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TECHNICAL NATIOWA~ ADVISORY NOT:a\S COMMITT~E FOR AERONAUTICS

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No. 579

CHARTS FOR CALCULATING

THE PERFORMANCE

OF AIRPLA~

HAVING CONSTANT-SPEED

PROPELLERS

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By Roland J. White and Victor J. Martin California Institute of Technology

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Wash1n~ton September 1936

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NATIONAL

ADVISORY

COMMITTEE FOR A~R~~~~ICS NOTE NO. 579 THE PERFORMANCE OF AIRPLANES

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TECHNICAL CHARTS FOR CALCULATING HAVING

CONSTANT-SPEED

PROPELLERS

By Roland J. White and Victor SUMMARY

J. Martin

Charts are presented for determining the performance of airplanes having variable-pitch propellers, the pitch of which is assumed to be adjusted to maintain constant speed for all rates of flight. The charts are based tions developed by Oswald a similar manner. on the general performance equain reference 1. and are used in

Examples applying the charts to airplanes having both supercharged and unsupercharged engines are included. INTRODUCTION

Within the past several years the two-pitch controllable propeller has been developed to a reliable form and at present the multiposition, or var~able-pitch, propeller is being perfected. Because of these recent advances, Dr. C. B. Millikan suggested the problem of calculating a set of performance charts for airplanes having constant-speed propellers. The presentation of these charts is the subject of this paper. The authors wish to extend their appreciation to Dr. Millikan for inv~~~abl~ ~ssistance rendered throughout the preparation of the paper. As the full-throttle brake horsepower of an airplane is approximately proportional to the engine speed, it is evident that the maximum brake horsepower for a given altitude will be realized only when the engine i~ operating at rated revolution speed; therefore, aside from special settings, the most efficient use of the variable-pitch propeller is obtained by adjusting its pitch so as to maintain the rated revolution speed for all speeds of flight.

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ra~~ters are co~blri~~frito--a._ Propullers operate~ in this manner stant-speed propellers. which give the variation of thrust horsepower available with altitude and velocit1" of flight. ft. 2 . I:.:i -- wlf.A. which is plotted ~s thj absoissa in the various perform!Lnce char ts • .i~p~~net __ area'..t s ..» have been ter~ed "co~- No attempt will be made to develop the basic' performance equations or to describe in detail the method of calculating the ~reBent charts.. loading. 579 I!!..kb. -F -. by the • f. Technical Note No.... - - ~~ . s'ingle ':g~r~met8-r.::: Ie (kb effective tt wherEI W . equivalent ~arasite equation f._- ..::: wlpo 'no. W parasite 2 ) • loading. These pa. Munk's B. ~s the ~ro~~~s i~ Bimlla~ to that of ref~renco 1. design propulsive af{ic~iency.::: . thrust horsepower is gross weight of the a. ai~pla~e '1')0' P equivalent ofticiency monoplane fact~~. N~A.. . Tho difference between the present charts and those developed for fixed-pitch propellers lies in the Ta and Tv functions.:iiI :~ For the purpose of performance calculation.(sq. the characteristics of the airplane are represented by three design parameters: tp . .::: CD . span. Po' design brake horsepower. A. span loading.) defined S.C.

hp'a.hp'a at Vm (At sea level) Ta = t. Rv' t.. 579 3 The maximum speed at Bea level..t>hp •r) 550 dt is expressed in engineering [( ~ W units 4) in the form 911 = dt 33000 crRv 1t T~Tvl. required. thrust horsepower cr = p/po (po = 0.nv". when suitable expressions. a dimensionless speed ratio. Vm. • where ~ dt is rate of climb at altitude cr and velocity horsepower availablo..N. expressions are obtained enabling charts -tor the major performance characteristics to be calculated.O.hp'a at velocity t.. Technical Note Ho.l.A.thrust t . is expressed in terms of the three design parameters and speeds for other conditions of flight.hp'r. cr V an . which are given in terms of Rv.hP'a at altitude (At constant velocity) ( By the imposing of the various flight conditions on equation (2).002378). The fundamental performance equation Q1! = ( t •hp •a '.hp' at sea level' a e t.A. V t.for Ta and Tv are introduced_ .

