ term storage. the others need a home in the dark. some forethought. but there's no one cabinet acces­ sory that suits everyone. and the active cooks check spices for freshness. are available not only as built-ins but as aftermarket products. Here are some things to Cabi nctry: TlJ c Kitchen WorhJwr'Sc . while other cooks collect spice S TORING SPICES can make a jumbled mess if not given jars and tins of all types and sizes. The substantial solid cherry cabinets keep out heat and light when closed. A drawer with slanted shelves or racks allows for a slight variation in jar size. 5 . while a deeper drawer accommodates spice containers of all sizes-though they'll be standing up. racks that drop down from the bottom of a wall cabinet.

slide-out . but it's much easier to figure in trash as the cabinets are designed.-\': The Kitchcll W(lrJlilO 'SC . Think in terms of locating recycling bins in a handy but out-of-the-way spot. preferably next to the outside door-a mudroom off the kitchen would be a perfect spot.Ltrays for trash cans. even right under the countertop. To accommodate flat it em s. IT'S COMMON TO SEE VERTICAL SLOTS BUILT into cabinet int eriors. 56 \ C" bind . .a large drawer is fitted with slots . composting drawers. Consider where you prep food and locate the wet garbage can close by. It's possible to purchase these accessories after cabinets are in place. The same goes for compost containers. The half-height slots keep smaller items from getting lost. so the bin can be pulled out with a foot and the trimmings swept in. and other options for dealing with kitchen waste. but this kitchen is filled entirely with drawers.THIS HANDY CABINET NEXT TO THE COOKTOP is filled with slot s for pans and baking sheets. Accessories for Recyclables and Trash T OaK FOR PULL-OUT GARBAGE and recycling bins.

Slots to the back are easy to reach when the drawers open completely on full-extension hardware. DRAWER DIVIDERS LIKE THESE CAN KEEP cooking tools untan­ gled.THIS DRAWER IS THE BRAINCHILD it's a model for anyone with a collection of small baking tools. lllu1/' " . Cabilletl)': The K Il Chfll n '". so th e drawer could be used for other types of kitchen tools if desired. Plexiglas divi­ ders fit into the drawer without requiring any customizing of the drawer itself. neat. OF A PASTRY CHEF. 57 . and out of sight while easy to access. but A MAGNETIC STRIP FIXED IN A DRAWER NEAR THE COOKTOP keeps knives clean.

including lazy Susans and swing-out. if the corner cabinets are fitted with open shelves and no doors. Wire shelves keep items visible and allow for air circulation. 58 \ CCi billt"IIy:"ll1e Kitchell Wo rkhorse . On wall cabinets the corner is not as tough to access because cabinets aren't as deep. as shown here. Remember that the more moving parts. THE CONTENTS OF THESE CABINET CORNERS are completely accessible with sturdy wire shelves that swing out. the more expensive the accessory. dark space easier to access. ONE OF THE SIMPLEST WAYS TO DEAL WITH CORNER cabinets is to fit them with standard doors. Cabinetmakers offer a range of accessories. The best lazy Susans are fitted with a high ledge or a curved backing to keep items in place. and run fixed shelves into the corner.Corner Accessories O N LY THOSE WITH GALLEY KITCHENS- which have no corners-don't have to think about how to fit a base-cabinet corner to make that big. objects will be easier to access and the kitchen will look more spacious. pull-out racks. Still.

' I5~ .h\ ~u\\ -ou\ cabinet handles that job next to the refrigerator.AND STEp ·SAVER for any­ one. keep ing storage situated in one place in the kitchen of a professional cook ­ book writer. a fu\\ -hei'f.A PANTRY THAT' S CLOSE AT HANO IS ATIME. Cuhi ll etry: Til e Kit cll fll \\ 'ol1l1l or5. Here .

.

W hi le co llec tions o f pottery. providing display space for decorat ive pieces as well as space for everyday dishes. big or s mall. O pe n she lves a re perfect for sho wing off ki tche n treasures and dis hwa re.in . Positioning the shelves in front of the window allows the home­ owners to have the ir storage and see through it. 61 . from wa lk. Enter the pant ry. Pan tr ies do n't have to be se parate roo ms as in days of yo re. BUILT-IN MAPLE SHELVES ARE THE CORNERSTONE of th is bright kitchen . for any kit ch en . pull-out to ro ll-ou t. pro vid ing invalu able clos ed sto rage s pace.or th e lack of it. where kit ch e n essen tials a re on display for easy access but safe ly behind a door wh en not in use. and th ey ca n mak e ret rieving an d putting things awa y fast an d sim ple. coo kboo ks . es pec ially wh en kitchens are ope n to living areas.in to lean. open s helving is a useful and vis ua lly appealing alte rna tive wo rth incorpo r­ a ting into a ny kitch en d esign . not every th in g warrants a look-see. On the down sid e.is alway s on d isp lay. they ca n be designed in all sizes. open sh elves allow contents to get dirty or dusty fast er. too.Open Shelves and Pantries W hile cabinets are a kitchen mai ns tay. a nd n eat s tacks of dish es and mugs look cha rm­ ing on ope n she lves. and neatness.

while open shelves create pretty but useful display space and storag e for colorful mugs and linens. ma terial. stacks o f plat es. THESE CUBBY·SIZE SHELVES LOO K WAVY but that's an illusion made . or along a stai rway. and finish . 62 \ Open Shelves and Pal1 tr ies . by curvy trim appl ied to the shelf sides.' RE DESIGNING :\ KITCHE" fROM SCR. too. Veneer or paint ca n mak e th e beefiest she lves look grea t. An open sh elf or two can easily be wedge d betwee n wall studs . or paint ed or stained woo d she lves with a wid e edge band and curve d bra ckets . abo ve a door. Heavy objects-canned goo ds. co ns ide ring s ize. and cas t-iron pa ns-req uire clos ely spaced su pports and strong shelves . she lves o ffer a lot of ban g for the bu ck in terms o f aes the tics and fun ct ion. method of s up po rt . suc h as glass she lves.Shelves W HETHEI{ YOL. such as p lyw ood . Displ ay decorataive items on sh elves that look good . It's impo rtant to match the fun ction of th e shel f with the design of the she lf.H CH or j us t wa nt to s pru ce th ings up . Adj ustable sh elves offer Hexibility while fixed shelve s offer a more traditi on al a ppeara nc e. Petal -faced drawers provide conta ined storage for napkin rings or oth er loose ite ms.

and painted solid wood. bead -edged. OPt'll Shelvesand Pa lllr ics I6 . and a cleat helps support the upper edge of the shelves. elegant system for storing da ily dishes and glassware. creating a sleek .--­ ~-- . A SINGLE BANDOF OPEN BOXES AFFORDS sturdy shelf space for storage jars within and baskets above. Boxes are thick. THESE THICK MAPLE SHELV ES ARE SUPPORTED on threaded metal rods and hung from the ce iling structure.

with decorative v-groove-board backs. Cases are faceframe and shelves are solid wood. of course. 8 in. Undercabinet lighting spotlights a potted plant. keep a 12-in. minimum for cookbooks.deep shelf about 30 in. to 15 in. slow cookers. open shelves from the countertop to just above head height provide easy-to-reach storage. but here are some standard guidelines: Allow 8 in.. for dishware.Sizing up Open Shelves S HEL VES CAN BE AS NARROW as 2 in. as they can obstruct use of the workspace below. Better to space more shelves closer together. and 12 in. you'll be tempted to stack dishes and glasses too high. fills a niche between cabinets to make a handy shelf. elm . THIS THICK PRECAST SHELF. and the like. includ ing alder. be shallow. the standard at sinks and cooktops (this is a great spot for undershelf task lighting). spalted maple. the top shelf on the left has an edge band. Over a much-used workspace. tinted green . THESE UPPER cabinets are designed as open shelves. Narrow. Any shelves at your head height and lower should. to 18 in. and cherry-. The West-coast cabinetmaker used local woods for much of the cabinets. above the countertop. If you space shelves far apart. or more for large items such as roasting pans. but any decorative object would look good. or as wide as 2 ft. 64 \ Open Shelves and Panrri n . which makes it safer and easier to access dishes.

face-frame cabinet case with fixed shelves. Open Shelves (lilt! l'u ll r ri~5 I 65 . The inside back of the case is finished with beadboard paneling for a traditional look. a granite counter­ top steps up an inch to store everyday dishes. a built-in base cabinet is topped with an arch­ topped.ANYCHANGE IN THE PLANE OFA SURFACE can be an opportunity for storage. Here. and the wood countertop provides both a protective roof and an informal space to eat. TO GIVE THE EFFECT OFA FREE­ STANDING HUTCH.

too. The traditional way to support shelves­ whether solid wood or panel-product shelves-is with a cleat.Wood Shelves T HEMOST COMMON SHElF MATERIALS are wood and wood ­ like materials. consider what finishes you'd like to give them. a solid-wood strip attached to the wall and running the length of the shelf to help prevent widthwise sag. After making sure shelves will stay up. such as plywood. Solid wood is stiffer than the same ­ thickness MDF and particleboard. and both wood and panel products can be finished with paint. and particleboard. in fact. brackets can be added at one or more points across the midspace of the shelf. Plywood is dimensionally more stable than wood. After shelves are freshly painted-gloss or semigloss works best-it's best to wait a while before loading. THEFIXED. stain. Panel products can be veneered with wood. or a clear or tinted varnish or polyurethane. BULLNOSED SHELVES IN THIS WALK-IN PANTRY are supported by cleats on beadboard panel­ ing. Wood and panel products can all be supported by the same methods. After a week or two. if brackets are spaced closely enough. but the spacing of supports will depend on the type of material. Wait at least as long as the paint-can label suggests. and they've been spaced to accommodate items of varying heights. 66 I Op"11 Shd ws and Panlr in . but not as stiff as ply­ wood. and the edge treatment. then lay sheets of waxed paper loosely on the shelves before stocking them. you'll want to consider the strength of the shelving material and the support system it requires. slide out the waxed paper. medium-density fiberboard. When sturdy shelving is required. so it is less likely to warp with humidity changes. there's no need for a cleat. All of these materials will be considerably stiffer with an edge band of wood or plywood attached to the front (the edge band acts like a supporting beam. It's easier to scan the pantry qu ickly when shelves are narrow. A ribbed-glass door blurs contents (good for those messy days). see drawing on the facing page). the thickness of the shelving. Before storing heavy objects like cookbooks or a stack of plates. All of these materials are widely available in various thicknesses and all are easy to transform with stain or paint.

For a conte pin or bar s~porary look .' " " " to add con . support for sh ~ rted holes prov ide recessed walls -. loo k.. attach b rs.provide Brackets longer spar e essential for I ans carry' oads.span shelves in or In cabinet cas es. To a wood ~'derable stiffn ess A th ick shelf ac but not w . Shelf canracket s to recet be rem ovablerve . For a mode rn ce iling or by! support ing from support syste~ng Invisible r ~ ~ r_. hidden withPports can be and att ach din the s he lf e to studs. Supporting wood or pi a s h e If on a contin the di t ywood cleat d uous IS a nce a s he lf oubles can span. .~~->: p .O~. too.A LOOK AT FIXED SHELVES ·v '~ :~. s elves on ar sand su brackets. For strong ' b aSlc ' _ Inhstall metalstatdantdry shelving . Shelf pins in d ' 11 .I::f~~t~%~?~. h qui res st rength ho llow-core dooby belng built like erg t . An L -sha ed IS inset i~to drywall is Sh elf ca n fit .OOd . of cabinet within frame ca se in:t~11:rfore ~ etal shelf OR Sh elf can ext d case or wall f~~ past fra meles s more prom'in ence 6: OpCII SIJ d ves a n d Pa ntri n I6 . sftandards e or a cleaner loo k wall i~~t:~ Rec~~s°rt Shelf can slide int o Into wood b d dadoes cut ext ra support sat Sl es: for oar ' 'd along the b ack. a dad 0 . rontedge . Notch bing heavy cleat.

Adjustable shelves can get quite a workout during t he setup phase. 68 I Opl'lI h" l1". European-style frameless cabinet cases have adjustable shelves. wh ich separates a large dininglliving space from the kitchen. the same system can be used for face-frame cabinetry. A period kitchen requires fixed open shelving for authenticity.THIS ISLAND IS HOME TO A GRID OF FIXED SHELVES of naturally finII ished solid maple set in a creamcolored stained case. fixed shelves seem more purposeful. which can be adjusted by 32-mm increments by moving support pins up or down. It provides ideal storage for dishes. and the move from storing baby-food jars to storing packages of Ramen noodles may come sooner than you think. especially in a pantry. even architecturally noteworthy themselves (and there won't be 32-mm on-center holes up the sides). all<1 f'all i r ies . For showcasing decorative objects. EVERYDAY DISHES AND ART CERAMICS PROVIDE a visual focus in this nicely proportioned fixed shelving. Adjustable or Fixed Shelves? M AKING SHELVES IN CABINETRY fixed or adjustable af- fects how they look and how well they work. Adj ust able shelves can be handy for growing families or changing buying habits. which can be quickly grabbed and plated at mealtime.

These shelves pullout to make it easier to put away tablecloths and placemats. The back lip of each chan neled shelf allows easy attachment and th e front lip holds in the rolling pin. 69 .WIDE SHELVE S that are spaced close together make the ideal storage system for linens . ANGLED STEEL BRACKETSATIACHED of this mobile island hold baking sheets. TO THE SIDES SHELVES CAN BE DESIGNED FOR SPECIFIC TASKS. Open She/n's Cln d Pantries . such as storing a collection of much -loved and often-used rolling pins as shown here. which then act as shelves that hold smaller flat items. During a major baking session the cart can be turned into a cooling rack as well. which are too floppy and large to slide easily into fixed shelves .

here are a few hints. so if you prefer a clearer glass. so edge treatment and glass type should be carefully considered. Glass is supported on stainless posts made in a local metal shop and set into angled solid-maple brackets. or more. in. thick. look for low-iron Starfire glass. but longer spans and heavier loads require a thickness of 'f. in. plus intermediate supports. RATHER THAN FITTING THIS SPACE NEXT TO A WINDOW with a closed cabinet. Glass type and thickness should be taken into account before specific shelving is chosen. but they have limits. which is especially apparent at the edge. A shelf with a light load and short span can be 1/. 70 \ Open Shelves and Pa lll r ies . G lASS SHELVES MAKE BRIGHT AND ELEGANT open shelving. Glass shelves can be strong. glass allows light to bounce around. A glass fabricator or cabinetmaker can recommend the appropriate thickness for your particular needs. The edges of a glass shelf figure prominently in its overall look. which in turn are affixed to mapleplywood backsplash panels. which allow light to bounce around and highlight decorative dishware.Glass Shelves A boon in perpetually overcast climates or in rooms without a lot of windows. especially to show off glassware and fine dishware. Standard clear glass actually has a greenish tinge. the architect designed short-span glass shelves.

Base cabinets are fitted with both closed shelv ing for larger pieces and drawers for silverware and linens. shelf bet ween st uds or as a walk -in cabine try to inclu de a base-cabinet or floor-to-ceil ing man ufac tured pull. Buying in bul k has br eathed new life in to the pantry. large farmhouse in Vermont is an example of how handsome and functional a dish pantry can be.Pantries T HE PANTRY ADDS MUCH NEEDED :> I LJ RAGt to tod ays kit chens. as has the boom in multiethni c coo king. Th ank full y. a pantry ca n be fit version .ou t pantry (make sure the pull -out hard ware can handle a heavily load ed 6-ft. Shelves are supported on cleats and corner posts. Retrofit a bro om close t with U-sh aped narrow sh elves or reconfigure THIS HISTORIC WALK -IN PANTRY IN A into most kit ch en s . . especially if a st retch of counte rtop can perfo rm double d ut y as a workspace or temporary bar. The walk-in pa n try is th e quee n of pantries. wh ic h req u ires more she lf s pace for new ingredients and spec ialized kit ch en too ls.tall uni t). whe the r as a 3-i n. A step-in pan try can fit in the sa me amo u n t of storage for a s maller price tag.

but shallow enough to see contents easily. 72 I Open Shelvcs a nd PCIlItI·ics . for cookbooks. and keep a stepstool handy. NARROW. Take a cue from grocery stores and stack items front to back first. line a small walk-in pantry.Sizing up Pantry Shelves P ANTRY SHELVES SHOULD BE DEEP ENOUGH to hold one to four items front to back. ADJUSTABLE SHELVES. 10 for cans. WHICH OFFER easily accessed stor- age. then side-to-side. also home to the microwave. SHALLOW BUILT-IN PANTRY SHElVES WITH GUARDRAILS make good use of th is space alongside the stair between the lower level and the kitchen. to in. such as bulk bags of dog food. and deeper for really big stuff. Not all the pantry has to be at grab-and-go height. 8 in. take shelves all the way to the ceiling for storing light-weight bulk items. 12 in. Go for 4 in. A pocket door is a space-saving choice in this tight corner. to 8 in. for cereal boxes. such as paper towels and picnic baskets.

THIS PANTRY, SITUATED OFF THE BACK DOOR OF THE HOME, works as a drop-off spot for groceries and

makes putting dry goods away a breeze. Shallow adjustable shelves on the back wall are a practical two-cans deep, while 2-ft.-wide cabinets and shelves at right handle dishes and larger objects.

WHY HIDE DISHES IN CABINETS WH EN YOU can show

them off? This eclectic collection is a centerpiece at a major inte rsect io n between kitchen, d ining room , and living room. The refin ished doors were salvaged from an old house and fitted with simple inset ring pulls and no latches.

Open Slicll'l's alld Pan tries

I 73

THE CABINETS IN THIS CHEERFUL PANTRY have the same Shaker-

style doors as the kitchen cabinets but are maple instead of cherry. Continuing in a lighter tone, the countertop is white solid surface and the adjustable shelves are painted white.

THISWALK-IN PANTRY IS FinED WITH FACE·FRAME cases and fixed

shelves supported on cleats and strengthened by a corner post. The traditional design of widebase cabinets provides potential workspace.

74 \ Open Shelvesand Pan tr ies

THIS PANTRY PROVIDES STORAGE

cookware, and baking tools; a microwave is squeezed in, too, for occasional menial tasks , such as defrosting.
SPACE FOR DISHWARE,

THESE SIDE-BY-SIDE PANTRIES ARE FinED with the same type of shelves and support systems, but the shelves are conf igured and spaced in different ways. All shelves are '.I.-in. plywood faced with a ,,/,-in. edge band and laminated with melamine to make a tough surface. Support is provided by metal brackets that can be adjusted along metal standards attached to the wall. A U-shaped configuration works well with smaller items,whether dishes or jars, and deeper, stra ight shelves handle large serving pieces.

Opel1 Shelves and Pan tries

I75

and linens. Positioned between the dining room and the strictly utilitarian kitchen. loday's butler's pantry offers the same transition and space for storing dishware. and an undercab inet refrigerator designated for beverages. 76 I Open Shelves and Pantries . Cabinets were nicely finished for storing dishes. cutlery. and a sink was provided for washing dishes and glassware. the butler's pantry acted as a transition between the formal public space and the working space. THIS BUTLER'S PANTRY ALSO PROVIDES a cozy workspace for baking.Butler's Pantries T HE BUTLER'S PANTRY is a traditional room that has seen a rebirth. including thick plate rails wide enough to hold serving pieces. The stainless-steel countertop with integral sink caps a dishwasher. cabinets. even though butlers are largely extinct. THIS BUTLER'S PANTRY FIT FOR COMPANY offers both closed and open storage for the family dishes. and gives the cook some respite from interlopers. with a niche for a mixer and a lowered counter perfect for making pastry and kneading dough. especially if the space is fitted with a small refrigerator and a bar. glassware.

chocolate. Simple plywood cases are fitted with slide-out shelves.THIS PUll·OUT PANTRY BUILT INTO CUSTOM CABINETRY requires sturdy hardware to carry the load of canned goods and other heavy food items. Because shelves are narrow. The room. 01'1' 11 S!tehn (lm/Pa l1 n i. and cold storage when party preparations are underway. THIS FORMER CHINA closet finds a new life as a wine cellar. also serves as storage space for soft drinks. kept cool year-round.. this pantry allows for quick and easy retrieval. In .

.

