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Chapter 12 421
Horizontal Directional Drilling
Introduction The Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) Industry has experienced so much growth in the past two decades that HDD has become commonplace as a method of installation. One source reported that the number of units in use increased by more than a hundredfold in the decade following 1984. This growth has been driven by the benefits offered to utility owners (such as the elimination of traffic disruption and minimal surface damage) and by the ingenuity of contractors in developing this technology. To date, HDD pipe engineering has focused on installation techniques, and rightfully so. In many cases, the pipe experiences its maximum lifetime loads during the pullback operation. The purpose of this chapter is to acquaint the reader with some of the important considerations in selecting the proper PE pipe. Proper selection of pipe involves consideration not only of installation design factors such as pullback force limits and collapse resistance, but also of the long-term performance of the pipe once installed in the bore-hole. The information herein is not all-inclusive; there may be parameters not discussed that will have significant bearing on the proper engineering of an application and the pipe selection. For specific projects, the reader is advised to consult with a qualified engineer to evaluate the project and prepare a specification including recommendations for design and installation and for pipe selection. The reader may find additional design and installation information in ASTM F1962, “Standard Guide for Use of MaxiHorizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of PE Pipe or Conduit Under Obstacles, Including River Crossings,” and in the ASCE Manual of Practice 108, “Pipeline Design for Installation by Directional Drilling.”
Horizontal Directional Drilling
Background Some of the earliest uses of large diameter PE pipe in directional drilling were for river crossings. These are major engineering projects requiring thoughtful design, installation, and construction, while offering the owner the security of deep river bed cover with minimum environmental damage or exposure, and no disruption of river traffic. PE pipe is suited for these installations because of its scratch tolerance and the fused joining system which gives a zero-leak-rate joint with design tensile capacity equal to that of the pipe. To date, directional drillers have installed PE pipe for gas, water, and sewer mains; communication conduits; electrical conduits; and a variety of chemical lines. These projects involved not only river crossings but also highway crossings and right-of-ways through developed areas so as not to disturb streets, driveways, and business entrances.
PE Pipe for Horizontal Directional Drilling This chapter gives information on the pipe selection and design process. It is not intended to be a primer on directional drilling. The reader seeking such information can refer to the references of this chapter. Suggested documents are the “MiniHorizontal Directional Drilling Manual” (1) and the “Horizontal Directional Drilling Good Practices Guidelines” (2) published by the North American Society for Trenchless Technology (NASTT). Horizontal Directional Drilling Process Knowledge of the directional drilling process by the reader is assumed, but some review may be of value in establishing common terminology. Briefly, the HDD process begins with boring a small, horizontal hole (pilot hole) under the crossing obstacle (e.g. a highway) with a continuous string of steel drill rod. When the bore head and rod emerge on the opposite side of the crossing, a special cutter, called a back reamer, is attached and pulled back through the pilot hole. The reamer bores out the pilot hole so that the pipe can be pulled through. The pipe is usually pulled through from the side of the crossing opposite the drill rig. Pilot Hole Pilot hole reaming is the key to a successful directional drilling project. It is as important to an HDD pipeline as backfill placement is to an open-cut pipeline. Properly trained crews can make the difference between a successful and an unsuccessful drilling program for a utility. Several institutions provide operatortraining programs, one of which is University of Texas at Arlington Center for Underground Infrastructure Research and Education (CUIRE). Drilling the pilot hole
Horizontal Directional Drilling
Chapter 12 423
establishes the path of the drill rod (“drill-path”) and subsequently the location of the PE pipe. Typically, the bore-head is tracked electronically so as to guide the hole to a pre-designed configuration. One of the key considerations in the design of the drill-path is creating as large a radius of curvature as possible within the limits of the right-of-way, thus minimizing curvature. Curvature induces bending stresses and increases the pullback load due to the capstan effect. The capstan effect is the increase in frictional drag when pulling the pipe around a curve due to a component of the pulling force acting normal to the curvature. Higher tensile stresses reduce the pipe’s collapse resistance. The drill-path normally has curvature along its vertical profile. Curvature requirements are dependent on site geometry (crossing length, required depth to provide safe cover, staging site location, etc.) But, the degree of curvature is limited by the bending radius of the drill rod and the pipe. More often, the permitted bending radius of the drill rod controls the curvature and thus significant bending stresses do not occur in the pipe. The designer should minimize the number of curves and maximize their radii of curvature in the right-of-way by carefully choosing the entry and exit points. The driller should also attempt to minimize extraneous curvature due to undulations (dog-legs) from frequent overcorrecting alignment or from differences in the soil strata or cobbles. Pilot Hole Reaming The REAMING operation consists of using an appropriate tool to open the pilot hole to a slightly larger diameter than the carrier pipeline. The percentage oversize depends on many variables including soil types, soil stability, depth, drilling mud, borehole hydrostatic pressure, etc. Normal over-sizing may be from 1.2 to 1.5 times the diameter of the carrier pipe. While the over-sizing is necessary for insertion, it means that the inserted pipe will have to sustain vertical earth pressures without significant side support from the surrounding soil. Prior to pullback, a final reaming pass is normally made using the same sized reamer as will be used when the pipe is pulled back (swab pass). The swab pass cleans the borehole, removes remaining fine gravels or clay clumps and can compact the borehole walls. Drilling Mud Usually a “drilling mud” such as fluid bentonite clay is injected into the bore during cutting and reaming to stabilize the hole and remove soil cuttings. Drilling mud can be made from clay or polymers. The primary clay for drilling mud is sodium montmorillonite (bentonite). Properly ground and refined bentonite is added to fresh water to produce a “mud.” The mud reduces drilling torque, and gives stability and support to the bored hole. The fluid must have sufficient gel strength to keep cuttings suspended for transport, to form a filter cake on the borehole wall that
Horizontal Directional Drilling
contains the water within the drilling fluid, and to provide lubrication between the pipe and the borehole on pullback. Drilling fluids are designed to match the soil and cutter. They are monitored throughout the process to make sure the bore stays open, pumps are not overworked, and fluid circulation throughout the borehole is maintained. Loss of circulation could cause a locking up and possibly overstressing of the pipe during pullback. Drilling muds are thixotropic and thus thicken when left undisturbed after pullback. However, unless cementitious agents are added, the thickened mud is no stiffer than very soft clay. Drilling mud provides little to no soil side-support for the pipe. Pullback The pullback operation involves pulling the entire pipeline length in one segment (usually) back through the drilling mud along the reamed-hole pathway. Proper pipe handling, cradling, bending minimization, surface inspection, and fusion welding procedures need to be followed. Axial tension force readings, constant insertion velocity, mud flow circulation/exit rates, and footage length installed should be recorded. The pullback speed ranges usually between 1 to 2 feet per minute. Mini-Horizontal Directional Drilling The Industry distinguishes between mini-HDD and conventional HDD, which is sometimes referred to as maxi-HDD. Mini-HDD rigs can typically handle pipes up to 10” or 12” diameter and are used primarily for utility construction in urban areas, whereas HDD rigs are typically capable of handling pipes as large as 48”diamter. These machines have significantly larger pullback forces ranging up to several hundred thousand pounds. General Guidelines The designer will achieve the most efficient design for an application by consulting with an experienced contractor and a qualified engineer. Here are some general considerations that may help particularly in regard to site location for PE pipes: 1. Select the crossing route to keep it to the shortest reasonable distance. 2. Find routes and sites where the pipeline can be constructed in one continuous length; or at least in long multiple segments fused together during insertion. 3. Although compound curves have been done, try to use as straight a drill path as possible. 4. Avoid entry and exit elevation differences in excess of 50 feet; both points should be as close as possible to the same elevation.
Crossing lines are typically exposed for exact location. Space requirements for coiled pipe are considerably less. which might limit the height available for construction equipment. depending on the pipe diameter. such as power lines. and the buoyant pipe may be resting on the crown of the reamed hole. 10. The as-built drawings are essential to know the exact pipeline location and to avoid future third party damage. Locate all buried structures and utilities within 10 feet of the drill-path for miniHDD applications and within 25 feet of the drill-path for maxi-HDD applications. up to 100’ W x 150’ L for equipment needed in large diameter crossings. (3) . However. Observe and avoid above-ground structures. 11. 6. requiring more/larger pumps and mud-cleaning and storage equipment. 8. large volumes of drilling fluids must be pumped. As pipe diameter increases. and soil type. The HDD process takes very little working space versus other methods. Safety Safety is a primary consideration for every directionally drilled project. The gravity forces may have caused the reamer to go slightly deeper than the pilot hole. The initial pipe side “exit” location should be about 50’ W x 100’ L for most crossings. Obtain “as-built” drawings based on the final course followed by the reamer and the installed pipeline. On the pipe side of the crossing. actual site space varies somewhat depending upon the crossing distance. Long crossings with large diameter pipe need bigger. 9. pipe diameter. more powerful equipment and drill rig. there are several manuals that discuss safety including the manufacturer’s Operator’s Manual for the drilling rig and the Equipment Manufacturer’s Institute (EMI) Safety Manual: Directional Drilling Tracking Equipment. Space requirements for maxi-HDD rigs can range from a 100 feet wide by 150 feet long entry plot for a 1000 ft crossing up to 200 feet wide by 300 feet long area for a crossing of 3000 or more feet. Larger pipe sizes require larger and heavier construction equipment which needs more maneuvering room (though use of PE minimizes this). sufficient temporary space should be rented to allow fusing and joining the PE carrier pipe in a continuous string beginning about 75 feet beyond the exit point with a width of 35 to 50 feet. While this chapter does not cover safety. 7.Horizontal Directional Drilling Chapter 12 425 5. 12.
e. recent nearby bridge constructions. other pipeline/cable crossings in the area.426 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling Geotechnical Investigation Before any serious thought is given to the pipe design or installation. rock inclusions. Soil identification to locate rock. Including River Crossings (4) and ASCE MOP 108. Guide for Use of Maxi-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of Polyethylene Pipe or Conduit Under Obstacles. pipes are installed to a depth of at least 20 ft below the expected future river bottom. Soil strength and stability characteristics c. Geotechnical Data For River Crossings River crossings require additional information such as a study to identify river bed. depth and location of boreholes is best determined by the geotechnical engineer. The purpose of the investigation is not only to determine if directional drilling is feasible. the designer will normally conduct a comprehensive geotechnical study to identify soil formations at the potential bore sites. discontinuities and hardpan. considering scour. but sufficiently far from the borehole to avoid pressurized mud from following natural ground fissures and rupturing to the ground surface through the soil-test bore hole. river bed depth. the geotechnical consultant will identify a number of relevant items including the following: a. and the pipe designed. and river width. loose deposits. For short crossings (1000 ft or less). With this information the best crossing route can be determined. drilling tools and procedures selected. The extent of the geotechnical investigation often depends on the pipe diameter. Typically.g. A rule-of -thumb is to take borings at least 30 ft to either side of bore path. Pipeline Design for Installation by Horizontal Directional Drilling (5) for additional information. Refer to ASTM F1962. The borings should be near the drill-path to give accurate soil data. bore length and the nature of the crossing. During the survey. . the number. borings are typically taken at 700 ft intervals. but to establish the most efficient way to accomplish it. stability (lateral as well as scour). b. Soil borings for geotechnical investigation are generally conducted to 40 ft below river bottom. Groundwater (Supplemental geotechnical data may be obtained from existing records. Although these are good general rules. as few as three borings may suffice.) For long crossings. gravelly soils.
At that time. working pressure rating. and (2) external service loads (post-installation soil. and industry-wide design protocols are still developing. A team effort. Directional drilling is an evolving technology.Horizontal Directional Drilling Chapter 12 427 Summary The best conducted projects are handled by a team approach with the design engineer. the designer assumes all responsibility for determining the appropriateness and applicability of the equations and parameters given in this chapter for any specific application. experience and diligence. Once the geotechnical investigation is completed. These overall topics can be very detailed in nature. The proper pipe must satisfy all hydraulic requirements of the line including flow capacity. Design of the pipe for hydraulic considerations can be found in Chapter 6. Guide for Use of Maxi-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of Polyethylene Pipe or Conduit . and surge or vacuum capacity. Common sense along with a rational in-depth analysis of all pertinent considerations should prevail. Often the load the pipe sees during installation such as the combined pulling force and external pressure will be the largest load experienced by the pipe during its life. Proper design requires considerable professional judgment beyond the scope of this chapter. The DR is the “dimension ratio” and equals the pipe’s outer diameter divided by the minimum wall thickness. Product Design: PE Pipe DR Selection After completion of the geotechnical investigation and determination that HDD is feasible. a determination can be made whether HDD can be used. and surcharge loads occurring over the life of the pipeline). the pipe must be able to withstand (1) pullback loads which include tensile pull forces. Individual HDD contractors and consultant engineering firms should be contacted and utilized in the planning and design stage. The preceding paragraphs represent general guidance and considerations for planning and designing an HDD PE pipeline project. bidding contractors and geotechnical engineer participating prior to the preparation of contract documents. (PE pipe is classified by DR. the designer turns attention to selecting the proper pipe. design of both the PE pipe and the installation can begin. qualifications. and tensile bending stresses. in addition to the hydraulic requirements. While this chapter gives guidelines to assist the designer. The designer is advised to consult ASTM F 1962. strategic partnership and risk-sharing may be indicated. The remainder of this document will discuss the DR (Dimension Ratio) selection based on pullback and external service loads.) A more detailed explanation of the DR concept is provided in Chapter 5. groundwater. These considerations have to be met regardless of the method of installation. For HDD applications. Care should be given in evaluating and selecting an HDD contractor based upon successful projects. external hydrostatic pressure. The geotechnical investigation is usually the first step in the boring project.
