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Roof Truss

Roof Truss

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Published by: Dallyn Nuñez on Oct 04, 2011
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10/31/2012

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Analysis of Statically Determinate Trusses

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Common Types of Trusses Classification of Coplanar Trusses The Method of Joints Zero-Force Members The Method of Sections Compound Trusses Complex Trusses Space Trusses

1

Common Types of Trusses
• Roof Trusses top cord knee brace bottom cord gusset plate roof purlins

bay, 5-6 m typical span, 18 - 30 m, typical

gusset plate

2

Howe truss 18 - 30 m

Pratt truss 18 - 30 m

Howe truss flat roof

Warren truss flat roof

saw-tooth truss skylight

Fink truss > 30 m

three-hinged arch hangar, gymnasium

3

• Bridge Trusses sway bracing top lateral bracing deck panel floor beam bottom cord top cord

portal bracing stringers portal end post

4

trough Pratt truss

Warren truss

deck Pratt truss

parker truss (pratt truss with curved chord)

Howe truss

baltimore truss

K truss

5

All loads are applied at joints (member weight is negligible). All members are connected at both ends by smooth frictionless pins. All load conditions satisfy Hooke’s law. 2. All members are straight. Notes: Centroids of all joint members coincide at the joint.Assumptions for Design 1. 6 .

Classification of Coplanar Trusses • Simple Trusses P C D C P C P D A A B A B B a new members d (new joint) b c 7 .

• Compound Trusses simple truss simple truss simple truss simple truss Type 1 Type 2 secondary simple truss secondary simple truss secondary simple truss secondary simple truss main simple truss Type 3 8 .

2j.• Complex Trusses • Determinacy b + r = 2j b + r > 2j statically determinate statically indeterminate In particular. 9 . the degree of indeterminacy is specified by the difference in the numbers (b + r) .

• Stability b + r < 2j b + r > 2j unstable unstable if truss support reactions are concurrent or parallel or if some of the components of the truss form a collapsible mechanism External Unstable Unstable-parallel reactions Unstable-concurrent reactions 10 .

and CF are concurrent at point O 11 .Internal Unstable F C O 8 + 3 = 11 < 2(6) D A B E AD. BE.

Example 3-1 Classify each of the trusses in the figure below as stable. statically determinate. or statically indeterminate. 12 . The trusses are subjected to arbitrary external loadings that are assumed to be known and can act anywhere on the trusses. unstable.

Externally stable. Therefore. then b + r = 2j or 22 = 22. Since b = 15. r = 4. By inspection the truss is internally stable. By inspection the truss is internally stable. the truss is statically determinate. j = 9. r = 3. then b + r > 2j or 19 > 18. Since b = 19.SOLUTION Externally stable. since the reactions are not concurrent or parallel. 13 . The truss is statically indeterminate to the first degree. j = 11.

then b + r = 2j or 12 = 12. j = 6. Since b = 12. The truss is statically determinate. Since b = 9. r = 3.Externally stable. 14 . then b + r < 2j or 15 < 16. The truss is internally unstable. r = 3. By inspection the truss is internally stable. j = 8. Externally stable.

The Method of Joints B 500 N 2m A 45o 2m C Cy = 500 N Ax = 500 N Ay = 500 N Joint B y B 45o FBA 500 N FBC x + ΣF = 0: x 500 .FBA + FBCcos45o = 0 FBA = 500 N (T) 15 .FBCsin45o = 0 FBC = 707 N (C) + ΣFy = 0: .

FAC = 0 FAC = 500 N (T) 500 N 500 N FAC 16 .B 500 N 2m A 45o 2m C Cy = 500 N Ax = 500 N Ay = 500 N Joint A 500 N + ΣF = 0: x 500 .

x AE 17 .Zero-Force Members P 0 0 B 0 C 0 E D A Dx Ey FCB C + ΣF = 0: F = 0 x CB + FCD FAB A θ FAE + ΣFy = 0: FCD = 0 Dy ΣFy = 0: FABsinθ = 0. FAB = 0 FAE = 0 + ΣF = 0: F + 0 = 0.

A B C H D G F P E 18 . indicate all the members of the truss shown in the figure below that have zero force.Example 3-4 Using the method of joints.

SOLUTION Ax Ax A B C H 0 D 0 Gx G y θ F Joint D + ΣFy = 0: 0 P E FDC FDE FDCsinθ = 0. FDC = 0 FDE = 0 D FEC x + ΣF = 0: x FEF P E 0 Joint E + ΣF = 0: x FEF = 0 19 . FDE + 0 = 0.

