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Knowledge Review Answer Keys
Divemater Course Knowledge Review Answer Keys © PADI 2009 Published by PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATION OF DIVING INSTRUCTORS 30151 Tomas Rancho Santa Margarita, CA 92688 USA Printed in U.S.A.
Explain what is meant by a role model. Good interpersonal skills 5. What three broad characteristics may divers expect in a PADI Divemaster? 1. Expert skills and knowledge of dive theory. 4. • Uncaring or unempathetic of divers and their skill levels. • Contradicts or disagrees with an instructor in front of students. Exemplary rescue skills 3. Professionalism 2. Someone other divers base their behavior on because they respect the person and what the person stands for. Ability to assist/supervise during training and dive activities 2. Describe the characteristics and attributes of a poor role model divemaster. • Fails to perform as a "team player" .Divemaster Manual Knowledge Review Chapter 1 Answer Keys 1. (Description should include:) • High skill level - demonstration quality • Commitment to responsible dive practices • Equipment well maintained and up-to-date • Physically fit or good fitness for diving • Agrees with the PADI training philosophy 5. 1. Good judgment that reflects training and experience 3. Dress and act like a professional 4. Describe a PADI Divemaster who is a good role model. Role model behavior 3. (Description should include:) • Hypocrisy and lack of conviction. • Disregard for personal fitness. dive management and leading dives 2. List five criteria that define “professionalism” as it applies to the PADI Divemaster.
Good role model behavior reinforces responsible diving habits and practices. Explain how role model behavior can affect other divers both positively and negatively. Poor role model behavior may cause divers to question you. making them less likely to consider your suggestions. Renew membership annually 4. List five benefits and five responsibilities of being a PADI Divemaster. Explain how good role model behavior benefits student divers when you assist with training. Represent PADI favorably .6. Can purchase materials from your PADI Office at special divemaster rate 3. Benefits: 1. Access to professional liability insurance and legal defense team 4. making it easier for you to guide and direct them for the instructor during training. Good role model behavior makes it easier to encourage other divers to dive responsibly and accept your suggestions. Gain important experience toward becoming an instructor 6. Ability to earn income as an assistant 5. Receive professional publications such as The Undersea Journal 2. Poor role model behavior may cause divers to question whether responsible dive habits and practices are really necessary. Keep up with changes in standards 3. Good role model behavior earns students' respect. Access to educational consultants for training questions Responsibilities: 1. 9. 7. 8. Keep address current 5. Regular update mailings 7. Follow PADI Standards 2. Explain how role model behavior can affect your ability to function as a divemaster.
Staying within personal limits Diving properly equipped Caring for equipment Managing air conservatively Using computer/tables conservatively 6. and how you can expect conditions to affect diving. Follow responsible diving practices yourself Remind divers of responsible behaviors by applying them on the dive Make responsible behavior easy Reward responsible behaviors 3. 3. 4. List four ways to encourage responsible diver behavior. but does not plan the dives of individual divers. 2. and the aspects of dive planning and diving for which each diver must retain responsibility. current and visibility. Divers must be responsible for their own actions. A PADI Divemaster normally offers a general orientation and broad dive plan that individual divers use to plan their own dives. The divemaster encourages responsible diving. Six characteristics of responsible diver behavior are: 1. tides. Based on weather. 5.Divemaster Manual Knowledge Review Chapter 2 Answer Keys 1. 1. Describe how to assess general dive conditions. Each diver maintains responsibility for planning their own dives and following their plan. prepares for reasonably foreseeable emergencies. 2. provides logistical support. . 4. This also depends on the skill level and experience of the divers. 4. Describe the aspects of diving that do and do not fall within the divemaster’s responsibility. you determine appropriate dive techniques or if conditions are acceptable for diving. 3. Staying aware of the environment 2.
