A) SOAP & DETERGENT I) Definition of Soap o Soap are sodium or potassium salts of long-chain carboxylic acids o The general
formula of a soap : RCOO Na / RCOO K • R is an alkyl group which contain 12 to 18 carbon atoms. The history of soap manufacturing.
Purifying oils is recorded on Hebrew Tables around 4000 B.C. Ash + Lime – Caustic potash Caustic Potash + fats – soap
Babylonians made soap around 2800 B.C.
Process of making soap ashes or sodium carbonate from common salt is patented by Nicholas Leblane (French).
Michel Chevreul (French) discovered animal fats are cmposed of fatty acids and glycerol ( Causes rapid development of soap & candle.)
Sodium carbonate Na CO is produced cheaply & used for glass making , soaps and detergent.
After 20 years, Ernest Solvay ( Belgian Chemist) developed Solvay process.
Later on, vegetables oil is used to replace animal fats.
Solvay Process - Carbon dioxide ( obtained from heating CaCo ) is passed into concentrated NaCl solution which is saturated with ammonia . NaCl +NH +H O + CO – Na HCO +NH Cl - NaHCO is then heated to obtain soda. 2NaHCO – Na CO +H O +CO .
C H COONa
♦ To enhance the soap’s marketability. ♦ Production of soap can be precipitated by adding common salt to the reaction mixture in order to reduce the solubility of soap in water. C H COONa 2) Sodium oleate. Fats/ Vegetable oils + concentrated alkalis – soap + glycerol (Fats. ♦ Properties of soap depends on a) type of alkali used for saponification b) type of animal fats or vegetable oils used
CH COOC H CHCOOC H CH COOC H (glyceryl tristearate) + 3 NaOH (concentrated alkali)
3C H COONa ( sodium stearate) Soap
CH OH CHOH CH OH (glycerol)
Example of soap. .tallow from cow) ( Vegetable oils – palm oil or olive oil) For example. 1) sodium palmitate.Glyceryl tristearates is a naturally occuring esters found in fats or oils.
colouring matter and antiseptic.additives are used such as perfume. It is also the alkaline hydrolysis of esters using alkaline solutions.III) Preparation of Soap by Saponification Saponification is a process whereby the soaps are prepared by hydrolyzing fats or oils under alkaline conditions. C H COONa 3) Sodium stearate.
♦ Potassium soap are softer. • The active substances in soap is carboxylate ions which consists two parts: a) the ‘ Head’ 1. There are 3 types of detergent which depends on the charge on detergent ion. Example : R – O – SO Na Divide into two types: Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate ( detergent molecule with a benzene ring)
. it will dissociate and produce sodium ions and carboxylate ions. a) Anionic Detergent. Head of the detergent particle contains a negatively charged ions.S – O Na
. • When soap is dissolved in water. is a long hydrocarbon chain 3. is hydrophobic ( do not like to dissolves water)
I )Definition of Detergent Detergent is a synthetic cleasing agents which is made from hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum fraction. negatively charged
2. positively charged 2. IV) Structure of soap molecule. milder than sodium soap which can be used for
bathing. is hydrophilic ( like to dissolves water)
b) the ‘Tail’ 1. It is a kind of petrochemicals. contains the – C – O – ion 3.
Step 1 : Alkylation ( introduction of the alkyl group to an organic molecule)
lengths of 12 to 18 carbon atoms. RCH = CH . .can be prepared from alcohols with chain
Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonates Starting materials .ionic detergent Example : R –O –CH CH OH II) Preparation of Detergent Sodium alkyl sulphate
Reaction with Concentrated sulphuric acid
Step 2 : Sulphonation ( introduction of the sulphonic Step 2 : Neutralisation with sodium hydroxide solution acid group to an organic molrcule to form sulphonic acid)
. obtained from the cracking of petroleum. Example : R – N(CH ) Br c) Non.Sodium alkyl sulphate ( without a benzene ring) R – OSO b) Cationic Detergent Head of the detergent particle contains a positively charged ion.long chain alkene.
.SO) 1.1. hydrophilic ( like water) b) the ‘Tail’ ( long hydrocarbon chain) 1. it dissociates to form sodium ions and detergent ions. negatively charged 2. Oil cannot be washed away from clothing with water only as it is a covalent molecule which is insoluble in water. CH (CH ) CH OH Detergent prepared from dodecan – 1 – ol is called sodium dodecyl sulphate / sodium lauryl sulphate
Sodium alkylbenzene sulphonates Step 3 : Neutralisation
III) The Structure of Detergent Molecule • When a detergent is dissolved in water. hydrophobic ( hates water)
The cleansing action of soap and detergent The cleansing action of soaps and detergent results from • the ability to lower the surface tension of water.ol.OSO / sulphonate group . • to emulsify oil/ grease and • to hold them in suspension in water This can be occurred due to their chemical bonding and the structure. . sodium soap dissolves in water to form soap (-ions) and sodium (+ions).Sodium alkyl sulphate Example : Dodecan . neutral 2. 1. • It consists of two parts: a) the ‘ Head’ (sulphate group.
