ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF ANALOG INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
Fourth Edition
PAUL R. GRAY
University of California, Berkeley
PAUL J. HURST
University of California, Davis
STEPHEN H. LEWlS
University of California, Davis
ROBERT G. MEYER
University of California, Berkeley
JOHN WlLEY & SONS, INC.
New York / Chichester / Weinheim /Brisbane /Singapore / Toronto
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Cover courtesy of Dr. Kenneth C. Dyer and Melgar Photography. This book was set in 10112 Times Roman by Publication Services, Inc. and printed and bound by Hamilton Printing Company. The cover was printed by Lehigh Press, Inc. This book was printed on acidfree paper. @ Copyright 2001 O John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate percopy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 7508400, fax (978) 7504470. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 101580012, (212) 8506011, fax (212) 8506008, Email: PERMREQ@WILEY.COM. To order books or for customer service please call 1800CALLWILEY (2555945).
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
Analysis and design of analog integrated circuits l Paul R. Gray. . .[et al.].  4th ed. p. cm. lncludes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 047132 1680 (cloth: alk. paper) 1. Linear integrated circuitsComputeraided design. 2. Metal oxide semiconductorsComputeraided design. 3. Bipolar transistorsComputeraided design. I. Gray, Paul R., 1942TK7874.A588 2000 621.38154~21 00043583 Printed in the United States of America 10987654321
Preface
In the 23 years since the publication of the first edition of this book, the field df analog integrated circuits has developed and matured. The initial groundwork was laid in bipolar technology, followed by a rapid evolution of MOS analog integrated circuits. Furthermore, BiCMOS technology (incorporating both bipolar and CMOS devices on one chip) has emerged as a serious contender to the original technologies. A key issue is that CMOS technologies have become dominant in building digital circuits because CMOS digital circuits are smaller and dissipate less power than their bipolar counterparts. To reduce system cost and power dissipation, analog and digital circuits are now often integrated together, providing a strong economic incentive to use CMOScompatible analog circuits. As a result, an important question in many applications is whether to use pure CMOS or a BiCMOS technology. Although somewhat more expensive to fabricate, BiCMOS allows the designer to use both bipolar and MOS devices to their best advantage, and also allows innovative combinations of the characteristics of both devices. In addition, BiCMOS can reduce the design time by allowing direct use of many existing cells in realizing a given analog circuit function. On the other hand, the main advantage of pure CMOS is that it offers the lowest overall cost. Twenty years ago, CMOS technologies were only fast enough to support applications at audio frequencies. However, the continuing reduction of the minimum feature size in integratedcircuit (IC) technologies has greatly increased the maximum operating frequencies, and CMOS technologies have become fast enough for many new applications as a result. For example, the required bandwidth in video applications is about 4 MHz, requiring bipolar technologies as recently as 15 years ago. Now, however, CMOS can easily accommodate the required bandwidth for video and is even being used for radiofrequency applications. In this fourth edition, we have combined the consideration of MOS and bipolar circuits into a unified treatment that also includes MOSbipolar connections made possible by BiCMOS technology. We have written this edition so that instructors can easily select topics related to only CMOS circuits, only bipolar circuits, or a combination of both. We believe that it has become increasingly important for the analog circuit designer to have a thorough appreciation of the similarities and differences between MOS and bipolar devices, and to be able to design with either one where this is appropriate. Since the SPICE computer analysis program is now readily available to virtually all electrical engineering students and professionals, we have included extensive use of , SPICE in this edition, particularly as an integral part of many problems. We have used computer analysis as it is most commonly employed in the engineering design processboth as a more accurate check on hand calculations, and also as a tool to examine complex circuit behavior beyond the scope of hand analysis. In the problem sets, we have also included a number of openended design problems to expose the reader to realworld situations where a whole range of circuit solutions may be found to satisfy a given performance specification. This book is intended to be useful both as a text for students and as a reference book for practicing engineers. For class use, each chapter includes many worked problems; the problem sets at the end of each chapter illustrate the practical applications of the material in the text. All the authors have had extensive industrial experience in IC design as well vii
viii
Preface
as in the teaching of courses on this subject, and this experience is reflected in the choice of text material and in the problem sets. Although this book is concerned largely with the analysis and design of ICs, a considerable amount of material is also included on applications. In practice, these two subjects are closely linked, and a knowledge of both is essential for designers and users of ICs. The latter compose the larger group by far, and we believe that a working knowledge of IC design is a great advantage to an IC user. This is particularly apparent when the user mdst choose from among a number of competing designs to satisfy a particular need. An understanding of the IC structure is then useful in evaluating the relative desirability of the different designs under extremes of environment or in the presence of variations in supply voltage. In addition, the IC user is in a much better position to interpret a manufacturer's data if he or she has a working knowledge of the internal operation of the integrated circuit. The contents of this book stem largely from courses on analog integrated circuits given at the University of California at the Berkeley and Davis campuses. The courses are undergraduate electives and firstyear graduate courses. The book is structured so that it can be used as the basic text for a sequence of such courses. The more advanced material is found at the end of each chapter or in an appendix so that a first course in analog integrated circuits can omit this material without loss of continuity. An outline of each chapter is given below together with suggestions for material to be covered in such a first course. It is assumed that the course consists of three hours of lecture per week over a 15week semester and that the students have a working knowledge of Laplace transforms and frequencydomain circuit analysis. It is also assumed that the students have had an introductory course in electronics so that they are familiar with the principles of transistor operation and with the functioning of simple analog circuits. Unless otherwise stated, each chapter requires three to four lecture hours to cover. Chapter 1 contains a summary of bipolar transistor and MOS transistor device physics. We suggest spending one week on selected topics from this chapter, the choice of topics depending on the background of the students. The material of Chapters 1 and 2 is quite important in IC design because there is significant interaction between circuit and device design, as will be seen in later chapters. A thorough understanding of the influence of device fabrication on device characteristics is essential. Chapter 2 is concerned with the technology of IC fabrication and is largely descriptive. One lecture on this material should suffice if the students are assigned to read the chapter. Chapter 3 deals with the characteristics of elementary transistor connections. The material on onetransistor amplifiers should be a review for students at the senior and graduate levels and can be assigned as reading. The section on twotransistor amplifiers can be covered in about three hours, with greatest emphasis on differential pairs. The material on device mismatch effects in differential amplifiers can be covered to the extent that time allows. In Chapter 4, the important topics of current mirrors and active loads are considered. These configurations are basic building blocks in modern analog IC design, and this material should be covered in full, with the exception of the material on bandgap references and the material in the appendices. Chapter 5 is concerned with output stages and methods of delivering output power to a load. Integratedcircuit realizations of Class A, Class B, and Class AB output stages are described, as well as methods of outputstage protection. A selection of topics from this chapter should be covered. Chapter 6 deals with the design of operational amplifiers (op amps). Illustrative examples of dc and ac analysis in both MOS and bipolar op amps are performed in detail, and the limitations of the basic op amps are described. The design of op amps with improved
Preface
ix
characteristics in both MOS and bipolar technologies is considered. This key chapter on amplifier design requires at least six hours. In Chapter 7, the frequency response of amplifiers is considered. The zerovalue timeconstant technique is introduced for the calculations of the 3dB frequency of complex circuits. The material of this chapter should be considered in full. Chapter 8 describes the analysis of feedback circuits. Two different types of analysis are presented: twoport and returnratio analyses. Either approach should be covered in full with the section on voltage regulators assigned as reading. Chapter 9 deals with the frequency response and stability of feedback circuits and should be covered up to the section on root locus. Time may not pennit a detailed discussion of root locus, but some introduction to this topic can be given. In a 15week semester, coverage of the above material leaves about two weeks for Chapters 10, 11, and 12. A selection of topics from these chapters can be chosen as follows. Chapter 10 deals with nonlinear analog circuits, and portions of this chapter up to Section 10.3 could be covered in a first course. Chapter 11 is a comprehensive treatment of noise in integrated circuits, and material up to and including Section 11.4 is suitable. Chapter 12 describes fully differential operational amplifiers and commonmode feedback and may be best suited for a second course. We are grateful to the following colleagues for their suggestions for andor evaluation of this edition: R. Jacob Baker, Bemhard E. Boser, A. Paul Brokaw, John N. Churchill, David W. Cline, Ozan E. Erdogan, John W. Fattaruso, Weinan Gao, Edwin W. Greeneich, Alex GrosBalthazard, Tiinde Gyurics, Ward J. Helms, Timothy H. Hu, Shafiq M. Jamal, John P. Keane, Haideh Khorramabadi, PakKim Lau, Thomas W. Matthews, Krishnaswamy Nagaraj, Khalil Najafi, Borivoje NikoliC, Robert A. Pease, Lawrence T. Pileggi, Edgar ShnchezSinencio, BangSup Song, Richard R. Spencer, Eric J. Swanson, Andrew Y. J. Szeto, Yannis P. Tsividis, Srikanth Vaidianathan, T. R. Viswanathan, ChomgKuang Wang, and Dong Wang. We are also grateful to Kenneth C. Dyer for allowing us to use on the cover of this book a die photograph of an integrated circuit he designed and to Zoe Marlowe for her assistance with word processing. Finally, we would like to thank the people at Wiley and Publication Services for their efforts in producing this fourth edition. The material in this book has been greatly influenced by our association with Donald 0. Pederson, and we acknowledge his contributions.
Berkeley and Davis, CA, 2001
Paul R. Gray Paul J. Hurst Stephen H. Lewis Robert G. Meyer
Contents
.
CHAPTER l
1S.2
Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices 1
Introduction 1 Depletion Region of a pn Junction 1
1.2.1 DepletionRegion Capacitance 5 1.2.2
JunctionBreakdown 6
Comparison of Operating Regions of Bipolar and MOS Transistors 45 1S.3 Decomposition of GateSource Voltage 47 1.5.4 Threshold Temperature Dependence 47 1.5.5 MOS Device Voltage Limitations 48
LargeSignal Behavior of Bipolar Transistors 8
1.3.1 LargeSignal Models in the ForwardActive Region 9 1.3.2 Effects of Collector Voltage on LargeSignal Characteristics in the ForwardActive Region 14 1.3.3 Saturation and Inverse Active Regions 16 1.3.4 Transistor Breakdown Voltages 20 1.3.5 Dependence of Transistor Current Gain PF on Operating Conditions 23
1.6
SmallSignal Models of the MOS \/Transistors 49
1.6.1 Transconductance 50 1.6.2 Intrinsic GateSource and GateDrain Capacitance 51
1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.5
InputResistance 52 Output Resistance 52 Basic SmallSignal Model of the MOS Transistor 52
SmallSignal Models of Bipolar Transistors 26
1.4.1 Transconductance 27
1.4.2 1.4.3
1.6.6 Body Transconductance 53 1.6.7 Parasitic Elements in the SmallSignal Model 54 1.6.8 MOS Transistor Frequency Response 55
1.7
ShortChannel Effects in MOS Transistors 58
1.7.1 Velocity Saturation from the Horizontal Field 59 1.7.2 Transconductance and Transition Frequency 63 1.7.3 Mobility Degradation from the Vertical Field 65
BaseCharging Capacitance 28 Input Resistance 29
1.4.4 Output Resistance 29 1.4.5 Basic SmallSignal Model of the Bipolar Transistor 30
1.4.6 CollectorBase Resistance 30 1.4.7 Parasitic Elements in the SmallSignal Model 3 1 1A.8 Specification of Transistor Frequency Response 34
1.8
Weak Inversion in MOS Transistors
65 1.S. 1 Drain Current in Weak Inversion 66 1.8.2 Transconductance and Transition Frequency in Weak Inversion 68
Large Signal Behavior of MetalOxideSemiconductor FieldEffect Transistors 38
1.5.1 Transfer Characteristics of MOS Devices 38
Substrate Current Flow in MOS Transistors 7 1 A. 1.1 Summary of ActiveDevice
1.9
Contents xi
CHAPTER 2
Bipolar, MOS, and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology 78
Introduction 78 Basic Processes in IntegratedCircuit Fabrication 79 Electrical Resistivity of Silicon 79 Solidstate Diffusion 80 Electrical Properties of Diffused Layers 82 Photolithography 84 Epitaxial Growth 85 Ion Implantation 87 Local Oxidation 87 Polysilicon Deposition 87 HighVoltage Bipolar IntegratedCircuit Fabrication 88 Advanced Bipolar IntegratedCircuit Fabrication 92 Active Devices in Bipolar Analog Integrated Circuits 95 2.5.1 IntegratedCircuit npn Transistor 96 2.5.2 IntegratedCircuit pnp Transistors 107 Passive Components in Bipolar Integrated Circuits 115 2.6.1 Diffused Resistors 115 2.6.2 Epitaxial and Epitaxial Pinch Resistors 119 2.6.3 IntegratedCircuit Capacitors 120 2.6.4 Zener Diodes 121 2.6.5 Junction Diodes 122 Modifications to the Basic Bipolar Process 123 2.7.1 Dielectric Isolation 123 2.7.2 Compatible Processing for HighPerformance Active Devices 124 2.7.3 HighPerformance Passive Components 127 MOS IntegratedCircuit Fabrication 127 Active Devices in MOS Integrated Circuits 131
2.9.1 nChannel Transistors 2.9.3 Depletion Devices
131
2.9.2 pChannel Transistors 141 142 2.9.4 Bipolar Transistors 142 Passive Components in MOS Technology 144 2.10.1 Resistors 144 2.10.2 Capacitors in MOS Technology 145 2.10.3 Latchup in CMOS Technology 148 BiCMOS Technology 150 Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors 152 Interconnect Delay 153 Economics of IntegratedCircuit Fabrication 154 2.14.1 Yield Considerations in IntegratedCircuit Fabrication 154 2.14.2 Cost Considerations in IntegratedCircuit Fabrication 157 Packaging Considerations for Integrated Circuits 159 2.15.1 Maximum Power Dissipation 159 2.15.2 Reliability Considerations in IntegratedCircuit Packaging 162 A.2.1 SPICE ModelParameter Files
CHAPTER 3
163
SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers 170
3.1 Device Model Selection for Approximate Analysis of Analog Circuits 171 TwoPort Modeling of Amplifiers Basic SingleTransistor Amplifier Stages 174 3.3.1 CommonEmitter Configuration 175 3.3.2 CommonSource Configuration 179 3.3.3 CommonBaseconfiguration 183 3.3.4 CommonGate Configuration 186 172
3.2 3.3
xii
Contents
3.4
3.3.5 CommonBase and CommonGate Configurations with Finite r, 188 3.3.5.1 CommonBase and CommonGate Input Resistance 188 3.3.5.2 CommonBase and CommonGate Output Resistance 190 3.3.6 CommonCollector Configuration (Emitter Follower) 191 3.3.7 CommonDrain Configuration (Source Follower) 195 3.3.8 CommonEmitter Amplifier with Emitter Degeneration 197 3.3.9 CommonSource Amplifier with Source Degeneration 200 MultipleTransistor Amplifier Stages The CCCE, CCCC, and Darlington Configurations 202 The Cascode Configuration 206 3.4.2.1 The Bipolar Cascode 206 3.4.2.2 The MOS Cascode 208 The Active Cascode 211 The Super Source Follower 213
3.5.6.5 Input Offset Current of the EmitterCoupled Pair 235 3.5.6.6 Input Offset Voltage of the SourceCoupled Pair 236 3.5.6.7 Offset Voltage of the SourceCoupled Pair: Approximate Analysis 236 3.5.6.8 Offset Voltage Drift in the SourceCoupled Pair 238 3.5.6.9 SmallSignal Characteristics of Unbalanced Differential Amplifiers 238 A.3.1 Elementary Statistics and the Gaussian Distribution 246
CHAPTER 4
Current Mirrors, Active Loads, and References 253
Introduction 253 Current Mirrors 253 4.2.1 General Properties 253 4.2.2 Simple Current Mirror 255 4.2.2.1 Bipolar 255 4.2.3 4.2.2.2 MOS 257 Simple Current Mirror with Beta Helper 260 4.2.3.1 Bipolar 260 4.2.4 4.2.3.2 MOS 262 Simple Current Mirror with Degeneration 262 4.2.4.1 Bipolar 262 4.2.4.2 MOS 263 4.2.5 Cascode Current Mirror 263 4.2.5.1 Bipolar 263 4.2.5.2 MOS 266 4.2.6 Wilson Current Mirror 274 4.2.6.1 Bipolar 274 4.2.6.2 MOS 277 Active Loads 278 4.3.1 Motivation 278 4.3.2 CommonEmitterlCommonSource Amplifier with Complementary Load 279 4.3.3 CommonEmitterlCommonSource Amplifier with Depletion Load 282
3.5
Differential Pairs 215 The dc Transfer Characteristic of an EmitterCoupled Pair 2 15 The dc Transfer Characteristic with Emitter Degeneration 2 17 The dc Transfer Characteristic of a SourceCoupledPair 2 18 Introduction to the SmallSignal Analysis of Differential Amplifiers 22 1 SmallSignal Characteristics of Balanced Differential Amplifiers 224 Device Mismatch Effects in Differential Amplifiers 23 1 Input Offset Voltage and Current 23 1 Input Offset Voltage of the EmitterCoupled Pair 232 Offset Voltage of the EmitterCoupled Pair: Approximate Analysis 232 Offset Voltage Drift in the EmitterCoupled Pair 234
Contents
xiii
4.3.4 CommonEmitter/CommonSource
5.2
Amplifier with DiodeConnected Load 284 4.3.5 Differential Pair with CurrentMirror Load 287 4.3.5.1 LargeSignal Analysis
287 4.3.5.2 SmallSignal Analysis 288 4.3.5.3 CommonMode Rejection Ratio 293
The Emitter Follower As an Output Stage 344
5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3
Transfer Characteristics of the EmitterFollower 344
Power Output and Efficiency 347 EmitterFollower Drive Requirements 354 5.2.4 SmallSignal Properties of the Emitter Follower 355
4.4
Voltage and Current References 299
4.4.1 LowCurrent Biasing 299 4.4.1.1 Bipolar Widlar Current Source 299 4.4.1.2 MOS Widlar Current Source 302 4.4.1.3 Bipolar Peaking Current Source 303 4.4.1.4 MOS Peaking Current Source 304 4.4.2
5.3
The Source Follower As an Output Stage 356
5.3.1 5.3.2
Transfer Characteristics of the Source Follower 356 Distortion in the Source Follower
358
5.4
Class B PushPull Output Stage 362
5.4.1 Transfer Characteristic of the Class B Stage 363 5.4.2 Power Output and Efficiency of the Class B Stage 365 5.4.3 Practical Realizations of Class B
SupplyInsensitive Biasing 306 4.4.2.1 Widlar Current Sources
306 4.4.2.2 Current Sources Using
Complementary Output Stages
369 5.4.4 5.4.5 5A.6
Other Voltage Standards
307 4.4.2.3 Self Biasing 4.4.3 309
Allnpn Class B Output Stage
376
TemperatureInsensitive Biasing
317 4.4.3.1 BandGapReferenced
QuasiComplementary Output Stages 379 Overload Protection 380
Bias Circuits in Bipolar Technology 3 17 4.4.3.2 BandGapReferenced Bias Circuits in CMOS Technology 323
5.5
CMOS Class AB Output Stages 382
5 S. 1 CommonDrain Configuration 383 5S.2 CommonSource Configuration with Error Amplifiers 384 5.5.3
A.4.1 Matching Considerations in Current Mirrors 327 A.4.1.1 Bipolar 327 A.4.1.2 MOS 329
A.4.2 Input Offset Voltage of Differential Pair with Active Load 332 A.4.2.1 Bipolar 332 A.4.2.2 MOS 334
Alternative Configurations 391 5.5.3.1 Combined CommonDrain CommonSource Configuration 39 1 5.5.3.2 Combined CommonDrain CommonSource Configuration with High Swing 393 5S.3.3 Parallel CommonSource Configuration 394
CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 5
Output Stages 344 5.1 Introduction 344
Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs 404 6.1 Applications of Operational Amplifiers
405
xiv Contents
6.1.1 Basic Feedback Concepts 405 6.1.2 Inverting Amplifier 406 6.1.3 Noninverting Amplifier 408 6.1.4 Differential Amplifier 408 6.1.5 Nonlinear Analog Operations 409 6.1.6 Integrator, Differentiator 4 10 6.1.7 Internal Amplifiers 41 1 6.1.7.1 SwitchedCapacitor Amplifier 411 6.1.7.2 SwitchedCapacitor Integrator 416
6.6 6.7
6.8
MOS FoldedCascode Operational Amplifiers 446 MOS ActiveCascode Operational Amplifiers 450 Bipolar Operational Amplifiers 453
6.8.1 The dc Analysis of the 741 Operational Amplifier 456 6.8.2 SmallSignal Analysis of the 741 Operational Amplifier 461 6.8.3 Input Offset Voltage, Input Offset Current, and CornmonMode Rejection Ratio of the 741 470
6.2
Deviations from Ideality in Real Operational Amplifiers 419
6.2.1 Input Bias Current 419 6.2.2 Input Offset Current 420 6.2.3 Input Offset Voltage 421 ,/6.2.4 CommonMode Input Range 421 $.2.5 CommonMode Rejection Ratio / (CMRR) 421 / $2.6 PowerSupply Rejection Ratio L/ (PSRR) 422 6.2.7 Input Resistance 424 6.2.8 Output Resistance 424
'
6.9
Design Considerations for Bipolar Monolithic Operational Amplifiers
472 6.9.1 Design of LowDrift Operational Amplifiers 474 6.9.2 Design of LowInputCurrent Operational Amplifiers 476
/
CHAPTER 7
I
6.2.9 Frequency Response 424 6.2.10 OperationalAmplifier Equivalent Circuit 424
Frequency Response of Integrated Circuits 488 7.1 Introduction 488 7.2 SingleStage Amplifiers 488
7.2.1 SingleStage Voltage Amplifiers and The Miller Effect 488 7.2.1.1 The Bipolar Differential Amplifier: DifferentialMode Gain 493 7.2.1.2 The MOS Differential Amplifier: DifferentialMode Gain 496 7.2.2 Frequency Response of the CornrnonMode Gain for a Differential Amplifier 499 7.2.3 Frequency Response of Voltage Buffers 502 7.2.3.1 Frequency Response of the Emitter Follower 503 7.2.3.2 Frequency Response of the Source Follower 509 7.2.4 Frequency Response of Current Buffers 511 7.2.4.1 CommonBaseAmplifier Frequency Response 5 14 7.2.4.2 CommonGateAmplifier Frequency Response 5 15
Basic TwoStage MOS Operational Amplifiers 425
6.3.1 Input Resistance, Output Resistance, and OpenCircuit Voltage Gain 426 6.3.2 Output Swing 428 6.3.3 Input Offset Voltage 428 6.3.4 CommonMode Rejection Ratio 1 431 6.3.5 CommonMode Input Range 432 6.3.6 PowerSupply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) 434 6.3.7 Effect of Overdrive Voltages 439 6.3.8 Layout Considerations 439
TwoStage MOS Operational Amplifiers with Cascodes 442 MOS TelescopicCascode Operational Amplifiers 444
Contents
xv
7.3
Multistage Amplifier Frequency Response 516
DominantPole Approximation 5l 6 ZeroValue Time Constant Analysis 517 Cascode VoltageAmplifier Frequency Response 522 Cascode Frequency Response 525 Frequency Response of a Current Mirror Loading a Differential Pair 532 Shortcircuit Time Constants 533
8.6.2 Local Shunt Feedback 591
The Voltage Regulator as a Feedback Circuit 593 Feedback Circuit Analysis Using Return Ratio 599
8.8.1 ClosedLoop Gain Using Return Ratio 601 8.8.2 ClosedLoop Impedance Formula Using Return Ratio 607 8.8.3 SummaryReturnRatio Analysis 612
Modeling Input and Output Ports in Feedback Circuits 6 13
CHAPTER 9
7.4
Analysis of the Frequency Response of the 741 Op Amp 537
7.4.1 HighFrequency Equivalent Circuit of the741 537 7.4.2 Calculation of the 3dB Frequency of the 741 538 7.4.3 Nondominant Poles of the 741 540
Frequency Response and Stability of Feedback Amplifiers 624 Introduction 624
Relation Between Gain and Bandwidth in Feedback Amplifiers
624
7.5
Relation Between Frequency Response and Time Response 542
Instability and the Nyquist Criterion
626
CHAPTER 8
Feedback 553 Ideal Feedback Equation 553 Gain Sensitivity 555 Effect of Negative Feedback on Distortion 555 Feedback Configurations 557
8.4.1 SeriesShunt Feedback 557 8.4.2 ShuntShunt Feedback 560 8.4.3 ShuntSeries Feedback 561 8.4.4 SeriesSeries Feedback 562
Compensation 633
9.4.1 Theory of Compensation 633 9.4.2 Methods of Compensation 637 9.4.3 TwoStage MOS Amplifier Compensation 644 9.4.4 Compensation of SingleStage CMOS OP Amps 652 9.4.5 Nested Miller Compensation 656
RootLocus Techniques 664
9.5.1 Root Locus for a ThreePole Transfer Function 664 9.5.2 Rules for RootLocus Construction 667 9.5.3 Root Locus for DominantPole Compensation 675 9.5.4 Root Locus for FeedbackZero Compensation 676
Practical Configurations and the Effect of Loading 563
8.5.1 ShuntShunt Feedback 563 8.5.2 SeriesSeries Feedback 569 8.5.3 SeriesShunt Feedback 579 8.5.4 ShuntSeries Feedback 583 8.5.5 Summary 587
Slew Rate 680
9.6.1 Origin of SlewRate Limitations 680 9.6.2 Methods of Improving SlewRate 684
SingleStage Feedback 587
8.6.1 Local Series Feedback 587
xvi Contents
9.6.3 Improving SlewRate in Bipolar Op Amps 685 9.6.4 Improving SlewRate in MOS Op Amps 686 9.6.5 Effect of SlewRate Limitations on LargeSignal Sinusoidal Performance 690 11.2.1 Shot Noise 748 11.2.2 Thermal Noise 752 11.2.3 Flicker Noise (11f Noise) 753 11.2.4 Burst Noise (Popcorn Noise) 754 11.2.5 Avalanche Noise 755
A.9.1 Analysis in Terms of ReturnRatio Parameters 69 1 A.9.2 Roots of a Quadratic Equation 692
CHAPTER 10
11.3 Noise Models of IntegratedCircuit Components 756
11.3.1 Junction Diode 756 11.3.2 Bipolar Transistor 757 11.3.3 MOS Transistor 758 11.3.4 Resistors 759 11.3.5 Capacitors and Inductors 759
Nonlinear Analog Circuits 702 10.1 Introduction 702 10.2 Precision Rectification 702 10.3 Analog Multipliers Employing the Bipolar Transistor 708
10.3.1 The EmitterCoupled Pair as a Simple Multiplier 708 10.3.2 The dc Analysis of the Gilbert Multiplier Cell 7 10 10.3.3 The Gilbert Cell as an Analog Multiplier 7 12 10.3.4 A Complete Analog Multiplier 715 10.3.5 The Gilbert Multiplier Cell as a Balanced Modulator and Phase Dectector 7 l 6
11.4 Circuit Noise Calculations 760
114.1 Bipolar Transistor Noise Performance 762 11.4.2 Equivalent Input Noise and the Minimum Detectable Signal 766
11.S Equivalent Input Noise Generators
768 11S.1 Bipolar Transistor Noise Generators 768 11.5.2 MOS Transistor Noise Generators 773
11.6 Effect of Feedback on Noise Performance 776
11.6.1 Effect of Ideal Feedback on Noise Performance 776 11.6.2 Effect of Practical Feedback on Noise Performance 776
10.4 PhaseLocked Loops (PLL) 720
10.4.1 PhaseLocked Loop Concepts 720 10.4.2 The PhaseLocked Loop in the Locked Condition 722 10.4.3 IntegratedCircuit PhaseLocked Loops 731 10.4.4 Analysis of the 560B Monolithic PhaseLocked Loop 735
11.7 Noise Performance of Other Transistor Configurations 7 83
11.7.1 CommonBase Stage Noise Performance 783 11.7.2 EmitterFollower Noise Performance 784 11.7.3 DifferentialPair Noise Performance 785
10.5 Nonlinear Function Symbols 743
CHAPTER 1 1
Noise in Integrated Circuits 748 11.1 Introduction 748 11.2 Sources of Noise 748
11.8 Noise in Operational Amplifiers 788 11.9 Noise Bandwidth 794 11.10 Noise Figure and Noise Temperature
799 11.10.1 Noise Figure 799 11.10.2 Noise Temperature 802
Contents
CHAPTER 12
xvii
Fully DifferentialOperational Amplifiers
808
12.5.3 CMFB Using Transistors in the Triode Region 830 12.5.4 SwitchedCapacitorCMFB 832
12.1 Introduction 808 12.2 Properties of Fully Differential Amplifiers 808 12.3 SmallSignal Models for Balanced Differential Amplifiers 811 12.4 CommonMode Feedback 8 l 6
12.4.1 CommonMode Feedback at Low Frequencies 8 17 12.4.2 Stability and Compensation Considerations in a CMFB Loop 822
12.6 Fully Differential Op Amps 835
12.6.1 A Fully Differential TwoStage Op Amp 835 12.6.2 Fully Differential Telescopic Cascode Op Amp 845 12.6.3 Fully Differential FoldedCascode Op Amp 846 12.6.4 A Differential Op Amp with Two Differential Input Stages 847 12.6.5 Neutralization 849
12.7. Unbalanced Fully Differential Circuits
850
12.5 CMFB Circuits 823
12.5.1 CMFB Using Resistive Divider and Amplifier 824 12.5.2 CMFB Using Two Differential Pairs 828
12.8 Bandwidth of the CMFB Loop 856 Index
865
xviii Symbol Convention
Symbol Convention
Unless otherwise stated, the following symbol convention is used in this book. Bias or dc quantities, such as transistor collector current Ic and collectoremitter voltage V C Eare , represented by uppercase symbols with uppercase subscripts. Smallsignal quantities, such as the incremental change in transistor collector current i,, are represented by lowercase symbols with lowercase subscripts. Elements such as transconductance g, in smallsignal equivalent circuits are represented in the same way. Finally, quantities such as total collector current I,, which represent the sum of the bias quantity and the signal quantity, are represented by an uppercase symbol with a lowercase subscript.
Modeisfor IntegratedCircuit Active Devices
1.1 Introduction
The analysis and design of integrated circuits depend heavily on the utilization of suitable models for integratedcircuit components. This is true in hand analysis, where fairly simple models are generally used, and in computer analysis, where more complex models are encountered. Since any analysis is only as accurate as the model used, it is essential that the circuit designer have a thorough understanding of the origin of the models commonly utilized and the degree of approximation involved in each. This chapter deals with the derivation of largesignal and smallsignal models for integratedcircuit devices. The treatment begins with a consideration of the properties of pn junctions, which are basic parts of most integratedcircuit elements. Since this book is primarily concerned with circuit analysis and design, no attempt has been made to produce a comprehensive treatment of semiconductor physics. The emphasis is on summarizing the basic aspects of semiconductordevice behavior and indicating how these can be modeled by equivalent circuits.
1.2 Depletion Region of a pn Junction
The properties of reversebiased pn junctions have an important influence on the characteristics of many integratedcircuit components. For example, reversebiased p n junctions exist between many integratedcircuit elements and the underlying substrate, and these junctions all contribute voltagedependent parasitic capacitances. In addition, a number of important characteristics of active devices, such as breakdown voltage and output resistance, depend directly on the properties of the depletion region of a reversebiased pn junction. Finally, the basic operation of the junction fieldeffect transistor is controlled by the width of the depletion region of a p n junction. Because of its importance and application to many different problems, an analysis of the depletion region of a reversebiased p n junction is considered below. The properties of forwardbiased pn junctions are treated in Section 1.3 when bipolartransistor operation is described. Consider a pn junction under reverse bias as shown in Fig. 1.1. Assume constant doping densities of ND atoms/cm3 in the ntype material and NA atoms/cm3 in the ptype material. (The characteristics of junctions with nonconstant doping densities will be described later.) Due to the difference in carrier concentrations in the ptype and ntype regions, there exists a region at the junction where the mobile holes and electrons have been removed, leaving the fixed acceptor and donor ions. Each acceptor atom carries a negative charge and each donor atom carries a positive charge, so that the region near the junction is one of significant space charge and resulting high electric field. This is called
2
Chapter 1
Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices
Charge density p
t
)( ,
Applied external reverse bias
+ + '
VR
Distance
I
Electric jeld f
l
l
8!
I
!
I
Potential 4
I
Figure l . l The abrupt junction under reverse bias VR.( a ) Schematic. (b)Charge density. (C) Electric field. (d) Electrostatic potential.
the depletion region or spacecharge region. It is assumed that the edges of the depletion region are sharply defined as shown in Fig. 1.1, and this is a good approximation in most cases. For zero applied bias, there exists a voltage $0 across the junction called the builtin potential. This potential opposes the diffusion of mobile holes and electrons across the junction in equilibrium and has a value1
where VT
=
  26 mV at 300•‹K
4
kT
the quantity ni is the intrinsic carrier concentration in a pure sample of the semiconductor and ni = 1.5 X 1010cm3 at 300•‹Kfor silicon. In Fig. 1.1 the builtin potential is augmented by the applied reverse bias, VR, and the If total voltage across the junction is ($0 V R ) . the depletion region penetrates a distance W , into the ptype region and Wz into the ntype region, then we require
+
because the total charge per unit area on either side of the junction must be equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.
1.2 Depletion Region of a pn Junction
3
Poisson's equation in one dimension requires that
d2v W    q N ~ for  = p  w1 < x < o dx2 E E where p is the charge density, q is the electron charge (1.6 X 10l9 coulomb), and E is the permittivity of the silicon (1.04 X 10l2 faradkm). The permittivity is often expressed as
where Ks is the dielectric constant of silicon and E O is the permittivity of free space (8.86 X l o w 4 Flcm). Integration of (1.3) gives
where Cl is a constant. However, the electric field % is given by
Since there is zero electric field outside the depletion region, a boundary condition is
.
% =0
for
X =
W1
and use of this condition in (1.6) gives dV for  W < x < O W1) = 1 dx Thus the dipole of charge existing at the junction gives rise to an electric field that varies linearly with distance. Integration of (1.7) gives
@'A % = (X+
E
If the zero for potential is arbitrarily taken to be the potential of the neutral ptype region, then a second boundary condition is V and use of this in (1.8) gives
=
0
for
X =
W1
At X
=
0, we define V
=
V1, and then (1.9) gives
If the potential difference from X
=
0 to X = W2 is V2, then it follows that
and thus the total voltage across the junction is
1
4 Chapter 1
Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices
Substitution of (1.2) in (1.12) gives
From (1.13), the penetration of the depletion layer into the ptype region is
Similarly
Equations 1.14 and 1.15 show that the depletion regions extend into the ptype and ntype regions in inverse relation to the impurity concentrations and in proportion to If either No or N A is much larger than the other, the depletion region exists almost entirely in the lightly doped region.
Jm.
rn
EXAMPLE
An abrupt pn junction in silicon has doping densities N A = 1015 atoms/cm3 and ND = 1016 atoms/cm3. Calculate the junction builtin potential, the depletionlayer depths, and the maximum field with 10 V reverse bias. From (1.1)
From (1.14) the depletionlayer depth in the ptype region is
=
3.5 p m (where 1 p m = 1 micrometer = 1 0  ~ m)
The depletionlayer depth in the more heavily doped ntype region is
Finally, from ( l .7) the maximum field that occurs for X
=
0 is
rn
Note the large magnitude of this electric field.
1.2 Depletion Region of a pn Junction
5
1.2.1 DepletionRegionCapacitance Since there is a voltagedependent charge Q associated with the depletion region, we can calculate a smallsignal capacitance C, as follows:
Now
where A is the crosssectional area of the junction. Differentiation of (1.14) gives
Use of (1.17) and ( l . 18) in (1.16) gives
The above equation was derived for the case of reverse bias VR applied to the diode. However, it is valid for positive bias voltages as long as the forward current flow is small. Thus, if VD represents the bias on the junction (positive for forward bias, negative for reverse bias), then (1.19) can be written as
where Cjo is the value of C j for VD = 0. Equations 1.20 and 1.21 were derived using the assumption of constant doping in the ptype and ntype regions. However, many practical diffused junctions more closely approach a graded doping profile as shown in Fig. 1.2. In this case a similar calculation yields
Note that both (1.21) and (1.22) predict values of Cj approaching infinity as VD approaches $0. However, the current flow in the diode is then appreciable and the equations no longer valid. A more exact analysis2v3of the behavior of Cj as a function of VD gives the result shown in Fig. 1.3. For forward bias voltages up to about $012, the values of C j predicted by (1.21) are very close to the more accurate value. As an approximation, some computer programs approximate Cj for VD > $012 by a linear extrapolation of (1.21) or (1.22).