-c.hp.p..4 N. and -N (r.. (5) (6) . thorofore _: - = (4) By raferanc~ to Woickls propeller charts (refer~nce a) the value of 1"10 . t.. ~ (3) and. Vm cr 0 1/5 So J?o .hp'a = b.hp.hp.+-": As the b..Technical Note -... .m. general.. in the case of th~ constant-speed pro~eller! b.) are invaria~t with speed.I.hp'a In T-v function gives the effect of ve.C V/nD. the values of n~and J are both directly proportional to the apeed of fl 19h t. "·-~.638 . - -==- 'iii" .o at sea level for all speeds of flight.1/5 N a-Is J o = -.. h en ce .=_ .hp.. -_or The t..ionof at sea level due to different speeds of flight. -It -----""'lIII ..A"~. = 0.EXPRES S ION FOR ~ No. b..is determined in the usual manner from t tho design Jot values of the propeller Jo parameters Os o and where is -. ~ _ 579 -t' Tv .rfai.

are those adopted by Oswald in ref- r .A. These representative curves were chosen to pass through . equation (4) enables a curve of Tv to be platten as a function of Rv' which is the desired relation. 679 5 equa tions (5) and (6).. .. -~ These definitions erence 1.94.---=. where Tv is termed the c "critical Tv" and is defined as the value of Tv' for Rv = 0. By this specification of the curves. As a definite J o Wrs associate'd with each Cs 0 for both types of propeller. values of Tv ~sed l~cialculating tEe = *The BEST PERFORMANCE PROPELLER is defined as a propeller having its diameter and blade angle chosen so that ~o lies on the envelope of the family of efficiency curves.Tvc 0.C. 0.N. 2. it is necessary only to specify the value of Cs• Since the value of ~ for different o. wflich is most represan-tativo for modern airplanes.A.60 was chosen as that corresponding to the speed for best climb..90.86. and 0. three representative curves were drawn to represent this family of 'Tv functions and have been used in calculating the performance charts. In order that the charts may be used for propeller designs other than those resulting in best performance or peak efficiency propellers. _. ciency '11 and the blade angle which has been done for various values of Cs for both a the BEST PE~FORIUNCE PROPELLER AND PEAK EFFICIENCY PROPELLER* on the propeller cha~ts presente n-flgur·es--l--a. _ -. Curves of Tv have been plotted in figu~e 3 based on the propeller chart for the case of fuselage 6 (reference 2). d respectively.. values of Rv is known. Technical Note No. The PEA. The value Rv = 0.60. This Tv function will depend upon the type of engine installation. to determine the propulsive effi~ as a functiQn of Rv.K EFFICIENCY PROPELLER is defined as a propeller having its dlmater and blade angle chosen so that ~ lies on the peak of its efficiency curve.