The granite coun tertop overhangs just enough to invite sitt ing on bar stools. co n nec tions to sinks . a nd ver- satile. But th e cho ices are dizzying. s moo th . mix and se rve . so yo u won 't regret spend ing a little more for a st ur dy. peel and cho p. Each sink has a tall gooseneck faucet that makes it easy to fill big pots.it's a great way to p reserve kitch en ha rmon y. however . a nd selecting d ifferent co unte rtop materials to su it different task s is freq ue n tly the an swe r. ro ll and kn ead . conve rsat ion. and large eno ug h fo r th e work we do . the perfect spo t fo r homework.Countertops and Sinks I t's fair to say th at the co u n tertop is lik e th e ca rpe n ter's workbe nc h: It's w he re we lay out su pplies. C hoos ing a coun tert op is best done w he n c hoosing a si nk so the two fun ct ion . a go od a ns we r is multipl e cho ice. a nd co nnec tions to bac ksplash es. tou gh . It needs to be to ug h. It's not e no ug h to be big . bu t a si nk is the ha rdest -wo rking item in a ki tc he n . Today. visua lly an d p rac tica lly. le vel . good. too . It's not surprisin g th at two-thirds of new kitc he ns have a second s ink. big-en ou gh . GENEROUS COUNTERTOPS AND TWO SINKS make this a comfortable kitchen for a fam ily. co u ruerto ps ha ve to look goocl.look ing sink-or two . or an informal meal. not on ly for co u n tert op mat erial bu t also for finish a nd edge treatments . It may not be a s howsto pper lik e a ran ge. in concert wi th one a no ther. .

below your bent el bow Kneading bread a nd rolling pas try a rc easi er o n low er surfac es . fro m budge t. a hard ier surface than painted gypsum board. For tw o coo ks . preferabl y si n k-side. bu t keep th e workspaces separ ate if possible.) to 42 in.I' COU N T ER SPA CE is crucial in the ki tc he n. A kitch en needs at least o ne 36-in . to 30 in . to eas ing cleanup . from vis ua l in te res t . For the rest of th e backsplash area.. l. which is a little higher than usual to avoid wate r damage. Co u nrertop heigh t s ho u ld be dicta ted by preferen ce a nd th e purpose th e sur face will serv e. T he m a te ria ls c ho - particular area. to 6 in . or mo re if poss ible) o n one or two side s. doubl e th at . BACKS PLASH HEIGHTS SHOULD BE VARIED to suit the needs of a S U f-FI C 1EN -J. This granite backspla sh stops just under the windowsill . a co u ruerto p used fo r cu tt ing should be fro m 4 in. to dura bility.\ Il I. while dining co u nterto ps ca n ran ge from table height (29 in. the wall is f in ished with bead board. to wall p ro tec tio n . co nt inuo us co u rue rto p.Cou n tertops an d Backsplashes s en for both s ho u ld be ca ref u lly consi dere d on all fron ts . to looks . W hi le th e s ta nd ard is 36 in . The accom pa nyin g backsplash serves man y pur poses. 80 I CO II[cr! nps (wd Sill ks Il . Refrig erat o rs and cookto ps need landing sp aces (15 in.OMFO RT.

Corl/l ro r"I') .111 5.COUNTERTOP HEIGHTS IN THIS KITCHEN vary to suit the task. -high countertop anchoring the end of a U-shaped configuration of maple cab inets. The cant ilevered stone counter with eased edges gets necessary support from wood brackets. They are commonly used as accent tiles. are patterned after Indian fabric designs. CALLED NIMES TACO./ 1 18 1 . THESE SPANISH TILES.11 1 . but here they make a rich patchwork backsplash behind a professional-style range. w ith a 42-in.

In the foreground is a 3-in. PAINTED BEADBOARD PROVIDES THE PRIMARY BACKSPLASH material in this kitchen.and moisture-proof backsplash. " W ho art thou with footsteps rude/that darst within my cell intrude.UNCOMMON COUNTERTOP MATERIALS ARE THE HALLMARK in this handsome kitchen . finished with a sealer. but at the range tile makes a handsome heat .-th ick teak countertop with eased edges." is the coda of a hardworking solo cook. Side-counter backsplashes are the same Durango with inlaid squares of mother-of-pearl in alternating colors. The saying on the hood . Countertops at the cooktop and side cabinets are Durango limestone. 82 I CO l" llrr LO ps (j/1(1 Sinlls .

while polished granite covers the island-except for a good-size chunk carved out to fit a lowered end -grain butcherblock. backsplash . A wooden pull-out cutting board provides space for slicing and dicing.A MEDLEY OF COUNTERTOP MATERIALS AND TEXTURES harmo - nize in th is handsome fam ily kitchen .d Sink- . Co unlcr /ops {/I. saving the granite countertops for other tasks. Honed slate makes an elegant countertop. HAND-PAINTED TILES MAKE A HEATPROOF AND decorat ive backsplash alongside and above the profes sional range in th is kitchen that's home to cookbook authors. and aproned sink.

A CHANNEL WAS CARVED INTO THIS GRANITE COUNTERTOP for the sole purpose of holding eggsa clever detail designed by the owner. a slot was cut out of thi s granite countertop to accommo- date a plastic box fitted with a wood cap. The wood cap contains slots fitted to the various sizes of blades. who is a professional cookbook writer and baker. TO KEEP KNIVES CLOSE TO THE CUTTING BOARD yet safely out of reach. 84 I I CO ll lllC Il <lI'S (mel Sill/IS . and the box can be removed to empty any crumbs.

Light . The countertops are solid -surface in a neutral stone color. A HOUSE IN THE NORTHWEST WITH A DESIGN based on national parks vernacular uses less-expens ive modern materials that are in sympathy with native stone and wood. square edged solid -surface countertops and rectangular. sandblasted glass tiles make a cool contrast to the warmer colors of Sitka spruce and Douglas fir cabinets.PLASTIC LAMINATE & SOLID-SURFACING LIGHT COLORS BRIGHTEN AN URBAN San Francisco kitchen w it h no windows . A second-level countertop conceals lighting and dish storage on the cooking side. COUII (r rt op' < lIJd Silllzs r I 8S .

The brow n li ne seen in a plastlc -larni nat e self-edge w ill be hardl y visible if laminat e is dar k and patterned. 86 I Coun[rrwps a nd Sinks . A wood or metal edge trim and a backsplash of a different material can give plastic laminate the look of a more expensive countertop material. A bevel-edg e plasti c-laminate mo lding in th e same or contrast ing color is glued to the count ertop edge so that no dark lines show.PLASTIC -LAMINATE COUNTERTOPS & BACKSPLASHES A fact ory backsplash is inexpensive and makes a w atert ight connect ion t o th e countert op. the islan d countertop is topped with a dark gray pattern. Perim et er cabinets are topped w ith a light gray solid-surface with a ston elik e pattern. For accent . THERE'S NO REASON TO STICK WITH JUST one solid -surface color or texture in a kitchen . Solid-core laminate has no dark core but is more ex pensive and br ittle. like thi s.

if water gets into a seam it can damage the substrate. so it's imperative to seal the sink cutout and all other joints.while plastic laminate itself resists water. digital printing now allows laminate to mimic stone. extra thick. wood. The island is solid -surface with enough overhang to make standing at the counter easy. THIS PLASTIC-LAMINATE COUNTERTOP HAS BEEN ENHANCED w ith wood trim and is inset with a P LASTIC LAMINATE may not be the latest rage. The downside? Plastic laminate is not impervious to stains. If you want a more interesting look. though high-wear. and other materials with great accuracy. and scorches easily.Also. has good stain resistance. but it's still used in most kitchens for the same reasons that it surged to prominence in the mld-aoth century: It is wood knife holder. which keeps knives safe but at hand near the cooktop. Plastic Laminate easy to install. and is economical. is easy to clean. One aesthetic drawback to plastic laminate-the dark line ofthe Kraft-paper core visible along a square edgecan easily be covered by an edge band of wood or metal or by beveling the plastic laminate.THECOUNTERTOP ALONG THE WALL INTHISCOMFORTABLE kitchen is plast ic laminate with a bull nosed wood nosing and wood trim at the bottom of the tile backsplash. can't be repaired. COII/lIn rol" e1/1{l 'iillh I 87 . can't be cut on without damage.fire-retardant plastic laminate is available for more money.

and heatproof backsplash.Solid-Surfacing A Lin LE OVER 35 YEARS OLD. as there's a slight possibility it can melt or crack. Drawbacks to solid-surfacing are its high relative cost (it can cost 10 from polyester or acrylic resin in addition to a mineral filler. and it can be as some stones) and its vulnerability to heat-don't set a hot pot directly on solid-surfacing. A WHITE SOLID-SURFACE COUNTERTOP WITH EASED EDGES 88 I COUlJ(crtops and Sinlls . times as much as plastic laminate and as much easy to clean. highly stain resistant. Solid-surfacing edges can take just about any profile. Its homogenous quality allows minor scratches to be sanded away. and it is nonporous. solid-surfacing is made formed with color accents at edges or anywhere else on the surface.-square tile makes a water. I II brightens an urban kitchen that has only one window. and can be formed with integral sinks and backsplashes. Flat white 4-in. The space is between the cabinets is filled with flat trim topped with crown molding and painted a darker gold to match the softwood floor.

or more complex profile. such as this ogee edge. bullnosed wood trim makes a narrow shelffor spices.BULLNOSED SOLlD·SURFACE MAKES A DURABLE . This edge is doubled and given a bullnose profile. ~~~ So lid surfacing can be doubled at the edge for a beefier look. A solid -surface backsplash can also be a separate piece. A square edge with slightly eased corner s isa standard profile for asingle th ickness. Here. This countertop prov ides food prep and buffet space that serves the bilevel wood-topped leg of the island. A single thickness can be shaped with a bullnose. easy-to-clean countertop for one L of a big kitchen island. SO LID-SURFACE COUNTERTOPS & BACKSPLASHES Solid-surface countertop edges can be shaped to manyprofiles or can be given wood or metal tr im. An integral backsplash can be fabr icated with the countertop.This profile is beveled top and bottom. Stripes of contrast ing colors or more complex patterns can be inlaid in the shop. This double-layer edge has an ogee on top and a Dupont profile on the bottom layer. bevel. COUll t cr to p s and Sinfz s 189 .

the soapstone sink is lowered and surrounded by a soapstone rim and backsplash.WOOD THIS ISLAND IS WELL-USED EDGE· GRAINED BUTCHER BLOCK. FACE-GRAIN- 90 \ Counz crrops and Sinks . THESE WOOD COUNTERTOPS ARE not for cutting ansa they received several coats of polyurethane. while a traditional end -grain chopping block by the range looks beefy but has taken on a more subordinate role as a landing place for hot pots and a place to store tools. For looks and water resistance.

All counter­ tops are thick edge -grained wood with eased edges for comfortable leaning. This makes a strong surface for chopping but is porous . The big farmhouse-style sink with grooved drainboard is soapstone. I . Butcher block with edge grain exposed ma kes a surface that is less porous and not quite as tough as end-grain butcher block . LAWRENCE RIVER has a kitchen island w ith enough workspace for the whole family. square with eased edge s. or given profiles like more complex wood trim. CO Ul1 tcr£Ops al1d Si l1f1s I 9' .A RUSTIC RETREAT ONTHE ST. radiused. Hard maple is commonly used fo r it s st rengt h and den se grain. Face-grain (also called board or plank) countertops are not strong enough to be used for chopping but make handsome surfaces for oth er uses. bu llnosed ./ WOOD COUNTERTOPS Traditional butcher block has end grain exposed. Nosings can be square (also called flat).

on the downside. washable cut­ ting boards) can be left unsealed and maintained with periodic rubdowns with mineral. Your happiness with a wood countertop depends both on a love for the patina it will develop and on diligent maintenance. faucets.-in. which is porous and thus considered unsanita ry for restaurant work (but you may feel otherwise. Many species. towels. it's easy on dishes and glassware and can be shaped into many profiles and configurations. residential butcher block refers to l'/. Today.The Beauty and Bane of Wood warmth and soft sound. In addition to its visual INTHISWARM-COLORED KITCHEN ALL COUNTERTOPS are edge-gra in butcherblock. tung. or other nontoxic oil. W OOD OF MANY SPECIES can work beautifully as a Face-grain wood (wider boards) is too soft for cutting but makes a handsome serving or eating countertop. Butcher block is one of the most common types of wood countertops. the range hood. considering some recent studies indicating that wood cutting boards may retain less bacteria than plastic). can be used for this type of countertop. 92 I CO L lIltC n OpS Cl nd Sinils . To continue the theme of warm tones. Wood's Achilles heel is susceptibility to water damage. too. In contrast. Wood that won't be used for cutting can be sealed with countertop-friendly polyurethane (undersides. A wood countertop used for chopping fruits and vegetables (cut meats only on portable. and any wood countertop around a sink requires several coats on all surfaces. dry them thor ­ oughly with dish or paper towels. or oak. bright-white ceramic farmhouse sink is the centerpiece. Sand out scratches or consider them part of the character. Rather than air drying wood countertops. since you won't be cutting on it. it's susceptible to water damage and scarring and costs around twice as much as plastic lami­ nate. such as cherry. and light fixtures are all cop­ per or brass. Choosing the proper type of wood countertop and finish will help ensure both aesthetic appeal and longevity. but the term "butcher block" has more than one meaning. hard-maple strips laminated together with edge grain up. Edge-grain butcher block is less porous than end grain but not as hard. an immense. countertop material if it is properly finished and maintained. it'll splinter more than end grain. to prevent warping). teak. linseed. hammered bar sink. so while you can cut on it. It traditionally refers to end-grain butcher block.

zinc. Stainless steel is heatproof. Countcrrops a ll d Sinh. A metal countertop can be bent over the edge of substrate and covered with wood tr im . Copper is often given an instant patina with heat or chemicals . METAL COUNTERTOPS & BACKSPLASHES Stainless steel. A bullnosed metal nosi ng is strong and comfortable to lean against. copper and zinc will acquire a patina. A t-in . backsplash . wh ile copper and zinc may require protection from very hot pots and pans. with a large bowl for big pots and pans and a smaller bowl for washing vegetables. or thicker square bent edge is a standard nosing. I 93 .METALS THIS CUSTOM·MADE STAINLESS­ STEEL COUNTERTOP has an integral sink and backsplash. A marine edge is angled upward to contain spills. Quilted metal backsplash or metal tiles/ applied to backing Bent integral backsplash Integral backsplash bends back to make a q-in. Tile or another material can complete the backsplash . and copper make waterproof countertops. especially if formed with integral backsplashes . Unlike stainless steel.

Around the range the countertop has a square edge.Stainless Steel and Other Metals T HE ULTIMATE IN RESISTANCE to water. it will develop a patina that hides minor scratches. These materials are ideal for a backsplash. of course. The strongest stainless-steel countertops are ie gauge to ta gauge (the lower the number. although these are softer and more prone to staining. and heat Whatever the gauge. long and scratch shows up. Other metals making their way into today's kitchens in­ clude copper and zinc. is recommended) to add strength and mute the sound. the countertop of choice in restaurants everywhere. which is both strong and helpful in pre­ venting drips. when every fingerprint tegral backsplash and sink . as well as an in­ life. unlike stainless steel. 94 I I Countcltops and Sinhs . a stainless-steel countertop should be set or formed around plywood or medium-density fiber­ board ('/. It can be shaped and seamed to provide an integral nosing. and after the first few months. staining. the thicker the steel). The backsplash helps redirect steam and grease into the center downdraft vent. is. in. Stainless steel has a long. ALL OF THESE COUNTERTOPS ARE STAINLESS STEEL. which doesn't see the action that a countertop does. stainless steel. The sink and food-prep countertops have a marine edge. but they've all received different edge treatments to suit the task.

and t he cab inet rece ived fre sh pa int a nd pulls made from st ock mo lding pa inted black.ORI GINAL TO AN EA RLY. Don't loo k for a dishwash er. t his kitch en cab inet has a new st a inless.stee l countertop. Coulltertops alld Sillils I 95 I .2o TH-CE NTU RY BOSTO N HOU SE. SQUARE -EDGED COPPER MAKES AN O UT-O F-THE ­ ORDINA RY co unt ertop mat erial that's at hom e in a trad it ionally styled kitchen with wh ite t ile and a soapstone farmer's sink. as the owner/arc hitect opted for wash ing dish es by hand .

Wood trim hides the joint between countertop and backsplash.TILE THESE BRIGHT GLASS TILES MAKE A CHEERFUL. TILE WITH A METALLIC GLAZE AND UNEVEN TEXTURE makes a decora ­ t ive backsplash that complements the more traditional crackle­ glazed beadboard paneling in this eclectic kitchen. while the solid-surface countertop is a calm­ ing presence. STYLISH BACKSPLASH in a colorful kitchen. 96 I COlO1 ter lo ps and Sinhs .

They sprayed a nonstick spray to each sample tile. COll llcalops Cln d Sink .1 I 9i . They found that g lossy glass tiles showed more streaks and sandblasted tiles retained residue . ETCHED-GLASS TILES WERE CHOSEN after the owners ran a test on d ifferent glass finishes . then cleaned it with glass cl eaner to see if there w as streak ing or res idue.THESE SATIN·FINISH.

Glass tile. Because the joint is the vulnerable part of a tile countertop. The larger the tile and smaller the joint. each with a charming bas-relief face . It is grout that makes tile less than perfect. Glazed tile and glass tile are nonabsorbent. as grout can stain easily. 98 I Count ertops and Si nks . and size. In any case. so they resist staining and water (stone tile often needs a sealer to be nonabsorbent). but it is harder and more resist to staining and mildew. the setting bed must be perfect. Epoxy grout is more expensive than cement-based grout. Stain ­ resistant additives and color can be incor­ porated into cement-based grout to improve its performance. or grout can be sealed. tends to yellow. it makes sense to go for the narrowest joint possible. It can take on practically any shape. The countertop is honed "Absolute Black" gran ite with a Dupont profile. luminous look. THIS BACKSPLASH IS TUMBLED MARBLE WITH INSET ceramic tiles. stone tile more precise. equip a tile countertop with cutting boards. and is a bear to work with. the new darling of kitchen design. color. The cost of tile ranges from economical -for the handy homeowner with discount tile-to expensive. has a won ­ derful. Tile is also resistant to heat and hence makes a great backsplash behind a cooktop. Contrasting mosaic stone tile fills and frames the arched recess over the downdraft ventlbacksplash. with glass and hand­ painted art tile at the peak. but if tile is translu ­ cent throughout.Tile T iL 'SGREATEST ASSETS are its looks and E flexibility. a consideration If stem ­ ware is set on the counter. but before assuming you can go with hairline joints. and just a few tiles can add spice to a kitchen. the more even the surface will be. consider the regularity of your tile-handmade will be more variable.

TILE COUNTERTOPS & BACKSPLASHES Coved tile makes The backsplash ~s a good locat ion or smaller or art tiles . This requires a thick mortar bed. jOi~tS TO GIVE THE LOOK WITHOUT THE OF SOLID SLATE EXPENSE I ' are laid W i t h ' S ate tiles a same-c I grout and fin' h 0 or cement IS ed with edge and slate-tl backsplash. a selfe-tile THE RED. V-cap t ile nosing conta i spills. C(Jl(rJLatops Cln d Sinks I9 . CEMENT USED IN THIS K -BASED GROUT t ITCHEN hides dirt bett no only er than hit but also gives th w I e grout softer ese red t iles a • more monolith' I hands IC ook-a orne contrast t h ' 0 t e highly figured granite countertop.

... \ I : . . . ~:-L . The countertop to the left of the cooktop drops to make a computer niche. from the coarse-edged stone-slab countertops to the tumbled stone-tile backsplash. Cutting boards on such a rough countertop are essential... The raised and curved bar shields kitchen debris from diners. COUNTERTOPS IN THIS Houston house are slab limestone.. :-. AS A NODTO TEXAS GEOLOGY .. : .STONE THIS WESTERN KITCHEN HIGHLIGHTS ROUGH TEXTURES. .The surface surrounding the cooktops is honed black granite.. THE GRANITE COUNTERTOPS AT LEFT AND ONTHE ISLAND HAVE thin. 100 I C Ol" l tf l CO p S and Sil1 b .. eased nosings and a high-gloss finish... . but they still look at home with rough-hewn posts and beams.

Stone is generally available in two sizes: 2 cm and 3 cm. Just remember that profiled edges are priced by the inch. although you can double up on the edges of a countertop to make it look like 4 cm. look for stone tiles. stiff substrate. but nothing's perfect. heat resistant. A CENTER ISLAND IS IDEAL FOR A STONE COUNTERTOP. and its toughness. and a mere million or so for slate. 102). instead. COlInl ertops and Sinns I 101 . its wide range of colors and figures. as the same-name stone can vary from source to source. Stone is loved for its solidity. Stone is expensive. Another alternative to solid stone is composite stone (see sidebar on p.lt's best not to buy stone just from looking at a sample. Always check recent references. and be sure they are from the same source.Incorporating Stone In the Kitchen lions of years old for granite. but because stone is so darn old-hundreds of mil- cm. and resistant to scratching. visit the stone yard to view cut slabs up close . unless you have absolute trust in the stone vendor. If a stone-slab countertop is cost-prohibitive. and a 3-cm stone slab is less fragile than 2 only because it's the work surface of the ancients. lOS). soapstone is soft but less porous than most types of granite. as it's not only a visual centerpiece but it 's close to both sink and cooktop. Both the sealer type and the maintenance schedule depend on the stone and your comfort level with how stone can change color over time with use. Some designers and contractors require their clients to sign off on the slab after seeing it in person. Just because a stone is soft does not mean it is porous. to polished. This piece of stone is generous but not so big it needs a seam. Edge profiles for granite and marble range from the almost square with eased edges to bullnosed to highly profiled with an ogee and a Dupont combined (see drawing on p. not joints and realize that thin stretches of stone-between undermount sinks. and certainly not from a photo. which is smooth as glass and highly reflective. Finishes range from rough (recommended only for a backsplash) to honed. large stone tiles require a sturdy. classy looking. and stone has its bugaboo: Many stones can stain if not sealed properly and regularly. so it should be accompanied by good service. which is soft and smooth but not highly reflective. but it's also popular. durable. Stone may be hard. Be aware of where any seams will go and how stones will look when joined. for example-are more prone to breakage than wide stretches. Be flexible about S TONE ISTHE GRANDMOTHER OF ALL COUNTERTOP MATERIALS. so new stone shops are popping up to take your business.

