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Maneuvers) FW Maneuver Guide R-4

Maneuvers) FW Maneuver Guide R-4

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Sections

  • Flight Instructor Manual F-13/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-1/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-2/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-3/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-4/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-5/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-6/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-7/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-8/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-9/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-10/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-11/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-12/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-13/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-14/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-15/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-16/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-17/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-18/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-19/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C152-20/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-1/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-2/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-3/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-4/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-5/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-6/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-7/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-8/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-9/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-10/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-11/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-12/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-13/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-14/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-15/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-16/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-17/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-18/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-19/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172P-20/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-1/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-2/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-3/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-4/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-5/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-6/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-7/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-8/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-9/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-10/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-11/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-12/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-13/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-14/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-15/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-16/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-17/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-18/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-19/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172S-20/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-1/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-2/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-3/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-4/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-5/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-6/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-7/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-8/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-9/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-10/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-11/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-12/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-13/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-14/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-15/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-16/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-17/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-18/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-19/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-20/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-21/R-3
  • Flight Instructor Manual C172RG-22/R-3
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-1/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-2/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-3/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-4/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-5/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-6/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-7/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-8/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-9/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-10/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-11/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-12/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-13/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-14/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-15/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-16/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-17/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-18/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-19/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-20/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-21/R-4
  • Maneuver Manual PA44-22/R-4

Flight Instructor Manual

Single-Engine Procedures
GENERAL SAFETY PROCEDURES & POLICIES For safety purposes these items must be followed strictly:       

F-13/R-3

A maximum of one simulated system emergency is allowed below 2,000’ AGL. To simulate engine failure, pull the throttle control to idle. Do not pull the mixture control to idle cutoff or turn the fuel shutoff valve off. During off-airport simulated engine failures, flight should not be continued below 500’ AGL. No descents below TPA with systems disabled are allowed. When taking off, maintain V Y through 500’ AGL. Checklists must be used on each and every flight. In the event of landing gear malfunction during which the gear appears to be down but no green “Gear Safe” light is illuminated, the PIC should contact HAI dispatch while airborne after troubleshooting using the appropriate checklist. If after contacting dispatch a decision is made to land, the pilot should come to a complete stop on the runway, shut down the airplane and contact HAI dispatch for a tow to maintenance. Pilots should not attempt to taxi to the ramp after landing. This should be treated as an emergency and the tower notified as appropriate.

Flight Instructor Manual
Cessna 152
SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming O-235 108 BHP @ 2550 RPM Fuel capacity: 26 gal. total/24.5 usable Oil capacity: 6 qts. (dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE VX VY VA V CC VG – 35 KIAS – 40 KIAS – 50 KIAS – 85 KIAS – 111 KIAS – 149 KIAS – 54 KIAS – 67 KIAS @ Sea level – 61 KIAS @ 10,000 feet – 104 KIAS @ 1,670 lbs. – 98 KIAS @ 1,500 lbs. – 93 KIAS @ 1,350 lbs. – 70 KIAS (cruise climb) – 60 KIAS (maximum glide)

C152-1/R-3

Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Listen for engine irregularities. . At V R (50 KIAS). Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Pitch for V Y (67 KIAS) and trim aircraft. With significant surface wind. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. As the takeoff roll begins. Perform HITTS checklist.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks           C152-2/R-3      Perform line-up check. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. “Airspeed alive.” As airspeed increases. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (70 KIAS). Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Call for and perform climb checklist.

verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Call for and perform climb checklist. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. “Airspeed alive. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Pitch for V X (54 KIAS) and trim aircraft. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Perform HITTS checklist. Listen for engine irregularities. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Release brakes. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline.        Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. As airspeed increases. . As the takeoff roll begins. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (70 KIAS).Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C152-3/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. With significant surface wind. Apply and hold brakes.” As airspeed increases. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. accelerate to VY (67 KIAS) and trim aircraft. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. At V R (50 KIAS).

Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Call for and perform climb checklist. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. As airspeed increases. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. “Airspeed alive. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (70 KIAS). Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. . accelerate to VY (67 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions.” As airspeed increases. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Perform HITTS checklist. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (54 KIAS) and begin climbout.        Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. As the takeoff roll begins. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C152-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. With significant surface wind. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Listen for engine irregularities.

g. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. If still on. beginning level-off”). 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Set the pitch for a level attitude. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic.Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C152-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling.” “100’ prior to altitude. “500 feet to go. Set cruise power as per Pilot Operating Handbook.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude. Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. Trim aircraft for level flight. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. . Coordinate aircraft with rudder.       Pitch for V CC (70 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed.

. To recover. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C152-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Turn carburetor heat on. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. heading  10º. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. At target airspeed (50 KIAS unless specified). Retract flaps in 10º increments until completely retracted. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. add full power. Once reaching cruise airspeed. altitude  100 feet. increase power to 2000 RPM.” Pick outside visual reference point. Below V FE (85 KIAS). Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder.               Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control.

. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. 50º commercial). Announce heading. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver.              C152-7/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. Control bank angle with ailerons. During rollout. Set power at 2100 RPM or less as necessary to maintain V A . Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading.” Pick outside visual reference point. altitude  100 feet. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Call for and perform cruise checklist. and rollout on the same entry heading. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 200 RPM to maintain altitude. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. reduce power to 2100 RPM. angle of bank.Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. airspeed. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. bank angle ± 5º (45º private. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction.

                  Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Pitch for level flight and. If a turning stall is to be performed. Turn carburetor heat on. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C152-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. until fully retracted. initiate 500 fpm descent. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. When aircraft stalls. Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (54 KIAS). Turn carburetor heat off. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Set mixture full rich. Pitch for level attitude. confirming positive rate of climb each time. once reaching cruise airspeed. Below V FE (85 KIAS).” Pick outside visual reference point. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. increase power to full. decrease power to idle. At target airspeed (V R . 50 KIAS unless specified). Call for and perform cruise checklist.” Continue retracting flaps 10º at a time. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. .

Call for and perform cruise checklist. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Set mixture full rich. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. When aircraft stalls. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. Turn carburetor heat on. At target airspeed (V R . Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level.                C152-9/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Pitch for level flight and.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Turn carburetor heat off. If a turning stall is to be performed. 50 KIAS unless specified). . increase power to full. decrease pitch attitude.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up.” Pick outside visual reference point. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. once reaching cruise airspeed. Pitch for V X (54 KIAS). Reduce power to 1500 RPM. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break.

o Nose-low recovery: Power idle. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Maintain altitude  100’. wings level. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second.Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C152-10/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm. Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator. Stalls. With constant airspeed. heading  10º (in straight flight). Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it. Turns should be performed in both directions. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Power full. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers. UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. pitch level.e. without outside visual reference. pitch level. Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude. heading and airspeed.   . call out new target altitude.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight. With constant rate.      Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. Call for and perform cruise checklist. In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i. wings level.

Set carburetor heat ON. Call for and perform descent checklist. If entering traffic pattern. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”).          Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location. .Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C152-11/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing. Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Review all airport information. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart. plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern. Trim aircraft. Set radios to tower or CTAF. Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed.

Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. When desired altitude is reached.Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed. Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input. Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. . Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline. Lower upwind wing into wind. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing.        C152-12/R-3 Decrease power to idle. Lower upwind wing into wind. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder. When desired altitude is reached. although they are more efficient in the clean configuration.

Determine wind direction. call for and perform cruise checklist.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C152-13/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point. Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. . Maintain altitude  100 feet.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius. Set mixture full rich. call for and perform cruise checklist.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver. Pick outside visual reference point. During maneuver. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. After completing one full circle. Set mixture full rich.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Maintain altitude  100 feet. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius. Pick outside visual reference. Determine wind direction. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.           Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. After completing one full rectangular pattern.

adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C152-14/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions. Set mixture full rich. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point. After completing at least one full S-turn. Maintain altitude  100 feet. wings level. . call for and perform cruise checklist. During maneuver. Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it. perpendicular to reference line. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind. Plan to enter the turn downwind.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Determine wind direction.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL.

Perform verbal passenger briefing. The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight.       To simulate an engine failure.       . If time and altitude permit. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. pull the throttle control to idle. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. C152-15/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. including engine restart. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Apply carburetor heat Select best landing site and turn towards it. nature of emergency and number on board. To simulate engine failures in cruise flight.Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. Pitch airspeed for 60 KIAS (best glide). Communicate emergency. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. continue with the following procedures. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. For training purposes. reduce throttle to idle. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. location. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – On  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Carburetor heat – On  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Primer – In & locked If time and altitude permit. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind.

(Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. If time and altitude permit.       Smoothly increase throttle to full power. continue with the following procedures. If time and altitude permit. Call for and perform climb checklist. location. C152-16/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Communicate emergency. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. For training purposes. Perform verbal passenger briefing. Verify a positive rate of climb after retracting each notch of flaps. . Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle. Pitch for descent airspeed of 85 KIAS. If desired. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. Select best landing site and turn towards it. pitch for V X (54 KIAS) and retract flaps one notch at a time until fully retracted.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Pitch for a climb at V x . the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. full flaps may be lowered to increase descent angle. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. nature of emergency and number on board. including engine restart.Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. After verifying a positive rate of climb. use descent airspeed of 80 KIAS (V FE -5 KIAS for training purposes). Turn carburetor heat off. If using flaps.

Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C152-17/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. . pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. If landing advisory is not available. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Once landing runway is determined. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. if any. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. including position and intentions. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. if any. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. Call for and perform before landing checklist.

 Use pitch for airspeed control. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 60 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline. correcting for wind as necessary. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point.  Begin descent. Downwind leg:  Set power to 2300 RPM.  Decrease power to idle and begin flare.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first. power for altitude control. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. then the nosewheel.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C152-18/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground.  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS.  Touch down on main wheels first. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. set flaps to 10°.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary when landing on runway is assured Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. If landing in a crosswind. .  When airspeed is below V FE (85 KIAS). then the downwind wheel.  Trim aircraft.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. Downwind leg.

