# Analysis of Statically Determinate Trusses

! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Common Types of Trusses Classification of Coplanar Trusses The Method of Joints Zero-Force Members The Method of Sections Compound Trusses Complex Trusses Space Trusses

1

Common Types of Trusses
• Roof Trusses top cord knee brace bottom cord gusset plate roof purlins

bay, 5-6 m typical span, 18 - 30 m, typical

gusset plate

2

Howe truss 18 - 30 m

Pratt truss 18 - 30 m

Howe truss flat roof

Warren truss flat roof

saw-tooth truss skylight

Fink truss > 30 m

three-hinged arch hangar, gymnasium

3

• Bridge Trusses sway bracing top lateral bracing deck panel floor beam bottom cord top cord

portal bracing stringers portal end post

4

trough Pratt truss

Warren truss

deck Pratt truss

parker truss (pratt truss with curved chord)

Howe truss

baltimore truss

K truss

5

All members are straight. All loads are applied at joints (member weight is negligible).Assumptions for Design 1. All members are connected at both ends by smooth frictionless pins. 6 . Notes: Centroids of all joint members coincide at the joint. 2. All load conditions satisfy Hooke’s law.

Classification of Coplanar Trusses • Simple Trusses P C D C P C P D A A B A B B a new members d (new joint) b c 7 .

• Compound Trusses simple truss simple truss simple truss simple truss Type 1 Type 2 secondary simple truss secondary simple truss secondary simple truss secondary simple truss main simple truss Type 3 8 .

• Complex Trusses • Determinacy b + r = 2j b + r > 2j statically determinate statically indeterminate In particular. the degree of indeterminacy is specified by the difference in the numbers (b + r) . 9 .2j.

• Stability b + r < 2j b + r > 2j unstable unstable if truss support reactions are concurrent or parallel or if some of the components of the truss form a collapsible mechanism External Unstable Unstable-parallel reactions Unstable-concurrent reactions 10 .

and CF are concurrent at point O 11 .Internal Unstable F C O 8 + 3 = 11 < 2(6) D A B E AD. BE.

or statically indeterminate. unstable. statically determinate. 12 . The trusses are subjected to arbitrary external loadings that are assumed to be known and can act anywhere on the trusses.Example 3-1 Classify each of the trusses in the figure below as stable.

j = 9. 13 . By inspection the truss is internally stable. r = 3.SOLUTION Externally stable. r = 4. j = 11. The truss is statically indeterminate to the first degree. Externally stable. Therefore. then b + r > 2j or 19 > 18. the truss is statically determinate. By inspection the truss is internally stable. Since b = 15. then b + r = 2j or 22 = 22. since the reactions are not concurrent or parallel. Since b = 19.

14 . r = 3. Since b = 9. The truss is internally unstable. r = 3. j = 8. then b + r < 2j or 15 < 16. j = 6. Externally stable.Externally stable. The truss is statically determinate. By inspection the truss is internally stable. Since b = 12. then b + r = 2j or 12 = 12.

The Method of Joints B 500 N 2m A 45o 2m C Cy = 500 N Ax = 500 N Ay = 500 N Joint B y B 45o FBA 500 N FBC x + ΣF = 0: x 500 .FBCsin45o = 0 FBC = 707 N (C) + ΣFy = 0: .FBA + FBCcos45o = 0 FBA = 500 N (T) 15 .

B 500 N 2m A 45o 2m C Cy = 500 N Ax = 500 N Ay = 500 N Joint A 500 N + ΣF = 0: x 500 .FAC = 0 FAC = 500 N (T) 500 N 500 N FAC 16 .

FAB = 0 FAE = 0 + ΣF = 0: F + 0 = 0.Zero-Force Members P 0 0 B 0 C 0 E D A Dx Ey FCB C + ΣF = 0: F = 0 x CB + FCD FAB A θ FAE + ΣFy = 0: FCD = 0 Dy ΣFy = 0: FABsinθ = 0. x AE 17 .

indicate all the members of the truss shown in the figure below that have zero force. A B C H D G F P E 18 .Example 3-4 Using the method of joints.

FDE + 0 = 0.SOLUTION Ax Ax A B C H 0 D 0 Gx G y θ F Joint D + ΣFy = 0: 0 P E FDC FDE FDCsinθ = 0. FDC = 0 FDE = 0 D FEC x + ΣF = 0: x FEF P E 0 Joint E + ΣF = 0: x FEF = 0 19 .