) and 3 cm (about 1. A z-crn slab with profiled wood trim below edge. Dupont profile ~pmfH' ~ Fillet profile Ogee profile Ogee profi le Dupont profil e ~ 102 A z-crn slab can be doubled just at the edge to give it a beefy look ../.Thinn er slabs require a plywood substrate. A flat profile with '/.). A 3-cm slab with a full bullnose .-in . slabs.EVEN IFTHE SECOND BOWL IS TINY. marble. Soapstone and slate are available in '/. in. l-in. and l'/.. eased edges. This stainless -steel sink is undermounted in a granite countertop.-in. I Countcrtops and Sinks . and limestone slabs are available in thicknesses of 2 cm (about in . A TWO-BOWL SINK allows washing dishes and rinsing vegetables to be separated. v. making it easy to sweep water or crumbs int o the sink . -in . STONE COUNTERTOP EDGES Granite.. Seams won't be not iceable if edges are profiled or the lower edge is recessed.

or Colonial style. Shaker. and typically has a square edge with slightly eased corners. Countertops and Si nks 11 0 . Much slate for countertops needs no sealer-eheck with the supplier. such as Arts and Crafts. slightly eased edge offers the most traditional look. It's available in SOAPSTONE IS RELATIVelY SOFT AND CAN BE EASILY CUT and S OAPSTONE IS EXTREMELY DENSE and won't stain as much as black. unsealed granite. Slate looks best honed rather than polished. it looks at home in any traditional American kitchen. red. so stains can be shaped on site. so consider easing the edges for a more resistant nosing design. It is easily worked and thus can be given edges of various profiles. you can make that change more uniform throughout a slab or tiles by applying mineral oil periodically. plus it is softer (it consists of talc. Soapstone and Slate sanded out. Slate is fairly soft as a material and shouldn't be cut on. as these countertops were. although it can have a visible figure. gray. and it's good at hiding dirt. which provides an old-world character.THISCUSTOM-DESIGNED STAINLESSSTEel SINK has two layers for two- level food preparation. Soapstone darkens from a bluish color to a rich charcoal. Soapstone also makes a handsome farmhouse-style sink. the chance of breakage at these fragile joints would be high . green. and purple. soapstone has a more authentic old-house look than granite. Douglas-fir wall cabinets have hand-blown seeded glass. Slate is subtle and soft in appearance. but a squared. a soft stone.like slate. In keeping with the traditional aspect of the soapstone. streaked with quartz). The gran ite strip in front of the sink is a separate piece seamed to the countertop on either side . though the sink could be cut from a single piece of granite. it can also chip if you drop a heavy object on it. like soapstone.

while an undermount stainless-steel sink takes on cleanups.THIS COZY KITCHEN HAS ANAPPEAUNG lWD-TONE SCHEME. The piece behind the range has a wilder figure than the backsplash slabs on either side. The soapstone farmhouse sink is for food preparation. HONED SLATE MAKES A COOl -TONED BACKSPLASH and countertop material in this kitchen filled with contrasting warm-toned cabinetry. with chunky soapstone countertops atop dark cabinets fitted with black hardware. creating a focal point. 104 I COlln tcl/ops and 511111 s .

such as the well-known Fireslate (one of several types used for lab counters). The soft green countertops are Fireslate. like solid stone. Engineered-stone countertops have the look of stone to a large extent. Fiber-cement countertops. so they must be sealed periodically. unlike solid stone. These countertops are nonporous. thanks to a combination of new and old materials. they 're given a coat of tung oil twice a year. honed. Engineered stone is a new composite countertop material that mixes go-pluspercent ground-up quartz or granite with a resin binder. Many colors and patterns are available and the finish can be polished. a compos ite stone used in laboratories. are strong and resistant to heat but not always resistant to staining. but expect uniformity in this composite material.About Composite Materials mers (solid-surfacing is a composite. but it has a big enough following to be in its own category). or sandblasted. C OM POSITE MATERIALS HAVE THE LOOK OF STONE but they are man-made from minerals or stone and poly- A NEW HOUSE IN NEW MEXICO HAS AN OLD-WORLD CHARM. but heat resistant. scratch resistant. The pot rack is an old gate hung from the ceiling. and supremely durable. which often differs from slab to slab. COU/l cacops and Sin/Is 11 0 . like solid-surface. To provide stain res istance. and the island cabinetry is a Japanese tansu chest.

CONCRETE HAS A LIGHTER SIDE. The front of the sink was cast with joints to preclude cracks. and bright tile accents in the backsplash. charcoal-tinted concrete counters were wisely precast after the sink was purchased and measured. AS SEEN IN THIS lively family kitchen. The warm tint blends with the warm-tone woods. Periodic waxing reduces the porosity of the countertop. floor. 106 I C(l Un lcrto ps Qlld Si n ks .CONCRETE IN A ROWHOUSE KITCHEN.copper pendants. Countertops for the raised bar and the base cabinets were precast with a square edge.

Paradoxically. either with a topical sealer (better at protecting against stains but vulnerable to scratches and heat) or a penetrating sealer (easy to apply and reapply.concrete must be sealed for food use. Colors are infinite and can be integral or applied. and recently homeowners have become enamored of this chameleon-like material. 186 for an excellent resource for making precast concrete countertops. GREEN -TINTED CONCRETE COUNTERTOP WAS PRECAST on site and lifted int o place on cabinets orig inal to this 1920S bungalow. but susceptible to staining or etching by acids). satin. C ONCRET HAS LONG INTRIGUED DESIGNERS E more natural looking. Concrete gives way to a lowered butcherblock counter next to the restored 1940S range. The Versatility of Concrete and builders . finishes can be glossy. although an amateur with patience and a love for concrete can make a beautiful countertop. CounterlOps and Sinks I 1° 7 . this makes concrete one of the most accessible and one of the hardest to perfect of all countertop materials. See p. Second-and more critical-the quality of the finished work is directly related to the skill of the artisans. and not damaged by scratches or hot pots. First. or matte.THIS THICK . But this miracle countertop has some caveats. and edges are just as varied.

Always use cutt ing boards. the owner/architect rubbed his coffee into the raw concrete . liked it. the type of sealer depend s on the desired look . Concrete can be colored through the body or tinted after placing . but epoxy -coated reinforcing may reduce th is tendency. '1 Square concrete edges should be eased slightly to prevent chipp ing . CONCRETE COUNTERTOPS Both cast-in-place and precise concret e must be reinforced with mesh and reinforcing bars.THIS CONCRETE COUNTERTOP LOOKS CHUNKY but is in fact only about 'J. both for looks and to reduce mass. Reinforcing bars and mesh that is closer than 1 . and the pref erred maintenance method . and applied several addi tional coats.-diameter PVC pipe ripped into th irds. Cabinet cases bui lt from '/. the use of the count ertop. from th e surface may "ghost " (show through)..lts thickened edge was formed by a 2-in.-in. He sealed the stain with a water-based floor sealer. Concrete countertops require sealing before use. plywood are best for support ing thick concrete countertop s. If subst rat e is exposed. Unhappy w ith commercial staining products. 108 I COUl1lerlOpS al1d Sil1ks .in.-in. cover with a strip of dark plastic laminate or met al (not aluminum). This cant ilevered concrete is t apered. thick across the coun tertop.

A big sink acc o m moda tes big pots and pans . but undermounts hav e a cleaner look and make it eas y to brush cru m bs into the sink . th ere's less chance of ov erOow-not that you would ever leave the fauc et running . White subway tiles make a handy ledge. too .KIM P ON SIN K :. with its exposed apron. The nickelplated brass plate for the faucet includes a centered air switch for the garbage disposal. Countertops are soapstone. If it's lower than the rim. whereas the old standard (two bowls of th e same size) doesn't keep a dish drainer in th e seco nd bowl rath er than on th e cou n te r. Consider th e divider between a multibowl sink . integral with the countertop. Sinks can be mounted und er th e counter (under rnount). CO UI1 la lO and Sinks 1 109 ps . A two-bowl setup with one large sink-big enough for a roasting pan or cookie sheet-and an adja cent IS-in. or drop in (the farmhouse sink . THISRECLAIMED CERAMIC SURGEON'S SINK FINDS a new home as a second sink in a new hutch that was built to look old.The Kitchen Sin]. is in a class by its elf). suit heavy-duty cooking. THIS SALVAGED APRON SINK WAS MEANTTO BE UNDERMOUNTED on the sides. Drop-in sinks a re generall y less expe nsive th an und ermount sinks.IZE. especially not the prime sink in a mu ch - used kitchen. but the designer/owner liked the look of the rounded corners so he butted the concrete countertop to the sink. bowl makes sens e if you like to D l ) N'T ::.

and are easy to care for (brushed is a lot easier than shiny). if somewhat fragile. especially for a second sink. some look more subdued. but over time it becomes uniformly scratched. across from the refrigerator and easily accessed from the informal eating space. Stainless-steel sinks aren't necessarily uniform in looks: Some look silvery. making a watertight assembly. so the fingerprints that drive you crazy at first will diminish over time. They are also relatively immune to going out of style. Hand-painted farmhouse-style ceramic sinks make an artful. Solid-surface sinks are typically integral with a solidsurface countertop. A rubberized pad over the sink's dividing dam makes it less likely for the family scullery crew to break dishes. Ceramic sinks are similar to enameled cast iron in looks. A pull-out sprayer and easy-to-use looped lever aid in wash-up chores. can handle hot pots. A soft rack or cushion at sink bottom and laid across the dividing dam can solve this problem. Stainless-steel sinks are easy on dropped dishes and glassware. The best residential quality stainless is 18 S TAINLESS STEel ISTHIS MILLENNIUM'S FAVORITE SINK for good Enameled cast-iron sinks look great and are tough as nails-especially to dropped dishes . Enameled cast-iron sinks are thick. They AN ENAMelEDCAST-IRON SINK LOOKS RIGHT at home in this bright reason. so a bowl will be smaller inside than a stainless-steel sink with the same outside dimensions. But gauge is perfectly acceptable. and brushed finishes vary. 110 I CO li n tcrtops and Sinks . Stainless steel can be easily scratched. A STAINLESS-STEel BAR SINK FINDS THE PERFECT SITUATION at the edge of th is workspace. come in gauge (thicker than 20 gauge) and has an 18110 20 content (meaning 18% chromium and 10% nickel).Sink Materials many sizes and shapes. statement in a kitchen. but not as strong or resistant to chipping. but white is both timeless and stylish. Most models are self-rimming (undermount models require proper support). kitchen. These sinks are relatively pricey and come in many colors. look for a sound-dampening undercoating.

THE COUNTERTOP is grooved to provide a subtle drainboard. a stone sink will often require a sealer. TO THE RIGHT OF THE SOAPSTONE SINK. but blemishes can also be sanded out. To make a softer landing for dishes coming out of the two flank ing dishwashers. Stone sinks can look integral (they aren't really integral. The graceful gooseneck faucet is supplemented by a spraye r and a separate tap for hot water. because they are not porous. The porous soapstone makes a perfect surface for countertop and backsplash around the sink .are softer and more prone to staining and scratching than most sinks. like a farmhouse-style sink with a front apron. Composite sinks are hardier than solid-surface because they are mostly stone mixed with a little acrylic resin and hence boast the heat-resistant. C(}UnlCrlOps and Sinlls 111 1 . countertops there are wood. Solidsurface sinks can handle boiling pasta water but not a hot cast-iron pan. as all the parts are glued together rather than molded together) or they can be separate. Like a stone countertop. scratch-resistant qualities of stone. Composite sinks have a leg up on stone sinks. though.

1is . The countertops overlap the sinks to create visual int e rest with a shadow and to make the sinks easier to install. and sprayer..(crlO ps a"d Si .THIS STAINLESS -STEEL.. USINGGRANITE FOR COUNTERTOPS AND SINKSLETS the material's pat- tern take center stage in this kitchen. hot water tap . APRON· STYLE SINK HAS A RAILED RACK for soaps and an extended ledge for holding the faucet . 112 I COu.

durable. A porcelain -enamel cast-iron sink is caulked where it rests on the countertop. The sink's apron is chiseled with a Latin inscription meaning "Hunger. sides and a l'j.-in .. A porcelain enamel cast-iron sink can be flush mounted into a tile countertop (also called a tile-in sink) . This custom-made sink is 33 in. composite material. Solid-surface and composite­ material countertops can be shop fabricated with integral sinks. by 22 in . with 11/4-in. or solid surface." the nightly answer to kids who say.FITTING SINK TO COUNTERTOP An inexpensive stainle ss­ steel sink clips into place and is trimmed by a separate stainless-steel rim . The top lip of the sink is visible. SOAPSTONE COUNTERS AND SINK."I'm starving!" . sealed wood. concrete. and relatively soft. An undermount sink w ith no reveal (also called a flu sh reveal) is attached to the bottom of a solid countertop. and hence more forgiving to glassware than gran­ ite. the best season­ ing. An undermount sink with a reveal is attached to a concrete countertop. The drain is offset to allow room for a pull-out waste bin below. bottom. such as stone . Stainless-steel integral sinks are completely seamless. ss s A self-rimming stainless­ steel sink clips into the side of any type of countertop. ARE WARM-LOOKING.

or 8 in. apart. A faucet can C HOOSE FAUCETS AND SINKS IN TANDEM WITH COUNTERTOPs. which is handy when working with raw meat or chicken. flexible hose can turn any sink into a restaurant scullery. and a tall curved spout allows space for tall pots. A taller or longer faucet can swivel between two or even three bowls. and purified water. 114 I C OUll ie rt IJp S alld Sill/IS .or knee­ operated faucet controllers that work by water pressure can allow you to use water without touching the faucet at all. The elegant gooseneck faucet clusters hot . but respect its far-reaching spray.lf also be controlled by a single lever. Some farmhouse sinks require the faucet to be mounted in the backsplash. with valves and spout clustered over a single hole. even by an elbow. cold. A faucet can be controlled by separate hot and cold controls (called valves) that are either centerset. you can't decide between a more expensive sink or a fancy faucet. Supplemental foot. while a stainless-steel undermount sink adds prep space. which is easier to operate. Self-rimming sinks have holes punched or formed into the back ledge for a faucet and accessories. with valves set 4 in. while a separate sprayer provides supplemental rinsing power. A pull-out sprayer can extend the length and height of a faucet by several feet. while some undermount sinks have ledges for faucet holes and others require that holes be made in the countertop behind. or widespread.Faucet Fundamentals easier to put in a new faucet after the fact. The newly hip commercial swing spout with a 3-ft. as it's a lot A HAND-PAINTED FARMHOUSE SINK PROVIDESA FOCUS IN this bright kitchen. Consider how far the faucet extends over the sink and compare faucet dimensions with those of the sink. consider the better sink.

be aware that it can break or chip a ceramic sink if dropped. THE ARCHITECT/HOMEOWNER CHOSE THIS CHICAGO FAUCET for its industrial heft. making a neat back edge to the sink . Counter /<Jfl\ unci Sin l1s I . Likewise.THIS SPACE IS A MODERN SCULLERY NEXTTO THE MAIN KITCHEN area and accessible by the opening visible in the back­ ground at the left. Ifyou opt for a gooseneck faucet or any style without a pull-out sprayer. If you opt for a brass sprayer.. and a wood countertop allows for a soft landing for fragile dishes.~ . If construction is still going on after fittings have been installed. The faucet escutcheon affixes to the glass-tile backsplash. a soft sink mat and extra caution are helpful here. provide holes for any other sink or coun­ tertop accessories. A water-purification system that has its own tap will be easier to troubleshoot than a system built into the main faucet. A small dish­ washer is positioned so that glassware and dishes can be easily put away. make it clear that the pull-out sprayer is oft-limits for cleaning up: Most pull-out sprayers look like metal but are actually plastic. make sure a hole will be available for a sepa­ rate sprayer. The commercial faucet makes it fun to wash up in the slate sink. The double­ jointed spout can be positioned wherever it's needed in the sink. and paint solvent can damage the surface. such as soap dispensers or purified water or hot water taps that aren't part of the faucet assembly.

A bonus is that they've found this type of slate to be practically maintenance free. citing its subtle.6 1 COUlllcrlops alld 5illliS . . soft color and affinity with their Craftsman-style house. mottled appearance hides dirt and it does not require sealing.. as its soft.THEARCHITECT/OWNER SOFTHIS KIT CHEN CHOSE SLATE for both sink and countertop.

A wood countertop is gentle on dishes.. or two full-size dishwashers flanking the sink or taking up residence at two separate sinks. money will buy a bit more peace and quiet. higher than the standard 36 in. Most dishwashers can be fitted with a panel to match (or contrast) cabinetry. CO UIl/frlapS alld Si ll /IS 117 1 . European models (and some high-end American models) continuously filter water so that only clean water is circulated. with stainless tubs costing more but looking good for much longer. while cheaper models use other metals or plastic. I T's RARE TO FIND A KITCHEN WITHOUT A DISHWASHER and increasingly common to find a kitchen with two dishwashers. but not so high that it can 't be used for many kitchen tasks. which are quieter than one large pump but need cleaning periodically. Most new dishwashers are significantly quieter than older models. but as a rule. of course. The countertop is. MOST DISHWASHERS SIT DIRECTLY ON THE FLOOR. THE DISHWASHER. Two dishwashers can take the form of dishwasher American dishwashers start at half the price of European models. AND DISH CABINET make a tight trio in this kitchen . but if a dishwasher is positioned on a ls-in . More expensive models have stainless-steel arms. although most dishes head straight into the glass-door cabinets. but many are willing to pay for quieter motors and superior filtering systems.Dishwashers drawers stacked or flanking the sink. SINK. Dishwasher tubs are plastic or stainless steel. This takes two pumps. As another bonus.-high platform. but there's enough space to load and unload the dishwasher comfortably. two-pump dishwashers tend to have more room for dishes. it's much easier to load and unload.

.

and to prevent coo ki ng odo rs from lingering. Tod ay's refrigera tors are qu iet er. C ooking and cooling a ppliances are th e kitchen equ ivalen t of cars.From. but close behind are applian ces that ar e almos t invi si ble. and temper amental wi ll dri ve yo u crazy. no isy. because o ne th at 's badl y co nfig ur ed. Ranges to Refrigerators coo ling mac h ines are taking ce n ter s tage. like sm ooth top cook to ps and frid ges with integr at ed panels. A refrige rator with well-design ed sto rage a nd d ur ab le parts is essenti al. H igh per forma nce plays a big pa rt in c hoosing ap pliances. The sta inless steel drawers were design ed to fit the space under the cooktop. with gas coo k to ps and elec tric ovens to pping th e po lls for serio us cooks. to keep moisture and grease from se tt ling . High -heat coo king requ ires ac tive ve nt ilation to mak e it eas ier for eve ryone to brea the (espec ially in air-tig ht houses) . and more ene rgy efficien t than th eir predecessor s. se pa ra te coo kto ps a nd wall ove ns are ga ini ng momen tu m. wide. 119 . but the ovens are in a wall across the kitchen.stee l cooki ng and PRO-STYLE COOKTOPS DON'T HAVE TOTAKE OVER THE KITCHEN-this one is a standard 30 in . Indust rial-style s tai n less. a nd we've mad e perman ent space for mi crowaves. full o f us er-friendl y feat ur es . While mos t of us s till make mea ls in an d o n our ra nges .b ig mac h ines with lots of s tyle. alo ng with qu iet mo to rs an d ease o f clea n ing . Fu el choice depends on avail ability and cooki ng preference. making it look like a range at first glance.

Locating Cooking Appliances a grea t space L OCAl'! . 120 I h O/ll Ranges co R(!rig<Tacors . Rather than fussing over the fact that the range is deeper than the 2-ft . jump in countertop h eights to pro - THIS RANGE LOOKS AS IF IT IS TUCKED INTO AN ALCOVE vide a bit of a wall to send smok e and steam to a vent. A cook top against th e wall is much bett er for efficien t venting by both hood and downdraft systems. consid er an 8-in. For built-ins. con sid er stacking a convection oven . a microwave. If you do prefer a n island to cookio p. plus yo u've got to make an artful backsplash .~ N D OVENS affects how they work and how cooks function . the designer accentuated the range front by applying wood "legs " to the sides . COOKTOI' :' . but it's really an illusion created by the design of the stone hood.-deep cabinets. lO-in. a nd a warming oven all in one wall to co nsolidate he at.

COOKTOP AND OVEN ARE NOT STACKED BUT ARE ClUSTERED in the cooking workspace of a kitchen in the RockyMountains. The masonry heater in the corner energizes a hot plate that can keep tea kettles and plates warm. . The cooktop and ventilation hood take center stage in the new design . Big drawers below hold pots and pans. beautiful tumbled-stone tile backsplash to incorporate mosaics. A drop-in cooktop allows for a big.A STRUCTURAL WAll WAS REMOVED and a fake beam added to make a symmetrical entry to this renovated kitchen.

POSITIONING THE RANGE IN AN ALCOVE helps direct the heat. moisture. recalling the tremendous kitchen fireplaces in old manors. and grease from the cooktop and oven to a range hood. Going for wall ovens instead of a range allows ovens to be positioned at a more comfortable height . 122 I From Ranges to Refrigerators . making for more efficient vent ing.SEPARATE COOKTOP AND WALL OVENS ARE SLEEK accompaniments to a contemporary kitchen. The arched soffit and flanking cabinets make this range the centerp iece of the kitchen .