1
6 Chapter 1
Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices Charge density p
Figure 1.2 Charge density versus dis
tance in a graded junction.
.
More accurate calculation
Reverse bias
1
Foward bias
Figure 1.3 Behavior of p n junction depletionlayer capacitance C j as a function of bias voltage V D .
W
EXAMPLE
= 0.5 V, calculate the If the zerobias capacitance of a diffused junction is 3 pF and capacitance with 10 V reverse bias. Assume the doping profile can be approximated by an abrupt junction. From (1.21)
2
1.2.2 Junction Breakdown
From Fig. l . lc it can be seen that the maximum electric field in the depletion region occurs at the junction, and for an abrupt junction (1.7) yields a value
qN'4 w1 Zmax = E
(1.23)
1.2 Depletion Region of a pn Junction
7
Substitution of (1.14) in (1.23) gives max 
I
[ ~ ~ N A N D 1V'" R
E
(NA + No)
where $o has been neglected. Equation 1.24 shows that the maximum field increases as the doping density increases and the reverse bias increases. Although useful for indicaton other variables, this equation is strictly valid ing the functional dependence of %,, for an ideal plane junction only. Practical junctions tend to have edge effects that cause somewhat higher values of g,,, due to a concentration of the field at the curved edges of the junction. Any reversebiased pn junction has a small reverse current flow due to the presence of minoritycarrier holes and electrons in the vicinity of the depletion region. These are swept across the depletion region by the field and contribute to the leakage current of the junction. As the reverse bias on the junction is increased, the maximum field increases and the carriers acquire increasing amounts of energy between lattice collisions in the depletion region. At a critical field %,., the carriers traversing the depletion region acquire sufficient energy to create new holeelectron pairs in collisions with silicon atoms. This is called the avalanche process and leads to a sudden increase in the reversebias leakage current since ,, the newly created carriers are also capable of producing avalanche. The value of ,% is about 3 X 105V/cm for junction doping densities in the range of 1015 to 1016 atoms/cm3, but it increases slowly as the doping density increases and reaches about 106 V/cm for doping densities of 1018 atoms/cm3. A typical IV characteristic for a junction diode is shown in Fig. 1.4, and the effect of avalanche breakdown is seen by the large increase in reverse current, which occurs as the reverse bias approaches the breakdown voltage BV. This corresponds to the maximum field %,, approaching %". It has been found empirically4 that if the normal reverse bias ,, current of the diode is IR with no avalanche effect, then the actual reverse current near the breakdown voltage is
Figure 1.4 Typical IV characteristic of a junction diode showing avalanche breakdown.
8
Chapter 1
Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices
where M is the multiplication factor defined by
In this equation, V R is the reverse bias on the diode and n has a value between 3 and 6. The operation of a pn junction in the breakdown region is not inherently destructive. However, the avalanche current flow must be limited by external resistors in order to prevent excessive power dissipation from occurring at the junction and causing damage to the device. Diodes operated in the avalanche region are widely used as voltage references and are called Zener diodes. There is another, related process called Zener b r e a k d o ~ nwhich is different from the avalanche breakdown described above. Zener ,~ breakdown occurs only in very heavily doped junctions where the electric field becomes large enough (even with small reversebias voltages) to strip electrons away from the valence bonds. This process is called tunneling, and there is no multiplication effect as in avalanche breakdown. Although the Zener breakdown mechanism is important only for breakdown voltages below about 6 V, all breakdown diodes are commonly referred to as Zener diodes. The calculations so far have been concerned with the breakdown characteristic of plane abrupt junctions. Practical diffused junctions differ in some respects from these results and the characteristics of these junctions have been calculated and tabulated for use by designer^.^ In particular, edge effects in practical diffused junctions can result in breakdown voltages as much as 50 percent below the value calculated for a plane junction. EXAMPLE An abrupt plane pn junction has doping densities NA = 5 X 1015 atoms/cm3 and ND 1016 atoms/cm3. Calculate the breakdown voltage if %,~, = 3 X 10' Vlcm. , , = %c*t in (1.24) to give The breakdown voltage is calculated using, %
=
1.3 LargeSignal Behavior of Bipolar Transistors
In this section, the largesignal or dc behavior of bipolar transistors is considered. Largesignal models are developed for the calculation of total currents and voltages in transistor circuits, and such effects as breakdown voltage limitations, which are usually not included in models, are also considered. Secondorder effects, such as currentgain variation with collector current and Early voltage, can be important in many circuits and are treated in detail. The sign conventions used for bipolar transistor currents and voltages are shown in Fig. 1.5. All bias currents for both npn and pnp transistors are assumed positive going into the device.
LargeSignal Behavior of Bipolar Transistors
9
Figure 1.S Bipolar transistor sign convention.
1.3.1 LargeSignalModels in the ForwardActiveRegion
A typical npn planar bipolar transistor structure is shown in Fig. 1.6a, where collector, base, and emitter are labeled C, B, and E, respectively. The method of fabricating such transistor structures is described in Chapter 2. It is shown there that the impurity doping density in the base and the emitter of such a transistor is not constant but varies with distance from the top surface. However, many of the characteristics of such a device can be predicted by analyzing the idealized transistor structure shown in Fig. 1.6b. In this structure the base and emitter doping densities are assumed constant, and this is sometimes called a uniformbase transistor. Where possible in the following analyses, the equations for the uniformbase analysis are expressed in a form that applies also to nonuniformbase transistors. A cross section AA' is taken through the device of Fig. 1.6b and carrier concentrations along this section are plotted in Fig. 1 . 6 ~Hole concentrations are denoted by p and elec. tron concentrations by n with subscripts p or n representing ptype or ntype regions. The ntype emitter and collector regions are distinguished by subscripts E and C, respectively. The carrier concentrations shown in Fig. 1 . 6 ~ apply to a device in the forwardactive region. That is, the baseemitter junction is forward biased and the basecollector junction is reverse biased. The minoritycarrier concentrations in the base at the edges of the depletion regions can be calculated from a Boltzmann approximation to the FermiDirac distribution function to give6 VBE npoexp VT VBC 0 np(WB) = npoexp VT where WB is the width of the base from the baseemitter depletion layer edge to the basecollector depletion layer edge and n,, is the equilibrium concentration of electrons in the base. Note that VBC is negative for an npn transistor in the forwardactive region and thus n,(WB) is very small. Lowlevel injection conditions are assumed in the derivation of (1.27) and (1.28). This means that the minoritycarrier concentrations are always assumed much smaller than the majoritycarrier concentration. If recombination of holes and electrons in the base is small, it can be shown that7 the minoritycarrier concentration np(x) in the base varies linearly with distance. Thus a straight line can be drawn joining the concentrations at X = 0 and X = WB in Fig. 1 . 6 ~ . For charge neutrality in the base, it is necessary that np(0)
=

10 Chapter 1
m Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices E B C
1 Carrier concentration
Emitter
Base
Collector
(4
Figure 1.6 (a)Cross section of a typical npn planar bipolar transistor structure. (b) Idealized transistor structure. (c) Carrier concentrations along the cross section AA' of the transistor in (b). Uniform doping densities are assumed. (Not to scale.)
and thus
where p,(x) is the hole concentration in the base and NA is the base doping density that is assumed constant. Equation 1.30 indicates that the hole and electron concentrations are separated by a constant amount and thus pp(x) also varies linearly with distance. Collector current is produced by minoritycarrier electrons in the base diffusing in the direction of the concentration gradient and being swept across the collectorbase depletion region by the field existing there. The diffusion current density due to electrons in the base is
it follows from (1. This is necessary for nonuniformbase devices because the diffusion constant is a function of impurity concentration.1.38) applies to both uniform. has been replaced by D. Substitution of (1.. Equation 1.32) that where A is the crosssectional area of the emitter.3 LargeSignal Behavior of Bipolar Transistors 11 where D.36) gives where QB = WBNA is the number of doping atoms in the base per unit area of the emitter and ni is the intrinsic carrier concentration in silicon. In this form (1. 1 . consists of two major components.38) are from 10l4 to 10l6 A.27) into (1. From Fig.36 can be expressed in terms of the base doping density by noting thats (see Chapter 2 ) and substitution of (1. 6 ~ If Ic is the collector current and is taken as positive flowing into the collector. in the base. which is an average effective value for the electron diffusion constant in the base.35 gives the collector current as a function of baseemitter voltage. One of these ( I B l ) represents recombination of holes and electrons in the base and is proportional to the minoritycarrier charge Q. Typical values of Is as given by (1. The base current IB is also an important parameter and.37) in (1. 1.33) gives zc = qAD n WB VBE exp VT = VBE' Is exp VT where and Is is a constant used to describe the transfer characteristic of the transistor in the forwardactive region. at moderate current levels. is the diffusion constant for electrons. the minoritycarrier charge in the base is and we have .and nonuniformbase transistors and D.6c. From Fig. Equation 1.
so that the basecurrent component. which are important at low current levels. o Substitution of (1. Substitution of (1.34) and (1.is minimized.12 Chapter 1 4 Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices where rb is the minoritycarrier lifetime in the base. IB1 represents a flow of majority holes from the base lead into the base region. is the diffusion length (assumed small) for holes in the emitter. it gives the correct functional dependence of IB device parameters for practical doublediffused on nonuniformbase devices. then The emitter is deliberately doped much more heavily than the base.40) gives The second major component of base current (usually the dominant one in integratedcircuit npn devices) is due to injection of holes from the base into the emitter. is the diffusion constant for holes and L.42) gives qAD n2 VBE IB2 . the base current can be expressed in terms of collector current as where PF is the forward current gain. is the sum of ZB1 and IB2: Although this equation was derived assuming uniform base and emitter doping. An expression for PF can be calculated by substituting (1. making ND large and p n ~small. are considered later.35) and IBin (1. Secondorder components of ZB.27) in (1. IB.44) in (1. Equation 1.37) has been substituted for npo.47) to give where (1.46) in (1.46) are both proportional to exp(VBE/VT) this analin ysis. This current component depends on the gradient of minoritycarrier holes in the emitter and is9 where D.43) and (1.48 shows that PF is maximized by minimizing the base width WB and maximizing the ratio of emitter to base doping . pnE(0) is the concentration of holes in the emitter at the edge of the depletion region and is If ND is the donor atom concentration in the emitter (assumed constant).exp = P The total base current. IB2. Since Ic in (1.
48)].47). In that case very little reverse injection occurs from base to emitter. Typical values of PF for npn transistors in integrated circuits are 50 to 500.46) and a controlled collectorcurrent generator to model (1.7 V. and a typical value for this is 2 mVPC. Finally.6 to 0. The term a~ in (1.Note that the collector voltage ideally has no influence on the collector current and the collector node acts as a highimpedance current source.7 and consists of a baseemitter diode to model (1. 1. Ideally y + 1 .7b. the emitter current is where The value of in (1.8. 1. One such circuit is shown in Fig. 1. The term y in (1.). the forwardactive region the baseemitter voltage varies very little because of the steep slope of the exponential characteristic. and this is achieved by making ND/NAlarge and WBsmall. where the input diode has been replaced by a batwhich is usually 0. .51)is called the base transport factor and represents the fraction of carriers injected into the base (from the emitter) that reach the collector...51) is called the emitter injection eficiency and is equal to the ratio of the electron current (npn transistor) injected into the base from the emitter to the total hole and electron current crossing the baseemitter junction.1.) < /< 1 N The validity of (1. The equivalent circuits of is Fig.50)to obtain can be expressed in terms of device parameters by substituting (1.48) where C 1 and ( D P / D n ) ( W B / L p ) ( N A< ~. For pnp devices the corresponding equivalent circuits are shown in Fig. Ideally a~ + 1 and this is achieved by making WBsmall.51) depends on and this is always true if PF is large [see (1. In some circuits the temperature coefficient of VBE(on)important. 1. which is often useful. is shown in Fig. whereas lateral pnp transistors (to be described in Chapter 2) have values l 0 to 100. A simpler version of this equivalent circuit. It is evident from the above development that fabrication changes that cause ar and y to approach unity also maximize the value of PF of the transistor..3 LargeSignal Behavior of Bipolar Transistors 13 densities ND/NA. The results derived above allow formulation of a largesignal model of the transistor suitable for biascircuit calculations with devices in the forwardactive region.7 apply for npn transistors. This represents the fact that in tery with a value VBE(.
the change in VcB equals the change in VCEand this causes an increase in the collectorbase depletionlayer width as shown. 1. The change in the base width of the transistor. the collectorbase junction was assumed reverse biased and ideally had no effect on the collector currents. For values of collectoremittervoltage VCEbetween these extremes.38) we have Ic = . (a) Circuit incorporating an input diode. This is a useful approximation for firstorder calculations.52) yields and substitution of (1S2) in (1.53) gives . 1. Figure 1.8 Largesignal models of pnp transistors corresponding to the circuits of Fig.9..3.7 Largesignal models of npn transistors for use in bias calculations. From (1.35) and (1.exp .Since VBE is constant. the collector current increases slowly as VCEincreases.14 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices Figure 1. 1.7. and this will now be investigated. n : VBE Differentiation of (1. There are occasions where the influence of collector voltage on collector current is important.equals the change in the depletionlayer width and causes an increase AIc in the collector current. but is not strictly true in practice. (b) Simplified circuit with an input voltage source. These are the saturation (VCEapproaches zero) and breakdown (VCEvery large) regions that will be considered later. Consider the effect of changes in VCEon the carrier concentration for constant VBE. The collector voltage has a dramatic effect on the collector current in two regions of device operation. AWB. The reason for this can be seen from Fig.QB VT q ~ ~ .2 Effects of Collector Voltage on LargeSignal Characteristics in the ForwardActive Region In the analysis of the previous section. which is a sketch of the minoritycarrier concentration in the base of the transistor.
in most integratedcircuit transistors the are shown for constant values of VBE. The magnitude of d WBldVcEcan be calculated from (1.10. 15 I I depletion 4 region I I I I I . the variation is typically small for a reversebiased junction and but dWsldVcE is often assumed constant.and thus constantbasecurrent characteristics can often be used in the following calculation. . where Substitution of (1. Emitter Base B ~ollector Figure 1. base current is dependent only on VBEand not on V C E . Equation 1. The variation of Ic with VCEis called the Early effect. Thus narrowbase transistors show a greater dependence of Ic on VCEin the forwardactive region.3 LargeSignal Behavior of Bipolar Transistors Carrier concentration A I Collector depletion I region widens due to A. and V A is a common model parameter for circuitanalysis computer programs. Typical values of V A . This equation predicts that dWB/dVcE is a function of the bias value of V C E .55 shows that dIcldVcs is proportional to the collectorbias current and inversely proportional to the transistor base width. independent of Ic. The dependence of dIcldVcE on Ic results in typical transistor output characteristics as shown in Fig.1. 1.55) in (1S 6 ) gives which is a constant. which has no deExtrapolation of the characteristics of Fig. gives an intercept V Acalled the Early voltage. d WBldVcEin (1. The reason for this is that the base current is usually dominated by the IB2 component of (1. V . 1. Thus all the characteristics extrapolate to the same point on the VCEaxis. In accordance with the assumptions made in the foregoing analysis.18) for a uniformbase transistor. The resulting predictions agree adequately with experimental results. these characteristics However.10 back to the VCEaxis pendence on VCE.55) is negative and thus dIcldVCE is positive.54) becomes Note that since the base width decreases as VCE increases. For a uniformbase transistor QB = W E N A and (1.45).9 Effect of increases in VCEon the collector depletion region and base width of a bipolar transistor.
Since the collector current is proportional to the slope of the minoritycarrier concentration in the base [see (1.) 7:  exp  This is a common means of representing the device output characteristics for computer simulation. is changes in VCEwith VBEheld constant (which cause equal changes in V B C directly affect ) np(We). and the collector node of the transistor appears to have a low impedance. Consequently. Consequently.l 1 the collector ) .59). 1.05 to 0. Saturation is much more commonly encountered in digital circuits.35) to Ic = Is 1 ( + v:.10 Bipolar transistor output characteristics showing the Early voltage. as does n p ( W B from (1. The minoritycarrier concentration in the base at the edge of the depletion region is again given by (1.nP(WB)] ) from Fig.Thus from Fig. the influence of the Early effect is often dominant in smallsignal calculations for highgain circuits and this point will be considered later. where it provides a wellspecified output voltage that represents a logic state.3. Finally.3 V.The carrier concentrations in a saturated npn transistor with uniform base doping are shown in Fig.3 Saturation and InverseActive Regions Saturation is a region of device operation that is usually avoided in analog circuits because the transistor gain is very low in this region. the influence of Early effect on the transistor largesignal characteristics in the forwardactive region can be represented approximately by modifying (1. the value of n p ( W B ) no longer negligible. The inclusion of Early effect in dc bias calculations is usually limited to computer analysis because of the complexity introduced into the calculation. both emitterbase and collectorbase junctions are forward biased. However.3 l ) ] . As V C Eis decreased in saturation with V B E held constant.11. 1. the collectoremitter voltage V C Eis quite small and is usually in the range 0. In saturation. 1. VBCincreases.28) as but since VBCis now positive.16 Chapter 1 Models for integratedCircuit Active Devices Figure 1. Thus changes in n p ( W B ) directly affect the collector current.. 1 . for integratedcircuit transistors are 15 to 100 V.it is also proportional to [ n p ( 0 .11. V A .
1.11. depending on the device structure. The justification for this is that the terminal currents depend linearly on the concentrations np(0) and np(WB). l l is considered separately and the two contributions are combined.VCE with the collector lead due to the finite resistivity of the ntype collector material. (Not to scale. This can be represented as a linear superposition of the two dotted distributions as shown. As the forced P is made lower with respect to PF.VCEcharacteristic shown in Fig. which is larger than in the forwardactive region for a given collector current Ic. The minoritycarrier concentration in saturation shown in Fig. assuming that recombination is small. An additional aspect of transistor behavior in the saturation region is apparent from Fig.3 LargeSignal Behavior o f Bipolar Transistors 17 l I Pnc P~E . This resistor can have a value ranging from 20 to 500 Cl. Each of the distributions in Fig. The slope of characteristic in this region is largely determined by the resistance in series the Ic . These two effects result in a base current IB in saturation. the device is said to be more heavily saturated.This picture of device carrier concentrations can be used to derive some general equations describing transistor behavior. This gives rise to the saturation region of the Ic . 1.11 is a straight line joining the two end points. 1. For a given collector current. Ratio Ic/IB in saturation is often referred to as the forced P and is always less than PF. there is now a much larger amount of stored charge in the base than there is in the forwardactive region.X Emitter Base l I ! Collector Figure 1.60 predicts that the junction current is given by IEF = IESwith a reversebias voltage applied. a fixed voltage source to represent the collectoremitter voltage VCqsat).1.1 ( ? ) where IESis a constant that is often referred to as the saturation current of the junction (no connection with the transistor saturation previously described). The emitter current that would result from npl (X) above is given by the classical diode equation IEF = IES exp . However. since the collectorbase junction is now forward biased. Equation 1.41) will be larger in saturation. more accurate but more complex model includes a resistor in series A with the collector.) current decreases because the slope of the carrier concentration decreases. A useful model for the transistor in this region is shown in Fig.qon). . l . In addition.. Thus the basecurrent contribution represented by (1.12. 1.1 1 Carrier concentrations in a saturated npn transistor. there is a new basecurrent component due to injection of carriers from the base to the collector.13 and consists of a fixed voltage and source to represent VB.
l3 (4 nPn (b)P V Largesignal models for bipolar transistors in the saturation region. The total collector current Ic is given by ICR plus the fraction of IEF that reaches the collector (allowing for recombination and reverse emitter injection)." )  (7..1 where Ics is a constant.12 Typical I c . Returning to Fig. in practice (1.11. The junction current that flows under reversebias conditions is often called the leakage current of the junction. Figure 1 .. ) .1 7 ) : ICS exp .V c ~ characteristics for an npn bipolar transistor.1 (:.60) is applicable only in the forwardbias region.. since secondorder effects dominate under reversebias conditions and typically result in a junction current several orders of magnitude larger than IES. Note the different scales for positive and negative currents and voltages. 1. Thus Ic = a F I E s exp . we can describe the collector current resulting from nP2(x) alone as ICR = ICS ( exp .18 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices Figure 1.
5 to 0. Thus IE = IES exp ( ? )  1 + aRICS exp (7:)  1 where ( Y R is the ratio of emitter to collector current with the transistor operating inverted (i. the negative voltage and current scales have been expanded. This is the current gain of the transistor when operated inverted and is much lower than PF because the device geometry and doping densities are designed to maximize PF.67) in (1. and also in the forwardactive and inverseactive regions.65 is similar in form to (1. Comparison of (1. The inverseactive region of device operation occurs for VCE negative in an n p n transistor and is shown in Fig.12.63) to obtain IE = IES exp ( ? ) :  1 .1  ( : ) (tSR  (exp  I) This form is often used for computer representation of transistor largesignal behavior. from (1. Similarly. Typical values of c r ~ are 0.8.35) except that leakage currents that were previously neglected have now been included. In order to display these characteristics adequately in the same figure as the forwardactive region. An inverse current gain PR is also defined and has typical values 1 to 5. with the collectorbase junction forward biased and emitting carriers into the base and the emitterbase junction reverse biased and collecting carriers). The inverseactive mode of operation is rarely encountered in analog circuits.51). and (1. 1. Use of (1. This can be shown by putting VBEpositive and VBc negative in (1.47).66) IES exp .e. In the forwardactive region.35) allows us and to identify Is = (YFIES..33. the total emitter current is composed of IEF plus the fraction of ICR that reaches the emitter with the transistor acting in an inverted mode.QRICS . In the forwardactive region. (1. Equations 1. it can be shown1•‹in general that where this expression represents a reciprocity condition.65) with (1.62) and (1.62) and (1.1 ( ?B ) = IE .. they degenerate into a form similar to that of (1.1. These equations are the EbersMoll equations.ffRIcs Equation 1.63) allows the EbersMoll equations to be expressed in the general form Ic = Is exp .62 and 1.3 LargeSignal Behavior of Bipolar Transistors 19 where a~ has been defined previously by (1.63 describe n p n transistor operation in the saturation region when VBE and VBC are both positive.49) derived earlier. This minor difference is significant only at high temperatures or very low operating currents. The effect of leakage currents mentioned above can be further illustrated as follows..
69a). In the example shown. For example. 1 4 ~ supplied with a constant emitter current. these leakage terms can become very significant at high temperatures. Typical Ic . 1 . For finite values of IE. Typical values of Ico are from 10l0 to 10l2 A at 25OC.2 the mechanism of avalanche breakdown in a pn junction was described. the effective commonbase current . we have IC0(12O0C)= 10l0 X 212 = 0. and First consider a transistor in the commonbase configuration shown in Fig. the effect of Ico is to decrease the magnitude of the external base current at a given value of collector current.69)is still valid if the appropriate measured value for Ico is used.7 1) gives Since the two terms in (1. 1. 1.As a consequence.70).4 Transistor Breakdown Voltages In Section 1.69a).However.70) If IE is calculated from (1.65)gives where and Ico is the collectorbase leakage current with the emitter open. Assuming that Ico doubles every 8"C.VCB characteristics for an npn transistor in such a connection are shown in Fig.4 pA 1.69) and substituted in (1.2. the effects of avalanche multiplication are apparent for values of VcBbelow BVcBo. For IE = 0 the collectorbase junction breaks down at a voltage BVcBo.5 this is r. estimate its value at 120•‹C. = (lc + I E ) (1. From Fig. Although Ico is given theoretically by (1.in practice. consider the base current IB.73) have opposite signs. Similar effects occur at the baseemitter and basecollector junctions of a transistor and these effects limit the maximum voltages that can be applied to the device. (1.72)in (1. surface leakage effects dominate when the collectorbase junction is reverse biased and Ico is typically several orders of magnitude larger than the value given by (1.the result is But from ( 1 SO) and use of (1. and the magnitude doubles about every 8•‹C.14b. EXAMPLE If Ico is 10l0 A at 24"C. which represents collectorbase breakdown with the emitter open.Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices Substitution of (1.68) in (1.3.
1. gain a~ = Ic/IE becomes larger than unity for values of VCBabove about 60 V. Base widening still occurs in this configuration as VcB is increased. but unlike the commonemitter connection. The considerations of Section 1. however. This is because IEis now fixed instead of VBEor IB. we can calculate the collector current in Fig. and neglecting leakage currents. and breakdown occurs at a value BVcEo. This is because holeelectron pairs are produced by the avalanche process and the holes are swept into the base.2 apply to this situation. the curves show very little of the Early effect seen in the commonemitter characteristics. 1.14b is that for low values of VcB where avalanche effects are negligible.26) and thus One further point to note about the commonbase characteristics of Fig. 1 4 as ~ where M is defined by (1.V C B characteristics. Typical characteristics are shown in Fig. Now consider the effect of avalanche breakdown on the commonemitter characteristics of the device.9. (a) Test circuit. The effects of avalanche breakdown on the commonemitter characteristics are more complex than in the commonbase configuration.2. it produces little change in Ic.12. Thus the collector current remains almost unchanged. which is sometimes called the sustaining voltage LVcEo. 1 . be safely undertaken if the device power dissipation is not excessive. and in Fig. Operation in this region (but below BVcBo) can. 1. 1.3 LargeSignal Behavior of Bipolar Transistors 21 I I (b) BVCBO transistor connection. In a sense the avalanche current is then amplzjied . As in previous cases. (b) Zc . this means the slope of the minoritycarrier concentration at the emitter edge of the base is fixed. operation near the breakdown voltage is destructive to the device only if the current (and thus the power dissipation) becomes excessive. where they effectively contribute to the base current.
81) the breakdown voltage is high. PF is small at low currents.76) gives where Equation 1.77 shows that lc approaches infinity as M a F approaches unity.since Ico is typically several picoamperes. This is because it is only collectorbase avalanche current actually under the emitter that is amplified as described in the previous calculation.81 shows that BVcEo is less than BVcBo by a substantial factor. 1. From (1. However. the effective approaches infinity because of the additional basecurrent contribution from the avalanche process itself. and thus from (1. As explained in the next section. for typical values of PF = 100 and n = 4. At higher collector currents. is the plane junction breakdown of the collectorbase junction.81) this causes a decrease in the breakdown voltage and the characteristic bends back as shown in Fig. gives this and this results in and thus Equation 1. which must be used in (1. That is. the value of BVcBo. as explained in Section 1.12 if the dependence of PF on collector current is included.81). the value of BVcEo is about onehalf of the measured BVcso and not 30 percent as (1. The value of BVcEo can be determined by solving If we assume that VCR= V C ~ . which is remote from the active base. as avalanche breakdown begins in the device. the value of Ic increases and thus PF increases. The value of V C Ein this region of the curve is . the initial collector current is approximately P F I C o from (1. Equation 1 . However. the measured value of BVcso is usually determined by avalanche in the curved region of the collector. PF approaches a constant value and the breakdown curve with Is = 0 becomes perpendicular to the VCEaxis.8 1 explains the shape of the breakdown characteristics of Fig.73).22 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices by the transistor.12 and exhibits a negative slope. As VCEis increased from zero with IB = 0.2. Consequently. and substitution of this in (1.74 still holds. 1. the collector current is very small.2. neglecting any edge effects. However.81) would indicate. The base current is still given by IB = (Ic + IE) Equation 1.
This is designed BVEBO. The value of PF to be used to calculate BVcEo in (1.3. the PF degradation may be serious.4 it was shown that as VCEapproaches the breakdown voltage. unlike collectorbase breakdown. the collector current increases due to avalanche multiplication in the collector.77 shows that the effective current gain approaches infinity as VCEapproaches BVcEo. but if the device is an amplifying transistor.24) using gmax = Zcrit: Since No < N A . where the collector is the more lightly doped side and results in typical values of BVcBo of 20 to 80 V or more. EXAMPLE If the collector doping density in a transistor is 2 X 1015 atoms/cm3 and is much less than = 3 X 105V/cm. This can be contrasted with the collectorbase junction. and this is often utilized in the form of a Zener diode. calculate BVcEo for P = 100 and n = 4.r[ND is made large in (1. that increasing the value of VCEincreases Ic while producing little change in IB. BVcEo. and thus the effective PF of the transistor increases.1.81) that highP transistors will thus have low values of BVcEo. 1. this is of no consequence.45) to reduce IB2].81) is thus the peak value of PF. for example. However. In Section 1. this parameter does in fact depend on the operating conditions of the transistor. Equation 1.3 LargeSignalBehavior of Bipolar Transistors 23 usually defined to be BVcEo.2.Thus the base is the more lightly doped side of the junction and determines the breakdown characteristic.81) 1. the base doping. Note from (1.3. depending on the duration of the breakdowncurrent flow and its magnitude.3. we have < From (1. the doping density in the emitter is made very large to ensure a high value of P." If the device is used purely as a Zener diode. The base is typically an order of magnitude more heavily doped than the collector. Assume The plane breakdown voltage in the collector can be calculated from (1. The baseemitter breakdown voltage of 6 to 8 V provides a convenient reference voltage in integratedcircuit design. care must be taken to ensure that all other transistors in a circuit are protected against reverse baseemitter voltages sufficient to cause breakdown. It can cause a large degradation in PF. breakdown voltage for inverseactive operation shown in Fig. The baseemitter junction of a transistor is also subject to avalanche breakdown.12 is approximately equal to this value because the baseemitter junction is reverse biased in this mode of operation. However. It was shown in Section 1. .5 Dependence of Transistor Current Gain pF on Operating Conditions Although most firstorder analyses of integrated circuits make the assumption that PF is constant. baseemitter breakdown is damaging to the device. and thus the baseemitter breakdown voltage The is much less than BVcBo and is typically about 6 to 8 V. since this is the maximum voltage the device can sustain. This is because.
83) dominates.48). 1.15. The variation of PF with collector current. The base current resulting from recombination in the depletion region is5 where PF t Region I I Region 1 1 ( Region 111 0 0. where PF decreases as Ic decreases.12 which causes the emitter injection efficiency y to increase with temperature. Region 111 is the highcurrent region. 1. This temperature dependence of PF is due to the effect of the extremely high doping density in the emitter. and a typical temperature coefficient for PF is +7000 ppmI0C (where ppm signifies parts per million). and because of the log scale on the vertical axis. Region I1 is the midcurrent region. The reasons for this behavior of PF with IC can be better appreciated by plotting base current IB and collector current Ic on a log scale as a function of V e E . can be divided into three regions. Ic still follows the ideal relationship of (1.16.16.15. l 5 Typical curves of PF versus Zc for an npn integrated . which is mainly due to recombination of carriers in the baseemitter depletion region and is present at any current level. where PF decreases as Ic increases. at higher current levels the base current given by (1. both Ic and IB follow the ideal behavior. where PF is approximately constant. At low current levels. Region I is the lowcurrent region. and Ic IB = E VBE Is exp VT VBE Is exp PFM VT where PFM is the maximum value of PF and is given by (1.15 and 1. 1. At moderate current levels represented by region I1 in Figs. This is illustrated in Fig.1 pA I I I 100 pA I I 1 pA l0 pA 1 rnA 10 rnA circuit transistor with 6 emitter area. This is shown in Fig. PF also varies with both temperature and transistor collector current. and the decrease in PF is due to an additional component in IB. and this additional component has little effect. It is evident that PF increases as temperature increases. Figure 1.24 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices In addition to the effects just described. the value of In PF can be obtained directly as the distance between the two curves. which shows typical curves of PF versus Ic at three different temperatures for an n p n integrated circuit transistor.82). 1. However. which is apparent in Fig.
83).88) gives Thus PF decreases rapidly at high collector currents.83) as Substitution of (1. At high current levels. then (1. . and the decrease in PF in region I11 is due mainly to a decrease in Ic below the value given by (132).l6 Base and collector currents of a bipolar transistor plotted on a log scale versus VBEon a linear scale. the current gain can be calculated from (1. 1.1.86) indicates that PF is proportional to f i a t very low collector currents. The distance between the curves is a direct measure of 1n p F . (In practice the measured curve of IBversus VBEin Fig. and at high current levels the collector current approaches7 Ic = IsH exp VBE 2 VT The current gain in this region can be calculated from (137) and (1. At very low collector currents.84) dominates the base current.) The decrease in Ic is due partly to the effect of highlevel injection.87) in (1.82) and (1.16 may also deviate from a straight line at high currents due to the influence of voltage drop across the base resistance.84) as Substitution of (1. the base current IBtends to follow the relationship of (1. where (1.82) in (1M ) gives If m = 2.3 LargeSignal Behavior of Bipolar Transistors 25 I (linearscale) * "BE Figure 1 .
respectively. incremental or smallsignal models can be derived that allow calculation of circuit gain and terminal impedances without the necessity of including the bias quantities. 1. and this point is taken up again later. Total values of base and collector currents are Ib and I. Part of the designer's skill is knowing which elements of the model can be omitted when performing hand calculations on a particular circuit. These produce a quiescent collector current.17 Effect of a smallsignal input voltage applied to a bipolar transistor. The base region of the transistor then stretches out into the collector and becomes greatly enlarged. In these circumstances.4 SmallSignal Models of Bipolar Transistors Analog circuits often operate with signal levels that are small compared to the bias currents and voltages in the circuit.17b. = ( I c + i. With only + Carrier concentration t Collector I depletion I region j n~(0) 'PO exp = Emitter F " B E Y Emitter depletion region /' 4 Qe X Base Collector (b) Figure 1.)..13 which occurs when the minoritycarrier concentration in the collector becomes comparable to the donoratom doping density. the value of PF at high cutrents is also decreased by the onset of the Kirk effect. 1 . The carrier concentrations in the base of the are transistor corresponding to the situation in Fig. A hierarchy of models with increasing complexity can be derived. and the device is in theforwardactive region. . and thus Ib = ( I B ib)and I.26 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices In addition to the effect of highlevel injection. 1 7 ~ shown in Fig. with bias voltages V B E and Vcc applied Consider the bipolar transistor in Fig. 1 . 1. A smallsignal input voltage vi is applied in series with V B E and produces a small variation in base current ib and a small variation in collector current i. 1 7 ~ as shown.. IB. (a) Circuit schematic. and the more complex ones are generally reserved for computer analysis. (b) Corresponding changes in carrier concentrations in the base when the device is in the forwardactive region. Ic. and a quiescent base current.
GaAs).92) gives = VBE Is exp VT Vi Ic exp VT If vi < V T .Ic .(O) at the emitter edge of the base to increase.4. .94) can be expanded in a power series.the exponential in (1. Ge.1 Transconductance The transconductance is defined as Since we can write A I c = grnAVBE and thus = gmvi (1. and made of any material (Si. The total collector current in Fig. the carrier concentrations are given by the solid lines. = Is exp But the collector bias current is VBE+ vi VT = VBE vi Is exp exp VT VT Ic and use of (1. and produces the concentrations shown by the dotted lines.35) in (13 9 ) to give The transconductance thus depends linearly on the bias current Ic and is 38 mAN for Ic = 1 mA at 25•‹Cfor any bipolar transistor of either polarity (npn or pnp).35) as I. 1 7 ~ be can calculated using (1.90) The value of g. of any size.1. the foregoing relation will be derived in an alternative way. can be found by substituting (1.94) Now the incremental collector current is ic = I. Application of the smallsignal voltage vi causes n.4 SmallSignal Models of Bipolar Transistors 27 bias voltages applied.93) in (1. 1. Ic = (1. These pictures can now be used to derive the various elements in the smallsignal equivalent circuit of the bipolar transistor. To illustrate the limitations on the use of smallsignal analysis. 1 .
