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SOLIDS CONTROL & WASTE MANAGEMENT
4th EDITION Published by Brandt / EPI ™
1st Edition © 1982 2nd Edition © 1985 3rd Edition © 1995 4th Edition © 1996
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the U.S.A.
This Handbook was written by the Technical Services staff of Brandt/EPI to provide a basic understanding of effective mechanical removal of drilled solids and management of drilling wastes. Based on sound theoretical concepts, this Handbook is a practical working tool. It is designed for use by anyone needing to optimize drilling efficiency: drilling engineers, supervisors, tool pushers, mud engineers, derrick hands, service personnel and others. This 4th edition of the Handbook provides updated sections on equipment and techniques, and includes new information on waste processing systems, including downhole injection, solidification/ stabilization, water clarification, and other site remediation techniques. We would appreciate any suggestions for improving future editions of the Handbook. Please address your comments to: Brandt/EPI Technical Group P.O. Box 2327 Conroe, TX 77305 TEL: FAX: (713) 756-4800 (713) 756-8102
Thanks, Mike Montgomery Manager, Technical Group Brandt/EPI
..........................................................................................................................................................3 Separation by Vibratory Screening ..............................................1....2 3..........14 Mud Cleaners/Conditioners...................................................................12 3.....5 ATL Drying Shaker..................1 3........................................................................................................2 4............................................21 Separation by Settling and Centrifugal Force.............................4 3......................................0 BENEFITS OF SOLIDS REMOVAL BY MECHANICAL SEPARATION ........1 4....................................................................4..............1 Scope of Services...1 4.................................2................................3 Certification...............................................4......6 3...........................3............................................6 Orbital Motion Screen Separators ............7 Standard Screen Separator ...............1...................8 Mud Cleaners .......3.........................4...........................................................51 2........................................7 Tandem Screen Separator ................................................9 3................35 Decanting Centrifuge..........3 ATL-1000 ........3.....3.......4.............................28 Sand Trap .................................1 3.......................1 1..............................................................................1 4.......4.....................8 iii ..........5 3.................4.............1 2.................................................3..........................................................14 3.............................10 3..........................................................................................4.................1.................49 High Efficiency Solids Removal Systems......................7 LCM-2D Mud Conditioner ............8 Reduced Total Solids .......7 3....TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 1....................................................................8 3............................3.......................2 Particle Classification and Cut Point........................0 MECHANICAL SOLIDS CONTROL AND RELATED EQUIPMENT ...............................................................................38 Auxiliary Equipment.........7 4..........................................4...............................................4 ATL-CS........2 Business Relationship.................4.............33 Desilters....................................................................................3 3........................................................2......................11 3..................4 LCM-2D/CM2 .........4.......................4...4..........................................1...6 ATL-2800 Mud Conditioner .......3..4.......................................................................................................................1 2.......................................2 1.............4 Personnel Resources........................48 Rig Enhanced Systems...................................1 The Nature of Drilled Solids ...................................................................................................................................43 Unitized Systems.............15 4...................................................................................................................................4 Types of Drilling Muds..............3......................5 SDW-25 Drying Shaker...................3..............4..3...............29 Hydrocyclones ..3..................................1..............2 3.......................................4........................................4 Functions of Drilling Mud ......................3..............................50 Basic Arrangement Guidelines..........................................................................................1 4........................................3...........3 1.....30 Desanders....................13 3.......5 Linear Motion Shakers............................................................4................3.................4..............................................4....0 BRANDT/EPI™ PRODUCTS AND SERVICES ................1 Company Profile.....................................6 ATL-16/2 Mud Conditioner.........................................1 1.........3 LCM-2D ...................................4..4.......3..................................................................................0 DRILLING MUD AND MUD SOLIDS ..................................2 Products and Services ...............3......3 ATL-1200 .........2 Properties of Drilling Mud ......6 Shale Shakers .....2..................4............4..................1 Reduced Dilution Requirements ....
.............................................................10 Mud Engineering Data Conversion Constants and Formulas....................................................7 4.....17 Technical & Engineering Services.................................13 Roto-Sep Perforated Rotor Centrifuge .....................10 4.......................8 4............................4.............................................4......................4............D............................5 Solids Control Performance Evaluation ..............................12 HS 3400 High Speed Decanting Centrifuge ...................18 APPENDICES Glossary ..............16 Coiled Tubing (CT) Processing Systems...........17 Screen Panels......17 Live Oil Systems..........................................................................4....4........................9 4.........................4...............................................................................15 Portable Rig Blowers .....A..............4....B.............4.................................4..................14 4.................4...............................................4..........................................................................................................4.........................................................................1 Screen Cloth Comparisons ............3 Pounds per Hour Drilled Solids — Fast Rates ..........................................13 Dewatering Units .....................................................4 Pounds per Hour Drilled Solids — Slow Rates.................5 Solids Content Chart .....D....................4.17 Trenchless Technology Processing Systems...........................4 Field Calculations to Determine High and Low Gravity Solids Discharge ............................................................4..............14 Filtration Units ...8 iv .10 Desanders......4.........C.............1 Field Calculations to Determine Total Solids Discharge...........................................B........................................................4......................................................................4..........................................................................13 4....12 4...........10 Desilters...C..................C.................................................4..........................................................................................6 Method for Comparison of Cyclone Efficiency .....11 4...................2 Mud Solids Calculations Standard Calculations...........................................................D...............1 Density of Common Materials ..................................................................10 Hook-Strip Screen Panels.....D.........................................................4..............................................................................C...................................................................17 Remediation Management Services ..................................................10 Hydrocyclone Units ................D.......................................................................................................4............................................................................................................9 BlueHexSM 3HX Screen Panels .....11 SC-1 Decanting Centrifuge .................15 Mud Agitators..........16 4.........................................................................6 Equipment Selection Pre-well Project Checklist...................................................11 SC-4 Decanting Centrifuge ...................4................B..................C...............C................B......................................2 Hole Capacities .......................................3 Selecting Size and Number of Agitators ...................................................................................................................................11 Centrifuges .4.......................14 Vacuum Degassers.............................................15 Integrated Systems...................15 4.......................................................7 Brandt/EPI™ Sales & Service Locations ......4.....................................................12 SC 35HS High Speed Decanting Centrifuge...........4...............................................4........................................4.................................................................B...............................................9 PT Screen Panels .............................4.............................................................4................................16 Closed Loop Processing Systems ..12 HS 5200 High Speed Decanting Centrifuge ............................................2 Brandt/EPI Equipment Specifications..................9 Pinnacle™ Screen Panels .......
1 Mud is the common name for drilling fluid. Control pressure within the formation being drilled. Drilling mud must withstand the pressure exerted by the formations exposed in the hole. 4. 3. 6. 5. 10. thus reducing the potential for costly blowouts.. during trips). 3. Drilling mud moves the formations’ solids cut by the drill bit from the bottom of the hole to the surface. Help support the weight of the drill string. 2. The pressure exerted by the mud against the formations helps the driller control the pressure created by the gas.). Suspend cuttings while circulation is interrupted (e. 1. Similarly. Clean beneath the bit. electric logs. While it is outside the scope of this handbook to offer a detailed discussion of drilling fluids. Secure accurate information from the well (cuttings samples. Carry the drilled solids from the bottom of the hole to the surface. the following are generally considered most important: 1. Among these are: 1.1 FUNCTIONS OF DRILLING FLUID The mud system in a drilling operation performs many important functions. Allow removal of cuttings by the surface system. Of the ten functions listed. etc. Transmit hydraulic horsepower to the bit. 1.1.0 DRILLING MUD AND MUD SOLIDS 8. 2. Cool the bit and lubricate the drill string. causing an enlarged hole or leading to stuck pipe. 9. Drilling mud protects and supports the walls of the wellbore. Removal of cuttings from the wellbore is essential in order to continue drilling. The mud has a plastering effect on the walls of the hole and helps prevent the walls from caving in. Support the wall of the hole. a brief outline of the general characteristics of drilling mud is included to establish the basic relationships between drilling mud and solids control.g. shape and composition. 7. any discussion of solids control would be incomplete without establishing an understanding of the nature of mud solids — their size. . oil and water that are exposed while drilling.
001) of a millimeter. gained universal acceptance. recommended certain terminology for mud solids particle size in an attempt to minimize this confusion. ITEM Cement Dust (Portland) Talcum Powder Red Blood Corpuscles Finger Tip Sensitivity Human Sight Human Hair Cigarette (diameter) One inch DIAMETER IN MICRONS 3-100 µ 5-50 µ 7. Additional solids enter the well bore by sloughing from the sides of the open hole. or approximately 0. and the key to any effective mud system is good solids control. These problems significantly increase drilling expense and time. Drilling mud cools the bit and lubricates the drill string. Mud solids may be conveniently grouped according to micron size range.00003973 of an inch. such as weight material. . Drilled solids’ particles are created by the crushing and chipping action of rotary drill bits. the average particle size is less than 35–40 microns.4. This function is important in drilling because it increases the useful life of bits and the drill string. silt or clay content. Figure 1-1 provides a list of common items and their size in microns. in API Bulletin 13C published in 1974. A micron is one thousandth (0. too small to be seen with the human eye. 1. however. This new terminology has not yet. Note: The various sizes of solids particles in a particular drilling mud are referred to as the mud’s cuttings. The API Committee on Standardization of Drilling Fluid Materials.2 THE NATURE OF DRILLED SOLIDS Mud solids include particles that are drilled from the formation. To relate this unit of measurement in more familiar terms. This content is important to remember because solids control practices will affect the average particle size and the concentration of solids in specific size ranges which may greatly affect mud properties and drilling operations. sand. material from the inside surface of the hole and materials that are added to control the chemical and physical properties of the mud. The unit of measurement generally used to describe particle size is the micron (µ).400 µ Figure 1-1 Micron Size Range of Common Materials Drilling mud is obviously a major factor in the success of any drilling program.2 Although individual mud solids can range in size from less than one micron to larger than a human fist.5 µ 20 µ 35-40 µ 30-200 µ 7520 µ 25. 1. but unfortunately not without introducing some element of confusion.
bentonite particles are grouped with clay (smaller than 2 microns). drilled solids particles are continuously reduced in size by abrasion with other particles and by the grinding action of the drill pipe. etc. shale or other formations. Specific surface area. Figure 1-3 Mechanical Degradation of Drilled Solids Particles smaller than 15–20 microns have much less abrasive effect on drilling equipment. To be destructive.The more commonly used classifications shown in Figure 1-2. as they are the most readily recognized in the field. Most barite particles are in the same size group as silt (2–74 microns). are generally harder and more abrasive than barite. Drilled solids come in various shapes such as round. cuttings. which are not as hard as most drilled solids. Barite particles. sand. CLASSIFICATION Cuttings Sand Silt Clay PARTICLE SIZE (Diameter in Microns) Larger than 500 µ 74-500 µ 2-74 µ Smaller than 2 µ Figure 1-2 Common Field Terminology of Particle Size Abrasiveness of mud solids is determined by particle shape and hardness. as it relates 1. It is important to note that commercial solids (such as barite or bentonite added for weight and viscosity) are also affected by solids control equipment. These terms will refer to size classification only. Figure 1-3 illustrates the degradation of drilled solids in a mud system.3 . cubic. The main body of the particle becomes less abrasive with wear as the most abrasive corners continue to degrade down through the silt size to approximately 15–20 microns. but their classification in regard to solids control usually depends on particle size since their specific gravity is assumed to be approximately 2. such as hematite. Other weighting materials.6. not to material composition. limestone. From the time they enter the well until they reach the surface. Note: Drilled solids can originate from sand. silt and clay (or colloidal size) will be used throughout this handbook. needle shaped. particles must be sharper and harder than the material they are to abrade. platelets. are generally less abrasive than similarly-sized drilled solids. according to size.
Figure 1-4 lists examples that show surface area greatly increases per unit of mass: 1) as particle size decreases.3 PROPERTIES OF DRILLING MUD The ability of a drilling fluid to perform its functions depends on various properties of the mud.0 µ 5. and is frequently referred to as mud weight. As the particle size decreases toward the colloidal size. The instrument used to measure density is the mud balance (see Figure 1-6). the greater is the viscosity.725 17. Surface area adsorbs or “ties-up” water. EQUIVALENT SPHERICAL PARTICLE DIAMETER TYPE (Microns) PARTICLES 5.4 . The specific surface area has a pronounced effect on viscosity. The higher the relative specific surface area.0 µ 0.500 composed of clays that easily disperses into the mud produce relatively more viscosity increase and will have “wetter” separations in removal by equipment than formations that produce larger sized solids. the relative effect of the water coating increases.4 lbs/ft).250 171.1 µ 0.33 lbs/gal) and pressure gradient in psi/1000 ft (water = 433 psi/1000 ft) or pounds per cubic foot (water = 62.1 µ Glass Spheres Crushed Quartz Glass Spheres Crushed Quartz Glass Spheres Crushed Quartz SQUARE FEET PER POUND 2. Figure 1-4 Effect of Particle Size and Shape on Surface Area 1.to various shapes and sizes of solids. The instrument consists of a constant volume cup with a lever arm and rider calibrated to read directly the density of the fluid in lbs/gal (water = 8. Viscosity and other mud properties are discussed in Section 1. Figure 1-5 Effect of Specific Surface Area on Viscosity 1. Formations DENSITY (MUD WEIGHT) Density is a measure of the weight of the mud in a given volume. The more surface area. Specific surface area refers to the surface area per unit of weight or volume.435 11. Bentonite disperses easily into colloidal solids and also absorbs much more water than most solids types. as Figure 1-5 illustrates.3 of this Handbook. and 2) as particles become less spherical in shape. is another important concept.0 µ 1.345 3. the more water adsorbed. 160 117. Hence bentonite builds viscosity at relatively low concentrations.0 µ 1. most of which are measurable and are affected by solids control.
A material half as dense as water would have a specific gravity of 0. Specific gravity is the ratio of a materials density to the density of water. Low gravity solids have an average specific gravity of 2.0. Increasing the amount of solids or exposed surface area in a mud increases its resistance to flow as a liquid and therefore increases Figure 1-7 Marsh Funnel and Cup 1.Figure 1-6 Mud Balance The density of the mud is related to the specific gravity of the fluid. The person measuring the viscosity fills the funnel with a sample of mud and allows it to VISCOSITY Viscosity measures the mud’s resistance to flow as a liquid and is one of the key physical properties of mud. Pure water has a specific gravity of 1.5.5 .0.6 times the weight of the same volume of water.6. A material twice as dense as water would have a specific gravity of 2. its viscosity. Viscosity is routinely measured with a Marsh Funnel and Mud Cup at the drilling site (see Figure 1-7). The solids are 2.
or attractive. For example. gelation structures that gain strength over time. that is. and number of particles. Gel strength is also measured with a viscometer and expressed in lbs/100 ft 2 . The funnel viscosity recorded is in seconds per quart. A large deviation of these two figures may indicate progressive gels.rotational viscometer (Figure 1-8) and is expressed in centipoise (grams per centimeter-second). Figure 1-8 Rotational Viscometer (VG Meter) flow through the tip of the funnel container while measuring the time in seconds that it takes to fill the mud cup to the one quart level. In practical terms. yield point is sometimes measured in dynes/cm2. Internationally. forces within a mud.6 . shape. plastic viscosity depends on the size. as the amount of drilled solids in a mud increases. Internationally. Internationally. funnel viscosity is recorded in seconds per thousand ccs or seconds per liter. Typically. YIELD POINT Yield point is the part of flow resistance that measures the positive and negative inter-particle. Yield point is measured with a viscometer and expressed in lbs/100 ft 2. GEL STRENGTH Gel Str ength is a function of a mud’s inter particle forces and gives an indication of the amount of gelation that will occur after circulation ceases and the mud remains static for a period of time. Plastic viscosity is measured with a SOLIDS CONTENT The solids content is the volume percentage of the total solids in the 1. PLASTIC VISCOSITY A mud’s Plastic Viscosity is the portion of a mud’s flow resistance caused by the mechanical friction between the suspended particles and by the viscosity of the continuous liquid phase. gel strength is sometimes measured in dynes/cm2. the plastic viscosity also increases. gel strengths are reported for initial and 10-second gel strength.
The filter cake builds up a barrier and reduces the amount of the liquid that enters the formation and is lost from the mud. a mud container in the retort is filled with a measured volume of mud (see Figure 1-9). To determine the solids content of a mud containing weight material.7 SAND Sand is any particle larger than 74 . The amount of solids that does not pass through the screen is measured as percentage by volume and is recorded as perFigure 1-10 cent sand. The percentage of the liquid distilled off is measured in a glass cylinder and subtracted from 100%. such as barite or hematite. This process is referred to as filtration. Therefore. This layer of mud solids is called filter cake or wall-cake.Figure 1-9 Retort (Mud Still) mud. Some formations allow the liquid in the mud to seep into them. the low gravity solids can be determined without a retort by weighing the mud and referring to a solids content chart. Sand Content Set FILTRATION Filtration and wall-cake building are actions that the drilling mud carries out through and on the walls of the hole. The total solids from the retort and mud weight are used to calculate the low and high gravity solids content. or fluid loss. the sand content of a mud is simply the amount of solids too large to pass through a US Test Sieve 200-mesh screen. The difference is the percentage of solids by volume contained in the drilling mud and is recorded as percentage solids. microns when referring to solids control separation. 1. If the mud does not contain oil or weight material. This is determined with a sand content set (see Figure 1-10) by washing a measured amount of mud through the 200-mesh screen in the kit. leaving a layer of mud solids on the wall of the hole. The mud is then heated to boil off the liquid. The instrument used to measure the fluid loss due to filtration is a filter press (see Figure 1-11).
it makes dispersants more effective and reduces corrosion. lubricate or otherwise adjust the mud depending on specific drilling needs. Examination of the filter paper will indicate how the solids will plaster the wall of the hole and affect fluid loss. and other properties that affect drilling mud performance. The amount of fluid flowing from the sample in 30 minutes is measured in milliliters. The cake thickness is recorded in units of 1/32s of an inch. Oil-base Mud contains either natural oil or synthetic oil as the continuous liquid phase and is used for maximum hole protection. For example. Chemical changes such as these are used to fine tune drilling muds. Some of these chemical properties can be controlled through various mud additives that thicken. The person using the filter press places a mud sample in the instrument on top of a piece of filter paper and brings the pressure up to 100 pounds per square inch. emulsify. 1. and water is commonly available in most places. The mud filtration property is recorded in units of cubic centimeters (ccs) or milliliters (ml) per 30 minutes.4 TYPES OF DRILLING MUDS Drilling fluids are generally categorized as “water-base” or “oilbase”. and as “weighted” or “unweighted” muds. caustic soda can be added to some saltwater mud in order to maintain a high pH level. expense is usually reasonable. alkalinity. precipitate. Oilbase mud and synthetic oil mud are usually much more expensive than water-base mud and therefore are only used when there is a specific CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Chemical Properties is a broad category. calcium 1. including measurements of pH. thin. disperse. chlorides.Figure 1-11 Filter Press content. salt content. Water-base Muds contain water as the liquid phase and are used to drill most of the wells in the world because they are relatively simple.8 .
plus commercial clays added to control fluid loss and viscosity. Spud Mud B. The solids in weighted mud consist of drilled solids from the hole. Invert Emulsion C. 4. Unweighted Mud refers to any mud which has not had barite added. “True” Oil Base B. environmental costs of haul-off and disposal may require sophisticated solids control techniques. Lightly Treated Chemical Mud Highly Treated Chemical Mud Low Solids Mud Polymer Mud Calcium Treated Mud Sea Water Mud Saturated Salt Mud D.0 lbs/gal. These muds normally have a density greater than 10. In the case of mud that contains expensive chemical additives and/or barite. Either water-base or oil-base mud can be used as “weighted” mud. 5. 1. For example. or to reduce friction and prevent stuck pipe in very crooked or high angle holes. plus barite. Natural mud C. This mud type normally has a density of less than 10. System recommendations for specific applications are covered in detail in Chapter 4. with many unweighted water-base muds. allowing simple solids control techniques. Oil-Base Mud (OBM) A.need. It may contain some commercial clay. made up of water and natural solids from the formation being drilled. sophisticated solids control techniques must be utilized to minimize overall costs. Water-Base Mud (WBM) A. Chemically-Treated Mud 1. The solids in unweighted mud consist of drilled solids from the hole. Spud mud is usually an unweighted water-base mud. In addition. II.9 . 2. 2. followed by a brief description of each type: I. such as to keep the hole from swelling or caving in. Solids control techniques will vary considerably depending on the type of mud being used. the loss of fluids along with the drilled solids may be economically insignificant. 3. Synthetic (SBM) SPUD MUD Spud Mud is used to start the drilling of a well and continues to be used while drilling the first few hundred feet of hole. especially oil-base mud. plus commercial clays. Here is a list of the most common mud types.0 lbs/gal. Weighted Mud refers to any mud which has barite or barite substitutes added to increase density. added to increase viscosity and improve wall-cake building properties. Saltwater Mud 1.
fluid loss. and fluid loss properties have to be kept very close to prescribed levels. Bentonite is usually added to help control viscosity and fluid loss. Of all the water-base mud types. bentonite. Often. Highly Treated Chemical Mud is usually weighted. and barite to maintain strict control of viscosity. and density. 1–5% is a normal range. This mud is often the next mud type used after spud mud.NATURAL MUD Natural Mud (sometimes called “native” mud) is usually unweighted water-base mud which contains mostly drilled solids. These muds are used where moderate to severe hole problems are expected or high down-hole pressures occur. It is used where minor hole problems are expected. additives. natural mud is used to drill the first few thousand feet of hole. the faster the bit will drill. chemical. This mud is used where more severe hole problems are expected. Some bentonite and small amounts of chemicals may be used to improve filter cake quality and help prevent hole problems. Generally speaking. Chemical muds are often treated with lignosulfonates or lignite and are therefore commonly called “lignosulfonate mud” or “lignite” mud. Polymers are very expensive and . the removal of drilled solids by mechanical solids control equipment becomes increasingly important. polymers. the lower the solids content in the mud. chemical prop1. Low Solids Muds are water-base mud containing less than ten percent (10%) drilled solids. CHEMICALLY TREATED MUD Chemically Treated Mud is waterbase mud which contains chemicals to control physical and chemical properties. in order to prevent these problems. It is absolutely essential that all solids removal equipment operate at maximum effectiveness in order to maintain the desired low level of solids at a reasonable cost. designed to control viscosity and fluid loss. such as sloughing or caving of the walls of the hole. Lightly Treated Chemical Mud is usually unweighted water-base mud.10 erties. Low solids muds are usually expensive to maintain because the solids. Barite (weight material) may be added to increase density. Polymer Muds are special types of low solids mud which contain synthetic materials. As mud density is increased and potential hole problems (such as stuck drill pipe) become more of a risk. water-base mud that contains larger amounts of chemicals. these are the most expensive to maintain. where only minor hole problems are expected.
usually weighted. It is important to be aware of the use of salt mud because screen INVERT EMULSION MUD Invert Emulsion Mud is oil-base mud in which the liquid phase is sixty to ninety percent (60–90%) diesel oil with ten to forty percent (10–40%) water emulsified within the oil. Fresh water may be used to clean the screens. These muds often use asphaltic type materials suspended in the liquid for controlling viscosity and fluid loss. In this mud. SALTWATER MUD Saltwater Muds contain a high concentration of salt.11 . Calcium Treated Muds are normally used to prevent shale type formations from swelling or sloughing – problems which could lead to stuck pipe or a ruined hole. only sea water should be used to rinse or wash the screens in solids control equipment. These muds are used offshore and in bay areas where fresh water is not readily available. blinding can occur when salt dries and cakes on the solids control equipment. which have lime or gypsum added.often difficult to screen when a high viscosity fluid is used. water and chemicals are used together to control viscosity and fluid loss. but it must be used very carefully because too much fresh water can upset the chemical balance of this mud. This mud type is often used to drill through salt formations so the fluid will not dissolve the salt formation. usually leading to hole trouble. and also increase drill string lubrication. Calcium Treated Muds are special water-base muds. “TRUE” OIL-BASE MUD “True” Oil-base Mud contains a liquid phase with ninety to ninetyfive percent (90–95%) diesel oil and five to ten percent (5–10%) water emulsified within the oil. greatly enlarged holes would result. 1. usually. An invert mud can be formulated with mineral oil or other low environmental risk oil substitutes when needed. They may be weighted or unweighted. If fresh water mud is used. Sea Water Muds contain sea water as the continuous phase and. “True” oil-base muds provide good hole protection. When sea water mud is being used. especially in shale type formations. They may be weighted or unweighted. only sea water is used for dilution. Invert emulsion muds provide good hole protection and are the most commonly used oil mud. Saturated Salt Muds (sometimes called brine fluids) contain as much salt as can be dissolved in the water phase.