The range has copious amounts of countertop space-green-tinted concrete on each side and granite on the 13-ft. thoroughly unmodern style and proportions of the flanking cabinets tone down the range and keep it from looking flamboyant.THIS BIG. HOW DO YOU PROVIDE COUNTERTOPS FOR A PROFESSIONAL-STYLE RANGE in a 200-year-old house and still keep that Colonial flavor? Just line the insides of flip-down cabinet doors with stainless steel to make instant countertop landing space. If only it were as easy to lug a boiling pot of pasta to the sink. Cabinets are veneered with micori . POSITIONING A COOKTOP AGAINST A WALL with plumbing possibilities allows for installation of a pot-filler faucet so that large pots can be filled at the cooktop.The modest. From Ranges to ReJI igera tors I 12 3 . an African hardwood. FABULOUS LA CANCHE TAKES CENTER STAGE in the kitchen of a cookbook author. island.

but convenience and good looks win out over housekeeping any day. THERE IS HARDLY A M O RE G RATIFYING SIGHT to a cook than beautiful kitchen tools. and these hang from hooks on a stainless-steel pipe. and white tools and pans add color and texture to this bright kitchen. It's tougher to keep them clean if they are hung in the open.POT RACKS A PLASTIC-COATED WIRE GRID W ITH HOOKS makes a fine pot rack. red. The black. - 12 4 I From l~a/1 gcs /0 R(frigcw tors .

Her impressive collection of beautiful (and beautifully shined) pots and pans extends the length of the island countertop.AN ENTHUSIASTIC HOME COOK DESIGNED her kitchen w ith the idea that everyth ing had to be easy to access. Pot lids store nicely on pot handles. THIS SIMPLE POT RACK IS MODEST but holds just enough pots and pans for easy access. where the cooktop reigns. FrOI1l Ranges to R"jrigc/dcors I 125 .

126 I ho m Rallges to R'Jrigeralors . Wid er ran ges-from 36 in.Range O pti01 1S A RA ' E CO N O U DATF Til E HEA _ T. It's commonly a slide-in model with a raised backguard. Knob s on aprons are eas ier to clean than knobs on cooktops. takes up the least room overall. Co nt rols for oven and coo ktop are located on the cooktop surface or on an apro n. wide and has four burners and a single oven. THESE SIMPLE INSET CABINETS ARE A SUBTLE FOIL for the punch of a professional-style range. a professional-style range has insulated sides. Some manufacturers even offer dual-fuel rang es with a gas cooktop and electric oven -along with a considerably high er price tag. from warm to hot. Unlike its super-hot restaurant cous in.-are tempting for th eir vari ed cooktop and oven options. The most common mod el is 30 in. which don't require clearance from cabinetry. AN AGA RANGE LIKETHIS ONE IS ALWAYS READYTO GO. and costs less than a separate cooktop and wall oven o f the same quality. venting odors and smoke outside. w ith multi- ple ovens capable of being set to various temperatures. The flue circulates a constant flow of air through the cooker. electronic keypads are eve n eas ier to clean . Drop-in ranges often have no backguard and offer th e o ption o f a cabinet drawer below the oven. to 60 in.

or broilers. C O MME C R IALRANGEs-true professional models-may be tempting to the homeowner because of their ATRUE PROFESSIONAL RANGE IS A HOT BEAST. so it can't be positioned near cabinets. from cabinetry. The backsplash runs the full length and height of the wall for extra protection. as seen here. Separate components also make a lighter burden to haul to a second-floor kitchen. but instead separate cooktop and wall-oven units are stacked to mak e a streamlined alternative cooking space. and ovens have no windows. but it's really a professional-style range. deep if they have convection ovens).A RANGE COULD HAVE FIT HERE. and always-on pilot lights. YOU MIGHT THINK THIS IS APROFESSIONAL RANGE that found its way into a residential kitchen. range is not insulated like a pro-style home range. Some cooks love the unbridled heat and are undaunted by hot surfaces. no oven windows. knobs are not child safe. but many municipalities don't allow-and insurance companies won't cover-eommercial ranges in homes. Commercial or Pro-Style? blast-furnace power and relatively low price tags compared to professional-style home ranges. other drawbacks? Commercial ranges are deeper (almost 3 ft. Its pilot lights are always on (some do have electronic ignition). or commercial. fitted with family-friendly features such as insulated sides and oven windows. along with safety features that you won't find on a commercial range. But today's professionalstyle ranges have lots of firepower and industrial good looks. lights. The restaurant. whereas pro-style ranges feature electronic igniters. You will see some commercial ranges in this book (all owned by people who have cooked in restaurants). Fro m R CI/I~"s to Refrigerators 1127 . so it stands a requisite 3 in.

The hobs (burners) are covered to retain heat until ready to use. A lid covers the burners when not in use and an assemblage of oven sizes.U I .~cs 1 R. . offer energy efficiency. but that many European models offer. particularly small ovens. i _ c .)r igcralO rs 0 . THISVINTAGE GLENWOOD RANGE HAS FEATURES that few modern American ranges have. and it makes a great retro statement surrounded by white cabinets and subway tile. 128 I From Ra /l.A BR ICK BACKSPLASH AND A RANGE HOOD with lights top this Aga range . wh ile the simmer plate at left has a range of heat available.' THIS OLD RANG E HAS BEEN RESTORED to handle today's cook- ing needs.

fro lll Ranges to R"J II . which co ok s by a combina tio n of rad iant energy from a heat source an d natural con vect io n from heat ed ai r.end manu factu rer s offe r ran ges with a sma ll ove n paired with a large ove n . w hi ch allow for m or e even br o iling.-\RE THE LEAST EFFICl Ei' T CO O KIN APPLIANCES. If yo u broil frequ ently.s tandard larg e-cavit y ovens may use only 10 to 28 percent of the ene rgy expended-but they cost littl e to run . S .Oven O ptions efficiency and m oisture retention. ov en . The lower counter to the left is sized to accommodate younger cooks learning the ropes. THIS WIDE FIVE STAR RANGE HAS TWO BIG GAS OVENS and two broil- O VE. A s maller cavity imp ro ves ing drawers . The co nven tio na l ove n is a radiant. or thermal. typi call y side -by s ide but occas io na lly s tacked. Several mid -to -h igh.~("'alO ls 1129 . look for adj us ta ble broiler temperature s and an element w ith more loops.

6 cu. ft. Over-the-range (OTR) microwaves remain popular in small kitchens and can have a recirculating vent built into the bottom. OTR microwaves are also too high for some cooks and may pose traffic conflicts in two-cook kitchens. and microwave/toaster ovens. and a niche behind the microwave for the cat to dine. a bulletin board. a microwave oven fits into a cabinet with a trim kit that allows for ventilation. in kitchens today. The compactly designed cor­ ner is packed with a pantry at left. At other times the microwave is hidden behind the flipper door. In addition to the basic models. wall cabinets. The variations include microwave/convection ovens. roasting. microwave/ halogen ovens. The right-hinged microwave door remains as elusive as Bigfoot. 130 I hom Ranges to Refrigerators .2 to 1. browning. but several micro­ wave and microwave-combination ovens hinge on the bottom (not OTR models). cookbook shelves and a phone cubby. but most models are deeper than 1s-in. RATHER THAN TAKE UP COUNTERTOP SPACE in a small kitchen. which take microwaves beyond reheating and making popcorn into the realms of baking.Microwave Options A MICROWAVEOVEN ISTHE MOST COMMON SECOND OVEN WHEN THEMICROWAVE IS NEEDED. toasting.) combination oven can handle roasts and whole chickens. there are several microwave-combination ovens that join microwave cooking with other types of heat. several drawers. but such vents are not strong enough for heavy-duty cooktop wizardry. A medium-size (1. a flip-up door slides completely out of the way into the cabinet. Built-in microwave ovens look attrac­ tive. that's why more micro-wave ovens are making an appear­ ance in base cabinets or island cabinetry. and even grilling. which can be handy for undercounter or countertop use.

THESE WAll OVENS ARE POSI­ TIONED higher than most to make them comfortable for a tall cook. These copper pots hang from a copper frame and gr id. Electric ovens produce a more even heat (particularly convec­ tion ovens. an electric oven requires a zzo-volt circuit while a gas oven uses a standard no-volt circuit. . and they have a slight edge in terms of installation cost. It makes sense to hang pots over an island so they stay clean and won't inter­ fere with cooking or ventilation . If location matters. Ovens: Gas or Electric? C HOOSING A FUEL SOURCE FOR AN OVEN doesn't seem to rile up cooks as much as the cooktop heat source. don't base your choice on a model that says it will preheat in just minutes-nearly all ovens need an additional 10 to 20 min­ utes after they signal readiness to be truly heated through and through. Whichever you choose. FlOm Ranges to R. which can be a bonus.jrigemtor. keep in mind that wall ovens are electric while range ovens can be either gas or elec­ tric. Gas ovens have a moister heat. but there's still a decided tilt toward elec­ tric ovens.A GRAND LA CORNUE RANGE WITH MULTIPLE OVENS holds court under a vent hood that's paneled to match the cab inets.. I . The pro -style cooktop has a down ­ draft vent . which are electric).

may wish for a temperature below 100°F for proofing bread. A warming oven directly below or across from the cooktop or oven makes things easy for the cook.casseroles. allowing for easy replacement if necessary. Even though some standard-size ovens can be set to the low temperatures of a warming oven. bakers. and it's easy to access from the dining area. and. A WARMING DRAWER FITS EASILY INTO THIS ISLAND. Check the temperature range of models as you shop. the smaller chamber of the latter keeps food moist longer.NOSTALGIC FOR HER EXPERIENCE cooking in an Italian brick oven. for in­ stance. of course.roasts. and most models have an adjustable THIS MICROWAVE FITS INTO A GENERIC-SIZE COMPARTMENT. which is situated in a triangle with both cooktop and wall ovens. pizza. a Rhode Island cook had this wood­ fired brick oven installed in a con­ temporary kitchen. including cakes. An Aga range is the centerpiece of the cooking part of the kitchen. The Warming Oven A WARMING OVEN can be a much­ appreciated addition to a family kitchen. humidity control. The owners bake everything in this oven. but putting it between the kitchen and dining area gives family members easier access. where activity and mealtime schedules tend to get complicated. The flue on the outside of the oven effectively exhausts the smoke from the wood fire so that heat isn't lost from the oven itself. The wall opens to the primary dishwashing sink. . The leftover space makes a first-rate spot to store a cutting board for use on the slate countertop. Location should be based on use.

Anoth er thing to co ns ider is co n tro l locat ion . A raised wall behind w ill help the downdraft vent work more effl­ ciently and shield cooking from other activities. Fm'JI Ranges to Refrigerators '3 . but th ey're mo re acc ess ib le to kids (many mod els have lock -out features). Apro n co ntro ls are easier to clean and wo n't ge t in th e wa y of cooki ng . The first THIS SMOOTHTOP COOKTOP WITH A DOWNDRAFT VENT is so subtle that you'd hardly notice it s pres­ ence. but it's also a h igh­ visibi lity ite m. where a light is hidden. Cooktop co n tro ls ca n be eas ier to access.Cooktop Options decision us ed to be be twee n gas or electric. pe rfo rma nce. Th e cho ice of knobs or elec tron ic co n tro l pads depe nds on looks an d wha t yo u're comfortable opera ti ng . but th ey ca n ge t mighty dirty and can be bloc ked by big pots. A CERAMIC·GLASS SMOOTHTOPIS SET IN TILE in a family kitch en. except for the gently arched cabinet above. bu t th ey ta ke up va lua ble cook to p space . N O"! l ) N LY ARE M O -T :-' 1EA I MADE U N A COOKTOP . Co n tro ls on th e bac kgua rd are relati vely chi ld proo f. and ease of clea n ing. bu t whi le most cook tops ar e still either all gas or all elec tr ic. so it mak es se nse to cho ose one wi th th e right balan ce of looks . there are now d ua l-fue l coo k tops that co mbine gas burners w ith elec tric elements below ceramic glass .

A DROP-IN GAS COOKTOP HAS JUST A MODICUM 12. standard gas cooktop burners run from g. This drop-in cooktop doesn't have a pop-up downdraft vent. which many people prefer because spills stay on the surface instead of pooling into a netherworld below. Matte black grates are much easier to keep looking clean than light-colored grates. Simmer plates (also called French plates) cover a high-Btu burner (plates are removable for direct cooking) to provide various levels of heat for pots and pans-high in the center and simmering at the edges. Today's gas burners can be sealed.000 Btu maxi­ mum. but also makes more surfaces to clean. Some manufacturers offer a combination of burners on the same cooktop. from as low as 400 I N ADDITION TO BEING CHEAPER to operate in many parts of (British thermal units) to 18. Many cooks supplement burners with cooktop acces­ sories such as grills and griddles. A grill can be adapted for griddle cooking simply by using a cast-iron griddle on top. Some cooks prefer the flexibility of all burners hav­ Btu of the industrial look but all the speed and adjustability of a pro-style gas range. and heat is more efficiently directed to the pan (an unsealed burner can lose as much as 1/4 of its heat). The continuous grate allows pots to sit anywhere. Wok rings allow for steady wok cooking over the hottest gas burners.ooo to ing the same power. and grates can cover the whole cooktop or just the burner. Both these extremes tend to be found on pricier professional-style cooktops. the biggest advantage of gas cooktops is that they provide immediate. They can take on many shapes and styles. easily adjustable heat for most pro-style cooktops). '34 I From Ranges to ReJrigeratol"5 .000 Btu (15. Cooktop rotis­ series are available for a few high-end models. but a range hood is more efficient anyway-and it's a thing of beauty with a copper patina.Gas Cooktops that can be instantly turned off.000 Btu is the max the country.

THIS DOWNDRAFT GAS COOKTOP IS SET in a soapstone-topped island. was a good choice here). The design of this kitchen is in keeping with the rest of the house./rigera tllr. since no other task lighting is available. and it is wide enough to provide effective ventilation. It has a grill and four burners and two downdraft vents (black.F. I '35 . inspired by the English architect C. but an 8-in.A LARGE COOKTOP CAN TAKE UPA BIG CHUNK OFTHE ISLAND. jump in countertop heights helps funnel steam and grease upward. but it provides maximum capacity for people who take their cooking seriously. Voysey. Hood lights are essential here. The range hood is slim and elegant enough not to be a visual obstruction. who was known for designing Arts and Crafts-style rna nors.A. rather than white. This detail also shields counter sitters from the cooktop. A RANGE WITH A VIEW MAKES IT TOUGHER for a range hood to do an efficient job. From Ranges to Rr.

ferrous cookware heats properly. but that job is beautifully handled by a sleek-looking stainless-steel cylinder with glass surround . such as a roasting pan. super-fast smoothtops may feature look for a contempo- rary kitchen. Electric Cooktops halogen lights or induction elements. That complaint has been addressed with the introduction ofthe wok-friendly induction cooktop. For safety. Both the range and the wok cooker are professional appliances-not professional-style-so they require extra attention and forethought in the plann ing stages. as they can scratch the surface. an electric cooktop should have indicator lights that show which burners are on or still hot. A serious ventilation system hides behind the wood valence. Induction cooktops are better known in Europe and restaurant kitchens. which features a concave burner that heats the whole wok in true stir-fry fashion.ooo-Btu gas burner. High-priced. Chefs use induction cooktops frequently for the quick reaction time (rivaling gas). disks. and low simmer.A HIGH -POWERED WOK BURNER 15A DREAM OF MANY.4oow. When the pan is taken off the burner. Electric burners have been beefed up to suit high-heat cooking. Lookfor a bridge element or elongated burners that allow for big containers. and use cast iron pans on these tops with caution. 136 I f lo"\ Ranges to Rc:{l-igemtors . cover radiant-heat electric coils. which equals a lS. which in turn heats the food. Locating it in a peninsula makes it tougher to ventilate. One drawback to an induction cooktop (aside from a high price tag) has been that only A SMOOTHTOP ELECTRIC COOKTOP IS AN IDEAL P OPULAR SMOOTHTOPS have ceramic-glass surfaces that flat-bottomed. Some love the way smoothtops clean and some dislike how easily they show smudges. An induction cooktop has a smooth ceramic-glass top and uses electricity to generate a magnetic field that reacts with a ferrous pot or pan. and here the dream has come true. so you won't burn your hand on the cooktop. superhigh heat. or ribbons. only residual heat from the pan remains. the maximum is about 2.

so this professionalstyle cooktop is situated on a large island w ith a curved. Cabinets below the cooktop apron contain deep drawers for pots and pans. supplemented by a microwave below the counter and wall ovens (not seen) that share the same land ing space as the microwave. raised countertop behind it. The raised countertop makes a subtle barrier between cook ing and observing. A VIEW OF NARRAGANSETT BAY IS TOO GOOD to miss for an enthusi- astic cook. From Ran ges to Refr igerators I '3~ .TWO SEPARATE TWO-BURNER COOKTOPS on a maple countertop provide plenty of cook ing power for a small family.

wh at kind of coo king you d o . Th e close r a h ood is to th e coo kto p. but tha t may not su it tall cooks . THESE RANGE-HOOD LIGHTS SHINE NOT ONLYon th e cooktop C HOOSIN . Som e cookto ps a re fitted wi th downdraft ventilati on sys tems integr a ted into th e coo k to p. or with a pop-up o r fixed ven t a lo ng th e back . the type of vent. The racks are bolted through the t ile into 2x6 blocks that were retrofitted between studs. A cooktop in an alc ov e but on brilliant Spanish tiles . This hood is fitted w ith trim to match the cab inetry. r HE PROP ER SIZE VENT dep ends on th e s ize a nd locat ion o f th e coo kto p . 138 I From Ranges to Re rigerators f . bu t an island mak es it tough er for downdraft ven ts to work well. A RANGE HOOD CAN TAKE ONTHE RAIMENT of its surroundings. and th e co n figur ation of th e exhaust pipe. It m ay be necessary to beef up th e fan of a n isl and d owndraft ve n t. wh ich is subject to cro ss drafts. Man y hom eo wn ers lik e do wndraft vents for islands because they thin k a big hood w ill bloc k the view. th e better it wo rks .Ventilation allow s for mu ch more efficie nt ve n ting th an a co ok to p in an island .

Extend the hood 3 in . Hoods can be installed from 18 in. the higher it can be positioned . so beef up the fan or make the hood opening wider and lower. high power. depending on fan power. CHIMNEY-STYLE RANGE HOODS The most effective way to vent cooktops. It's easy to remember: low power. but they aren 't as effective. These are slightly less effective than pop-up downdraft vents . These are often chosen when a range hood is deemed unsightly. higher hood . past the cooktop for more effective ventilation .VENTING COOKTOPS AN ISLAND COOKTOP NEEDS MO RE VENTILATION. Island ventilat ion systems have to fight cross currents. A wider hood can be installed higher above the cooktop. From Ranges to Refri gerators 1 139 . above the cooktop. to 36 in. ~--~ ~ The wider the hood. SURFACE-MOUNTED DOWNDRAFT VENTS Can be located in the center or back of the cooktop. lower hood . POP-UP DOWNDRAFT VENTS Work we ll for lower pans and low-fat cooking .

It also provides task lighting for the whole island and ambient lighting for the whole kitchen. is more than mere ventilation . GLASS EXTENDS THE REACH OF THIS VENT HOOD without adding bulk and makes a sparkling surface for lighting. traditional kitchen. '40 I From Ranges to Ref rigerators . The tile continues past the edge of the hood to provide full protection from steam and grease.THIS FURNITURE-LIKE HOOD COVER HIDES a high-powered ven- tilation system so that it's easyto cook on a pro-style cooktop while MUCH BIGGER THAN THE COOKTOP ITCOVERS. A full tile backsplash with a row of handmade copper and silver accent tiles picks up metallic flecks in the granite countertop. this copper hood maintaining the look of a genteel.

'-:cs CO RrJrigcrarors 11 4" . Fro m Rall. and the wall makes for much more eff icient vent ing. including two cooktops and two ovens. along w ith sh ield ing cooking from the din ing room . LOCATING THE RANGE AGAINST THE BACK OF A FIREPLACE allows the range hood to piggyback on the chimney space. Two wall ovens add eve n more cooking power to this log house.A M ILE-LONG HOOD VENTS A MULTITUDE of cooking appliances.

as fixed she lves are tou gh to access . 142 I Fmm Ral1g~s 10 Re[rigclalOI s . look for a mode l wi th a pu ll- ou t d rawer. a bo tto m-freezer refrigerator is eas ier on yo u r bac k. this ad mitted ly exp ens ive a rra ngem ent ensures that th er e's no cro ssbreed ing of temperatur es or s mells . Side -by-s ide models are th e least efficie nt as far as energy a nd space go . have an enamel finish with nickel-pl at ed trim . Having a sepa ra te full -h eight freezer an d fridg e might be th e best choice fo r ac tive coo king and enterta ini ng. Fridges ca n be bui lt in o r frees tand ing. DESPITE ITS RETRO CHARM .Refrigerators T HI' S · [ M~ DA R D RI·FRIGERATOR has th e freezer o n top. w h ich is th e leas t expe nsive and mos t co m mo n mod el. Freest an d ing mo d els are less ex pensive a nd bu lkier-they 'll s tan d o u t fro m the ca bin etry Bu ilt -in refrige ra to rs-th ese a re usually sid e-by -side o r bottom freezer. However. and bin s with gallon -Size st orage-a ll the bells and wh istl es found in th e mo st modern refrigerators. IF YOU OPENED up this fr idge you 'd see humidity-control crispers. Beside s o ffering plenty of space. Both th e Heartland refrigerator and its m ate. a range w ith electr ic solid -disk cooktop. but are po pu lar (s ee th e s ideba r on th e faci ng page) .are ta ller t ha n freestandin g mode ls but not as deep. so th ey ca n be design ed flush wit h cabinetry and filled with matchi ng panels. slid e-out glass shelves.

