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HSC COURSE

3

DESIGNING AND PRODUCING

Chapter 17 The major design
project

Chapter 18 The proposal and management of the major project Chapter 19 Development and
realisation of the major project

Chapter 20 Project evaluation

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17
THE MAJOR DESIGN PROJECT
OUTCOME, KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL STATEMENT
Outcome:
H5.2 H6.1 selects and uses appropriate research methods and communication techniques justifies technological activities undertaken in the major design project and relates these to industrial and commercial practices

Students learn about:
• research methods • communication • practices in industrial and commercial settings as they relate to the major design project

Students learn to:
• • • • select and apply appropriate research methods for the major design project justify decisions made based on analysis of research select and use appropriate communication techniques for development of the major design project identify design and production processes used in domestic, community, industrial and commercial settings in comparison to those used in the major design project • implement safe work practices using selected materials and techniques in design and production of the major design project • explain the principles underlying safe working practices and environments

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17.1 HSC marking scheme and assessment guidelines
MARKING SCHEME
The following marking scheme is also available on the Board of Studies website.

The Proposal 15 marks
MARKING GUIDELINES

CRITERIA
• Identifies and provides a detailed exploration of genuine needs and opportunities, justifying final selection for the development of the MDP • Describes relevant areas of investigation which relate clearly to the need, and provides direction for further action • Establishes and analyses appropriate criteria to evaluate the success of the PSE • Formulates and evaluates well-documented action, time and finance plans with clear evidence of their application to the PSE • Identifies and justifies the selection and use of ideas and resources based on the results and analysis of research • Identifies and provides an exploration of needs and opportunities, in relation to the development of the MDP • Describes some relevant areas of investigation in relation to the need and provides evidence that these were investigated • Describes appropriate criteria to evaluate the success of the PSE, with little analysis of these criteria • Formulates action, time and finance plans, and shows some evidence of their application to the PSE • Identifies, selects and uses ideas and resources based on the results and analysis of research, with limited justification • States a need, with limited exploration in relation to the development of the MDP • Lists one or two areas of investigation in relation to the need, which may not relate to further action • Briefly describes criteria to evaluate the success of the PSE, with no analysis of these criteria • Formulates and applies action and/or time and/or finance plans • Identifies the selection of ideas and resources, with inadequate justification • States a need, with some exploration in relation to the development of the MDP • Names areas of investigation in relation to the need which may not relate to further action, or shows evidence of areas being investigated • Briefly describes criteria, some of which may be inappropriate to evaluate the success of the PSE, or provides evidence of consideration of a range of criteria • Some evidence of action, time or finance planning • Lists ideas and/or resources with little explanation or justification for their selection • Need stated without clarity, nor explored in relation to the development of the MDP • Names an area of investigation • Lists mainly inappropriate criteria to evaluate the success of the PSE or provides evidence of evaluative criteria being considered • Action, time or finance planning not evident • Lists some ideas and/or resources or shows evidence of their use

MARKS

13–15

10–12

7–9

4–6

1–3

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Project development and realisation 35 marks
MARKING GUIDELINES