From (1. we have and this can be written qh = 7Fic Use of (1.99)for diffused transistors that have nonuniform base doping.4. If (1. = AQh. there is an equal change AQh = qh in the majoritycarrier charge in the base. the application of voltage vi requires the supply of charge qh to the base. in the minoritycarrier charge in the base. is as predicted by (1.97) reduces to (1.90) in (1. it can be identified as the average time per carrier spent in crossing the base.39) is divided by (1.33).103) gives Cb = TFgm .98) gives and substitution of (1.102) in (1.) to the current flow ( I c ) .95) gives If vi < Vr. By chargeneutrality requirements. Since it is the ratio of the charge in transit (Q. if AVBE is less than 10 mV.28 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices and substitution of (1. and the smallsignal analysis is valid. = q. the smallsignal analysis is accurate within about 10 percent. 1.96) in (1. Since majority carriers are supplied by the base lead.In practice. we obtain The quantity TF has the dimension of time and is called the base transit time in the forward direction.99).17b shows that the change in baseemitter voltage AVBE = vi has caused a change AQ. To a first order it is independent of operating conditions and has typical values 10 to 500 ps for integrated npn transistors and 1 to 40 ns for lateral pnp transistors. The cri< < terion for use of smallsignal analysis is thus vi = AVBE < 26 mV at 25•‹C.2 BaseCharging Capacitance Figure 1. (1.99) But since AQ. Practical values of TF tend to be somewhat lower than predicted by (1.14 However. the functional dependence on base width WB and diffusion constant D.90). and the device has an apparent input capacitance The value of Cb can be related to fundamental device parameters as follows.
In the inverseactive mode of operation.4. 1.1.Typical values of PO are close to those of PF.. an equation similar to (1.107 relates the change in base current ib to the corresponding change in collector current i. the base current is related to the collector current by (1. and in subsequent chapters little differentiation is made between these quantities. basecharging capacitance is proportional to the collector bias current.2 the effect of changes in collectoremitter voltage VCEon the largesignal characteristics of the transistor was described.4. Since the saturation region is a combination of forwardactive and inverseactive operation.108) gives and use of (1. where . Note that if PF is constant. Equation 1.3. 1. It follows from that treatment that small changes AVcE in VCEproduce corresponding changes AIc in Ic.3 Input Resistance In the forwardactive region.109) gives Thus the smallsignal input shunt resistance of a bipolar transistor depends on the current gain and is inversely proportional to Zc. inclusion of the parameter TR in a SPICE listing will model the large charge storage that occurs in saturation.4 Output Resistance In Section 1. and the device has a smallsignal input resistance given by Substitution of (1.This is typically orders of magnitude larger than TF because the device structure and doping are optimized for operation in the forwardactive region.99) relates stored charge and current via a time constant Q.90) in (1. then PF = PO.47) as Small changes in IB and Ic can be related using (1. A single value of P is often assumed for a transistor and then used for both ac and dc calculations.47): and thus where POis the smallsignal current gain of the transistor.4 SmallSignal Models of Bipolar Transistors 29 Thus the smallsignal.107) in (1.
Note that llr. If VBEis assumed held constant.9. where If V A = 100 V. 1.18. This is valid for both npn and pnp devices in the forwardactive region and is called the hybrid.. Collector. this effect can be modeled by inclusion of a resistor r..55) and (1. = T . 1 l 1 ) gives AVCE .V A . and thus r.6 characteristics of Fig. from collector to base of the model of Fig.kC . further elements are added to this model to account for parasitics and secondorder effects. respectively.18 Basic bipolar transistor smallsignal equivalent circuit. where V Ais the Early voltage and r.30 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices Substitution of (1. The elements in this circuit are present in the equivalent circuit of any bipolar transistor and are specified by relatively few parameters (P. the magnitude only of Ic is used. is the slope of the output 1.7. This causes a reduction in the total minoritycarrier charge stored in the base and thus a reduction in base current IB due to a reduction in IB1 given by (1.18.40).Since an increase AVcE in VCE causes a decrease AIB in Ie. ~ . base. Note that in the evaluation of the smallsignal parameters for pnp transistors. as are many of the other smallsignal parameters. corresponding values of r. P q. and emitter nodes are labeled C. can be related to g.rr model. Note that r.). r I r = g .6 CollectorBase Resistance Consider the effect of variations in VCE the minority charge in the base as illustrated in on causes an increase in the collector depletionlayer width and Fig.4.57) in ( 1 .ro AI. is the smallsignal output resistance of the transistor. . r o = 1 g . I. B and E.5 Basic SmallSignal Model of the Bipolar Transistor Combination of the above smallsignal circuit elements yields the smallsignal model of the bipolar transistor shown in Fig. 78. are 50 to 100 ki2 for Ic = 1mA. the value of this resistor can be determined as follows. then 77 = 2. 1. . = . In the following sections.4. An increase in VCE consequent reduction of base width. . kT Figure 1. 1. Since typical values of V A are 50 to 100 V. X 1oP4at 25OC. I. 1. 1. TF.. is inversely proportional to I.10.
and the basecollector and collectorsubstrate junctions have capacitances C. recombination in the base is more significant. The means of fabricating such devices is described in Chapter 2. a ) dominates] in integrated npn transistors. In practice.4 SmallSignal Models of Bipolar Transistors 31 Substitution of (1.112) in (1. As described in Section 1.. all pn junctions have a voltagedependent capacitance associated with the depletion region. and r.19. the change AIBl in lBlfor a given AVCE and AIc is also very small. Thus a typical value for r.) .19. 1.. For lateral pnp transistors.21). Thus the variation of Cj.4.. the junction depletion region spreads into the collector. to 5Poro 1. and C. respectively.115) gives If the base current IB is composed entirely of component I B ~then (1. three depletionregion capacitances can be identified. which is @ l Substrate Figure 1.19 Integratedcircuit npn bipolar transistor structure showing parasitic elements.. with bias voltage is well approximated by (1. (Not to scale. is greater than 10Por. 1.107) can be used . for larger reversebias values (more than about a volt). A cross section of a typical npn transistor in a junctionisolated process is shown in Fig.7 Parasitic Elements in the SmallSignal Model The elements of the bipolar transistor smallsignal equivalent circuit considered so far may be considered basic in the sense that they arise directly from essential processes in the device.2. The collectorbase junction behaves like a graded junction for small bias voltages since the doping density is a function of distance near the junction. in (1. In the cross section of Fig. However. The baseemitter junction closely approximates an abrupt junction due to the steep rise of the doping density caused by the heavy doping in the emitter. The baseemitter junction has a depletionregion capacitance Cj. and since IB1 is very small. IB1 is typically less than 10 percent of IB [component IB2 from (1.116) to give This is a lower limit for r. However.1. is in the range 2Por. technological limitations in the fabrication of transistors give rise to a number of parasitic elements that must be added to the equivalent circuit for most integratedcircuit transistors.
there are significant resistances rb and r. and in a typical npn transistor. have very thin collector regions (of the order of one micron). both the depletion region and the associated capacitance vary quite slowly with bias voltage. of several ohms in series with the emitter lead that can become important at high bias currents. and collectorsubstrate capacitances. rb may decrease 50 percent as lc increases from 0. in series with the base and collector contacts.5. and thus for devices with thick collectors the junction tends to behave like an abrupt junction with uniform doping. (Note that the collector resistance r... and r.5 gives the best approximation.. As shown in Fig. however.2 1)for junctionisolated devices. with bias voltage for most devices can be approximated by where V is the forward bias on the junction and n is an exponent between about 0. 1. respectively. and CCso 20 fF. Thus the transistor action tends to occur along the emitter periphery rather than under the emitter itself.1 mA to 10 mA. however. = 1 to 3 a . and all parasitic capacitance to the substrate is connected to ground in an equivalent circuit... In general. then consists of a fixed oxide capacitance... For example.22) for very small bias voltages and (1.21) for large bias voltages in thickcollector devices. the deep p diffusions used to isolate the devices are replaced by oxide. Typical zerobias values of these parasitic capacitances for a minimumsize npn transistor in a modern oxideisolated process are Cjeo.. Values for other devices are summarized in Chapter 2. respectively. In practice. = 20 to 500 a. The value of r. collectorbase. c . is reduced by inclusion of the lowresistance buried n+ layer beneath the collector. In the case of oxideisolated devices. and s on n and used to differentiate emitterbase.117a) will be used to model all three parasitic capacitances with subscripts e. and rC3. (1. but a value of n less than 0. Thus the substrate is an ac ground. Note that the substrate is always connected to the most negative voltage supply in the circuit in order to ensure that all isolation regions are separated by reversebiased junctions. Many modem highspeed processes. Equation 1. When this occurs. The third parasitic capacitance in a monolithic n p n transistor is the collectorsubstrate capacitance C. Consequently. the value of rb is reduced.2 and 0. thus tends to follow (1.32 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices uniformly doped. There is also a resistance re. lateral pnp transistors have a parasitic capacitance Cbs from base to substrate in place of C.10 fF. The collectorbase capacitance C. The sidewall component of C.The value of rb varies significantly with collector current because of current crowding. parameters are rb = 50 to 500 re. ~ . a largearea transistor with multiple base and emitter stripes will have a smaller value of rb.19.15 This occurs at high collector currents where the dc base current produces a lateral voltage drop in the base that tends to forward bias the baseemitter junction preferentially around the edges of the emitter.117a may then be used to model C.  21 a. measurements show that the variation of C . and for large reverse bias voltages this varies according to the abrupt junction equation (1. is actually composed of three parts labeled r . The value of these parasitic resistances can be reduced by changes in the device structure.)Typical values of these r. The final elements to be added to the smallsignal model of the transistor are resistive parasitics. These are produced by the finite resistance of the silicon between the top contacts on the transistor and the active base region beneath the emitter. and the distance from the base contact to the active base region is reduced. . CPo 10 fF. As described in Chapter 2. and the collector depletion region can extend all the way to the buried layer for quite small reversebias voltages.
3. The collectorsubstrate capacitance can also be calculated using (1. the value of Cje is difficult to determine for reasons described in Section 1.117a) gives..5.3.Using the latter approach. = 0. n. and the emitterbase depletion layer capacitance C j .4 SmallSignal Models of Bipolar Transistors 33 Figure 1. for the collectorbase capacitance.20.2.po = 1 0 0 . The capacitance C.9 V.rb = 3 0 0 0 . It should also be noted that while the parasitic resistances of Fig.18 gives the complete smallsignal 'equivalent circuit of Fig. 1. is distributed across r b and C. Ccso = 20fF. n.. The internal base node is labeled B' to distinguish it from the external base contact B. = 0. = 10Poro. V A = 20V.. r .1. as suggested by Fig. . they are usually omitted from the equivalent circuit for lowfrequency calculations.20 is an approximation in that lumped elements have been used. This lumped representation is adequate for most purposes but can introduce errors at very high frequencies. In practice. EXAMPLE Derive the complete smallsignal equivalent circuit for a bipolar transistor at lc = 1 mA. $0. and Vcs = 5 V. 1. we estimate Using (1.19.1 17a) .65V. Device parameters are Cjeo = 10 fF. = 50Cl.5V.20 Complete bipolar transistor smallsignal equivalent circuit. C.1.$0.+0. The addition of the resistive and capacitive parasitics to the basic smallsignal circuit of Fig. Note that the representation of parasitics in Fig. 1.20 can be very important at high bias currents or for highfrequency operation. 1. 1.r. is distributed across r.r. = 0. VcB = 3 V.=~ ~ lops. particularly for collector bias currents less than 1 mA. CPo = lOfF. = 0. Since the baseemitter junction is forward biased. = 0. Either a value can be determined by computer or a reasonable estimation is to double CjeO. n. = 5Cl. contains the basecharging capacitance C. = 0.
.110) is The output resistance from (1.23.21 Complete smallsignal equivalent circuit for a bipolar transistor at Ic = 1 mA.n. Device parameters are Cieo = 10 fF. commonemitter current gain falls to unity.n. A smallsignal current ii is applied to the base.To= 20fF. = 0. and C. r.34 Chapter 1 m Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices From ( l .65V. 1. = 0.9 1) the transconductance is From (1. from (1.20. If r. The value of fT can be measured as well as calculated. where re. and is a measure of the maximum useful frequency of the transistor when it is used as an amplifier.3. have been neglected.02 pF = 0. then r. 1.38 X 38 X 1 0 .38 pF The value of C. = 50 Q.3.104) the basecharging capacitance is Cb = v g m = 10 X 10l2 0. rP = 10Poro.1. using the ac circuit of Fig. n.9 V.~ F = 0. = 0.5V. A smallsignal equivalent circuit can be formed for this situation by using the equivalent circuit of Fig. 112) is and thus the collectorbase resistance is The equivalent circuit with these parameter values is shown in Fig.2 1. Vcs = 3 V.4.. 1.20 as shown in Fig. = 0. V .C. and Vcs = 5 V. 1. is assumed small. rb = 300 Q.8 Specification of Transistor Frequency Response The highfrequency gain of the transistor is controlled by the capacitive elements in the equivalent circuit of Fig. = + 0. ~ ~ = lops. rCloe = 0.118) is C. CpO= 10fF. fT. have no 0 l 0 E Figure 1.22. = 20 V. 1.!~~. The frequency capability of the transistor is most often specified in practice by determining the frequency where the magnitude of the shortcircuit. rex = 5 fl. This is called the transition frequency. = 0. and r. and the output current i.5.4 pF The input resistance from (1. 1.$0. .po = 1 0 0 . is measured with the collector shortcircuited for ac signals.
122) . Now if iolii(jo) is written as p ( j w ) (the highfrequency. is neglected. and we can write + li 1 + p.110).120) gives and thus 10 T (jm) = gm using (1.119) in (1. + C.2 of f ~ .cr P0 jw ( l .119) If the current fed forward through C.4 SmallSignal Models of Bipolar Transistors 35 Figure 1 2 Schematic of ac circuit for measurement . 1 + r. 10 gmV1 (l. smallsignal current gain). +Figure l . influence. then At high frequencies the imaginary part of the denominator of (1.1.122) is dominant.(C. and we have v1 % r.23 Smallsignal equivalent circuit for the calculation of f T .)s ii (1. 120) Substitution of (1.
127) is used to determine w ~ .36 Chapter 1 m Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices 1000 100  .122) we have (l. the terms involving C.24 it can be seen that o~ can be determined by measuring IP(jw)l at some frequency oxwhere IP(jo)l is falling at 6 dB/octave and using This is the method used in practice. 126) From Fig. and C . The decline in fT at high collector currents is not predicted by this simple theory and is due to an increase in TF caused by highlevel injection and Kirk effect at high . The frequency wg is defined as the frequency where P ( j o ) is equal to PO/. associated with w ~ This is de. and thus The transistor behavior can be illustrated by plotting IP(jo)l using (1. Thus IP (j o ) ( is typically measured at some frequency where its magnitude is about 5 or 10. 1.129) gives Equation 1. p (low frequency value) . TT. fined as and use of (1. log scale Figure 1. which is a typical plot of fT versus Ic for an integratedcircuit npn transistor. and they cause TT to rise and fT tofall as Ic is decreased.24 Magnitude of smallsignal ac current gain Ip(jco)l versus frequency for a typical bipolar transistor. 1. At low values of Ic. since deviations from ideal behavior tend to occur as (jw )l approaches unity.124) in (1. dominate. From (1.130 indicates that TT is dependent on Ic (through gm)and approaches a constant value of r~ at high collector bias currents. 1.25.. It is interesting to examine the time constant. h (3 dB down from the lowfrequency value). This behavior is illustrated in Fig. and (1. 104) in (1.118) and (l.128) gives Substitution of (1.122) as shown in Fig.24.
calculate C j .5.25 mA and 9 with Ic = 1 mA. The measured value of C. we have 19. assuming both are constant. Cj.1.2 fF Since C. is 10 f E From the data. 28. At Ic = 1 mA we have = 17.8 X 1 = 8GHz at Ic fT2 = 9 X 1 = 9 GHz at Ic = = 0.25 mA.4 SmallSignal Models of Bi~olar Transistors GHz 37 fr f~ versus Ic for an npn integratedcircuit transistor with 6 p.2 fF . was measured as 10 fF. Figure 1.25 Typical curve of currents.130). EXAMPLE A bipolar transistor has a shortcircuit. values of fT are f ~= .13 1) yields + Cj. are Using these data in (1. and TF.9 at Ic = X 10l2 = 7~ f 104(Cp + Cje) 0.m2 emitter area in a highspeed process. commonemitter current gain at 1 GHz of 8 with Ic = 0.25 rnA 1 mA Corresponding values of 77. the value of Cje is given by 18.3. + 26(Cp + Cje) = Subtraction of (1. These are the same mechanisms that cause a decrease in PF at high currents as described in Section 1.7 X 10l2 C. Assuming that highlevel injection effects are negligible.132) from (1.
. bipolar transistors still prbvide many advantages in standalone analog integrated circuits.26. To reduce system cost and increase portability.26 Typical enhancementmode NMOS structure.25 mA to 1 mA. Therefore.5 LargeSignal Behavior of MetalOxideSemiconductor FieldEffect Transistors Metaloxidesemiconductor fieldeffect transistors (MOSFETs) have become dominant in the area of digital integrated circuits because they allow high density and low power dissipation. allowing great design flexibility. One way to achieve these goals is to use a processing technology that provides both bipolar and MOS transistors. 1 S. forcing the associated analog circuits to use MOScompatible technologies. bipolar technologies are often preferred for the analog integrated circuits and MOS technologies for the digital. Heavily doped ntype source and drain regions are fabricated in a ptype substrate (often called the body). is constant is a useful approximation in practice because VBEchanges by only 36 mV as Ic increases from 0.1 Transfer Characteristics of MOS Devices A cross section of a typical enhancementmode nchannel MOS (NMOS) transistor is shown in Fig. the transconductance per unit bias current in bipolar transistors is usually much higher than in MOS transistors. 1. \ Drain. 1. As a result. In contrast. Figure 1. For example. However. the study of the characteristics of MOS transistors that affect analog integratedcircuit design is important.13 1) gives This is an example of how basic device parameters can be determined from highfrequency currentgain measurements. Note that the assumption that Cj. economic considerations drive integratedcircuit manufacturers to use allMOS processes in many practical cases.38 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices Substitution in (1. A thin layer of silicon dioxide is grown over the Metal or poly silicon gate contract source. both increased levels of integration and reduced power dissipation are required. allMOS processes are less expensive than combined bipolar and MOS processes. So in systems where analog techniques are used on some integrated circuits and digital techniques on others.
Positive charge accumulates on the gate and negative charge in the substrate. resulting in an extremely high resistance (about 1012 between drain and source when the device is off.27. 1. Such devices are called enhancementmode pchannel MOS (PMOS) transistors. The results of Section 1. and E is the permittivity of the silicon.2 can now be applied. allowing the gate voltage to control the current flowing between source and drain. showing depletion regions and the induced channel. and drain grounded with a positive voltage VGS applied to the gate as shown in Fig. the channel must be enhanced to cause conduction. and we will use this orientation in all descriptions of the physical operation of MOS devices. 1. both device types are present.10).26 shows significant conduction between source and drain only when an ntype channel exists under the gate. The charge per area in this depletion region is Induced ntype channel SiO.26 begins by noting that with VGS = 0. These junctions are formed between the ntype source and drain regions and the ptype substrate. The gate and substrate then form the plates of a capacitor with the SiOz as a dielectric. the gatesource voltage modifies the conductance of the region under the gate. the negative charge in the ptype substrate is manifested by the creation of a depletion region and the exclusion of holes under the gate as described in Section 1. Thus. Now consider the substrate.2 for a pnjunction. The depletion region is shown in Fig. The term enhancement mode refers to the fact that no conduction occurs for Vcs = 0.27. 1. the source and drain regions are separated by backtoback p n junctions.1. NA is the doping density (assumed constant) of the ptype substrate in atoms/cm3. the depletionlayer width X under the oxide is a) where 4 is the potential in the depletion layer at the oxidesilicon interface. . In operation. Using (1. 1. source. Initially. The enhancementmode NMOS device of Fig. This control can be used to provide gain in analog circuits and switching characteristics in digital circuits.27 Idealized NMOS device cross section with positive Vc5 applied. 1. Note that the gate is horizontal in Fig. This observation is the origin of the nchannel designation.5 LargeSignalBehavior of MetalOxideSemiconductorFieldEffectTransistors 39 substrate material and a conductive gate material (metal or polycrystalline silicon) covers the oxide between source and drain.  Figure 1. MOS devices can also be made by using an ntype substrate with a ptype conducting channel. In complementary MOS (CMOS) technology.26. The derivation of the transfer characteristics of the enhancementmode NMOS device of Fig.
After the potential in the silicon reaches 24f. In the presence of an inversion layer. Inversion produces a continuous ntype region with the source and drain regions and forms the conducting channel between source and drain.. the potential required to produce inversion becomes (24f + Vss)... ni is the intrinsic carrier concentration. Also. and without substrate bias. This charge is caused by crystal discontinuities at the Si . further increases in gate voltage produce no further changes in the depletionlayer width but instead induce a thin layer of electrons in the depletion layer at the surface of the silicon directly under the oxide. a workfunction difference r$. respectively. is the gate oxide capacitance per unit area. exists between the gate metal and the silicon. Nc is the density of allowed states near the edge of the conduction band. First. is the band gap of silicon at T = O•‹K.Q. . positive charge density Qs.40 Chapter 1 8 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices When the surface potential in the silicon reaches a critical value equal to twice the Fermi level r$f.s/C. and Nv is the density of allowed states near the edge of the valence band. The conductivity of this channel can be modulated by increases or decreases in the gatesource voltage. a phenomenon known as inversion occur^. and the charge density stored in the depletion region in general is The gatesource voltage VGS required to produce an inversion layer is called the threshold voltage Vt and can now be calculated. This voltage consists of several components. and Vtois the threshold voltage with Vss The parameter y is defined as = 0. which is where E.137) and (1. The Fermi level 4f is usually about 0. Thus we have a threshold voltage where (1.'^ The Fermi level 4f is defined as where k is Boltzmann's constant. a voltage [24 + (Qb/Cox)]is required to sustain the depletionlayer charge Qb.3 V.138) have been used.Si02 interface and must be compensated by a gatesource voltage contribution of . the depletion region contains a fixed charge density If a substrate bias voltage VS* (positive for nchannel devices) is applied between the source and substrate. always exists in the oxide at the silicon interface. Third. Second. where C.
. Positive voltage VDs causes the reverse bias from the drain to the substrate to be larger than from the source to substrate. The channel conductivity is determined by the vertical electric field. 1. VDS. By implanting ntype impurities in the channel region. Nonzero VDs produces a horizontal electric field and causes current ID to flow. we assume that the voltage drop along the channel itself is small so that the depletionlayer width is constant along the channel.1 V to 4 V.5 and Cox = 3. In practice. and thus the widest depletion region exists at the drain. forming a depletion device with typical values of Vro in the range . however. Extra ptype impurities are implanted iu the channel to set Vto between 0.1. For simplicity.28 NMOS device with bias voltages applied.139) is shifted by approximately Qi/Cox4 The preceding equations can now be used to calculate the largesignal characteristics of an nchannel MOSFET. respectively.45 fWPm2 for to. If Q. which is controlled by the value of (VGS. are the permittivity and the thickness of the oxide.28 and Qr is the induced electron charge per unit area of the channel. and VSB are applied as shown in Fig.28. the voltage with respect to the source is V ( y )and the gatetochannel voltage at that point is 1 \ ~e~letion rein Y Y + ~ Y Y ptype substrate 4  . the current ID that flows from drain to source is zero because the horizontal electric field is zero. The value of the current depends on both the horizontal and the vertical electric fields. At a distance y along the channel. The charge d Q is where W is the width of the device perpendicular to the plane of Fig.5 V for nchannel enhancement devices. = 100 angstroms. inversion occurs and a conducting channel exists.Vr). The drain current ID is where d Q is the incremental channel charge at a distance y from the source in an incremental length d y of the channel. If VDs = 0. the source is assumed grounded and bias voltages VGS. 1. the value of Vrois usually adjusted in processing by implanting additional impurities into the channel region. In this analysis. a conducting channel can be formed even for VGS = 0.5LargeSignal Behavior of MetalOxideSemiconductorFieldEffect Transistors 41 and where E ox and to. is the charge density due to the implant.v ? Figure 1. A typical value of y is 0. and d t is the time required for this charge to cross length dy. If VGS > Vr.5 V and 1. explaining the temjeldefSect transistor. then the threshold voltage given by (1.
Typical values range from about 500 cm2/(vS)to about 700 cm2/(vS). Thus the induced electron charge per unit area in the channel is Also.V ( y ) .V. = 100 angstroms is about 200 FAN2 for an nchannel device. Combining (1. (1. is sometimes called the surface mobility for electrons because the channel forms at the surface of the silicon. Also. assuming a continuous induced channel.We assume this voltage exceeds the threshold voltage Vt.153) When VDs < 2(VGs .146) gives The drift velocity is determined by the horizontal electric field.152 is important and describes the IV characteristics of an MOS transistor.). the mobility depends on both the temperature and the doping level but is almost constant for a wide range of normally used doping levels. Substituting (1. Equation 1. and (1.149) into (1. A typical value of k' for to.148). is the average electron mobility in the channel.145). . and the average drift velocity of electrons is proportional to the average field when the field is small.17 The electric field % ( y )is where d V is the incremental voltage drop along the length of channel d y at a distance y from the source.which are much less than the mobility of electrons in the bulk of the silicon (about 1400 cm2NS)because surface defects not present in the bulk impede the flow of electrons in MOS transistors.147) gives Separating variables and integrating gives Carrying out this integration gives where k' = pnCox = FnEox t ox (1.152) predicts that ID approximately proportional to VDs.42 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices VGS.144) and (1. (1. < is This result is reasonable because the average horizontal electric field in this case is VD~/L. where vd is the electron drift velocity at a distance y from the source. When the horizontal electric field % ( y )is small. p. In practice. the drift velocity is proportional to the field and where the constant of proportionality p .
(V.55) for bipolar transistors.152).157).Vt). the gatedrain voltage is less than a threshold.V. then the eflective channel length is given by Leff = L . which means that the channel no longer exists at the drain.157 predicts that the drain current is independent of VDs in the pinchoff region. Using (1. at the point where the channel pinches off. This result is reasonable because we know that the gatetochannel voltage at the point where the channel disappears is equal to V.159) Because Xd (and thus Leff)are functions of the drainsource voltage in the pinchoff region. we obtain and thus This equation is analogous to (1. In practice.158) and (1.1. the average horizontal electric field across the channel in pinchoff does not depend on the the drainsource voltage but instead on the voltage across the channel. That is.Vt. Rearranging (1. If this depletionlayer width is Xd.158) If Leff is used in place of L in (1.152) is no longer valid if VDs > VGS . This phenomenon is called pinchoff and can be understood by writing a KVL equation around the transistor: (1.154) VDS = VDG+.VGS Therefore. As a result.Vt). 2 Leff  V. giving Equation 1.Vr).Vr in (1. Following a similar procedure.155) gives VGD < VI Equation 1. the Early voltage can be defined as . The value of ID in this region is obtained by substituting VDs = VGS . by the definition of the threshold voltage. Therefore. (1. Therefore. This effect is called channellength modulation.156 shows that when drainsource voltage is greater than (VGS. however.Vt).Vt. when VDs > VGS .Xd (1. which is (Vcs . the channel voltage is (VGS . the drain current in the pinchoff region varies slightly as the drain voltage is varied. the induced conducting channel narrows at the drain end and (1. we obtain a more accurate formula for current in the pinchoff region k' W ID = . This effect is due to the presence of a depletion region between the physical pinchoff point in the channel at the drain end and the drain region itself...5LargeSignalBehavior of MetalOxideSemiconductorFieldEffect Transistors 43 As the value of VDs is increased. at the drain end approaches zero as VDs approaches (VGS. IDvaries with VDs. the channel is no longer connected to the drain when VDs > VGS.) 2 (1.145) indicates that Q.159).
Since VDs = (VGS. independent of the bias conditions. The pinchoff region for MOS devices is often called the saturation region.44 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices and thus For MOS transistors. As a result.Vt).18and developing effective values of A from experimental data is usually necessary. however. the nonlinearity is also small when VDs is small. Typical values of A are in the range 0. The boundary between the triode and saturation regions occurs when VDs = (VGS. the largesignal properties of the transistor can be approximated by assuming that A and VA are constants. and the triode region is also sometimes called the linear region. On the other hand. On this boundary. The device operates in the pinchoff region when VDs > (VGS. 1.l52) and (1.157) shows that the boundary is ID= ( ~ ' I ~ ) ( w I L ) v & . both (1. . As in the bipolar case.Vt).Vt). The resistance of this resistor is nonlinear because the V& term in (1. variation of Xd with voltage is complicated by the fact that the field distribution in the drain depletion region is not onedimensional.Vt) along the boundary between triode and satThis uration. when VDs < (VGS. the calculation of A from the device structure is quite difficult.157) to In practical MOS transistors. a commonly used parameter for the characterization of channellength modulation is the reciprocal of the Early voltage. the device operates in the Ohmic or triode region. Thus we can include the effect of channellength modulation in the IV characteristics by modifying (1. which shows that the current depends mostly on the gatesource voltage and only to a small extent on the drainsource voltage. In saturation. where the device can be modeled as a nonlinear voltagecontrolled resistor connected between the drain and source. Since this term is small when VDs is small.152) causes the resistance to depend on VDs.05 V' to 0. the output characteristics are almost flat. parabolic function ID 1 Ohmic or triode region I . The parameter A is inversely proportional to the effective channel length and a decreasing function of the doping level in the channel. Plots of IDversus VDs with VGSas a parameter are shown in Fig.157) correctly predict ID. Active or pinchoff region increases  v~~ Figure 1. (1.29 for an NMOS transistor.005 V'.29 NMOS device characteristics.
is negative. bipolar transistors operate in the forwardactive region.19.31 < VBC(~~) VBECon) < VBC(on) < VBE(on) 2 V R ~ ( ~ 2 VBE(O~) 2 VBC(O~) 2 c 2 vl V. o  S l J Figure 1. Similarly. This link is summarized in the table of Fig.30 Largesignal model for the NMOS transistor. 1. This distinction is important because integratedcircuit bipolar transistors are typically not symmetrical in practice. A consequence of this asymmetry is that the current gain in the forwardactive region PF is usually much greater than the current gain in the reverseactive region PR. For PMOS devices. To avoid confusion.30. For depletion nchannel MOS devices.2 Comparison of Operating Regions of Bipolar and MOS Transistors Notice that the meaning of the word saturation for MOS transistors is quite different than for bipolar transistors. r V. On the other hand.29. the emitter operates more efficiently as an emitter of minority carriers than as a collector. To include the effect of channellength modulation. where ID is given by (1. The results derived above can be used to form a largesignaI model of the NMOS transistor in saturation. (1. all polarities of voltages and currents are reversed.31. 2 < V.1. and ID is nonzero even for VGS = 0. .29. 1. that is.165) should be used instead of (1. which reviews the operating regions of npn bipolar and nchannel MOS transistors. 1. One reason for this asymmetry is that the collector region surrounds the emitter region in integratedcircuit bipolar transistors. The model topology is shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. Saturation in bipolar transistors refers to the region of operation where both junctions are forward biased and the collectoremitter voltage is approximately constant or saturated. the collector operates more efficiently as a collector of minority carriers than as an emitter. They operate in the reverseactive region when the collector junction is forward biased and the emitter junction is reverse biased. When the emitter junction is forward biased and the collector junction is reverse biased.5.159) or (1. saturation in MOS transistors refers to the region of operation where the channel is attached only to the source but not to the drain and the current is approximately constant or saturated. 1.157) in saturation. V.5 LargeSignal Behavior of MetalOxideSemiconductorFieldEffect Transistors 45 of VDs is shown in Fig. < vt < vt m V. V. 1. 1. Operating regions of npn bipolar and nchannel MOS transistors. ignoring the effect of channellength modulation.157) to find the drain current in saturation.152) in the triode region and (1. This wording is selected to form a link between the operation of MOS and bipolar transistors. as shown in Fig. l Region npn Bipolar Transistor VBE vB~(on) I VBC nchannel MOS Transistor l VGD Region Cutoff Saturation(Active) Saturation(Active) ~ ) Triode VGS Cutoff Forward Active Reverse Active Saturation Figure 1. the term active region will be used in this book to describe the flat region of the MOS transistor characteristics.
Instead they do indicate the direction of current flow when the terminals are biased so that the terminal labeled as the drain operates as the drain and the terminal labeled as the source operates as the source.31 also shows that npn bipolar transistors operate in cutoff when both junctions are reversed biased. and the current flows in a direction opposite that of the electrons in the channel. distinguishing between the forwardactive and reverseactive regions of operation of an MOS transistor is not necessary. In CMOS technology. To display this analogy.1 46 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices In contrast. which is common to all devices. .) Therefore. Similarly. therefore. Therefore. this comparison leads us to view the voltage required to invert the surface of an MOS transistor as analogous to the voltage required to forward bias a pn junction in a bipolar transistor. Figure 1. the source operates at a higher voltage than the drain. the symmetry is good but not perfect. and MOS transistors operate in the triode region when the gate is biased so that the channel is connected to both the source and the drain. the source is the source of electrons. Furthermore. we will use the circuit symbols in Fig. (c) Depletion MOS device symbols. the arrows in Fig. In NMOS transistors. 1 . The other device type. Therefore. however. and usually not shown on the circuit diagram. is fabricated in separate isolation nchannel pchannel (4 S nchannel pchannel nchannel pchannel Figure 1. one device type is fabricated in the substrate. the source operates at a lower voltage than the drain. 3 2 ~ represent MOS transistors. the source is the source of holes. MOS transistors operate in cutoff when the gate is biased so that inversion occurs at neither the source nor the drain. invariably connected to a dc powersupply voltage. 1 . and the current flows in the same direction as the holes in the channel.32 (a) NMOS and PMOS symbols used in CMOS circuits. therefore. npn transistors operate in saturation when both junctions are forward biased. 3 2 ~ not indicate pn junctions. In bipolartransistor symbols. the source and drain of MOS transistors are completely interchangeable based on the preceding description. (In practice. the arrow at the emitter junction represents the direction of current flow when the emitter junction is forward biased. These symbols are intento tionally chosen to appear similar to the symbols of the corresponding bipolar transistors. (b) NMOS and PMOS symbols used when the substrate connection is nonstandard. the pn junctions between the source and body and the drain and body are reverse biased for normal operation. In MOS transistors. In PMOS transistors.
1 . and N.Vt. In contrast.. the next section shows that the threshold falls with increasing temperature. 1. (1.. 3 2 ~ ..135) gives Assume both N. If these isolation regions are connected to the appropriate power supply. VGS.3 Decompositionof GateSource Voltage The gatesource voltage of a given MOS transistor is usually separated into two parts: the threshold.157).167) gives Qss. the symbols of Fig. the overdrive rises with temperature.l 1. are independent of temperature. V.138) into (1. symbols for depletionmode devices. We will refer to this latter part of the gatesource voltage as the overdrive. On the other hand. the overdrive is Since the transconductance parameter k' is proportional to mobility.166) shows that the overdrive depends directly on the current. but not on the sourcebody voltage. which may or may not be connected together and which may or may not be connected to a powersupply voltage. Assume that + (1. 3 2 ~ will be used.19 Then differentiating Substituting (1.136) into (1. Finally. where the substrate is labeled B. for which a channel forms for VGS = 0 .4 Threshold Temperature Dependence Assume that the sourcebody voltage is zero. and the substrate connection will not be shown. and C.20 Then differentiating (1. the devices will be represented by the symbols of Fig. 1 .5. Furthermore. Substituting (1. 1. are independent of temperature. (1. 1S. but not on the current.5 LargeSignalBehavior of MetalOxideSemiconductor FieldEffect Transistors 47 regions called wells.169) gives . are shown in Fig. if the individual isolation regions are connected elsewhere. and since mobility falls with increasing temperature. Assuming squarelaw behavior as in (1.140) shows that the threshold depends on the sourcebody voltage.139) gives . and the voltage over the threshold.32b. This decomposition is used because these two components of the gatesource voltage have different properties.
