Urban Agriculture: Community Gardening Practices

By Ryan Sloan

A Major Paper Submitted to the faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Natural Resources Major: Natural Resources

Committee Dr. David L. Trauger, Chair; Dr. David P. Robertson, Dr. Alan D. Thornhill

November 7, 2009 Falls Church, VA

Key Words: community gardens, urban Agriculture, sustainability, conservation

1

Table of Contents Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................ 2  Abstract ........................................................................................................................................... 5  URBAN AGRICULTURE ........................................................................................................... 6  Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 6  Defining Urban Agriculture ............................................................................................................ 6  Historical Analysis of Urban Agriculture ....................................................................................... 8  Urban Agriculture Practices ............................................................................................................ 9  COMMUNITY GARDEN THEORY ....................................................................................... 10  Defining Community Gardens ...................................................................................................... 10  Social and Cultural Components .................................................................................................. 11  Community Pride and Involvement ...................................................................................... 11  Empowerment of the Growers .............................................................................................. 11  Improved Health, Increased Recreation, Relaxation, Creativity Opportunities ................... 12  Community Growth Opportunities ....................................................................................... 12  Decreased Crime ................................................................................................................... 13  Educational Opportunities .................................................................................................... 14  Environmental and Ecological Components ................................................................................. 14  More Green Space and Heat Sinks ....................................................................................... 14  Greenhouse Gas Emissions ................................................................................................... 14  Natural Resource Sustainability ............................................................................................ 15  Economic and Political Components ............................................................................................ 15  Individual Economics ........................................................................................................... 15 

2

Additional Food Sources and Choices .................................................................................. 16  Employment Opportunities ................................................................................................... 16  Helping the U.S. Become Healthier and Potentially Lower Health Costs............................ 16  Local Community Food Security .......................................................................................... 17  COMMUNITY GARDEN PRACTICE .................................................................................... 18  Case Study: Nottoway Park Community Garden ......................................................................... 18  Why is Community Gardening Good for Fairfax County, Virginia ............................................. 18  Fairfax County Park System, Green Spring Gardens ........................................................... 19  Fairfax County Parks, Nottoway Park in Fairfax, Virginia .................................................. 20  Considerations for Nottoway Park’s Community Garden Plots ................................................... 21  Assessment of Nottoway Park Garden Plots, Summer-Fall 2009 ........................................ 21  Table 1. Composition of Plot Table and Percentages .......................................................... 24  Photo Series for Nottoway Park............................................................................................ 25  Encouraging the Practice in Other Areas of Fairfax County ........................................................ 25  Recommendations for Encouraging Community Gardens in Fairfax County .............................. 26  Partnering with Schools ........................................................................................................ 26  Involving Students ................................................................................................................ 27  Non-profits ............................................................................................................................ 27  Facilitated Volunteer Groups ................................................................................................ 27  National or State Grants ........................................................................................................ 28  Inventory and Analysis of Community Food Production ..................................................... 28  DISCUSSION .............................................................................................................................. 29  Challenges of Community Gardens .............................................................................................. 29  Benefits of Urban Agriculture ...................................................................................................... 32  Conclusion .................................................................................................................................... 33  3

Appendix A: Nottoway Park Assessment of Current Community Garden Practices .................. 35  Appendix B: Photo Series for Nottoway Park ............................................................................. 36  Set 1: Example Plots Growing Vegetables .......................................................................... 36  Set 2: Example Plot Growing Only Ornamentals ................................................................ 37  Set 3: Example Plots Growing Both Vegetables and Ornamentals ..................................... 38  Set 4: Example of Poorly Maintained Plots ......................................................................... 39  Set 5: Example of Bare or Overgrown Plots ........................................................................ 40  Appendix C: Photo of Outreach Opportunity Location ............................................................... 41 

Works Cited .................................................................................................................................. 42 

4

Abstract
Urban Agriculture is a commonly implemented concept throughout the United States (US) and internationally. Urban Agriculture varies in form and function from place to place and person to person. From the community that needs Urban Agriculture as a source of food security to the person who views Urban Agriculture a recreational hobby, to the idealist who works toward a reduced carbon footprint; Urban Agriculture is many things to many different people.

This paper is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the concept of Urban Agriculture, and specifically discuss the utility of implementing the Urban Agriculture practice of community gardening within Fairfax County, a major metropolitan area of Virginia. The challenges and benefits of the type of Urban Agriculture called community gardens are laid out. The object was to identify possible reasons for the success or failure of gardens and identify steps that could enhance an already functioning community garden while ultimately encouraging the practice. The main sections of this paper are: an introductory section providing the background on the concept of Urban Agriculture; an analysis of the practice of community gardening; a discussion of the utility of implementing community garden practices in Vienna, Virginia; and concluding remarks for adopting the paper’s recommendations and implementation strategies for the Nottoway Park community garden, that could be applied elsewhere.

Audience: Northern Virginia residents, other public, parks or other open spaces potentially interested in Urban Agriculture techniques.

Outlets and Major Paper Products: Major paper, powerpoint presentation for Major Paper Exam

5

URBAN AGRICULTURE
Introduction
This section presents a synthesis of over-arching themes surrounding Urban Agriculture, including: (1) an overview of the concept of Urban Agriculture; (2) an historical review of Urban Agriculture, including where it is thought to originate; and (3) types of Urban Agriculture practices found throughout the United States, with brief examples. The information in this section is intended to provide a context and set the groundwork for a better understanding of the components that make up Urban Agriculture. To fully understand the concept and the subsequent Urban Agriculture practices, it is necessary to have knowledge of the terms, techniques, policies that form Urban Agriculture.

Defining Urban Agriculture
Urban Agriculture in itself is a difficult term to define. It means different things to different people. In defining ‘Urban Agriculture’, the term can be broken down first into two parts: ‘urban’ and ‘agriculture’. It is helpful to first look at how ‘urban’ is defined, as opposed to its acronym ‘rural’. As the population increases, the ‘line’ that distinguishes urban from rural becomes increasing blurred. There will undoubtedly be a continued expansion of our cities, which will push the urban-boundary lines further out into lands that were historically farmland, or considered rural. Areas that were once considered rural may become ‘urbanized’ in some fashion or another, and the land previously used for farming and agriculture may become developed. In these urban sprawl situations, the idea of planning for and/or implementing the concept of Urban Agriculture may become more prevalent. One distinction used to set Urban Agriculture apart from other agriculture is the term Urban and peri-urban Agriculture (UPA). The term UPA is used to describe agriculture that takes place in suburban areas of cities. (25) In some instances, it the differences between UPA and large-scale agricultural production are clear, although this may not always be the case. For example, when cities are planned with large plots of land to serve as agricultural centers to feed a portion of its population, whether or not this practice is considered an application of the concept of UPA is debatable. In these instances, the 6

definition becomes blurred. In other UPA scenarios, such as community gardens located in urban areas, the distinction is better understood. For the purposes of this paper we will refer to UPA as simply, Urban Agriculture.