The four aspects of supervision in managing dives are: 1. List eight types of equipment that can assist in supervising certified divers. Not immediately on hand to help solve problems. 2. Vantage point - Out of water: • Advantages: Allows you to choose location with visibility of the entire dive site. 3. 7. Dive roster Binoculars Dive site maps Emergency oxygen First aid kit 6. 9. • Disadvantages: Can only watch one group. Communication 3. Makes it hard to know when there is a problem. Recognition 4. • Disadvantages: Can only be in front or behind leading or escorting. and the advantages and disadvantages of supervision vantage points inwater versus out of water. 4. 5. • Disadvantages: Sometimes the site with the best visibility is not the easiest to respond from. Preparation 2.5. Allows you to watch for problems such as exceeding maximum depth or navigation errors. Vantage point - In-water: • Advantages: Easier to see a problem before it happens. Rescue float Marine Radio/cellular phone Tool Kit Dive flag/float Spare gear . • Disadvantages: Unable to point out interesting features. Supervision Out of water: • Advantages: Easier to supervise multiple teams. More flexibility for buddy teams. List and describe the advantages and disadvantages of in-water versus out of water supervision. 1. 10. 7. Some divers don’t like to dive in a group. Close to emergency equipment. Vantage point 6. Supervision In-water: • Advantages: Puts you close to the divers. 8.
The primary purpose of diver accounting procedures is: To make sure every diver returns to the boat or shore after the dive. 1. Entry and exit techniques 5. There are three approaches to stress relief: 1) remove the stressor. Your role 4. Describe the characteristics of predive stress. • • • • Identify the problem precisely Inventory your resources. dive concerns and personal problems unrelated to the dive. . peer pressure. Dive procedures 6. Describe the general steps to solving a novel problem (one you've never encountered before). 9. Roster/buddy check 9. Emergency procedures 7. or 3) change the perception of the diver's ability to cope with the stress. fatigue and dehydration. or psychological stressors like physical stress. • Assess and revise. 2) change the perception of the stressor to nonthreatening. List the ten points/steps usually included in a dive briefing.8. Environmental interaction suggestions 10. Dive site name 2. 10. Predive safety check 11. Create several possible solutions Choose the best solution. and explain how you help divers deal with it. Site descriptions 3. Signal review 8. Predive stress comes from both physical stressors like heat exhaustion.
Judgment comes from experience and working with more experienced professionals. and how you develop good judgment as a divemaster. Complete the appropriate specialty courses. You apply judgment when evaluating acceptable dive conditions. Explain when dive situations call for you to apply your judgment. . The two likely roles of a PADI Divemaster in the event of an accident are as: Scene manager or as assistant to someone more qualified. Explain how to gain more knowledge and experience with specialized diving activities.12. 13. choosing dive techniques to recommend and picking supervision vantage points. 14.
Logistics 4. Includes standards for programs divemasters can offer independently 4. Helping divers on an individual basis 3. Makes it easier to anticipate and meet instructor needs 3. What is the primary characteristic that makes a PADI Divemaster an ideal instructional assistant? Anticipating and providing what the instructor and student divers need. 2. supervising student divers and other duties as well as the social and adventurous aspects of diving. 5. confidant and advisor. Providing student diver performance information to instructor 6. guide. 4. Compare and contrast the primary role of a PADI Divemaster to that of a PADI Instructor in an instructional setting. The instructor concentrates on teaching and attending to individual student diver needs. List seven functions a divemaster may fulfill as an instructional assistant. Predive equipment distribution 2. 1. 5. The PADI Divemaster deals with the logistics. . Mentor/protege relationship – instructor is a coach. Supervising students not working with instructor 3. Describe the relationship between the instructor and you.Divemaster Manual Knowledge Review Chapter 3 Answer Keys 1. a PADI Divemaster candidate. Four reasons for having your own copy of the PADI Instructor Manual are: 1. Training Bulletins keep you current on changes. Lists all the standards and procedures 2. Conducting tour for experience portion of dives 5. Benefits you to start becoming familiar with it. Checking divers in and out of the water 7.
8. . hovering behind students who are in a semicircle with the instructor in front of them. Describe your role as a PADI Divemaster in relation to student divers in training. Explain how positioning affects your ability to assist with student diver control.6. 3. • Accompany students during training dives in continuing education courses. • Opposite instructor. and two common examples of position for the skill practice in the Open Water diver course. • Accompany Open Water Diver/Scuba Diver students under the indirect supervision of an instructor. • Conduct subsequent Discover Scuba Diving dives after participants complete the first dive with an instructor. • Generally supervise divers in training and nontraining activities. 4 and the optional Skin Dive. Assistant Instructor and Divemaster who can perform specific functions as a teaching assistant. Good positioning allows you to see the entire group and the instructor and respond quickly to a problem. 7. what is a certified assistant and what can a certified assistant do? A certified assistant is a renewed PADI Instructor. • Students form a line with the divemaster at one end of the line and the instructor at the other. Certified assistants can: • Independently guide student divers on Open Water Dives 2. The PADI Divemaster is a role model and an intermediary between student divers and the instructor supervising both training and nontraining related activities. With respect to PADI programs.