428 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling Under Obstacles. Ultimately. generally internal pressure and external service load stresses are treated as independent. and the presence of slurry (drilling mud and cutting mixture). the service loads. the designer starts the DR selection process by determining the DR requirement for the internal pressure. This will depend in great part on the type of ground. the designer chooses a DR that will satisfy all three requirements: the pressure. Normally. If so. i.e. and the pullback load. (One exception to this is internal vacuum. which must be combined with the external pressure. If the borehole collapses or deforms substantially. then the installation (pullback) forces are considered. The slurry itself may act to keep the borehole open. Including River Crossings (4) when preparing an HDD design. If the borehole does not deform (stays round) after drilling. There is a high safety factor applied to the internal pressure. earth . and groundwater service loads. One important factor in determining what load reaches the pipe is the condition of the borehole. The designer will then determine if this DR is sufficient to withstand earth. This is permissible primarily since PE is a ductile material and failure is usually driven by the average stress rather than local maximums. The pressure acting on the pipe is the hydrostatic pressure due to the slurry or any groundwater present. and internal pressurization significantly reduces stresses due to external loads by re-rounding. This methodology is applied to designing municipal water pipe crossings as shown in Petroff (6). the boring techniques.) Figure 1 Borehole Deformation Design Considerations for Net External Loads This and the following sections will discuss external buried loads that occur on directionally drilled pipes. whether it stays round and open or collapses. Although there can be some pipe wall stresses generated by the combination of internal pressurization and wall bending or localized bearing. earth loads are arched around the borehole and little soil pressure is transmitted to the pipe. live.
and cuttings). the applied external pressure is equal to the combined earth. earth and groundwater the net external pressure or. out.) = Groundwater in the event of vacuum) gWH (3) psi (4) PGW =MUD H BW UD = Hydrostatic g pressure of drilling slurry or groundwater P SUR in 2 PMUD = carry2 shear stress. Stable due to earth pressure.) H g MUD B nit weight of slurryPMUD surcharge pressures pcf in Eq. and the applied pressure will is not a the geostatic e uniform. The applied pressure likely equals the geostatic pressure between the inside and on the of the stress (sometimesbetween the pipe and the soil. psi (negative in the event of vacuum) ft ft WHERE = pressures PMUD pressure due Hydrostatic fluidweight Hydrostatictopressure of surface water. Groundwater loadingstay open with little or is stiff clay. ground water. for example. inor. in and surcharge pressures usedpsi Eq. ground water. which will remain in the lineChapter 12 Horizontal ead may be subtracted from the external pressure dueDirectional Drilling to oad. as it is sometimes called. surface water should be here: Standing pressure. Where no tunnel arching occurs. 2 (open borehole): pressure unless considerable tunnel arching occurs above the borehole. external pressure is ns canorno used to only Eq. Earth e relative stiffness called the prism load). after total collapse of the borehole crown ontodefined occurdeposit will by ehole loadato height of cover. On onis detailedpositive ing the called. N the event vacuum) Ppsi (2) nal pressure. If the soil earth condition. (open pressure is deformation. the lowing equations caninbe pipe results establish the net external pressure or.)pressure. arching above the borehole may occur. PGW PSUR PI little ernal pressure will typically result in a stable borehole. as head external or to be just slurry eforms collapsed borehole) In this case. ach used to when the borehole deforms and contacts river n be the pipe establishlive-load pressure. epending onPSUR Pborehole condition. design. Eq. even the pipe. the net external pressure is defined by either (deformed/collapsed borehole) or Eq. 2 (open borehole): Groundwater Pressure Only Eq. psi are negligible. Thus. andg surcharge of slurry (drilling mudused in pcf andare discussed inor groundwa Eq. and the net external pressure unconsolidated soil loadsoils. to (2) r in some(2) pressure the slurry exerts sufficient pressure soils PMUD PI nd open hole. ftpsi H B pressure. The designer should keep in mind that the external load me. Due to this complexity. ifpressure. (including the height of river water). or question is d.) differenceslurrylowest point in borehole and entry or exit pit. The following internal borehole) or Eq. aand loads reaching net pipe depends the inside pe. of PGW PSURIn PI the (1) overt external pressures such as slurry head and groundwater. psi (negativepressure (including the height of river water) Internal chapter. = Elevation (144 is included for units conversion. what loads outsidethe the differential pressure between the inside and reach of thus in fact control (1) et external remains round and deforms (1) after drilling. the the pressurethe pipe. if between can carry shear stress. ft (144 is included for unitsMUD H B g conversion. the net external pressure is defined the PE PPGW PMUD IPI (1) (2) N her Eq. psi 144 in (3) PI = Internal 2 2 144 pressure. a ground 1 drilling slurry ater. 1Depending on the borehole condition.psi pressure of to earth pressure. and surcharge pressures used in PGW = chapter. psi P N = Net to the pipe = Net external pressure. In consolidated soils. Since the deformations around the hole are WHERE urcharge and live loads. and in evationsection of this chapter. psi if slurry can =carry shearloads. psi (negative in thepressure. psithe hydrostatic MUD PI of due to the slurry or (negative in P pressure consists only of pressure due to earth pressure. as it isthe bed groundwater.) PMUD 2 . atmospheric pressure external pressure other hand. little arching to the pipe will dependoutside extent of differentialtransmitted is anticipated . the borehole may cemented. psigroundwater Hydrostatic Groundwater4 givesdrilling slurry or pressure due to present. 429 pressure will be applied UNDWATER PRESSURE to the pipe. 2 (open borehole): ormed/collapsedmay in the to consult a geotechnical engineer il.)2 and lowing difference between lowest point in borehole(3) 12 144 ft try or exit pit. the differential pressure between the inside and outside of the pipe. 1to discussed in a followingin a psi 1 are discussed section of this (Earth. psi PE = External = External = pressuredue(including the height of river water). The resulting pressure could exceed the slurry the stabilityaddition toborehole. psi ssure. the designerpressure wishpipe may mediate the external pressure. if slurry canSurcharge and live loads. 1 (deformed/collapsed borehole) or Eq. PEquation pressure the hydrostatic GW W = Groundwater pressure psi PSUR Surcharge and live stress. psi ompetent rock roundwater PN where(including the height of river water). therelikely be less thansimple stress. ermining equations can be used to establish loads.tain fluid will have a static head. 2the appliedwhether likelynot thethe slurry it is or benot. MUD = Unit of this chapter. themaygroundwater head.shear stress. psi added to the PI =PN Internal = Net external event of vacuum) si PMUDE Hydrostatic pressure ofpressure groundwater pressure. 1 are discussed in (drilling mud2 and cuttings). used arth. For PN PE psi stable if it pressure. The external load s transmitted external pressure.the net or partially lithified. the establish the netborehole):pressure or. psi P = = External drilling slurry or due areearth slurry can carry UR = Surcharge and live loads. as it used to in an increase in external pressure due to the internal vacuum the metimes removal ofthe differential from inside between the defined by outside of t he borehole condition. For river crossings. flooding.
consideration should be given to the time the line sits unpressurized after construction. for example. For instance. there is not a simple equation for relating earth load to height of cover. the only question is whether or not the slurry head is higher and thus may in fact control design. that is. its effective properties depend on duration of loading. As each of these cases could result in a different net external pressure. as the loads reaching the pipe depend on the nature of the soil.Groundwater Pressure Only A borehole is called stable if it remains round and deforms little after drilling. careful consideration must be given to the duration of each load. what loads reach the pipe will depend on the stability of the borehole. PE pipe is viscoelastic.430 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling When calculating the net external pressure. In addition to determining the load. the designer will give careful consideration to enumerating all applied loads and their duration. the designer will consider all phases of the line’s life to establish the design cases. (3) flooding. Most directionally drilled lines that contain fluid will have a static head. This head may be subtracted from the external pressure due to earth/ groundwater load. Earth loading may not be uniform. an HDD conduit resists constant groundwater and soil pressure with its long-term apparant modulus stiffness.. the net external pressure equals the sum of the external pressure plus the vacuum. most pipelines go through operational cycles that include (1) unpressurized or being drained. which can be four times higher than the longterm apparent modulus. In fact. For pressure lines. For instance. The designer may wish to consult a geotechnical engineer for assistance in determining earth and groundwater loads. which will remain in the line once filled. (2) operating at working pressure. When a vacuum occurs. (4) shutdowns. Since surge is instantaneous. Groundwater loading will occur whether the hole deforms or not. The designer should keep in mind that the external load also may vary with time. On the other hand. an HDD force-main may be subjected to a sudden vacuum resulting from water hammer. and (5) vacuum and peak pressure events. This may be several months. Thus. flooding. Earth and Groundwater Pressure Earth loads can reach the pipe when the borehole deforms and contacts the pipe. Stable Borehole . Due to this complexity. it is resisted by the pipe’s short-term apparant modulus. The amount of soil load transmitted to the pipe will depend on the extent of deformation and the relative stiffness between the pipe and the soil. drilling in competent rock (rock that can be drilled without fracturing and .
However.) Borehole Deforms/Collapse With Arching Mobilized When the crown of the hole deforms sufficiently to place soil above the hole in the 12 plastic state. The external loador onsists only soilsthe hydrostatic pressure due tomaintain a round and open some of where the slurry exerts sufficient pressure to the slurry nsists only ofSince the 4 gives the hydrostatic to the pressures orto present. it becomes the designer’s chore to determine how much earth load is applied to the pipe. there is no earth load on the pipe.the external load be the pipe consiststhe to the pipe 4 gives The hydrostatic pressure out. Equation the hydrostatic pressure due should the added to the 4 gives the hydrostatic pressure due to groundwater or drilling slurry. Stable mpetent rock will typically result in a stable borehole. 6. (4) g H (4) PGW = W H W W g W 2 (4) PGW = in 144 2 in 144 2ft 2 ft WHERE Hydrostatic fluid pressure due to ground and surface water. Petroff (9).. It is suggested that the designer become familiar with all of the assumptions used with these methods. The volume of the cavity is eventually filled with soil that is slightly less dense than the insitu soil. It is based on trench type arching as opposed to tunnel arching and is used by Stein (8) to calculate loads on jacked pipe. the hydrostaticaround the holeduesmall. pcf HW = Height to free water surface above pipe. Since the deformations aroundStable boreholesare occur in transmitted to will typically result in a stable borehole. For additional information on post installation design of directionally drilled pipelines see Petroff (9). al. soil slurry transmitted Equation deformations pressure are pressure due esent. In this state. it is reasonable to assume that some amount of arching occurs in many applications. This method of load calculation gives a minimal loading. O’Rourke et. Equation are negligible. The external load collapsing) transmitted to the pipe are negligible. Stein and O’Rourke’s methods 12 . there have been no published reports giving calculation methods for finding earth load on directionally drilled pipes. For ompetent rock will typically deforms little after drilling. For Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling able if it remains round and result in a stable borehole. the hole may the pipe are negligible. PGW = Hydrostatic fluid pressure due to ground and surface water. At the time of this writing. Based on the successful performance of directionally drilled PE pipes. gw = Unit weight of water. hole. The method published here is more conservative. if present. the maximum earth load (effective stress) is found using the modified form of Terzaghi’s equation given by Eq. Standing surface water shouldapplied toadded due to of to only t. (7) published an equation for determining the earth pressure on auger bored pipes assuming a borehole approximately 10% larger than the pipe. ft (144 is included for correct units conversion. If no soil touches the pipe. In this model. hole deformation is limited. Since the deformations around the hole s open hole. psi ydrostatic fluid pressure due to ground and surface water. but still capable of transmitting soil load. Stable in some soils where the slurry exerts sufficient pressure to n some soils where the slurry exerts sufficient pressure to are nd open hole. Standing surface waterto the slurry or be groundwater. Standing surface water should be added to the groundwater. arching occurs above the pipe similar to that in a tunnel where zones of loosened soil fall onto the pipe. The designer of HDD pipes may gain some knowledge from the approaches developed for determining earth pressure on auger bored pipes and on jacked pipes. In Stein’s model. when deformation is sufficient to transmit load to the pipe. External groundwater pressure must be added to the effective earth pressure. arching is mobilized.oundwater Pressure Only 431 stable if it remains round and deforms little after drilling.
be considered where cover arching pipe arching (typically areexceeding five (5) pipe has sufficient arching loads as traffic (typically exceeding five the soil diameters). prism Prism Load g may occur on the pipe. pcf PE external earth B = “silo”=width. = “silo” width. exceeding[?conditions are] external by traffic in Stein. The prism load is most likely to g may occur on the pipe. the cover has sufficient be is sufficient by ansmit arching.ft coefficient given by: depth of width.are considered where thethe soilconfirmed to develop arching [?conditions are] (typically and five (5) nsmit arching. ft internal friction. External 432 Chapter 12 d formbe of Terzhaghi’s effective given by Eq. it is the saturated unit weight to weight of borehole diameter.2 tan tan 1 222 in 144 ft 2 144 2 B B 2 2 k ft ft (6) (6) KH CC dd KH δ 1 − exp . it is with Prism A nit weight less the weight diameter.Load the groundwater level. It approach is The 45 pipe diameterthe borehole diameter. psi (6) KHC d gSE = effective soil2weight. boreholes in unconsolidated sediments such . Stein and must be added considered where the depth of cover is the effective earth pressure. External of added to the equation given by Eq. pcf = arching factor ft HC depth 13 cover. ft K B = pressure d = angle of = arching δ = angle wallfriction. degrees E f 13 k= factor = “silo” arching13 =B = earth “silo” width. gSE = external=ofof cover. (The effective soil weight silo width equals 2and the borehole diameter.given inin Stein. It varies between f ameter=and2“silo” width should bediameter. d = f) factorof wall friction.6. degreesdegreesf)(For HDD. depth ofsoilhas sufficient a as trafficshould loads and insignificant. It is the dry between be equals the borehole diameter. degrees (For HDD. k effective= soilofweight. In the event that arching doeslevel. A conservative approach is nit weight less theofweight soil below the groundwater level. ft pressure. External ed form Horizontal Directional Drilling equationearth pressure.stress) ed model the maximum earth given by Eq. (The effective soil weight varies unit t weight silo the soil for soil above the groundwater level.2 external pressure is given below: Kg SE H C B 2 (5) P (5) k Kg H C C EV Kg SESE H2 (5) (5) PEVEV P in 2 KHCKH C d d 144 inexp . considerable Collapse with load is most likely to develop in shallow applications subjected to live loads. The weight arching in load issoilweight of the soil prism (PE = gSEHthe groundwater t that less thethe the the above the soil below C)down.2 tan 2 B tan 2 B 2 k= PEV = external earth pressure. it the upper limit on weight of water for pipe breaks above the pipe. Stein and Terzhaghi’s must must be only betoto the effective earth pressure. and [?conditions are] dynamic loads such by a a loads ansmit the equations given pipe diameters). effective soil weight is equals thebased borehole diameter. d = f) K= pressure coefficient given by: tan 45 Kwall pressure coefficient given by: = angle of 2 angle of internal friction. considerable pse with Prism Loadsoil above the pipe breaks develop in shallow the pipe. considerable earth In the the borehole loading may occur on above the groundwater not occur. pcf tan δ B 2 HC = depth of cover. d = f) V d = angle earth pressure. In the event that arching does not occur. psi (6) k = arching factor Where gSE = effective soil weight. A conservative approach is to assume the is width should widthestimated based on the application. psi HC = deptheffective soil weight. In the event that arching does not occur. the confirmed as are equationsthe soil has sufficient the external pressure insignificant. degrees degrees f = angle of 2 f K = earth earth friction. the external pressure Using the equations given Stein. s traffic loadsonlyareinsignificant. psi wall friction. confirmedpressure Using arching. the on the load is the weight of the soil prism (PE = ySEHC) [do you mean t that arching in the down.ein’smodel the maximum earth load (effective stress) isis n’s form of Terzhaghi’s equation load (effective6.) the groundwater of water for soil below less the weight silo width estimated water for on the application. δ = f = angle of internal friction. = = angle of internal friction. (For HDD. 6. ftpcf degrees (For HDD. Stein and should added shouldonly(typically exceeding five thedepth ofofcover isis ould onlybe considered where the(5) depth diameters). the s subjected to live loads. Aonconservative varies between the to K tan the −borehole estimated based the application. (The effective soil weight is width equals Prism Load of water for soil below the groundwater Collapse withevent that arching in the soil above the pipe breaks down. insignificant. thetan Using the equationsexp . degrees f = earth pressure2coefficient given by: K tan 45 2 width should be estimated based on the application. internal friction to transmit arching. ft cover. (The It varies between should be t weight the the soil for soil above conservative approach is to the of borehole ter and Borehole Collapsediameter. it is the of ameter and thethe soil for soil above the groundwater level. is the ight of the soil for soil the pipe. ft PEV = external earth pressure. (5) pipe diameters). and Using the conditions are confirmed by a geotechnical engineer. KH C d 1 given in Stein.
