Dust Collection Technical Handbook

Index Page
2 35 42 Glossary Filter Media/Fibers Gas/Air Tables Electrical References (Missing Section) 54 59 82 87 Industrial Ventilation References Material Properties Miscellaneous References Conversion Tables

The following pages were prepared as a reference for designing industrial dust collection and ventilation systems. This is not a complete application and sizing manual. DISCLAIMER: The information on the following pages is for reference only. There are no warranties, express or implied, concerning the application or use of this information.

Glossary

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Abrasion-Flex – Where cloth has abraded in a creased area by excessive bending. Abrasion Surface – Localized area where the cloth’s surface has been abraded uniformly. Absolute Temperature – In degrees Rankine, where absolute 0°R = -459.7°F. °R = °F + 460°. ρ = Density of air ρ(actual) = ρ(std at 70°F) x Absorber – A kind of scrubber utilizing the absorption principle. Absorption – The penetration of a substance into or through another; distinct from adsorption. Acceleration Loss – The velocity pressure required to accelerate the air from rest to the duct velocity or slot velocity, whichever is higher. ACFM – Actual Cubic Feet per Minute of gas volume at the actual condition temperature, pressure, moisture, elevation and gas composition. See gas flow rate. ACGIH – The American Conference Governmental Industrial Hygienists is a Professional Society devoted to the development of administrative and technical aspects of worker health protection. Membership is limited to professional personnel in governmental agencies or educational institutions engaged in occupational safety and health programs. The ACGIH issues guidelines and recommendations in the form of Threshold Limit Values (TLV’s) which are published annually. Acid Deposition – (Acid Rain) A complex chemical and atmospheric phenomenon that occurs when emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and other substances are transformed by chemical processes in the atmosphere, often far from the original sources, and then deposited on earth in either a wet or dry form. The wet forms, popularly called “acid rain”, can fall as rain, snow or fog. The dry forms are acidic gases or particulates. Acrylic – A synthetic polymerized fiber which contains at least 85% acrylonitrile. Acrylonitrile – A colorless, volatile, flammable liquid nitrile C3H3N used chiefly in organic synthesis and for polymerization. Actuator – Mechanical device attached to a damper to move its blades. May be manual, electric, pneumatic, or hydraulic. Adsorbent – In addition to the adjectival meaning, the term describes any of several substances that collect gaseous pollutants. Used both for measurement and control. Adsorption – The adhesion of a substance to the surface of a solid or liquid. Aerosol – Particle of solid or liquid matter that can remain suspended in the air because of its small size. Particulates under 1 micron in diameter are generally called aerosols. AF – Fan wheel design with airfoil-shaped blades. 2

___70°F + 460°__ Actual °F + 460°

Air Changes Per Hour (ACH) – The movement of a volume of air in a given period of time; if a building has one air change per hour, it means that all of the air in the building will be replaced in a one-hour period. Air Conditioning – Treating air to meet the requirements of a conditioned space by controlling its temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and distribution. Air Contaminant – An impurity emitted to the outside air. It can be solid (dust, particulate matter), liquid (vapor/mist), or gas (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide). Air Curtain – Mechanical air-moving device designed to limit the influx of unwanted air at a building opening. Air Handling Unit – Factory-made encased assembly consisting of a fan or fans and other equipment to circulate, clean, heat, cool, humidify, dehumidify, or mix air. Air Horsepower – The theoretical horsepower required to drive a fan if there are no losses in the fan, that is, if its efficiency is 100%. Air Leakage – Unwanted air intruding into an exhaust system (holes in ducts, missing and ineffective seals, etc.). Airlock – Term generally applied to a rotary vane valve that keeps air from entering a dust collector, yet allows a collected particulate to continuously discharge from the device. Air Monitoring – The continuous sampling for and measuring of pollutants present in the atmosphere. Air Quality Criteria – As the Federal government uses the term, the varying amounts of pollution and lengths of exposure at which specific adverse effects to health and welfare take place. Air Quality Standards – The approximate concentration level of a selected pollutant that is permitted in the atmosphere to minimize detrimental effects. Air Pollution – The presence in the atmosphere of gases, fumes, or particulate matter alone or in combination with each other, in sufficient concentration to disturb the ecological balance; cause objectionable effects, especially sensory offenses; cause transient or chronic illnesses; or impair or destroy property. Air, Standard – Dry air at 70°F and 29.92 inches (Hg) barometer. This is substantially equivalent to 0.075 lb/ ft³. Air-to-Cloth Ratio – See air to media ratio. Air-to-Media Ratio – The ratio of air volume (ACFM) to square feet of effective filter media area. Also referred to as the apparent or face velocity through the media (FPM). Typically 3 to 12 fpm for bag medias and 0.5 to 6 for pleated type medias. Air Toxics – Any air pollutant for which a national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) does not exist (i.e., excluding ozone, carbon monoxide, PM-10, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) that may reasonably be anticipated to cause cancer, developmental effects, reproductive dysfunctions, neurological disorders, heritable gene mutations or other serious or irreversible chronic or acute health effects in humans. Air Velocity – Rate of speed of an airstream, expressed in FPM.

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7 PSI. added to gasoline in order to increase octane. Attenuation reduces the amplitude only of a sound wave while leaving the frequency unchanged. usually applied to aluminum. Refrigeration. 408” water gauge. safety. wear.73x10-6)Z]5. API – American Petroleum Institute. Attainment Area – An area considered to have air quality as good as or better than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards as defined by the Clean Air Act. static pressure regain. In fan applications. it is usually a spinningvane-type instrument used at read low velocities at registers and grills. Aromatics – A type of hydrocarbon. AMCA – Air Movement and Control Association. Anneal – The process of relieving stress and brittleness in metals by heating. Density (Alt) = Density (Std) x [1-(6. Density corrections for altitude are made using the following formula where Z is the feet above seal level. Area Source – Any small source of non-natural air pollution which is not large enough to be classified as a major source or point source. such as benzene or toluene. Atmospheric Pressure – One atmosphere is approximately 14.258 Ambient – Immediate surroundings or vicinity. ASHRAE – American Society of Heating. Attenuation – Absorption of sound pressure. Some aromatics are toxic. ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers. An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a non-attainment area for others. AR=W/L ASTM – American Society of Testing Materials. 4 . Anodize – An electrolytic action of affixing a protective coating or film. ANSI – American National Standards Institute. APC – Air Pollution Control. Anemometer – A device which reads air velocity such as a wind vane. ARI – Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute. Airflow is the result of a difference in pressure (above or below atmospheric) between two points. etc. Appurtenances – Accessories added to a fan for the purposes of control. Aspect Ratio – The ratio of the width to the length. isolation. and Air Conditioning Engineers.Altitude – The height above sea level of a given location.

BI Fan – Centrifugal fan with backward inclined blades that move air more efficiently than straight blade fans. B Backdraft Damper – Damper used in a system to relieve air pressure in one direction and to prevent airflow in the opposite direction. the others being vaporization and combustion. Baghouse – An air pollution abatement device that traps gas born particulates by forcing the gas through filter bags. the theorem states that the static pressure plus velocity pressure as measured at a point upstream in the direction of airflow is equal to the static pressure plus velocity pressure as measured at a point downstream in the direction of airflow plus the friction and dynamic losses between the points. Axial Flow – In-line air movement parallel to the fan or motor shaft. MAC Equipment acronym for its square bottom bag removal pulse jet dust collectors. Under Title 1 of the CAAA. BACT (Best Available Control Technology) – An emission limitation based on the maximum degree of emission reduction achievable. stocking. EPA will establish BACT standards for serious. and extreme non-attainment areas. BI fans are usually on the clean side of a piece of control equipment as the blades are not very abrasion resistant. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. the process of adding (or removing) weight on a rotor in order to move the center of gravity toward the axis of rotation. AVS (c) – Air Vent Square. Also known as tube. up to 64 bags. AVR (c) – Air Vent Round. Barometric Pressure – A measurement of the pressure of the atmospheric. standard is 29. 5 . Blade Liners – Pieces of material added over the wheel blades to reduce abrasion of the blades. being the sum of the potential energy. Can be unsupported (dust on inside) or used on the outside of a grid (cage) support (dust on outside). Bernoulli’s Theorem – The principle that the total energy per unit of mass in the streamline flow of a moving fluid is constant. The impeller is contained in a cylindrical housing. severe. (2) In a ventilation system. the kinetic energy. etc. Blade-Pass Frequency – The tone generated by the blades passing a fixed object. and the energy due to pressure. In terms of air movement. MAC Equipment acronym for its round bottom bag removal pulse jet dust collectors. One of the 3 basic contributing processes of air pollution. BACM (Best Available Control Measure) – A term used in the CAAA referring to the “best” measures (according to EPA guidance) for controlling emissions. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. Blast Area – The fan outlet area less the projected area of the cut-off. Axial Fan – Fan where the airflow through the impeller is predominantly parallel to the axis of rotation.Attrition – Wearing or grinding down by friction.92” Hg. Bag – The customary form of filter element. it’s the process of measuring or calculating the airflow at a branch and altering duct size or a valve to attain desired airflow at that branch. Balancing – (1) On a fan.

Bleed – Particles of dust or fumes that are able to leak through filter media. imparting a smooth finish that improves dust release.085 Bulked Yarn – Filament yarn which has been processed by high pressure air passing through the yarn and relaxing it into gentle loops. where heat and pressure press down “hairs” on the felt. required to raise the temperature of a volume of standard air a specific number of degrees is calculated by the formula: Btu/hr = Temp. Bridge – Material building across an opening (such as a screw conveyor) and blocking off that opening. Calendered Finish – An available smooth finish for felt bags. etc. Title I: Nonattainment: Ambient Air Quality Title II: Motor Vehicles Title III: Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV: Acid Rain Title V: Permits Title VI: Stratospheric Ozone Title VII: Enforcement Title VIII: Miscellaneous Caking – Material crusted on a bag that cannot be removed by the cleaning mechanism. bends. Boiler Horsepower – The capability to evaporate 34. 33. Often referred to as pull-out torque or maximum torque. BTU – British Thermal Unit. C CAAA – Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Blind (Blinding) – The blockage of filtration media by dust. heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1°F. Felt is drawn between two hot oil-filled rolls.500 BTU/hr. 6 .5 pounds of water per hour into dry steam at 212°F. Once enough material has built up. thereby reducing the thickness of the cloth by spreading the warp and filling yarns into a ribbon shape. The BTU/hr. Brake Horsepower – The horsepower actually required to drive a fan. Frequently caused by the dust on the bags getting wet. at sea level. air flow is severely restricted and the elements have to be cleaned or replaced. Rise x CFM x 1. This includes the energy losses in the fan and can be determined only by actual tests of the fan (this does not include the drive losses between motor and fan). Calendering – The application of either hot or cold pressure to smooth or polish a fabric. Blue Smoke – A descriptive term for the gaseous hydrocarbons that escape from hot asphalt and other sources of VOC. fume or liquid covering the filter media and not being discharged by the cleaning mechanism. Blow-pipe – See manifold. Breakdown Torque – Maximum torque a motor will produce without a sudden decrease in speed.

or as solvents or aerosol propellants. because CFCs are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere they drift into the upper atmosphere where chlorine is released and destroys ozone. CFC-12 – A chlorofluorocarbon with a trademark name of Freon. etc. Celsius – A thermometric scale in which water boils at 100° and freezes at 0°. Dividing the gas volume by the cross sectional area of the collector determines “can velocity”. air conditioning.Can Velocity – As related to baghouses. non-toxic. commonly used in refrigeration and automobile air conditioning. same as centigrade: °C = . 7 . Carrying Velocity – The gas velocity that is necessary to keep the dust airborne. packaging insulation. Usually 3500 to 4599 ft/min in ductwork depending upon the nature of the dust. Recently. pumps. 100% spun bonded media equipped filters have been placed in commerce. Cellulose – The chief part of fibrous products which are used to make the filter media for many cartridge filters. The cartridges are typically made with pleated cellulose paper media. See gas flow rate. Cartridge – See pleated filter elements. – 32°] CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons) – A family of inert.5556 x [°F. Centrifugal Collector – Any of several mechanical systems using centrifugal force to remove particulate from a gas stream. Also referred to as “paper” media. CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) – Registry Number is a numeric designation assigned by the American Chemical Society’s Chemical Abstracts Service which uniquely identifies a specific chemical compound. CFM – Cubic Feet (of any gaseous matter) per Minute. see interstitial velocity. medium starting current. Capture Velocity – The air velocity at any point in front of a hood or at a hood opening necessary to overcome opposing air currents and to capture the contaminated air at the point by causing it to flow into the hood. High-starting and breakdown torque. Can Vel = __CFM__ ABH CFM = Gas volume through baghouse ABH = Cross sectional area of baghouse Capacitor Start Motor – Type of single-phase induction motor with a capacitor connected in series with the starting winding. Also. and easily liquefied chemicals used in refrigeration. compressors. Used in hard-starting applications. Cartridge Filter – An air pollution control device that traps gas-borne particulates by forcing the gas through filter element cartridges. Cellplate – See tubesheet. odorless gas which is toxic because of its tendency to reduce the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Carbon Monoxide – A colorless. the gas velocity within the collector.

The ratio of particles entering the collection device vs.” Combustion – The production of heat and light energy through a chemical process. Cloth – In general. However. Combustion Air – Amount of air necessary to burn the available fuel. Also referred to as “combustion contaminants. nitrogen. and called by the symbol “K”. 8 .” or mechanical collector..” Compressibility – A factor used by fan manufacturers to correct performance ratings in higher pressure ranges to account for the fact that air is a compressible gas that does not follow the perfect gas laws. the volume of air at the inlet of a fan may have to be adjusted by the ratio of absolute pressure at the entrance of the fan versus the design requirements in the system.” “cartridge filter. particles leaving is expressed in percent. ethanol. 2) In the context of emission control – the gaseous products resulting from the burning of any kind of material containing carbon in a free or combined state. usually oxidation. Cold Spot – On an insulated baghouse. woven .Clean Coal Technology – Any technology not in widespread use as of the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments which will achieve significant reductions. These include compressed natural gas. knitted. Coefficient of Conductivity – The rate of heat transfer through a material. as in “cyclone. Figures are usually expressed for basic materials. creating an uninsulated area where heat dissipates rapidly. a plant fabric.e. Clean Fuel – Blends and/or substitutes for gasoline fuels. Compression – A phenomenon related to positive pressure. When air is forced into a system it is compressed and becomes more dense. Depending on the volume or weight of air required down stream in the positive pressure portion of the system. Cloth Weight – Is usually expressed in ounces per square yard or ounces per square foot. or other suitable material. the others being attrition and vaporization. methanol. Collecting Efficiency – The ability of a dust collector to remove particulate from the exhaust gas. such as wood or insulation. per inch of thickness. and others. and water vapor – resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels. Conventional catalytic converters are less efficient upon start-up at low temperatures. wire. Cold Temperature – A standard for automobile emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) to be met at a low temperature (i. Coke Oven – An industrial process which converts coal into coke. felted or otherwise formed of any textile fiber. 20°F). oxygen. expressed in Btu transmitted per hour through one square foot of surface per degree difference in temperature across the material. Combustion Products – 1) Primarily gaseous matter such as carbon oxides. inlet loading – outlet loading x 100 inlet loading Collector – Used interchangeably with “baghouse. which is one of the basic materials used in blast furnaces for the conversion of iron ore into iron. COH – Abbreviation for coefficient of haze. Usually understood to mean a woven felted or textile fabric. One of the 3 basic contributing processes of air pollution. a point where metal goes through insulation. unit of measurement of visibility interference. cotton sateen is often specified as a certain number of linear yards per pound of a designated linear yards per pound in a 54” width.

or other agents in the environment in which it is placed. Sets safety standards for motors and other electrical equipment used in Canada. Decibel – The logarithmic ratio between some known reference and some quantity of electrical or acoustic signal power. CSA – Canadian Standards Association. Fan Performance – A graphic representation of static or total presence and fan BHP requirements over an airflow volume range at a stated inlet density and fan speed. or pressure drop that occurs across a piece of control equipment. Resin Impregnated. Corrosion – The deterioration of a material by chemical or electrochemical reaction resulting from exposure to weathering. Curve. Convection – The transfer of heat through a liquid or gas by the actual movement of the molecules. Denier – The weight in grams that 9000 meters of a fiber weighs. 9 .Concentration – The amount of dust in gas. Silicone Treated) – A type of filter media used in high quality cartridges. chemical. Cotton System – A system of yarn manufacturing for spinning cotton fiber yarn whereby the individual fibers are aligned parallel. Cotton Number – Staple yarns are generally sized on the cotton system. Example: an 18 singles yarn is of such a size that 18 hanks weighs one pound (each hank contains 840 yards). CTG (Control Techniques Guideline) – Guidance documents issued by EPA which define Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) to be applied to existing facilities that emit certain threshold quantities of air pollutants. they contain information both on the economic and technological feasibility of available techniques. D Damper – Change in pressure. Curve. CRST (Cellulose Fibers. Conduction – The transfer of heat by physical contact between substances. Conversion Factors – See pages 87 through 106. lbs per 1000 lbs of gas. CRP – Certified Ratings Program. Usually expressed in terms of grains per ft³. dbA – Sound-pressure level corrected to the “A” weighing network. Conveying Velocity – The air velocity required in a duct system to maintain entrainment of a specific material. The treatments enhance filter life and moisture resistance. or milligrams per cubic meter. Cyclone Collector – A kind of centrifugal collector equipment. or pressure drop that occurs across a piece of control equipment. parts per million. moisture. System – A graphic representation of the pressure versus flow characteristics of a given system and density. Delta P (∆P) – Change in pressure.

taken with a conventional thermometer. The product of the density factor and the density of standard air (0.075 lbs. These particles do not follow the air stream. but behave more like gases than particulate. Dimensional Stability – Ability of the fabric to retain its size in hot or moist atmosphere.Density – The measure of unit mass equal to its weight divided by its volume (lbs/ft³). Devices not using H2O. Puts more. filtration) to remove particulate matter from exhaust gas. DSCFM – Dry Standard Cubic Feet per Minute. They move across the direction of air flow in a random fashion./ft³. it is the temperature at which liquid water begins to condense for a given state of humidity and pressure as the temperature is reduced. knockout boxes. Dust Collector. Such as: expansion chambers. cloth area in a given size baghouse. Double Bag – Features a conventional bag on a cage and an inner bag that filters from inside. out. Diaphragm Valve – A compressed air operated valve that opens to allow a pulse to go the filter bags or cartridges. or the transfer of a powder into a state of suspension through the action of air currents or by vibration. cartridge filters and baghouses. Dust Collector – An air-cleaning device used to remove heavy-particulate loadings from exhaust systems prior to discharge. For flue gas containing water vapor and SO3. Diffusion – Takes place on particles so small that their direction and velocity are influenced by molecular collisions. Dry Bulb Temperature – The actual temperature of a gas. with the bottom open for dirty air entrance. Dew Point – The temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the existing partial pressure of the respective vapor.075 lbs/ft³) will give the actual air density in pounds per cubic foot. a chemical. 10 . centrifugal collectors. Dry Collector – Dust collectors which use mechanical means (centrifugal force. DOP – Acronym for dioctylphthalate. Density Factor – Ratio of actual air density of standard air. When a particle does strike a fiber. Dust – A dispersion aerosol formed by the grinding or atomizing of a solid. it is retained by the van der Waals forces existing between the particle and the fiber. used in aerosol form.) DFT – Dry-film thickness usually expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils). it is the set of conditions at which liquid sulphuric acid begins to condense as the temperature is reduced. See gas flow rate. to non-destructively test high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. (For air containing water vapor. impingement. Cyclone – A mechanical device that utilizes the centrifugal force of the inlet gas to remove large particulate matter suspended in the gas. Dilution Ventilating – The mixing of contaminated air with uncontaminated supply air for the purpose of attaining acceptable working or living conditions. standard air is . DNAPLS – Dense non-aqueous phased liquids. but not necessarily effective. Dust Collector Efficiency – See collecting efficiency.

Dynamic Insertion Loss – A reduction of airborne noise levels affected by the installation of an acoustical silencer. Arrangement 3. feet per minute (fpm). E Early Reduction/Early Compliance – A provision in the CAAA which provides incentives to a company for complying with new standards before they are required to by Law. DWDI – Double-width.Dust Permeability – Defined as the mass of dust (grains) per square foot of media divided by the resistance (pressure drop) in inches of water gauge (WG) per unit of filtering velocity. Emission – Release of pollutants into the air from a source. type. Emission Control Equipment – Machinery used to remove air contaminants from the discharge of industrial exhaust streams. or manufacturer for the same application: ME = ______TP x CFM______ 6356 x BHP Efficiency. double-inlet fans. Mechanical Total – The ratio of fan output to the power applied to the fan. Effective Stack Height – The height at which a plume becomes essentially level. allowing electrostatic forces to attract particles to a collection point. Electrostatic Precipitator – A kind of precipitator that first charges particulate (ESD). It is the actual stack height plus the plume rise. caused by static electricity. EMD Airlock – Environmental Multi Duty airlock. DYNE – A unit of force equal to that which would accelerate one gram by one centimeter per second. 11 . Elevation – The distance of the subject site above or below sea level. by which particles tend to draw together or adhere. Not to be compared with cloth permeability. Electrostatic Attraction – Mutual attraction. Can be helpful in selecting fan size. Efficiency. Emission Control Diagnostics – Computerized devices placed on vehicles to detect malfunction of emissions controls and notify the owner of the need for repair. Static – The ratio of fan output less the kinetic energy [outlet-velocity pressure] leaving the fan to the power applied to the fan: SE = ______SP x CFM______ 6356 x BHP Effluent – A discharge or emission of a fluid (liquid or gaseous). Dynamic Balance – The mechanical balancing of a rotating part of assembly in motion. MAC Equipment’s airlock to place under a dust collector when a pneumatic convey system will be utilized beneath the airlock.