Ax Ax Gx A 0 0 B C H F 0 P Joint H + ΣF = 0: y FHB = 0 E 0 D 0 G y FHA H FHF FGA Gx FGF x Joint G + FHB G ΣFy = 0: FGA = 0 20 .

Example 3-5 • Determine all the member forces • Identify zero-force members 5@3m = 15 m 1 kN K 5m A B 2 kN J I H D 2 kN E G F C 2 kN 21 .

SOLUTION Use method of joints Kx 5m K 0 Ky Ax A Ay B 2 kN J 5@3m = 15 m 1 kN I H D 2 kN E G F C 2 kN 4 18 2(11) r + b = 2j.6 kN. • Determinate • Stable + ΣMA = 0: + ΣF = 0: x + ΣFy = 0: K x (5) − 2(3) − 2(6) − 2(9) − 1(12) = 0 Kx = 7.6 + Ax = 0. Ay − 2 − 2 − 2 − 1 = 0. Ax = 7. Ay = 7 kN.6 kN. − 7. 22 .

5@3m = 15 m 1 kN 7.6 kN K 0 5m A 7.6 kN Use method of joint • Joint F y´ FFG θ J I H D 2 kN E G 0 0 F B 2 kN C 2 kN 7 kN + x´ ΣF y´ = 0: FFE sin θ = 0 F FFE = 0 + ΣF = 0: x´ FFG = 0 FFE 23 .

5@3m = 15 m 1 kN 7.6 kN K 0 5m A 7.6 kN 7 kN • Joint E + y´ θ J I H D 2 kN 0 G E 0 F B 2 kN C 2 kN ΣF y´ = 0: FEG cosθ = 0 FEG 0 x´ + ΣF = 0: x´ FEG = 0 -FED = 0 FED E 24 .

69 FDG o J I H θ G 0 0 B 2 kN C 2 kN D 2 kN E F θ = tan −1 ( ) = 33.69 = 0 G 0 x´ FHG = 1.69 o 2 3 + ΣF y´ = 0: FDG sin 33.803 kN (C) + ΣF = 0: x´ − FHG + 1.5 kN (T) 0 25 .5@3m = 15 m 1 kN 7.803 cos 33.69 o − 1 = 0 FDG = 1.6 kN K 0 5m A 7.6 kN 7 kN • Joint G y´ 1 kN FHG 33.

5 kN (T) FHD 26 .5@3m = 15 m 1 kN 7.6 kN 7 kN • Joint H + y´ FHI H 1.5 kN ΣF y´ = 0: FHD = 0 B 2 kN C 2 kN J I H 0 G 0 0 0 D 2 kN E F x´ + ΣF = 0: x´ − FHI + 1.6 kN K 0 5m A 7.5 = 0 FHI = 1.

44 − 2 − 1 = 0 O.44o 1 kN FHI I FDI FDC + ΣMD = 0: D 2 kN FHI (2) − 1(3) = 0 FHI = 1.69 − FDC sin 18.25 kN (C) 3 -4.25 FDI sin 33.44(9) − 1(6) − 2(3) = 0 Check : + ΣF y = 0: FDC = -4.K.69(9) + 1(3) + 2(6) = 0 FDI = 3 kN (T) + ΣMI = 0: − FDC sin 18.Use method of sections 3m 33.69o H 3m 3m G E F 18.5 kN (T) + ΣMF = 0: − FDI sin 33. 27 .

42 N (T) + ΣMC = 0: 100(4) .FBC(2) = 0 FBC = 100 N (T) ΣFy = 0: -100 + FGCsin45o = 0 FGC = 141.FGF(2) = 0 FGF = 200 N (C) FGC A 100 N 2m 45o G FGF 28 .The Method of Sections B a C D Dy Dx 2m A 100 N 2m G a 2m F 2m E Ex B FBC + ΣMG = 0: C + 100(2) .

Example 3-6 • Determine member force CD. ID. and IH 5@3m = 15 m 1 kN K 5m A B 2 kN J I H D 2 kN E G F C 2 kN 29 .