1. $200–400 /bbl. and reduced eye and respiratory irritation. good hole cleaning. The alternatives to mechanical solids control — dilution and whole SBM additions — are prohibitively expensive when compared to the cost of proper solids control equipment.S. Some common synthetic base fluids include linear alphaolefins (LAO). SBMs share several advantages with traditional oil-base muds. useful drilling fluid.. describes any oil-base mud that has a synthesized liquid base. and to control mud maintenance costs. including excellent wellbore stability. Proper solids removal and liquid recovery techniques must be used to maintain desired fluid properties and drilling rate. polyalphaolefins (PAO). This base fluid is then combined with viscosifiers. vegetable oils. lower vapor production. offshore environmental requirements and may be discharged under WBM protocols. and other additives to produce a stable. depending on the oil/water ratio. SBMs and cuttings meet U. and reduced torque. straight internal olefins (IO). Currently. esters. SBMs are expensive. SBMs also provide additional health and safety benefits — higher flash points.SYNTHETIC OIL MUDS The term “Synthetic-Based Mud”. improved drilling rates.12 . The major benefit of SBMs over traditional OBMs is the reduced environmental impact of cuttings and liquid mud. weighting material. or SBM. and ethers. excellent cuttings integrity.
and lost returns. If mud solids are not properly controlled. Solids control is one of the most important phases of mud control — it is a constant issue. drillers have been trying to combat high solids content through the use of settling pits. The greatest impact of the solids is seen in reduced ROP. on every well. every day. If drilled solids can be removed mechanically. However. The benefits of solids removal by mechanical separation can best be seen in terms of two outcomes: 1) reduced total mud solids and 2) reduced dilution requirements. Continued recirculation of drilled solids produces serious mud problems because recirculated solids will gradually be reduced in size. The smaller the solids become. it is almost always less expensive than trying to combat them with chemicals and dilution.1 REDUCED TOTAL SOLIDS The presence of large amounts of drilled solids in a drilling mud usually spells trouble for the drilling operation. and the possibility of differential sticking. the lower the penetration rate. . can decrease drilling efficiency due to lost time for pump repairs.1 INTRODUCTION Of all the problems that could conceivably occur during the drilling of a well. The primary reason for using mechanical solids control equipment is to remove unwanted drilled solids particles from the mud in order to prevent drilling problems and reduce mud and waste costs.2. the more they negatively influence mud properties and hydraulic performance.0 BENEFITS OF SOLIDS REMOVAL BY MECHANICAL SEPARATION 2. drilling rates. Drilled solids decrease the life of a mud pump’s parts and thus. The higher the drilled solids content. 2. thereby reducing overall drilling costs. hydraulics. Since the earliest days of the oilfield. The volume and type of solids present in drilling mud exert a considerable influence over mud treating costs. kicks. mud contamination from drilled solids is a certainty. the mud’s density can increase above its desired weight and the mud can get so thick that it becomes extremely difficult or even impossible to pump. These solids adversely affect the performance characteristics of the mud and can lead to a multitude of costly hole problems.
This results in increased mud viscosity and gel strength which. It should be noted that chemical treatment alone will ultimately result in high solids content and uncontrollable mud properties. and promotes faster penetration — all of which decrease the time and expense of drilling. oil must be used for dilution — which can become extremely expensive.2 2. the approach of removing cuttings through settling alone is of limited practical value. the greater the dilution required. depending on the particular situation and equipment used. Every barrel of dilution water (or oil) added requires an additional amount of chemicals. The most effective approach is to use mechanical solids control equipment to remove as much of the drilled solids as possible before they are incorporated into the mud system and then treat what is left with appropriate amounts of chemicals and dilution. 2. A variety of devices (which will be discussed in detail in Chapter 3 of this handbook) are available which mechanically separate the solids particles from the liquid phase of the mud.some drilled solids are so finely ground that they tend to remain in suspension. Thus the driller. thereby reducing the percent of total solids in the mud. This is known as dilution and does not remove cuttings but reduces (or dilutes) their concentration in a drilling mud. Solids control equipment was developed in order to more effectively remove unwanted solids from drilling mud. dramatically increases the life of pump parts and drill bits. Thus. In the case of an oil-base mud. barite or other materials in order to maintain desired mud properties. The lower the drilled solids content to be maintained. Effective solids removal by mechanical separation can maintain a minimum solids level in drilling . Effective solids control permits viscosity and density to be kept within desired levels. can regulate to a fine degree the amount and size of solids particles that are removed or maintained in any given drilling mud. Such control of mud solids through mechanical separation allows the mud to perform its drilling-related functions and avoids the downhole problems caused by excessive solids contamination.2 REDUCED DILUTION REQUIREMENTS A common method of trying to offset the build-up of drilled solids is the addition of more liquid. it is important to note that dilution is expensive. in turn results in larger particles also remaining in suspension. However.
These materials are expensive — mud costs can be 10% of the total cost of drilling a well. If solids control equipment were removing 1 ton (2000 lbs) of solids per hour.8 8.3 .7 9. suppose a drilling engineer required that no more than 5% solids were to be maintained in an unweighted mud.8 9. then each barrel of mud still contains roughly 44 pounds of drilled solids. $440 per hour adds up to a very significant cost savings.0 DRILLED SOLIDS PERCENT BY VOLUME 1.6 SPECIFIC GRAVITY SOLIDS PER BARREL OF MUD 11 18 25 32 38 45 52 59 66 73 79 86 93 100 107 114 BBLS OF WATER REQUIRED TO DILUTE 1 TON SOLIDS AND MAINTAIN MUD WEIGHT 182 111 80 63 53 44 38 34 30 27 25 23 22 20 19 18 Figure 2-1 Dilution Ratio Chart 2.9 9.5 4.7 3.9 10. When heavily — weighted muds (16–18 lbs/gal) are being used. The Dilution Ratio Chart (Figure 2-1) can be used indirectly to approximate the amount of dilution that can be eliminated by use of solids removal equipment. then the equipment would save 2000 ÷ MUD WEIGHT (LBS/GAL) TO BE MAINTAINED 8.7 8. if approximately 5% drilled solids are allowed in the mud.2 9.4 45 = 44 barrels of dilution per hour.1 9. Therefore. Reducing the need to dilute the mud can drastically decrease the cost of having to purchase mud products such as weight material (barite) and chemicals.6 9. if the solids control equipment were removing even a pencil-sized stream of solids which would amount to 44 pounds per POUNDS OF 2. The chart shows that at 5%. drilling usually proceeds more slowly and less drilled solids are removed per hour.2 5.2 8.5 8.2 2.7 12.0 5.0 11.5 9. the mud treating costs would be reduced by approximately $440 per hour! Over the life of a drilling operation. each barrel of mud would contain about 45 pounds of drilled solids.7 9.mud and greatly reduce the need for dilution.3 9.6 8.7 6.4 10.4 9. If the chemicals and additives were worth only $10 per barrel.0 2. For example.4 7. The same procedure can be used to show reduced dilution requirement in weighted mud. However.0 9.2 11.0 8.
the cost savings would double to approximately $1200 per day. these can be salvaged and returned to the active mud system. Instead of throwing away valuable mud additives. Over an average operation of 20 hours per day. In such a system the liquid phase can be recycled — which can be critical in special applications such as when using oil-base or polymer muds. Appropriate use of solids control equipment in place of dilution lessens the volume of the mud system and can usually eliminate the 2.hour. The disposal of “waste” mud can also be a significant factor in overall dilution costs. whole mud (including all of the expensive additives) must be discarded into waste or reserve pits. Heavy reliance on dilution to control solids content can result in the addition of so much extra liquid that the volume of mud exceeds the capacity of the active mud pits. Oil is obviously much more costly than water. DRILLED SOLIDS . If the maximum amount of drilled solids were reduced to 3%. Solids removal by mechanical separation can achieve the benefits of low solids content and at the same time significantly reduce the many costs associated with dilution. If properly used. especially offshore. The size of the active and waste pits themselves can be reduced due to smaller capacity requirements. or where environmental concerns prohibit disposal of liquid waste materials. but water also can be expensive if it has to be trucked into a remote drilling location.4 discarding of excess mud. the solids removal equipment would be saving at least $30 per hour. this represents a savings of approximately $600 per day. then 44 ÷ 44 = 1 barrel of dilution saved per hour. With the high cost weighted mud (usually a minimum of $30 per barrel). The expense of the dilution liquid is a major factor in considering the advantages of reduced dilution requirements. In these cases the cost of hauling the liquid waste away for disposal is also avoided. When this happens. solids control equipment can virtually eliminate waste liquid mud through a “closed mud system”.
To reach this goal. 3. The fundamental purpose for solids removal equipment is just that — remove drilled solids. The end result is reduced mud and waste disposal costs. Each stage of processing is partly dependent upon the previous equipment functioning correctly so as to allow the next stage to perform its role. Since the size of drilled solids varies greatly — from cuttings larger than one inch in diameter to sub-micron size — several types of equipment may be used depending upon the specific situation. sometimes 80% of the volume of the waste stream will be liquid. each type of equipment must be sized. Also to operate effectively. 2) Efficiency of liquid conservation. Most solids control systems include several pieces of equipment connected in series. The .0 MECHANICAL SOLIDS CONTROL AND RELATED EQUIPMENT overall results of solids removal can be monitored by the use of flow meters to determine the actual mud volume built. the higher the removal efficiency. The greater percentage of drilled solids removed. and maintained properly. operated. Each type of equipment is designed to economically separate particles of a particular size range from the liquid. The efficiency of solids removal equipment and/or systems used can be evaluated in two ways: 1) Efficiency of drilled solids removal. a desilter usually does well at removing solids but at the cost of significant losses of liquid. By contrast. each piece of equipment will remove a portion of the solids. Most remaining equipment delivers a lesser degree of dryness than do the shakers or centrifuges.1 INTRODUCTION The goal of modern solids control systems is to reduce overall well costs by prompt. For example. either by screening or centrifugal force. the better. installed.3. efficient removal of drilled solids while minimizing the loss of liquids. The efficiency of the solids control system can be evaluated by comparing the final volume of mud accumulated while using the equipment to the volume of mud that would result if drilled solids were controlled only by dilution. The higher the solids fraction of the waste stream. Both aspects should be considered. a properly operating shale shaker or centrifuge typically removes 1 barrel or less of mud with each barrel of solids.
The final step may be to remove the ultrafine silt and clay-sized solids with the use of a decanting centrifuge. silt sized and larger clay particles that were not removed in the shakers by using hydrocyclones. Equipment commonly utilized and the effective removal range for each are listed in Figure 3-1. and hydrocyclones with a cone diameter of less than 6 inches are called desilters. The screen mesh should be sized to prevent excessive losses of whole mud over the end screen. On a weighted mud. the second to remove fine solids and reclaim the valuable liquid phase. If a location must be “pitless”. two centrifuges may be used in series: the first to salvage barite.2 . 3. 3. Hydrocyclones with a cone diameter of 6 to 12 inches are called desanders. These units should normally be sized to process 125% of the maximum flow rate used to drill. The first piece of equipment used to separate the solids from the mud is usually a vibrating screen or series of screens. Sometimes a screen is used below a hydrocyclone to “dry-out” the cone’s discharge to minimize the loss of fluid. then the screens are essential to minimize the liquid waste volume. the equipment downstream will soon lose efficiency or fail completely. The second step is to remove the sand-sized. The hydrocyclone and vibrating screen device is called a mud cleaner or mud conditioner. The cuttings that are larger than the mesh openings are removed by the screen but carry an adhered film of mud.1 PARTICLE SIZE AND CUT POINT Modern drilling rigs may be equipped with many different types of mechanical solids removal devices depending on the application and requirements of a particular project.Should one piece of equipment fail. Each device has a specific function in the solids control process.
The cut point curve represents the amount of solids of a given size that will be classified as either oversize or undersize. Figure 3-2 shows a typical cut point curve.3 . rep3. is given as a range of the particle size removed. Particles to the right of the cut point curve. shape. Mechanical solids control equipment classifies particles based on size.Figure 3-1 Particle Diameter and Ideal Equipment Placement CUT POINT Notice the removal range. It is typical to refer to particles as being either larger than the cut point of a device (oversize) or smaller than the cut point (undersize). and density. in the area labeled “A”. or Cut Point.
Figure 3-2 Typical Cut Point Curve
resent the removed, oversize solids. Particles to the left of the curve, in the area labeled “B”, represent the undersize solids returned with the whole mud. Particular interest is given to three points along the cut point curve, the D50, the D16, and the D84. Given these three points, the removal characteristics of screens, hydrocyclones, or other devices can be compared. The D50, or median cut point, is the point where 50% of a certain size of solids in the feed stream will be classified as oversize and 50% as undersize. The D16 and D84 are the
points where 16% and 84%, respectively, of the solids in the feed stream will be classified as oversize. These two points are statistically significant because they are one standard deviation from the D50 in a normal distribution. An “ideal” classifier (the dashed line) would show very little difference between the D50, D16 and D84. Separation Efficiency is a measure of the D50 size relative to the number of undersize particles that are removed or oversize particles that are not removed. The higher the separation efficiency, the lower the
Figure 3-3 Separation Curve
false classification. An example will assist in understanding this concept. Figure 3-3 shows the cut point curves for two screens, each with the same D50. Curve No.1 is almost vertical with a small tail at each end. This results in a very sharp, distinct cut point. Almost all particles larger than the cut point are rejected, with very few undersize solids. Almost all particles smaller than the cut point are recovered, with very few oversize particles included. Curve No. 2 is an S-shaped curve with a large tail at each end. Even though the D50 is the same as for Curve No.1, the D16 and D84 are very
different. Many solids larger than the D50 are returned with the undersize solids and many solids smaller than the D50 are discarded with the oversize solids. If curves number 1 and 2 in Figure 3-3 illustrate typical removal gradients for two different types of oilfield shale shakers screens, we can draw conclusions about separation performance. The area between the curves marked “A” represents solids Screen No.1 removes and Screen No. 2 returns. Likewise, the area marked “B” represents solids recovered by Screen No.1, but discarded by Screen No. 2. This is not to say that Screen No.1
is “better” than Screen No. 2, or vice versa; it simply illustrates that two devices with similar “cut point” (as measured by the D50 alone) may perform very differently. As an example, consider solids removal from a weighted drilling fluid using vibrating screens. An effective solids control program for weighted mud should remove as many undesirable, sandsized solids as practical, while retaining most of the desirable, siltsized barite particles. Referring back to Figure 3-3, Screen No. 2 would return all the sand in area “A” that Screen No.1 would catch, and Screen No. 2 would remove the siltsize material in area “B” (including all weighting material) that Screen No.1 would recover. Therefore, in a weighted mud, Screen No. 2 would not perform as well as Screen No.1. Further, if the area to the right of both curves (representing total mass solids removal) were calculated, Screen No.1 could prove superior in terms of mass solids removal. As shown by this example, it is important to view “cut point” as a continuous curve, rather than a single point. This concept is equally true with screens, hydrocyclones, centrifuges, or any other separation equipment — the relative slope and shape of the cut point curve are more important than a single point on the curve.
3.2 SEPARATION BY SCREENING
One method of removing solids from drilling mud is to pass the mud onto the surface of a vibrating screen. Particles smaller than the openings in the screen pass through the holes of the screen along with the liquid phase of the mud. Particles too large to pass through the screen are thereby separated from the mud for disposal. Basically, a screen acts as a “go–no go” gauge: Either a particle is small enough to pass through the screen opening or it is not. The purpose of vibrating the screen in solids control equipment is to transport the cuttings off the screen and increase the liquid handling capacity of the screen. This vibrating action causes rapid separation of whole mud from the oversized solids, reducing the amount of mud lost with the solids. For maximum efficiency, the solids on the screen surface must travel in a predetermined pattern — spiral, elliptical, orbital or linear motion — in order to increase particle separation efficiency and reduce blockage of the screen openings. The combined effect of the vibration and the screen surfaces result in the separation and removal of oversized particles from drilling mud.
fine screens may be reinforced with one or more coarse backing screens. With the advent of modern. Similar panels have been used on mud cleaners since their introduction. Layered screens have two or more fine mesh screen cloths. but earlier shakers did not possess the engineering design to allow their use successfully. in both directions during the fabrication process for proper tension on every screen. The panels consist of a fine screen layer and a coarse backing cloth layer bonded to a support grid (Figure 3-4). finemesh.SCREENING SURFACES Screening surfaces used in solids control equipment are generally made of woven wire screen cloth. pre- tensioned screen panels have extended screen life and justified the use of 200-mesh screens at the flowline. in many different sizes and shapes. The screens equipped with a perforated plate may be available with several sizes options for the perforation to allow improved performance for a given situation. Screens may be constructed with one or more Layers. usually of different mesh (reinforced by coarser backing cloth). This extra backing protects the fine screen from being damaged and provides additional support for heavy solids loads. These screens will have openings that are regular in size and shape. and 2) Pre-tensioned screen panels. The screen cloths are pulled tight. The following characteristics of screen cloth are important in solids control applications. especially in the 120–200 mesh range. The most important advance has been the development of pretensioned screen panels. screen cloth (reinforced by coarser backing cloth) mounted on a screen panel. The cloth may also be bonded to a thin. These screens will have openings that vary greatly in size and shape.7 . To increase screen life. The pre-tensioned panel is then held in place in the bed of the shaker. linear-motion shakers. Non-layered screens have a single layer. perforated metal sheet. Most manufacturers limit themselves to one support grid opening 3. Figure 3-4 Pretensioned Screen Today. mounted on a screen panel. or tensioned. manufacturers have incorporated two design changes: 1) A coarse backing screen to support fine meshes.
The most common of these are Market Grade and Tensile Bolting Cloth. Figure 3-5 shows a sample 8 mesh screen. Brandt / EPI™ provides screen panels with a variety of openings to allow rig personnel to choose the desired mechanical support and total open area (translating to more liquid flow). Since screen Figure 3-6 Screen counter and Magnified View of Screen mesh 3. depending on the application. A screen counter is useful in determining screen mesh (see Figure 3-6).8 . differing in the diameter of wire used in their construction. Mesh can be measured by starting at the center of one wire and counting the number of openings to a point one inch away. Market grade cloths use larger diameter wires and are more resistant to abrasion and premature wear. Mesh is defined as the number of openings per linear inch. Tensile bolting cloths use smaller diameter wire and have a higher Conductance.size to reduce inventory and production costs. Figure 3-5 Eight Mesh Screen SCREEN CLOTH There are several types of wire cloth used in the manufacture of oilfield screens. The opening size is typically 1” for maximum mechanical support. Both of these are square mesh weaves.
Remember.063 Wire 56. PERCENT OPEN AREA Percent Open Area is the amount of the screen surface which is not blocked by wire. The higher the percent of open area of a screen the greater its theoretical throughput. the longer the screen cloth will last.Figure 3-7 One-half Inch Opening selection is a compromise between screen life.9 . The larger the diameter of the wire. a 4 mesh screen made of thin wire has a greater percent of open area than a 4 mesh screen made of thick wire (see Figure 3-8). Figure 3-7 shows a screen with a 1/2 inch opening.7% Open Area Figure 3-8 Percent of Open Area 4 Mesh: . both types are in wide use. that determines the size of the particles separated by the screen.2% Open Area 4 Mesh: . Screens of the same mesh may have different sized openings depending on the diameter of the wire used to weave the screen cloth. and particle separation. liquid capacity. The greater the wire diameter of a given mesh screen.072 Wire 50.080 Wire 46. not the mesh count. Smaller diameter wire results 4 Mesh: . with larger particles passing through the screen.0% Open Area 3. it’s the size of the openings in a screen. the less open space between the wires. the smaller the particles that will pass through the screen. in larger screen openings. normally the larger the diameter of the wire used in the weaving process. For example. Open area can OPENING SIZE Size of Opening is the distance between wires in the screen cloth and is usually measured in fractions of an inch or microns. Also.
“20 mesh” usually identifies a screen with 20 openings per inch in either direction. Oblong mesh screens are generally labeled with two numbers. Screens with the same number of horizontal and vertical wires per inch produce square-shaped openings and are referred to as Square Mesh screens. Conductance of a screen is an experimental measure of the flow capacity of a screen.be increased for a given mesh by using smaller diameter wire. This screen has oblong openings measuring 1040 x 193 microns. For example. Calculating the percent open area for layered screens is difficult and inaccurate. a 60 x 20 screen has 60 openings per inch in one direction and 20 openings per inch in the other direction. much larger than the OBLONG MESH Figure 3-9 Shape of Opening 3. SHAPE OF OPENING Shape of Opening is determined by the screen’s construction.10 . a 60 x 20 mesh screen is often called an “oblong 80” mesh. the greater its flow capacity. This is illustrated in Figure 3-9. For example. Use of a single number in reference to a screen usually implies square mesh. Screens with a different number of horizontal and vertical wires per inch produce SQUARE MESH oblong — or rectangular — shaped openings and are referred to as Rectangular (or Oblong) Mesh screens. The choice of any particular screen cloth therefore involves a compromise between throughput and screen life. but at the sacrifice of screen life. This is due to the random and wide variety of openings present. For example. The higher the conductance of a screen. It has become common industrial practice to add the two dimensions of an oblong mesh screen and refer to the sum of the two numbers as the mesh of the screen.
the throughput capacity of the screen can be drastically reduced and flooding of the screen may occur. is most frequently encountered on fine screen shakers. while present to some degree on rig shakers fitted with coarser screens.OBLONG MESH SQUARE MESH B-20 B-40 B-60 B-80 B-100 B-120 S-16 S-30 S-40 S-50 S-60 S-80 Figure 3-10 Equivalent Screen Sizes square openings of a “square 80” mesh screen (177 x 177 microns). openings smaller than a “square 200” mesh screen (74 x 74 microns). Changing to a finer mesh screen often presents a better. The “oblong 80” will allow much larger. but the shape of the cut point curve discussed earlier is not as sharp or distinct. If the mesh openings plug with near-size particles or if the openings become coated over. e. Therefore. SCREEN PLUGGING AND BLINDING Screen Plugging and Blinding. such as the one shown in Figure 3-10. a layered screen will often be designated by a single number. Plugging can often be controlled by adjusting the vibratory motion or deck angle. the actual opening size and shape of a layered screen is a combination of the multiple screen layers and will produce a wide variety of opening sizes and shapes. the conductance and screen life of the oblong mesh screens is noticeably higher than the equivalent square mesh screen. more permanent solution. However. A coarser screen should be used only as a temporary solution until the particular formation responsible for near-size particle generation is passed. irregularly-shaped particles to pass through its openings than the 80 x 80 square mesh screen. the “layered 210” mesh screen will remove some solids smaller than 74 microns. In actual field use. but sometimes requires changing screens to a coarser or finer mesh.11 EQUIVALENT SCREEN MESH Screen manufacturers now compare different types of screen through charts. Screen blinding is caused by 3. In a similar fashion. This implies a screen with . but will also allow some particles larger than 74 microns to pass through the screen openings. The oblongmesh screens listed in the left-hand column remove similar sized solids as the square-mesh screens listed in the right-hand column. These screens are referred to as “equivalent”.g. “layered 210” mesh.
the lower its throughput. • Handle screen carefully when installing. • Keep screens properly tensioned.sticky particles in viscous mud coating over the screen openings or by the evaporation of water from dissolved solids or from grease and requires a screen wash-down to cure. varies widely depending on shaker model and drilling conditions. Figure 3-11 shows the relationship of mud weight. 3. or a mild acid soak (in the case of blinding caused by hard water). and Screen Mesh Mud type also has an effect on screen capacity. Drilling rate affects screen capacity because increases in drilled solids loading reduce the effective screen area available for mud throughput. mud type. This wash-down may simply be a high pressure water wash. bit type. because of differences in operating characteristics. or the volume of mud which will pass through a screen without flooding. there is a 2–5% decrease in throughput capacity. and screen mesh on shaker capacity. • Do not operate shakers dry. Viscosity. the finer a screen’s mesh. Screen life of fine mesh screens varies widely from design to design. The mesh of the screen in use is also directly related to shaker capacity because. usually associated with an increase in percent solids by volume and/or increase in mud weight. • Do not overload screens. weight and viscosity. has a markedly adverse effect on screen capacity. even under the best of conditions. in general (but not always). Mud Weight. screen mesh — all affect throughput to some degree. a solvent (in the case of grease. Higher viscosities generally associated with oil-base and invert emulsion mud usually result in lower screen throughput . Drilling rate. SCREEN CAPACITY Screen Capacity. Increased viscosity. formation type. viscosity. pipe dope or asphalt blinding). for every 10% increase in viscosity. Screen life can be maximized by following these general precautions: • Keep screens clean.12 Figure 3-11 Shaker Capacity v. As a general rule. Stiff brushes should not be used to clean fine screens because of the fragile nature of fine mesh screen cloth.