. _ _~_ ref er s t:-o--lil t i tua.l!'.:. ~. __ _. it is d-esirable to use a propeller of diameter greater tha.. hp.l. which gives a Tv curve having values slightly greater than 1....)fElrence 3).94 _!v_: .."ha.. In the calculation of the charts..l \ r . H .~ tained from references 3 and 4 and_is repre~entative ·of unThe upper curve labeled IlN.'l'h_e_ JIl~~!1_l ec-q..lating -t1. : . 9_r __ b..-.::. 579 I' p e r f o r-na nc e wl't! agree with -t-he.label.a .hP'a at di f:f'eren t 801 ti tudes for -the a..-- chart's- ....A._-" Three curve-a-for variation ofb.A.'1'- foue.-at' -~_on-sta.li"p: with altitude are Shown in figure 4.e charts a nd is s_om~.W performance or the peak efficiency propellers...Crp1"ane flyiIi-g.-.-. ..:a. Fo__r reasonable i~creases in propeller diamet-er.-.... "__ -- _-- -'" .. . . in order to reduce t:~e take-off run.n velocity and at a speed near to that for bast climb for any propeller design and will approximata valuos for other ap esd s very closely.g_Z) ~is a CQmQin~t~~~ q:~_tJ\~(iil. equation. ~~_ \V_ll_i~~hth_e ~~Q~Q~i_j)_!.'luaa ~ at ma x I mu.--~ ----'-"a 6 N.c = _ 0. _--__ _ was cho s en to include the cases in which. the curves used in ca l.~. ~t. :.. .:e: c-ondi t be_comes .. 0 = ~ -. The curve . Technical Note No..hp.--.a.ed "Oew:aldlland used in refer-ence) (fig.n that of a peak efficiency propeller (r!. = (J - a- 1..for --" .ge_d ~ng_ines. illl a me a n ado'pte-d t"n ~calcu._-- ~ ~~~ .The t. __ a -_....00 ~_nd lying i~~sa whoie above the Tv curves for ai t her the best ==-__ . The lower cllrve ..!ve_.J_ i:g.:...s..~pr a sen t. r . The Ta function repr~sents th~ ~ariatio~ 01 t...C~A. It _1e e~ressed by the equation _.harged engine a_. will be on tha conservative side.. a curve ootained from altitude-chamber tests at the Naval Aircraft Factory and is believed to be more representative of pree ~n t.t· conservative for the higher altitud!!. ..hP~h b. ~nd. _ ".it velocU·y.cu La t Lng the charts will give a sufficiently a c cur-at e approx~L~t1C)I). anY case.. it was impossible to find a convenient analytical expression that would :t. the Tv curves us ad.." is / supercba_t. it is necessary to knOV7 the derivative dTv/dRv• This derivative was graphically obtai nod by using a large s ca Lo b ecau s e.00 at value~_ of Rv near 1_..-day super Q..

C. the change in ef'ficie_ncy at operating speeds af 30. The increase in efficiency for the peak efficiency propeller in the 'same range was -from 1 to 2 percent. 117 i. due to the change in CSt was investib_est gated for the various C So 's for both t1:. the value of V/nD is constant for a given velocity ~t all altitudes.7 to 2. absolutq and service ceiling.l. Hence it is assumed that ~ will be the same for all values of cr.883 From the foregoing discussion it is seen that this assumption leads to somewhat conservative values for thrust hor sepower at the higher al titudes for high Os • ____f) By the use of these Ta and Tv functions.0. for values of Rv from 0.1/5 (CT 1- a~ al 1 -J /5 The change in propulsive efficiency with altitude at constant velocity.7.6 to 1. varies with altitude accorcIlng to the relation = 0.o 0.638 V O"l/S (b h • pOh )1/5 N a/s 0 = Os (CT = 1.000 feet for the best performance propeller was found to be about 3 percent for OSo' ranging from 1. .hp. and the Ta expression becomes T~ = b. Figures 5 to 9 give. performance charts have been calculated as explained in reference 1._e performance and the peak efficiency propellers.A. respectively: maximum velocity at altitude. and minimum time to climb to altitude.hp·h 'Th = b. The value of Cs• however. and at operating -velocities. The maximum increase in efficiency at 30.l. being sometimes positive and sometimes negative.0. = CT - O. hp : l).0) I - [--. F<?r CSo less than 1. Technical Note No.hp·o'T'lo b.A.000 feet was ~lways within 1 percent.R. maximum rate_of climb. N remain constant. velocity for maximum rate of climb.:!.' 579 7 From the condition that·. J' This change in propulsive efficiency with altitude at constant velocity was not considered sufficient to take into account in calculating the perfo~mance charts.