Ax Ax Gx A 0 0 B C H F 0 P Joint H + ΣF = 0: y FHB = 0 E 0 D 0 G y FHA H FHF FGA Gx FGF x Joint G + FHB G ΣFy = 0: FGA = 0 20 .

Example 3-5 • Determine all the member forces • Identify zero-force members 5@3m = 15 m 1 kN K 5m A B 2 kN J I H D 2 kN E G F C 2 kN 21 .

Ay − 2 − 2 − 2 − 1 = 0. 22 . Ay = 7 kN. − 7.SOLUTION Use method of joints Kx 5m K 0 Ky Ax A Ay B 2 kN J 5@3m = 15 m 1 kN I H D 2 kN E G F C 2 kN 4 18 2(11) r + b = 2j. • Determinate • Stable + ΣMA = 0: + ΣF = 0: x + ΣFy = 0: K x (5) − 2(3) − 2(6) − 2(9) − 1(12) = 0 Kx = 7.6 kN.6 + Ax = 0.6 kN. Ax = 7.

6 kN K 0 5m A 7.5@3m = 15 m 1 kN 7.6 kN Use method of joint • Joint F y´ FFG θ J I H D 2 kN E G 0 0 F B 2 kN C 2 kN 7 kN + x´ ΣF y´ = 0: FFE sin θ = 0 F FFE = 0 + ΣF = 0: x´ FFG = 0 FFE 23 .

5@3m = 15 m 1 kN 7.6 kN K 0 5m A 7.6 kN 7 kN • Joint E + y´ θ J I H D 2 kN 0 G E 0 F B 2 kN C 2 kN ΣF y´ = 0: FEG cosθ = 0 FEG 0 x´ + ΣF = 0: x´ FEG = 0 -FED = 0 FED E 24 .

69 o 2 3 + ΣF y´ = 0: FDG sin 33.5@3m = 15 m 1 kN 7.803 cos 33.69 FDG o J I H θ G 0 0 B 2 kN C 2 kN D 2 kN E F θ = tan −1 ( ) = 33.69 o − 1 = 0 FDG = 1.6 kN K 0 5m A 7.5 kN (T) 0 25 .803 kN (C) + ΣF = 0: x´ − FHG + 1.6 kN 7 kN • Joint G y´ 1 kN FHG 33.69 = 0 G 0 x´ FHG = 1.

5 kN ΣF y´ = 0: FHD = 0 B 2 kN C 2 kN J I H 0 G 0 0 0 D 2 kN E F x´ + ΣF = 0: x´ − FHI + 1.5@3m = 15 m 1 kN 7.5 = 0 FHI = 1.6 kN K 0 5m A 7.5 kN (T) FHD 26 .6 kN 7 kN • Joint H + y´ FHI H 1.

25 FDI sin 33.69 − FDC sin 18. 27 .44(9) − 1(6) − 2(3) = 0 Check : + ΣF y = 0: FDC = -4.Use method of sections 3m 33.25 kN (C) 3 -4.5 kN (T) + ΣMF = 0: − FDI sin 33.69(9) + 1(3) + 2(6) = 0 FDI = 3 kN (T) + ΣMI = 0: − FDC sin 18.69o H 3m 3m G E F 18.K.44 − 2 − 1 = 0 O.44o 1 kN FHI I FDI FDC + ΣMD = 0: D 2 kN FHI (2) − 1(3) = 0 FHI = 1.

FGF(2) = 0 FGF = 200 N (C) FGC A 100 N 2m 45o G FGF 28 .The Method of Sections B a C D Dy Dx 2m A 100 N 2m G a 2m F 2m E Ex B FBC + ΣMG = 0: C + 100(2) .FBC(2) = 0 FBC = 100 N (T) ΣFy = 0: -100 + FGCsin45o = 0 FGC = 141.42 N (T) + ΣMC = 0: 100(4) .

and IH 5@3m = 15 m 1 kN K 5m A B 2 kN J I H D 2 kN E G F C 2 kN 29 .Example 3-6 • Determine member force CD. ID.