Excess Air – Air in excess of the amount necessary to combust all the available fuel. as a minimum. the emission factor of oxides in nitrogen in fuel oil combustion is 119 lbs. Equivalent Duct Diameter – For rectangular duct with sides a and b is: D = (4ab/π)0.000 gallons of fuel oil used. Entry Loss – The loss in pressure caused by air flowing into a system. normally expressed in fractions of velocity pressure. or centralized inspections. Enhanced I&M (Enhanced Inspection & Maintenance) – An improved automobile inspection and maintenance program that includes. under-the-hood inspections to detect tampering with pollution control equipment. measured in the discharge stack. generally a combustion process.Emission Factor – The statistical average of the amount of a specific pollutant emitted from each type of polluting source in relation to a unit quantity of material handled.g. End Count – See warp count. Exhaust Gas – The gases emitting from an industrial process. it is possible to compute emissions for that source – information necessary for an emission inventory. e. by type of source. By using the emission factor of a pollutant and specific data regarding quantities of material used by a given source. End Reflection – A known value of sound radiated back into duct or opening. Evase – A diffuser at the fan outlet which gradually increases in area to decrease velocity and to convert kinetic energy to static pressure [regain]. products of combustion and water vapor) leaving the exhaust stack usually measured in ACFM. Also see emission factor. in amounts (commonly tons) per day. and increased repair waiver cost. The purpose of Enhanced I&M is to reduce automobile emissions by assuring that cars are running properly. Exhaust Volume – The amount of exhaust gas (air. per 1. This may also include annual. processed or burned. computerized. The emission inventory is basic to the establishment of emission standards.. Emission Standard – The maximum amount of a pollutant that is permitted to be discharged from a single polluting source. the number of pounds of fly ash per cubic foot of gas that may be emitted from a coal-fired boiler. Exhaust Stack Temperature – The temperature of the exhaust gas.5 Evaporation – The physical transformation of a liquid to a gas at any temperature below its boiling point. increases in coverage of vehicle types and model years. Enthalpy – The heat content per unit mass of a substance. Rule or measurement established to regulate or control the amount of a given pollutant that may be discharged to the outdoor atmosphere from its source. tighter stringency of inspections and improved management practices to ensure more effectiveness. EPA – Environmental Protection Agency. 12 .g. E. Emission Inventory – A list of primary air pollutants emitted into a given community’s atmosphere. End – See warp thread.

or control. Fiber – The fundamental unit comprising a textile raw material such as cotton. Features a heavy. for measurement. used when a State is unable to develop an adequate plan. Fan Capacity – Performance requirement for which a fan is selected to meet specific system calculations given in terms of ACFM at the fan inlet. Fan Class – Operating limits at which a fan must be physically capable of operating safely. Flashing – Sheet metal strip placed at the junction of intersecting exterior building surfaces to make the joint watertight. and BHP for a given fan used in a given fixed system: CFM varies as RPM SP varies as (RPM)² BHP varies as (RPM)³ FC – Fan wheel design using forward-curved blades. Fahrenheit – A thermometric scale in which water boils at 212° and freezes at 32°. Fines – Fine particulate. Filament – Multi – More than one mono-filament strand grouped together of definite length. regardless of the kind of fiber used. a plan containing control measures developed and promulgated by EPA in order to fill gaps in a State Implementation Plan (SIP).F Fabric – A collective term applied to cloth no matter how constructed. RPM. Fill Count – Number of threads per inch of cloth. This cake assists in the filtering of dust. etc. SP. Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) – Under current law. aerosol. Fill – Crosswise threads woven by loom. Filters are designed in a variety of sizes and materials for specific purposes. Under the Senate bill. Felted Fabric – Type bag used on most all pulse jet dust collectors. Also called bag collector or cartridge. Filter Cake – The accumulation of dust on a bag before cleaning. Fan Laws – Theoretical constant relationships between CFM. Filter Collector – A mechanical filtration system for removing particulate matter from a gas stream. Filament – Mono – One continuous strand of fiber to indefinite length. wool. °F = (1. 13 . thick cloth of short fibers on a woven backing. a Federally implemented plan to achieve attainment of an air quality standard.8 x °C) +32° Fan – A power-driven machine which moves a continuous volume of air by converting rotational mechanical energy to an increase in the total pressure of the moving air. Also called bag collector. analysis.

FRP – Abbreviation for fiberglass-reinforced-plastic. given in terms of static pressure. and natural gas.) – Torque rating or requirement. Fumes flocculate and sometimes coalesce. Full-Load Speed – The speed at which the rated horsepower is developed. Forced Draft – How air is provided in a process such as a combustion process. shaft height. it is known as a “forced draft” system. FPM – Feet per minute. This speed is less than synchronous speed and varies with the motor type and manufacturer. commonly defines air velocity (to determine velocity pressure or suitability for material conveying). Fume – Solid particulates generated by condensation from the gaseous state. so-called because they are the remains of ancient plant and animal life.-Lb. Fossil Fuels – Coal.Flexing – Bending. Also see Smog. alternating current. or rotational speed. equivalent to the force required to move a one-pound weight one foot in distance. Fog – The condensation of water vapor in air. practices. and techniques which are commercially available and appropriate considering economic impacts and the technical capabilities of the firms to operate and maintain the emissions control systems. such as oxidation. G Garbadine Weave – A regular or “steep” twill with higher warp than fill count. Forced Draft Burner – A burner which has its secondary air supplied under pressure. Free Field – The surroundings of a specific equipment location in which no obstructions or reverberant surfaces exist to distort or amplify sound waves. Also see induced draft. equal to 12 in-lb. Fugitive Emissions – Emissions not caught by a capture system. or contracting and expanding. Under Title III of the CAAA. Foot-Pound (Ft. Dimensions include: shaft diameter. Usually expressed in cycles per second (cps) or just “cycles”. and motor mounting footprint. GACT – (Generally Available Control Technology) Methods. EPA will establish either GACT or MACT standards for each source of HAPs. Frame Size – A set of physical dimensions of motors as established by National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) for interchangeability between manufacturers. when air is blown or forced into a process. and often accompanied by a chemical reaction. shaft/bearing speeds (used to determine lubrication requirements) and wheel tip speeds. Friction Loss – Resistance to air flow through any duct or fitting. Full-Load Torque – The torque required to produce the rated horsepower at full-load speed. Frequency – Any cyclic event whether vibration. Fly Ash – The particulate impurities resulting from the burning of coal and other material. 14 . generally after volatilization from molten metal. This is normally done by surrounding the dryer opening by a plenum or windbox and supplying the air with a low pressure fan. oil.

Does not imply a grey (gray) color.125 2. H Cyclone – MAC Equipment’s medium efficiency cyclone dust collector. Gauge (gage) – Metal manufacturers’ standard measure of thickness for sheer stock. Grain – A dust weight unit commonly used in air pollution control. formless fluids which occupy the space of its enclosure and which can be changed to a Liquid or solid state only by the combined effect of increased pressure and decreased temperature. Ground Motor – A short circuit between any point in the motor’s electrical circuit and its connection to the ground. There are several units of measurement: ACFM – The actual gas flow measured (Actual Cubic Feet per Minute). some examples for steel are: Gauge 7 10 12 14 16 Thickness (Inches) .50 5. Equal to one seven thousandth of a pound. 15 .1793 . Measurement is made by the number of grains per cubic foot of gas emitted.0598 Weight of Steel (Lbs/Ft.375 3.1046 . that break down in the atmosphere depleting stratospheric ozone. H Halons – A family of compounds containing bromine. Gasoline vapor is a VOC (Volatile Organic Compound). DSCFM – The gas flow reduced to 70°F (standard temperature) and standard pressure (latm) and without volume of steam or water vapor contained in the exhaust gas (Dry Standard Cubic Feet per Minute). and chlorine used in fighting fires. Griege (Griege goods) – Same as grey or unfinished goods. Gas Flow Rate.0747 .²) 7.Gases – Normally. SCFM – The gas flow volume reduced to 70°F (standard temperature) and standard pressure (latm) by calculation (Standard Cubic Feet per Minute). Cubic Feet per Minute (CFM) – The volume of process gas at any point of the plant exhaust system measured in terms of minutes. One grain = 1 LB 7000 Grain Loading – The rate at which particles are emitted from a pollution source. (See page 33 for a complete listing).625 4. iodine. All HAP sources will have to comply with GACT or MACT standards. Gasoline Volatility – The property of gasoline whereby it evaporates into a vapor. Gases diffuse.50 Gauge Pressure – The pressure differential between atmospheric and that measured in the system. with a higher number reflecting more gasoline evaporation. fluorine.1345 . Gasoline volatility is measured in pounds per square inch (psi). HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants) – Any of the 189 chemicals listed under Title III of the CAAA.

lbs. Hg – Symbol for mercury. Horsepower can be calculated by: HP = _Torque (ft.64” WG) High Pressure Cleaning Air – Air at 80-100 PSIG used for cleaning air in baghouses and cartridge filters. HD Airlock – Heavy Duty airlock.HCFC’s – Chlorofluorocarbons that have been chemically altered by the addition of hydrogen. Relative – The ratio of the actual partial pressure of water vapor in a space to the saturated pressure of pure water vapor in a space to the saturated pressure of pure water at the same temperature. HEPA Filter (High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter) – Capable of removing at least 99. they may be carcinogenic or active participants in the photochemical smog process. the pressurized pipe that contains the compressed air supply for pulsing.000 ft. ventilating. Heat Exchanger – A device such as a coil or radiator which is used to transfer heat between two physically separate fluids.746 kilowatts. Horsepower – (As applied to motors) is an index of the amount of work the machine can perform in a period of time. lowest priced cast iron airlock. Humidity. MAC Equipment’s all purpose.3 micron challenge particulate (DOP test). If it is undersized. of work per minute. Absolute – The weight of water vapor per unit volume. A device used in the measurement and analysis of suspended particulate pollution. HVAC – Heating. found especially in fossil fuels.97% by count of a standard 0. Hertz – Frequency measured in cycles per second. and air conditioning. Header – As applied to pulse-jet baghouses. also equal to 0. Hydrophobic Fibers – Those fibers or materials not readily water absorbent. Some of the hydrocarbon compounds are major air pollutants.) x RPM_ 5250 Humidity. Hygroscopic – Materials having an affinity for water. HE Cyclone – MAC Equipment’s High Efficiency cyclone dust collector.lbs. (1” Hg = 13. and which are significantly less damaging to stratospheric ozone than other CFC’s. Hi-Volume Sampler – Also called a Hi-Vol. insufficient cleaning air will flow through the valve. Pressure is often measured in inches of mercury. 16 . 1HP equals 33. Hydrocarbon – Any of the vast family of compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in various combinations. pounds per cubic foot or grams per cubic centimeter. HON – Hazardous Organic NESHAPS.

pathological. Also see forced draft. the voids. i. The contact is not dependent on inertia and the particle is retained on the fiber because of the inherent adhesive forces that exist between the particle and fiber. called van der Waals forces. 17 . however cannot follow the abrupt changes in direction because of their inertia. set at an incline to increase reading accuracy. (407” WC = 14.I Impeller – Another term for fan “wheel”. Inclined Manometer – A testing instrument using a liquid column. Instability – The point of operation at which a fan or system will “hunt” or pulse.7 PSI) Inches WG (Inches of Water Gauge) – See inch of water. The rotating portion of the fan designed to increase the energy level of the gas stream. Interception – A special case of impingement where a particle is small enough to move with the air stream. it is commonly a lightweight fiberglass mat. Induction – The production of an electric current in a conductor in a changing magnetic field. such as a combustion process. Impeller Diameter – The maximum diameter measured over the impeller blades. see WR². See mechanical and cyclone collectors. Inertia – Tendency of an object to remain in the state it is in. Inch of Water – A unit of pressure equal to the pressure exerted by a column of water one inch high at a standard temperature. Inertial Separators – Air pollution control equipment that uses the principle of inertia to remove particulate matter from a stream of air or gas. As a result. liquid or gaseous wastes under controlled conditions. enable a fiber to trap a particle without the use of inertia. or hazardous solid. Induced Draft – How air is provided in a process. Incinerator – A device which burns household. These forces. Interstices – The openings between the interlacings of the warp and filling yarns. Inlet-Vane Damper – Round multiblade damper mounted to the inlet of a fan to vary the airflow. Impingement – When air flows through a filter. Normally used to read velocity pressure. but. they do not follow the air stream and collide with a fiber. to measure pressure. it changes direction as it passes around each fiber. Insulation – Any method which will retard the flow of heat through a wall.. common in FC fans and some other fan types where the point of operation is left of the peak of the static-pressure curve. because its size is very small in relation to the fiber. Larger dust particles. makes contact with a fiber while following the tortuous air flow path of the filter. where air is drawn or pulled through a process.e. industrial. Inspection & Maintenance (I&M) – A program providing for periodic inspections of motor vehicles to ensure that emissions of specified pollutants are not exceeding established limitations. In baghouses.

when mounted in an opening. MAC Equipment acronym for its square top bag removal pulse jet dust collectors from 64 to 144 bags. permits the flow of air but inhibits the entrance of undesirable elements. It is found by dividing the collector gas volume by its cross sectional area. Kilowatt – Kw. Interstitial Velocity – The apparent velocity of a gas as it passes by a filter bag matrix. LVS (c) – Large Air Vent Square. Lower Explosive Limit – The lower limit of flammability or explosibility of a gas or vapor at ordinary ambient temperature expressed in percent of a gas or a vapor in air by volume. LST (c) – Large Square Top removal. measure of power equal to 1. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. Low Nox Burners – One of several combustion technologies used to reduce emission of Nox. LAER (Lowest Achievable Emission Rate) – The rate of emissions which reflects either the most stringent emission limit contained in the implementation plan of any state (unless it is proved that such limitations are not achievable). one inch water gauge is 0. metric pressure unit. Knockout Box – See primary collector. Leno – A weave in which the adjacent warp yarns are twisted on either side of the interlacing filling yarn. Liquide Flowrate – The amount of water or “scrubbing liquid” introduced into a wet collector.Inversion – An atmospheric condition caused by a layer of warm air preventing the rise of cooling air trapped beneath it. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. Laminar Flow – Gas or fluid in parallel layers with some sliding motion between the layers. or the most stringent emission limit achieved in practice. 18 . whichever is most stringent. Kilopascal – Kpa. after the cross sectional of the bags have been subtracted from the collector cross sectional area. K Kelvin – Absolute Temperature in the SI system scale. also known as B-10.34 horsepower. L L-10 Bearing Life – The theoretical number of hours after which 90% of the bearings subjected to a given set of conditions will still be in operation. Louver – A device comprised of multiple blades which. This prevents the rise of pollutants that might otherwise be dispersed and results in a concentration of the air pollution.24836 Kpa. Low Pressure Cleaning Air – Air at less than 30” WC used for cleaning baghouses. MAC Equipment acronym for its square bottom bag removal pulse jet dust collectors from 64 to 144 bags.

MCF (c) – Medium Pressure Controlled Fire. begins to deviate from the fan laws. and MACT is Maximum Achievable Control Technology. Manometer – A u-shaped device for measuring the static pressure at a point relative to some other point. used in fan engineering where air moving at a mach of 0. MAC Equipment acronym for its dust collector that utilizes 7 psi air to clean the bags through a rotating mechanism that is timed to release the air precisely over the bags. a major source is one which emits more than 100. Make-up Air – A ventilating term which refers to the replacement of air lost because of exhaust air requirements. Examples of mechanical collectors are cyclones.. MIASMACT – MAC Equipments trademark name for its Automatic Cleaning HEPA filter. Microbar – A unit of pressure equal to one-millionth of an atmospheric pressure. The difference in the level of the water columns is equivalent to the pressure differential. Major Source – A stationary source which emits a large amount of pollution.” MACT standards for existing sources must be at least as stringent as the average level of control achieved at the best controlled 12 percent of facilities. Manifold – As used in conjunction with pulse jet baghouses.achievable for new or existing sources. When operated wet. or 9/10 the speed of sound. 50.000. a major source is one which can emit more than 10 TPY of any one HAP or 25 TPY of total HAPs. This patented dust collector is available from 22 to 1652 bags. Sometimes called a blow-pipe. 25. In non-attainment areas. Serious. MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology) – The standard to which sources of HAPs will have to comply. Severe. For hazardous air pollutants. Mechanical Collector – Devices that are functionally dependent on the laws of mechanics governing the motion of bodies in space.. Maximum Continuous Rating – The point at which the fan is expected to operate. the pressure difference causes water to rise or fall. Micro – A prefix meaning 1/1. 19 . (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. and various types of impingement collectors.000 abbreviated by the Greek letter µ... the CAAA defines MACT as “the maximum degree of reduction in emissions. Miasma is a word meaning toxic materials in the air. respectively.taking into account the cost of achieving such reductions.0000146 PSI. under Title I of the CAAA. It distributes the compressed pulse to the bags. 0. settling chambers. MIASMACT is an overlay of the words Miasma and MIACT. or Extreme. Can be operated dry or wet. under Title III of the CAAA. Medium Pressure Cleaning Air – Air at 5-10 PSIG used for cleaning baghouses.9. the pipe that extends over the bags with a hole over each bag. Micrometer – See micron. or 10 tons per year depending on whether the area is classified as Marginal or Moderate. and MACT for new sources will have to be even stricter. Mactiflo – MAC Equipment’s trademark name for its down flow cartridge filter. Mega – A prefix meaning 1 million.M Mach Number – A fraction of the speed of sound. devices are generally called scrubbers.

The needles move up and down. Needled Felt – A felt made by the placement of loose fiber in systematic alignment with barbed needles. In general. NEC – National Electrical Code. Modacrylic – A synthetic fiber which contains less than 85% acrylonitrile. Milli – A prefix meaning 1/1. and provides financial assistance to help developing countries make the transition from ozone-depleting substances. Molecular Weight – The weight of a molecule expressed on a scale in which the carbon isotope weighs exactly 12.1200. particles down to 10 microns can be seen without the aid of magnification.000. a phase-out of chloroform by 2005. such as by splashing. MIL – A unit of measure equal to 25 microns or one thousandth of an inch. An average human hair is 70 microns in diameter. 29 CFR 1910. foaming and atomizing. as required by OSHA’s Hazard Communication Standard. Natural Frequency – The frequency at which a component or system resonates. Mist – Suspended liquid droplets generated by condensation from the gaseous to the liquid state or by breaking up a liquid into a dispersed state. Mullen Burst – The pressure necessary to rupture a secured cloth specimen. Modeling – An investigate technique using computer mathematical. NEDS – National Emission Data System. Multi-Filament (Multi-fill) – A yarn composed of a number of filaments. The protocol. pushing and pulling fibers to form an interlocking of adjacent fibers. represents the sum of the weights of all the atoms in a molecule. or physical representation of a system that accounts for all or some of its known properties.0. but an apparent molecular weight determined by the percentages of the molecular weights of each gas in a composition. Mildew Resistant Finish – An organic or inorganic finish to repel the growth of fungi on natural fibers. Napped – The rupturing of the filling yarns to produce a fleecy surface on woven fabrics. MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) – Compilation of data and information on individual hazardous chemicals produced by the manufacturers and importers of that chemical. 20 . it does not have a true molecular weight. Montreal Protocol – An international environmental agreement to control chemicals that deplete the ozone layer.Micron – Symbol µ. calls for phase-out of CFCs. usually expressed in pounds per square inch. which was renegotiated in June 1990. a unit of length equal to one millionth of a meter. As air is a gas mixture. and carbon tetrachloride by the year 2000. N NACE – National Association of Corrosion Engineers. halons. It is the most commonly used construction method since it is stronger than pressed felt.

New Source – A stationary source. A wire in which one volt produces a current of one ampere has a resistance of one Ohm. in a graphical form.). normally refers to the degree of visibility of an exhaust plume. and providing professional education as well as health and safety information. hazardous waste activity 5(a)(1) citations. and 15% from industrial fuel combustion. and other information compiled by OSHA on subjects related to occupational safety and health. reacts with volatile organic compounds. 250. Nox (Nitrogen Oxides) – Chemical compounds containing nitrogen and oxygen. NC curves give.NEMA – The National Electrical Manufacturers Association. the trade association establishing standards of dimensions. measurement techniques. and control technologies. 35% from electric utilities.733 inches of water. 125. Non-Attainment – An area which has not achieved air quality as good as the National Ambient Air Quality Standards as defined by the CAAA. 21 . approximately 45% of Nox emissions come from mobile sources. It is also a major precursor to acid rain. a unit of pressure equal to one-sixteenth PSI or 1. maximum permissible intensity per octave band. Its mandate includes conducting research in developing criteria and/or recommendations to be used in setting occupational exposure standards. Capacity – Refers to the amount of light that can pass through. in the presence of heat and sunlight to term ozone. matting of fibers or compressed with a bonding agent for permanency. Octave Bands – Ranges of frequencies. and other design criteria for electric motors. chemical information. Nationwide. OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Non-Woven Felt – A felt made by either needling. a health hazard evaluation index. NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) – Created by the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Normal measurement technique used by EPA method 9. Opposed-Blade Damper – A type of damper where the blades rotate in the opposite direction. O OCIS (OSHA Computerized Information System) – A comprehensive database that contains information and data on standards interpretation. These octave bands are identified by their center frequencies (63. ratings enclosures. training materials. Noise Criteria – A way for an architect to specify the maximum permissible sound-power level in each of the eight octave bands. the construction or reconstruction of which is commenced after the proposal date of the standard. Ohm – A measure of electrical resistance. NESHAP – National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. identifying and evaluating workplace hazards. OSI – Ounces per square inch. Also NSPS (New Source Performance Standard). NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control under the Department of Health and Human Services. etc. insulation. Onboard Controls – Devices placed on vehicles to capture gasoline vapor during refueling.