. the be used to find the performance characteristics. -_ - 8 .~ .. selection ~0 are the propeller diameter. ot Os • By the and .ane ~ of kno~.-value of -~-¥c ----. ~he value of Vm may then be coml?uted an~t __tr~~ ~s~_~m._gper-. by assuming a value of _ Vm and using Jo __ .. BElfore the c. the values of ..8' and t t.T is accomplis-hed __ by tEl1. .c~~: T~chnical . .500 lb. This estimat1o~ is moat conveni en tly ac comp Lt shed by compari son wi th si mi lar ai r_p].000 r.:.. which will be used in the second example. Should the ai rplane have a..-=.... _----~ ficienl. All performs.. US E OF N6t~ No. If a best performance or ~eak efficiency propeller is used.QbQ3 en to give the actual design at the critical altitude.-:. the known .~... Then.I. .. determined. one can find . consists of using a -fictitious unsupercharged engi_ne (} fincr_~1l !l~d b . _ N.= ::r ...6 for the deslg~ of may s __. _ is computed..".e vC is known and A _~ • gives the ....hal'ts-can must cent th_e . this new n may be found from figure 1 or figure 2 at Rv = 0. the v~lue .f' _ data.~ull-throttle performance above the critical altitude by either of two methods givBn in reference 5. This deter~inatlon gives suf. b a 'deterzdned.. data to computo tho design parameters l._ -_.hp._ 0 Tv" d• Dividing If. these charts may be used to calculate the..--'~~'-' -.10n is to estimate the value of the parasite area f and the airplane ~£ficiency factor e. engine q. o~ tlie CSo and which Jo corresponding_t6 the now Os and J. sq. __ .--0 . _ b.ed value c:heoked._i ~ • 7.P' 1. T this new '~ by ~o value charts .~ :~..--hp '. .__ . ft. . Given: -W b = 8. . Tho second of these methods.. super'charged engine.I].p~m.. e= r""'" .'n e:ri'ormance or by the use of figure 25-'and table p III of reference 1.6 O~_82 700 hp. Sf = 3_99 = 48 ft.._nce characteri sti cs below the cri tical alti tude are invali~~nd should_be ~iscafded. 60 valuei a~~ obtaining a new ~ be employed. 579 ~ - CEAR TS • The first step in making a performance calculai. = . at 2.

s 1.5 m. read 'Il 0.6 CSo 1.t = 63. a new choice must be made.5 14.860 = 0.A. •• propeller (fig. 1) were not a best perforoance or a peak Jo corresponding to the design diamCs 0 o = 1.75 = 0. 579 = 220 m.747/0.Q8 and J = 0.h.p.87 = charts with A = 14.OB5 and 0. and the procedure repeated •.035 (in this case for setting) and best perforoance Then find 0.87 .118 4.6 Jo 0.h. = = = Calculate Calculate Enter Tv A c = 'Il (Rv 14.p 1.5 = 79.6)/~o = 0. reference 1) If this calculation does ·not check the assumed value of Vm closely enough. at sea level = 1.C.A.m.000 r..8 (fig.p.621 and.86. (fig. = 'Ilo 0. for best performance Calculate: 1. . be found: J f = 1.N. eter WOUld. 1).747 at Rv = 0. at 2.1 1. 'Il 0.h 700 hp.75 and Tv c = 0.6 for Cs = o If the propeller efficiency propeller. 29.p.3 tp tt Find: Vm = 218. from figure 14 of referonce 2. s 'Lt = = = 1. Assume: Vm Cs o Technical Note No.621.p.8 for 220 I!l~.747 at Cs = 1.

._~ = . 1.9_"..: -:--_'~ . 129.6 • .Absolute ceiltng 20..: ~ =-=-_ !:!'---- W 8.p. ......220 m.705 at 10.:. ..m._ -_ ~-.800 .p.:..853.!.000 r.74 (fig..!r..6 88.500 lb. _-~ ~ 10 Resu1 'bs: Standard.h. 100 . ~ denotes s'= 0..0 164.5 206.. •••• \ S = 390 sq. :.• ft. . at 2. ..p.0 II . at -- .~~ f fictitious conditions r....74 for 220 m. ~-:-.../min.0 .0 ..p. al t~~ tude ft. 4) Of 't!o f 'II = 0.. = ·=-of 600/0. . min 0 11..1':"" ..=. T .SUPERCHARGED ~ "::f Vmh m.737 at Rv = 0.~ ~= 0.. 218..0 CR ft.900 147.0 EXAMPLE Given: 147.Q. 10.. o ENGINE ~ ~ . 1) . =- _: -.~_ .m.f...000 ft.h.82 (The s~bscr1pt Bea leV'e1. at 2. (fig.6 for CSOf = 1.p..000 20. a..'vice c e f..a.000 Sa:r..3 135._.) Assume'. -48 ft.5 V-c m.Ld ng 18...000 feet (fig. 1) " 1.000 for best performance propeller '0 = 0.t _00 Po = 600 hp. - ~ ~_ ....p._J:t.5 146. ' .h.210 592 '42....h •• 852 hp.t 10. §q.. = : -~ . .-~ _..705 C·s .. - = 852 hp • r.