At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Pitch for descent at 54 KIAS and trim aircraft. apply firm but even braking. set flaps to 10°.  Begin descent. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance.  Call for and perform before landing checklist.  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Simultaneously bring yoke full aft and retract flaps using an open-handed palm. .  Touch down on main wheels first.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM).  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. pitch for 75 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. Downwind leg. then gently lower nosewheel to the ground.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. power for altitude control. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Once all three wheels are in contact with the ground. decrease power to idle and begin flare. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. C152-19/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°. Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point.  When airspeed is below V FE (85 KIAS). perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.

 Touch down on main wheels first. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare.  Call for and perform before landing checklist.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking. Downwind leg.  Begin descent. power for altitude control.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM).  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. C152-20/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 60 KIAS (use 54 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft. .  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. set flaps to 10°. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Use pitch for airspeed control. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  When airspeed is below V FE (85 KIAS).  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.

– 92 KIAS @ 2000 lbs.Flight Instructor Manual Cessna 172P SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming O-320 160 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 43 gal.000 feet – 76 KIAS @ Sea level – 71 KIAS @ 10. total/50 usable (long range) Oil capacity: 7 qts. – 82 KIAS @ 1600 lbs. – 80 KIAS (cruise climb) – 65 KIAS (maximum glide) C172P-1/R-3 . total/40 usable (standard) or 54 gal. (dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE VX VY VA V CC VG – 33 KIAS – 44 KIAS – 55 KIAS – 110 KIAS for 10° – 85 KIAS for 20° and 30° – 127 KIAS – 158 KIAS – 60 KIAS @ Sea level – 65 KIAS @ 10.000 feet – 99 KIAS @ 2400 lbs.

With significant surface wind. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power).           C172P-2/R-3      Perform line-up check. . verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Perform HITTS checklist. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. At V R (55 KIAS). Pitch for V Y (76 KIAS) and trim aircraft. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). As the takeoff roll begins. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway.” As airspeed increases.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Call for and perform climb checklist. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Listen for engine irregularities. “Airspeed alive. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline.

If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. “Airspeed alive. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. At V R (55 KIAS).” As airspeed increases. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). As airspeed increases. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Coordinate using rudder and aileron.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172P-3/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. Pitch for V X (60 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. With significant surface wind. . As the takeoff roll begins. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Call for and perform climb checklist. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. Listen for engine irregularities. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Apply and hold brakes. accelerate to VY (76 KIAS) and trim aircraft. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Perform HITTS checklist. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline.        Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Release brakes.

At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce.” As airspeed increases. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Call for and perform climb checklist. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Perform HITTS checklist. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. “Airspeed alive. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). Listen for engine irregularities. .        Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172P-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop. With significant surface wind. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. accelerate to VY (76 KIAS) and trim aircraft. As the takeoff roll begins. As airspeed increases. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (60 KIAS) and begin climbout. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible.

Call for and perform cruise checklist. Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. . Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). If still on. Set the pitch for a level attitude.g.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed.Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C172P-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”).” “100’ prior to altitude. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. Trim aircraft for level flight. “500 feet to go. beginning level-off”).       Pitch for V CC (80 KIAS) and trim aircraft. 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e. Coordinate aircraft with rudder. Set cruise power as per Pilot Operating Handbook.

add full power. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. At target airspeed (55 KIAS unless specified). reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. altitude  100 feet. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. Turn carburetor heat on.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C172P-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. Below V FE (110 KIAS). The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending flaps beyond 10º. increase power to 2000 RPM. To recover. Retract flaps in 10º increments until completely retracted. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. .” Pick outside visual reference point. Once reaching cruise airspeed. heading  10º.               Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder.

Call for and perform cruise checklist. airspeed. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. altitude  100 feet. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude.              C172P-7/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL. 50º commercial).” Pick outside visual reference point. angle of bank. During rollout. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Control bank angle with ailerons. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. bank angle ± 5º (45º private.Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. Announce heading. and rollout on the same entry heading. reduce power to 2100 RPM. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. Set power at 2100 RPM or less as necessary to maintain V A . Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 200 RPM to maintain altitude. .

55 KIAS unless specified). until fully retracted. Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending more than 10º. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. once reaching cruise airspeed. Pitch for level attitude. When aircraft stalls. confirming positive rate of climb each time. Turn carburetor heat on. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Set mixture full rich. Pitch for level flight and. initiate 500 fpm descent. increase power to full. decrease power to idle.” Continue retracting flaps 10º at a time. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C172P-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (60 KIAS). At target airspeed (V R . . Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. If a turning stall is to be performed. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Turn carburetor heat off.                   Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Below V FE (110 KIAS). Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb.” Pick outside visual reference point.

Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. decrease pitch attitude.” Pick outside visual reference point. once reaching cruise airspeed. At target airspeed (V R . Pitch for level flight and. If a turning stall is to be performed. 55 KIAS unless specified). Turn carburetor heat on. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Set mixture full rich. increase power to full.                Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS C172P-9/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. When aircraft stalls. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. Turn carburetor heat off. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Pitch for V X (60 KIAS). .

call out new target altitude. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second. pitch level. o Nose-low recovery: Power idle.e. slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers.      Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. With constant airspeed.   . taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. wings level. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i.Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C172P-10/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. pitch level. heading  10º (in straight flight). maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm. Stalls.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight. With constant rate. Maintain altitude  100’. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate. heading and airspeed. without outside visual reference. Turns should be performed in both directions. Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Power full. wings level. Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it.

Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed. Set carburetor heat ON.          Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart. .Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C172P-11/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing. Set radios to tower or CTAF. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). If entering traffic pattern. Trim aircraft. plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern. Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Review all airport information. Call for and perform descent checklist.

smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder. Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input. . Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. When desired altitude is reached. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline.        C172P-12/R-3 Decrease power to idle. Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. When desired altitude is reached. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing.Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed. Lower upwind wing into wind. Lower upwind wing into wind. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline. Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope.

Set mixture full rich. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius. Set mixture full rich. . Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. After completing one full rectangular pattern.           Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C172P-13/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point. call for and perform cruise checklist. TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius. Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver. During maneuver. After completing one full circle.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Determine wind direction. Pick outside visual reference. call for and perform cruise checklist. Determine wind direction. Pick outside visual reference point.

” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. During maneuver. Set mixture full rich. call for and perform cruise checklist.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Determine wind direction.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C172P-14/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind. Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it. wings level. . Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. perpendicular to reference line. After completing at least one full S-turn. Plan to enter the turn downwind. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line. S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point.

Pitch airspeed for 65 KIAS (best glide). including engine restart. reduce throttle to idle. nature of emergency and number on board. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. If time and altitude permit. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. To simulate engine failures in cruise flight. For training purposes. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – Both  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Carburetor heat – On  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Primer – In & locked If time and altitude permit. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. pull the throttle control to idle. location. C172P-15/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. Perform verbal passenger briefing. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses.       To simulate an engine failure. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference.Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight.       . The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight. continue with the following procedures. Apply carburetor heat Select best landing site and turn towards it. Communicate emergency. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook.

Pitch for descent airspeed of 100 KIAS. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. After verifying a positive rate of climb. If time and altitude permit. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. location. Select best landing site and turn towards it. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. Communicate emergency. .” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. full flaps may be lowered to increase descent angle. including engine restart. Turn carburetor heat off. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. Perform verbal passenger briefing. If desired. Pitch for a climb at V x .       Smoothly increase throttle to full power. Call for and perform climb checklist. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. If using flaps. pitch for V X (60 KIAS) and retract flaps one notch at a time until fully retracted. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL.Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. use descent airspeed of 80 KIAS (V FE -5 KIAS for training purposes). continue with the following procedures. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. For training purposes. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. If time and altitude permit. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. C172P-16/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. nature of emergency and number on board. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Verify a positive rate of climb after retracting each notch of flaps.

If landing advisory is not available. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C172P-17/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. . plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. if any. Once landing runway is determined. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. Call for and perform before landing checklist. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. including position and intentions. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. Call for and perform before landing checklist. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. if any. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing.

then the downwind wheel.  Begin descent.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary when landing on runway is assured. decrease power to idle and begin flare. power for altitude control. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS).  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C172P-18/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. If landing in a crosswind. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  Touch down on main wheels first. set flaps to 10°.  Call for and perform before landing checklist Downwind leg. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. . correcting for wind as necessary.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Downwind leg:  Set power to 2300 RPM. then the nosewheel.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first.

Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. apply firm but even braking. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance.  Simultaneously bring yoke full aft and retract flaps using an open-handed palm. power for altitude control.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Pitch for descent at 61 KIAS and trim aircraft. then gently lower nosewheel to ground.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. decrease power to idle and begin flare.  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Once all three wheels are in contact with the ground.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway. . abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. set flaps to 10°. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.  Call for and perform before landing checklist.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach.  Begin descent. C172P-19/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°.  Touch down on main wheels first. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM). Downwind leg.

 Begin descent.” and promptly transition to either exiting the runway or continuing with a touchand-go.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit an extended landing roll while waiting for the nosewheel to contact the ground. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. . set flaps to 10°. C172P-20/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS (use 61 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare. Downwind leg.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking. power for altitude control. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. Note: If practicing soft-field landings at a towered airport.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM).  Touch down on main wheels first.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. announce “Simulated soft-field landing roll.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.

Flight Instructor Manual
Cessna 172S
SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming IO-360 180 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 56 gal. total/53 usable Oil capacity: 8 qts. (dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE VX VY VA V CC VG – 40 KIAS – 48 KIAS – 55 KIAS – 110 KIAS for 10° 85 KIAS for 20° and 30° – 129 KIAS – 163 KIAS – 62 KIAS @ Sea level – 67 KIAS @ 10,000 feet – 74 KIAS @ Sea level – 72 KIAS @ 10,000 feet – 105 KIAS @ 2550 lbs. – 98 KIAS @ 2200 lbs. – 90 KIAS @ 1900 lbs. – 80 KIAS (cruise climb) – 68 KIAS (maximum glide)

C172S-1/R-3

Flight Instructor Manual
NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks.          