The second and most critical part of Urban Agriculture is the term ‘agriculture’. Throughout the world the term agriculture conjures up images of large swaths of land used for both growing vegetables and fruits or for raising livestock. As the human population increases over time, it is necessary for countries to dedicate land, human-power, and money to feed their people. Yet as societies progress, it is fundamental that more inventive and effective methods of producing food become available. Urban Agriculture also becomes “a modern-day system for combating hunger and related food security issues, as well as an effective framework for creating and implementing community development practices; demonstrated by the successful urban agricultural endeavors found throughout the world.” (25)

So what exactly is the combination of ‘urban’ and ‘agriculture’? A defining aspect of Urban Agriculture is that it evolves to address the conditions and needs of the implementers at that time. A portion of the success and benefits of Urban Agriculture is contributed because the concept and application is not static. As technology progresses, so do the efforts that allow for better implementation of Urban Agriculture and its practices. As humans strive to develop more sustainable environments in which to live, they also continue to stretch the boundaries of where, how, to what extent, and in which ways the Urban Agriculture concept can be applied.

This paper will narrow the scope of the definition of Urban Agriculture to that which is directly associated with producing food for individual use on private property or in community garden plots. It should be noted that most researchers define Urban Agriculture in broader terms that include production facilities. For example Urban Agriculture was defined “as the growing, processing, and distribution of food and other products through intensive plant cultivation and animal husbandry in and around cities.” (3) While this definition is certainly relevant to the more specific topic presented in this paper, considering Urban Agriculture at this much larger scale of operation is too broad for addressing the specific research statement in the context of this paper. For this reason, an encompassing yet limited definition of Urban Agriculture is offered

7

for the purpose of this paper:

Urban Agriculture: a potentially “complex system encompassing a spectrum of interests, from a traditional core of activities associated with the production, processing, marketing, distribution, and consumption, to a multiplicity of other benefits and services that are less widely acknowledged and documented [including]… recreation and leisure; economic vitality and business entrepreneurship, individual health and well-being; community health and wellbeing; landscape beautification; and environmental restoration and remediation.” (4)

Historical Analysis of Urban Agriculture
It is beneficial to society to understand the concept and application of Urban Agriculture, it is also important to have knowledge of the history of Urban Agriculture globally and within the United States. Jac Smit describes a comprehensive history of Urban Agriculture in his presentation to the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) in 2002. He states, “The history of Urban Agriculture can be told beginning at any time and place in human history.” (20) In his presentation, he referred to two well-known examples of Urban Agriculture in human history, the first being Machu Picchu in 16th century Peru and the second being Paris in 19th century France.

Smit notes, that the application of Urban Agriculture in the city of Machu Picchu reveals a high level of sophistication with regard to it use of Urban Agriculture. It is accepted that the remote city enjoyed relative food security with advanced methods of producing agricultural products on the steep mountainsides of its environment. In reference to the city’s self-reliance, he comments, “recent studies document rather precise irrigation, terracing, waste management, microclimate management and storage systems.” (20) The Urban Agriculture techniques and practices of Machu Picchu were successful enough that even today their crop production systems are studied and in some cases replicated.

8

In the second example, evidence is presented that shows the influence Parisian Urban Agriculture has had throughout the world. Post-industrial revolution Paris “generated explosive growth in the 19th century, [as] the wetlands community or Marais reinvented agriculture to feed the city.” (20) There is evidence of Parisian methods being used by Vietnamese immigrants fleeing the war in their home country to West Africa, where the Vietnamese practices were considered improvements to the Urban Agriculture model framed by colonization. The Parisian influence is apparent when agricultural practices in places like California, Havana and Tanzania are referred to as French biointensive agriculture.

According to Smit, in the United States, planned communities that have included or addressed the concept of Urban Agriculture go back to the 17th and 18th centuries. To some extent, Americans have always been in favor of implementing some form of Urban Agriculture techniques and practices, although these have been implemented widely with little regulation. Throughout American history, gardens used to produce food for the family have been prevalent sources of food and recreation opportunities (ie. gardening). In fact, there was a time in American history when it was considered patriotic to grow your own food. (24) For example, during the wars years of World War II, the government asked many things of its citizens. The government asked people to recycle materials, reduce waste, purchase bonds and plant what was known as “Gardens for Victory” in a combined effort to allow more supplies to be sent to our troops. Government and corporations promoted the use of victory gardens in all shapes and sizes. Nearly 20 million Americans planted Victory Gardens, which produced up to 40 percent of all the food that was consumed. (24) It was not until America’s dependence on automobiles and the advent of the grocery store was there a marked changed in how Americans obtained their food, including the ceasing of getting food from the backyard or barnyard.

Urban Agriculture Practices
Application of the concept of Urban Agriculture depends on many factors, such as the time, place, as well as the individual or collective need. The types of individuals and needs for Urban Agriculture may range from individual hobbyists to small community food production and efforts. There are many Urban Agriculture practices for food production, and each seems to have its own 9

unique utility and benefits depending on circumstance. According to some literature, including the city of Vancouver’s Southeast False Creek Urban Agriculture Strategy, urban agriculture encompasses a broad diversity of agricultural practices in urban environments that include Community Gardens, School Gardens, Backyard and other such Private Gardens, Public (Stateor Federally-managed) Land with Edible Landscaping, Commercial Greenhouses and some of the more innovative techniques are Rooftop Gardens, Micro Livestock Operations, including bees and insects, Aquaculture Operations and Greenhouses and/or Facilities Co-located within Existing Buildings. The theories that this paper will focus on are the possible outcomes of the implementation of a community garden.

COMMUNITY GARDEN THEORY
Defining Community Gardens
What are community gardens? The quick answer to this question may seem obvious. Community gardens are a place where people can go to grow different plants, such as vegetables, herbs, and flowers. While that statement is true, community gardens are much more. They are a place where not only plants grow, but also a place where people and communities can grow together.

The definition of ‘community gardens’ should not be one that restricts the endless possibilities of utility. As stated earlier, community gardens can be many things and can have many different meanings for many different people. While some people may be better at gardening than others, in a community garden all the people can have something they can add. Likewise, the location for a community garden also has almost endless possibilities. They can be found in abandoned lots, old parking lots, parks, community centers, schools, and even shared rooftops.