3-D screen panels are most effective when installed as the submerged. most commonly dual or triple units. and decreases fluid loss. STANDARDIZATION Standardization of screen cloth designations has been recommended by the API committee on Standardization of Drilling Fluid Materials. Cascade shaker arrangements. Multiple units. The purpose for this practice is to provide standards for screen labeling of shale shaker screen cloths. The API screen labeling includes of the following: 3. Past the fluid end point. increases cuttings dryness. usable screen area of a screen panel by corrugating the screen surface. can also increase throughput. similar to the surface of a pleated air filter or oil filter. can be used for higher throughput requirements. mud characteristics and features of certain models. The procedures recommended for labeling allow a direct comparison of separation potential. Pinnacle™ shaker screens: • Provides even distribution of fluid across the screen surface • Eliminates unwanted fluid loss near the screen edges • Improves dryness of solids discharge • Allows the use of finer screens 3-D screen panels increase the . a three-dimensional screen tends to “channel” the drilled solids and increases solids bed depth and the amount of liquid carried off the screen surface. MAY 1. and the amount area available for screening. the ability to pass fluid through a screen. As a result. Some mud components such as synthetic polymers also have an adverse effect on screen capacity.13 THREE-DIMENSIONAL SCREEN PANELS To increase screen capacity without increasing the size or number of shale shakers.than would be possible with a waterbase mud of the same mud weight. 1993. in API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 13E (RP13E). capacities on fine screen shakers can range from 50 to 800 GPM. Using a flat screen at the discharge end of the shaker eliminates channeling. three-dimensional screen panels are available. Due to the many factors involved in drilling conditions. with scalping shakers installed upstream from the fine screen shakers. feed-end screen on linear-motion shakers to take full advantage of the additional screen area. THIRD EDITION. The design of these 3-D. no fine mesh screen can offer a standard throughput for all operating conditions.
The API separation potential is reported in the terms of three “Cut” points. This evolutionary process has taken us through three distinct eras of shale shaker technology and performance as shown in Figure 3-12. has played a prominent role in oilfield solids control schemes for several decades. Conductance defines the ease of passage of a fluid through a piece of wire cloth. and D84) imply the opening sizes and variation in opening size of the screen. “straight-line” design . in square feet. 2. The “Cut” point allows a ranking of a screen’s separation potential that can be used to compare screen performance. Manufacturer’s designation. and will continue to be. Separation Potential and Flow Capacity. in various forms. • Linear. available for fluid passage through the screen panel. 3. The term “Cut” point is not the same as the traditional cut point. These eras of oilfield screening development may be defined by the types of motion produced by the machines: • Elliptical. Shakers have evolved from small. the shale shaker. a shale shaker has a flow capacity that depends upon screen conductance and area. “unbalanced” design • Circular. “balanced” design. Under constant conditions. Conductance is calculated from the mesh count and wire diameters of the screen. It may include the type of screen panel. reduced efficiency and effectiveness of all downstream solids control equipment on the rig is virtually assured. Three values (D50. relatively simple devices capable of running only the coarsest screens to the models of today. 3. Without proper screening of the drilling fluid during this initial removal step. high-performance shakers of today are able to use 100 mesh and finer screens at the flowline in most applications. The shale shaker. composition and other data required by the manufacturer. Transmittance is the product of conductance times panels area.3 SHALE SHAKERS The first line of defense for a properly maintained drilling fluid has been. Modern.14 These designations give the end user a more accurate assessment of solids removal capability and liquid throughput capacities of competitive screens. The Manufacturer’s designation contains the individual company’s procedures for naming their screens. 3.1. The area available for screening is the net unblocked area. D16. Flow capacity is the rate at which a shaker can process mud and solids.
the rig shaker should be the first piece of solids control equipment that the mud flows through after coming out of the hole. B. shale shakers are typically separated into two categories: Rig Shakers and Fine Screen Shakers. However. the downward slope reduces fluid retention time and limits the capacity of this design. This motion is developed by a pair of eccentric shafts rotating in opposite directions. It is usually inexpensive to operate and simple to maintain. elliptical motion machines have a downward slope as shown in Figure 3-12. Better conveyance and longer fluid retention allow the use of 200 square mesh (74 micron) screens. 3.15 . The consistent. Unless it is replaced by a fine screen shaker. motion. circular vibration allows adequate solids transport with the basket in a flat. such as 80–100 square mesh (150–180 micron) screens. C. This design often incorporates multiple decks to split the solids load and to allow finer mesh screens. The newest technology produces linear. motion. Linear motion provides superior cuttings conveyance and is able to operate at an uphill slope to provide improved liquid retention. or straight-line.Figure 3-12 Shale Shakers The unbalanced. RIG SHAKERS The rig shaker is the simpler of two types of shale shakers. This slope is required to properly transport cuttings across the screen and off the discharge end. Figure 3-12. The next generation of machine. Today. as shown in Figure 3-12. produces a balanced. A rig shaker (also called “Primary Shale Shaker” or “Coarse Screen Shaker”) is the most common type of solids control equipment found on drilling rigs. or circular. introduced into the oilfield in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Optimum screening with these types of shakers is usually in the 30–40 mesh (400–600 micron) range. A. horizontal orientation.
16 • • Skid with built-in mud box (sometimes called a “possum belly”) and a bypass mechanism. Some designs have utilized dual screens. the area to the . Screen sizes commonly used with rig shakers range from 10 to 40 mesh. The area to the right of each line represents solids that are larger than the mesh size and would be removed from the mud. using eccentric weights mounted above. 3. In Figure 3-14. These would pass through the screen and would not be removed. • Vibration supports to isolate the screen basket from its skid. In this graph the area to the left of each line represents solids which are smaller than that mesh size. the screen basket.MUD TANK (POSSUM BELLY) MOTOR VIBRATOR ASSEMBLY BELT GUARD SCREEN BASKET ASSEMBLY LIQUID and FINE SOLIDS DISCHARGE CHUTE COARSE SOLIDS DISCHARGE Figure 3-13 Rig Shaker components Standard rig shakers generally have certain characteristics in common (see Figure 3-13): • Single rectangular screening surface — usually about 4’ x 5’ in size. capacity of rig shakers can vary from 100–1600 GPM or more. or central to. Figure 3-14 shows the particle sizes separated by these mesh screens. Method of tensioning screen sections. Depending on the particular unit and screen mesh used. dual decks and dual units in parallel to provide more efficient solids separation and greater throughput. • A low-thrust horizontal vibrator mechanism.
Instead of the conventional rig shaker for use from top hole to total depth. Fine screen shakers remove cuttings and other larger solids from drilling mud. Figure 3-15 shows the range of particle sizes separated by the screens commonly used with fine screen shakers. but are designed for greatly improved vibratory efficiency over simple rig shakers. because it is limited by the size of the page. For deeper holes and when using expensive mud systems. fine screen shakers are preferred.Figure 3-14 Particle Removal by Rig Shaker Screens right of the 10 mesh line is confined. 3. marbles or baseballs — they will be removed and discarded by a 10 mesh screen. FINE SCREEN SHAKERS The fine screen shaker is the more complex and versatile of the two types of shale shakers. They are versatile pieces of equipment and can operate on all types of mud. In actual usage. Rig shakers are generally adequate for top hole drilling and for shallow and intermediate depth holes when backed up by other solids control equipment. They are constructed to vibrate in such a way that they can use screens as fine as 150–200 mesh and still give reasonable screen life. if it is of a design capable of using coarse screens as well as fine screens. this area is unlimited. This means that a 10 mesh screen will remove all particles larger than 1910 microns — it doesn’t matter if they are the size of BBs.17 . A fine screen shaker can be installed on the rig in one of four ways: 1.
Units with screens placed in parallel (Figure 3-16 C.Figure 3-15 Fine Screen Shaker Particle Separation 2. 4. . Single deck. Replacing the rig shaker after top hole is completed. D & E) have two or more screen sections acting as one large screen so that no cuttings can fall between them. All screen sections should be the same mesh. single screens (Figure 3-16 A & B) are the simplest design. Downstream from the rig shaker to accept fluid after it passes through the coarse screen shaker (requires secondary pump). Placed in series with the rig shaker by tapping into the flow line with a “Y”.18 screen or screens in the unit. placement and type of vibrator and other special features. thus keeping the rig shaker available as a “scalping shaker”. as shown in Figure 3-16. The various designs are differentiated by screen orientation and shape. since the coarsest mesh section determines the unit’s screening ability. with all mud passing over one screen of uniform mesh. This type of shaker requires efficient vibrator mechanisms to function properly under all possible drilling conditions and requires high throughput (Conductance) per square foot of screen cloth. Screens are usually rectangular and may be single screens or multiple screens placed in series or in parallel. Because fine screen shakers have a wide variety of designs. they have few characteristics in common. screen tensioning mechanism. Screen Orientation and Shape refers to the arrangement of the 3. 3.
Hook strip screens are made without a rigid frame and can prematurely fail if installed and allowed to operate with uneven tension.19 . but the following steps may apply: • Inspect the supports and ten- • • sion rails to be sure they are in good condition and clean Position the panel on the deck and inspect the screen to be sure it lays flat Install both rails loosely to the hookstrip Push one side of the screen against the positioning blocks. Panel screens can usually be installed or replaced much quicker than a hookstrip screen since the cloth is already pretensioned and the mechanical devices lock the panel with much less manual effort. • • • SCREEN TENSIONING MECHANISMS Shakers are designed to use either a hookstrip or a rigid panel screen. with the finer screen being the controlling mesh size.Shakers with screens stacked in series (Figure 3-16 F) have a coarse screen above a finer screen. Figure 3-16 Shaker Screen Configurations 3. if present. and fully tighten the screen against these blocks Evenly tighten the tension bolts on the other side Torque to the manufacturer’s recommended setting Rigid panel screen installation should proceed as per the manufacturer’s instructions. The operating theory is that the top screen will remove some of the cuttings from the mud to take part of the load off the bottom screen and thereby increase overall screening efficiency. The shaker manufacturer’s instructions for screen installation should be followed.
GENERAL GUIDELINES General rules in operating shale shakers — whether coarse screen rig shakers or fine screen shakers — which have not already been mentioned. fine screen shakers generally require more attention than rig shakers. Nonetheless. Besides periodic lubrication. their more effective screening capabilities 3. while in others the eccentric weights and motor form an integral assembly. This is especially true when expensive mud systems are used. • Dump and clean possum belly.VIBRATOR MECHANISMS Vibrator Mechanisms vary widely in design and placement and greatly affect the throughput efficiency of fine screen shakers. • Check screen tension. frequent checks must be made for screen plugging and blinding. Most vibrators are electrically operated. improving their efficiency. include the following: • Use the finest mesh screen capable of handling the full volume from the flow line under the particular drilling conditions.20 . This will reduce solids loading on downstream hydrocyclones and screens. One important advantage of linear motion is positive conveyance of cuttings across the screen surface even when the surface is at a positive angle. This generally allows the use of an uphill sloped screen deck. screen flooding and broken screens. fine screen shakers require the same minimum maintenance as rig shakers while making a trip: • Wash down screens. In some units. greatly increasing throughput capacity and cuttings dryness. In addition. the nature of the vibratory motions can be easily modified to take advantage of specific solids-conveying characteristics. more than justify the higher operating cost. normally to progressively finer mesh screens over the course MAINTENANCE Because of their greater complexity and use of finer mesh screens. In some units the vibration-inducing eccentric weights are separated from the drive motor. • Shut down shaker when not drilling to extend screen life. although a few are hydraulically operated. Several screen changes. but most units have a fixed vibratory motion. Most modern shakers utilize linear motion vibration with the vibrator mechanism mounted above the screen bed. All will occur more frequently on fine screen shakers than on coarse mesh rig shakers.
They have also proved valuable tools in closed systems and other “dry” location” applications. in turn. ask your local Brandt / EPI™ representative for copies of the latest Product Bulletins. These devices use a combination of desilting hydrocyclones and very fine mesh vibrating screens (120–400 mesh) to remove fine drilled solids while returning valuable mud additives and liquids back to the active mud system. This includes make-up mud hauled in from other locations. 3. water should not be used on the screen surface while drilling. Unless water sprays are absolutely necessary to control screen blinding.21 . Large cuttings which settle in the mud box (possum belly) of the shaker should never be dumped into the mud system. mounted over a vibrating screen. This.• • • of the hole. With the introduction of linear motion vibrating screens. and are able to effectively process 400–600 GPM. The process capacity is limited by screen capacity and its ability to discard “dry” solids. allows the use of additional hydrocyclones and higher. all mud should be screened. Mud conditioners often combine both desander and desilter cones mounted above the screen deck to take 3. Water sprays tend to wash smaller cuttings through the screen which would otherwise be removed by their clinging to larger particles (piggy-back effect). The most familiar combination sep- arator is the Mud Cleaner or Mud Conditioner (Figure 3-17). are quite common. The combination of hydrocyclones and linear-motion vibrating screens is called a Mud Conditioner to differentiate these machines from earlier mud cleaners. Traditional mud cleaners use multiple 4” or 5” cyclones. combinations of vibratory screening and settling/ centrifugal force are used together to provide an effective separation. the capacity of the mud cleaner screen has been greatly increased. (Dump them into the sump or waste pit.4 MUD CLEANERS AND MUD CONDITIONERS In many cases. overall process capacities. Mud cleaners were developed in the early 1970s to remove fine drilled solids from weighted mud without excessive loss of barite and fluid.) Except in extenuating circumstances (such as the presence of lost circulating material). For a more complete analysis of different types of screens and shakers.
and reduce the overall size and weight of the unit. when compared to mud cleaners. Since there are many designs of mud cleaners/conditioners available. After removal of large cuttings with a shaker.22 . feed mud is pumped into the mud cleaner/conditioner’s hydrocyclones with a centrifugal pump. APPLICATIONS Mud cleaners/conditioners should be considered in these applications: 1. Unweighted OBM Figure 3-17 Mud Cleaners and Mud Conditioners 3. Drilled solids larger than the screen openings are discarded. Instead of simply discarding the underflow. performance and economics will vary with machine and drilling variables. usually 1000–1500 GPM. pass through the screen and are returned to the mud system.full advantage of the higher process capacity. The overflow from the cyclones is returned to the mud system. including most barite in a weighted system. the solids and liquid exiting the bottom of the cyclones are directed onto a fine screen. Whenever the application requires finer screens than the existing shaker can handle 2. the remaining solids. The cut point and amount of mass solids removed by a mud cleaner/ conditioner depends primarily on the mesh of the fine screen used. Figure 3-18.
a finer separation is required than can be provided with existing shakers. 4. The alternatives are: 1) Add additional similar shakers to handle the flow rate. rig modifications. 6. Expensive polymer systems When the cost of water is high Unweighted WBM with high disposal costs and/or environmental restrictions When use of lost circulation material requires bypassing the shaker Workover and completion fluid Mud cleaners/conditioners are simply a bank of hydrocyclones mounted over a fine-mesh screen.Figure 3-18 Particle Removal by Mud Cleaner Screens 3.23 . The question to answer becomes how to achieve the necessary level of screening at the lowest cost. plus fuel) is necessary 3. and installation) and the operating cost (screens and other expendables. 5. In many instances (even with modern fine screen shakers). plus transportation. Any of these may be correct. 2) Replace the existing shakers with more efficient units or 3) Add a mud cleaner/conditioner downstream from the existing shakers. 7. but a thorough study of the capital cost (the actual cost of new equipment.
whenever a vacuum truck must haul normal full-flow desilter waste. 3. and expensive vacuum truck waste disposal from steel pits is the alternative. An increasingly important application of mud cleaners/conditioners is the removal of drilled solids from unweighted water-base mud in semi-dry form. since most of the solids are removed in semi-dry form by the mud cleaner/conditioner screen. This approach to dry-solids disposal can be carried further by using a centrifuge with a mud cleaner/conditioner to form a “closed” system which eliminates discarding of any fluid. whose cyclone underflow may be as much as 15 bbl/hr or more. because of the cut points produced by some “modern” layered screens. Compared to desanders and desilters. the waste must be diluted with rig water to reduce density. Vacuum truck loads often can be reduced to a small fraction of those required with full-flow desilting. Salvage of the liquid phase of an unweighted drilling mud often costjustifies use of a mud cleaner/ conditioner when the fluid phase of the mud or disposal is expensive. underflow from the mud cleaner/conditioner . but since a vacuum truck can only carry a limited amount of sand because of the over-the-road weight restrictions. the remaining solids in the screen underflow are dilute enough to be hauled away without watering them back. Also. Use of ultrafine screens (200 to 325 mesh) significantly improves solids control in any high-value fluid system.24 When used for this purpose. the screen underflow from the mud cleaner/conditioner is often diverted to a separate steel waste pit for vacuum truck disposal. the use of mud cleaner/conditioners may be indicated downstream of linear motion shakers. mud cleaners/conditioners can achieve efficient solids removal while returning most liquid back to the active mud system. This may seem counterproductive. This system is commonly used in areas where environmental restrictions prohibit the use of earthen reserve pits. In a closed system. On the other hand. These systems are being used increasingly in areas where liquid mud waste must be hauled a significant distance and is subject to a high disposal fee. The mud cleaner/conditioner is used to discard drilled solids in semi-dry form which is classified as legal landfill in most areas and is subject to economical dry-haul disposal techniques (dump truck or portable waste containers).to make the proper choice. The operator is then billed for the haulage of a vacuum truck load comprised largely of rig water.
which results in disposal of very fine. Another mud cleaner/conditioner application is the clean up of workover and completion fluids. The cleaned mud then flows back into the mud system and is re-blended with the salvaged lost circulation materials. eliminates vacuum truck services for disposal of liquid mud. This application can significantly reduce filter replacement costs. a mud cleaner running one or two ultrafine screens (200 over 325 mesh) can be used to remove most of the solids before they reach cartridge type filters. (Most mud cleaner/conditioners are designed to also function as desilter on unweighted mud by rerouting the cone underflow or by removing or blanking off the screen portion of the unit. semi-dry solids and return of liquid to the active system. finer mesh screen. a coarse top screen is used to pre-screen the mud and remove the lost circulation material. the shale shaker is bypassed and drilled solids build up rapidly in the mud. necessitating a high level of dilution and new mud. Usually when running LCM. INSTALLATION Installation of the mud cleaner/conditioner is made downstream of the shale shaker and the degasser. and allow larger volumes of fluid to be cleaned at a faster rate. minimizes dilution. One special mud cleaner/conditioner application is the use of a double-deck unit for salvage of coarse lost circulation material (LCM). The same pump used to feed the rig’s desander or desilter is often reconnected to feed the mud cleaner/conditioner when weight material is added.) Follow these guidelines when installing mud cleaner/conditioners to allow peak efficiency: 3. The mud cleaner/conditioner may then be used to replace or augment the rig’s desilter during top hole drilling. Such a system virtually eliminates the need for reserve pits. Within the mud cleaner/conditioner. and meets environmental constraints when drilling within ecologically sensitive areas.screen is diverted to a holding tank and then centrifuged. Use of a two-deck mud cleaner/conditioner allows salvage of the LCM while minimizing the increase in solids content. This material is discharged back into the active system for recirculation downhole. reduce downtime in changing filters. where the drilled solids are separated out and discarded. mud additives and liquid phase pass through the top screen onto the lower.25 . The drilled solids. In order to reduce costs associated with this expensive task.
Multiple feed points on the screening surface minimize use of the available screen area and reduce overall capacity and efficiency. This minimizes near-size screen plugging and barite loss due to “piggy-backing”. • Feed the cone underflow to the screen at a single point. It is often desirable to modify the performance characteristics of the cones to decrease the amount of ultra fines in the cone underflow. • Screen throughput is reduced by increased solids content and viscosity. The desilter cone suction should be from the desander discharge compartment. 3. Position the mud cleaner/conditioner on the pit high enough so the overflow manifold will gravity-feed fluid into the next downstream compartment at an angle of approximately 45°. Install a guard screen with approximately 1/2” openings at the suction to prevent large trash from entering the unit and plugging the cones. GENERAL GUIDELINES To operate mud cleaner/conditioners at maximum efficiency. Take the mud cleaner/conditioner suction from the compartment receiving fluid processed by the degasser (Weighted Muds).• • • • • • • Size the mud cleaner/conditioner cyclones to process 110–125% of the full circulating flow rate. remember these fundamentals: • Operate mud cleaners/conditioners continuously on the full circulating volume to achieve maximum drilled solids removal. Keep all lines as short and straight as possible. use a separate feed pump for the desander cones and another feed pump for the desilter cones. When using mud conditioners that have both desander and desilter cones. • Operate mud cleaners/conditioners within the limits of the screen capacity. Avoid vertical overflow discharge lines from hydrocyclones. The cyclone underflow plays a critical role in overall mud cleaner/conditioner efficiency. The desander cone suction should be from the degasser discharge compartment. resulting in flooding and high mud additive losses. A mud cleaner/conditioner with a cyclone throughput of 800 GPM is of little value if the cone underflow exceeds the screen capacity.26 .
3. or finer. Permit the screen to clear itself. The following example illustrates the point: Earlier mud cleaner designs with 12–16 cones over a single screen bed have not proven to be practical: the ultra-fine mesh screens simply cannot handle the underflow volume from the cones. This is just as important with a mud cleaner/conditioner as with desilters and desanders. • Shut down the feed pump(s) before turning off the vibrating screen portion of the mud cleaner/conditioner. Follow these general guidelines for correct mud cleaner/conditioner operation: • Run the mud cleaner/conditioner continuously while drilling and for a short period of time while making a trip for “catch-up” cleaning. along with the ratio of barite to drilled solids. In some instances. The total amount of drilled solids in the discarded material. must be determined to correctly evaluate economic performance.) Select the number of cones to be operated and the particular mesh screen to be used according to drilling conditions. screens on shakers since these screens can also remove appreciable amounts. • For peak efficiency. a linear-motion shaker coupled with a manifold of properly designed hydrocyclones yields a high-performance Mud Cleaner/ Conditioner with sufficient capacity for even the largest drilling rigs. This may involve an experimental determination of the number of cones and screen mesh to optimize performance. As a general rule.27 . a number of cones will have to be blanked off in order for the desired screen mesh to be used. operate the cones with a spray rather than a rope discharge. (Note: This technique is also important when using 100–mesh.• • • Do NOT judge screen efficiency simply on the basis of cuttings dryness or color. A technique for measuring and calculating these values is given in Appendix B of this handbook. One exception to this is the mud conditioner. more than one mud cleaner/conditioner will be needed. use the finest mesh screen possible (to process the full circulating rate) and size the number of cones accordingly. • Start up the shaker portion of the mud cleaner/conditioner before engaging the feed pump(s). In some cases. then rinse the screen with water or oil sprays before shutting down the screen portion of the unit.
This must be determined experimentally on a case-bycase basis. This relationship may be stated in its simplest form as: In some cases. If a cone is flooding. unplug it with a welding rod or similar tool. Solids control devices which take advantage of both particle size and particle density speed up the settling process by application of centrifugal force. 3. When a significant amount of barite is added to increase mud weight. the feed is partially plugged or the bottom of the cone may be worn out. MAINTENANCE Maintenance of mud cleaners/ conditioners generally combines the requirements of desilters and fine screen shakers: • Periodic lubrication • Check screen tension • Inspect the screen to ensure it is free of tears. since a plugged cone allows solids to return to the mud system. shut down the mud cleaner/conditioner for one or two full circulations. These devices utilize Stoke’s Law as the basis for their operation. and dried mud before start up • Shut down unit when not circulating to extend screen life • Check feed manifold for plugging of cyclone feed inlets • Check cyclones for excessive wear and replace parts as necessary 3.• • • Check cones regularly for bottom plugging or flooding.28 . Use low-volume sprays on the screen surface to reduce “piggy-backing” only if 1) this liquid addition to the mud is permissible. holes. and 2) the resultant reduction in barite discard outweighs the resultant reduction in drilled solids discard. This permits the fresh barite to thoroughly mix with the system and reduce losses over the screen. If a cone bottom is plugged. Stoke’s Law defines the relationship of factors governing the settling velocity of particles in a liquid. Another factor which affects separation is particle density.5 SEPARATION BY SETTLING AND CENTRIFUGAL FORCE Using vibrating screens to remove drilled solids from mud uses only one characteristic of solids particles — their size. adding a small stream of cleaned mud from the hydrocyclone overflow (reflux) provides the same reduction in “piggy-backing” without reducing the overall efficiency of the unit.
sand traps should have a top weir over which mud can flow into the next compartment. A shale shaker would normally sit on top of the sand trap and discharge into it. Normally. The reduction in waste mud achieved through efficient solids control Figure 3-19 Cutaway View of Sand Trap 3.29 . In normal operation they also play a minor solids removal role by settling out a portion of the coarse drilled solids which pass through the shaker screen. The larger and/or heavier a solid is. and centrifuges all utilize this principle in their operation. a Settling pits. High acceleration and low viscosity speed up the settling rate. hydrocyclones. 3. or flocculating the solid particles with the addition of chemicals. the faster it will settle through fluid in a settling pit. Settling pits simply use the force of gravity to separate solids. Settling pits are often large and require closure or remediation.6 SAND TRAPS A sand trap (Figure 3-19) is a settling tank. There is no way to speed up this natural settling process other than reducing the viscosity of the fluid. greatly reduces the waste water remediation treatment costs. usually the first compartment of the first pit in the mud system.• • • Larger particles (of the same density) settle more rapidly than smaller ones. High density solids settle more quickly than low density ones. Sand traps can serve an important role in solids control by protecting downstream equipment against the results of torn shale shaker screens or by-passed shakers by removing large particles which could plug cyclones or other equipment downstream.