C172S-2/R-3

    

Perform line-up check. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Perform HITTS checklist. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Listen for engine irregularities. As the takeoff roll begins, verify the airspeed is increasing and announce, “Airspeed alive.” As airspeed increases, adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. At V R (55 KIAS), pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. With significant surface wind, increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Pitch for V Y (74 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). Call for and perform climb checklist.

Flight Instructor Manual
SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB

C172S-3/R-3

Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. Perform HITTS checklist. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Apply and hold brakes. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Listen for engine irregularities. Release brakes. As the takeoff roll begins, verify the airspeed is increasing and announce, “Airspeed alive.” As airspeed increases, adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. At V R (55 KIAS), pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. With significant surface wind, increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Pitch for 56 KIAS and trim aircraft. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL, accelerate to VY (74 KIAS) and trim aircraft. As airspeed increases, announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). Call for and perform climb checklist.

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Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport, request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay, perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll.

non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. “Airspeed alive. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Call for and perform climb checklist. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. With significant surface wind. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Perform HITTS checklist. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (80 KIAS). The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. accelerate to VY (74 KIAS) and trim aircraft. and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible. . Listen for engine irregularities. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172S-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. At hold-short line set flaps to 10°. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (62 KIAS) and begin climbout. Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract flaps.” As airspeed increases. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. As the takeoff roll begins. As airspeed increases. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions.        Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport.

Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Trim aircraft for level flight. 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). “500 feet to go.” “100’ prior to altitude.       Pitch for V CC (80 KIAS) and trim aircraft. If still on.g.Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C172S-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”).           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude. . LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. Set cruise power as per Pilot Operating Handbook. beginning level-off”). Coordinate aircraft with rudder. Set the pitch for a level attitude. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic. Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed.

heading  10º. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. To recover.              Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. altitude  100 feet. Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending flaps beyond 10º.” Pick outside visual reference point. increase power to 2000 RPM. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. Retract flaps in 10º increments until completely retracted. Once reaching cruise airspeed. add full power. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C172S-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. Below V FE (110 KIAS). Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Call for and perform cruise checklist. . turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. At target airspeed (55 KIAS unless specified).

Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. Set power at 2100 RPM or less as necessary to maintain V A . Control bank angle with ailerons. airspeed.              C172S-7/R-3 Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. angle of bank. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 200 RPM to maintain altitude. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. bank angle ± 5º (45º private. altitude  100 feet. 50º commercial). and rollout on the same entry heading. Call for and perform cruise checklist. reduce power to 2100 RPM. Maintain entry heading ± 10º.” Pick outside visual reference point. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. During rollout.Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. . Announce heading.

Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. confirming positive rate of climb each time. Pitch for level attitude. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Below V FE (110 KIAS). until fully retracted. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Reduce power to 1500 RPM.                 Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL.” Continue retracting flaps 10º at a time. If a turning stall is to be performed. Set mixture full rich. once reaching cruise airspeed. When aircraft stalls. Ensure airspeed is below 85 KIAS before extending more than 10º. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Pitch for level flight and.” Pick outside visual reference point. initiate a 500 fpm descent. . Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (62 KIAS). increase power to full. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C172S-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration. 55 KIAS unless specified). decrease power to idle. At target airspeed (V R .

Set mixture full rich. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. 55 KIAS unless specified).” Pick outside visual reference point. Call for and perform cruise checklist.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS C172S-9/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Pitch for level flight and. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level.              Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. At target airspeed (V R . . Pitch for V X (62 KIAS). decrease pitch attitude. When aircraft stalls. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. increase power to full. once reaching cruise airspeed. If a turning stall is to be performed.

slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device.e. without outside visual reference. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude. pitch level. o Nose-low recovery: Power idle. Stalls. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Power full. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate. maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm. Maintain altitude  100’. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second. pitch level. heading and airspeed. Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator. wings level. Turns should be performed in both directions.      Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments. call out new target altitude. Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it. Call for and perform cruise checklist.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight. heading  10º (in straight flight).Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C172S-10/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i. UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. wings level. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. With constant airspeed.   . With constant rate.

Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C172S-11/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing. Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed. .         Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart. Set radios to tower or CTAF. Call for and perform descent checklist. plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern. Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Review all airport information. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). If entering traffic pattern. Trim aircraft.

smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder. Lower upwind wing into wind. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. . Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended. When desired altitude is reached. Lower upwind wing into wind. When desired altitude is reached. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline. Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection.Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip.        C172S-12/R-3 Decrease power to idle.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline. Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed.

During maneuver.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. . Set mixture full rich. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius.           Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Set mixture full rich. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Determine wind direction. call for and perform cruise checklist. After completing one full rectangular pattern. Pick outside visual reference point. Pick outside visual reference. call for and perform cruise checklist. After completing one full circle. Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. Maintain altitude  100 feet.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C172S-13/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Determine wind direction. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius.

adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line. Set power at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. perpendicular to reference line. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind. call for and perform cruise checklist. After completing at least one full S-turn.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. wings level. Set mixture full rich. Plan to enter the turn downwind. S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point. . During maneuver. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it. Determine wind direction.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C172S-14/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions.

      . continue with the following procedures. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. Pitch airspeed for 68 KIAS (best glide).       To simulate an engine failure. C172S-15/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Perform verbal passenger briefing. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. For training purposes. Turn fuel pump on. To simulate engine failures in cruise flight. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Communicate emergency. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook.Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight. If time and altitude permit. including engine restart. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. nature of emergency and number on board. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – Both  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Auxiliary fuel pump – On If time and altitude permit. location. Select best landing site and turn towards it. pull the throttle control to idle. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight. reduce throttle to idle.

If time and altitude permit. After verifying a positive rate of climb. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. If desired.      Smoothly increase throttle to full power. pitch for V X (62 KIAS) and retract flaps one notch at a time until fully retracted.Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. Verify a positive rate of climb after retracting each notch of flaps. Pitch for descent airspeed of 100 KIAS. C172S-16/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Call for and perform climb checklist. . nature of emergency and number on board. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. Immediately retract one notch of flaps.              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. full flaps may be lowered to increase descent angle. use descent airspeed of 80 KIAS (V FE -5 KIAS for training purposes). Perform verbal passenger briefing. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. location. including engine restart. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Communicate emergency. If time and altitude permit. For training purposes. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. continue with the following procedures. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. Select best landing site and turn towards it. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. Pitch for a climb at V x . If using flaps.

including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. if any. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway. including position and intentions. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. if any. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. . pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. If landing advisory is not available. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. Once landing runway is determined.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C172S-17/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing.

then the downwind wheel.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary once landing on runway is assured.  Begin descent.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C172S-18/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. Downwind leg:  Set power to 2300 RPM.  Use pitch for airspeed control. correcting for wind as necessary.  Touch down on main wheels first.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). then the nosewheel. then gently lower nosewheel to ground.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. set flaps to 10°. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 1500 RPM.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point. decrease power to idle and begin flare. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. If landing in a crosswind. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft. Downwind leg. power for altitude control. . Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.

Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Pitch for descent at 70 KIAS and trim aircraft. Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Touch down on main wheels first. power for altitude control. pitch for 80 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. Downwind leg. .  Once all three wheels are in contact with the ground.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. C172S-19/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach. set flaps to 10°. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first.  Begin descent.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). then the downwind wheel.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. If landing in a crosswind.  Pitch for descent at 61 KIAS and trim aircraft. perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. then the nosewheel. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport. decrease power to idle and begin flare.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance. apply firm but even braking. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.  Simultaneously bring yoke full aft and retract flaps using an open-handed palm.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM).  Use pitch for airspeed control.

 Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. Downwind leg:  Set cruise power as required (2300 RPM).  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Begin descent.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor.” and promptly transition to either exiting the runway or continuing with a touchand-go.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. C172S-20/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS (use 61 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft. set flaps to 10°. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare.  Touch down on main wheels first. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. Note: If practicing soft-field landings at a towered airport.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. announce “Simulated soft-field landing roll.  Call for and perform the before landing checklist.  When airspeed is below V FE (110 KIAS). power for altitude control. . Downwind leg. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit an extended landing roll while waiting for the nosewheel to contact the ground. pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking.

– 61 KIAS @ 1850 lbs. total/62 usable Oil capacity: 8 qts. C172RG-1/R-3 .000 feet – 106 KIAS @ 2650 lbs. – 98 KIAS @ 2250 lbs.Flight Instructor Manual Cessna 172RG SPECIFICATIONS Lycoming O-360 180 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 66 gal.000 feet – 84 KIAS @ Sea level – 77 KIAS @ 10. – 89 KIAS @ 1850 lbs. (maximum glide) – 67 KIAS @ 2250 lbs. (dipstick) V SO VS VR V FE V NO V NE V LO V LE VX VY VA V CC VG – 42 KIAS – 50 KIAS – 55 KIAS – 130 KIAS for 10° – 100 KIAS for 20° and 30° – 145 KIAS – 164 KIAS – 140 KIAS – 164 KIAS – 67 KIAS @ Sea level – 68 KIAS @ 10. – 90 KIAS (cruise climb) – 73 KIAS @ 2650 lbs.

“Airspeed alive. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (90 KIAS). adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control.” As airspeed increases. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Perform HITTS checklist.           Perform line-up check. Listen for engine irregularities. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. At V R (55 KIAS).        . The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Pitch for V Y (84 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Call for and perform climb checklist. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway.Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172RG-2/R-3 Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks. propellers to 2. Retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. As the takeoff roll begins. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until amber “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. With significant surface wind.500 RPM. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline.