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Service defined community gardens as “any shared space where people come together to grow vegetables, flowers, or plants.” (22) This paper will utilize that definition for the purpose of the further discussion within this paper.

10

Social and Cultural Components
Community Pride and Involvement
As a commuter county, where many of the residents commute to jobs located in the District of Columbia (DC), Fairfax could benefit from the potential community cohesiveness and pride that can result from community gardening practices. Although there are many ways in which a community can be brought together, implementing community gardens can be one way to “offer a focal point for neighborhood organizing, and can lead to community-based efforts to deal with other social concerns.” (16) Community gardens give communities an actual sense of community involvement that may otherwise never be possible. They allow people to work together with their neighbors to achieve a common goal. In addition, they help facilitate and provide community members opportunities to talk and share ideas.

Empowerment of the Growers
Community gardens can serve as a source of empowerment for many different individuals. In all types of neighborhoods, there are people who may feel that they cannot accomplish or do things independently or for themselves. These people may also rely entirely on another person or government program for functions of basic livings needs, such as sustenance. It may be possible for people with low self-esteem or little to no social capital to be assisted by community gardens because these places may provide an outlet for achieving personal goals. Neighborhoods that lack social connections or networks may also see no way of getting out of dangerous situations with regards to blight and crime.

If people in these areas were able to use abandoned land to create community gardens, some level of social capital may be attained. People in these areas may develop a better sense of self worth through growing vegetables, herb or flowers in a community garden. A community garden may allow people who have not felt that they have many personal successes or have not had positive experiences in their lives to see that they are capable of being productive and that they have something to offer and gain from society.

11

Through community gardens, people may also have the opportunity to increase their access and ability to communicate with their other neighbors. This communication is vital to strengthening relationships that could serve to help an impoverished area gain a better self-identity. The new neighborhood connections could also be a source of awareness, education, and knowledge. All of which may help a community or an individual become more self-sustaining and independent. This form of self-empowerment could lead to better overall citizenry in areas that are lacking.

Improved Health, Increased Recreation, Relaxation, Creativity Opportunities
Gardening could allow people to express themselves in how and what they decide to plant within their plot. Since there is neither a right way, nor a wrong way to go about gardening, any method respectful of others may be acceptable. Gardening in a sense then could be an activity that actually encourages creativity, individuality, and different ways to approach things.

Some people in a community that have never had the opportunity to express a creative self could be given the opportunity through individual decision making that comes with growing ones own garden. The opportunity for stress relief is possible too. Gardening can give people an outlet to take their minds off of the stresses of everyday life. Seeing the vegetables that they grow as an outcome of their labor would be a very rewarding accomplishment for people who may feel that they are not capable of accomplishing anything in life.

There also may be obvious reasons why community gardens can be beneficial to the overall health of an individual i.e. getting exercise, but there are many more than just that. For example, community gardening can become one of the reasons individuals in a community get up off of the couch and go outdoors. The potential benefits stemming from this activity alone could be huge. Getting out of the house and focusing energy on something creative like gardening could be a potential outlet for stress as well. The health benefits including recreation and relaxation opportunities surrounding gardening can apply to anyone.

Community Growth Opportunities
Community growth potential exists through community gardening in a couple of areas. Community gardens can be strategically situated in communities as a central location or better 12

yet, a location that utilizes abandoned lots. Abandoned lots come with their own set of environmental risks, but the ability to transform them into something pleasant to the eye can be useful in growing a community. Through the community garden, neighbors can work together towards a common goal and also identify other ways they could work together to enhance and grow their community.

Networks may be established that could lead to neighborhood groups that help to clean up lowincome areas or lower the crime rates in the area. A cleaner, greener and safer community with more self-empowered people can always be useful in attracting new residents or business to a community. Attracting new potential residents and businesses to an area will cause increased community growth because the community becomes a more desirable place to live and/or work.

Decreased Crime
Safety is important to individuals and members of a community alike, although safety may not actually be a major issue for most areas in Fairfax County. Many sources in literature about community gardens provide antidotal evidence that there is a relationship between community gardens and crime rates and community safety. The article, Cultivating Community Gardens: The Role of Local Government in Creating Healthy, Livable Neighborhoods, for instance, found that community gardens increase safety in communities (16). There is at minimum the perception that community gardens may increase safety within the community. This antidotal benefit, however, has not yet been shown to be peer-reviewed evidence through specific studies to be necessarily true. For example, although researchers Gorham et al recognized there was a perceived reduced risk from crime felt by members of communities with community gardens, their study actually “indicated that the presence of a community garden was not a predictor of a lower crime rate…[and There] were no crime number differences between the community garden areas and the randomly selected areas.” (10) This particular study did conclude by stating that interviews with members of the community did however reveal a positive receptiveness to community gardens. Residents of that community also reported a sense of “neighborhood revitalization, perceived immunity from crime, and neighbors emulating gardening practices they saw at the community gardens.” (10)

13

Educational Opportunities
Community gardens can be utilized as a teaching tool for children and adults, so they can better understand where food comes from and even how to grow it on their own. They can be an education and outreach tool for teaching children and adults the concept of natural resource sustainability and how communities and individuals can be more self-sustainable in their actions and practices. The opportunity for children to see that they are capable of contributing to a larger goal, such as growing a vegetable for a classroom project, may also be a chance for a child who may have low self-esteem to be boosted. Education programs can be developed or evolved as community gardens are created, and each program may be tailored to meet the needs and type of audience.

Environmental and Ecological Components
More Green Space and Heat Sinks
Community gardens can add natural beauty to an area by increasing the amount of green space. They can also benefit the environment by providing heat sinks for cities with high volumes of paved areas. High volumes of paved areas are particularly present in urban areas and major metropolises, including the metropolitan District of Columbia area. The theory exists which suggests the more paved areas that a city has, the hotter the area is. These areas of with inflated temperatures could have negative effects on a local or global environment. If some of the unused or abandoned land could be turned into useful community gardens, the potential exists for heat sinks to be created. Rooftops that could withstand a rooftop garden could be utilized as well. The more green spaces that are located throughout the city, the greater the effect can be in offsetting any temperature increases due to high volumes of paved areas.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Community gardens can reduce the need for out-of-town produce to be shipped in. Producing local food resources for sale or distribution locally could create less of a carbon footprint for the community overall because food has less travel distance from the farm or place of production to the dinner plate. The community’s need to purchase foods, which have been shipped from

14

numerous areas throughout the United States or the globe, could be lessened. This could also reduce the community’s greenhouse gas emissions because of the transportation modes and distances will be different for food grown locally in community gardens. Although the assertion that by creating one community garden in a given area, there will be a resulting noticeable reduction in the total amount of greenhouse gas is debatable, it would be difficult to argue against the statement that avoiding even one trip to the grocery will reduce at least some greenhouse gas emissions.