is subjected confidence that the directionally given by pipe g SE H C essure from theg SE H C 2 combined with the water nation of(7) PE and Groundwater Pressure Earth sediments above it(7) PE (7) in ation of Earth and Groundwater Pressure 2 144 in 144 ft 2 in the soil formation.) ft above it combined with the water effective weight of pipe pcf arth pressure is included for units surface crown. the tire pressure ied toD the pipe dependsof soil. ft drillingThe weight of water. For instance.formation. pcf 144 2 2 ft Live Loads ft = weight of water. pcf g HC gWH W Wheel loads from trucks or other vehicles are significant for pipe at shallow depths = dry unit weightPof soil.) asonableWhere groundwater is D the directionally drilled pipemustsubjected confidence thatpresent in H Wsoil formation. The “prism” load is s. boreholes in likely to develop in shallow f Earthto prism load is most unconsolidated sediments such jected and Groundwater Pressure cted to holes subjected to in unconsolidated sediments such gs.term. pcf oads Be speed.that the directionallycombined withsubjected = effective= weight of pipe psi Eearth pressure from soil. The “prism” load be water is present in the soil formation.Bpcfby open cut trenching or directional drilling.) . psi the For formation.e.oneholes asonable subjected to dynamic loads. atis present in the soil = soil144 is included for units conversion. ft soil.it W river crossing one can the water PGW the sediments above in a W (8) with assume with ressure for in combined in 2 reasonable confidence that the directionally drilled pipe is subjected to the earth 14 144 ft 2 pressure from the sediments above it combined with the water pressure. in itsriver crossing onebe ted for inPthe externalpipe. soil. a pressure must can load E dwith in the==earth pressure on of soil. pcfat least 18” or one pipe diameter (whichever is buoyant weight ofbepcf om trucks= or other vehiclesinstalledsignificant for pipe at shallow are weight of should W gare = dry unit by open cut trenching springline. its pressure is be accounted the g BH W g H g H PE from the external load term. the occur is the pipe. The “prism” load is drilled Eq. pipe in river bottom) 2): Water H = Height of Ground water above pipe springline.e.ay occur on the pipe. Thelive loads. its pressure must be groundwater is present ft 2 WHERE groundwater is present in term. pcf HC soil height above the sediments above it drilled pipe is the water == soil height above soil. ft = buoyant weight of soil. the external load of EarthFor Groundwater in a river crossing one can ote: height above pipe crown. of soil. pavement and distance frompressureftto the W = Height of Groundftft 2 = the pipe Cvehicle speed. pipe in river bottom) (8) gB = buoyant weight of soil.e.crown. ft Height of Ground H W =applied the pipe depends on the vehicle weight. In order to develop pcf soil structure interaction. In the event that arching does not occur. the e load on the weight of the soil prism (PE = ySEHC) [do you mean 12 433 Chapter Horizontal mean load isThe weight of the is most likely =toSEHC) [do you shallow the prism load soil prism (PE y develop in Directional Drilling pipe. and instance. pipe. its pressure must is boreholes in term.CFor instance. in in some crossing and can n the external loadunconsolidated sediments such asa riverriver crossings. proper HC =point of loading. its pressure must be (Note: 144 from the sediments water or below ground level re. pcf Pressure directionally river crossing one can for reasonable on load psi that the =Earth pressure weightpipe. ft . and live loads. and holes subjected to dynamic loads. 2 ft ft Case 2 Water level at or above ground surface (i. Pressure e: 144 is included for units conversion. The wheel PE (9) GW 2 whether they are installed inwater above pipe springline. pcf (i. HH loadHeighttosurface smoothness. conversion. of Cover. surface smoothness. in = buoyant weight of soil. boreholes dynamic loads. ft PEft+ PGW = (9) in C = Height D =above ground surface 144 2pipe in river bottom) g of Cover. Height of Cover. pipe subject to gB = buoyant weight of gBg= vehicular loadingwater. In the event that arching does not occur. pcf C = Height of Cover. 7. r level at or dry unit weight of soil.e. soil instance. pcf g H + gWH = Height =of GroundE water above+ g W H W W P (9) g B C gW weight of water. ft n Combination term. ft level W Water level at or above ground surface (i. pcf + PGW = B H C pipe 2springline. and size. pipe in river bottom) g BH W g D HC H W g W H W PE (9) GW P (8) gBHC g W H W PE PGW (9) in 2 144 2 2 in 144 ft ft 2 WHERE at or above ground surface (i. in a drilled pipe is subjected earth andexternal of Groundwater e gSE effective confidence earth pressure confidence ft with reasonable on pipe. the tire 144water above pipe springline.e. 14 ): Water level at or below ground surface Water level at or below ground surface Case 1 Water level at or below ground surface g H + g (H C − H W ) + g W H PE + PGW = B H W W g D (D C − H W ) + g W H W W (8) g B + H PE + PGW = (8) in 2 level at or below ground surface 144 2 2 in level at or above ground surface 144 pipe in river bottom) (i. For instance. pcf W = installed weight pcfabove pipe or directional Hthey Height of Ground water W = gD g = dry unit weight on the vehicle weight. pavement and distance from the W HC = height of cover.
selecting a trial pipe DR. the design is sufficient. the designer selects a lower DR and repeats the process. the modulus of elasticity is a timedependent property. HDD pipes are always installed at a deeper depth so as to prevent inadvertent returns from occurring during the boring.434 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling larger) under the road surface. vacuum and live load applied to the HDD pipe produces (1) a compressive ring thrust in the pipe wall and (2) ring bending deflection. its value changes with time under load. If the safety factor is adequate. The safety factor is established for each performance limit of the pipe by taking the ratio of the pipe’s ultimate strength or resistance to the applied load. groundwater. The soil pressure due to live load such as an H20 wheel load can be found in Tables 3-3 and 3-4 in Chapter 6 or can be calculated using one of the methods in Chapter 6. See Figure 2. PL. to the earth pressure. A newly applied load increment will cause a decrease in apparent stiffness over time. add the soil pressure due to live load. If not. External pressure from earth load. PE.e. The performance limit of unsupported PE pipe subjected to compressive thrust is ring buckling (collapse). For viscoelastic materials like PE. See Example 1 in Appendix A. Viscoelastic Behavior Both performance limits are proportional to the apparent modulus of elasticity of the PE material. To find the total pressure applied to the pipe. Performance Limits Hydrostatic Buckling or Collapse Ring Deformation Figure 2 Performance Limits of HDD Pipe Subjected to Service Loads Performance Limits of HDD Installed Pipe The design process normally consists of calculating the loads applied to the pipe. Generally. then calculating the safety factor for the trial DR. i. The performance limit of a PE pipe subjected to ring bending (a result of non-uniform external load. Unloading will . earth load) is ring deflection. that is.
Ovalization reduces the pipe’s hydrostatic collapse resistance and creates tensile . Ring Deflection (Ovalization) Non-uniform pressure acting on the pipe’s circumference such as earth load causes bending deflection of the pipe ring. The values are given as a function of the duration of continuous loading. Typical safe pull tensile stress values for MDPE and HDPE are given in Table 1. For instance.1. TaBLE 1 Safe Pull Tensile Stress @ 73º F Duration (Hours) 0. The result is a higher resistance to short term loading than to long-term loading. “Tensile Stress During Pullback”.60 factor to account for the high stress level during pullback.5 1 12 24 Typical Safe Pull Stress (psi) @ 73ºF PE2xxx (PE2406) 1100 1050 850 800 PE3xxx (PE3408) 1400 1350 1100 1050 PE4xxx (PE4710) 1500 1400 1150 1100 The safe pull stress is the stress at 3% strain. the pipe’s tensile yield strength decreases with pulling time. The stress values in Table 1 were determined by multiplying 3% times the apparent tensile modulus from the Appendix to Chapter 3 adjusted by a 0. For pipe temperatures (not outside air temperatures) other than 73ºF. Slight ovalization may also occur during pullback if the pipe is pulled around a curved path in the borehole. The Safe Pull Load at 12 hours is given for a variety of pipe sizes and DR’s in Tables 3 and 4 (3xxx material) and Tables 5 and 6 (4xxx material) in a following section. but the primary sources of bending deflection of directionally drilled pipes is earth load. and temperature. Normally. multiply the value in Table 1 by the temperature compensating multipliers found in Table B. The same effects occur with the pipe’s tensile strength. the deflected shape is an oval. For strains less than 3% the pipe will essentially have complete strain recovery after pullback. Ovalization may exist in non-rerounded coiled pipe and to a lesser degree in straight lengths that have been stacked. during pullback. so that the performance limit associated with that load can be calculated using PE material properties representative of that time period. so the safe (allowable) pulling stress is a function of time under load.2 of the Appendix to Chapter 3. Consult the manufacturer for specific applications.Horizontal Directional Drilling Chapter 12 435 result in rebounding or an apparent gain in stiffness. Careful consideration must be given to the duration and frequency of each load.
It is normal and expected for buried PE pipes to undergo ovalization.e. Researchers have excavated pipe installed by HDD and observed some tendency of the annular space soil to return to the condition of the undisturbed native soil. Proper design and installation will limit ovalization (or as it is often called “ring deflection”) to prescribed values so that it has no adverse effect on the pipe. Design deflection must be limited to control buckling resistance. Consistency (or stiffness) depends on several factors including soil density. Ring Deflection Due to Earth Load As discussed previously. it may be weeks or even months before significant resistance to pipe deflection develops. (Coincidentally.) The soil surrounding the pipe may contribute to resisting the pipe’s deflection. Methods for calculating estimated earth loads. In an HDD installation. are likely not applicable as the HDD installation is different from installing pipe in a trench where the embedment can be controlled. Field deflection measurements of directionally drilled pressure pipe are normally not made. The mixture’s consistency or stiffness determines how much resistance it contributes. Equation 10 gives the same deflection as the Iowa Formula with an E’ of zero. The designer can check to see if the selected pipe is stiff enough to limit deflection and provide an adequate safety factor against buckling. the annular space surrounding the pipe contains a mixture of drilling mud and cuttings. such as Spangler’s Iowa Formula. a decrease in vertical diameter and an increase in horizontal diameter. It is important to note that the researched installations were located above groundwater. The design deflection limits for directionally drilled pipe are given in Table 2.” Since earth load is non-uniform around a pipe’s circumference.) Spangler’s Iowa formula is discussed in Chapter 6. . when they occur. one option is to ignore any soil resistance and to use Equation 10 which is derived from ring deflection equations published by Watkins and Anderson (13). the pipe will undergo ring deflection. Until further research establishes the soil’s contribution to resisting deflection. i. (Buckling is discussed in a later section of this chapter. Formulas used for entrenched pipe. Design deflection limits are for use in selecting a design DR.436 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling bending stresses in the pipe wall. See Knight (11) and Ariaratnam (12). While there may be consolidation and strengthening of the annular space soil particularly above the groundwater level. are given in the previous section on “Earth and Groundwater Pressure. insitu soil characteristics and borehole stability determine to great extent the earth load applied to directionally drilled pipes. grain size and the presence of groundwater. where excess water in the mud-cuttings slurry can drain.
