A Handbook for the Mechanical Designer

Second Edition
Copyright 1999

This handy engineering information guide is a token of Loren Cook Company’s appreciation to the many fine mechanical designers in our industry.

Springfield, MO

Table of Contents
Fan Basics Fan Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Fan Selection Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Fan Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Fan Performance Tables and Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Fan Testing - Laboratory, Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Air Density Factors for Altitude and Temperature . . . . . . . . . 3 Use of Air Density Factors - An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Classifications for Spark Resistant Construction . . . . . . . .4-5 Impeller Designs - Centrifugal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-6 Impeller Designs - Axial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Terminology for Centrifugal Fan Components. . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-10 Rotation & Discharge Designations for Centrifugal Fans 11-12 Motor Positions for Belt or Chain Drive Centrifugal Fans . . 13 Fan Installation Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Fan Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Motor and Drive Basics Definitions and Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Types of Alternating Current Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17-18 Motor Insulation Classes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Motor Service Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Locked Rotor KVA/HP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Motor Efficiency and EPAct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Full Load Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-22 General Effect of Voltage and Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Allowable Ampacities of Not More Than Three Insulated Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24-25 Belt Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Estimated Belt Drive Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Bearing Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 System Design Guidelines General Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Process Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Kitchen Ventilation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Rules of Thumb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31-32 Noise Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Table of Contents
System Design Guidelines (cont.) Sound Power and Sound Power Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Sound Pressure and Sound Pressure Level . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Room Sones —dBA Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Noise Criteria Curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Design Criteria for Room Loudness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-36 Vibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Vibration Severity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38-39 General Ventilation Design Air Quality Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Air Change Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Suggested Air Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Ventilation Rates for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality . . . . . . . 42 Heat Gain From Occupants of Conditioned Spaces . . . . . . 43 Heat Gain From Typical Electric Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Rate of Heat Gain Commercial Cooking Appliances in Air-Conditioned Areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Rate of Heat Gain From Miscellaneous Appliances . . . . . . 46 Filter Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Relative Size Chart of Common Air Contaminants . . . . . . . 47 Optimum Relative Humidity Ranges for Health . . . . . . . . . . 48 Duct Design Backdraft or Relief Dampers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Screen Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Duct Resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Rectangular Equivalent of Round Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Typical Design Velocities for HVAC Components. . . . . . . . . 53 Velocity and Velocity Pressure Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . 54 U.S. Sheet Metal Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Recommended Metal Gauges for Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Wind Driven Rain Louvers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Heating & Refrigeration Moisture and Air Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Properties of Saturated Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Cooling Load Check Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59-60 Heat Loss Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61-62 Fuel Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Fuel Gas Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67-68 Pump Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refrigerant Temperature at 100°F Condensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-717 . . . . 75 Fouling Factors . 78 Refrigerant Line Capacities for 134a . . .) Estimated Seasonal Efficiencies of Heating Systems . . . . . . . 63 Annual Fuel Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Typical Heat Transfer Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Affinity Laws for Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96-103 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Standard Pipe Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Evaporate Condenser Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Pump Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63-64 Pump Construction Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Pump Mounting Methods . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Cooling Tower Ratings. . . . . . . . . . . . . 81-84 Area and Circumference of Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Pump Impeller Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Water Flow and Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-71 Friction Loss for Water Flow . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Common Fractions of an Inch . . . . . . . 69 Common Pump Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71-72 Equivalent Length of Pipe for Valves and Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88-94 Psychometric Chart. . . 78 Compressor Capacity vs. . . . . . 74 Copper Tube Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Formulas & Conversion Factors Miscellaneous Formulas . 95 Index . . . . .Table of Contents Heating & Refrigeration (cont. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-502 . . . . . 87-88 Conversion Factors . . 84-87 Circle Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Pumping System Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . .

Fan Basics Fan Types Axial Fan . axial fans are preferred for high volume. and non-ducted systems.Centrifugal fans discharge air perpendicular to the axis of the impeller rotation. and Radial Tip. As a general rule. Tube Axial and Vane Axial. Fan Selection Criteria Before selecting a fan. • Air volume required . Forward Curved. low pressure. centrifugal fans are preferred for higher pressure ducted systems. Airfoil.An axial fan discharges air parallel to the axis of the impeller rotation. As a general rule. the following information is needed. Centrifugal Fan .CFM • System resistance . Centrifugal Fan Types Backward Inclined.SP • Air density (Altitude and Temperature) • Type of service • Environment type • Materials/vapors to be exhausted • Operation temperature • Space limitations • Fan type • Drive type (Direct or Belt) • Noise criteria • Number of fans • Discharge • Rotation • Motor position • Expected fan life in years 1 . Axial Fan Types Propeller.

However. motor amperage and fan RPM should be used along with performance curves to estimate fan performance. it is critical to evaluate fan performance curves in the fan selection process as the margin for error is very slim when selecting a fan near the limits of tabular data.075 lb/ft3.Laboratory. For further information refer to Use of Air Density Factors An Example. page 14. If possible. • CFM varies directly with RPM CFM1/CFM2 = RPM1/RPM2 • SP varies with the square of the RPM SP1/SP2 = (RPM1/RPM2)2 • HP varies with the cube of the RPM HP1/HP2 = (RPM1/RPM2)3 Fan Performance Tables and Curves Performance tables provide a simple method of fan selection. the difference between the ideal laboratory condition and the actual field installation must be considered. The performance curve also is a valuable tool when evaluating fan performance in the field. For further information refer to Fan Installation Guidelines. Fan Testing . When altitude and temperature differ significantly from standard conditions (sea level and 70° F) performance modification factors must be taken into account to ensure proper performance. Field Fans are tested and performance certified under ideal laboratory conditions.Fan Basics Fan Laws The simplified form of the most commonly used fan laws include. Consideration must also be given to fan inlet and discharge connections as they will dramatically affect fan performance in the field. 2 . If this cannot be accomplished. When fan performance is measured in field conditions. page 3. readings must be taken in straight runs of ductwork in order to ensure validity. Fan performance tables and curves are based on standard air density of 0.

460 100 .558 .964 .538 .340 .457 .787 .258 . From the table above.An Example A fan is selected to deliver 7500 CFM at 1-1/2 inch SP at an altitude of 6000 feet above sea level and an operating temperature of 200° F.930 .482 .347 .426 .580 .441 .730 .27 BHP The final operating conditions are determined to be 7500 CFM.53. 1.435 200 .747 .448 .480 . 3.694 .946 .424 .818 .352 .393 .27 BHP.400 .758 . Divide the design SP by the air density correction factor.326 .688 .772 .643 by using the fan’s operating altitude and temperature.53 BHP x .643 .513 .594 .344 . Air Density Factors for Altitude and Temperature.643 = 2.440 .230 700 .532 .672 .210 Use of Air Density Factors .564 .624 .703 .372 .518 .282 .380 .801 .380 .803 .495 . and 2. the air density correction factor is determined to be .353 . This is corrected to conditions at altitude by multiplying the BHP by the air density correction factor.425 .366 .416 .714 .743 .) 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 15000 20000 70 1.676 .912 .832 .000 .498 .311 .395 .668 .410 .432 .552 .321 .534 .453 .643 = 2. 3 .254 600 . it is determined that the fan must operate at 976 RPM to develop the desired 7500 CFM at 6000 foot above sea level and at an operating temperature of 200° F.410 .315 .596 .880 .369 Temperature 300 400 .720 .513 .552 .697 .620 .774 .573 .465 .896 .Fan Basics Air Density Factors for Altitude and Temperature Altitude (ft.5” SP/.616 .651 .552 .283 500 .648 .477 . The BHP (Brake Horsepower) is determined from the fan’s performance table to be 3.848 .573 .458 .493 .864 .394 .33” SP Referring to the fan’s performance rating table.442 .459 . 976 RPM.532 .386 .604 .500 .476 . 1-1/2” SP.

This AMCA Standard deals only with the fan unit installed in that system. Notes 1. C.Fan Basics Classifications for Spark Resistant Construction† Fan applications may involve the handling of potentially explosive or flammable particles. and hardware are allowed provided construction is such that a shift of impeller or shaft will not permit two ferrous parts of the fan to rub or strike. Steps must also be taken to assure that the impeller. nonferrous material shall be a material with less than 5% iron or any other material with demonstrated ability to be spark resistant. †Adapted from AMCA Standard 99-401-86 4 . bearings. The fan shall be so constructed that a shift of the impeller or shaft will not permit two ferrous parts of the fan to rub or strike. Steps must also be taken to assure the impeller. The fan shall have a nonferrous impeller and nonferrous ring about the opening through which the shaft passes. Ferrous hubs. bearings. the customer must accept both the type and design with full recognition of the potential hazard and the degree of protection required. fumes or vapors. The Standard contains guidelines which are to be used by both the manufacturer and user as a means of establishing general methods of construction. 3. drive components or electrical devices shall be placed in the air or gas stream unless they are constructed or enclosed in such a manner that failure of that component cannot ignite the surrounding gas stream. and shaft are adequately attached and/or restrained to prevent a lateral or axial shift in these components. Such applications require careful consideration of all system components to insure the safe handling of such gas streams. All parts of the fan in contact with the air or gas being handled shall be made of nonferrous material. The user shall electrically ground all fan parts. No bearings. shafts. and shaft are adequately attached and/or restrained to prevent a lateral or axial shift in these components. Construction Type A. For this Standard. The exact method of construction and choice of alloys is the responsibility of the manufacturer. B. however. 2.

Research by the U. The potential questions which may be associated with fans constructed of FRP. The use of aluminum or aluminum alloys in the presence of steel which has been allowed to rust requires special consideration. Used in larger sizes for clean air industrial applications providing significant power savings. or any other plastic compound were not addressed. Air leaves the impeller at a velocity less than its tip speed. For the given duty.) 4.Has the highest efficiency of all of the centrifugal impeller designs with 9 to 16 blades of airfoil contour curved away from the direction of rotation. Relatively deep blades provide for efficient expansion with the blade passages. Bureau of Mines and others has shown that aluminum impellers rubbing on rusty steel may cause high intensity sparking. The use of the above Standard in no way implies a guarantee of safety for any level of spark resistance. the airfoil impeller design will provide for the highest speed of the centrifugal fan designs. “Spark resistant construction also does not protect against ignition of explosive gases caused by catastrophic failure or from any airstream material that may be present in a system. and ventilating and air conditioning systems. Applications . Impeller Designs . PVC.Fan Basics Classifications for Spark Resistant Construction (cont.S.Centrifugal Airfoil . 5 .” Standard Applications • Centrifugal Fans • Axial and Propeller Fans • Power Roof Ventilators This standard applies to ferrous and nonferrous metals.Primary applications include general heating systems.

Efficiency is slightly less than that of the airfoil design. Usually fabricated at low cost and of lightweight construction. Has 24 to 64 shallow blades with both the heel and tip curved forward. Tip speed and primary energy transferred to the air is the result of high impeller velocities. and ventilating and air conditioning systems. Backward inclined or backward curved blades are single thickness with 9 to 16 blades curved or inclined away from the direction of rotation. Air leaves the impeller at velocities greater than the impeller tip speed. usually with 6 to 10 blades.Primary applications include low pressure heating. For a given point of rating. Radial . ventilating. Relatively deep blades provide efficient expansion with the blade passages. Air leaves the impeller at a velocity less than its tip speed. Applications . Impeller is sometimes coated with special material.) Backward Inclined. Also used in some industrial applications where the airfoil blade is not acceptable because of a corrosive and/or erosive environment. this impeller requires medium speed. Impeller can be of rugged construction and is simple to repair in the field.Fan Basics Impeller Designs . This design also is used for high pressure industrial requirements and is not commonly found in HVAC applications. 6 .Simplest of all centrifugal impellers and least efficient. Applications .Used primarily for material handling applications in industrial plants.Centrifugal (cont. Forward Curved . and packaged air conditioning equipment from room type to roof top units. central station units. and air conditioning applications such as domestic furnaces. Has high mechanical strength and the impeller is easily repaired. the wheel is the smallest of all of the centrifugal types and operates most efficiently at lowest speed. For the given duty. Backward Curved .Primary applications include general heating systems.Efficiency is less than airfoil and backward curved bladed impellers. Classification includes radial blades and modified radial blades). Applications .

and air conditioning applications where air distribution on the downstream side is not critical. and air conditioning systems in low. Energy transfer is primarily in form of velocity pressure. Tube Axial . The most efficient fans of this type have airfoil blades.Primary applications include low pressure. high volume air moving applications such as air circulation within a space or ventilation through a wall without attached duct work. Also used in some industrial applications such as drying ovens. paint spray booths.Primary applications include low and medium pressure ducted heating. 7 . General construction features include two or more blades of single thickness attached to a relatively small hub.Fan Basics Impeller Designs . ventilating. the number of blades range from 4 to 8 with the hub normally less than 50 percent of fan tip diameter. Generally.Axial Propeller .Efficiency is low and usually limited to low pressure applications. Blades can be of airfoil or single thickness cross section. Blades are fixed or adjustable pitch types and the hub is usually greater than 50 percent of the fan tip diameter. and high pressure applications. Also used in some industrial applications such as drying ovens.Solid design of the blades permits medium to high pressure capability at good efficiencies.Slightly more efficient than propeller impeller design and is capable of developing a more useful static pressure range.Primary applications include general heating. Air distribution on downstream side is good. Applications . Applications . ventilating. paint spray booths. Applications . Impeller construction costs are also usually low. medium. and fume exhaust systems. Used for replacement air applications. Advantage where straight through flow and compact installation are required. Relatively more compact than comparable centrifugal type fans for the same duty. and fume exhaust systems. Vane Axial .

Fan Basics Terminology for Centrifugal Fan Components Housing Shaft Cutoff Impeller Side Panel Blast Area Discharge Back Plate Outlet Area Blade Inlet Cutoff Scroll Shroud Bearing Support Inlet Collar Impeller Frame 8 .

Bearings in bracket supported by fan housing.Fan Basics Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans† SW . Arr. Two bearings on base.Single Inlet DW . 2 SWSI . 3 DWDI .For belt drive or direct drive connection. DI . Impeller over-hung. One bearing on each side supported by fan housing. 1 SWSI .For belt drive or direct drive connection.Double Width. Arr. †Adapted from AMCA Standard 99-2404-78 9 .Single Width. 3 SWSI .Double Inlet Arr. Impeller over-hung. Arr.For belt drive or direct connection. One bearing on each side and supported by fan housing. SI .For belt drive or direct drive connection.

For belt drive. No bearings on fan.Fan Basics Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans (cont. Arr. with prime mover inside base. two bearings. Arr. SI . 10 SWSI . two bearings.For belt drive. 7 DWDI .Single Inlet DW . DI . Prime mover base mounted or integrally directly connected.For belt drive or direct connection. 8 SWSI .For belt drive or direct connection. Impeller over-hung on prime mover shaft. . 10 Arr.Single Width. Impeller overhung. Arrangement 1 plus extended base for prime mover. Arrangement 3 plus base for prime mover.Double Width. Arrangement 3 plus base for prime mover.) SW .Double Inlet Arr.For direct drive. Impeller overhung. 4 SWSI . Arr. Arr. 9 SWSI .For belt drive or direct connection. with prime mover outside base. 7 SWSI .

Counterclockwise 11 .Fan Basics Rotation & Discharge Designations for Centrifugal Fans* Top Horizontal Clockwise Top Angular Down Counterclockwise Clockwise Top Angular Up Counterclockwise Clockwise Down Blast Counterclockwise Clockwise * Rotation is always as viewed from drive side.

Counterclockwise 12 .Fan Basics Rotation & Discharge Designations for Centrifugal Fans* (cont.) Up Blast Clockwise Bottom Horizontal Counterclockwise Clockwise Bottom Angular Down Counterclockwise Clockwise Bottom Angular Up Counterclockwise Clockwise * Rotation is always as viewed from drive side.

†Adapted from AMCA Standard 99-2404-78 13 . X.Fan Basics Motor Positions for Belt Drive Centrifugal Fans† To determine the location of the motor. face the drive side of the fan and pick the proper motor position designated by the letters W. Y or Z as shown in the drawing below.