17 1) gives From (1. others have little dependence on L.(1.48 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices Substituting (1.177) into (1. 171) into (1. Also.168) gives Equation 1. Also Substituting (1.173) .5.142).172) gives 1.170) and simplifying gives Substituting (1. Cx = o 3.~ cm = fF 3.22v23Some of these limitations have a strong dependence on the gate length L. others cause no damage as long as overheating is avoided. Substituting (1. some of the voltage limitations are inherently destructive.ldT.172 shows that the threshold voltage falls with increasing temperature if < Egl(2q).173) and (1. = 1015 and to.169) into (1.135).5 MOS Device Voltage Limitations The main voltage limitations in MOS transistors are described next.NA From (1. = 100 A.9 (8. .141) and ( l . The slope is usually in the range of 0.174) into (1.5 mVPC to 4 ~ v I O C . Find dV. ~ ~ + EXAMPLE Assume T = 300•‹K.854 x 1014 Flcm) 100 X I O .45 km2 Also.
and the drain current increases abruptly by avalanche breakdown as described in Section 1. A smallsignal input voltage vi is applied in series with VGS and produces a small variation in drain current id. the draindepletion region has little effect on the channel. Punchthrough is not inherently destructive and causes a more gradual increase in the drain current than is caused by avalanche breakdown. To simplify the calculation of circuit gain and terminal impedances. smallsignal models can be used. Hot Carriers. For long channel lengths. In addition to VDs limitations. Punchthrough normally occurs below the surface of the silicon and is often prevented by an extra ion implantation below the surface to reduce the size of the depletion regions. This phenomenon is called punchthrough. however. Consider the MOS transistor in Fig. If the depletion region around the drain in an MOS transistor touches the depletion region around the source before junction breakdown occurs. electrons or holes may reach sufficient velocities to be injected into the oxide. where horizontal electric fields are likely to be high. increasing the drainsource voltage increases the drain current by reducing the barrier to electron flow between the source and drain. In this sense.6 SmallSignal Models of MOS Transistors As mentioned in Section 1S. However. and choosing the simplest model required to do a given analysis is important in practice. 1. As in the case for bipolar transistors.2. For increasing VDs. Since this process depends on the vertical electrical field.v e r s u s . resulting in resistive connections between the gate and the channel. where most of them increase the gate current and some of them become trapped. 1.the device operates in the saturation or active region. MOS transistors are often used in analog circuits. eventually the drainsubstrate pnjunction breakdown voltage is exceeded.V ~ ~ closely follow the ideal curves of curves Fig. and VDD > (VGS. . The total value of the drain current is Id = (ID + id).1 1. With sufficient horizontal or vertical electric fields. which * ~ ~ gate to channel with an oxide thickness of 100 angstroms. Such carriers are called hot because the required velocity for injection into the oxide is usually greater than the random thermal velocity. Oxide Breakdown. If VGS > V.33 with bias voltages VGS and VDD applied as shown. it also depends on the gate length. this process is destructive to the transistor. Since it depends on the two depletion regions touching. a hierarchy of models with increasing complexity can be derived. 1.29.6 SmallSignal Models of MOS Transistors 49 Junction Breakdown.2. MOS devices must also be protected against excessive gate voltages. These bias voltages produce quiescent drain current ID. Oxide breakdown can be caused by static electricity and can be avoided by using pn diodes and resistors to limit the voltage range at sensitive nodes internal to the integrated circuit that connect to bonding pads. Carriers trapped in the oxide shift the threshold voltage and may cause a transistor to remain on when it should turn off or vice versa. Punchthrough. Typical gate oxides break down with an electric field of ~ ~ corresponds to 6 to 7 V applied from about 6 X 106 V/cm to 7 X 106 v / c ~ . injection of hot carriers into the oxide is a destructive process. This process is most likely to be problematic in shortchannel technologies. and the I ~ . it is independent of channel length.Vt). This phenomenon is not inherently destructive.
. (1. Assuming squarelaw operation. (1. the thermal voltage VT is about equal to 26 mV.180) for MOS transistors shows that Also.33 can be calculated using (1.8 shows that the transition frequency fr of an MOS transistor is proportional to the overdrive. for bipolar transistors.179) simplifies to Unlike the bipolar transistor. < If AVDs < 1.157) as . Another key difference between bipolar and MOS transistors can be seen by calculating the ratio of the transconductance to the current. One of the key challenges in MOS analog circuit design is designing highquality analog circuits with a low transconductancetocurrent ratio.50 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices t Id = ID + id "DD 1. Using (1.1 Transconductance Figure 1. the transconductance per given current is much higher for bipolar transistors than for MOS transistors.165) by differentiating. In contrast.180) is valid for smallsignal analysis.6. the transconductance from the gate can be determined from (1. The total drain current in Fig. the change in the drain current resulting from a change in the gatesource voltage will be derived from a largesignal standpoint. the transconductance of the MOS transistor is proportional to the square root of the bias current and depends on device geometry (oxide thickness via k' and WIL). 1. for MOS transistors in many applications is chosen to be approximately several hundred mV so that MOS transistors are fast enough for the given application. The transconductance calculated in (1.) Under these conditions.91) shows that At room temperature. (Section 1.157) and (1. To determine the limitation on the use of smallsignal analysis. the overdrive V.33 Schematic of an MOS transistor with biasing.6.
2 Intrinsic GateSource and GateDrainCapacitance If C.vt) v~~ (1.145) into (1.. 1.180) into (1.. and the gatechannel capacitance is usually lumped into two equal parts at the drain and source with In the saturation or active region.1. if lvil = lAvGsl is less than 20 percent of the overdrive.6 SmallSignal Models of M S Transistors O 51 Substituting (1.190) Therefore.188) Solving (1.6. In the triode region of device operation..153) and (1. substituting ( l . ~ Q T 2 C.150) for d y and substituting into (1. W L . and the drain voltage exerts little influence on either the channel or the gate charge.V t )in the saturation or active region.157) in (1. then the total capacitance under the gate is C.. in the saturation or active region. the channel pinches off before reaching the drain..188) gives where the limit y = L corresponds to V = (VGS.= WLC.189) and use of (1. = . To calculate the value of the intrinsic part of C. in the saturation or active region.186) In particular. we must calculate the total charge QT stored in the channel. This capacitance is intrinsic to the device operation and models the gate control of the channel conductance. ~VGS 3 and c. = 0 . the channel exists continuously from source to drain. As a consequence.166). is the oxide capacitance per unit area from gate to channel.184) gives is If the magnitude of the smallsignal input [vi/ much less than twice the overdrive defined in (1. the smallsignal analysis is accurate within about 10 percent. the intrinsic portion of Cgdis essentially zero in the saturation region.185) gives id = gmvi (1.183) gives Rearranging (1..157) gives QT = 2 S w L c o ~ ( . Solution of (1. This calculation can be carried out by substituting (1.144) and integrating to obtain L (1. however.
5 Basic SmallSignal Model of the MOS Transistor Combination of the preceding smallsignal circuit elements yields the smallsignal model of the MOS transistor shown in Fig. ID is the drain current without channellength modulation given by (1. . A is the channellength modulation parameter. Since the dc drain current ID also flows from drain to source in an nchannel transistor. Figure 1.34.3 Input Resistance The gate of an MOS transistor is insulated from the channel by the Si02 dielectric. the model predicts that the incremental current id flowing from drain to source increases. Drain.6. In contrast. Increasing drainsource voltage in an nchannel MOS transistor increases the width of the depletion region around the drain and reduces the effective channel length of the device in the saturation or active region. G. When the gatesource voltage is increased. This characteristic is important in some circuits such as sampleandhold amplifiers. 1. (1.34 Basic smallsignal model of an MOS transistor in the saturation or active region.4 Output Resistance In Section 1.161). and r. 1. the lowfrequency gate current is essentially zero and the input resistance is essentially infinite.193) gives where VA is the Early voltage. gate.6.rr model.164) in (1.1. This effect is called channellength modulation and causes the drain current to increase when the drainsource voltage is increased. This model was derived for nchannel transistors in the saturation or active region and is called the hybrid. where the gate of an MOS transistor can be connected to a capacitor to sense the voltage on the capacitor without leaking away the charge that causes that voltage. respectively.6.163). the effect of changes in drainsource voltage on the largesignal characteristics of the MOS transistor was described. As a result.5. bipolar transistors have small but nonzero base current and finite input resistance looking into the base.157). and (1. and source nodes are labeled D. we can calculate the change in the drain current AID arising from changes in the drainsource voltage AVDs as Substitution of (1. From that treatment.52 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices 1. and S. is the smallsignal output resistance of the transistor. 1. complicating the design of bipolar sampleandhold amplifiers.
1. This effect stems from the influence of the substrate acting as a second gate and is called the body effect. is the capacitance per unit area of the depletion region under the channel. On the other hand. the incremental drain current flows in a direction opposite to the dc drain current when the gatesource voltage increases. Therefore. when the bodysource voltage is not constant.20) gives where Cj. Substitution of (1.141) in (1. the source connection can have a significant ac voltage impressed on it. the dc current ID in a pchannel transistor flows from source to drain because the source acts as the source of holes. which changes the bodysource voltage when the body voltage is fixed. On the one hand.140) This equation defines a factor X . the bodysource voltage changes the threshold. which is a smallsignal or ac ground. we have . the transconductance from the body or second gate is From (1. which is the rate of change of threshold voltage with body bias voltage. Substitution of (1. however. This result is reasonable physically because increasing the gatesource voltage in a pchannel transistor reduces the channel conductivity and drain current. which controls the channel conductivity and therefore the drain current.165).34 is also valid forpchannel devices. assuming a onesided step junction with a builtin potential $o = 2 4f . the gatesource voltage controls the vertical electric field.1. 1. two transconductance terms are required to model MOS transistors: one associated with the main gate and the other associated with the body or second gate. the model again shows that increasing the gatesource voltage increases the incremental current id flowing from drain to source. Unlike in the nchannel case. Therefore. Using (1.6 Body Transconductance The drain current is a function of both the gatesource and bodysource voltages. Therefore. The model shown in Fig. Note that the body of an MOS transistor is usually connected to a constant powersupply voltage.6. However. reducing the total drain current Id.196) in (1.195) gives < If AVDs < 1.196) and use of (1. which changes the drain current when the gatesource voltage is fixed. This result is reasonable physically because increasing the gatesource voltage in an nchannel transistor increases the channel conductivity and drain current.6 SmallSignal Models of MOS Transistors 53 increasing the gatesource voltage also increases the total drain current Id.
7 Parasitic Elements in the SmallSignal Model The elements of the smallsignal model for MOS transistors described above may be considered basic in the sense that they arise directly from essential processes in the device.respectively. 3 5 are Csband Cdb.198). we find The factor X is typically in the range 0. The sourcebody and drainbody junction capacitances shown in Fig. technological limitations in the fabrication of the devices give rise to a number of parasitic elements that must be added to the equivalent circuit for most integratedcircuit transistors.35.1 to 0. From (1. A cross section and top view of a typical nchannel MOS transistor are shown in Fig. however. 1. therefore.179) and (1.3. The means of fabricating such devices is described in Chapter 2. 1. 1 . All pn junctions in the MOS transistor should be reverse biased during normal operation. (1. If the doping levels in the source.Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices The ratio gmb/gmis an important quantity in practice. and ~ body regions are assumed to be constant.21) can be used to express these capacitances as follows: Source Gate Drain Body .6. the transconductance from the main gate is typically a factor of about 3 to 10 times larger than the transconductance from the body or second gate. drain. As in the case of bipolar transistors. and each junction exhibits a voltagedependent parasitic capacitance associated with its depletion region.
8 MOS Transistor Frequency Response As for a bipolar transistor. Such parasitic capacitance should be taken into account when simulating and calculating highfrequency circuit and device performance. and Cgd. Fringing capacitance becomes important for lines narrower in width than several microns. the capacitance is about 3. With a silicon dioxide thickness of 100 A . Similar parasitic resistances in series with the gate and body terminals are sometimes included but often ignored because very little current flows in these terminals. Typical values of these resistances are 50 Cl to 100 Cl for devices with W of about 1 k m .6. especially at low frequencies. the frequency capability of an MOS transistor is usually specified by finding the transition frequency f ~ . as shown by the shaded regions in the top view of Fig.. 1. Capacitance Cgbbetween gate and body or substrate models parasitic oxide capacitance between the gatecontact material and the substrate outside the activedevice area.35b.187) for the triode region of operation and in (1. 1. Since the channel is attached to the source in the saturation or active region.45 fF per square micron. A detailed analysis of the channelbody capacitance is given in T ~ i v i d i s . these resistances are often ignored in hand calculations for simplicity but included in computer simulations. an MOS transistor.36.35a. .6 SmallSignal Models of MOS Transistors 55 These capacitances are proportional to the source and drain region areas (including sidewalls). CXb also includes depletionregion capacitance from the induced channel to the body. f~ is defined as the For Figure 1. and their values are calculated in Chapter 2. 1. Parasitic resistance in series with the source and drain can be used to model the nonzero resistivity of the contacts and diffusion regions. These parasitic resistances have an inverse dependence on channel width W.191) and (1.given in (1. ~ ~ In practice. Parasitic capacitance of this type underlies all polysilicon and metal traces on integrated circuits. The smallsignal model including capacitive parasitics but ignoring resistive parasitics is shown in Fig. Typical values depend on oxide thicknesses. In practice. These overlap capacitances Col are shown in Fig.1. This capacitance is independent of the gatebody voltage and models coupling from polysilicon and metal interconnects to the underlying substrate.36 Smallsignal MOS transistor equivalent circuit. C.192) for the saturation or active region. are increased due to parasitic oxide capacitances arising from gate overlap of the source and drain regions. 1.
Since and v. + CCL)Igm. gmb. the highfrequency behavior of the transistor is controlled by the capacitive elements in the smallsignal model. commonsource current gain falls to unity.37~ the smallsignal equivalent of Fig.37b. and substituting into (1. Assume the intrinsic device capacitance C. The smallsignal input current ii is If the current fed forward through Cgdis neglected. Csb. 1.208) gives Comparison of this equation with the intrinsic fT of a bipolar transistor when parasitic depletionlayer capacitance is neglected leads to an interesting result.180) and (1.130) with TF > ( C j . > . Then The magnitude of the smallsignal current gain is unity when Therefore. Then substituting (1. which cause the gate current to increase as frequency increases.191) into (1.37 Circuits for calculating the fT of an MOS transistor: (a) ac schematic and (b) smallsignal equivalent. To calculate f T . frequency where the magnitude of the shortcircuit. 1.203) for v.. is much greater than (Cgb+ Cgd). From (1.b = vds = 0. Solving (1..and Cdbhave no effect on the calculation and are ignored.128) and (1. consider the ac circuit of Fig. Although the dc gate current of an MOS transistor is essentially zero.56 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices Figure 1. we set s = j w .204) gives To find the frequency response. ro.
but the fT of an MOS transistor can be increased by operating at high values of (VGS.194). A = 0..3 V.6 SmallSignalModels of MOS Transistors 57 Vr. Substituting from (1. VDS = 2 V.6 V.209) was derived assuming that the MOS transistor exhibits squarelaw behavior as in (1. Overlap capacitance from gate to source and gate to drain is 1 fF.180). the intrinsic device fT increases as the inverse square of the critical device dimension across which carriers are in transit. From (1.21 1 ) and (1. Thus bipolar transistors generally have higher fT than MOS transistors made with comparable processing. Finally. we find The voltage from drain to body is . as described in Section 1.~ . From (1. kt = 200 p m 2 . 1 looo kdl AID 0. From (1.V r )Note that the base width W B in a bipolar transistor is a vertical dimension determined by diffusion~ implants and can typically be made much smaller than the channel length L of or an MOS transistor.5 v " ~ .7.1.02 V'.02 X 100 = 500 kdl Using (1.209) is striking. $0 = 0. Device parameters are c $ ~ = 0. submicron MOS transistors depart significantly from squarelaw characteristics. the transistor operates in the saturation or active region. In both cases. T O = . L = 1 pm.201) with Vss = 1 V . I EXAMPLE Derive the complete smallsignal model for an NMOS transistor with ID = 100 pA. From (1. (1. VsB = 1 V. CsbO= CdbO= 10 fF. = 100 angstroms.199).166).99) for TF and using the Einstein relationship Dnlpn we find for a bipolar transistor = kTlq = The similarity in form between (1. However. and we find that for such devices fT is proportional to Ll rather than L . Assume Cgb = 5 fF. to. y = 0. The voltage VT = 26 mV is fixed for a bipolar transistor. Since VDs > V.157).. which depends on surface geometry and photolithographic processes. W = 10 pm.
A = 0. y = 0.I  237 X 632 X 1oP6 X 1015 Hz = 3.142). = 100 A. (The minimum 1 fF Figure 1. and F . = l fF The complete smallsignal equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. m  1 2 n C. to.208) as T .6 V .38 Complete smallsignal equivalent circuit for an NMOS transistor with ID = 100 pA. = 2  3 X 10 X 1 X 3. Cgb= 5 fF.202) gives Cdb = l0 fF=4fF (l+&r From (1. the gatedrain capacitance consists of only overlap capacitance and is c..7 ShortChannel Effects in MOS Transistors The evolution of integratedcircuit processing techniques has led to continuing reductions in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions of the active devices. 1. VDs = 2 V .5 V1I2. gm + cgb C.58 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices and substitution in (1..02 V'.191). Device paramtters are W = 10 pm. = 24 fF Finally.4 GHz 24+5+1 1. giving C.. the oxide capacitance per unit area is The intrinsic portion of the gatesource capacitance can be calculated from (1. L = 1 pm. The fT of the device can be calculated from (1. $0 = 0. since the transistor operates in the saturation or active region. k' = 200 p m 2 . V S B = 1 V . + .Cgd = 1 fF.38. CsbO= CdbO= 10 f .45 fF  23 fF The addition of overlap capacitance gives C...
and subsequently the slope of the carrier velocity decreases with increasing field.When VDsis small andlor L is large. the average horizontal electric field along the channel is VDsIL. even in processes with submicron capability.27 When an MOS transistor operates in the triode region.07 m2NS. Also shown (dashed plot) is the analytical approximation of Eq. the horizontal field is low. whereas horizontal dimensions such as bipolar emitter width or MOS transistor gate length may be significantly less than 1 pm. = 1. The primary effect is to modify the classical MOS squarelaw transfer characteristic in the saturation or active region to make the device voltagetocurrent transfer characteristic more linear.. the largesignal and smallsignal models of bipolar transistors given in previous sections remain valid. At high fields. significant shortchannel effects become important in MOS transistors at channel lengths of about 1 p m or less and require modifications to the MOS models given previously.212 with 8. the carrier velocities approach the thermal velocities.39. Even with these small dimensions. .) This trend is driven primarily by economics in that reducing dimensions increases the number of devices and circuits that can be processed at one time on a given wafer.1 1. However.7 ShortChannel Effects in MOS Transistors 59 allowed dimensions of passive devices have also decreased.39 Typical 5 x 1 0 ~ ~ 1o5 I 1o6 I 1o7 C Electric field %: (V/m) measured electron drift velocity vd versus horizontal electric field 8 in an MOS surface channel (solid plot).~. Vertical dimensions such as the base width of a bipolar transistor in production processes may now be on the order of 0.5 X 106 V/m and p n = 0. 1. 1. A firstorder analytical approximation to this curve is Figure 1. 1.1 Velocity Saturation from the Horizontal Field The most important shortchannel effect in MOS transistors stems from velocity saturation of carriers in the channel.05 p m or less. and the linear relation between carrier velocity and field assumed in (1. many of the MOS transistors in a given analog circuit may be deliberately designed to have channel lengths larger than the minimum and may be well approximated by the squarelaw model. While the velocity at low field values is proportional to the field. which shows typical measured electron drift velocity vd versus horizontal electric field strength magnitude 8 in an NMOS surface channel. however.148) is valid. as intrinsic fr values increase with smaller dimensions while parasitic capacitances decrease. However. A second benefit has been that the frequency capability of the active devices continues to increase. the velocity at high field values approaches a constant called the scatteringlimited velocity v. This effect is illustrated in Fig.7.
Equation 1. Similar results are found for PMOS devices. VDs(act) the value of VDs that sets dIDldVDs = 0. (1. 1. Let VDqaCt) represent the maximum value of VDs for which the transistor operates in the triode region.147) and rearranging gives Note that as %.213) along the channel. To set dIDldVDs = 0.147).212). gate. If this field is comparable to % the .217) gives Solving the quadratic equation gives . The quantity VDs/L in (1.60 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices where %.152) would predict.%. From (1. field formula would predict. triode region without velocity saturation. we need a voltage drop of only 0.212) and (1. which is equivalent to the minimum value of VDs for which the transistor operates in the active region. Integrating (1. vd + v . Equation 1. = 1.+ a.153).07 m2/vs is the lowfield mobility close to the .5 X 106 Vlm and p n = 0.215 is valid in the triode region. . which gives the drain current in the In the limit as 8. In a device with a channel length L = 0.W. Substituting (1. and this condition is readily achieved in shortchannel MOS transistors.5 pm. where k' = pnCox as given by (1.75 V along the channel to produce an average field equal to %. the current should be independent of VDs because channellength modulation is not included here. From is (1. as % .215). At the critical field value % the carrier velocity is a factor of 2 less than the low.215) is the same as (1.. drain current for a given VDs is less than the simple expression (1.152).212 is also plotted in Fig.149) into (1. Therefore. In the active region. we obtain and thus (1.39. ~ = p.213) approaches the original equation (1.215) can be interpreted as the average horizontal electric field in the channel. Rearranging (1. + W and velocity saturation becomes negligible.
Therefore.Vt) when velocity saturation is significant. velocity is proportional to the electric field. Substituting (1.222).L in Fig.157). = VGS. Then (1. let 8. + m.. as expected.28 This observa+ tion is confirmed by plotting the ratio of VDscXgto the overdrive V.221) in (1.. as expected..V. where velocity saturation is neglected.223) gives Figure 1... and a Taylor series can be used to show that + + Using (1.+ 0. the result is + Equation 1.40.l = pn%.L). when %.40.220) into (1.40 Ratio of the minimum drainsource voltage required for operation in the active region to the overdrive versus the product of the critical field and the channel length. To examine the limiting case when the velocity is completely saturated. 1.215).. a.. and VnS(act)+ V. hand. < V. Vosc. + m.V/). When 8.40 shows that VDS(act) < Vov. On the other + 1. After rearranging.157) overestimates the current that really flows when the carrier velocity saturates.220) for VDs in (1.222) shows that VDs(actj (VGS . as shown is in Fig.Vt.223 is in the same form as (1. except that VDs(act) less than (VGS.212) shows that the drift velocity approaches the scatteringlimited velocity vd + v. Fig. (1.Vt)l(%. the current predicted by (1. let %. as predicted by (1. velocity saturation is not a factor.].220) gives When %.. Then X 0. is small enough that velocity saturation is significant. and let X = (VGS. substitute VDS(act) in (1. .. m so that the drift To determine VDs(act) without velocitysaturation effects. To find the drain current in the active region with velocity saturation.1 1. When %.. versus %.7 ShortChannel Effects in MOS Transistors 61 Since the drainsource voltage must be greater than zero. 1. VDS(act) Vov = VGS . When velocity saturation is significant.
when the velocity is saturated. the current does not depend on L as long as the channel length is short enough to produce an electric field that is high enough for velocity saturation to occur.224) shows that the drain current is independent of the channel length when the carrier velocity saturates. the time required for channel charge to cross the channel is proportional to because increasing L both reduces the carrier velocity and increases the distance between the source and the drain.226 is valid without velocity saturation and at its onset.L.157). Since the current is the ratio of the charge in the channel to the time required to cross the channel. where (VGS.157). the drain current is inversely proportional to L. as defined for (1. Also.V t )when the carrier velocity saturates.V t ) < %. Substituting ( l .224) shows that the drain current in the active region is proportional to the scatteringlimited velocity v.Vt)/(%..%. Let V& be the gatesource voltage of the ideal squarelaw transistor. If L) X < 1 .29In contrast.226) can be modeled with the addition of a resistance in series with the source of an ideal squarelaw device.62 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices In contrast to the squarelaw behavior predicted by (1. as shown in Fig.41.222) into (1.224) shows that the drain current is a linear function of the overdrive (VGS. (1. In this case. (1.l = p. (1. when the carrier velocity is proportional to the electric field instead of being saturated.227) gives .X ) <  141 + X ) .223) gives where X = (VGS. Let VGs be the sum of V & and the voltage drop on R s x Then This sum models the gatesource voltage of a real MOS transistor with velocity saturation.. as we have come to expect through (1.221). when velocity saturation is not significant.and < Equation 1.157). Therefore. From (1.228) into (1. 1. The effect of velocity saturation on the current in the active region predicted by (1. (1 . Substituting ( l . Finally. both the charge in the channel and the time required for the charge to cross the channel are proportional to L.
220) into (1. Substituting (1. Rsx is larger than the physical series resistance.30 One of the most important changes is to the transconductance.7. 1. To determine gm without velocity saturation. = p. = 1. For W = 2 km. and %. + and X = (VGS Vr)l(CecL). as in Fig. 1. Then substituting (1.1.233) and rearranging gives .223) and calculating dIDldVGsgives sl where v . let E.230 has the same form as (1.7 ShortChannel Effects in MOS Transistors 63 Figure 1.23 1) gives Thus the influence of velocity saturation on the largesignal characteristics of an MOS transistor can be modeled to first order by a resistor Rsx in series with the source of an ideal squarelaw device.41 Model of velocity saturation in an MOSFET by addition of series source resistance to an ideal squarelaw device. Rearranging (1.221)into (1.229) while ignoring the ( I D R S ~ 'term gives )~ Equation 1.%. k' = pnCox= 200 k m 2 .2 Transconductance and Transition Frequency The values of all smallsignal parameters can change significantly in the presence of shortchannel effects. we find Rsx = 1700 fl. Typically. Note that Rsx varies inversely with W.226) if we identify Rearranging (1.. as does the intrinsic physical series resistance due to the source and drain contact regions.5 X 1o6 Vlm.39.
the transition between these extreme cases is gradual and described by (1.236). Therefore. when X = (VGS. the transconductance increases when the overdrive increases or the channel length decreases. In this case. letting %.180). In practice. 1.208) shows that One key point here is that the transition frequency is independent of the overdrive once velocity saturation is reached.237).0 lim g. One reason the change in transconductance caused by velocity saturation is impor> tant is because it affects the transition frequency fT.241) shows that the transition frequency .235) into (1.181) to calculate the transconductancetocurrent ratio is less than about 10 percent. Comparing (1.5 pm.237) to (1. + 0.42 plots the transconductancetocurrent ratio versus the overdrive for three cases.238) collapses to gm lim I = 2 VGsVt as predicted by (1.V. and (1.64 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices as predicted by (1.239) and (1.238 shows that if X < 0. > Cgb + Cgd. The highest and lowest ratios come from (1. respectively. substituting (1. t m. Equation 1. (1.181). Also. as %. X + 0.Vt) increases fr before the velocity saturates. (1. the ratio of the transconductance to the current can be calculated as As %. < On the other hand. = 1.221) into (1. substituting (1. In contrast. From (1.181) shows that velocity saturation reduces the transconductancetocurrent ratio for a given overdrive. = W~OXVSC~ (1. which correspond to asymptotes where velocity saturation is insignificant and dominant. we will conclude that velocitysaturation effects are insignificant in hand calculations if Figure 1..1.236) gives Therefore. which is plotted in Fig.233). Assuming that C. On the other hand.209) shows that increasing (VGS .42 for an example where %.5 X 106 Vlm and L = 0.Vt)l(%cL)< 1.235 shows that further decreases in L or increases in (VGs . the error in using (1.) do not change the transconductance when the velocity is saturated.235) Equation 1. the velocity saturates and gm lim O I = 1 VGSV.223) and (1. + 0 to determine gm when the velocity is saturated gives R.
In contrast. reducing mobility. L m).1 V' to 0.V t )where velocity saturation is insignificant (%. however.75 V ) . 0 is determined by a best fit to measured device characteristics. we have considered only the effects of the horizontal field due to the VDsalong the channel when considering velocity saturation. for gatesource voltages less than the extrapolated threshold voltage V tbut high enough to create a depletionregion at the surface of the silicon. is inversely proportional to the channel length when the velocity is saturated.8 Weak lnversion in MOS Transistors The MOSFET analysis of Section 1. 1. For to.214) in principle. 1.33 In practice. a vertical field originating from the gate voltage also exists and influences carrier velocity. 6 is typically in the range from 0. Since the gatechannel voltage is not constant from the source to the drain. and of gradually increasing importance  (%.1. In this region of strong inversion. changes in the gatesource voltage are assumed to cause only changes in the channel charge and not in the depletionregion charge. and 6 is inversely proportional to the oxide thickness. is the mobility with zero vertical field.4 V' .32For simplicity. the device operates in weak inversion.5 considered the normal region of operation for which a welldefined conducting channel exists under the gate. velocity saturation reduces the speed improvement that can be achieved through reductions in the minimum channel length. this effect is often modeled after integration by changing the mobility in the previous equations to an effective mobility given by where p.7.31 The vertical field at any point in the channel depends on the gatechannel voltage.209) predicts that fT is inversely proportional to the square of the channel length before the velocity saturates. In contrast. = 100 A . where surface imperfections impede their movement from the source to the drain. dominant (%.L = 0.42 Transconductancetocurrent ratio versus overdrive (VGS.3 Mobility Degradation from the Vertical Field Thus far. As a result. (1. In the weakinversion region.8 Weak lnversion in MOS Transistors 65 3 Figure 1. However. the effect of the vertical field on mobility should be included within the integration in (1. the . A physical reason for this effect is that increasing the vertical electric field forces the carriers in the channel closer to the surface of the silicon.L = O).
is the diffusion constant for electrons. the drain acts as the emitter and the source as the c ~ l l e c t o r . exp VT where n. The area A is the product of the transistor width W and the thickness X of the region in which IDflows..245) and rearranging gives W ID= qXD. Then. in weak inversion.ICo. Similarly.247) and integrating gives = Cj. Equation 1. as defined in (1.27). From (1. )Then increasing the gatesource voltage increases the surface potential ~~ which tends to reduce the reverse bias across the sourcesubstrate (emitterbase) junction and to exponentially increase the concentration of electrons in the ptype substrate at the source np(0). np(0) = +S np.244) into (1. In weak inversion. the concentration of electrons in the substrate at the drain np(L) is From (1.3 l). Also assume that VDs > 0.) and X in (1.34 1. where the source acts as the emitter. changes in the surface potential A+.248 is valid only when the transistor operates in weak inversion. = 24f by definition of the threshold voltage. the total drain current in weak inversion is larger than that caused by drift because a gradient in minoritycarrier concentration causes a diffusion current to flow. the drain current due to the diffusion of electrons in the substrate is where D.. the inversion layer holds the surface potential nearly constant and .66 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices channel charge is much less than the charge in the depletion region. For VGS > Vt.. exp L In weak inversion. in which n = (1 + Cj. and the depletionregion capacitance Cj. and the drain as the collector.243) and (1. (If VDs < 0. and the drain current arising from the drift of majority carriers is negligible. assume that the source and the body are both grounded.36 Assume that the charge stored at the oxidesilicon interface is independent of the surface potential. Therefore. and A is the crosssectional area in which the diffusion current flows. the substrate as the base.197). is the equilibrium concentration of electrons in the substrate (base). However.8. an nchannel MOS transistor operates as an npn bipolar transistor.. When VGS = Vt with VSB = 0.np..ICo. Substituting (1. are controlled by changes in the gatesource voltage AVGs through a voltage divider between the oxide capacitance C. the surface potential is approximately a linear function of the gatesource voltage. +. Separating variables where kl is a constant.1 Drain Current in Weak Inversion To analyze this situation.
(1.) The resulting straight line shows that the device characteristic is close to an ideal square law.249) into (1. 6 Figure 1. and VDs > V T . Plots like the one in Fig.Substituting (1. 1 .5.246) gives W ID = qXDnnpo exp .252) approaches unity in this case. In Fig. 1. n .21 for an example of a case in which shortchannel effects are important. the minimum drainsource voltage required to force the transistor to operate as a current source in weak inversion is independent of the overdrive. Notice that the drain current is almost constant when VDs > 3VT because the last term in (1. Therefore. with W = 20 pm.43 and Equation 1. For ID < 10l2 A.1. the curve deviates from the straight line representing the square law.8 Weak Inversion in MOS Transistors 67 (1.44a.44. (See Problem 1. s 1 exp )[ (?)l Let It = qXDnnp0 exp  :( ) represent the drain current with VGS= Vt. TO further illustrate this point. we show W = 20 pm.248) is valid only when VGS 5 V t .37 Figure 1.43 Drain current versus drainsource voltage in weak inversion. L = 20 pm.252 also show that the drain current is not zero when VGS 5 V t . Near the threshold voltage.5. W / L = 1. unlike in strong inversion. L = 20 pm. .252) with n = 1. and It = 0.248) is not valid. 1.252).248) is rewritten as follows: where k2 = kl + Vtln. versus VGSin the active region plotted on linear scales.7 V in this case) and also k' ~ from the slope of the curve (54 p N v 2 in this case).exp V L ( ) ( v ~ v. 1. Since (1.= 1. the slope decreases because leakage currents are significant and do not follow (1.43 plots the drain current versus the drainsource voltage for three values of the overdrive. and shortchannel effects are negligible.Then > Figure 1. For this device. The data are plotted a second time in Fig. we show measured NMOS characteristics plotted on two different scales in Fig.44b on loglinear scales. 4 4 are commonly used to obtain Vt by extrapolation (0. The straight line obtained for VGS < V t fits (1.1 pA. This region is weak inversion.
1. The limitation to low signal frequencies occurs because the MOSFET fT becomes very small. showing the squarelaw characteristic.252) becomes proportional to ID and therefore very small in weak inversion.252) and using (1. This result stems from the fact that the smallsignal gm calculated from (1. . 4 4 ~ plotted on loglinear scales showing the exponential characteristic in the subthreshold region.44 ( a )Mea 2 l 3 I 4 I 5  VG. 104  v. = 0...8. as shown next.7 V (4 ID (A) sured NMOS transfer characteristic in the active region plotted on linear scales as versus VG. The major use of transistors operating in weak inversion is in very low power applications at relatively low signal frequencies. (V) Extrapolated V.2 Transconductance and Transition Frequency in Weak Inversion Calculating d l ~ l d from~(1.247) gives V ~ .68 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices v. =5v W = 20 pm L = 20 pm vGS(V) (b) Figure 1. 1 . =5v W = 20 pm L=20pm Figure 1.44 (b) Data from Fig.
254).254) and (1.1. . (1. Therefore.5. . When VGS.45 Tranrconductancetocurrent ratio versus overdrive.5. as predicted by (1. However. except for the factor of lln = CoxI(Cj. This point is usually defined as the upper bound on the region of weak inversion. + C. given by (1. we will ignore this region in (moderatr nvr From (1.(V) 0..Vr = 0. the transistor operates in a region of moderate inversion. (1. which models the indirect control of the gate on the surface potential. The result is which is about 78 mV at room temperature with n = 1.8 Weak Inversion in MOS Transistors 69 The transconductance of an MOS transistor operating in weak inversion is identical to that of a corresponding bipolar transistor. assuming that velocity saturation is negligible.25 0. In contrast. For 0 5 VGS. ~ ~ Figure 1.). (1.181). the ratio of the transconductance to the current of an MOS transistor in weak inversion is Equation 1.5 (weak inversion) )l51 I 10 .254) with n = 1.182).236) should be used instead of (1. as the overdrive approaches zero.Vt > 2 n V ~ the transconductancetocurrent ratio is . where both diffusion and drift currents are ~ i g n i f i c a n t .5 Figure l . This factor stems from a voltage divider between the oxide and depletion capacitors in the MOS transistor. which means that the surface concentration of electrons is equal to the bulk concentration of holes.25 0 2nVr VG.181) is valid only when the transistor operates in strong inversion.v. When VGS. When the overdrive is negative but high enough to cause depletion at the surface. Between weak and strong inversion.5 L 0.253).18 1) both to predict the transconductancetocurrent ratio and to predict the overdrive required to operate in strong inversion. as shown in (1. If velocity saturation is significant. Because simple models for moderate inversion are not known in practice. the transistor operates in weak inversion and the transconductancetocurrent ratio is constant. (1. Although this analysis implies that the transition from weak to strong inversion occurs abruptly. we will equate the g m l I ratios calculated in (1. the surface potential is 2+ f . From (1.18 1) predicts that this ratio becomes infinite.181) 5 0 0.18 1) predicts that the ratio of transconductance to current is inversely proportional to the overdrive. 1 / l I I From (1. the transistor operates in moderate inversion.45 plots the transconductancetocurrent ratio versus overdrive for an example case with n = 1.Vt 5 2nVT.18 1). To estimate the overdrive required to operate the transistor in strong inversion.254 predicts that this ratio is independent of the overdrive. a nonzero transition width occurs in practice.
when velocity saturation is significant. In weak inversion. but like the case with velocity saturation.260 shows that the transition frequency for an MOS transistor operating in weak inversion is inversely proportional to the square of the channel length.208) gives Let IM represent the maximum drain current that flows in the transistor in weak inversion.1 pA. the transition frequency is inversely proportional to the channel length.Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices the remainder of this book and assume that MOS transistors operate in weak inversion for overdrives less than the bound given in (1.256) into (1.241).251). Device parameters are W = 10 pm. = 100 A . ~.255). a more detailed analysis shows that the constant of proportionality in (1.253) and (1.. Equation 1.260) is approximately unity.258) gives From (1. unlike the case in strong inversion without velocity saturation.Vr gives Equation 1.5. Finally. = Cgd = 0 because the inversion layer contains little charge..208 can be used to find the transition frequency. . From (1. It D. Multiplying numerator and denominator in (1. This result is consistent with (1. is given in (1.251). as predicted by (1. C.209) for strong inversion without velocity saturation. > n = 1. Substituting (1. In contrast. Using the Einstein relationship D. Then where I.257) by IM and using (1. L = 1 pm. Cgbcan be thought of as the series combination of the oxide and depletion capacitors. It = 0. if the transistor operates in strong inversion. k' = 200 ~ A / v and to. Equation 1. = p. Therefore. and VDs > V r .166).39 EXAMPLE Calculate the overdrive and the transition frequency for an NMOS transistor with ID = 1 pA.260 also shows that the transition frequency in weak inversion is independent of the overdrive. Assume that the temperature is 27•‹C.39 However.