69(9) + 1(3) + 2(6) = 0 FDI = 3 kN (T) + ΣMI = 0: − FDC sin 18.25 kN (C) 3 -4.SOLUTION Use method of sections 3m FHI I FDI 33.5 kN (T) + ΣMF = 0: − FDI sin 33.44(9) − 1(6) − 2(3) = 0 Check : + ΣF y = 0: FDC = -4.44o 1 kN +1.K.69o H 3m 3m G E F 18.22E+00 3. 30 .50E+00 -4.44 − 2 − 1 = 0 O.00E+00 FDC + ΣMD = 0: D 2 kN FHI (2) − 1(3) = 0 FHI = 1.69 − FDC sin 18.25 FDI sin 33.

5 m Ax = 0 Ay = 9 kN 6 kN 3m 31 . The reactions at the supports have been calculated. State whether the members are in tension or compression.Example 3-7 Determine the force in members GF and GD of the truss shown in the figure below. G H A B C 8 kN 3m 3m D 2 kN 3m Ey = 7 kN F E 3m 4.

3o 26.80 kN (C) D 2 kN E 3m 3m O Ey = 7 kN 32 .6o + ΣMD = 0: FFG sin26. FDG = 1. FFG = -17.6o(3.6) + 7(3) = 0.83 kN (C) + ΣMO = 0: .3o(6) = 0.7(3) + 2(6) + FDG sin56.SOLUTION H A B C G a F E a D 2 kN 3m 3m Ey = 7 kN 3m 4.5 m Ax = 0 Ay = 9 kN 6 kN 3m Section a-a FFG FDG FDC 56.6o 8 kN 3m F 26.

State whether the members are in tension or compression.Example 3-8 Determine the force in members BC and MC of the K-truss shown in the figure below. L A M B 6 kN 5m 5m N C 6 kN 5m D 8 kN 5m 5m 5m K J O E I P F G 7 kN H 3m 3m 0 13 kN 33 . The reactions at the supports have been calculated.

FBC = 10 kN (T) 34 .13(5) = 0.SOLUTION A L M B 6 kN a N a 5m C K J O D 8 kN 5m E I P F H 3m 3m 0 G 7 kN 13 kN 6 kN 5m 5m 5m 5m Section a-a L 6m A B 13 kN 6 kN 5m FLM FBM FLK FBC + ΣML = 0: FBC(6) .

L b A M B 6 kN 5m FKL FKM FCM 10 kN 31o K N C J O D 8 kN 5m I O P E F E I P F H 3m 3m 0 G 7 kN b 5m 13 kN 6 kN 5m J 5m H 5m K N C 6 kN 5m D 8 kN G 7 kN 3m 3m 5m 5m 5m + ΣMK = 0: -FCMcos31o(6) .77 kN (T) 35 .8(5) + 7(20) = 0 FCM = 7.10(6) .

Identify the simple trusses Step 2.Compound Trusses Procedure for Analysis Step 1. Obtain external loading Step 3. Solve for simple trusses separately 36 .

4m H I Ay = 0 A B C D 4 kN 2m 4 kN 2 kN Ay = 5 kN 2m 2m 2m J K G 2m F 2m E Ey = 5 kN 37 . The reactions at the supports have been calculated.Example 3-9 Indicate how to analyze the compound truss shown in the figure below.

46 kN (C) 38 .SOLUTION H I J a 4m G K 2m F 2m E Ey = 5 kN 2m Ay = 0 A B a C D 4 kN 4 kN 2 kN Ay = 5 kN 2m 2m 2m H I A B 4 kN Ay = 5 kN 2m 2m J FHG + ΣMC = 0: 4 sin60o m FJC FBC C -5(4) + 4(2) + FHG(4sin60o) = 0 FHG = 3.

16 kN (T) + ΣF = 0: x -3.46(4sin60o) + FCKsin60o(4) .16cos60o + FCD = 0 FCK = 2.4(2) .46 + 1.4m H I Ay = 0 A B C D 4 kN 2m 4 kN 2 kN Ay = 5 kN 2m 2m 2m H 4 sin60o m A B I J K G 2m F 2m E Ey = 5 kN 3.2(4) = 0 FCK = 1.88 kN (T) C 4 kN 2 kN Ay = 5 kN 2m 2m 39 .46 kN + ΣMA = 0: J 60o FCK FCD 3.