Fan Basics Fan Installation Guidelines Centrifugal Fan Conditions Typical Inlet Conditions Limit slope to 15° converging Correct Installations Limit slope to 7° diverging Cross-sectional area not greater than 112-1/2% of inlet area x Cross-sectional area not greater than 92-1/2% of inlet area Minimum of 2-1/2 inlet diameters (3 recommended) Incorrect Installations Turbulence Turbulence Typical Outlet Conditions Limit slope to 7° diverging Correct Installations Limit slope to 15° converging x Cross-sectional area not greater than 105% of outlet area Cross-sectional area not greater than 95% of outlet area Minimum of 2-1/2 outlet diameters (3 recommended) Incorrect Installations Turbulence Turbulence 14 .

• Incorrect fan RPM. Make sure the fan rotates in same direction as the arrows on the motor or belt drive assembly. • Speed too high. • Belts too loose. • Fan surge. • Excessive belt tension. • Improper wheel alignment. • Incorrect voltage.Fan Basics Fan Troubleshooting Guide Low Capacity or Pressure • Incorrect direction of rotation – Make sure the fan rotates in same direction as the arrows on the motor or belt drive assembly. • Improper inlet clearance. • Poor fan inlet conditions –There should be a straight. Overheated Bearings • Improper bearing lubrication. Excessive Vibration and Noise • Damaged or unbalanced wheel. clear duct at the inlet. • Cooling air diverted or blocked. Overheated Motor • Motor improperly wired. 15 . • Incorrect direction of rotation. • Bearings need lubrication or replacement. Make sure the fan rotates in same direction as the arrows on the motor or belt drive assembly. worn or oily belts. • Incorrect direction of rotation.

and 50 Hz in Canada and other nations. Torque: a measure of rotational force defined in foot-pounds or Newton-meters. HP = (RPM x torque) / 5252 lb-ft.) / RPM % slip = 16 . Locked Rotor Torque: the minimum torque that a motor will develop at rest for all angular positions of the rotor with rated voltage and frequency applied. Breakdown Torque: the maximum torque a motor will develop with rated voltage and frequency applied without an abrupt drop in speed.S. Single Phase AC: typical household type electric power consisting of a single alternating current at 110-115 volts. Synchronous Speed = (60 x 2f) / p Where: f = frequency of the power supply p = number of poles in the motor Three Phase AC: typical industrial electric power consisting of 3 alternating currents of equal frequency differing in phase of 120 degrees from each other. Available in voltages ranging from 200 to 575 volts for typical industrial applications. typically 60 cycles per second (Hertz) in the U.actual speed) X 100 synchronous speed Synchronous speed: the speed of the rotating magnetic field in an electric motor. (synchronous speed . Rated Load Torque: the torque necessary to produce rated horsepower at rated-load speed. % efficiency = (power out / power in) x 100 Horsepower: a rate of doing work expressed in foot-pounds per minute. Slip: the difference between synchronous speed and actual motor speed. Efficiency: a rating of how much input power an electric motor converts to actual work at the rotating shaft expressed in percent. Torque = (HP x 5252 lb-ft. Usually expressed in percent slip.Motor and Drive Basics Definitions and Formulas Alternating Current: electric current that alternates or reverses at a defined frequency.

Single Phase AC Motors (60hz) Motor Type Shaded Pole Perm-split Cap. This rotating magnetic field causes a magnetic field to be set up in the rotor. Squirrel cage induction motors are wound for the following speeds: Number of Poles 2 4 6 8 60 Hz Synchronous Speed 3600 1800 1200 900 50 Hz Synchronous Speed 3000 1500 1000 750 17 . HP Efficiency Range 1/6 to 1/4 hp Up to 1/3 hp Up to 1/2 hp low (30%) Slip high (14%) Poles/ RPM Use small direct drive 4/1550 fans (low start 6/1050 torque) small direct drive medium medium 4/1625 fans (low start (50%) (10%) 6/1075 torque) 2/3450 small belt drive mediumlow 4/1725 fans (good start high (65%) (4%) 6/1140 torque) 8/850 2/3450 small belt drive mediumlow 4/1725 fans (good start high (65%) (4%) 6/1140 torque) 8/850 Split-phase Capacitorstart 1/2 to 34 hp Three-phase AC Motors The most common motor for fan applications is the threephase squirrel cage induction motor. The operation of a three-phase motor is simple: the three phase current produces a rotating magnetic field in the stator. The squirrel-cage motor is a constant speed motor of simple construction that produces relatively high starting torque.Motor and Drive Basics Types of Alternating Current Motors Single Phase AC Motors This type of motor is used in fan applications requiring less than one horsepower. All are single speed motors that can be made to operate at two or more speeds with internal or external modifications. There are four types of motors suitable for driving fans as shown in the chart below. The attraction and repulsion of these two magnetic fields causes the rotor to turn.

18 . and H. Very high inertia and loaded starts. Also considerable variation in load speed. rotary pumps. elevators. hoists. A motor with a slip of 5% or less is called a “normal slip” motor. and conveyers. The insulation class in any motor must be able to withstand at least the maximum ambient temperature plus the temperature rise that occurs as a result of continuous full load operation. Motor Insulation Classes Electric motor insulation classes are rated by their resistance to thermal degradation. Constant load speed. shears and forming machine tools.large centrifugal blowers. 5% Max. Class A has a temperature rating of 105°C (221°F) and each step from A to B. and crusher drums. B. Constant load speed. blowers. 5% 5% or more B C D Normal starting torque for fans. NEMA Design B C D NEMA Design Starting Current Medium Medium Medium Locked Breakdown Rotor Torque Medium High Torque High Medium Torque Extra-High Low Torque Applications % Slip Max. fly wheels. and oil well pumping jacks. Punch presses.Motor and Drive Basics Types of Alternating Current Motors Actual motor speed is somewhat less than synchronous speed due to slip. High inertia starts . and F to H involves a 25° C (77° F) jump. Cranes. F. machine tools. In specifying the speed of the motor on the nameplate most motor manufacturers will use the actual speed of the motor which will be less than the synchronous speed due to slip. compressors. conveyors. NEMA has established several different torque designs to cover various three-phase motor applications as shown in the chart. compressors. Loaded starts such as piston pumps. The four basic insulation systems normally encountered are Class A. B to F. A normal slip motor may be referred to as a constant speed motor because the speed changes very little with load variations.

0 .1 U 20.55 .0 .15 .16.0 R 14.4.6 S 16.0 F 5.0 The nameplate code rating is a good indication of the starting current the motor will draw.0 V 22.0 . Code Letter kva/hp Code Letter kva/hp A 0 .11.2 .5.Motor and Drive Basics Motor Service Factors Some motors can be specified with service factors other than 1.5 .0 N 11.0 .3 .3 T 18.15 L 9.0 .4 J 7. The rating is shown as a code letter on the nameplate which represents various kva/hp ratings.22. This means the motor can handle loads above the rated horsepower.12.0 H 6. Locked Rotor KVA/HP Locked rotor kva per horsepower is a rating commonly specified on motor nameplates. In general for good motor reliability.7.1 .0 G 5.10.20.5 HP of load. Starting current can be calculated using the following formula: Starting current = (1000 x hp x kva/hp) / (1.5 .8.5 D 4.5 P 12. so a 10 horsepower motor can handle 11.18.5.0 . A code letter at the beginning of the alphabet indicates a low starting current and a letter at the end of the alphabet indicates a high starting current.0 .2 C 3.0 .0 B 3. service factor should not be used for basic load calculations.4.14.9.73 x Volts) 19 . A motor with a 1.6 .4 and up K 8.0 E 4. By not loading the motor into the service factor under normal use the motor can better withstand adverse conditions that may occur such as higher than normal ambient temperatures or voltage fluctuations as well as the occasional overload.15 service factor can handle a 15% overload.55 M 10.3.6.3.0.0 .

0 89.0 95.4 91.0 91.0 94.5 85.0 84.6 93.1 94.6 93.0 90. It is estimated that over 60% of the electric power generated in the United States is used to power electric motors.0 94.5 94.5 89.5 89.5 90.7 93. three-phase AC industrial motors from 1 to 200 horsepower.5 87. 1997.0 84.0 82.6 94.2 90.4 93.4 91.1 94.5 87.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 .5 95.5 94.0 82.0 93.5 89.1 93.0 91.5 85.5 94.0 90.5 87.0 93.6 94. 1992.0 93.6 94.5 88.6 93.5 88.0 87.0 91.5 88.7 92.Motor and Drive Basics Motor Efficiency and EPAct As previously defined.0 92. the U.5 87.2 91.2 89.5 89.0 91.5 87.0 20 Motor HP 1 1.0 82.5 86.2 91.5 85.4 93.0 94.0 91.5 84.2 91.5 84.2 91.0 90.4 92.5 93.5 75.5 93.0 92.1 94.5 90.5 87.5 90. motor efficiency is a measure of how much input power a motor converts to torque and horsepower at the shaft.5 84.5 2 3 5 7.0 93.7 91. Congress signed into law the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) that established mandated efficiency standards for general purpose.5 89. EPAct became effective on October 24.0 93.6 95.7 92.5 80.1 94.5 88.0 93.5 85.1 93.5 95.0 86.6 93. On October 24.7 91.1 93.5 84.0 84.6 94.0 93.0 86. Department of Energy General Purpose Motors Required Full-Load Nominal Efficiency Under EPACT-92 Nominal Full-Load Efficiency Open Motors Enclosed Motors 6 Pole 4 Pole 2 Pole 6 Pole 4 Pole 2 Pole 80.5 95. Efficiency is important to the operating cost of a motor and to overall energy use in our economy.0 95.S.2 91.0 82.4 91.0 92.0 93.7 93.5 84.5 87.0 93.0 95.0 94.

9 1/3 7.6 4.6 17 5 56 32.4 2.8 5.5 2.2 1/4 5.1 3.2 28 7-1/2 80 46 40 10 100 57.3 2.Motor and Drive Basics Full Load Current† Single Phase Motors HP 115V 200V 230V 1/6 4. For motors running at usual speeds and motors with normal torque characteristics.9 6.8 7.8 12 3 34 19.2 8 1-1/2 20 11. 21 . 1993.9 1 16 9.6 1/2 9.5 10 2 24 13.5 50 † Based on Table 430-148 of the National Electric Code®.9 3/4 13.8 3.2 4.

4 460V 1 1.4 2 13.6 3 5 7-1/2 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 Over 200 hp Approx.3 18 20.6 15.4 4.2 6.2 36 48 .8 1.6 5.8 3. Based on Table 430-150 of the National Electrical Code®.8 7.96 2300V 4000V 15.1 9 11 17 22 27 32 41 52 62 77 99 125 144 192 0.Motor and Drive Basics Full Load Current† Three Phase Motors A-C Induction Type-Squirrel Cage and Wound Rotor Motors* HP 115V 1/2 4 3/4 5.8 2.2 4.4 1.1 1.2 22 28 42 54 68 80 104 130 154 192 248 312 360 480 2.75 230V 2 2.6 .7 3.8 31. For motors running at speeds usual for belted motors and with normal torque characteristics.14 † Branch-circuit conductors supplying a single motor shall have an ampacity not less than 125 percent of the motor full-load current rating.6 11 14 21 27 34 40 52 65 77 96 124 156 180 240 1.8 11 17.1 2.6 1 7.8 11 14.24 8.4 19. * For conductor sizing only 22 . 1993.3 3. Amps/hp 200V 2.2 575V 0.7 27.9 6.2 1-1/2 10.8 9.5 25 32 48 62 78 92 120 150 177 221 285 358 415 550 2.2 24.6 3.4 2.15 6 7.

Motor and Drive Basics General Effect of Voltage and Frequency Variations on Induction Motor Characteristics Characteristic Starting Torque Maximum Torque Percent Slip Efficiency .Temperature Rise Maximum Overload Capacity Magnetic Noise Voltage 110% Up 21% Up 21% Down 15-20% Down 0-3% 0 .Full Load 3/4 Load 1/2 Load Full Load Current Starting Current Full Load .Temperature Rise Maximum Overload Capacity Magnetic Noise Characteristic Starting Torque Maximum Torque Percent Slip Efficiency .Down Slightly Down 0-5% Down 5-15% Down 5-15% Down 10-20% Down Slightly to Up 5% Up 10% Up 10% Up 21% Up Slightly 90% Down 19% Down 19% Up 20-30% Down 0-2% Little Change Up 0-1% Up 1-7% Up 2-7% Up 3-10% Up 5-10% Down 10% Down 10-15% Down 19% Down Slightly Frequency 105% 95% Down 10% Up 11% Down 10% Up 11% Up 10-15% Down 5-10% Up Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly Down Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly Down 5% Up 5% Down Slightly Up Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly Down Slightly Up Slightly 23 .Full Load 3/4 Load 1/2 Load Full Load Current Starting Current Full Load .Full Load 3/4 Load 1/2 Load Power Factor .Full Load 3/4 Load 1/2 Load Power Factor .

XHHW†. RHW†. SIS. RHH†.TBS. XHH. Based on ambient air temperature of 30°C (86°F). SA. USE†. THW-2. in Raceway or Cable or Earth (directly buried). FEP†. THHN†. THW†. Temperature Rating of Copper Conductor 60°C (140°F) Types TW†.Motor and Drive Basics Allowable Ampacities of Not More Than Three Insulated Conductors Rated 0-2000 Volts. MI. RH†. USE-2. TA. XHHW†. UF† 75°C (167°F) 90°C (194°F) AWG kcmil 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 Types Types FEPW†. ZW† THHW†. THHW†. ZW-2 — — 20† 25† 30 40 55 70 85 95 110 125 145 165 195 215 240 260 280 320 355 385 400 410 435 455 495 520 545 560 — — 20† 25† 35† 50 65 85 100 115 130 150 175 200 230 255 285 310 335 380 420 460 475 490 520 545 590 625 650 665 14 18 25† 30† 40† 55 75 95 110 130 150 170 195 225 260 290 320 350 380 430 475 520 535 555 585 615 665 705 735 750 24 . RHW-2. FEPB†. 60° to 90°C (140° to 194°F). XHHW-2. THWN†.

UF† Types Types TA. THWN-2. USE† XHHW-2. THWN†. XHH. SA. XHHW. 14. Copyright 1992. USE-2. National Electrical Code®. ZW-2 75°C (167°F) 90°C (194°F) 20† 25 30 40 55 65 75 85 100 115 130 150 170 190 210 225 260 285 310 320 330 355 375 405 435 455 470 20† 30† 40 50 65 75 90 100 120 135 155 180 205 230 250 270 310 340 375 385 395 425 445 485 520 545 560 25† 35† 45 60 75 85 100 115 135 150 175 205 230 255 280 305 350 385 420 435 450 480 500 545 585 615 630 †Unless otherwise specifically permitted elsewhere in this Code. RHW†. RHW-S. 10 copper. RH†.THW-2. SIS. or 15 amperes for No. RHH†. 20 amperes for No. THHW†. 12 and 25 amperes for No. THHW†.TBS. Adapted from NFPA 70-1993. XHHW†. THW†.Motor and Drive Basics Allowable Ampacities of Not More Than Three Insulated Conductors Temperature Rating of Aluminum or Copper-Clad Conductor 60°C (140°F) AWG kcmil 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 300 350 400 500 600 700 750 800 900 1000 1250 1500 1750 2000 Types TW†. the overcurrent protection for conductor types marked with an obelisk (†) shall not exceed 15 amperes for No. 12. and 30 amperes for No. THHN†. 25 . 10 aluminum and copper-clad aluminum after any correction factors for ambient temperature and number of conductors have been applied.

In general. Calculate the approximate V-belt length using the following formula: L = Pitch Length of Belt 2 L = 2C+1. Depending upon belt cross section. Motor RPM Drive Ratio = desired fan RPM V-belt Length Formula Once a sheave combination is selected we can calculate approximate belt length. Check belt tension frequently during the first 24-48 hours of operation.57 (D+d)+ (D-d) C = Center Distance of Sheaves D = Pitch Diameter of Large Sheave 4C d = Pitch Diameter of Small Sheave Belt Drive Guidelines 1. 5. In general select a sheave combination that will result in the correct drive ratio with the smallest sheave pitch diameters. ideal belt tension is the lowest tension at which the belt will not slip under peak load conditions. 7. The use of a belt drive allows fan RPM to be easily selected through a combination of AC motor RPM and drive pulley ratios. Multiple belts and sheave grooves may be required to meet horsepower requirements. there may be some minimum pitch diameter considerations. More belts are broken from this cause than from actual failure in service. Belts should never be forced or rolled over sheaves. 6. 26 . 4. Do not drive sheaves on or off shafts. Drives should always be installed with provision for center distance adjustment. Be sure that shafts are parallel and sheaves are in proper alignment. 3.Motor and Drive Basics Belt Drives Most fan drive systems are based on the standard "V" drive belt which is relatively efficient and readily available. Check after first eight hours of operation. If possible centers should not exceed 3 times the sum of the sheave diameters nor be less than the diameter of the large sheave. 2. If possible the arc of contact of the belt on the smaller sheave should not be less than 120°. Be sure shaft and keyway are smooth and that bore and key are of correct size.