CRITERIA
• Demonstrates the application of creativity in the development of the MDP • Critically analyses a wide range of design factors relevant to the PSE and applies them • Distinguishes between, and applies, the most appropriate research methods in the development of the MDP • Evaluates the results of experimentation and testing and applies this to the MDP • Applies conclusions developed from research to the MDP • Justifies the selection and use of resources in the idea development for the PSE • Synthesises design solution testing and applies conclusions to the development of the PSE • Succinctly demonstrates a range of appropriate quality communication and presentation techniques • Applies a range of high-quality practical skills in the development of the PSE • Analyses the relationship between practices adopted in the MDP and those in industrial/ commercial settings • Demonstrates substantial application of creativity in the development of the MDP • Critically analyses a range of design factors relevant to the PSE and applies them • Distinguishes between, and applies appropriate research methods in the development of the MDP • Describes the results of experimentation and testing or shows evidence of a broad range of experimentation and testing in the PSE • Demonstrates some selective application of conclusions to the MDP • Explains the selection and use of resources in the idea development for the MDP • Describes design solution testing and applies some conclusions to the development of the PSE or provides evidence of the application of testing • Demonstrates varied and appropriate communication and presentation techniques in a concise manner • Applies a range of practical skills in the development of the PSE • Compares the relationship between practices adopted in the MDP and those in industrial/ commercial settings • • • • • • • • • Demonstrates some creativity in the development of the MDP Describes some design factors relevant to the PSE and applies them Applies appropriate research methods in the development of the MDP Describes the results of experimentation and testing or shows evidence of a range of experimentation and testing in the PSE Describes the selection and use of resources in the idea development for the MDP Describes design solution testing or provides evidence of testing Demonstrates some communication and presentation techniques Applies sound practical skills in the development of the PSE Describes practices adopted in the MDP and those in industrial/commercial settings

MARKS

29–35

22–28

15–21

• Provides some evidence of design factors, most of which are relevant to the MDP and applies them • Some evidence of appropriate research methods in the development of the MDP • Briefly describes the results of experimentation and testing without applying conclusions to the PSE or shows evidence of experimentation and testing in the PSE • Describes some resources used for the PSE • Provides evidence of design solution testing • Demonstrates a limited range of communication and presentation techniques • Applies basic practical skills in the development of the PSE • Provides evidence of practices adopted in the MDP or those in industrial/commercial settings, without comparing or contrasting
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• Provides limited evidence of design factors, few of which are relevant to the MDP or shows evidence of the application of design factors • Minimal evidence of research methods in the development of the MDP • Minimal description of the results of experimentation and testing • Lists few resources used for the PSE • Provides little evidence of design solution testing • Demonstrates minimal communication and presentation techniques • Applies minimal practical skills in the development of the PSE • Provides limited evidence of practices adopted in the MDP or those in industrial/commercial settings, without comparing or contrasting

1–7

The Evaluation 10 marks
MARKING GUIDELINES

CRITERIA
• • • • • • • • Critically evaluates aspects of the PSE throughout its entire development Analyses and critically evaluates the functional and aesthetic aspects of the PSE Critically evaluates the impact of the PSE on society and the environment Analyses the relationship of the PSE to the criteria for success identified in the project proposal Evaluates most aspects of the PSE throughout its entire development Explains the functional and aesthetic aspects of the PSE Explains the impact of the PSE on society and the environment Compares the relationship of the PSE to the criteria for success identified in the project proposal

MARKS

9–10

7–8

• Judges the success of some aspects of the PSE through stages of its development • Describes some functional and/or aesthetic aspects of the PSE • Describes the impact of the MDP on society and/or the environment or exhibits evidence that the impact on the environment was considered • Checks the PSE against the criteria for success identified in the project proposal, with little or no explanation • Describes, with little justification, the success of several aspects of the PSE or exhibits evaluation in the PSE’s development • Describes a functional and/or aesthetic aspect of the PSE • Briefly or inaccurately describes the impact of the PSE on society and/or the environment • Checks the PSE against some of the criteria for success identified in the project proposal, without explanation • Describes, without justification, the success of an aspect of the PSE or provides some evidence of evaluation in the PSE’s development • Names a functional or aesthetic aspect of the PSE No description of the impact of the PSE on society or the environment • Does not clearly relate the PSE to the criteria for success identified in the project proposal

5–6

3–4

1–2

The following information is adapted from the Board of Studies document HSC Design and Technology Marking Guidelines – Major Design Project. Full copies of the document are also available from www. boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au The HSC examination consists of two parts, a written paper worth 40 marks and a major design project worth 60 marks. The combined total will form your assessment mark.

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The major design project (MDP) has two components and will require submission of: • a folio documenting the project proposal and project management, project development and realisation, and project evaluation • a product or a system or an environment (PSE). It is important that you actually start the folio or diary at this point and accurately document the procedures all of the way through your project. Examiners can easily identify folios that have been completed after the MDP .