0 5. psi 19 = Modulus of elasticity (apparent).5 (or no constraint from the soil. and upper limit * Design F1962. ons are for use in selecting DR and for field quality control.3 Deflection Limit (% Δy/D) Non-Pressure Applications WHERE 7. However. %* the soil. one option is to ignore Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling nce and to use Equation 10 which is derived from ring deflection shed by Watkins and Anderson (1995). Long Term. case.0 3.5 times the short-term deflection limits applications E = apparent modulus of elasticity.5 11 9 7.5 7. in E = Earth pressure. (Field deflection in percent.” On the hoop r .5 in 6.5 Applications (11) 2E 1 3 fO PUC = ( ) (11 UA 2 N (1 .5 7. Due to grout tends to re-round drillingthebucklingring compressive hoopallow the to increase the pipe’s bending strain is and stress in it pipe’s wall. in ations D = pipe diameter.1 μ ua = Allowable unconstrained pressure. pressurized pipes is increased to strains from both hoop stress e external pressure are subject to a point where the soil induced internal pressure. (Coincidentally. psi (Refer to Appendix. psi * To obtain ring deflection in percent. groundwater supportequation.0125PE = D E 12 (DR .0 4. Engineering Properties.5 7. al pressure deflectionPipe or the Under Obstacles.5 pipe wall strain. nificant support deflectionpipe’s buckling strength and allow it 3 can be higher external pressure may take considerable time to develop.3 etermine furtherallowable external15.soil’s contribution to resisting deflection. an engineering analysis of such pipe Design Deflection Limits n Limits (Ovality Limits) rmed before acceptance.5 13.are equal to 1. knowntime toLevy’s Therefore. multiplydeflection do not necessarily indicate ctions exceeding the design y/D by 100. there is a sudden the Uniform stress.5 7. r-strainedTaBLE 2 In this of Buried Polyehtylene Pipe.5 13. %* pipe. 7.0 6. the mud-cuttings mixture used. the research is available it is conservative to assume negative internal pressure 11 nconstrainedfollowing. soil or cementitious wall.0 deflection. However. Constraining the pipe by embedding it in In lieu of an pipes to less installed below the groundwater level n it pressure calledthat pipes than non-pressure pipes. Ratio of = Pipe Dimension for the Material Designation Code of the PE pipe being used and the applicable appropriate value service conditions) E = modulus of elasticity. Long Term. t (%y/D) allowable external pressure (or negative internal pressure) for unconstrained pipe. or ed buckling. Jansen observed 6.0 stability.0 3.5 7.) (10) 437 y Δy 0. subjected to soil Use offrom only. stress in the design point of PE creates seems to compressivebending strain. Unconstrained Buckling and large inward deformationaofhigh. in D = pipe Pdiameter. there is a sudden and large inward deformation of the pipe of is not likely buckling. psi . Chapter 3.5 7. 17 21 9 7. However. pipe.0 4.5 7. If the external pressure is increased to a point where the hoop stress r external pressure than if unconstrained. as noted in to combined strain (bending and hoop tensile)..5geometric 6. Including to either Maxi-Horizontal Directional live Placement of al the drilling slurryview Conduit a ring exist for River Crossings.5 7. as noted in a previous section further it is not likely that Table 3 it is the groundwater level will acquire no research is pipes installed below conservative to assume available significant support from the surrounding mud-cuttings mixture and for pipe above flection Limits of Buried Polyehtylene Pipe. equation. for the DR ASTM F-714. 6.5 ring deflection (in percent) is limited by the 7. the by either from earth it in soil is applied to pipe embedding pressure r-fiber tensile external pressure the pipeas the internal and live load. equation. multiply Δy/D by 100.0 Pressure Applications essure-rated appliedlimits per ASTM pipeGuide forpressure earth “no Drilling for load.5 7.5 7. may be used to determine the The pipe. untilmay The following may take considerable as develop.0 6. The combined strain may produce al value. it is conservative a reaches a critical value. oundwater support than if unconstrained.0 y = ring ring deformation. the Buckling Deflection Limit (%Δy/D) c capacity.5 7. or the and slurry creates a strength reduced.1) 3 (10) (%y/D) Δy = vertical ring7. Constraining pipe will groundwater.) DR or SDR 21 17 15. known as Levy’s equation.m ) DR .0 5. on for allowable from the surroundinglimits in Table to withstandand for grout will increase the limits. and the pipe’s7. psi Ratio P pressureDR = Pipe Dimension psi orE = Earth pressure. Equation me deflection as the Iowa Formula with an E’ of zero.
Engineering Properties. which is discussed in a later section of this chapter.(22). Eq.45 for polyethylene Mean diameter. the following variation of of the anticipated load. in μ = Poisson’s Ratio = 0. Chapter 3.e. Note that the apparent mum wall thickness). is Love's equation When modulus of elasticity is a function of the duration selecting a modulus to use in Equation 11 consideration should be given to internal pressurization of the line.0 or higherCorrection Factor. vs. groundwater and/or slurry. an additional reduction for tensile stresses is required. 0. When the pressure in the pipe exceeds the external pressure due to earth and live load.= = = = = = t3/12 for solid wall polyethylene 438 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling Poisson’s ratio.45 for all PE pipe materials fo = Ovality compensationFigure figure 3) factor (see 10-1 DR = Dimension Ratio (Do/t). it is included here because in some . Pipe average diameter. Ovality % Deflectiongenerally 2. However.for the Material Designation Code of the PE pipe being used and the for the appropriate value in applicable Pipe minimum service conditions. 10-2. the stress in the pipe wall reverses from compressive to tensile stress and collapse will not occur..) diameter. where Do =Outside Pipe Diameter and t = Minimum Wall Thickness N = Safety factor. Wall Compressive Stress The compressive stress in the wall of a directionally drilled PE pipe rarely controls design and it is normally not checked. dimensionless (see Figure 10-1) D −D min WHERE × 100 where P%=Deflection = buckling pressure uc Allowable unconstrained D E = Apparent modulus of elasticity. f Figure 3 Ovality Compensation Factor=fo buckling pressure of a dimension ratio (DR) series polyethylene pipe (i. a For a wall pipes of detailed discussion of buckling see the section in Chapter 6 titledspecified outside different diameters but with the same ratio of “Unconstrained Pipe Wall Buckling (Hydrostatic Buckling). psi (Refer to Appendix. For determining the pipe’s resistance to buckling during pullback. inches (inside diameter plus one wall thickness) Ovality compensation factor.
in = (Positive) internal pressure.uch as directional drilling at very deep depths such as in Chapter 12 design. psf mpressivePSwall stress. For PE4710 PE pipe grade resins. 1150 psi is a safe allowable stress. The pipe’s collapse resistance to external pressure given in Equation 2 is reduced by the axial pulling force. in th load pressures. For other materials see the Appendix of Chapter 3. DO-t. Buried pressure depths be subject to net compressive t low pressures may stress when shut down or when experiencing vacuum. the stress consideredto the in the pipe wall. ressive stress pressure applied todown pipe creates a compressive thrust stress The earth when shut a buried or when experiencing ually short-term conditions andis pressurized. the pipe may be subjected to external hoop pressures due to net external fluid head and bending stresses. in e outside Pdiameter. psi stress should be kept less than the allowable compressive stress of the material. psf t = Wall thickness. When the pipe are not typically is reduced due . the stress is reduced due to the ting tensile thrust stresses. In addition. Thepolyolefins positive or the short-term design stress of net stress can be is negative depending on the depth Pipes with large lines may of an the long-term design stress. psi The compressive n diameter. the frictional drag on the ground surface. psi hickness. psi DO = Pipe outside diameter. of cover. Buried pressure lines may be depth design. During pullback the pipe is subjected to axial tensile forces caused by the frictional drag between the pipe and the borehole or slurry. . the capstan effect around drill-path bends.DinMean diameter. Installation Design Considerations After determining the DR required for long-term service. g equation can short-term design determine the is considerably higher than the longbe used to stress of polyolefins net compressive since the term design stress. Pipes with large depths of cover and operating at low pressures may have net compressive stresses in the pipe wall. a lower DR (stronger pipe) may be required. DO-t. Furthermore. the designer must 22 determine if this DR is sufficient for installation. The net stress can be such as in landfills it special cases such as directional drilling at very deep depths positive g on themay controlof cover. The following equation can be used to determine the net compressive stress: (12) Sc = PS D O PD 2t 288t (12) = Earth load pressures. in wall stress should be kept less than the allowable compressive WHERE SC = Compressive wall stress. Since installation forces are so significant. since internal pressure creating tensile thrust stresses. These are have net compressive stresses in the usually short-term conditions and are not typically considered significant for design. EXaMPLE CaLCULaTIONS An example calculation for selecting the DR for an HDD pipe is given in Appendix A. Horizontal Directional Drilling 439 pplied to a buried pipe creates a compressive thrust stress n the pipe is pressurized. in = itive) internal pressure. and hydrokinetic drag.
Pullback values obtained should be considered only as qualitative values and used only for preliminary estimates. The ideal borehole behaves like a rigid tunnel with gradual curvature.000 lbs. capstan effect. Because of the large number of variables involved and the sensitivity of pullback forces to installation techniques. pull force. the formulas presented in this document are for guidelines only and are given only to familiarize the designer with the interaction that occurs during pullback. or close to the same. The designer is advised to consult with an experienced driller or with an engineer familiar with calculating these forces.) Considerable judgment is required to predict the pullback force because of the complex interaction between pipe and soil. to 500. does not exceed the permitted tensile stress for the pipe material. see Svetlik (15). Even though the . The following discussion assumes that the entry and exit pits of the bore are on the same. The axial tensile stress grows in intensity over the length of the pull. smooth alignment (no dog-legs). The ideal borehole may be approached with proper drilling techniques that achieve a clean bore fully reamed to its final size before pullback. The DR must be selected so that the tensile stress in the pipe wall due to the pullback force. and good slurry circulation. The majority of this power is applied to the cutting face of the reamer device/tool. programs such as DRILLPATH (14) and publications such as ASTM F1962 and ASCE MOP 108. which precedes the pipeline segment into the borehole.000 lbs. Sources for information include experienced drillers and engineers. no borehole collapses. The pulling force which overcomes the combined frictional drag.440 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling the drill path curvature may be limited by the pipe’s bending radius. The closer the bore is to ideal. Pullback Force Large HDD rigs can exert between 100. It is difficult to predict what portion of the total pullback force is actually transmitted to the pipeline being inserted. Typically. (Torsional forces occur but are usually negligible when back-reamer swivels are properly designed. Increasing the pipe wall thickness will allow for a greater total pull-force. and hydrokinetic drag. the more likely the calculated pullback force will match the actual. The tail end of the pipe segment has zero applied tensile stress for zero time. pullback force calculations are approximations that depend on considerable experience and judgment. The pullback formulas given herein and in DRILLPATH and ASTM F1962 are based on essentially an “ideal” borehole. nearly complete cuttings removal. The duration of the pullload is longest at the pull-nose. elevation. is applied to the pull-head and first joint of PE pipe. The incremental time duration of stress intensity along the length of the pipeline from nose to tail causes a varying degree of recoverable elastic strain and viscoelastic stretch per foot of length along the pipe. “Pipeline Design for Installation by Horizontal Directional Drilling”. For an overview.
level bores or across level ground. WB equals the buoyant force on the pipe minus the weight of the pipe and its contents. if any. The designer should carefully check all proposed DR’s. the pipe . Hence. the frictional the frictional drag between pipeor thedrilling slurry. level bores or across level ground. the pipe stops. (See the calculation examples. in straight. the moving drill mud lubricates the contact zone. (13) FP = mWB L (13) ng force.ted so that the tensile stress due to the pullback force does tted tensile stress for the pipe. thicker wall increases the weight per foot of the pipe. . thicker wall pipe generally reduces stress.capstan effect the entry area. 24 Water is added through a hose or small pipe inserted into the pullback pipe.slightly ring deflected by the buoyant force . If the drilling stops.can push up and squeeze out the lubricating mud. (16)). thicker wall arily reduce stress. and at bends. and stopping the pull only when removing drill rods. wB the buoyancy force and thus the pulling force. but the thicker wall also per foot of the pipe in direct proportion. ft When a slurry is present. lb/ft h. lb/ft L = length. pulling force for pipe pulled in straight. Filling the pipe with fluid significantly reduces is the upward buoyant force of pipe pipe and its sent. only increase the absolute value of the The designer should carefully check all proposedpullback force within the DR’s. and the nds. That is.ground surface in the drag between pipe and drilling slurry. Increasing the pipe wall Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling for a greater total pull-force. Equation 13 gives the required required pulling force for pipe pulled in straight. (See Kirby et al. The resultant “start-up” friction is measurably increased.40) friction between pipe and slurry (typically 0. level bores Equation 13. the pipe pe with fluid significantly reducesthe borehole leading toforce and the buoyancy the sidewall loading will want to “float” on the crown of and frictional drag through the buoyancy-per-foot force and the wetted soil to pipe coefficient of friction. PEthe has a density near that of water.) Note: The buoyant force pushing the empty pipe to the borehole crown will cause the PE pipe to “rub” the borehole crown. ft downward (or upward) force on pipe. doing “wet” pulls.40) ween pipewand ground (typically pipe.25) or between pipe and or B = net downward (or upward) force on 0. This situation is best avoided by using thicker (lower DR) pipes. 441 stance llback in Frictional Drag Resistance the borehole depends primarily on the frictional Pipe resistance to pullback in the boreholepipe and the on the frictional force n the pipe and the borehole or the depends primarily ground created between the pipe and the borehole pipe and the ea. the bore itself is not significantly affected by the increased weight. Equation 13 gives the frictional resistance or the weight of the pipe. Hence. the pipeline is filled with water as it starts to descend into the bore (past the breakover point). During pullback.25)ground (typically 0. and the weight of the pipe. lbs Flbs P = pulling ficient of m = coefficient of friction between pipe and slurry (typically 0.WHERE force. The pulling load to loosen the PE pipe from being “stuck” in the now decanted (moist) mud can be very high. or the mud flow stops. If the pipe is installed “dry” (empty) using a closed nose-pull head. Most major pullbacks are done “wet”. gives the frictional resistance or required pulling force for pipe pulled .
the force can be factored into horizontal and vertical h a radius of curvature similar to that used for steel pipe. As the pipe is pulledEq. Outside Plant Consulting shown in Figure N. Equations 13 and The is C Figure 4. radians w = weight of pipe or buoyant force on pipe. ng of the addition todueforce. (17) Services.71828) fficient ofm = coefficient of friction friction q =in pipe. lbs/ft ght of pipeBor buoyant force on pipe.J.] 442 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling hole. it may be steel pipe curved. 14.J. . Inc. these forces are bores with a radius of curvature pull to compounded by the pipe is pulled around a curve ortight bends. (14) Fc = e mq (mWB L) (14) ural logarithm base (e=2. radians le of bend angle of bend in pipe. 4.gress. Inc. ft WHERE 25 . Rockaway.14This method is credited for each section along the pullback distance as are applied recursively to the pipe to Larry Slavin. N. ft gth of pull. For For very tight the borehole to keep the prudent pipe due to the e frictional resistance during a similaris that used for steel pipe. 14.topulling pipeF for each capstan effectthegiven the ofpullback vectors. Outside ces.(3) shows an additional frictional force that occurs in pressureCapstan Force the borehole to keep the steel pipe required by For curves in the borehole.71828) e = Natural logarithm base (e=2.thecapstan effect increases frictional resistance when pulling forces this to the direction of the pulling vectors.curve or bend creating an angle there is a compounding of the forces due to direction the pulling ecursivelyq. lbs/ft L = Length of pull. shows an additional frictional force that occurs in steel nificant for PE pipe. This method is credited to Larry Slavin. along a curved effect is given in around a Equations 13 due to the capstan path. Rockaway. the force. the force can be factored into horizontal and vertical al. For very bend creating an angle q. due to the section along in Eq. In insignificant for PE pipe. pressure required bybends. components. it may be prudent to consider them. Huey et al.