Hydrocyclones are important in solids control systems because of their ability to efficiently remove particles smaller than the finest mesh screens. In essence. They are also uncomplicated devices. Feed energy is transformed into centrifugal force inside the cyclone to accelerate particle settling in accordance with Stoke’s Law. 3. which make them easy to use and maintain.30 . a cyclone is a miniature settling pit which allows very rapid settling of solids under controlled conditions. A hydrocyclone (see Figure 3-20) CLEANED DRILLING MUD (OVERFLOW) FEED NOZZLE VORTEX FINDER DRILLING MUD DRILLING MUD MOVES INWARD AND UPWARD AS SPIRALLING VORTEX SAND AND SILT. and a quick-opening.slanted bottom. without moving parts. the extra liquids lost from dumping the sand trap cannot be allowed and the desander suction is arranged to allow processing of the sand without creating a lot of liquid waste. designed to speed up the LIQUID DISCHARGE settling process. quick-closing dump valve or gate so that settled solids can be discharged with minimum fluid loss. DRIVEN TOWARD WALL AND DOWNWARD IN ACCELERATING SPIRAL SAND AND SILT (UNDERFLOW) Figure 3-20 Hydrocyclone 3. In some highly sensitive environments.7 HYDROCYCLONES Hydrocyclones (also referred to as cyclones or cones) are simple mechanical devices.
Manifolding multiple cyclones in parallel can provide sufficient capacity to handle the required circulating volume plus some reserve as necessary. Remember. if you are not able to properly size your centrifugal pump to create 75 feet of inlet head to your set of cyclones. Newer designs are made entirely of polyurethane. The size of oilfield cyclones commonly varies from 4” to 12”.consists of a cylindrical/conical shell with a small opening at the bottom for underflow discharge. fine solids and the liquid phase of the mud tend to spiral inward and upward for discharge through the liquid outlet. Heavy. Design features of cyclone units vary widely from supplier to supplier. more errors in hydrocyclone applications are made with centrifugal pumps. capacity or maintenance characteristics. last longer. In the past. Drilling mud enters the cyclone using energy created by a centrifugal feed pump. Light. Manifolding may orient the cyclones in a vertical 3. pressure varies with mud weight. Feed head is constant regardless of mud weight.31 . Centrifugal pumps are constant energy (head) devices and not constant pressure devices. Although centrifugal pump theory and sizing exercises are beyond the scope of this text. it is highly recommended that you contact the Technical Services Staff at Brandt / EPI™ for assistance. and a feed nozzle on the side of the body near the cylindrical (top) end of the cone. coarse solids and the liquid film around them tend to spiral outward and downward for discharge through the solids outlet. the coarser its cut point and the greater its throughput. The velocity of the mud causes the particles to rotate rapidly within the main chamber of the cyclone. Centrifugal pumps must be properly sized for cones to operate efficiently. and no two manufacturers’ cyclones have identical operating efficiency. This measurement refers to the inside diameter of the largest. and are less expensive. Typical cyclone throughput capacities are listed in Figure 3-21. In general — but not always — the larger the cone. rather than with the cyclones themselves. cyclones were commonly made of cast iron with replaceable liners and other wear parts made of rubber or polyurethane to resist abrasion. and weigh less. Most well designed oilfield cyclones operate most efficiently when 75 feet of inlet head (±5 ft) is applied to the cone inlet. a larger opening at the top for liquid discharge through an internal “vortex finder”. cylindrical section of the cyclone.
) In a cyclone. The internal geometry of a cyclone also has a great deal to do with its operating efficiency. The length and angle of the conical section (and the ratio of cone diameter to cone length). larger particles have a higher probability of reporting to the bottom underflow (apex) opening. Figure 3-22 shows the approximate cut point ranges for cyclones used with unweighted water-base 6Ó 8Ó 10Ó 12Ó 15Ð20µ 20Ð25µ 25Ð30µ 30Ð40µ 30Ð40µ 40Ð60µ Figure 3-22 Hydrocyclone Capacities 3.D. but since the purpose of CONE SIZE (I. and the size and adjustment means of the underflow opening all play important roles in a cyclone’s effective separation of solids particles. the size and shape of the feed inlet.32 .D. The most common method of illustrating particle separation in cyclones is through a cut point curve. as it does not affect cyclone performance. while smaller particles are more likely to report to the top (overflow) opening.) CUT POINT (MICRONS) 4Ó 5Ó a cyclone is to discard maximum abrasive solids with minimum fluid loss. the size of the vortex finder.CONE SIZE (I. Operating efficiencies of cyclones may be measured in several different ways.) CAPACITY (GPM) FEED PRESSURE (PSI) 4Ó 5Ó 6Ó 8Ó 10Ó 12Ó 50Ð75 70Ð80 100Ð150 150Ð250 400Ð500 400Ð500 30Ð40 30Ð40 30Ð40 25Ð35 20Ð30 20Ð30 Figure 3-21 Hydrocyclone Capacities position or nearly horizontal — the choice is one of convenience. (A simple technique for comparing the efficiencies of two cyclones is given in Appendix B of this handbook. both solids and liquid aspects of removal must be considered.
Generally. Rope Discharge by the inner spiral reporting to the overflow. the solids become crowded at the apex. In a rope discharge. ROPE DISCHARGE Hydrocyclones should not be operated in rope discharge because it will drastically reduce the cone separating efficiency. and properties of the liquid phase of the mud. HYDROCYCLONE CUT POINT Particle separation in cyclones can vary considerably depending on such factors as feed head. the smaller the cone. percent solids. the benefits of more efficient solids removal and less cone wear outweigh the additional fluid loss. The amount of fluid in the cone underflow is important. a cyclone operating with a spray discharge (see Figure 3-23) gives solids a free path to exit. the underflow from hydrocyclones can be screened or centrifuged to recover the free liquid. if the solids are too dry. By itself. This type of discharge can also lead to plugged cones and much higher cyclone wear. mud weight. and become caught 3. In cases where a dry discharge is required.mud and operated at 75 feet ±5 feet of inlet head. feed NO CROWDING AT THE APEX CROWDING AT THE APEX SPRAY DISCHARGE ROPE DISCHARGE Figure 3-23 Spray v. cannot exit freely from the underflow. Desanders are primarily used to 3. In contrast. 10” or 12” ID). increasing any of these factors will shift the cut point curve to the right. Solids which otherwise would be separated are forced into the overflow stream and returned to the mud system.33 . increasing the size of solids actually separated by the cyclone.8 DESANDERS Desanders are hydrocyclones larger than 5” in diameter (6”. they can cause “roping” or “dry-plugging” of the underflow. the cut point does not determine a cyclone’s overall efficiency because it ignores the liquid loss rate. Generally speaking. the smaller size particles the cone will separate (see Figure 3-24). 8”. While a spraying cyclone appears to discharge more fluid. A cone operating in spray discharge will remove a significantly greater amount of solids than a cone in “rope” discharge.
• • • INSTALLATION When installing a desander. This will reduce loss of head on the feed line and minimize backpressure on the overflow discharge line. Direct the overflow line downward into the next downstream compartment at an angle of approximately 45°. follow these general recommendations: • Size the desander to process 110–125% of the total mud circulation rate. The partially clean mud is discharged into the next pit downstream. The overflow discharge line should not be installed in a vertical position — doing so may cause excessive vacuum on the discharge header and pull solids . 3.34 Keep all lines as short and straight as possible with a minimum of pipe fittings. Do not reduce the diameter of the overflow line from that of the overflow discharge manifold. Desanders are installed downstream from the shale shaker and degasser. The desander removes sand sized particles and larger drilled solids which have passed through the shaker screen and discards them along with some liquid into a waste pit.Figure 3-24 Particle Removal by Desander Cyclones (200 Mesh Screen Included for Comparison) remove the high volumes of solids associated with extremely fast drilling of a large diameter hole.
Large trash may collect in feed manifolds which could cause cone plugging during operation. Preventive maintenance minimizes downtime. while excessive feed head shortens the life of cyclone wear parts. and repairs are simpler between wells than during drilling. since most desanders are relatively uncomplicated devices. because the cones also discard a significant amount of the liquid phase.• • • through the cyclone overflow. Similarly.35 . Position the underflow trough to easily direct solids to the waste pit. Too low a feed head decreases efficiency. Keep the end of the discharge line above the surface of the mud to avoid creating a vacuum in the line. 3. reducing the cyclone’s efficiency. Here are a few fundamental principles to keep in mind: • Operate the desander unit at the supplier’s recommended feed head (usually around 75 feet). • Run the desander continuously while drilling and shortly after beginning a trip for “catch-up” cleaning. MAINTENANCE Maintenance of desanders normally entails no more than checking all cone parts for excessive wear and flushing out the feed manifold between wells. This makes it an important device for reducing average particle size and removing 3. because a desander will discard a high proportion of these materials along with the drilled solids. The smaller cones enable a desilter to make the finest particle size separation of any full flow solids control equipment — removing solids in the range of 15 microns and larger (Figure 3-25). desanders are not generally cost effective when an oil-base mud is in use. Use of desanders is normally discontinued when expensive materials such as barite and polymers are added to a drilling mud. • Check cones regularly to ensure the discharge orifice is not plugged.9 DESILTERS A desilter uses smaller hydrocyclones (usually 4” or 5” ID) than a desander and therefore generally removes smaller particles. Install a low equalizer line to permit backflow into the desander suction. Operating desanders at peak efficiency is a simple matter. • Operate the desander with a spray rather than a rope discharge to maintain peak efficiency.
If both pieces of equipment are to be operated at the same time. • • INSTALLATION Installation of desilters is normally downstream from the shale shaker. degasser and desander. Multiple cones are usually manifolded in a single desilter unit to meet throughput requirements.36 • • Take the desilter suction from the compartment receiving fluid processed by the desander.Figure 3-25 Particle Removal by Desilter Cyclones (200 Mesh Screen Included for Comparison) abrasive grit from unweighted mud. and should allow ample space for maintenance. sand trap. Here are some fundamentals for installing desilters: 3. Desilters should be sized to process 110–125% of the full rig flow rate. . Do NOT use the same pump to feed both the desander and desilter. Install a guard screen with approximately 1/2” openings at the suction to the desilter to prevent large trash from entering the unit and plugging the cones. They simply make a finer cut. and the individual cone throughput capacities are less than desander cones. Keep all lines as short and straight as possible. they should be installed in series and each should have its own centrifugal pump. The cyclones in desilter units operate on the same principle as the cyclones used on desanders.
Appendix C includes a chart to calculate the pounds per hour of solids generated for a range of hole size and rate of penetration. If a cone bottom is plugged. • Operate the desilter unit at the supplier’s recommended feed head. This is generally between 70–80 feet of head. If a cone is flooding. The same technique described in . since a plugged cone allows solids to return to the mud system. unplug it with a welding rod or similar tool. the feed is partially plugged or the bottom of the cone may be worn out. and increases wear on cones. • Check cones regularly for bottom plugging or flooding. Too much energy will result in excessive cone wear. Keep the end of the discharge line above the surface of the mud to avoid creating a vacuum in the line.• • • • Position the desilter on the pit high enough so the overflow manifold will gravity-feed fluid into the next downstream compartment at an angle of approximately 45°.37 Running a desander ahead of a desilter takes a big load off the desilter and improves its efficiency. Never operate the desilter cones with a rope discharge since a rope underflow cuts cone efficiency in half or worse. Use enough cones and adjust the cone underflow openings to maintain a spray pattern. Position the underflow trough to easily direct solids to the waste pit. Remember — no vertical overflow discharge lines. GUIDELINES To operate desilters at maximum efficiency. • Run the desilter continuously while drilling and also for a short while during a trip. The 3. then the desander may be turned off (to save fuel and maintenance costs) and the desilter may be used to carry the total desanding/desilting load. If the drilling rate is slow and the amount of solids being drilled is only a few hundred pounds per hour. causes cone plugging. Install a low equalizer line for backflow to the desilter’s suction compartment. follow these basic guidelines: • Operate the cones with a spray discharge. Operating efficiencies of competitive desilters vary widely according to differences in design features. Appendix B for comparing two desanders will work to compare the efficiencies of competing desilters operating on the same rig.
MAINTENANCE A desilter’s smaller cyclones are more likely than desander cones to become plugged with oversized solids.extra cleaning during the trip can reduce overload conditions during the period of high solids loading immediately after a trip. Desilters are therefore not recommended for use with weighted mud. a perforated rotor type machine was developed which SCROLL FEED CHAMBER BOWL WEIRS FEED PIPE DRILLING MUD SOLIDS DISCHARGE HOLLOW SHAFT LIQUID DISCHARGE Figure 3-26 Decanting Centrifuge 3. These early units were adapted from existing industrial decanting centrifuges. because barite particles fall within the silt size range. unless another device (centrifuge or mud cleaner/conditioner) is used to “deliquor” the cone underflow. since hydrocyclones discard some absorbed liquid along with the drilled solids.10 DECANTING CENTRIFUGE Centrifuges for oilfield applications were first introduced in the early 1950s. Similarly. This may generally be done between wells unless a malfunction occurs while drilling. The feed manifold should be flushed between wells to remove trash. A desilter will discard an appreSCROLL ciable amount of barite. 3. Keep the shale shaker well maintained — never bypass the shaker or allow large pieces of material to get into the active system. In the mid1960s.38 . desilters are not normally used with oil-base mud. so it is important to inspect them often for wear and plugging.
Proper system selection is the first step to effective solids control. Decanting centrifuges operate on the principle of exposing the process fluid to increased “Gforces”. A rotating bowl creates high G-forces and forms a liquid pool inside the bowl. This speed differential conveys and discharges solids from the machine. with the decanted solids discharged through a series of underflow ports. forming a layer. free liquid from separated solids. A gearbox is used to rotate the conveyor and bowl at slightly different speeds (slower or faster). Mud. these early designs were limited in capacity and application. called the beach.does not perform like a pure decanter. A decanting centrifuge consists of a conveyor screw inside a rotating bowl. causing them to rotate at slightly different rates. Commonly called “barite recovery” centrifuges. thus accelerating the settling rate of solids in the fluid. These solids are pushed by a screw conveyor across a drainage deck. A gear box changes the relative speed of the conveyor to the bowl. This rotation develops centrifugal force sufficient to settle solids along the inner surface of the bowl wall. SEPARATION PROCESS A Decanting Centrifuge is so named because it Decants. Dewatering actually takes place on the beach. see Figure 3-26. where the scraping motion of the conveyor blades moves them toward the solids discharge ports. (sometimes diluted with water). As the conveyor rotates. This speed differential is required to convey and discharge solids. Today. The free liquid and finer solids flow toward the larger end of the centrifuge and are removed through the effluent overflow weirs. The bowl and conveyor are rotated at speeds between 1500 and 4000 rpm depending on bowl diameter. the centrifuge is even more important part of solids control.39 . greater clarification and solids capacity. is pumped into the conveyor hub through the feed tube. or beach. centrifugal force pushes the feed mud out the feed ports into the bowl. coarse particles in the mud are forced against the inner surface of the bowl. the increased use of low-solids mud and environmental dewatering applications require higher process volumes. The heavy. A drainage deck. and additional fine solids removal. Equipment selection is decided by site specific requirements. or removes. is where dewatering of the solids actually takes 3. The larger solids settle against the bowl wall. In addition.
but it is mechanical rotation rather than fluid head which induces the centrifugal force required to accelerate the particle settling rate. centrifuges are used intermittently to process a small portion of the volume circulated from the well bore to reduce the amount of colloidal-sized and improve the flow properties of the mud. the liquid fraction from the decanter (or the lighter slurry fraction from the perforated cylinder . liquid and solids collection hoppers. The operating principle is similar to that of the cyclone. feed slurry pump. Dilution liquid is 3. Bowl sizes in common oilfield applications include diameters of 14”. usually 2–5 microns. and 24”. In unweighted mud applications. power source. To remove these colloidal solids. raw mud and dilution liquid connections. depending on unit capability and fluid requirements. In field operation. WEIGHTED MUD APPLICATIONS The classic application of centrifuges while drilling takes advantage of their ability to make a very fine cut — on the order of 5–10 microns — when treating weighted water-base mud. Viscosity can be effectively controlled by discarding a relatively small amount of colloidal size solids and replacing the discarded liquid with fresh make-up water.40 required to compensate for increasing viscosity. meters and controls. The raw mud feed rate is substantially decreased as mud weight increases. In this application.place. in order to maintain satisfactory separation efficiency. Total liquid throughput may be as high as 40 GPM. including dilution liquid. fine solids tend to remain in suspension in the pools between the conveyor flights and are carried out the overflow ports along with the liquid phase of the mud. The light. 18”. Centrifuges make the finest cut of any separation device used on the rig. skid. Residence time of fluid in the bowl and a more “gentle” separation environment differentiate separation in a centrifuge from that of a cyclone.25 tons/hour to 8 tons/hour. generally associated with increasing mud weight. Larger 24” diameter units generally have the highest liquid throughput and solids tonnage capacity. In weighted mud applications. feed mud capacity rarely exceeds 25 GPM. 15”. the decanting centrifuge is fitted with a housing over the bowl. The deliquified solids are then discharged through a series of underflow ports. feed mud capacity can range from 25–250 gpm. Solids tonnage rates range from 1.
Operation of centrifuges in this application is generally intermittent rather than continuous. Other applications of decanting centrifuges have become more important in recent years because of the decanter’s ability to remove free liquid from the solids discharge. Both over-centrifuging and under-centrifuging should be avoided. The sandsize and silt-size semi-dry solids fraction from the decanter (or the heavier slurry fraction from the perforated cylinder centrifuge) is returned to the active system. The maximum and minimum limits should be established as part of the overall mud program. The amount of replacement bentonite may be calculated exactly from mass balance equations. the decanting centrifuge is used to dewater the 3. With either type of machine. Centrifuges should be run when viscosity reaches the operator-established maximum. As part of a “closed loop”. This again relates to the standard purpose of the centrifuge — to control viscosity by removal of colloidal size particles. Installation of a centrifuge is usually downstream from all other solids control equipment. The centrifuge underflow (solids) should be discharged to a wellstirred spot in the pit for thorough mixing with whole mud before the solids have a chance to settle out in the bottom of the pit. This is especially important with a decanter. When centrifuging a weighted mud. Sufficient working space should be provided for routine maintenance and operating adjustments to the centrifuge. suction for a centrifuge mud feed would be taken from the same pit or compartment which receives the discharge from a mud cleaner/conditioner. Viscosity will normally creep up when centrifuges are shut down due to the size degradation of mud solids. the underflow discharge should not be too close to the rig pump suction. bentonite and chemicals must be added back to the mud system. The overflow (liquid/colloidal solids) gravity-feed down a constantly sloping chute or pipe to waste. and the machine’s operation should be stopped when viscosity reaches the established minimum. hence the need for restarting the unit.41 . Ideally. but a good rule of thumb is to add about one sack of bentonite per hour of centrifuge operation. “Under-centrifuging” simply will not achieve the desired reduction in viscosity. which discharges a pumpable slurry. and of lesser importance with a perforated cylinder centrifuge.centrifuge) is discarded. as the economics of operation are greatly reduced under these circumstances. which discharges damp solids.
2) slow. The liquid effluent (containing the majority of the colloidal size solids) is discarded. decanting centrifuges are operated in series. ing more popular for processing unweighted oil mud. The first unit returns the coarse solids fraction (weight material ) to the active system. UNWEIGHTED MUD APPLICATIONS In the classic weighted mud application the solids discharge (containing the majority of the weighting material) is returned to the mud system. operated either in parallel or in series. flocculants. hard drilling with a gradual buildup of ultra-fine solids is anticipated or 3) the liquid mud phase is valuable. and other chemicals) is becoming more popular as an economical way to reduce dilution requirements and overall waste volume for haul-off and disposal. As part of a “closed loop”. Chemical enhancement (through the use of coagulants. often a higher capacity machine. This process is not as effective as a single unit for viscosity control — a large portion of the colloidal size solids are returned to the active mud system in the effluent stream of the second unit — but the effluent stream from the first unit is too valuable to discard. with the light.under-flow from hydrocyclones and remove ultra-fine particles from the active mud system. Decanting centrifuges are becom3. A second unit. especially if 1) the mud has been brought in from another location and may contain a large amount of fine drilled solids. liquid fraction being routed to a holding tank (rather than being discarded as in a classic weighted mud application). Multiple centrifuges are not uncommon. oil-base mud applications.42 . The coarser solids fraction is discarded in dry form. returning the effluent to the active system. especially with synthetic oil muds. Usually the coarse solids fraction is discarded and the base fluid is retained for reuse. The main difference of centrifuge use in these applications versus their use for viscosity control in weighted mud is the continuous use of the centrifuge and the routing of the two discharge streams. WEIGHTED OIL-BASE MUD APPLICATIONS In weighted. strips out the solids and discards them. while the liquid and colloidal solids fraction is returned to the mud system. larger high capacity (75–250 GPM) decanting centrifuges (and sometimes standard centrifuges) are used to maximize fine solids removal.
3. but a few universal principles apply to almost all centrifuges: • Before starting a centrifuge. rotate the bowl or cylinder by hand to be sure it turns freely.43 . Suspension of the solids prevents their settling and keeps them in the active mud system so that they can be separated MECHANICAL AGITATORS Mechanical Agitators (see Figure 3-28) provide more thorough mixing of pits without the problems associated with mud guns. but they require special skills for repair and maintenance. since each nozzle may add 100— 200 GPM of mud into the tank above and beyond the normal flow from the well. 3. However. Centrifuges are relatively easy to operate.OPERATING PROCEDURES Operating procedures will vary from model to model. • Set the raw mud and dilution feed rates according to the manufacturer’s recommendations (usually variable with mud weight).11 AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT AGITATION/MIXING All compartments in an active mud system other than the sand trap must be agitated in order to suspend solids and maintain a consistent mixture throughout the surface system. Mud guns also increase the load on downstream solids Figure 3-27 Mud Gun control equipment. These devices usually carry mud from a downstream compartment and spray it at high velocity into an upstream compartment to keep solids suspended. Rig maintenance of centrifuges is limited to routine lubrication and speed adjustment of the unit. MUD GUNS For many years Mud Guns (see Figure 3-27) were used as the sole means of agitation. by mechanical solids control equipment. • Start up the centrifuge before starting the mud feed pump and dilution water feed. • Remember to turn the feed and dilution water off before the machine is stopped. leaving dead spots in other areas of the tank. the true mixing effect of mud guns tends to be localized around the point where the nozzle spray discharges. Agitators use an electric motor to drive impeller blades which flow the mud in a pattern throughout the tank.
cy when pumping gas-cut mud, and the cones will not function properly if feed head fluctuates or if there is gas in the incoming mud. Also, recirculation of gas-cut mud is dangerous and could result in a blowout, since the density of gascut mud is lighter than the mud weight that should be maintained in the well bore. There are three basic methods of degassing which can be utilized separately or in combination. The three degassing techniques are: atmospheric, vacuum and cyclonic.
Figure 3-28 Mechanical Agitator
Given proper tank design, agitator sizing, and impeller placement, this method of agitation prevents settling, enhances the efficiency of solids removal devices, and maintains a well blended mud system.
After passing through a shale shaker and a sand trap, all drilling mud should be directed through a degasser, see Figure 3-29. Degassers are often essential to the solids removal process to ensure the proper performance of hydrocyclones used in downstream solids control devices. The centrifugal pumps that feed the cyclones have difficulty maintaining their efficien-
Atmospheric Degassers sit in the mud tank and consist of an elevated spray chamber and a submerged centrifugal pump. The gas-cut mud is pumped to the spray chamber at high velocity through a disc valve. The mud strikes the inside wall of the spray chamber with enough force to drive most of the entrapped gas out of the mud. The removed gas is usually discharged to atmosphere at pit level and the degassed mud returned to the active system. These devices are simple to operate and maintain, but their effectiveness is often limited by the ability of the centrifugal pump to handle gas-cut mud. A second method of degassing is provided by the use of a vacuum.
Figure 3-29 Degassers
Vacuum-type Degassers separate gas bubbles from drilling mud by spreading the gas-cut mud into thin layers and then drawing off the gases with a vacuum pump. The mud is usually thinned by flowing it over a series of baffles or plates. Vacuum degassers are normally skid-mounted and installed on top of the mud tanks. Some models incorporate more than one degassing technique within a single unit. For example, one
degasser spreads the mud into thin sheets through centrifugal force, sprays the mud onto an impact shield for residual gas separation, and draws off the gases with a vacuum pump.
Actual placement of the degasser and related pump will vary with the design of the degasser, but these recommendations may be used as a general rule: • Install a screen in the inlet pipe to the degasser to keep large
objects from being drawn into the degassing chamber. Locate the screen about one foot above the pit bottom and in a well-agitated spot. There should be a high equalizer line between the suction and discharge compartment. The equalizer should be kept open to allow backflow of processed mud to the suction side of the degasser. Route the liquid discharge pipe to enter the next compartment or pit below mud level to prevent aeration. Install the gas discharge line to safely vent the separated gas to atmosphere or to a flare line.
Check all fittings for air leaks. If the unit uses a hydraulic system, check it for leaks, proper oil level, and absence of air in the system.