tf= SO.h. min. "tot = 52. Oalculate Oalcula.7 l. 798 171 10..h.s 1.tf~ 8500/(0.000 " 134.853 = 0.O.900 ••• • •• 100 147..7 l.865 Results: Standard altitude ft. o 211. = = 945 4.2 = 11.' .865 .5 o CONCLUS ION· Because insufficient flight-test data are available for airplanes having constant-speed propellers. .0 20.853) (862) Find Vmf = 221.5 147.200 Absolute ceiling 22.5 m.A. It is reasonable to expect .te: l.5 144.p l.p.N. Calculate Enter A = 12.A. ft.0 183. 579 11 = 0.0 m.rts by comparison with flight-test data. it has been impossible to dotermine th~ accuracy of the cha.2 A = 12.? and check assumption charts with and Tv c = 0.s Tvc Technical Note No.p l.5 l.000 Service ceiling 21.737/0.. ..

: Working Charts for tho Sel..l.R..C. March 1936.. Materiel Division. "1. 1933. L.: ~he Variation in Engine Power with Altitude Deteri:ni~od from Moas'Q.. _~ai1ey Oswald. A.D.R.. Fred E. No..i-r. -=---~ .. v3.~C. REFERENCES "'"1. ..Qot1Qn_.R.: The Determination of the H_o.A. R: B._ Q_79__ S imil~!.me order of accuracy chart s for fixed-pi )[9.I.. Coa108. Oswald IS California Institute of Pasadena.. Oswa1d. -'" " - -:r . No. No. _R.C_. 408. T.eight Factor of Engines from the Results of Type Trials of Aircraft. General 9~ Airplane .ls Aircraft Enginos and BQdics. 1141._~. _~~..A_..rsepower l. Weick.tL Flight w:!.: Methods of P~rformance Calculation for Airpl_anes wi th Supercnarged Engihes Developed by W.. ~ -~. No.j:.C. 679.J).A~-t~ l. N. ~_:r:" .12 the N_.. British A. Gove. J3a:ney: Calculation N • A • C •A. W. an-d Lingard..ro.1 932 • Formulas Performance. ~=--~. 295.~.C.. T.A. 1928. Hub Dynamomoto~r... and Charts for the T. No_. 2.:. ~ ~- •• _" ~ •••• . A. .n~.~- 5.R..3-50.th Ii!.~_~ _Tec)micall{9_t_~ sa. W.. J.~. _ . ~~rmy Air Corps. _. California. & M..l:.C. -~ " • . _ =. N.A.?~f ~. Ashley.~ -. to Oporata with_Var~o1.~.-~ v4. _--:oo..Dt Aluminum Alloy Propellers ()f a Stand~rd ~Qrp.r as is d-E-ta:Lned from t ch pr opellers • Technology.:.J.-.. .~ :-::_£. 1930.. D.

.90 1.~ ~ I-"" ty ~ ~ t-...60 .t:::= f..20 . best ..2 \ I 1 5 ! . 1.constant-speed performance propeller. ~ !---- .•. _ ... 1 I I I I I I ..40 ~ " /V/ r>'/ / v: l'l V .40 ...~ 1--- V .-." 1 o .- f.l. Technical Note No 579 '.~ .00 f- Fig..50 .70 .N .00 Figure 1./ 'iV ~ /.A. -3 ~ ~ ~ 2 ~ ~ 1.30 f--' ~eo' Z~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ...30 .- - - ~ ~ __.60 . ~ •rI /' V V .-./ ih V/ ~ ~ ~ ~ r-:V V V ~ k- ~ ~ .. ~ V7/ V/ ~ s - ~ l--- ... ~ --~ ~ -I- f-..50 ~ .80 ~ •70 ..Characteristics of two-bladed.80 .90 ~'Q '-q'FuS~lag~ J ~ ~~ 6 ("'efel'"enc2) ~ D / /" I 1"\ .I-_.C..