Listen for engine irregularities. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (90 KIAS). accelerate to VY (84 KIAS) and trim aircraft. As the takeoff roll begins. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. With significant surface wind.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172RG-3/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. As airspeed increases.500 RPM. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. Perform HITTS checklist. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. “Airspeed alive. Apply and hold brakes. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. Release brakes. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. propellers to 2. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. At hold-short line ensure flaps are up.        Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport. At V R (55 KIAS). Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. .” As airspeed increases. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. Pitch for 63 KIAS and trim aircraft. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until amber “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL.

Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions.        Note: If practicing soft-field takeoffs at a towered airport. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. accelerate to VY (84 KIAS) and trim aircraft. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Hold the yoke full aft to transfer as much weight to the main landing gear as possible. As airspeed increases. announce “Simulated non-stop takeoff roll” when in position on the runway and maintain back full back pressure on the yoke until beginning takeoff roll. . and keep the yoke full aft until beginning the takeoff roll. Listen for engine irregularities. “Airspeed alive. announce “Positive rate of climb” and retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. Accelerate in ground effect to V X (67 KIAS) and begin climbout. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. propellers to 2. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (90 KIAS). traffic levels or controller workload may not permit a smooth. Allow the airplane to rotate at minimum airspeed and level off in ground effect. Perfom HITTS checklist. Adjust elevator pressure to keep the nosewheel just off the ground without striking the tail. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline.Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB C172RG-4/R-3 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft from non-paved runway surfaces into the air            Perform line-up check. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. non-stop transition from taxi to the takeoff roll. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. With significant surface wind. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until amber “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. As the takeoff roll begins. At hold-short line ensure flaps are up.500 RPM. Use minimum braking and make a smooth transition from the taxi to the takeoff roll without allowing airplane to come to a stop. Smoothly apply full power (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Coordinate using rudder and aileron.” As airspeed increases. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline.

Trim aircraft for level flight. Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. Set the pitch for a level attitude.Flight Instructor Manual ENROUTE CLIMB C172RG-5/R-3 Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic. Coordinate aircraft with rudder. Increase throttle with altitude as needed to maintain climb power setting. turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Set cruise power and propeller RPM as per Pilot Operating Handbook. beginning level-off”). Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Call for and perform cruise checklist.           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude.” “100’ prior to altitude. “500 feet to go. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. If still on.g. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Announce 1000’ prior to altitude.        Pitch for V CC (90 KIAS) and trim aircraft. 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e. . Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed.

Retract last 10º flaps. . add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. Close cowl flaps. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. increase throttle to 23” MP. increase power to 20” MP. Set throttle to 15” MP. Set propeller to 2500 RPM.Flight Instructor Manual SLOW FLIGHT C172RG-6/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations.” Pick outside visual reference point. At cruise airspeed. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Call for and perform cruise checklist. reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. To recover from slow flight.                     Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. altitude  100 feet. Ensure airspeed is below 100 KIAS before extending flaps beyond 10º. Below V FE (130 KIAS). turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Retract flaps one notch at a time to 10º. heading  10º. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. Turn carburetor heat on. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases. Retract landing gear. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. At target airspeed (55 KIAS unless specified). Open cowl flaps. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.

. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. 50º commercial). airspeed. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. Announce heading. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder.” Pick outside visual reference point. reduce power to 19”-20” MP. Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Control bank angle with ailerons. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 2” MP to maintain altitude. Set propeller at 2300 RPM and throttle at 21” MP. or as necessary to maintain V A . During rollout. and rollout on the same entry heading. altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. bank angle ± 5º (45º private. Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. altitude  100 feet.              Set altitude no lower than 1500’ AGL.Flight Instructor Manual STEEP TURNS C172RG-7/R-3 Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. angle of bank.

Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear.” Pick outside visual reference point. . Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. When aircraft stalls. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Retract landing gear. Pitch for level flight and. Set throttle to 15” MP. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. initiate a 500 fpm descent. If a turning stall is to be performed. Turn carburetor heat on. Ensure airspeed is below 100 KIAS before extending more than 10º. once reaching cruise airspeed. Retract last 10º flaps. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder.” Retract next 10º flaps and confirm positive rate of climb. Retract flaps 10º and pitch for V X (67 KIAS). Call for and perform cruise checklist. Pitch for level attitude. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. smoothly increase power to full. Below V FE (130 KIAS). decrease power to idle. reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. 55 KIAS unless specified). At target airspeed (V R . Turn carburetor heat off. Set propeller to 2500 RPM.                      Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-OFF STALLS C172RG-8/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration.

Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb. At target airspeed (V R .” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Pitch for level flight and. increase power to 25” MP. enter a standard-rate turn until the stall break. Open cowl flaps.                  Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Turn carburetor heat off. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. 55 KIAS unless specified). reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. and no further increases should be made. Close cowl flaps. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. If a turning stall is to be performed. Set throttle to 15” MP. Call for and perform cruise checklist. once reaching cruise airspeed. level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Turn carburetor heat on. decrease pitch attitude. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. Pitch for V X (67 KIAS). Set propeller to 2500 RPM.Flight Instructor Manual POWER-ON STALLS C172RG-9/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions.” Pick outside visual reference point. This will be simulated maximum power. . Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. When aircraft stalls. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level.

decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude  100 feet. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.             LAZY 8S Objective: To maneuver the airplane through two 180º turns while constantly changing pitch attitude and bank angle. decrease bank angle.Flight Instructor Manual CHANDELLES C172RG-10/R-3 Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through a 180º maximum-performance climbing turn. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Set propeller at 2300 RPM and throttle at 21” MP. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. Both pitch and bank should be constantly changing. decreasing pitch to level.” Pick outside visual reference point off wingtip. Third 45º of maneuver: Decrease bank angle to 15º. or as necessary to maintain V A . Second 45º of maneuver: Increase bank angle to 30º. As airplane reaches 30º of bank increase throttle to 25” MP. heading ± 10º. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. pitch to maximum nose-down. Last 45º of maneuver: Decrease bank angle and pitch attitude to level. rollout airspeed should be just above a stalling airspeed. During rollout. This will be simulated maximum power. During rollout.    . Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. pitch to maximum nose-up.       Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Second half of maneuver: Maintain constant pitch attitude. Coordinate with rudder. Coordinate with rudder. increase pitch attitude. First half of maneuver: Maintain constant bank angle. Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. heading ± 10º. Set propeller at 2500 RPM. Call for and perform cruise checklist. First 45º of maneuver: Increase bank angle to 15º. maintain initial entry altitude  100 feet.” Pick outside visual reference point off wingtip.

Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Turn carburetor heat on. Plan descent as in normal traffic pattern. .Flight Instructor Manual STEEP SPIRALS C172RG-11/R-3 Objective: Demonstrate sufficient planning as to maneuver the airplane through at least three 360º descending turns while tracking a constant radius circle.” Ensure cowl flaps are closed. Maintain airspeed in descent ± 10 KIAS. Plan recovery (or transition into power-off 180º accuracy landing) by 1500’ AGL.          Set altitude as necessary to ensure at least three complete 360º turns with recovery by 1500’ AGL. to touchdown within 200’ of designated landing point. Bank may be increased up to 60º. Turn carburetor heat on. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Passing over reference point.  POWER-OFF 180º ACCURACY LANDINGS Objective: Safely maneuver the airplane from abeam a landing point to a successful power-off touchdown. adjust bank angle as necessary to maintain constant radius around reference point. roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron. Set propeller at 2500 RPM. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Pull throttle to idle and pitch for best glide (73 KIAS).        Set altitude no more than 1000’ AGL.” Set propeller at 2500 RPM. During rollout maintain heading ± 10º. Pick outside ground reference point. Maintain airspeed in descent ± 10 KIAS. Pull throttle to idle and pitch for best glide (73 KIAS). During descent. unless terrain and wind conditions dictate otherwise.

  . Climbs and descents shall be done using a constant airspeed or constant rate. Turns should be performed in both directions.  Unusual attitudes can be classified as either “nose high” or “nose low” and may involve turning or straight flight. Ensure scan does not rest on one instrument for more than one second. heading and airspeed. It is crucial for the safety pilot to ensure that the area is clear before performing any maneuvers.Flight Instructor Manual BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS C172RG-12/R-3 Objective: Control the aircraft solely by reference to the flight instruments. Maintain altitude  100’. maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Stalls. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Use the attitude indicator as the center of the scan and verify all other instruments against it. With constant airspeed.      Maintain control of aircraft by cross-checking flight instruments.e. Make all turns at standard rate using turn coordinator. wings level. o Nose-low recovery: Power idle. without outside visual reference. spin in IMC): o Nose-high recovery: Simulated full power (25” MP). With constant rate. In either scenario recovery should be initiate well before overstressing the aircraft or placing it into a potentially dangerous situation (i. UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERY Objective: Return the airplane to straight-and-level flight from potentially hazardous unusual flight attitudes by reference to the flight instruments. pitch level. heading  10º (in straight flight). pitch level. call out new target altitude. taking the controls to perform clearing turns if necessary (see section “Clearing Turns”). slow flight and steep turns are performed using the VFR procedures while simulating instrument conditions using a view-limiting device. wings level. maintain rate of climb or descent  200 fpm. Once airplane is in wings-level attitude.

Adjust mixture as necessary for descent (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Decrease power as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook for desired rate of descent and airspeed.Flight Instructor Manual DESCENT C172RG-13/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft to a lower altitude as in preparation for traffic pattern entry and landing. including ATIS/AWOS/ASOS and sectional chart.          Plan descent to reach desired altitude at predetermined location. Trim aircraft. . Set radios to tower or CTAF. Review all airport information. Turn landing light on within 10 NM of airport area (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Set carburetor heat ON. If entering traffic pattern. plan to reach traffic pattern altitude approximately 2 miles before entering the pattern. Call for and perform descent checklist.

Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. . Keep ground track aligned with the runway or reference point using aileron input. When desired altitude is reached. Apply rudder opposite to yoke deflection as necessary to maintain centerline. Apply full rudder opposite to yoke deflection.        C172RG-14/R-3 Decrease power to idle. SIDE SLIP Objective: To remain aligned with runway during crosswind approach and landing. although they are more efficient in the clean configuration. Maintain same pitch attitude in slip as in level flight to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Keep the longitudinal axis of the airplane aligned with the runway centerline using aileron input.       Set power as appropriate to maintain glideslope. Note: Both forward slips and side slips may be performed with full flaps extended. Lower upwind wing into wind.Flight Instructor Manual FORWARD SLIP Objective: To increase descent rate and angle without increasing airspeed. Lower upwind wing into wind. When desired altitude is reached. Align longitudinal axis of airplane with runway centerline. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder while remaining aligned with runway centerline. Maintain pitch attitude in slip below the horizon to ensure appropriate approach airspeed. Note that indicated airspeed will be lower than actual airspeed due to pitot tube errors encountered in the slip. smoothly neutralize ailerons and rudder.

Determine wind direction. After completing one full circle. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.          Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. During maneuver. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.Flight Instructor Manual RECTANGULAR PATTERN C172RG-15/R-3 Objective: Fly a rectangular pattern while maintaining equal-length opposite sides and a constant distance from visual reference point. After completing one full rectangular pattern. call for and perform cruise checklist. TURNS AROUND A POINT Objective: Fly a circle around a selected ground reference point maintaining a constant radius. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Set mixture full rich. call for and perform cruise checklist.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. Pick outside visual reference. Plan to enter the rectangular pattern downwind and remain the same distance away from the rectangle during the entire maneuver.           Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Plan to enter the turn downwind and remain the same distance away from the reference point during the entire maneuver. . Pick outside visual reference point. Set mixture full rich. Maintain altitude  100 feet. Determine wind direction.

During maneuver. S-turns should look like half of a turn around a point. Airplane should always be wings-level and perpendicular to the reference line when crossing it.         Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Set altitude between 600’ and 1000’ AGL. roll wings-level and maintain level flight while selecting reference point.40 at the steepest point). Plan to enter the turn downwind. adjust bank angle as necessary for wind to fly constant radius around reference point on reference line. Bank angle will not be constant and will be adjusted as necessary to maintain visual contact with the point (approximately 30 . Maintain altitude  100 feet. adjust altitude as necessary to keep reference point in same spot. call for and perform cruise checklist. wings level.            Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook.    . Pick new reference point off opposite wingtip and repeat maneuver in other direction. During maneuver. bank aircraft so point is on wingtip. perpendicular to reference line. Determine wind direction. Pick outside visual reference line perpendicular to the wind. Passing abeam the reference point. Set mixture full rich. Call for and perform cruise checklist. After completing one turn around the reference point. Set mixture full rich.Flight Instructor Manual S-TURNS C172RG-16/R-3 Objective: Fly semi-circle patterns across a straight-line ground reference point maintaining turns of equal radius in opposing directions. Plan to enter the turn downwind perpendicular to the reference point. Pick outside visual reference point.” Set altitude to pivotal altitude (800’ AGL). Determine wind direction. 8S-ON-PYLONS Objective: To fly a figure-eight pattern around two reference points while keeping the point fixed on the wingtip. Set power and propeller at cruise power setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. After completing at least one full S-turn.

       . including engine restart. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. C172RG-17/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. continue with the following procedures. Pitch airspeed for 75 KIAS (best glide). For training purposes. Perform cockpit flow check to try to restart engine:  Fuel valve – On  Mixture – Rich  Throttle – In  Carburetor heat – On  Ignition switch – Both  Master switch – On  Primer – In & locked If time and altitude permit. location. Extend landing gear at 1500’ AGL. nature of emergency and number on board. Select best landing site and turn towards it. pull the throttle control to idle. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. The following are procedures for simulating an engine failure in cruise flight. if simulating that the engine has not restarted at this point. Never fail the engine by pulling the mixture to idle cutoff or turning the fuel selector valve to OFF. Communicate emergency. Apply carburetor heat and turn fuel pump on. If time and altitude permit.       To simulate an engine failure. To simulate engine failures in cruise flight. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook.Flight Instructor Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN CRUISE FLIGHT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine failure during cruise flight. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. reduce throttle to idle. Perform verbal passenger briefing.

location. (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. Select best landing site and turn towards it.Flight Instructor Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. including engine restart. C172RG-18/R-3 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. nature of emergency and number on board. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. Retract last notch of flaps. If time and altitude permit. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. Turn carburetor heat off. . For training purposes. If time and altitude permit. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. If using flaps. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Verify a positive rate of climb. (Verbalize only) Pull mixture to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valve OFF. After verifying a positive rate of climb. If desired. full flaps and landing gear may be lowered to increase descent angle. Communicate emergency. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. use descent airspeed of 95 KIAS (VFE -5 KIAS for training purposes). securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Pitch for descent airspeed of 105 KIAS. pitch for V X (67 KIAS) and retract one more notch of flaps. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. Call for and perform climb checklist. Retract landing gear. Pitch for a climb at V x .              Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Perform verbal passenger briefing.         Smoothly increase throttle to full power.” Reduce throttle smoothly to idle. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. continue with the following procedures. Immediately retract one notch of flaps.

Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. Call for and perform before landing checklist. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. including position and intentions.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. Call for and perform before landing checklist. Once landing runway is determined. if any. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. If landing advisory is not available. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. if any. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. plan overflight of airport at 500’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport.Flight Instructor Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD C172RG-19/R-3 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. . Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport.

correcting for wind as necessary.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. Mixture.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline. then the downwind wheel. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. Downwind leg:  Set power to 23” MP and propeller to 2300 RPM. power for altitude control. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on. If landing in a crosswind. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. Props.  Begin descent.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. decrease power to idle and begin flare. Touchdown should be within 200’ of a pre-selected landing point. Switches). Undercarriage.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. . Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. lower the landing gear.  Perform final GUMPS check.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Perform second GUMPS check.  When airspeed is below V FE (130 KIAS). Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. set flaps to 10°. then the nosewheel. Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway.  Reduce power to 15” MP.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS).Flight Instructor Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING C172RG-20/R-3 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground.  Set propeller full forward to high RPM.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas. Downwind leg.  Set flaps to 30° as necessary once landing on runway is assured.  Touch down on main wheels first.

 Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS.Flight Instructor Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Downwind leg. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. Undercarriage. Props. .  Pitch for descent at 63 KIAS and trim aircraft.  Perform final GUMPS check. C172RG-21/R-3 Final approach:  Set flaps to 30°. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. Mixture. Downwind leg:  Set power to 23” MP and propeller to 2300 RPM.  When airspeed is below V FE (130 KIAS). Switches).  Begin descent.  Perform second GUMPS check.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS).  Call for and perform before landing checklist. power for altitude control. set flaps to 10°.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. Apply firm but even braking while bringing yoke full aft. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway. Do not retract the flaps! Touchdown should be within 100’ of a pre-selected landing point. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. decrease power to idle and begin flare. lower the landing gear. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Reduce power to 15” MP.  Use pitch for airspeed control.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Set propeller full forward to high RPM.

Flight Instructor Manual SOFT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground on non-paved surfaces. set flaps to 10°. . Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. announce “Simulated soft-field landing roll.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. Note: If practicing soft-field landings at a towered airport.  Use pitch for airspeed control. lower the landing gear. Downwind leg:  Set power to 23” MP and propeller to 2300 RPM.  When airspeed is below V FE (130 KIAS). pull power to idle and hold the nosewheel off the ground for as long as possible. Undercarriage.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. Props. pitch for 85 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft.  Keep yoke full aft during taxi and use minimal braking.  Set airspeed 85-95 KIAS. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance. Base leg:  Set flaps to 20°.  Pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect. Downwind leg.  Set propeller full forward to high RPM. Mixture.” and promptly transition to either exiting the runway or continuing with a touch-and-go.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Switches).  Perform second GUMPS check. decrease power to approximately 1000 RPM and begin flare. Under these circumstances comply with controller instructions.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway.  Reduce power to 1500 RPM. traffic levels or controller workload may not permit an extended landing roll while waiting for the nosewheel to contact the ground.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas.  Perform final GUMPS check.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Begin descent. C172RG-22/R-3 Final approach:  Pitch for descent at 65 KIAS (use 63 KIAS and 30° flaps if short field) and trim aircraft. abeam touchdown point:  Pull carburetor heat on.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS).  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway. power for altitude control.

landing gear is to be extended no later than midfield on the downwind. no red gear unsafe warning.000’ AGL. the pilot should come to a complete stop on the runway. To simulate landing gear failure. the PIC should contact HAI dispatch (122. Do not turn the fuel selectors off or move the mixture to idle cutoff. Simulated engine failures should not occur below 400‘ AGL. pull the 25 Amp “Landing Gear” circuit breaker. Leaving one finger on the gear handle without undue pressure will ensure that the gear handle locks into the detent. In the traffic pattern. Both fuel selectors must be ON below 4000’ AGL unless there is an actual emergency. shut down the airplane and contact HAI dispatch for a tow to maintenance. Selecting the gear to the down position should be accomplished using a flat hand. Do not pull the 5 Amp “Gear Pump” circuit breaker. Low-altitude engine failures (below 4000’ AGL) should only be performed by reducing one of the throttles to idle.85) while airborne after troubleshooting using the appropriate checklist. Use a minimum altitude of 4000’ AGL for complete engine shutdowns. In the event of landing gear malfunction during which the gear appears to be down but fewer than 3 green “Gear Safe” light is illuminated. During takeoff. Simulated engine failures on the runway should not occur above 40 KIAS. If after contacting dispatch a decision is made to land. Gear handle will move to the down position without being pulled “out of the detent”. maintain V Y (88 KIAS) through 500‘ AGL. GUMPS check lists (reference normal and short landing procedures in this manual) shall be performed on each leg of the traffic pattern. Exceptions – Lower speed for Short Field climb. Vx or barrier clearance may be used as published in the AFM. Checklists must be used on each and every flight. Pilots should not attempt to taxi to the ramp after landing.Maneuver Manual Seminole Multi Engine Procedures GENERAL SAFETY PROCEDURES & POLICIES For safety purposes these items must be followed strictly:           PA44-1/R-4     A maximum of one simulated system emergency at any time is allowed below 2. Extreme caution must be exercised to ensure the gear is extended prior to landing. This should be treated as an emergency and the tower notified as appropriate. No descents below TPA with systems disabled are allowed. When cycling the gear. no warning horn and visually in external mirror. On final approach Pilot Flying will verbally inquire “Verify 3 green?” – Pilot Monitoring will respond “3 green verified” after visual confirmation. keep one finger on the landing gear lever until the gear is locked up or down as desired and verified with the three green indicator lights. V MC or drag demos. .

