..

APPENDIX

MODIFIED BESSEL FUNCTIONS

The modified Bessel function of ordern and argumentx may be defined as the integral . function given by
1 JII(x) = ~

2n _'" .

f~'

e"'cos6

cos nO de.

(A-I)

A functional relationship between 1,,(x) and x may be achieved by integrating Eq. (A-I) numerically (on a computer or by hand) for various values of x. Table A-I

presents values of ["(x) for II = 0, 1,2, 3 and values of x between 0 and 10. Table A-2 presents values of l,,(x) normalized to e" for n .= 0,1,2,3,4,5 and values of x between 0 and 20. In addition, Table A- 3 presents values of 21,,(x)/lo(x) for the same values of nand It is quite clear that I,,(x) is a monotonically increasing function
~~.

x.'

.

For small values of x we may expand e" I! in a MacLauren expansion and keep only the first few terms in the series. With this approximation inserted in Eq.(A-l) we obtain
COS

11(x) ;::::--

.1

.

. 2n

frr.... (1 +x
-lI

cos 8) cos Ode

=

'2
.

x

and

In a similar fashion we can show that, asx _.. 0,
I. (x)
" -+

(x/2t u.I

.

(A-2)

By keeping all the terms in the expansion for eX cos ° and performing a term-by-term integration, we can reduceEq. (A-I) to an equivalent Macl.auren series in x for I,,(x). This series expansion is found in all the literature on modified Bessel functions. For large values of x, eX 8 has a very sharp dominant peak in the vicinity of = 0 and may therefore be approximated by

e

CoS

"

eX cos

8 ,:::::;X(l e

-OJ:l2)~

.636 .

.

,._,.

.

~

..' .

.

-t '

----r---~--c--17. _. ------r--------~-~----+_----------r__-------... 1.--- 27.0 8.• 28. ..010 1 201.5 2.175 142. For x :2: 10.290 168.4 2671.160...-_ __+___---.040 249.(x) vs. J .50 ... (A-4) is accurate within ll'~ for Jo(x).: (A-3) (A--3) is directly integrable (A-4) . ..5 .30 2281. -2n and yields e" fU''' -00 e- x&'/2 cos nO dO.234 106.663 46._.5 2815.:::::.. 7. 427. .59060 2...787 76. 2n Equation e-" Eq.19 864.2400 . ___L __ 42. -------. with this approximation.69 1067.. - -----..2..49 1404.5 10.2898 1.59 532..610 327.2796 3.0 .5 9.62 1030..150 50.. . 17 646..7 ~ __ 38.56 683.830 85..16 1093.580 399.3 1.9 11658.- .40 _.5 6D 6._'__--~--- 5._ .220 124.0 75 8.743 30.----~.20 1758.590 268.6 1753. -'J! e- xO'/2 cos nO de .695 67. x for 11 = 0._ . .735 156.0 ____ .07 391.0 9.588 61.51670 5.--.0 2. Eq.060 236..5 1.!.(x) . -.6467 2.MODIFIED BESSEL FUNCTIONS 637 Table A-I Tabulation of J. (A-I) reduces to fnc.87 641...:::::..0 --.342 97.