Motor and Drive Basics Estimated Belt Drive Loss† Drive Loss.1% • Drive loss = 0.051 x 13. Example: • Motor power output is determined to be 13.5 1 Range of drive losses for standard belts Range of drive losses for standard belts 60 80 100 200 300 400 20 Motor Power Output.7 hp • Fan power input = 13.4 6 8 10 30 40 2 3 4 .6 hp † Adapted from AMCA Publication 203-90. • The belts are the standard type and just warm to the touch immediately after shutdown.6 0. the drive loss = 5.3 0.3 hp.7 hp = 12. Drive losses are based on the conventional V-belt which has been the “work horse” of the drive industry for several decades.3 . hp Higher belt speeds tend to have higher losses than lower belt speeds at the same horsepower. 27 600 0.8 1 0. • From the chart above.0.3 = 0. % Motor Power Output 100 80 60 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 4 3 2 1.

000 hours or longer. Example: A manufacturer specifies that the bearings supplied in a particular fan have a minimum life of L-10 in excess of 40.000 hours.000 hours or longer. life is specified in both hours and the statistical probability that a certain percentage of bearings can be expected to fail within that time period. For example.000 hours at maximum cataloged operating speed. L-50 is the term given to Average Life and is simply equal to 5 times the Minimum Life.000 hours. 28 . Since seemingly identical bearings under identical operating conditions will fail at different times. We can interpret this specification to mean that a minimum of 90% of the bearings in this application can be expected to have a life of at least 40. The life of a rolling element bearing is defined as the number of operating hours at a given load and speed the bearing is capable of enduring before the first signs of failure start to occur. the bearing specified above has a life of L-50 in excess of 200.Motor and Drive Basics Bearing Life Bearing life is determined in accordance with methods prescribed in ISO 281/1-1989 or the Anti Friction Bearing Manufacturers Association (AFBMA) Standards 9 and 11. To say it another way. modified to follow the ISO standard. we should expect less than 10% of the bearings in this application to fail within 40. At least 50% of the bearings in this application would be expected to have a life of 200.

• When hoods are used. • When turns are required in the duct system use long radius elbows to keep the resistance to a minimum (preferably 2 duct diameters). • If filters are used on gravity intake. • After calculating duct resistance. separate by at least 6 fan diameters. • Make all runs of ducts as short and direct as possible. • Avoid fans blowing opposite each other. • For hazardous atmosphere applications use fans of nonsparking construction. When necessary. size intake ventilator to keep intake losses below 1/8” SP. • If air moving over motors contains hazardous chemicals or particles.System Design Guidelines General Ventilation • Locate intake and exhaust fans to make use of prevailing winds. they should be sufficient to collect all contaminating fumes or particles created by the process. • Use same rationale regarding intake ventilators and motors as in General Ventilation guidelines above. *Refer to AMCA Standard 99. • Keep duct velocity as low as practical considering capture for fumes or particles being collected. • Install the exhaust fan at a location to eliminate any recirculation into other parts of the plant. select the fan having reserve capacity beyond the static pressure determined. use explosion-proof motors mounted in or out of the airstream. • Locate fans and intake ventilators for maximum sweeping effect over the working area. • Use Class B insulated motors where ambient temperatures are expected to be high for air-over motor conditions. 29 . depending on job requirements.* Process Ventilation • Collect fumes and heat as near the source of generation as possible. See page 4.

125 CFM/ft2 • Extend hood beyond cook surface 0.80 CFM/ft2 • Island Type . never horizontal • Shield filters from direct radiant heat • Filter mounting height: • No exposed cooking flame—1-1/2’ minimum to filter • Charcoal and similar fires—4’ minimum to filter • Provide removable grease drip pan • Establish a schedule for cleaning drip pan and filters and follow it diligently Fans • Use upblast discharge fan • Select design CFM based on hood design and duct velocity • Select SP based on design CFM and resistance of filters and duct system • Adjust fan specification for expected exhaust air temperature 30 .60° to horizontal.400 fpm • Determine number of filters required from a manufacturer’s data (usually 2 cfm exhaust for each sq. in.4 x distance between hood and cooking surface Filters • Select filter velocity between 100 .System Design Guidelines Kitchen Ventilation Hoods and Ducts • Duct velocity should be between 1500 and 4000 fpm • Hood velocities (not less than 50 fpm over face area between hood and cooking surface) • Wall Type . of filter area maximum) • Install at 45 .

When comparing sound power levels.System Design Guidelines Sound Sound Power (W) . W0 (10-12 watt). Sound Pressure Level (Lp) . Sound Power Level (LW) . THERE IS NO OUTRIGHT CONVERSION BETWEEN SOUND POWER LEVEL AND SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL. refer to sound power level. Lower frequencies are the most difficult to attenuate. Sound pressure is what the human ear reacts to. Rules of Thumb When specifying sound criteria for HVAC equipment.the amount of power a source converts to sound in watts. 31 . not sound pressure level. P0 (2 x 10-5 Pa).a logarithmic comparison of sound power output by a source to a reference sound source. Lp = 20 log10 (P/P0) dB Even though sound power level and sound pressure level are both expressed in dB.pressure associated with sound output from a source.a logarithmic comparison of sound pressure output by a source to a reference sound source. remember the lowest and highest octave bands are only accurate to about +/-4 dB. use the approximation (logarithms cannot be added directly) on the next page. A constant sound power output will result in significantly different sound pressures and sound pressure levels when the source is placed in different environments. LW = 10 log10 (W/W0) dB Sound Pressure (P) . 2 x sound pressure (single source) = +3 dB(sound pressure level) 2 x distance from sound source = -6dB (sound pressure level) +10 dB(sound pressure level)= 2 x original loudness perception When trying to calculate the additive effect of two sound sources.

8 1.very soft whisper 32 .1 1.5 1.000001 0.000 100 10 1 0. page 34.2 1.00001 0. See Noise Criteria Curves.5 0 Graph sound pressure level for each octave band on NC curve.000.0 0.000 100.000 10.8 0.01 0.0 2.0001 0.) Difference between sound pressure levels 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10+ dB to add to highest sound pressure level 3..001 0. Highest curve intercepted is NC level of sound source.000000001 Sound Power Level dB 195 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 Source Shuttle Booster rocket Jet engine with afterburner Jet aircraft at takeoff Turboprop at takeoff Prop aircraft at takeoff Loud rock band Small aircraft engine Blaring radio Car at highway speed Axial ventilating fan (2500 m3h) Voice shouting Garbage disposal unit Voice—conversational level Electronic equipment cooling fan Office air diffuser Small electric clock Voice .1 0.0000001 0.5 2.00000001 0.6 0.System Design Guidelines Rules of Thumb (cont.000 1. Noise Criteria Sound Power and Sound Power Level Sound Power (Watts) 25 to 40.

Sones 10 9 50 60 70 80 90 100 Sound Level dBA † From ASHRAE 1972 Handbook of Fundamentals 33 .0 63.2 0. Automatic punch press (operator’s position) Automatic lathe shop Construction site—pneumatic drilling Computer printout room Loud radio (in average domestic room) Restaurant Conversational speech at 1m Whispered conversation at 2m Background in TV recording studios Normal threshold of hearing Room Sones —dBA Correlation† 150 dBA = 33.0063 0.0002 0.System Design Guidelines Sound Pressure and Sound Pressure Level Sound Pressure (Pascals) 200.0 20.3 2.00063 0.2 Log10 (sones) + 28.063 0.02 0.002 0.0 6.00002 Sound Pressure Level dB 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 0 Typical Environment 30m from military aircraft at take-off Pneumatic chipping and riveting (operator’s position) Passenger Jet takeoff at 100 ft.63 0.0 0. Accuracy ± 2dBA 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Loudness.

Hz 34 Noise Criteria .System Design Guidelines Noise Criteria Curves 90 Noise Criteria NC Curves 80 Octave Band Sound Pressure Level dB 70 70 60 65 60 50 55 50 40 45 40 30 35 30 Approximate 20 threshold of hearing for continuous noise 10 250 63 125 25 20 15 8000 500 1000 2000 4000 Octave Band Mid-Frequency .

0 to 6 4.5 to 5 3.0 to 6 Auditoriums Concert and opera halls Stage theaters Movie theaters Semi-outdoor amphitheaters Lecture halls Multi-purpose Courtrooms Auditorium lobbies TV audience studios Sones Indoor sports activities Gymnasiums Coliseums Swimming pools Bowling alleys Gambling casinos 4 to 12 3 to 9 7 to 21 4 to 12 4 to 12 25 to 60 20 to 60 12 to 36 12 to 36 15 to 50 20 to 50 50 to 60 7 to 21 5 to 15 10 to 30 Room Type 1.0 to 6 Churches and schools Sanctuaries Schools & classrooms Recreation halls Kitchens Libraries Laboratories Corridors and halls Manufacturing areas Heavy machinery Foundries Light machinery Assembly lines Machine shops Plating shops Punch press shops Tool maintenance Foreman’s office General storage 1.0 to 3 1.5 to 8 General open offices Laboratories 6 to 18 4.0 to 12 Tabulation/computation Operating rooms 4 to 12 2.5 to 8 4.5 to 5 2.0 to 9 4.0 to 15 Offices Executive 2 to 6 Hospitals and clinics Private rooms 3 to 9 1. 35 .0 to 12 5.0 to 6 2.Application of Sone Rating.0 to 12 2.0 to 12 Professional offices 3 to 9 Halls and corridors 1.0 to 12 Conference rooms Board of Directors 1 to 3 Halls and corridors 5 to 15 Note: Values showns above are room loudness in sones and are not fan sone ratings.0 to 18 2.0 to 12 6.7 to 5 2.7 to 5 Supervisor Wards 4 to 12 2.7 to 5 4.5 to 8 Drafting Lobbies & waiting rooms 4.System Design Guidelines Design Criteria for Room Loudness Room Type Sones 1. For additional detail see AMCA publication 302 .0 to 6 2.

0 to 9 2. 36 .Application of Sone Rating.0 to 12 8.0 to 12 4.System Design Guidelines Design Criteria for Room Loudness (cont. For additional detail see AMCA publication 302 .) Room Type Sones 4. bus.0 to 18 3 to 9 3 to 9 3 to 9 1.3 to 4 4 to 12 6 to 8 5 to 15 3 to 9 4 to 12 8 to 24 3 to 9 5 to 15 1 to 3 4 to 12 Room Type Sones 3 to 9 2 to 6 4 to 12 4 to 12 2 to 6 4 to 12 4 to 12 7 to 21 6 to 18 4 to 12 6 to 18 Hotels Lobbies Banquet rooms Ball rooms Individual rooms/suites Kitchens and laundries Halls and corridors Garages Public buildings Museums Planetariums Post offices Courthouses Public libraries Banks Lobbies and corridors Residences Two & three family units Apartment houses Private homes (urban) Private homes (rural & suburban) Retail stores Supermarkets Department stores (main floor) Department stores (upper floor) Small retail stores Clothing stores Restaurants Restaurants Cafeterias Cocktail lounges Social clubs Night clubs Banquet room 4 to 12 Transportation (rail. plane) Waiting rooms 5 to 15 Ticket sales office 4 to 12 Control rooms & towers 6 to 12 Lounges 5 to 15 Retail shops 6 to 18 Miscellaneous Reception rooms Washrooms and toilets Studios for sound reproduction Other studios Note: Values showns above are room loudness in sones and are not fan sone ratings.0 to 12 6.0 to 24 3.0 to 6 7.

0 in 1.0 in 2. Non-critical installations are grade level or basement floor.System Design Guidelines Vibration System Natural Frequency The natural frequency of a system is the frequency at which the system prefers to vibrate.0 in 300+ 3. It can be calculated by the following equation: fn = 188 (1/d)1/2 (cycles per minute) The static deflection corresponding to this natural frequency can be calculated by the following equation: d = (188/fn)2 (inches) By adding vibration isolation.0 in 0. A common rule of thumb for selection of vibration isolation is as follows: Static Deflection of Isolation Critical Non-critical Installation Installation 1200+ 1. Equipment RPM 37 .0 in 1.0 in Critical installations are upper floor or roof mounted equipment. the transmission of vibration can be minimized.0 in 400+ 2. Always consider weight distribution of equipment in selection.5 in 600+ 1. Always use total weight of equipment when selecting isolation.

CPM 3000 3600 4000 5000 200 300 400 500 IN VE RY O O TH /S .00 2.40 0.008 0.10 0.CPM 1200 38 3600 0.001 Vibration Velocity .60 0.00 4.03 0.3 .20 0.00 0.003 0. 100000 20000 1000 1200 10.0 IN 19 /S 6 EC IN .004 0.00 6.08 0.-Peak .System Design Guidelines Vibration Severity Use the Vibration Severity Chart to determine acceptability of vibration levels measured.00 100 1800 2000 VE Vibration Displacement-Mils-Peak-to-Peak 1.06 0.01 0.002 1800 SL RY 10000 Values shown are for filtered readings taken on the machine structure or bearing cap IG H RO TL Y RO UG U U H H G H .0 04 9 IN /S EC Vibration Frequency .006 0.00 3.1 14 EC G O O TR IN IN EM /S D EL Y O SM O TH 57 EC /S O O TH EC 39 2 .0 /S 09 EC EC 8 IN /S .0 78 5 IN /S EC .0 .80 0.02 0.00 8.30 0.In/sec.04 0.6 28 FA G O IR RO G EX VE SM RY SM O D 30000 40000 50000 Vibration Frequency .

When using displacement measurements only filtered displacement readings (for a specific frequency) should be applied to the chart. Machines mounted on resilient vibration isolators such as coil springs or rubber pads will generally have higher amplitudes of vibration than those rigidly mounted.) When using the Machinery Vibration Severity Chart. constant velocity lines. 3. A general rule is to allow twice as much vibration for a machine mounted on isolators.System Design Guidelines Vibration Severity (cont. Unfiltered or overall velocity readings can be applied since the lines which divide the severity regions are. The chart applies only to measurements taken on the bearings or structure of the machine. The chart applies primarily to machines which are rigidly mounted or bolted to a fairly rigid foundation. 2. the following factors must be taken into consideration: 1. in fact. The chart does not apply to measurements of shaft vibration. However. this rule should not be applied to high frequencies of vibration such as those characteristic of gears and defective rolling-element bearings. as the amplitudes measured at these frequencies are less dependent on the method of machine mounting. 39 .

Calculate the required outdoor air volume as follows: People = Occupancy/1000 x Floor Area (ft2) CFM = People x Outdoor Air Requirement (CFM/person) Outdoor air quantities can be reduced to lower levels if proper particulate and gaseous air filtration equipment is utilized.10 x Temp diff) 40 . Heat Removal Method When the temperature of a space is higher than the ambient outdoor temperature. page 41. Determine the required number of air changes per hour. Volume (ft3) / Air Change Frequency Consult local codes for air change requirements or. page 42. Air Change Method Find total volume of space to be ventilated.General Ventilation Design Air Quality Method Designing for acceptable indoor air quality requires that we address: • Outdoor air quality • Design of the ventilation systems • Sources of contaminants • Proper air filtration • System operation and maintenance Determine the number of people occupying the respective building spaces. general ventilation may be utilized to provide “free cooling”. CFM = Bldg. in absence of code. Knowing the desired indoor and the design outdoor dry bulb temperatures. Find the CFM/person requirements in Ventilation Rates for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality. and the amount of heat removal required (BTU/Hr): CFM = Heat Removal (BTU/Hr) / (1. refer to “Suggested Air Changes”.

