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TABLE OF CONTENT

Title 1.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4. 1 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 Procedure Result and analysis Discussion Health and Safety Conclusion Appendices Reference Table of Content Report Introduction Task Objectives Methodology

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REPORT 2.1 INTRODUCTION Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most

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common standards used to assess water quality relate to drinking water, safety of human contact, and for health of ecosystems. During this lab, we are only testing the water for their physical characteristic only. The physical characteristics are conductivity, pH, temperature, colour and turbidity.

Conductivity Conductivity is a measurement of the ability of an aqueous solution to carry an electrical current. An ion is an atom of an element that has gained or lost an electron which will create a negative or positive state. Conductivity is measure in mhos. The larger the number, the more anions and cations are present. It turns out that pure water is poor conductor of electricity. The more total anions and cations, the better the conductivity of your drinking water, the higher your conductivity reading will be.

pH Some chemical impurities cause water to behave as either an acid or a base. Since either condition has an important bearing on the water treatment process, the pH value must be determined. Generally the pH influences the corrosiveness of the water, chemical dosages necessary for proper disinfection, and the ability to detect contaminants.

Temperature The water temperature is very important for water quality. Many of the physical, biological, and chemical characteristics of water are directly affected by temperature. For example, temperature influences:
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1. The amount of oxygen that can be dissolved in water; 2. The rate of photosynthesis by algae and larger aquatic plants; 3. The metabolic rates of aquatic organisms; 4. The sensitivity of organisms to toxic wastes, parasites, and

diseases

Colour Colour in water may result from the presence of natural metallic ions (iron and manganese) humus and peat materials, plankton, wed and industrial wastes. Colour is removed in order to make water suitable for general and industrial applications. The term apparent colours include not only the color due to substances in solution, but also that due to suspended matter. Apparent colour is determined on the original sample without filtration.

Turbidity Turbidity can be defined as a how cloudy or how clearly the water is. The lower the turbidity, the clearer the water. Turbidity can be result of suspended soil as clay, silt, plankton, industrial waste or sewage in water. High turbidity may be caused by soil erosion, waste discharge, urban runoff, flooding, dredging activities, channelization, increased flow rate, algae growth, or even too many bottom-feeding fish(such as carp) that stir up bottom sediment. If water becomes too turbid, it loses the ability to support a wide variety of plants and other aquatic organisms. Suspended solids reduce the amount the light that can pass through the water.

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TASK
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1) Find brief LR on physical characteristic of water and discuss significant 2) From the available apparatus in lab, determine the physical testing of 3 different water samples 3) Discuss the result by looking at the difference in data obtained what is the function of water quality standard.

2.3

OBJECTIVES 1) To measure the physical characteristic of water samples. 2) To discuss the physical characteristic of water samples.

2.4

METHODOLOGY To conduct this experiment, we need to take three different water samples. Each sample will undergo five physical characteristic water tests as stated above. For pH, temperature and conductivity, the reading will be taken at their origin place. As for turbidity and colour test, we will carry it out in the laboratory.

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PROCEDURE a. pH, temperature and conductivity i. Locate three suitable locations for taking the samples. ii. Prepare the equipment needed.

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iii. Put in the equipment into the water. iv. Make sure that the water levels are higher than the minimum water level required in using the equipment. v. Let the tester bar in the water for 3 minutes. vi. Using this equipment, we can take all the three reading for three different tests on the same time. vii. Record the reading for three times using the same procedure.

b. Colour
i. Three sample of water which is drain, pipe and

curing water had been taken. ii. Clean all testing bottle that want use with distilled water.
iii. Each sample of water is filled into the testing bottle iv. After filled all sample in testing bottle, clean the

testing bottle with tissue to make sure no finger print at the testing bottle surface to get accurate result.
v. Before put each sample in Spectrophotometer,

testing bottle that contains distilled water must be put first to get the zero (clear water) reading in Spectrophotometer.
vi. After put distilled water into Spectrophotometer,

take out the testing bottle that contains distilled water and put testing bottle that contains each sample into Spectrophotometer. vii. The Spectrohotometer measured the reading of the colour.
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viii. The readings are taken. ix. The same steps above are repeated with each sample.

c. Turbidity
i. Three sample of water which is drain, pipe and

curing water had been taken. ii. Clean all testing bottle that want use with distilled water.
iii. Each sample of water is filled into the testing bottle iv. After filled all sample in testing bottle, clean the

testing bottle with tissue to make sure no finger print at the testing bottle surface to get accurate result. v. Presses the buttons until the auto-range and signal average appear at the screen. vi. Put the sample bottle into the turbidity test equipment.
vii. The readings are taken after the signal stop beeping.

viii. The same steps above are repeated with each sample.