then is theborehole diameter. then is area combined a fluid drag (18) coefficient of 0. in D = pipe outside diameter. in p = hydrokinetic pressure. TENSILE STRESS DURING PULLBACK The maximum outer fiber tensile stress is obtained by taking the sum of .OD 2 ) FHK = hydrokinetic force. the drilling slurry. FHK. of friction (ground (g) and borehole (b)) W Wp = Weight of pipeFigure 4 weight (p) and Buoyant pipe weight (b) (lb/ft) (lb/ft)= Pipe a. borehole and and depends on Typically. the This hydrokinetic force essure is estimated to be in the 30 toborehole and pipe sizes. pipe movement is resisted by the drag force of the drilling f This hydrokinetic force is difficult to estimate and depends on the drilling sl (15) p 2 slurry flowπrate pipe pullback rate. in force. in = hydrokinetic force. FP. For hydrokinetic force. lbs FHK = p (D H .Figure 4. For (15 ESS outer fiber tensile stress should not exceed the safe pull stress. During pulling. DURING PULLBACKFHK. pipe movement is resisted by the drag force of the drilling fluid. . Hydrokinetic Force pipe pullback rate. FP the hydrokinetic drag OD = different method for calculating ce. and borehole and pipe sizes. lbs Where: FHK OD = pipe outside diameter.the equals F4. lbs 8 = hydrokinetic pressure. plus the example HK shown in Figure 4. and is difficult to estimate pipe sizes. Typically. the slurry flow rate pipe pullback rate. then is FP combined pullback force. outer fiber tensile stress isfiber tensile stress should notsum of the safe pull str The maximum outer obtained by taking the exceed the force. FP equals F4.external surface the of the pipe bypullback force. Ittotal pull back force.025 lb/in2 after PucketttheThe total pull back force. Figure 4 During pulling. For the. of friction (ground (g) and borehole (b)) F4 = exp(m b b )(F3 + m b Wb L 4 − W H − exp(m b a )(m g W L exp(m g a ))) = Pipe weight (p) and Buoyant pipe bweight (b) (lb/ft) p 4 b = Entry WHERE and Exit angles (radians) F = exp(m a )(F + m W L + W H − m W L exp(m a )) Where: to point (ft) m = Coeff. F . hydrokinetic pressure is estimated to be in the 30 to 60 kPa (4 to 8 psi) range. psi DH = diameter. of friction (ground (g) and borehole (b)) m = Coeff. FP. FP. MOP 108 suggests shown in Figure 4. and 60 kPa (4 to 8 psi) range. b = Entry and Exit angles (radians) Figure 4 Estimated Pullback Force Calculation H = Depth of bore (ft) Fi = Pull Force on pipe at Point i (lb) Fi = Pull Force on pipe at Point i (lb) Li = Horizontal distance of Pull from point Li = Horizontal distance of Pull from point to point (ft) H = Depth of bore (ft) orce pipe movement is Force resisted Estimated Pullback Force Calculation by the drag force of the drilling fluid. example shown in FT hydrokinetic force.m b Wb L 2 Wb H m g Wp L 2 exp m g a Horizontal Directional Drilling Chapter 12 443 L3 exp m b a m gis "Wp3" exp m g a [What Wp L above?] F exp(m exp W a + L 2 + L exp ) m b Wb L 4 1 =Wb H g a )(m g m p (L1m g Wp L 3 + L 4 )m g a b 4 3 b b 2 b g p 2 g = Depth of 2bore (ft)b 1 = Pull Force on pipe at Point i (lb) F3 = F2 + m b W L − exp(m b a )(m g Wp L 3 exp(m a )) = Horizontal distance bof3 Pull from point to pointg (ft) = Coeff. FT. Hydrokinetic ic force is difficult to estimate and depends on the drilling slurry. plus The suggests multiplying the FT. plus the DH = combined pullback ASCE the example apipe outside diameter. in equals F4. psi ack force. in H = borehole borehole diameter.OD 2 ) (15) hydrokinetic pressure is estimated to be in the 30 to 60 kPa (4 to 8 psi) range 8 HK p WHERE 2 = hydrokinetic force. psi p = hydrokinetic pressure. b Entry Calculation Wb = Buoyant force on pipe minus weight of pipe and angles (radians) Estimated Pullback=Forceand Exitcontents (lb/ft) a. Typically. FHK p (D H .
psi FT = Total pulling force.other failsafe method and prevent in the pipe due the pullback or the hydrokinetic pulling force. psi sT = Axial stress. bending stress due to pipe curvature. the hydrokinetic pulling force. the time duration of stress intensity r--betweencontinuous process. for the appropriate value for modulus. During pullback it is advisable to monitor the pulling force and to use a “weak link” (such as a pipe of higher DR) mechanical break.t) (16) = Axial tensiletensile stress. to 60 minthe drill rod and then stops until the for may not be satisfactory result is that the pipe moves the length of ng. in radius of conditions R = Minimum radius of curvature in bore path. Time under load is an important previous section. As discussed in a consideration in selecting the tensile pipe is tensile strengthsensitive. due to the During Pullback e bending stress due fiber tensile stress should not exceed the safe pull stress. 16. During pullback. the pulling load-rate to use in calculating therefore values of “safe” pull force is not continually applied to the pipe. Tables 3 through 6 give safe pull loads for PE pipes based on a 12-hour pulls.” Tables 5 and 6 Tensile Load for Polyehtylene (PE) Gas Pipe during Pull-In Installation”.it is to pipe curvature. The pipe is not subjected to a constant tensile forceis time a 4 hours to 24 hours.)Allowable Tensile values for gas pipe during ASTM F-1807. to the tensile he pipe.away connector or other failsafe method to prevent over-stressing the pipe. in OD = Outer diameter of pipe. (16) ss occurring in the pipe wall during pullback is given by Eq. Asbe used. is inappropriate pipeline. During pullback The The maximum outer onitor the maximum outer fiber tensile stress isa “weak link” (such of the tensile stress pulling force and to use obtained by taking the sum as a pipe of chanical break-awaytoconnectorforce. Table 2 gives safe also referred to as thevalues for time in the Tables tensile stress allowable tensile load intervals. the can calculate a is load-rate a differentsensitive. st = E D FT + T OD 2R πt (D OD . in ET = Time-dependent apparent modulus. pull load (to limit elongation be the nce. The net d for a maximum of 30 min. in WHERE e stress due to tensilepulling forces should should not exceedthepipe’s safe pull the stress due to the pulling force not exceed the safe pull The axial Table 5 load. a previousdesignertensile strength of PE pipesafe pull can discussed in or the section. a 12-hour of the pipeline where the pull value will normally minimize “stretching” of thefor force is largest). however. oads for HDPE pipes. in = Minimum Minimumthickness. theappropriate pull time. the 60 min. as the driller must stop pulling after ght be satisfactory for sliplining or insert renewal where the pull extracting each drill rod in order to remove the rod from the drill string. lbs t = wall wall thickness. and the safe pull load. 16. Engineering Properties. With extracted rod is removed. lbs T = Total pulling force. manufacture forfor average wall values. pipe may take several hours (typically equal to the duration of the from the axial strain.444 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling n the pipeTensile Stresspullback force. in DOD = Outer diameter of pipe. The tensile stress occurring in the pipe wall during pullback is given by Eq. psi T = Time-dependent tensile the Material Designation Code of the PE pipe being used and the = Minimum applicable servicecurvature in bore path. the .some less “safe” A one-hour apparent modulus value might in safe for design. pipeline. “Practice for Determining Allowable hylene (PE) Gas Pipeare given inPull-In Installation. load may also safe pullback values thickness. psi (Refer to Appendix. The “safe” pullload and thus may relax or between pulls. The safe pull force value will3 through 6 is based on the minimum pipe wall“stretch” low be found using normally keep the pull-nose thickness and may and avoid ation of the HDPE (The safe pull Allowable be found using the average wallfor gas Equation 17. Chapter 3. When pulled from the reamed borehole. value. Pullback is an incremental (discrete) process rather than directional drilling. Check with the “Practice the Determining Allowable safe pullback in ASTM F-1807.
When pulled from the reamed borehole.Horizontal Directional Drilling Chapter 12 445 (17) WHERE FS = Safe Pull Force (lbs) ! TALLOW = Safe Pull Stress (psi) DOD = Outside Diameter (in) DR = Dimension Ratio After pullback. the driller may want to pull out about 4% extra length (40 feet per 1000 feet) to insure the pull-nose remains extended beyond the borehole exit. The elastic strain will recover immediately and the viscoelastic stretch will “remember” its original length and recover overnight. pipe may take several hours (typically equal to the duration of the pull) to recover from the axial strain. One does not want to come back in the morning to discover the pull-nose sucked back below the borehole exit level due to stretch recovery and thermal-contraction to an equilibrium temperature. . In the worst case. the pull-nose should be pulled out about 3% longer than the total length of the pull.
A.625 10.000 9 940 1232 1924 4179 6908 14973 25377 39423 55456 66863 87331 110528 136454 165110 196494 230608 267450 307022 N. 17 527 690 1079 2343 3872 8393 14225 22098 31086 37480 48954 61957 76490 92553 110146 129268 149920 172102 195814 221056 247827 337321 440582 N.A.000 30. N.000 54.900 2.A.000 36.000 24.000 20.000 28.000 16.000 34.625 8.A.A.446 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling TaBLE 3 PE 3xxx 12 hour Pull IPS Size Safe Pull Force.750 14. 11 787 1030 1610 3497 5780 12529 21235 32988 46404 55949 73076 92487 114182 138160 164422 192967 223796 256909 292305 329985 369949 N.A.A.000 32. N. lbs Size 1.000 48. *Tables are based on the Minimum Wall Thickness of Pipe . OD 1.A. N. 13.750 12. N.000 18.5 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 42 48 54 Nom.500 6.375 3.000 42.A.000 22.25 1.5 653 855 1336 2902 4797 10398 17623 27377 38511 46432 60646 76756 94760 114660 136454 160144 185729 213210 242585 273856 307022 417891 N.660 1. N. N.A.A.500 4. N.A.000 26. N.
A.A.600 25.A.050 11.500 50.800 9 7860 16241 27940 42031 59440 79856 103282 129717 159160 227074 349323 N.A.000 38. N.300 44.100 13.5 5458 11279 19403 29188 41277 55456 71724 90081 110528 157690 242585 347506 469121 N.A. 17 4406 9104 15662 23561 33319 44764 57895 72713 89218 127287 195814 280506 378673 493483 *Tables are based on the Minimum Wall Thickness of Pipe . 11 6577 13590 23379 35171 49738 66822 86424 108544 133182 190010 292305 418730 N.200 15. 13.A.Horizontal Directional Drilling Chapter 12 447 TaBLE 4 PE 3xxx 12 hour Pull DIPS Size Safe Pull Force. N.900 9.400 19. lbs Size 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 42 48 Nom. OD 4. N.300 17.800 6.800 32.500 21.
N. 13. N.660 1.500 4.000 24. N.A.A.A. 17 551 722 1128 2449 4048 8774 14872 23103 32499 39184 51179 64773 79967 96760 115152 135144 156735 179925 204715 231104 259092 352654 460609 N. N.000 16. lbs Size 1.000 32. N. N.A.000 54. N.625 10.000 36.500 6.A.000 18.A.000 42.000 30.A.000 28. OD 1.A. *Tables are based on the Minimum Wall Thickness of Pipe . 11 822 1077 1683 3656 6043 13098 22200 34487 48513 58492 76398 96691 119372 144440 171896 201739 233969 268587 305592 344985 386765 N.000 34.625 8.000 26.5 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 42 48 54 Nom.750 14.375 3.000 9 983 1287 2012 4369 7222 15653 26531 41214 57977 69902 91300 115552 142657 172615 205426 241090 279607 320978 N.900 2.448 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling TaBLE 5 PE 4xxx 12 hour Pull IPS Size Safe Pull Force.000 22.25 1.A.A. N.5 682 894 1397 3034 5015 10870 18424 28621 40262 48543 63403 80244 99067 119871 142657 167424 194172 222901 253612 286304 320978 436886 N.000 20.750 12.000 48.A.A.
OD 4. and along the pipe length while conveying reamed soil debris to the mud recovery pit. This external pressure is dependent upon specific drilling mud properties. PMUD. Some pressure is needed to pump drilling mud from the reamer tool into the borehole. lbs Size 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 36 42 48 Nom.800 6. this surge is eliminated. this calculation can be ignored. Thus. 17 4606 9518 16374 24632 34834 46799 60527 76018 93273 133073 204715 293256 395886 515914 *Tables are based on the Minimum Wall Thickness of Pipe External Pressure During Installation During pullback it is reasonable to assume that the borehole remains stable and open and that the borehole is full of drilling slurry.500 21. then. and hole configuration.200 15. This head can be offset by pulling the pipe with an open nose or filling the pipe with water for the pullback. this may not always be possible. then into the pipe annulus. N. for instance when installing electrical conduit.Horizontal Directional Drilling Chapter 12 449 TaBLE 6 PE 4xxx 12 hour Pull DIPS Size Safe Pull Force. 11 6876 14208 24442 36770 51998 69859 90353 113478 139235 198647 305592 437764 N.050 11.A. The pipe will resist such an instantaneous pressure with its relatively high shortterm modulus.5 5706 11791 20285 30515 43154 57977 74984 94176 115552 164858 253612 363302 490445 N. N. If the pulling end of the pipe is capped.300 44.000 38. is the slurry head. N. 13. The pressure is difficult to calculate.800 32. 2.400 19.600 25.800 9 8217 16980 29210 43942 62141 83486 107977 135613 166395 237395 365201 N. flow rates. PE pipe’s short-term external differential pressure capabilities are compared to the actual . However.300 17. If care is taken to pull the pipe smoothly at a constant speed. If the pipe nose is left open.A.A.100 13.A.A. there are also dynamic sources of external pressure: 1. The net external pressure due to fluid in the borehole. This is a short-term installation condition. External pressure will also be produced by the frictional resistance of the drilling mud flow. In addition to the fluid head in the borehole.900 9.500 50. An estimate of this short term hydrokinetic pressure may be calculated using annular flow pressure loss formulas borrowed from the oil well drilling industry. annular opening.A. a plunger action occurs during pulling which creates a mild surge pressure.