5 1-5 1-2 1-4 2-10 2-5 1-2 2-10 0.5-1 1-3 2-5 2-5 3-5 2-3 5-15 2-15 2-8 2-5 5-10 3-10 3-10 3-8 2-5 1-5 2-6 2-10 .General Ventilation Design Suggested Air Changes Type of Space Assembly Halls Auditoriums Bakeries Boiler Rooms Bowling Alleys Dry Cleaners Engine Rooms Factories (General) Forges Foundries Garages Generating Rooms Glass Plants Gymnasiums Heat Treat Rooms Kitchens Laundries Locker Rooms Machine Shops Mills (Paper) Mills (Textile) Packing Houses Recreation Rooms Residences Restaurants Retail Stores Shops (General) Theaters Toilets Transformer Rooms Turbine Rooms Warehouses 41 Air Change Frequency (minutes) 3-10 4-15 1-3 2-4 2-8 1-5 1-1.

General Ventilation Design Ventilation Rates for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality† Space Auditoriums Ballrooms/Discos Bars Beauty Shops Classrooms Conference Rooms Correctional Facility Cells Dormitory Sleeping Rooms Dry Cleaners Gambling Casinos Game Rooms Hardware Stores Hospital Operating Rooms Hospital Patient Rooms Laboratories Libraries Medical Procedure Rooms Office Spaces Pharmacies Photo Studios Physical Therapy Restaurant Dining Areas Retail Facilities Smoking Lounges Sporting Spectator Areas Supermarkets Theaters Outdoor Air Occupancy Required (People/1000 ft2) (CFM/person) 15 150 25 100 30 100 25 25 15 50 20 50 20 20 15 20 30 30 30 120 25 70 15 8 30 20 25 10 20 30 15 20 15 20 20 7 15 20 15 10 15 20 20 70 15 20 60 70 15 150 15 8 15 150 †Adapted from ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 “Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality”. 42 .

2 Adjusted total heat value for sedentary work. 3 For bowling figure one person per alley actually bowling.General Ventilation Design Heat Gain From Occupants of Conditioned Spaces1 Typical Application Theater-Matinee Theater-Evening Offices. 43 . 1989. includes 60 Btuh for food per individual (30 Btu sensible and 30 Btu latent). and all others as sitting (400 Btuh) or standing (55 Btuh). Hotels. restaurant. * Use sensible values only when calculating ventilation to remove heat. Apartments Retail and Department Stores Drug Store Bank Restaurant2 Factory Dance Hall Factory Sensible Heat Latent Heat (BTU/HR)* (BTU/HR) 200 130 215 135 215 185 220 230 220 280 220 280 240 310 240 510 270 580 330 670 510 940 510 940 Bowling Alley3 Factory Notes: 1 Tabulated values are based on 78°F for dry-bulb temperature. Adapted from Chapter 26 ASHRAE “Fundamentals” Handbook.

75 1 1 2 3 5 7. 1750 89 114.790 3-Ph.900 † Adapted from Chapter 26 ASHRAE “Fundamentals” Handbook.500 840 660 Split Ph. 1750 90 212.300 3-Ph. 1750 75 3. 1750 81 9. 1750 79 6. 1750 91 699.000 102.820 1.490 3-Ph.000 35.000 50. 2nd Driven Motor Driven Driven Motor Nominal EquipEffiEquipEquipType rpm ment in ciency in ment in ment Out Space Percent Space of Space Btuh Btuh Btuh Split Ph.5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 Motor Motor Motor In.000 153. Full Load Out.500 4.000 127.000 28.700 76.640 1.100 3.300 63.790 3-Ph. 1750 85 29.350 3-Ph.000 21. 1750 89 85.000 318.600 3-Ph.900 24.000 37.180 640 540 Split Ph. 1750 87 58.300 3-Ph.000 509.General Ventilation Design Heat Gain From Typical Electric Motors† Motor Nameplate or Rated Horsepower 0.550 850 3-Ph. 1750 77 4.000 382.800 3-Ph.390 2.680 3-Ph.430 7. 1750 89 172.700 19.200 6. 1750 72 2.440 5.300 3-Ph.120 1. 1750 82 15.500 50.33 0.610 3-Ph.000 636.000 62.270 850 3-Ph.140 3-Ph. 1750 56 1.400 38. 1750 89 143.000 255.700 3-Ph. 44 . 1750 91 420.900 7.900 3-Ph.000 15.600 8.500 12.200 3-Ph.700 2. 1989.440 3-Ph. 1750 90 283.300 9.50 0.25 0.090 1.960 3. 1750 91 569.650 1.000 191. 1750 60 2. 1750 86 44. 1750 54 1. 1750 90 353.210 3-Ph. 1750 84 22. 1750 88 72.640 3-Ph.000 18.000 12.900 740 3-Ph.

300 22. light duty . Floor Mounted Type Broiler.070 51.400 54.900 61.000 18.500 3. Floor Mounted Type Griddle Broiler.300 1. light duty .500 9. heavy duty Top section Range.800 730 270 490 19.Top section Range.000 80.000 57. heavy duty Top section Range.200 22.000 3.060 6.700 3.000 6. unit Deep fat fryer Oven.000 30.400 3.600 75. no oven with oven Broiler.000 35.400 4.000 500 900 15.000 16.300 40. roasting.800 10. per sq.000 100. ft of hearth area Oven.000 45.600 Electric.Oven Range. heavy duty .000 3.000 4. baking. restuarant type per 2-burner section per oven per broiler-griddle Manufacturer’s Input Rating Watts Btuh 70. deck.General Ventilation Design Rate of Heat Gain From Commercial Cooking Appliances in Air-Conditioned Area† Appliance Gas-Burning. heavy duty .500 400 8. per sq.Oven † Adapted from Chapter 26 ASHRAE “Fundamentals” Handbook.000 1.800 12. jr. ft of hearth Oven.700 8.Oven Range.700 4. per sq.900 27.000 6. single deck Fryer Oven..600 6.000 40. 1989 45 .600 3.300 12.000 24.900 3. heavy duty . jr. roasting Range.Oven Range..000 22.000 64. medium duty Top section Range. heavy duty Top section Range.200 Heat gain With Hood 7.000 4.500 10.000 16.Oven Range.500 2. medium duty .600 1.100 1.000 35.000 6. ft of hearth Range.500 2.

300 400 2.5 2” Throw Away 70-85% 15-20% 0.0 80% Cartridge 98% 80-85% 0.680 2.500 4.000 6.4 1.200 2.0 HEPA 100% 99.500 Gas-Burning Appliances Adapted from Chapter 26 ASHRAE “Fundamentals” Handbook.100 3.0 2.750 3.25 .8 60% Cartridge 97% 60-65% 0.20 .General Ventilation Design Rate of Heat Gain From Miscellaneous Appliances Electrical Appliances Hair dryer Hair dryer Neon sign.360 1.000 1.000 2.200 30 30 60 60 650 1.850 1. Filter Comparison ASHRAE Initial Final ASHRAE AtmoPressure Pressure Filter Type Arrestance spheric Drop Drop Efficiency Dust Spot (IN.WG) (IN.5 Polyester Pad 82-90% 15-20% 0. *Use sensible heat gain for ventilation calculation.5 1.580 5.WG) Efficiency Permanent 60-80% 8-12% 0.0 90% Cartridge 99% 90-95% 0.000 2. Btuh *Sensible Latent Total 2.07 .000 1.3 1. instrument Lab burners Bunsen Fishtail Meeker Gas Light.400 Recommended Rate of Heat Gain. per burner Cigar lighter Manufacturer’s Rating Watts Btuh 1.700 1.200 1.0 46 .400 705 2.800 900 420 700 840 200 100 2.17 . per linear ft of tube Sterilizer.000 5.870 330 2. 1989.800 3.97% 1.5 Fiberglass Pad 70-85% 15-20% 0.5-.5 2” Pleated Media 88-92% 25-30% 0.100 3.17 .

01 0. 100 Microns 1 Micron = 1 micrometer = 1 millionth of a meter 0. This Dimension Represents the Diameter of a Human Hair.3 micron diameter particle.001 0.3 Micron 0.1 1 Tobacco Smoke Oil Smoke Gas Molecules Virus Heavy Indust.0001 0.Relative Size Chart of Common Air Contaminants 10 10000 Fog Yeast-Cells Molds Bacteria Pollen Diameter of Human Hair Mists Rain 100 1000 0.0001 0. particle.01 0. This is the most respirable. Dusts Fly-Ash Microscope General Ventilation Design Relative Size Chart of Common Air Contaminants 47 X-rays Ultra-Violet Visible This represents a 10 micron diam. the smallest size visible with the human eye. Dust Lung-Damaging-Particles Plant Spores Unsettling-Atmospheric-Impurities Fumes Visible By Human Eye Electronic-Microscope Infra-Red 10 100 1000 Settling-Atmos.-Impur. .1 1 10000 This represents a 0. lung damaging particle size.001 0.

Optimum Relative Humidity Ranges for Health
Optimal Zone

Decrease in Bar Width

Indicates Decrease in Effect

Bacteria

Viruses

Fungi

Mites

Optimum Relative Humidity Ranges for Health

General Ventilation Design

48
20 30 40 50 60
Per Cent Relative Humidity

Respiratory Infections1

Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

Chemical Interactions

Ozone Production 70 80 90

1 INSUFFICIENT DATA

ABOVE 50% R.H.

10

Optimum relative humidity ranges for health as found by E.M. Sterling in "Criteria for Human Exposure to Humidity in Occupied Buildings." ASHRAE Winter Meeting, 1985.

Duct Design
Damper Pressure Drop
1.5

1.0

PRESSURE LOSS - Inches w.g.

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

0.1

0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02

0.01
0
00 400 0 500 0

0

40 0 50 0

0

20 0

10

30

10 0

00 20

DAMPER FACE VELOCITY -fpm
V (Velocity) = CFM Sq. Ft. Damper Area

Adapted from HVAC Systems Duct Design, Third Edition, 1990, Sheet Metal & Air Conditioning Contractor’s National Association

30

.

49

Duct Design
Screen Pressure Drop
0.6 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.2

PRESSURE LOSS—inches w.g.

0.1 Insect Screen 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 1/2 in. Mesh Bird Screen

0.01

0.005 0.004 0.003 0.002

0.001
10 20 00 30 00 40 0 50 0 00 30 0 40 0 50 0 0 10 0 20 00

FACE AREA VELOCITY—fpm
Adapted from HVAC Systems Duct Design, Third Edition, 1990, Sheet Metal & Air Conditioning Contractor’s National Association

.

50

uct m Dia ete r 14 12 10 9 CFM 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 m Fp lo Ve y cit In 50 0 60 20 5 20 0 u .4 .4 .8 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 51 .2 .D ct m Dia ete r 1-1 /2 00 18 00 16 00 14 00 12 00 10 0 90 0 80 0 70 10 4 .08 1 Friction in Inches of Water per 100 Feet Friction of Air in Straight Duct 30 0 40 .000 3 32 2.1 .000 .02 .000 800 22 0 600 2 18 400 4 300 1 200 12 10 100 9 80 8 60 7 40 6 30 0 00 ity 12 loc 0 Ve 00 m 10 0 Fp 0 9000 80 0 0 75 00 7000 65 00 60 0 0 55 00 50 0 0 45 00 40 00 36 0 0 32 00 30 00 2800 26 00 24 0 0 22 00 20 0 0 18 0 0 16 00 14 00 12 D In.000 60.000 7 60 55 10.06 .08.6 .02 .03 .000 0 30.000 5 4 6.04 .000 30 28 26 24 1.000 50 8.01 100.01 .03 .8 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 40.000 6 3.000 8 0 20.000 40 4.Duct Design Duct Resistance .3 .3 .6 .000 80.06 .04 .2 0 0 .

Duct Design Rectangular Equivalent of Round Ducts 500 400 300 5 d=1.265 (ab)3 (a + b) 200 0 10 100 90 80 70 60 50 45 50 90 7 6 0 60 5 80 5 7 55 40 Side of Duct (a) 4 3 0 3 8 34 6 32 30 8 2 6 2 30 Di am 20 20 18 2 22 4 et er (d ) 14 16 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 4 3 5 10 9 8 7 6 2 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 20 30 40 50 60 80100 Side of Duct (b) 52 .

Spray-Type Air Washers 1200 to 1800 *Adapted from ASHRAE “Pocket Guide”. 1500 max Electric Coils • Open Wire Refer to Mfg. Data High-Velocity. Pleated Media: • Low Efficiency 350 • Medium Efficiency 500 • High Efficiency 500 • HEPA 250 Renewable Media Filters • Moving-Curtain Viscous Impingement 500 • Moving-Curtain Dry-Media 200 Electronic Air Cleaners • Ionizing-Plate-Type 300 to 500 • Charged-Media Non-ionizing 250 • Charged-Media Ionizing 150 to 350 500 to 600 Steam and Hot Water Coils 200 min.Duct Design Typical Design Velocities for HVAC Components* Intake Louvers Velocity (FPM) • 7000 cfm and greater 400 Exhaust Louvers • 5000 cfm and greater 500 Panel Filters • Viscous Impingement 200 to 800 • Dry-Type. Data Dehumidifying Coils 500 to 600 Spray-Type Air Washers 300 to 600 Cell-Type Air Washers Refer to Mfg. Data • Finned Tubular Refer to Mfg. 1993 53 .

2443 2.3771 1.9482 0.0480 1.1596 0.2493 0.1053 0.7637 0.6340 2.8079 0.5586 1.2624 1.3297 0.1701 2.0504 0.6857 1.8179 1.4968 1.3017 0.8534 0.2250 0.0754 0.1527 1.0224 0.4544 0.3191 1.9551 2.0399 0.6789 0.5991 0.0997 1.Duct Design Velocity and Velocity Pressure Relationships Velocity (fpm) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 Velocity Pressure (in wg) 0.0897 0.7206 Velocity (fpm) 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600 4700 4800 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 6300 6400 6500 6600 Velocity Pressure (in wg) 0.9002 0.5536 2.7512 1.2069 1.0056 0.9975 1.0623 0.3198 2.0972 2.4364 1.6384 0.1221 0.3591 0.1801 0.0305 0.3896 0.5243 0.2019 0.7157 For calculation of velocity pressures at velocities other than those listed above: Pv = (V/4005)2 For calculation of velocities when velocity pressures are known: V=4005 (Vp) 54 .0256 2.0097 0.2749 0.1402 0.0155 0.4744 2.4887 0.6215 1.3965 2.5610 0.4214 0.8859 1.

040 .2 .375 .) Thick.13 .1382 5.188 Lb. Thick Aluminum* Thick.0336 1.0375 .25 .0312 .0747 3.160 2.531 .125 1.0188 .190 2.032 . Lb.313 1.906 .172 . 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 7 Thick.1084 4.0396 1. Ga.0299 1.064 .625 .S.0276 1.906 7.0478 2.68 Galvanized (Manuf.2 .50 .564 .781 .26 .156 .0239 1.1046 4.0250 .656 .0217 .050 . .353 .406 .141 .025 .575 2.706 .00 .1681 7.100 1.) Thick.156 .2 .76 .875 . Std.1345 5./ft./ft. Ga.0635 2.125 .750 . Lb. Std.0516 2.50 Mill Std.062 .452 .050 ./ft.S.0179 .1793 7.281 .0359 1.656 . in. in.078 .889 . Sheet Metal Gauges Gauge No.752 *Aluminum is specified and purchased by material thickness rather than gauge.7875 1.282 .594 5.0785 3.080 1.Duct Design U.031 — — Stainless Steel (U.2 .00 .050 1.020 . 55 .100 2. Lb. Standard Gauge) Gauge No.41 .1644 6.281 4./ft.50 .625 3.0598 2.109 .in. 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 7 Steel (Manuf.218 7.in.