Maneuver Manual Operational Concerns These items will help increase the life of the aircraft and reduce overall operational costs:  One complete engine shutdown to full feather during rating.  Avoid back-to-back V MC and drag demos to reduce wear on engines.  Limit number of gear cycles on touch-and-goes. PA44-2/R-4 .

– 105 KIAS (cruise climb) PA44-3/R-4 .Maneuver Manual Seminole (PA-44) PA-44 SPECIFICATIONS References: PA44 AFM revision VB-860 Lycoming O-360 and LO-360 180 BHP @ 2700 RPM Fuel capacity: 110 gal. (dipstick. total/108 usable Oil capacity: 6 qts. – 112 KIAS @ 2700 lbs. per engine) V SO V MCA VS VR V SSE V FE V NO V NE V LO V LE VX VY V XSE V YSE VA V CC – 55 KIAS – 56 KIAS (note that this is a stalled condition) – 57 KIAS – 75 KIAS (value may vary based on takeoff weight) – 88 KIAS – 111 KIAS – 169 KIAS – 202 KIAS – 140 KIAS (down) – 109 KIAS (up) – 140 KIAS – 82 KIAS @ Sea level – 88 KIAS @ Sea level – 82 KIAS @ Sea level – 88 KIAS @ Sea level (blue line) – 135 KIAS @ 3800 lbs.

. Dec.Maneuver Manual CONFIGURATION AND POWER SETTING TABLE PA-44 Situation NORM OPS VFR/IFR Takeoff climb cruise cruise descent App. Final app. Descent.P. ILS VOR/NDB Level MDA Straight in/ Circle land 1 dot up 5deg bk 1/4 dot up 2-5deg bk 1/2 dot down 2-5 deg bk-500'/min 1 dot down 2-5 deg bk-600'/min 1 dot down900'/min 1/4 dot up 2-5° bank as required 105 88-105 27" as req. 2500 2700 rich rich " " 105 17" 2500 rich gear down 105 18" 2500 rich gear down 105 19" 2500 88 105 30" 25" 2700 2500 " rich as required " " " clean/cowl flaps open " " Gear down flaps as req. RPM Mixture Configuration PA44-4/R-4 Gear down 25 deg flaps Gear dwn 10 deg flaps Gear down 10 deg flaps SE OPS IFR/VFR Climb Level flight App. Cruise VFR PROC. App. ILS VOR/NDB Level MDA 1 dot down level 1 dot down600'/min 2 dot down900'/min level 105 21" 2500 rich 105 13" 2500 rich 120 105 105 15" 16" 17" 2300 2300 2500 " " rich " " " " " " " " 80-105 80-105 15"-18" 13"-15" 23002700 2700 " rich " 1/2 dot down 88-105 15"-18" 2300 " " Gear down 10-25 deg flaps Gear down 25-40 deg flaps 1 dot down 40 deg flaps 5-10 up 5-10 up level 1 dot down level 75-105 105 140 140 120 30" 25" 23" 20" 19" 2700 2500 2300 2300 2300 " " " rich as required " " " clean/cowl flaps open clean/cowl flaps open clean/cowl flaps closed " " " " Attitude KIAS M. Down wind abeam #'s Base Final IFR PROC.

Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until red “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (105 KIAS). Coordinate using rudder and aileron. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. “Airspeed alive. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway. With significant surface wind. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline.500 RPM. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Listen for engine irregularities.Maneuver Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND TAKEOFF & CLIMB Objective: Safely and smoothly transition the aircraft into the air and complete the climb checks. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. Smoothly apply full power on both engines (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). As the takeoff roll begins. Perform HITTS checklist.” As airspeed increases. Call the Go Decision Point. Pitch for V Y (88 KIAS) and trim aircraft. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. At V R (75 KIAS). propellers to 2. Call for and perform climb checklist. increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. . Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions.           PA44-5/R-4         Perform line-up check.

Pitch for 75 KIAS (67 KIAS with 25° flaps) and trim aircraft. accelerate to VY (88 KIAS) and trim aircraft. request a short delay on the runway during the initial takeoff request. Coordinate using rudder and aileron. Taxi onto the runway and align the nosewheel with the centerline. Apply and hold brakes. “Airspeed alive. Check all engine instruments to ensure correct indications. Smoothly apply full power on both engines (4-5 seconds from idle to takeoff power). Set stabilator trim slightly nose-high. As the takeoff roll begins. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field takeoffs and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. The aircraft should be positively rotated and allowed to crab into the wind immediately after liftoff to maintain centerline. Make first turn 300’ below traffic pattern altitude. verify the airspeed is increasing and announce. Maintain ground track over runway and extended centerline. Release brakes. pull back smoothly on the yoke until the nose lifts off the runway.500 RPM. At 1000’ AGL transition to V CC (105 KIAS). Listen for engine irregularities. Position the airplane to utilize maximum available runway. Adjust ailerons as appropriate for wind conditions. . If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit a short delay. When clear of all obstacles and at least 50’ AGL. At hold-short line set flaps to 0° (25° flaps may be used if obstacles dictate additional clearance). increase V R up to 5 KIAS to facilitate more positive control. Retract landing gear when no usable runway remains to land on. Perform HITTS checklist. Maintain physical contact with the landing gear handle until red “gear unsafe” light extinguishes. Call the Go Decision Point.” As airspeed increases. With significant surface wind. propellers to 2. perform a normal takeoff roll and announce “Simulated braking” in lieu of an actual delay on the runway. adjust rudder and ailerons as necessary to keep the aircraft aligned on centerline. Check that final approach is clear to avoid runway incursions. At 500’ AGL reduce power to 25” MP. Call for and perform climb checklist.Maneuver Manual SHORT FIELD TAKEOFF & CLIMB PA44-6/R-4 Objective: To smoothly transition the aircraft into the air using the least amount of runway and clearing any obstacles present in the departure path              Perform line-up check. At 70 KIAS (63 KIAS with 25° flaps).          Note: If practicing short-field takeoffs at a towered airport.

       Pitch for V CC (105 KIAS) and trim aircraft. “500 feet to go. Lean the mixture (see section “Leaning Procedures”). turn landing light off unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). Monitor engine instruments to check for abnormalities. Set cruise power and propeller RPM as per Pilot Operating Handbook. Lean the mixture during climb (see section “Leaning Procedures”). Increase throttle with altitude as needed to maintain climb power setting.g. Coordinate aircraft with rudder. beginning level-off”).           Perform standard callouts when approaching desired altitude.Maneuver Manual SOFT FIELD TAKE-OFF & CLIMB PA44-7/R-4 Soft field takeoffs are not typically practiced in multi-engine aircraft and are not required by PTS. Set the pitch for a level attitude. Turn landing light off when clear of airport area unless otherwise recommended (see section “Use of Aircraft Lights”). 500’ prior and in 100’ increments thereafter (e. Lead level-off to desired altitude by 10% of vertical speed. LEVEL-OFF FROM CLIMB Objective: Transition from climb to level flight. Announce 1000’ prior to altitude. Check all engine instruments and systems to verify proper operation. Trim aircraft for level flight. If still on. Let airspeed increase until desired cruise speed is reached. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Execute gentle s-turns or short level-offs every 500’ to check for traffic.” “100’ prior to altitude. ENROUTE CLIMB Objective: To reach the desired altitude using an airspeed calculated to provide better visibility and engine cooling. .

                   Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL. The student should be able to fly the aircraft at any given speed and configuration combination within the flight envelope of the aircraft. add flaps in 10º increments until full flaps are extended. increase throttles to 20” MP. Close cowl flaps. Call for and perform cruise checklist. increase power to 18” MP. altitude  100 feet. Retract landing gear below V LO (109 KIAS). Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually as airspeed decreases.” Pick outside visual reference point. Below V LE (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Use pitch for airspeed control and power for altitude control. Below V FE (111 KIAS). At target airspeed (65 KIAS unless specified). Retract flaps one notch at a time to 10º. At cruise airspeed. To recover from slow flight. heading  10º. Retract last 10º flaps. Open cowl flaps. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. Set throttles to 15” MP. .Maneuver Manual SLOW FLIGHT PA44-8/R-4 Objective: Demonstrate flight at various airspeeds and configurations. turn carburetor heat off and adjust pitch as necessary to maintain altitude. Set propellers to 2500 RPM.

Begin rollout 20º prior to entry heading. Control bank angle with ailerons. decrease pitch attitude to maintain altitude. Roll into turn with coordinated rudder and aileron.Maneuver Manual STEEP TURNS Objective: To safely maneuver the aircraft through 360º of turn in each direction with a constant altitude. angle of bank. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Call for and perform cruise checklist. During rollout.              PA44-9/R-4 Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL.” Pick outside visual reference point. bank angle ± 5º (45º private. Trim aircraft and coordinate with rudder. and rollout on the same entry heading. 50º commercial). Maintain airspeed  10 KIAS. . altitude and airspeed to be maintained during maneuver. reduce power to 21” MP. Announce heading. altitude  100 feet. Repeat maneuver in opposite direction. Set propellers at 2300 RPM and throttles at 21” MP as necessary to maintain V A . Entry airspeed should be below maneuvering speed and remain there for entire maneuver. As airplane rolls past 30º of bank add approximately 2” MP to maintain altitude. Maintain entry heading ± 10º. airspeed.