with the appropriate apparent modulus (see chapter 3.tional external pressure to the slurry head: tional external pressure to the slurry head: 450 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling PN PMUD PHK .1. nce to External normal conditions. fR to obtain the ling resistance.e. Multiply Eq. R pressure during pullback. by the reduction buckling fR to obtain the e externalMultiply Eq.11.09 (18) (18) (19) (19) (20) sT r = sT r 2S 2S sT = WHERE calculated tensile stress during pullback (psi) sT = scalculated tensile stress (psi) = calculated tensile stress during pullback during pullback (psi) s = sT= safe pull stress (psi) (psi) safe pull stress s = safe pull stress (psi) r = tensile stress ratio e pullback time is typically several hours. the designer will add The allowable external buckling pressure equation. pipe hoop strain reduces an additional reduction factor. F to obtain e external buckling pressure during pullback. Thecan be accounted for by a hoop strain as described byFR.1. pullback time can time can be selected from Appendix.09) 2 ) .11The hoop strain reduces the factor.57 . normally PE can bend easily .57 . a 50-foot diameter circle). Eq.. Bending Stress HDD river crossings incorporate radii-of-curvature. These bends are so long in radius as to be well within the flexural bending capability of SDR 11 PE pipe which can be cold bent to 25 times 29 its nominal OD (example: for a 12” SDR 11 PE pipe.11pressure during pullback. endent modulus MUD + PHK . PN. PN. modulus value value consistent the pullback be selected from Table 2.09 (5. given by Eq. The pulling load in theThe creates a hoop strain Poisson’s ratio. Multiply Eq. short-term total external pressure during this installation condition.P1 (17) (17) he terms have been defined previously. with the appropriate equation. which allow the PE pipe to cold bend within its elastic limit. fR. The following rnal pressure. (19) FR = FR (5.09) 2 ) . PHK. Because the drill stem and reaming rod are less flexible. e terms have been defined previously. Eq.terms have been defined previously. This can be ed for by following an additional reduction factor. pullback time can be selected from Table 2. as described by Poisson’s ratio. the annular-flow back Under Collapse Pressure During nce to External Collapse Pressure During pressure component is less k Installation than k Installation 4-8 psi.Pbe used to calculate the pipe’s resistance to (18) PN = P value can I endent modulus value can be used to calculate the pipe’s resistance to rnal pressure.buckling Eq.11 by the reduction factor. given by resistance. aa modulus consistent with is typically several hours.(r 1. The pulling load in the pipe d for by an additional reduction factor.17 during pullback. Chapter 3. i. The can be tensile pulling reductions in strength should be taken: force reduces the buckling resistance.P1 PN = PMUD + PHK .11.(r + 1. This hoop strain reduces a hoop strain as pulling force reducesPoisson’s ratio. fR.11.17 during pullback.the allowable external buckling buckling by the reduction factor. a modulus value consistent Since the e pullback timepullback time is typically several hours.Appendix) value can be used to calculate the pipe’s resistance to reduces the PN. with the appropriate additional external pressure to the wable external buckling pressureslurry head: Eq. This tensile pulling force the external pressure. wable external buckling pressure equation. The following Where ns in strengththe should be taken: ns in strength should be taken: Resistance to External Collapse Pressure During Pullback Installation In consideration of the dynamic or hydrokinetic pressure. resistance. The pulling load in the pipe The tensile described by the buckling resistance. the radius of curvature could 29 be from infinity down to the minimum of 25 feet.18 during pullback. given by Eq. ling resistance.
Although the longitudinal displacement due to thermal expansion or contraction is minimal. However. and the pipe will have assumed its natural length at the existing soil/water temperature. 15. During the pullback and reaming procedure. the native soil tends to sediment and embed the pipeline when installation velocity and mud flow are stopped. a swivel is typically used to separate the rotating cutting head assembly from the pipeline pull segment. thus allowing the soil to grip the pipeline and prevent forward progress or removal.5. in order to minimize the effect of ovaling some manufacturers limit the radius of curvature to a minimum of 40 to 50 times the pipe diameter. The PE pipe should be cut to length only after it is in thermal equilibrium with the surrounding soil (usually overnight). Thermal Stresses and Strains HDD pipeline crossings generally become fully restrained in the axial direction as progressive sedimentation and soil consolidation occur within the borehole. In this way the “installed” versus “operating” temperature difference is dropped to nearly zero. This assumption is valid for the vast majority of soil conditions. although it may not be completely true for each and every project. The degree to which the pipeline will be restrained after completed installation is in large part a function of the sub-surface soil conditions and behavior. the thermal inertia of the pipe and soil will oppose any brief temperature changes from the flow stream. However. For thick wall PE pipes of SDR 17. Divide the transmitted torque by the wall area to get the torsional shear stress intensity. 11. Under such unfortunate stoppage conditions. many pipelines may become stuck within minutes to only a few hours. Torsion Stress A typical value for torsional shear stress is 50% of the tensile strength. and the soil pressure at the depth of installation.Horizontal Directional Drilling Chapter 12 451 to whatever radius the borehole steel drilling and reaming shafts can bend because these radii are many times the pipe OD. As in a previous section. 9 and 7. the tensile stress due to bending is included in the calculations. the moving pipeline is not axially restrained by the oversize borehole. Swivels are not 100% efficient and some minor percent of torsion will be transmitted to the pipeline. . The rate at which restraint occurs depends on the soil and drilling techniques and can take from a few hours to months. Additionally. Seasonal temperature changes happen so slowly that actual thermally induced stresses are usually insignificant within PE for design purposes. During pipe installation. this torsion is not significant and usually does not merit a detailed engineering analysis. the possibility of its displacement should be recognized.
(2001. & Stewart.. Arizona State University. Including River Crossings. Sener. New Orleans. M. TN. S. K. GIvEN PaRaMETERS OD = 6. E. 10. (1999).2. NASTT No-Dig Conference. No-Dig ‘96 Conf.T.. El-Gharbawy. North American Society for Trenchless Technology (NASTT). 8. Dept. (2006). R. & Gelinas. 15. (1973). S. T. G. G.... “Pipeline Design for Installation by Horizontal Directional Drilling”. Designing Polyethylene Water Pipe for Directional Drilling Applications Using ASTM F1962. LA. (2001). D. Excavation of surface installed pipeline. (1995. (1995). H. L. & McLeod.J. S. 5. Denver. CO. Reston. Nashville. West Conshohocken. 14. Borehole Depth gs = 120 lbf/ft 3 E-80 Live Load Unit Weight of Soil PLive = 1. (1995)..B. Virginia. Mollers. Utah State University. 16. H. New York. ASCE. Vol. J. Guide for Use of Maxi-Horizontal Directional Drilling for Placement of Polyethylene Pipe or Conduit Under Obstacles. Maurer Technology. PPI. Harper and Row. Soil Loads at Pipeline Crossings. & Bielecki. Logan. M. (1996). North American Society for Trenchless Technology (NASTT). L. Kramer. Evaluation of the Annular Space Region in Horizontal Directional Drilling Installations. (2003).J..D. & GTI. Infrastructural Systems. Installation Loading and Stress Analysis Involved with Pipelines Installed by Horizontal Directional Drilling. O’Rourke. Sept). ASCE. Baltimore. ASTM. & Stein. 108. LA. The minimum depth under the track is 10 ft. R. Hair. New Orleans. 9. J.. 7. Knight. 3. MD. Proceedings of the International No-Dig ‘96 Conf. 18.. & Mamoun. No. Svetlik. M. D. 6. Soil Engineering. ASTM F1962. Petroff. K. R.P. of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Intext. AGA. DRILLPATH (1996). M. 2. R (1989) Microtunnelling. M. 4. Petroff. Safety Manual: Directional Drilling Tracking Equipment. Equipment Manufacturer’s Institute (EMI). & Anderson. L. 17.E. Structural Mechanics of Buried Pipes. LA.L. UT. 12. 13. G. Horizontal Directional Drilling Good Practices Guidelines. References 1. Virginia... (1996). Watkins.S.R. Ernest & Sohn. No-Dig Engineering.. Infrasoft L.J. no 3.100 Ibf/ft 2 . Pittard.3.C. Kirby.452 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling EXaMPLE CaLCULaTIONS Example Calculations are given in Appendix A and B. ASCE Specialty Conference on Pipeline Crossings. J. Berlin. & Handy. 7. PA. Determine the safety factor against buckling..T. Spangler. Design Considerations for PE Pipe Used in Directional Drilling.D.M.625 in Nominal Pipe OD DR = 11 Pipe Dimension Ratio H = 10 ft. Vol. Puckett. NY. Guidelines for Design of Directionally-Drilled Polyethylene Pipe. New Orleans. Stein. 11. Ariaratnam.A. Max. L. ASCE International Conference on Pipeline Engineering and Construction.. March). ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice No.K.L.R. International Plastic Pipe Fuel Gas Symposium. (1991). Analysis of Theoretical versus Actual HDD Pulling Loads. Design Guidelines and Procedures for Guided Horizontal Drilling. Mini-Horizontal Directional Drilling Manual. Reston. Huey. Virginia (2005). Reston. appendix a Design Calculation Example for Service Loads (Post-Installation) Example 1 A 6” IPS DR 11 PE4710 pipe is being pulled under a railroad track. Duyvestyn.
5 HDPE pipe is being pulled under a small river f PUC use pipe electrical duct.ft.1) P Δy y 0 0125 O O %y/D = 5. ive Load prism load is Pipe (Assuming that the earth load a calculation involving dynam Pressure on perhaps too conservative except for equals the E 46.based on deflection from critical unconstrained buckling pressure 11 d safety %y/D = 5.482 Percent deflection from soil loads 3 12 DR 1 %y/D = 5. Assume the slurryempty during the pull. A conservative without relaxation.97 psi and Live LoadPoisson’s Ratio = 0.97 psi Soil in PLive) is ft2/144andtoo conservativeon Pipe (Assuming that the earth load equals the prism P Pressure except for a calculation involving dynamic ce loading.84 Safety factor against buckling Critical unconstrained buckling pressure (no safety factor) cr SFcr = 4.0 psi ort is given by equation 10.37 psiSF = 3.1.m ) DR 1 3 ( f 56 Ovality PUC = compensation factor )for O5. Calculate a) t pleIb/cu.84 Safety factor against buckling P 61. y 0.58 Ovality compensation factor for 5.482Eq.5% ovality from based vality fo = 0. Wheel loading from train will be applied for several minutes choice for the titive trains 0.84 Safety river against Assume the slurry weight is equal to P as an electrical duct. See Appendix of Chapter 3 Table B.) support is soil and live load pressures assuming no side ection resulting fromgiven by equation 10.482 Percent deflection from soil loads Determine Percent deflection from soil loads % Δ y / D = 5. trains crossing may accumulate. 11 2E mid 1 PUC ( )3 f O 2 2E mid 1 ( 1 .) μ = Pressure on Pipe (Assuming = 15.56 Ovality factor using Eq.45 Long-Termaccumulate.) isDeflection conservative from soil calculation involving dynamic surface load Ring perhaps too resulting except for a and live load pressures assuming no si loading.0125P O O y Ring Deflection resulting from soil and live load pressures assuming no side support 0. 11 factor for 5.m2 ) DR − 1 D E mid PUC = 68. At itsfactor surface.buckling will be 18 feet below the lowest point. for pipe will be 18 fe SFcr = 3.ft.ft.1. PE Material will be el loading Emid =train Parameters = 0. weight the equal to 75 Ib/cu. the safety factor against buckling 18 below the rivertime will not exceedthe 3% and that is pulling surface.m ) DR 1 7 psi Critical unconstrained buckling pressure (no safety factor) PUC SFcr SFcr = 3. Assume that the pipe’s pipe willis 3% and that the pulli the and b) At its lowest point.1% ovality from Figure 3 ng and safety factor using Eq. the ovality befor feet maximum pulling force duct.45 for2/144 in2 P = (gSH+ PLive) 1 ft all PE pipe materials Pthat the earth load equals the load 1 perhaps 2 Live Load = 15.) except for a calculation involving dynamic 43. the pipe use Ib/cu.1 critical unconstrained buckling pressure based on deflection fro loading and safety factor using Eq. A conservative choice for the apparent ent modulus isand Live Load Pressure on Pipe (Assuming that the earth load equals t Soil the 1000-hour modulus.45 psi ading. the safety factor use as an electricalpipe.97 psi given by equation + inLive s Deflection Presulting from soil and live load pressures assuming no side = 16. O 3 E mid D 12 DR 1 3 12(DR −. 2 ) 1 /144 = 15.5 HDPEas anis being pulled under lowest point.0125P E mid D O = is given by equation 10. Assume that the pipe’s ovality 10 hours.5 HDPE pipe is being pulledCalculatesmall the against buckling 2: A IPS duct maximum pulling force and b) under a a) river for is empty during the pull.4 psi 2E mid 1 PUC ( pressure (no safety factor) )3 f O PUC =unconstrained buckling Critical unconstrained buckling pressure (no safety factor) Critical 61. 1 ft2/144 P P gSH+ PLive) P = (g H 10. Assume is slurry the pipe.37 psi 2 ( 1 .6”The DR 13. The duct is weight is equal to 75 below the river surface. A conservative choice for t apparent modulus is the 1000-hour modulus. modulus is the 1000-hour modulus. A conservative choice for the modulus is the 1000-hour modulus.000 Long-Term Poisson’s Ration = is perhaps too == loading.Horizontal Directional Drilling Chapter 12 453 Wheel loading from train will be applied for several minutes without relaxatio ding from Repetitivebe applied for several minutes without relaxation. 00 psi = crossing may Poisson’s Ration Repetitive trains crossing may accumulate.5% ovality from Figure 3 loading and safety compensation mine compensation factor forbuckling pressure Figure 3 on deflection from critical unconstrained 5. The duct is empty during the pull.45 Long-Term Poisson’s Ration from 43.5% ovality from Figure 3 μ2 ( 1 . train will trains crossing may accumulate.700 psi applied for several minutes without relaxation.700 psi mid conservative surface 0. 11 deflection from pressure based on deflection from factor using Percent Determine critical unconstrained buckling soil loads fo = 0.3 Safety factor against buckling Example 2: A 6” IPS DR 13. At its a small river the : A 6” IPS DR 13. Calculate a) the .