A drying shaker, or dryer, is a vibrating screen separator used to remove free liquid from cuttings prior to discharge and recover the liquid for re-use. Drying shakers are usually installed to process the cuttings discharged from primary scalping and/or fine screen shakers. A typical drying shaker is a linearmotion, multi-screen unit, with a feed hopper in place of the traditional back tank. Drying shakers are optimized to provide maximum retention time and cuttings dryness. Large hole sizes or high penetration rates may require more than one drying shaker to provide acceptable cuttings dryness and liquid recovery. Shale shakers are often the cause of excess mud loss during drilling operations, primarily due to screening too fine for drilling conditions and the design of some shakers. This mud loss can greatly increase mud costs and site clean-up costs, especially when oil-base muds, OBM, or synthetic-base muds, SBM, are used. One characteristic of SBM is the increased amount of liquid retained on the cuttings, compared to WBM or conventional OBM.
Maintenance of degassers varies considerably depending on make and model. In general, the following guidelines apply: • Check to make sure the suction screen is not plugged. • Routinely lubricate any pumps and other moving parts and check for wear. • Keep all discharge lines open and free from restrictions, such as caused by solids buildup around valves. • If the degasser utilizes a vacuum, keep it at the proper operating level, according to the manufacturer’s recommended range for the mud weight and process rate.
Increasing the G-force to 7 G’s reduces the exposure time to 6 seconds and will actually increase the amount of oil remaining on the cuttings! Since the amount of oil remaining on the cutting is a function of exposure time. Field tests indicate the optimum dryer design provides about 4–5 Gs of force. INSTALLATION • Locate the drying shaker(s) at a lower level from the main linear shakers and other solids control equipment. Screen deck length determines the distance a cutting must travel prior to discharge and deck angle influences retention time — the longer the screen deck and the steeper the deck angle.47 .The drying shaker is designed to expose wet drilled cuttings to an additional vibrating screen surface and separate some of the bound liquid coating the surface of the solids. At 4 Gs. Oil content on cuttings is primarily a function of retention time on the screen surface and the exposure of the cutting to the vibrational force of the shaker. However. The liquid is then returned to the active system or transferred to a storage tank for future use. operating at 6.5 to 8 Gs. The discharge screens should be sloped uphill at 2. a cutting will take approximately 24 seconds to travel from the feed end of the screen to the discharge end. Recent field studies indicate this is not necessarily true. DRYING SHAKER DESIGN The first drying shakers were “high-G” units. the conveyance rate is close to 1 inch per second. the greater the retention time. Prevalent thinking was that the additional impact force provided by the higher G-force would improve cuttings dryness. Feed to the drying shaker should be through open hopper sized to eliminate solids build-up or plugging. screen deck length and deck angle will greatly influence cuttings dryness. while at 7 Gs the conveyance rate is about 5 inches per second. longer screen decks may not fit the available space and too steep a deck angle will result in cuttings grinding and unacceptable build-up of fine solids. Cuttings should be 3. Given a screen length of 24 inches and operation at 4 Gs. with a deck design that is flat at the feed end to reduce cuttings grinding and maximize usable screen area.5° to 5° to increase retention time and maximize cuttings dryness. The G-force greatly affects the speed at which cuttings move from the feed end of the screen surface to the discharge end.
In some installations.12 UNITIZED SYSTEMS Since 1976. degasser. Desilting requirements are usually met by blanking off the screens on the mud clean- 3. The mesh of the screens on the drying shaker should be close to. Components of unitized systems can vary depending on manufacturer and the particular drilling application. reduce liquid loss. or finer than. depending on deck angle and desired fluid end point. The liquid recovered from the drilled cuttings will contain base fluid. several solids control manufacturers have developed complete packages of skid-mounted solids control devices. the decanting centrifuge may be eliminated. the screens on the main shakers to prevent the re-introduction of separated solids to the active system. The middle screen panel may be either a 3-D or flat panel. and centrifuge. The discharge end screen should be a flat screen panel to minimize cuttings bed depth and maximize liquid recovery. and often provide a very high efficiency system for ecologically sensitive drilling sites. and prevent cuttings grinding. motors and accessories.• • • * • • evenly deposited as close to the feed end of the drying shaker as possible to maximize usable screen area and cuttings dryness. ease transportation and installation. desander. desilter. 3. piping. plus any solids finer than the screen mesh of the drying shaker. but only after careful consideration of cuttings size and their effect on fluid properties. mud cleaner/conditioner. Pinnacle™ screen panels at the feed end of the dryer to usable increase screen area. but most include one or more of the basic separation devices installed in series: fine screen shaker. including all supporting tanks. Adjust screen deck angle design to properly convey solids. These “unitized” systems maximize solids control efficiency. Provide slides or conveyors to direct “dry” cuttings to solids collection bins or discharge chutes Supply a flooded pump suction in the liquid collection tank for transfer by pump to the desired storage or processing tank. Use three-dimensional.48 . The recovered liquid should be processed through a decanting centrifuge to remove ultra-fine solids before the mud is returned to the active system or storage tank. pumps.
reduce equipment cost. However. RESs utilize as much of the existing rig equipment and tanks as possible to simplify installation.Figure 3-30 Brandt/EPI™ ISCS unitized System er/conditioners and operating them as desilters as appropriate. Considering the 3. including pumps and motors. Piping is engineered for optimum fluid handling with the shortest practical suction and discharge lines. 3. which greatly improves overall efficiency and simplifies maintenance procedures from the driller’s standpoint. have created another type of system — the Rig-Enhanced System.13 RIG ENHANCED SYSTEMS Recent advances in shaker design. connect a discharge line from the unitized system into the rig suction pit. Sand traps and agitators are also standard equipment in most units (See Figure 3-30). are properly sized to provide the greatest degree of efficiency in the smallest amount of space. including pumps and motors. and allow further customization of a system for a specific application. Like the unitized systems. Normally the only installation required for these units is to feed the flow line from the well into the shale shaker. and make the electrical and water connections.49 . all pieces of equipment. Rig-Enhanced Systems (RES) are designed so all pieces of equipment. Suppliers of both systems commonly provide 24 hour on-site service for all components in the system. are properly sized to provide the greatest degree of efficiency in the smallest amount of space. The suction pit remains a necessary part of the surface system in order to provide mud volume capacity and as a place for mixing-in mud additives. along with the custom requirements of operators and increasing emphasis on environmental impact. In well-designed systems.
or similar treatment. including clear brines. A “closed loop” system often includes multiple shale shakers and centrifuges to achieve a high efficiency of performance in the large upper hole sections of the well where wastes and circulating volumes are the greatest. cuttings.14 HIGH EFFICIENCY SOLIDS REMOVAL SYSTEMS The goal of high efficiency solids removal systems. . The benefit of a “closed loop” system comes from increased solids removal efficiency with unweighted fluids. These systems combine the equipment found in Section 3. Pretreatment can include pH adjustment. This system provides best results when combined with constant. and reduced discharge volume with weighted fluids. etc. Solids Removal Efficiency of 75–95% is typical. Here are a few guidelines to keep in mind: • Fines stay with the liquid. on-pit attention and supervision. or cuttings discharge into water tight containers for transport to approved waste facilities. as rig wash water. that is. these systems will be used more often in the future. — are removed from the liquid. The water is often recycled on location for building new mud. Solids handling techniques include washing cuttings to remove excess chlorides or residual oil. In addition to their primary goal. This reduces dilution requirements. Proper installation and operation are equally important. and drilling problems. 3.importance of solids control in deep drilling and the growing concern over environmental impact of mud waste disposal. Therefore. waste volume. “closed loop” systems minimize drilled solids remaining in the drilling fluid. with a 50–55% Solids Discharge Concentration. the smallest particles (colloidal sized) usually remain with the liquid phase of the mud. is to limit waste discharge to disposable solids and clear water. Enhanced solids removal is accomplished with chemical addition to “pre-treat” the fluid prior to screening or centrifugation.50 solidification. often called “closed loop” systems. while the larger particles — sand. 3. flocculation/coagulation.12 with chemicallyenhanced solids removal and specialized solids handling techniques. “closed loop” systems have many applications other than environmental ones. or used for irrigation. This performance has proven extremely effective in environmentally sensitive areas or whenever cuttings and liquid mud must be hauled from the location prior to disposal.
as it should. the cause is improper installation. as this will drastically reduce the life of the pump. Special winterizing measures — a shed around the pits. except the centrifuges. Never install a 90° elbow or • • • • • valve within 5 feet of suction of a centrifugal pump. Remember size constraints and possible sloshing and spillage in rough seas when designing offshore systems. preferably by mechanical agitators. to handle 110–125% of circulating volume (in order to handle backflow within compartments. install it. Always use the finest mesh screen possible that will meet throughput and screen life requirements. steam lines. drains in pumps. etc. volume from mud guns. — may be required in areas of extreme cold in order to ensure proper functioning of the solids control equipment. Size it. cyclones should emit a spray discharge rather than a rope discharge. All compartments other than the sand trap should be agitated. not equipment malfunction.• • • • • • • • Size each piece of full-flow solids control equipment. Use only as many cones on a mud cleaner/conditioner as required to meet flow capacity. Install equipment in proper sequence: as the mud moves downstream. each device removes progressively smaller particles. The benefits of proper solids control are discussed in detail in Section 2. Keep all piping as short and straight as possible. in order to extend screen life and to avoid flooding the screen.15 BASIC ARRANGEMENT RULES Mechanical solids control is the most cost-effective method to control drilled solids. etc. Proper solids control requires: • Proper planning before the well begins 3. Each piece of solids control equipment should discharge into the next compartment downstream from where its suction is taken. Never try to make a single device remove all particle sizes — it is better to allow each device to remove its particular size range within an overall solids control system. operate it RIGHT! 3.51 .). Often when a solids control device fails to perform. For maximum efficiency.
i. 3. then mud is flowing downstream through the equalizer. If it is not then mud is bypassing the equipment.• • • • • Proper selection. Proper system selection is the first step to effective solids control. should be well stirred. Use a separate centrifugal pump for each hydrocyclone device (do not use the same pump for more than one piece of equipment). In other words.. If mud guns are used they should be arranged so that no flow bypasses the solids control equipment. there must be a wall or division with an equalizer opening between the suction and discharge. There should be only one button to push to begin the pump and the discharge valve opened slowly to begin operation of the solids control unit. Agitators are preferable.52 . Arrangement – Each piece of solids control equipment must be arranged so that the suction is taken from a compartment upstream of the discharge compartment. and operation of available equipment Routine monitoring of fluid properties to optimize performance Sequential Treatment – It follows from previous recommendations that the solids control equipment should be arranged so that each piece of equipment removes successively finer solids. Compartment Mixing – To provide a uniform solids load to the equipment each compartment. the flow through compartment equalizers should always be from the discharge to the suction. except the sand trap. Equipment selection is decided by site-specific requirements.e. • • • Upstream Flow Through Equalizer – If the flow into the suction compartment is greater than the rate of flow processed by the equipment. installation. Dedicated Feed Pumps – Manifolding pumps and equipment so that multiple configurations are available depending on valve positions is always a mistake. even if it is boards placed in the tank temporarily.
manufacture. and service of solid/liquid separation systems. system design and operation.4. For over 20 years. production. 4. Emphasis on quality and innovative solutions has established Brandt/EPI as a performance-oriented company with strong bottom-line focus. We have the technical expertise to provide engineering services. and place strict emphasis on providing cost-effective products and services to meet the needs of our clients.3 Certifications: Quality products and services are our priority. regulatory agencies. and industrial applications. and the community. and site remediation services for exploration.1 Scope of Services: Brandt/EPI™ specializes in the design. related equipment. Brandt/EPI personnel have been providing industry with solid solutions to separation and remediation problems. and proprietary technologies to our clients throughout the world.0 Equipment and Services for Solids Control and Waste Management On-site Technical Support Pilot Studies Project Proposals Process Recommendations Project Installation and Start-Up System and Equipment Design Site Remediation Services Bioremediation Dewatering Systems Landfarming Pond Closures Slurrification and Injection Sludge Fixation Soil/Sand washing Waste minimization Water Treatment COMPANY PROFILE 4. our employees. Through its parent 4.2 Business Relationships: We believe in long-term partnerships with clients and vendors. Our diversified experience and proven track record allow us to offer a wide range of project capabilities including: Equipment and Systems Vibrating Screen Separators Hydrocyclone Separators Centrifugal Separators Dewatering Units Filtration Units Integrated Systems Other Products Technical and Engineering Services Equipment Recommendations 4.1 .
and the financial capabilities to develop long-term relationships with clients. environmental law. Brandt/EPI provides a full range of site remediation services through our own operations and in partnership with Remediation Management. American Association of Drilling Engineers. and others. clay processing. Society of Petroleum Engineers. We have successfully closed over 1. High-performance screen separators. DNV. These include exploration and production. 4. Offshore Operations.2 . suppliers.company. design engineering. PRODUCTS AND SERVICES Brandt/EPI specializes in field-proven separation systems for a variety of applications. National Utility Contractors Association. petroleum geology. Services. site remediation. chemical processing. Brandt/EPI maintains several corporate certifications including ISO 9001. H2S. Gos-Standard and Gosgortechnadzor. and finance. Our professionals are experienced in solid/liquid separations. and municipal sludge. safe performance and innovative solutions to client needs.000 surface pits to Louisiana Rule 29-B standards or better in over eighteen years of site remediation. Process Safety. hydrocyclones. Many personnel hold industry certifications in HAZWOPER. pulp and paper. a positive working environment. International Association of Drilling Contractors. 4.4 Personnel Resources: Brandt/EPI has established a reputation for professional. petrochemical. This expertise provides the ability to offer a wide variety of products and services. consistent. and sub-contractors. and centrifuges are available as separate units or as components of custom-designed systems. ASME. Brandt/EPI also provides quality replacement screen panels with a wide range of screen cloth for all screen units. Brandt/EPI and its affiliated companies have over 400 operations and technical support personnel strategically located in local service centers throughout the world. and CPR. API. American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Inc. stone dewatering. Brandt/EPI also maintains a wide network of technical experts through participation in industry organizations such as the American Petroleum Institute.
compact unit that routinely out-performs larger shakers. With the feed end 4. With the feed end screens flat. and screen changes are quick with the exclusive screen latches. A singlemotor/sealed gearbox drive system reduce downtime and maintenance costs. the discharge end screens tilt uphill to improve cuttings dryness and increase capacity without the excessive pool depths found with other designs. Deck angle is easily adjusted with the pinned jacking Figure 4-2 ATL-1200 Linear Motion Screen Separator 4. The ATL-1000 is only 93” from end to end. The flat (no crown) screen deck reduces liquid loss down the sides of the screens and maximizes usable screen area.8 sq. of screen area. Multiple units can be used to increase capacity.5 Linear Motion Screen Separators ATL-1000 Screen Separator The ATL-1000 combines a tandem screen arrangement and linear motion with a ramp-slope screen deck and flat Blue Hex SM screen panels (38-450 mesh) to maximize solids separation in a single. The flat (no crown) screen deck reduces liquid loss down the sides of the screens and maximizes usable screen area.system (-5° to +5°). but has a full 35.3 . Figure 4-1 ATL-1000 Linear Motion Screen Separator ATL-1200 Screen Separator Designed for smaller drilling rigs and workover units. The ramp-slope design allows the feed end screens to be operated downhill with the discharge end screens flat for maximum conveyance of sticky solids. compact unit that routinely out-performs larger shakers.ft. The ramp-slope design allows the feed end screens to be operated downhill with the discharge end screens flat for maximum conveyance of sticky solids. the ATL-1200 combines the performance of the ATL-1000 Separator with a lower weir height in a single.
screens flat. and minimum maintenance. efficient. and screen changes are quick with the exclusive screen latches. Typically constructed from corrosion-resistant stainless-steel. other designs. Multiple units can be used to increase capacity. A single-motor/sealed gearbox drive system reduce downtime and maintenance costs. The dual Vibra-motor drive system is simple. modular unit. The rampslope screen deck provides a horizontal feed screen and an inclined discharge screen for maximum solids separation without the excessive pool depths found on Figure 4-4 ATL-CS Cascade Screen Separator Linear Motion Cascade Screen Separators ATL-CS Cascade Separator The ATL-CS is designed to screen fine.7 sq.4 . The ATL-1200 measures only 93” from end to end.ft. the discharge end screens tilt uphill to improve cuttings dryness and increase capacity without the excessive pool depths found with other designs. and requires no maintenance. screen deck includes a unique dewatering screen panel and a small-footprint design. LCM-2D Screen Separator The LCM-2D Separator (patent pending) is designed for maximum screening efficiency from 30 to 250 mesh.0 sq.ft. Deck angle is easily adjusted with the pinned jacking system (-5° to +5°). the ATL-CS combines the fine screening ability of a single-deck ATL-1200 with the circular motion of the proven Tandem Screen Separator into a unit with the lowest weir height of any highperformance cascade separator. sticky clays at high flowrates in a single. The adjustable angle (+5° to -10°). Multiple units may be used to increase capacity. Figure 4-3 LCM-2D Linear Motion Screen Separator 4. 33. but has a full 25. higher process volumes. of screen area.
5 .3 sq. sticky clays at high flowrates in a single. Multiple units may be used to increase capacity. The ATL Dryer has proved to be superior to larger.The ATL-CS provides a total of 65 sq. the recovered fluid may be centrifuged before it is returned to the active system. Pump operations are automatic and controlled by a float valve switch mechanism. If desired. If desired. Total screen Figure 4-6 ATL Drying Shaker 4. “high-G” designs due to longer retention time on the screen surface and less liquid retained on the cuttings. area is 56. combination stainless/carbon steel or full carbon steel construction are available. The lower “G” forces also cause significantly less particle size degradation of the cuttings. Cuttings and fluids from the primary rig shakers are fine screened by an adjustable linear screen deck resulting in drier solids and cleaner reclaimed base mud. modular unit. Figure 4-5 LCM-2D Cascade Linear Motion Screen Separator LCM-2D Cascade Separator The LCM-2D Cascade (patent pending) combines the fine screening ability and simplicity of the LCM-2D with a circular motion scalping shaker to screen fine. of screen area and uses rugged hook-strip screens on the scalping decks and Blue Hex SM screen panels on the lower deck to improve efficiency and reduce screen costs. Multiple units may be used to increase capacity. Linear Motion Drying Shakers ATL Drying Shaker The ATL Drying Shaker is a compact “low-G” drying shaker.ft. The LCM-2D Cascade uses the same screens on the upper scalping deck and the lower linear unit to reduce screen inventories and costs. The recovered fluid is captured in an agitated tank and is returned to the active system by an integral centrifugal pump.ft.
The SDW-25 is a four-panel version of the proven family of ATL linear motion separators. other configurations are also available. The independent dual-motor drive system eliminates pulleys. or as a three-stage separator with both desander and desilter cones to provide up to 1500 GPM process capacity in a single unit. Mud 4. The most popular models are described here. ATL-16/2 Mud Conditioner Figure 4-7 SDW-25 Drying Shaker SDW-25 Drying Shaker In cases where additional screen area or higher G-forces are desired. belts. Deck angle is easily adjusted with a hydraulic jacking system. The ATL-16/2 Mud Conditioner is a three-stage separator rated at 1000 GPM.ft. Two separate feed pumps are used to provide proper fluid processing through the cones. The cone underflow from both the desander and desilter may be processed through a fine mesh. of screen area.6 Figure 4-8 ATL-16/2 Mud Conditioner . and has 33. or gearboxes to simplify operation and maintenance.3 sq. The ATL-16/2 has two desander cones and sixteen desilter cones mounted over an ATL-1200 linear motion screen deck. 120-325 mesh. the SDW-25 Dryer provides screening to 500 mesh.Conditioners may be configured as a two-stage separator with either desander or desilter cones only. screen to remove fine solids and minimize Linear Motion Mud Conditioners Mud Conditioners combine the fine screening ability and small footprint of Brandt/EPI’s linear motion separators with Brandt/EPI’s proven hydrocyclone separators to remove fine solids from weighted muds and to minimize waste volumes from unweighted muds.
the cone underflow may be discarded directly to waste.0 sq.7 sq.7 . ATL-2800 Mud Conditioner The ATL-2800 Mud Conditioner is a two-stage separator rated at 1680 GPM. especially sticky clays. Total screen area is 33. The LCM-2D Mud Conditioner may be configured with desander and/or desilter hydrocyclones to provide either two. the cone underflow may be discarded directly to waste.liquid waste volume.6 Orbital Screen Separators used to provide proper fluid processing through the cones.ft.screen to remove fine solids and minimize liquid waste volume. 120-325 mesh .ft.0 sq. The horizontal screen deck and circular motion provide excellent conveyance of solids. If desired. The ATL-2800 has twentyeight desilter cones mounted over an ATL-1200 linear motion screen deck. A centrifugal feed pump is Figure 4-10 LCM-2D Mud Conditioner LCM-2D Mud Conditioner The LCM-2D Mud Conditioner combines the fine screening ability and simplicity of the LCM-2D linear motion separator (patent pending) with Brandt/EPI’s proven hydrocyclone separators to remove fine solids from weighted muds and to minimize waste volumes from unweighted muds. Total screen area is 25. If desired. High capaci- 4.or three-stage separations up to 1680 GPM in a single unit. Total screen area is 25. The cone underflow may be processed through a fine mesh.ft. Tandem Screen Separator The dual-deck Tandem Screen Separator is designed to process high volumes between 20 and 120 mesh. Figure 4-9 ATL-2800 Mud Conditioner 4.
elliptical motion to provide years of trouble-free operation. Mud Cleaners Brandt/EPI Mud Cleaners are a field-proven.Figure 4-11 Tandem Screen Separator ty and efficient separation are achieved because the top screen separates large solids from the mud and improves the separating performance and screen life of the bottom screen. low to moderate capacities of materials requiring coarse screen separations. The reliability. dual. A rugged. low maintenance require- Figure 4-12 Standard Screen Separator Standard Screen Separator The single-screen Standard Separator is designed to process Figure 4-13 Mud Cleaners 4. dual. single motor design is combined with unbalanced. 30 to 50 mesh or larger.8 . low maintenance requirements and quiet. The standard separator may also be used as a scalping shaker to reduce equipment costs. and triple units. especially sticky clays. Junior units are available for workover and similar operations. two-stage separator designed to process up to 600 GPM over a single basket. Standard Separators are available in single. The reliability. and triple units. Tandem Separators are available in single. Their horizontal screen deck and circular motion provide excellent conveyance of solids. Junior units are available for workover and similar operations. dependable operation have made these machines industry standards for over 20 years.
The wirecloth is factory pre-tensioned for longer screen life. The result is longer screen life and . Blue HexSM screen panels eliminate the leading SM more efficient solids separation. Mud Cleaners are available with 10. Finally. 4. This concept. improper tensioning. chemicals.and multi-layer configurations. or oils.ments and quiet. the bonding process results in a screen panel that is impervious to degradation from high temperatures. blinding and contamination from process fluids. propagation of tears. Mud Cleaners are available in single or dual units and with one or two pre-tensioned (PT) screen decks. Blue HexSM screens are available in single. Pinnacle™ screens may also improve performance on scalping shakers and other orbital shakers 4. similar to the design of a pleated air filter has several advantages: • Provides even distribution of fluid across the screen surface • Eliminates unwanted fluid loss near the screen edges • Improves dryness of solids discharge • Allows the use of finer screens. These screens use a rigid support frame and grid to eliminate screen flex and sag. 16. 12. When a tear does occur. it can be easily repaired with Brandt/EPI’s exclusive screen plugs. The support grid also prevents small tears from spreading across the entire screen surface. usually 2–3 mesh sizes finer The increased usable screen area of Pinnacle™ screens is best utilized when combined with flat screen panels on linear motion shaker with an uphill basket slope.9 Figure 4-14 Blue HexSM Screen Panels causes of screen failures — screen flex. or 20 Desilter Cones. dependable operation have made these machines industry standards for over 20 years.7 Screen Panels Blue HexSM Screen Panels Brandt/EPI’s exclusive Blue Hex screen panels are flat — there is no crown. Pinnacle™ Three-dimensional Screen Panels* Pinnacle™ screen panels offer up to 40% more screening area without increasing the overall size of the screen panel or adding additional shakers. This design increases usable screen area and reduces liquid loss along the sides of screen panels.
proprietary oblong or rectangular weaves. This two-panel screen consists of one or more layers of fine-mesh screen cloth. PT Screen Panels PT screen panels are used on Brandt/EPI™ Mud Cleaners. high-conductance weaves for special applications. fixed solids discharge apex for maximum solids removal. leak-proof performance. Urethane screens. They incorporate superior involute feed entry. and the latest. Hook-strip screen panels are available from 8-mesh to 500mesh. pretensioned and bonded to a metal frame for strength and long screen life. resistance to abrasion. and low-cost replacement. 4. 1000 GPM. in market grade and tensile bolting cloths. * Pinnacle is a trademark of Advanced Wirecloth. a molded-in ceramic insert may be specified. These features make them a popular choice for retrofit of existing units. Brandt/EPI™ Desanders offer excellent high temperature tolerance. Hook-Strip Screen Panels Brandt/EPI™ also supplies a full line of hook-strip screens available in single-layer or multi-layer configurations. and standard Victaulic® connections. PT screens are available from 80 mesh to 325 mesh. equivalent to 50-140 mesh cloths are also available.8 Hydrocyclone Units Desanders Available in 500 GPM. preferred flanged design for tight.when used in offshore (floater) applications to reduce the effects of swell and heave. Each desander cone is 12” diameter with a 2-1/8” diameter. 4. Inc. Pinnacle™ screen panels are available for most popular fine screen shakers in several combinations of screen layers and mesh size. all-polymer construction. and may be manufactured from square-mesh market grade or tensile bolting cloths.10 Figure 4-15 Desander . from 84 mesh to 250 mesh. For extremely abrasive conditions. 1-3/4” and 1-1/2” apex sizes are also available. and 1500 GPM models.