9) (4) 0 0.5 to 10. These are architectural louvers designed to reject moisture that are tested and evaluated under simulated wind driven rain conditions.6 (700) Free Area Free Area Free Core Velocity Velocity Area Velocity †Table from AMCA Supplement to ASHRAE Journal.250) 6.25) HEVAC Test 13. September 1998. *AMCA Louver Engineering Committee at this writing is currently updating AMCA 500-L to allow testing of varying sizes./h) Wet Wall Water Flow Rate L/s (gpm) Airflow Through Louver m/s (fpm) 0 6.35 (1. ga. 22 20 18 16 Wind Driven Rain Louvers† A new category of product has emerged recently called a wind-driven rain louver. 9-24 25-48 49-72 Round Duct Galv. Four test standards are detailed below: Dade Co.5 (30) 75 (3) 0 Wind Velocity m/s (mph) Rain Fall Rate mm/h (in. 56 . B&S Dimension ga. Specifying engineers should become familiar with the differences in various rain and pressure drop test standards to correctly evaluate each manufacturer’s claims. 24 22 20 18 Aluminum B&S ga. and rainfall intensity and is developing a Certified Ratings Program for this product category. Steel U. to 30 in.8) 0 Power Plant AMCA 500 Test Test* 22 0 (50) 38-280 100 (1.250) 3.Duct Design Recommended Metal Gauges for Duct Rectangular Duct Greatest U.S. ga. 24 22 31-60 22 20 61-90 20 18 91-up 18 16 Diameter to 8 in.110) 220 (8. several different test standards have emerged to evaluate the performance of these products under severe wind and rain weather conditions.S.08 (1.35 (1. Since these are relatively new products. wind speed. In addition. manufacturers have developed their own standards to help evaluate the rain resistance of their products. Test 16-50 (35 .

” by Bill Hollady & Cy Otterholm 1985.0008 0.180 43.3 13.22 5.00015 0.820 22.154 5.152 3.000002 0.84 3.0052 0. Equiv.000005 0. Dew Pt.0016 0.06 0.9 5. °F -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 a7000 bCompared Lb H20/lb dry air 0.080 15.W2) x 4840 Adapted from “Numbers.190 Grains/lb dry aira 0.330 31.315 2.0035 0.0111 0.0007 0.000001 0.02 1.00008 0.555 1.5 0.6 110.0032 0.20 15.0022 0.00046 0.8 33. In some industrial applications the latent heat factor may control the air circulation rate.0432 Parts per million 1 2 5 10 21 42 79 146 263 461 787 1.148 0.0077 0.2 36.073 0.5 53.Heating & Refrigeration Moisture and Air Relationships ASHRAE has adopted pounds of moisture per pound of dry air as standard nomenclature.0223 0.51 9.3 Percent Moisture %b — — — 0.291 0.00001 0.0 48. Relations of other units are expressed below at various dewpoint temperatures.7 156.213 7.0 — — — grains = 1 lb to 70°F saturated Normally the sensible heat factor determines the cfm required to accept a load.13 0.0013 0.2 100.00002 0.6 77.6 21.0312 0.1 24.0 8.0158 0.00004 0.26 0.7 2..3 302.9 1.3 218.4 70.658 11.00026 0. 57 . Thus cfm = Latent heat1 Btu/h (W1 .

644 6.6 633.0 1167.5 487.6 3094.18021 0.4 906.5 1153.7 2708.4 1160.148 16.8 1204.22081 0.427 49.3 350.11117 0.0 441.Heating & Refrigeration Properties of Saturated Steam† Temperature °F Pressure PSIA Specific Volume Sat.9 419.4 1173.6 375.0 1130.4 311.81717 0.3 1187.259 308.9 758.3 332.1 396.5 822.25611 0.38 1326.7 1179.7878 2.0 536. Liquid Sat.1 646.8 1207.8892 4.00 168.992 153.97 107.7 1185.5 464.09 180.4 1105.3 353.23 208.5110 11.38714 0. Vapor Btu/lbm Btu/lbm 32 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 212 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700 705.8 562.0 1068.26 123.010 195.96 148.037 67.4 1198.2 1786.526 14.780 381.86 812.9 679.7 1153.9 512.2 906.200 67.14431 0.8 1179.0 1075.1 1194.0179 8.2 1190.4 203.45 228.94924 1.50683 0.1 1202.3 3208.799 23.968 35.643 117.060 48.7414 7.4997 1.5 1079.79 1133.1 617.696 17.07519 0.186 24.9138 3.0 †Based on “1967 ASME Steam Tables” 58 .0 1203.87 566.08859 0.2 1133.76 249.0 1201.2 1138. Vapor Ft3/lbm Specific Enthalpy Sat.8630 1.22 33.12163 0.9 2059.99424 0.1 714.95 127.4 589.15 680.29 50.729 247.17 1543.55957 0.0 1087.6 1122.53 962.5 995.7 1107.2 1146.2 1199.05078 -0.0 1194.7 1096.3353 1.6 1167.027 28.47 0.17 269.1 1204.005 89.7 290.2 3304.9573 2.999 87.46513 0.321 11.1 1113.7 2445.26747 0.4 1204.0 1150.67492 0.00 77.6927 2.21687 0.762 8.32216 0.54 466.17 188.639 26.9 2365.4658 4.

Universities Factories-Assembly Areas 50 25 3.3 — — Auditoriums.1 1.0 340 200 1.0* 10.9 1.0 2.0 3.0 1. Sq.0 2.0 Educational Facilities 30 20 2.0 350 220 1.0 400 90 — — — — 1.0 600 380 0.9 Schools.7 3.0 700 400 0.1 Office Buildings* 130 80 4.9 1.0 8.0 4.7 1. Churches.25 0.8 1.8 1.67 — — Public Areas 100 50 1.0 4.5 Hospitals-Patient Rooms* 75 25 1.8 Heavy Manufacturingo 300 200 15.8 1.5 3.4 Medium 150 100 1.2 0.5 6.4 — — Libraries and Museums 80 40 1.3 .5 Light Manufacturing 200 100 9.0† 360 190 0.5 1. Theaters 15 6 1.7 0.0 6. Ft/Person Watts/Sq.3 0.2 2.0 450 350 0.6 3.0 240 150 1.0 — — 0.0 1.8 1. Colleges.4 0.0 5.25 0.0† 200 100 — — — — 1.9 2. Occupancy Lights Refrigeration Sq.0 3.7 1.9 0.8 3.9 0.0* — — — — Residential -Large 600 200 1.8 Private Offices* 150 100 2.45 1.0 0.0† 60.0 2.Ft/Ton‡ East-South-West North Internal Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Apartment.0 175 110 1.33 0.8 1.0 1.0 Cubicle Area 100 70 5.Large 17 13 15 2.3 — — Medium 600 200 0.25 0.Heating & Refrigeration Cooling Load Check Figures Classification 59 Air Quantities CFM/Sq.9 2.0† 12.0 275 165 0.0 9.1 Hotels.1 0.0† 100 60 — — — — 2.0 1.0† 240 90 — — — — 2.0 3.8 0.95 1.8 — — — — 0.5 1.Ft.2 0.67 0.25 0.1 0.8 0.9 1.2 — — Restaurants .Ft.0 135 80 1.0 3.5 0. High Rise 325 100 1.0 2. Dormitories 200 100 1.9 1.0† 6.6 0. Motels.5 1.33 0.

7 1.1 1.ft.6 0.Ft.0 340 225 — — — — 0.0 1.5 Refrigeration for Central Heating and Cooling Plant Urban Districts 285 College Campuses 240 Commercial Centers 200 Residential Centers 375 Refrigeration and air quantities for applications listed in this table of cooling load check figures are based on all-air system and normal outdoor air quantities for ventilation except as noted.5† 400 280 — — — — 0.0* 240 105 1.6 0.2 2.1 2.5 1.5 5. Stores-Basement 30 20 2.0 345 185 0.5 9.8 3.3 Discount Stores 35 15 1.7 1.2 Malls 100 50 1. Occupancy Lights Refrigeration Sq.1 2.8 0.8 1. *Air quantities for hospital patient rooms and office buildings (except internal areas) are based on induction (air-water) system.0 4.6 1.0 0.0 2.0 Dept. .2 1.Ft/Ton‡ East-South-West North Internal Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Lo Hi Beauty & Barber Shops 45 25 3.7 1.0 365 160 — — — — 1.0* 9.8 1.9 2.1 Drug Stores 35 17 1.0 300 150 1.0 4.0 1.1 Shoe Stores 50 20 1.0 345 120 0.8 0.0 3.0 180 110 1.6 1.7 2.6 0.9 1.4 0. Ft/Person Watts/Sq. Notes: ‡Refrigeration loads are for entire application.0 3.0† 350 150 — — — — 0.Classification Cooling Load Check Figures (cont.9 2.2 Main Floor 45 16 3.Ft.0 Upper Floors 75 40 2.) Heating & Refrigeration 60 Air Quantities CFM/Sq.2 Clothing Stores 50 30 1. Sq.0 3.0 1. oAir quantities for heavy manufacturing areas are based on supplementary means to remove excessive heat. †Includes other loads expressed in Watts sq.5 4.

0 10 .9 2.6 3.4 3. Corrections for Outdoor Design Temperature Multiplier +50 .4 2.2 2.1 2.6 1.7 2.0 1.Heating & Refrigeration Heat Loss Estimates The following will give quick estimates of heat requirements in a building knowing the cu.0 1.0 3.5 1.9 1.0 4.46 Corrections for “R” Factor (Steel Wall) “R” Factor Multiplier 8 1.6 1.4 2.2 -30 1.4 2.2 3.9 1.0 — — 1.1 — — The following correction factors must be used and multiplied by the answer obtained above.8 1.7 3.ft.69 +10 .8 2.91 61 .8 2.0 2.2 2.1 1.1 2.8 — — 1.7 2.2 1.15 -20 1.6 2.97 12 95 14 .0 -10 1.36 +30 .0 0.5 2.1 3.9 2.6 2.92 19 .9 1.3 2.9 3. Type of Structure Single Story 4 Walls Exposed Single Story One Heated Wall Single Floor One Heated Wall Heated Space Above Single Floor Two Heated Walls Heated Space Above Single Floor Two Heated Walls 2 Story 3 Story Multi-Story 4 Story 5 Story Masonry Wall Insulated Steel Wall Indoor Temp (F) 60° 65° 70° 60° 65° 70° BTU/Cubic Foot BTU/Cubic Foot 3.4 2.93 16 . volume of the building and design conditions.53 +20 .8 3.23 +40 .9 1.4 2.2 1.1 3.84 + 0 1.4 2.

Heating & Refrigeration
Heat Loss Estimates (cont.)
Considerations Used for Corrected Values 1—0°F Outdoor Design (See Corrections) 2—Slab Construction—If Basement is involved multiply final BTUH by 1.7. 3—Flat Roof 4—Window Area is 5% of Wall Area 5—Air Change is .5 Per Hour.

Fuel Comparisons**
This provides equivalent BTU Data for Various Fuels.
Natural Gas Propane Gas No. 2 Fuel Oil Electrical Resistance Municipal Steam Sewage Gas LP/Air Gas 1,000,000 BTU = 10 Therms or 1,000,000 BTU = (1000 Cu. Ft.) 1,000,000 BTU = 46 Lb. or 1,000,000 BTU = 10.88 Gallon 1,000,000 BTU = 7.14 Gallon 1,000,000 BTU = 293 KW (Kilowatts) 1,000,000 BTU = 1000 Lbs. Condensate 1,000,000 BTU = 1538 Cu.Ft. to 2380 Cu.Ft. 1,000,000 BTU = 46 Lb. Propane or 1,000,000 BTU = 10.88 Gallon Propane or 1,000,000 BTU = 690 Cu.Ft. Gas/Air Mix .6 to .66 Specific Gravity 1.52 Specific Gravity .55 to .85 Specific Gravity .5 to .6 Specific Gravity 1.29 Specific Gravity

Fuel Gas Characteristics
Natural Gas Propane Gas *Sewage Gas *Coal Gas *LP/Air Mix 925 to 1125 BTU/Cu.Ft. 2550 BTU/Cu.Ft. 420 to 650 BTU/Cu.Ft. 400 to 500 BTU/Cu.Ft. 1425 BTU/Cu.Ft.

* Before attempting to operate units on these fuels, contact manufacturer. ** Chemical Rubber Publishing Co., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.

62

Heating & Refrigeration
Estimated Seasonal Efficiencies of Heating Systems
Systems Gas Fired Gravity Vent Unit Heater Energy Efficient Unit Heater Electric Resistance Heating Steam Boiler with Steam Unit Heaters Hot Water Boiler with HYD Unit Heaters Oil Fired Unit Heaters Municipal Steam System INFRA Red (High Intensity) INFRA Red (Low Intensity) Direct Fired Gas Make Up Air Improvement with Power Ventilator Added to Gas Fired Gravity Vent Unit Heater Improvement with Spark Pilot Added to Gas Fired Gravity Vent Unit Heater Improvement with Automatic Flue Damper and Spark Pilot Added to Gravity Vent Unit Heater Seasonal Efficiency 62% 80% 100% 65%-80% 65%-80% 78% 66% 85% 87% 94% 4% 1/2%-3% 8%

Annual Fuel Use
Annual fuel use may be determined for a building by using one of the following formulas: Electric Resistance Heating H/(∆T x 3413 x E) xDx24x CD = KWH/YEAR Natural Gas Heating H/(∆T x 100,000 x E) x D x 24 x CD= THERMS/YEAR Propane Gas Heating H/(∆T x 21739 x E) x D x 24 x CD= POUNDS/YEAR H/(∆T x 91911 x E) x D x 24 x CD= GALLONS/YEAR Oil Heating H/(∆T x 140,000 x E) x D x 24 x CD = GALLONS/YEAR Where: ∆T = Indoor Design Minus Outdoor Design Temp. H = Building Heat Loss D = Annual Degree Days E = Seasonal Efficiency (See Above) CD = Correlation Factor CD vs. Degree-Days 63

Heating & Refrigeration
Annual Fuel Use (cont.)

1.2 1.0 Factor CD
+o

0.8 0.6 0.4
20 00 40 00

CD
-o

Degree Days
Pump Construction Types
The two general pump construction types are: Bronze-fitted Pumps • cast iron body • brass impeller • brass metal seal assembly components Uses: Closed heating/chilled water systems, low-temp fresh water. All-Bronze Pumps • all wetted parts are bronze Uses: Higher temp fresh water, domestic hot water, hot process water.

Pump Impeller Types
Single Suction - fluid enters impeller on one side only. Double Suction - fluid enters both sides of impeller. Closed Impeller - has a shroud which encloses the pump vanes, increasing efficiency. Used for fluid systems free of large particles which could clog impeller. Semi-Open Impeller - has no inlet shroud. Used for systems where moderate sized particles are suspended in pumped fluid. Open Impeller - has no shroud. Used for systems which have large particles suspended in pumped fluid, such as sewage or sludge systems. 64

60 00

80 00

0.2
0

Impeller is mounted on end of shaft. Motor can be removed without removing the pump from piping system. Very compact. Requires two seals. Pump shaft passes through seal and bearing in coverplate. Vertical Split Case . Base Mount-Close Coupled . Line Mount . Disassembled by removing top half of pump body. Suction and discharge are in straight-line configuration.pump is coupled to base-mount motor. Usually special motor necessary for replacement. No separate mounting is necessary for pump. Pump impeller mounted between bearings at center of shaft. More compact than long-coupled pump. Usually double suction pump.pump impeller is mounted on base mount motor shaft. Usually for low flow requirements.Heating & Refrigeration Pump Bodies Two basic types of pump bodies are: Horizontal Split Case . Suction is at right angle to discharge.single-piece body casting attached to cover plate at the back of pump by capscrews.mounted to and supported by system piping. Typically standard motors are used. Usually resilient mount motor.split down centerline of pump horizontal axis. Pump Mounting Methods The three basic types of pump mounting arrangements are: Base Mount-Long Coupled . 65 .

Heating & Refrigeration Affinity Laws for Pumps Impeller Diameter Speed Specific To Gravity Correct (SG) for Flow Constant Variable Constant Head BHP (or kW) Flow Variable Constant Head BHP (or kW) Constant Variable BHP (or kW) Multiply by New Speed Old Speed New Speed Old Speed New Speed Old Speed 2 3 New Diameter Old Diameter New Diameter Old Diameter New Diameter Old Diameter New SG Old SG 2 3 Adapted from ASHRAE “Pocket Handbook”. 66 . 1987.