Still. Side-by-side aficionados will argue that their model is easier on the back because you one.A BUILT·IN REFRIGERATOR CAN BE FITTED WITH ANY KIND of panel to take on any look you like. A SIDE-BY-SIDE FRIDGE MAKES SENSE in a smaller kitchen like this S IDE. a standard 36-in. This built-in model is 24 in.BY. Open doors take up less aisle room. side -by-side may not have enough room overall.This fridge is finished in the wh imsical style throughout the kitchen. they more easily accommodate in-door ice and water dispensers and optional water filters (these can take up as much as a quarter of available freezer space. and they're more accessible to people with physical disabilities (it might give parents pause to know that little kids find them easier to open.SIDE REFRIGERATORS fill many needs. and try out favorite pans and party platters in refrigerators at an appliance store. many side-by-side models aren't wide enough on either side for party platters or big frozen pizzas. Other virtues are that side-by-side doors are narrower and therefore don't swing out far. FIOIII Rallgcs co R'Jrigenltn rs 1 143 . in addition to costing more to buy and run. wide . but may not be for everyone. too). To solve the riddle of which model to buy. deep and 3 ft. Pros and Cons of Side-by-Sides can organize both fridge and freezer with most-used items around eye level. narrow shelves are easier to pull out to access and wash (if pullout shelves are available). and if your heart is set on a counter-depth model. however). measure the space you have available for the fridge and for door swings.

which can be as much as three times the U.Look at the Yellow Tag T HAT YEllOW TAG on each refrigerator in an appliance showroom is the EnergyGuide. . The brilliance of the stainless steel provides a cool color contrast to the warm tones of cabinetry. See the Sources section on p. and floor. '44 I hom Range> co Rcjrigrraco . New refrigerators have a federally imposed mandate to be much more efficient than their ancestors. Depending on the age of your current refrigerator. Another number on the tag estimates annual cost in dollars.S. buying a new model can actually be a money-saving enterA SIDE-BY-SIDE REFRIGERATOR ALLOWS DINERS easy prise over a few years.average rate. Numbers on the tag include the energy use ofthe model in kilowatt-hours per year (kWh/year). even those made just a year ago. refinished barn lumber. Now it is paneled with reclaimed. mostly pine. A refrigerator rated for 425 kWh/year has an estimated power use of ten roo-watt light bulbs left on for 425 hours. which allows consumers to compare energy costs. access to cold water and ice on the outside and food on the inside.". wall. IT'S HARD TO IMAGINE THAT THIS REFRIGERATOR once had black panels. but the federal average for energy use may not relate to what you pay in your municipality. 186 for the government's Energy Star program. Handles are branches that are sanded and polyurethaned.

A lock is a handy feature . hidden behind cabinet doors. An undercounter refrigerator and two refrigerator drawers are built into the Island. THIS NEW HOUSE IN NANTUCKET HAS THE CHARACTER of a summer cottage but all the conveniences are under the counter. In a smaller kitchen. A refrigerator or freezer drawer can be placed just about anywhere convenience dictates. freezer drawers can be paired with an undercounter refrigerator to keep walls free of cabinetry or appliances. These units can be controlled to maintain the perfect temperature for whatever type of wine you chose. Refrigerator Drawers T HE REFRIGERATOR DRAWER is a brilliant revolution in cooling technology. .A CORNER OF THE KITCHEN! DINING AREA DESIGNATED for the appreciation of wine is fitted with a wine cooler.

-tall cabinet with frostedglass doors and birch veneer case and doors. 146 I from Ranges to Refrigerators . so there's room for cabinetry above. WHAT COULD BE MORE IDEAL THAN AN ALL-FREEZER unit and an all-refrigerator unit side-by-side? These have a landing space opposite and to the right.THIS HIGH-EFFICIENCY REFRIGERATOR (SUNFROST) IS FINISHED with a copper veneer that has been A FULL-SIZE REFRIGERATOR AND A SEPARATE FREEZER are built into a 10-ft. Handles are turned walnut. Countertops are solid surface and stainless steel. Compressors are on the bottom. given a patina with heat and chemicals. The assembly is scaled to fit a large kitchen built for big parties.

BUILT-IN REFRIGERATORS LIKE THIS ONE HAVE COMPRESSORS

at the top to reduce the depth of the appli-

ance. That makes for a fairly toasty atmosphere, so this wine-storage cabinet is for everyday wines.

THIS BIG COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATOR ADDS A PLEAS-

contrast in this refined log house. The refrigerator half has a glass door for easy viewing, while the freezer has a solid stainless door.
ING

from Ranges 10 Rrf, i.~.., a l (1 r .1

I"

Floors, Walls, and Ceilings
S
ur ro u nd ing all th e hands om e cab ine tr y, genero us co u n te rto ps , and sp ark lin g appliro ug h textured , these s u rfaces w ill have a sign ificant role in shaping the style a nd

a nce s is the skin of th e kit ch en : floor, wa lls, an d ce iling. Glossy or matte, smoo th or

ambience of the kitchen, not to me nt ion ease -or d ifficu lty- o f maintenance. Flo o rs , es pecia lly, require as much deliberati on as choos ing a coo k to p or a countertop. Cons ide r floor, wall, and ceiling fini sh es ear ly in the desig n pro cess . Floorin g is a key p laye r in coo rd ina ting construction sc he du les , and it's also imp ortant to kn o w if a ny s pecia l finish es . s uc h as veneer plaster, wa inscoti ng , or beadboard pan eling, w ill be a pplied before plumbi ng , HVAC , and electrical a re ro ug hed out in wall s a nd cei lings . Fina l finish es, s uc h as paint , wa llpa pe r, an d trim , ca n wai t until lat er in th e building process , w h ich is a bl essing. As a real -life kitch en tak es sha pe, it o fte n loo ks d ifferent from its represen tati on o n pap er a nd in 3- D co mp u ter m od eli ng, an d th e qu ality of light a nd

s pace m ight s uggest so me adj us tme n ts to finis he s.

A VARIETY OF COtORS AND TEXTURES ON FLOORS,walls, and ceilings br ighten an almost all -wood kitchen . In keeping with the Craftsman-style details, the floor is strip oak, sta ined to be medium dark . The ceiling acquires a pizzazz of it s own with elaborat e molding on the beams and painted beadboard in the recesses. Around the cooking alcove, the wall is finished with skim-coat plaster that's given a painted , weathered appearance that recalls the days of cooking in a fireplace.

'~

ren own ed for being no t on ly beau tiful . have lloo rm g o r a sa me. Many floo ring typ es ca n be inst all ed ove r exis ting Iloors if th e Iloo r is in tac t a nd smoo th. Walls. s tains . and Ceilings . cost.Choosing a Floor Resilien t lloor s o ffer easy installation and eco no my. as m id -20t h -centu ry Mod ern ism is seei ng a ren aissance. RECTANGULAR FIELD TILES USED IN THE BACKGROUND - C HOOSINC A FLOOR DEPE"IDS ON Yl1UR COMFORT LEVEL. wh ile tile and s to ne ar e o ld favo rit es . must be sealed to prevent sta ining.height s ub lloo r inst alled under mov eabl e app lia nces to ease rep a ir or repl acemen t. wh ile so lid wood co ntinues to have cac he t. Dark and light tiles fill in with a diagonal checkerboard . a nd wear a nd tear. but it's wo rt h co ns u lt ing a n ex pert firs t. Also consider looks. 150 I Floors. are light-colored slate. Slate. Co ncret e is both a new favori te a nd a n old o ne. but to ug h aga ins t wat er. and ins ta lla tion tec h niques. like most stone. while dark slate squares make a border around the island . If a new floo r is go ing in ove r an o ld floo r.especially reclaim ed wide-board floo rs : Lamina te floo ring and floating floors ar e new kid s o n th e bl ock with a grow ing following . as a k itch en floo r tak es a thrashin g. no t on ly with standing but with maintenan ce.

Which Comes First, Cabinets or Floor?
y o U WON'T FIND A CONSENSUSON

the

.1 issue of whether to install cabinets
or flooring first. If cabinets go in first, the floor won't get damaged by dropped tools or equipment, and expensive flooring materials are not hidden under cabinets. But installing the floor first makes the job easier, and labor will cost less because flooring materials won't need to be fitted around the base cabinets. Flooring can help protect the structure against leaking appliances, too, and the appliances won't be hemmed in by flooring, nor will there be awkward flooring changes if cabinets are removed during remodeling. In the case of an especially expenTILE AND WOOD ABUT IN A HANDSOME, PRACTICAL

sive flooring material, an alternative is to mark the cabinet footprints and fill those portions with plywood to the thickness of the finished floor, being sure to account for recessed toe kicks on cabinets and appliances. Make sure the installed floor is well protected during the rest of construction, however.

way in a big

family kitchen and eating area. Tile bordered by stone covers the workspace, while wood finishes off the eating and family areas.

A BLUE ANILINE DYE FOlLOWED BY SATIN POlYURETHANE

finishes a

strip-maple floor to make a surface that shimmers. It makes a cool contrast to cream-colored cabinetry and solid-surface countertops. By the way, refrigerator drawers in the foreground are disgu ised with wood panels.

Floors, Walls, and Ceilings

I

l'

RESILIENT FLOORING

THIS KITCHEN FEATURES TWO MATE RIALS designed to look like slate but are much less expensive. Ceramic t ile on backs plash and countertops mimics slate and the textured vinyltile flooring looks uncannily like slate laid with no grout lines.

'52 1 1'1 00'-5. Walls. <lnd Ceilings

Vinyl, Linoleum, and Cork Flooring
these flexible materials are also available glued to a plank or tile-sized panel and installed as floating floors (see the sidebar on P.155). Vinyl is the easiest to install and is hence the most common kitchen flooring. It's also relatively soft underfoot. Because it has few or no joints (some rolls are as wide as 12ft.), sheet vinyl is more water resistant than vinyl tile. The cheapest vinyl is flimsy, tends to yellow, and is easy to scratch, but high-priced vinyl flooring is very durable, colorfast, and handsome-and still a lot less expensive than most flooring materials. Inlaid colors and patterns have a much th icker layer of color than surface-printed styles. Avoid rubber- or latex-backed mats or area rugs as the backing can stain a vinyl floor.

C

LASSIFIED AS A FLEXIBLE, thin

material that is glued to

linoleum is made from linseed oil and pulverized, naturally occurring materials, including cork, wood, and Iimestone.linoleum was upstaged by vinyl for years, but it has come into its own again with a no-wax surface and many rich colors. Available in sheets up to 7 ft. wide and in 13-in. tiles, linoleum has through-the-body color and it is durable, quiet, hypoallergenic, and easy on the standing cook's feet and legs. Its price tag is higher than vinyl, how ever, and it requires an expert to install in glue-down form. Cork has seen a century of service as a warm-looking, quiet, reasonably durable, and comfortable floor-and it still does, but with enhanced performance. loday's cork flooring is sealed with urethane so that it is moistureresistant and doesn't require the regular waxing that older cork floors did. Cork is traditionally installed as solid tiles that are glued down; now it is also available as floatingfloor planks, with a layer of cork laminated to a substrate.
LINOLEUM TILES LAID IN A CHECKBOARO PATTERN

the subfloor, resilient flooring includes vinyl tile, sheet vinyl, linoleum, cork, and rubber. Many of

make

a warm-looking, hypoa llergenic , and comfortable floor. loday's easy-care linoleum is finished in the factory and doesn't need the frequent waxing that sent linoleum into reti rement in the mid-rqoos.

FIO S, Wei/Is. Cl iid CC illll:':' ClI"

11 5

preferably a water-resistant plastic. method. of course. a photographed paper layer. stone. a product-panel core. and a backing. This cork floor creates a warm cont rast w ith the cool wh ite and stainless stee l surrounding s. Flooring is available as planks (these look like wood). In most cases laminate flooring is installed as a floating floor (see the sidebar on the facing page). Walls. and Ceilings .CORK MAK ES A RICH-LOOKING. depending on the quality of the laminate sandwich and the installation and it's so easy on the feet . Laminate Flooring L AM INATE FLOORING is made up of a clear wear layer. so cork looks at hom e with wood countertops ELEGANT FLOOR. The photo- graphed layer can look like anything. and tile are by far the most common. Laminate floors are relatively comfortable to stand on and can be very durable and water resistant. 154 I Floors . square tiles (stone). but wood.lt 's a tree product. and occasionally larger rectangular blocks that look like stone or wood.

Individual planks or tiles Individual pieces are t iles. vinyl. Pieces are jo ined by a mechanical connect ion such as tongue-and-groove. cork. Inst all over plywood. board s. Base is a panel product such as medium -density fiberboard. engineered in a floating floor are linked together by glue or by various mechanical connections-look for words like "click" and "lock. cork. or large panels. F LOATING FLOORS CAN BE SOUD WOOD. F!oO/s. Floating floors can almost float if installed on a thin layer of resilient foam . What Is a Floating Floor? floor doesn't really hover. wood. and dry. Inst all over a layer of resilient foam for m ore cushioning . or rubber. viny l. it just isn't attached to the substrate. IV alis. Joints are glued for a more water-resistant fl oor. but not brittle materials. concrete slab.IN THIS URBAN KITCHEN. or just about any old flooring material that's reasonably smooth. or rub ber. flat. LARGE VINYL TILE S make a st onel ike fl oor in accord with st one drawer and door knobs and stone countertops." Glue may be a better choice in a kitchen that will see lots of cooking. or preexist ing f looring that is smoot h and flat . bamboo. A floating Top layer is any fairly f lexi ble material : wood . The pe rimeter of a floating floor must be shy of the wall by a few millimeters to allow for expansion. al1d C'ilillg' I '55 . linoleum. Floating-floor manufacturers say their floors can be installed over a plywood substrate or a concrete slab (vapor barrier required). bam boo. lin oleum .

Polyure­ thane protects the paint layer. More formal pine-strip flooring takes over at the edge of the kitchen and covers the living room floor. Walls. 156 I Fl oors. RUNNING THIS WIDE -PLANK PINE FLOOR from the family/dining area through the kitchen makes the space appear more generous . a lld Ceilillgs .WOOD FLOORS A WIDE-PLANK PINE FLOOR COM­ PLETES the all-wood effect in this breakfast room filled with pine wainscoting and oak furniture . THIS OLD PINE FLOOR GETS A FACE·lIFT w ith a checkerboard pattern painted with trans lucent white and blue glaze.

panels . with red and white oak the standard species for strip flooring. while hardier softwoods.-in. and hickory. Engineered wood is more stable than solid wood but can't be ref ini shed as many t imes . and it is receptive to sanding. deeper ­ looking finish that's easy to touch up but takes longer to dry.-wide and 'I. and finish­ ing. staining. To keep especially wide boards from cupping.-thick and 2'/. The downside of wood is that it is rela­ tively soft and can be scratched. maple. Oak is dimensionally stable relative to other species. while water-based urethane has a milder odor. Grit and water can damage any wood floor finish. to loin. but it is expensive and difficult to apply. th ick with tongue-and -groove edges nailed to subfloor. not to mention toxic smelling during curing. or parquet tiles can be installed as glue -down systems or floating -floor systems. Floors.-wide-is the most common wood flooring. make beautiful traditional plank floors. to 10 W OO HAS SEEN A REVIVAL as kitchen floor material in North America. such as sinks and cooktops.More on Wood Floors STRIP FLOORING ty to be refinished. and abili­ in. Floors should be laid shy of wall s to allow for th is expansion . Plank flooring is available in oak.-t hick strip flooring with tongue-and-groove edges nailed to subfloor. cherry. aware that in low humidity. Proper installation and finishing make all the difference in a long-lasting wood floor. I 157 . wood flooring must become acclimated to the house (acclima­ tion time depends on climate. Strips . Walls. wood species. But wood floors can look great in an active kitchen if properly finished. or wider and 'I -in. Cover jo ints w ith baseboard.-in. Be 2'I-in. Clll d Cciling. Planks can be random width or same w idth . dries quickly (this can also make it tricky to apply).. to 7 in. and the age of the wood). -in. wide-plank floors will develop wider gaps than strip flooring. Area rugs can help out in front of the sources of water and grime. Planks are 3 in. such as heart pine and fir. especially when big dogs and sand are prevalent. and makes a harder skin on the surface. while plank flooring-from 3 in. ends can be screwed to subflooring and capped with wood plugs. so frequent vacuuming and prompt attention to spills are important. appreciated for its tradi­ tional beauty. ENGINEERED WOOD FLOORING PLANK (BOARD) FLOORING All wood floors expand and contract w ith humidity chang es. Before it is installed. Oil-based urethane makes a softer. Strip flooring--'/.-is more expensive but much admired. Thin layer of wood is laminated to plywood backing . Moisture-cured urethane makes the toughest and most moisture-resistant finish. Most wood floors are hard­ wood. resilience underfoot.

Wolls. Individual pieces can look like single strips or planks or can look like several strips glued together. long time. where conditions may be damp. Engineered-wood floors are more dimensionally stable than wood and are permitted below grade. rary kitchen . STRIP-WOOD FLOORING STOPS AT THE THRESHOLD of this contempo­ THIS WIDE-BOARD SOFTWOOD FLOOR IN A 2oo -YEAR-OLD house received a soft blue-green paint that brightens the floor with a minimum of labor.WOOD FLOORING is really a version of plywood with a top layer of wood laminate that's thick enough to refinish two or three times. Products are available prefinished or unfinished and as glue-down systems or floating-floor systems. the floor is built up of end-grain wood blocks laminated together. From there. and CeilIngs . so they can be a good choice in the kitchen. 158 I Floors.Engineered Wood E NGINEERED. A DARK STAIN TAKES THIS OAK­ STRIP FLOOR from ordinary to interesting and provides a chro ­ matic balance between the light cabinets and black countertops. End­ grain wood is hard as nails and should last a long.

s I '59 . Kitchen flooring is slate tile and walls are limestone. It's especially appropriate in a traditionally styled kitchen. and unfinished bamboo can be stained (with certain dye-based stains) and finished like wood. nail-down. RELATIVELY easy to clean. bamboo has only a bit more cellulose than wood and shares many characteristics. This dining room floor is richly figured and durable. a nd Cd /in). . MESQUITE is a natural for flooring. but linear look-think edge-grain butcher block-while horizontal-grain bamboo shows the distinctive bamboo knuckles. Wall . bamboo is laminated verti­ cally and horizontally.IN A TEXAS HILL-COUNTRY HOUSE. Bamboo is touted as an environmentally friendly flooring. comfortable flooring for a kitchen. Edges can be square (unfinished) or microbeveled (finished). Glue-down. as "timber" bamboo is plantation grown and grows like wildfire (it's not the speciesthat pandas eat). Vertical-grain bamboo has a fl oo f'>. Because it is narrow. and floating-floor systems are available. STRIP-WOOD FLOORING IS A WARM. - Bamboo Floors I T MAY TECHNICALLY BEA GRASS rather than a tree.

and Ceilings .60 I Flocl/'s. These 12-in.TILE & STONE FLOORS THE TILE FLOOR IN THIS RENO­ VATED KITCHEN reflects light from new skylights. and gro ut lines are tinted a gray­ green . W(d/s. which hides dirt better w hil e complement ing th e gr eens in surrounding elements. .-square ceramic tiles are textured for ease of walking and stand ing .

Tile's toughness and thermal qualities make it a favorite in beach-house kitchens and in the warm climates of the Southwest and West. . GLAZED CERAMIC TILE CAN LOOK LIKE STONE. and long-lived. T IL AND STONE FLOORS ARE BEAUTIFUL. Larger tiles. although they can be soft­ THIS BOLDTILE PATTE RN FITS PERFECTLY in a large kitchen with soaring ceilings. Grout lines are the weak link in stone and tile floors and should always be sealed to reduce the tendency to stain. a huge arched window. Stone is as strong as tile. so most stones must be sealed periodically. whether stone or ceramic. but hard on both dropped dishes and your legs and back. and a statuesque china hutch. Choose a tinted grout over white grout for additional defense against wear and tear. Tile that looks like stone is a hardy and more economical alternative. so it is ideal for radiant-heat floors. but it isn't always as resistant to stains and water. This subdued tile makes a backdrop for a dramatically grained stone countertop. Not all tile is the same. look elegant and have the added benefit of fewer grout lines. as it needs no sealant and is less expensive. Any kind of tile or stone retains heat. E durable. One popu ­ lar trend is to lay tiles close together with thin or no grout lines. but it's actually easier to care for.More on Tile and Stone ened up a bit with area rugs. Ceramic tile has a glazed layer over a white clay body. while porcelain tile and quarry tiles have color through the body so chips won't be as apparent.

The foot or so of wood makes a more com ­ DESIGN. although the backsplash is inset with squares of dark and light mother-of-pearl squares. fortable place to stand and work and also gives the tile a more prominent role.62 Fl oo' s. .THIS DURANGO LIMESTONE IS FAIRLY POROUS. Countertops and backsplashes are made from the same limestone. Walls. TILE LENDS ITSELF TO A BORDER but here a wood border is used around cabinets. but a sealer applied periodically makes it easy to care for. and Ceilings .

The border pattern ties together the kitchen cabinets and gives an impression similar to a large oriental rug. Color was added to the concrete after pouring.CONCRETE FLOORING THIS CONCRETE FLOOR IN A BUSY FAMILY KITCHEN is fin ished mini­ mally. Willi" (/nd Ceilings [ If . but that makes a softer sheen. The slab is imbedded with radiant-heat polyethylene tubing. a finish that isn't as stainproof as sealer. Floors. with two coats of boiled linseed oil. allowing for the use of two colors.