Natural Resource Sustainability
One of the most important to points in this paper is that it is through community gardening that people can learn the value of sustainability. Individuals in the community can learn through community gardening practices that if they can do something as simple as growing vegetables, they can also do much more in an effort to becoming more self-sustainable. Although it was mentioned previously, it is important to reiterate the importance of the general understanding that a need to be more self-sustaining can be met through community gardening. If people learn to be less reliant on grocery stores and fast food restaurants for their food, then they can take that important first step into being more self-sustaining.

Being more dependent on one’s self and more responsible for our own individual actions could have an overall effect on our ability to reduce our dependency on a number of outside resources. Based on personal experiences, it doesn’t take a monumental life-changing event to dramatically shift the way daily routines can be altered for the better. Growing food for use with family, friends, and individual use can have the potential to change how decisions about other needs are met and utilized.

Economic and Political Components
Individual Economics
In theory the practice of community gardening could have the potential to reduce the overall amount of income that a person puts towards the amount of food they buy annually, if only marginally. If individuals and families in a community are able to save a little money on overall 15

food costs, than that money has the potential to be out to something else that is useful. Money saved through utilizing food grown at community gardens, for example, may instead be applied to expenses in addressing other basic human needs or even may be invested back into the community.

Additional Food Sources and Choices
Community Gardens could not only reduce the amount of money that is spent on different foods, but community gardening also has the potential to provide fresh vegetables and herbs to lowincome areas that may not have otherwise had that or any other option. A community garden could also aid in making sure that adults and children in impoverished areas do not go to bed hungry. The less hungry that people are, the better they will be able to contribute positively in their communities and the more successful that children will be at school. Community gardens can become a way in which access to fresh vegetables can be reasonable and equal for all members of a community.

Employment Opportunities
There also exists the potential for a community to offer employment in one way or another at a community center or community garden. While most of the people at a community garden will most certainly be volunteers, there is an opportunity for employment in larger urban agriculture and community garden operations. Even if the garden falls on public land operated by a local government, the opportunity to employ people or a group of people to oversee the maintenance of the gardens is reasonable. For example, the Fairfax County Park system has a Garden Plots Coordinator who manages the Green Springs Gardens’ garden plots. Even if it is only one more employed person in a community at a position that may not have existed before the introduction of community garden, the community garden has still resulted in even a small employment benefit.

Helping the U.S. Become Healthier and Potentially Lower Health Costs
The community garden has the potential to offer a better, more healthy selection of foods to communities that have become dependent on fast food as a major source of nutrition. If more of

16

the daily-recommended servings of fruits and vegetables can be met through the producing these food resources in a community garden, then there is a possibility for lowering overall health costs. If people are eating more fruits and vegetables, the theory is that over-time, they will generally be more healthy and lower incidences of disease. This could potentially lower the health care burden on a community health care facility. Healthier people in a community could help the overall amount of money that a community can spend on other important service areas, such as education.

Local Community Food Security
Localized Urban Agriculture efforts, such as community gardening practices, play an important role in addressing and providing for local community food security. Community gardens can increase the Fairfax County community’s local food security by producing food for the market which is locally available and need not be imported. Community gardens represent just one Urban Agriculture practice which aid food security specifically by “increasing the availability of high-quality, affordable food within a community, offering farmers an opportunity to maintain economic viability by supplying the local market with fresh foods, strengthening economic and social ties between farms and urban residents, and channeling a larger share of residents’ food spending back to the local economy.” (22) According to the United State Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Assessment of Community Food Production Resources, “strengthening your community’s agricultural system can [also], over the long term, boost the effectiveness of Federal food assistance and education programs.” (22)

17

COMMUNITY GARDEN PRACTICE
Case Study: Nottoway Park Community Garden
There are many ways in which citizens, community leaders, local governments, and individuals can continue to utilize community gardens in Fairfax County, such as the initiative already underway in Nottoway Park. There are also opportunities to expand the existing community garden systems in Fairfax County. Expanding the application of community gardens will allow more people to reap the benefits of this practice. This section describes community gardening in Fairfax County, including an evaluation of one of the current community gardens in Nottoway Park.
Figure 1. Map of Fairfax County

This section also includes a discussion of potential opportunities to expand community gardening in Fairfax County.

Why is Community Gardening Good for Fairfax County, Virginia
Community gardens clearly have been shown to have far-reaching benefits. In Northern Virginia, and more specifically in Fairfax County, there is much need and perhaps even a large desire for community garden opportunities so that residents can benefit from this Urban Agriculture practice. One sector of Fairfax
Figure 2. Conceptual Development for Nottoway Park

18

County that was responsive to the practice of garden plots was within the Fairfax County Park system. Park administrators, whether consciously aware or not of the multitude of benefits from community gardens, planned for land use allotments in many of their county parks to provide the opportunity for residents to rent garden plots. The Fairfax County Park system, particularly the Nottoway Park, provides an excellent case to understand in what way and why Fairfax County is utilizing community gardening practices. Nottoway Park can even be used as a case to showcase how to improve and continue these opportunities in the future.

The following subsections provide an overview of the Fairfax County Park system, as well as specific details about the garden plots in Nottoway Park.

Fairfax County Park System, Green Spring Gardens
The Fairfax County Park system provides an opportunity to rent a garden plot. The garden plots are located throughout several of the Fairfax County parks. The garden plots are open to rent for residents within Fairfax County. The Fairfax County Park system refers to the program as Green Springs Gardens. The rented plots are typically 30 feet by 20 feet, with some slight variations in size between locations, such as in Grist Mill Park the several plots are 10 feet by 20 feet. (6) Throughout the paper there are several photos of garden plots in Fairfax County. The garden plots can be used for a variety of purposes, like growing vegetables and/or ornamentals. Growing vegetables in the garden plots is the most predominant
Figure 3. Google Maps Satellite View of Garden Plots
Source: Google Screen Shot Plots http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&tab=wl

19

utilization of the space, as determined by an evaluation of the garden plots in Nottoway Park conducted in the summer of 2009. The plots within the county parks are rented to residents who apply on an annual basis and for a minimal fee. The plots are also rented on a first come first serve basis. (6)

As is the case with many community garden areas, there are guidelines that govern the garden plots in the Green Springs Gardens in Fairfax County Parks. However, these guidelines will often act more as a rule than as a law. Violating any of the rules is not necessarily a criminal or civic matter, but rather a Fairfax County Park system matter. The FCPA however does retain the right to evict a person found in violation of the rules. (6) Establishment of rules for community gardens is essential to the efficient functions of a community garden area.