Two identical fans in parallel will effectively deliver twice the rated flow of any one of the fans at the same static pressure. 6 to 0 increasingly acid. and materials. 8 to 14 increasingly alkaline.5 H2O pressure differential. Particulate – A particle of solid or liquid matter. Permanent Split Capacitor Motor – Very low starting torque. It is formed through chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving volatile organic compounds.g. Pick – See fill. license. pH7 is taken as neutral. e.. Particulate Matter – Any solid or liquid material in the atmosphere. 22 . The products are known as photochemical smog. that is the primary constituent of smog. etc. Permeability. Pilot Valve – The small solenoid valve that is electrically operated to relieve pressure on one side of the diaphragm and cause the operation of a larger diaphragm valve. nitrogen oxides. and sunlight.Oxygenated Fuels – Gasoline which has been blended with alcohols or ethers that contain oxygen in order to reduce carbon monoxide and other emissions. Parallel Fans – Two or more fans which draw air from a common source and exhaust into a common duct or plenum. This dimension is necessary for accurate drive calculations. expressed in cubic feet of air per minute per square foot of fabric with 0. Pitch Diameter – The mean diameter or point at which V-belts ride within a sheave. A parallel fan arrangement is generally used to meet volume requirements beyond that of single fans. Fabric – Measured on Frazier porosity meter or Gurley permeometer. Piezometer Ring – A device consisting of a number of pressure taps connected to a common manifold to measure pressure. or equivalent control document issued by EPA or an approved state agency to implement the requirements of an environmental regulation. The ability of air to pass through the fabric. Ozone – A compound consisting of three oxygen atoms. Ozones can initiate damage to the lungs as well as damage to trees. Permit – An authorization. PEL (Permissible Exposure Limits) – Limits developed by OSHA to indicate the maximum airborne concentration of a contaminant to which an employee may be exposed. Performance and applications similar to shaded pole but more efficient. There is a natural layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere which shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. with lower line current and higher horsepower capabilities. pH – A symbol as part of a logarithmic designation to indicate acidity or alkalinity on a scale from 0 to 14. Not to be confused with dust permeability. crops. a permit to operate a facility that may generate harmful emissions. P Parallel-Blade Damper – A type of damper where the blades rotate in the same direction. Photochemical Process – The chemical changes brought about by the radiant energy of the sun acting upon various polluting substances.

but primarily applying those equipped with 100% synthetic fabric. Plenum Pulse – Type of pulsing collector where entire sections of the clean air plenum are isolated and pulsed with either compressed air or air from a high pressure blower. Units are expressed by weight or volume.92 inches of mercury. Porosity – Sometimes erroneously used as a synonym for permeability. POLIPLEET – MAC Equipment’s trademark for its line of pleated spun bond 100% polyester cartridges. may be designated as velocity pressure divided by static pressure or by a given CFM and SP. the bend end of the tube has a hole through which total pressure is measured when pointed upstream in a moving gas stream.Pilot Tube – A metering device consisting of a double-walled tube with a short right-angle bend. Point Source – A stationary location or facility from which pollutants are emitted. Pre-Coating – The application of a relatively coarse. It is the pressure indicated by a barometer. Point of Operation – The intersection of a fan’s static pressure curve and the system curve to which the fan is being applied.e. standard atmospheric pressure is 29. or chemical means to collect particulates. Ply – Two or more yams joined together by twisting. Refers to the amount of particulate matter under 10 micrometers in diameter. Pressure. analysis or control. The resistance to flow between the two points. PPM (Parts Per Million) – The number of parts of a given pollutant in a million parts of air. Atmospheric – The pressure due to the weight of the atmosphere. Used for measurement. i. See electrostatic precipitator. Pounds Per 100 Pounds of Gas – A common quantitative definition of air pollution concentration. PM 10 – A new standard for measuring the amount of solid or liquid matter suspended in the atmosphere (“particulate matter”). Precipitators – Any number of devices using mechanical. Pressure Drop – The differential pressure between two points in a system. Plenum – Pressure equalizing chamber. affecting sensitive population groups such as children and people with respiratory diseases. any single identifiable source of pollution. Originally a designation for the amount of air in a fabric. electrical. The POLIPLEET can be used in MAC Equipment’s entire product line of dust collectors. Also. The smaller PM10 particles penetrate to the deeper portions of the lung. dry dust to a bag or cartilage before start-up to provide an initial filter cake to enhance immediate high efficiency. Polymerized – A chemical reaction in which two or more small molecules combine to form larger molecules that contain repeating structural units of the original molecules. Pressed Felt – A type of felt manufactured by pressing fibers into the skrim. blankets. Pleated Filter Element – Filter elements made from any pleated filter media. the periphery of the tube has several holes through which static pressure is measured. 23 .

it refers to approaches for controlling small or dispersed source categories such as road dust. woodstoves. Pressure.7 PSIA. Usually expressed in inches water gauge. Pulse Jet – Generic name given to all pulsing collectors. PSIG (Pounds per Square Inch Gauge) – The pressure relative to atmosphere. density. Velocity – The kinetic pressure in the directional flow necessary to cause a fluid at rest to flow at a given velocity. Generally described as the length of time the electrical signal the pilot valve open (20-40 milliseconds). and open burning. causing bag walls to collapse behind it. Pulse Interval – The time between pulsing one row of bags and pulsing the next row. humidity. 10 PSIG equals 24. A bubble of air flows down the bag. Pulse Duration – The length of time a pulse lasts. The EPA promulgates a rule when it issues the final version in the Federal Register. Usually expressed in inches water gauge when dealing with air. Primary Collector – A dry or wet collector which is followed by a secondary collector with greater filtering efficiency.7” water gauge. For instance. temperature. Atmospheric pressure is 14. Process Weight – The weight per hour that is run through the process.7 PSIA. used extensively in comfort ventilation. Psychromatic Chart – A graphic depiction of the relationship between pressure. and enthalpy for any gas-vapor mixture. Promulgate – To make a new law known and put it into effect. includes Reasonably Available Control Technology and other measures. In the case of PM10. 1 psi equals 27. Generic name given to all pulsing collectors. Commonly used in APC codes to determine the maximum allowance pollution exhausted. Pulse Jet Cleaning – A cleaning method where a momentary burst of compressed air is introduced through tube or nozzle to the top cap of a bag. the interval of time between pulsing a row of bags and that row being pulsed again. PSI (Pounds per square inch) – A measure of pressure. Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) – EPA program in which state and/or federal permits are required that are intended to restrict emissions for new or modified sources in places where air quality is already better than required to meet primary and secondary ambient air quality standards. For a fluid in motion it is measured in a direction normal (90°) to the direction of now. R RACM (Reasonably Available Control Measures) – A broadly defined term referring to technologies and other measures that can be used to control pollution. PSIA (Pounds per Square Inch Absolute) – The absolute pressure without reference to another point. however would more correctly be the description of the length of time the manifold is pressurized (120-180) milliseconds. 24 . Pulse Cycle – As used in conjunction with pulse jet baghouses. Static – The potential pressure exerted in all directions by fluid at rest.Pressure. This is the more common pressure term.

Under Title I of the CAAA. Repeat – The number of threads in a weave before the weave repeats or starts over again. Reverse Air Baghouse – Baghouse using bags that are cleaned by flowing air backwards through the cloth. EPA will establish RACT standards for marginal. The type of test always used unless specified. The number of ends and picks in the repeat may be equal or unequal but in every case the repeat must be in a rectangular form. Relative Humidity – The ratio of existing water vapor to that of saturated air at the same dry-bulb temperature. ASTM specs are available at technical libraries. Same as reverse air baghouse. While negligible at low pressure and volumes. Residual Risk – The quantity of health risk remaining after application of the MACT (Maximum Achievable Control Technology). Resistance – In air flow. inert gaseous element formed by radioactive decay of radium atoms in soil or rocks. or by changing the momentum of the gas. and are believed to have potentially mutagenic effects on the human body. or rarefied. REL (Recommended Exposure Limits) – Issued by NIOSH to aid in controlling hazards in the workplace. naturally occurring. and serious non-attainment areas. Radial Blade – Fan wheel design. and becomes less dense than at the entry to the system. They can have a long life as pollutants. Occurs when dust is pulsed from a bag and then caught up by an upward moving air stream. Random Noise – A sound that has an average amplitude and constantly changing frequency. Rarefication – A phenomenon related to negative pressure.RACT (Reasonably Available Control Technology) – An emission limitation on existing sources in non-attainment areas. to cause dust cake release. it is caused by friction of the air against any surface. cut just over one inch wide. radioactive. Re-entrainment – The phenomenon whereby dust is collected from the air stream and then is returned to the air stream. in pounds per inch of a 6” long textile sample cut. (with yarns peeled off each side down to exactly one inch wide) pulled in two lengthwise between jaws set 3” apart and pulled at a constant specified speed. high pressure fan selection must be based on rarefied inlet density. with blades positioned in straight radial direction from the hub. the air is stretched out. These limits are generally expressed as 8 or 10 hour TWAs for a 40-hour work week and/or calling levels with time limits ranging from instantaneous to 120 minutes. Repressuring Baghouse – Baghouse using bags that are cleaned by flowing air backwards through the cloth. moderate. Ravel Strip Tensile – The tension strength. When air is drawn put through resistance into a fain inlet. Radon – A colorless. Rankine – See Absolute Temperature. Repowering – The replacement of an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies. defined by EPA in a Control Techniques Guideline (CTG) and adopted and implemented by states. in order to achieve significantly greater emission reduction relative to the performance of technology in widespread use as of the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments. 25 . Radionuclide – Radioactive element which can be man made or naturally occurring.

e. Grades opacity from 0 to 5. EPA Toxic Substances Control Ad (TSCA) Information. Rotor – The rotating part of most AC motors. Ringelman Chart – Actually.7 PSIA). used to define fan proportionality. A Ringelman No. a Ringelman No. Reynolds Number – A mathematical factor used to express the relation between velocity. top bag removal pulse jets that start at 196 bags and go up as high as needed. indicated by the charts. 1 is equivalent to 20 percent black. See gas flow rate. that simulate various smoke densities. (C) designates cartridges instead of bags. to 100 percent. and animal and human toxicologic data. or densities. They are used for measuring the opacity of smoke rising from stacks and other sources. density. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. S Sanctions – Actions taken against a State or local government for failure to plan or to implement a SIP.Reverse Jet – See pulse jet. Scour – A soap and water wash to “off loom” fabric. SB Fan – MAC Equipment’s Strait Blade fan. the formed piece to which housing sides are welded. numbered from 0 to 5.g. Department of Transportation (DOT) hazard label information. Scroll – The general shape of a centrifugal fan housing. 26 . where 0 is an invisible discharge and 5 is totally opaque.. RTECS (Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances) – A database that lists an identification number. synonyms. RPT (c) – Rectangular Pulse Top removal. RT (c) – Round top removal. Saturated Air – Air containing the maximum amount of water vapor for a given temperature and pressure. SCFM (Standard Cubic Feet per Minute) – The volume that a gas would occupy at standard temperature and pressure conditions (70°F and 14. by matching with the actual effluent. Satin Weave – A form of twill except that the points of intersection are separated from one another in a consistent or inconsistent manner. MAC Equipment acronym for its round top bag removal pulse jet dust collectors. RPM – Revolutions per minute. expressed as warp sateen or filling sateen. a series of charts. viscosity. 5. a ban on construction of new sources. the various numbers. Sateen – Cotton cloth made with a satin weave. Ringelman numbers were sometimes used in setting emission standards. and dimensions in a system of flow. This all purpose fan can be placed on the clean air or dirty air side of the dust collector in most cases. MAC equipment acronym for its large rectangular. by presenting different percentages of black. OSHA and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) air exposure limits. Ringelman – A measure of the opacity caused by pollution from a stack.

Low starting torque. Shaker Baghouse – A baghouse using woven cloth bags. Also. and submitted to EPA for approval. which identifies actions and programs to be undertaken by the State and its subdivisions to implement their responsibilities under the Clean Air Act. Secondary Collector – A dust collector which is preceded by primary collector(s). Settling Chamber – A dry collection device which removes particulate matter from the gas stream by slowing down the exhaust gas velocity. Singed Finish – A felted bag finish that is designed to provide a finish similar to calendering. Service Factor – The number by which the horsepower rating is multiplied to determine the maximum safe load that a motor may be expected to carry continuously. packed towers. Gas – Any device in which a contaminant. Shaft Seal – A device to limit gas leakage between the shaft and fan housing.Scrubber – A device that uses a liquid spray to remove aerosol and gaseous pollutants from an air stream. dry dust to a bag or cartridge before start-up to provide an initial filter cake for immediate high efficiency and to protect bags from blinding. impingement scrubbers. jet scrubbers. Sensible Heat – Any portion of heat which affects a change in a substance’s temperature but does not alter that substance’s state. Shaded-Pole Motor – A special type of single-phase induction motor. Singeing – The burning off of the protruding fibers from the warp and filling yarns of the fabric. cleaning occurs by shaking bags from the top. cyclone scrubbers. SIP (State Implementation Plan) – Documents prepared by states. Series Fans – A combination of fans connected such that the outlet of one fan exhausts into the inlet of another. SI Units – Systeme International d’Unites. International System of Units. The “hairs” are burned off to provide a smoother finish. Usually used on direct-drive fans. 27 . Singles – The term used to imply only one yarn. seeding is used to start the crystallization process. is removed from a gas stream by liquid droplets. Seeding – The application of a relatively coarse. Solid and liquid particulates are removed through contact with the spray. Scrubbers are used for both the measurement and control of pollution. any one of the units of measure in the international meter-kilogram-second system. and mechanical scrubbers). in crystallizing. orifice scrubbers. low cost. The secondary filter normally has a higher filtering efficiency. venturi scrubbers. Most commonly used on Dacron polyester and fiberglass bags. Scrubber. solid or gaseous. The gases are removed either by absorption or chemical reaction. Silicone Finish – A treatment of felted bags with silicone to provide a slick finish for improved dust release. Fans connected in this manner are capable of higher pressures than a single fan and are used to meet pressure requirements greater that single fans. (Types include spray towers.

Split-Phase Motor – The most common type of single-phase induction motor. non-flammable acidic gas.. Expressed in units or pressure or in decibels. Second-Power Level – Acoustic power radiating from a sound source. Soot – Very finely divided carbon particles clustered together in long chains. The ratio of the density of andy gas to the density of dry air at the same temperature and pressure is the specific gravity of the gas. or vapors. Spun Fabric – Fabric woven from staple spun fabric. Squirrel-Cage Winding – A permanently short-circuited winding . Specific Heat – The ratio of the quantity of heat required to raise a certain volume one degree to that required to raise an equal volume of water one degree. SO3 – Sulfur trioxide oxidized from SO2 combines with atmospheric moisture to form sulfuric acid mist (H2SO4). high breakdown torque. tar and tobacco. Slippage – The movement of yarns in a fabric due to insufficient interlacings. Source – Any place or object from which pollutants are released. SP – Static pressure. not including the force or pressure of air movement. SSPC – Steel Structure Painting Council 28 . fumes. usually uninsulated and chiefly used in induction motors. notably those from automobile exhaust. such as belt-drive fans. Sound-Pressure Level – The acoustic pressure at a point in space where the microphone or listener’s ear is situated. Smog – The irritating haze resulting from the sun’s effect on certain pollutants in the air.Sizing – A protective coating applied to yarn to ensure safe handling. Skrim – A woven fabric that felt is needled onto. Expressed in watts or decibels. AMCA standard of guidelines for general methods of fan construction when handling potentially explosive or flammable particles. Smoke – Carbon or soot particles. see photochemical process. SO2 – Sulfur dioxide is an invisible. Also a mixture of fog and smoke. pressure as measured in all directions within an air-handling system. high starting current. formed during combustion of fuel containing sulfur. SPI – Society of the Plastics Industry.g. e. moderate starting torque. oil. used on easy-starting equipment. SRC – Spark-Resistant Construction. Slip – The percentage difference between synchronous and operating speeds. abrasion-free during weaving.1 micrometers in size which result from the incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials such as coal. Specific Gravity – The ratio of the weight or mass of a given volume of any substance to that of an equal volume of some other substance taken as a standard. less than 0. having its conductors uniformly distributed around the periphery of the machine and joined by continuous end rings.

sulfur oxides may damage the respiratory tract as well as vegetation. Stack – A smokestack. colorless gases formed primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels. Streamline Flow – Fluid flow in which the velocity pressure and fluid density of a given particle remains constant with time. a vertical pipe or flue designed to exhaust gases. Measured in inches of water (WG). Stage II Controls – Systems placed on service station gasoline pumps to control and capture gasoline vapors during an automobile refueling. corresponds approximately to dry air at 70°F. Synchronous speed = 120 x frequency divided by number of poles. MAC acronym for its square top bag removal pulse jet dust collectors up to 64 bags. STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) – The employee’s 15 minute time weighted average exposure which cannot be exceeded at any time. It is a respiratory irritant. if this is a possibility. colorless air pollutant formed primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels. Synchronous Speed – Rated motor speed expressed in RPM. Static Pressure (Fan) – The static pressure for which a fan is to be selected based on system calculations.ST (c) – Square Top removal. considered major air pollutants. Sometimes called locked rotor torque. Hg. SWSI – Single-Width Single-Inlet Centrifugal Fans. Stator – The stationary parts of a magnetic circuit with associated windings. In reality. Starting Torque – The torque produced by a motor as it begins to turn from a standstill and accelerate. Sulfur Oxides – Pungent. and 29. Surge Limit – That point near the peak of the pressure curve which corresponds to the minimum flow at which the fan can be operated without instability. especially for asthmatics and is the major precursor to the formation of acid rain. fan SP = SP outlet-Sp inlet-VP inlet.92 in. Static Pressure (Hot) – The pressure caused by the resistance to air flow through the system at actual conditions. 29 . Static Balance – The mechanical balance of a rotating part or assembly by adding weights to counter-balance gravitational rotating of the part without power driving it. (c) designates cartridges instead of bags. Static Pressure (Cold) – The pressure caused by the resistance to air flow through the system if the gas were at standard conditions or colder. pungent. STEL is set by OSHA for each pollutant and expressed in terms of ppm or mg/m³.0750 lbs. air in excess of the stoichlometric ratio is usually provided to encourage complete combustion of the fuel./ft³. Stoichlometric Air – The exact quantity of air required to combine with the given fuel so that the ensuing combustion reaction is perfect and no free oxygen or unburned constituents remain. Standard Air Density – 0. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) – A heavy.

etc. filters. Hence any kind of fabric. usually in RPM. diffusers.-lb. Textile – That which is or may be woven. expressed in pounds per square inch. elbows. A force of one pound applied to the handle of a crank. the sum of velocity pressure plus static pressure. rotation. and the standardized connections used in laboratory tests to obtain fan-performance ratings. Tape Sampler – A device used in the measurement of both gases particulates. TLV®(Threshold Limit Value) – A registered trademark for an exposure limit developed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).) = HP x 5250 RPM Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) – A listing of pollutants and emissions Levels from each major source.-lbs. System Effect – The effect on the performance of a fan resulting from the difference between the fan inlet and outlet connections to the actual system. or in. leakage air). T Tachometer – an instrument which measures the speed of rotation. the center of which is displaced one foot from the center of the shaft. Test Block – An operating point above and beyond the maximum specified continuous rating demonstrating the fan margin to the customer. Tensile Strength – The maximum stress a material can withstand before it breaks.System – A series of ducts. System Curve – Graphic presentation of the pressure versus volume flow rate characteristics of a particular system.-lbs. scavenger air. Threshold Limit Values (TLV) – Represents the air concentrations of chemical substances to which it is believed that workers may be exposed daily without adverse effect. conduits. gas. 30 . produces a torque of one ft. Tip Speed – Fan wheel velocity at a point corresponding to the outside diameter of the wheel blades. not along the crank. Comes from the Latin “Texere” to weave. A fan provides the energy necessary to overcome the system’s resistance to flow and causes air or gas to flow through the system. System gas Volume – All gases flowing through the exhaust gas system (including excess air. on the shaft if the force is provided perpendicular to. or vapor to and from one or more locations. Thread Count – The number of warp and filling yarns in a fabric commonly expressed in square inch. designed to guide the flow of air. normally expressed in feet per minute (circumference times RPM).-lbs. It allows air sampling to be made automatically at predetermined times. or lends to produce.” Torque – A force which produces. TP – Total pressure.. Torque can be calculated by: Torque (Ft. commonly measured in ft. A listing of TLVs may be found in the ACGIH’s “Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices for 1988-1989.

31 .” van der Waals – Adhesive forces that exist between the particle and fiber. and variable-pitch impellers. U Unbalance – The condition of a rotor in which its rotation results in centrifugal force being applied to the rotor’s supporting bearings. e. a term usually used for inside collector baghouses.g. evenly distributed areas that are each tested. Uniform Flow – Airflow in which velocities between any two given points remain fairly constant.TPI – Twist Per Inch. “Z” or “S” respectively. TPY – Tons per year. Tubeaxial Fan – Axial fan without guide vanes. Twist – The number of complete spiral turns in a yarn.g. Sometimes called cellplate. right turn on red) or reduce vehicle use (ridesharing. lanes. high-occupancy vehicle Lanes) to reduce vehicular emissions of air pollutants. TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act) – Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Separates the clean air and dirty air sections of the baghouse. simply called “valve. Traverse – A method of sampling points in a duct where pressure readings will be taken to determine velocity. and Disposal. Tubular Centrifugal Fan – Fan with a centrifugal impeller within a cylindrical housing discharging the gas in an axial direction. A traverse divides the duct into equal. Transportation Control Measures (TCM’s) – Steps taken by a locality to adjust traffic patterns (e. Turbulent Flow – Airflow in which true velocities at a given point vary erratically in speed and direction. Includes fixed-pitch. Vaneaxial Fan – Axial fan with either inlet or discharge guide vanes or both. TSD (Facility) – Treatment. in a right or left direction. compensating for errors caused by uneven gas flow in the duct.. was passed by Congress to protect human health and the environment by requiring testing and necessary use restrictions to regulate the commerce of certain chemical substances. TWA is set by OSHA and expressed in mg/m³. Storage. frequently the pilot valve and the diaphragm valve pulse are considered as one. V Valve – In baghouses. Turning Vanes – Baffles put in a duct to straighten out the air flow. Tubesheet – The steel plate that bags and cages are suspended from. TWA (Time Weighted Average) – Employee’s average airborne exposure which can not be exceeded in any 8 hour work shift. adjustable-pitch.

Examples of VOC’s include gasoline fumes and oil-based paints. Usually granted to allow time for engineering and fabrication of abatement equipment to bring the operation into compliance. Vapors diffuse. VP – Velocity pressure. the others being attrition and combustion. increasing cleaning energy. and phase. Velometer – A simple instrument for determining the velocity of gas in a duct. 110 or 220 volts are normally found in the U. Ventilation – Supplying and removing air by natural or mechanical means to and from any space. but requires large horsepower to do so. does not include methane and other compounds determined by EPA to have negligible photochemical re-activity. either by increasing the pressure or decreasing the temperature alone. under stated conditions. Vena Contracta – The smallest flow area for flow through a sharp-edged orifice. except that it automatically converts the reading to velocity. Viscosity – The characteristic of all fluids to resist flow.S. for a person or company to operate outside the limits prescribed in a regulation. Variance – Permission granted for a limited time. VOC’s (Volatile Organic Compounds) – A group of chemicals that react in the atmosphere with nitrogen oxides in the presence of heat and sunlight to form ozone. ______ Velocity (SFPM) = 4005√ VP ______ Velocity (AFPM) = 1096√ VP/ρ ρ = Actual density of the air (lb/ft³) VP = inches of water column VP/SP – Velocity pressure divided by static pressure. the kinetic energy pressure of air in motion. where finely atomized water is introduced and water/dust take place. and secondary air is induced into the venturi. frequency. Venturi – Device used to theoretically increase the efficiency of a compressed air pulse. a negative pressure zone is created outside the top. Designed such that when a pulse is introduced at the top. Designed with converging circular sides to a throat and then diverging sides.Vaporization – The change of a substance from the liquid to a gaseous state. Vibration – Alternating mechanical motion of an elastic system. Venturi Scrubber – A wet type dust collector that can obtain very high efficiency. The gas and dust particles are accelerated in a venturi throat. 32 . a single number reference used to define a fan’s point of operation. Each system curve has a unique VP/SP value. its operation is similar to an inclined manometer. One of the 3 basic contributing processes of air pollution. Volt – A unit of electrical potential or pressure. components of which are amplitude. Vapors – The gaseous form of substances which are normally in the solid or liquid state and which can be changed to these states. VP is used to get the velocity of a gas stream.

-ft².The unit designation of fan wheel rotational inertia in lb. see inch of Water. venturis. Warp Thread – Yarn or threads in a fabric running lengthwise. pressure drop. also known as WK².7” WG equals 1 PSI. wet fans). temperature. Worsted System – A system of yarn manufacturing suited for medium and longer wools. It is approximately equal to the adiabatic saturation temperature of the gas. e. the light gauge steel or aluminum covering put over insulation. Wet-Bulb Depression – The difference between the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature at the same location. airflow. Wrapper – Used in electrostatic precipitators. Wizard – MAC Equipment trademark for its intelligent dust collector controller. WG – Water gauge. The resulting yarn is compact and level. Water Gauge – Inches water is a pressure term defined as a pressure equal to that exerted by a column of water of the same height. Wet Collector – Dust collector which uses water to remove particulate matter from the exhaust gas (wet washers. 746 watts are equal to one horsepower. reclaimed wools.. The MAC Baghouse Wizard controls the pulse cleaning of a dust collector and monitors emissions. etc. satin. Weave – The pattern of weaving. Includes additional processing steps resulting in the most uniform yarn. 27. Warp Sateen – The face of the cloth having the warp yarns floating over the filling yarns and being greater in number than the filling yarns. etc. WR² -. and hopper level and displays it in a user friendly graphical interface. various wastes.g. Woolen System – A system of yarn manufacturing suited for the shorter wools. Woof – See fill. plain twill.W Warp Count – Number of warp threads per inch width. Warp Yarns – Yarn in a fabric running lengthwise. Weft – See fill. the product of voltage and amperage. 33 . similar to normal cloth. Used in re-pressuring and shaker baghouses. Wet-Bulb Temperature – The temperature of a gas stream taken with a wetted thermometer. Woven Cloth Bag – A bag made of woven material. Watt – A unit of power in electrical terms.