166) is less than 2nVT .9 Substrate Current Flow in MOS Transistors 71 Since the value of the overdrive calculated by (1. Cjs = (n . and some of the resulting holes then flow to the substrate.208). The effect of this phenomenon can be modeled by inclusion of a controlled current generator . at sufficient bias voltages.78 mV. the overdrive calculated previously is not valid except to indicate that the transistor does not > operate in strong inversion. 11.~cox) = WL. cgs cgb cgd + +  Cgb = W L cox(o.l)Cox = (0. this result should be compared with the result of the example at the end of Section 1. (The electrons created in the process flow out the drain terminal.1.5COx 3 + From (1. creating a substrate current. with little apparent effect on the device characteristics.247). the overdrive in weak inversion with VDs > VT is V. As the reversebias voltages on the device are increased.o x c C. a small enhanced current flow may occur across the collectorbase junction due to this process.5)(26 mV) ln From (1.5)COx From (1. Impact ionization also occurs in MOS transistors but has a significantly different effect on the device characteristics. the effects of avalanche breakdown on bipolar transistor characteristics were described. 0. From (1..) The carriers created by impact ionization are therefore not confined within the device as in a bipolar transistor. = nVTln  :( 4) = (1.9 Substrate Current Flow in MOS Transistors In Section 1.3.6. the process results in large avalanche currents. From (1L?%). Eventually.256). carriers traversing the depletion regions gain sufficient energy to create new electronhole pairs in lattice collisions by a process known as impact ionization. This difference is because the channel electrons (for the NMOS case) create electronhole pairs in lattice collisions in the drain depletion region. 26 = 360 MHz 271.252).4 GHz. fT = GO' 1 =  1. where the same transistor operating in strong inversion with an overdrive of 3 16 mV had a transition frequency of 3.. For collectorbase bias voltages well below the breakdown value.4.5fF Although 360 MHz may seem to be a high transition frequency at first glance.
72 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuit Active Devices Figure 1. and KZ = 30 V. 1.261). and compare with the device r. VDs(act) 0.46 for an NMOS device. The magnitude of this substrate current depends on the voltage across the drain depletion region (which determines the energy of the ionizing channel electrons) and also on the drain current (which is the rate at which the channel electrons enter the depletion region). ). the substrate of an NMOS device in a psubstrate process is an ac ground. = For VDs = 2 V. and thus . Because the common substrate terminal must always be connected to the most negative supply voltage in the circuit. A = 0. EXAMPLE Calculate rdb = l / g d b for VDS = 2 V and 4 V. Empirical investigation has shown that the current IDBcan be expressed as where K I and K2 are processdependent parameters and VDs(act) the minimum value is of VDsfor which the transistor operates in the active region. as shown in Fig. we find that the drainsubstrate smallsignal conductance is where the gate and the source are assumed to be held at fixed potentials. The major impact of this phenomenon on circuit performance is that it creates a parasitic resistance from drain to substrate.46 Representation of impact ionization in an MOSFET by a drainsubstrate current generator..262).261) IDB = 5 X 1.40 Typical values for NMOS devices are K1 = 5 Vl and KZ = 30 V..8 X 10l1 A From (1.3 V.: = 1. Assume ID = 100 pA. Differentiating (1. K1 = 5 V'. The effect is generally much less significant in PMOS devices because the holes carrying the charge in the channel are much less efficient in creating electronhole pairs than energetic electrons. IDBfrom drain to substrate.7 X 100 X 1 0 . we have from (1. Therefore.~X exp ( . the parasitic resistance shunts the drain to ac ground and can be a limiting factor in many circuit designs.05 V'.
05 X 100 X 10P6 However. q k kT Ic VT &= Ic rT = 2VT PO gm Input resistance Output resistance Collectorbase resistance Basecharging capacitance Baseemitter capacitance Emitterbase junction depletion capacitance r p = Pore to %oro Cb = T ~ g m C.6 X 1oP7A The substrate leakage current is now about 0. and can have a dominant effect on highoutputimpedance MOS current mirrors.   5.262) gdb ' : 30 X 5. l SUMMARY O ACTIVEDEVICE PARAMETERS F 73 This result is negligibly large compared with T o = .6 X 10P7 A = 1.7 ( ). as described in Chapter 4. 1 1 = 200 ka AID 0. = I.. More important. for VDs = 4 V.A.1 SUMMARY OF ACTIVEDEVICE PARAMETERS (a) npn Bipolar Transistor Parameters Quantity Formula LargeSignal ForwardActive Operation Collector current Vbe I.~ X exp D X 3. APPENDIX A.72 v and thus D This parasitic resistor is now comparable to r. I = 5 B X 100 X I O .. = 2Cjeo .5 percent of the drain current. we find from (1.2 X 1oP63. = Cb + C j e C j . 1 . exp VT SmallSignal ForwardActive Operation Transconductance Transconductancetocurrent ratio g m = . 1.
J m cox 1 C.74 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices (continued) Quantity Formula SmallSignal ForwardActive Operation Collectorsubstrate junction capacitance C.v r 1 VA 1 dXd Leff ~ V D S . = c0 m (1 E r gm Transition frequency Effective transit time Maximum gain 1 fT = TT= = T F + .. = 3..V 2 I)~= c o . = E"" to.45 fFIprn2for to.=  W g m = ~ C O X ~ ( V G S . = 100 A SmallSignal Operation (Active Region) Topgate transconductance Transconductancetocurrent ratio Bodyeffect transconductance Channellength modulation parameter Output resistance Effective channel length Maximum gain Sourcebody depletion capacitance Csb = CS b0 A = . c Rm Rm (b) NMOS Transistor Parameters Quantity Formula LargeSignal Operation Drain current (active region) Drain current (triode region) Threshold voltage Threshold voltage parameter Oxide capacitance y = .+ Y 1 2 ~f T c. x ~ ~  C gm ID 2 VCS..
calculate the doping density required to give a breakdown voltage of 150 V with an abrupt pn junction in silicon. ccs0 2 0 ~ p = 1 0 0 . Device parameters are Cjeo = 20 fF. and n = 4. V. Assume $0 = 0.55 V for all junc!." = 3 X 105V/cm. CPo = 10 fF. fT = 600 MHz with Ic = 1 mA and V C B= 10 V.. = 1 pF with Vcs = 10 V. (a) Form the complete smallsignal equivalent circuit for this transistor at Ic = 0.2 Calculate the zerobias junction capacitance for the example in Problem 1. 3 PROBLEMS l . l if the critical field is = 4 X 105V/cm. and r.8 and 1. and maximum field in a planeabrupt pn junction in silicon with doping densities NA = 8 X l O I 5 atoms/cm3 and No = 1017 atoms/cm3.. 1.Problems 75 (continued) Quantity Formula SmallSignal Operation (Active Region) Drainbody depletion capacitance Cdb = (l C d b0 + 2)"' Gatesource capacitance Transition frequency c. and also calculate the value at 5 V reverse bias and 0. Use %. 1. and assume C.= l V . and 1.I tions. 1. = 0 = rb = 200 a .4 If junction curvature causes the maximum field at a practical junction to be 1. a n d Vcs = 2 V .. 1. r. (b) Repeat (a) for zero external bias and 0. = loo a. 1. find BVcEo for pF = 200 and n = 4. 1. is constant in the forwardbias region. Vcs = 4 V.1 1 An integratedcircuit npn transistor has the following measured characteristics: rb = loo a . and C.A = 50 V. l (a) Calculate the builtin potential.1 mA. = 0. and 60 FA. (b) Sketch the graph of fT versus Ic for this transistor on log scales from 1 p A to 10 mA with V C B= 2 V.1 MHz to 1000 MHz for the examples of Problems 1. r. Assume a junction area of 2 X 105 cm2. Use IB = 1 pA.3 V forward bias..3 V fonvard bias.10 Sketch the graph of smallsignal. C. Assume a reverse bias of S V. 1. 10 FA. r.9.55 V for all junctions.8 Derive and sketch the complete smallsignal equivalent circuit for a bipolar transistor at Ic = 0. r..S for a doping density of 10i5atoms/cm3 and pF = 400. Plot Zc from 0 to 10 mA and V C Efrom 0 to 50 V. = 50 k a at Ic = 1 mA.6 Repeat Problem 1. VcB = 3 V. q = 1 0 . BVc~o= 120 V. = 5por.1. = loo. . and 5 mA with VcB = 2 V and Vcs = 15 V.3 Calculate the breakdown voltage for the junction of Problem 1. = 4 R . fT = 1 GHz with Ic = 10 mA and VcB = 10 V. but sketch VCEfrom 0 to 10 V.15 pF with V C B = 10 V. 1 mA. Use where M is given by (1.78). ~ ~i 5 P s .5 If the collector doping density in a transistor is 6 X 1015 atoms/cm3.8 for Ic = 1 mA. Calculate the fT of the device in each case. 30 FA. 1. and is much less than the base doping.7(a) Sketch the IcVcE characteristics in the forwardactive region for an npn transistor with PF = 100 (measured at low V C ~ )V. 1. = 100 0 . (b) Repeat (a). Use r. Assume that one side of the junction is much more heavily doped than the other = 3 X 105V/cm.~ .S times the theoretical value.. = 2 WLC.9 Repeat Problem 1. = 5poro. Assume Q = 0. depletionlayer depths. commonemitter current gain versus frequency on log scales from 0. p.2 mA.
5 pm. 1.7 V. VDS = 5 V. Assume that t. (b) If the collectorbase depletion layer width changes 0.6 V.13 If the area of the transistor in Problem 1. Assume VDs = 3 V and VsB = 0. 20.16 Derive and sketch the complete smallsignal equivalent circuit for the device of Problem 1. = 1 5 0 R . A = 0.12 A lateral pnp transistor has an effective base width of 10 p m ( l p m = 104 cm).5pm. (C) W = 5 p m a n d L = 0. CsbO= CdbO 20 f . and 1 V. which model parameters in the smallsignal equivalent circuit of the composite transistor would differ from those of the original device if the total collector current is unchanged? What is the relationship between the parameters of the composite and original devices? 1. A. Gummel. ~ assuming subthreshold operation and n = 1. (a) W = 100 p m and L = 10 pm.V t = 0. VGS = 1 V.5 mA. Ignore velocity saturation effects. P.22 Calculate the transconductance of an nchannel MOSFET at ID = 10 nA and V D = 1 V. "Modeling of Emitter Capacitance. r . = 1.19 Consider an NMOS transistor with W = 2 pm.15 An NMOS transistor has parameters W = 10 pm. and'&. 1. L = 0.024 V'. 2. Cgb = = F and 5 fF. Vro = 0. Gibbons. V S B = 0. IEEE. AsCKd Cgb) = 10 fF. Compare the drain current predicted by the model of Fig.S V. = 1. Ignore subthreshold conduction.7 V.5 X 106 Vlm. pp. = 1. Vol.5 mA.11 is effectively doubled by connecting two transistors in parallel. 1. calculate the device fT at Ic = 0. k' = 194 p N V 2 .11 p m per volt of V C E calculate r.41 accurate within 10 percent? 1. = 0.16 to calculate the frequency of unity current gain of this transistor with VDs = 3 V. calculate the minoritycarrier charge stored in the base of the transistor at this current level. and VDs = 0 to 3 V in the following cases. L = 1 pm. = L150 and that the device operates in the active region with VGS. Physical Electronics and Circuit Models of Transistors.25 ns. h = 0. .17 Use the device data of Problems 1. V A = 40 V. December 1969. 1.5 X 106 Vlm. and by comparing the results with and without inclusion of velocity saturation effects. 1. shortcircuit current gain is 9 with Ic = 1 mA at f = 50 MHz.5. New York. C. 218 12182. H. and 8. Compare the plot with Fig.6 V. and 8. For what range of VGSis the model of Fig. 1.1 76 Chapter 1 Models for IntegratedCircuitActive Devices 1.15 with VGS = 1 V. (b) W = 10 p m and L = 1 pm.. = 450 cm2/(vS). c$f = 0. and 3 V.) Also. Wiley. Poon and H. E..14 An integrated npn transistor has the following characteristics: r~ = 0.5 V.15 and 1. 1.3 V. and 8. J. = 1. = 2 p F a t the bias voltage used. F. p. Assume V s s = 0. 2 V.and V S B= 1 V. k' = 54 p m 2 . corresponding device fT .0.5 X 106Vlm. 1. 57. 1. Determine all elements in the smallsignal equivalent circuit at Ic = 2 mA and sketch the circuit. rh = 1 5 0 R .VDs curves for Vcs = 1 V. Boothroyd." Proc.6 V. Data : Dp = 13 cm2/s in silicon. Vro = 0.20 Calculate the transconductance of an nchannel MOSFET with W = 10 pm.6pF. Use $0 = 0. and N A = 5 X 10IS atoms/cm3. 1.441 and explain the main difference for large VGS. Vto = 0. Assume VsB = 0. VDS= 2V.21 Plot & versus VGS for an nchannel MOSFET with W = 1 pm. Gray. Vto = 0. 1964.C.Overlap capacitance from gate to source and gate to drain is 2 f . this transistor at Ic = 0. F + + REFERENCES 1. Compare the result to a calculation that ignores velocity saturation. (b) Sketch the IDVGs characteristics for VDs = 2 V as VGSvaries from 0 to 2 V with V S B = 0. A = 0. Vss = 0 V.. L = 1 pm. (a) If the emitterbase depletion capacitance is 2 pF in the forwardbias region and is constant. 1. D. = 80A.5 V.1 V.41 to the drain current predicted by direct calculation using the equations including velocity saturation for VGSfrom 0 to 3 V. PO = 100. smallsignal. k' = 194 pA/V2. for . (a) Sketch the IDVDScharacteristics for VDs from 0 to 3 V and Vcs = 0. p.18 Examine the effect of velocity saturation on MOSFET characteristics by plotting ID . 1. K. C.calculate the suming (C. to. DeWitt. For what range of channel lengths is the model without velocity saturation accurate within 10 percent? 1. R. k' = 194 A = 0.. (Neglect C. and 3 V.4 pm.5 X 106 V/m using channel lengths from 10 p m to 0.5 V. and 2 V.
5. DeMan.. Tsividis. cit. p. pp.. G. Electron Devices. 27. R. New York. EDof hFE. Tsividis.. Muller and T. Y. Gummel. P. 10. cit. Electronic Principles. H. Kamins. Grove.16. M.. p. P. K. Y. Kamins. E. J. 1955. I Kamins. Second Edition. Electron Devices. I. Grove. Toh. Y. 1956. R. Tsividis. 1981. P. 294. I. Vol. Op. "Conductance of MOS Transistors in Satu ration. 833835. Muller and T. P." IEEE Trans. 1967. Tsividis. 1987. P. S. P." Proc. McDonald. 18. p. 34. Op. 446. 180. 142. pp. R. P. Wiley. Y. I. Op. Kamins. Gray et al. Moll and I. 37. cit. 13. Wiley. P. ' GENERAL REFERENCES I. ED18. Second Edition. cit." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. 25. 1234.. Ch. 39. Op. Tsividis. S. Op. cit. S. cit.. Y. p. Op.. "Current Gain and Cutoff Frequency Falloff at High Currents. 490496. J. New York. 16.. Wiley. Chawla and H. K. P. 451452. p. A. P. cit.. 137. 1986. M. 20.. 8. Electron Devices. 1969. Op." IEEE Trans. Grove. 324. Electron Devices. p. New York. Kamins. 480. P. Sze. cit. 23. K. Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistor. 4. Op. I. A. L. Tsividis. Y. S. New York. cit. Op. Tsividis. P. A.. 26. FrohmanBentchkowsky and A. 178195. I. 146. P. Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistor. 4.. Y. Ch. Physics of Semiconductor Devices. 151. Y. Muller and T. cit. 17." Phys. August 1988. Op. pp. 3957. Y." IEEE Trans. October 1970. cit. cit. cit. p. . P. p. 1976. Tsividis. Muller and T. I. Muller and T. P. Op. 950958. 141. 12. 99. R. 129. L. S. I. Op. S. 10. E. S. S. Muller and T.. Vol. A. Vol. M. 24. Meyer. 22. Op. Tsividis. 23. Gray et al.. 310328. Kamins. Device Electronicsfor Integrated Circuits. Tremere. Y. KO. 11.. Op.. cit. S. p. Gray et al. Op. 33. p. 1986. P. Y. S. IRE. Op. 8. p. January 1969. Getreu.. "Avalanche Breakdown in Germanium. Muller andT. 72. ED. 108113. S. "Avalanche Degradation IEEE Trans. p. S. Tsividis. P. Y.. ED16. p. 871878. 32. Muller and T. 181. p. 35. Op. cit. S. S. New York. Ch. Op. 1987. 136. ED18. 6. Op. Y. pp. Gray and C. Op.and R. pp. "An Engineering Model for ShortChannel MOS Devices. 496. Tsividis. 21.. Miller. p. p. October 1971. McGrawHill. Op. Op. Kamins. p. pp. p. Tsividis. pp. Tsividis." IEEE Trans. Rev. P. 40. Tsividis. 14. p. cit.. Tektronix Inc. cit. Op. March 1971. p. Op. Electron Devices. McGrawHill. B. January 1969. cit.. 31. 17. cit. 30. 482. P. E. 38. 7. Vol. Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices. 19. pp.. E. R. "The Dependence of Transistor Parameters on the Distribution of Base Layer Resistivity. 148.. p. p. Vol. 386. Tsividis. 139. L. E.General References 77 3. A. cit. New York." 17.. p. Modelling the Bipolar Transistor. "Transition Region Capacitance of Diffused pn Junctions. 36.. Ch. Whittier and D. Grove. p.. 28. Vol. Kamins. cit. R. 7. cit. D. cit. R. Sze. cit. Vol. pp. cit. S. B. 15. R. Y. 44. R. Wiley. 484.. R. Gray et al. P. 150151 and 198200. Wiley. Y. New York. Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits. Vol. Op. "The Influence of Heavy Doping on the Emitter Efficiency of a Bipolar Transistor. 6.. Searle. 9. P. Ross. 83. Op. Y. cit. 29. pp.
respectively.Another important effect of the addition of impurities . holes for ptype) and decreasing the number of minority carriers. is given by R = ynp where y is a constant. For impurity concentrations of practical interest.1 Electrical Resistivity of Silicon The addition of small concentrations of ntype or ptype impurities to a crystalline silicon sample has the effect of increasing the number of majority carriers (electrons for ntype. then = constant = R = ynp (2. The importance of minority. the majority carriers outnumber the minority carriers by many orders of magnitude. in the silicon sample. is not dependent on impurity concentration.2 Basic Processes in IntegratedCircuit Fabrication The fabrication of integrated circuits and most modern discrete component transistors is based on a sequence of photomasking. R. so that G If no impurities are present. ND (2. The addition of impurities is called doping the sample. Equations 2.6) Equation 2. oxidation. we will first review the effects produced on the electrical properties of silicon by the addition of impurity atoms.4 and 2. ion implantation.  where n.and majoritycarrier concentrations in the operation of the transistor was described in Chapter 1. For ptype material. the minority carrier concentration is decreased by the same factor so that product np is constant in equilibrium. the density of majority carriers is approximately equal to the density of the impurity atoms in the crystal.1) n. Thus the number of recombinations per second.2. and epitaxial growth steps applied to a slice of silicon starting material called a Before beginning a description of the basic process steps. and thus n p = $(T) (2. for any impurity concentration.6 shows that as the majority carrier concentration is increased by impurity doping. where pp (cmp3) is the equilibrium concentration of holes and N A (cmp3) is the concentration of ptype acceptor impurities.2. In equilibrium. the rate of generation. and n andp are electron and hole concentrations. diffusion. (cm3) is the equilibrium concentration of electrons and ND (cmp3) is the concentration of ntype donor impurity atoms. Thus for ntype material. Any increase in the equilibrium concentration of one type of carrier in the crystal must result in a decrease in the equilibrium concentration of the other. y n p = constant = nf. R and G must be equal.2 Basic Processes in IntegratedCircuitFabrication 79 2.5 establish that.4) where ni (cmp3)is the intrinsic concentration of carriers in a pure sample of silicon. 2. For practical concentrations of impurities. G. The generation of the holeelectron pairs is a thermal process that depends only on temperature. This occurs because the holes and electrons recombine with each other at a rate that is proportional to the product of the concentration of holes and the concentration of electrons.
1 Electrical Resistivity of Silicon The addition of small concentrations of ntype or ptype impurities to a crystalline silicon sample has the effect of increasing the number of majority carriers (electrons for ntype. The importance of minority. The generation of the holeelectron pairs is a thermal process that depends only on temperature. for any impurity concentration. the majority carriers outnumber the minority carriers by many orders of magnitude. and n andp are electron and hole concentrations. and epitaxial growth steps applied to a slice of silicon starting material called a Before beginning a description of the basic process steps. This occurs because the holes and electrons recombine with each other at a rate that is proportional to the product of the concentration of holes and the concentration of electrons. In equilibrium. For impurity concentrations of practical interest. Thus the number of recombinations per second. (cmp3)is the equilibrium concentration of electrons and No (cmp3) is the concentration of ntype donor impurity atoms.5 establish that. (2. R. ion implantation. = ND where n. The addition of impurities is called doping the sample. oxidation. holes for ptype) and decreasing the number of minority carriers.and majoritycarrier concentrations in the operation of the transistor was described in Chapter 1. Thus for ntype material. the minority carrier concentration is decreased by the same factor so that product np is constant in equilibrium.1) n. Equations 2. is given by R = ynp (2. and thus (2. R and G must be equal.2 Basic Processes in IntegratedCircuit Fabrication 79 2.. we will first review the effects produced on the electrical properties of silicon by the addition of impurity atoms. the rate of generation. where pp (cmp3) is the equilibrium concentration of holes and NA (cmp3)is the concentration of ptype acceptor impurities. For ptype material. Any increase in the equilibrium concentration of one type of carrier in the crystal must result in a decrease in the equilibrium concentration of the other. so that G If no impurities are present.4 and 2. in the silicon sample. is not dependent on impurity concentration. the density of majority carriers is approximately equal to the density of the impurity atoms in the crystal. then = constant = R = ynp where ni (cm3) is the intrinsic concentration of carriers in a pure sample of silicon. For practical concentrations of impurities.6) n p = n!(~) Equation 2. Another important effect of the addition of impurities .2.3) where y is a constant.2.6 shows that as the majority carrier concentration is increased by impurity doping. diffusion. G. 2. y np = constant = n.2 Basic Processes in IntegratedCircuit Fabrication The fabrication of integrated circuits and most modern discrete component transistors is based on a sequence of photomasking. respectively.
The conductivity and resistivity are related by the simple expression p = l l a . arsenic. the impurity atoms replace silicon atoms in the lattice and are termed substitutional impurities.6) in (2. of impurity atoms from the surface of the silicon sample into the bulk material.1.1 Hole and electron mobility as a function of doping in silicon3 is an increase in the ohmic conductivity of the material itself.1) and (2.2. 2. p p (cm2/VS) is the hole mobility.and ptype silicon as a function of impurity concentration is shown in Fig. usually at high temperature.2 Solidstate Diffusion Solidstate diffusion of impurities in silicon is the movement.4. substitution of (2.7) gives For a ptype sample.80 Chapter 2 Bipolar.2.7) gives The mobility p is different for holes and electrons and is also a function of the impurity concentration in the crystal for high impurity concentrations. a n d BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology 10 1014 loi5 1oi6 10" 1 0 ' ~ 10'' 10" Total impurity concentration (cm3) 10" Figure 2. The nature of the diffusion process is illustrated by the conceptual example shown in Figs. and antimony. Commonly used ntype impurities in silicon are phosphorus. 2. We assume that the silicon sample initially contains a uniform concentration of ntype impurity of 1015 atoms per cubic centimeter. We further assume that by . For an ntype sample. 2. 2. and a (0cm)' is the electrical conductivity.2) and (2. During this hightemperature process. regions of ptype and ntype material can be formed by solidstate diffusion.6) in (2. Measured values of mobility in silicon as a function of impurity concentration are shown in Fig. The resistivity p (&cm) is usually specified in preference to the conductivity. MOS. Since the doped silicon behaves electrically as ptype or ntype material depending on the type of impurity present. This conductivity is given by where pn (cm2NS) is the electron mobility.3 and 2. and the resistivity of n. substitution of (2.
some means we deposit atoms of ptype impurity on the top surface of the silicon sample.and ntype silicon as a function of impurity c~ncentration. atoms/cm3 (pm) Figure 2. The initial placement of the impurity atoms on the surface of the silicon is called the predeposition step and can be accomplished by a number of different techniques. as illustrated in Fig. Within the silicon. 2. the impurities diffuse into the sample.4.3 An ntype silicon sample with boron deposited on the surface.2 Resistivity of p.2. If the sample is now subjected to a high temperature of about 1100•‹Cfor a time of about one hour.0001 1014 10'5 1016 10" 1018 Impurity concentration (cm") loi9 1oZ0 Figure 2. The most commonly used ptype impurity in silicon device fabrication is boron. whereas the regions in which the ntype impurities are . the regions in which theptype impurities outnumber the original ntype impurities display ptype electrical behavior. 2.2 Basic Processes in IntegratedCircuit Fabrication 81 0.~ Boron 1 ly ntype sample Impurity concentration.3. The distribution of impurities prior to the diffusion step is illustrated in Fig.
a n d BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology Boron atoms diffuse lnto the sample X F ntype sample I Impurity concentration. and the electrical properties of the layer itself can be measured. consider the resistance of a uniformly doped sample of length L. MOS. The resistance is Figure 2. and ntype doping concentration No. The diffusion process has allowed the formation of a pn junction within the continuous crystal of silicon material. (V) diffusion.3 Electrical Properties of Diffused Layers The result of the diffusion process is often a thin layer near the surface of the silicon sample that has been converted from one impurity type to another.1 p m to 20 p m for silicon integratedcircuit diffusions (where 1 p m = 1 micrometer = 1W6 m).2. if the pn junction formed by this diffusion is reverse biased.82 Chapter 2 Bipolar. as shown in Fig. Figure 2. The depth of this junction from the surface varies from 0. then the layer is electrically isolated from the underlying material by the reversebiased junction. 2.4 Distribution of impurities after Depth. To define this quantity. width W. From an electrical standpoint. Silicon devices and integrated circuits are constructed primarily from these layers. thickness T. . The electrical parameter most often used to characterize such layers is the sheet resistance. more numerous display ntype electrical behavior. atoms/cm3 1oi8 1oi7 . 2.5.5 Rectangular sample for calculation of sheet resistance.
10) and (2.2 Basic Processes in IntegratedCircuit Fabrication 83 Substitution of the expression for conductivity a from (2. Since the sheet resistance is the resistance of any square sheet of material with thickness T.2.6 Calculation of the resistance o f a diffused layer.1. .' 1 [ q ~ n ND(x) d x ] Impurity concentration.14) gives Rg = [Io'' 1 q p n N o ( x ) d*] . The sheet resistance can be written in terms of the resistivity of the material. we can consider the layer to be made up of a parallel combination of many thin conducting sheets.we obtain Comparison of (2. using (2. The conducting sheet of thickness d x at depth X has a conductance To find the total conductance. its units are often given as Ohms per square (illEl)rather than simply Ohms. Inverting (2.6 is similar to this case except that the impurity concentration is not uniform. we sum all the contributions.N k ) =N D ( ~ A' Figure 2. ND(4 .8). atoms/cm3 A LX . t Net impurity concentration. is the sheet resistance of the layer and has units of Ohms. as The diffused layer illustrated in Fig. However.13). 2.8) gives Quantity R.
15) is seldom necessary. and R is thus 10 times the sheet resistance. This layer acts as a barrier to the diffusion of impurities. MOS. Since the objective is the formation of a region clear of S O 2 . This step can be accomplished by dipping the sample in an etching . These areas of the resist are then chemically dissolved in the development step. We first perform an oxidation step in which a layer of silicon dioxide (SO2) is thermally grown on the top surface. 2 . usually of thickness of 0. In order to use these diffusion process steps to fabricate useful devices. The sample at this stage is illustrated in Fig.15 shows that the sheet resistance of the diffused layer depends on the total number of impurity atoms in the layer per unit area. To define the desired diffusion areas on the silicon sample. The wafer following this step is shown in Fig.10) can be used for diffused layers if the appropriate value of R. since the donor atoms within the depletion layer do not contribute to conduction. is the average mobility. a layer of silicon dioxide will form at the surface. The sheet resistance of a diffused layer is easily measured in the laboratory. From (2. this photomask is opaque except for clear areas where the diffusion is to take place.2. A p n junction can thus be formed in a selected location on the sample by first covering the sample with a layer of oxide (called an oxidation step). Again we assume the starting material is a sample of ntype silicon. it undergoes a chemical change and. 2. Sheet resistance is a useful parameter for the electrical characterization of diffusion processes and is a key parameter in the design of integrated resistors. EXAMPLE Calculate the resistance of a layer with length 50 p m and width 5 p m in material of sheet resistance 200 WO.7b. 2. 7 ~ Then the sample is coated with a thin layer of . as shown in Fig.2 p m to 1 pm.10) Note that this region constitutes 10 squares in series. and (2. When this material is exposed to a particular wavelength of light.Chapter 2 Bipolar. and then performing a predeposition and diffusion step. 2. Equation 2. becomes soluble in certain chemicals in which the unexposed photoresist is insoluble.7. 2.7d.4 Photolithography When a sample of crystalline silicon is placed in an oxidizing environment. The depth xj in (2.13). Light of the appropriate wavelength is directed at the sample. so that impurities separated from the surface of the silicon by a layer of oxide do not diffuse into the silicon during hightemperature processing.7c. The unexposed areas of the photoresist are impervious to the developer. the next step is the etching of the oxide. and falls on the photoresist only in the clear areas of the mask. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology where p. The selective removal of the oxide in the desired areas is accomplished with photolithography. the diffusion must be restricted to a small region on the surface of the sample rather than the entire planar surface. a photomask is placed over the surface of the sample. Thus (2.15) is actually the distance from the surface to the edge of the junction depletion layer. This restriction is accomplished with photolithography. as shown in Fig. is used. the actual evaluation of (2.. (2. in the case of positive photoresist. This process is illustrated by the conceptual example of Fig. photosensitive material called photoresist. 2.14). removing the oxide in the selected region.
The sample now undergoes a predeposition and diffusion step. In some instances. a number of masking and diffusion steps are used to form more complex structures such as transistors. such as hydrofluoric acid. ( f ) Predeposit and diffuse impurities.2 Basic Processes in IntegratedCircuit Fabrication 85 SiO.2 p m by 0. typically 4 inches to 12 inches in diameter and 250 p m thick.7f.7e. 2. as shown in Fig. The minimum dimension of the diffused region that can be routinely formed with this technique in device production has decreased with time.2 pm. Thus the number of electrically independent p n junctions of dimension 0.5 Epitaxial Growth Early planar transistors and the first integrated circuits used only photomasking and diffusion steps in the fabrication process. (c) Expose through mask. or by exposing it to an electrically produced plasma in a plasma etcher. or windows.2. as shown in Fig.7 Conceptual example of the use of photolithography to form a p n junction diode. ( a ) Grow S O z . the result is that in the regions where the photoresist has been removed.6). (b) Apply photoresist.2. resulting in the formation of ptype regions where the oxide had been removed. solution.2. Thus the cost of the photomasking and diffusion steps applied to the wafer during the process is divided among the devices or circuits on the wafer. 2. In actual integrated circuits. the oxide is etched away.2 p m apart that can be formed on one such wafer is on the order of 10". in the oxide at the desired locations. (6) Develop photoresist. ( e ) Etch Si02 and remove photoresist. However. / ntype wafer / Mask Figure 2. This method of insertion can often take place through the silicon dioxide so that the oxideetch step is unnecessary.2 p m spaced 0. The remaining photoresist is next removed by a chemical stripping operation. leaving the bare silicon surface. leaving the sample with holes. the impurity to be locally added to the silicon surface is deposited by using ion implantation (see Section 2. but the key points are that photolithography is capable of defining a large number of devices on the surface of the sample and that all of these devices are batch fabricated at the same time. 2. alldiffused integrated circuits had severe . This ability to fabricate hundreds or thousands of devices at once is the key to the economic advantage of IC technology. In either case.2 p m X 0. The number of such regions that can be fabricated simultaneously can be calculated by noting that the silicon sample used in the production of integrated circuits is a round slice. and at present is approximately 0.
The drawbacks of this structure are that the series collector resistance is high and the collectortoemitter breakdown voltage is low. The former occurs because the impurity concentration in the portion of the collector diffusion below the collectorbase junction is low.a n d BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology ptype substrate Impurity concentration atoms/cm3 l0' 2 Emitter diffusion ( n ) Base diffusion (p) Collector diffusion (n) c Depth X (pm) Figure 2. Such a layer is suitable as starting material for the fabrication of bipolar transistors. In addition. giving the region high resistivity.8 Triplediffused transistor and resulting impurity profile. To overcome these drawbacks. resulting in a low breakdown voltage between the collector and base diffusions at the surface. and the resulting surface layer of silicon is crystalline in structure with few defects if the conditions are carefully controlled. Epitaxial (epi) growth consists of formation of a layer of singlecrystal silicon on the surface of the silicon sample so that the crystal structure of the silicon is continuous across the interface. The thickness of epi layers used in integratedcircuit fabrication varies from 1 k m to 20 km.8. the epi layer is often of opposite impurity type from the substrate on which it is grown. The latter occurs because the concentration of impurities near the surface of the collector is relatively high. the collector region is formed by an ntype diffusion into the ptype wafer. A chemical reaction takes place in which elemental silicon is deposited on the surface of the wafer. as illustrated in Fig. MOS. and the epitaxial growth technique was adopted as a result. Such a concentration profile cannot be realized with diffusions alone. limitations compared with discrete component circuits. . and the growth of the layer is accomplished by placing the wafer in an ambient atmosphere containing silicon tetrachloride (SiC14) or silane ( S i b ) at an elevated temperature. 2. The impurity concentration in the epi layer can be controlled independently and can be greater or smaller than in the substrate material. In a triplediffused bipolar transistor. the impurity concentration should be low at the collectorbase junction for high breakdown voltage but high below the junction for low collector resistance. as described in Chapter 1. Epitaxy is also utilized in some CMOS and most BiCMOS technologies.86 Chapter 2 Bipolar.