76 Ovality compensation factor (for 3% ovality) f = 5. At its lowest point.435 Tensile ratio (based on assumed 1000 psi pull stress calculation) fo = 0.45 fo = 0.5 DR 1 1 2 safe pull stress duration.09 fR2E = 0. See Table 1.625in. Maximum bore depth if Hg slurry ( drilling fluid weight fluid head pressure slurry slurry 144in 2 drilled from surface Step 3: Determine the resulting safety factor against critical buckling during .088 x 104( lbf Safe pull strength for 6î IPS DR 13.43563.5 PE pipepull strengthmaximum pull duration.5 HDPE pipe assuming Fs = 1.Apparent modulus of elasticity (for 12 hours1000factor (for 3% ovality) E =Poisson’s Ratio = 0.76= 57.71 1 5.088 x 10 lbf Safe pull DR 10-hour maximum pull duration 1 1 ) F = πTallow OD 2 Fss = 1. Assume the Solution: slurry strength or to 75 Ib/cu.1 Critical unconstrained pipe without safety factor 2 1 2E f R = 5. Pipe outside diameter Tallow = 1150=psi Typical safe pull stress for HDPE for 12-hour pull duration Calculate the safe pull strength or allowable tensile load. drilling fluid weight H = 18 ft.76 Ovality assumed at 73 psi F) E = Tensile ratio (based on compensationdegrees pull stress calculation) R = 0.71 R 3 Step 2: Determine expected loads on pipe (assume only static drilling fluid gslurry = 75 lbf/ft3.57 − (r + 3 .71 Tensile Reduction Factor R R 0.2 ) DR . Calculate the safe pullweight is equalallowable tensile load. = 2 Pipe ) Fs Tallow 6.5 Pipe dimension ratio Calculate the safe pull strength or allowable tensile load. and borehole intact with no drilling soil loading) ) Pslurry 9.ft.435 Tensile.5 OD 6.1ft ) P slurry 9. The duct is empty during the pull. and borehole intact with no buckling pressure for DR ) ⋅ fO ⋅ fR PCR = 39.µ 2 ) Determine expected loads on pipe (assume only staticsafety factor DR .71 Step 2: .09) f − 1. 13.625in. Pipe dimension ratio 13. Maximum bore depth R = 0.90 ( Pcr (1 .45 Poisson’s ratio f = Ro = 0.76 .37 psi Pslurry Hg slurry ( fluid head pressure if 2 144in 2 drilled Total surface from static drilling gP = 75 lbf/ft3.000 psi .500 psiOvality compensation factorelasticity ovality) in 1000 psi 73 degrees during pull results in 1000 psi longitudinal pipe stress) longitudinal pipe stress) Poisson’s ratio (long term value) = 0.1 (1 3 pipe without drilling fluid Critical unconstrained buckling pressureonDR 13.Tensile ratio (based on assumed 1000 psi pull stress calculation) 2 f 1.500 1 Apparent results in 1000 psi longitudinal pipe 73 degrees F) Step 1: the critical buckling pressure during Installation for the pipe (include Determine the critical buckling pressure during Installation for t Determine = 0.2 ) DR .088 x 10 lbf Safe assuming 12-hour for 6î IPS DR Step 1: duringDetermine the1000 psibuckling pressurestress) Installation for t critical longitudinal pipe during pull force. Tallow = 1150 psi 1 Typical safe pull stress for HDPE for 12-hour pull duration 1 OD = OD6.5 HDPE pipe assuming DR DR 2 10-hour maximum pressure during Installation for the Step 1: Determine the critical buckling pull duration Fs = 1.1 Step 2: Determine expected loads on pipe (assume onlypipe without safety factor static unconstrained Criticaldrilling fluid 2E head acting soil loading) Tensile Reduction Factor 1 on 3pipe.90 ( Pcr = PCR = 43.5 PE4710 pipe is being pulled under a small river for use as an electrical duct.09 0. Also see Table 5 for safe pull results in maximum pull duration 10-hour pipe (include tensile reduction factor assuming the frictional dr Step psi during pullmodulus of elasticity (for 10 hours at stress) E = 57. OD =for the pipe.5 HDPE pipe assuming Safe 1. Maximum bore depth Total static 1ft 2 head acting on pipe.45 Poisson’s ratio (long term value) pipe (include tensile reduction factor results assuming the frictional dr tensile reduction factor assuming themodulusdrag (for 3% (for 10 hours at E Apparent frictional of during pull fo = 0.71 1f Tensile Reduction Factor buckling pressure for DR ) O R 39.57 r 1. Pipe outside diameter Solution: DR =exceed 10 hours.Ovality compensation factor (for 3% ovality) (long term value) 0. Tallow = T1150 Typical safe Typicalfor PE4710 for 12-hour pull for HDPE for 12-hour pull duration Fs Tallow = allow OD ( 1150 psi .90 ( Pcr CR (1 .09 P f R = 0. the pipe will be 18 feet below the river surface.500 psi Apparent μ= = 0. Calculate a) the maximum pulling force and b) the safety factor against buckling Calculate Assume pull strength or allowable tensile load.Pipe outside diameter outside diameter OD 2 DR DR Pipe dimension ratio DR = 13.09 f R 0.45 for all PE materials modulus of elasticity (for 10 hours at 73 degrees 57.(. drilling fluid weight H = 18 ft.435 .37 psi H = 18 ft. Solution DR = 13.57 r 1 ratio 1.5 pipe without safety factor for pipe.09 (based onf assumed 1000 psi pull stress calculation) R 2 Critical unconstrained Factor Tensile Reduction buckling pressure for DR 13.454 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling Example 2 A Solution:6” IPS DR 13.625in. and borehole intact with no soil loading) head acting gslurry = 75 lbf/ft .088 x 104 lbf pipe (include tensile reduction factor assuming the frictional drag 4 Fs =pull force for 6” IPS DR 13.the safethat the pipe’s ovality is 3% and that the pulling time will not 6.psi pull stress2 ) 4 DR strength for 6î IPS DR 13.5 ) fO fR PCR 39.625in.Pipe dimension ratio = 13.5 .
34 34 SFCR = 4. Maximum bore depth Determine expected loads on pipe (assume boreholedrilling fluidwith soil soil loading) head acting on pipe. Borehole Groundwater g==18 lbf/ft. R 2 Horizontal Directional Drilling Chapter 12 455 2E 2E 1 13 3 ) f)O f R f R PCR PCR 39.575. Maximum bore depth gslurrygslurry= lbf/ft3. -OD OD = coverin Nominal pipe OD pipe OD OD = Height of6.side support. GW 10ft.5 .625 in DR Nominal 13.the communication duct Determine weight factor for long-term feet initial for initial ovality) weight weight ofthe safetyof .091.71 Tensile Reduction Factor r .4 lbf/ft. 3% 3% initial ovality) 110 Ib/ft of feet (18 performance ovality) in Example 2.25 4.5 buckling pressure for DR DR pipepipe without safety factor without safety factor Step 2: StepStep 2 2: gslurry = 75 lbf/ft .37 psi 144in 2 144in Step Step 3: 3: Step 3 Total static drilling Total static drilling fluid head pressure fluid head pressure if if drilled from surface drilled from surface Pslurry = 9.45 Long Term ratio Long Term Poisson’s ratio µ = 0.25 critical buckling durin critical buckling during pull.200 = 28.) 4. pull.09 1.30 psi (g S .09 f R f 0. long = 28. (18 feet deep. . andand borehole intact head no loading) pipe.(1 ) 2 ) DR .DR . Saturated unitunit weight of sediments Saturated sediments gs H = 110 lbf/ft.apparent Unit water gw = long = 29.3 .3 3 = = 62. and borehole intact with no soil loading) 3 Determine expected loads on pipe (assume only static drilling fluid Determine expected loads on pipe (assume only static drilling fluid 1ft 2 1ft 2 ) P 9.200 psi Long 3 3 g 62.5 = 13.36 psi Total static drilling fluid head pressure if drilled from surface Determine resulting safety factor against critical buckling during Determine the the resulting safety factor against critical buckling durin Installation Installation Determine the resulting safety factor against critical buckling during installationfactor against Safety Safety factor against SFCR PCR SF PCR PCR SFCR =CR = Pslurry slurrySFCR P Pslurry SFCR = 4.) compensation Step 1 compensation in step 4.2 Tensile Reduction Factor f R f R 5.deep.45 0. 3%deep.90 39.4 lbf/ft.57 1r091.625 in -DR = pipe ODPipe dimension ratio = 13.3.90 ( ( Pcr Pcr O 2 .µ =dimension ratio Pipe µ = 0.3 E 62.625 = soil 6. Assume are 10 communication duct in example example 2.710.Saturated unit weight of sediments Groundwater height GW s 110 GWGW = ft ft Groundwater height height ft = 18 18 10ft.30 psi load on Prism loadpipepipe from 10’ of ( S g Prism pipe from on from 10’ of ) Psoil 3. Maximum bore depth H = 18 ft.Unit weight ofborehole borehole depth depth gs . borehole depth water H gw 18 ftlbf/ft.1 (1 . 3% initial ovality) Solution: ution: Solution Step 1: Determine soil pipe soil load (Warning requires Input of of oval 1: Determine load (Warning requires Input of ovality p 1: StepDetermine the pipe the the pipe soil load (Warning requires Input ovality compensation in step 4. Assume there are 10 feet of riverbed deposits above the borehole having Solution: a saturated unit weight of 110 lb/ft3. (18 Ib/ft . drilling fluid weight H =H = ft.302 soil = 3.000 psi =Long-term Unit weight of weight of water lbf/ft. Assume therefeet are 10 feet Example 3 riverbed deposits above the the borehole having saturated unitu riverbed deposits borehole borehole ahaving a aunit above saturated riverbed deposits above 3 3 the having saturated 3 110110 Ib/ft . modulus Unit weight of water H = -18 18 ft Max.625 in Nominal Nominal pipe OD 6. = 18 ft Max.45 for all PE materials il 2 1ft 2 1ft 2 Prism load on 10’ of =C ( (g SW C ( ) Pg Psoilg= -1ft -)g W ) C ( 2 ) PpsiPsoil = 3. Assume there are 10there of feet of communication duct in example 2. -C =C = 10ft.4 gw = w .3 H = ft Max.5 DR = 13.drilling fluid weight = 75 75 lbf/ft drilling fluid weight 18 18 ft.Height of Height of soil soil cover = 18 ft Groundwater height C= soilHeight of cover cover C= 10ft.25 SFCR = 4.45 Long Term Poisson’sPoisson’s ratio μ = Poisson’s Ratio = 0.) in step E Determine the pipe soil load (Warning: Requires input of ovality compensation E long psi E Long term modulus Long term apparent modulus long in step 4. g 3 = depth Saturated unit weight of weight of sediments lbf/ft.4 Max.67 3: Determine the safety factor term long term for the ample Examplefactor againstDetermine during pull for long for for performance performance for t 3: Example 3: the safety factorsafety factor long term performance for the Determine critical buckling the Safety communication duct in 2.= s110110 lbf/ft.5 Pipe dimension ratio Pipe dimension ratio DROD = 6.62.1 Critical unconstrained Critical unconstrained buckling pressure for 13. side support.200 psi term apparent apparent modulus = 28.soil ) W 2 144in 144in saturated cover saturated cover (including 144in saturated cover (including(including buoyant force on submerged Psoil = 3. only static intact with no acting on head acting on pipe.37 psi P Hg Hg slurry Pslurry slurry slurry ( ( 2 ) Pslurry slurry 9.30 psi buoyant force buoyant force on submerged on submerged soil)soil) Prism load on pipe from 10’ of saturated cover (including soil) force on submerged soil) buoyant Step 2: 2: Calculate ring resulting from soil loads assuming no p 2: StepCalculateCalculate deflectiondeflection resulting from soil soil loads assuming the ring the the ring deflection resulting from loads assuming no side support. (18 feet deep.