[1150 0.17875 0.13_1_2_5__ .07767 0.-.04306 __~.5 7.0_54_6_7-'---1-.06961 0.05921 0.09328 0.J I 146 0..13496 0.05842 0.02879 0.00010 0. 0.09607 0.05515 0.19420 I 14(x)/e' ----t-------+---~--.16666 0...5_+-.2.11763 0.0.08750 0.11178 0.20658 0.~.143430.04683 0.04422 0. 20.08978 I ~:~~~~~ I 0.08358 .01975 0.12[26· 0..07885 0.~O_...07251 0.05988 0.__ ___l_ _ .10218 0.14229 0.05964 0.04518 I 0.~~~~_1_2____jf------c0_.07959 0.0 0.09094 0.20791 0.09785 0.04651 0.07642 0.10737 0.5 16..!.0 1. x for IT = 1. ~ .07718 0.04744 I' ~_-'--- ~_..13900 0.05998 0.07983 0..0 3.07947 0.5 ----~+I 1.08103 ____L.04706 0.03442 I I I 0.19683 0.._~---_l__--c.__ -0.00329 0.11606 0.07538 0.11899 OJ 1643 0.02668 0.0(){)48 0.03227 --5-.21904 0.04727 0.03804 0.15980 0.09400 I 0.5 3..----.5 14.01187 0.07326 0.00101 .4.02220 0. -+_~---____j-~--0.02117 0.07575 0.04124 0.--.11597 0.08838 :~:~ I ~:~:~~~ 17.05972 0.5 11.00687 0.01 15. 0.15770 0.11176' 0.11369 O.04473 0.27005 0.0 ___ .18740 0.0 ..0 0.-.09204 0.03056 0..--.06112 I 0.I 12.05977 0.09214 0.02869 0.13414 0.10828 0:10669 0.24300 0.08448 0.13055 0.04994 0.15642 0._05_9_9_0_f------cO_'cO_4_3 ___7 6~ 0:07624 0.10936 0.22280 0._.09922 0...07130 g:~..06011 0.04405 0.I_O_5~7 ~ J_02_0_0_+-I~O~~~164 0 __ I_+1 __O_.[0 0.05950 0.09470 0.5 8.0 0.30851 0.03990 0.08185 0. . 0.12)73 0.07474 0.0798 [ 0. '0. 0.-0'.64503 0.0 0.5 -.11858 0.10358 0.07919 0.0 0.0_7_6~7~2 __ t--_0.01622 0.00133 0.03780 0.5 4.09883 0.09280 I I I 0.01454 0.01802 0.04081 0.10054 I 0..14832 0.09051 0.0 2.04865 0.0 0.0 0.01935 0.11572 0.09340 0.0_7_9_88_+_-_0_.06006 0.06002 0. ~:~~~~: 0.15374 0.09735 I I 0.12783 0.09084 0.5 6.10208 0.05348 'I I ___ 9. __ . 0. 008270 0.638 APPENDIX Table A-2 Tabulation of In(x)/ex vs.0 .07227 0. ---.0 13.0 18.000.~_+ 15.02594 0.07969 0..17096 0.0 7.10963 0.0 6..20700 0.03038 0.06012 0.~ --_.5 13.[0549 0.01133 0.~ I . __ ..10063 0... - .03894 0.11308 0.1:-6--'-39-7-+--1.0 4.09324 .01719 0.06015 0.07807 0..03890 0.:.00454 0..06588 1°·11822 I 0.08858 0.00924 0.11402 0.21527 0..00160 0.12467 0.5 18.04'778 0.07376 0.04238 0.-.36743 0.5 19.5 12.07179 0.07277 0.08969 /.04163 0..00005 0.08943.1'-8-3:-54--+--0~.07526 0. 15(x)/ex 0.00816 0..07847 0.03660 0.08541 0.5 9.09524 0. 0. ..1 0478 0.04628 0..10370 .14694 0.05050 0.05886 0.0 14.05790 0.10761 I I 0.0 0.00676 0.00270 0._03_3_84 " __ 10.04657 0.02452 0.0 10.12722 0.46576 0.05655 0.07918 0.~0--l-0-.078570.11459 0. g:~:~~~ I 0.0 8.5 1.03528 0.10990 0.0 11.]3804 0.11714 0.05728 0.10390 0.0 15.5 2.17448 0.15205 0.~ ~:g~~:~ . 3.09652 0.07764 0.10037 ·0.11795 ".05210 0. ~ 0._.05568 0.

_.9466 1.4342 1:4711 1.7424 1.6211 0.0324 1.7585 0.0L9 15.5872 0.6854 0.0 OA850 0.7247 1.7157 0.833~~~ 0.7781 1.1222 0.5 5.6533 1..0 0..5 ! i 14.8002 1..0 8..0 ·12..8 615 1.1------ 10.---_.5906 0.2341 1.3144 1.8916 1.4360 0.0 2.~2_6_2.MODIFIED BESSEL FUNCTIONS 639 Table A-3 Tabulation 0 of 2In(x)jlo(x) vs.0 .1099 _ __I .6785 0.5687 1.5582 1.4ooJ 0.0.0374 0.9412 0. 4.9072 0.0981 0.2884 0..0036 1.9384 403 420 436 19 452 1. ~ _:.7504 1.9 148 1.0 13.5036 1.7270 1. 768 1. 0.0445 0. 2I-.9426 0.7579 1.7840 1. .6677 1._.0600 0.8513 6.3751 0.5513 0.5 7.0026 0.8784 1.5 19.0200 0.1866 0.0 6.9068 1.4103 0.'-I ~ • __ . ~ 332__.8 705 1.0043 0.0596 1.2144 0.921 I 0.5 6.7760 0. 1.9._-_"-.2490 1.5 16. '-1 I 2I_~~/1 .0 0.2158 1.5520 0.0 11. 3. -. 1923 1955 L 1.8712 0.7650 1.0569 18.(x i 0.3933 0.0 ! I 1.7731 0.9298 _.-~-.4.5 20.0.: 13.6538 0.0215 1.1900 0.9835 1.6045 0.3427 1.8051 '.1966 1.0004 0.1827 1.5 ----_-_.4163 0. 1.2516 1.8987 0.5 1.2997 1. __ I.0 19.5580 1. 515.(xi 1---.4970 1.7149 1.0595 LlM3 1.0607 0.6206 1._.(xiii (xi .3970 1.5788 1.0 5.:.8 51 I 1. x for 212 (xiiI.2853 1.4827 1..4344 .0 7..0104 1.0.1452 1.0 1.6050 0.5356 1.6560 0.5 ~.9344.7338 1.3918 1.7044 1.0 •• • 9.1365 1.5883 ! I II I I I i I --- I .~-T.0000 0.5105 1.8076 .5 .9564 1.7951 1.9634 .8311 0. 10.0854 ------+~~..5472 1.-_ 0.00&6 0.948() 1.2784 1.3286 t I I .8247 1. 3.4949 0.1584 0.6 200 1. .0 L5 o.0 .9733 1.2. 1.3598 O.9200 1.7897 1.6809 1.3056 1.1335 0.7450 0.8972 1.5 8. 0.7x~ 0.3129 0.5 11.6018 1.7717 1.5 3.4396 0.9 183 1.0 0.8969 .0 I I I I .5810 1.5 12.1.5 15.5324 1.0179 0.5 .1554·· L1765 1.9 272 1.9 244 1.8002 2.2683 1. 19365 1.0003 0.00500.0028 1.0&39 0.0350 0.LL __ ~ __ 0.4.9022 1.8854 1.5 40 .8754 0.0 0.9493 I 1..:.3189 0.7 607 1.2370 0.0 14.6822 1.7042 0._ 1.9 110 1.----~--1..4782 _ 0.2172 .5300 1.2175 11 =1.7926 0.4675 1.1970 0.2779 0.( .3765 1.. :.0387 1..2843 1.._ --.:~_[! ::~ -- 16.0395 1.2506 0.9321· 1.9215 1.5234 1.&928 I.4951 0.5 17.8390 1.7497 0.6377 1.- .3545 1.6931 1.0893 0.3309 1..Z.