” 34 . Yarn Size – A relative measure of fineness or coarseness of yarn. Z Z-Twist – The yarn spirals conform in slop to the center portion of the letter “Z. Yield Strength – Maximum stress to which a ductile material can be subjected before it physically distorts. the coarser the yarn.Y Yarn – A term for an assemblage of fibers or filaments forming a strand (thread) which can be otherwise formed into a textile material. The smaller the number in spun yarns.

e. hammer mills) and paper forming (i. manufactured fiber spinning. The textile technology base includes garneting. Most cartridge filter media is produced by the wet laid systems. process for manufacturing nonwoven fabric can be grouped into four general technology bases: textile. film casting. perforating films. This section has been prepared to give you a basic understanding of the different filtration medias in the dust collection marketplace. or thermally interlocking layers of networks or fibers or filaments or yarns. and porous film systems. Like all fabrics.e. porous. carding and aerodynamic forming of textile fibers into preferentiallyoriented webs.Filter Media / Fibers Definitions Every industry has unique buzz words. paper. can be nearly as arcane as any found in the Military’s or Silicon Valley’s lexicon. Fabric produced by these systems are referred to as “dry laid pulp” and “wet laid” nonwovens. wet laid equipment. generically. this is accomplished several ways. accomplished by mechanical chemical. or hybrid (combination). sheet structures with fabric characteristics. are manufactured with machinery associated with staple fibers bonded by stitching filaments or yarns. nonwovens are fabrics that are made by: (a) (b) (c) (d) mechanically. Needle-felt fabric is produced by textile-based technology. 35 . Technologies used in three primary manufacturing industries: textile. slurry pumping onto continuous screens) designed to manipulate short fibers suspended in a fluid. In polymer laid systems.” These fabrics. Unlike traditional fabrics that re made by mechanically interlacing (weaving) or interlooping (knitting) yarns composed of fibers of filaments. or fiber-network structures. or forming porous films concurrent with their extrusion.e.” How nonwoven fabrics are made – A basic concept used in making a nonwoven is to transform fiber-based materials into flat. Nonwoven is a generic term used to describe fabric that is produced differently from a fabric made by weaving or. or. All wet laid cartridge paper contains high percentages of cellulose. terms and acronyms. form the basis of the processes for manufacturing nonwovens. chemically. nonwovens are planar structures that are relatively flat. Nonwoven – Nonwovens are defined by what they are not. Fabrics produced by these systems are referred to individually as “spun bounded”. depending on the fiber material used and/or the fabric characteristics desired. and “air laid. “carded”. a fabric that is different from traditional woven or knitted fabrics. The extrusion technology base includes spunbound. more broadly. Accordingly. flexible. interlocking fibers or filaments concurrent with their extrusion. Paper technology base includes dry laid pulp and modified wet laid paper systems designed to accommodate fibers longer than wood pulps. Jargon associated with fabrics. extrusion. reducing its resistance to moisture. Fabrics produced by these systems are referred to as dry laid nonwovens and carry terms such as “garneted”. HEPA media is also produced on specialized. and porous. or solvent means and combinations thereof. meltblown. “meltblown”. fiber structures are simultaneously formed and manipulated. flexible. paper. Fabric filtration is especially blessed with a full vocabulary. or both. as “polymer laid” nonwovens. In practice. extrusion coating). The fabrics are produced with machinery associated with polymer extrusion (i. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D 1117-80) defines a nonwoven fabric as: “A textile structure produced by bonding or interlocking of fibers. and “textured” or “apertured film” nonwovens. and extrusion and various combinations of established processes from one or more of these industries. These fabrics are manufactured with machinery associated with pulp fiberizing (i.

Draylon-T® (or equivalents). developed by E. Diameters are typically 15 to 35 microns. Orlon® (Dupont). galvanizing. is the MIASMACTTM HEPA media. degradation sets in rapidly. Enka Polyester® (American Enka). Polyester is the most widely used needled felt for pulse jet applications. duPont de Nemours. Aromatic polymide (Nomex®) – Nomex® nylon was a proprietary (patent has expired) aromatic-polymide (aramide) linked structure. Homopolymer felt is a candidate for hot gas applications of less than 284 degrees F. weakening the fabric. and low temperature flue gas applications. Fiber cross sections are dumbbell-shaped. is a widely used acrylic. to form a combination media. for high-pressure cleaned needled felts. For MAC Equipment applications. 250°F degrees. such as sulphur oxides. Fiber is available under various trade names: Dacron® (duPont). in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain polymer composed of at least 85% acrylonitrile units. However. Nomex® will progressively lose strength. and many other hot gas processes. Nomex® is a non-thermoplastic so it does not melt. the fibers will hydrolyze. Temperature resistance of copolymers is less. because of potential hydrolysis. It is unaffected by florines and gases from metallurgical and rock processing operations. and Draylon-T® (Bayer) are trade names used by various producers of acrylic fibers. Polyester (PE) is superior to most synthetics in dry heat installations but it is not comparable to Teflon® nor Nomex®. clinker coolers. this fabric may be used satisfactorily as long as there is no acid dew point problem. The single biggest use for Nomex®. it withstands these conditions better than many other fibers. Acrylic felts are used in drying raw flour. An example of a hybrid product. carbon bake. and Kodel® (Eastman Chemical). Polyester – a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester of a dihydric alcohol and terephtalic acid. and most hydrocarbons. high active oxidizing agents. particularly under acid conditions. near-saturation. polyester is inferior to other synthetics. This material is a thermoplastic.The hybrid base combine elements of the first three technologies. However. Other uses include raw and finish mill grinding on cement plants. gold and copper ores. Fortrel® (Fiber Industries/Celanese). When exposed to saturated steam at high temperatures. 36 . Creslan® (American Cyanimid). Where polyesters are not suitable. only acrylic homopolymer fabric should be used. Under moist. and surfaces are striated. Acilian® (Monsanto). wet laid media is laminated with spun bounded support sheets. Characteristics of Selected Fibers Acrylic Fibers – Acrylic fibers are man made fibers. heat conditions. is asphalt batch plant dryers and drum-mix plants. will rapidly degrade Nomex®. and the remainder a copolymer. Acrylic is non-thermoplastic. In dry heat up to and including 375 degrees F. Nomex® withstands the attack by mild minerals and inorganic acids. Recommended operating temperature is 275 degrees F maximum. a homopolymer (100% acrylonitrile). Polyester is superior for most dry heat applications. needled felt. Zefran® (BASF). In the presence of a saturated vapor. Nomex® is unaffected by small amounts of water vapor and high temperatures. but at temperatures above 700 degrees F. coal. mild alkali. Crylor® (Crylor SA). acrylics offer a combination of abrasion resistance and resistance to wet heat degradation. for applications requiring dimensional stability and high heat resistance.I.

P84 needled felt. manufactured by E. PP absorbs no moisture and provides excellent cake discharge and resistance to blinding. needled to a 12 oz. It is composed of long chain carbon molecules in which all of the available bonds are completely saturated with fluorine. Teflon® . although it is slow to develop. Polypropylene has very low heat resistance. at high temperatures. and should not be exposed to prolonged temperatures of over 165 degrees F. polypropylene provides good resistance to mineral and organic acids.yd² carrier base. woodworking. boilers. The use of 12 oz. and is one of the most economical synthetics. composed of at least 85% by weight of olefin units. incinerators. soluble at 160 degrees F in chlorinated hydrocarbons. It resists alkalis. handling large particulate. having a high surface area-todiameter ratio. water/oil resistant (TR). P84 is a non-thermoplastic. will dissolve the fabric. especially in length. it is available in 12. but has all of the advantages of a needled felt. As needled felt. Exposure to temperatures above 550 degrees F.I./yd² versions. strong alkalis. mineral acids. with efficient filtration and good energy absorption characteristics. even less than cotton. It resists weak alkalis.yd² P84 fiber layer. 16. Teflon® is the most chemically resistant fiber used in conventional dust filtration. Its fiber is highly convoluted. However. plus high strength. Composites generally have a 4 oz. Within its limited temperature range. are used in many industrial applications where high efficiency is required.PE provides good resistance to most oxidizing agents. PP is a good choice for replacement of cotton in low temperature applications. chemical and other applications where chemical and mechanical characteristics are compatible. and most organic solvents except high concentrations of sulfuric. P84 (Polyimide) – P84 is a proprietary fiber produced by Lenzing in Austria. Herculon® (Hercules) and Reevon® (Phillips) are trade names used by various producers of polypropylene (PP) fibers. however. The fibers combine excellent resistance to most acids and alkalis. It may be layered on top of lower cost fibers. and 18 oz. duPont. to provide the benefits of the base fiber. and in 100% form may be used for temperatures of 500 degrees F. weight. Polyester fiber makes an excellent filter fabric. Teflon® is not affected by any known solvents except some prefluorinated organic liquids at temperatures above 570 degrees F.is a proprietary fluorocarbon fiber. It has one of the lowest specific gravities of any synthetic fiber. Filtration efficiency is not quite as good as polyester. Extensive testing has shown that P84 fabric approaches Gortex® in efficiency. and various chemical processes. its degradation characteristics in dry heat and moist heat are virtually the same. The fabric is widely used in many of the industries served by MAC Equipment. It is used in agricultural./yd² should be reserved for non-critical applications. and with a laminated PTFE membrane. metalized-antistatic (ME). 100% P84 is readily available in 14 oz. but other weights are available. Teflon® bags shrink when exposed to high temperatures. Polypropylene – (polyolefin) is a manufactured fiber in which the fiber forming substance is any long chain synthetic polymer. will cause some decomposition. Examples are: gold and copper ore processing. Spunbonded POLIPLEETTM media is available in plain. 37 . Since it does not absorb moisture. (about the same price as polyester). These strong carbon-to-fluorine bonds create fibers that are exceptionally stable to both heat and chemicals. carbolic and nitric acids. It is. reducing agents and organic solvents. and composites. but at lower costs than a 100% version of the P84 felt.

Suitable applications for this material are limited. Usually offered as a static after filter following a dust collector. Ryton® is resistant to sulphur oxides. up to 360 degrees F. and the mixture is extruded through spinnarets. is a borosilicate microfiber glass. carbon black plants. These are specialty products and are used for very specific applications. and incinerators have been equipped with Teflon® products./yard². Teflon® fibers’ chemical inertness and resistance to dry and moist heat degradation makes it ideal for use under severe conditions. has been introduced. Consult MAC Equipment engineering before using these products for any application. Felted fiberglass tends to be heavy and difficult to handle. Following drying. Recently a lower cost version. Commercial uses are limited to extreme chemical environments where the advantages of Teflon fibers’ great chemical resistance outweighs cost disadvantages. a non-crystalline silicate analogous to other fiber polymeric materials. in 1973. pressure drop. The fibers are then treated with a lubricant which is of great importance in the durability of the eventual fabric. is very easy to damage. the fibers are process much like the more conventional fibers. Bag/cage fit & support is very critical – check with the vendors involved for specific recommendations. Selected silica sands. In addition. Ryton® (Polyphenylene Sulfide) – Ryton® (Phillips) is a long chain synthetic polysulfide. The resulting filaments may be drawn while still molten and later twisted and plied into filament yarn. 38 . Refer to MAC Equipment for more application information. Tefaire®. Or. soda ash. a pulse cleaned version is available. Consult MAC Equipment for more details.The low friction properties of Teflon® fibers provide excellent cake discharge. as the extruded glass may be drawn and broken by jets of compressed air into staple of lengths 8 to 15 inches. Other fibers and medias are available for very special temperature. in particular. Glass – Glass fiber is a product of fusion. chemical. and borax or other ingredients are melted at about 2500 degrees F. Rated for temperatures up to 275°F. Woven fiberglass. and FL57 Hi-LoftTM (BHA). and is used for high temperature gas streams. Standard fiber is 3-denier. Available weights are 16 to 22 oz. involving high (up to 500 degrees F. Teflon® needled felt is extremely expensive. and is not as efficient as other medias. soil remediation systems. supported by polyester webbing on each side. or efficiency requirements. MAC Equipment’s style FG134/2 cleanable HEPA media. This felt is a blend of 85% Teflon® and 15% fiberglass fibers. Typical applications are industrial/municipal solid waste incinerators and coal-fired boilers. Some common trade names for woven fiberglass are GL65 Tri-LoftTM (BHA). with at least 85% of the sulfide linkages attached directly to two aromatic rings. however. usually in the presence of oxidizing agents. form 14 to 27 oz. The resin was developed by Phillips Petroleum. Huyglas® (Air Purator Corporation) felted fiberglass medias are available in a variety of weights./yd². limestone. Woven fiberglass and felted fiberglass medias are available for high energy cleaned fabric filters. Ryton® does not hydrolyze and has flame retarding characteristics. Gas stream oxygen content should not exceed 15%. other companies have similar products. Some boilers. HEPA – High Efficiency Particulate Air filter is the maximum efficiency available in particulate filtration.) temperatures.

Operating Temperature °F Bromine Calcium (Br) Calcium Hypochlorite (Ca(OCL)2) Carbon (C) (Graphite/Diamond) Fluorine (F) Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Iod Ozone (O3) Potassium Chloride (K Cl) (Sylvine) Sodium Chlorate (Na Cl O3) Sodium Hypochlorite (Na Ocl) (Eau-de-Labarraque) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A B B A A A A B Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A B B A A A A A A Nomex® 375 B - Polyester 275 B A B B B A A B Polypropylene 170 A A A A A A B A A B Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A A A A Glass 500 A A A C A A A A A A P84 500 B B B B B B B B B B 39 .. °F Abrasion Energy Absorption Filtration Properties Moist Heat Hydrolysis Alkalines Mineral Acids Oxygen (15%+) Relative Cost Polypropylene 170 Excellent Good Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent X Polyester 275 Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor Good Fair Excellent X Acrylic 275 Good Good Good Excellent Fair Good Excellent XX Fiberglass® 500 Fair Fair Fair Excellent Fair Poor** Excellent XXX Nomex® 375 Good Good Excellent Good Good Poor Excellent XXXX Ryton® 375 Good Good Very Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Poor XXXXX P-84TM 500 Good Good Excellent Good Fair Good Excellent XXXXXX Teflon® 500 Excellent Good Fair Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent XXXXXXX * Sensitive bag-to-cage fit ** Fair with acid resistant finishes Note: Combinations of variables alter the resistance of the fiber to the specified performance ratings. temperature and gas stream chemistry.Properties of Filtration Fabrics Temp. Operating Temperature °F Calcium Chloride (Ca Cl2) Ferrous Chloride (Fe Cl2 4H2O) Sodium Acetate (C2 H4 Na O2) Sodium pyrosulfite (Na2 O5 S2) (metan sulfite) Sodium Bromide (Na Br) Sodium Perchbrate (Cl Na O4) Sodium Cyanide (Na Cn) Sodium Nitrate (Na NO3) (Chile Saltpeter) Sodium Sulfate (Na2 SO4) (Glaubers Salt) Sodium Sulfide (Na2 S) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A C A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A A A A Nomex® 375 B B B B A A B B A A Polyester 275 A A A A A A A A A A Polypropylene 170 A A A A A A A A A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A A A A Glass 500 B C B A C B B B B P84 500 B B B B C B B B B B Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Oxidizing Agents Max.e. i. Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Salts Max. time.

Operating Temperature °F Ammonia (H3 N) Calcium Hydroxide (Ca (OH)2) (Hydrated Lime) Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) (Caustic Potash) Potassium Carbonate (K2 CO3) (Potash) (Salt of Tarter) Sodium Hydroxide (Na OH) (Caustic Soda) Sodium Carbonate (Na2 Co3) (Washing Soda) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A B B B A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 B A C B B A Nomex® 375 B A B A B A Polyester 275 C A B B B A Polypropylene 170 A A B A B A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A Glass 500 B A C C C C P84 500 B B B B C B 40 . Operating Temperature °F Chromium Trioxide (Cr O3) (Chromic Acid Anhydride) Hydrogen Chloride (H Cl) (Hydrochloric Acid) (Muriatic Acid) Hydrofluoric Acid (HF) Nitric Acid (HN O3) Tripotic Acid (HO)3 P(O) Sulphuric Acid (H2 SO4) (Sulphuric Acid) (Vitrol) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A B Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A B B Nomex® 375 C C C B A B Polyester 275 A A B A A B Polypropylene 170 B A A B A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A Glass 500 A A C A A A P84 500 B B B B B B Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Organic Acids Max.Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Mineral Acids Max. Operating Temperature °F Acetic Acid (C2 H4 O2) Benzoic Acid (C7 H6 O2) Phenol (C6 H6 O) (Carbolic Acid) Formic Acid (CH2 O2) Lactic Acid (C3 H6 O3) Oxalic Acid (C2 H2 O4) (Acid of Sugar) Salicylic Acid (C7 H8 O3) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A Nomex® 375 A B C B B C B Polyester 275 A A B A A A A Polypropylene 170 A A A A A A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A Glass 500 A A C A B A C P84 500 B B B C B B B Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Bases Max.

Operating Temperature °F Acetone (H3 C-CO-CH3) ((CH2)4H3) Benzene (C6 H6) (Benzol) Carbon Disulfide (C S2) Carbon Tetrachloride (C Cl3) Chloroform (CH Cl3) Cyclohexane (C6 H12) Acetoin (C2 H6 O2) Ethylalcohol or Methane Ether (C2 H6 O) (Vanillin) Butyl Alcohol or Ethyl Ether (C4 H10 O) Methanol (CH4 O) MEK Nitrogen (N) Ethylenes trichloro (C2 H CL3) Methyl Benzene (C6 H5 CH. Operating Temperature °F Acetaldehyde (H3 C-CHO) (Aldehyde) Vinyl Alcohol (H2 C-CH2 O) (Ethenolivinol) Glycerol (C3 H8 O3) Glycerin Clycol (C2 H6 O2) Mineral Oil Benzene.Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Organic Solvents Max.3) (Toluene) O-Xylene (C6 H4 (CH3)2) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Nomex® 375 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Polyester 275 A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A Polypropylene 170 B B A C B B B B A A A B B A B B Teflon® 500 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Glass 500 A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A P84 500 C C B B B B B B B C C B B B C C Chemical Compatibility of Fabrics with Common Chemicals Miscellaneous Max. Nitro (C6 H5 NO2) (Essence of Mirbane) A=Excellent Suitability B=Limited Suitability C=Not Recommended Dralon T® (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A Acrylic (Poly Acrylic) 275 A A A A A A Nomex® 375 A A A A A A Polyester 275 A A A C A A Polypropylene 170 B A A A A Teflon® 500 A A A A A A Glass 500 A A A A A A P84 500 B B B B B B 41 .

500 5.616 0.0522 0.Gas / Air Tables Temperature and Altitude Corrections Temperature – Density* Temp.729 0.0709 0. dry air at sea level.000 1.000 4.801 0.0358 0.0 0.701 0.0723 0.0375 0.5 parts/million 0.0612 0.0602 0.02 parts/million 0.964 0.0567 0.896 0.0 parts/million 0. Composition of Air Component of Air Nitrogen Oxygen Argon Carbon dioxide Neon Helium Krypton Sulfur dioxide Methane Hydrogen Nitrous oxide Hydrogen Xenon Ozone Ozone – Winter Nitrogen dioxide Iodine Carbon monoxide Ammonia Symbol N2 O2 Ar CO2 Ne He Kr SO2 CH4 H2 N2O H2 Xe O3 O3 NO2 I2 CO NH3 Content .0589 0.947 percent 0.982 0.757 0.0736 0.869 0.075 0.033 percent 18.457 0.0578 0.500 6.0462 0.803 0.5 parts/million 0.0710 0.52 1.0315 0.832 0.0414 0.0 to 0.913 0.404 0.0292 0.817 0.786 0.92 in.998% The above table is an average for clean.0560 0.552 0.0436 0.0864 0. 0 500 1.772 0.500 8. 42 .930 0.2 parts/million 1.% Volume 78.500 0.0 to trace >99.934 percent 0.0647 0.582 0.000 6.525 0.0651 0.09 parts/million 0.0282 0. 0.500 3.000 Altitude – Density** Elevation ft.715 0.0 to trace 0.0600 0.421 0.0684 0.0659 0.697 0.02 parts/million 0.0635 0.0 to 0.743 0.084 percent 20.0525 0.0623 0. **Dry air at 70°F.000 7.0001 percent.376 0.390 0.947 0.0272 Air density lb.688 *Table based on 29.0342 0.000 5.0557 0.1 parts/million 1.438 0.0536 0.0546 0.000 9.0672 0. ft.0328 0.0515 Density factor 1.0749 0.0490 0. 1 part/million = 0./cu.946 0.500 9.07 parts/million 0.500 7.1. Hq. ft.2 parts/million 5.000 Density factor 1.864 0.0303 0.654 0.5 parts/millions 0.500 2.000 2.0 parts/million 2. per cu.747 0.500 10.000 3.848 0.000 8.500 4.01 parts/million 0. 0.880 0.0393 0.000 0. °F 0 70 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1.0697 0.477 0.363 Wt.

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protection against the corrosive effects of liquids and gases. For use in mines with atmospheric containing methane or natural gas. May be classified Groups E.Type 9 – Class II. Type 13 – Oil tight and Dust-tight – Indoor. Indoor hazardous locations. depending on specific design as defined in the National Electrical Code. by oil immersion. Horsepower Formulas Air Horsepower = CFM X TP 6356 Brake Horsepower = CFM X TP 6356 X MEfan Where MEfan = Mechanical Efficiency of Fan 51 . Type 12 – Dust-tight and Drip-tight – Indoor. with or without coal dust. F. oil and non-corrosive coolant. falling dirt and dripping non-corrosive liquids. Provide. Type 11 – Corrosion Resistant & Drip-proof – oil immersed indoor. spraying of water. Protects against dust. or G. Explosion proof. Type 10 – Mining Enforcement Safety Administration. Type 12K – Same as Type 12 except enclosures have knockouts. Protects against dust.