• Check actual pump perforPump operating close to or mance against specified and beyond end point of perforreduce impeller diameter as mance curve required • Check expansion tank connection to system relative to pump suction • If pumping from cooling tower sump or reservoir.Heating & Refrigeration Pumping System Troubleshooting Guide Complaint: Pump or System Noise Possible Cause Recommended Action Shaft misalignment • Check and realign Worn coupling • Replace and realign • Replace. check line Entrained air or low suction size pressure • Check actual ability of pump against installation requirements • Check for vortex entraining air into suction line 67 . check manufacturer’s Worn pump/motor bearings lubrication recommendations • Check and realign shafts • Check foundation bolting or proper grouting Improper foundation • Check possible shifting because of piping expansion/ or installation contraction • Realign shafts Pipe vibration and/or strain • Inspect. alter or add hangers caused by pipe expansion/ and expansion provision to eliminate strain on pump(s) contraction • Check actual pump performance against specified and reduce impeller diameter as Water velocity required • Check for excessive throttling by balance valves or control valves.

Heating & Refrigeration Pumping System Troubleshooting Guide (cont.) Complaint: Inadequate or No Circulation Possible Cause Recommended Action Pump running backward • Reverse any two-motor leads (3 phase) Broken pump coupling • Replace and realign • Check motor nameplate wiring Improper motor speed and voltage • Check pump selection (impeller Pump (or impeller diameter) diameter) against specified systoo small tem requirements Clogged strainer(s) • Inspect and clean screen • Check setting of PRV fill valve System not completely filled • Vent terminal units and piping high points Balance valves or isolating • Check settings and adjust as valves improperly set required • Vent piping and terminal units • Check location of expansion tank connection line relative to Air-bound system pump suction • Review provision for air elimination • Check pump suction inlet conditions to determine if air is Air entrainment being entrained from suction tanks or sumps • Check NPSH required by pump • Inspect strainers and check Low available NPSH pipe sizing and water temperature Adapted from ASHRAE “Pocket Handbook”. 1987. 68 .

5 Head (total) H ft 0. Abbreviations and Conversion Factors AbbreviaMultiply By tion Length l ft 0.89 psi 14. % Ep Pump — — Ee Equipment — — Em — — Electric motor Eu — Utilization — Variable speed Fv — — drive System Efficiency SEI — — Index (decimal) rpm 0. 1987.0167 16. To Obtain m m2 m/s m3 m3/h L/s Pa kPa bar m m kW kW kW — — — — — — rad/s rps kg/m3 °C 69 .2272 0v Flow rate gpm 0.7457 Pi kW 1.3048 water hp Output power Po 0.3048 Area A 0.0631 psi 6890 Pressure P psi 6.0929 ft2 Velocity v ft/s 0.0 Input power (driver) Efficiency.Heating & Refrigeration Pump Terms.7457 (WHP) (pump) Ps Shaft power BHP 0.3048 NPSH H ft 0.1047 Speed n rpm 0.3048 0.0283 Volume V ft3 gpm 0.0 Density ρ lb/ft3 Temperature ° °F-32 5/9 Term Adapted from ASHRAE “Pocket Handbook”.

067 2. in.21 d2 Quiet Water Flows Nom size Gpm 1/2 1.31/SG* (ft) Po = Qv x H x SG*/3960 (hp) Ps = Qv x H x SG* (hp) 39.27 6.049 1. 0.100 1.Heating & Refrigeration Common Pump Formulas Formula for Head Output power Shaft power Input power Utilization QD= design flow QA= actual flow HD= design head HA= actual head *SG = specific gravity I-P Units H=psi x 2. 1-1/4 1-1/2 14 22 2 44 2-1/2 75 3 120 4 240 Six fps is a reasonable upper limit for water velocity in pipes.6 x Ep Pi = Ps x 74.610 2.59 4.904 2. 1 8.41 v= d2 Where V is in ft/sec and d is inside diameter.824 1.02 0.6/Em (kw) ηµ = 100 Q Q D A HD HA Water Flow and Piping Pressure drop in piping varies approx as the square of the flow: h2 Q2 2 = h1 Q1 The velocity of water flowing in a pipe is gpm x 0.387 0.41 16.679 1.10 9.5 3/4 4.622 0. Nom 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 4 size ID in.380 1.469 3.068 4. The relationship between pressure drop and flow rate can also be expressed: h2 = h1 x Q2 2 or Q2 = Q1 x Q1 h2 h1 70 .

%: 1/12 to 1/2 hp 3/4 to 2 3 to 10 double suction pumps: 20 to 50 40 to 55 45 to 60 50 to 65 60 to 80 Friction Loss for Water Flow Average value—new pipe. Used pipe add 50% Feet loss / 100 ft—schedule 40 pipe 1/2 in.20 14.57 3.70 15.8 71 . US hF hF hF v v v Gpm Fps FtHd Fps FtHd Fps FtHd 2.28 29.1 8 4.5 3.4 3.11 5.3 4 4.) Example: If design values were 200 gpm and 40 ft head and actual flow were changed to 100 gpm.81 17.17 11.64 8.8 4.22 19.Heating & Refrigeration Water Flow and Piping (cont.3 6 3. 1 in.41 4.1 14 5.5 2.71 7.02 26.0 3.8 5 5.0 2.3 2.0 16 5.94 19.2 2.9 3.00 3.97 5.2 3.2 3.9 12 4.7 3.5 2.45 11.61 10.23 3.7 2.43 2. hF v Fps FtHd 2.01 7. the new head would be: 100 2 h2 = 40 = 10 ft 200 Pump hp = gpm x ft head x sp gr 3960 x % efficiency Typical single suction pump efficiencies.0 1-1/4 in. 3/4 in.2 10 6.

86 6.Heating & Refrigeration Friction Loss for Water Flow (cont.15 3.4 6.94 6.5 4.9 6.82 3.1 6.58 11.08 5.7 7.4 5.47 4.7 6.30 12.69 10.04 15. 2 in.6 7.30 4.7 5.2 Adapted from “Numbers”.4 3.44 15.3 5.5 9.69 4.02 3.3 4. 1985 72 .73 7.65 13. 2-1/2 in.9 3 in.6 4. hF v Fps FtHd 5.4 4.4 8. hF hF hF v v v Fps FtHd Fps FtHd Fps FtHd 2.68 10.74 7.1 3.) US Gpm 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 1-1/2 in. hF v Fps FtHd 3.6 7.9 6.10 5.2 6.2 4.41 6.15 10.6 6.3 4.51 9.51 20.84 2.72 8.2 8.4 3.5 4.21 3.78 5.2 5.01 13. Bill Holladay and Cy Otterholm.70 8.04 11.1 5.36 5.38 15.8 3.0 4.5 1-1/4 in.29 7.2 7.8 4.78 4.81 8.

84 17 11 .Heating & Refrigeration Equivalent Length of Pipe for Valves and Fittings Screwed fittings.1 18 13 .45 .7 18 22 .2 9.56 15 8.2 10 2 3 11 4.3 13 9.7 4.13 1.4 42 1.2 18 15 .2 29 .10 .2 2.26 2.6 5.6 Pipe Size 1-1/4 1-1/2 6.9 18 27 .47 .8 3.52 5.18 1.3 4.7 12 8.31 3.24 .V2) 2g where V1 & V2 = entering and leaving velocities and g = 32.6 22 .43 4.6 9.6 37 1.3 62 1.1 5.96 1.36 .1 6.9 7.3 . Bill Holladay and Cy Otterholm.53 .7 13 Feet of liquid loss = (V1 .0 . turbulent flow only.39 .4 24 .4 2.5 2-1/2 9.6 1 5.71 1.7 6.9 3/4 4.2 2 8.3 8.7 1.6 3.29 .6 3. 90° Ell Standard 45° Ell Tee Line flow Tee Br flow 180° Ret bend Globe Valve Gate Valve Angle Valve Swing Check Union or Coupling Bellmouth inlet Sq mouth inlet Reentrant pipe Sudden enlargement 1/2 3.67 6.4 5.2 .4 2.5 54 1.21 .17 ft/sec2 Adapted from “Numbers”.2 3.67 15 8. 1985 73 .8 .3 2. equipment length in feet.5 18 19 .1 7.3 3.0 3.4 3.7 7.6 8.6 2.7 4.92 2.6 2.9 12 17 11 79 1. Fittings Standard 90° Ell Long rad.5 3.2 6.6 5.3 3.2 1.

500 0.1743 0.501 Weight lb/lin ft 0.675 0.0777 0.247 3 3.6613 1.047 6.275 0.33 5.430 0. Inside in.77 0.321 1.884 1.825 0.75 2.646 0.163 0.070 0.455 0.985 3.0655 1-1/2 1.068 4.666 0. gal/lin ft.145 0.078 0.500 3. in.57 10.422 0.660 1. 0.050 0.567 0.79 7.in.424 0.026 5.315 1.625 6.48 3.563 5.233 0.375 0.054 1.0250 1 1.824 1.244 0.484 0.625 2.380 1.750 0.0277 0. size Outside in.840 0.587 Volume gal/lin ft.126 0.62 18.Heating & Refrigeration Standard Pipe Dimensions Schedule 40 (Steel) Nominal Size 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 4 5 6 Diameter Outside Inside in.610 2.0099 0.039 1.00 Copper Tube Dimensions (Type L) Diameter Cross-sect Volume Nominal Area sq.27 2.354 4 4.025 0.0925 2 2.265 1.095 0.125 2.79 14.125 1.2487 0.348 0.875 0.81 0.469 3.541 0.875 2.0181 3/4 0.375 1.3840 0.0030 0.375 2.803 1. Inside 1/4 0.0442 1-1/4 1.0121 5/8 0.216 0.945 6.493 0.38 74 .405 0.625 1.1058 0.622 1.00404 3/8 0.465 4.0449 0.785 0.10 0. Inside 0.361 0.505 1.198 0.065 Area ft2/ lin ft.049 1.625 0.285 0.125 3.65 5.13 1.0054 0.00753 1/2 0.540 0.364 0.067 2.0 0.72 3.362 0.78 0.500 4.129 0.161 2-1/2 2.125 1.900 1.850 1.68 2.545 0. 0.905 12.269 0.14 1.315 0.0158 0.623 Weight lb/lin ft 0.655 0.26 0.

Bill Holladay and Cy Otterholm.aftercooler Oil .Baudelot cooler Brine .double pipe Water . NH3 Water to R12.6 -2 2-6 1-2 1-3 1-3 5-10 5-10 10-30 2-10 2-10 2-10 20-50 20-50 25-60 30-90 45-100 50-125 50-150 60-150 60-140 100-170 100-200 130-190 160-250 150-300 150-800 Notes: U factor = Btu/h .flat plates Gas to gasa Air .preheater Air . R22.shell & int finned tube Water .DX Baudelot Water .HW radiator Oil . R22. 75 .DX chiller Water .DX Shell & tube Water . R22 Water to R12. NH3 E glycol to R12. R22.ft2 •°F Liquid velocities 3 ft/sec or higher a At atmospheric pressure b At 100 psig Values shown are for commercially clean equipment.fin coil Air .shell & tube Water .R502 Water to R12. 1985.Heating & Refrigeration Typical Heat Transfer Coefficients Controlling fluid and Type of Exchanger apparatus Air .flooded chiller Brine . R22 Water to water Condensing vapor to water U free U forced convection convection 0.preheater Brine .double pipe Water . R22 Brine to R12.shell & tube Air to watera Water to aira Liquid to liquid Comp air to waterb Steam to liquid Brine to R12. Adapted from “Numbers”.bare pipes Steam to aira Air . R22 Brine to NH3 Brine to NH3 Water to NH3 Water to R12.DX chiller Brine .flooded chiller Brine .

0008 Air. reciprocating compressor 0.0010 Non-ferrous Ferrous Brines: tubes tubes Methylene chloride none none Inhibited salts 0. clean and oil free 0.0015 Hard well water 0.0010 Inhibited cooling tower 0. clean and oil free 0.0001 Vegetable oils 0. h1 h2 U= bLower velocities require higher f values. 76 .0005 Water.0003 Wet.0050 Fuel oils 0.0020 Inhibited glycols 0.0033 Steam: Dry.0020 Vapors and gases: Refrigerant vapors none Solvent vapors 0.0030 Untreated cooling tower 0.0005 Water.0030 Other Liquids: Organic solvents (clean) 0. open system 0.0060 Sea water 0. closed system 0.0005 Exhaust from turbine 0. (clean) centrifugal compressor 0.0015 Air.Heating & Refrigeration Fouling Factors Recommended minimum fouling allowances (f)a for water flowing at 3 ft/secb or higher: Distilled water 0.0015 Engine jacket 0.0005 aInsert factor in: where f1 and f2 are the 1 1 + f1 + f2 + 1 surface fouling factors.0010 0.0040 Quenching oils (filtered) 0.0015 Treated boiler feed (212°F) 0.0010 0.0010 Non-inhibited salts 0.0005 0.

Bill Holladay and Cy Otterholm.Wet bulb = Approach The Capacity Factor is a multiplier by which the capacity at any common assumed condition may be found if the rating at some other point is known. Example: at 95-85-80.. 1985 77 .000 Btu/ hr • ton) and gpm/ton flow rate. Evaporation will cause increasing deposit of solids and fouling of condenser tube unless water is bled off.24 90 80 72 0.Heating & Refrigeration Cooling Tower Ratings† Temperatures °F Hot Water Cold Water Wet Bulb Capacity Factor 90 80 70 0.88 95 85 78 0.5% bleed will result in three concentrations. the capacity is 0.75 95 85 80 0.000 btu/hr • ton.62 Hot water . F 40 20 Practical Avg. Horsepower per Ton† at 100°F Condensing Temperature Vapor enters Compressor at 65°F Refrig.74 92 82 72 0. and 0.87 1.88 95 85 72 1.00 95 85 70 1. Factors are based on a Heat Rejection Ratio of 1.20 †Adapted from “Numbers”.73 that of the rating at 90-80-70. 0.20 0 1. Temp. the heat rejection will be greater than 15.00 95 85 76 0.25 (15.70 -20 2.40 -40 3.12 95 85 74 1. If the refrigerant temperature is below 40°F.62/0. Capacity is reduced as the flow rate per ton is increased. A bleed of 1% of the circulation rate will result in a concentration of twice the original solids (two concentrations).Cold water = Range Cold water .85 92 82 70 1.85 or 0.

100°F condensing temperature. Entering Air Wet Bulb Temp.Heating & Refrigeration Evaporate Condenser Ratings† An Evaporative Condenser rated at a condensing temperature of 100°F and a wet bulb temperature of 70°F will have rating factors under other conditions.45 36 43 64 100 -10 1.71 1. °F Temp.22 115 1. 55° 60° 65° 70° 75° 78° °F 90 0. The capacity of a typical compressor is reduced as the evaporating temperature is reduced because of increased specific volume (cu ft/lb) of the refrigerant and lower compressor volumetric efficiency.85 1.03 0.75 1.81 1.53 28 34 50 78 -20 1.52 1.41 1.39 45 54 80 0 1.20 2. % Based on Temp.62 1.86 0.75 Compressor Capacity Vs.41 1. at 40°F refrigerant temperature.32 1.50 0..28 83 100 30 1.. The average 1 hp compressor will have a capacity of nearly 12. Bill Holladay and Cy Otterholm.64 22 26 39 61 -30 1.02 1.00 0.51 1. as follows: Cond.79 105 1.80 0.54 1.26 100 40 1.93 1.65 1.22 1. 1 ton.63 0.41 95 1.29 1.13 1.000 btu/h. A 10° rise/fall in condensing temperature will reduce/increase capacity about 6%.93 1.67 0.92 10 12 18 28 aFor sealed compressors.87 0.96 0.11 2.91 0.00 110 1. 1985 78 .59 100 1.11 1. †Adapted from “Numbers”. °F 50°F 40°F 20°F 0°F Ratioa 50 1. Rejection Capacity.47 120 2.77 15 18 27 42 -40 1. Refrigerant Temperature at 100°F Condensing† Heat Refrig.08 1.31 1.35 56 67 100 10 1.31 69 83 20 1.75 0.20 1.