All Brandt/EPI™ decanting centrifuges can be used in both unweighted and weighted mud applications. All units feature high capacity contour bowls. hardfaced solids discharge ports. all-polymer construction. resistance to abrasion. Figure 4-18 Decanting Centrifuge 4. and dual centrifuge systems for synthetic oil base muds and other critical applications. hard-faced conveyor feed ports and scroll flight tips. and heavy-duty guards over all rotating components.11 . high-performance centrifuges to meet your two-phase liquid/solid separation requirements — fine solids removal from unweighted muds. Each desilter cone is 4” diameter with an adjustable solids discharge apex for maximum solids removal. viscosity control (barite recovery) for weighted muds.9 Centrifuges Brandt/EPI™ offers several models of reliable. and low-cost replacement. preferred flanged designs for tight. All desilter cones have a molded-in ceramic insert to reduce wear and extend the life of the cone.Desilters Available to process 60 gpm to 1440 gpm. leak-proof performance. and variable pond depth orifices. Figure 4-16 Desilter SC-1 Decanting Centrifuge Figure 4-17 Desilter Cone The SC-1 centrifuge has an 18” x 28” bowl and is designed primarily for barite recovery from fluids 4. and standard Victaulic® connections. explosion-proof electrics. Brandt/EPI™ Desilters offer excellent high temperature tolerance. For safe operation. They incorporate involute feed entry. These features make them the preferred choice for both contractors and operators. all units include safety shut-down devices.
The HS3400 is available in allelectric.weighing up to 26 ppg. an electric back drive to vary conveyor/bowl speed ratio is available as an option. The all-electric drive provides simple.5” bowl and is 4. or all-hydraulic (main and back drive) configurations. hydraulic main drive. Figure 4-19 HS3400 Centrifuge with Electric Drive HS3400 High Speed Decanting Centrifuge For applications that require high-speed. The HS3400 has a 14” x 49. The hydraulic drive systems offer additional separation versatility and flexibility to optimize solids/liquid separation over a wide variety of drilling conditions. SC-4 Decanting Centrifuge The SC-4 centrifuge has a 24” x 40” bowl and a double-lead conveyor designed for maximum solids tonnage removal (up to 8 TPH) and process rates up to 250 gpm for unweighted muds. and less maintenance than competitive . Top recommended bowl speed is 3250 RPM. longer life. The SC-4 is also an excellent dewatering centrifuge and barite recovery centrifuge due to its 59:1 gearbox. The SC-1 can also process up to 150 gpm of unweighted muds. reliable performance.12 Figure 4-20 HS3400 Centrifuge with Hydraulic Drive SC-35HS Decanting Centrifuge The SC-35HS decanting centrifuge is designed for better high-speed performance. designed for ultra fine solids removal from unweighted muds at process rates up to 160 GPM and 5 TPH. Stainless steel construction and sintered tungsten carbide wear tiles provide years of trouble-free operation. If desired. removing up to 6 tons per hour (TPH) of low gravity solids. high G-force separations. the HS3400 decanting centrifuge has become the industry standard for high-speed performance and reliability.
thus allowing the unit to be located a 4. Figure 4-23 HS-5200 High Speed Decanting Centrifuge Roto-Sep Centrifuge The Roto-Sep Centrifuge is a perforated rotor design to remove undesirable fine solids from weighted drilling fluids. The SC-35HS is available in all-electric.Figure 4-21 SC-35HS Decanting Centrifuge designs.500 RPM. The HS5200’s all-hydraulic drive system can be easily adjusted for optimum performance in all fluid processing conditions. or all-hydraulic (main and back drive) configurations.or trailer-mounted units. The rotating separation chamber increases solids settling rate to remove these fine solids and recover barite with up to 92% efficiency. the Roto-Sep provides slurrified solids. Stainless steel construction and tungsten carbide wear tiles along the entire scroll length provide years of trouble-free operation. and the bowl/ conveyor differential is also adjustable between 1 RPM and 100 RPM. the SC-35HS centrifuge’s 15” x 48” contour bowl and the proprietary gearbox provide several advantages — higher “G-forces at a given speed. capacity and sharper separations — up to 250 GPM and 8 TPH. and greater settling area in a smaller. more compact footprint.5” contour bowl and high torque drive system for higher . Available in skid. Main bowl speed is infinitely variable up to the maximum 4200 RPM. Stainless steel construction and tungsten carbide wear tiles provide years of trouble-free operation. Based on the proven HS3400 design. higher flowrates (up to 180 GPM). finer separations. Compared to other “highspeed designs.13 HS-5200 High Speed Decanting Centrifuge The HS5200 is a “third-generation” high-speed decanting centrifuge capable of 4000 Gs and 4200 RPM operation. higher solids capacity (6 TPH). Top recommended speed is 3. hydraulic main drive. the HS5200 has a 16” x 49.
skid-mounted metering pump and tank modules.11 Filtration Units The Brandt/EPI Super-Flo™ filtration system is a DE (diatomaceous earth) unit designed for clear filtrate quality.Figure 4-24 Roto-Sep Centrifuge distance away from the solids return tank and simplifying installation. The Super-Flo filtration unit is available in electric or diesel/pneumatic power models. from simple. to the DWU-250 Dewatering Unit. The unique tubular elements provide maximum flow in minimum space. including tropic or Arctic conditions.14 . and the more effective pre-coat and cleaning cycles increase throughput and reduce downtime. faster cycle times. and higher efficiency. weatherized container enclosure. Figure 4-26 Inside the DWU-250 4. piping and connection points. The DWU-250 may be equipped with climatized laboratory and office areas. and quality check points in a modular. The DWU-250 is a self-contained. The DWU-250 is used with one or more decanting centrifuges as part of the ChemicallyEnhanced Dewatering process. portable system that includes all mixing and polymer aging tanks. controls. metering pumps.10 Dewatering Units Brandt/EPI offers several models of dewatering units. 4. Figure 4-25 Self-contained DWU-250 Figure 4-27 Filtration Unit 4.
15 4. simplifies proper agitator sizing and selection. lowprofile. The Agitator Sizing Chart for Drilling Muds. dependable service.12 Vacuum Degassers The DG-5 (500 gpm) and DG-10 (1000 gpm) vacuum degassers have been rated by an independent study as the best-performing degassers for drilling fluid service. low-efficiency methods.Figure 4-28 Vacuum Degasser impeller blades for complete mixing action. and provide maximum release and removal of entrained gas by flowing the gas-cut fluid in very thin sheets across a series of stacked plates. While an eductor jet removes the degassed mud. Designed to meet applicable OSHA specifications. Interior parts are treated to resist corrosion. Their low profile minimizes headroom requirements and provides stability and safety. Figure 4-29 Mud Agitator 4. a rugged. another Brandt/EPI innovation. Brandt/ EPI agitators use a single-reduction. efficient blowers especially for improved comfort and safety on drilling rigs.14 Portable Rig Blowers Brandt/EPI developed these quiet. and smooth vibration-free operation. These degassers are compact. H 2S-rated vacuum pump provides positive removal of gas. 4. with flat or canted . and is located in Appendix D. worm/worm gear drive for higher efficiency. There is no remixing of mud and gas as found in other.13 Mud Agitators Brandt / EPI MA Series mechanical agitators are available from 3 HP to 25 HP. 4.
remote areas. environmental. processing plants. in-plant installations.15 Integrated Systems Closed Loop Processing Systems All Brandt / EPI™ equipment can be integrated into systems designed for specific applications. all blowers feature non-sparking aluminum blades. 25. based on operational.000 cfm. Figure 4-31 Closed Loop Mud System 4. To ensure safe operation. Brandt / EPI Closed Loop Mud Systems (CLMS) are customdesigned for your specific application. Available in three sizes — 15. and 40. and other waste reduction/management systems.000 cfm — Brandt/EPI Blowers move high volumes of air with minimal noise or vibration. or hangermounted units. Brandt / EPI equipment is currently in service throughout the world. and operating systems for “Closed Loop” processing of drilling fluids.16 . and site remediation projects. cuttings wash systems. dewatering systems.000 cfm. manufacturing. We have over 20 years’ experience designing. Blowers are available in floormounted.4. A typical CLMS may include Figure 4-30 Portable Rig Blower these blowers are used to disperse potentially dangerous gasses and bothersome insects. providing excellent results in land and offshore installations. and economic needs. wall-mounted. product classification systems. heavy-gauge safety guards and explosion-proof electrics.
or water-base drilling fluids — are also readily available. type and number of fluid processing equipment. Mud Conditioner. The integrated degasser (not shown) is specially designed to remove large amounts of entrained gas safely and effectively. provides a full range of site remediation services throughout the world. and Decanting Centrifuge. Dual centrifuge installations for special applications — such as weighted oil base muds and synthetic oil. Coiled Tubing (CT) Processing Systems CT Processing Systems are designed for the specific requirements of coiled tubing operations. Live Oil Systems Brandt/EPI offers a proprietary system to process three-phase solids/water/oil separations when drilling underbalanced through producing zones. In over eighteen years of site remediation. Water and oil are separated and recovered in separate tanks for future re-use or transportation.one or more primary Screen Separators. All compartments are mechanically agitated to prevent settling of weighting materials and maintain a homogenous fluid mixture.17 Figure 4-32 Coiled Tubing (CT) Processing System . a Brandt/ EPI company.16 Remediation Management Services Remediation Management Services. both drilling and workover. The Brandt/EPI “Live Oil” System is a modular tank system. Trenchless Technology Processing Systems Brandt/EPI CLMS are also rapidly becoming the preferred choice for Trenchless Technology Mud Systems. ranging from small diameter fiber-optic cable installations to large natural gas pipeline projects. we have successfully closed over 1. Drying Shakers. 4. Their modular design makes it easy to select the total mud volume. and tank configuration. mixing equipment.000 surface pits to Louisiana 4. complete with pressure control and solids separation equipment. We have successfully completed over 75 trenchless projects in North America. We have also provided systems and operators for horizontal wells to neutralize underground contamination plumes and other environmental remediation projects.
power source. 5259 Each service typically includes all necessary excavation equipment. Techniques available include: • Closed loop mud systems • Chemically Enhanced Dewatering • Landfarming / landspreading • Bioremediation • Cuttings slurrification and injection systems • Sludge stabilization and fixation • Soil/sand washing • Surface pit closure • Waste minimization • Water treatment • Construction equipment • Pump rental • Water Discharge Permit No. Figure 4-33 Site Remediation Services Rule 29-B standards or better. 4.18 . carbon/stainless steel combination. tanks. depending on project and client requirements. labor. onsite testing and analytical data. Explosion-proof electrical components are standard. site closure.4. transfer pumps and related equipment. but other styles may be requested. process equipment. Technical and engineering services include: • Project pre-planning • Rig surveys • Project recommendations • On-site system operation and maintenance • Brandt’s exclusive RECAP™ Report (Removal Efficiency Cost Analysis Program) • CAD-based engineering • PC-based particle size analysis • Pilot testing • Technical education and training Any Brandt/EPI™ product may be custom-manufactured to meet your project requirements. and other documentation. and necessary state or federal permits. These services range from periodic. or full stainless steel in a variety of finishes and colors. All equipment can be supplied in full carbon steel. Call your local Brandt/EPI representative for a quotation. chemicals. on-site inspections to complete design proposals and continuous on-site technical support. reports.17 Technical and Engineering Services Brandt/EPI™ offers a full range of technical and engineering services to ensure optimum application and performance of separation and other. related equipment.
.............C..............1 Density of Common Materials........................................................C........D....................D.............APPENDICES Glossary ..D........3 Selecting Size and Number of Agitators .....................................2 Mud Solids Calculations Standard Calculations....5 Solids Control Performance Evaluation .....................................................................B.........................................................7 Brandt/EPI™ Sales & Service Locations ..................................................................C..................4 Pounds per Hour Drilled Solids — Slow Rates.......................A......................B........................1 Field Calculations to Determine Total Solids Discharge..8 A.............5 Solids Content Chart .........B...........................6 Equipment Selection Pre-well Project Checklist ...B.......D..........................................1 .............................2 Brandt/EPI™ Equipment Specifications ..........4 Field Calculations to Determine High and Low Gravity Solids Discharge .....................................................................1 Screen Cloth Comparisons ..................................6 Method for Comparison of Cyclone Efficiency ....C....C.............................................................................................................................................C.............B.............................................................................................................3 Pounds per Hour Drilled Solids — Fast Rates ......................................10 Mud Engineering Data Conversion Constants and Formulas ................................D.......2 Hole Capacities ..................................................................
AMPLITUDE + The distance from the mean position to the point of maximum displacement. AXIAL FLOW* Flow from a mechanical agitator in which the fluid first moves along the axis of the impeller shaft (usually down A ADSORBED LIQUID The liquid film that adheres to the surfaces of solids particles which cannot be removed by draining. the clear opening between wires.GLOSSARY LEGEND + API Bul 13C . it can be very harmful.S. In the case of straight-line motion or elliptical motion. and YIELD POINT. In the case of a vibrating screen with circular motion.2 . PLASTIC VISCOSITY. even centrifugal force. thus one-half stroke. See related term: MESH. A. Standard 200 Mesh Screen (74 micron openings). If not selectively controlled. AIR CUTTING See Preferred Term: AERATION AIR LOCK A condition causing a centrifugal pump to stop pumping due to a ball of air (or gas) in the impeller center that will not let liquid enter (usually caused by aeration). Compare: DEFOAMER. APEX See Preferred Term: UNDERFLOW OPENING.API Bul D11 * IADC Mud Equipment Manual ANTIFOAM A substance used to prevent foam by greatly increasing the surface tension. It is a function of the plastic viscosity and the yield point. In a screen surface. APPARENT VISCOSITY The viscosity a fluid appears to have on a given instrument at a stated rate of shear. See related term: SAND CONTENT. APEX VALVE See Preferred Term: UNDERFLOW OPENING. APERTURE + An opening. See also: VISCOSITY. amplitude would be the radius of the circle. AERATION* The mechanical incorporation and dispersion of air into a drilling fluid system. API SAND Solids particles in a drilling fluid that are too large to pass through a U. See related term: STROKE. amplitude would be one-half of the total movement of the major axis of the ellipse.
The barite mineral occurs in many colors from white through grays. BASKET That portion of a shale shaker containing the deck upon which the screen(s) is mounted. BARYTES Natural barium sulfate. BARITE. used for increasing the density of drilling fluids. API standards require a minimum of 4. according to the impurities. yet any greater opening at all would result in some liquid discharge. See related term: DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE. B BACKPRESSURE + The pressure opposing flow from a solids separation device. oil. gallons.toward the bottom of a tank) and them away from the impeller. gas. or frame with or without bottom. greens. BLINDING + A reduction of open area in a screening surface caused by coating or plugging. BLADE See Preferred Term: FLUTE. BALANCE DESIGN (Hydrocyclone) A hydrocyclone designed so it can be operated to discharge solids when there are solids to separate. or water from the well caused by the formation pressure being greater than the hydrostatic head of the fluid in the hole. but will automatically minimize liquid discharge when there are no separable solids. BENTONITE A hydratable colloidal clay. supported by vibration isolation members connected to the bed. BEACH Area between the liquid pool and the solids discharge ports in a decanting centrifuge or hydrocyclone.3 . BOTTOM FLOODING The behavior of a hydrocyclone when A. largely made up of the mineral sodium montmorillonite. and reds to black. BALANCE (as a Hydrocyclone)* To adjust a balanced design hydrocyclone so that it discharges only a slight drip of water at the underflow opening. See related terms: COATING. BED * Shale shaker support member consisting of mounting skid. BARREL (API) A unit of measure used in the petroleum industry consisting of 42 U. BOTTOM (Cyclone) See Preferred Term: UNDERFLOW OPENING. BLOWOUT An uncontrolled escape of drilling fluid. BALANCE POINT * (of a Hydrocyclone) That adjustment at which exactly no liquid will discharge at the underflow opening. PLUGGING.S. used in drilling fluids to create viscosity.2 average specific gravity. See related term: GEL. flow diverters to direct screen underflow to either side of the skid and mountings for vibration isolation members.
the underflow discharges whole mud rather than separated solids. and back again to the suction pit. See related term: G-FORCE. CERAMICS A general term for heat-hardened clay products which resist abrasion: used to extend the useful life of wear parts in pumps and cyclones. CASCADE Fluid movement on a single deck. CAPACITY The maximum volume rate at which a solids control device is designed to operate without detriment to separation. See related term: SLOUGHING. See related term: WALL CAKE. CIRCULATION The movement of drilling fluid from the suction pit through pump. annular space in the hole. BOUND LIQUID See Preferred Term: ADSORBED LIQUID.4 . C CAKE THICKNESS The measurement of the thickness of the filter cake deposited by a drilling fluid against a porous medium most often following the standard API filtration test. The viscosity of water at 20°C is 1. BOWL + The outer rotating chamber of a decanting centrifuge. aperture. CENTRIFUGE A centrifugal separator.005 cp. See related terms: FEED CAPACITY. CENTRIFUGAL FORCE + That force which tends to impel matter outward from the center of rotation. SOLIDS DISCHARGE CAPACITY. The time involved is usually referred to as circulation time. CENTIPOISE (cp) A unit of viscosity equal to 1 gram per centimeter-second. CHOKE * An opening. or orifice used to restrict a rate of flow or discharge. CAVING * Caving is a severe degree of sloughing. drill pipe. CIRCULATION RATE The volume flow rate of the circulation drilling fluid. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATOR + A general term applicable to any device using centrifugal force to shorten and/or to control the settling time required to separate a heavier mass from a lighter mass. Cake thickness is usually reported in 32nds of an inch. multiple screen sloping shale shaker basket which flow is parallel to screens. usually expressed in gallons or barrels per minute. specifically: a device rotated by an external force for the purpose of separating materials of various specific gravities and/or particle sizes or shapes from a slurry to which the rotation is imparted primarily by rotating bowl. bit. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP A device for moving fluid by means of a rotating impeller which spins the fluid and creates centrifugal force. A.
CLAY (Particles) Any solids particles less than 2 microns in diameter. D DECANTING CENTRIFUGE + A centrifuge which continuously removes solids that are coarse enough to be separated from their free liquid.5 . Clay minerals are essentially insoluble in water but disperse into extremely small particles as a result of hydra-small particles as a result of hydration.” CONE See Preferred Term: HYDROCYCLONE. COLLOIDAL (Solids) Particles so small that they do not settle out when suspended in a drilling fluid. COARSE (Solids) + Solids larger than 2000 microns in diameter. Field practice is to call all solids removed by the shaker screen “cuttings. formed by the decomposition of feldspar and other aluminum silicates. grinding. a hollow hub with flutes designed to move the coarse solids out of the bowl. A. Commonly used as a synonym for “clay.CLAY-SIZE. CUT POINT A general term for the effectiveness of a liquid-solids separation device expressed as the particle size that is removed from the feed stream at a given percentage under specified operating conditions. CONVEYOR A mechanical device for moving material from one place to another. DEFLOCCULATION Breakup of flocs of gel structures by use of a thinner or dispersant. See related term: MEDIAN CUT. CROWN The curvature of a screen deck or the difference in elevation between its high and low points. In a decanting centrifuge. DECK The screening surface in a shale shaker basket. CUTTINGS Small pieces of formation that are the result of the chipping and crushing action of the bit. either water or oil. COATING A condition wherein undersize particles cover the openings of a screening surface by virtue of stickiness. CONTINUOUS PHASE The fluid phase of a drilling mud. CYCLONE See Preferred Term: HYDROCYCLONE. or velocity effects. Natural clay particles are commonly (but not limited to) a hydrous silicate of alumina.” in spite of the fact that such solids may include sloughed materials and may be smaller than the screen openings. CONTAMINATION The presence in a drilling fluid of any foreign material that may tend to harm the desired properties of the drilling fluid. See related term: BLINDING.
DISPERSE * To separate in component parts. DISPERSION (of Aggregates)Disintegration of aggregates. DILUENT Liquid added to dilute or thin a drilling fluid. DESANDER A hydrocyclone capable of removing the API sand (particles greater than 74 microns) from a drilling fluid. DIRECT-INDICATING VISCOMETER See VISCOMETER.). It may be vibrating or stationary.” DESAND To remove the API sand from drilling fluid. DISCHARGE SPOUT OR LIP Extension at the discharge area of a screen. DESILT To remove most particles larger than 15-20 microns from a drilling fluid. DEGASSER A device that removes entrained gas from a drilling fluid. DIRECT INDICATING. The conditions essential for sticking require a permeable formation and a pressure differential across the filter cake and drill string. DISPERSANT Any chemical which promotes dispersion of particles in a fluid. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (Wall) STICKING Sticking which occurs because part of the drill string (usually the drill collars) becomes embedded in the filter cake. and specific gravity. DILUTION RATIO * Ratio of volume of dilution liquid to the volume of raw mud in the feed to a liquid-solids separator.DEFOAMER Any substance used to reduce or eliminate foam by reducing the surface tension.6 . DESILTER A hydrocyclone capable of removing most particles larger than 15-20 microns from a drilling fluid. pounds per square inch per thousand feet of depth (psi/1000 ft. Dispersion increases the specific surface are of solids resulting in an increase in viscosity and gel strength. DILUTION WATER Water used for dilution of water-base drilling mud. Compare: ANTIFOAM. Density is commonly referred to as “weight. DENSITY Matter measured as mass per unit of volume expressed in pounds per gallon (lbs/gal). grams per liter (g/l). Bentonite disperses by hydration into many smaller pieces. DILUTION Increasing the liquid content of a drilling fluid by addition of water or oil. A. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE (Hydrocyclone) The difference between the inlet and outlet pressures measured near the inlet and outlet openings of a hydrocyclone. resulting in a non-uniform distribution of pressure around the circumference of the pipe.
opposed to static. EFFECTIVE SCREENING AREA The portion of a screen surface available for solids separation. DRY BOTTOM Referring to a hydrocyclone. EMULSIFIER or EMULSIFYING AGENT A substance used to produce an emulsion of two liquids which ordinarily would not mix. See related term: PENETRATION RATE. an adjustment of the underflow opening that causes a dry beach. DRILLING OUT The operation during the drilling procedure when cement is drilled out of the casing before further hole is made or completion attempted. E EDUCTOR A device using a high velocity jet to create a vacuum which draws in liquid or dry material to be blended with drilling mud. A. DRILLING IN The operation during the drilling procedures at the point of drilling into the producing formation. usually resulting in severe plugging. DYNAMIC The state of being active or in motion. EFFLUENT See Preferred Term: OVERFLOW. expressed in linear units per unit of time (including connections) as feet/minute or feet/hour. ELASTOMER Any rubber or rubber-like material (such as polyurethane). EMULSION A substantially permanent mixture of two or more liquids which do not normally dissolve in each other. DRY PLUG The plugging of the underflow opening of a hydrocyclone caused by operating with a dry bottom. See related term: MUD. DRILLING MUD OR FLUID A circulating fluid used in rotary drilling to carry cuttings out of the hole and perform other functions required in the drilling operation. They may be oil-in-water or water-in-oil types. EQUIVALENT SPHERICAL DIAMETER (ESD) + The theoretical dimension usually referred to when the sizes of irregularly shaped small particles are discussed. ELEVATION HEAD The pressure created by a given height of fluid. See related term: LOW SPECIFIC GRAVITY SOLIDS. DRILLED SOLIDS Formation particles drilled up by the bit.7 . DOUBLE FLUTE + The flutes or leads advancing simultaneously at the same angle and 180° apart. See related term: HEAD. DRILLING RATE The rate at which hole depth progresses.DIVIDED DECK + A deck having a screening surface longitudinally divided by partition(s).