Maneuver Manual
POWER-OFF STALLS

PA44-10/R-4

Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from approach-to-landing configuration.                     Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Set throttle to 15” MP. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Below V LO (140 KIAS) extend landing gear. Below V FE (111 KIAS), add flaps incrementally until full flaps are extended. At target airspeed (V R , 75 KIAS unless specified), initiate a 500 fpm descent, decrease power to idle. Increase pitch gradually to hold altitude while airspeed decreases. When aircraft stalls, smoothly increase power to 25” MP. Pitch for level attitude, level the wings and coordinate aircraft with rudder. Turn carburetor heat off. Retract flaps one notch and pitch for V X (82 KIAS). Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb.” Retract next notch flaps and confirm positive rate of climb. Retract landing gear. Retract last 10º flaps. Pitch for level flight and, once reaching cruise airspeed, reduce power and propellers to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

Maneuver Manual
POWER-ON STALLS Objective: Demonstrate proper stall recovery technique from takeoff/departure conditions.                

PA44-11/R-4

Set altitude no lower than 2000’ AGL and plan recovery by 1500’ AGL. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Set throttle to 15” MP. Open cowl flaps. Maintain altitude by increasing pitch gradually. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. At target airspeed (V R , 75 KIAS unless specified), increase power to 20” MP. This will be simulated maximum power, and no further increases should be made. Turn carburetor heat off. Increase pitch promptly to approximately 20° nose-up. Maintain pitch attitude while airspeed decreases. Coordinate airplane with rudder and keep wings level. Announce first indication of stall (buffet, stall warning horn or loss of control effectiveness) and promptly begin recovery. Do not perform a full stall. Decrease pitch attitude and pitch for V X (82 KIAS). Establish and announce “Positive rate of climb.” Continue climb until at or above initial altitude. Pitch for level flight and, once reaching cruise airspeed, reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. Close cowl flaps. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

Maneuver Manual
V YSE GEAR AND FLAP DRAG DEMO

PA44-12/R-4

Objective: The drag demo is used to determine performance characteristics of the aircraft in different configurations while operating on one engine. It is very useful to determine the order in which items should be cleaned up in the event of an engine failure of a single engine go around. When making configuration changes, allow the airplane to become established before noting the VSI reading.                    Set altitude no lower than 4000’ AGL. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist.” Pick outside visual reference point. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Set throttle to 15” MP. Simulate failure of right engine by moving throttle to idle. Control aircraft with rudder and aileron and pitch for blue line (88 KIAS) Increase left throttle to 25” MP. Open left cowl flap. Check and note VSI reading. This is the value with a windmilling propeller. Pitch for blue line  5 KIAS. Check and note VSI reading each time. Return to blue line. Simulate feathering the right propeller by increasing throttle to 11½” MP and decreasing propeller to 2000 RPM. Check and note VSI reading. Lower landing gear. Check and note VSI reading. Raise landing gear. Lower flaps one notch at a time. At each position check and note VSI reading. With flaps fully extended, lower landing gear. Check and note VSI reading. Simulate un-feathering right propeller by decreasing throttle to idle and increasing propeller to full forward. Check and note VSI reading. Recover by increasing right throttle to 15” MP, reducing left throttle to 20” MP and setting propellers to 2300 RPM. Do not make significant power changes or increase the right throttle above 15” MP before cylinder head temperature is in the normal operating range. Retract landing gear. Retract flaps one notch at a time. Call for and perform cruise checklist.

  

     Note: The most critical point for a pilot to lose an engine is close to the ground. Recover within 20° of the entry heading.Maneuver Manual V MC DEMO PA44-13/R-4 Objective: Develop the knowledge and skills required to safely handle a minimal controllable airspeed situation. Announce the first indication of loss of yaw or roll control. The student will learn the feel of the aircraft leading up to V MC and the proper corrective action should it be encountered. Pitch for level flight and. . When simulating this maneuver it is imperative to stress a minimal altitude loss as a V MC condition is most likely to occur close to the ground. Set propellers to 2500 RPM. Set throttle to 15” MP. as appropriate. Turn left carburetor heat on. Slowly decrease airspeed 1 KIAS per second by increasing pitch attitude. Control aircraft with rudder and aileron and pitch for blue line (88 KIAS) Increase right throttle to 25” MP. Open right cowl flap.” Pick outside visual reference point. or buffet and immediately initiate recovery. Simulate failure of left engine by moving throttle to idle. proper technique must be learned.               Set altitude no lower than 4000’ AGL. Close cowl flaps. Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. Maintain directional control using rudder pressure until full rudder is applied. reduce power to cruise setting as per Pilot’s Operating Handbook. once reaching cruise airspeed. This maneuver is designed to teach the pilot to recognize the onset of a loss of control due to asymmetrical thrust. stall warning. Recover promptly by simultaneously reducing power sufficiently on the operating engine while decreasing the pitch attitude as necessary to regain airspeed and directional control with a minimum loss of altitude. ±5 KIAS during recovery. Call for and perform cruise checklist. Advance power smoothly on operating engine and accelerate to V XSE /V YSE . Due to the potential of loss of altitude if loss of an engine occurs close to the ground during a go-around or takeoff. Establish a 3°-5° bank towards operating engine. Recovery should not be attempted by increasing the power on the simulated failed engine.

if time and altitude permit.  Ensure fuel selectors are on.          Control aircraft with Rudder and Aileron and Pitch for blue line (88 KIAS). troubleshoot the inoperative engine using a cockpit flow and an approved checklist. Identify the inoperative engine (“Dead foot.  Turn boost pumps on. close cowl flap on inoperative engine. Mixtures full forward.     . the emergency checklist should always be consulted for further reference. however. Landing gear up. The first indication of an engine failure should be detected by noting yaw and/or roll towards the inoperative engine.  Turn Carburetor heat on. Simulate feathering the propeller on the inoperative engine by increasing the throttle to 11½“ MP and reducing the propeller to 2000 RPM. dead engine”). Verify the inoperative engine by cross-checking the engine instruments and reducing the throttle on the suspected inoperative engine. To simulate a restart of the inoperative engine. Controlling the airplane should include establishing a 3°-5° bank towards operating engine and adequate rudder pressure to produce a zero-sideslip condition. Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. (Verbalize only) Secure the inoperative engine as per the checklist and/or Pilot’s Operating Handbook. reduce throttle on other engine to 20” MP and setting propellers to 2300 RPM.  Check engine instruments for appropriate indications.  Ensure magnetos are on. If altitude permits. Propellers full forward. increase throttle to 15” MP. Flaps up. all the way. verifying and feathering the inoperative engine solely using cockpit flows. Throttles full forward. Do not make significant power changes or increase the throttle above 15” MP before cylinder head temperature is in the normal operating range.  Open cowl flap on operative engine. if no additional yaw is detected. An engine failure at low altitude may necessitate identifying.  Ensure primers are in and locked. Call for and perform cruise checklist.Maneuver Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN-FLIGHT (SIMULATED) PA44-14/R-4 Objective: Simulate in-flight failure of an engine to demonstrate adequate aircraft control and proper troubleshooting procedures. The throttle should be retarded halfway and.

 Turn boost pumps on. Mixtures full forward.  Ensure primers are in and locked.  Check engine instruments for appropriate indications. Verify the inoperative engine by cross-checking the engine instruments and reducing the throttle on the suspected inoperative engine. An engine failure at low altitude may necessitate identifying. Flaps up.  Ensure fuel selectors are on. Ensure propeller is above 950 RPM. Propellers full forward. Do not make significant power changes or increase the throttle above 15” MP before cylinder head temperature is in the normal operating range. Secure the inoperative engine as per the checklist and/or Pilot’s Operating Handbook. feather the propeller on the inoperative engine. Identify the inoperative engine (“Dead foot. however. the emergency checklist should always be consulted for further reference. Throttles full forward. close cowl flap on inoperative engine. Call for and perform cruise checklist. dead engine”).          Control aircraft with Rudder and Aileron and Pitch for blue line (88 KIAS). After restarting inoperative engine. troubleshoot the inoperative engine using a cockpit flow and an approved checklist. all the way. if no additional yaw is detected.Maneuver Manual ENGINE FAILURE IN-FLIGHT (COMPLETE SHUTDOWN) PA44-15/R-4 Objective: Perform complete shutdown of one engine to demonstrate adequate aircraft control and proper engine securing and restarting procedures. Retard propeller control halfway and. If restarting is unsuccessful. Landing gear up. move the propeller control into the detent. The throttle should be retarded halfway and.  Turn Carburetor heat on. verifying and feathering the inoperative engine solely using cockpit flows. Controlling the airplane should include establishing a 3°-5° bank towards operating engine and adequate rudder pressure to produce a zero-sideslip condition. increase throttle to 15” MP. The first indication of an engine failure should be detected by noting yaw and/or roll towards the inoperative engine. if no additional yaw is detected. Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory. if time and altitude permit. Restart engine as per checklist and/or Pilot’s Operating Handbook.  Ensure magnetos are on.      .  Open cowl flap on operative engine. reduce throttle on other engine to 20” MP and setting propellers to 2300 RPM. If altitude permits.