• The hydrophobic part of the soap/ detergent anion dissolve in grease while the hydrophilic part is attracted to water molecule. carboxylate group (hydrophilic) soluble in water. 4.
. • Mechanical agitation during scrubbing helps the process of emulsfication occurs whereby the grease is broken into small droplets. • Thus. IV) Additives in detergents Additives in detergent is used to increase their cleaning power and make the detergent more attractive and saleable. • Through this. the grease begins to be lifted off the surface when the water is agitated slightly. • A piece of cloth is stained with grease and then dipped into soap/ detergent water.2. The droplets is rinsed and washed away and leave the surface clean. Process of the cleaning action of soap and detergent. • Because of the forces of attraction between water molecules and negatively-charged heads. Anion consists of a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylate group on one end. the hydrocarbon (hydrophobic)soluble in oil/ grease. • The droplets do not coagulate and redeposit on the surface of the cloth due to the repulsion between the negative charges on th surface. the wetting ability of water increases. These droplets are suspended in water to form emulsion. 3. the surface of cloth is wetted thouroughly.
To add to the bulk of the detergent and enable to pour it at ease. cellulases and lipases Sodium perborate Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO)
V) The effectiveness of soaps and detergents as cleansing agents
Cleansing agents Soap Advantages 1.proteases. To add brightness and whiteness to white fabrics. To control foaming in detergent. To add fragrance to both detergent anf fabrics. To prevent dirt particles removed from redepositing onto cleaned fabrics.( exist as molecules & do not have hydrophilic ends) . A grey scum (Magnesium stearate & calcium stearate) will be produced in hard water. To break down fat and protein molecules in food stains.Additives Builders
Function To enhance the cleaning efficiency of detergent by softening the water. To make the fabrics whiter and more beautiful. very effective in soft water to wash clothes.
Example Sodium tripolyphosphate
Sodium sulphate Sodium silicate
Fragrances Foam control agents Optical whitener Suspension agents Biological enzymes
Fluorescent dyes Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) Amylases . Not effective in acid water. Do not cause pollution as soaps are made from fats and oils and can be decomposed by the action of bacteria. 2. Ineffective in hard water. To ensure that the detergent in powdered form is always in dry condition. To increase the pH value of water.H ion from rainwater (acid) will react 7
.( water does not contain Mg & Ca ions) 2. To remove protein stains such as blood. To convert stains into colourless substances. Disadvantages 1.
Detergent 1. effective in soft water and hard water.
. Additives (sodium hypochlorite ) releases chlorine gas that is highly toxic and kills aquatic life.
2. 3. 3. fish and other aquatic lives face the death.structure of hydrocarbon chain can be modified to produce detergent. ( magnesium salt and calcium salts are formed aand soluble in water) ( scum is not formed) 1. water pollution occurs. Decrease in oxygen content in water and the aquatic lives are given the harm. a lot of foam will be produced in water that prevent oxygen from dissolving in water.As a result. Synthetic cleansing agents . Example. effective in acidic water as H ions is not combine with detergent ions. 5. non-biodegradable 2.with soap ions to produce carboxylic acid molecules of large molecular size that are insoluble in water.( phosphates in detergents) 4.
salts. vinegar and sugar have been used for centuries to preserve food. . To prevent food poisoning in canned food. Antioxidants. To preserve sauces. Provides acidic condition that inhibits the growth of microorganisms. To prevent thr growth of yeast. To maintain the natural colour of meat. . jams and margarine. fruit juice. taste or texture iii) prevent growth of microorganisms iv) prevent oxidation of fats and oils by oxygen in air v) restore the colour of food destroyed during food processing. Preservatives – substance added to food to slow down and prevent the growth of microorganisms in order to kepp the lasts longer.food containing fats or oils are oxidised and become rancid when exposed to air. cheese and dried fish.Definition of Food Additives – are natural or synthetic substance which are added to food to: i) prevent spoilage ii) improve its appaerance .