K.00E+00 FDC + ΣMD = 0: D 2 kN FHI (2) − 1(3) = 0 FHI = 1.69(9) + 1(3) + 2(6) = 0 FDI = 3 kN (T) + ΣMI = 0: − FDC sin 18.50E+00 -4.69 − FDC sin 18.25 FDI sin 33.44(9) − 1(6) − 2(3) = 0 Check : + ΣF y = 0: FDC = -4.44o 1 kN +1.25 kN (C) 3 -4.44 − 2 − 1 = 0 O.22E+00 3.SOLUTION Use method of sections 3m FHI I FDI 33.5 kN (T) + ΣMF = 0: − FDI sin 33.69o H 3m 3m G E F 18. 30 .

5 m Ax = 0 Ay = 9 kN 6 kN 3m 31 . State whether the members are in tension or compression. G H A B C 8 kN 3m 3m D 2 kN 3m Ey = 7 kN F E 3m 4.Example 3-7 Determine the force in members GF and GD of the truss shown in the figure below. The reactions at the supports have been calculated.

FFG = -17.7(3) + 2(6) + FDG sin56.6o 8 kN 3m F 26.3o 26.3o(6) = 0.6) + 7(3) = 0.6o(3.SOLUTION H A B C G a F E a D 2 kN 3m 3m Ey = 7 kN 3m 4.5 m Ax = 0 Ay = 9 kN 6 kN 3m Section a-a FFG FDG FDC 56.83 kN (C) + ΣMO = 0: .80 kN (C) D 2 kN E 3m 3m O Ey = 7 kN 32 . FDG = 1.6o + ΣMD = 0: FFG sin26.

State whether the members are in tension or compression. The reactions at the supports have been calculated.Example 3-8 Determine the force in members BC and MC of the K-truss shown in the figure below. L A M B 6 kN 5m 5m N C 6 kN 5m D 8 kN 5m 5m 5m K J O E I P F G 7 kN H 3m 3m 0 13 kN 33 .

13(5) = 0.SOLUTION A L M B 6 kN a N a 5m C K J O D 8 kN 5m E I P F H 3m 3m 0 G 7 kN 13 kN 6 kN 5m 5m 5m 5m Section a-a L 6m A B 13 kN 6 kN 5m FLM FBM FLK FBC + ΣML = 0: FBC(6) . FBC = 10 kN (T) 34 .

77 kN (T) 35 .L b A M B 6 kN 5m FKL FKM FCM 10 kN 31o K N C J O D 8 kN 5m I O P E F E I P F H 3m 3m 0 G 7 kN b 5m 13 kN 6 kN 5m J 5m H 5m K N C 6 kN 5m D 8 kN G 7 kN 3m 3m 5m 5m 5m + ΣMK = 0: -FCMcos31o(6) .10(6) .8(5) + 7(20) = 0 FCM = 7.

Obtain external loading Step 3. Solve for simple trusses separately 36 .Compound Trusses Procedure for Analysis Step 1. Identify the simple trusses Step 2.

4m H I Ay = 0 A B C D 4 kN 2m 4 kN 2 kN Ay = 5 kN 2m 2m 2m J K G 2m F 2m E Ey = 5 kN 37 . The reactions at the supports have been calculated.Example 3-9 Indicate how to analyze the compound truss shown in the figure below.

SOLUTION H I J a 4m G K 2m F 2m E Ey = 5 kN 2m Ay = 0 A B a C D 4 kN 4 kN 2 kN Ay = 5 kN 2m 2m 2m H I A B 4 kN Ay = 5 kN 2m 2m J FHG + ΣMC = 0: 4 sin60o m FJC FBC C -5(4) + 4(2) + FHG(4sin60o) = 0 FHG = 3.46 kN (C) 38 .

4(2) .88 kN (T) C 4 kN 2 kN Ay = 5 kN 2m 2m 39 .46 kN + ΣMA = 0: J 60o FCK FCD 3.46(4sin60o) + FCKsin60o(4) .16 kN (T) + ΣF = 0: x -3.2(4) = 0 FCK = 1.46 + 1.16cos60o + FCD = 0 FCK = 2.4m H I Ay = 0 A B C D 4 kN 2m 4 kN 2 kN Ay = 5 kN 2m 2m 2m H 4 sin60o m A B I J K G 2m F 2m E Ey = 5 kN 3.

46 kN J 60o G J K 2m F 2m E Ey = 5 kN Using the method of joints. Joint A : Determine FAB and FAI FCK = 1.16 2.88 kN Joint H : Determine FHI and FHJ Joint I : Determine FIJ and FIB Joint B : Determine FBC and FBJ Joint J : Determine FJC C 4 kN 2 kN Ay = 5 kN 2m 2m 40 .4m H I Ay = 0 A B C D 4 kN 2m 4 kN 2 kN Ay = 5 kN 2m 2m 2m H 4 sin60o m A B I 3.