... . 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 3/16x3/32 1/4x1/8 3/16x3/32 1/4x1/8 1/4x1/8 5/16x5/32 1/4x1/8 5/16x5/32 3/8x3/16 5/16x5/32 3/8x3/16 5/16x5/32 1/2x1/4 3/8x3/16 3/8x3/16 1/2x1/4 3/8x3/16 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 1/2x1/4 5/8x5/16 1/2x1/4 5/8x5/16 1/2x1/4 3/4x3/8 5/8x5/16 3/4x3/8 5/8x5/16 7/8x7/16 3/4x3/8 7/8x7/16 3/4x3/8 The above standards were established by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) 52 ... .... 2 2 2 2-1/2 2 2-1/2 2-3/4 3-1/8 2-3/4 3-1/8 3-314 3-1/2 3-3/4 3-1/2 4-3/8 3 4-518 4-318 4-5/8 5 5-3/8 5 3-1/2 5-3/8 5-5/8 6-1/8 5-518 6-1/8 7 6-7/8 7 6-7/8 8-1/4 8-3/8 8-1/4 8-3/8 4-1/32 5-3/8 6-1/8 7-7/8 6-1/2 7 7-1/4 7-3/4 7-3/4 6-1/4 9-1/4 9-5/8 10 10-3/8 12-3/8 12-1/8 13-1/4 13 14-1/8 13-1/2 14-2/8 14-7/8 15-1/8 15-3/4 16-1/8 16-1/2 15 16-7/8 17-3/8 17-7/8 17-7/8 1-3/8 20 19-7/8 20-3/4 20-5/8 23-1/4 23-3/8 24-1/4 24-318 Keyway ...... .NEMA Electric Motor Frames Motor Frame 42 48 56 66 143T 145T 182 182 184 184T 213 213T 215 215T 254T 254U 256T 256U 284T 284TS 284U 286T 286U 324T 324U 326T 326TS 326U 364T 364U 365T 365U 404T 404U 405T 405U 444T 444U 445T 445U D 2-5/8 3 3-1/2 4-1/8 3-1/2 3-1/2 4-1/2 4-1/2 4-1/2 4-1/2 5-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 5-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 NEMA Frame Dimension – Inches E F U V M+N 1-3/4 2-1/8 2-7/16 2-15/16 2-3/4 2-3/4 3-3/4 3-3/4 3-3/4 3-3/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 4-1/4 5 5 5 5 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/2 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 6-1/4 8-1/4 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 27/32 1-3/8 1-1/2 2-1/2 2 2-1/2 2-1/4 2-1/4 2-3/4 2-3/4 2-3/4 2-3/4 3-1/2 3-1/2 4-1/8 4-1/8 5 5 4-3/4 4-1/4 4-3/4 5-1/2 5-1/2 5-1/4 5-1/4 6 6 6 5-5/8 5-5/8 6-1/8 6-1/8 6-1/8 6-1/8 6-7/8 6-7/8 7-1/4 7-1/4 8-1/4 8-1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 7/8 7/8 1-1/8 7/8 1-1/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 1-3/8 1-7/8 1-5/8 1-5/8 1-7/8 1-5/8 2-1/8 1-7/8 2-1/8 1-7/8 1-7/8 2-3/8 2-1/8 2-318 2-1/8 2-7/8 2-3/8 2-7/8 2-3/8 3-3/8 2-7/8 3-3/8 2-7/8 .

NEMA Electric Motor Frames V U F F M+N Frame dimensions for previous page D E E 53 .

Industrial Ventilation References 54 .

6 11.3 12.5 14.8 12.1 21.1 16.11 6.2 11.58 8.6 26.33 9.8 11.5 13.8 17.4 17.42 6.03 8.0 25.5 18.8 16.8 15.0 16.16 7.7 18.86 7.80 6.96 6.27 8.9 19.9 24.75 6.3 28.3 19.9 23.9 13.7 28.81 10.67 9.2 21.10 2 1/2 3.76 10.97 5.0 14.9 16.7 17.71 9.5 12.79 9.0 21.0 12.6 22.4 26.0 14.8 26.06 9.9 16.0 15.37 3.9 12.6 16.2 22.82 9.9 11.8 55 .6 19.03 8.5 13.85 7.2 25.0 22.83 8.5 24.4 10.0 13.6 24.0 18.0 14.5 11.75 7.07 8.5 21.17 8.90 5.6 13.12 7.38 7.3 20.3 22.74 7.2 27.9 4 4.65 3.87 8.2 25.5 17.90 10.7 28.3 15.5 12.53 8.7 15.66 6.51 6.0 25.9 11.66 8.90 4.5 27.8 20.7 16.54 8.0 26.6 17.2 10.8 17.0 14.6 29.1 14.9 16.3 31.7 15.91 5.6 17.7 18.1 13.32 5.2 11.42 6.0 11.1 10.63 9.0 19.04 9.04 3.7 13.72 4.85 9.84 7.58 6.6 14.55 4.25 8.1 10.3 12.9 19.6 19.50 9.7 10.6 21.03 9.1 12.89 8.02 7.5 29.55 7.85 9.1 10.43 7.1 24.1 10.98 7.9 11.24 6.7 17.5 19.6 21.0 15.58 5.04 9.2 14.49 7.5 14.5 13.10 9.09 9.7 26.95 8.9 30.9 5 1/2 5.88 5.65 7.0 14.63 5.1 11.25 9.7 12.1 15.74 9.5 26.55 9.5 10.88 5.Circular equivalents of rectangular ducts for equal friction Sides 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 2 3.7 11.7 14.4 17.17 8.0 11.4 11.7 19.7 15.72 9.3 18.77 4.4 13.6 14.30 9.8 13.86 7.1 22.7 27.0 10.7 25.8 27.98 6.47 8.7 23.37 9.07 7.2 20.6 16.1 18.3 22.45 5.8 27.08 6.85 10.2 16.2 17.0 19.7 19.6 13.4 26.3 21.8 18.4 21.5 15.1 16.3 10.8 22.3 11.8 24.3 10.25 7.5 14.3 13.76 5.00 8.1 20.5 17.3 10.21 5.3 22.9 20.0 15.42 6.3 22.9 31.4 25.5 15.8 21.1 15.6 15.7 16.11 9.2 23.34 8.10 5.64 5.2 28.3 22.3 21.5 10.1 23.61 6.4 24.34 8.4 17.8 12.5 26.96 5.7 18.3 16.3 18.81 10.9 15.0 25.97 6.9 12.5 19.5 14.73 8.6 20.79 8.5 23.6 23.3 26.0 22.5 11.04 7.1 18.8 20.4 12.2 30.8 23.7 29.93 8.7 11.1 15.9 13.3 10.4 19.0 13.70 10.8 3 1/2 4.4 10.72 6.5 16.9 6 6.1 17.8 32.3 27.0 21.4 14.3 13.3 32.5 16.5 28.5 24.55 4.5 25.62 7.8 12.6 11.8 18.34 4.62 9.8 15.3 25.66 9.98 7.5 24.5 12.4 23.74 5.48 5.2 12.6 24.02 9.69 9.18 5.7 19.5 3 3.6 10.94 6.4 10.63 8.6 19.4 15.24 8.2 20.99 9.2 13.1 12.4 13.0 12.9 4 1/2 4.0 13.5 15.3 11.2 29.62 9.2 30.9 11.6 10.8 30.3 16.4 12.34 5.3 15.73 6.9 18.9 12.7 13.2 20.42 3.43 4.4 25.7 25.6 11.4 18.0 22.06 9.5 18.90 10.2 15.1 18.2 18.7 10.3 14.65 6.5 21.21 7.5 12.7 22.9 29.02 8.4 18.9 27.08 8.4 30.0 27.4 11.4 26.22 9.5 29.3 19.7 14.6 23.5 8.1 19.47 6.5 20.0 11.0 23.2 10.33 9.68 9.60 7.4 16.08 6.2 12.46 9.2 12.3 27.6 13.7 16.5 13.21 5.0 26.1 9.5 12.1 17.4 21.3 19.8 13.71 4.1 22.2 31.2 20.4 16.1 13.0 29.5 18.25 9.99 8.9 11.4 21.3 13.45 8.8 22.2 11.06 5.0 16.3 11.63 7.87 10.17 7.3 12.0 23.5 23.37 8.9 14.5 11.44 6.25 6.4 10.56 7.4 15.8 13.4 14.3 22.7 16.3 15.1 14.9 22.67 5.86 10.2 19.87 8.46 8.3 14.39 9.8 25.1 22.81 4.6 30.5 11.8 21.8 12.8 23.7 28.1 12.9 5 4.8 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 7.31 8.9 17.28 6.8 15.2 16.3 13.9 28.9 17.5 20.4 11.44 6.9 11.25 8.6 15.8 20.5 16.9 12.88 10.40 5.8 20.2 19.1 17.29 7.1 10.4 14.64 7.0 13.9 14.22 7.8 31.58 7.72 9.21 7.8 21.2 16.09 4.17 4.1 13.56 8.7 11.3 18.3 27.54 4.5 14.9 26.7 14.7 12.0 19.46 9.51 5.0 24.8 24.75 7.1 15.0 11.6 12.0 12.8 14.33 7.7 17.8 17.6 21.8 11.3 15.3 10.44 9.5 14.7 14.01 6.2 14.9 23.2 12.37 4.38 8.80 8.0 26.3 25.20 5.7 20.27 6.36 5.1 25.7 20.59 8.2 15.5 18.2 19.40 7.2 10.6 15.0 16.7 12.2 13.8 13.22 6.0 28.4 11.77 10.2 16.76 6.3 17.1 14.0 24.1 11.18 4.12 4.

109 8.385 7.15 1.047 6.583 4.66 0.940 5.003 2.54 0.27 0.27 1.50 5.087 6.05 0.45 1.38 0.301 2.20 1.034 6.181 VP 0.972 10.840 VP 0.688 4.098 5.00 12.21 1.823 4.64 1.60 0.00 2.045 4.11 2.69 1.61 14.179 3.77 0.87 0. and less than 20” WC static pressure.034 6.31 1.295 4.56 1.513 4.307 6.47 0.562 9.200 4.873 4.50 4.986 VP 1.619 4.00 3.59 0.93 0.06 1.254 3.39 0.98 0.806 4.656 2.076 3.62 0.762 5.12 1.52 0.665 13.44 1.34 0.775 14.09 V 2.90 1.34 1.79 0.23 1.458 6.84 1.468 3.08 2.491 5.36 0.593 8.20 2.42 1.49 1.398 3.943 2.831 5.48 1.36 2.54 1.44 0.366 10.133 1.00 1.103 4.39 2.955 9.89 0.61 1.283 5.266 1.433 5.41 0.62 1.066 5.535 5.164 7.87 1.24 0.924 3.32 1.965 3.127 3.40 2.369 2.601 4.83 0.531 4.460 4.791 1.57 0.374 5.26 1.47 1.14 2.53 1.10 5.61 0.872 5.669 5.842 3.025 4.386 4.298 5.41 1.97 0.210 10.018 5.734 5.39 1.289 10.886 5.67 1.477 9.921 1.579 5.80 2.283 13.891 9.722 4.602 1.153 3.37 1.43 1.204 3.93 1.002 5.720 5.551 1.501 2.275 7.909 8.954 5.716 2.20 5.80 6.257 4.99 2.832 2.746 1.927 5.00 4.19 2.03 0.51 1.344 12.53 0.774 8.81 1.392 9.758 3.746 2.60 4.60 3.30 5.11 1.237 5.566 4.21 2.332 4.10 2.142 4.00 5.968 11.99 1.90 6.623 5.77 1.220 9.676 12.35 0.70 3.19 1.205 6.84 1.85 1.89 1. inches of water V 400 566 694 601 896 981 1.31 0.651 1.50 1.835 1.49 0.905 4.422 3.550 5.343 5.261 2.664 5.192 6.00 9.00 7.18 1.30 3.04 2.40 3.052 10.27 2.102 3.637 5.132 10.72 1.938 4.50 8.26 0.595 2.368 4.230 6.81 0.09 0.20 0.445 3.35 2.804 2.521 5. VP = Velocity pressure.92 1.962 2.268 5.17 0.22 1.57 1.66 1.350 4.74 0.074 6.15 0.91 1.144 5.153 6.328 5.388 5.34 2.35 1.904 3.16 2.43 0.20 6.653 4.88 0.16 1.18 0.162 4.604 3.14 1.37 2.60 6.50 9.403 2.31 2.50 3.68 0.564 5.04 0.85 0.20 4.00 13.469 2.810 9.123 4.08 0.60 2.756 4.739 4.856 4.678 5.59 1.76 1.064 4.42 2.30 6.08 1.359 5.860 2.081 2.45 0.779 3.444 10.00 8.67 0.38 1.19 0.20 3.30 1.07 0.495 4.582 3.52 1.201 1.49 2.60 5.13 1.48 0.94 1.692 5.005 4.55 1.492 7.82 0.937 7.776 5.061 6.80 0.590 8.40 0.863 3.042 2.46 V 3.994 6.533 2.30 0.28 0.303 3.230 2.96 1.191 5.83 V 4.96 0.80 4.916 2.24 1.24 2.491 3.25 1.313 5.790 5.25 0.68 1.33 1.709 3.879 1.005√ VP = Velocity FPM.514 3.65 1.25 2.23 0.478 4.74 1.29 2.436 2.13 0.279 3.56 1.79 1.060 1.33 2.70 2. ____ From: V = 4.40 5.43 2.88 1.314 4.970 2.86 0.748 5.32 V 4.04 1.206 5.563 2.70 1.37 0.804 5.044 9.133 9.626 2.46 0.193 2.113 6.599 7.70 0.01 0.11 0.46 2.874 14.07 1.03 2.02 1.70 5.01 1.082 5.70 6.02 0.09 2.320 6.981 5.05 1.790 4.208 8.50 2.94 0.447 5.Velocity pressures for different velocities: standard air Design procedure Dry air at 70°F.498 1.024 3.03 1.921 4.114 5.800 3.817 5.40 6.64 0.807 7.22 2.403 5.671 4.307 9.00 6.119 3.73 1.596 10.78 1.305 8.051 7.50 0.10 0.821 3.47 2.41 2.423 4.07 2.17 2.997 4.30 4.42 0.71 1.70 4.01 2.865 8.12 0.22 0.238 4.773 4.80 5.179 6.60 1.58 2.100 VP 1.92 0.05 2.90 3.51 0.48 2.175 5.729 3.90 0.636 4.86 1.690 3.30 2.728 9.10 1.140 6.276 4.90 5.477 5. 29.418 VP 0.33 0.229 3.98 1.050 5.129 5.217 6.560 3.706 5.967 5.80 1.63 0.10 3.269 6.14 0.645 9.859 5.02 2.899 5.954 4.608 5.75 1.328 1.95 0.95 4.29 1.128 6.496 8.050 3.351 3.26 2.40 V 5.699 1.704 7.13 2.008 6.10 6.15 2.294 6.375 3.687 2.332 6.683 8.549 4.021 6.444 1.520 10.44 2.92” barometer.625 3.75 0.17 1.913 5.32 0.820 6.58 0.705 4.775 2.00 56 .010 8.970 4.243 6.73 0.28 1.405 5.081 4.462 5.65 0.335 2.845 5.97 1.38 2.327 3.12 2.889 4.91 0.256 6.45 2.90 7.18 2.506 5.157 2.80 3.50 10.581 6.10 4.440 14.160 5.00 13.387 1.16 0.702 6.82 1.442 4.888 2.50 6.28 2.72 0.015 12.55 0.282 6.06 2.90 4.29 0.78 0.219 4.166 6.63 1.69 0.40 1.76 0.23 2.00 11.71 0.21 0.945 3.537 3.253 5.985 4.657 3.36 1.884 3.06 0.401 VP 1.328 11.986 5.651 5.222 5.

35 11.66 4.65 1.13 14.62 1.25 12.82 4.25 13.97 7.62 9.18 26.30 29.50 7.10 8.02 7.67 10.70 2.86 11.80 4.44 4.10 3.90 10.27 12.85 9.91 17.15 9.30 44.70 12 5.87 8.09 6.25 23.59 3.10 8.20 15.33 7.87 5.85 4.90 Elbow Equiv.30 23.00 27.45 6.70 22.25 5.22 5.05 11.81 18.66 14.89 3.61 6.76 1.97 2.20 34.43 7.99 6.18 5.00 29.76 4.48 3.40 39.70 8.47 8.85 16.45 13.44 2.30 8.25 18.42 13.75 10.22 9.42 8.93 13.05 9.47 1.60 22.19 10.02 9.41 7.08 22.30 22 1.28 8.18 4.84 21.48 2.80 30.40 3.56 3.72 5.80 32.41 2.54 7.40 14.00 7.67 10.28 24 1.73 14.14 2.57 13.60 37.50 19.19 3.78 11.01 7.26 18.61 6.45 10.72 0.44 57 .51 3.50 2.50 15.21 5.53 6.90 12.60 9.57 2.55 6.47 2.81 4.00 17.25 17.90 27. length in feet Two gauges heavier than duct 14 3.00 35.83 1.27 4.36 14.52 4.17 2.00 28.53 1.15 20. Ft.66 5.01 6.60 28.38 9.Weights of galvanized sheet metal ducts Straight runs Weight per linear foot Duct dia.34 3.40 24.85 16.50 4.88 9.21 6.01 5.71 19.92 6.05 5.69 2.62 8.00 8.30 10.15 8.50 13.63 6.80 2.91 2.80 21.60 14.62 19.27 3.84 16.57 10.65 5.83 3.40 24.95 1.98 4.27 4.86 3.30 16 3.10 16.74 13.18 2.54 11.38 7.83 5.13 1.75 18 2.20 13.43 2.10 19.70 25.77 6.00 49.08 1.18 12.39 1. Gauge size 26 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Lbs Sq.86 5.22 23.30 34.43 5.20 1.15 9.80 10.29 16.20 25.80 7.60 47.40 5.50 20 1.30 18.39 5.74 4.01 4.13 6.71 7.08 2.75 2.22 3.60 32.82 11.20 11.00 16.20 3.40 7. 1.30 12.45 11.28 16.96 3.80 3.17 3.20 6.68 2.40 8.51 9.00 2.05 4.50 8.63 12.10 17.54 5.80 2.17 12.27 4.80 42.96 3.

19 4.35 19. .39 1.95 10.90 9.5 314.56 11.09 2.1 153.27 4.5 1661.85 8.56 19.64 3.9 201.1 2827. Vel.66 4.57 13.27 38.4 Sq.1 1256.90 17.18 2.70 5.5 2123.Duct Data Chart Duct Dia Inches 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 Area Sq.9 615.09 13.9 1809.9 804.83 2.10 18.06 1.9 1017.75 6.57 1.26 63. In.91 5.54 12.73 9.47 11.61 78.33 7.367 .14 3.4 1520.00 11. 435 680 980 1335 1745 2210 2730 3920 5300 6950 8800 10900 13200 15700 18400 21350 24550 27900 31500 35350 39380 43630 48105 52795 57705 62830 68175 73740 79520 85520 91740 98175 58 .71 3500 FPM Vel.04 12. 12.76 2.18 15.30 7.68 4.087 .66 15.80 7.05 1.62 10.07 7.41 3.54 113.7 2290.31 1.0 2642.545 .75 15.57 13.1 452. 304 476 686 934 1221 1547 1910 2750 3610 4860 6160 7630 9240 10990 12880 14950 17180 19530 22050 24740 27560 30545 33675 36960 40395 43980 47225 51620 55665 59865 64220 68720 CFM at 4000 4500 FPM FPM Vel.63 Cir In Ft. 1.35 2.42 9.58 6. Ft.64 14.196 .1 245.349 . 348 544 784 1066 1396 1768 2180 3140 4240 5560 7040 8720 10560 12560 14720 17080 19640 22320 25200 28380 31500 34905 38485 42235 46165 50265 54540 58990 63620 68415 73390 78540 391 612 882 1201 1570 1989 2450 3530 4770 6250 7920 9810 11880 14130 16560 19215 22090 25110 28350 31810 35440 39270 43295 47515 51935 56550 61360 66365 71570 76970 82565 88360 5000 FPM Vel.88 8.48 50.63 28.61 14.52 12.4 530.785 1.9 1134.442 .8 706.2 2463.2 380.14 14.6 1963.28 6.23 5.38 8.61 3.6 1385.2 907.136 .

16 0. hard-wood softwood broken Cinders Density lb.19 0.35 0. wheat Chalk Charcoal.38 0. ft. loose Ashes. . dry.36 0. crushed Brass Brass chips Brick.37 0. masonry Bronze Bronze.20 0. ground Borax Borax. dry. wood.18 . loose Cereals. F. crushed Carbonundum Carbonundum.20 0. crushed Bone. dry. per. carbonate Calcium chloride Calcium sulphate Carbide. corn oats rye.24 0. dry.0749 165 48 414 153 64 40 47 86 85 118 43 56 43 75 109 75 530 163 118 509 554 177 134 185 50 195 140 88 90 94 94 37 26 48 142 34 23 12 43 59 Specific heat Btu per lb.09 0.20 0. dry Bakelite. bulk barley. cu.38 0.20 .21 0. dry Ashes.20 0.09 0.09 0.33 0. per deg. coal. loose Caustic soda Celluloid Cellulose Cement.22 0.Material Properties Weights and specific heats of material mean values Material Air Aluminum Aluminum chips Antimony Asbestos Asbestos. laminated wood filler asbestos filler crushed Baking powder Bauxite.22 0.16 0.05 0.17 0. phosphor Calcium. 0.

31 0.22 0.18 0. loose. piled Coffee Coke Coke. piled Coke. compressed barreled loose Fullers earth. piled Graphite Gravel.12 . flint pyrex ground Granite loose.09 0. crown Glass. crushed Concrete. cinder stone Copper Copper ore. per. cu.Weights and specific heats of material mean values (cont’d) Material Clay. piled bituminous bituminous.23 0. 0. per deg. crushed Ferrous. ft.20 0. moist and loose Emery Feldspar Feldspar.44 0. loose.30 0. grind dust Flour. alundum Cotton.19 0. dry and loose Earth. dry. crushed Copper oxide Cork Corn meal Conundum.20 0. plied Grit blast dust Gypsum compressed loose Iron.55 0. dry moist Coal.20 0. baled loose Dolomite Duralumin Earth.26 0.32 0.48 0.13 0. anthracite anthracite.19 0.20 0. F. gray cast 60 Density lb.32 0. 63 110 98 54 85 47 48 75 28 15 97 142 556 190 190 15 40 247 93 30 181 175 76 78 250 160 88 125 47 28 30 160 215 140 90 165 96 132 120 160 152 70 442 Specific heat Btu per lb. dry Glass.20 0.16 0.

crushed Mica Monel metal Natural gas Nickel Nylon Paper Strawboard or newspaper Paraffin Peat.36 0. per.32 0. ground Porcelain Potash Quartz Quartz.25 0. ft.22 0. dry Phosphate. and piled Saltpeter Sand.26 0.22 0. Iron Slag.21 0. crushed Sawdust Shale. loose Lead Lead oxide (red) Leather Lime Limestone Lucite Magnesia Magnesium Magnesium dust Manganese ore. 150 710 567 56 53-64 163 74 214 109 30 259 183 556 0. gran. wet Sandstone Sandstone. 0.06 0. cu. India compound hard hard sponge tire reclaim.21 0.04475 547 70 58 33-44 56 30 75 150 60 165 84 67 58 115 75 30 74 27 48 80 99 110 144 82 7-15 105 7-15 172 60 61 Specific heat Btu per lb.33 0. riprap Shavings.48 0. solid tire reclaim.03 0.52 . loose Sand.11 0.20 0. ground Resin Rubber. per deg.22 0.Weights and specific heats of material mean values (cont’d) Material Iron ore.40 0. planer Slag.69 0. shred Salt.21 0.55 0.13 0.526 0. granulated Density lb. F. dry.