D.60 55.50 29.00 Size O.2 136 194 268 1263 60.00 141.5 40.0 15.70 30.00 174.10 35.22 4.0 42.1 16. 79 .80 14.0 37.18 0.5 28.80 69.40 119.60 62.52 0.40 57.6 138 190 896 36. †Adapted from ASHRAE Refrigeration Handbook 1998. ∆t = 2°F Saturated Suction Temp.66 1.79 1.1 1. 1/2 5/8 7/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 2-1/8 2-5/8 3-1/8 3-5/8 4-1/8 5-1/8 6-1/8 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-22† Tons for 100 ft.1 33.76 1.01 0.3 65.9 17.2 2.91 1.5 6.0 22.00 28.67 1.54 5. Copper.60 13.0 18.80 18.0 65.80 54.51 0.34 0.54 0.32 0.66 1.32 2.Type L.6 92.70 97.0 64.88 3.40 23.80 129. °F/ Discharge Liquid ∆p Lines∆t 1°F Lines -40 -20 0 20 40 ∆t 1°F 0 0.7 2.7 0. Steel pipe has about the same capacity as Type L.00 971.00 78.45 1.9 128 602 26.10 84.43 0.7 7.4 377 17.00 88.00 37.17 9.15 1.3 80.79 5. .54 0.00 181. Copper.9 3.6 213 10.8 8.27 0.00 213.19 1. Suction Lines.10 44.6 0.93 0.90 8.00 280.53 3.02 6.70 35.0 2.77 14.00 1.0 4.80 23.8 59.94 9.00 290.14 0. °F/ Discharge ∆p Lines∆t 1°F 0 10 20 30 40 0 1.8 27.7 4.00 342.40 50.6 0.90 78.39 7.8 7.71 0.34 10.3 2. Suction Lines. Refrigerant temperature has little effect on discharge line size. copper 1/8” larger.20 30. .00 462.50 46.50 20.10 86.1 1.9 4.90 113.0 10.1 14.04 5.0 102 6.8 3.1 4.40 0.30 16.9 0.84 2. 1/2 5/8 7/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 2-1/8 2-5/8 3-1/8 3-5/8 4-1/8 5-1/8 *Tables are based on 105°F condensing temperature.0 1. ∆t = 2°F Saturated Suction Temp.75 2.Heating & Refrigeration Refrigerant Line Capacities for 134a† Tons for 100 ft.2 10.42 1.86 1.Type L.0 5.7 3.5 11.4 96.6 23.23 0.02 5.00 Liquid Lines ∆t 1°F 2.35 0.8 58.27 14.40 2.29 0.00 143.00 49.42 4.0 107 164 244 347 478 Size O.D.4 44.0 92.00 688.41 1.10 6.6 2.2 1.00 226.14 1.1 45.60 163.43 181.

0 29.6 20. Copper.0 8.4 8.0 41.84 0. Copper R-717 (Ammonia) Tons for 100 Ft.5 54.0 66.7 112 200 321 40 3.9 29.6 36.9 9.9 6.1 163 333 601 972 3 13.70 1.45 0.7 79.8 7.9 46.8 99.0 114 161 287 461 Discharge Liquid Lines ∆t Lines 1°F 0 0. .1 42.2 170 276 0 0.Type L. ∆t = 2°F Saturated Suction Temp.1 2.06 2.7 53.8 9.2 35.6 63.2 19.9 36.1 55.4 13.49 0.6 62. 80 .27 0.3 27.9 13.31 -20 0.2 25.1 33.2 12.91 2.6 8.1 21.4 77.5 15.18 0.3 10.2 85.7 53.4 138 244 389 579 817 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-717† Tons for 100 ft.2 13.4 16.42 1.8 24.33 0.87 1.7 3.4 2. .Type L.5 4.92 0.6 5.22 0. °F/ ∆p Size ∆p 1/2 5/8 7/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 2-1/8 2-5/8 3-1/8 3-5/8 4-1/8 5-1/8 6-1/8 -40 0.5 2.0 8.Heating & Refrigeration Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-502† Tons for 100 ft.33 0.5 39.5 73.5 75.4 135 216 20 2.8 14.9 17.49 2.5 11.1 94. IPS 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 4 5 6 aSchedule ∆p ∆p Sch 80 40 -40 0.2 34.46 3.5 23.1 6.8 92.16 0.2 3.8 106 168 298 600 1095 1771 2 106 229a 349a 811 1293 2288 4662 3.4 26.5 150 271 439 20 1.4 5.4 4. Suction Lines.4 5.2 3.73 3.63 1.14 0.2 14.8 148 208 371 596 ∆t 1°F 2.1 5.63 1.9 57.08 0.2 4.7 101 164 80 †Adapted from ASHRAE Refrigeration Handbook 1998.5 48.3 27.4 4.43 0.7 140 0 1.2 112 229 412 668 40 1.0 53.6 19.6 -20 1.8 8.4 48.5 86.8 22.

732 Power —D-C Circuits Watts = Volts x Amperes ( W = EI) Input Watts Volts x Amperes x 1.732 1000 Three-Phase Volt-Amperes = Volts x Amperes x 1.732 x Efficiency x Power Factor 746 Volts x Amperes x Efficiency x Power Factor Horsepower (1 Ph) = 746 Three-Phase Power Factor = Amperes = Watts (I = W/E) Volts Horsepower = Volts x Amperes x Efficiency 746 81 .732 Single-Phase Kilowatts = Volts x Amperes x Power Factor 1000 746 x Horsepower Single-Phase Amperes = Volts x Efficiency x Power Factor 746 x Horsepower Single-Phase Efficiency = Volts x Amperes x Power Factor Input Watts Single-Phase Power Factor = Volts x Amperes Horsepower (3 Ph) = Volts x Amperes x 1.732 x Volts x Efficiency x Power Factor 746 x Horsepower Volts x Amperes x Power Factor x 1.732 Three-Phase Amperes = Three-Phase Efficiency = 746 x Horsepower 1.Formulas & Conversion Factors Miscellaneous Formulas OHMS Law Ohms = Volts/Amperes (R = E/I) Amperes = Volts/Ohms (I = E/R) Volts = Amperes x Ohms (E = IR) Power—A-C Circuits Efficiency = 746 x Output Horsepower Input Watts Three-Phase Kilowatts = Volts x Amperes x Power Factor x 1.

Aluminum = 180 .S.) = Horsepower x 5250 RPM Horsepower = Torque (lb.Formulas & Conversion Factors Miscellaneous Formulas (cont.3 Change in Resistance Due to Change in Temperature RC = RH x RH = R C x K (K + TC) (K + TH) (K + TH) (K + TC) RC RH TC TH = 234.-ft.I.-ft.-ft.) = WK2 (Load) x Load RPM2 Motor RPM2 HP x 321.) Speed—A-C Machinery Synchronous RPM = Hertz x 120 Poles Synchronous RPM .Copper = 236 .Full-Load RPM x 100 Percent Slip = Synchronous RPM Motor Application Torque (lb.000 RPM x Shaft Dia.2) FLT = Full-Load Torque BDT = Breakdown Torque LRT = Locked Rotor Torque Load WK2 (at motor shaft) = Shaft Stress (P.Steel = Cold Resistance (OHMS) = Hot Resistance (OHMS) = Cold Temperature (°C) = Hot Temperature (°C) 82 .) x RPM 5250 Time for Motor to Reach Operating Speed (seconds) Seconds = WK2 x Speed Change 308 x Avg. Accelerating Torque Average Accelerating Torque = [(FLT + BDT)/2] + BDT + LR1 3 WK2 = Inertia of Rotor + Inertia of Load (lb.5 .Iron = 218 .

) H = Height of Liquid (ft.433 PSI 1 PSI = 2.051 (f)2 (D) A = Acceleration (g’s Peak) A = .) Centrifugal Applications Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Applications: Flow1 RPM1 = Flow2 RPM2 Pres1 (RPM1)2 = Pres2 (RPM2)2 BHP1 (RPM1)3 = BHP2 (RPM2)3 For Pumps BHP = GPM x PSI x Specific Gravity 1713 x Efficiency of Pump BHP = GPM x FT x Specific Gravity 3960 x Efficiency of Pump Tip Speed (FPS) = D(in) x RPM x π 720 Temperature: °F = °C 9 + 32 5 BHP = BHP = BHP = CFM x PSF 33000 x Efficiency of Fan CFM x PIW 6344 x Efficiency of Fan CFM x PSI 229 x Efficiency of Fan °C = (°F .Formulas & Conversion Factors Miscellaneous Formulas (cont.32) 5 9 For Fans and Blowers 1 ft.016 (f) (V) f = Frequency (Cycles per Second) Volume of Liquid in a Tank Gallons = 5.318 (V/f) V = π(f) (D) D = Displacement (Inches Peak-Peak) V = Velocity (Inches per Second Peak) A = .) Vibration D = .309 Ft.0 83 . of water = 0.875 x D2 x H D = Tank Diameter (ft. of water Specify Gravity of Water = 1.

283 Area and Circumference of Circles Diameter (inches) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 .7854 3.767 1.1 415.618 2.498 5.405 2.9 176.1 132.451 4. ft.7 201.9218 1.142 7.142 Circumference (feet) 0.833 2.640 2.396 1.7 283.236 5.62 78.047 1.) 0.) Where: BHP GPM FT PSI PSIG PSF PIW = Brake Horsepower = Gallons per Minute = Feet = Pounds per Square Inch = Pounds per Square Inch Gauge = Pounds per Square Foot = Inches of Water Gauge Area (sq.63 28.1364 0.03 113.7854 1.0491 0.) 0.0873 0.4418 0.5 314.227 1.880 3.0218 0.48 50.5 452.7 153.3 380.5454 0.069 1.576 1.142 3.0 227.712 4.571 1.760 6.189 4.885 3.665 3.27 63.182 2.927 4.5236 0.57 19.0054 0.969 2.2 346.1964 0.0 254.54 95.094 2.356 2.7854 0.309 1.Formulas & Conversion Factors Miscellaneous Formulas (cont.2673 0.974 5.2618 0.4 84 Area (sq.6600 0.403 3.3491 0.27 38.021 6.069 12.in.

) 490.Formulas & Conversion Factors Area and Circumference of Circles (cont.54 12.587 4.47 10.330 7.305 6.5 1590.9 1809.876 8.163 9.7 804.467 7.99 11.78 12.545 6.687 3.30 12.940 6.296 8.9 530.4 1661.72 Circumference (feet) 6.168 9.681 7.686 9.901 9.1 1194.88 14.9 962.19 14.50 17.) Diameter (inches) 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 Area (sq.32 15.854 8.57 13.5 2043 2124 2206 2290 2376 2463 2552 85 Area (sq.52 11.069 7.09 13.in.40 14.069 7.5 1256.83 13.425 9.5 706.378 8.621 10.2 855.8 1075.14 14.) 3. ft.8 754.807 7.727 9.5 1885.04 11.592 7.08 10.75 15.7 1963.9 1734.6 1320.9 572.92 .909 5.35 13.66 14.976 4.4 1452.57 12.585 5.56 11.1 1017.2 1520.2 1134.241 5.73 10.948 10.26 11.116 8.61 13.7 660.64 14.09 13.2 1385.05 12.04 12.276 4.21 10.10 17.90 16.409 3.3 907.639 8.5 615.

ft.06 18.27 29.34 23.63 20.45 15.97 21.04 34.71 15.in.02 17.) Diameter (inches) 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 Area (sq.47 21.Formulas & Conversion Factors Area and Circumference of Circles (cont.59 18.04 23.35 18.56 23.76 24.97 26.18 15.33 18.24 43.04 23.94 21.16 20.49 28.) 18.68 31.41 40.) 2642 2734 2827 2922 3019 3117 3217 3318 3421 3526 3632 3739 3848 3959 4072 4185 4301 4418 4536 4657 4778 4902 5027 5153 5281 5411 5542 5675 5809 5945 6082 6221 6362 6504 86 Area (sq.28 42.82 .29 20.21 21.25 22.42 20.48 39.30 23.76 17.73 27.50 32.63 19.37 19.07 29.90 20.68 20.57 38.28 17.87 30.20 44.11 19.22 25.17 Circumference (feet) 15.23 16.34 33.99 19.78 23.91 35.80 18.99 22.48 25.18 34.65 22.18 45.49 16.51 22.85 19.34 41.73 21.67 37.54 17.78 36.97 16.

700 87 .39 25.28125 0.34375 0.144 7.731 9.969 4.42188 0.12500 0.06250 0.18 2 2 A(ft2) = π r (in) = π d(in) 144 576 C(ft) = π d (in) 12 Where: A = Area C = Circumference r = Radius d = Diameter Common Fractions of an Inch Decimal and Metric Equivalents Fraction 1/64 1/32 3/64 1/16 5/64 3/32 7/64 1/8 9/64 5/32 11/64 3/16 13/64 7/32 15/64 1/4 Decimal 0.984 2.09375 0.953 6.46 54.07812 0.29688 0.20312 0.35 24.03125 0.48438 0.43750 0.303 12.350 Fraction 17/64 9/32 19/64 5/16 21/64 11/32 23/64 3/8 25/64 13/32 27/64 7/16 29/64 15/32 31/64 1/2 Decimal 0.04688 0.747 7.509 11.113 11.) Diameter (inches) 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 Circle Formula A(in2) = π r (in)2 = Area (sq.778 3.588 1.61 24.541 7.35938 0.39062 0.525 9.17 48.334 8.13 25.in.37500 0. ft.381 2.21875 0.15625 0.92 26.794 1.763 5.46875 0.716 11.27 51.14062 0.31250 0.191 1.87 25.54 Circumference (feet) 24.32 52.906 12.159 5.) 6648 6793 6940 7088 7238 7390 7543 7698 7855 π d(in)2 4 Area (sq.556 5.09 24.938 8.40625 0.66 25.25000 mm 0.18750 0.38 53.50000 mm 6.366 4.Formulas & Conversion Factors Area and Circumference of Circles (cont.23438 0.572 3.19 49.319 10.10938 0.922 10.175 3.32812 0.16 47.22 50.17188 0.) 46.45312 0.26562 0.128 9.397 0.01562 0.

82812 0.89062 0.93750 0.96875 0.256 18.87500 0.622 23.00000 mm 19.281 39.65625 0.638 21.0 12.0 .9144 = = = = = = = = = = = = = To Obtain Inches Feet Inches Meters Centimeters Miles Feet Inches Yards Feet Kilometers Yards Meters 88 .0 1.64062 0.653 19.859 18.90625 0.60938 0.64 5/8 41/64 21/32 43/64 11/16 45/64 23/32 47/64 3/4 Decimal 0.875 16.67188 0.447 19.209 24.478 15.463 17.225 22.76562 0.54 .81250 0.813 24.68750 0.6214 3.431 21.081 15.609 5.71875 0.094 5280.53125 0.019 23.75000 mm 13.606 25.034 21.92188 0.241 20.050 Fraction 49/64 25/32 51/64 13/16 53/64 27.5 .37 1.494 13.066 17.684 15.56250 0.828 22.400 Conversion Factors Multiply Length centimeters fathoms feet feet inches kilometers meters meters meters miles miles rods yards x x x x x x x x x x x x x By .) Decimal and Metric Equilavents Fraction 33/64 17/32 35/64 9/16 37/64 19/32 39.70312 0.84375 0.272 16.95312 0.51562 0.32 55/64 7/8 57/64 29/32 59/64 15/16 61/64 31/32 63/64 1/1 Decimal 0.004 25.73438 0.669 17.097 13.98438 1.Formulas & Conversion Factors Common Fractions of an Inch (cont.62500 0.57812 0.891 14.79688 0.54688 0.288 14.85938 0.59375 0.3048 2.78125 0.844 20.3937 6.416 23.

471 x 10-4 640.Formulas & Conversion Factors Conversion Factors (cont.5541 35.854x10-7 .155 144.0 7.805 .471 1.4047 43560.8361 By .1337 3.9463 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = To Obtain Square meters Hectares Square feet Square yards Square inches Square mils Acres Square feet Square inches Square inches Square meters Square cm.308 .452 1.) Multiply Area acres acres acres acres circular mils circular mils hectares hectares square centimeters square feet square feet square inches square meters square meters square miles square mils square yards Multiply Volume cubic feet cubic feet cubic inches cubic meters cubic meters cubic yards gallons gallons liters liters ounces (fluid) quarts (fluid) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x By 4047.7646 .0 .0283 7.0 .481 .785 .196 2.0929 6.076 x 105 .057 1.0 4840.31 1.7854 2.2642 1.273 . Square yards Acres Acres Circular mils Square meters To Obtain Cubic meters Gallons Ounces (fluid) Cubic feet Cubic yards Cubic meters Cubic feet Liters Gallons Quarts (liquid) Cubic inches Liters 89 .0 1.