Two types of fluid filtration occur in a well: dynamic filtration while circulating.8 . See related term: WALL CAKE. FEED PRESSURE + The actual gauge pressure measured as near as possible to. and other variables. tube. and light reflection. such as the standard API fluid loss test. FILTER CAKE The suspended solids that are deposited on a porous medium during the process of filtration. A. or other obstructive items which are in the hole and would interfere with drilling. viscosity. FEED CAPACITY * The maximum feed rate that a solids separation device can effectively handle. collars. FILTRATION RATE See FLUID LOSS. API filter test. dependent upon particle size. FEED HEADER + A pipe. FILTER CAKE THICKNESS A measurement of the solids deposited on filter paper in 32nds of an inch during the standard 30-min. FEED OPENING See Preferred Term: INLET. This term also refers to the cake deposited on the wall of a hole. electrical resistance. FISHING Operations on the rig for the purpose of retrieving sections of pipe. FILTER PRESS A device for determining fluid loss of a drilling fluid. or FEED SLURRY A mixture of solids and liquid entering a liquid-solids separation device. or conduit to which two or more hydrocyclones are connected and from which they receive their feed slurry. mud and solids to be separated. FEED HEAD The pressure (expressed in feet of head) exerted by the drilling fluid in a header. See related term: HEAD. It may also refer to the solids deposited on the wall of the hole. See related term: PARTICLE SIZE. including dilution liquid if used. F FEED.These dimensions can be determined by several methods. and static filtration when at rest. FILTRATION The process of separating suspended solids from their liquid by forcing the latter through a porous medium. FINE SCREEN SHAKER A vibrating screening device designed for screening drilling fluids through screen cloth finer than 40 mesh. SOLIDS DISCHARGE CAPACITY. FINE (Solids) + Particles whose diameter is between 44-74 microns. such as: settling velocity. the inlet of a device. particle concentration. and upstream of. FEED CHAMBER + The part of a device which receives the mixture of diluents. See related terms: CAPACITY. junk.
FREE LIQUID The layer of liquid that surrounds each separate particle in the underflow of a hydrocyclone. Used in the field as a rough measure of apparent viscosity. The thickness of this film depends upon the cyclone and the viscosity of the fluid. see API RP 13B. FOAM A light frothy mass of fine bubbles formed in or on the surface of a liquid. in seconds. FORMATION DAMAGE Damage to the productivity of a well resulting from invasion into the formation by mud particles or mud filtrate. such as a flute or blade of a screw-type conveyor. FUNNEL VISCOSITY The time. for a quart (or liter) of drilling mud to flow out the bottom of a Marsh Funnel. Gel strength A.FLIGHT + On a decanting centrifuge. FLUID LOSS Measure of the relative amount of fluid loss (filtrate) through permeable formations or membranes when the drilling fluid is subjected to a pressure differential. G GAS-CUT (Mud) Drilling fluid containing entrained gas. usually caused by entrained air or gas. flocculation results in thickening gelation. GEL STRENGTH The ability or the measure of the ability of a colloid to form gels. For standard API filtration-test procedure. that causes flocculation. In drilling fluids. FLOCCULATING AGENT A substance. FLOCCULATION Loose association of particles in lightly bonded groups. APPARENT VISCOSITY. the ratio of the outer bowl speed to the difference in speed between the outer bowl and the screw conveyor. GEAR RATIO + On a decanting centrifuge. FLOODING The effect created when a screen or centrifuge is fed beyond its capacity. Flooding may also occur on a screen as a result of blinding. GEAR UNIT + On a centrifuge. one full turn of a spiral helix. FLUTE The curved metal blade wrapped around a shaft as on a screw conveyor in a centrifuge. viscosity-building commercial clays. or non-parallel association of clay platelets. high-yielding. such as most electrolytes and certain polymers. See related terms: MARSH FUNNEL. a reduction device connected to the rotating bowl and driving the conveyor at a slightly different rate. normally expressed as the number of revolutions of the outer bowl for a given difference of one complete revolution between the outer bowl and the screw conveyor.9 . such as bentonite and attapulgite clays. GEL A term used to designate high colloidal.
2 which are added to a drilling fluid specifically to increase mud density. G-FORCE * The acceleration of gravity (32. HYDRATION The act of a substance to take up water by means of absorption and/or adsorption. 2G.the heavier solids being separated from the light solids and liquid. HIGH SPECIFIC GRAVITY SOLIDS Solids whose specific gravity is greater than 4.10 . INHIBITED MUD A drilling fluid having a aqueous phase with a chemical composition that tends to retard and even prevent (inhibit) appreciable hydration (swelling) or dis- A. Barite is the most common.is a pressure unit usually reported in lbs/100 sq. INITIAL The measured initial gel strength of a fluid is the maximum reading (deflection) taken from a direct-reading viscometer after the fluid has been allowed to sit for 10 minutes. Motor nameplate horsepower is the maximum steady load that the motor can pull without damage. Commonly used to refer to the pressure put out by a centrifugal pump. usually results in swelling. HORSEPOWER A measure of the rate at which work is done. dispersion and disintegration into colloidal particles. H HEAD The height (in feet) of a column of fluid necessary to develop a specific pressure. HOPPER See MUD HOPPER. HOOK STRIPS + The hooks on the edges of a screen section which accept the tension member. ft. 9.000G etc. See related Term: LOW SPECIFIC GRAVITY SOLIDS. but others such as iron oxides are also used.2 ft/sec/sec. Multiplied acceleration due to centrifugal force is usually expressed as 1G.8 m/sec/sec). HYDROCYCLONE SIZE * The maximum inside working diameter of the cone part of a hydrocyclone. 3G. It is a measure of the same interparticle forces of a fluid as determined by the yield point under dynamic conditions. I INERTIA * That force which makes a moving particle tend to maintain its same direction. GUMBO * Any relatively sticky shale formation encountered while drilling. Drilling fluid is pumped tangentially into a cone and the rotation of the fluid provides centrifugal force to separate particles by mass weight . GEL STRENGTH. 11. HYDROCYCLONE A liquid-solids separation device which utilizes centrifugal force to speed up settling. GUNNING THE PITS Agitation of the drilling fluid by means of mud guns.
INLET The opening through which the feed mud enters a solids control device. such as salt and calcium sulfate. takes the shape of its container. A. See INHIBITOR (mud). or some other oil is the continuous phase. INHIBITOR (mud) Substances generally regarded as drilling mud contaminants. LOST CIRCULATION MATERIALS (LCM) Materials added to drilling fluid to control mud loss by bridging or plugging the lost circulation zone. In large quantities. fissured. are called inhibitors when purposely added to mud so that the filtrate from the drilling fluid will prevent or retard the hydration of formation clays and shales. the slurry conducting channel formed by the adjacent walls of the flutes or blades of the screw conveyor. Water increases the viscosity and oil reduces the viscosity. LIQUID-CLAY PHASE See Preferred Term: OVERFLOW LIQUID DISCHARGE See Preferred Terms: OVERFLOW (Hydrocyclones). may be used for fluid-loss control and the shale inhibition. LIQUID FILM The liquid surrounding each particle discharging from the solids discharge of cyclones and screens.persion of formation clays and shales through chemical and/or physical means. LOST CIRCULATION The result of whole mud escaping into a formation. See related term: FREE LIQUID. or coarsely permeable beds. INVERT OIL-EMULSION MUD An invert emulsion is a water-in-oil emulsion where fresh or salt water is the dispersed phase and diesel. LIGNOSULFONATES Organic drilling fluid additives derived from by-products of sulfite paper manufacturing process from coniferous woods. usually in cavernous.11 . LOW SOLIDS MUDS Low solids muds are unweighted water-base muds containing less than 10% drilled solids (1-4% is a normal range). crude. evidenced by the complete or partial failure of the mud to return to the surface as it is being circulated in the hole. UNDERFLOW (screens). LIQUID * Fluid that will flow freely. Commonly used as dispersants and anti-flocculants. L LEAD In a decanting centrifuge. They are used whenever it is desirable to increase penetration rate. LOW SILT MUD An unweighted mud that has all the sand and high proportion of the silts removed and has a substantial content of bentonite or other water-loss-reducing clays. INTERMEDIATE (Solids) + Particles whose diameter is between 250-2000 microns.
blend. MESH COUNT The count is the term most often used to describe a square or rectangular mesh screen cloth.12 . knife edge and counterweight. used as a measure of particle size. while a designation such as 70 x 30 mesh indicates a rectangular mesh.S. For example. all solids in drilling fluid. the lower solids content in a mud. MUD BOX The feed compartment on a shale shaker into which the mud flow line A. MESH The number openings per linear inch in a screen. the faster a bit can drill. graduated beam with constantvolume cup. Typical S. See related term: FUNNEL VISCOSITY. LOW SPECIFIC GRAVITY SOLIDS Drilled solids of various sizes. MARSH FUNNEL An instrument used in the field to determine funnel viscosity of a drilling fluid. MESH EQUIVALENT As used in oilfield drilling applications. a 200 mesh screen has 200 openings per linear inch. MUD Mud is the term most commonly given to drilling fluids. MEDIUM (solids) + Particles whose diameter is between 74-250 microns. salts.6. MASS The effective weight of a particle. MICRON (µ) A unit of length equal to one thousandth of a millimeter.. the effectiveness of the separation device expressed as the particle size that reports 50% to the overflow and 50% to the underflow. MUD ADDITIVE Any material added to a drilling fluid to achieve a particular purpose. MUD BALANCE A beam-type balance used in determining mud density. A mesh count such as 30 x 30 (or often 30 mesh) indicates a square mesh. solids or slurries from one or more sources can be fed to or discharged from a solids separation device. commercial colloids. It consists primarily of a base. or stir fluids by means of a rotating impeller blade. MEDIAN CUT * In separating solids particles from a specific liquid-solids slurry under specified conditions. M MANIFOLD (Cyclone) A piping arrangement through which liquids. except barite or other commercial weighting materials. i.In general.e. used for circulating out cuttings and many other functions while drilling a well.G. MECHANICAL AGITATOR A device used to mix. Sieve number which has the same size opening as the minimum opening of the screen in use. the U. is 2. lost circulation materials. rider. lid. considering both its specific gravity and particle size.
MUD GUNS A system of pumps and piping in which drilling mud is pumped through nozzles at a high velocity. Also called Backtank or Possum Belly. for introduction into a liquid-solids separator. MUD FEED + Drilling fluid. Some other devices for mixing are: eductors.) OIL-BASE MUD A drilling fluid containing oil as its liquid phase. MUD ENGINEER One versed in drilling fluids whose duties are to manage. mechanical agitators. MUD PIT Earthen or steel storage facilities for the surface mud system. 70 x 30 mesh has 70 wires per inch in one direction and 30 wires per inch in the other direction. and from which the mud is either fed to the screens or is bypassed. N NEAR SIZE The material very nearly the size of a screen opening. implement. electric stirrers. MUD SCALES See MUD BALANCE. MUD HOPPER * A device used for mixing mud chemicals and other products into a fluid stream. MUD MIXING DEVICES The most common device for adding solids to the mud is by means of the mud hopper. and maintain the various types of oilwell mud programs. usually including 1-5% water emulsified into the system.discharges. MUD CLEANER A solids separation device which combines several manifolded hydrocyclones and a fine mesh vibrating screen to remove valuable mud additives and liquids to the active mud system. MUD PUMPS See RIG PUMPS. MUD HOUSE A structure at the rig to store and shelter sacked materials used in drilling fluids. A. mud guns. with or without dilution.13 . (Also called “rectangular” mesh. generally considered as plus or minus 25% of the opening. Mud testing and conditioning is normally done in the circulating pit system. and downstream venturi. and chemical barrels. Used for mixing. Mud pits which vary in volume and number are of two types: circulating and reserve. an open top hopper. For example. blending and stirring the mud pits. It usually consists of a mud jet. O OBLONG (Mesh) Screen cloth having more wires per inch in one direction than in another. MUD CONE See Preferred Term: HYDROCYCLONE. MUD STILL See RETORT.
PARTICLE SIZE Particle diameter. a pipe into which two or more hydrocyclones discharge their overflow. in a given situation. that can be separated from the liquid phase by centrifugal force or which will not pass through the openings of the screen in use. i. a small piece of solid material. PLUGGING (Screen Surface) The wedging or jamming of openings . See related term: DRILLING RATE. OVERFLOW HEADER * In hydrocyclone operation. feet/minute or feet/hour. PENETRATION RATE The rate at which the drill bit peneA. expressed in linear units. PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION + The fraction or percentage of particles of various sizes or size ranges. P PARTICLE In drilling mud work. and size of solids present in a given fluid. of changing shape or flowing under applied stress without developing shear planes or fractures. PERCENT OPEN AREA Ratio of the area of the screen openings to the total area of the screen surface. OVERFLOW The discharge stream from a centrifugal separation device that contains a higher percentage of liquids than does the feed. it deforms without breaking. usually expressed in microns.14 trates the formation.. See related term: EQUIVALENT SPHERICAL DIAMETER. OVERSIZE (Solids) Particles. type. OVERLOAD + To feed separable solids to a separating device at a rate greater than its solids discharge capacity. PERFORATED CYLINDER CENTRIFUGE + A mechanical centrifugal separator in which the rotating element is a perforated cylinder (the rotor) inside of and concentric with an outer stationary cylindrical case. PARTICLE SURFACE AREA See SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA.OPEN AREA See PERCENT OPEN AREA. particularly clays and clay slurries.e. plastic viscosity is found by subtracting the 300-rpm reading from the 600-rpm reading. PLASTICITY The property possessed by some solids. PLASTIC VISCOSITY Plastic viscosity is a measure of the internal resistance to fluid flow attributable to the amount. When using a direct-indicating viscometer. PERMEABILITY Normal permeability is a measure of the ability of a formation to allow passage of a fluid. PERFORATED ROTOR + The rotating inner cylinder of the perforated cylinder centrifuge. that is. See related term: SIEVE ANALYSIS.
POOL The reservoir or pond of fluid. RECTANGULAR OPENING (Screen Cloth) See OBLONG MESH. RETORT An instrument used to distill oil. especially abrasion. RIG PUMPS (or Mud Pumps) The reciprocating. See related term: BLINDING. A.. positive displacement. Also called “mud still”. toughness and resiliency. Usually applied in connection with a descriptive term. POLYURETHANE A high performance elastomer polymer used in construction of hydrocyclones for its unique combination of physical properties. formed inside the wall of hydrocyclones and centrifuges and in which classification or separation of solids occurs due to the settling effect of centrifugal force. ROPE DISCHARGE The characteristic underflow of a hydrocyclone operating inefficiently and so overloaded with separable solids that not all the separated solids can crowd out the underflow opening. RAW MUD Mud. R RADIAL FLOW * Flow from a mechanical agitator in which fluid moves away from the axis of the impeller shaft (usually horizontally toward a mud tank wall). PORTS + The openings in a centrifuge for entry or exit of materials. heavy. overflow ports. or slurry. high pressure pumps used to circulate drilling fluid through the hole. causing those that can exit to form a slow-moving. RIG SHAKER A general term for a shale shaker using coarse mesh screen. RATE OF PENETRATION See PENETRATION RATE. POLYMER A synthetic mud additive used to maintain viscosity. RETENTION TIME + (Centrifugal Separators) The time the liquid phase is actually in the separating device. water. before dilution. See related term: HEAD.15 .e. and other volatile material in a mud to determine oil. feed ports. preventing passage of undersize material. water. control fluid loss and maintain other desirable mud properties. PRESSURE HEAD * Pressure within a system equal to the pressure exerted by an equivalent height of fluid (expressed in feet). etc. and total solids content in volume-percent. RETENTION TIME (Screen) + The time any given particle of material is actually on a screening surface. i. that is to be processed by solids removal equipment. rope-like stream. RHEOLOGY The science that deals with deformation and flow of matter.in a screening surface by particles.
as in particles within a mud.”) ROTARY DRILLING The method of drilling wells that depends on the rotation of a drill bit which is attached to a column of drill pipe. See related term: WIRE CLOTH. woven in square or rectangular openings. RPM * Revolutions per minute. They are washed. dried. etc. through their acceptance or rejection by a screening surface. oil. S SALT-WATER MUDS A drilling fluid containing dissolved salt (brackish to saturated). SHEAR (Shearing Stress) An action. color. resulting from applied forces. and/or such commercial additives as clays. SIEVE See Preferred Term: TESTING SIEVE.(Also referred to as “rope” or “rope underflow. A fluid is circulated through the drill pipe to flush out cuttings and perform other functions. SAND TRAP The first compartment and the only unstirred compartment in a welldesigned mud system. SAND CONTENT The sand content of a drilling fluid is the insoluble solids content retained on a 200-mesh screen. and compaction that is formed of clay-sized grains. intended as a settling compartment to catch large solids which may get past the shale shaker. SCREENING A mechanical process which accomplishes a separation of particles on the basis of size. A. It is usually expressed as the percentage bulk volume of sand in a drilling fluid. SAMPLES Cuttings obtained for geological information from the drilling fluid as it emerges from the hole. SHALE Stone of widely varying hardness. SCREEN CLOTH A type of screening surface. SCROLL See Preferred Term: FLUTE. starch. SCREENING SURFACE The medium containing the openings for passage of undersize material.16 . which causes or tends to cause two contiguous parts of a body to slide relatively to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact . SHALE SHAKER A general term for devices which use a vibrating screen to remove cuttings and other large solids from drilling mud. and labeled as to the depth. These fluids may also include native solids. SETTLING VELOCITY The velocity a particle achieves in a given fluid when gravity forces equal the friction forces of the moving particle. This test is an elementary type in that the retained solids are not necessarily silica and may not be altogether abrasive.
SOLIDS DISCHARGE + That stream from a liquid-solids separator containing a higher percentage of solids than does the feed. SILT Materials whose particle size generally falls between 2 microns and 74 microns. usually expressed in RPM or CPM. i. etc. SPECIFIC GRAVITY The weight of a particular volume of any substance compared to the weight of an equal volume of water at a reference temperature. barite. SPUDDING IN The starting of the drilling operations of a new hole. See related term: CAVING. the rotor rpm of a perforated cylinder centrifuge. etc. SOLIDS CONTENT The total amount of solids in a drilling fluid as determined by distillation. high angle of repose. including both the dissolved and the suspended (or undissolved) solids. or acres per pound. Examples of dissolved solids are the soluble salts of sodium. A certain portion of dispersed clays and barite falls into this particle size range as well as drilled solids. SLOUGHING A situation in which portions of a formation fall away from the walls of a hole. It can be a valuable indicator of the amount of liquid certain particles can attract and retain on their surface.. square meters per gram. The suspended-solids content may be a combination of high and low specific gravity solids and native or commercial solids. drilled formation cuttings. See related term: PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION. wetting along internal bedding planes. as a result of incompetent unconsolidated formations. A.17 . and magnesium. SOLIDS DISCHARGE CAPACITY The maximum rate at which a liquidsolids separation device can discharge solids without overloading. The total suspended and dissolved solids content is commonly expressed in percent by volume. usually expressed in units of area per units of weight such as square feet per pound. calcium. SOLIDS + All particles of matter in the drilling fluid. SPEED + The frequency at which a vibrating screen operates. SPRAY DISCHARGE The underflow of hydrocyclones when not overloaded with separable solids.e. the bowl rpm of a decanting centrifuge. SLURRY A mixture or suspension of solid particles in one or more liquids. SIZE DISTRIBUTION See Preferred Term: PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION.SIEVE ANALYSIS A measurement of particle size and percentage of the amount of material in various particle size groupings. or swelling of formations caused by fluid loss. SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA The effective surface area per unit of weight of some sample or grouping of particles of matter.
SPUD MUD The fluid used when drilling starts at the surface. That property of a fluid which causes it to build up a rigid or semirigid gel structure if allowed to stand at rest. TENSION RING A rigid hoop surrounding a stretched screen cloth used for maintaining screen tension and mounting the screen to a shaker frame. UNDERFLOW (Hydrocyclone) The discharge stream from centrifugal separators that contains a higher percentage of solids than does the feed.18 TEST SIEVE A cylindrical or tray-like container with a screening surface bottom of standard aperture. a low pressure is created below the bit. SURGE LOSS See Preferred Term: SPURT LOSS. often a thick bentonite lime slurry.) U ULTRA-FINE (Solids) + Particles whose diameter is between 244 microns. . tetraphosphates. lignins. TOTAL DEPTH (or TD) The greatest depth reached by the drill bit. etc. yet can be returned to a fluid state by mechanical agitation. lignosulfonates. the diameter of a circular motion.) that are added to a drilling fluid to reduce the viscosity and/or thixotropic properties.. etc. A. TOTAL HEAD * The sum of all heads within a system (Total Head = velocity head + pressure head + elevation head. SPURT LOSS * The flux of fluids and solids which occurs in the initial stages of any filtration before pore openings are bridged and a filter cake is formed. T TENSIONING + The stretching of the screening surface within the vibrating frame. casing.) and inorganic agents (pyrophosphates. STROKE The distance between the extremities of motion. THINNER Any various organic agents (tannins. See related term: AMPLITUDE. STUCK A condition whereby the drill pipe. SUMP A pit or tank into which a fluid drains before recirculation or in which wastes gather before disposal. SWABBING When pipe is withdrawn from the hole in viscous mud or if the bit is balled. THRUST The force that pushes on the mud as on a shale shaker screen. viz. THIXOTROPY The ability of a fluid to develop gel strength with time. See general term: SOLIDS DISCHARGE. or other devices inadvertently become lodged in the hole.
See API RP 13B for operational procedures. plastic viscosity. and to the liquid environment. remain with the liquid phase when subjected to centrifugal force. VENTURI * Streamlining up to a given pipe size following a restriction (as in a jet in a mud hopper) to minimize turbulence and pressure drop. This phenomenon is attributable to the attractions between molecules of a liquid. and the vortex is centered in the hydrocyclone by the hole in the vortex finder. VORTEX FINDER A hollow cylinder extending axially into the barrel of a hydrocyclone. VISCOSITY The internal resistance offered by a fluid to flow. and gel strengths of drilling fluids. yield point. See related terms: APPARENT VISCOSITY. or conduit into which two or more hydrocyclones discharge their underflow. METER See VISCOMETER. UNDERFLOW HEADER + A pipe. in a given situation. the greater the viscosity. VORTEX + A cylindrical or conical shaped core of air or vapor lying along the central axis of the rotating slurry inside a hydrocyclone. W WALL CAKE The solid material deposited along the wall of the hole resulting from filtration of the fluid part of the mud into the A. and is used to determine the apparent viscosity. V.19 . DIRECT-INDICATING Commonly called a “V-G meter. The overflow exits from the separating chamber through the vortex finder. equal to an equivalent height of static fluid. UNDERSIZE (Solids) Particles that will. V VELOCITY HEAD * Head (relating to pressure when multiplied by the density of the fluid) created by the movement of a fluid. and is a measure of the combined effects of adhesion and cohesion to the effects of suspended particles. VISCOMETER. The usual speeds are 600 and 300 rpm.UNDERFLOW (Screen) The discharge stream from a screening device which contains a greater percentage of liquids than does the feed. hence the name. DIRECT-INDICATING. The greater this resistance.G. VIBRATING SCREEN A screen with motion induced as an aid to solids separation. or will pass through the openings of the screen in use. PLASTIC VISCOSITY. UNWEIGHTED (Mud) A drilling fluid which has not had significant amounts of high gravity solids added and whose density and whose density is generally less than 11 pounds per gallon. tube.” The instrument is a rotational-type device powered by means of an electric motor or handcrank.
limestone is also called a weight material (even though its specific gravity is 2. See related term: DENSITY. WEIGHT (Mud Weight) In mud work. representing the stress required to start fluid movement. WIRE CLOTH + Screen cloth of woven wire. respectively. WALL STICKING See Preferred Term: DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE STICKING. WETTING The adhesion of a liquid to the surface of a solid. usually by the addition of weight material. a term used to define the quality of a clay by describing the number of barrels of a given centipoise slurry that can be made from a ton of the clay. WEIGHT MATERIAL Any of the heavy solids (specific gravity of 4. This material is most commonly barite but can be galena.6). FILTER CAKE. This is normally expressed in lbs/gal or specific gravity. ft. is determined by the direct-indicating viscometer by subtracting the plastic viscosity from the 300-rpm reading.20 . Y YIELD As applied to drilling mud. This resistance is due to electrical charges located on or near the surfaces of the particles. See related term: DILUTION WATER. are measurements of the same fluid properties under dynamic and static states. A. WEIGHT UP * To increase the weight of a drilling mud.formation. etc. weight refers to the density of a drilling fluid. WORKOVER FLUID Any type of fluid used in the workover operation of a well. See related terms: CAKE THICKNESS. WEIGHTED (Mud) A drilling fluid to which heavy (over 4. The values of the yield point and thixotropy.3 specific gravity) solids have been added to increase its density. reported in lbs/100 sq. WATER-BASE MUD The conventional drilling fluid containing water as a the continuous phase. In special applications.3 or more) used to increase the density of drilling fluids. WATER FEED + Water to be added for dilution of the mud feed into a centrifugal separator. YIELD POINT The resistance to initial flow. The Bingham yield value.