. as described in Section 1S . This is called an anneal step and is essential to allow repair of any crystal damage caused by the implantation.6 Ion Implantation Ion implantation is a technique for directly inserting impurity atoms into a silicon ~ a f e r .1 pm to about 0. but no oxidation takes place under the nitride. Local oxidation is used to achieve this result.2. Thus when a subsequent long. the need often arises to fabricate regions of the silicon surface that are covered with relatively thin silicon dioxide. These ions penetrate the surface of the silicon wafer to an average depth of from less than 0. Silicon nitride acts as a barrier to oxygen atoms that might otherwise reach the SiSi02 interface and cause further oxidation. 2 . 9 ~ First a layer of silicon nitride (SiN) is deposited on the sample and subsequently . wellcontrolled amounts of impurity are required at the silicon surface for adjustment of device thresholds. the former regions constitute the activedevice areas.2. whereas the latter constitute the regions that electrically isolate the devices from each other. Typically. In addition.8 Polysilicon Deposition Many process technologies utilize layers of polycrystalline silicon that are deposited during fabrication. depending on the velocity with which they strike the sample. A second requirement is that the transition from thick to thin regions must be accomplished without introducing a large vertical step in the surface geometry of the silicon. hightemperature oxidation step is carried out. as shown in Fig. 800•‹Cfor 10 minutes) in order to allow the ions to become mobile and fit into the crystal lattice.6 km. This technique is also widely applied in MOS technology where small. emitters of bipolar transistors. The resulting geometry after . unlike with diffused layers. so that the metallization and other patterns that are later deposited can lie on a relatively planar surface. 9 ~Note that the top surface of the silicon dioxide has a smooth transition from thick to thin areas and that the height of this transition is less than the oxide thickness difference because the oxidation in the thick oxide regions consumes some of the underlying silicon. 2 .1. 2. This allows the fabrication of implanted bipolar structures with properties that are significantly better than those of diffused devices.7 Local Oxidation In both MOS and bipolar technologies. The local oxidation process begins with a sample that already has a thin oxide grown on it. a thick oxide is grown in the regions where there is no nitride. the deposition can be made with a high level of uniformity across the wafer. Another useful property of ionimplanted layers is that the peak of the impurity concentration profile can be made to occur below the surface of the silicon. removed with a masking step from all areas where thick oxide is to be grown.2.9b. ~ . The principal advantages of ion implantation over conventional diffusion are ( l ) that small amounts of impurities can be reproducibly deposited and (2) that the amount of impurity deposited per unit area can be precisely controlled. resistors. plates of capacitors. as shown in Fig. 2. The wafer is then held at a moderate temperature for a period of time (for example. 2.2 Basic Processes in IntegratedCircuit Fabrication 87 2. adjacent to areas covered by relatively thick oxide. the desired features are defined by using a masking step and can serve as gate electrodes for silicongate MOS transistors. ~ The wafer is placed in an evacuated chamber. and ions of the desired impurity species are directed at the sample at high velocity. After deposition of the polycrystalline silicon layer on the wafer. nitride removal is shown in Fig.2.
MOS. since the deposition is usually over a layer of silicon dioxide. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology I SiN I SiO. It also allows shallower structures with higher frequency capability. Finally. the layer does not form as a singlecrystal extension of the underlying silicon but forms as a granular (or polysilicon) film. Developments in photolithography have reduced the minimum feature size attainable from tens of microns to the submicron level. The sheet resistance of such layers can be controlled by the impurity added. 2. Thus the highestfrequency IC processes are designed to operate from 5V supplies or less and are generally not usable at higher supply voltages. However. Reducing the operating voltages allows closer spacing between devices in an IC. we examine first the sequence of steps used in the fabrication of highvoltage bipolar integrated circuits using junction isolation. Thick 30. In fact. in a range from about 20 Q/R up to very high values. The process that is used to deposit the layer is much like that used for epitaxy. as described in Chapter 1. These effects stem from the fact that the thickness of junction depletion layers is reduced by reducing operating voltages. a fundamental tradeoff exists between the frequency capability of a process and its breakdown voltage.9 Local oxidation process.88 Chapter 2 Bipolar. Figure 2. This change has been driven by developments in photolithography. . This was the original IC process . and interconnect layers. (c) After oxidation and nitride removal. many circuits now operate from 3 V or 5 V power supplies instead of from the I+. such as operational amplifiers. (a) Sili con sample prior to deposition of nitride. and also the trend to reduce powersupply voltages in many systems. The precise control allowed by ion implantation has resulted in this technique becoming the dominant means of predepositing impurity atoms. In this section. (b) After nitride deposition and definition.15 V supplies used earlier to achieve high dynamic range in standalone integrated circuits. Some MOS technologies contain as many as three separate polysilicon layers. processing techniques. much like bulk silicon. N Thin SiO.3 HighVoltage Bipolar IntegratedCircuit Fabrication Integratedcircuit fabrication techniques have changed dramatically since the invention of the basic planar process. separated from one another by layers of S O z . fuses.
. .. .... . . A . ..and the impurity used is usually arsenic or antimony because these impurities diffuse slowly and thus do not greatly redistribute during subsequent processing. . . and it Figure 2. . The first mask and diffusion step.. ... . ... .:. which implies an impurity concentration in the collector of approximately 1015 atoms/cm3 and a resistivity of S flcm. . .:.. ... 2. ... e a . . . . Since the buried layer diffuses outward approximately 8 p m during subsequent processing. . . . . . . ... A mask step and boron (ptype) predeposition and diffusion are performed.. The function of this diffusion is to isolate the collectors of the transistors from each other with reversebiased p n junctions... a collectorbase plane breakdown voltage of approximately 90 V is required. For BVcEo = 36 V. .. ptype substrate . . . .. As described in Chapter l . . . .. . . ....... The thickness of the epitaxial layer then must be large enough to accommodate the depletion layer associated with the collectorbase junction.. . the results of Chapter 1 can be used to show that the depletionlayer thickness is approximately 6 pm. For circuits with lower operating voltages. thinner and more heavily doped epitaxial layers are used to reduce the transistor collector series resistance. . . forms a lowresistance ntype layer that will eventually become a lowresistance path for the collector current of the transistor. ... ... ... Figure 2. _ . .:. . . . a .. . resulting in the structure shown in Fig. .. . .. . a total epitaxial layer thickness of 17 p m is required for a 36V circuit.. . . ..11.. The starting material is a wafer of ptype silicon. . . . .': :':':.. 2. .. . . . . .. ....... .. .. this implies that the plane breakdown voltage in the collectorbase junction must be several times this value because of the effects of collector avalanche multiplication. .. .. . ...1 1 Bipolar integratedcircuit wafer following epitaxial growth.: .3 HighVoltage Bipolar IntegratedCircuit Fabrication ntype impurities n+ buried layer 89 . .. It is still used in various forms to fabricate highvoltage circuits. the devices generally are required to have BVcEo breakdown voltages above this value. For example. . ...12... . . . :. .... . and is useful as a vehicle to illustrate the basic methods of IC fabrication..'. as will be shown later.. .. . ..* ...... . . ..10 Buriedlayer diffusion.:. : . an oxide layer is grown on the top surface of the epitaxial layer. .. .. .. ... . . . . We will consider the sequence of diffusion steps required to form an npn integratedcircuit transistor.. . . . usually 250 p m thick and with an impurity concentration of approximately 1016 atoms/cm3.. At 36 V. . .:... ... . and the base diffusion will be approximately 3 k m deep. as shown in Fig. The sheet resistance of the layer is in the range of 20 to 50 010. . the wafer is stripped of all oxide and an epi layer is grown.:.. . This step is called the buriedlayer difision... . .10. . . .. . . The thickness of the layer and its ntype impurity concentration determine the collectorbase breakdown voltage of the transistors in the circuit since this material forms the collector region of the transistor....... .: .. .. . . and the layer itself is called the buried layer.. ..2.. .. . . . illustrated in Fig. .. Following the epitaxial growth.:. After the buriedlayer step. . . . .. . if the circuit is to operate at a powersupply voltage of 36 V.. I ... . The fabrication of a junctionisolated bipolar integrated circuit involves a sequence of from six to eight masking and diffusion steps. 2... . ..
.. .. . . .. . : . .. a Figure 2...ptype substrate ...14 Structure following emitter diffusion.:'..... : . . . . .5 Fm to 2.. ..:. Figure 2. . . . Following the base diffusion.. . .:. and diffusion. . .. . . .. a * . ntype predeposition... The sheet resistance is between 2 C E I and 10 fi/CI.. .. a . and the depth is 0... . . . . . . The next masking step. ... Because of the depth to which the diffusion must penetrate.....12 Structure following isolation diffusion. . . : .. . . .. .. ..... This diffusion step is also used to form a lowresistance region. . . ... . . ... .. a . ..90 Chapter 2 Bipolar. . ... .. Contact windows are also opened for the passive components on the chip. ... .. . Figure 2. . . . . .... . .. .. e a . .: .. . This diffusion forms not only the bases of the transistors. . . ... .. ... . .. . ..... . . but also many of the resistors in the circuit. . . . . ' . ... . . .. .. .. The isolated diffused layer has a sheet resistance from 20 fl/0to 40 film. The next steps are the base mask.':: . . .. .. is termed the isolation diffusion... .. ... . . . . ....13.. .. .. . ... . ' . and the collector of the transistors so that electrical contact can be made to them. MOS.. . . . .. .:. . ... so that control of the sheet resistance is important. The entire wafer ntype impurities h / ptype base f si02 . . .... . . :. .. .. ..... as shown in Fig. . ..:. 2.. . ... . .. . . . This is necessary because ohmic contact is difficult to accomplish between alurninum metallization and the highresistivity epitaxial material directly. . as shown in Fig.... .. . base predeposition. and base diffusion. . .. . . .. ... is used to open holes in the oxide over the emitter.. which serves as the contact to the collector region.. .... .. . . .... and a depth of 1 pm to 3 pm at the end of the process. . .. ... . . ..... . .. ... . ..... . The latter is usually a boron diffusion... . ... . . . ....13 Structure following base hffusion.*: .. the contact mask. the emitters of the transistors are formed by a mask step. ..... ..:... . . . . . . I . . . . . . ... . ... . and the resulting layer has a sheet resistance of from 100 i2/O to 300 f i / 0 ... . ... . this diffusion requires several hours in a diffusion furnace at temperatures of about 1200•‹C.: :... . . . 2. . . .. . .. ptype substrate .... . . . .:. . S . ... . ..... a ... . . .. '. a .. S . . .. . . . .14.5 p m after the diffusion. .. .. . . . the base. . . a n d BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology /ptype impurities / .
. .. ... .. . 2.... . . . . .. . ... . . ... .. . .. . .. .. . ... .. . . ... ... .15. . . .3 HighVoltage Bipolar IntegratedCircuitFabrication Collector contact Emitter 91 Base SiO. . . .. . . .. ... . .. ..:.: .....and the singular is die... .. into individual circuits. . . . .. ..: . . . . .. .. . . .. . . . ... . .' dtffuslon/ Collector metallizatro~i Collector contact w~ndow ! Figure 2. . .. . .. .... .. . . S .2.. . . The resulting silicon chips are called dice. The wafer is then placed in an automatic tester. which checks the electrical characteristics of each circuit on the wafer and puts an ink dot on circuits that fail to meet specifications..: . . . ...:. . . .. . This sequence allows simultaneous fabrication of a large number (often thousands) of complex circuits on a single wafer. . deepdiffused analog integrated circuit is shown in Fig. . and is thinnest over the emitter diffusion. .. ... .. . Base contact window Base tnetallizatton Emitter contact window Edge of base diffusion Edge of emitter diffusion / Emitter metallization Edge of collector 7.': . .. . . . . . ... . ..... .. . The actual interconnect pattern is defined by the last mask step. ... .. Figure 2.. I is then coated with a thin (about l km) layer of aluminum that will interconnect the circuit elements. .. . _ .... ..Each good die is then mounted in a package. .. . ...:.. . . .. . .. . is less thick over the base and isolation regions...16 Scanning electron microscope photograph of npn transistor structure...15 Final structure following contact mask and metallization. . . . The final structure is shown in Fig. . .. .. . 2. . .:. . 2. \ .. where no oxide has been removed. . . .:. . ... . . ...17... . . . . . . .... ... The terraced effect on the surface of the device results from the fact that additional oxide is grown during each diffusion cycle.... . . .:. . .. . .. . . . . in which the aluminum is etched away in the areas where the photoresist is removed in the develop step... . . . . : . by sawing or scribing and breaking. .. . .16. . ready for final testing. . . .. . . . : ptype substrate :'. . .. . . .... . which are both opened at the base mask step. .. The wafer is then broken up..... . . . . .. . .. . ... .. so that the oxide is thickest over the epitaxial region. a .. .. . .. A microscope photograph of an actual structure of the same type is shown in Fig.. A typical diffusion profile for a highvoltage. ... . ..
(cross section AA') 102'  1013  concentration (NO) X (pm) Figure 2. many of the circuit applications of commercial importance have demanded steadily increasing frequency response capability.92 Chapter 2 Bipolar. selectively oxidized regions for isolation instead of diffused junctions. Because of the growing importance of this class of bipolar process. a class of bipolar fabrication technologies has evolved that. or variations thereof. . The higher speed requirement dictates a device structure with thinner base width to reduce base transit time and smaller dimensions overall to reduce parasitic capacitances. 2. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology Impurity concentration. use much thinner and more heavily doped epitaxial layers. which translates directly to a need for transistors of higher frequencyresponse capability in the technology. MOS.17 Typical impurity concentration for a monolithic npn transistor in a highvoltage. which in turn requires the use of lower circuit operating voltages and higher impurity concentrations in the device structure. the sequence for such a process is described in this section. compared to the highvoltage process sequence described in the last section. To meet this need.4 Advanced Bipolar IntegratedCircuit Fabrication A large fraction of bipolar analog integrated circuits currently manufactured uses the basic technology described in the previous section. deepdiffused process. However. The fabrication sequence is relatively simple and low in cost. and a polysilicon layer as the source of dopant for the emitter. The smaller device dimensions require that the width of the junction depletion layers within the structure be reduced in proportion.
Figure 2... . . . . ..:. . ...... . ::. . . .. .. : ..2. ... .. .. . .. . . . . . .. .. ...... . . The oxidation step is as described in Section 2. . The resulting structure following this step is shown in Fig.. ::.. . .... ... . . . The result after these steps is shown in cross section in Fig.. .:...'... .. . The resulting structure is shown in Fig.. with a mask and implant step resulting in the formation of a heavilydoped n+ buried layer in a ptype substrate. . .......... .:. .: . .2. resulting in a lowresistance path to the collector.. ..:. ... ...:.. .. .. . ... .. . : ... . During subsequent hightemperature processing steps.7.. . .'. . .:. .:.. .... .. 2. ..18 Device cross section following initial buriedlayer mask. . and a thinbase ptype implant is performed..... Following this step.. .. . Next. . . . ... ... . . an etching step is performed to remove silicon material from the regions where oxide will be grown.. ..:. .. .. If this is not done.. ... ..:.. . The starting point for the process is similar to that for the conventional process.18. . S S .. These regions are often referred to as moats... .. this method of isolation is practical only for very thin transistor structures. ... . . ..substrate..piype.::. . .. . . ... . . . A heavy n+ implant is made in the collectorcontact region and diffused down to the buried layer. . .: . .... ... . . . .. . :.. The steps around these humps cause difficulty in coverage by subsequent layers of metal and polysilicon that will be deposited. . .. . a thin ntype epitaxial layer is grown. .. Because growth of oxide layers thicker than a micron or so requires impractically long times.. . Note that the Si02 regions extend all the way down to the ptype substrate.... The removal of some silicon material before oxide growth results in a nearly planar surface after the oxide is grown and removes the step coverage problem in subsequent processing. . .. .. .... . A second mask is performed to define the base region. . the thick oxide growth results in elevated humps in the regions where the oxide is grown... . ... .. .... .... . . . . 2.. .: ..19. .. .. : . . .. ... :'. . electrically isolating the ntype epi regions from one another. S . .... .... . .20.19 Device cross section following selective etch and oxidation to form thickoxide moats... implant. Next..:.. . and epitaxiallayer growth. . An n+ doped layer of polysilicon is deposited and masked to leave polysilicon only in the region directly over the emitter... .. . . a selective oxidation step is carried out to form the regions that will isolate the transistor from its neighbors and also isolate the collectorcontact region from the rest of the transistor. the dopant (usually Figure 2. . . . and then providing lowresistance ohmic contact to these regions.. . . ... ... .. a . _ .. .: . . except that prior to the actual growth of the thick Si02 layer.. .4 Advanced Bipolar IntegratedCircuit Fabrication ntype epitaxial layer / 93 SiO....... .. .. 2. ... . . . ... . . . ..::. . two mask and implant steps are performed.. . .. . ... A major challenge in fabricating this type of device is the formation of very thin base and emitter structures. . ... . . .. This is most often achieved using polysilicon as a doping source. ... . . ... .. ... .5 Qcm in resistivity. . . .. . . . a . ._.. .. about 1 k m in thickness and about 0. .
. ... .. .. . . .: ....S. . . ... . ... .... . . . . . . . . S .... . ..... allowing the minimum possible emitter size. :. .. . . . .. . .. . ... . . . . . . .... . :.. . .... . .. ..:..... a .. . . . . . . .. ' .. . .... . . .. . . . ... . . . . .. . ... . ..:.. .. . . .. . .. where the polysilicon itself acts as a mask to prevent the boron atoms from reaching this part of the base region. .. .:.... .. . .... ... .... .. . . .. . ... .. .:. . . . . and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology p. . . .. . ...... ... . . ... . . .:.base layer / . . ..:: ..:::' . . ... .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . .. . ..:. .... . . . . ... . . ... . . . . . . ... . S . . . ... ...... implant. .. . .. . a . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. a .22 Final device cross section... . . . . ' and mask and implant of base ptype region. . . . . . . ... . .. .. . . .. . ... a fact that / metal Base contact / Polysilicon emitter / metal Collector contact F . . . ... . ' .: . . . ... .. . ... . . . . ....... . .. . . .. . . ... . . . .. ... ... . and diffusion of collector n region. . .. . Since the moats are made of S O a .:. e . . . . S . . .. .. .. . . . .. . . . .. .. .. ... .. .. .. . . . . . . . ... .. ... ... .. . .. . . . . . This method of forming lowresistance regions to contact the base is called a selfaligned structure because the alignment of the base region with the emitter happens automatically and does not depend on mask alignment. . .. . Note that collector and base contact windows can overlap moat regions. .... .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . a . .. forming a very thin. .. . .. .... ... . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. .:. . ... . . . . . .. .. .. . ... . ..... .. . . . . . . . .. .. . ... ... . .. .. . . . . . . . . . ...... Similar processing is used in MOS technology. ...a. ... . . . . .. .:. a . . . . . . ... . . . .. .. MOS. . Figure 2. ... . . .... . Emitter contact for the structure shown here would be made on an extension of the polysilicon emitter out of the device active area....94 Chapter 2 Bipolar. .. a . . .. .. .. ...... .. . . v . . . . ... . . .. . . .. . . . .. .:. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .: . ..22.. .:.. Figure 2. .. ... .. .. . .. ... .. . . .. ... . . . . . 1 1 p+ base layer p+ implant n+ polysilicon emitter \ / n. . .... . . .... . .:. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... . .. . 2. base ptype implant. ......... .. .... .. . ..type substrate. . . . . . 0 ... . . . ... . .. ... . :.. . .. ... . . ... . .. . ... . .. . . . . .. . ... . .. . . . .. . .. m . . . ... :. heavily doped emitter region.. . . . . .. . '.... : .. . . . .. . ... . . . .. . . . . ... . .... . a ..... . . . . .. . .... . . ..... : . . . a . .. ptype substrate .. ...... .. .:.20 Device cross section following mask. a . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . Following the poly deposition. . . . .. ........ . . ... .2 1. .. a ... l l Figure 2... . a .. the metallization contact windows can overlap into them.. .. . . . : .. .. . ... . ........ . . .. . .. ..... .. . .:p.. . ... 2. .. ... . .. ... . . .. . .. .. ... . .. . substrate . ..... .. . . . . .. . . ...... .. ... . .. . ... .. . S i i P t .... . . .. . : S . . . . ... .. . .:. . . . . v ... . . . .. . .. . . .. . ... ... ... . .. .... . . . . .. ... . . The structure that results following this step is shown in Fig.... ... . . ... and thermal diffusion cycle. . .. . . . . ... .. ..: . . .. . . . . . ptype.. . ... . .epi layer . . .. . a heavy ptype implant is performed.:. a . . .... . . . . '.. The final device structure after metallization is shown in Fig. . . . : .. .. . .21 Device cross section following poly deposition and mask.. .. .. : . a . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . . .. .... . . .. .. ::... .. .m ' . . . .. . . . .. which results in a more heavily doped ptype layer at all points in the base region except directly under the polysilicon. . . ..:: . . .. I . . described later in this chapter. arsenic) diffuses out of the polysilicon and into the crystalline silicon. .. ... . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. a : : : . .. ..: . .. ... ..
All exposed silicon and polysilicon is covered with a highly conductive silicide (a compound of silicon and a refractory metal such as tungsten) to reduce series and contact resistance. highvoltage processes. We will draw examples primarily from the highvoltage technology. 2. 2. compared to a typical value of 500 MHz for deepdiffused. and substrate pnp transistors. For minimumdimension transistors. (b) After oxide deposition. The polysilicon emitter is 1 p m wide. a larger emitter is used and the contact ~. Production IC p r o c e s s e ~based on technologies similar to the one just described yield bipolar transistors having fT values well in excess of 10 GHz. and secondmetal interconnect.23 Scanningelectronmicroscope photographs of a bipolar transistor in an advanced. The use of the remote emitter contact with polysilicon connection does add some series emitter resistance. ( a ) After polysilicon emitter definition and firstmetal contact to the base and collector.23. The available structures in the more advanced technology . lateral pny. The advanced technology process improves further on all aspects of device performance except for breakdown voltage. In addition to npn transistors. 2. and as a result the process inherently produces doublediffused n p n transistors of relatively high performance. In this section. polysiliconemitter.24.5 Active Devices in Bipolar Analog lntegrated Circuits The highvoltage IC fabrication process described previously is an outgrowth of the one used to make npn doublediffused discrete bipolar transistors.~ is placed directly on top of the polysilicon emitter itself. the contact to the emitter is made by extending the polysilicon to a region outside the device active area and forming a metal contact to the polysilicon there. and an important development in the evolution of analog IC technologies was the invention of device structures that allowed the standard technology to produce pnp transistors as well. A photograph of such a device is shown in Fig. contact etch.~ e n i n a in ( C V oxide ~ deposited oxide Base contact (first metal) 95 Thermal (grown) oxide Secondmetal interconnect to base Oxide opening defining base region Collector contact (first metal) ~oi. pnp transistors are also required in many analog circuits. and a typical impurity profile is shown in Fig.2.] dramatically reduces the minimum achievable dimensions of the base and collector regions. [QUBic process photograph courtesy of Signetics.5 Active Devices in Bipolar Analog lntegrated Circuits Step coverage into contact through De~osited o . oxideisolated process.silicon em~tter Secondmetal interconnect to collector Secondmetal interconnect to emitter Figure 2. we will explore the structure and properties of nyn. so for larger device geometries or cases in which emitter resistance is critical.
Figure 2. will display larger . the only electrically active portion of the structure that provides current gain is that portion of the base immediately under the emitter diffusion. the need often exists for a transistor with a high currentcarrying capability to be used in the output stage of an amplifier. From an electrical standpoint. Thus the circuitdesign problem involves a certain amount of device design as well.24 npical impurity profile in a shallow oxideisolated bipolar transistor. cm3 (cross section AA') t I ( Emitter (As) Depth. integratedcircuit npn transistor was described in the last section and is shown in plan view and cross section in Fig. however.96 Chapter 2 m Bipolar. are similar. MOS. For example. An important distinction between integratedcircuit design and discretecomponent circuit design is that the IC designer has the capability to utilize a device geometry that is specifically optimized for the particular set of conditions found in the circuit. 2.25. the principal effect of these regions is to contribute parasitic resistances and capacitances that must be included in the smallsignal model for the complete device to provide an accurate representation of highfrequency behavior. The larger geometry.1 IntegratedCircuit npn Transistors The structure of a highvoltage. In the forwardactive region of operation. a n d BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology Impurity concentration. 2. The rest of the structure provides a top contact to the three transistor terminals and electrical isolation of the device from the rest of the devices on the same die.5. and the transistor then effectively consists of many standard devices connected in parallel. Such a device can be made by using a larger device geometry than the standard one. We will include representative device parameters from these newer technologies as well. except that their frequency response is correspondingly higher.
. .. . . The overall device dimensions are 140 p m X 95 pm.. a _ .. . . Figure 2. . The emitter diffusion is 20 p m X 25 pm... the baseisolation spacing is dictated by the side diffusion of the isolation region plus the depletion layers associated with the basecollector and collectorisolation junctions. . The circuit designer then must be able to determine the effect of changes in device geometry on device characteristics and to estimate the important device parameters when the device structure and doping levels are known.. . ... . . : .. . . the saturation current of a gradedbase transistor was shown to be . .' .. ..2... . .. . ... :. Pm 120 IC  + Buried layer + Isolation =+Emitter 1 Base IE v + Contact opening A + Metal 90 80 Collector Base Emitter . . .. . and the baseisolation spacing is 25 pm. .. 17pm epitaxial layer. .5 Active Devices in Bipolar Analog Integrated Circuits 97 P Distance. and collectorsubstrate capacitance than the standard device. . .. .. and this must be taken into account in analyzing the frequency response of the circuit... . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . ... Device geometries intended for lower epi resistivity and thickness can be much smaller.. . To illustrate this procedure.:.. .25. . . .. . .. 2.. .... . baseemitter. In Chapter l. we will calculate the model parameters of the npn device shown in Fig. .. ..substrate :. ptype. Saturation Current Is.. .. . .. . ' . :. . This structure is typical of the devices used in circuits with a 5acm. .. .. . .. . . . . ..25 Integratedcircuit npn transistor.. . .. the base diffusion is 45 p m X 60 km. . The mask layers are coded as shown. ... . . . . collectorbase. . . . ...
fabrication processes intended for lower voltage operation use thinner base regions and display lower values of QB. As illustrated in Fig.5 X 10'' cmp3. and D. MOS. is the effective diffusion constant for electrons in the base region of the transistor. QBcan vary by a factor of two or three to one because of diffusion process variations. a significant series ohmic resistance is observed between the contact and the active base.17. Because the base contact is physically removed from the active base region. 2.17) gives At the doping levels encountered in the base. Estimate QB if T = 300•‹K. The second part rb2 is that resistance between the edge of (4 Figure 2. Series Base Resistance lb. This could be determined graphically but is most easily determined experimentally from measurements of the baseemitter voltage at a constant collector current.16) in (1. 2. m EXAMPLE A baseemitter voltage of 550 mV is measured at a collector current of 10 pA on a test transistor with a 100 p m X 100 pm emitter area.98 Chapter 2 Bipolar. nj is the intrinsic carrier concentration. The principal significance of the numerical value for QB is that it allows the calculation of the saturation current Is for any device structure once the emitterbase junction area is known.From Chapter 1. we have ni = 1. Generally speaking. QBis the total number of impurity atoms per unit area in the base. is Thus for this example. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology where A is the emitterbase junction area. . an approximate value of D. From Fig. The first is the resistance 161 of the path between the base contact and the edge of the emitter diffusion..26a. this resistance consists of two parts.35) gives and QB can be determined from this equation. the electron diffusivity. Substitution of (2.26 (a) Base resistance components for the npn transistor. the quantity QB can be identified as the area under the concentration curve in the base region. Within one nominally fixed process. This resistance can have a significant effect on the highfrequency gain and on the noise performance of the device. Substitution in (2. Note that QB depends on the diffusion profiles and will be different for different types of processes.
1 10 Collector current.25 is shown in Fig. 2. an effort is often made to maximize the periphery of the emitter that is adjacent to the base contact. rnA current for integratedcircuit npn transistor. at even moderate current levels. At the same time. 2. A typically observed variation of r b with collector current for the npn geometry of Fig. For a base sheet resistance of 100 a 0 and typical dimensions as shown in Fig. 2.26b. the portion of the base directly beneath the emitter is not involved in transistor action.27.26b. essentially all of the injection takes place at the periphery and the effective value of r b approaches r b l . the effect of current crowding9 in the base causes most of the carrier injection from the emitter into the base to occur near the periphery of the emitter diffusion.26 (b) Calculation of rbr. In this situation.001 0. the emitter and the site within the base region at which the current is actually flowing. this usually dictates the use of an emitter geometry that consists of many narrow A 500 400 300 200 l00 1 l l 1 l + Figure 2. . First. The former component can be estimated by neglecting fringing and by assuming that this component of the resistance is that of a rectangle of material as shown in Fig. In transistors designed for lownoise andor highfrequency applications where low rb is important.27 Typical variation of effective smallsignal base resistance with collector 0. Second. the current flow in this region is not well modeled by a single resistor because the base resistance is distributed throughout the base region and twodimensional effects are important.01 01 . this 1 would give a resistance of The calculation of rb2 is complicated by several factors. the emitterbase junction and collectorbase junction areas must be kept small to minimize capacitance. At higher current levels. 2.2. The rbl component of base resistance can be estimated by calculating the resistance of the rectangular block above.5 Active Devices in Bipolar Analog Integrated Circuits 99 Figure 2. In the case of highfrequency transistors.
28 (a) Components of collector resistance r. Consequently. 2.~. 2. . From Fig. Assuming that the collectorbase junction is at zero bias. giving an effective size of 57 k m X 101 km.that of the buried layer from the region under the emitter over to the region under the collector contact.28 (b) Model for calculation of collector (b) resistance. about 8 p m must be added on each edge. with a rather complex set of boundary conditions. EXAMPLE Estimate the collector resistance of the transistor of Fig. we see that the resistance consists of three parts: that from the collectorbase junction under the emitter down to the buried layer. the results of Chapter 1 can be used to show that the depletion layer is about 1 p m thick. An exact calculation of the ohmic resistance of this threedimensional region would require a solution of Laplace's equation in the region.100 Chapter 2 Bipolar. The smallsignal series collector resistance in the forwardactive region can be estimated by adding the resistance of these three paths. that portion from the buried layer up to the collector contact. assuming the doping profile of Fig. rcg. The ease with which the designer can use such device geometries is an example of the flexibility allowed by monolithic IC construction. MOS. The series collector resistance is important both in highfrequency circuits and in lowfrequency applications where low collectoremitter saturation voltage is required. The thickness of the lightly doped epi layer between the collectorbase junction and the buried layer is 6 pm. only an approximate value for the collector resistance can be obtained by hand analysis.. and finally. Series Collector Resistance r. we will carry out an approximate analysis by modeling the region as a rectangular paral  l Figure 2. rc2.17. The emitter dimensions are 20 p m X 25 pm. stripes with base contacts between them.25. while the buried layer dimensions are 41 k m X 85 p m on the mask. Since the buried layer sidediffuses a distance roughly equal to the distance that it outdiffuses. We first calculate the rcl component. Thus the undepleted epi material under the base is 5 p m thick. 2..l is larger at the buried layer than at the collectorbase junction.28. r. The effective crosssectional area of the resistance r. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology (4 Figure 2. Because of the complex threedimensional shape of the collector region itself.
5 Active Devices in Bipolar Analog Integrated Circuits 101 lelepiped.28b. Under the assumptions that the top and bottom surfaces of the region are equipotential surfaces.2. Equation 2.18 gives realistic results when the sides of the region form an angle of about 60" or less with the vertical. as shown in Fig. because the assumption of onedimensional flow is seriously violated when the dimensions of the lower rectangle are much larger than those of the top rectangle. 2. the resistance of the structure can be shown to be where T p W. We assume that the effective emitter dimensions are those defined by the mask plus approximately 2 k m of side diffusion on each edge. . the resistance does not decrease very much because of the long path for current flow between the top electrode and the remote regions of the bottom electrode.l . and that the current flow in the region takes place only in the vertical direction. Thus the effective buriedlayer dimensions that we use in (2. the buriedlayer edges are further away from the emitter edge than twice the thickness T on all four sides when side diffusion is taken into account.L a b = = thickness of the region resistivity of the material width. When the angle of the sides is increased beyond this point.1g). whichever is smaller. Thus For this case. length of the top rectangle = ratio of the width of the bottom rectangle to the width of the top rectangle = ratio of the length of the bottom rectangle to the length of the top rectangle = Direct application of this expression to the case at hand would give an unrealistically low value of resistance. Thus the limits of the bottom electrode should be determined either by the edges of the buried layer or by the edges of the emitter plus a distance equal to about twice the vertical thickness T of the region.18) are and Thus from (2. For the case of r.
Thus r. is smaller in saturation than in the forwardactive region. The rc2 component is thus. Second. The collectorbase capacitance is simply the capacitance of the collectorbase junction including both the flat bottom portion of the junction and the sidewalls. The distance from the buried layer to the bottom of the n+ diffusion is seen in Fig. decreasing r. The total collector resistance is thus The value actually observed in such devices is somewhat lower than this for three reasons. For the calculation of rc3. the collectorbase depletion layer extends further into the epi.29. the outdiffused buried layer extends only 4 p m outside the n+ diffusion. or 13 pm. On the three sides of the collector'n diffusion that do not face the base region. Under this assumption. This junction is formed by the diffusion of boron into an ntype epitaxial material that we will assume has a resistivity of 5 0cm. CollectorBase Capacitance. the dimensions of the collectorcontact n+ diffusion are 18 p m X 49 pm. On the side facing the base region. approximately. and for convenience this relationship has been plotted in nomograph form in Fig. which is determined by the mask dimensions and the sheet resistance of the buried layer.5 pm. and as a result. the effective edge of the buried layer is a distance 2 T . 2. this junction is well approximated by a step junction in which the depletion layer lies almost entirely in the epitaxial material. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology We will now calculate rc2.18). assuming a buriedlayer sheet resistance of 20 f1. This nomograph is a graphical representation of the relation . In saturation.102 Chapter 2 Bipolar. and the width of the buried layer is 41 p. The effective buriedlayer dimensions for the calculation of rc3 are thus 35 k m X 57 pm. MOS. 2.m. Using (2. including side diffusion. holes are injected into the epi region under the emitter by the forwardbiased. and thus the effective dimension of the buried layer is determined by the actual buriedlayer edge on these sides. disi0The tance from the center of the emitter to the center of the collectorcontact diffusion is 62 pm. or about 250 to 300 S1. and thus T = 6. the value of rc that is important is often that for a saturated device.15)] into the silicon.. the results of Chapter 1 regarding step junctions can be applied. and they modulate the conductivity of the region even at moderate current levels. collectorbase function.. away from the edge of the n+ diffusion. corresponding to an impurity concentration of 1015 atoms/cm3. and it is actually threedimensional.17 to be 6.1•‹Thus the collector resistance one measures when the device is in saturation is closer to (rc2 + rc3). we have approximated the flow as onedimensional.5pm in this case. Here the buriedlayer side diffusion was not taken into account because the ohmic resistance of the buried layer is determined entirely by the number of impurity atoms actually diffused [see (2. First. for larger collectorbase voltages. Finally. The uniformly doped epi layer is much more lightly doped than the pdiffused region.
7 V for the emitterbase junction. 2.55 V for the collectorbase junction. which is the applied potential plus the builtin voltage .t In order to use the curve. area of the collectorbase junction is the sum of the area m total of the bottom of the base diffusion plus the base sidewall area. The zerobias capacitance per unit area of the collectorbase junction can be found from Fig. 2.29 is the total junction potential. the builtin potential is actually only weakly dependent on the details of the diffusion profile and can be assumed to be about 0. and about 0.5 Active Devices in Bipolar Analog Integrated Circuits 103 1 2 4 6 8 1 0 Voltage (V) 20 40 6080100 Figure 2. We will assume that the region is cylindrical in shape. While this would be an involved calculation for a diffused junction. The nomograph of Fig.29 Capacitance and depletionlayer width of an abrupt p n junction as a function of applied voltage and doping concentration on the lightly doped side of the junction" where NB is the doping density in the epi material and V Ris the reverse bias on the junction. 2. From Fig.17 to have the shape similar to onequarter of a cylinder. 2. The width in microns is given on the axis on the right side of the figure.~!. then.2. 0. I EXAMPLE Calculate the collectorbase capacitance of the device of Fig. which yields a sidewall area of . 2.25. since this width is inversely proportional to the capacitance.29 to be approximately 1OP4p ~ / ~ The ~ .52 V for the collectorsubstrate junction. 2. the bottom area is The edges of the base region can be seen from Fig. Note that the horizontal axis in Fig. the builtin potential must be calculated.29 can also be used to determine the junction depletionregion width as a function of applied voltage.25.