Pigments added to the mix will be uniform. When it is covered. A z-in . it must be reapplied periodically. More on Concrete kitchens. In a kitchen. 164 I Floor:. A concrete floor will thrive with proper preparation and maintenance. avoid debris and over­ C ONCRET IS CAPTIVATING because of its chameleon-like E Concrete will crack. place. Concrete can look luxurious with color added. Concrete is ideal for radiant-heat tubing. slab will need a S-ft . particularly when sealed. Membrane sealers protect against acids and oils. Keep in mind that placing a con­ crete floor calls for a pause in kitchen construction. Joints should be sawn soon after concrete is placed. and then it must not be covered for at least ten days. so plan for control joints. lapping joints that can telegraph onto the curing slab. and it's ideal for radiant-heat flooring because tubing can be integral with the floor. which are tough on concrete. Penetrating sealers are less resistant to acids and oils. Whatever the sealer. Concrete takes several days to prep. so plan accordingly. and cut control joints. Walls. Clnel Ceilings . It's a durable surface.A GRID OF WOOD STRIPS IS CAST INTO THE blue -t inted concrete floor to effectively make sm all concrete slabs. Seal concrete to minimize staining. or joints can be formed by casting metal or wood strips in a grid or decorative pattern. sawn control joints are often grouted to prevent debris from falling in. but they don't scratch like mem­ brane sealers and they allow color and texture to show. grid of control joints. while color that is trow­ eled on after placing or acid etched after curing can be uni­ form or intentionally mottled in the manner of marble or a watercolor painting.. Providing such control joints minimizes or even prevents cracking. but are shiny and can scratch easily (some concrete aficionados liken these to plastic slipcovers on a couch). Color can be integral w ith concrete mix or can be applied during or after curing. quality in taking on color and texture and its compatibility with both traditional and modern Rule of thumb for locating joints: multiply concrete thickness in inches times 32 and divide by 12.

C ll !' ~ I D E R I N G TIt E IMPACT WALLS . Take into account the orientation of your kitchen when choosing colors. Countertops are soap­ stone and strip-wood flooring is Douglas fir. The Road Not Taken. HIGH.Walls and Ceilings wainscoting.~s I .65 . and other surface-applied treatments not only add style.\ N Il CEI Lh G ~ HAVE on the ambience of a kitchen. but can provide a durable surface. adding depth and preventing the space from feeling too big. go for satin or glossy paint or water-resistant wallpaper for ease of cleaning. perhaps to encourage the family to cook outside the box. If paint or wallpaper is the choice for a backsplash.. Faux painting and stenciling add color and interest. A north-facing kitchen benefits from light. Exposed beams provide a place to hang pots and light fixtures and add warmth and coziness to a tall space. curved kitchen. (lild ( (i1i . while wallpaper. while a south-facing kitchen may call for a cooler hue. A coved ceiling makes a room more formal and spacious. f'/OlJrS. Wed Is. A ceiling offers opportunity for structural-or faux structural ­ embellishment. give them attention early in the design process. AT JUST OVER 9 FT. THIS RICH RED CEILING enlivens a large. A WOOD-PANELED FRIEZE AT THE TOP OF THE WALL cabinets adds an unexpected touch with stenciled gold lines from Frost's poem. warm colors. and it can be embellished with a painted frieze and concealed lighting.

along with the fancifully cut wood applied to cabinets and walls. Walls.66 I rloors. making a bright bal ­ ance to the wood tones of floor and cabinets. . THE DRAMA AND BEAUTY OF A TREE-TRUNK POST called for some­ thing more than the standard drywall ceiling. and Ceilings . WHITE BEADBOARD CEILING in this airy kitchen reflects light from corner windows and cove lights. A gently arched strip-oak ceiling calls up the image of curves on a boat. THE GLOSSY. Coved edges provide space for lighting and beveled skylights are custom designed to fit the ceiling .PAINT TAKES THIS KITCHEN INTO WHIMSICALREALMS .

THESE EMBOSSED METAL CEI LING TILES w ith met al cove trim make a dazzling and heat -resistant kitchen ceiling. Floors. WHITE OAK FLOORS WITH A GLOSSY FINISH and glossy white paint on ceilings reflect light beautifully in this renovated Craftsman-style kitchen . ulld Ccilillgs 1 167 . New shallow box beams (mahogany to match th e cabinets) are fitted with custom -designed Arts and Crafts-style ceiling fixtures. Walls.A BASEMENT DOOR THAT DOESN'T GET MUCH USE doubles as wall space when it is glazed with panes of commercial -grade chalk­ board to make a family message center in a busy kitchen .

.

amb ient. A BALANCE OF TONES AND LIGHT SOURCES makes this a beautifully lit kitchen . Lighting mak es a rad ical differen ce in how easy. too. but il'll be a dis ma l p lace if badly lit day or n ight.it is to cook.and p leasan t. Carefu lly zo ned lightin g. All kitchens ­ es pecially those th at open to the dining roo m or fa mil y room-will benefi t from lighting th at 's adj us table. Task light ing is ess en tia l for safe and pleasa n t cook ing. The dishwashing workspace is bumped out to provide a cor­ ner full of windows. ea t.A Well-Lit Kitchen A kitc he n ca n be fitte d wi th th e fine st of mat erials a nd th e lat est ap pliances. whil e a m bie n t lighting is essen tial for well-b ein g. Regardless of how m uc h natural light yo u r ki tche n receiv es . and orn am e nt al lig h ting a re wired sepa rate ly. and install inte rior s hades o r cu rtains . especi a lly we lco me in the mo rn in g. and w ell-placed accen t lighting provid es th e ga rn ish . artifici al light is crucial as well. clean up . . ca n red uce yo ur elec trica l bi ll. and the porthole w indow is deep to make for more diffuse light. If task . If light is pr ized bu t heal is n ot. For mu ch of the day direct and diffuse s u n ligh t add wa rm th and atmos p he re . Tiny halog en down lights are recessed in soffits for task and amb ient lighting. a n adjace n t d inn er pa rty can be ba thed w it h light w hile scu llery wo rk s tays in s hadow. and socialize . a lo ng wi th economi ca l light fixtures . co ns ide r seaso na l s hading by wa y o f ove rha ngs a nd trees . The high ceilng is darker to keep it fro m floating away.

BACKSPLASH -TOCEILING GLASS allows a full view of lessen th e gla re the woods from this kitch en. So u th. W indo ws o n facin g o r interse ctin g wa lls mak e light th at 's bri ghter yet less glaring than a single. cei ling.Natural Light W IND OWS ENL ARGE A KITCHt:N by ex te nd ing the view. of afternoon sun. W indows close to a wall . It 's a more fragile detail than fitting w indow fr ames into a standard wall. Guid elines suggest that windows eq ua l 10 perce n t of th e floo r are a. Windows faci ng east or west are a m ixed bl essing. Glass panels are joined simply at the corner. light can be pleasantl y diffuse for working a t a co u nre rt o p. Mo rn ing s u n can be a delight. '70 I A Well-Lit Kitchell . The tren d to repl ace wall cabinets Ho w a kit chen is o rien ted a ffects window size an d placem ent. pro vid e a d eep roof ov erh an g or sh ades. but it really brings in the outdoors. or co unterto p bounce light off those s urfaces . Nort h with wind ows mak es for a brig hte r kit ch en . and add a qu al it y of light th at art ific ial fix tures ca n't mar ch . To kee p out s u m me r h ea t.faci ng windows provide so lar heating in w in ter m onths w he n th e s u n is low er in th e s ky. large window. but th at 's a bar e-and dark-m in imum . bu t west-facing windows need sh ad es to WAll-TO-WAll.

THIS 2-FT. making a light-filled. THIS BAY OF NARROW. BY 6-FT . SKYLIGHT WELL HAS SPLAYED sides to reflect light throughout the kitchen. A SOUTH-FACING CLERESTORY WINDOW above this dining area allows sunlight to bounce off the upper wall and diffuse throughout the space. cheerful kitchen that's easy to work in. The skylight is glazed w ith a double layer of translucent fiberglass panels. Tiny low-voltage halogens and recessed downlights dramatically light the kitchen at night. DOUBLE HUNG WINDOWS is supplemented by windows on the adjacent wall. Low-voltage halogen fixtures slide on a curved track for easy adjustments. A Well-Lil KilCh cll 111 7 .Randomly placed glass blocks bring in more soft light in an artful way.

so the nar- row window above the range isn't fitted with shades. Light ing is provided by pendants. and windows that let in a phenomenal view.THIS DINING AREA DIRECTlY OFF THE KITCHEN is defined by an octagonal coved ceiling with dimmable perimeter lighting. a pendant light. and range-hood lights. recessed downlights. MORNING LIGHT IS WElCOME IN THIS COUNTRY HOUSE.The southfacing window over the sink does have protect ion from a porch overhang. 172 \ A Well-Lit Kitchen .

The whole window area was bumped out and framed at the top with a steel angle that takes up less room than the old 2X wood header.it I\ird lell 1 173 . and the yellow paint keeps the amb ience warm. SKYLIGHTS ON BOTH SIDES OF A GABLED ROOF brighten this kitchen in the woods. At night. A Well·1. A glass-block panel and new casements set at the outside edge of the bump-out help screen the setting sun. trees help keep sunlight diffuse.A REDESIGNED WINDOW ON A WEST-FACING WALL helps soften the afternoon sun . sconces shine on the gable end and sides.

while a smaller surface-mounted fixture punctuates the line above the door.Supplemental Lighting M A KE M O ~T KITCHEN LI GHTI N . Am bient light is best wh en diffuse . Be aware that dark surfaces absorb light and glossy surfaces make sh arp re flec tio ns. TA ~ K LIGHTING . Position task lighting in front o f you by us ing und ercabin et lights . or dow n lig hts 10 in. small down ligh ts provide ta sk lighting. It can come from a ce nt ral fixture. Surface-mounted ceiling lights add a decorative touch to the ceiling. matt e su rfaces reflect light diffu sely. Different so urces o f ligh t mak e fo r a more versat ile kitch en . W iring gro u ps of light fixtures separa te ly allo ws a k itch en to mu ltitas k. whic h can leave the ceiling dark. adj us table wall mounted fixtu res . as its job is to br ighten th e kit ch en ove rall. to 12 in. Fixtures th at bo u nce light off ce ili ngs and wa lls are more efficien t th an recessed downlights . 174 I A Well-Lit Kit< hen . es pecia lly with dimming control s. well-pl aced SEVERAt TYPES OF LIGHTS GIVE THIS KITCHEN and ab un da n t above-cabine t fix tures . More modest. the look of a tra in car. Accent lighting acids ambien ce. from wall cab in ets. supplemented by undercabinet lighting and a window. or several so ur ces a t o nce. Light. down lights .

THIS WOOD-FILLED KITCHEN GETS ABUNDANT DAYLIGHT. which makes the switch less visible but also a bit harder to locate. which is supplemented by several pendant incandescent light fixtures to ensure adequate lighting at night or on gloomy days. while the windows above the cabinets on each side bounce light off the ceiling. Copper pendants and wallmounted fixtures provide additionaI lighting. Each window has a complementary light above so that at night light will come from the same place.The undercabinet lighting is switched at the fixture rather than at the wall. Undercab inet lights supplement task li ghti ng. Adding this curved-top clerestory window makes the window at the sink extraordinary. CORNER WINDOWS DOUBLE THE BRIGHTNESS in this kitchen by bouncing light off three surfaces.THERE'S NO POINT IN HAVING A TALL CEILING without making use of that extra space above the cabinets. A Well ·L il Kitchen I '7 .

or even that old 2-ft. and the light stone tiles magnify the amount of light given off by the undercabinet lights . and under cabinets. is what we'll discuss here. xenon. In any case. Fluorescent bulbs are cooler than incandescent bulbs. including standard tungsten and halogen bulbs. the look of a kitchen. and . Use the A COMBINATION OF BULB TYPES MAKES FOR VERSATILE lighting. but many electrical utility companies offer rebates or fixtures themselves at lower cost. look for a CRI of 82 or above or a Kelvin rating of 3. the standard incandescent bulb. White blinds help reflect light from wallwasher downtlghts. and last ten times longer. which measures color temperature. 176 I A We/I-U I KilcilC Il . even better. so you can relamp many incandescent fixtures with CFls. called an A-type bulb. But halogen.About Bulbs following as a guide to choosing the best lighting sources for your needs. they can make people and food look natural. CFls are expensive. fluorescent in an overhead kitchen fixture--today's residential fluorescent bulbs can be compact enough for use in recessed down lights. or the Kelvin rating. Although it costs little. four times as efficient. improved fluorescent bulbs are changing people's buying habits. Incandescent bulbs comprise a large category that includes any type with a filament. The compact fluorescent lamp (CFl) has been a major boost to saving energy. CFls can save 75 percent per fixture and they last ten times as long as incandescent bulbs. These bulbs are roughly the same size as an A-type incandescent. it's expensive to operate because it is inefficient and short-lived (only 10% of the energy generated from an incandescent bulb produces light.oooK or lower. Forget the W HILETHE STYLE OF FIXTURE YOU CHOOSE influences ghastly green fluorescents in your elementary school classroom. the rest is heat). However. the type of bulb used gives the overall luminescent effect. which rates how realistic objects will look under that light. and new. Incandescents remain popular because the warm color is flattering to people and food and they are easy to dim. Incandescent downlights and fluorescent undercabinet lights combine to provide task lighting and ambient light. in lamps. Color is measured by the Color Rendering Index (CRI) figure.

Xenon lamps. Halogen bulbs are available in line-volt fixtures (120 volt) or low-voltage fixtures (12 volt). are touted as being cooler and longer lasting than halogens. A Well-Lil Kirchcll I '7 . Low-voltage halogens. found in miniature recessed down lights and undercabinet lights. halogen bulbs provide a powerful amount of light for their size. supplementing the ribbon of windows in this bright kitchen. the new kids on the block. making them all-around candidates for ambient and task lighting. It's safer to have more fixtures than risk the fire hazard of using a bulb that's too hot for the fixture. so the ambience can change with the time of day and task at hand. Halogen bulbs are relatively expensive but put out more light than incandescents and have exceptional color rendition and beam control. SURFACE-MOUNTED INCANDES CENT FIXTURES with translucent lenses and low-voltage halogen pendants provide abundant task and ambient light. Both incandescent and halogen bulbs are easy to dim. Although these are low voltage. but they still run warmer and are lessefficient than fluorescents.THESE PETITE HALOGEN PEN· DANTS ARE HUNG by black wires that mimic the black cables tying the roof together. and their color mimics daylight. require a transformer to step down from line voltage. Don't be tempted to ignore that little label inside a recessed light fixture that indicates the maximum wattage.

should be lit. Dimming Lights D IMMING LIGHT FIXTURES CAN CHANGE MOOD. and reduce energy use (on occasion. easily handled by dimming light fixtures. and it's a clever place to hang halogen lights. During the day light streams in from kitchen and dining room w indows. 178 I A Well-Lit Kitchel1 . while low-voltage halogen lighting supplies sparkle. At dinner the center of the table be called up with the touch of a button or with a remote-control device. Undercabinet fixtures boost task lighting . A low-voltage monorail track system holds adjustable fixtures.WINDOWS CARVED INTOTHE STAINLESS-STEEL BACKSPLASH brighten an urban kitchen. Integrated dimming systems allow you to preset various lighting scenarios that can make lighting options more flexible. The suspended plate over the cooktop and match ing ledge atop the wall cabinets hold individual halogens. light the perimeter of the kitchen so that work can be done. Different scenarios have different lighting needs. as if from a campfire. AN ARCHED TRELLIS MAKES A STYLISH SCREEN BETWEEN kitchen and dining room. When you are making dinner. halogen lights should be run at full brightness for a few minutes to preserve lamp life).

Range-hood lights illuminate both cooking tasks and a decorative tile backsplash.~ . and pencil-thin fluorescent tubes with or without lenses are popular choicesfor undercabinet fixtures. The ceiling grid adds texture and a place to tuck panels of tiny lights. Adjustable recessed halogen downlights highlight the bay-window wall. LIGHTING IS BOTH SUBTLE AND SHOWY in this high-ceilinged kitchen. Some fixtures allow for the first unit to be hardwired while adjacent fixtures plug one into the next. while undercabinet and over-sink lighting is concealed by cabinets and valences. Keeping the fixture close to the front of the cabinet helps conceal the fixture and will cause lessglare on the countertop. Halogen puck lights or thin tubes. as it's situated directly over and fairly close to the work surface. HIDDEN LIGHT SOURCES ARE THE KEY IN THIS KITCHEN.Undercabinet Lighting U N DERCABIN ET LIGHTING can provide the brightest task lighting on countertops. Maintaining a low profile is important. flexible rope lights. A two-light pendant brings light to the island countertop. and a valence added to or designed into cabinets will help hide fixtures. A \I 'd /-Lil Kildll 'll I .

180 I A Well-Lil Kilchen . Lighting Inside Cabinets C ABINETSWITH GLASS DOORS always benefit from inside lighting-use glass shelves. low-voltage light fixtures. Another candidate for cabinet lighting is the notoriously dark and difficult-to-rummage-through corner base cabinet. THE MINIATURE STRIP LIGHTS IN THESE GLASS CABINETS and the strip halogens in the toespace provide a dramatic glow in the evening. period-style fixtures fit the bill.THIS PATTERNED STAINLESS-STEEL DOOR LIFTS UPto display an array of small appliances. such as puck lights and rope lights. work well inside cabinets because they are small. DOWN LIGHTS WERE NOT PART OF THE DESIGN PALETTE in this Craftsman-style kitchen. for extra sparkle. after kitchen work is done. so surface -mounted. low-voltage fixtures can be operated by a touch switch or with wiring affixed to a hinge or hidden metal strip so that lights turn on automatically when the door is opened.The cabinet also holds a bank of receptacles . too. A ribbon of t iny lights ill um inat es the interior for easier access.

8 . EACH OF THE CEILING LAYERS IN THIS KITCHEN is fitted with white- trimmed recessed down lights for max imum visual impact and illumination. but the window is small. Add itional lighting is supplied by two pendants over the island and by undercab inet lighting. ir Kire/lt'li I . deep overhangs are critical for keeping out the sun and glare. IN THIS TEXAS HILL COUNTRY HOUSE. if the ceiling is especially high.Locating Pendants L IGHTING AN ISLAND OR PENINSULA with pendant lighting can provide both task and ambient lighting. to 50 in. Low-voltage lights provide a cheerful glow at the sink . above an island and 30 in. A pendant fixture is especially pleasing if it can be dimmed. above a dining table-44 in. and a translucent shade will add soft light to the ceiling. The window over the refrigerator faces south . Measure well to assure that the fixture is within the boundaries ofthe table or island. too. A \Vdl-L. Keep the bottom of a pendant at about 36 in.

consider adjustable lenses or lamps with narrow beams. adding task lighting to countertops. Choose recessed fixtures that are as airtight as possible to reduce heat loss and keep moisture from migrating into the attic or a wall cavity. and color of the trim and select the bulb that provides the beam spread and illumination level you need. But use them with care. and accenting decorative objects. use the much smaller low-voltage down light lamps. select Ie-type fixtures for contact with insulation. Also pay attention to where down lights are positioned. help bring the light closer to working surfaces. While down lights 182 I A Well-Lit Kitchcll . Take a look at the size. D OWNLI GHTS ARE PERFECT FOR ALL KITCHEN TASKS. Some homeowners avoid down lights and prefer to go with pendants. sconces. which have apertures as small as 2 ing washing surfaces of wall cabinets and walls. configuration. and other surfacemounted or suspended fixtures. Supplement down lights with sconces or other sources of uplighting to keep the ceiling from looking dark.Recessed Downlights bient light. includ- For accent lighting. A downlight that's out of line with its neighbors will forever make you wince. SOFFITS CAN BEA HANDY LOCATION FOR RECESSED downlights and provide task lighting over the peninsula. look for trims that match the ceiling or frosted lenses that cover the bulb. glass-shaded pendants add flair and lightness. providing am- in. swing-arm fixtures. To minimize the look of downlights.

in keeping with Southwest and Japanese-style des igns found throughout this Vermont timber-frame house.THESE HALOGEN LIGHTS ARE DESIGNED TO BE SEEN rather than hidden.The four semirecessed fixtures add sparkle to cabinets that open from both sides. LIGHTFIXTURES OVER A KITCHEN ISLAND are made from wood turned on a lathe. Surfacemounted halogens provide nighttime task lighting over the sink. IN THIS CITY KITCHEN AN OPAQUE ROMAN SHADE keeps out glaring western sun in the summer and provides privacy at night. A Well-Lil Kirchen I .83 . Three halogen fixtures create task lighting for the countertop. while undercabinet puck lights provide day and night task lighting on countertops.

In keeping with the industrial setting. and a metal frame carrying a curved plastic lens that diffuses light. small halogen reflectors.84 I A Well-Lit Kitchell . . but why not light base cabinets that face the dining area. THIS BROOKLYN CARRIAGE HOUSE WAS RENOVATED to reflect its mixed residential and industrial neighborhood. the architect designed a pendant light fixture with metal tubing. too? This top-lit island cabinet has glass shelves that allow light to bounce around.LIGHTING UPPER CABINETS IS COMMON.