CIRCULATION DATA • Pump output in bpm = bbl/stroke * strokes/minute • Annular velocity in fpm = pump output (bpm * 100) annular volume (bbl/100 ft) • Bottoms up in minutes = annular volume (bbl) pump output (bpm) • Hole cycle in minutes = pump output (bpm * 100) pump output (bpm) • Mud cycle in minutes = total volume (bbl) pump output (bpm) B.0364 • Pit volume in cu ft = Length * Width * Depth • Pit volume in bbl = cu ft 5.00097 • Approximate capacity of hole in bbl/1000 ft = (diameter of hole)2 • Approximate pipe displacement. MUD VOLUME • Capacity of annulus in bbl/ft = [(hole size)2 .capacity and displacement of drill pipe • Total Volume = hole volume + pit volume II.6 • Hole volume in bbl = [hole capacity(bpf) * depth(ft)] .pipe displacement (bbl) • Annular volume in bbl = hole volume .1 .(pipe OD)2] * 0.STANDARD CALCULATIONS I. bbl/100 ft = Weight of pipe (lb/ft) * 0.
5 * (Dm .00097 • Pounds per foot = bpf * 910. SOLIDS CONTROL EVALUATION CALCULATIONS A.III. Average specific gravity of solids in WBM 1.5 • Correct for oil: For each 1% of oil. Freshwater muds Sa = (12 * Dm) .2 . Sa = (12 * Dm) .65) B. deduct 0.2 C. Weighted Muds • Percent by volume desired solids = (mud weight .5 * (Dm . Low weight muds without barite • Percent solids by volume = (mud weight .(Vwc * Sw) (100-Vwc) B. Ignore if salt content is less than 10.34) OR 7. add 0. without weighting material Vs = 7. Convert Cl ppm to salt ppm (* 1. SOLIDS DETERMINATION A. Volume percent solids in freshwater muds.water weight) * 7.55) B.3% solids by volume.62.000 ppm.1 to % solids by volume • Correct for NaCl: For each 10.7 IV. Drilled Solids Per Foot of Hole • Barrels per foot = (hole size + washout)2 * 0.6) * 3.Vw Vs 2.8.000 ppm salt.
Volume percent solids in freshwater muds containing hematite. not .6) * Vsc * 0. S. S.Slg) F.2 Vb = (Sa . Volume percent solids in freshwater muds containing barite.69 * (MBTm) Vlg Vben = Vlg * (CECa . = 4. average Shg = Specific gravity of high gravity solids Slg = Specific gravity of low gravity solids Sm = Specific gravity of mud So = Specific gravity of oil Sw Swc Vb Vh Vhg Vlg Vs Vsc Vw Vwc = Specific gravity of water = Specific gravity of water. corrected for chlorides = Volume percent water = Volume percent water.Vb D. typically 10 Cl = Total Chlorides. Volume percent in muds containing oil > 1% or salt > 10.2.G.(100 * Sm) (Shg .CECds) Terms: CECa = Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC).6) * Vsc * 0. in mg/l Dm = Mud density.000 ppm Vlg = [(Vw * Swc) + (Vo * So) + (Vsc * Shg)] . typically 60 CECds = CE of drilled solids.50) = Volume percent hematite = Volume percent high gravity solids = Volume percent low gravity solids = Volume percent total solids = Volume percent solids.G.0 Vh = (Sa-2. corrected for chlorides = Volume percent barite (50% = 50.625 Vlg = Vsc . in lbs/bbl Sa = Specific gravity of solids.C. in ppg MBTm = Methylene Blue Test.Vh E. average CECben = CEC of bentonite. Bentonite and reactive clay correction CECa = 7. = 5.CECds) (CECben . corrected for chlorides B.3 .417 Vlg = Vsc .
8. 3.e.8. (D . decreasing. is solids removal rate increasing.3) * 1450 = Total Solids Removed in #/hr R D = Density of slurry in #/gal.3 = Density of Water 2.3) * 1450 = R (12. or staying the same? 1. Use a mud balance to obtain the density (D) of the slurry in pounds per gallon.4 . i. Use a one-quart container and wristwatch to determine how many seconds (R) it takes to collect one quart of slurry from a cyclone underflow or a screen discharge.3 #/gal R = 8 sec (D ..3) * 1450 = 8 4 * 1450 = 725 #/hr 8 B. Example: D = 12. R = Rate of solids slurry discharge in sec/qt 8.Field Calculations to Determine Total Solids Discharge Note: This method is only a quick approximation of solids removal rate and should be used only for unweighted muds or where quick comparisons need to be made on a mud system to see what results when conditions change.3 .8. Use the following equations to calculate the rate of solids removed in pounds per hour.
Weight % Low Gravity Solids = 4. Use a mud balance to obtain the density (D) of the sand slurry in pounds per gallon. A.Field Calculations to Determine High and Low Gravity Solids Discharge 1. 3. 2. Use a one-quart container and wristwatch to determine how many seconds (R) it takes for one quart of solids to be discharged.#/hr LGS D = Density of solids slurry in #/gal R = Rate of removal in sec V1 = Volume fraction liquid Vs = Volume fraction solids ASG = Average Specific Gravity LSG = Low Gravity Solids B. Total pounds per hour Solids Removed = [D .3 .34 • Vs) C. 4. Average Specific Gravity of Solids = [D . Lbs/hr Barite = Total #/hr solids . Lbs/hr Low Gravity Solids = Total #/hr solids * weight % LGS E.5 .ASG 1.34 * V1)] (8.34 * V1)] 900 R B.(8.6 D.(8. Retort the sand slurry to determine the volume fraction solids (Vs) and the volume fraction liquids (V1) Use the following equations to calculate the rate of solids removed in pounds per hour.
De= 9./bbl = $600 Determine the economic performance. Du = 17.0 ppg = 6% = $15.SOLIDS CONTROL PERFORMANCE EVALUATION There are several methods used to determine economic performance. Vf = 30 gpm Feed Density. Feed Rate.0 ppg = 9.0 Underflow Rate. The underflow is defined as the waste stream removed from the mud system and discarded. Vu = ? Underflow Density. It utilizes the concept of a dilution factor (the amount of mud required to maintain a given solids concentration for every barrel of solids that remain in the mud) to determine dilution requirements. Ve = ? Effluent Density. This appendix describes a method to compare the cost of dilution versus mechanical removal. Example: Given: Feed Rate Underflow Density Feed Density Effluent Density Total Low Gravity Solids Mud Cost Disposal Cost Equipment Cost per Day = 30 gpm = 17.0 ppg B.0 ppg Effluent Rate. Df = 10. Note: Effluent is defined as the process stream returned to the active mud system.6 .0 ppg = 10. This method may be used to determine economic efficiency of any type of solids control equipment./bbl = $10.
25 gallons per minute Effluent Rate Volume (30 . Vf = 30 gpm Feed Density. Du = 17.9X 30/8 = X X = 3. Vu = 3.7 .25 Effluent Density.0 * 30) = (17.75) Feed Rate.0 ppg Effluent Rate.0 Underflow Rate.1) Determine the Effluent and Underflow Volume Rates. & let X = Underflow Rate. Df = 10. compared to dilution 4) Calculate economic benefits 1) Determine the Effluent and Underflow Volume Rates.75 gallons per minute Underflow Rate Volume = 26. Ve = 26. De= 9. 2) Calculate the Low Gravity Solids Removed per minute. Vu (10.0 ppg B.X) = (30 .0 * (30-X)] = 300 = 17X + 270 . 3) Calculate the equipment effectiveness & cost.3.75 Underflow Density.0 * X) + [9. Df * Vf = (Du * Vu) + (De * Ve).
8 .05 = 48. 2. = 70 bbls per hour equivalent dilution Dilution Cost = Volume * (Mud Unit Cost + Disposal Unit Cost) Cost: $ = 70 * ($15 + $10) $1. a) Calculate the low gravity solids in the underflow: Let X = the decimal fraction low gravity solids 17/8.04/1./hr.44 gallons of low gravity solids removed per minute 3) Calculate the equipment effectiveness.6X + 1 .65 = 2./bbl.6 = .04 1. * 60 min.2) Calculate the Low Gravity Solids Removed per minute. compared to dilution a) Dilution: Assume the 9.6) + (1-X) = 2.0 ppg fluid is the desired fluid. It contains 5% solids.8 or 49 gallons per minute dilution required to match the machines effectiveness or (49 gal. The equivalent dilution required to treat the solids removed is the volume removed divided by the desired fraction of solids.65 or 65% solids in underflow b) Calculate the low gravity solids removed: 3.75 * ./min.X = 1.)/ 42 gal.04 X = X(2.44/.750 per hour is Equivalent Dilution Cost B.33 2.6X = 1.
85 bbl/hr liquids removed = [ 1.75) $ in ( ) = Savings.9 .b) Mechanical Treatment Cost =[Liquid Volume Lost * (Mud Unit Cost + Disposal Unit Cost)] + Equipment Cost 3.678.$1.65) (1.750 = $(1.(cost to dilute) = $71.25 .3 X 60 min/hr)/ 42 gal/bbl Cost: $ $71.679 per hour! B. Removal compared to Dilution Therefore.85 X ($15 + $10) ] + $600/24 = Cost to Remove the LGS 4) Calculate the economic benefits $ $ $ = (cost to remove) .25 = 1. prompt and continuous removal of drilled solids will save $1.75 X (1-. in this example.3 gallons of liquids removed per minute OR = 1.
Method for Comparison of Cyclone Efficiency Assuming Identical: Mud Feed Volume Feed Pressure Where: D V UF = = = Density Volume Rate Underflow Then higher VUF = Greater Efficiency. then that cone is operating at significantly greater efficiency.10 . CASE #1: When DUF1 = DUF2 CASE #2: When VUF1 = VUF2 CASE #3: When one cone has higher DUF and higher VUF. See Appendix A. B. since more solids (and less liquid) are being removed in the same underflow volume. Then higher DUF = Greater Efficiency. Note: When none of the above conditions occur. since a greater volume of solids is being removed at the same liquid/solids ratio. or for specific numerical accuracy.
Conversion Constants Specific Gravity (SG) Water ..43..................................62...................kg/m3 ppb (pounds/barrel) ...........8..........m3 lb (pounds)..................gal gal (gallons)..........4 ..................945 ppb 1 Barrel (42 Gallons) .7................1506 ppb Calcium Carbonate (SG=2............2..119........1000.....454 .....................07 ...................................54 ..kg (kilograms) miles.........Conversion Constants and Formulas A......................................0.....5). Conversion Formulas MULTIPLY BY TO OBTAIN sp gr (specific gravity) ....6....................61 .........................0..0.........069 .............................................16..........22...0 ..01 ............................615 ..............0............................................ppg (pounds/gallon) ppg (pounds/gallon).875 ppb Barite (SG=4.................................0..............0.....0...................kg/m3 psi/ft ...................3 psi Clay (SG=2.. of Water..1 .................................cm (centimeters psi (pounds/in2).052 ................................350 lb 100’ Column of Water Exerts Hydrostatic Pressure of..km (kilometers) ft (feet) .............................m3 (cubic meters) bbl ..1.............5.............0 ...2...0....85 .........................1.kg/m3 ppg (pounds/gallon) ......34 lb 1 cu..kP/m sp gr ............................ ft..........................psi/ft bbl (barrels) ...........42........................................0 1 Gallon of Water ....................................................................................00379 ................62. (inches).............8............gal bbl .............................7............m (meters) in.......305 ..34 .....5........................................................................................................................02 ..............kg/m3 ppg ............48 ...........................................................................................7) .......................m3 ft3 ................kg/liter pcf (pounds/cubic feet) ..895 .....bar psi...................157 ................ft3 (cubic feet) ft3 (cubic feet) ...................pcf (pounds/cubic feet) sp gr .................609 ..........................0283 .8 .....................0...................................3) .................................................6146 cu ft 1 Cubic Foot .........48 gal B.......kPa/m C...........................................kPa (kilo-Pascals) psi.4 lb 1 Barrel (42 gallons) of Water...............................1198 .......kg/cm2 kg/m...........0.........
9 20.33 54.0 24.84 2.2 . Drilled Solids Diesel Oil Dolomite Fresh Water Galena Gypsum Iron Iron Oxide Lead Limestone Salt Sand (Silica) SP GR 4.3 21.4 2.5 26.0 22.3 2.7 7.0 42.5 95.2 65.8 5.3 7.2 2.2 8.8 2.4 2.2 2.7 3.5 2.6 0.0 23.3 18.0 6.7 21.1 19.6 PPG 35.Density of Common Materials Specific Gravity of Common Materials (Average) MATERIAL Barite Bentonite Calcium Carbonate Cement Clays.9 1.7 PPB 1506 840 945 1120 911 294 1016 350 2272 806 2730 1785 3990 980 769 911 C.1 11.
72 1.(Length in Feet) * 0.1456 .49 27.0426 .53 1.2973 .0307 .0350 .12 3.44 OR (Hole Diameter in Inches)2 * .00097 C.68 3.0681 .0876 .78 3.6563 CAPACITY (GPF) .86 1.03 3.1769 .0219 .0722 .41 1.93 2.87 12.0335 .47 1.0528 .12 7.Hole Capacities HOLE DIAMETER (INCHES) 4 3/4 5 5/8 5 7/8 6 6 1/8 6 1/4 6 1/2 6 5/8 6 3/4 6 7/8 7 3/8 7 5/8 7 3/4 7 7/8 8 3/8 8 1/2 8 5/8 8 3/4 9 1/2 9 5/8 9 7/8 10 5/8 12 1/4 13 1/2 14 3/4 17 1/2 26 CAPACITY (BPF) .60 6.3 .37 2.45 2.88 2.92 1.0564 .94 3.22 2.0947 .56 Formula: Volume (Barrels) = (Hole Diameter in Inches)2 * Length in Feet 1029.2 .79 1.0734 .06.0899 .98 4.0701 .43 8.59 1.0459 .53 2.0583 .0442 .0364 .1096 .0410 .29 1.0379 .2112 .
4 .Pounds per Hour Drilled Solids — Fast Rates C.
5 .Pounds per Hour Drilled Solids — Slow Rates C.
SOLIDS CONTENT - % BY VOLUME
Solids Content Chart
at W er
a Gr vit y li So
s tu ing Lo
o in G uds olids er M s Wat m ield sC of F minimu ds & e lid Soli ang So vity te R Gra ima h rox Hig App ing t us ten Con lids So
on od C
0 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 MUD WEIGHT - LBS/GAL 17 18 19
Pre-well Project Checklist
Well Design: Where is the well being drilled? What type of well is it — wildcat, development, injection, etc. What problems are anticipated? What are the hole size, casing points, and washout factors? What is the expected rate of penetration? What type bit? What is the mud program? Are there any environmental restrictions? What rig is being considered? Any anticipated hole problems?
Equipment and Vendor Capability:
What size and type of solids need removal? What equipment is already installed? What is its process rate and expected removal efficiency? Are there sufficient mud compartments? Is the equipment installed properly? What additional equipment is needed? What is expected downtime? What are the power and fuel requirements? What rig modifications are required? What is vendor experience and safety record? Is H&S Plan available? Where is the location? Where is the local stock/service base? What on-site spares are required? How many additional people are required? Do they need housing or meals? What personal protective equipment is required?
What are the preferred mud treatment and disposal options? What are preferred cuttings treatment and disposal options? Is analytical testing required? What is the mud cost? What is the equipment acquisition and installation cost? What is the expected operating cost? What is the expected disposal and site remediation cost? What are the expected savings?
Screen Cloth Comparisons
SCREEN CLOTH TYPE
MARKET GRADE CLOTH
10x10 20x20 30x30 40x40 50x50 60x60 80x80 100x100 120x120 150x150 200x200 250x250 325x325 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 94 105 120 145 165 200 230 24 38 50 70 84 110 140 175 210 250 45 50 60 70 80 100 125 150 180 200 230 265 310
SEPARATION POTENTIAL, IN µ D16 D50 D84
1678 839 501 370 271 227 172 136 114 102 72 59 43 1011 662 457 357 301 261 218 175 160 143 116 104 84 72 508 317 234 171 131 107 86 66 57 51 270 216 184 158 145 112 92 78 62 52 47 39 35 1727 864 516 381 279 234 177 140 117 105 74 62 44 1041 681 470 368 310 269 224 180 165 147 119 107 86 74 715 429 324 234 181 151 118 95 81 72 353 274 240 208 186 142 120 107 85 69 60 50 45 1777 889 531 392 287 241 182 144 120 108 76 63 45 1071 700 483 379 319 277 230 185 170 151 122 110 88 76 824 528 390 274 223 185 143 113 100 85 379 301 267 221 192 154 131 117 93 77 69 55 51
CONDUCTANCE IN KD/MM
49.68 15.93 8.32 4.89 2.88 2.40 1.91 1.44 1.24 1.39 0.68 0.78 0.44 0.93 24.33 11.63 7.94 5.60 5.25 3.88 2.84 2.77 2.51 2.03 1.86 1.49 1.30 20.69 11.86 6.77 4.73 3.62 3.00 2.38 1.86 1.67 1.45 9.81 7.66 5.75 5.01 4.08 3.00 2.53 2.15 1.82 1.55 1.27 0.96 0.82
TENSILE BOLTING CLOTH
EXTRA FINE CLOTH, 3-LAYERED
HIGH CONDUCTANCE CLOTH, 3-LAYERED
triple. beginning w/ top deck.25 DIMENSIONS WEIGHT. E = unbalanced elliptical number of screen panels in each deck. C = canister direct drive Total acceleration. P = pre-tensioned panel Total screen area.5-6.000 7.8/25 25 20/20/25 20/20/25 33.100 8. beginning with the top screen basket. and quad available Dual units available COMMENTS Scalping deck.7 20/20/33.2 2.385 5.9 2 WEIR HEIGHT 43 40 79 67 52 70 32 38 36. multiply area X 1.9/4. beginning with the top deck F = fixed.300 4.9/2.7 20/20 20 Screen Type Screen Area Vibrator G-Force G G B/G B/G C B/C B B B G-FORCE 4.2 4.4 B = belt.4 4. SQ FT 10.5-6. G = gear box. If Pinnacle® screens are used.000 2. also available as drying shaker Low profile ATL Cascade tandem over ATL Low profile cascade shaker Dewatering deck (patent pending) Cascade version of LCM-2D L = linear.2 4.3 .2 4.200 9.865 1. U = underslung screens.Brandt/EPI Vibrating Screen Separators MODEL ATL-1000 ATL-1200 ATL-CS ATL-CS/LP LCM-2D LCM-2D/CS LM-3 Tandem Standard Motion Screens/deck Screen Angle Deck Type MOTION L L C/L C/L L C/L L C E DECKS 2 1 3 3 1 3 1 2 1 SCREENS/ DECK 1/3 3 1/1/3 1/1/3 3 1/1/3 3 1 1 SCREEN ANGLE A A F/F/A F/F/A A F/F/A A F F DECK TYPE O/F F O/U/F O/U/F O O/U/F O U/U U SCREEN TYPE H/P P H/H/P H/H/P P H/H/P P H H SCREEN VIBRATOR AREA. F = flat H = hook strip screen. C = circular.4 4 4. D. A = adjustable O = overslung screens. LXWXH LBS 93x71x64 93x71x49 93x77x87 93x77x74 120x69x62 120x80x80 141x69x62 79x72x52 79x64x44 4.9/4.7 33.750 5.800 Dual.
multiply area X 1. LXWXH LBS 93x77x49 134x78x66 7. beginning with the top screen basket. F = flat H = hook strip screen.2-7.500 7. DIMENSIONS WEIGHT.2 4. three-stage mud conditioner 1680 gpm. P = pre-tensioned panel Total screen area. N. C = circular.4 40 40 52 115x77x93 122x77x92 130x80x90 7.4 Brandt/EPI Liquid Recovery Shakers MODEL ATL-Dryer SDW-Dryer Motion Screens/deck Screen Angle Deck Type MOTION L L DECKS 1 1 SCREENS/ DECK 3 4 SCREEN ANGLE A A DECK TYPE F F SCREEN TYPE P P SCREEN AREA.3 Screen Type Screen Area Vibrator G-Force G G G-FORCE 4. beginning with the top deck F = fixed. C = canister direct drive Total acceleration.0 WEIR HEIGHT N.A. SQ FT VIBRATOR 25 33.500 6.7 G G C 4.500 8. three-stage mud conditioner D.A. two-stage mud conditioner 1000 gpm.5-6. A = adjustable O = overslung screens. If Pinnacle® screens are used. E = unbalanced elliptical number of screen panels in each deck.335 1000 gpm.Brandt/EPI Mud Conditioners ATL-16/2 ATL-2800 LCM-2D MC L L L 1 1 1 3 3 3 A A A F F O P P P 25 25 33.2 2.2 4. .4 B = belt. G = gear box. beginning w/ top deck. U = underslung screens.300 COMMENTS includes liquid recovery tank and pump includes liquid recovery tank and pump L = linear.
125” apex Adjustable 0. H = hydraulic Brandt/EPI Hydrocyclones MODEL Desander Desilter DIAMETER. emptied by jet pump E = electric.29 max BAFFLE AREA.2 3. available in 1. available as 1. IN 9.5”. LXWXH 88x54x62 100x60-x77 Drive WEIGHT. and 2.29 max 7-20 . Similar design to DG-5.390 3.69” 495 66 D.060 DIMENSIONS. 2. available in 4-32 cone units 12.75”.Brandt/EPI Degassers MODEL DG-5 DG-10 Type TYPE VJ VJ NOMINAL FLOW. VJ = vacuum. larger capacity.000 7-20 . LBS 2.9 Fixed. GPM COMMENTS Three piece cone.956 32. VACUUM RANGE GPM INCHES HG 500 1.125” to 0. SQ.5 .900 COMMENTS Rated top performing unit in comparative degasser test conducted by Amoco Production Research. upright or canted header configuration Two piece cone. INCHES INLET TYPE Circular involute Rectangular involute CONSTRUCTION Poly Poly w/ ceramic liner UNDERFLOW ADJUSTMENT FEET HEAD 75 75 FLOW RATE. or 3-cone units. 1.
0/45 3000/1917 15.100 6.0/30 3250/2100 18.700 COMMENTS Barite recovery.0/160 98x69x46 2400/1145 12.0/150 9.5 Contour Contour CS SS E E H 1150-1950 1750-4000 1750-4000 59:1 52:1 Variable SC-35HS 15x48 Contour SS E H H 1750-3250 1750-3250 1750-4000 59:1 Variable Variable HS5200 16x49.500 SC-4 HS3400 24x40 14x49.0/30 18. 8 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity Rugged high speed decanter.0/70.0 17.0/20 3500/2435 18.0/150 120x61x60 2500/1331 12. IN D.0/60 16. viscosity control 6 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity Unweighted muds.0/25 9. MUD WT/GPM 9.200 4.0/20 2000/909 9. SS = Stainless steel Drive 1150/451 135x62x93 1350/621 1950/1296 1750/609 9.0/150 10.105 7.Brandt/EPI Decanting Centrifuges MODEL SC-1 CF-1 BOWL SIZE. RPM 1350-2000 1600-2000 GEARBOX RATIO 80:1 40:1 BOWL/CONVEYOR DIFFERENTIAL Fixed/ double lead Fixed/ single lead Fixed/ double lead Fixed/ single lead Fixed/ double lead Fixed/ single lead Variable/ single lead Fixed/ single lead Variable/ single lead Variable/ single lead RPM/ G-FORCE 1350/466 2000/1022 1600/654 1650/696 2000/1022 1350/466 2250/1294 1400/668 2000/1363 SC-2 CF-2 18x30 24x38 Contour Contour CS CS E E 1350-2250 1400-2000 59:1 80:1 CAPACITY.0/10 4000/3181 2000/852 9.0/60 16. viscosity control 6 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity Barite recovery. LBS LXWXH 103x46x32 3. H = hydraulic 7.0/20 9. 5 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity High capacity.0/175 12.0/30 18. dewatering 6 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity Excellent all-purpose centrifuge.0/250 95x69x40 2500/1420 3000/2045 3500/2784 4000/3636 4200/4000 E = electric.720 .500 7.6 BOWL TYPE Contour Contour 18x28 18x28 ROTATING ASSY CS CS DRIVE E E SPEED RANGE.0/25 9. viscosity control 4 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity Barite recovery.0/250 DIMENSIONS WEIGHT.920 111x63x61 4.0/75 2900/1672 15. 6 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity 8 TPH (tons per hour) solids capacity 116x53x61 130x66x63 4.5 Contour SS Rotating Assy CS = Carbon steel. high speed decanter.0/90 12.
5-hp size Brandt Agitator for each 10 feet of tank length — a total of three 7. From the intersection of the mud weight curve and the impeller diameter. Simply follow a horizontal line from the impeller diameter to the curve showing the heaviest anticipated mud weight. D.Selection of Agitator Size and Number Select the right size agitator by first locating the tank width on the right side of the graph. This impeller size is correlated to the mud weight and the required horsepower. Example: Agitators are required for a 10-foot-wide tank. This particular application will require a 7. Now locate the nearest vertical line to the right of this point and note the required horsepower at the top of the graph.7 . to maintain weighting materials in suspension for a 12 lbs/gal mud: Find the tank width (10 ft) and the recommended corresponding impeller diameter (36 in) on the graph. A recommended impeller diameter is shown across the left side. 30 feet long. Follow a horizontal line from the impeller diameter to the curve of the given mud weight (12 lbs/gal mud — use the curve on the next higher mud weight). locate the nearest vertical line to the right and note the horsepower at the top of the graph.5-hp agitators.
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