88 kN Joint H : Determine FHI and FHJ Joint I : Determine FIJ and FIB Joint B : Determine FBC and FBJ Joint J : Determine FJC C 4 kN 2 kN Ay = 5 kN 2m 2m 40 .4m H I Ay = 0 A B C D 4 kN 2m 4 kN 2 kN Ay = 5 kN 2m 2m 2m H 4 sin60o m A B I 3. Joint A : Determine FAB and FAI FCK = 1.46 kN J 60o G J K 2m F 2m E Ey = 5 kN Using the method of joints.16 2.

The reactions at the supports have been calculated.Example 3-10 Indicate how to analyze the compound truss shown in the fugure below. C H 2m D 45o 45o 45o G F E 2m 2m 15 kN 2m B 15 kN 2m 4m Ax = 0 kN A Ay = 15 kN 2m Fy = 15 kN 41 .

(1)-(3): FBH = FCE = -13.92 kN (T) 42 .SOLUTION 2m C a H D 45o 45o G a 45o 4m F Ax = 0 kN A Ay = 15 kN 2m B 15 kN 2m E 2m 2m 15 kN 2m Fy = 15 kN + ΣMB = 0: C 4m FCE FBH FDG 2 sin 45o m 45o -15(2) .38 kN (C) FDG = 18.15 + FBHsin45o .FCEcos45o(4) .FCEsin45o = 0 FBH = FCE-----(2) + ΣF = 0: x FBHcos45o + FDG + FCEcos45o = 0 -----(3) 2m D 45o 45o A Ay = 15 kN 2m B 15 kN 2m From eq.FCEsin45o(2) = 0 -----(1) + ΣFy = 0: 15 .FDG(2 sin45o) .

(1)-(3): FBH = FCE = -13.C a H 2m D 45o 45o G a 45o 4m F Ax = 0 kN A Ay = 15 kN 2m B 15 kN 2m E 2m 2m 15 kN 2m Fy = 15 kN C 4m FCE FBH FDG 45o 45o From eq. Joint A : Determine FAB and FAD Joint D : Determine FDC and FDB Joint C : Determine FCB 2m D 45o A Ay = 15 kN 2m B 15 kN 2m 43 .38 kN (C) FDG = 18.92 kN (T) Analysis of each connected simple truss can now be performed using the method of joints.

Example 3-11 Indicate how to analyze the symmetrical compound truss shown in the figure below.62 kN 44 .62 kN Ay = 4. The reactions at the supports have been calculated. E 3 kN 5o 5o 5o 3 kN D H 45o F 45o 5o G Ax = 0 kN A B 5 kN 6m 6m C Fy = 4.

5 kN FEC 3 kN 45 .62 kN 3 kN F G A FAE 1.62 kN Ay = 4.E 3 kN 5o 5o 5o 3 kN D H 45o F 45o 5o G Ax = 0 kN A B 5 kN 6m 6m FEC C Fy = 4.5 kN E FAE 1.5 kN E 1.5 kN D H C 1.

E 3 kN 5o 5o 5o 3 kN D H 45o F 45o 5o G Ax = 0 kN A B 5 kN 6m 6m C Fy = 4.50 kN (T) 46 .62 kN 1.5cos45o .62 kN 45o 45o FAB 1.FAEsin45o = 0 FAE = 5.5.5 kN 45o E 1.1.5 kN 45o 1.5 kN B 5 kN C 4.62 kN + ΣFy = 0: 4.62 kN FAE 45o Ay = 4.03 kN (C) 1.62 kN + ΣF = 0: x 4.5 kN 45o A 1.5sin45o .5 kN A 4.03cos45o + FAB = 0 FAB = 2.62 .

A B F´EC F E C • Determinate • Stable = P D f´EC F E P D 1 + A B C F´EC + x f´EC = 0 Xx A 1 B C F´EC = FAD x= f´EC Fi = F´i + x f´i 47 .Complex Trusses F E P D FAD 3 9 2(6) r + b = 2j.

and D are on the same horizontal line. Assume joints B.Example 3-12 Determine the force in each member of the complex truss shown in the figure below. F. C 1m 0. State whether the members are in tension or compression.5 m B 45o 20 kN F 45o D E 48 .25 m 1m A 2.

SOLUTION 1m 0.5 m 20 kN F 45o = C B A 45o D E B 45o F 45o D E + x A 49 .25 m 1m A B 45o C F 20 kN 45o D E F'BD+ x f´BD = 0 F'BD x= f´BD Fi = F'i + x f´i C 1 kN 2.