. FrornEq. . . (A.~_. we differentiate both sides of'Eq. -r eXCOSBcos(n ~ l)edO n ] (A-5) Equation (A-5) is valid for n . 2. (As-I]it.is apparent that excose ~ Io(x) +2 I n= 1 ''X.l ) with respect to x to obtain -- dln(x) = -1 dx 2n~.' J" cos 0 e"cos8 cos'nO dO . I n(x) cosnO.640 APPENDIX To obtain derivatives of I n(x). cxsin8 = e"C<Y5<P = Jo(x) +2 I n'= 1 cc In(x) cos n<p = lo(X) -+ + co 2 n=1 I (~1 l) n "..::1. For n dl. If we wish toevaluate observe that the Fourier series of e<sine. .2][ 1[ 1 f" .. 2n(x) cos 2nO I (~ 11 1)"+ n=1 2n_1(X) sin (In ~ 1)11.-' _" rcos9 cos (n + 1)Od8 +- 2][ 1 In.~X) =0 we obtain in an identical fashion (A-6) = ll(x). (A-8) In a similar fashion we can show that e-xcos8 = Io(x) + 2I (~ l)"ln(x)cos 0') nO ' (A-9) n=1 by defining <p = 0 .n. we may define <p =0 ~ n/2 and.

Tables of Functions.iJl(j::}. Tabulated values as high as 1100(100) are given.(_. A.7.xI n. University L F.= 1 cc l. T. Applied Mathematical Series No. Jahnke and F. fourth edition. E.:.(x) sin (/1 - IW By equating the coefficients of the corresponding {sinnO)-terms in the first and last terms of Eq. we obtain the desired result. Stegun.:) =. Reissued by Dover.6 and Tables 9. Whittaker and G.Ix]. N.This standard reference work tabulates Io(x) and ll(x} for values of x up to 9. Il-. Government Printing Office. (1922). New York (1945}. Section 17.lo{x} = Jo(jx). Cambridge University Press..8 through 9. A Course of Modem Press.' II (x) for values ofx up to 20. Cambridge {1927}. Ilx)sin (n + l}O . The reciprocal of this function is within a factor of two of 2Il(x)jxI o{x). M. National Bureau of Standards.99. 2. Dover. L G. 55.-~ . 3. Emde. Watson. Columbia University Press. Relton.x) + x I n=l .C (1964). Applied BesselFunctions. New York (I 958}. etc.. Washington D. Cambridge 3. Chapter Analysis. N. Abramowitz and .-~ .1.11 deal with modified Bessel functions. (A~10).. (A~7) with respect to B: 2 I n=l sx: nl n(x} sin nO =x sin fJexc(>s 0 = x sin 81o(. which is the ratio of Gm to gm· . It also contains other functions up to IJl(6). Theory of Bessel Functions. Handbook of Mathematical Functions. E. Watson. Modified Quotients of Bessel Functions. Cambridge 3.. (A~ll) Additional relationships involving Bessel functions can be found in the following references: Blackie and Son. Onoe. Eds. Additional tabulations following references: and relationships of modified Bessel functi~ns may be found in the 1. E. M. Section 9. New York (1965).MODIFIED BESSEL FUNCTIONS 64·1 We may obtain a recursion formula for the modified Bessel functions by differentiating both sides of Eq. This work tabulates xf. Limited (1946).