Navigation 10. Assure early success. Where do you find skill performance requirements student divers must master for PADI courses. Handle paperwork Underwater 1. Standby supervisor 5. 12. critical attributes emphasized. with each step clearly seen. List five examples of logistical functions you can perform to assist with training dives at the surface and five underwater. Air checks 4. sequence emphasized. Lead/follow 2. 2. 3. In the PADI Instructor Manual. 1. Redemonstrate the skill. Have a student attempt the skill to look for missing or improperly performed critical attributes. Handle equipment 4. 11. Escort 3. mastered and automatic. Escort student divers 6. List and describe the three steps to take to help a student diver master dive skills. Enforce safety or facility rules 3.9. replacement and clearing in a demonstration quality manner. Slow pace. Coordinate student divers 2. Describe how you would model mask removal. . On the surface: 1. Assist with student diver preparation 5.
Explain how you will keep you dive theory knowledge current after you complete this course. dive physiology. Be as specific as possible. List four works or types of works you would like to add and explain why. 5. attend seminars and diving -related meetings. Dive physics. Explain why the PADI Divemaster course emphasizes dive theory training. reread and review the Encyclopedia of Recreational Diving and other diving related materials. List the theory subjects you study as part of the PADI Divemaster course and explain how you demonstrate mastery of them. List what you already have in your current dive reference library (to a maximum of 12 items). It develops problem solving abilities. It gives you a place to look up information and a way to keep up with new and changing information. equipment and decompression theory You demonstrate mastery by completing an exam in each study area and earning a score of 75 percent or better. Explain why you would want a dive reference library. Continue your diving education. . (Answers vary but may include:) Magazines PADI Manuals Encyclopedia of Recreational Diving Diving Knowledge Workbook Dive travel guides and maps 4. Explain how specialty diver training benefits you with respect to learning dive theory. 2. Specialty courses go into more theoretical detail than other learning sources and give you a change to apply the knowledge. gives the candidate theoretical knowledge to apply during practical sessions and prepares the candidate for instructor level training. Subscribe to and read dive magazines. 3. 6.Divemaster Manual Knowledge Review Chapter 4 Answer Keys 1.
The RDP surface interval credit table is controlled by a 60 minute compartment. Testing supports the model but there is always some risk of DCS. and what are meant by halftime and M-value. 3. 10. Describe the relationship between the Haldanean model and the human body. Compartments are theoretical tissue models that account for differing tissue absorption rates. . There is no direct relationship between the model and the body. Halftime is the rate a compartment absorbs nitrogen. Compare the basis of the US Navy tables repetitive diving procedures with the RDP’s. b) why each is appropriate for that table and c) the practical difference on repetitive diving between them. b) The US Navy table was designed for decompression diving — requiring longer/slower compartments to control repetitive dives. In metres/feet of pressure. Explain a) what compartment controls each. and explain to what extent you can rely on the model. increasing the risk of DCS. Describe what a compartment is. how much nitrogen would the 5.5 feet 60- minute = 9 metres / 30 feet 5. 4. a) The US Navy surface interval credit table is controlled by a 120 minute compartment. There is reduced atmospheric pressure at altitude. This could make the tissue pressure gradient too high. 2.Divemaster Manual Knowledge Review Chapter 5 Answer Keys 1. The RDP is for no decompression diving — allowing the use of faster compartments to control repetitive dives. Explain why you need to know your approximate altitude when diving. M-value is the maximum tissue pressure allowed in the compartment. It's the time it takes for the compartment to go from beginning pressure to halfway to saturation. 20 and 60 minute halftime compartments each have after 60 minutes at 18 metres/60 feet? 5-minute = 18 metres / 60 feet 10-minute = 18 metres / 60 feet 20-minute = 16 metres/ 52.