5708 radians x 57.0 kilowatts x 1.0175 minutes x .341 Multiply Plane Angle By degrees x .0 By .0139 .7376 8.35 453.95 1.01667 minutes x 2.2 2000.0 = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = To Obtain Ounces Pounds Pounds (force) Grams Grams Newton Kilograms Pounds To Obtain Ounce-inches Pound-feet Pound-inches Gram-centimeters Newton-meters Newton-meters To Obtain Foot-pounds Gram-calories To Obtain Watts Foot-pounds per minute Foot-pounds per second Watts Horsepower To Obtain Radians Degrees Radians Degrees Radians Degrees horsepower x 746.) Multiply Force & Weight grams x kilograms x newtons x ounces x pounds x pounds (force) x tons (short) x tons (short) x Multiply Torque gram-centimeters x newton-meters x newton-meters x ounce-inches x pound-feet x pound-inches x Multiply Energy or Work Btu x Btu x Multiply Power Btu per hour x horsepower horsepower x x By .S.205 . avoirdupois.3 Pounds are U.293 33000. Gallons and quarts are U.2248 28.0 By .S.0 quadrants x 1.851 71.113 By 778.9x10-4 quadrants x 90. 90 .448 907.0353 2.Formulas & Conversion Factors Conversion Factors (cont.2 252.0 550.6 4.3558 .

0 =W x 70.678 = W/(m2⋅K) dyne/cm2 EDR hot water (150 Btu/h) EDR steam (240 Btu/h) fuel cost comparison at 100% eff.055 = kJ x 11. U) Btu/lb Btu/lb⋅°F (specific heat.1442 = W/(m⋅K) 0. 2 fuel oil) x 0.00 = mPa⋅s x *1.0948 ft/min. kilogram (kilocalorie) centipoise. petroleum) Btu (International Table) Btu/ft2 Btu⋅ft/h⋅ft2⋅°F Btu⋅in/h⋅ft2⋅°F (thermal conductivity.326 = kJ/kg x 4.187 = J x 4. dynamic viscosity.731 = W/(m⋅K) x x x x 0.100 = Pa x 44. k) Btu/h Btu/h⋅ft2 Btu/h⋅ft2⋅°F (heat transfer coefficient.00508 * Conversion factor is exact.187 = kJ x *1. cents per gallon (no. v By To obtain x 0.113 cents per kWh x 2. gram calorie.4047 = ha x *101. cp) bushel calorie. standard bar barrel (42 US gal. x *2.0632 cents per gallon (propane) x 0.03524 = m3 x 4.155 = W/m2 5. 6 fuel oil) x 0.) Multiply acres atmosphere.0677 cents per gallon (no.78 cents per therm x 0. fpm x *0.2931 = W 3.36 = kJ/m2 x 1. kinematic viscosity.184 = kJ/(kg⋅K) x 0.Formulas & Conversion Factors Conversion Factors (cont.00 = mm2/s x *0.35 = kPa x *100 = kPa x 159 =L x 1.3 =W = $/GJ = $/GJ = $/GJ = $/GJ = $/GJ = m/s 91 .µ centistokes.

cfm ft3/s.1 9.833 113 645 = L/s = lx = N⋅m =J = J/kg =W =L = mL/s = L/s = L/(s⋅m2) = mL/J =g = g/m3 = kW = kW = mm = kPa = Pa = mm/m = mN⋅m = mm2 .99 0.0648 17.36 2.3048 = m/s 2.866 = mL/s x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 92 0.09290 = m2 0.0631 0.8 0.Formulas & Conversion Factors Conversion Factors (cont. v ft3 ft3 ft3/h. US (*231 in3) gph gpm gpm/ft2 gpm/ton refrigeration grain (1/7000 lb) gr/gal horsepower (boiler) horsepower (550 ft⋅lbf/s) inch in of mercury (60°F) in of water (60°F) in/100 ft (thermal expansion) in⋅lbf (torque or moment) in2 *Conversion factor is exact.0981 = kPa/m x 0.7854 1.76 1.36 1.6791 0. kinematic viscosity. cfh ft3/min.) Multiply ft/s.32 10.377 248.0226 3.176 = m2⋅K/W 92 900 = mm2/s 28.4 3. x x 0.32 = L ft2⋅h⋅°F/Btu (thermal resistance.4719 = L/s 28. R) x x ft2/s.746 *25.05 0.02832 = m3 x 7.0179 0. cfs footcandle ft⋅lbf (torque or moment) ft⋅lbf (work) ft⋅lbf / lb (specific energy) ft⋅lbf / min (power) gallon. fps ft of water ft of water per 100 ft of pipe ft2 x x x By To obtain 0.99 = kPa 0.81 0.

35 = g 0. US) ounce (avoirdupois) per gallon perm (permeance) perm inch (permeability) pint (liquid.4 0.447 = m/s 0.Formulas & Conversion Factors Conversion Factors (cont.8684 = knots *0.133 = kPa 9. nautical mph mph mph millibar mm of mercury (60°F) mm of water (60°F) ounce (mass.45 1.273 To obtain = mL = mL/s 16 400 = mm3 416 200 = mm4 0.6 = mL 7.49 = kg/m3 57.60 = MJ 2.278 = N 29.81 =N 4.4536 = kg 453.46 473 = ng/(s⋅m2⋅Pa) = ng/(s⋅m⋅Pa) = mL 0.85 = km 1.45 =N .61 = km/h 0.12 = kJ/m3 9.61 = km 1.6 = g 4.) Multiply in3 (volume) in3/min (SCIM) in3 (section modulus) in4 (section moment) km/h kWh kW/1000 cfm kilopond (kg force) kip (1000 lbf) kip/in2 (ksi) knots litre micron (µm) of mercury (60°F) mile mile.151 = mph *0.100 = kPa 0. 93 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x By 16.80 = Pa 28. avoirdupois) ounce (force of thrust) ounce (liquid. US) pound lb (mass) lb (mass) lbƒ(force or thrust) *Conversion factor is exact.278 = m/s *3.001 = m3 133 = mPa 1.895 = MPa 1.45 = kN 6.

µ) lb/min lb/h lb/h (steam at 212°F) lbƒ/ft2 lb/ft2 (density. The degree Celsius symbol (°C) is often used for this purpose as well.00 6.00756 = kg/s x 0.284 = kW x 47.9 = Pa x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 4. US) square (100 ft2) tablespoon (approx.49 0. p) lb/gallon ppm (by mass) psi quart (liquid. short (2000 lb) ton.88 16. µ) lbƒs/ft2 (dynamic viscosity.895 0. t (tonne) = kW = Pa = W/m2 =m = m2 x 0.) teaspoon (approx.907 3.413 1490 To obtain = kg/m = mPa⋅s = mPa⋅s x 47 880 = mPa⋅s x 0.7646 = m3 * Conversion factor is exact.) therm (100. µ) lbm/(ft⋅s) (dynamic viscosity.0 120 *1.5 0.517 133 10.946 9.) Multiply lb/ft (uniform load) lbm/(ft⋅h) (dynamic viscosity.836 = kg/m2 = kg/m3 = kg/m3 = mg/kg = kPa =L = m2 = mL = mL = MJ = mg.126 = g/s x 0. Note: In this list the kelvin (K) expresses temperature intervals.000 Btu/h) torr (1 mm Hg at 0°C) watt per square foot yd yd2 yd3 lb/ft3 x x x By 1.Formulas & Conversion Factors Conversion Factors (cont.000 Btu) ton.8 0. refrigeration (12.29 15 5 105.9144 0. 94 .

026 .020 .004 . Formulas & Conversion Factors Humidity Ratio (W) . 1 .012 .30 TE (h N Y IO LP A 25 AT TH R 60° U EN 45 40 14.022 .010 .008 T UF 80° per 80° 55 LB % Pyschometric Chart FW et B ulb dr y 90 Tem p air 50 70 % 5 14.028 60 .014 . ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No. 5 15 0 40° Rela 10% tive H ity umid . 0 20 30% T SA 50° 13. 12.Pounds moisture per pound dry air 95 % 50 A Normal Temperature RY 45 Barometric Pressure: 29.1 C IR 50 . 5 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Dry Bulb Temp F° 30 Reduced from ASHRAE Psychrometric Chart No.921 Inches of Summary D F Copyright 1992 O F D American Society of Heating.006 . Inc.002 35 13. Vol . PO R R U PE 35 AT R U T E B M 70° ) .0 15.018 .016 . Refrigeration N 40 -° U E and Air-Conditioning Engineers.024 .

Floor Mounted Type 45 Area and Circumference of Circles 84–87 Axial Fan Types 1 B Backdraft or Relief Dampers 49 Backward Inclined. Backward Curved Applications 6 Bearing Life 28 Belt Drive Guidelines 26 Belt Drives 26 Breakdown Torque 16 C Cell-Type Air Washers 53 Centrifugal Fan Types 1 Centrifugal Fan Conditions Typical Inlet Conditions 14 Typical Outlet Conditions 14 Change in Resistance Due to Change in Temperature 82 Circle Formula 87 Classifications for Spark Resistant Construction 4–5 Construction Type 4 Notes 4–5 Standard Applications 5 Closed Impeller 64 96 .INDEX A Affinity Laws for Centrifugal Applications 83 For Fans and Blowers 83 For Pumps 83 Affinity Laws for Pumps 66 Air Change Method 40 Air Density Factors for Altitude and Temperature 3 Air Quality Method 40 Airfoil Applications 5 Allowable Ampaciites of Not More Than Three Insultated Conductors 24–25 Alternating Current 16 Annual Fuel Use 63–64 Appliance Gas-Burning.

10 SWSI 10 Arr.INDEX Common Fractions of an Inch 87 Compressor Capacity Vs. 9 SWSI 10 Duct Resistance 51 E Efficiency 16 Electric Coils 53 Electric. 7 SWSI 9 Arr. 4 SWSI 9 Arr. Floor Mounted Type 45 Electrical Appliances 46 Electronic Air Cleaners 53 Equivalent Length of Pipe for Valves and Fittings 73 Estimated Belt Drive Loss 27 Estimated Seasonal Efficiencies of Heating Systems 63 Evaporate Condenser Ratings 78 Exhaust Louvers 53 97 . Refrigerant Temperature at 100°F Condensing 78 Conversion Factors 88–94 Cooling Load Check Figures 59–60 Cooling Tower Ratings 77 Copper Tube Dimensions (Type L) 74 D Damper Pressure Drop 49 Decimal and Metric Equivalents 87–88 Dehumidifying Coils 53 Design Criteria for Room Loudness 35–36 Double Suction 64 Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans 9–10 Arr. 1 SWSI 9 Arr. 2 SWSI 9 Arr. 3 DWDI 9 Arr. 3 SWSI 9 Arr. 7 DWDI 10 Arr. 8 SWSI 10 Arr.

INDEX F Fan Basics Fan Selection Criteria 1 Fan Types 1 Impeller Designs . Field 2 Fan Troubleshooting Guide 15 Excessive Vibration and Noise 15 Low Capacity or Pressure 15 Overheated Bearings 15 Overheated Motor 15 Fan Types 1 Axial Fan 1 Centrifugal Fan 1 Filter Comparison 46 Filter Type 46 For Pumps 83 Forward Curved Applications 6 Fouling Factors 76 Frequency Variations 23 Friction Loss for Water Flow 71–72 Fuel Comparisons 62 Fuel Gas Characteristics 62 Full Load Current 21–22 Single Phase Motors 21 Three Phase Motors 22 G Gas-Burning Appliances 46 General Ventilation 29 98 .Axial 7 Fan Installation Guidelines 14 Centrifugal Fan Conditions 14 Fan Laws 2 Fan Performance Tables and Curves 2 Fan Selection Criteria 1 Fan Testing .Laboratory.

Backward Curved 6 Forward Curved 6 Radial 6 Inadequate or No Circulation 68 Induction Motor Characteristics 23 Intake Louvers 53 K Kitchen Ventilation 30 Fans 30 Filters 30 Hoods and Ducts 30 L Locked Rotor KVA/HP 19 Locked Rotor Torque 16 99 . Spray-Type Air Washers 53 Horizontal Split Case 65 Horsepower 16 Horsepower per Ton 77 I Impeller Designs .Centrifugal 5–6 Airfoil 5 Backward Inclined.Axial Propeller 7 Tube Axial 7 Vane Axial 7 Impeller Designs .INDEX H Heat Gain From Occupants of Conditioned Spaces 43 Typical Application 43 Heat Gain From Typical Electric Motors 44 Heat Loss Estimates 61–62 Considerations Used for Corrected Values 62 Heat Removal Method 40 High-Velocity.

Abbreviations. and Conversion Factors 69 Pumping System Troubleshooting Guide 67–68 Pyschometric Chart 95 100 .INDEX M Miscellaneous Formulas 81–84 Moisture and Air Relationships 57 Motor and Drive Basics Definitions and Formulas 16 Motor Application 82 Motor Efficiency and EPAct 20 Motor Insulation Classes 18 Motor Positions for Belt or Chain Drive 13 Motor Service Factors 19 N Noise Criteria 32 Noise Criteria Curves 34 O OHMS Law 81 Open Impeller 64 Optimum Relative Humidity Ranges for Healt 48 P Panel Filters 53 Power —D-C Circuits 81 Power —A-C Circuits 81 Process Ventilation 29 Propeller Applications 7 Properties of Saturated Steam 58 Pump Bodies 65 Pump Construction Types All-Bronze Pumps 64 Bronze-fitted Pumps 64 Pump Impeller Types 64 Pump Mounting Methods 65 Base Mount-Close Coupled 65 Base Mount-Long Coupled 65 Line Mount 65 Pump or System Noise 67 Pump Terms.

cafeterias. lounges 36 Retail stores 36 Transportation 36 Rotation & Discharge Designations 11–12 Rules of Thumb 31–32 101 .INDEX Q Quiet Water Flows 70 R RadialApplications 6 Rate of Heat Gain Commercial Cooking Appliances in Air-Conditioned Area 45 Rate of Heat Gain From Miscellaneous Appliances 46 Rated Load Torque 16 Recommended Metal Gauges for Ducts 56 Rectangular Equivalent of Round Ducts 52 Refrigerant Line Capacities for 134a 79 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-22 79 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-502 80 Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-717 80 Relief or Backdraft Dampers 49 Renewable Media Filters 53 Room Sones —dBA Correlation 33 Room Type 35–36 Auditoriums 35 Churches and schools 35 Hospitals and clinics 35 Hotels 36 Indoor sports activities 35 Manufacturing areas 35 Miscellaneous 36 Offices 35 Public buildings 36 Residences 36 Restaurants.

Sheet Metal Gauges 55 Use of Air Density Factors .An Example 3 102 .INDEX S Screen Pressure Drop 50 Single Phase AC 16 Single Phase AC Motors 17 Single Suction 64 Sound 31 Sound Power 31 Sound Power Level 31 Sound Power and Sound Power Leve 32 Sound Pressure and Sound Pressure Leve 33 Speed—A-C Machinery 82 Spray-Type Air Washers 53 Standard Pipe Dimenions Schedule 40 (Steel) 74 Standard Pipe Dimensions 74 Steam and Hot Water Coils 53 Suggested Air Changes 41 Synchronous speed 16 System Design Guidelines T Terminology for Centrifugal Fan Components 8 Three Phase AC 16 Three-phase AC Motors 17 Time for Motor to Reach Operating Speed (seconds) 82 Torque 16 Tube Axial Applications 7 Types of Alternating Current Motors 17–18 Three-phase AC Motors 17 Types of Current Motors ??–18 Typical Design Velocities for HVAC Components 53 Typical Heat Transfer Coefficients 75 U U.S.

INDEX V Vane Axial Applications 7 V-belt Length Formula 26 Velocity and Velocity Pressure Relationships 54 Ventilation Rates for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality 42 Vertical Split Case 65 Vibration 37. 83 System Natural Frequency 37 Vibration Severity 38–39 Vibration Severity Chart 38 Voltage 23 Volume of Liquid in a Tank 83 W Water Flow and Piping 70–71 Wind Driven Rain Louvers 56 103 .

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