17.2 Major project – HSC marking scheme and assessment guidelines
Component: Project proposal and project management (15 marks)
In this section, candidates should use their folio to show the intended nature of their project and provide details on how they are planning to proceed and manage the project. This proposal should become a reference point for all development, realisation and evaluation processes. Your proposal should address each of the following assessment criteria as comprehensively as possible by showing how you: • first identified and explored the need • investigated a number of possible design solutions • developed your evaluation criteria • planned your actions, time and finance resources to complete the project • selected ideas and resources for the MDP .

Component: Project development and realisation (35 marks)
This section deals with the MDP development and production. Both the folio and project are examined. Your documentation in the folio should provide clear, sequential evidence of the processes that you have undertaken during construction and development of the MDP . To meet the assessment criteria for this section, you will need to include details of how you undertook the following design tasks. To show evidence of your creative skill, you will need to document how you: • developed a number of ideas that met your design needs and compared them to decide which was the most suitable • explored existing ideas and solutions for similar products. Documentation and the MDP will need to show that you have given consideration to the following design factors: • Is the final design appropriate for the intended users and their situation? • Does the final design function well and meet the needs identified in the proposal? • Does the MDP have an appealing appearance? • Did the eventual cost fit within your predicted budget? • Does your design follow ergonomic principles? Is it comfortable and easy to use? • Will the MDP satisfactorily perform the functions it was designed for? • Are the technologies, materials and processes used in the MDP sustainable? • What were the energy requirements during development and construction of the MDP? What are the energy needs of the MDP when functioning? • How have you made maximum use of materials that can be recycled or reused? • Does the MDP meet current safety and occupational health and safety standards? • Did you need to compromise on materials or processes for budget reasons?
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• How would you define the overall quality of the MDP? • Will the MDP be as durable as predicted and what is its expected functional lifespan? • What aspects of the MDP design prevent it from early obsolescence? • Have you conducted a potential life cycle analysis and what were the results? Your documentation of research, experimentation and testing procedures should clearly identify the following and give supporting evidence for your choices: • the design ideas that you have developed and eventually chosen to pursue • the materials that you have selected to use • the tools and techniques that you have chosen. In addition, both the MDP and your documentation will need to reflect the manner in which you have: • researched, assessed and drawn conclusions on designs, materials and processes • identified and justified ideas and resources that you have used • been informed by results of testing design solutions and drawing appropriate conclusions • used communication and presentation techniques to clarify your design and MDP • provided evidence of your practical skills and their application to a quality project • considered the industrial and commercial alternatives to the processes used in your MDP .

Component: Evaluation (10 marks)
The evaluation section requires you to assess the MDP against the needs and criteria in your proposal. It is also an opportunity to show that your project has undergone a process of continual evaluation during its realisation. At every stage of the project, you would have made some value judgement on the success or otherwise of the task you had just completed. Include as much of this detail as possible. To make the most of this section, you will need to: • record and apply evaluation procedures to each stage of the MDP • analyse and evaluate the functional and aesthetic aspects of design • compose a final evaluation of how well the MDP satisfies the needs outlined in the proposal and the project’s impact on society and the environment • relate the MDP to the project proposal.

17.3 The major design project
The MDP is an aspect of the course that students enjoy. It is your opportunity to design, create and gain marks. The MDP is intended to let you experience the entire design process from concept through to realisation. It is an exciting and demanding process that will see you meet and overcome a number of challenges, both physical and mental.

Overview
The MDP requires consistent effort and should be approached as a design project rather than an assignment. An important first step is deciding on your area of interest and identifying a need within that field. Try to select a field of investigation in which you have a personal interest, as this will make your task more achievable and help when demands on your time are high. Next, you will need to develop a clear understanding of the need and determine appropriate specifications that will guide you through the remaining phases of the project. Evaluation is a critical aspect of your activities and should be carried out with everything from the research data to the end product. The quality of your end product and its relationship or appropriateness to the needs that you have identified in the proposal will also play a key role your success.