Explain why you can’t use pressure groups from the RDP on the US Navy Tables or any other tables. Shorter surface intervals can permit repetitive dives beyond what has been shown to work reliably. Dive computers write custom tables to precise depths which eliminates unnecessary rounding. The tables are based on different models which means that pressure group designations do not indicate equivalent amounts of absorbed nitrogen. Spencer Limits. Most general recommendations apply equally because they come from what has been found to work in actual diving situations. The RDP can allow shorter surface intervals and longer repetitive dives because all dives are planned as no decompression dives. Repetitive dives similar to RDP though some deep dives with short surface intervals may still permit repetitive dives beyond what has been shown to work reliably. . Surface intervals are similar to RDP. • End the dive on the most conservative computer. Explain why the general recommendations for diving with tables apply equally to dive computers. 6. Explain how modern dive computers apply decompression models to provide more no decompression time than a table. 9. 60 minute washout — M-values same as RDP. Spencer Limits. and list three recommendations specific to computer diving.c) The US Navy table accounts for the worst case scenario – a repetitive dive after a decompression dive – which is why repetitive dive times need to be more conservative. Computer specific recommendations: • Each diver has a computer. EE washout — M-values similar to RDP. • Follow manufacturer recommendations. Buhlmann Limits. State the three broad computer groupings and list their M-value and surface interval credit characteristics compared the RDP and each other. EE Washout — lower M-values than RDP. 7. 8.
Performance requirements are in bold face type in each Instructor Guide. Identify where you find the maximum ratios of a PADI Divemaster to participants for PADI Divemaster-conducted programs. Questions of fitness are the responsibility of a physician 3. 6. . PADI Instructor Manual: General Standards and Procedures section. Stating requirements allows students to know what you expect them to accomplish. and the instructor guide and the Key Standards Box for each program. File an incident report for any dive incident. Participants must complete a Medical Statement at the beginning of each course 2. and how you identify standards you must adhere to from other supporting material. General Standards and Procedures section. 5. Explain where to find performance requirements for programs and why its usually a good idea to state the requirements for participants. and Experience Programs Guide. 3. 4. Retain records for a minimum of seven years. Standards appear in bold face type.Divemaster Manual Knowledge Review Chapter 6 Answer Keys 1. Identify where you find a listing of material required and recommended for PADI Divemaster-conducted programs. Participants must complete a Liability Release and Assumption of Risk Agreement 5. Participants must complete a PADI Safe Diving Practices Statement of Understanding 4. Instructor Guide for each program. Skin Diver Course Instructor Guide. 2. Explain where to find standards and related information on PADI Divemaster-conducted programs. List the six general administrative requirements that apply to all PADI programs: 1.
etc. travel agencies. Sign an annual membership agreement and return with annual dues to your PADI Office. Insurance is not required (in most areas) but highly recommended when acting as a certified assistant. . 9. May appeal to those interested in physical conditioning. Insurance is required (in most areas) when conducting divemaster-conducted programs. youth groups. List one marketing idea for each of the following programs. May appeal to people who want to experience the underwater world but aren't interested in scuba. to inactive divers in conjunction with Scuba Review. Scuba Review — A way for certified divers who have been inactive to refresh skills. casual gatherings at dive sites. people involved with other water sports. children of scuba divers. etc.6. Emphasis is on having fun. Discover Snorkeling — Casual experience for swimming and looking underwater. Explain the annual renewal requirement for a PADI Divemaster. Identify the intended audience and basic philosophy for each of the following PADI programs: Skin Diver Course — Training program for those interested in diving but not necessarily in scuba. etc. 7. etc Scuba Review — Market in resort areas. health clubs.) Skin Diver Course — Market to schools. Discover Local Diving — Formal diving orientation for certified divers to a new location or new diving environment. (You're encouraged to list original ideas not discussed in the text. Explain the professional liability insurance requirements for a PADI Divemaster. to divers who view their inactivity as an obstacle. Discover Local Diving — Market to divers visiting an unfamiliar dive site. Discover Snorkeling — Market to health clubs. 8.