0 0.28 0.12 0. bulk Sulphur Sulphur.05 1.27 0.12 62 . F.40 0. per. cu.21 0. 172 74 30 91 141 167 95 35 487 100 55 126 50 170 69 113 457 16 62.17 0.28 0.30 0.09 0.21 0. crushed Talc Tar. bituminous Tile Tin Tobacco Water Zinc Zinc oxide Density lb. granulated Sodium carbonate Sodium nitrate Sodium sulphate Starch granulated Steel Sucrose Sugar. per deg.15 0.4 443 350 Specific heat Btu per lb.Weights and specific heats of material mean values (cont’d) Material Slate Soda ash Soda ash. ft. 0.

000 10.5 1 5 10 50 100 500 1.PARTICLE CHART RAIN DROPS SAND TAILINGS MIST GROUND LIMESTONE POLLENS FLOUR MILL DUST FOUNDRY DUST ASPHALT PAVING INSECTICIDE DUST SEA FOG SPRAY DRIED MILK CEMENT DUST SOOT BLOWING – BOILER TUBES BACTERIA PLANT SPORES PLANT DUST 0.000 PARTICLE SIZE .1 0.001 0.05 0.MICRONS 63 .0001 0.005 0.01 0.0005 0.000 5.

005 0.0001 0.0005 0.1 0.001 0.5 1 5 10 50 100 500 1.MICRONS 64 .000 PARTICLE SIZE .000 5.PARTICLE CHART FERTILIZER PLANT DUST & FUMES SMELTER DUST & FUMES SULPHURIC ACID DUST & FUMES PAINT PIGMENTS COAL SMOKE OIL SMOKE PULVERIZED FUEL ASH ATMOSPHERIC DUST RESIN SMOKE TOBACCO SMOKE MAGNESIUM OXIDE SMOKE CONDENSATION NUCLEI OPEN HEARTH STEEL FURNACE FUMES CARBON BLACK VISIBLE TO EYE 0.05 0.000 10.01 0.

minus 1/8” Boneblack Bonechar Borax. -meal etc. crushed Ammonium sulphate Bagasse Bakelite. powdered Baking powder Barley Bauxite. amorphous. crystalline Antimony Apple pomace. minus 1/2” Bones. channel Carbon black powder. granulated or ground. graphitic Carbon black powder. Soft Coal Asphalt.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Alfafa meal Almonds. shred Ashes. Bentonite Bicarbonate of Soda Bonemeal Bones. dry Brick Buckwheat Calcium carbide Calcium carbonate Carbon. furnace Carborundum Casein Cast Iron. borings Cast Iron Caustic Soda CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive N N N VA M M VA N M VA VA VA M M N N N VA N A N M M M M M VA N M N A N A A M M M VA M VA VA M 65 . crushed Beans. powdered Bran Brass Brewers grain. broken or whole Alum Alumina Aluminum Ammonium chloride. dry Asbestos. crushed. Hard Coal Ashes. spent.

dry Fluorspar Fly ash Fullers earth Gelatine. fine ground Corn. powdered Cocoa beans Coconut. petroleum Copper Copra (dried coconut) Cork. Cornmeal Cottonseed Cullet (broken glass) Dicalcium phosphate Dolomite Ebonite. coal Clay. crushed Egg powder Epsom salts Feldspar Ferrous sulphate Fish meal Flaxseed Flour Flue dust.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Cellulose Cement. crushed Chalk. minus 100 mesh Charcoal Cinders. bituminous Coal. cracked. anthracite Cocoa. ground Gluten mean CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive M VA VA A A N A A N A A N N N N A A VA N M N N N A M A N N M A A N N N M A VA A N VA M N 66 . dry Clover seed Coal. clinker Chalk. granulated Glass batch Glue. shelled etc. bituminous Coke. pulverized. Portland Cement. shredded Coffee Coke.

ground Lime. crushed Ilmenite ore Iron Cast Iron Oxide Lead Lead Arsenate Lead oxide Lignite Lime. dry Manganese sulphate Maple. dry Graphite Grass seed Gypsum Hops. dried. hydrated Limestone Litharge Lucite Magnesite Magnesium Magnesium chloride Malt. ground Milk. powdered Monel metal Muriate or potash Mustard seed Naphthalene flakes Nickel Oats Oak Orange peel.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Grains. dried Peas Phosphate rock Phosphate sand CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive N A A N N N VA VA VA A A A A VA A VA A A VA VA A N A N A A M N M M N N VA N N N N N N N VA VA 67 . hard Marble Marl Mica. dry Ice. dry Oxalic acid crystals Peanuts Peas. malted. distillery.

coarse Salt. crushed Sugar Sugar beet pulp. hard Rubber. rock Salt. heavy Sodium Nitrate Sodium Phosphate Soybeans. dry. dry Sulphur Talc Tanbark. furnace. soft Rye Salt. granulated Slate Soap. crushed Slag. chips. ground Timothy seed Tin Titanium Tobacco Vermiculite ore Wheat White lead Zinc Oxide CODE: VA – very abrasive M – mildly abrasive A – abrasive N – less abrasive 68 N M VA M N N N N N A A A N VA VA N A VA A N N M M M A A N N A A N N N M M N A VA N A N A A . meal and whole Starch Steel Steel chips. dry. ground Rubber. pulverized Saltpeter Sand Sandstone Sawdust Shale. flakes Soap powder Soapstone talc Soda ash.ABRASION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS DUSTS Pine Porcelain Quartz Resin Rice Rubber. light Soda ash.

1 bar•m/s 24 66 102 St. 1 11 49 29 Particle Size Distribution Food Feed Dust Type Gravy powder (21% starch) Citrus pellets Dextrose. Fish meal Fructose (from filter) Fructose Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 100 100 100 38 76 100 68 99 92 11 75 23 39 15 17 3 24 100 12 7 94 71 5 4 Median 32 20 µm KSt Explos. 1 St. 1 St. 1 (St. < 63 µm Class St. ground Dextrose Fat/whey mixture Fat powder (48% fat) Do.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Cotton Wood Peat Dust Type Cotton Cellulose Wood dust Wood dust Wood dust. 2 St. 2 96 75 85 91 58 100 66 83 57 73 18 <10 54 208 18 52 190 157 69 64 St. 2 69 . 1 St. (Chipboard) Wood/ cardboard/jute Wood/cardboard/jute/resin Lignin dust Paper dust Paper tissue dust Paper ( henolresin treated) Peat (15% moisture) Peat (22% moisture) Peat (31% moisture) Peat (41% moisture) Peat (from bottom of sieve) Peat (dust deposit) Paper Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 98 92 58 57 Median 32 38 20 47 43 30 71 72 71 90 55 70 63 20 25 3 7 39 µm 44 51 33 80 43 26 KSt Explos. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 12 39 22 80 330 92 320 150 200 18 23 20 35 102 28 St. 2) 90 26 40 43 40 22 33 76 25 3 15 20 18 23 58 46 38 39 74 84 82 87 88 78 58 65 76 76 48 66 93 51 144 168 St.

1 St. 1 St. 1 St. 1 (St. 2 St. 2) (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Food Feed Dust Type Fructose Barley grain dust Do. 1 70 . 1 St. 2) St. 1 St. Oats grain dust Wheat grain dust Wheat grain dust Coffee (from filter) Coffee (refined) Cocoa bean shell dust Cocoa/sugar mixture Potato granulate Potato flour Lactose (from filter) Lactose (from cyclone) Maize seed waste (9% moisture) Milk powder Milk powder Milk powder (low fat spray dried) Milk powder (full fat spray dried) Whey fat emulator Olive pellets Rice flour Rye flour Soy bean flour Potato starch Potato starch Maize starch Maize starch Rice starch (hydrolyzed) Rice starch Rice starch Wheat starch Tobacco Tapioca pellets Weight %<Size (µm) 500 81 79 64 51 24 48 100 81 50 100 100 100 53 20 100 86 53 83 97 98 98 100 100 67 40 34 15 99 30 62 7 94 2 100 100 76 85 100 100 99 94 29 99 86 81 64 61 50 98 81 15 74 62 84 29 42 17 94 60 54 52 50 58 63 15 50 23 18 8 60 17 26 60 70 16 17 47 41 32 25 100 8 30 25 99 89 8 3 Median 32 20 µm 400 250 125 71 63 KSt Explos. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 27 240 83 14 112 295 80 125 <10 St. 2 90 11 68 500 65 22 23 165 165 235 46 88 400 29 20 32 <10 16 120 18 18 20 49 44 43 21 69 29 81 117 90 75 109 83 38 74 57 79 110 43 (89) 128 158 190 190 132 12 53 St. 2) (St.

< 63 µm Class bar•m/s 44 No Ignition 67 123 143 107 108 1 115 St. 1 St. 1 St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 68 76 62 50 57 56 10 27 19 59 106 87 42 75 82 St.) Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 99 88 84 83 75 71 65 69 60 56 66 93 18 91 13 82 99 95 36 83 97 76 65 54 93 46 32 85 37 99 Median 32 80 64 38 40 27 38 43 85 55 88 85 30 24 80 35 67 58 63 20 55 µm 18 22 46 41 55 60 40 <10 290 28 14 19 >500 29 <10 38 4 KSt Explos. 1 Coal Coal products Dust Type Activated Carbon Activated Carbon Activated Carbon (16% moisture) Brown coal Brown coal (from electrostatic filter) Brown coal (dust from grinding) Brown coal/ anthracite (80-20) Brown coal/ anthracite (20-80) Brown coal coke Brown coal (graphitized) Charcoal Charcoal Charcoal Asphalt Bituminous coal Bituminous coal (Petchora) Bituminous coal (high volat.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Food Feed Dust Type Tea (6% moisture) Tea (black from dust collector) Meat flour Wheat flour Wheat flour Wheat flour 550 Milk sugar Milk sugar Sugar (Icing) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 100 64 69 97 48 52 60 60 99 98 88 26 31 32 34 92 64 70 16 21 25 25 77 32 52 Median 32 20 µm KSt Explos. 1 20 No Ignition 10 St. 1 St. 1 117 No Ignition 117 55 86 59 71 .

2) St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 79 37 100 24 82 100 58 28 89 80 43 97 99 95 90 99 66 100 72 12 44 67 60 46 84 24 99 50 95 30 84 43 36 55 13 94 64 53 200 55 19 14 80 40 23 26 34 18 57 <10 60 15 147 147 180 (St. malted Leather dust (from collector) Linen (containing oil) Lycopodium Oil shale dust Oil shale dust Grass dust Walnut shell powder Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 66 Median 32 26 250 125 24 71 10 57 78 61 9 63 20 5 13 57 µm 245 55 48 85 490 KSt Explos. 1 100 98 81 72 . 2) (St. 1 St. 1 Plastics Resins Rubber Dust Type AcryinitrateButadieneStyreneCo-polym. 2) 92 91 89 78 (St. 1 bar•m/s 35 109 105 90 52 93 14 27 28 5 St. < 63 µm Class St. 1 St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Other natural organic products Dust Type Cotton seed expellers Dextrin Wheat gluten (after mill) Blood flour Hops. Epoxy Resin (or powder coating) Cellulose-2 5-Acetate Polyester resin with glass Rubber (dust from grinding) Resin (from filter) Epoxy resin 60% resin + 36% TO2 Epoxy resin Epoxy resin with Al Melamin resin Melamin resin Phenol resin Phenol Formaldehyde resin) Polyamid resin Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 32 20 Median µm KSt Explos. 2 63 21 100 99 71 96 26 91 79 50 50 39 300 20 32 200 17 35 No Ignition 47 St. 1 (St. 1 St. 2) 138 108 155 129 208 110 172 129 105 St.

2) St. coating powder (Epoxy) El.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Plastics Resins Rubber Dust Type Polymethacrylate Silicon resin Caoutohouc Polystyrene (Copolymer) Polystyrene (Hard-foam) Polyurethane Polyvinylacetate (Copolymer) Polyvinylalcohol Polyvinylalcohol Polyvinylchloride Polyvinylchloride Polyvinylchloride (Em. 1 No Ignition 136 189 100 89 144 269 St. coating powder (Polyurethane) Shellac Wax (NN Ethylene distearmide) Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 56 91 Median 32 33 20 20 250 125 59 58 32 71 39 40 11 5 63 100 20 13 µm 100 95 155 KSt Explos. 1 (St. 1 26 14 St. 2) (St.) Polyvinylchloride (Susp.) Ureaformaldehyde (mold. 97. 1 St. L(+)Ascorbic acid Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 100 100 93 92 75 38 98 61 15 <10 14 39 Median 32 20 µm KSt Explos.-form) Melamineformaldehyde (mold.. 97% PVC) Polyvinylchloride (Susp. stat. 2) St. 2) 91 86 70 66 33 95 75 70 13 14 29 22 29 10 Pharmaceutical Cosmetics Pesticide Dust Type Acetyl salicylic acid Amino phenazone Ascorbic acid. < 63 µm Class (St.5% PVC) Polyvinylchloride (Em. 2) (St. 1 (St. stat.. 1 (St.-form) El. 2) bar•m/s 217 238 48 111 (St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 199 80 192 110 23 (156) 86 128 83 168 68 42 63 45 30 10 100 74 57 46 15 97 60 66 30 99 93 100 100 100 100 23 90 83 55 29 100 73 31 50 44 9 760 3 20 26 56 <10 125 25 51 105 137 St. 2) 73 .

2) 93 34 4 74 98 41 99 100 97 50 96 100 99 89 20 87 69 12 30 10 60 17 65 77 78 (St. 1 St. 2) St. < 63 µm Class (St. zinc comp. 1 (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Pharmaceutical Cosmetics Pesticide Dust Type Coffein Cysteine hydrate L-Crystin Digitalis leaves Dimethylaminophenazone 2-Ethoxybenzamide Fungicide (Captan) Fungicide (Org. < 63 µm Class (St. 2) bar•m/s 97 256 231 364 91 176 114 63 270 9 24 117 184 127 157 152 (St. 2) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type Adipinic acid Aging protective Anthracene Anthrachinone Anthrachinone Azodicarbonamide Benzoic acid Betaine hydrochloride Betaine monohydrate Diphenol ketylene Calcium acetate Casein Sodium caseinate (from filter) Carboxy methyl cellulose Carboxy methyl cellulose Methyl cellulose Methyl cellulose Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 89 Median 32 92 67 100 90 100 85 80 25 75 250 125 20 71 98 7 100 63 100 20 µm <10 <32 235 <10 12 <10 <10 710 15 92 40 17 <15 KSt Explos. 1 154 143 128 119 156 151 St.) Fungecide (Maneb) Methionine Methionine Sodium – L(+) ascorbate Paracetamole Pesticide Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 100 100 59 Median 32 98 95 42 100 63 100 20 94 69 µm <10 15 46 <10 KSt Explos. 1 74 . 2) bar•m/s 165 40 142 73 337 214 100 100 99 93 99 98 100 100 97 100 99 98 98 <10 97 99 98 67 96 93 95 87 45 5 <10 <10 <10 <10 23 (St. 1 115 71 22 29 St. 2) St. 2) (St.

30% fat) Ferrocene Fumac acid Epoxy resin hardener Urea Hexamethylene tetramine Hexamethylene tetramine Cellulose ion exchange resin Cellulose ion exchange resin Condensation product (phenol) D(-)-Mannite Melamine Melamine peroxide Melamine phosphate Melamine phtalate Metal soap (Ba/Pb-stearate) Metal soap (Zn-behenate) Methacrylamide Naphtalene Naphtalic acid anhydride Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 98 69 Median 32 37 40 3 98 93 250 79 125 33 20 71 93 66 63 13 20 12 µm 37 40 170 260 <10 <10 1300 KSt Explos. 2) (St. 1 bar•m/s 209 162 269 9 163 116 247 218 51 167 267 (St. 1 St. 2) (St. 2) (St. 2) 64 St. 1 St.3-Diethyldiphenyl urea 1. 1 St. 2) 27 92 61 98 61 100 99 100 100 42 89 66 35 9 74 24 95 56 79 89 48 80 12 97 69 65 50 13 88 46 112 20 67 <10 24 22 16 580 95 16 119 113 178 90 75 . 2) (St. 2) (St. 2) 99 98 8 97 83 60 93 31 49 89 71 24 <1 100 100 30 9 69 42 27 50 33 15 97 4 2 11 11 85 60 27 128 1100 71 95 215 17 2900 27 155 <10 100 75 (St. < 63 µm Class St. 1 286 224 91 112 171 54 1 73 (St. 1 52 180 St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type Methyl cellulose Ethyl cellulose Chloroacetamide Cyanoacrylicacid methylester Dicyandiamide 1. 2) (St.3-Diethyldiphenyl urea Dimethyl terephtalate Diphenyl urethane Diphenyl urethane Emulgator (50% CH. 1 (St. 2) St.

2) 48 56 4 36 2 1 1 St. 1 42 175 222 59 177 120 188 158 (St. 2) St. 1 St. 1 (St. 1 bar•m/s 137 90 63 51 89 86 86 91 100 33 36 47 St. 2) St. 2) 162 61 47 98 6 20 86 90 47 99 83 53 57 99 24 93 96 99 29 100 14 78 115 23 115 82 150 152 99 155 123 111 133 34 260 18 75 460 1250 800 72 8 33 (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type 2-Naphtol Sodium amide Sodium cyclamate Sodium hydrogen cyanamide Sodium lingo sulphonate Oil Adsorber (hydrophobic cellulose) Paraformaldehyde Paraformaldehyde Pectin Pectinase Pentaerythrite Pentaerythrite (from filter) Pentaerythrite Phtalic acid anahydride Polyethylene oxide Polysaccharide Propyleneglycol alginate Salicylic acid Saponin Lead stearate Lead stearate Calcium stearate Calcium stearate Calcium stearate Magnesium stearate Sodium stearate Zinc stearate Zinc stearate Stearin/Lead Stearin/Calcium Stearic acid Terephthalic acid dinitrile 2. 2) 12 (St. 1 St.2-Thiodiacetic acid Thio urea Trimellitic anhydride Trisodium citrate Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 97 Median 32 96 2 28 8 250 52 125 13 95 100 65 71 100 63 5 20 94 µm <10 250 40 58 KSt Explos. 2) St. < 63 µm Class (St. 1 (St. 1 77 90 92 92 67 86 95 89 100 78 27 65 80 90 84 80 45 72 75 64 100 43 25 92 95 99 100 13 <10 12 <10 <10 145 22 13 15 16 1300 (St. 1 76 . 2) St. 2) 20 31 65 58 21 41 37 21 20 86 3 12 65 23 27 34 <10 85 135 (St.

2) St. St. 2) St. < 63 µm Class 73 bar•m/s <10 249 237 288 65 100 33 98 23 95 52 <10 (St. 1 Other Technical/ Chemical products Dust Type Organic dyestuff (blue) Organic dyestuff (red) Organic dyestuff (red) Organic dyestuff (Azo. 2) (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Intermediate products Auxiliary Materials Dust Type Tyrosine (final product) Tyrosine (raw product) Viscose flock Tartaric acid Zinc cyanamide Zinc cyanamide Zinc pyridine thione Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 100 99 100 47 5 34 Median 32 48 250 125 99 96 1 71 63 20 µm 10 15 13 480 <10 600 KSt Explos.) Wax raw material (Alkylaryl sulphonate) Wax raw material (Olefin sulphonate) Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 63 99 Median 32 20 98 µm 95 <10 KSt Explos. 1 92 93 77 85 83 <10 <15 65 24 19 275 St. 1 St. 2) (St. ign. 2) (St. 1 267 (St. 1 96 74 23 11 97 100 100 100 88 14 86 45 26 <10 36 260 73 115 63 214 310 111 St. 1 St. < 63 µm Class (St. 1 bar•m/s 91 100 99 27 74 94 96 14 100 94 (53) No. yellow) Organic dyestuff (brown) Organic dyestuff (Pthalocyanine) Fushsin base Bituminous hydrocarbon Light protection agent Light protection agent Soap Surfacer (Epoxy based) Surfacer (Polyester based) Washing agent (Na-sulph. 1) 60 28 105 115 77 .

3) 92 80 79 26 35 29 230 52 <10 St. 1) St. Mo) Co-Al-Ti (62:18:20) Magnesium Magnesium FeSiMg (24:47:17) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 94 98 99 94 100 99 6 20 17 93 47 95 37 18 97 68 94 87 98 96 99 99 97 100 95 92 100 99 1 99 70 47 68 75 55 82 82 97 77 70 40 61 70 41 86 60 46 48 67 96 73 90 57 47 68 48 Median 32 88 70 64 60 96 16 63 20 79 45 47 17 2 µm <10 22 22 29 23 41 170 190 240 21 130 KSt Explos. 2) 78 . 1 300 St. 2) (St. TiN. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 515 400 1100 415 320 100 (St. WC. 1 90 18 22 21 28 12 <10 <10 <10 17 21 43 25 28 240 21 31 420 200 50 111 86 84 169 87 (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Metal Alloys Dust Type Aluminum powder Aluminum powder Aluminum powder Aluminum powder Aluminum grit Aluminum grit Aluminum grit Aluminum shavings Aluminum shavings Aluminum/Iron (50:50) Aluminum/ Magnesium Aluminum/ Nickel Aluminum/ Nickel (50:50) Bronze powder Calcium/ Aluminum (30:70) Calcium/Silicon (from cyclone) Calcium/Silicone Iron (from dry filter) Iron Carbonyl Ferrochromium Ferromanganese FeSiMg (22:45:26) Ferrosilicon (22:78) Hard metal (TiC. VC. 1 134 508 12 267 (St.

1 St. 1 92 93 51 86 92 75 75 22 64 59 53 59 14 47 18 99 19 15 71 22 526 5 37 47 3 14 85 St. 1 St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 21 71 St. 2) 90 100 97 98 77 61 40 28 91 93 12 70 74 90 55 46 6 72 70 (St. 3) 85 93 125 176 (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Metal Alloys Dust Type Manganese (electrolyt.5% C) Carbon fibers (99% C) Molybdenum disulphide Petroleum coke Petroleum coke Petroleum coke (calcinated) Phosphorous (red) Soot Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 60 100 Median 32 42 97 63 20 35 µm 50 7 KSt Explos.) Steel (100 Cr6) dust Tantalum/Niobium Titanium Titanium (pre-oxidized) TiTiO2 (dust deposit) Zinc (from zinc coating) Zinc (from zinc coating) Zinc (dust from collector) Zinc (dust from collector) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 82 70 100 87 44 24 99 9 Median 32 70 41 96 3 98 100 63 20 57 92 97 99 57 80 24 26 µm 16 33 <10 250 <10 <10 16 <10 30 35 310 KSt Explos.) Manganese (electrolyt. 1 53 19 21 99 97 91 72 <10 10 Other Inorganic Products Dust Type NH4NO3/ Dicyanimide (66:34) Graphite (99. 1 126 116 100 (82) 37 (St.) Molybdenum Niobium (6% Al) Silicon Silicon (from filter) Silicon (from cust extr. 2) St. 1 83 94 100 79 . < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 157 69 St.