MOS. indicated on Fig. and that between the epitaxial material and the substrate.~ pF/pm2. that of the sidewall of the isolation diffusion. Since the substrate has an impurity concentration of about 1016 cmp3. 2. minus that of the buried layer. The area of the buried layer is and the zerobias capacitance from the buried layer to the substrate is thus . EXAMPLE Calculate the collectorsubstrate capacitance of the standard device of Fig.26 pF = (7543 pm2)(104 p ~ / p m 2 = 0. Under this assumption. Assuming a substrate doping level of 1016 atoms/cm3.3 X 1 0 . the lightly doped side of the junction is the substrate. plus 8 p m of sidediffusion on each edge.m2 The capacitances of the sidewall and episubstrate junctions are. the capacitance per unit area in these regions is the same as in the collectorbase junction. This gives a total area of 57 p m X 101 pm. and we can analyze both the sidewall and episubstrate capacitance under the assumption that the junction is a onesided step junction with the epi material as the lightly doped side. Aepisubstrate (140 k m = = X 95 pm)  (57 p m X 101 pm) 7543 p. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology where P = base region periphery d = base diffusion depth Thus we have Asidewall 3 p m X (60 p m = and the total capacitance is + 60 p m + 45 p m + 45 pm) X 'TT  2 = 989 pm2 CollectorSubstrate Capacitance. using a capacitance per unit area of 104p~/pm2 CCso (sidewall) = CCso(episubstrate)= (12. 2.25 as an area of 41 p m X 85 pm. we can calculate the zerobias capacitance per unit area as 3. The area of the junction between the epi material and the substrate is the total area of the isolated region. The area of the collectorsubstrate sidewall is We will assume that the actual buried layer covers the area defined by the mask.104 Chapter 2 Bipolar.52 V.550 pm2)(104p~/pm2) 1. The collectorsubstrate capacitance consists of three portions: that of the junction between the buried layer and the substrate. it is more heavily doped than the epi material.25. and a builtin voltage of 0.754 pF ) For the junction between the buried layer and the substrate.
the base minoritycarrier lifetime is sufficiently long that the base transport factor is not a limiting factor in the forward current gain in npn transistors. We first estimate the impurity concentration at the emitter edge of the base region. the sidewall area is given by Assuming that the capacitance per unit area of the sidewall is approximately the same as the bottom. the capacitance of the bottom portion is Again assuming a cylindrical cross section. and on the diffusion length in the emitter. From Fig.29. The sidewall contribution is neglected. From the nomograph of Fig. the calculation of emitter efficiency for the npn transistor is difficult. the current gain of the transistor depends on minoritycarrier lifetime in the base. The current gain falls with decreasing temperature. but a firstorder estimate of the capacitance can be obtained by calculating the capacitance of an abrupt junction with an impurity concentration on the lightly doped side that is equal to the concentration in the base at the edge of the junction.12 Because the doping level.5 to 0. collectorsubstrate capacitance is thus EmitterBase Capacitance.17. The roomtemperature current gain typically lies between 200 and l000 for these devices. and hence lifetime. and measured parameters must be used. 2. . U EXAMPLE Calculate the zerobias. The emitterbase junction of the transistor has a doping profile that is not well approximated by a step junction because the impurity concentration on both sides of the junction varies with distance in a rather complicated way. which affects the emitter efficiency. it can be seen that this concentration is approximately 1017 atoms/cm3. 2. Furthermore.25. junction is 25 p m X 20 pm. vary with distance in the emitter. usually to a value of from 0. the rninoritycarrier lifetime is degraded in this region. Because the emitter region is heavily doped with phosphorus. this abrupt junction would have a zerobias capacitance per unit area of 103 p ~ / p m 2Since the area of the bottom portion of the emitterbase .5 Active Devices in Bipolar Analog Integrated Circuits 105 The total zerobias. In analog IC processing. which affects the base transport factor. 2. The total emitterbase capacitance is Current Gain. As described in Chapter 1.2. A precise evaluation of this capacitance can be carried out numerically. emitterbase junction capacitance of the standard device of Fig. the sidewall capacitance per unit area is not constant but varies with distance from the surface because the base impurity concentration varies with distance.75 times the room temperature value at 55•‹C. and current gain is limited primarily by emitter efficiency.
Typical parameters for such a device are listed in Fig. (saturation) re. MOS.l7t~mepi lacm.30 Typical parameters for highvoltage integrated npn transistors with 500 pm2 emitter area. while the thinner device can operate up to about 20 V.25 is shown in Fig. which is 10 p m thick. Typical Value. 2. and the doping level in the base at the emitterbase junction is higher. AdvancedTechnology OxideIsolated npn Bipolar Transistors. Also shown in Fig. 5Rcm. thinner epitaxial layers can be used.. Summary o HighVoltage npn Device Parameters. polyemitter npn bipolar transistor is shown in plan view and cross section in Fig. For lower operating voltages. 2. Baseemitter junction junction Collectorsubstrate junction Figure 2. The structure of an advanced oxideisolated. and parasitic capacitance compared to the highvoltage. Note the enormous reduction in device size.31.32.106 Chapter 2 Bipolar.30 are typical parameters for a device made with l&cm epi material. A typical set of device parameters f for the device of Fig. Such a device is physically smaller and has a collectoremitter breakdown voltage of about 25 V. The emitterbase capacitance is higher because the base is shallower. This transistor geometry is typical of that used for circuits that must operate at power supply voltages up to 40 V. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology Parameter Typical Value.30. and smaller device geometries can be used as a result. While the geometry of the thin epi device is smaller. transit time.lOpmepi 44V Device 20V Device PF BR vA 77 1s Ico BVCEO BVcso BVEBO TF TR PO rb r. 2. These very small devices achieve optimum performance characteristics at relatively low bias currents. deepdiffused process. 2. the collectorbase capacitance is larger because of the heavier epi doping. 2. The value of P for such a device typically peaks at a collector current of about 50 pA. The thick epi device is typical of those used in circuits operating at up to 44 V powersupply voltage. For these advancedtechnology tran .
.. .. . :. . S .. .. .. . . . S . . . . . ... . . . .::.. . ....... ... .::. .. and the technology inherently produces n p n transistors of high performance. .... .. . .... .. . ... . . . ... . ... p n p transistors of comparable performance are not easily produced in the same process.. ... 2. The resulting base width is of the order of 0.. . ......:.. . . . . ..: . .. . . .. .. . . ..2... .1 km) and base (0. . . . substrate . . Note the much smaller dimensions compared with the highvoltage device. .. and as load devices in amplifier stages proved to be a severe . ...... :.. . . .. . .. .... . .: .+ Thick oxide edge  fi [XI + Polysilicon + Contact regions + Metal =$ p+Base . . . .. .... . This is observed in practice.. . .5.... ..5 Active Devices in Bipolar Analog Integrated Circuits B I 1 107 ! I 5 I I 3 I 4 I I I I I 5 6 7 8 9 I I I C 1 0 . .. ........... . .. .. . . .... . .. . .. . .31 Plan view and cross section of a typical advancedtechnology bipolar transistor.. .. . . ... . and the ionimplanted transistor has a peak fT of about 13 GHz. ..2 IntegratedCircuitpnp Transistors As mentioned previously... .. . . .. .. . ... .. .. pm P .. .... . . .. . the integratedcircuit bipolar fabrication process is an outgrowth of that used to build doublediffused epitaxial n p n transistors..... .... and the earliest analog integrated circuits used no p n p transistors... .. and (1. . . Figure 2. .. . . . ptype. . ... . . . ...4 Buried layer n+ Collector .. . sistors. . . .. . . ..... 2..... . a . .2 km) regions. .. .99) predicts a base transit time about 25 times smaller than the deepdiffused device of Fig... . The lack of a complementary device for use in biasing. . . m . . .. . . .1 pm. . . .. . .... .. _. . . .:. . .. .. .. 1 1 1 2 Distance.. ....... . the use of ion implantation allows precise control of very shallow emitter (0. .17. . .. .. . level shifting. .... .. ... .. . .. . . ... .. . .... :.. . .. However. . .... . . . .::..
and the minimum base transit time can be estimated from (1.13 The emitter and collector are formed with the same diffusion that forms the base of the npn transistors. and the base contact is made in the ntype epi material outside the collector ring.33b. Because these devices utilize the lightly doped ntype epitaxial material as the base of the transistor. and ideally are collected by the ptype collector before reaching the base contact. the width of this depletion layer is 6 p m to 8 p m when the collectoremitter voltage is in the 40V range. leading to the development of several p n p transistor structures that are compatible with the standard IC fabrication process. Thus the transistor action is lateral rather than vertical as in the case for npn transistors. As a result.m2 Emitter Area Figure 2.99) . oxideisolated.32 Typical device parameters for bipolar transistors in a lowvoltage. In this section. the collectorbase depletion layer extends almost entirely into the base. A typical lateral p n p transistor structure fabricated in a highvoltage process is illustrated in Fig. but are useful nonetheless. 2. Holes are injected from the emitter. flow parallel to the surface across the ntype base region.108 Chapter 2 Bipolar. Lateral pnp Transistors. The principal drawback of the structure is the fact that the base region is more lightly doped than the collector. The base region must then be made wide enough so that the depletion layer does not reach the emitter when the maximum collectoremitter voltage is applied. The collector is a ptype ring around the emitter. ionimplanted process. The flow of minority carriers across the base is illustrated in Fig. they are generally inferior to the npn devices in frequency response and highcurrent behavior. 2. Thus the minimum base width for such a device is about 8 km. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology Parameter Vertical npn Transistor with 2 pm2 Emitter Area Lateral pnp Transistor with 2 p.33a. we will describe the lateral p n p and substrate p n p structures. MOS. In a typical analog IC process. limitation on the performance attainable in analog circuits.
but it still produces a measurable degradation of PF. and thus the emitter injection efficiency given by (1. . minority carriers (holes) in the base are injected downward from the emitter as well as laterally. which is a factor of 100 lower than a typical n p n transistor in the same process. The buried layer sets up a retarding field that tends to inhibit this process.33 (a) Lateral pnp structure fabricated in a highvoltage process.2. Pm 120 110 l00  90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0Base I I Collector Emitter (4 Figure 2. Finally. Use of WB = 8 p m and Dp = 10 cm2/s (for holes) in (2. the emitter of the pnp is not as heavily doped as is the case for the n p n devices. Second. and some of them are collected by the substrate.5 Active Devices in Bipolar Analog Integrated Circuits 109 Distance.5 1b) is not optimized for the pnp devices. First. The current gain of lateral pnp transistors tends to be low for several reasons.20) gives This corresponds to a peak f~of 5 MHz. which acts as the collector of a parasitic vertical pnp transistor.
2.51a). However. lowlevel injection conditions exist and the base minoritycarrier lifetime remains constant. when the minoritycarrier density becomes comparable with the majoritycarrier density.34. . but occur at much higher current levels due to the higher doping density in the base of the npn transistor.32) as Inverting this relationship. Both these mechanisms are also present in npn transistors.X ' in Fig.110 Chapter 2 Bipolar. This causes a decrease in emitter injection efficiency given by (1.33b. t Minoritycarrier concentration P Emitter A n Base Collector P depletion layer ase layer Figure 2. This causes a decrease in PF for two reasons. the increase in the majoritycarrier density represents an effective increase in base doping density. The minoritycarrier distribution in the base of a lateral pnp transistor in the forwardactive region is shown in Fig. First. Another drawback resulting from the use of a lightly doped base region is that the current gain of the device falls very rapidly with increasing collector current due to highlevel injection. we can calculate the minoritycarrier density at the emitter edge of the base as As long as this concentration is much less than the majoritycarrier density in the base.33 (b) Minoritycarrier flow in the lateral pnp transistor.51b). The collector current per unit of crosssectional area can be obtained from (1. there is a decrease in the effective lifetime of minority carriers in the base since there is an increased number of majority carriers with which recombination can occur. 2.34 Minoritycarrier distribution in the base of a lateral pnp transistor in the forwardactive region. the majoritycarrier density must increase to maintain charge neutrality in the base. Second. MOS. This distribution is that observed through section X . a n d BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology p P n 2' P Injected holes Figure 2. the wide base of the lateral pnp results in both a low emitter injection efficiency and also a low base transport factor as given by (1. Thus the base transport factor given by (1 S l a ) decreases.
the current density at which this falloff begins is quite low. Lateral p n p transistors are also widely used in shallow oxideisolated bipolar IC technologies. the substrate junction capacitance appears between the base and the substrate. In this application. we can assume W B = 8 p m and Dp = 10 cm2/s. we can calculate the collector current for the onset of highlevel injection in a p n p transistor as where A is the effective area of the emitterbase junction. A common application for a p n p transistor is in a ClassB output stage where the device is called on to operate at collector currents in the 10mA range.5 Active Devices in Bipolar Analog Integrated Circuits 111 The collector current at which these effects become significant can be calculated for a lateral p n p transistor by equating the minoritycarrier concentration given by (2. Note that this current depends directly on the base doping density in the transistor.22) to the equilibrium majoritycarrier concentration. Note that in the lateral p n p transistor. I EXAMPLE Calculate the collector current at which the current gain begins to fall for the p n p structure of Fig. A typical set of parameters for a structure of this type is shown in Fig. 2. In addition. except that the device area is orders of magnitude smaller and the junction isolation is replaced by oxide isolation. Substrate pnp Transistors. A = (3 pm)(30 p m + 30 p m + 30 p m + 30 pm) G)  = 565 km2 = 5. 2 . 3 3 ~ shows a lowcurrent beta of approximately 30 to 50. 2. a different structure is usually used in which the substrate itself is used as the collector instead of a diffused ptype region. As in the case of npn transistors. The value of P for such a device typically peaks at a collector current of about 50 nA. Such a substrate p n p transistor in a . emitter.1) has been substituted for n.. we see dramatic reductions in device transit time and parasitic capacitance compared to the highvoltage. 2. and No is the donor density in the p n p base (npn collector).35. and since this is quite low in a lateral pnp transistor.32. Thus where (2.24) gives The typical lateral p n p structure of Fig. which is the ptype diffusion depth multiplied by the periphery of the emitter multiplied by d 2 . From (2. which results from the lateral nature of the injection.23). which begins to decrease at a collector current of a few tens of microamperes. thickepi process.33. The device structure used is essentially identical to that of Fig. 3 3 ~The effective crosssectional area A of the emitter is the sidewall area of the . 2 .2. Typical parameters for such a device are listed in Fig. A lateral p n p designed to do this would require a large amount of die area.6 X 10~ cm2 The majoritycarrier density is 1015 atoms/cm3 for an epilayer resistivity of 5 &cm. and has fallen to less than 10 at a collector current of l mA. Substitution of this data in (2. One reason for the poor highcurrent performance of the lateral pnp is the relatively small effective crosssectional area of the emitter.
in a substrate pnp structure. highvoltage. Theptype emitter diffusion for this particular substrate p n p geometry is rectangular with a rectangular hole in the middle. oxideisolated processes.36a.35 Typical parameters for lateral pnp transistors with 900 km2 emitter area in a highvoltage. 5Rcm.l7pm epi 44V Device Parameter Typical Value. 2. The principal advantage of this device is that the current flow is vertical and the effective crosssectional area of the emitter is much larger than in the case of the lateral p n p for the same overall device size. The only drawback of this.1 12 Chapter 2 Bipolar. in order to get the lowresistance base contact diffusion as close as possible to the active base. thickepi process is shown in Fig. 3 6 ~They can also be realized in thin. since the collector is electrically identical with the substrate that must be tied to . the n+ base contact diffusion is actually allowed to come in contact with theptype emitter diffusion. The minoritycarrier flow in the forwardactive region is illustrated in Fig. 2. MOS. l&cm. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology Typical Value. the series base resistance can become quite large if the base contact is far removed from the active base region. thickepi process. 10km epi 20V Device PF PR vA "7 is [CO BVCEO BVcso BVEBO T k TR PO rh rc rrr junction junction c Basesubstrate junction Figure 2. Many variations ' exist on the substrate p n p geometry shown in Fig. 2 . The device is restricted to use in emitterfollower configurations. If larger emitterbase breakdown is required. Because of the lightly doped base material. is that the emitterbase breakdown voltage is reduced to approximately 7 V. epi.36b. In this hole an nf region is formed with the npn emitter diffusion to provide a contact for the ntype base. then the pemitter diffusion must be separated from the n base contact diffusion by a distance of about 10 p m to 15 km. however. In this particular structure.
. . . .. . . . .... . . .. .'. ... ... . .. . : :::.. a . . .'. . . .. . .. . . .5 Active Devices in Bipolar Analog Integrated Circuits 113 Distance..... . ..... ... ... .. .. . . . .. .. . .' ptype substrate collector . .. .. . . .. .. ..... .. . Pm . .. . . ... .. . . . . . . . . ... I t Substrate I Emitter contact Base contact Emitter contact . . : ..... . . . . . ' ' . .. .. . h ..: . . . .. . . . .. . .... .. . . .... .. . .. .. . :. . . . . ' . .. .... . .. .. . .. . . . .. B E 0 P Injected n P ptype substrate collector (b) Figure 2. . .. . ...... .. . .. . ..... a (4 Figure 2. .*. a . . . . . . . . . .. : . . ..2. .. . . .... . .. ..36 (b)Minoritycarrier flow in the substrate pnp transistor.. . ... . . . . . . .36 (a) Substrate pnp structure in a highvoltage.. . .. .m ' . .. . . ... . .. . .. thickepi process. .. .. . ..: .. . :: ...
114 Chapter 2 Bipolar. large collector currents in the p n p can cause enough voltage drop in the substrate region itself that other substrateepitaxial layer junctions within the circuit can become forward biased. To minimize these effects. lflcm. thickepi process. the effects of the collectorbase junction capacitance on the p n p are multiplied by the Miller effect resulting from the large series collector resistance. thickepi process are shown in Fig.38. the properties of substrate p n p transistors are similar to those for lateral p n p transistors since the base width is similar in both cases. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology the most negative circuit potential. 5Qcm. as described further in Chapter 7. This resistance can degrade device performance in two ways. the collector contact is usually made by contacting the isolation diffusion immediately adjacent to the substrate p n p itself with metallization. An important consideration in the design of substrate p n p structures is that the collector current flows in the psubstrate region. For highcurrent devices. lateral pnp. and substrate p n p transistor in a highvoltage. MOS. Other than the better currenthandling capability. a high series collector resistance can result. which is apparent for all three Parameter Typical Value. Second. this isolation diffusion contact is made to surround the device to as great an extent as possible. First.37. The dependence of current gain on collector current for a typical npn.37 Typical device parameters for a substrate pnp with 5100 pm2 emitter area in a high voltage. . 17pm epi 44V Device 5100 pm2 Emitter Area Typical Value. unless care is taken to provide an adequate lowresistance path for the collector current. which usually has relatively high resistivity. The lowcurrent reduction in P . thickepi process are summarized in Fig. 2. 10pm epi 20V Device 5100 pm' Emitter Area PF PR vA rl 1s Ico B V ~ BVCBO BVEBO TF TR ~ ~ PO Yh rc re1 Baseemitter junction ne junction nc Figure 2. This usually has a catastrophic effect on circuit performance. 2. Thus. The properties of a typical substrate p n p transistor in a highvoltage.
6 Passive Components in Bipolar Integrated Circuits 115 PF npn transistor with 500 pm2 emitter area  Substrate pnp transistor with 5100 urn2 emitter area Lateral pnp transistor with 900 pm2 emitter area 10 O. the buried layer. such small inductors are useful in veryhighfrequency integrated circuit^. Inductors with values larger than a few nanohenries have not proven to be feasible in monolithic technology. or in some cases a combination of two layers.38 Current gain as a function of collector current for typical lateral pnp. we describe the structures available to the integratedcircuit designer for realization of resistance and capacitance. described in Section 1.1 Diffused Resistors In an earlier section of this chapter. ionimplanted. thickepi process.^^ 2. is due to recombination in the baseemitter depletion region.6. Other resistor technologies. the activebase region layer of a transistor. 2. and pinched epitaxial resistors. the epitaxial layer. pinch. Resistor structures include basediffused.3. are considered in Section 2. the emitter. and npn transistor geometries in a highvoltage. epitaxial.2. such as thinfilm resistors.5. Integratedcircuit resistors are generally fabricated using one of the diffused or ionimplanted layers formed during the fabrication process. devices. The layers available for use as resistors include the base. substrate pnp. and the .'^^'^. Capacitance structures include MOS and junction capacitors. However. the sheet resistance of a diffused layer was calculated.7.6 Passive Components in Bipolar lntegrated Circuits In this section.3.1yA 1pA 1 0 y A IOOKA l mA Collector current  l 1 0 m A 100mA Figure 2. emitterdiffused.
40. . . . tolerance.. . : . . .39..'. . .. . .. ... . The structure of a typical basediffused resistor in a highvoltage process is shown in Fig. .. .._ . and this capacitance is distributed along the length of the resistor. ... ....... . . a contact is made to the ntype epi region as shown in Fig. . ... ..: . The epitaxial region into which the resistor structure is diffused must be biased in such a way that the pn junction between the resistor and the epi layer is always reverse biased. .~. ... . :. . . . .:. . . . : .39 is given by (2. .. .... . . :' Figure 2. ... a n d BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology epi P' P 80 Resistor contact P~YP~ diffusion \ Resistor contact Isolation pocket contact . 2. .. . S ... . . . . MOS. . ... . . . . . ... . _ ... ... The junction between these two regions contributes a parasitic capacitance between the resistor and the epi layer...:. and it is connected either to that end of the resistor that is most positive or to a potential that is more positive than either end of the resistor.39 Basediffused resistor structure.:. . . :.. . .. The base sheet resistance Ro lies in the range 100 to 200 IR/O. this parasitic capacitance can be adequately modeled by separating it into two lumped portions and placing one lump at each end of the resistor as illustrated in Fig. . . .. . . .. . . .116 Chapter 2 Distance.. . .. .. .. 2. For most applications.. ..... .. . . .. and thus resistances in the range 50 ll to 50 k l l are practical using . . 2.10) as where L is the resistor length and W is the width. The resistance of the structure shown in Fig. : ptype substraie.. . . . ... . . The choice of layer generally depends on the value.... . . ... a .. .... . ' .. .:. . .. ...:.... . . ...... ..:. . . : .:. The resistor is formed from the ptype base diffusion for the npn transistors and is situated in a separate isolation region. For this reason. . .._.. epitaxial layer pinched between the base diffusion and the ptype substrate. 2. . and temperature coefficient of the resistor required.. .. .. .. . . .39.. . . . Bipolar. Base and Emitter Diffused Resistors.:..
The clubheads are required to allow space for ohmic contact to be made at the ends of the resistor. I EXAMPLE Calculate the resistance and parasitic capacitance of the basediffused resistor structure shown in Fig. the area occupied by the resistor increases as the square of its width. However. Since the sheet resistance of this diffusion is in the 2 to 10 ln/Urange. In fact. from Fig. Note that this capacitance will vary depending on the voltage at the clubhead with respect to the epitaxial pocket. Emitterdiffused resistors are fabricated using geometries similar to the base resistor.29.40 Lumped model for the basediffused resistor. particularly for small values of LIW.39 for a base sheet resistance of 100 RIO. for a given base sheet resistance and a given resistor value. The resistance contributed by the clubheads at each end of the resistor can be significant. The resistance is simply The capacitance is the total area of the resistor multiplied by the capacitance per unit area. the width of the resistor is kept as small as possible. The area of the resistor body is AI The area of the clubheads is A2 = (10 pm)(100 pm) = 1000 pm2 = 2 (30 pm X 30 pm) = 1800 pm2 The total zerobias capacitance is. the ionimplanted base can be used in the same way to form a resistor. Both the tolerance on the resistor value and the precision with which two identical resistors can be matched can be improved by the use of wider geometries.10) since the ratio LJW is constant.2. the minimum practical width being limited to about 1 p m by photolithographic considerations. these resistors can be used to advantage where very low resistance values are required. but the emitter diffusion is used to form the actual resistor. this capacitance can be divided into two parts. Since minimization of die area is an important objective. the base diffusion. Neglect end effects.5 0 . In shallow ionimplanted processes. This can be seen from (2. 2. they are widely used simply to provide a . one placed at each end. 2.6 Passive Components in Bipolar Integrated Circuits 117 Resistor contact 0 + v 2  Isolation region contact Figure 2. and an epi resistivity of 2. m As a firstorder approximation.c m .
this resistor allows the fabrication of large values of resistance. a n d BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology epi/isolation pocket epil isolation pocket I R I R R I R I I I ptype diffusion \ S~O. . the sheet resistance undergoes the same processrelated variations as does the QB of the transistor. The structure of a typical pinch resistor is shown in Fig. The layer can be electrically isolated by reverse biasing the emitterbase and collectorbase junctions.118 Chapter 2 Bipolar.41. Nonetheless. \ n+diffusion Resistor contact \ Pinched region 1 Resistor contact Isolation pocket contact Figure 2. this type of resistor has found wide application where the large tolerance and low breakdown voltage are not significant drawbacks. The parasitic capacitance can be calculated in a way similar to that for the base diffusion.41 Pinch resistor structure. However. crossunder beneath an aluminum metallization interconnection. The sheet resistance is in the 5 k R I O to 15 k R / O range. MOS. Base Pinch Resistors. Another significant drawback is that the maximum voltage that can be applied across the resistor is limited to around 6 V because of the breakdown voltage between the emitterdiffused top layer and the base diffusion. the n+ diffusion overlaps the pdiffusion so that the n+ region is electrically connected to the ntype epi region. This layer is pinched between the n+ emitter and the ntype collector regions. giving rise to the term pinch resistor. Also. the resistance displays a relatively large variation with temperature. As a result. which is approximately 250 percent. which is usually accomplished by connecting the ntype regions to the most positive end of the resistor. these resistors have different temperature dependence from basediffused resistors and the two types do not track with temperature. A third layer available for use as a resistor is the layer that forms the active base region in the npn transistor. 2. because the material malung up the resistor itself is relatively lightly doped. Unfortunately.
the sheet resistance of a 17pm thick.2 Epitaxial and Epitaxial Pinch Resistors The limitation of the pinch resistor to low operating voltages disallows its use in circuits where a small bias current is to be derived directly from a powersupply voltage of more than about 7 V using a largevalue resistor. The pcap diffusion is optional and forms an epitaxial pinch resistor.42.9 kS110 Large values of resistance can be realized in a small area using structures of the type shown in Fig. The depth of the ptype base and the thickness of the depletion region between the ptype epi resistor (no top p+ diffusion) R Substrate epiFET with top plate (two alternate symbols) Figure 2.11) as & = . 5Clcm epi layer can be calculated from (2.2. 2. and the epi layer is often used as a resistor for this application.6. For example.42 Epitaxial resistor structure.42. Again. because of the light doping in the resistor body. 2.Pepi = T 5 Qcm (17 pm) X (104 cmlpm) = 2. as shown in Fig.6 Passive Components in Bipolar Integrated Circuits 119 2. A still larger sheet resistance can be obtained by putting aptype base diffusion over the top of an epitaxial resistor. The epitaxial layer itself has a sheet resistance much larger than the base diffusion. these resistors display a rather large temperature coefficient. .
2 to +2 ( 210 to +200) ppd•‹C Figure 2.120 Chapter 2 Bipolar.43 Summary of resistor properties for different types of IC resistors. 2. A sizable parasitic capacitance . and in certain circumstances this capacitance can be effectively utilized. By far the most commonly used monolithic capacitor in bipolar technology is the MOS capacitor structure shown in Fig. Such a structure actually behaves as a junction FET. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology Resistor Type Base diffused Sheet p a0 1 100t0200 Absolute Tolerance (%) k20 Matching Tolerance (%) ?2(5 p m wide) +0.lkto2k t5to520 2 0. As a result.43.3 IntegratedCircuit Capacitors Early analog integrated circuits were designed on the assumption that capacitors of usable value were impractical to integrate on the chip because they would take too much area.3 fFlPm2 to 0. base and the ntype epi together reduce the thickness of the resistor. The drawbacks of junction capacitance are that the junction must always be kept reverse biased. that the capacitance varies with reverse voltage. In the fabrication sequence. but the capacitance per unit area is quite low. This capacitor is extremely linear and has a low temperature coefficient.2(50 p m wide) 52 t l(5 p m wide) Temperature Coefficient (+l500 to +2000) pprn/"C Emitter diffused Ion implanted 2 to 10 100 to 1000 ? 20 +600 p p d • ‹ C Controllable to ? 100ppid•‹C 23 P  CO. These capacitors fall into two categories. Monolithic capacitors of value larger than a few tens of picofarads are still expensive in terms of die area.l(5O p m wide) P Base pinch Epitaxial Epitaxial pinch Thin film 2k to 10k 2k to 5k 4k to 10k 550 rt 30 C 50 + 10 25 C 7 +3000 ppm/"C +3000 p p d • ‹ C O. 2. which has a capacitance of 0. and monolithic capacitors are now widely used in all types of analog integrated circuits. producing a capacitor between the aluminum and the emitter diffusion. and that the breakdown voltage is only about 7 V for the emitterbasejunction. design approaches have evolved for monolithic circuits that allow small values of capacitance to be used to perform functions that previously required large capacitance values.6. MOS.5 fFlPm2 and a breakdown voltage of 60 V to 100 V. pn junctions under reverse bias inherently display depletion capacitance. an additional mask step is inserted to define a region over an emitter diffusion on which a thin layer of silicon dioxide is grown. 2. Aluminum metallization is then placed over this thin oxide. The compensation of operational amplifiers is perhaps the best example of this result. First.44. in which the ptype gate is tied to the substrate. and external capacitors were used where required. For the collectorbase junction. increasing its sheet resistance. the breakdown voltage is higher.17 The properties of the various diffused and pinchresistor structures are summarized in Fig.
2. it is dominated by avalanche multiplication in the depletion layer at the larger breakdown voltages. Because these two mechanisms have opposite temperature coefficients of breakdown voltage.44 MOS capacitor structure.4 Zener Diodes As described in Chapter l.45b. depending on processing details. When the total supply voltage is more than this value.45a.6. and for such functions as level shifting. The actual breakdown mechanism is dominated by quantum mechanical tunneling through the depletion layer when the breakdown voltage is below about 6 V. emitterbase junction is useful as a voltage reference for the stabilization of bias reference circuits. 2.2. / Aluminum contact Figure 2. 2. the emitterbase junction of the npn transistor structure displays a reverse breakdown voltage of between 6 V and 8 V. but this parasitic is unimportant in many applications. CIS0 Substrate  =I Thin oxide mask SiO. Crso is present between the ntype bottom plate and the substrate because of the depletion capacitance of the episubstrate junction.6 Passive Components in Bipolar Integrated Circuits 121 +I C. . as shown in Fig. The reverse bias IV characteristic of a typical emitterbase junction is illustrated in Fig. An important aspect of the behavior of this device is the temperature sensitivity of the breakdown voltage. the actually observed breakdown voltage has a temperature coefficient that varies with the value of breakdown voltage itself. the reversebiased.
2V =v Figure 2. As a result. 4 6 ~ usually preferable since they keep the basecollector junction at zero bias. These connections have the additional advantage of resulting in the smallest amount of minority charge storage within the diode under forwardbias conditions. and d of Fig. 2.46. When this occurs. 2.46. the collectorbase junction injects holes into the epi region that can be collected by the reversebiased. 2. MOS. b. When the diode is forward biased in the diode connections a. A similar phenomenon occurs when a transistor enters saturation. epiisolation junction or by other devices in the same isolation region. 2 . the collectorbase junction becomes forward biased as well.6. as illustrated in Fig.Chapter 2 Bipolar. and other epiisolation junctions within the circuit can become inadvertently forare ward biased.45 (a) Currentvoltage characteristic of a typical emitterbase Zener diode. substrate currents can flow that can cause voltage drops in the highresistivity substrate material.5 Junction Diodes Junction diodes can be formed by various connections of the n p n and pnp transistor structures. (4 Figure 2. Thus the diode connections of Fig. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology A 6. .45 (b) Temperature coefficient o f junction breakdown voltage as a function of breakdown voltage.
These grooves are about 20 pm deep for typical analog circuit processing. the collectorsubstrate capacitance of the transistors is greatly reduced. 2. and as a result. which will become the isolation regions in the finished circuit. . an oxide is grown on the surface and a thick layer of polycrystalline silicon is deposited on the surface. called moat etch. This step. Next. including a preferential etch that allows precise definition of the depth of the moats. This layer has much lower capacitance per unit area than a pn junction. The fabrication sequence used for dielectric isolation is illustrated in Figs. 2. process sequence.47~d. as illustrated in Fig.7 Modifications to the Basic Bipolar Process The basic highvoltage bipolar IC fabrication process described previously can be modified by the addition of extra processing steps to produce special devices or characteristics.7 Modifications to the Basic Bipolar Process 123 Figure 2. the wafer is ready for the rest of the standard . The objective of the isolation technique is to electrically isolate the collectors of the devices from each other with a layer of silicon dioxide rather than with a p n junction. 2.7. This layer will be the mechanical support for the finished wafer and thus must be on the order of 200 p m thick. the reverse photocurrent that occurs with junctionisolated devices under intense radiation is eliminated. Next.2.46 Diode connections for n p n and pnp transistors. can be accomplished with a variety of techniques. the starting wafer is etched or ground from the top side until it is entirely removed except for the material left in the isolated islands between the moats.1 Dielectric Isolation We first consider a special isolation techniquedielectric isolationthat has been used in digital and analog integrated circuits that must operate at very high speed andor must operate in the presence of large amounts of radiation. 4 7 ~After the growth of an oxide. The starting material is a wafer of ntype material of resistivity appropriate for the collector region of the transistor. Also. The first step is to etch grooves in the back side of the starting wafer. 2 . Note that the isolation of each device is accomplished by means of an oxide layer.
. ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . We now describe these special structures. .. .Polycrystallinesilicon .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . bxide . . .. . . . Polycrystalline silicon. . . .. . . . . . One approach to decreasing the input bias current in amplifiers is to increase the current gain of the input stage transistors. .. . .. .. .. MOS. .2 Compatible Processing for HighPerformanceActive Devices Many specialized circuit applications require a particular type of active device other than the npn and pnp transistors that result from the standard process schedule. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Superbeta Transistors. .. . . .I8 Since a decrease in the base width of a transistor improves both the base transport factor and the emitter efficiency . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . .. . . . ... ... . . . . . . . (b) Deposit polycrystalline silicon support layer. (a) Moat etch on bottom of starting wafer. . . . .. . . . . . . isolation .. . .. . . . . . . . .. starting with base mask.. . .. . .. . . . . .. . * . . . . . a n d BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology Si02 ntype wafer . .. . . . . .... . .. . . . .. . .. . .. . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ( c )Grind off starting wafer and polish. . . . .. . .. . . . S . . . . . . . Figure 2. . . . . . . . .. . . and highspeed pnp transistors for fast analog circuits. . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . a .124 Chapter 2 Bipolar. .. . ... . . . . . . These include highbeta (superbeta) npn transistors for lowinputcurrent amplifiers... Grind off starting wafer (4 Emitter Base Collector . . The fabrication of these devices generally requires the addition of one or more mask steps to the basic fabrication process. . . . .. . (d) Carry out standard process. . MOSFETs for analog switching and lowinputcurrent amplifiers. . . . . . . . . . .47 Fabrication steps in dielectric isolation. . . .. .
lg If a capacitor mask is included in the Base width W = 0. A structure typical of such devices is shown in Fig. At these base widths. An application of these devices in opamp design is described in Section 6. however. the current gain increases as the base width is made smaller. using such a process modification to increase the beta of all the transistors in an operational amplifier is not possible because the modified transistors could not withstand the required operating voltage. If the superbeta devices are used only as the input transistors in an operational amplifier. Thus the current gain of the devices in the circuit can be increased by simply increasing the emitter diffusion time and narrowing the base width in the resulting devices.3. "JP where BVcso is the plane breakdown voltage of the collectorbase junction. MOS transistors are useful in bipolar integratedcircuit design because they provide highperformance analog switches and lowinputcurrent amplifiers. As a result. and particularly because complex digital logic can be realized in a small area using MOS technology. The latter consideration is important since the partitioning of subsystems into analog and digital chips becomes more and more cumbersome as the complexity of the individual chips becomes greater. they are not required to have a breakdown voltage of more than about 1 V. SuperP transistor.4 shows that BVcso BVCEO= . However. an increase in beta gives a decrease in BVcEo. any increase in the current gain also causes a reduction in the breakdown voltage BVcEo of the transistors. B=20005000 Standard transistor.9. Section 1. This breakdown mechanism is called punchthrough. giving current gain on the order of 2000 to 5000. or by using two different base diffusions and the same emitter diffusion. the actual breakdown mechanism is often no longer collector multiplication at all but is due to the depletion layer of the collectorbase junction depleting the whole base region and reaching the emitterbase depletion layer.2. These devices may be made by utilizing the same base diffusion for both devices and using separate emitter diffusions. they can be diffused to extremely narrow base widths.1 pm 0.2. Metalgate pchannel MOS transistors can be formed in a standard highvoltage bipolar analog IC process with one extra mask step.3. The standard device is similar to conventional transistors in structure. p = 200500 Figure 2. MOS Transistors. Base width W = 0.48. By inserting a second diffusion. The problem of the tradeoff between current gain and breakdown voltage can be avoided by fabricating two different types of devices on the same die.5 pm 1 pm . Therefore. Thus for a given epitaxial layer resistivity and corresponding collectorbase breakdown voltage.48 Superbeta device structure. highbeta devices also can be formed.1). 2.2 pm . . Both techniques are used.7 Modifications to the Basic Bipolar Process 125 (see Section 1.