Negligence — failure to meet the duty of care expected 2. Good judgment shows that you made reasonable and prudent decisions and acted conservatively. Standards help you demonstrate that you followed the stipulated duty of care. Duty of Care — your responsibility to act as a reasonably prudent divemaster would act under same or similar circumstances to maintain safety.Divemaster Manual Knowledge Review Chapter 7 Answer Keys 1. 4. Explain the role of paperwork in reducing legal risk. Paperwork helps you be organized. Instructors liability insurance does not cover assistants. Because you can be sued even if you did nothing wrong. 3. Explain why it is recommended that you carry professional liability insurance. Insurance helps cover legal costs and damages. and describe the steps to follow with any PADI program. Define risk management. Describe the most important step you can take to manage legal risk. even when it’s not required and you plan to function exclusively as an assistant working under a PADI Instructor. aids meeting standards. Risk management — the process of reducing risks you face while acting as a divemaster which involves increasing safety for divers and for you in your capacity as a divemaster. Paperwork establishes your conduct as a reasonably prudent divemaster who followed standards. duty of care and negligence. Explain how adhering to standards helps you reduce legal risk and the role of good judgment in reducing legal risk. delivering good customer service and maintaining professionalism. . 5. Adhere to conservative diving practices and use good judgment.
When ill or injured. 3. List the dos and don’ts to follow. Stay physically fit 2. PADI determines corrective action. Stay hydrated. When statements can’t be reconciled. 7. Make the deepest dive first and stay well within limits 3. 9. PADI contacts member to get member’s side. Do call your PADI Office to report the incident. 4. followed standards. 5. Do not assign.6. admit or speculate on causes or blame. Do inform the victim’s family — show compassion and caring. 4. Do collect the victim’s equipment to turn over to authorities. Explain how the Quality Assurance process helps you reduce legal risk. Do cooperate with authorities — give only the facts. Creates documentation that you. as a PADI member. PADI seeks additional information. List five suggestions to help you manage risks to your health and safety as a divemaster. moderate your activities. Pay attention to your mental health. 6. 8. 1. with regard to legal risk management. The process also documents that any standards-related problems are addressed and corrected. • • • • • Indication of problem or a complaint. . in the event of a dive accident. Do handle the emergency. 5. If a member verifies problem. 1. 2. the PADI Quality Management Committee reviews the information and determines the appropriate action. Describe the basics of the Quality Assurance process.
List four attributes of a positive sales process. Where does the dive consumer find the three Es of diving. Don't make assumptions about price.Divemaster Manual Knowledge Review Chapter 8 Answer Keys 1. Explain the role of leadership level divers with respect to equipment counseling and why it is important. Divers will come to the divemaster for advice about equipment because diving is a technical activity and divers rely on the divemaster’s experience. Experience — divers need opportunities to dive. 2. but recommend the equipment that best addresses the customer's need. education and equipment have no purpose. divers need instruction. 3. 3. 2. Dive operators depend on equipment sales for business. 4. 4. List the “three Es” of diving and explain why each is necessary for someone to be a diver. Equipment — without equipment. there is no diving. Education — to dive safely. Give all the advice you would like to get. At PADI Dive Centers and Resorts. Without a reason to dive. Give the best recommendation. 1. Listen to the divers who come in and ask for advice. .
thus reducing the IDC load. Instructors are more versatile employees. The instructor level is the most common path into other areas of the dive industry. Explain how diver level specialty training can help your career as a PADI Divemaster. Explain how it benefits you to complete the PADI Assistant Instructor course before taking the PADI Instructor Development Course. Sales management training 4. 2. 2. that can make you more valuable in the dive industry. 3. 6. Writing. layout and photography . Manufacturer's equipment repair technician 5. 4. Boat handling/captain's license 2. 1. List six skills. Being an Assistant Instructor gives you more time to assimilate and apply information as well as allows more time to log dives. Retail sales training 3. 4. List six reasons why you should consider continuing your training through the PADI Open Water Scuba Instructor level. Instructors have more opportunities to work on a part-time basis.Divemaster Manual Knowledge Review Chapter 9 Answer Keys 1. There is more demand for PADI Instructors than any other dive professional rating. The majority of boat divemasters are instructors. 3. It gives you broader and more frequent diving opportunities and helps you gain experience for Specialty Instructor ratings. outside of diver training. Compressor or diesel engine mechanic 6. 1. 5. Assistant Instructors may complete PADI Specialty Instructor courses prior to an IDC. word processing. Instructor training has credibility beyond diving. Assistant Instructors may be excused from certain IDC Curriculum components.
attend trade shows. keep up with changes in computer technology and business trends in other fields that affect virtually every industry.5. and what you should do in response. Explain how emerging technologies can affect your career. . Technological changes can make what you know obsolete. Stay tuned to the dive media.
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