. Th rancid products are volatile organic compounds with 4 odours.B) FOOD ADDITIVES . .Type of Food Additives and Their Functions 1. Preservatives Salt sugar Vinegar Sodium nitrite NaNO Sodium nitrate NaNO Molecular Formula Uses Drwas water out of the cells of microorganisms Retards the growth of microorganisms. This makes the food unpalatable. Used as antioxidants to prevent browning in fuits. Maintain the colour and freshness of vegetables. To preserve the meat.
Benzoic acid Sodium benzoate Sulphur dioxide Sodium sulphate
C H COOH C H COONa SO Na SO
2.added to food to i) pevent oxidation that causes rancid fats and brown foods ii) to slow down the oxidation process. To make the meat look fresh. sausage.
Reduce the risk of heart diseases and cancer. . .spice mixes . approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar. Stimulates the immune systems. Neutralizes free radical compounds before the cell membrane are damaged. Protects against chromosome breakage. Flavourings .
3.Exp : monosodium glutamate (MSG) MSG is a sodium salt of glutamic acid. odourless powder. Preserve the colour of friut juice.( exp : butanoic acid.frozen foods . . • It is used in a variety of foodstuffs. It is added to savoury prepared and processed .salad dressings .
.Flavourings are the largest group of food additives. Inhibits the formation of carcinogeic nitrosamines.meat and fish based products In order to protect the public health.Flavor enchancers are chemicals that are added to food to bring out the flavours/ to enhance the tastes of food. It exists as solid fine white crystal. ii) artificial sweeteners Aspartame • Aspartame is a white . To stop fats from turning rancid. C H COOH) Antioxidants Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) Sodium citrate Vitamin C Uses To retard rancidity in oils.Function : to improve the taste of food restore taste loss due to processing.There are 2 types of flavourings : i) Flavour enchancers . MSG is not allowed in baby foods and less used for the adults.canned and dry soups .
Exp: Thickeners Explanation Modified starch Used in instant soups and puddings. Can be considered as a beneficial and dietary fibre. Thickeners . . . .is used to add or restore the colour in food in order to • enhance its visual appeal • match consumer expectations
. butter. Stabilizers . . ice cream and salad cream. CH COOC H – give banana flavour and is cheaper to use. o Exp :pentyl ethanoate.They are natural carbohydrates. .• It is stable when dry or frozen but breaks down and loses its sweetness over a time when stored in liquids at temperature above 30. Is not digested.exp : lecithin. pectin Used in jams and jellies. • Exp : diet drinks and soft drinks .a substance which helps to prevent on emulsion ( oil /water droplets suspended in water/oil droplets) from separating out. .Many of compounds are used to produce artificial flavours belong to the homologous series of esters. Dyes . . mono.chemicals that are added to food to give the colour so as to improve the appearance of food.and di-glycerides of fatty acids. Gelatine To thicken yogurt. 6. 5. Forms a firm jel when there is sufficient sugar in a mixture. 4. jelly and wine. Acacia gum To thicken chewing gum.Synthetic Essences o contain chemicals which are made to resemble natural flavour.They absorb water and thicken the liquid in food to produce a jelly-like structure.are chemicals that are added to food to thicken the liquid and to prevent the food from liquefying.It is used in margarine.
orang drinks. custard powders. red cabbage sweet potatoes * have antioxidants properties. * found in red grapes.• give colour to food that have no colour. orange. . less expensive and have brighter colours than natural food dyes. Hyperactivity Caused by tartrazine (additives) Difficul to sleep or relax and felt restles. .
To improve nutritional value
Medical reasons 12
.main trend in colour of food towards the use of natural colours is anthocyanin. Effect of Food Additives on Health. iii) triphenyl compounds( blue-brilliant blue FCF.many food dyes are i) azo compounds ( red . Cause an diseases named ‘ Chinese restaurant syndrome’ (giddiness. sweets and apricot jam.artificial food dyes are oftenly used as they are more uniform. Effects Explanation Allergy Caused by Sodium sulphite. green) . yellow) . Cancer Caused by carcinogens(sodium nitrite) Nitrite reacts with amines to produce nitrosamine( cause cancer) Brain damage Caused by excessive intake of nitrites. The Rationale for Using Food Additives
To prevent food spoilage. chest pain and difficulty in breathing) Cause ‘blue baby’ diseases occuring on babies which iits synptoms is lacking of oxygen and the presence of sodium nitrate /nitrite. BHA and BHT .5). MSG and food dyes( yellow No.