The administrators establish the rules, which in this case is the Fairfax County Park Authority (FCPA), in cooperation and coordination with the plot renters and other interested citizens who have attended past working meetings. The Garden Plot Rules and Guidelines have been revised for the 2010 season. A complete and final version of these rules and guidelines is included in Appendix B.

Fairfax County Parks, Nottoway Park in Fairfax, Virginia
The specific plots that were part of the research leading to the development of this paper were located within Nottoway Park in Vienna, Virginia. The location of Nottoway Park in relation to the City of Fairfax and the Town of Vienna is found in Appendix A, Map of Fairfax County. A map of the entire Nottoway Park is in Appendix C, including a Google Maps satellite view of the park. Nottoway Park has 148 garden plots available for rent to Fairfax County residents. All of the plots are rented and there has been a waiting list to rent a plot in Nottoway Park for at least the last two years. In Appendix D, the garden plot site map shows each of the plots available for rent by number. Appendix D also contains a satellite view of the Nottoway Park garden plots specifically, where it is possible to see the first glimpse of how the gardening varies from plot to plot. Nottoway Park maintains three water-dispensing areas for the garden plot renters, as a portion of the garden plot rental fee goes to pay for the water dispensed. 20

Considerations for Nottoway Park’s Community Garden Plots
Nottoway Park represents a good example of how community gardening practices can be implemented. The Nottoway Park garden plots can be a case study one approach to implementing community gardens in Fairfax County, and perhaps in other counties in Northern Virginia. The Nottoway park garden plots can also be used to
Figure 4. Example Plots Growing Only Vegetables

provide recommendations and prescribed other

opportunities to improve current practices in the Fairfax County Park System. In Nottoway Park, there is an opportunity to better utilize the existing garden plots and/or expand the number of plots. Food production within the existing plots can also be expanded.

Assessment of Nottoway Park Garden Plots, Summer-Fall 2009
During the late summer of 2009, the garden plots in Nottoway Park were evaluated. Each plot was assessed based on a series of five questions (an example data sheet/question form is found in Appendix A.

Figure 5. Example Plot Growing Both Vegetables and Ornamentals

The questions used to assess the current community garden practices in Nottoway Park were: 1. Has the plot been rented? 2. Does the plot appear to be maintained and/or tended for? 3. Does the tenant appear to be actively gardening in their plot? 4. Is the tenant utilizing the plot for growing vegetables? 5. Is the tenant growing vegetables and ornamentals in the plot? 6. Is the tenant utilizing the plot for gardening only ornamentals?

21

Any additional notes about individual plots were also captured at the closing of the data sheet. This information was initially collected in August 2009. The information and data sheets from the August 2009 assessment were reviewed again in September 2009. A second assessment was conducted in late-September where all of the plots were revisited to determine if any information
Figure 6. Example Plot Growing Only Ornamentals

collected in August had changed. There were no noticeable changes in the type of activity conducted in the plots and no significantly identifiable change in the make-up of the garden plots from August to late-September. Photos were also taken of each of the individual plots in September.

A map of Nottoway Park’s garden plots with color highlighting based in the assessment conducted is found below, Map of Nottoway Park Assessment Results. In this map, the garden plots that were viably growing at least some edible vegetable plants and no ornamentals are shaded in green. Plots shaded in pink were determined to only be growing ornamentals. Some plots were
Figure 7. Example of Poorly Maintained Plot

growing both vegetables and ornamentals and have been shaded in yellow.

Several plots did not appear to be tended to, or were poorly maintained. These poorly maintained or bare plots are shaded in grey on the map below.

Figure 8. Example of Bare or Overgrown Plot

22

Figure 9. Map of Nottoway Park Assessment Results

23

Based on this walk-around, first-hand, but peripheral assessments of the Nottoway Park garden plots, 117 out of 142 available plots were determined to be growing at least some edible plants. The edibles were typically common garden vegetables, such as tomatoes, peppers, and lettuce. Some gardens also were growing herbs though. Tomatoes were by far the most common vegetable grown in the most amounts of garden plots.

Figure 10. Pie Chart of Utilization of Plots in Nottoway Park

The utilization of garden plots in Nottoway Park by type is graphically depicted in Figure10. Table 1 also details the number of plots recorded in each of the four categories. The percentage of plots growing at least some vegetable plants is 90% of the total plots available for rent at Nottoway Park.

Table 1.  Composition of Plot Table and Percentages 
Number   Composition of Plot  Ornamentals  Vegetables  Both Vegetables & Ornamentals  Poorly Maintained or Bare  Total Number of Plots  of Plots  3  90  27  22  142  Percentage of   Total Plots  2%  63%  19%  15%    

24

Photo Series for Nottoway Park
Several series of photos are contained in Appendix B, Photo Series for Nottoway Park. These photos were taken in the summer of 2009, mostly in August 2009. The first photo series depicts some of the plots growing edible vegetables. The next photo series depicts plots that appear to be only utilized for growing ornamentals. Some plots grew a mixture of both ornamentals as well as vegetables, and photos of these types of plots are included also in Appendix B. Plots that did not appear to be tended to or those that were poorly maintained are depicted in the fourth photo series. The last photo series provides examples of plots that were bare or overgrown. Although a photo was taken at each plot location as part of the assessment of gardening practices in Nottoway Park, figure 9 only presents the type of utilization and plots in the park. All photos were taken by Ryan Sloan, Virginia Polytechnic University.

Encouraging the Practice in Other Areas of Fairfax County
There are many ways to encourage the development of additional community gardens and/or garden plots in other vacant and/or open space within Fairfax County. Areas “where neighbors can gather to cultivate plants, vegetables and fruit” do not need to be limited to the Fairfax County Park system. (16)

Many of the barriers to creating viable and successful community gardens “can be overcome with local government engagement.” (16) The involvement of local government can be critical in the planning and initiation of a new community garden. Local governments can provide many of the resources that are needed to
Figure 11. Photo of one existing outreach opportunity to promote urban agriculture

start a community garden, at the small, medium or large-scale. When local governments get

involved, they can often help to lessen the start-up costs and other barriers to success, “such as liability expenses, code restrictions and lack of resources.” (16)

25

The residents in the community will have a multitude of benefits from new opportunities to participate in community gardens, and the community at large as well as the local government can also benefit in addition to the individual growers. For example, many urbanized areas have a lack of open space. Community gardens can provide that open space, particularly in minority and low income areas which may have a disproportionately lower amount of open space per capita. This can be a social equality issue where local government can step in to mitigate the disparity in an inexpensive way by utilizing unused land by creating community gardens and beautifying the area. (16)

Recommendations for Encouraging Community Gardens in Fairfax County
Some recommendations on ways to reduce or eliminate the common barriers to implementing new community gardens are provided below.