The reactions at the supports have been calculated.Example 3-10 Indicate how to analyze the compound truss shown in the fugure below. C H 2m D 45o 45o 45o G F E 2m 2m 15 kN 2m B 15 kN 2m 4m Ax = 0 kN A Ay = 15 kN 2m Fy = 15 kN 41 .

FDG(2 sin45o) .FCEcos45o(4) .92 kN (T) 42 .FCEsin45o = 0 FBH = FCE-----(2) + ΣF = 0: x FBHcos45o + FDG + FCEcos45o = 0 -----(3) 2m D 45o 45o A Ay = 15 kN 2m B 15 kN 2m From eq.SOLUTION 2m C a H D 45o 45o G a 45o 4m F Ax = 0 kN A Ay = 15 kN 2m B 15 kN 2m E 2m 2m 15 kN 2m Fy = 15 kN + ΣMB = 0: C 4m FCE FBH FDG 2 sin 45o m 45o -15(2) .(1)-(3): FBH = FCE = -13.38 kN (C) FDG = 18.15 + FBHsin45o .FCEsin45o(2) = 0 -----(1) + ΣFy = 0: 15 .

38 kN (C) FDG = 18. Joint A : Determine FAB and FAD Joint D : Determine FDC and FDB Joint C : Determine FCB 2m D 45o A Ay = 15 kN 2m B 15 kN 2m 43 .92 kN (T) Analysis of each connected simple truss can now be performed using the method of joints.C a H 2m D 45o 45o G a 45o 4m F Ax = 0 kN A Ay = 15 kN 2m B 15 kN 2m E 2m 2m 15 kN 2m Fy = 15 kN C 4m FCE FBH FDG 45o 45o From eq.(1)-(3): FBH = FCE = -13.

62 kN Ay = 4.62 kN 44 .Example 3-11 Indicate how to analyze the symmetrical compound truss shown in the figure below. E 3 kN 5o 5o 5o 3 kN D H 45o F 45o 5o G Ax = 0 kN A B 5 kN 6m 6m C Fy = 4. The reactions at the supports have been calculated.

62 kN Ay = 4.5 kN E 1.5 kN E FAE 1.62 kN 3 kN F G A FAE 1.5 kN D H C 1.E 3 kN 5o 5o 5o 3 kN D H 45o F 45o 5o G Ax = 0 kN A B 5 kN 6m 6m FEC C Fy = 4.5 kN FEC 3 kN 45 .

5 kN B 5 kN C 4.62 kN + ΣF = 0: x 4.5cos45o .5 kN 45o E 1.62 kN FAE 45o Ay = 4.62 kN 45o 45o FAB 1.03cos45o + FAB = 0 FAB = 2.50 kN (T) 46 .5 kN A 4.5.5sin45o .62 .03 kN (C) 1.62 kN 1.FAEsin45o = 0 FAE = 5.5 kN 45o 1.62 kN + ΣFy = 0: 4.E 3 kN 5o 5o 5o 3 kN D H 45o F 45o 5o G Ax = 0 kN A B 5 kN 6m 6m C Fy = 4.5 kN 45o A 1.1.

Complex Trusses F E P D FAD 3 9 2(6) r + b = 2j. A B F´EC F E C • Determinate • Stable = P D f´EC F E P D 1 + A B C F´EC + x f´EC = 0 Xx A 1 B C F´EC = FAD x= f´EC Fi = F´i + x f´i 47 .

Example 3-12 Determine the force in each member of the complex truss shown in the figure below. C 1m 0. F. State whether the members are in tension or compression. and D are on the same horizontal line. Assume joints B.5 m B 45o 20 kN F 45o D E 48 .25 m 1m A 2.

25 m 1m A B 45o C F 20 kN 45o D E F'BD+ x f´BD = 0 F'BD x= f´BD Fi = F'i + x f´i C 1 kN 2.5 m 20 kN F 45o = C B A 45o D E B 45o F 45o D E + x A 49 .SOLUTION 1m 0.