3% initial ovality) weight of Ib/ft3.200 Long term apparent modulus Long the pipe 3 3 gw = w = 62.1 3 Compensation based additional factor for pressure (no safety buckling deflection long conservatism.1) f O Critical unconstrained safety factor Safety buckling pressure (no SF CR =1 − m ) DR . DR . External slurry =75 µ =H ( =Longpsi ) Pslurry Unit weight ofPoisson’s ratio pressure due to slurr 9. PW = H =H = ft Max.491 in pressure OD/DR P UC =0.433. 100 Percent deflection unconstrained deflection from 2E long deflection3 f O factor 1 -1 PUC%y/D = 3.08 PW P UC Step 3: Determine the the long-term hydrostatic loadsloadthe pipe buckling pressure of Step 3: Determine long-term hydrostatic loads onfactor(slurry) highest the pipe Safety on against SF CR SF CR 2. 64 2 5% Ovality O (1 − ) f = 0. thereforthe thefrombuckling loadresulting from soil loads assuming no Step > Calculate use ringfor loading resulting from soil loads assuming no Calculate PW ring deflection deflection deflection Step 4: Determine Compensation based on 3% pressure based 5% Ovality fo = 0.83 P W psi highest load (slurry) factor t = OD/DR unconstrained bucklingin SF (no safety factor) t = Critical t =0.= 13.3 1ft 2 External pressure due to slurr g slurry = 75 slurry H (2 2 ) Pslurry Unit weight of drilling fluid 9.31 ft/psi External pressure gs( = s110110) lbf/ft.1) 12μ ( PUC = 23.5 3 1ft 2 Pipe dimension ratio groundwater head Pipe dimension ratio 2DRft/psi 31 = 13.1) 3 Solution: Solution: % (Δy/D) = 3.491 inpipe soil load (Warning requires Input ovality Step 1:= tDetermine the the soil load (Warning requires Input of of ovality Determine pipe t =0.30 psi C ) soil 9.) 4. therefor use P for buckling load soil)soil)buckling pressure based head PW pressure DetermineW critical unconstrained ExternalPslurry due to 144in slurry head deflection from loading PW 4: Step Pslurry .09 soil W W= GWGW = ft ft =GW 18 18 Groundwater height External pressure due to Groundwater heightgroundwater head 2.37 psi buoyant force on submerged head Pslurry 9. UnitUnit weightwater External pressure due to weight of of water GW = 11.31 ft/psi) P External pressure due to 3 PW Unit 11.) compensation in step Step 3: Determine the long-term hydrostatic loads on the pipe Step 3 Determine the long-term psi E long = 28.31 ft/psi )3+ Psoil PW = 11.ft.=GW 10ft.ft.3 P Saturated unitunit weightsediments g GW lbf/ft.ft.09 PPW 11.1) .33 Percent deflection from soil loads t Step 1: = OD/DROD/DR t =0.30 psi psi Psoil PsoilgW . 64 long 5% Ovality 2E Determine critical ( 1 ) 3 f buckling pressure based on deflection from loading unconstrained PUC = 23.1 3 2E m long PUC 23. 1ft 144in 2 1ft headon from 10’ of Prism loadloadpipepipe fromdue to slurr Prism External pressure 10’ of on 3.3% deflection with an on 3% initial ovality and 2 Ovality fo o= 0.37 psi Pslurry g slurry H ( 1ft 2 External pressure for PW ==Pg slurry therefor use ) W slurry buckling load buoyant force on submergeddue to slurry . 64 Determinefrom loading 5% Ovality Compensation based on 3% pressure based 2 fo = 4: deflection critical unconstrained buckling initial ovality and o Step 4 deflection from loading deflection Compensation based on 3% initial ovality and 2 fo = 0.4 lbf/ft. C . g 62.08 CR highest load (slurry) UC Safety factor against buckling pressure of SFCR = 2. Assume there 10 feet of 0 .09weight of drilling fluid Unit g slurry 75 lb/cu. critical unconstrained buckling initial ovality and 2 side support.491 t Safety factor against buckling pressure of factor SF CR 2. H (144in 2 P Pslurry = 9.08 ( buckling pressure (no safety PUC = 23.ft. 0125 Psoil riverbed deposits above the the borehole having saturated from unit riverbed deposits 100 above borehole having a deflection unit soil Percent a saturated % (Δy/D) = weight of 110110 Ib/ft3. Psoil PWborehole depth ( 18 18 ft+ borehole depth groundwater head 2.43 ovality) %y/D = loads %(y/D) = E long [ ] 12 (DR .09 PW fluid g slurry =(7531 ft/psigroundwater head Height weight soil coverExternal pressure due to lb/cu. (18 feet deep. 3% initial 3.17 psi deflection Compensation based on 3% initial ovality and 2 Critical unconstrained UC = foP= 0.43 23. 0125 soil P soil ) 100 PUC 23.09 PW OD OD = 6.37 > -)slurry( C S ( 144in1ft 2 2 ) P 144in head saturated cover (including due to slurry saturated cover pressure External (including 9. Heightsoil of drillinggroundwater head of of cover 35 11. SFCR 4.17 psi factor against buckling pressure of PUC = (1(DR(DR DR . 64642Em 5%DR1. 64 side support.17 psi PUC[ [2E long2 ( DR 3 ) 3 f O factor ] ] buckling pressure (no Critical unconstrained safety 2 31 m 12 P UC 2 ).ft.200 psi hydrostatic loads on term apparent modulus E long = 28.17 psi loads Critical unconstrained safet PUC = (1 m ) ( DR ) f O buckling pressure (no 2E loads %y/D = %(y/D) = %(y/D) (1 Elong ) long 1 . Five percent Ovality Compensation based on 3.25 SF Pslurry slurry P Step 2 Calculate ring deflection Example 3: 3:theDetermine the safety factor for long term performance for the Example Determine the resulting from soilfor long term performance for the safety factor loads assuming no side support.1 SF CR = 2.4 lbf/ft.08 SF CR = P W PW highest load (slurry) . ) H ( 2 )2 PPW slurry 3. Assume there are are 10 feet of communication duct in example 2.625 Psoil PWNominal pipe OD OD External pressure due to ( 2 =GW ) in 6.254. soil C= 10ft.45 slurry 0.37 psi P slurry slurry Step 4: .09 ) Max.5 gP weightg drilling fluid lb/cu.gPslurryW therefor use soil Pfor buckling load (Pslurry gSWgg . Therefor use deflection Step 4: PW for buckling load from loading Determine critical unconstrained buckling pressure based o deflection Step 0.45 2 3 144in Unit weight of drilling fluid head g slurry 75 lb/cu.37 Term drilling fluid Unit of Long Term Poisson’s ratio slurry µ = 0.625 in Nominal pipe groundwater head PW = ( 2.491 in compensation in step 4.14PP W SF CR SF CR 2.37 psi Pslurry g lb/cu. (18 feet deep.3 P = Saturated weight of of sediments due to 11. communication duct in example 2. 0125 2P ( 0 0.456 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling buoyant force on submerged soil) Step 2: Calculate the ring deflection resulting from soil loads assumi PsideCR P SFCR SFCR CR CR support.17 psi PercentCritical from soil soil PUC . therefor use PW for buckling load Determine critical unconstrained buckling pressure based P Step 2: W2: Pslurry .08 P UC Safety factor(slurry) buckling pressure of highest load against SF CR = 2.
s pb = 1.45 . PE4710 Material Standard Dimension Ratio DR = 12 .12 hr Modulus . soil conditions. Determine the safety factor against collapse. and use.Long-term Modulus .09 psi) aPPENDIX B Design Calculations Example for Pullback Force Example 1 APPENDIX B: DESIGN CALCULATIONS EXAMPLE FOR PULLBACK FORCE Find the estimated force required to pull back pipe for the above theoretical river crossing using Slavin’s Method.Safe Pull Stress (12 hr) .182 in .150 psi PaTH PROFILE H = 35 ft Depth of bore gin = 10 deg Pipe entry angle gex = 15 deg Pipe exit angle L1 = 100 ft Pipe drag on surface (This value starts at total length of pull.Elong = 29.1 2 2E long ( PUC = 23.000 psi Minimum wall thickness t = 2. exit angle. Assume the PE pipe is 35 ft deep and approximately 870 ft long with a 10 deg.14 2. Assume 100 ft remaining at end of pull) Lcross = 870 ft . driller expertise.Poisson’s ratio (long term) . selection.000 psi. entry angle and a 15 deg. Actual pullback force will vary depending on backreamer size. lubrication with bentonite.PUC = 1 3 ) fO (1 − m ) DR . approximately 870 ft.µ = 0. 36 PIPE PROPERTIES Outside Diameter OD = 24 in .08 Safety factor against buckling pressure of highest load (slurry) Safety Factor against buckling pressure of highest load groundwater head (11. bore hole staying open. then decreases with time. and other application circumstances.E 24hr =63.17 psi Horizontal Directional Drilling Chapter 12 457 Critical unconstrained buckling pressure (no safety factor SF CR = P UC PW SF CR = 2.
L 2 2H/g in L = 401.07ft Ravg in = 2.68 psi ea = 9.100 ft remaining at end of pull) 458 Chapter 12 cross Horizontal Directional Drilling L = 870 ft Path length (Determine L2 and L4): Average Radius of Curvature for Path at Pipe Entry radians PaTH LENGTH (DETERMINE L2 aND L4) Average Radius of Curvature for Path at Pipe Entry gin is given in radians gin is given in R avg in = 2H/g in avgin 2 R avgin = 2.38ft 3 R = 1.021 x 3 respectively. Radius for Drill path R > r R = Ravgex 3 R = Ravgex Min.021 10 3 ft 2 Ravg ex = 2H/g ex R agex = 1.& L4 = horizontal transition distance at bore exit & entry Where: 10Lft 2 OD = 24 in respectively.79 x 10-4 in/in a Sa = bending stress.79 x 10-4 in/in ea = OD/2R WHEREe = OD/2R ea = 9.021 x 103 ft Pipe Entry Distance Achieve Depth orto Achieve DepthEntry Rise to the Surface at Horizontal Distance Horizontal Required to Required Rise to the Surface at Pipe or Pipe Entry Horizontal Distance Achieve Depth orto Achieve DepthExit Rise to the Surface at Horizontal Distance Required to Required Rise to the Surface at Pipe or Pipe Exit Distance Required to Achieve Depth or Rise to the Surface at Horizontal WHERE L2 & Exit PipeL4 = horizontal transition distance at bore exit & entry respectively.79 x 10 -4 in/in RadiusOD curvature should exceed 40 times the pipe outside diameter to of = 24 in WHERE prevent of curvature should exceed 40 times the pipe outside diameter to Radius ring collapse. Radius of curvature Determine Axial Bending Stress: r = 40 OD Determine Axial Bending Stress: r = 80 ft Okay Min. should exceed 40 times the pipe outside diameter to prevent ring collapse. ea = bending strain. ft Sa = E12hrea .298 × 10 3 ft Average Radius offor Path at Pipe Exit Path at Pipe Exit Average Radius of Curvature Curvature for 2 R agex 2H/g ex R agex 1. in/in prevent ring collapse. Radius for Drill path R = 1.Min. psi Where: ea = bending strain. ft R = minimum radius of curvature.298 x 103 ft R = Ravg ex L2 & L = horizontal transition distance at bore exit & entry Where: . r strain R>r Bending= Bending strain Sa = 61.07ft L 2 = 401.021 OD = 24 inx 10 ft ea = 9. ft r = 40 OD r = 80 ft Okay. in/in pipe. in/in Where: ea = bending diameter of OD = outside strain.021 × 10 3 ft agex Horizontal Distance Required to 37 Achieve Depth or Rise to the Surface at Ravg ex = 1.38ft L 4 = 267. OD = outside diameter of pipe. Radius for4Drill path R = 1. R>r Bending stress 80 ft Okay.021 x 10 ft Bending strain ea = OD/2R L 4 2H/gex L 4 = 2H/gex DETERMINE aXIaL BENDING STRESS L 4 267.07 ft L2 2 = 2H/g in L 2 401. in r = 40 OD R = minimum radius of curvature. in R = = outside diameter curvature. in Bending stress OD minimum radius of of pipe.
175 radians L 4 = 267.841 x 104 Ibf WHERE TA = pull force on pipe at point A.549ft TA = exp (va σ) [va wa (L1 + L 2 + L 3 + L 4)] TA = 2. ft L3 = additional distance traversed at desired depth.L 3 = 201.exp(vb σ) (va wa L 4 exp (vb σ))] TD = 5.262 radians L3 = Lcross.wa DETERMINE PULLBaCk FORCE aCTING ON PIPE See figure: L1 = 100 ft .61x10 -2 lbf/in3 ga = 0.54 lbf/ft Net Upward Buoyant Force on Empty Pipe Surrounded by Mud Slurry Wb = π(OD 2 /4) r w gb 12 in/ft . ft L2 = horizontal distance to achieve desired depth.L 4 .va = 0.853 x 104 Ibf TC =TB + vb [wb] L 3 .σ = 10 deg = 0.wa wb = 232. Ibf/ft wb = π(OD2 /4)rwgb 12in/ft . Ibf TD = pull force on pipe at point D. ft .468 x 104 Ibf TD = exp(vb σ) [TC + vb [wb] L 4 .exp (va σ)) TC = 5.β = 15 deg = 0.561 x 104 Ibf TB = exp (vb σ) (TA + vb [wb] L2 + wb H . Ibf TC = pull force on pipe at point C.07ft .L 2 .5 wa = πOD 2 (DR-1/DR 2)r w ga 12 in/ft wa = 61.exp(vb σ) (va wa L 3.38 . Ibf TB = pull force on pipe at point B.4 L2 = 401.β = gex .Horizontal Directional Drilling Chapter 12 459 FIND PULLING FORCE Weight of Empty Pipe Pw =3. lb/in3 ga = specific gravity of the pipe material gb = specific gravity of the mud slurry wa = weight of empty pipe.va wa L 2 exp (vb σ)) TB = 4.vb = 0.95 gb = 1.wb H .25 L3 = 200ft .41 lbf/ft WHERE rw = density of water. Ibf L1 = pipe on surface.σ = gin .
psi s2== 343. C.82 x 103Ibf L 4 = horizontal distance to rise to surface.) erage s1 = (Ti + ∆T) WHere ( 1 DR 2 )( ) πOD2 DR . psi T = pulling force increment. D Compare Axial Tensile Stress with Allowable Tensile Stress During Pullback of 1. T10. Ibf x 103Ibf pulling force = P ( /8) (Dh T = 2. in = back reamed hole diameter. Ibf Dh = = hydrokineticback reamed holepsi pressure.100 psi OK s3 = 384. at L3 = additional distance traversed ft desired depth. C.48 psi <1.150 psi OK s2 = 343. TC.5) (62.100 psi OK si corresponding stress.13 psi <1.55 psi be set so thatpsi OK applied to pipe does not exceed 1.64 x 105 Ibf .13(Ibf) <1. Ibf D (Ibf) A. ft va = coefficient of friction to rise the surface before L4 = horizontal distanceapplicable atto surface.40 psi <1. in s1 = 190. During Pullback of Cross-section at Points A.150 psi OK Axial Tensile Stress with Allowable Tensile Stress D Average Axial Stress Acting on Pipe Cross-section at Points A.OD2) Pressure ∆T = 2. 1. radians vb = coefficient of friction applicable within the lubricated bore hole (refer to figure at start of this appendix) or after the (wet) pipe exits = bore hole angle at pipe entry. psi faCtor against ring CollaPse during PullbaCk determine safety External Hydraulic Load External static head pressure akaway links should be set so that pullback force applied to pipe does 3 Pha = exceed 1.64 x C T = corresponding stress.150 psi stress.100(1. B. B.460 Chapter 12 Horizontal Directional Drilling tic ∆P = 10 psi Dh = 1.75 psi ID = OD .150 psi OK Axials3 = 384.100 psi OK ID OD . diameter.100 pullback force Breakaway links should s4== 409.55 psi <1. radians HydrokinetiC at pipe exit. TD psi s1==A190.5 0D WHere: Dh = 36in ∆T = 2 . ftthe pipe enters bore hole vb = coefficient friction applicable at the surface before the pipe va = coefficient ofof friction applicable within the lubricated bore hole or after the (wet) pipe exits σ = bore hole hole enters boreangle at pipe entry. radians β = bore hole angle at pipe exit.40 psi <1. TB.5 0D (refer to figure at Dh = 36in ∆T = ∆P (π/8) (Dh2 .ID 2) 5 ere: Ti = TFb =TB.150 psi: (Assume the pull takes several hours and use 12 hours safe pull stress.ID2) Fb = 1.4 lbf/ft ) (H) psi stress.150 psi OKPipe Stress Acting on s4 = 409.1 Ti T . Pha = 22.2t Fb = spb ( /4)(OD2 . <1.82 ∆P = hydrokinetic pressure.OD2) increment. = bore hole angle Pressure radians start of this appendix) = 10 psi = 1.48 psi <1.2t Fb = s pb (π/4)(OD 2 .
psi SF = Safety Factor .76 Ovality compensation factor (for 3% ovality) r = S 4/2SPb r = 0.Horizontal Directional Drilling Chapter 12 461 Combine static head with hydrokinetic pressure Peffa = Pha + ∆P Peffa = 32.75 psi CRITICaL COLLaPSE PRESSURE Resistance to external hydraulic load during pullback fo = 0.178 Tensile ratio (based on 1.150 psi pull stress calculation) Tensile reduction factor PCR = 108 psi SaFETy FaCTOR aGaINST COLLaPSE SF = Pcr/Pha F = 4.75 WHERE Pha = applied effIective pressure due to head of water of drilling Pcr = calculated critical buckling pressure found by solving Equation 11 multiplied by Equation 19 for 24” DR11.
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