. V .:1.80 GW } D ~ t::o..40 : -:'i V /".50 .---V ~ ro . 579 '.80 1.60 .I-- 1.20 ..~ .C.30 a ! ".~ I--.I--- r- 1.. ~v 17 ./ // ~ 1 III Peo= 2....> co 25 I--.90 fo'--- I I' I ...00 .J!---~ I--..A.30 .-f.-: ~ V /'" V V V V V~~ " f-"'" ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ !--- V"'" _..~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ -... 2 1.90 . . pSo' ~ V V .A..~ ~ } =r_-- fo---I--- - - - I--.I--- --. Technical Note Ho..Characteristics of two-bladed constant-speed peak efficiency propeller.00 Rv ~igure 2.60 .--" ~ -- ~ :.p ~ tD ..70 ._ - - !--.--.:~ V/ V V/ V V ~ ~ ~~ ~/ V L 30 p::t lC . ! .0 Fus 31ag~''6 ( efe encf3 2) .. Fig..70 " .__.--..-' ~ -- t::::= ~ f.. . 15 10 .~ I--.40 .50 ~ ...U..I-.

5 .8 / . ! a~l::J ~p f'l !..- · ~ .::::::l--- --~ vr-l. ~rl v_ ..·::-t-f--! .Variation of thrust horsepower with v~locity at constant." V / .I--" · · 10:1 ... " .' 1..L 7 I V .7 Rv :.j?v / V '.6 .at Rv= 1._-t---. . at Ry If.0 .7 .s..~ - . lrp.!.----..1~1V ts: ~ / :r / /'" .../' .9 1.~ /' ~ V .../ /: ...L:: ~~ ~ l-:~ I../' V V i-'" V / V ~ ... o - V .-V t..0 Figure 3.. 7{· .. hp..-=- ... t.. ._.9 '/ V ..8 ..0 11'. engine spoed. -.

4 . 1. feet • \ Figure 4... . . I o 10.m.A... .. . ~ "" f!1.:--.70 ..00 ~\.. ~ ..A.p.C.50 ..j".30 "-~ K' .cf ~ . ~ !!q '~.~ '~ ~~~ ....~~ "- / .... ..Variation of full-throttle brake horsepower constant r.000 Altitude....80 '~ "~ :....c ~\.000 20. 579 Fig....../. . <. ~ ~ . .N. <. ~83 " 71.117 --~/ F = 0.' ~ ~~ p" .~ 0_ ~ <. with altitude .. 30.~ "~ ~ ~ ... / •. . at ... Technical Note No.000 ..60 -:' .l:I .-.40 CT-( ~. •90 "" r~.

86 .r--..94 190 .N..- o 10 A 20 30 Figure 5. 579 Fig... . =s ~ ~ ~ <. Q_'f ~ 'SE a lEvel ~. -. i'!o.e: ~ _.. \ \\\ ~ \ \\ \ \ 1\ \ i\ \ \ . -~--. i \ _\.. ~ ~ ..... " Technical Note No...-.90 ~ "1\ ~\ ~ "i\ \~ v ~ \~ ~ '~ ~.Qc ""'" ~ o 'E . \~ \\ .. ~ ~ '~\ ~' ~~ .\ \ .80 ~\ \'\ '~ \\ 8 \ \ \ Rvm . . ~JO... 1\ \ \ R vp./ /'" U~ \ -- ...A.-r ~_u. ---:.~R.t. 5 1.\ \ .r-.. ~\\~ \\\~ \V \. H .+_..:".-V _- -~ ~ ~ f-- 'Iv c C .\ j \ \ 1 \-1- .. r-. -. .. '~ Mo( ~ .. <. f' ' ..\ \ "~ ':~ I\. . c-.... ~ .Rv m and Rv as functions of A.00 r-~ r-...._.6<?D /~ V -:.70 \ \ ! \ \\ 1\ :\ \ I' . \~ ~ .A.~ ~ ~ ~ ~'"' ~ "-~ ~ ~ ~ ---.F- ~ ~ ~ ~~ "" ~ <~ ...C. ~ ~ e"lli. ~ '-.f-. I• ..~ . ..~ ~ . " 1\\ \\ \ \\\ 1\\ \ \ ~ \ .'" i'iI.t1l: ~ ~ ~ ~ 1- .