Sans backsplash. or camouflage covers with faux painting or matching material. F INDING A PLACE FOR ELECTRICAL OUTLETS shouldn't be an afterthought. Here. an island can be designed with decorative legs that incorporate receptacles so that you don't lose precious storage space to an electrical box . not just around the sink. IT' S TOUGH TO FIND A PLACE FOR in an island. If your island has two countertop levels. as there's no backsplash and space is packed with drawers or appli ances. Both plug molding and receptacles can become a design feature with stainless steel or decorative plates. Box beams provide not only a sheltering look but utility. / it Kitd. perfect for receptacles and safer than below the countertop because cords won't be hanging over the countertop. To minimize the effect of receptacles. RECEPTACLES II II.. Receptacles in islands can not be placed face up. nor be placed under an overhang deeper than a few inches...Fitting In Receptacles try to cluster them behind where appliances will sit. Building codes usually require ground-fault circuit interrupter (GFCI) receptacles in kitchens. Another alternative is to tuck plug molding (also called strip receptacles) under wall cabinets (keep in mind that cords will hang down from under the cabinet). as halogen lights are recessed into the undersides. a str ip of easy -toreach plug mo lding fits below the countertop.'" 1'85 . you've got a built-in backsplash." .

Fu-Tung.com This s ite b ills itself as "th e In te rn et s Flooring Sto re. go to a stone yard a nd touch that gra n ite you 've onl y see n in photographs. and for hands-on just abo u t every aspect of making kit ch ens. www.com Stan h er e to go to The Ta u n to n www. Don't bypass the Iorurns-c. an d links to appl ian ce rep air sour cs.homeponfolio. building publicati ons . designers . from a o kn ob to expertise . As with all purchases and all advice . Susanka. ch o o sing ap p liances . crafts . Taunton is a great resource for a n yo ne doing new-kitchen research . and information si tes . Nonetheless . d esi g ners .' and it ca rries Ju st abo u t every lloor typ e you co u ld im agine for a kit ch en . w h ic h co m e out on ce a yea r in th e fall. real estat e agents . co ve red with sti c ky not es . Th e best resource is actu al ex pe rie nc e. Web sites run by nonprofit organizations ca n o ffer lots of information wi t ho u t ad ve rt ising. o f manufacturers wh o mak e produ ct'> for pre-1940 h ou se s a nd new homes built in traditi on al s ty les . I hav en't bou ght flooring h er e .superkitch ens .pcriod-horncs . a n d a big list of build ers. reread. It p ro vides links to the actual Web s ite. for homeo wn ers . b ut I've m ad e us e of their d et a iled information about flooring types a nd in stallati on . Look to Taunton books a nd magazines for design inspiration . Not So Big Solutions for Your Home. www. too). not just for a nicl es and prod u ct so u rce lis ts. and haul ed from pla ce to p lace. too! " It is n ot as easy as it looks. publications about building . And. nor ar e so u rces always attributed properl y. a n d gove rn me n t agencies . Not S o Big House. but it in cludes links to sus ta ina b le materials and produ cts a n d en ergye ffici e nt publi cati ons a nd news .com This site h as lots o f dt'si gn info about material s ." is aimed at prolession ais. of cours e. and trend s . a few post ed a rti cles from the magazin es . Taunton Press Publicat ions I admit my bias for Ta u nt o n Press publications-e-l 'vc s u bsc rib ed to Fine Homebuilding s inc e issue 4 and refuse to lend a Single copy. a nd arti cl es abo u t design. In c . Prc-. The Web is . that c a rry tbem . Look esp ecially for the Fine Homebuilding a n n u al Kitchen & Balhs issues . You won't find a richer so u rce of opinions on build ing th an th e generous an d ardent regul a rs at "Brcaktime. "Kn o ts" for Fine Woodworfling .com This site offe rs ap p lia nc e b u yer 's guides (written b y manufacturers) . an d b uilders . layouts. co u n ter to ps . and th at filter is your own go od se ns e. www.appliance . N ewt own .corn This Web sit e is run by Period Names Magazin e. a nd ca bi ne t layout. lists of s u p p liers . You ca n get vicarious ex pe rie nc e from Web forums (sec below) . that exc eed federal e ffic ie nc y <tandards . but C he n g is upfront about concret e's temperam e nt al nature. You can find a pp lia n ces that mak e the cu t as we ll as the store .vlireakurne" lor Fin e Nomebuilding. this is a Taunton book." and o t he r kit chen e le m e n ts . well.. Concrete Count erlOps. Chen g is a n a rtis t and concret e is his means o f ex p res si o n. al on g with several featured kitchens with in -d epth info about design and m aterials .com This "' Buil d ing and Home Improve ment Di rec to ry" ha s been a ro u nd si nce 1994. an d m ort gage brokers . Y u can buy anyth ing . lightin g . but don't expect obj ecti vit y. Creating ti. Sarah. CT: The Taunton Press.look for th e N KBAS 40 kit ch en-l ay out g u id e lin es as well as g u ides to 186 \ . CT: The Taunton Pr ess. thrs bo o k o ffe rs a co m bi n a tio n o f in spiration a l a n d hands-on ex pe rti se in making precast concret e co untertops (t he re is an appendi x abou t a cas t-in -p lace couruertop) .ooks Talk" for Fine Cooning. The Not So Big House Collection. o ffer ing links to m an ufacturers of build ing produ ct s . mergy s u p p liers . " I ca n do this. FiliI' HomebUilding. let the buyer bew ar e.e Not So Big House.en ergyst ar . Handsom e enough [or th e co ffee tabl e a n d useful enough to h old op en with a length of reb ar as you form a cou n te rt o p.z /otkos. Each issu e has on e o r two articles abo ut choosing kit ch en elements . one o f Clem Lab ine's resourceful publications (Clem Labinf 's Traditional Buildillg focus es o n co mmercia l and CiVIC project s.com Th e N ational Kitchen a nd Bath Ass o ci ation operates thi s s ite gear ed to the consum e r.corn O ikos mean s "ho use" in Greek an d is the root of "eco logy" and "eco no my. Newtown. www. s ho rt vid e o tips . m es sage board s. a nd Fi. Magazines are good so u rces . o n lin e merchant s of hom e produ ct'>." nor w ill you find a more pas sionat e dis cussi on o f gas versus electri c cooktops than on th e Web pa ges o f "C oo k's Talk . and links to a n eve r-g ro wing list o f manufacturers.com T h is goo d -lo o k ing site offer s a det ail ed program guide to th e Hom e &: Garden television s ho w. but it's relevant to houses.gov Th is gove rn me n t agenc y man ag es th e E NERGY STA R program that c ites ap pli a n ce. www. DIY projects . Th ese magazin es a re keepers. www. Books can be read . www.taunton .hgt v. but also fo r ads s ho w ing the latest products . with both thread s of gold a nd threads woven int o the empe ro r's new cloth es . a web." www.com Links to lighting co nsu lta n ts and s h o w ro o ms and provid es lighting tips a nd inform ation . Keep in mind that there is no g lo ba l fact c hec ke r. Kr aftM aid Cabinetry. There are many Taunton boo ks that in volve k itch ens.com A direct ory o f hom e produ ct s offer ed by registered man u fa c turer s and retailers. as every source has a po int of view. His passi on for co nc rete will get yo u thinking . for help in cho os ing kit ch en stu ff. and " .kitchens. It h as gu id elin es for des ign. Many Web site's FAQ pa ges and links to other Web s ites ca n be go od sources of in fo rma t io n.where you can get advice about everyt h ing in vo lvi ng k itch en s . hup. floo r. Fine Woodworning." T h is Web s ite. a d esi gn er d ir ec tory. All of th ese s o urces require a nit er . 2002. www. all fro m th e viewpoint of its o w n e r.1C Cooning. a nd m essage board s . Here a re som e sit es I've found int eresting or useful-and sometimes both : americanlightingassoc . Cheng. su bti tled "Green Building Source .-. Go cook on the range you covet. where you 'll find Web extras.ifl oor.build.Sources In the search for kitche n in fo rmation there is mu ch t reas ure to be had if you dig in th e right pla ces. with Eric Ol sen . here a re just a few : Web Site s The Web has compl etel y c ha nge d th e wa y we d o research o n kitc he n d esign and building .

. West on Hewrtson Archrtect s 4 tnc. CA. lo r.OR. Inc.Vineyard Haven. Photo. tnc. Ann e Otterson. Kaeh~er/Moore P. Inc. .OR Photo .com .lnc. p. © The Taunton tect: Robert Moser. ss. Arch itect: RobertMosher. . CD The Taunton Press. p. Brooks Berry Associat es.MI Brink. AuSable Valley woodworks. Photo: <D Brian Vanden Brink. (rig ht) Design:Vermont Vernacular. M orningstar M arble & Granite. p. Photo:© Brian Vanden Brink. 9 6.com. Bottjer. St. Il'J Brian Vanden Brink . CO Bill Ruth . 20 : Cabinetmaker:Thompson & Brouillette Inc. €I The Taunton Press. Photo: (()TheTaunton Press. Newberry. . P. Photogra ph er 2004 .SS Photo:@ Brian Vanden Brink. 22:Design: Kaehler M oore Architects. Photo. lnc. Und erhill Mar gie San de rs. (botto m left) Design . MA. Inc.Great Barrington. CA.com . Vanden Brink. Speonk. Photo:<D Brian Vanden Brink. © Randy O'Rourk e.. © The Taunton Press. P. Photo: ~ Brian Vanden Brink . WV. OR. (bottom) Design. Portland. Robso n Bilgen. Owner: Margie Sanders....Jeffand LisaGovoni. €I Brian iah Rob Mosher. Chri s Green. Mildord Cushman. Desig n: Sa m ue l Van Dam. p.29 ' (top) Design . (bottom) Design: Chris Glass.Photo: © 2004 caroly nbates. entiss. Photo. (right) Domin ic P Mercandante. Eugene. (to p) Desig n.Photo: 13)H. Bos ton. (t op) Design. Photo: <S) 2004 carolynbates. P. ert lnc. Photo . p. Photo: Cl Ali son O'Br ien photography. Portland.() Brian VandenBrink. M alcom Appleton.'3' (nght) Design. 60 : Design. Builder: Mark Fletcher . Photographer 2004 . cabinet finish.tnc. poft Photo. Photo: e The Taunt on Press.B: Photo . © 2004 carol nbates. Photo.14' (left ) De' ign. Phot ograph er 2004 · p.Inc.Photo:@The TauntonPress. Photo: © TheTaunton Pres s.Photo: e The TauntonPress.lnc Press.. M argie Sander s. VT.Photo:@ Nancte Battaglia. p. Whitten Architects. 35' (to p left) Design. Ph oto~ © TheTaunton Press.com. Photographer 2004 .Speonk. : ME. Inc . 70 : Design.9 ' (rig ht ) Photo.Paul. 12 (left) nes lgn : Bech t. 1S Design: DominicM ercandante. 82' (left) Photo. p. Coneret. MA. MA. p. P 30 ' (to p) Design .RI.. Stowe. p. T opsham. ME. Stowe.tnc.Photo: © The rapher 2004 .Jason McConathy . Flo Braker. 6 .. p. 5" (top left) Design.: (bottom left) Design: Patrick Flo Brak er. 48. Vl.RI. Photo.Photo: © 2004 (a rolynbates. MN . Mark Hutker & Associates bates. VT and Rockport. Phoh©Jason McGona t hy. Reidt and Haigh.lnc. ss. Roland 8att en. p. Portland. bour. p. MN . Keesville.tnc. © Jason McConathy. (bottom) Design. Photo ( ourtesyKennebec Company. Photo: IV Brian VandenBrink.Hingham. DominicMer cadante Architect. Kitc hen Design: De Ann Martin. p. Montpelier. (to p) Design . p.com . Cabinet s: Premoule.com. S7' (top left ) Desig n.Vineyard Haven and Falmouth. p. (l The Taunton Press. Photo: III davidd uncanliving- P. RI. p. (!) 2004 carolyn bate s. Mar gie Sanders. owner-Architect .MA. archrtect. phot o. AuSable Valley Woodworks.53' (top) Design .Ha ncock.(bottom) Design 1 Oakes 0 Interiors. <I> Brian Vand en Brink . p. Craig Hervey . Flo Braker. e Randy O'Rourke.lnc. (ri gh t) Design . Phot ographer 2004 .lnc.. NY. 93: De-sign: Jeffand li sa Govon Bur1ington. p. (botto m) Design . VineyardHaven and s Falmouth.VineyardHaven and Falmouth. p.. Photographer 2004 .Photo. Flo Braker. Architect . stan. Archi · otynbates. MI. Hou seright & Brouillette Inc. p. Cent erbroo k Archi t ect s. (right) Design . tnc.Washington. © Jason McConathy. Photo. . p. Mark Hutker & Associates Architects. (to p) Design.sfield. Photo . Inte rio r grapher 2004. p.© 2004 carolynbates. 62: Design: Noel Tewe ~ Bangor ME and . Design. () The Design:Mark Hutker & Associates Ar chitects. Du-st on Sa ylor. 1!.com. III Randy O'Rourke.VT. Mark Hutker & tects. Photo .corn. CHAPTER 4 p. 85' (top) Design . Kochman . Paul Bilgen and Taunton Press. M O.NY.Anne Otterson . Photogra phe r 2004.Architect Burlington. C) Jaso n Mc Con athy.CA.M argie Sanders. Inc. 21 .M E. 4 : Design:lou Ann Bauer. Woodstock.. Photo: «l Brian vanden Brink.Wai1. 6S' (t op) Design . 92: Design:Ja ckson house. Photo. Phot o: () 2004 carolyn' Design: Kearney. Frost ca binet s. .MAtPhoto: <!) Brian vanden Brink. DC. p.com. Burlington. Prov idence. Photo: e AlisonO'Brien photography. 6 3' (to p) Desig n. MA. H-3. i. Architect: Shahin Barzin.VT. (righ t) Design . Dav id Rogers. Obi e Bow man. Frost Cabinets. NY.VT..com. olynbates. MA. p. Berkeley.. . p.. Brown. «rt he t aunton Press. 78: Design: BlooksBerry and A5s ociate ~ St. © 2004 caro lyn bates. p. VT and Rockport. (t op rig ht) Design.1 ' (to p) Desig n. Photographer 2004 . (left ) Design. Flo Braker. Canada. EI Granada. .Inc . M argie Saun ders. NY.com. Photo: © BrianVanden Brink . Jerem Eck. . Tho mp son p..Photo: If) TheTauntonPrevs. The Kennebec Gomp any.Jac kson Hole. @ Brian Vanden Brink Photographer2004 . Photo: <D The Taunton Press. Diane M or gan. Grate r Architects. VT. P. (left) Design.€I Brian Vanden Brink. MA.83' (to p) DeSign. Mark Fletcher. Keesville. Photo.. P. Davi d lyon fo r Coll en Horner tect. 10' (right) Design: Glen Irani.CA. WA. illette p. p. Sudbury.com. SanDiego. archit ect . (bott om) Design. MA. Inc. Phot o . (bottom) Photo: <0 Alison O'Brien photograp hy.. p. CA.corn Design.Credits CHAPTER. . and Ann Arbor . Provide nce. <lJ Randy O'Rou rke.Vineyard Haven and Falmouth. p. Rob Thallo n.Warren.oo m.Photographer 200 4. West on Hewrtson Arch itects Inc. Boston. p. Photographer 2004. Marlene Chargin. Kaehler Moore Archi- Architects. Inc. MA.com. 33' (left) Design . Durston Saylor. p. M ark Hutker p. Cl2004 carolynbates. CA. RI. Photo o H. 17 Design: Ed Pierce &: JanGoodrich. Pr Taunton Pre s ~ Inc. Photo : © The Taunt o n Press. Photograph er 2004. Construction Co. Duo Dick in son.Vineyard Haven and F almouth. NY. Diane Morgan. Photographer 2004. (bottom right) Design:Flo Braker Photo: © TheTaunton Press. Madera.Cent erbr ook . Photo. Photographer 2004 . MA Photo:@Steve R osenthal. Brian Vanden Brink. CA. Brook sBerry and Associ co. Rob Thal lon. Inc. Ontario. p. Diane Morgan. architect. p. Designin Wood. Photo:© Brian Vanden Brink Photog. Owner. EI Prado. 24: Design: Cullen. Koemer.Robert Mo~h er. Photo:to Bri n Vanden a Brink . Phot o. 94 . Photo: © 2004 carolynbates. p. p. VT. Venice. MA . Providence. VT.8. P. In<-. CT Photo: © H. (bottom)Design .: (right) Design. 81' (top) Phot o. CT Photo. Photo: © 2004 carolynbates. Photograph er 2004. © Brian Vanden Brink. Clayt on. 0 '2 . © The Taunton Press.Photo: <0TheTaunton press. Lind a Reeve n MaCintyre. Photo: (()2004 ca rclynbates.37:(left) Design: Diane Morgan. MA. Photo: e 2004 carolynbates..com. (bottom) tural Assoc iation. Photo: <D AlisonO'Brien photogra phy.Billings Farm. Ea\ t Calais.Photo:tD200 4 carolynbates. ME..com. p.Photographer 2004 . OR. William McClay. architect. (bottom ) Design. .co rn. 34: Photo: © Brian va nd e n Brink.com .Inc. (bottom) Photo: © BrianVanden Brink.Belfast. (bottom) Design ' Jefferson Riley. © Ali son O'Brien photography . Phot ographe r 200 4. Phoates.M-l. Fr esno. Phot og- tects. © Brian Vand en Brink. p. RI. 25' (t op left ) Design.l ouis. Design:Quinn Evans Architects. Photo: Architect s llC .l cl Sha ratt. Sing er.Stowe. © 2004 Terry Thomp son . (bottom) Design . © Jason M cCon athy .MA. LaurelTewes. Tom M oore . O 200 4 car. LaJolla. VT. Photo: ¢) J asonMcConathy. Charl otte. (bottom) Design . @ Brian Vanden Brink. NY. Paul and Peggy Duncker. Pewaukee. (left) Design:Van Dam Arch itecture and Design. Photo: (!) BrianVanden Brink. Cushman+ Bec kstrom.Photo: <D 2004 carolynbates. 51-Paul. Portl and. Owner. 36 :Cabinetmaker:Thompson & Brou tnc. Madison. Madera.ME.Photographer 200 4. Shahin Barzin. CA. WI. Jeremiah Eck. P.Photo:© The p. p.1l : Design: Bob Benz. ME. (left) Design. {left} Design: Damian Baumhover.Arch itec - () 2004 carolynbates . (top right ) Design.. P. NY. Photo:© Al ise O'Brien photog raphy . CHAPTER 2 Construction. San Francis- Center VT Photo:@2004 carolynbates. Hingham.MO. BradRabinowitz. (left) Photo. Photographer 2004· p.MO. Photo: CD BrianVanden Brink. Photo. M onte sano. NM . OR. 88: Design. 89. Builder. Pr ovidence. Providence. lnc. 50 ' (t o p) Phot o.VT. Photo: © BrianVanden 8rink..(:)TheTaunton Press.52' (top) Design. . BarHaress. Kim Sheridan. Rob Hetler Cabinetmaker. (left) Design . (bottom) Design. (right) Design . p. 64. Photo: (D 2004 carolyn bates . Photograph er 2004 . (bo tt o m) Design. Kaehl er M oore Archi- Archit ect: M j( h. Heald sburg.A rchrtect Bel· . (right) Photo . owner.Photo:CITheTaunton press.CA. Botje r. Photo: © TheTaunton Press . lynHingham. p. 39 ' (t op) Design. Benning: ton. Taos Red p. Phot o. li) Otterson. 27' (to p left) Design . 9' Desig n. tnc. 76 (left) Design . ME. Photo: () 2004 carolynba tes. Cotter Woodwork ing . Patri cia Ryan Madson. Photographer2004 . © The Taunton Pre Inc. Photo: grapher 20 04 . 42 ' (t op left) Desig n. DurstonSay lo r. Cott er Woodwo rki ng Inc. MO. (bo tto m) . (top right) Cabi net maker. p. CT. p. to: «) 2004 carolynb P-4" (left) Design.: (to p right and bottom) p. 49 ' (left) Design . Cotte r Woodwor king. architect. Photo. VT Photo. (bo tto m righ t) Phot o.. M ark Hutker & Associates Architects. Inc.W illiam McClay. Architect Shahin Banin.com. 43: Design. Flo Kane. © Jaso n McConathy. Greenwich.. Phot ". Architectand GenerJI Contractor. Borton.com. (bottom rig ht ) Design. ME. CA. Inc. Dry sdale Associat es. David l yon for Design:Diane M organ. Inc. CA. Phot ographer2004 .SIl ouis. P 3" (to p) Phot o..S8. Boston . Port- land. 66 : Photo: CD BrianVanden Brink.ME. p.CA.59 Design:Diane Morgan. (bo tto m left ) Design . Greenwich.curator.com. Photo. (bottom) Photo. Phot ograp her 2004.f rank W. photo by Stev e Fazio. VT Photo.Architect:Shahin Barzin. Phot o.comj (right) Design: y Design: Nina Burnham and Clem Donahue.. (bott om) Photo © Brian Vanden Brink. Bath. Photo. MA. Inc.Canada. p. (ri ght) Design.. Photographer 2004. (right) Design: David D.©The Taunton Press. (left ) Design. lnc. Photo: © 2004 caro bates. owner. Milford Cushman.RI. Colleen Horner Kitchen BathTile Stone. (top) Design. (right) Phot o. (t op and bottom) Interior Design . rapher 2004-.40 :Design. if) The TauntonPr p. Pho to. © The Taunton Press Inc.Inc. p. Pres ~ ln c.com. ill Jason M cConathy. 72. Will Foster.Ar(hitect Photo: © Brian . p.(bottom) & Assoc iates Architects. Portland. tou ts. Ann Finnerty. 11.com: (right) De<ign. Pet alu ma . Photo..~) Vanden Brink. 90 ' (top) Photo .com. (right) Photo: David Ericson.Greenwich. Cotter Woodworking tnc.com. Portland. VT. 11:> 200 4 caro lynbates.fn c.45' (top) Design . Photo: ® Nancie 8attaglia. (bo tt om ) Photo. CA. . 7' (t op) Design .Photo: €) TheTaunton Press. Riepe. Phot o- ates. p. OR. p. (top right) Design .. III Jason McConalhy. (right) Design:M lldord Cushman. SI-loiu is. (bott o m ) P.com . . 69 ' (all photos) Design . tnc. © Todd caverly.Inc. CA. (rig ht) Design . WI. p. CT .Photo: €>The TauntonPress. Photo:© Brian Vanden Brink.: (bott om ) Pho- to. Cushman + Beckstrom. OR. WA. © 2004 carolynbates. Portland.. Flo Braker. Weston Hewrtson Arch itectsInc. Photo:© The Taunton . MA. .Owne r.1 200 4 caroiynbates.Vf . (bottom) Design . David Rogers. Design: GeoffreyT. Photo:lDBrian Vanden . Black RiverDesign. Jim Hun tington. (left) Design . © H.g. er The Taunton Press.. Photo: oX> 200 4 carofynbat es. Stonington. 26. (botto m) ~ ig n : Sandra Vitzhum. Assoc iates Architect . 68 .lnc.Phot o.VT. p.. Richa mond VT. p.com p. Photo. P. (bott om left ) Desig n.73' (top) De' ig n.com. Hou ses & Barn s by John ub - by. 97.Pewaukee.. Cushman + Beckstrom .com .cab- inets: Premoule.(left ) Design. Cabinet 8. 8" (to p) Design . Andy M all ow. Shelburne. pho tograph er 2004. © 2004 car ' olynbates. (botto m) Photo.Photographer2004 . Greenb ank . (righ t ) Design .ln c. Photo: e 2004 carolynbates. (left ) Design.com. Photo: © The Taunton Press. Photo. SanFranci sco. Design:Anne Otterson. Photo: ® 2004 carolynbates. p.Hingham.. 84' (top and bottom) Design .Photographer 2004. (bo ttom) Phot o. fast. p"9 dtop) Design . Photo: @TheTaunton Pre ss. © The Taunt on Press. © Jason McConathy. <D 20 04 carolynbate<i . I1lThe Taun ton Press. Photo: €> The Taunton Press. Durston Say.Ontario..Photographer 2004 . p. and RolfKielman. SI. © Brian Vanden Brink. Quillen.VT.Warren. p. 28.Photo .. CHAPTER 3 Brian VJnden Brink. Speo nk.Photo: © Brian Van· den Brin k. © Brian Vand en Brink . M innt"a 'i"MN. Photo. Portland. MA. p.7S (top left and bottom right) Design .Montpe lier.Photo. CA. Inc. Weston Hew tt scn Architects Inc" Hingham.w tr ncn Scott Arch i- Taunton Press.6 . : Prov idence. Phot og rapher 2004. Ann e Otterson. 95 ' (t o p) Desig n. Photo: Ii) The T aunton Prevs. broo ksBerry and Associat es. P. (left) Design .Anne Kitchen Bath TIle Stone. p. Inc. Providence.© 2004 carolynbates. Photo. Photo.s6 .. Photographer 200 4. Inc . . ph ot ograph· er. Flying Turtle ca st ConCfete Berkeley CA.Inc.ln c. ME.. Photo. CT Phot o. tnc. P-38. Photographer 2004 . pc .RI. MA.co m. Pho to . Photo:e The TauntonPre lnc. (to p) Desfgn . 80: Design: Rol nd Birdseye Builders.Photo: @ 20 0 4 carolynbates.com.Weston HewitsonArchitectsInc. Andre Rothblatt.: (bo tto m ) Design . Photo: IV 2004 ca r- Braker. 47' (top ) DeSign. MN. Photo: CO The Taunton Press.: (bottom) Design. Phc t c . Phot o.Photo: © The Taunton Press. .$4 ' (to p) Design .. DennisLarsson. architect. ME. Belfast. Cabinetry:AndrewJacobson. (bottom rig ht) Design: De Ann Martin.. Inc. (t op right) Design . Speo nk. P.. Design: RocCalvano AIchitect. CA. Brian Vanden Brink photos 2004. 46 .Photo: © The Taunton Press.