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RESULT AND ANALYSIS This is the result that we gain from those three samples.

sample 1 (curing water)

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Test pH temperature conductivity color turbidity

1 9.75 26.5 543.8 41 2.22 Parameter

2 3 9.72 9.73 26.48 26.51 543.6 543.9 44 36 2.14W.H.O. 2.07 Standard* < 8.0 15 TCU 5 NTU 2 400 3 6.87 25 6.86 28.21 100028.21 179.2 179.2 171 172 14.9 14.8

average 9.73 26.50 543.77 40.33 2.14 M.O. H Standard* 6.5-9.0 15 TCU 5 NTU average 6.86 28.21 1000 179.20 171.67 14.80

1 pH sample 2 2 (drain water)Colour (Hazen Unit) 3 Turbidity (NTU) 4 Test Conductivity (S/cm) 1 5 pHTemperature (C) 6.86 temperature 28.21 6 Dissolved Solids, mg/l conductivity 179.2 color 172 turbidity 14.7 sample 3 (water pipe) Test pH temperature conductivity color turbidity 1 7.23 26.32 85.2 20 1.87

2 7.23 26.32 82.3 15 1.43

3 7.23 26.3 79.8 13 1.76

average 7.23 26.31 82.43 16.00 1.69

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DISCUSION From the result that we gain, we can see that the result are different depend on the test that being done.

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pH test From the result obtained, we can see that the curing water and water pipe sample are alkaline because the pH is more than 7. The drain water is acidic because the pH is low that 7. There were clearly stated in the result table show that curing water with pH 9.73 is not within the MOH and WHO standard. The pH for drain and water pipe is 6.86 and 7.23 respectively. We can see that the pHs are still in the standard of WHO and MOH. Temperature The temperatures for all three samples are slightly different from each other. All the temperature are above 25C, more than the standard that specified by WHO. The temperatures for curing, drain and pipe water are 26.5, 28.21 and 26.31C respectively.

Conductivity From the result, the readings for drain, curing and pipe water are 179.20, 543.77 and 82.43 respectively. If we

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compared it to the WHO standard, we can see that the curing water is exceeding the standard level which is 400S/cm.

Colour All three samples that was test on colour show all reading is over than standard of WHO and MOH. For curing water, the reading is 543.77TCU. The reading is large maybe because the water is not moving. Furthermore, the concrete block that being put in there could also give some influence on the readings. The drain water reading is 179.20. This maybe caused by domestic waste from the faculty and also from the construction work near the place where the sample is taken. The only sample that nearly matches the WHO standard is the pipe water, with the reading of 16.00TCU. The reading is standard because the pipe water is already treated. Turbidity The results that we gain for this experiment are 2.14NTU, 14.80NTU and 1.69NTU for curing, drain and pipe water respectively. Only the drain water is exceeding the turbidity standard by WHO and MOH which is 5NTU.

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HEALTH AND SAFETY During the experiment, we have taken several safety precautions such including wear gloves while conducting the contaminant water samples. Other safety precautions that being taken are wearing jacket and shoes during the laboratory session.

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CONCLUSION In conclusion, we can say that pipe water is the only sample that fit the standard criteria of water quality specified by the WHO and

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MOH. This is because the pipe water is already treated and safe for us to use. The other two water samples are absolutely out of the standard and are not approved to be used as human water source. If we compared WHO and MOH standard, we can see that it is nearly the same. WHO stands for World Health Organisation while MOH stands for Malaysia Ministry of Health.

Water quality standards include the following components:

Beneficial uses designation of the public uses and benefits our water resources provide to people.

Numeric standards allowable concentrations of specific pollutants in water, established to protect the beneficial uses.

Narrative

standards

descriptions

or

statements

of

unacceptable conditions in and on the water.

Nondegradation extra protection for high-quality or unique waters to keep them from being degraded.

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APPENDICES

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REFFERENCE http://www.indiana.edu/~bradwood/eagles/temperature.htm

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turbidity http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_conductivity http://www.lenntech.com/water-conductivity.htm http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/8a.html

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