1 St. + org. < 63 µm Class No. 2) St. Ign. 1 (St. 2) <10 25 8 23 150 190 71 360 30 96 18 St. bar•m/s 35 91 St. 1 St. Pb and Ca stearate mixture Break liner (grinding dust) Brush dust (Al-brushes) CaC/Diamide lime/Mg (72:18:10) Mud from settling chamber Dust from polishing (Al) Dust from polishing (Zn) Dust from polishing (brass) Dust from grinding (Al) Dust from grinding (Zn) Dust from grinding cardbd. 1 St. 2) Particle Size Distribution Other Materials Dust Type Flyash (from electrofilter) Ash concentrate Bentonite/ Asphalt/Coal/ Org. Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 100 87 90 98 86 89 98 98 99 99 99 44 60 35 93 91 26 15 2 70 95 74 87 62 55 69 41 45 23 35 89 30 80 45 Median 32 92 61 71 63 99 20 48 µm 6 21 54 42 35 KSt Explos. 2) (St.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Other Inorganic Products Dust Type Soot (from filter) Sulphur Sulphur Sulphur Sulphur Titanium carbide Titanium hydride Titanium monoxide Particle Size Distribution Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 97 96 86 53 Median 32 20 85 51 63 µm <10 71 20 40 120 KSt Explos. 1 80 . < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 88 12 151 70 23 7 (St. comp. (15:45:35:5) Bentonite/Coal (50:50) Bentonite der. 1 123 (St. 1 100 100 70 64 44 25 85 67 10 160 (214) (24) (St. 2) St.

2) 99 100 46 96 82 91 <10 242 600 11 196 137 134 145 169 (St. 1 100 100 58 98 96 95 37 78 100 100 48 30 55 <10 <10 21 23 60 18 (St. 2 = 300 kst or less (St. < 63 µm Class bar•m/s 153 237 (St. 68-27 Av = a*Vˆ(2/3)*Kstˆb*Predˆc where a = 0.Ignitability and Explosibility of Dust Clouds (Ref 2 & 3) Particle Size Distribution Other Materials Dust Type Dust from grinding polyester Dust from grinding polyester Dust from grinding (Ti) Dust from grinding + polishing (polyester) Blasting dust (light metals) Immersion polishing agent Textile fibers (nat.) Toner Toner Toner Toner Toner/iron powder Toner/resin Zinc stearate/ Bentonate (90:10) Weight %<Size (µm) 500 250 125 71 98 97 89 64 37 84 18 Median 32 95 60 4 63 20 93 41 µm <10 25 170 KSt Explos. Press.687 eˆ(. Sec. 1 = 200 kst or less St. 7-1. During Venting Kst (bar*m/sec) – Deflagration Index V (mˆ3) – Volume of Vessel Av (mˆ2) – Required Vent Area See Reference #3 81 .000571 eˆ(2*Pstat) b = 0.105* Pstat) c = -0. p.226*Pstat) Variables: Pstat (bars) – Vent Release Pressure Pred (bars) – Max.1.1. 1 St. + synth.978 eˆ(-0. 1) Equations per NFPA 68. 2) St. 2) Zinc stearate/ Bentonate (20:80) Explosion Classes St.

624 to 1.000 4.250 1. ft.0709 to . ft.750 .0135 .0636 .968 to 2.0269 .1120 to .0822 . 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Thickness Sheet equiv.0389 .1196 .750 1.1345 .0149 . lbs.0598 .969 2.375 2. ft.656 to 2.875 1.0224 to .1420 .0710 .1644 .20 12.Misc.0284 .70 40.0329 .374 to 2.1271 .719 .1495 .0821 to .375 3.0141 to .687 to 4.0156 to . 7.0157 . lbs.062 to .375 1.0508 to . 17.1716 to .124 to 1.125 2.437 to 2.438 3.1121 .0449 .938 .313 5. Weight of rolled steel MSG no.0179 .063 1. lbs.594 .1419 to .532 MSG no.29 Thickness 7/16 1/2 9/16 5/8 Weight per sq.0171 to .500 1.0142 . 28.812 2.0359 .0343 to .0673 .0172 .812 to .688 4.593 to .0283 to .688 .0538 .0195 .063 4.312 to 1.437 to 1.0255 .89 82 .86 20.000 1.50 Thickness 11/16 3/4 7/8 1 Weight per sq. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Weights of steel plate Thickness 3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 Weight per sq.062 to 3.40 22.750 3.250 5.1570 .0509 .938 5.875 .0635 to .74 15.562 Order limit pounds 7.0567 to .187 to 1.874 to 1.625 .03 30.1569 to .0747 .625 5.500 2.250 2.125 1.562 to 5.0972 .0254 to .718 to .625 1.0209 .0194 to .438 1.0314 .0239 .0971 to .65 10.657 2.1270 to .656 to .0313 to .60 35.312 to 4.0897 .813 .563 6.0225 .0128 Weight Pounds per square foot 6.0388 to .313 1.0344 .187 to 6.Order limit alent inches inches .675 6.0164 .95 25.657 .937 to .0448 to .937 to 5.000 .0299 .0568 .0478 . Ref.125 2.0418 .1046 .188 1.

0059 0.0787 0.S.0469 0.0015 5660 4760 4000 3660 2830 2380 2000 1680 1410 1190 1000 840 710 590 500 420 350 297 250 210 177 149 125 105 88 74 62 53 44 37 *Sieve analysis is limited in its usefulness in industrial ventilation and dust collection because it does not register particles in the submicron range.0165 0.0331 0.0138 0.0661 0.Standard Sieve Series* Tyler Inch/Mesh 3 1/2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 20 24 28 32 35 42 48 60 65 80 100 115 150 170 200 250 270 325 400 U.0280 0.0070 0.0937 0.157 0.0041 0.0098 0.0024 0.0197 0.0021 0.0555 0.0017 0.0232 0.0117 0.187 0. Standard Inch/Sieve # 3 1/2 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100 120 140 170 200 230 270 325 400 Sieve Opening Inches Microns 0.35 0. 83 .0394 0.111 0.0.132 0.0029 0.223 0.0049 0.0083 0.

b ________ _______ sin A = _a_ = cos B. B. c B = 90°-A a = b tan A. sec A = _c_. a b a Given a and b. C = Angles sin A = _a_. c B = 90°-A. c = _b_ cos A Given A and c. c = √a2 + b2 = a√ 1 + _b2 b a2 Given a and c. b = c cos A 84 . cosec A = _c_. tan A = _a_ c b cot A = _b_.c = Distances cos A = _b_. B. a. a = c sin A. b B = 90°-A. B._a2 c c2 Given A and a.b. and c ______ _______ tan A = _a_ = cot B. Find B. b. Find B. b = √(c+a) (c-a) = a√ 1 .Right Triangle Trig Formulas A. c = _a_ sin A Given A and b. Find A. Find A. c a. b = a cot A. a. Find B.

c = a sin C sin A Given A. and C __________ s=a+b+c. c = a sin C sin A tan 1/2 (A – B) = (a – b) tan 1/2. sin 1/2 A = √(s – b)(s – c) 2 bc __________ sin 1/2 B = √(s –a)(s – c) .(A + B). C. and c b = a sin B . and c sin B = b sin A . C. a C = 180° . Area = √s(s – a)(s – b)(s – c) 2 Area = bc sin A . Find A.B and a.(A + B) ac Given a.a and b. Find B. c = a sin C sin A Given a. Find b.(A + B).Given A. and c A + B = 180° . Find A. sin A C = 180° .b and C.C. b and c. B. b and c. B. 2 Area = a²sin B sin C 2 sin A 85 . C = 180° . (A + B) a+b Given a. Find Area ________________ s = a + b + c .

Surface and volume of Solids Cylinder (Right or Oblique. ___ Volume = 1/3 √Bh = 1/3 the volume of prism or cylinder of same base and perpendicular height or 1/2 the volume of hemisphere of same base and perpendicular height. Pyramid or Cone (Right or Oblique. Frustum of Any Pyramid or Cone (Parallel Ends) Areas of base. P. perpendicular height. lateral length L. Sphere Area = 4πr² Volume = 1/2/³π Radius. h. r. B. T. Circular or Elliptic) Perimeter or base. h. h. Spherical Segment Radius. perpendicular height. perpendicular height. r. lateral length L. Volume = π/3 h² (3r-h)=π/24 h (3c²+4h²) Curved Surface = 2πrh = π/4(4h²+c²) ___ Volume = 1/3h (B + T + √BT) Lateral Surface = Pbh Lateral Surface = PL Volume = Bh Volume = AL 86 . c. h. and top. perpendicular to sides. Perimeter. h. B. B. perpendicular height. Area of base. length of chord. Area of section perpendicular to sides A. height. Pb. Regular or Irregular) Area of base.

319 11.S.8327 0.S.875 16.62500 0.1337 8.427 0.) Cubic feet Pounds of water (20°C) Pounds of water (4°C) Pounds per sq. gallons Cubic feet Feet of water (4°C) In.59375 0.700 U. inch FracDecimal tion 1/32 1/16 3/32 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 9/32 5/16 11/32 3/8 13/32 7/16 15/32 1/2 0.794 1.71875 0.68750 0.25000 0.12500 0.87500 0.00000 Mm 13.43750 0.431 22.56250 0.463 18.8862 0. of mercury (0°C) Knots by 3. circle Diam.731 9.175 3.330 62.18750 0.906 12. inch FracDecimal tion 17/32 9/16 19/32 5/8 21/32 11/16 23/32 3/4 25/32 13/16 27/32 7/8 29/32 15/16 31/32 1 0.225 23.50000 Mm 0.93750 0.81250 0.019 23.37500 0.4336 0.556 6.969 4. inch Miles per hour To obtain divide into 87 .09375 0. circle Diam.669 17.90625 0.78125 0.Conversion Tables Decimal and metric equivalents of common fractions of an inch U.S.638 21. gallons U.96875 1. inch Pounds per sq.844 20.381 3.06250 0.S.S.1516 to obtain Circumference circle Side of equal square Volume of sphere Square mils Imperial gallons (Brit. gallons U.050 19.7854 0.081 15.40625 0.1416 0. sphere cubed Circular mils U.65625 0.03125 0.813 24.84375 0.31250 0.400 Conversion ratios Multiply Diam.4912 1.763 5.28125 0.46875 0.256 19.350 7.494 14.606 25.15625 0.75000 0.21875 0.144 7.938 8.34375 0.53125 0.5236 0.525 10.588 2.113 11.288 15.

of mercury represents 1. = 1. of air by 1/4 or 1% 1 in. in. difference in elevation at sea level represents 15. per sq. difference in elevation at 4. per sq.789 lb. per sq. difference in elevation at seal level represents 1. = = 144 lb. mercury = = 0. = 51. of mercury 1.309 ft. per sq. water = = 0. mercury 1 lb.000 ft. mercury = = 0. per sq.Pressure equivalents 1 Atmosphere = = 14. per sq. water = 2. water = 0. in. = 10. ft. per sq.0735 in.3 lb.70 in.000 ft.7 mm.000 ft. = 0. water = 27.86 oz.002456 atmospheres = 0. of water resistance lowers wt.000 ft. per sq. water 1 in. mercury = 7. of mercury = 760 mm. difference in elevation at sea level to 4. per cu. per sq. per sq. mercury = 234.2 in. per sq. difference in elevation at 4. in. ft. of water = 0.4 mm.06804 atmospheres = 703. = 0. mercury = 0. in. difference in elevation at 4.54 oz. per sq. = 2.71 mm. = 0. water 1 mm.02896 in.08333 ft. water = 0.11 in. of mercury 1.696 lb.70 lb.1441 ft. of water represents 74 ft. in. water = 0. mercury = 0. 1 oz.3094 oz. in. = 0. water 1.0361 lb. difference in elevation at 4. of water = 407.491 lb. water = 13. ft.92 in.02 mm.036 in.394 in.4 mm. water = 1. = 16 oz.03342 atmospheres = 345. water = 0. per sq. mercury = 2. water = 13. mercury = 3.001316 atmospheres = 0. elevation 1 in.000 ft. per sq.00 lb. per sq.00425 atmospheres = 44. ft. mercury = 1.000 ft.876 mm. water = 0. per sq.03937 in. of water 1 in. per sq. ft.6 mm. water 1 in. in.04464 ft. water 1 gm.000 ft. in.5774 oz. represents 1 in.52 in. in.6 in. = = 0. in. per sq. difference in elevation at sea level to 4.1272 in.06895 megabars (or megadynes) per sq.134 ft.000 to 6. = 25.733 in.000 ft. 1 in.340 mm.01934 lb. in. = 33. per sq. in. cm. represents 13.196 lb. = 25. ft. = 9. mercury = 0. = 70.61 mm. water = 29. = 5.000 ft.0625 lb. mercury 88 . = 2116. water = 0. of mercury represents 900 ft. = 0. = 0. elevation 1.23 mm. ft.0703 kg.000 ft. cm. of water represents 66 ft.000 ft.96 ft. cm. 1 in.5357 in.000 to 6.61 in. per sq.

7646 cubic meter 0. dry 1. mile 1 township 1 decimeter 1 liter 1 meter 1 kilometer 1 hektoliter 1 hectare 1 kilogram 1 stere or.280 feet 6.308 cubic yards 0. 1 ounce 12 ounces 1 pound Used for weighing gold.8 inches 2-1/2 feet Cubic Measure 1. yr. 1. 30 or 31 days 1 month 30 days 365 days 1 year 1 minute 1 hour 1 day 1 week 1 cal.3524 hektoliter 4 inches 1.Weights and measures Time Measure Troy Weight 24 grains 1 pwt. 29. Measure of Volume 1 U. interest 366 days lp.2759 cord 3. month in comp. 20 pwt. 0.9463 liter 0.0567 qt.39 cubic cent.42 cubic inches 231 cubic inches 1 cubic foot Dry Measure 2 pints 8 quarts 4 pecks 36 bushels Mariners’ Measure 6 feet 120 fathoms 71/2 cable lengths 5.92 inches 25 links 4 rods 10 sq. standard gal.9 qt.150.0353 cubic foot 28.317 cubic dec.2 feet 1 cubic foot 1 cubic yard 1 cord (wood) 1 ton (shipping) 1 standard bu. liq.061 cu. cubic meter 1 metric ton Surveyors’ Measure 7. silver and jewels 60 seconds 60 minutes 24 hours 7 days 28.080.881 dekaliter 2.101 liters 0.728 cubic inches 27 cubic feet 128 cubic feet 40 cubic feet 2.908 qt. inch foot 16.624 steres 0.6 pounds Cloth Measure 21/8 inches 4 nails 4 quarters 1 nail 1 quarter 1 yard Miscellaneous 3 inches 4 inches 6 inches 18 inches 21.S. rods 640 acres 36 sq.06 quarts liquid. 1 palm 1 hand 1 span 1 cubit 1 Bible cubit 1 military pace . chains or 160 sq.204. 1. 0.3785 dekaliter 0.) Approximate Metric Equivalents 89 .8375 bushels 0. dry 1. 1 cubic centimeter about 4/5 of a bushel 1 cubic inch 1 cubic decimeter 1 cubic foot 1 quart 1 cubic meter 1 peck 1 cubic yard 1 bushel 1 stere 1 chaldron 1 cord 1 liter 1 quart dry 1 fathom 1 quart liquid 1 cable length 1 dekaliter 1 mile 1 peck 1 statute mile 1 hektoliter 1 nautical mile 1 bushel 1 link 1 rod 1 chain 1 acre 1 sq. miles (6 miles sq.1 yards 5/8 of a mile 2-5/8 bushels 2-1/2 acres 2-1/5 pounds 1/4 of a cord 2.

) Ton (lg.76 lb. per sq.0703 kg. carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 3.655. 1 quadrant = 90 deg. Oz. Ton (sht.) = 907. 30-1/4 sq. 2.-lb.-cal.600. per sq. cm.080 ft.) Blood Heat Linear measure 1 foot = 12 inches 1 yard = 3 feet 1 rod = 5-1/2 yards 1 furlong = 40 rods Circular measure 1 minute = 60 seconds 1 deg.2 gal (U.8824 kg. per sq. ft. cm. = 1.48 gallons 1 gallon = 231 cu. inches 1 gal. Lb. Hat and energy units 1 ton (refrig.235 lb. per sq.560 sq. Avoirdupois weight 1 dram = 27.0648 9./hr.2048 lb. mile 1 kw. m.0160 ton (met. = 2. cm.-hr. = 0. per sq. = 1 sq. 9 sq. per sq.) = 0. in.3437 grains 1 ounce = 16 drams 1 pound = 16 ounces 1 quarter = 25 pounds 1 hundredweight = 4 quarters 1 short ton = 2.135 oz.1848 kg.3410 h. Apothecaries’ weight 1 scruple = 20 grains 1 ounce = 8 drams 1 dram = 3 scruples 1 pound = 12 ounces Grain = 0. yd. = 1 acre 640 acres = 1 sq.S.) = 1. in. gal. Square measure 144 sq. 0.000 pounds 1 long ton = 2.4° above Zero 1 stat mile = 8 furlongs 1 stat mile = 5. water evap. foot = 7. 1 lb. = 28.518 lb. 1 lb. = 0.098 kg.413 Btu. 160 sq. ft.94 Pressure 1 kg. 860 kg. ft. 1 barrel = 31-1/2 gallons 1 hogshead = 2 barrels 1 Imp. rods = 1 acre 43. from and at 212°F. rod Liquid measure 1 pint = 4 gills 1 quart = 2 pints 1 gallon = 4 quarts Volume 1 cu. per sq. 1 kg. ft.) = 200 Btu/min. 1.Weights and measures (cont’d) Temperatures Milk Water Olive Oil Wines Vinegar Alcohol Water Eggs Hatch Petrol. = 0. of water raised from 62 to 212°F.280 feet 1 naut mile = 6.) Mineral lubricating oil has specific gravity of 0. 22. 3.000 w/hr. = 1 sq.223 lb. 367. = 1 sq.9678 normal atmosphere Heat and Energy units 1. 1 kg.240 pounds 1 pound = 7. in.9072 ton (met. = 60 minutes 1 circle = 4 quadrants = 2 πradians or 360 deg. per sq.000 grains 90 Fahrenheit Freezes 30° above Zero Freezes 32° above Zero Freezes 36° above Zero Freeze 20° above Zero Freezes 28° above Zero Boils at 173° above Zero Boils at 212° above Zero 104° above Zero Boils at 360° above Zero 98./min. = 0. = 14.p.4536 kg.296 deg. m. = 4. yd. ft.-m.3495 9.000 joules 3.217 ft. Ton (sht. per sq.-hr.) .88 to 0. 1 league = 3 miles 1 radian = 57. (av.

8000 Btu per lb.37 Btu per cu. – hr.500 joules 756.p. ft. 1 Btu per cu.-m.3814 h. per liter = 112.9685 Btu 1 Btu = 0.-cal. natural gas (varies) 14. m.p. 0. ft. 1 Btu per cu. = 8.1085 lb. 14.520 Btu 1.8987 kg. 1. 2. manufactured gas (varies) 12.-hr.2520 kg. ft. per cu.-hr. water evap.-cal. from and at 212°F.-hr. m.-hr. 1 kg. carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 14. per cu. 0. 91 .1849 lb. per lb. 1 kg. per kg.7457 kw. 1.-m. 1 kg. ft.p. per kilogram = 1.2 Btu 104. water evaporated from and at 212°F. from and at 212°F. carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 2.-lb.-lb.5555 kg. 970.500 ft.-cal. of water evap.Heat and Energy units (cont’d) 1 h.-hr. 0.709 h.545 Btu. ft.0089 kg.000 ft.97 lb. = 0. anthracite oxidized (varies) 2.255 kw. ft. 273. 1 Btu per pound = 0. 5.-cal. of carbon oxidized with perfect efficiency 1 kg.315 lb. = 0. 1 lb.4 cu.745 kg. = 3.400 kg.000 ft.-cal.-cal.9 cu.023.980.-lb.-cal.-cal.622 lb. 0.2844 kw. 11. 1 lb.0668 lb.300.1124 Btu per cu. dry wood oxidized (varies) 26. 0.

gal) liquid Barrels.98692 x 1. – bbl x 0. Petroleum – bbl x 0.S.0443 x 750.01325 = Bars (bar) absolute x 1.15899 x 42 Bars – bar x 100 x 14. U.252 = Kilocalories (kcal) x 107. gallons (U.0332 = Kilograms force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) absolute x 1.11924 = Cubic meters (m³) x 31. gallons (U.S.Metric Conversions Atmospheres – atm (Standard at sea-level pressure) x 101.53 x 1.96 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 1.3937 = Square meters (m²) = Inches (in) 92 .93 x 10-4 = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) British Thermal Units per Minute – Btu/min (See note) x 17.325 = Kilopascals (kPa) absolute x 14.504 x 33.02358 = Horsepower (hp) Centares x1 Centimeters – cm x 0.52 x 29.0581 = Tons force per square foot (tonf/ft²) absolute x 760 = Torr (torr) (= mmHg at 0°C) Barrels.92 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 33.97 = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft • lbf/s) x 0.S.93 x 10 x 3.696 = Pounds-force per square inch absolute (psia) x 76.5 = U.6 = Kilogram-force-meters (kgf • m) -4 = Kilowatt-hours (kW • h) x 2.58 = Watts (W) x 12. Liquid.S.00 = Centimeters of mercury (cmHg) at 0°C x 29.06 = Cubic meters (m³) = U.S.0197 x 0. gal) oil = Kilopascals (kPa) = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) = Atmospheres (atm) sea-level standard = Tons-force per square foot (tonf/ft²) = Torr (torr) (= mmHg at 0°C) British Thermal Units – Btu (See note) x 1055 = Joules (J) x 778 = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) x 0.

699 = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) x 0. gallons per day (U.S.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Centimeters of Mercury – cm/Hg at 0°C x 1.229 x 28.0 = Cubic centimeters per second (cm³/s) x 1.03281 = Feet per second (ft/s) x 0.699 = Cubic meters per minute (m³/min) x 448.4468 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 5. gallons (U.3332 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.013158 = Atmospheres (atm) standard x 10 = Torr (torr) (= mmHg at 0°C) Centimeters per Second – cm/s x 1. gpd) 93 .02832 = Cubic meters per second (m³/s) x 1. gallons per minute (U.013595 = Kilograms force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 27.S.832 x 104 x 1728 x 0. gallons (U.8 = U.02237 = Miles per hour (mph) Cubic Centimeters – cm³ x 3.S.S. gallons per second (U.642 x 10-4 x 2.362 = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F x 0.32 = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd3) = U.02832 x 2. gps) x 62.481 x 6.5315 x 10-5 x 6.1024 x 10-2 x 1. gpm) x 0.1247 = U.S. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Liters (l) = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.6463 = Million U.03600 = Kilometers per hour (km/h) x 0.200 x 10-4 x 1000 x 10-3 Cubic Feet .308 x 10-6 x 2.19337 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.6000 = Meters per minute (m/min) x 0.S.S.ft³ x 0.85 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.4720 = Liters per second (l/s) x 0.03704 x 7.S.013332 = Bars (bar) x 0.S.30 = Pounds of water per minute (lbH2O/min) at 68°F Cubic Feet per Second – cfs x 0.S.9685 = Feet per minute (ft/min) x 0. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Liters (l) Cubic Feet per Minute – cfm x 472.