25 m B 1 m +10 20 kN A 0 4 21. 45o 0 D -18 E F 1 -0 . F. E. 70 7 D -0.3 A 0 7 .539 0.5 .7 0 9 -0.70 7 1 kN 45o + x 0 B -0.25 m 1m B 7 A .1 4 45o C 7 70 0. and B.14 14 45o F -10 0 20 kN -1 4.5 m 18 kN (20x2. start at join C.53 -0. D.5 = 18 kN C 1m 0. C 1m 0.25)/2.15 -5.2 10 1 F o 45 FBD + xf BD = 0 − 10 + x(1) = 0 x = 10 .0 7 7 20 kN 18 kN 16.39 7. 07 D -21 E 18 kN 2.First determine reactions and next use the method of joint.07 7 45o 0 20 kN -2 1.3 E 0 2.5 m 50 .

Space Trusses • Determinacy and Stability P b + r < 3j b + r = 3j b + r > 3j unstable truss statically determinate-check stability statically determinate-check stability 51 .

z z y Fy x z y x z short link y x y x Fz z roller z x z slotted roller y constrained in a cylinder Fx x Fz z y y x Fx x Fz Fy y ball-and -socket 52 .

z Fz B l = x2 + y 2 + z 2 F Fy x y l A y x Fx z x Fx = F ( ) l y Fy = F ( ) l F = Fx + Fy + Fz 2 2 2 z Fz = F ( ) l • Zero-Force Members Case 1 FD D FD y FA x D B A FA = 0 FB z Case 2 z B FC = 0 y x FC C B FB A ΣFz = 0 . y. Force Components.• x. FD = 0 ΣFz = 0 . z. FB = 0 FD = 0 53 . ΣFy = 0 .

44 m x y 1. and a cable at C. z B D 2.44 m E 1.22 m 2. a slotted roller joint at B.22 m C A 54 .Example 3-13 Determine the force in each member of the space truss shown in the figure below. The truss is supported by a ball-and-socket joint at A.67 kN 2.

67 kN Az = 2.67 kN E Az 1.44) = 0 -Ax + 1.67(1.2.67 kN Ax = 1.2.44 m Ay Ax z B Cy C D 2.34 kN 55 .SOLUTION By Bx 2.67 = 0 By = 2.44) .22 m y 2.22) + Bx(2.44) = 0 Cy = 0 kN By(2.34 kN Ay = 2.34 = 0 Ay .44 m x The truss is statically determinate since b + r = 3j or 9 + 6 = 3(5) ΣMy = 0: ΣMz = 0: ΣMx = 0: ΣFx = 0: ΣFy = 0: ΣFz = 0: -2.67(2.67 kN Bx = 1.2.67 = 0 Az .

z By Bx 2.73 m y ΣFy = 0: ΣFz = 0: ΣFx = 0: 56 .67 kN 0 E 1.22 m y Joint D. ΣFx = 0: FCE = 0 FCA = 0 FCB = 0 FDC = 0 FDE = 0 FDA = 0 x FDE FDC D y 0 m 0 2.44 m Ay Ax x 2. ΣFZ= 0: ΣFY = 0: Joint C.44 m z 0 0 x 0 0 FCE C Az B 0 0 0 3.66 0 C z 0 D 0 2.

FBC -4(1.66) = 0 FBE = 4 kN (T) FBC = 0 FBA = 2.73 m .67 kN 1.67 + FBE(2.44/3.44/3.67 kN (C) 57 .2.34 .z By Bx 2.34 kN B FBA FBC FBE y 0 m 0 2. ΣFy = 0: ΣFx = 0: ΣFz = 0: Az B 0 0 0 3.44 m Joint B.66 0 C z 0 D 0 2.22 m y x 2.67 kN E 1.44 m Ay Ax x 2.66) = 0 FBA .4(2.66) = 0 1.22/3.

22 m y z FAC 2.FAE( 5 1 .44 m Joint A.2.67 kN 2.67 = 0 . ΣFz = 0: ΣFy = 0: ΣFz = 0: Az B 0 0 0 3.44 m Ay Ax x 2.66 0 C 0 D 0 2.67 kN A 1.67 .99 kN (C) FAD = 0.FACsin45o = 0 2 ) + 2.99( 5 ) = 0 FAC = 0.67 kN 2.67 kN E 1.1. OK 58 .z By Bx 2. OK FAE = 2.34 kN x FAD 45o 2 1 0 m 0 2.34 + FAD + 2.67 .73 m FAE y 2.