. 1'.~ \~ ] •... S.- ~\ ~c ~.. I'-.::...O.. ~ ~ :-.:::.t--.....~ ...000 I " '" r-..-1 ~ \.A.. ~ ...~\ :\ ~ 1\ ~ " 30.\ ~\~\ ~ l\\ '\\ ~ \'.... " ...~ ~ " ... 10.. . . -.. ::::::......~~ ~ ~ ~ i'......"... ~ ~ ~ " .::: [i::p .._ ~ :::--' It :: 0 <:~~ 1'..._ ~~~ I- r-..~' " ~ -.! ... ~4-1-- ~o 1--.. :..000 .. • N.: . Technical Nota No. ...l>1>-. o 10 20 30 A Figure 6. .....: .~ ~ ~ ~ ..Absolute and service ceiling as functions of A... s-..:: <. ~ 'f"o' r-\\v~ \~ O. .~ :::. ~ ~ ~ . '-..:: ~ r..~ ~~ . "". ~' -.. .. .. ~ <.' ~ ~~ .1:6 - 1-- -..... 579 Fig.... . ~c... ._.. -. r=.. 1.....000 ~ ~ ~\ Tv c . ~ :--... ~ <.. t-'t-' r. '-0 Oet : . 1--_." \~ I\. . ..... ~ ..-.A.:.' ~ .R ... .000 1\ ~~ '~ ~~ ...=... ~ I ~ i . 6 I 40.r--.t . 20..I-- ..'t ~*>. ~" ~" ~ "~ r-."........ '<. -: ~' ~ ':\ ~ '0 .. .r::: • . ~ I-._ . ~ -..... r..~-:-:::: [t r-.

. r-. r-. <."\ . <. "~" ' . r-. I' <..... "I'.. . i'.. .. Fig. <.% I' \. Technical Ilote No.-... -...'" ~'\~ ....~~ ~~ ~ '~ ~ '" '" "" -. ..... <. " r-..000 r t\' 1\ " ... i-. ... . 1\. . .. "'I r-....O.. l\0. ... 20.. r-. ~ . . \\~.. <.1'''~~ . r-... f\_"\.000 ~ -.~..<."" -. I' ~.... "- • . <..at various al ti tudes. "- . <. t-. "- . -... ' :."-: t-. f'..... . -.... -....... r-... 10.. '"r-. "..~ ~b •E <. I'.. <.' r-.. . <.. -... <... <. . "'" r-...000 r-.. . " I" ~ r"'-..~ ll."" . 1'. -... r-..1""- .. 8 i'. \... OR is the maximum rate of climb in feet per minute. • N. "I' r-. . .. r-. .c ""r-.. .. r-. ~\ . ~ .. A [0r-.. 1'-.~ 20 r- "- -:<." ~. .. ."-I'\....I"'.-.. i"-"._ I tOR as a function of A . 15.. .. ~~ . Tv c '". .. -.. f\\ ~'" " [\'. 579 25. r-.... r-..l'.<. ..'\. ~ -. r-. ... "<..- ~- 1-..~ .""\ o ~\\ ". . r..A.~..- r- f'. . 7 .'" \..000 _.ell r. . f'.'" .. .-l"... .. .. . <..~ "- -. '" . I'-.. ~ r-. r-. . ~ .. <... 30 .. ..\ 11\ ..... i'. .. . ".... R. i'..... -. <.. ... <... " ~ ... <!2 ~ r-.. . <.. <.000 <. . . -... <.. -... " .. ~ ~ I.& .. -. ".. . r. "... ~ :\"a r-. r-.." ..~ .. 1"0. I' --" O..... .\\ " \~ ~\ ~0\ . .. ~--.. i' <..... <. . 1'. .I-.\ 1\'.A."" r-.~ i' " -. <... <._ .. "-..~ 'r-... . " ... . ~'\ 10 . <.-...... I'-... <. 5. 1' . .. ~.... \\ l\1 . . .~ ~ " \. I ....... <.' <. -. .. <.. -. \.. ' I -...<C I"-."\.... " <... r." Figure 7.'\... ... g...~ o/") . ....