Partnering with Schools
The opportunity to partner with the Fairfax County Public School should also be pursued for additional opportunities to expand community gardening practices in Fairfax County. School systems can be an excellent place to start community gardens. There have been many benefits found for students and schools who participate in the practice of community gardens. (19)

Schools also can be partnered with to provide education and outreach opportunities to the students. For example, “hands-on exposure to community gardens can teach students about the source of fresh produce, demonstrate community stewardship and introduce the importance of environmental sustainability.” (16) An environmental science and ecosystem sustainability curriculum or aspect of a current curriculum can be developed to educate students and provide a unique outlet for learning.

Education can extend beyond the traditional classroom as well, such as hosting after-school, storytelling, and even adult-learning sessions in the community gardens. In Fairfax County, expanded community garden opportunities could provide additional opportunities for residents to

26

participate in a wide range of activities and community projects such as “after-school programs for children, activities for the elderly and a resource for food banks and shelters.” (16)

Involving Students
Fairfax County can begin planning for potential places for start new community gardens by surveying available resources to work on the initiative. For example, local high school students and college students could be used potentially to perform some preliminary planning work. In a Portland, Oregon community garden initiative, college students from Portland State University were used to inventory “all city-owned land that could be used for community gardens and other urban-agriculture initiatives.” (16)

Non-profits
Fairfax County could encourage a municipality-funded non-profit organization to support development and maintenance of community gardens. This was done in Chicago with the nonprofit NeighborSpace and was successful. NeighborSpace “acts as a land-trust for community gardens.” (16) NeighborSpace is funded by the city of Chicago, District of Chicago, and the Cook County Forest Preserve District who then accept liability for the garden sites, which now is over 50 sites. In this example, the local government has reduced the start-up costs and liability burdens that can be barriers to the development of community gardens. Fairfax County’s local government could employ a similar strategy in Virginia.

Facilitated Volunteer Groups
Local government can help to facilitate the organization of volunteers groups to create community gardens in Fairfax County. Volunteer groups can be very helpful in community garden efforts. Volunteers can be organized during the initial planning and setting up of new community gardens, which can be a rewarding experience for the volunteers as well as a benefit to the community. Volunteers can also be used to help maintain the gardens once they are established. For example, volunteers help to maintain the structure and order in the community gardens in Nottoway Park, such as through their participation in creating new Garden Plots Rules for 2010 (refer to Appendix B).

27

National or State Grants
Taking advantage of any national or state grants, which may be available, is also an opportunity for Fairfax County to expand on community gardening opportunities. Grant funding can be applied to defray the start-up costs and get community gardening projects off-the-ground. The Portland/Multnomah Food Policy Council (FPC) utilized available grants, for example, to fund the creation of gardens in Oregon. (16)

Inventory and Analysis of Community Food Production
An inventory and analysis could be conducted in Fairfax County to assess and analyze the food production resources generated locally. The inventory and analysis could be particularly focused on the food production resources that are generated from local community gardening practices. The Fairfax County could use a methodology for the assessment, which is similar to the assessment that was completed for by the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit. (22) The assessment could be conducted with the assistance of an educational institution, like Virginia Polytechnic University’s National Capital Region or another university within close proximity or access to Fairfax County. The assessment could inform the community about the food production resource currently generated in the county. The assessment may also reveal gaps and opportunities for producing more local food resources in Fairfax County. These gaps may also provide the citizens, community members, and local government with direction on addressing the potential opportunities for producing more food resources locally. The assessment could be focused on the following questions: 1. Does the county have any community gardens? 2. Do any of the schooled have school gardens? 3. Are there any school-based garden programs producing food resources which are in-turn consumed by the students of a school? 4. Do to the local schools purchase food from local producers and suppliers? 5. Are locally produced/grown foods available at local distributors and suppliers; retailers; and/or restaurants? 6. Are local food resources used at other institutional facilities or food service outlets? (ie. colleges, hospitals, prisons) 7. Are there low-income areas in the county, and do low-income households have a reasonable opportunity to participate in community gardens or other local food production practices?

28

These questions are derived from the questions analyzed by the USDA as part of the Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit. (22) Researching and responding to these questions through an inventory, assessment, analysis, and results-based approach could produce findings for Fairfax County to then focus future efforts on encourage locally produced food resources in the County.

DISCUSSION Challenges of Community Gardens
There are a number of challenges that some Urban Agriculture practices are faced with, and in some instances these challenges may outweigh the benefits. The challenges range from conflicts with neighbors and soil contamination concerns to overcoming legal restraints. Many of the main hurdles for most people who decide to grow their own food, whether it is vegetables can be the restrictions placed on them through municipal codes and state laws. If the urban farmer chooses to sell their food they will certainly face challenges from Federal food and drug regulations as well. “Agricultural activity in urban areas almost always contravenes some zoning regulation or by-law. Parks were never intended as grazing grounds for livestock, and the owners of vacant land are rarely pleased to see it sprouting corn and beans.” (17)

Aside from legal challenges, there exist unknown variables that can come into account as well. In an urban setting there is usually a person or persons in the area that has an idea of how an area should look. These concerned citizens may elevate concerns on what types of activities are acceptable. Tensions may be heightened between individuals in the community if the concept and application of urban agriculture is frowned upon. It is easy to see how growing vegetables in an otherwise well-groomed and manicured neighborhood may draw the ire of neighbors. In fact, it may not only offend neighbors.

Economic challenges are nearly always present as well. Many of the community garden techniques require sizable amount money to start the process. While it may not cost much to plant tomatoes in your own backyard, larger operations that could require water access, drainage

29

and specialized tools can easily become costly. In contrast to the economic limitations that may be present for larger community projects, even smaller operations could face similar limitations given the economic climate of the community.

The potential for pollution and soil contamination issues are often present as well when implementing gardens in urban areas. Many people are not aware of their vulnerability to such issues at the on-set. There is always a possibility the soil that is now being used for growing vegetables, at another point in time may have been used as a place to dump harmful chemicals. People should always send soil samples to laboratories to have them tested for the possibility of potentially hazardous pollutants present in their soils. If soils are contaminated there is always the possibility of addressing and/or circumventing the issue by building boxes on top of the soil for gardening or trucking in local topsoil. Employing these strategies can reduce or eliminate the contamination threat. Unfortunately, many people may not be educated on this issue and even if they are, it may not be possible to raise the funds to cover the costs.