3 E 0 2.70 7 1 kN 45o + x 0 B -0. F.07 7 45o 0 20 kN -2 1.7 0 9 -0.0 7 7 20 kN 18 kN 16.2 10 1 F o 45 FBD + xf BD = 0 − 10 + x(1) = 0 x = 10 . E. 70 7 D -0. 45o 0 D -18 E F 1 -0 .5 = 18 kN C 1m 0.25 m B 1 m +10 20 kN A 0 4 21.3 A 0 7 .First determine reactions and next use the method of joint. D. C 1m 0.14 14 45o F -10 0 20 kN -1 4.5 . start at join C.539 0.25)/2. 07 D -21 E 18 kN 2.15 -5.1 4 45o C 7 70 0.39 7.25 m 1m B 7 A .5 m 18 kN (20x2.5 m 50 . and B.53 -0.

Space Trusses • Determinacy and Stability P b + r < 3j b + r = 3j b + r > 3j unstable truss statically determinate-check stability statically determinate-check stability 51 .

z z y Fy x z y x z short link y x y x Fz z roller z x z slotted roller y constrained in a cylinder Fx x Fz z y y x Fx x Fz Fy y ball-and -socket 52 .

z.• x. Force Components. y. FB = 0 FD = 0 53 . ΣFy = 0 . z Fz B l = x2 + y 2 + z 2 F Fy x y l A y x Fx z x Fx = F ( ) l y Fy = F ( ) l F = Fx + Fy + Fz 2 2 2 z Fz = F ( ) l • Zero-Force Members Case 1 FD D FD y FA x D B A FA = 0 FB z Case 2 z B FC = 0 y x FC C B FB A ΣFz = 0 . FD = 0 ΣFz = 0 .

a slotted roller joint at B.67 kN 2.44 m E 1.44 m x y 1.22 m 2. The truss is supported by a ball-and-socket joint at A. z B D 2. and a cable at C.22 m C A 54 .Example 3-13 Determine the force in each member of the space truss shown in the figure below.

22) + Bx(2.67(2.44) .67(1.67 = 0 Az .2.67 kN Az = 2.67 = 0 By = 2.22 m y 2.67 kN E Az 1.44 m x The truss is statically determinate since b + r = 3j or 9 + 6 = 3(5) ΣMy = 0: ΣMz = 0: ΣMx = 0: ΣFx = 0: ΣFy = 0: ΣFz = 0: -2.34 = 0 Ay .34 kN 55 .SOLUTION By Bx 2.67 kN Ax = 1.44) = 0 -Ax + 1.2.44 m Ay Ax z B Cy C D 2.2.67 kN Bx = 1.44) = 0 Cy = 0 kN By(2.34 kN Ay = 2.

44 m Ay Ax x 2.22 m y Joint D.66 0 C z 0 D 0 2.44 m z 0 0 x 0 0 FCE C Az B 0 0 0 3. ΣFZ= 0: ΣFY = 0: Joint C.73 m y ΣFy = 0: ΣFz = 0: ΣFx = 0: 56 . ΣFx = 0: FCE = 0 FCA = 0 FCB = 0 FDC = 0 FDE = 0 FDA = 0 x FDE FDC D y 0 m 0 2.z By Bx 2.67 kN 0 E 1.

22/3.67 kN E 1.44 m Joint B.34 .22 m y x 2.66 0 C z 0 D 0 2.34 kN B FBA FBC FBE y 0 m 0 2.44/3.2.66) = 0 1.67 + FBE(2.z By Bx 2.67 kN (C) 57 .FBC -4(1.4(2.44/3.66) = 0 FBE = 4 kN (T) FBC = 0 FBA = 2.67 kN 1. ΣFy = 0: ΣFx = 0: ΣFz = 0: Az B 0 0 0 3.73 m .44 m Ay Ax x 2.66) = 0 FBA .

OK 58 .44 m Joint A. ΣFz = 0: ΣFy = 0: ΣFz = 0: Az B 0 0 0 3.67 .67 kN 2.1.67 kN 2.22 m y z FAC 2.73 m FAE y 2.FAE( 5 1 . OK FAE = 2.66 0 C 0 D 0 2.99( 5 ) = 0 FAC = 0.34 + FAD + 2.44 m Ay Ax x 2.67 .2.99 kN (C) FAD = 0.z By Bx 2.67 = 0 .34 kN x FAD 45o 2 1 0 m 0 2.67 kN E 1.FACsin45o = 0 2 ) + 2.67 kN A 1.

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