. poo ft.--jI-._''£ _..L • Rv c .~ f.A...-~ :~r 1\ 1-:110s. 10.....:::..-:..A.s.6 ~ ...86 -.L 10 30 FIgure 8.--- l---. 8 • I Vc ~ ...001 D ft c-j 3CI~OO( ft k I.--. I- f-- H+: <.~4 1-.-..00 p f .-... ....-..r:::::: ::::: :::-:::::: JL ~ ~ ~ )00 ft..7 I' 25.~ -..-7". 1'\ 2l . _ 20 -r- ~ .. as a function of A at various altitudes... "\ ~ ... 'r--j _.. ~ ._ _._-_ ~ ..C..~_ . ~ - . f-- _---- ' ... ~c = velocity for maximum rate of climb c maximum velocity at sea level .-.6 00 Fl5..- :.5 ~ ~ ~ . DOO Pt. _. ... ~ i")_ .-V _ --.-.---~~ I- _!J..'1.00 P ..L--..· I N.._ . 7 3C OO( ft ...-_-_ . 'l..--------r-.6 ~r .-.-1 )..-"" _..../"" .--- ..'""-. ~ 3C OO( ft /' .l._....~ --..o./..-.. ~ 15..7 20 000 ft.I-" ~ S..&. Technical Kate No~ 579 Fig...."" . lJ/ ..----.90 ..._.. _. . . Jf1--- 15 000 ft.-- --:::::- -...~ ~ ~ .. 't..-.. ".._: 2).0 )0 f it....C ......c v:: ->-....'- ~ I \~ S..-I.._S.L~ ~ ~ ~.. // .5 t -: ... ....__ -.. r--I-- \ 5 O(K)f . ... pOO ft. 15 000 ft..--.-10 000 ft. \ :.. '"'I _.-..:-'\ io f p...L ...--..""'" .:~..-.---....Rv·._.::::::.--... 5.._ ft ...

_...9-:1 ... 1/// "" I I I / If .~.. 579 rig.p ..I I I I ~I Cr-II I I 7 01 . 01 t'J f I8 ~ f I I .J rJ / 7 II ..- 8 ~I Cr-II . I- o 10 20 30 Figure 9.I:::"=I_ ~ 1-- ~ -:::- - :...ll 81 aT .:-. V" /_. 1 ·T .I...::: -r...9C -- .r...-II 'r 81 I //j I I 4: 3 ~ /j...: I I I I ~I Cr-II I r I Cr-I 6 { 8 @I 0 I I I I I I QI I T . / / / V :/// 1/// J r I ... r.- I 17 I II / J 1 .-III d . I I I l!'. 9 f 10 ~Vc p.. %V // / ~ V/I ~ I-' /// 11/ / .N.A./_/ .:1 I 5 // .. -_ -~_.----" I- . .: ! ~v v~ l/ V rll 1-j:-- /j / ~ ~ t::::=.:::-: t!::: ~-. Technical Note No. ~/r / / /1 7 I 5 000 ft.1 ==s--.---- ~ L-2 V..A.o 2 i-' . JI J I I T I II V/ / . T 1s the minimum time required to climb to altiyude (minutes) .- Tilt as a function of A at various altitudes.f- • BE 9 -.C.....f1-.. 8. I I .

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