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A self-motivated student who seeks advice and takes an independent approach to the organisation and construction aspects of their project is likely to have more success than one who is overly reliant on help from parents, teachers and friends. Many students make extensive use of graphics to convey ideas and illustrate construction processes within the folio. To maximise impact, your graphics will need to have a clear purpose, and not simply be a series of photos taken from day one until completion. Realising your final design may prove difficult if you have chosen to work within the built environment or some other large-scale project where the physical construction of your solution is prohibitive in terms of cost or space. In cases of this nature, candidates may present scale models, drawings or virtual representations of their solution along with an appropriately documented folio.

Other points to consider
Keep an open mind when you first start to develop possible solutions. If you have already pictured the end product in its entirety, there will be little room to show your innovation skills. Accept the fact that you may need to modify your ideas as the project progresses and be willing to take risks to ensure that your solution is one of a kind. Choose a project that interests you, and approach all tasks with a commitment to high standards of work. If you decide to develop your design for an outside client, ensure at the outset that they will not have overriding control of the design. Perhaps they will want you to design something that fits in with their ideas and not your own. Be realistic in the task that you attempt. It should be something that a Year 12 student can achieve with diligence and application in the indicative 120 hours or thereabouts. Some candidates become disheartened when they attempt projects that would normally be assigned to a professional design team as a multi-year project. In cases where you wish to design a transport system or sporting facility, it is better to work on fully developing the concept and presenting your ideas through scale models than to become involved in the detailed engineering required to make the design a reality. Do not forget the effect that appropriate decoration and quality surface finishes will have on the market potential for your product. The final product should be a ‘one-off’, clearly distinguishable from products currently available in retail stores.

17.4 Product system or environment
The biggest challenge that most students seem to face is deciding upon a suitable area of interest and whether they should develop a product, system or environment for their MDP . Many designs have aspects to them that overlap the boundaries and have elements of each classification. Starting out with the end creation completely fixed in your mind will severely limit your opportunities to design and show innovation. As your project evolves, it may well transform from a product emphasis to a system design or the reverse.
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Perhaps the best approach lies in concentrating on how the identified needs can be best satisfied and, in the initial stages at least, keeping an open mind as to what form the solution will take. Always keep in mind that the realised project must satisfy the purpose identified in your original proposal.

Products
A product is anything that we design or make to serve a specific purpose in our homes, work or leisure pursuits. Conceptually, a product is probably clearer in the eyes of most candidates than either of the other options. Products usually appear as either innovations, which are totally new concepts, or as revamped versions of older ideas. By far the largest proportion of designs appearing in industry are existing ideas that have been modified or updated. The introduction of a completely new product or model is usually the result of a research breakthrough in the technology or materials development field. Updating an existing product to meet current fashion and styling trends is one way to attract new buyers to the market or encourage existing owners to update. Designers and manufacturers often expend considerable resources to research, design, make, advertise and market their products. Whether a product is intended to meet our day-to-day survival needs or enhance our entertainment and leisure experience, it still has to meet established design principles for it to be successful.

System
A system is a combination of components, both inputs and processes or controls, that work together to achieve a specified task or output. System design can be a complex task, involving the development of an idea through to its plan or completion stage. Man-made systems vary in complexity, from computerised burglar alarms to robotics. Large-scale systems and engineering projects, such as the Snowy Mountains Scheme, can encompass geographical features and change entire landscapes, while natural systems depend on the interrelationships that exist between living things and their environment. The easiest way to express a system is through block diagrams, flow charts or step diagrams that clearly define the components and processes, and the manner in which they function within the system and contribute to the output. This approach can be used to explain control situations without being tied down by the technical details of electronics or mechanical devices. In industry, this approach is used to identify the various parts of a process.