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(bottom right) Design . © The Taunton Ptes s. 178: (left) Design: brooks8erry and Associat es Kit chen s and Baths.. Essex Junction. Inc.121: (to p) Design: Oliver 2. p. I ) " (to p) Design : M ildord Cushma n. VT. © 2004 carolynba· t es. VT. Santa Fe.ARCHAEO. MA. (top) Pho t o: Cl Jason McConathy. WA. Photographer 2004. Ascutn ey. MA. D The taunt on Press. SCott sdale. (right) Design: Kat e Stevens. San Diego. Phot o: €I 2004 carolynba te s. Warren. MN. 51.. 109 : (top) Design . Photo: © 2004 carolynbates.com . David Coleman . Photo by Steve Thompson . Photo : €I Brian Van den Brin k. Photographer 2004. Phot o: © The Taunton Press. © Jason Mc Con athy. (ri g ht ) Design. 163: Design : Paul Dunck er and Peggy Dunker. IS8 : (left) Jane langmuir.corn. P_l)): (top) Design : Dav id Luce. '54 : Design : Ell iott & Elliott Arch itects. Phot o : © Randy O'Rourke . p. ' CA. p. Photo: Ii) Brian Vanden Brink . Phot o : © The Taunton Press .com . photc. 107 Design : Nina Birnbaum and Clem Don ahue. "9 : Design: Woodstock Kit chen s & Bath s. MN . Jack son Hole. Photo: © Robert Romaneck. : P. 12S: (top) Design : Anne Otterson . p. ME. Photo : lD 2004 caroly nbat es.I72 : (left ) Design : Oorrumc Mercandante. Photo: © Steve Rosent ha l. Essex Junction . MA. o Bria n Vande n Brink . Portland. Photo : ll) The Taunton Press. (bottom left) Phot o: €I Jason McCon "thy. Brian Cooper. Photo: <D 2004 carolynbates.com . Phot o: () The Taunt on Press. Photo: «> The Taunton Press. . ME. 116 Design: Pete de Giro lam o. North Woods Joinery. p. SCott Ballard. Great Barr ington. Phct o.Cooktop .com .com . Diane M org an .Nina Birnbaum and Clem Don ahue. Frost cabinets. MaderJ. t 01. Photo: © 2004 Terry Thomp son. •84 ' (top) Phot o © daviddunca nliv i ngston .com. Phot og rapher 2004: (right) J. (l Ali son O'Br ien photography. CA. Joh n Martin. MN. Photo: IV 20 04 caroly nba te s. Inc. Roland Batten Arch it ect l linda Reeve M acIntyre. Photo. Photo: @ Bria n Vanden Brin k. Salerno..com .. © Bill Ruth . Portlan d . (bottom ) Phot o: 0 2004 carolynba t es.1 2004 carolynbat es. (bottom) Design. Photo: (5) The Taunton Press. TX. p. Stowe. Photo: () The Taunton Press.. (bott om) Design . Sudbury. MA. © Jason Mc Conathy. Ca. (bottom) Design : GKW Working Design.. NM . ME. Phot o: IV 2004 carolynbates. Inc. Inc. Phot ographer 2004 . 1 (left and right) Design. CA. Broo klyn . 185: Design :Van Dam Arch itecture and design. (bottom) Design.fnc. I!') Bli an Vanden Brink . Il. 152:Design : Thunder Mill Design . (botto m ) Design: Coburn Architect ure . p. Bur lington. '79 : (left) Desig n: Ax eI 8erg. M E. Cn. Phot o: '. (bottom ) Phot o: © Jason McCona thy. Inc. Keesvill e.164 : Phot o : © Aaron Pennock. p. 98 : Photo : @ Brian Vande n Brink . p. IL. Shafts bury. VT. p. 08 Bai nbridge. Arch itect. 1 (top left) Design: Dam i.Inc. p. p. Photo: CD Brian Vanden Brin k. VT. Photo . Interi or Design. Provid ence. Inc. VT. 1)0 : (t op ) Design. (bottom) Design : Andre Rothblatt.TT5 : (top) Design. i:)The Taunt on Press-Inc. Cabinet makers: Sim on . Phot o: © The Taunton Press. Phot ogr apher 2004. Icpsham . photographer 2004. p. Canada . De. Rob Thallon.Design .com . "7: (t op) Photo. 100. Riepe. Saterno. RI. (t op right) Design: W esto n Hewitson Arch itect s Inc. Phot o: © The Taunton Press.com . 51. 04 © Brian Vande n Brink. p. Phot o: €I Brian Vanden Brink . Green bank. Jerry Thompson . 168. San Ant on io.l)4' Photo: © Jason M cCon athy. (bott om left ) Design: Pete de Girolam o. Cushman + Beckstrom. Builder: Tim Bullock . Charl otte. Sud bu ry. (bot tom) Design . Cushm an + Beckstrom. OR. EI Prado.com. Refrigerato rs: Sub -Zero . P ho to : ~ Brian Vande n Brink . owner.Inc. 160: Dl. CT. Cambrid ge. Ontario. Burlington.. Photo : @The Taunton Press. p.Inc. architect. Phot o: @ Brian Vand en Brin k. p. NY. Seatt le. Photo: @ Brian Vanden Brink . Photographer 2004. p..com . (bottom ) Design : Ed Pierce and Jan Good rich. WindCraft . Photo:© The Taunt on Pre s~. Builder: M ark Fletch er.Phot o: €I The Taunton Press. (left) Design : Morningstar Marble & Granite. (bottom left] Photo:€l Brian Vand en Brink . (left ) Design . Bangor. '40 ' (left) Design : Jim Bischoff. Belfa st..Inc. {bot tom ) Design .corn. p. lI. OR. Robert M osher. tnc.WA . 1 ' (top ) Deslgn: Dan Scully. p. © Jason McConathy. ca bi· net fi nish: Kim Sheridan. Vi neyard Haven and Falmout h. p. Phot o: © 20 04 carolynbates. 175: (t o p left ) Design: F-I. p. 1)6 : (top) Photo .. (right) ubinetmaker :Th ompson & Brou illette In c. j effe rsonv il le. Photo : @ The Taunt on Press-Inc. '37: (left) Architect : Roland Batt en. p. MN. lNin gston Architects.. Photo . p. (bottom right) Phot o: © Jason M cConathy. Som erv ill e. '59: (left) Design : M ac White from Michael G.com . p. CA.. ' 71: (top left ) Inte rio r Design : Ma rlene Chargin . Pho t o: () St eve Rosentha l. Phot o~ The Taunton Press. Photo: © The Taunton Press. Photo : © The Taunt on Press. m : (left) Photo. p. TX. 17): (t o p) Design . O 20 04 p. ME. Bened ict . Inc. san Francisco. Photographer 2004 · p. builder. ubinetmaker: Sim on . ")' (top left) Diane Morgan with architect Marg ie Sander s. CA. (bot · : tom) Design : Frost Cabinets. Photo: @ 20 04 carolyn bat es. . VT. John M alick . Charl otte. Photo: © 2004 carolynbate s. tnc. Photo: © 2004 carolynbat es. Sellers and Company Archit ects. MA. Burlington. Evan ston . Waterbury. Phot o.cabinet fini'sh: Kim Sheridan. RI. (bottom) Design : Roc Calvan o Architect.com. Kit che n Design: De Ann MJrtin.MO. Frost ca bi nets. WI . San Francisco. Livingston Arch it ect s: San DII!gO.Photo: CD 200 4 carolyn bate s. CA. 1 2: Design : Weston Hewitson Archf tect s Inc. Photo : () Jason M cConathy: (bo ttom left) Design: Roland Batt en.com . (right) Design. 105' Design . Photo: (<) Jason McConathy.Photo: €) The Tau nt on Press. Providence.: (bo tt om ) Phot o: CD 2004 carolynbates.. Photographer 2004 . CA. M arg ie Sanders. 174: Design : Mildord Cushman.. VT.. VT. p.lnc. Phot o.Jnc . Photo. VT. (bottom) Peter M orr is Archit ect'S. MA. Dana Ennis. Lighting Designer. Imber.(bottom) Design : Brad Rabi nowit z.16 I: (left) DeS n. Woodstock Kitchens & Bath s.Sig n: Damian Baumhover. Toney and Fischer.CA. Topsham . Architect. p. Photo: @BrianVanden Brink. Evanston .com . Photo : €> Brian Vanden Brink . Emeryv ille . (right) Design: Brad Rabinowitz. Stowe. Int eri or Design . Photo: ([) The Taunton Press.. (bottom right) Design : Peter Rose. Montpelier. Evanston . Frank xarrema n. : Photo : @TheTaunton Press. 180: (top) Design : Diane Morgan. San Antonio.ME . . San Diego . p.lIm outh. VT.. Kitchen design : De Ann M art in . p. Phot ographer 20 04 . Arch it ect . '55: Design : Craftsmen Unl imited. CA. MA. p. 113 Design : Jim Garramone. Photographer 2004· p. Toney and Fisher.t 67' (top left) De>lgn : Pete de Girolamo. Photog rapher 2004. (t op right) Photo. Siaconset. Photo: © Brian vanden Brink . p. Photo : © The Taun ton Press. Shelburne. '42: Michael Dugan. Photogra phe r 10 04 . (right) Design : Design :Jim Huntington. Brad Rabino witz.. <S:l H. MA . Albuquerque. p. Inc. EI Gran ada.A rchitect : Shahin Barzin. Phot o: €I Brian vanden Brink. (t op right) Design.Paul. (t o p right) Design. CA. Photo: <S:l Brian Vanden Brink . Greenwich.p. Verge nnes . Photo : © The Taunton Press. p. CA. Bar Ha rbour .com . lightin g: Paul Scardin a. p. p..com. Arch it ecture. Phot o: ([) The Taunt on Press. Concrete counters: Eric Butler. Emel}'Ville.lAughin g Bear Associates. (bottom left) Design: Rothchild.com . 153: Design : Rob HetJer.Loui s. TX. p. VT and Rockport. 141:(left) Design . Pho to: <D Brian Vanden Brink .tnc •.A rchitect. p. Photographer 2004 . Dur st on Saylor .Inc. tnc. Burlington. lnc. John Martin. p. (right) Photo : €:IJason M cConathy. p.Photo: (0 The Taunton Press. ')5' (top left) Robson Bilg en Archit ect s. Nason Singer. P. Bentley & Church ill Architects. VT. (top right) Design . p.com . 118 Design: Kaehler Moore Architects . p. Benn ing ton. Phot o: © The Taunton Press. VT. Portland. Au Sable Valley Woodworks.. Phot og rapher 200 4. owner. 147: (top) Design : HutnerlRolinick.lnc. AZ. Phot o: ® The Taunton Press. VT. Photo: lI) Brian Vanden Brink . Photo: () The Taunton Press Inc. Phot o: © Brian Vand en Brin k. VT. 112: (top) Design : Diane Morgan. Photo: © 2004 carolynbat es. 51. Photo: © The Taunton Press. Vineyard Haven and Falm outh. CA. MA. VT. MacWhit e from M ich ael G. (bottom left) Design: Jim Huntington. Photeo <D 2004 caro ly nbates . MA .Paul.. Jon Dick. lighting Designer. 1. (bottom right) Design : Nancy McCoy.com . p. (t op left ) Design . 122 (t op ) Photo : © Jason M cConathy. Photo: © The Taunton Press. Inc. Photo: © 2004 carolyn bate s. Photo : €I 2004 carolynbates. Stowe . 146: (top left) Design: Shiloh Millworks. VT. Phot ographer 2004 .rgz : (top) Design : Earth ston e St ove .Vin eyard Haven and F. tnc. p. Sale rno. CHAPTER6 p. (bottom) Design: brooksBerry Associate s. P. NM . © Steve Rosentha l. Phot o: l. (bottom) Photo: (0 Jason McConathy. Chri s Green .com . Riepe. Photo: © 200-4 carolynbat es co m.Architect. Cushm an & Beckman. Phot ographer 20 0 4. ign (botto m) DeS : Mark Hutker & Associat es Arch itects. p. (ri gh t) Design : H. H. Photo: Il) 2004 caro ly nbates. 51. Sa n Francisco.•Inc. CHAPTER 5 p. (bottom) Design : Kenne th Bennett.lnc. Eugene.126 : (top) Design: Vermont Vernacular. p. VT. Photo: ® 20 04 carolynbate s. Photo: €I The Taunton Press.TTO: Design . ' 44 : (top) Photo. '4) : (t op) Design . p. Photo: @Br ianVan den Brink .loiuis. Eugene .: (bott om ) Desig n: M ostue Y Associates. OR. (right) Photo . Phot ogr apher 200 4· p.8" (left) Design : Brad Rabino wi12. Warm in g ove n: Dacor: Phot o: €I The Taunton Press.. (bottom) De-sig n: Morningstar Marble & Granite. p. Builder: M ark Fletcher. Photo : © 200 4 caro lynbates. CA. Photo: Cl The Taunton Press. Builder.Photo: ~ 2004 carolynbates. San Diego. Inc. Portland. Noel Tew es. Photographer 2004 . OR. p. NY.fohn Malick. ME. Madera. (cent er) Design .com.. (bo tto m) Desig n: Malcom Appl et on . VT and larry Kruse.Cabinet s: Premoule. (bottom left) Photo <i) dJv idduncanliv ing ston. 1 (top) Design: Damian Baumhover. p. Phot o' 10The Taunt on Press. Photographer 200 4. (bottom right) Design : Neilson & Taylor. 120. Phot o: «>The Taunton Press. Taos Red cabinet & Construction Co. (right) Photo . Photo : @ 2004 carolynbate s. CA.. Phoenix. VT. Inc. 166: (left) Design : SCholz & Barclay Arch itects. (bottom) Photo.com . Phot o: © 2004 carolyn bates. Photo:@ Nancie Battaglia. p. David Roge " . San Diego. VT.a rchitect. Photo grapher 2004 · p. p.Inc. (right) Design : Drysdale Associates.corn: (to p right) Design : Phillips Wolcott. MO. 162: (left) Design: Mostue & Associa te s. VT. Imber. Fresno. Living· : stan Architect s. MA. Burl ington. P. Photo : © Al ison O'Brien photography. Phot ographer 2004. Hou ston . Inc. Builder: John Seibert. Junct ion . (bot t om) Design .com . ME. (bottom ) Photo: <D Jason McConathy.. 182: Design : Mark Hutker & Associat es Archi tects. WA . 188 I Credits . (bottom) Design . p.La lo lla.lnc. Rob Thallon. Photogra pher 2004 . vrt . Phot o: €I Brian Vanden Brink. Bird seye Buildi ng Company. MA.Inc. 8). Ho uses & Barn s by John libig by. Pewaukee. VT. 99 ' (right) Design . Architect. Photographer 2004 . p. Essex. Photographer 20 04. Photographer 2004. (bottom left) Photo: Cl Jason McConathy. ' Photo'. Inc. Builder: Tim Bullock. Phot o: © Brian Van den Bri nk. (bottom) Photo: () 2004 caroly nbat es.'24 : (top) Desig n. © Jason McCo na thy . (ri ght ) Design : DaVid l yon for Collee n Horner Kitc hen Bath Tile Stone.Photo. 'So .VT. Photo: © 2004 carolynbat es. p. Architect. Hi ngha m. Photo : @ Brian Vanden Brink . 176: Design : Nancy McCoy. Shelburne. (bottom right) Interior design : Marlene Chargin. VT. Fresno. © Brian vanden Brink. (right ) Berry Lanford. Photo : () 2 004 carolynbat es. p. © Jason McCon athy . Bur lington. 145(top ) Phot o: © Jason M cConathy. Photo : @TheTaunton Press. Inc.Inc.com. p . p. (botto m right) Design: South Moun tain Com pany.corn. ME and la urel Tewes.com . Inc. Hancock. Molli Moran. East Calais. tnc. Photograph er 20 04 . Photo : © The Taunton Press. Essex Junction..com. (bottom ) Design : Frank W.. San 21: Diego.. T·. Photographer 2004. 114 Photo : © Jason McConathy.Cabi netmaker.06 : (left) Design: Mark Mulligan. (rig ht) Design : John Morris . Arch itect. Photo: (0 The Taunton Press. Pho to: €I Brian Vanden Brink. CHAPTER7 G p. © Brian Vanden Brink.)8: (top) Design : Ron and Patri<ia Ryan Madson. 170 : Phot o: €I 20 04 carcl ynbat es.Rangehood .. Martha's Vi neya rd. Camden. Photo: ® 200 4 carolynbates. © Steve Rosent hal. St. Shiloh Millworks. '5" (t op ) Phot o. p.Architect. Vineyard Haven and Falmouth. Portl and. Phot o: © 200 4 carolyn ba tes.Inc. Photo : oV The Taunt on Press.Graham Goldsmith Arch itect s PC. Architect: Shah in Barzin . p. Photo : €I The Tau nton Press. M A. AZ. MA. Photographer 2004. Phot o: €I Brian Vanden Bri nk.CA.

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