While it may not be widely known, some gardening and composting practices could produce foul smelling odors. Odor issues could become classified as a public nuisance if severe enough. Composting garden trimmings in backyards or shared composting in community areas can also be controversial. The issue of odor is always present in compost operations that may cause tension between neighbors. Health concerns are present as well in composting operations. Composting bins can produce molds and fungus that can contribute or cause allergic reactions in some people. (5) There is also an ever-present worry stemming from pathogens related to decaying compost and it’s recommended that some waste materials, such as food wastes from people who may be sick not be used. (5) The issue of waste disposal from gardening is also a concern that raises issues within the law in regards to human health. Recently, there have been a few outbreaks of disease that has been transmitted from animals to human, such as swine flu or avian flu, which may draw questions about disease if the gardens were to start attracting wildlife that is not normally present.

While the benefits from reusing wastewater or grey water to irrigate crops may be a benefit in some aspects, it also raises health concerns. Mwale notes that the World Health Organization

30

(WHO) has indentified reused water as the single largest environmental pollutant killer in the world. (17)

In any agricultural setting there is a risk of losing crops to wildlife. Many of the threats can be combated with fences and traps, which in turn will consume time and money. For some food raiders, pesticides and other chemicals are needed to mitigate the problem. Pesticides can be dangerous in an urban setting, due to the amount of people and pets that are in the area. The chances of an individual misusing or someone accidentally getting into the pesticides are serious concerns, which are often raised. It is also plausible that urban areas could potentially have an incident that an endangered species comes into contact with a pesticide, fence, or a trap. The outcome of killing an Endangered Species that is raiding an gardening area could involve a violation of the Endangered Species Act, a major Federal offense. (1) While it may be unlikely that a conflict with a Federal statute could arise from small gardening operations, it remains a possibility that there is a greater likelihood that a state of local regulation could be violated resulting in some penalty.

It remained that the main hurdle for most individuals and communities is the lack of infrastructure components needed to produce good results from applying techniques and practices of community gardening. Aside from the labor needed for Urban Agriculture, there are also structural and economic needs. Using the Urban Agriculture practice of community gardens as an example, there will be many needs and challenges to implementation, which must be overcome for the effort to be successful. In the case of community gardening, for instance, some of the needs that must be met are where and how to acquire materials needed for gardens, such as gardening tools, wood and other building materials to create either permanent or temporary areas and structures for food production. There are also needs for topsoil and fertilizer, both of which can be found local or trucked in. Composting food waste into fertilizer is one way of gain a more sustainable source of fertilizer, as is the use of grey water and rainwater. Other materials that may be needed include fencing or traps to keep out animals that may take food. The availability of utilities such as electricity could also be a concern for many community gardening operations. If the needs for materials and utilization are met in a sustainable manner, community gardens can provide many benefits.

31

Benefits of Urban Agriculture
The list of potential benefits of community gardens are not confined to individuals, but can include entire sections of a city or even an entire nation can reap the benefits. The benefits (and costs for that matter) are often characterized as part of one of three categories: economic, social, and ecological. (18) Although some general and also some more specific benefits are described here, all of these benefits are part of a larger effort to provide food security, better nutrition, and relieve some economic stress, while adding to the overall health of individual and communities.

Some of the benefits of a sustainable gardening system include the ability to “incorporate socialjustice issues into a more localized system; Alleviate constraints on people’s access to adequate, nutritious food; Develop the economic capacity of local people to purchase food; Train people to grow, process, and distribute this food; Maintain adequate land to produce a high proportion of locally required food; Educate people, who have been increasingly removed from food production, to participate in, and respect, its generation; and Integrate environmental stewardship into this process.” (12)

Community gardening can be beneficial to families and communities by bringing them together to work towards raising food for each other. (13) Community gardening helps people realize a direct connection to where their food originates. Communities are creating a better environment for themselves, by increasing productive green space. Community gardening can also work as a catalyst for individuals and communities to become more stable with a greater sense of entitlement by controlling their own food security and combating hunger. Community gardening also offers skills that teach people how to be more self reliant and ending dependency on others for basic life needs. (13)

Community gardening can contribute to increasing the biodiversity of urban areas impacting the overall urban ecosystem. With more plants growing in the urban areas, there is a possibility of helping to remove pollutants in air and water system. In addition, community gardening is also a way for people to reduce their overall carbon footprint. It can also contribute to the reduction of

32

soil loss and siltation of waterways. Urban Agriculture has the ability for individuals to decrease the amount of waste they produce through composting and reuse of wastewater. (13)

In some cases around the country, an economic benefit of tax incentives can be found for Urban Agriculture techniques. Legislation in New York City provides a tax incentive for owners and developers of green roof systems in the form of a tax credit. The intent of the credit is to assist the individuals who install such systems with the associated costs. The legislation is called the Green Roof Tax Abatement. According to the legislation, owners who install green roofs that cover a minimum of half of the roof space are entitled to a one-year credit of up to $100,000 dollars. (11 )

The benefits and challenges that surround community gardens can be overwhelming. I suggest that these should not be hindrances, but rather unending opportunities for individuals to become more sustainable. The example of Fairfax County’s community gardens is just one small instance of the range of possibilities that exist and are increasing daily.

Conclusion
One of the exciting aspects of becoming more sustainable through community gardening is that the techniques are being improved upon constantly. While getting a project started or designating a piece of land for a garden may be the hardest step, the potential benefits are eye opening. In community gardens such as Nottoway Park, citizens must not simply be content to know that there is a space available if necessary. Citizens must be proactive in making sure that all of the space is being utilized to it’s fullest. As long as there is enough space it is crucial for the success of the garden that the public be aware that if they want a garden plot it is available. Keeping the public interested in the community garden will be necessary to make sure the land designation stays and that the land remains safe and productive.

While the Nottoway Park community garden is fairly self sufficient and appears to be running smoothly there are a few issues that could be addressed to increase the productivity and exposure of the garden.

33

From 2007 through 2009 the author has been on a waiting list to get a garden plot in Nottoway park. It is clear from my visual survey that there is at least 22 plots that are either bare or poorly maintained that could have been utilized. This speaks to a issue with proper management of the space that is available in the garden. While there may be outside limitations restricting the effective management of the individual plots, a better management and plot allocation is needed. One of the limitations that could be restricting the efficiency of the garden could be public awareness or interest. The park has built very large interpretive signs that could be used to generate interest, while simultaneously educating the public about the community gardening. It is not hard to see that with a few small management changes and the proper utilization of existing signage, the park could drum up more support and interest in the community garden. The garden area of the park may not be the main focus of the park management, but interest in the park and visitorship surely is and both could benefit from the changes suggested above. The key to success is to empower individuals to become more self sufficient.