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Inputs
Input may be some kind of movement, such as a finger pushing a button, a servo motor engaging or a component passing a sensor. Alternatively, it may be some change in an environment, such as temperature, light level or moisture content, that triggers the system into operation.

Controls and processes
The control or process that receives the input carries out the intended operation that leads to an observable output.

Outputs
Outputs should be the observable result of the system’s operation. It could be a screen image, mechanical action, light, sound or electronic process. The system should effectively meet the needs expressed in your design proposal.

Environment
Environments are really complex interactive systems that can range from the interior of a car to an entertainment venue. When designing an environment, you must take into account all of the ergonomic, psychological and physiological design considerations. Our bodies interpret the environment in a number of ways. Whether we are indoors, outside or working, our brains are receiving and interpreting information through our senses. The type of information that we receive can have a dramatic influence on how we perceive that particular situation and leave us with a remaining image of pleasantness or otherwise. Physical factors such as temperature have an immediate impact on us. Clothing is the oldest established method of protecting ourselves and minimising the effects of extreme temperatures. The comfort level of an environment is often judged by the amount of clothing that must be worn. Today, we depend heavily on airconditioning to control temperature and refresh the air in our shopping centres, office blocks and even our cars. All are separate controlled environments that we interact with on a regular basis. There are many other physical attributes of the environment that contribute to our perceptions and consequently the feelings we register. Design of this nature is extremely important to the builders of shopping centres or office blocks because of the potential losses through poor design. Consider the lack of sales or reduced productivity that would occur if the environment made people feel uncomfortable. All environments will require the designer to address the following issues at a minimum: • lighting • colour • sound • personal space • grouping of people.
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Special-purpose environments, such as transport system hubs (e.g. train stations) and entertainment venues, have additional requirements because of the large numbers of people they cater for. No matter what type of environment you are attempting to design, a focus on minimising energy use and consideration of environmental concerns is essential.

Project category examples
PRODUCT
Item of furniture Jewellery Vehicle Toy

SYSTEM
Climate control Food/beverage dispenser Farm management process Lighting

ENVIRONMENT
Shopping centre interior Entertainment venue Outdoor recreation area Community facility

This list is intended to serve only as guide to the categories and not as a list of potential projects.

17.5 Getting started
Avoiding the pitfalls of procrastination and reducing the amount of unproductive time is a key ingredient to success. Setting your direction along one of the following avenues will overcome the first hurdle. Essentially, there are two options when approaching the MDP You can attempt to invent and design . something entirely new, or you can attempt to solve an existing problem in a new way by modifying an existing design concept.

Invention
Inventions usually arise from the identification of a unique need. Sometimes, these needs have been recognised but not explored because they lack commercial viability. Often, individuals are able to identify needs that they have at work or in their hobbies and sports that can lead to highly successful and unique design projects. Have you already identified a need of your own that requires a design solution?

Modification
The important consideration with this approach is not to ‘reinvent the wheel’ by trying to modify an already highly successful and effective product. Your choice should involve a product that has clear deficiencies in its design and function, whether these are aesthetic, ergonomic or even cost considerations. Product evolution is an ongoing process that should make use of advances in technology and materials as they become available. How can you make a contribution to the evolution process?

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Are you are still having difficulty deciding on a project?
• Interview friends and others to learn about their needs. • Research on the Internet by visiting designers’ and inventors’ websites. • Ask your teacher.

17.6 The folio
The folio serves two purposes in the MDP It is a means of communication with the marker, and a . management tool that helps you track the multitude of processes that you are undertaking. Keeping a diary is an integral part of the time-management process and allows for proactive or forward planning while keeping an accurate record of events and details. Also, keep a folder with all of your working documents, such as rough sketches; they will help provide information in the folio and show the development from concept through production to the evaluation phase. Although not mandatory, candidates who develop their folio using a word processing program are at a significant advantage because of the editing facilities, spell check and flexibility of page design.