• Can be obtained from plants and animals.it is classified as i) traditional medicine • is a medicine derived from natural resources without being processed chemically. • Exp : garlic capsules combined with diabetes medication can cause a sudden decrease in blood sugar
C) MEDICINE . . • Any medicinal plant containing alkaloid is potentially toxic to liver.Life without food additives
Food spoilage always occur
Diseases will occur oftenly
Malnutrition will occur particularly. • Some of it interacts with medications resulting in serious side reactions.medicine is a substance used to prevent or cure diseases or to reduce pain and suffering due to illness.
solution and suspensions. Pain relief and antidamage of illedinflammatory action. o Reduce the risk of heart attack and strokes. ♦ Cause bleeding in the (IUPAC name) o Treat arthritis stomach. asthmatic attacks.ii) Modern Medicine they usually contain a mixture of active ingredientsprepared in different forms such as capsules. period pains) o Does not irritate the stomach to bleed. depression. muscle aches and joint Acetyl salicylic acid aches. children. acid/ester) prevent clotting blood. Exp: Alka-Seltzer (used as antacid) contains sodium bicarbonate (NaHCo ). backache . hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen elements. ♦ Cause addiction. citric acid and aspirin to neutralises the excess stomach acid. drownsiness
Codeine Is an organic compounds that contains carbon. nausea. Contains 2 functional o Acts as an ♦ Cause allergy groups(carboxylic anticoagulant – reactions.
o To relieve mild to moderate pain (headache. skin rashes. ♦ Cause liver damage. Analgesics Uses Side effect Aspirin o Reduce fever ♦ Cause brain and liver o Relieve headaches. can be classified as follows based on their sffect on the human body : a) analgesics (painkillers) medicines that relieve pain without causing numbness or affecting consciousness.
♦ Causes skin rashes. Uesd in headache tablets and cough medicine Is synthesized from morphine
. pills. blood disorders and acute inflammation of the pancreas.muscle and joint pain. Acidic.
Is a nacortic drugs. Is a strong analgesics.
vomitng. rashes bacteris at the genus of pneumonia. Increase the heart *repiration rates & blood pressure. syphilis notatum people who and tuberculosis. tea and cola drinks. streptomyces ♦ Loss of hearing following long term use.
. o Treat tuberculosis. Uses Side effects i) Adrenaline Cause addiction A need in demanding energetic activities. and fever. ♦ Cause daeth for mould penicillium gonorrhoea. A group of dugs for treating mental / emotional ilness.
Psychotherapeutic medicines Stimulants A medicine which activates the level of arousal and alertness of the central nervous system to reduce fatigue and elevate moon in most people. • Produced by soil and and some forms dizziness. naturally occuring stimulant found in coffee. iii) Amphetamines Strong synthetic stimulants Increase alertness & physical ability. ii) caffeine weak. Will not cure the infection caused by viruses such as cold and flu. allergiuc at it. ♦ Cause • Streptomycin whooping cough nausea.b) antibiotics Cemicals that destroy / prevent the growth of infected microorganisms. Antibiotics Uses Side effects Penicillin o Treat diseases ♦ Cause allergic caused by bacteria Derived from the reactions such as oneumonia. Obtained from bacteria/fungi. c) psychotherapeutic medicines. Broken down by acid in the stomach.
schizophrenia (loses touch with reality) blurred vision. D) THE EXISTENCE OF CHEMICALS The chemicals for consumers such as soap.
Antipsychotic i) chlorpromazine ii) haloperidol iii) clozapine
i) Barbituarates Cause sleep (high dose) To sedate. Use biodegradable detergents . Do not take medicine prescribed for someone else . Food additives Be wise when we consume the food with food additives. dry mouth. constipation. poor coordination and light headedness.
i) tranquilizers to clam down a person reduce tension & anxiety
cause drowsiness. they can contribute negative effects to our health and the environment if these chemicals are not used wisely . urimary retention. food additives and medicine play an important role in our life .
. calm and relax individual Cause addiction and in low doses. However.the examples of drugs are ectasy and ice. Medicines No self medication .Antidepressants Medicine used primarily in the treatment of depression. To treat psychiatrie illness such as Cause mild. Use appropriate amounts of detergents. sleeplessness. respiratory difficulties. tremor and less rrest as well as sedation(more clmer/sleepy)
! Drug Abuse – taking drugs excessively and without a doctor’s prescription. Avoid rewarding children with junk food . habit forming Cause death. Some proper management of these chemicals :Detergents Wear gloves when working with strong detergents to protect your hands . Avoid foods with additives which you are sensitive to . Avoid consuming too much salt and sugar . coma and death if overdose. detergents .
Check for expiry date . Scientists must patient and persevere for their research and development to produce new chemicals in future .
. Keep away from children . Follow your doctor’s instruction for taking medicine . Intensive scientific research must be carried out to produce new substances and this takes more time . Do not overdose .