34

Appendix A: Nottoway Park Assessment of Current Community Garden Practices
Example Data Sheet/Question Form Plot Number: ______________ 1. Has the plot been rented?

Yes

No

2. Does the plot appear to be maintained and/or tended for?

Yes

No

3. Does the tenant appear to be actively gardening in their plot?

Yes

No

4. Is the tenant utilizing the plot for growing vegetables?

Yes

No

5. Is the tenant growing vegetables and ornamentals in the plot?

Yes

No

6. Is the tenant utilizing the plot for gardening only ornamentals?

Yes

No

Notes About the Plot:

35

Appendix B: Photo Series for Nottoway Park
Set 1: Example Plots Growing Vegetables
Photo 1.

Photo 2.

36

Set 2: Example Plot Growing Only Ornamentals
Photo 1.

37

Set 3: Example Plots Growing Both Vegetables and Ornamentals
Photo 1.

Photo 2.

38

Set 4: Example of Poorly Maintained Plots
Photo 1.

Photo 2.

39

Set 5: Example of Bare or Overgrown Plots
Photo 1.

Photo 2.

All photos were taken by Ryan Sloan, Virginia Polytechnic University, 2009.

40

Appendix C: Photo of Outreach Opportunity Location

This is a photo of an information board located at the entrance to the Nottoway Park community garden area. Information about Urban Agriculture and benefits of the practice of community gardening for food production could be included in this informational kiosk. The information could be a form of education and outreach for members of the community.

Photo was taken by Ryan Sloan, Virginia Polytechnic University, 2009.

41

Works Cited
(1) 16 U.S.C. sect. 1532 (19) (1973). (2) Babbitt v. Sweet Home Chapter Of Communities For A Great Oregon, 94-859 (515 U.S. 687 June 29, 1995). (3) Bailkey, M., & Nasr, J. (2000). From Brownfields to Greenfields: Producing Food in North American Cities. Community Food Security News. Fall 1999/Winter 2000 . (4) Butler, L., & Maronek, D. (2002). "Urban Agricultural Communities: Opportunities for Common Ground. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology News . Ames, Iowa. (5) Cornell Waste Management Institute. (2006, April). Small Scale or Backyard Composting . Retrieved March 20, 2009, from Cornell Waste Management Institute: http://cwmi.css.cornell.edu/smallscalecomposting.htm (6) Fairfax County Park Authority. (2009, January 1). Green Spring Gardens. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from Fairfax County Virgina: http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/parks/gsgp/plots.htm (7) Fairfax County Park Authority. (2009). Map of Nottoway Park. Retrieved on October 1, 2009, from www.fairfaxcounty.gov/PARKS/gsgp/plotmap-nottoway.pdf (8) Fairfax County Park Authority. (N.D.). Conceptual Development Plan Map of Nottoway Park. Retrieved on October 1, 2009, from http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/providence/Images/Nttwy.cdp.jpg (9) Google Maps. (N.D.) Satellite View of Nottoway Park Address. Retrieved October 2, 2009, from http://maps.google.com/maps?hl=en&tab=wl (10) Gorham et al. (2009). HortTechnology. “The Impact of Community Gardens on Numbers of Property Crimes in Urban Houston”. v19: p 291-296. Retrieved on October 1, 2009, from: http://horttech.ashspublications.org/cgi/content/full/19/2/291 (11) Green Roof Tax Abatement. NYC Real Property Tax Law, (f) sd.2 Sec. 467-a (12) Hamm, M. W., & Baron, M. (1999). Developing an Integrated, Sustainable Urban Food System: The Case of New Jersey, United States. In M. Koc, R. MacRae, Mougeot, & J. Welsh (Eds.), For Hunger-proof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems (pp. 54-59). Ottawa, Onterio, Canada: International Development Research Centre .

42

(13) Heimer, L. (2008, 12 1). Benefits of Urban Agriculture. Retrieved April 25, 2009, from Sprouts in the Sidewalk: http://sidewalksprouts.wordpress.com/ua/benefits/ (14) Holland Barrs Planning Group. (2002, November). Southeast False Creek Urban Agriculture Strategy. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: City Farmer, Canada's Office of Urban Agriculture. (15) Knowd, I., Mason, D., & Cocking, A. (2006). Urban Agriculture: The New Frontier. Planning for Food Seminar (pp. 1-22). Vancouver: Planning for Food Seminar. (16) Local Government Commission. (2008). “Cultivating Community Gardens: The Role of Local Government in Creating Healthy, Livable Neighborhoods.” Retrieved on September 20, 2009, from http://www.lgc.org/freepub/docs/community_design/fact_sheets/community_gardens_cs. pdf (17) Mwale, F. P. (2006, January 18). Growing Better Cities: Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Development. (I. U. Development, Producer) Retrieved April 10, 2009, from Working with Urban Farmers for Food Security: http://www.idrc.ca/in_focus_cities/ (18) Nugent, R. A. (1999). Measuring the Sustainability of Urban Agriculture. In For Hungerproof Cities: Sustainable Urban Food Systems (pp. 95-102). Ottawa, Onterio, Canada: International Development Research Centre . (19) Ozer, E. (2007, December 1). Health Education & Behavior.“The Effects of School Gardens on Students and Schools: Conceptualization and Considerations of Maximizing Healthy Development.” Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 846-863. Retrieved on June 22, 2009, from: http://heb.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/34/6/846 (20) Smit, J. (2002). Community-Based Urban Agriculture As History And Future. Washington, DC. (21) The Growing Power. (2009). Milwaukee Farms and Projects. Retrieved April 17 2009, from The Growing Power: http://www.growingpower.org/milwaukee_projects.htm (22) U.S.D.A. Economic Research Service. (2002, July). Community Food Security Assessment Toolkit. Barbara Cohen. ERS Contacts: Margaret Andrews and Linda Scott Kantor. EFAN No. (02-013) 166 pp. Retrieved October 6, 2009, from http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/EFAN02013/

43

(23) U.S. Census Bureau. (2009, May 7). U.S. Population Clock. Retrieved May 7, 2009, from U.S. Census Bureau: http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html (24) Victory Seed Company. (2008, December 12). Victory Gardens. Retrieved May 2, 2009, from Victory Seeds: http://www.victoryseeds.com/TheVictoryGarden/page2.html (25) Wyndham, S. (2005, December 19). An Urban Farm for Jubilee Homes of Syracuse, Inc. Syracuse, NY.

44

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.