Overview
Creating a suitable solution for your design brief, or indeed writing appropriate specifications, is dependent on the resources and information that you have at your disposal. Organisation is a key point. It is all too easy to gather tremendous resources and then overlook important information or ideas because of a poorly organised recording and storage system. An A4 design or file folder is one appropriate means of accomplishing this. A4 is large enough to accommodate drawing sheets, most printed matter and notes, while still remaining portable enough to be kept with you. The level of documentation that you keep throughout the development of your project and the manner in which you do it will have a significant bearing on the final assessment that your design project receives. Remember, documentation is part of the design project and process, not something added to it at the end. Your documentation must clearly indicate to the examiners: • how and why your design has been developed • how it was constructed • the reasons behind your decisions • how it was evaluated. Unless this process is commenced at the very beginning of your work, important decisions and the reasons you made them may be overlooked or forgotten.

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17.7 Folio content tips
The folio that accompanies your project is the only way in which you can communicate your experiences with the examiners. To do this effectively, it must be a comprehensive summary of your activities during the project’s realisation. Clear documentation will greatly assist your assessment.

The project proposal
The proposal sets the scene for your work and the development process that you are attempting. All other sections of your folio and project must be consistent with the directions identified in your proposal.

Identifying the needs
Clearly state why the project was developed, who it is intended for, where it will be used and the specific needs that it meets. Both primary and associated needs should be included in these statements.

Areas of investigation
Areas of investigation will be specific to each individual project. This is the research element of research and development. For example, when designing a bicycle, your research will need to cover areas such as historical precedents, ergonomics, lightweight materials, corrosion, mechanical testing and surface finishes.

Specifications
The working specifications for a design are written in order to establish clear understanding between the client and the designer on the product’s purpose, suitable materials, price and any other applicable constraints. It sets boundaries for the end product and provides useful criteria for the designer’s evaluation process. Often, specifications can be arrived at by looking at a standard checklist of factors that require consideration. Not all factors will require consideration for each design, but testing their applicability helps to ensure that nothing is omitted. Their relative merit or importance will also change with each design. Safety will be a major consideration for cars, but not so important for coathangers. Remember, however, that one vital piece of information left out at this stage may have severe consequences for the end product. It may not function in the way that consumers hoped for, or it may alienate a segment of the potential market. For this reason, validity of the specifications should be thoroughly researched with target markets once they have been established between the designer and client. Design is an evolutionary process that benefits from research and information.

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Experiments
Documentation of experiments that you conduct needs to contain far more than just the results. You will need to clearly identify the aims of your experiment or what you intended to test and include a description of how the experiment was conducted. Photographs or video may be suitable as support material for your written account. The results of experimentation will usually have some implications for your design. It may be necessary to change the type of materials used or to increase a component’s size to cope with operating loads. It is necessary to identify and describe any modifications that result from knowledge gained during experimentation. If you intend to conduct a series of experiments, it may be worthwhile creating a standard-format page that allows neat presentation.

Observation techniques
As discussed in Chapter 9, choosing a suitable method of observing and recording information depends on the nature of the process or event to be recorded and the resources at your disposal. Photographs and videotape are effective methods that allow you to create completely accurate records that are easily understood and accessed. Written observations are best suited to step-by-step activities where brief notes can be used to provide continuity between graphic images.

Project management
The action or production plan should clearly indicate how your project was divided into manageable stages and identify the production processes associated with each stage. Flow charts can be invaluable for clearly displaying these steps. Timelines can be linked to the action plan and critical production paths identified. The timing of deadlines and major events can be expressed on a weekly basis (e.g. week 3, term 2 – complete presentation drawings). Your expenditure of financial resources also needs to be included, along with a finance plan that indicates your intended expenditure and the proposed timing of each event. The total cost of your project should be easily identified. Other resources that are necessary for completion of your project need to be clearly identified. These can include expertise or machinery from outside the school or even another student. All of these must be included and justified.