(Verbalize only) Pull mixtures to idle cutoff and turn fuel selector valves OFF.         Smoothly increase throttles to full power. Immediately retract one notch of flaps. Set propellers full forward. for expanded information consult the Pilot’s Operating Handbook. location. Communicate emergency. GO-AROUND Objective: Abort an unsafe landing and re-enter the traffic pattern for another approach. consult emergency checklist for further procedures. Pitch for descent airspeed of 140 KIAS. Once verifying a positive rate of climb. continue with the following procedures. Retract last notch of flaps. If time and altitude permit. The following are procedures for simulating an engine fire in cruise flight. including engine restart. Extend landing gear below V LE (140 KIAS). (Verbalize only) Set transponder to 7700. . Retract landing gear. Ensure carburetor heat is off. (Verbalize only) Set radios to emergency frequency or local ATC facility.” Close cowl flaps.                Perform “Pre-Maneuver Checklist. if simulating that the engine fire has not extinguished at this point. For training purposes. Call for and perform climb checklist. PA44-16/R-4 Note: Items marked in bold are considered memory items and should be committed to memory.Maneuver Manual EMERGENCY DESCENT Objective: Safely land the airplane in the event of an engine fire. Determine wind direction and plan descent to land into the wind. Reduce throttles smoothly to idle. Plan go-around so airplane does not descend below 500’ AGL. Include in the briefing seatbelt and shoulder harnesses. securing of sharp or loose objects and procedures for exiting the aircraft after landing. Pitch for a climb. Perform verbal passenger briefing. (Verbalize only) Shut down engine as per emergency checklist. pitch for V X (82 KIAS) and retract one more notch of flaps. the emergency checklist may be consulted for further reference. Verify a positive rate of climb. If time and altitude permit. Select best landing site and turn towards it. nature of emergency and number on board.

Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. Adjust altitude deviations with pitch and airspeed deviations with power. down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights.  Set propellers to 2500 RPM. including position and intentions. forward.  Establish approach airspeed of 105 KIAS and maintain  10 KIAS. Perform final flow check of mixture controls. Established inbound on final approach course:  Check for flags on navigation instruments. At final approach fix (FAF):  (Precision approach) At one dot below glideslope.  (Non-precision approach) Extend landing gear.  Slow to approach cruise (120 KIAS) on while being vectored or during procedure turn.  Perform final GUMPS check. extend landing gear.  If runway environment is in sight. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic.Maneuver Manual INSTRUMENT APPROACHES PA44-17/R-4 Objective: Transition the aircraft from the enroute structure of the IFR system to the airport with acceptable terrain clearance and safety. propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward.  Pitch for 80 KIAS and trim aircraft. .  Tune and identify primary navaid. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF if practicing IAPs at uncontrolled airports.  Announce 1000’ prior to MDA/DH.  Set flaps to 25º for precision approach (10º for non-precision). Prior to procedure turn:  Call for and perform descent checklist. Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. 500 fpm or glideslope for precision approaches).  Call for and perform before-landing checklist. otherwise promptly execute missed approach procedure upon arrival at missed approach point. continue with landing.  Announce 200’ prior to MDA/DH. especially when reporting positions in reference to IFR-only navigational aids.  Set throttles to 17” MP. Inside final approach fix (FAF):  Establish appropriate rate of descent for approach (1000 fpm for non-precision approaches. Short final or circling-to-land:  Set flaps to 40º.

 Set throttle on operating engine to 18” MP.  Tune and identify primary navaid.  Pitch for 85 KIAS and trim aircraft. propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward. .Maneuver Manual INSTRUMENT APPROACHES (SINGLE-ENGINE) PA44-18/R-4 Objective: Transition the aircraft from the enroute structure of the IFR system to the airport with acceptable terrain clearance and safety while simulating the loss of one engine.  Call for and perform before-landing checklist. Short final or circling-to-land:  Set flaps to 25º.  Perform final GUMPS check.  Announce 1000’ prior to MDA/DH. otherwise promptly execute missed approach procedure upon arrival at missed approach point. Adjust altitude deviations with pitch and airspeed deviations with power. Established inbound on final approach course:  Check for flags on navigation instruments. At final approach fix (FAF):  (Precision approach) At one dot below glideslope. continue with landing.  (Non-precision approach) Extend landing gear.  Establish approach airspeed of 105 KIAS and maintain  10 KIAS. Perform final flow check of mixture controls. Prior to procedure turn:  Call for and perform descent checklist. 500 fpm or glideslope for precision approaches). extend landing gear.  Set propeller on operating engine to 2500 RPM. down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights.  Announce 200’ prior to MDA/DH. Inside final approach fix (FAF):  Establish appropriate rate of descent for approach (1000 fpm for non-precision approaches.  Slow to approach cruise (120 KIAS) on while being vectored or during procedure turn. forward.  Do not extend flaps.  If runway environment is in sight.

TRAFFIC PATTERN – UNCONTROLLED FIELD Objective: Enter the airport area of a non-towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Once landing runway is determined. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns.Maneuver Manual TRAFFIC PATTERN – CONTROLLED FIELD PA44-19/R-4 Objective: Enter the airport area of a towered airport in a safe manner in preparation for landing. Descent to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. Circle as appropriate and allow sufficient room to descend to traffic pattern altitude 2 miles away from airport. unless otherwise instructed by ATC. Enter traffic pattern and announce intentions on CTAF. plan overflight of airport at 1000’ above traffic pattern altitude to determine wind direction and landing runway.       Obtain recorded weather information at least 10 miles away from airport. Note: Self-announce frequently on CTAF. Ensure radio calls are directed at both VFR and IFR traffic. Call for and perform before landing checklist. especially when reporting positions in reference to less commonly-used navigational aids. if any. plan to enter at a 45° angle to the downwind leg. make one radio call on each leg of traffic pattern. if any. If landing advisory is not available. Call tower or approach (as appropriate) before entering airspace for landing clearance. Unless traffic levels dictate otherwise. . Note: Regardless of whether landing at controlled or uncontrolled airports. Enter traffic pattern as directed by ATC and report entering pattern. Call for and perform before landing checklist. including airport elevation and designated right traffic patterns.       Obtain recorded weather information or landing advisory at least 10 miles away from airport. pilots should use increased vigilance in scanning for traffic. Check all known airport information from sectional chart and Airport/Facility Directory. including position and intentions.

Downwind leg. forward. Use VASI or PAPI for glideslope guidance.  Establish crab angle into wind so ground track is parallel to runway.  Lower wing into wind and coordinate with rudder as appropriate for crosswind conditions to keep ground track and wheel base parallel to runway centerline.  Perform final GUMPS check. Props. down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights.  Slowly decrease power to idle and begin flare.  Pitch for descent at 90 KIAS and trim aircraft. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. then the downwind wheel. Undercarriage. Final approach:  Set flaps to 40°.  Begin descent. correcting for wind as necessary. Switches). propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward. Verify gear is down in mirror.  Touch down on main wheels first. power for altitude control. If landing in a crosswind.  Perform second GUMPS check.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS).  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas.  Set propellers full forward to high RPM. Base leg:  Set flaps to 25°.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 15” MP.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up. Turn auxiliary fuel pumps on. Mixture. touchdown will be on the upwind wheel first.  Set airspeed 120 KIAS or less.  When airspeed is below V FE (111 KIAS).Maneuver Manual NORMAL/CROSSWIND APPROACH & LANDING PA44-20/R-4 Objective: Transition the aircraft safely from air to ground.  Use pitch for airspeed control. Note: For single-engine landings limit final approach speed to 90 KIAS and flap setting to 25°. . Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect and roll trim nose-up two turns. Downwind leg:  Set power to 20” MP and propellers to 2300 RPM. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. pitch for descent at 80 KIAS and trim aircraft. Perform final flow check of mixture controls. then the nosewheel.  Slow to taxi speed using gentle braking before exiting runway.  Call for and perform before landing checklist. pitch for 100 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. set flaps to 10°. lower the landing gear.

.  Set airspeed 120 KIAS or less. At non-towered airports pilots are encouraged to consider local traffic levels when practicing short-field landings and announce if a short delay on the runway will occur prior to beginning the takeoff roll. Mixture.  Maintain traffic pattern altitude ±100’.  Maintain altitude with pitch by slowly pitching up.  Set propellers full forward to high RPM. Base leg:  Set flaps to 25°. Perform final flow check of mixture controls. power for altitude control.  Perform final GUMPS check.  Perform second GUMPS check.  When airspeed is below V FE (111 KIAS).  Begin descent.  Touch down on main wheels first.  Use pitch for airspeed control. forward. perform a normal landing roll and announce “Simulated maximum braking” in lieu of an actual stop on the runway. If traffic levels or controller workload do not permit stopping on the runway. Downwind leg. Verify gear is down in mirror.  Slowly decrease power to idle and begin flare. Final approach:  Set flaps to 40°. down and locked” while physically verifying each lever and 3 green landing gear lights. Flaps may be retracted to increase braking effectiveness. request a “stop and go” in lieu of landing clearance. Props. Undercarriage.  Slow to taxi speed before exiting runway. pitch for descent at 75 KIAS and trim aircraft. lower the landing gear. Turn auxiliary fuel pumps on. Switches).  Call for and perform before landing checklist.  Perform first GUMPS check (Gas. Note: If practicing short-field landings at a towered airport. PA44-21/R-4 Downwind leg:  Set power to 20” MP and propellers to 2300 RPM. then gently lower nosewheel to ground. set flaps to 10°. propeller controls and landing gear by announcing “Forward.  Pitch for descent at 85 KIAS and trim aircraft.  At midfield and below V LE (140 KIAS). Flare & touchdown:  Level off in ground effect and roll trim nose-up two turns. pitch for 95 KIAS in descent and trim aircraft. Apply firm but gentle braking while bringing yoke full aft.Maneuver Manual SHORT FIELD APPROACH & LANDING Objective: Transition the airplane from air to ground using minimal runway. Increase approach airspeed as necessary to incorporate gust factor. abeam touchdown point:  Reduce power to 15” MP. Glidepath will be steeper than that of normal approach.

Maneuver Manual PA44-22/R-4 .

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