Metric Conversions (cont’d)
Cubic Inches - In³ x 1.6387 x 10-5 x 16.387 x 0.016387 x 5.787 x 10-4 x 2.143 x 10-5 x 4.329 x 10-3 x 3.605 x 10-3 Cubic Meters - m³ x 1000 x 35.315 x 61.024 x 10³ x 1.3080 x 264.2 x 220.0 = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Liters (l) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Liters (l) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal)

Cubic Meters per Hour - m³/h x 0.2778 = Liters per second (l/s) -4 x 2.778 x 10 = Cubic meters per second (m³/s) x 4.403 = U.S. gallons per minute (U.S. gpm) Cubic Meters per Second – (m³/s) x 3600 = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) x 15.85 x 10³ = U.S. gallons per minute (U.S. gpm) Cubic Yards - yd³ x 0.7646 x 764.6 x 7.646 x 105 x 27 x 46,656 x 201.97 x 168.17 Degrees Angular (°) x 0.017453 x 60 x 3600 x 1.111 = Cubic meters (m³) = Liters (l) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Radians (rad) = Minutes (‘) = Seconds (“) = Grade (gon)

Degrees per Second, Angular (°/s) x 0.017453 = Radians per second (rad/s) x 0.16667 = Revolutions per minute (r/min) x 2.7778 x 10-3 = Revolutions per second (r/s) Drams (dr) x 1.7718 x 27.344 x 0.0625 = Grams (g) = Grains (gr) = Ounces (oz) 94

Metric Conversions (cont’d)
Fathoms x 1.8288 x6 Feet – ft x 0.3048 x 30.480 x 12 x 0.3333 = Meters (m) = Feet (ft) = Meters (m) = Centimeters (cm) = Inches (in) = Yards (yd)

Feet of Water – ftH2O, at 68°F x 2.984 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.02984 = Bars (bar) x 0.8811 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 0.03042 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 62.32 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.4328 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.02945 = Standard atmospheres Feet per Minute – ft/min x 0.5080 x 0.01829 x 0.0051 x 0.3048 x 0.016667 x 0.01136 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) = Kilometers per hour (km/h) = Meters per second (mps) = Meters per minute (m/min) = Feet per second (ft/s) = Miles per hour (mph)

Feet per Second per Second – ft/s² x 0.3048 = Meters per second per second (m/s²) x 30.48 = Centimeters per second per second (cm/s²) Foot-Pounds-Force – ft • lbf x 1.356 = Joules (J) = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) x 1.285 x 10-3 x 3.239 x 10-4 = Kilocalories (kcal) x 0.13825 = Kilogram-force-meters (kgf • m) x 5.050 x 10-7 = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) x 3.766 x 10-7 = Kilowatt-hours (kW • h)

95

Metric Conversions (cont’d)
Gallons U.S. – U.S. gal x 3785.4 x 3.7854 x 3.7854 x 10-3 x 231 x 0.13366 x 4.951 x 10-3 x8 x4 x 0.8327 x 8.328 x 8.337 Gallons, Imperial – imp gal x 4546 x 4.546 x 4.546 x 10-3 x 0.16054 x 5.946 x 10-3 x 1.20094 x 10.000 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Liters (l) = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = Pints (pt) liquid = Quarts (qt) liquid = Imperial gallons (imp gal) = Pounds of water at 60°F in air = Pounds of water at 60°F in vacuo = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Liters (l) = Cubic meters (m³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.S. gallons (U.S. gal) = Pounds of water at 62°F in air

Gallons, per Minute, U.S. – U.S. gpm x 0.22715 = Cubic meters per hour (m3/h) x 0.06309 = Liters per second (l/s) x 8.021 = Cubic feet per hour (cfh) x 2.228 x 10-3 = Cubic feet per second (cfs) Grains – gr av. or troy x 0.0648 Grains per Cubic Foot x 2288.1 = Grams (g) = milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3)

Grains per U.S. Gallon – gr/U.S. gal at 60°F x 17.12 = Grams per cubic meter (g/m³) x 17.15 = Parts per million by weight in water x 142.9 = Pounds per million gallons Grains per Imperial Gallon – gr/imp gal at 62°F x 14.25 = Grams per cubic meter (g/m3) x 14.29 = Parts per million by weight in water Grams – g x 15.432 x 0.035274 x 0.032151 x 2.2046 x 10.3 = Grains (gr) = Ounces (oz) av. = Ounces (oz) troy = Pounds (lb)

96

480 x 9.000 x 550 x 42.07 = Newtons per meter (N/m) = Pounds-force per inch (lbf/in) x 5.000 x 104 x 1.807 x 10-3 = Newtons (N) Grams – Force per Centimeter – gf/cm x 98.5 = Kilocalories (kcal) = Kilogram-force-meters (kgf • m) x 2.S.345 x 0. gallons = Pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³) = Parts per million by mass = Square meters (m²) = Square feet (ft²) = Watts (W) = Kilowatts (kW) = Foot-pounds-force per minute (ft • lbf/min) = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft • lbf/s) = British thermal units per minute (Btu/min) (see note) = Kilocalories per minute (kcal/min) = Horsepower (metric) = British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) (see note) = Kilowatts (kW) Horsepower-Hours – hp • h x 0.809 = Grains per U.69 x 1.7457 = Kilowatt-hours (kW • h) = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) x 1.7 x 0.0139 Horsepower – hp boiler x 33.732 x 105 Inches – in x 2.42 x 8.43 = Pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³) x 0.S.976 x 106 x 2545 = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) x 641.03613 = Pounds per cubic inch (lb/in³) Grams per Liter – g/l x 58. gallon (gr/U.S.540 = Centimeters (cm) 97 .Metric Conversions (cont’d) Grams-Force – gf x 9.0764 x 105 Horsepower – hp x 745.7457 x 33.600 x 10-3 Grams per Cubic Centimeter – g/cm3 x 62.43 x 10.06243 x 1002 Hectares – ha x 1. gal) = Pounds per 1000 U.

03386 = Bars (bar) x 1.205 = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) = Calories (cal) thermochemical = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) = Watt-hours (W • h) = Pounds (lb) = Tons (ton) short = Newtons (N) = Pounds-force (lbf) Kilograms-Force per Meter – kgf/m x 9.3864 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.03342 = Standard atmospheres Inches of Water – in H2O at 68°F x 0.223 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.193 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.454 x 10-3 = Standard atmospheres Joules – J x 0.07 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Inches of Mercury – inHg at 0°C x 3.62 = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F x 0.4912 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 0.03453 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 70.9484 x 10-3 x 0.807 = Newtons per meter (N/m) x 0.2487 = Kilopascals (kPa) -3 = Bars (bar) x 2.87 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 28.73 = Pounds-force per square foot (lbf/ft²) x 0.778 x 10-4 Kilograms – kg x 2.102 x 10-3 Kilograms-force – kgf x 9.6721 = Pounds-force per foot (lbf/ft) Kilograms-Force per Square Centimeter – kg/cm² x 98.2390 x 0.96 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 2048 = Pounds-force per square foot (lb/ft²) x 14.807 x 2.9678 = Standard atmospheres Kilograms-Force per Square Millimeter – kgf/mm² x 9.000 x 106 = Kilograms-force per square meter (kgf/m²) 98 .487 x 10 x 0.135 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 13.03606 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 2.07342 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C -3 x 2.2046 x 1.535 x 10 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 0.9807 = Bars (bar) x 32.5770 = Ounces-force per square inch (ozf/in²) x 5.7376 x 2.807 = Megapascals (MPa) x 1.

9113 = Feet per second (ft/s) x 54.1450 x 0.6214 = Miles per hour (mph) Kilometers per Hour per Second – km • h-1 • s-1 x 0. gallons (U.9113 = Feet per second per second (ft/s²) Kilometers per Second – km/s x 37.S.68 = Feet per minute (ft/min) x 16.53996 = International knots (kn) x 0.655 x 106 x 3413 x 860 x 3.021 Kilowatts – kW x 4.425 x 104 x 737.3410 Kilowatt-Hours – kW • h x 3.6 x 106 x 2.035315 x 61.S.28 = Miles per minute (mi/min) Kilopascals – kPa x 103 x 0.3410 = pascals (Pa) or newtons per square meter (N/m²) = Pounds-force per square inch = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 32°F = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F = Foot-pounds-force per minute (ft • lbf/min) = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft • lbf/s) = British thermal units per minute (Btu/min) (see note) = Kilocalories per minute (kcal/min) = Horsepower (hp) = Joules (J) = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) = Kilocalories (kcal) = Kilogram-force meters (kgf • m) = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) Knots – kn (International) x 0.2642 x 0.6 x 56.5144 = Meters per second (m/s) x 1.90 x 14.024 x 1.3351 x 4.010197 x 0.33 x 1.671 x 105 x 1. gal) = Imperial gallons (imp gal) 99 .2200 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic feet (ft³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic yards (yd³) = U.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Kilometers per Hour – km/h x 27.667 = Meters per minute (m/min) x 0.2778 = Meters per second per second (m/s²) x 27.2953 x 0.151 = Miles per hour (mph) Liters – l x 1000 x 0.308 x 10-3 x 0.78 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) x 0.78 = Centimeters per second per second (cm/s²) x 0.

6667 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) x 0.885 x 10-4 x 4.01667 x 5.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Liters per Minute – l/min x 0.000001 = Meters (m) Miles – mi x 1.S.S. gpm) = Imperial gallons per minute (imp gpm) = Pascals (Pa) or newtons per square meter (N/m²) = Kilopascals (kPa) = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) = Kilograms-force per square millimeter (kgf/mm²) = Feet (ft) = Inches (in) = Yards (yd) Meters per Minute – m/min x 1.0600 = Kilometers per hour (km/h) x 3.1020 Meters – m x 3.85 x 13.0 x 0.666 x 10-3 Liters per Second – l/s x 10-3 x 3.0936 = Limits per second (l/s) = Cubic feet per second (cfs) = U.8 x 3.37 x 1.403 x 10-3 x 3.0600 x 196.600 x 0.S.20 Megapascals – Mpa x 106 x 10³ x 145. gal/s) = Imperial gallons per second (imp gal/s) = Cubic meters per second (m3/s) = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) = Liters per minute (l/min) = U.03728 = Miles per hour (mph) Meters per Second – m/s x 3.281 = Feet per minute (ft/min) x 0.03728 = Kilometers per hour (km/h) = Kilometers per minute (km/min) = Feet per minute (ft/min) = Feet per second (ft/s) = Miles per hour (mph) = Miles per minute (mi/min) Micrometers .05468 = Feet per second (ft/s) x 0.6093 x 5280 x 1760 = Meters (m) = Kilometers (km) = Feet (ft) = Yards (yd) 100 .600 x 60 x 15.237 x 0.S.6093 x 10³ x 1. gallons per second (U. gallons per minute (U.µm (micron) x 0.281 x 39.281 x 2.

35 x 2.5 x 0.S. Angular – (‘) x 2.6093 x 2682 x 88 x 60 Minutes.103 x 480 x 20 x 0.2248 x 7.9115 x 2.08333 x 0. = Grains (gr) = Pounds (lb) av.02957 x 1.8046 = Centimeters per second (cm/s) = Kilometers per hour (km/h) = Meters per minute (m/min) = Feet per minute (R/min) = Feet per second (ft/s) = International knots (kn) = Kilometers per minute (km/min) = Centimeters per second (cm/s) = Feet per second (ft/s) = Miles per hour (mph) = Radians (rad) = Kilograms-force (kgf) = Pounds-force (lbf) = Poundals = Dynes = Grams (g) = Tonnes (t) metric ton = Drams (dr) av.395 = Grams-force per square centimeter (gf/cm²) 101 .Metric Conversions (cont’d) Miles per Hour – mph x 44.909 x 10-4 Newtons – N x 0. = Liters (l) = Cubic inches (in) Ounces-Force per Square Inch – ozf/in² x 43.8690 Miles per Minute – mi/min x 1.06857 x 1.0971 Ounces – oz U. x 28.06250 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) x 4. = Ounces (oz) av.1 = Pascals (Pa) x 0.06250 x 0.790 x 10-5 Ounces – oz troy x 31.70 x 1.10197 x 0.233 x 105 Ounces – oz av.82 x 88 x 1.4667 x 0.835 x 10-5 x 16 x 437. = Ounces (oz) troy = Tons (ton) long = Grams (g) = Grains (gr) = Pennyweights (dwt) troy = Pounds (lb) troy = Pounds (lb) av.6093 x 26. fluid x 0.

= Grains (fr) = Tons (ton) short = Pounds (lb) troy = Grams/cubic ft. = Drams (dr) av.06721 Pounds-Force – lbf av.6x107 Pounds – lb troy x 373.0197 x 10-5 x 10-3 Pennyweights – dwt troy x 1.S.8229 x 13.0886 x 10-3 x 0.5552 x 24 Poises – P x 0.2 x 12 x 240 x 5760 x 0.9991 = Grams per cubic meter (g/m³) at 15°C x 0.6 x 16 x 256 x 7000 x 5 x 10-4 x 1.2153 Pounds per Cubic Foot x 7000 x 1. gallons at 60°F Pascals – Pa x1 x 1. x 4.S. = Tons (ton) long = Tons (ton) short = Tonnes (t) metric tons 102 . = Ounces (oz) av.4536 Pounds – lb.S.7324 x 10-4 = Newtons per square mater (N/m²) = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) = Kilopascals (kPa) = Grams (g) = Grains (gr) = Newton-seconds per square meter (N • s/m²) = Centipoises (cP) = Pound-force-seconds per square foot (lbf • s/ft²) = Pounds per foot second (lb/ft • s) = Newtons (N) = Kilograms-force (kgf) = Grams (g) = Ounces (oz) av.450 x 10-4 x 1.328 = Pounds per million U. av.448 x 0.6735 x 10-4 x 4.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Parts per Million by Mass – mass (weight) in water x 0.1143 x 10-4 x 3. x 453.1000 x 100 x 2.0700 = Grains per imperial gallon (gr/imp gal) at 62°F x 8. gallon (gr/U.0583 = Grains per U. gal) at 60°F x 0.166 x 3. = Mg/cubic meter = Grams (g) = Ounces (oz) troy = Pennyweights (dwt) troy = Grains (gr) = Pounds (lb) av.

gal) Pounds of Water per Minute at 60°F x 7.88 = Pascals (Pa) x 0.59 = Newtons per meter (N/m) x 1. gallons (U.S.68 = Grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³) x 1728 = Pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft³) Pounds-Force per Foot – lbt/fl x 14.1199 = U.018 = Kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³) x 0.20 Quarts – qt liquid x 946.882 x 10-4 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) x 6.895 = Kilopascals (kPa) x 0.07031 = Kilograms-force per square centimeter (kg/cm²) Quarts – qt dry x 1101 x 67.88 = Grams-force per centimeter (gf/cm) Pounds-Force per Square Foot – lbf/ft² x 47.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Pounds-Mass of Water at 60°F x 453.73 = Inches of water (inH2O) at 68°F x 2.4 x 57.768 x 104 = Kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³) x 27.S.576 = Cubic centimeters per second (cm³/s) x 2.787 x 10 = Pounds per cubic inch (lb/in³) Pounds per Cubic Inch – lb/in³ x 2.98 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) x 0.016018 = Grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm³) -4 x 5.675 x 10-4 = Cubic feet per second (cfs) Pounds per Cubic Foot – lb/ft³ x 16.311 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 27.01603 =Cubic feet (ft³) x 27.01605 = Feet of water (ftH2O) at 68°F x 4.944 x 10-3 = Pounds-force per square inch (psi) Pounds-Force per Square Inch – psi x 6.06805 = Standard atmospheres x 2.45398 = Liters (l) x 0.70 = Cubic inches (in³) x 0.75 = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic inches (in³) = Cubic centimeters (cm³) = Cubic inches (in³) 103 .036 = Inches of mercury (inHg) at 0°C x 0.488 = Kilograms-force per meter (kgf/m) x 14.

076 x 10-3 Tons-Mass – tonm long x 1016 x 2240 x 1.46 = Pounds (lb) U. gpm) x 1.338 = Cubic feet per hour (cfh) 104 .54 = Pounds (lb) Brazil x 101.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Quintals – obsolete metric mass term x 100 = Kilograms (kg) x 220.8929 = Kilograms (kg) = Tonnes (t) = Pounds (lb) av.2 x 0.6 = Pounds (lb) Tonnes-Force – tf metric ton-force x 980.1200 = Square meters per second (m²/s) = Square feet per second (ft²/s) = Kilograms (kg) = Pounds (lb) av.47 = Pounds (lb) Mexico x 101.30 = Degrees per second (°/s) angular Stokes – St x 10-4 x 1. x 101.1668 = U.28 = Pounds (lb) Argentina x 129. = Pounds (lb) troy = Tons (ton) long Tons of Water per 24 Hours at 60°F x 0. av.7 = Newtons (N) Tons – ton short x 907.41 = Pounds (lb) Chile x 101. = Tons (ton) short Tonnes – t metric ton. = Ounces (oz) av.03789 = Cubic meters per hour (m³/h) x 83.43 = Pounds (lb) Peru Radians – rad x 57.30 = Degrees (°) angular Radians per Second – rad/s x 57.S.33 = Pounds of water per hour (lb/h H2O) at 60°F x 0. gallons per minute (U.S.S.6 x 0.9072 x 2000 x 32000 x 2430. millier x 1000 = Kilograms (kg) x 2204.

W x 0. in the fifth or further indicates that four or five significant figures represent the precision for these factors fairly.7376 x 1.25 x 0. At present the accuracy of process instrumentation.Metric Conversions (cont’d) Watts . Hence this table is confined to four or five significant figures. The advent of the pocket calculator (and the use of digital computers in process instrumentation) tends to lead to use of many figures as the calculator will handle. when this exceeds the precision of the data. in many cases. or the accuracy of the application.341 x 10-3 x 0. is in the tenth percent region at best. and its application. thus needing only three significant figures.413 x 2655 x 1. analog or digital.05690 x 44. However. 105 . such a practice is misleading and timewasting. determine the number of significant figures which should be used. the fact that different sources disagree.860 x 367. While many handbooks and standards give factors contained in this table to six or more significant figures.341 x 10-3 x 0.01433 Watt-Hours – W • h x 3600 x 3.1 = British thermal units per minute (Btu/min) (see note) = Foot-pounds-force per minute (ft – lbf/min) = Foot-pounds-force per second (ft – lbf//s) = Horsepower (hp) = Kilocalories per minute (kcal/min) = Joules (J) = British thermal units (Btu) (see note) = Foot-pounds-force (ft • lbf) = Horsepower-hours (hp • h) = Kilocalories (kcal) = Kilograms-force-meters (kgf • m) NOTE: Significant Figures The precision to which a given conversion factor is know.

0 320.2 82.16°C = -459.6 186. This scale is based on the average kinetic energy per molecule of a perfect gas and uses the same ske degrees as the Centigrade scale.0 -76.0 -130.6 60.0 -32.6 177.0 -193.0 302.0 147.4 -38.0 156.6 -27.2 -31.0 138.8 59.0 57.4 197.8 77.6 69.4 107.6 87.6 141.0 257.0 102.0 383.4 -0.2 -4.0 -14.0 -5.4 98.6 °C -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 -16 -17 -18 -19 -20 -21 -22 -23 -24 -25 -26 -27 -28 -29 -30 -31 -32 -33 -34 -35 -36 -37 -38 -39 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -125 -150 -200 -250 -273 °F 15.8 194.0 °C 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 °F 93.4 35.4 -11.2 55.0 -23.4 -29.4 116.4 °C 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 °F 170.4 179.2 208.2 1.8 41.8 -25.4 62.0 183.6 78.2 37.2 -13.0 311.2 10.2 100.0 293.6 42.4 71.2 28.0 347.0 266.2 64.2 109.Temperature Conversions °C 10000 9500 9000 8500 8000 7500 7000 6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 950 900 850 800 750 700 650 600 590 580 570 560 550 540 530 520 510 500 490 480 470 460 450 440 °F 18032 17132 16232 15332 14432 13532 12632 11732 10832 9932 9032 8132 7232 6332 5432 4532 3632 2732 1832 1742 1652 1562 1472 1382 1292 1202 1112 1094 1076 1058 1040 1022 1004 986 968 950 932 914 896 878 860 842 824 °C 430 420 410 400 395 390 385 380 375 370 365 360 355 350 345 340 335 330 325 320 315 310 305 300 295 290 285 280 275 270 265 260 255 250 245 240 235 230 225 220 215 210 205 °F 806 788 770 752 743 734 725 716 707 698 689 680 671 662 653 644 635 626 617 608 599 590 581 572 563 554 545 536 527 518 509 500 491 482 473 464 455 446 437 428 419 410 401 °C 200 195 190 185 180 175 170 165 160 155 150 145 140 135 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 °F 392.8 -16.4 26.4 -20.0 -148.6 -9.2 127.6 195.0 221.2 154.2 91.0 356.0 212.4 89.2 136.4 152.0 365.8 176.0 -58.4 17.0 230.8 104.2 190.2 199.8 158.0 66.2 -40.0 48.0 201.6 132.0 75.2 163. 1 unit is 1/100 of the difference between the temperature of melting ice and boiling water at standard temperature and pressure.4 161.0 374.6 123.8 -34.0 210.8 86.0 39.0 248.8 203.0 21.0 -418.6 105.8 185.0 174.0 284.0 192.8 140.8 122.4 188.6 159.0 30.0 129.4 53.4 44.6 6.0 329.0 111.4 125.0 84.4 143.6 114.2 73.6 168.0 338.6 96. °F = Degrees Fahrenheit.8 14.8 68.8 -7.0 12.2 181.2 118.4 °C = Degrees Centigrade (Celsius scale).6 24.6 204.2 46.8 149. Zero (0°K) on the scale is the temperature at which a perfect gas has lost all of its energy.0 459.0 239. 106 .8 131.0 165.8 167.69°F °K = Degrees Kelvin (Absolute temperature).8 32.8 95. °C = 5/9 (°F-32) °F = 9/5 °C + 32 Absolute Zero = 0°K = -273.0 -238.6 -36.2 172.0 120.6 -18.4 134.2 -22.8 50.8 5.4 206.4 8.0 -94.6 51.0 3.8 113.0 275.4 80. 1 unit is 1/180 of the difference between the temperature of melting ice and boiling water at standard temperature and pressure.0 -112.6 150.2 145.4 -2.6 33.2 19.8 23.0 -328.

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