Project production plans
Initial concepts involving the production process and how it may be organised usually take the form of flow charts or a similarly flexible notation procedure. Flow charts grow from an initial idea or decision and progress forward. In the early stages of flow chart construction, it is often best to remain flexible and allow new steps to be included where necessary. Your procedure is not ‘set in concrete’ and will need to be continually updated as new influences or knowledge alter your plans. The use of photographs taken at important points during production is absolutely essential to clearly conveying your process.

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Student sample No. 1: For an outdoor table – cypress timber
STEP PROCESS AND MATERIALS
Marking out and measuring dressed cypress timber Cutting all legs, rails and planks for table top to the right lengths Marking out the mortise and tenon joints on the top of the legs and end of rails Drilling holes for the mortises in the legs

TOOLS/MACHINES/ EQUIPMENT
Tape measure, pencil, square, workbench Docking saw (electric) (cut by Mr Clark) Square, pencil, marking gauge, ruler Bench/pedestal drill

SAFETY ISSUES

TIME
45 mins

1

Earmuffs, safety goggles

50 mins

2

50 mins

3

4 5 6 7

Make sure wood is clamped to table of drill Wear safety goggles

40 mins

Paring back mortises Cutting out tenons on the rails Testing and ensuring mortise and tenon joints fit, fixing Use template to mark out gentle tapering shape for legs Shape legs and smooth off Joining rails to legs

Chisel, bench vice Handsaw, chisel Gentle tapping with mallet Fine work with chisel Template, pencil, workbench Bandsaw (cut by Mr Clark), rasp file, sandpaper, sander Sash clamps, large square, tape measure to check diagonals Square, ruler, pencil Dowelling machine

Cut away from hands Use bench hook or clamp wood to workbench Make sure work is secure

2 hrs 2 hrs ?

20 mins

8

9

Safety goggles, earmuffs Don’t drop on feet

3 hrs 1 hr

10

Checking squareness Marking out dowel joints for joining table top pieces Drilling holes for dowel joints, checking drill bit size, making sure top side of planks goes face down

11

30 mins Clear all debris Tie back hair and loose clothing Make sure drill bit is in correctly 30 mins

12

13

Cut dowels for joints, making them a little shorter than the depth of the hole Join planks for table top with suitable outdoor glue Assemble table (not sure how to do this yet) Sanding and treating

Vice, handsaw

Make sure work is secure

30 mins

14

Sash clamps Router, metal support brackets, electric drill and screwdriver Sander, sandpaper, brushes, oil Electrical safety

1 hr 2 hrs

15

16

Dust mask Move table outside

?

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Time plans
Planning your use of time is like management of any other resource. It can be used profitably or it can be squandered. Once you have determined the various stages necessary to complete your design (from your action plan flow chart), it is wise to start allocating periods of time for their completion. This allocation is based on your best estimates of what will be necessary. Start by making a list of the steps involved and writing your estimate of the time required beside each step. Add up the total number of days and compare this to the calendar dates you must work within (i.e. the project commencement and submission dates). If your plan fits comfortably in the time frame and all goes according to plan, there should be few problems. This is rarely the case! Most designers find that they have too little time. In this case, you must decide which aspects of your project can be done concurrently and which are totally dependent on completion of the previous stage for commencement. In industry, this process is known as critical path analysis. It helps to determine the shortest possible time necessary for a project to be completed. There are a number of things that can be worked on simultaneously in most projects.

Development and realisation
Every step in the planning and construction of your project should be clearly worded, justified and evaluated. Research, experimentation and testing are basic procedures in the development of any design. Their role in the development of your major project is significant. They, together with present knowledge, should form the basis of every decision that you make. All major decisions need to be documented and the underlying reasons for your choice explained. This applies to choice of materials, tools, construction processes and any other resources that you have utilised. Any results obtained through experimentation should be thoroughly documented and presented for assessment with the major design. Presentation is important. The folio should be logically ordered and easy to read or obtain information from. Do not hide important facts in the middle of extensive background writing; make them stand out. You should provide a full table of contents and start each new section with an appropriate title page. Evidence of your practical skills is largely provided by your project. However, there may be some processes or intricacies of manufacture that are not apparent from external examination. Your step-by-step description of construction and supporting photographs can be used to highlight these features. Initiative, innovation and creativity are words that should spring to mind when people view your design. Innovative and creative aspects of your project need to be clearly explained and documented. Even changes in the way that a material is prepared or a shaping technique is performed are worthy of note. Evaluation, or a value judgement, is at the very core of every decision that you make. Throughout the development of your project, an ongoing evaluation process should have been taking place, particularly at the completion of important stages. Clearly describe the procedures and criteria used in your evaluation, being sure to include details of any changes that result.

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Evaluation
Evaluation of your design against established criteria should be an ongoing process. The chosen criteria should directly reflect the identified needs and how well they are met, as well as aesthetics, environmental impact and so on.

17.8 Layout ideas
The format that your folder takes can be as varied and as individual as you wish. Your contributions to its layout will personalise the presentation. Here are some points to consider when presenting your folio: • Give the folio a clear structure by including a title page, table of contents and numbering each page. • Create a feeling of continuity by linking each section, perhaps by using a flow chart. • Create a standard page format and use a word processor for your final presentation. • Present your written information using a simple sentence structure, written in the third person. • Start a new sentence for each new idea. • Photographs and sketches or tabulated information should be used to support your written work. • Prepare a reference list. • Sketches and drawings are more effectively presented on A3 paper. • Ensure that your evaluation process is continuous. • The folder should contain all information that is required by the syllabus. • The folder should be user-friendly, clear, concise and colourful. Its design should be considered as a compliment to your project. • Typed presentation is highly desirable. • Always support written work with photographs, sketches or drawings. • The layout of all sheets with the same purpose should be consistent. In other words, all drawing, sketching or written sheets should have the same format throughout the folder. You may even wish to prepare underlay grids that further assist in consistent presentation. These are particularly useful when preparing written work in columns or around sketches.

17.9 Getting started
The following MDP folio scaffold is adapted from the Board of Studies document HSC Design and Technology Marking Guidelines – Major Design Project. The scaffold can be used to guide the content and layout of your folio by using the bullet points as section headings, allowing at least one page for related information. Title page Table of contents Project proposal and project management • identification and exploration of the need • areas of investigation • criteria to evaluate success • action, time and finance plans and their application • selection and use of ideas and resources. Project development and realisation Evidence of creativity: • ideas generation, degree of difference and exploration of existing ideas Consideration of design factors relevant to the major design project: • appropriateness of the design solution

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• needs • function • aesthetics • cost • ergonomics • use of the design • sustainability • energy • recyclability • safety • quality • durability • obsolescence • life cycle analysis. Documentation of research, experimentation and testing of: • design ideas • materials • tools • techniques. In addition, your documentation will need to demonstrate: • application of conclusions • identification and justification of ideas and resources • evidence of the testing of design solutions and application of conclusions • use of communication and presentation techniques • evidence and application of practical skills to produce a quality project • consideration of the practices in industrial/commercial settings as they relate to the major design project. Evaluation • • • • recording and application of evaluation procedures throughout the design project analysis and evaluation of functional and aesthetic aspects of design final evaluation with respect to the project proposal and the project’s impact on society and the environment relationship of the final product, system or environment to the project proposal.

Activities
1 Research the format of page and web templates that you feel would transfer to your folio and sketch them with different colour combinations to obtain a feel for your layout. 2 Use a spreadsheet to set out the various components of the assessment schedule and create a timeline or flow chart that you will be able to use for reference during the MDP construction. 3 Visit Design Tech when it tours your region and assemble a collection of digital images to add to your presentation and folio research.

Websites
www.stocklayouts.com/Products/Microsoft/Microsoft-Publisher-Template-Design-Library. aspx?kwid=24
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