. .. .. . . . ....50 Compatible doublediffused p n p process. The capacitor mask is used to define the oxide region over the channel and the aluminum metallization forms the metal gate.. . . original sequence.. A major development in IC processing in recent years has been the combination on the same chip of highperformance bipolar devices with CMOS devices in a BiCMOS process.. .... This topic is considered in Section 2..... . . . . . . .. . . . same as emitter diffusion for npn Base n. An alternative approach is to use a more complex process that produces a highspeed. .: .. .. . . . . .' . . ... . .. ... . then no extra mask steps are required. . C Source Gate Drain Si02 . . .. done on starting wafer before first epi \ pnp buried layer and second isolation. .. .:a .. . ..11. .. ... .. ... ... ... .. .. . ..... ...~~ utilizes three additional mask steps and diffusions: one to form a lightly doped ptype region. Predeposition is a boron implant Figure 2.. .. . ... .. . . . . . . .. a n d BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology B SiO. .. . .. . ... . .. .. a e .. ... . the resulting circuit is often quite complex and costly. . . . . .:.. ... ... As illustrated in Fig. . . ... . npn transistor pchannel MOS transistor Figure 2. . also forms collector p+contact Second epitaxial growth (n type) First epitaxial growth (n type) ' Buried layer for npn..... . . . predeposition is a implant p well for pnp and third isolation. .. .. .region for pnp.. ... DoubleDiffused pnp Transistors. . The limited frequency response of the lateral p n p transistor places a limitation on the highfrequency performance attainable with certain types of analog circuits.. MOS..49 Compatible pchannel MOS transistor... . While this problem can be circumvented by clever circuit design in many cases.. . . ... ... 2... . done after first epi (arsenic predeposition) First isolation diffusion.. . . . . . . . ptype substrate.. . A typical resulting structure Base nCcontact diffusion. doublediffused pnp transistor with properties comparable to those of the npn t r a n s i ~ t o rThe process usually . Predeposition is a boron implant n+ collector sink for npn. .. . ... . one ntype diffusion to form the base of the pnp.. (phosphorous) /done after second epi \ \ pnp Base and emitter of npn \ npn U Emitter p+ diffusion for pnp.. . ... . . the source and drain are formed in the epi material using the base diffusion.. ... done after second epi.. . ... . ... . .. .....126 Chapter 2 Bipolar.1 . .. and oneptype diffusion to form the emitter of the pnp... . . . . . . .. . done after first epi. ..49... . ... . .. . . I.. . ... which will be the collector of the p p ..
and a typical structure is shown in Fig. These drawbacks can be overcome by the use of thinfilm resistors deposited on the top surface of the die over an insulating layer of oxide. such thresholds do not always minimize the total power dissipation because significant dynamic power is Tantalum resistor Deposited oxide passivation layer Aluminum contact SiO. Oxide isolation and polyemitter technology have been incorporated into more advanced versions of this process. 2. the individual resistors are defined in a conventional way using a masking step.7.52. The magnitudes of the threshold voltages of these transistors are typically set to be 0. However. The latter means that a parasitic capacitance is associated with each resistor. 2. The properties of the resulting resistors using these materials are summarized in Fig. 2. layer Nichrome Range of sheet resistance ( ~ 1 0 ) Temperature coefficient (ppmI0C) 10 to 1000 2 10 to 1150 Tantalum 10 to 1000 Cermet (CrSiO) 30 to 2500 5 0 to f150 15 to 2200 Figure 2. and they are junctionisolated. This property gives standard CMOS digital circuits high noise margins and essentially zero static power dissipation. 2. Silicon substrate Tantalum thinfilm / Section Figure 2. The most common materials for the resistors are nichrome and tantalum. This process requires 10 masking steps and two epitaxial growth steps. and exposure to radiation causes photocurrents to flow across the isolating junction.52 Properties of monolithic thinfilm resistors.8 MOS IntegratedCircuit Fabrication Fabrication technologies for MOS integrated circuits span a considerably wider spectrum of complexity and performance than those for bipolar technology.51 Typical thinfilm resistor structure. They are then interconnected with the rest of the circuit using the standard aluminum interconnect process. 2. .3 High.6 V to 0. After the resistor material itself is deposited.8 MOS IntegratedCircuit Fabrication 127 is shown in Fig.Performance Passive Components Diffused resistors have three drawbacks: They have high temperature coefficients.51.2. CMOS technologies provide two basic types of transistors: enhancementmode nchannel transistors (which have positive thresholds) and enhancementmode pchannel transistors (which have negative thresholds).8 V so that the drain current resulting from subthreshold conduction with zero gatesource voltage is very small. they have poor tolerance.50.
.... called the Jield regions. .. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology dissipated by charging and discharging internal nodes during logical transitions.. ... . ....... which results in the structure shown in Fig. . . .. ....... enhancementmode devices..~~::.... . . 2. . : ~ ~ : . Next. . .. a .. For the sake of illustration. . . the well is ntype and is formed by a masking operation and ion implantation of a donor species. .. In this case. . . .. Following the field implants.. SiO.. . ~ ~ ~ : : ~ : . . . . . .. .53. .... .. .. . . . ... .and pchannel devices along with a depletionmode nchannel device. . ..^' To reduce the minimum required supply voltage and the total power dissipation for some applications. .. . .. . . ... . .. . the first step is the formation of a well of opposite impuritytype material where the complementary device will be formed.... . which increase the surface concentrations in the areas that are not covered by nitride. ... ._ . . The starting material is a silicon wafer with a concentration in the range of 1014 to 1015 atoms/cm3... . . .. . additional ion implantations are carried out. .. .. . . . .. .. . ..: . .... ..54 Cross section of the sample following field implant steps and field oxidation. lowthreshold... enhancementmode devices or depletionmode devices are sometimes used instead of or along with the standardthreshold. . . . a local oxidation is performed. ... . . . ..::.. After this masking operation. . .. . . Figure 2. ..... . . ... . . .. .128 Chapter 2 Bipolar. .. . ... especially for high clock rates and powersupply volt age^.. ..... . This increase in surface concentration in the field is necessary because the field regions themselves are MOS transistors with very thick gate oxide. . a layer of silicon nitride is deposited and defined with a masking operation so that nitride is left only in the areas that are to become active devices. . CMOS technologies can utilize either a ptype or ntype substrate. . . .. . .. with the complementary device type formed in an implanted well of the opposite impurity type.. . . This can be accomplished by increasing the surface concentration in the field regions. Subsequent diffusion results in the structure shown in Fig. .. . typically phosphorus. . . .. . . .. . . . .. .. . .. In CMOS technology... . . .. . .. . a . . . . ..53 Cross section of sample following implantation and diffusion of the ntype well.. MOS.... .... ~ ~ : ' . Subsequent processing will result in formation of an nchannel device in the unimplanted ptype portions of the substrate and a ptype transistor in the ntype well region. . . ... .. . : : ~ . . .. . . .::.. . . . .. . . . .. we will consider an example process that contains enhancementmode n. ~. . S .. .. (thin) ntype well Figure 2.... . 2. . .. .. .. ... .. . . . ... ptypesubstrate . This often involves an extra masking operation so that the surface concentration in the well and that in the substrate areas can be independently controlled by means of separate implants. .. .54. . . . ... . ... The surface concentration in the well following diffusion is typically between 1015 and 1016 atoms/cm3........ . . . the field devices must have a threshold voltage high enough that they never turn on. .. .. ..~ ... .. ..... We will take as an example a process in which the starting material is ptype. To properly isolate the active devices from one another. .
The resulting structure is shown in Fig. and the gates of the various devices are defined with a masking operation. diffusion. and pchannel threshold of about 2 V. and the wafer is etched to remove the oxide from the source and drain areas of the nchannel devices. This masking operation opens a window in the silicon dioxide under the polysilicon. the process is repeated for thepchannel source and drain areas.3 for bipolar technology. if a depletionmode nchannel device is included in the process.55 Cross section of the sample following deposition and definition of the polysilicon gate layer. This shift in threshold can sometimes be accomplished by using a single sheet implant over the entire wafer. At this point in the process. it is defined at this point by a masking operation and subsequent implant to shift the threshold of the selected devices to a negative value so that they are normally on. Next. After fieldoxide growth. Silicongate MOS technology provides three materials that can be used for interconnection: polysilicon. a layer of silicon dioxide is usually deposited on the wafer. Subsequent fabrication steps are as described in Section 2. connections between polysilicon and diffusion layers require a metallization bridge. Following the oxide deposition.55.2. To shift the magnitudes of the device threshold voltages to 0. 2. which simultaneously shifts the thresholds of both types of devices. Next. . This layer is required to reduce the parasitic capacitance of the interconnect metallization and cannot be thermally grown because of the redistribution of the impurities within the device structures that would result during the growth. 2. 2. where boron is used. which adjust the surface concentrations in what will become the channel of the MOS transistors. Unless special provision is made in the process. using either diffusion or ion implantation. Ion implantations have been performed in the thinoxide regions to adjust the thresholds of the devices. the contact windows are formed with a masking operation. two separate masked implants are used. and implantation steps are carried out. More typically.56.58. an implantation step that changes the impurity concentration at the surface in the channel regions of the two transistor types is usually included. The resulting structure is shown in Fig. 2. After a short oxidation.55 has such a buried contact connecting its source to its gate.139. one for each device type.57. and metallization is deposited and defined with a second masking operation. 2. A microscope photograph of such a device is shown in Fig. gives an nchannel threshold of within a few hundred millivolts of zero. forming a direct polysiliconsilicon contact.6 V to 0.8 V. The final structure is shown in Fig. Also. and several layers of metal. applied to the doping levels usually found in the activedevice areas. allowing it to touch the bare silicon surface when it is deposited. however. The depletion device shown in Fig. Arsenic or phosphorus is then introduced into these areas. a layer of polysilicon is deposited. To provide a direct electrical connection between polysilicon and diffusion layers. the nitride is removed from the active areas.8 MOS IntegratedCircuitFabrication 129 nWoe itn~lanted laver Polvsilicon Figure 2. a buried contact can be included just prior to the polysilicon deposition. a masking operation is performed such that photoresist covers the pchannel devices. using chemical vapor deposition or some other similar technique. since the polysilicon layer acts as a mask for the diffused layers. Equation 1.
.. ... . . .. .. .. . . . ..... .. . .. . . . .. . . /  7 // 7 Drain rnetallization 2 1 Drain contact windows ( 2 ) Figure 2.58 Photomicrograph of a silicongate MOS transistor. ... . . . . .. . .. . ... . . ... ....:... . .. ... . . ...:.. .. .. . . . ... fieldoxide region boundary. .. ...... * . ... . .. .. . .. . .. ...... .... .. . In this particular device... . ... . .... . .:... .5 V to 3 V.... .. .. . ....... .. .. . .. .. .. . a nchannel transistor nchannel transistor pchannel transistor Figure 2. .. . . . . ...... _ . . . ... the contact windows have been broken into two smaller rectangular openings rather than a single long one as shown in Fig. . . .. ... .1.. ..:. . ..... . . . . . ... .... .. . .... .. .. . . source and drain metallization..130 Chapter 2 Bipolar. contact windows(2) . . .... .. ... ... . and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology I . . . ... . .. .. .... . ... . ... .. ... .. The enhancement and depletion nchannel devices are distinguished from each other by the fact that the depletion device has received a channel implantation of donor impurities to lower its threshold voltage. . ptype substraie : . .... . . ... . a . . ... .. . . ... . .. .. . .:...... . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . ... . .... Large contact windows are frequently implemented with an array of small openings so that all individual contact holes in the integrated circuit have the same nominal geometry.. . . . . .. ... . . Visible in this picture are the polysilicon gate.. .. . . .. ... . . . ..... . .. . .. .. . . .. ... . . ... . .... _ ......... . . a .... . . ...... . .. ...... . . ..: .. . . . . ... . .59. : ptype substrate :: .. . .. .. . . . ... . . .. a : .. ... . .... 2.. .57 Cross section of the sample after final process step. . . .. .. MOS. . . ....:. ... _ . ..... . .. . .. . .... .. . a a . . . Polysilicon gate Edge of field oxide region Source metall ization Source / . . . .. . .. .. .... :. . ..56 Cross section of the sample following the source drain masking and diffusion operations.. . .:... usually to the range of .. .. . Figure 2.. .. ..... ... ........ . .. ... and contact windows.... .. .. . .. .. .. .... ... .... .. . . :1 : : ..'.:. . . . . . ... . .. . .:. This results in better uniformity of the etch rate of the contact windows and better matching. . .. .. ... .. . . ...... Metallization . . . . ... . . ... . . : ... . a .... ... .. .. . .... . . . . .. . . . ...
. .. . _ . . .....'.9... .. the remainder of the device area simply provides electrical contact to the terminals. . ... . 2.. ' ' :+ a . . the circuit designer has even greater flexibility than in the bipolar case to tailor the properties of each device to the role it is to play in the individual circuit application. . . The electrically active portion of the device is the region under the gate.9 Active Devices in MOS lntegrated Circuits The process sequence described in the previous section results in a variety of device types having different threshold voltages.. In contrast to a bipolar transistor. ...... which is not under the control of the bipolar circuit designer since it is a process parameter and not a mask parameter...:.. .. . . ... . . . :". .. these areas contribute additional parasitic capacitance and resistance.. .59 Example layout of an nchannel silicongate MOS transistor... ." . .. 11 ' . . In the case of MOS technology. .... :... . .... . The latter is analogous to the base width of a bipolar device. using the well as a base..... .. . In addition.." 4 I i .. Both the channel width (analogous to the emitter area in bipolar) and the channel length can be defined by the designer. the sequence allows the fabrication of a bipolar emitter follower.. :. ..'. . .... .... As in the case of integrated bipolar transistors.'::. The mask layers are coded as shown..59. the transconductance of an MOS device can be made to vary over a wide range Scale.... .2.. .. Nitride Polysilicon Contact opening Metal " G . ..9 Active Devices in MOS Integrated Circuits 131 2. . .1 nChannel Transistors A typical layout of an nchannel MOS transistor is shown in Fig. Figure 2..... and parasitic capacitances.. . 2. we explore the properties of these different types of devices. channel mobilities.:. . : . ." : .. .:. . .ptype substrate :.: . In this section....
drain side diffusion Overlap capacitance per unit gate width Threshold adjust implant (box dist) impurity type effective depth effective surface concentration Nominal threshold voltage Polysilicon gate doping concentration Poly gate sheet resistance Source. we will calculate the model parameters of the device shown in Fig. MOS. drainbulk junction capacitance grading coefficient Source. To illustrate this procedure.c o x o   Qss (2. In making these design choices.1.2. 2.2.3.132 Chapter 2 Bipolar.59. drain junction builtin potential Surfacestate density Channellength modulation parameter Symbol Units Qss 4 10" . We will assume the process has the parameters that are summarized in Table 2. The same is true of the gatesource voltage. This is typical of processes with minimum allowed gate lengths of 3 pm.4. Parameters for more advanced processes are given in Tables 2. . drain periphery capacitance grading coefficient Source. + 2+Jf + CQbx . In Chapter 1. = # l .27) Table 2. and 2. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology at a fixed drain current by simply changing the device geometry. This device has a drawn channel length of 6 k m and channel width of 50 pm. drain periphery capacitance (zero bias) Source. drain junction depth Source. Threshold Voltage.1 Summary of Process Parameters for a Typical SiliconGate nWell CMOS Process with 3 p m Minimum Allowed Gate Length Value nChannel Transistor Value pChannel Transistor Parameter Substrate doping Gate oxide thickness Metalsilicon work function Channel mobility Minimum drawn channel length Source. the designer must be able to relate changes in device geometry to changes in the electrical properties of the device. an MOS transistor was shown to have a threshold volt age of v. drainbulk junction capacitances (zero bias) Source.
.+ . drain periphery capacitance (zero bias) Source. 2. drain side diffusion Overlap capacitance per unit gate width Threshold adjust implant (box dist) impurity type effective depth effective surface concentration Nominal threshold voltage Polysilicon gate doping concentration Poly gate sheet resistance Source.as shown in Fig. is the concentration of surfacestate charge. The threshold voltage can be determined as the extrapolation of the straight portion of the curve to zero current. is the Fermi level in the bulk silicon. The slope of the curve also yields a direct measure of the quantity p.5 p m Minimum Allowed Gate Length Value nChannel Transistor Value pChannel Transistor Parameter Substrate doping Gate oxide thickness Metalsilicon work function Channel mobility Minimum drawn channel length Source.9 Active Devices in MOS Integrated Circuits 133 Table 2.2 Summary of Process Parameters for a Typical SiliconGate nWell CMOS Process with 1. drain periphery capacitance grading coefficient Source. drain junction depth Source. and Q. C. drainbulk junction capacitances (zero bias) Source.2.. Qb is the bulk depletion layer charge. and a useful approach to doing this is to plot the square root of the drain current as a function of VGS..C. drainbulk junction capacitance grading coefficient Source. WILeFf the device at the particular drainsource voltage for at which the measurement is made. drain junction builtin potential Surfacestate density Channellength modulation parameter Symbol Units where is the metalsilicon work function. The measured curve deviates from a straight line at low currents because of subthreshold conduction and at high currents because of mobility degradation in the channel as the carriers approach scatteringlimited velocity. An actual calculation of the threshold is illustrated in the following example. is the oxide capacitance per unit area. Often the threshold voltage must be deduced from measurements. ..60.
MOS. drainbulk junction capacitances (zero bias) Source. drain junction builtin potential Surfacestate density Channellength modulation parameter Symbol Units Figure 2. drain periphery capacitance (zero bias) Source. . drain junction depth Source.3 Summary of Process Parameters for a Typical SiliconGate nWell C M O S Process with 0. drain side diffusion Overlap capacitance per unit gate width Threshold adjust implant (box dist) impurity type effective depth effective surface concentration Nominal threshold voltage Polysilicon gate doping concentration Poly gate sheet resistance Source. drain periphery capacitance grading coefficient Source.8 p m Minimum Allowed Gate Length Value nChannel Transistor Value pChannel Transistor Parameter Substrate doping Gate oxide thickness Metalsilicon work function Channel mobility Minimum drawn channel length Source. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology Table 2.60 Typical experimental variation of drain current as a function of the square root of gatesource voltage in the active region.134 Chapter 2 Bipolar. drainbulk junction capacitance grading coefficient Source.
9 Active Devices in MOS Integrated Circuits 135 Table 2. drain periphery capacitance grading coefficient Source. drain periphery capacitance (zero bias) Source. drainbulk junction capacitances (zero bias) Source.04 Pm/v r EXAMPLE Calculate the zerobias threshold voltage of the unimplanted and implanted NMOS transistors for the process given in Table 2. the surface potential must be increased by approximately twice the bulk Fermi potential. drain junction depth Source.27) must be calculated.4 Summary of Process Parameters for a Typical SiliconGate nWell CMOS Process with 0. drainbulk junction capacitance grading coefficient Source. drain junction builtin potential Surfacestate density Channellength modulation parameter Symbol Units Qss 4 0.1. this has a value equal to the difference in the Fermi potentials in the two regions. . The first term is the metalsilicon work function. For an nchannel transistor with an ntype polysilicon gate electrode. To produce a surface concentration of electrons that is approximately equal to the bulk concentration of holes. drain side diffusion Overlap capacitance per unit gate width Threshold adjust implant (box dist) impurity type effective depth effective surface concentration Nominal threshold voltage Polysilicon gate doping concentration Poly gate sheet resistance Source. The second term in the threshold voltage equation represents the band bending in the semiconductor that is required to strongly invert the surface.2.6 V. or approximately 0.4 p m Minimum Allowed Gate Length Value nChannel Transistor Value pChannel Transistor Parameter Substrate doping Gate oxide thickness Metalsilicon work function Channel mobility Minimum drawn channel length Source. Each of the four components in the threshold voltage expression (2.
and was contained entirely within the depletion layer. this value is 0.1 X 1016 atoms/cm3. a onesided step junction displays a depletion region width of approximately 0. the effect of the implanted layer would be simply to increase the effective value of Qss by an amount equal to the effective implant dose over and above that of the unimplanted transistor. the capacitance per unit area of the 400A gate oxide is The resulting magnitude of the third term is 0.137).1. The threshold voltage can be approximated.2 pm. The value of the surfacestate charge term is then Using these calculations. however./2 (1. with a value of N A of 1015 atoms/cm3.1 X 1016 atoms/cm3. A precise calculation of device threshold voltage would require consideration of this nonuniform profile. Qbo = / .30).6 X 8. The validity of the assumption regarding the boundary of the channelsubstrate depletion layer can be checked by using Fig. This positive charge has a value equal to the charge of one electron multiplied by the density of surface states. For the implant specified in Table 2.47 V.54) (229) Also.27) is related to the charge in the depletion layer under the channel. Thus the second term in (2. MOS. The total . Since the depth of the layer is 0. Using (1.16 V.27) takes on a value of 0.71 V and gives device threshold voltage of 0. from Table 2. by considering the implanted layer to be approximated by a box distribution of impurities with a depth Xi and a specified impurity concentration Ni.27) is the threshold shift due to the surfacestate charge. if the implantation and subsequent diffusion had resulted in a layer that was very shallow.6 X 10'9)(1015)(11. Thus the potential difference between the surface and the bulk silicon beneath the channel implant region that is required to bring this condition about is still given by (2. For a doping level of 2. The third term in (2. or 2.54 V. then the effect of the implant is simply to raise the effective substrate doping.3 pm in this case. = .136 Chapter 2 Bipolar. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology The Fermi potential in the bulk is given by For the unimplanted transistor with the substrate doping given in Table 2. the assumption is valid.29. The fourth term in (2. 2. We first consider the unimplanted device. Alternatively. The value of this term will be the same for the implanted transistor since we are defining the threshold voltage as the voltage that causes the surface concentration of electrons to be the same as that of holes in the bulk material beneath the channel implant. This increases the Qboterm in the threshold voltage to 0. the threshold voltage for the unimplanted transistor is For the implanted transistor. 10" atoms/cm2.1. independent of the details of the channel implant.27 V.1.86 X 1014)(0. the average doping in the layer is the sum of the implant doping and the background concentration. the impurity profile resulting from the If thresholdadjustment implant and subsequent process steps is sufficiently deep so that the channelsubstrate depletion layer lies entirely within it. the calculation of the threshold voltage is complicated by the fact that the depletion layer under the channel spans a region of nonuniform doping.
The gate dimension parallel to current flow that is actually drawn on the mask is called the drawn channel length L&. the increase in threshold voltage would have been 1. typical variation of threshold voltage as a function of substrate bias for this type of device is illustrated in Fig. Effective Channel Length. the incremental body efA fect corresponds to a transistor with substrate doping NA. the physical length of the polysilicon strip defining the gate may be somewhat larger or smaller than Implanted transistor Unimplanted transistor 0. This is the length referred to on circuit schematics. For this case. Because of exposure variations and other effects.141). BodyEffect Parameter.33) the parameters given in Table 2. 1 EXAMPLE Calculate the bodyeffect parameter for the unirnplanted nchannel transistor in Table 2. or 6 X 1011 atoms/cm2.9 Active Devices in MOS Integrated Circuits 137 m active impurity dose for the implant given in Table 2. .. we obtain I The calculation of body effect in an implanted transistor is complicated by the fact that the channel is not uniformly doped and the preceding simple expression does not apply.1.1 is the product of the depth and the impurity concentration.61 Typical variation of threshold voltage as a function of substrate bias for nchannel devices with uniform channel doping (no channel implant) and with nonuniform channel doping resulting from threshold adjustment channel implant. Utilizing in (2. small values of body bias where the channelsubstrate depletion layer For resides entirely within the implanted layer.1. uniformchannel transistor. The threshold voltage as a function of body bias voltage can be approximated again by considering the implanted layer to be approximated by a box distribution of impurity of depth Xiand concentration Ni. the bodyeffect parameter is given by (1.02 V. 2. The application of this expression is illustrated in the following example.For larger values of body bias for which the depletion layer extends into the substrate beyond the implanted distribution.2.61..11 V. the body effect is that corresponding to a tran+ sistor with channel doping (Ni NA). giving a threshold voltage of 1.5  Figure 2. For an unimplanted.
The width of the depletion layer can be calculated using (1. Since the channel and the drain are both ntype regions. Thus for a transistor operating in the active region. This assumption is used in the following example. 2. the builtin potential of the junction is near zero.14) or the nomograph in Fig.(2 X 0. of 0. MOS. = VGs . The drain depletion width Xd can be approximated by assuming that the electric field in the drain region is onedimensional and that the depletion width is that of a onesided step junction with an applied voltage of VDs . If we ignore Xd at first and assume that L = Leff..16 V using the data from the Table 2.35) Ldrwn . 2. analog circuits often use channel lengths that are longer than the minimum channel length for digital circuits. Because the performance of analog circuits often depends strongly on the transistor smallsignal output resistance.l66).4 p m (2.1 pmN for the unimplanted device and 0. a depletion region exists between the drain region and the end of the channel. The actual channel length of the device is the physical length of the polysilicon gate electrode minus the side or lateral diffusions of the source and the drain under the gate. In Chapter 1.29. Leff = EXAMPLE Estimate the effective channel length for the unimplanted and implanted transistors for the process shown in Table 2. Using (1. and assuming ND > N A .1. is the potential at the drain end of the channel with respect to the source. Thus the voltage across the drain depletion region is approximately 4. the voltage at the drain end of the channel is approximately (VGs . For the calculation of Xd.59. assume that the depletion region between the drain and the end of the channel behaves like a step junction.. Assuming that the lateral diffusion of the source and drain are each equal to Ld. the width of this region was defined as Xd.V. Calculate the transconductance and the output resistance. the actual effective channel length Leffis given by (2. This length will be termed the metallurgical channel length and is the distance between the metallurgical source and drain junctions. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology this value.2Ld = 6 k m ..36) The effective channel length is this length minus the width of the depletion region at the drain Xd. > . The metallurgical channel length is given by L = Ldmn. Assume the device is biased at a drainsource voltage of 5 V and a drain current of 10 pA.V.l4). assume that the values of dXd/dVDs have been deduced from other measurements to be 0.3 pm) = 5.138 Chapter 2 Bipolar.we obtain a V.V. As shown in Chapter 1.).2Ld . At the given drain bias voltage. This statement is particularly true for unimplanted transistors..02 pmN for the implanted device. When the transistor is biased in the active or saturation region.Xd A precise determination of Xd is complicated by the fact that the field distribution in the drain region is twodimensional and quite complex. where V.84 V. the metallurgical channel length is L = (Ldrwn 2Ld).1 and the device geometry shown in Fig. In the active region. From (l. the smallsignal output resistance of the transistor is inversely proportional to the effective channel length. To estimate the depletionregion width. assume it is a onesided step junction that mainly exists in the lightly doped side.
It is commonly referred to as the bird's beak because the gradually decreasing oxide thickness in the cross sections of Figures 2. the edges of the field oxide are not vertical.6 X 108)(50/3. For the implanted device.5 km. Before the field oxide is grown. As a result. the device transconductance is given by gm = J~P. the width of a nitride region corresponds to the the drawn width of a transistor. .194).163) and (1.2. that is.2.l8O). both the effective lengths and the effective widths of transistors differ from the corresponding drawn dimensions.9 Active Devices in MOS Integrated Circuits 139 For the unimplanted device. nitride is deposited and patterned so that it remains only in areas that should become transistors. the field oxide should grow only vertically.4 km. In analog design. Thick field oxide regions are grown at the edges of each transistor by using the localoxidation process described in Sections 2. the change in the effective length is usually much more important than the change in the effective width because transistors usually have drawn lengths much less than their drawn widths. the difference between the drawn and effective width is often ignored. This lateral growth of the oxide reduces the effective width of MOS transistors compared to their drawn widths.54. some lateral growth of oxide also occurs near the edges of the nitride during fieldoxide growth. = J2 (700)(8.(wIL)ID (2. The output resistance can be calculated by using (1. especially when the matching between two ratioed transistors limits the accuracy of a given circuit.7 and 2. In practice. Because the depletion region for unimplanted devices is much wider than for implanted devices.0 p m and 4.39) Assuming that pn = 700 cm2NS. For the implanted device. the channel length of unimplanted devices must be made longer than for implanted devices to achieve comparable punchthrough voltages and smallsignal output resistances under identical bias conditions.9 and 2. This topic is considered in Section 4. this difference is sometimes important. For the unimplanted device. this equation gives a depletion width of 2. respectively. the oxide thickness should increase only in regions were nitride does not cover the oxide. From (l. as shown in Figures 2.40) for the unimplanted transistor and for the implanted transistor. Effective Channel Width. however.9 and 2.. The effective channel width of an MOS transistor is determined by the gate dimension parallel to the surface and perpendicular to the channel length over which the gate oxide is thin.54 resembles the corresponding portion of the profile of a bird.0)(10 X = 141 p A N (2. Therefore. As a result.2. the result is 0.1 X 1016 atomslcm? Thus the effective channel lengths of the two devices would be approximately 3.9 pm.we find g.c.8. However. assuming an effective constant channel doping of 2. To minimize the width variation. As a result.
1 and assume a drainsource voltage of 5 V. An additional capacitance that must be accounted for is the depletion capacitance between the channel and the substrate under the gate.9 f . the intrinsic gatesource capacitance of the transistor in the active region of operation is given by The calculation of this parameter is illustrated in the next example. Neglect the capacitance between the channel and the substrate. the overlap capacitance is given by Thus the total gatesource capacitance is (C..46) From (2. The bulkjunction capacitance can be calculated directly by using (1.451. which we will term C. As described in Chapter 1.140 Chapter 2 Bipolar. the allocation of this capacitance to the source and drain varies with operating conditions in the same way as the allocation of C.. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology Intrinsic GateSource Capacitance. MOS. EXAMPLE Calculate the capacitances of an implanted device with the geometry shown in Fig. A complicating factor in calculating these capacitances is the fact that the substrate doping around the source and drain regions is not constant..45) This parasitic capacitance adds directly to the intrinsic gatesource capacitance. Overlap Capacitance..21) or can be read from the nomograph in Fig. Sourcesubstrate and drainsubstrate capacitances result from the junctiondepletion capacitance between the source and drain diffusions and the substrate. In the region of the periphery of the source and drain diffusions that border on the field regions. Calculation of this capacitance is complicated by the fact that the channelsubstrate voltage is not constant but varies along the channel. + Col)or 168 E The gatedrain capacitance is equal to the overlap capacitance. Although approximate calculations can be carried out. A reasonable approach is to develop an approximate total value for this junction capacitance under the gate and allocate it to source and drain in the same ratio as the gate capacitance is allocated. =  2 WLeffCoX = 3 50 pm X 5. 2. Junction Capacitances. For example.29. 2. the gatesource and gatedrain overlap capacitances are given by col = WLdCox (2. It constitutes the entire draingate capacitance in the active region of operation.. in the active region.86 fF'/pm2 = 155 f F (2. Assume that Xd is negligibly small. drain current of 10 pA. From (2. would appear in parallel with the sourcesubstrate capacitance and none would appear in parallel with the drainsubstrate capacitance.. Assuming that the source and drain regions each diffuse under the gate by Ld after implantation. a relatively high surface concentration exists on the field side of the junction because of the field threshold adjustment implant. Also.44). the zerobias value and grading parameter of the periphery capacitance are often characterized experimentally by using test structures. or 12. the intrinsic gatesource capacitance is C. F .59. and no substrate bias voltage. a capacitance of twothirds of C.. Use the process parameters given in Table 2.4 p m X 0.
and the source and drain areas and peripheries are the same. An important difference is the fact that for the pchannel transistors the threshold voltage that results if no threshold adjustment implant is used is relatively high. but the nchannel devices can have electrically isolated substrate terminals. the transistor is symmetrical. Using Table 2. this difference in mobility also reduces the fT of pchannel devices by the same factor.and draintosubstrate capacitances consist of two portions.2 pChannelTransistors The pchannel transistor in most CMOS technologies displays dc and ac properties that are comparable to the nchannel transistor.209).. The calculation of device parameters forpchannel devices proceeds exactly as for nchannel devices. the sourcesubstrate junction operates with zero bias and the drainsubstrate junction has a reverse bias of 5 V. the sidewall capacitance here is dominant. which is connected to the highest powersupply voltage. The bulk capacitance is simply the sourcediffusion area multiplied by the capacitance per unit area from Table 2. the junction. From Table 2. Another difference is that for a CMOS technology with a ptype substrate and ntype wells.1. the drainbulk capacitance is the same as the sourcebulk capacitance modified to account for the 5 V reverse bias on = 0. For a CMOS process made on an ntype substrate with ptype wells. the pchannel devices are made in the substrate material. The total capacitance from source to bulk is the sum of these two.2.5. For the bias conditions given.9 Active Devices in MOS Integrated Circuits 141 The source. Thus the ptype threshold adjustment implant is used to reduce the surface concentration by partially compensating the doping . This occurs because the polarities of the Q. the substrate terminal of the pchannel transistors can be electrically isolated since the devices are made in an implanted well. the perimeter is set equal to W + 2L because that is the distance on the surface of the silicon around the part of the source and drain regions that border on fieldoxide regions. The periphery or sidewall part Cjswis associated with that portion of the edge of the diffusion area that is adjacent to the field region. term and the workfunction term are such that they tend to increase the pchannel threshold voltages while decreasing the nchannel threshold voltages. Assuming 2. Since the substrate doping is high along this perimeter to increase the magnitude of the threshold voltage in the field regions.65 V. or For the geometry given for this example. One difference is that the transconductance parameter k' of a pchannel device is about onehalf to onethird that of an nchannel device because holes have correspondingly lower mobility than electrons. Good use can be made of this fact in analog circuits to alleviate the impact of the high body effect in these devices. l. both the bulk and periphery capacitances have a grading coefficient of 0.1.9. As shown in (1. The second portion C j is the depletion capacitance between the diffused junction and the bulk silicon under the source and drain. As a result. usually in the range of 1 to 3 V. the periphery portion for the sourcesubstrate capacitance is Here.
MOS. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology of the ntype well or substrate. is tied to one of the power supplies.4 Bipolar Transistors Standard CMOS technologies include process steps that can be used to form a bipolar transistor whose collector is tied to the substrate. 2. The performance of the device is a strong function of well depth and doping but is generally similar to the substrate pnp transistor in bipolar technology. 2. Because IDss determines circuit bias current and power dissipation. As in the vertical transistor. however. it operates like a current source with a drain current of An important aspect of depletiondevice performance is the variation of IDss with process variations. Since the transistor IDSSvaries as the square of the threshold voltage. considered in Chapter 5. 2.2. The main limitation of such a vertical bipolar transistor is that its collector is the substrate and is connected to a power supply to keep the substratepn junctions reverse biased. the magnitude of this variation is an important factor. It is a p n p transistor in processes that utilize ptype substrates as in Fig. Fig.22 Figure 2.9. Because the threshold voltage varies with body bias. Since the current flow through the base is perpendicular to the surface of the silicon. The device is particularly useful in bandgap references. large variations in Ims due to process variations often occur. except that an implant has been added in the channel to make the threshold negative (for an nchannel device). the device is a vertical bipolar transistor.142 Chapter 2 Bipolar. another sourceldrain diffusion forms the collector Cl. Because the device is on with VGS = 0. These variations stem primarily from the fact that the threshold voltage varies substantially from its nominal value due to processing variations. In turn. The substrate. and in output stages. often displays a smaller incremental body effect for low values of substrate bias and a larger incremental body effect for larger values of substrate bias. described in Chapter 4. and the sourceldrain diffusion of the device in the well forms the emitter. Tolerances of k 4 0 percent or more from nominal due to process variations are common.9.62a shows a cross section of such a device. the well region forms the base and a source/drain diffusion forms the emitter. Since the current flow through the base is parallel to the surface of the sili .3 Depletion Devices The properties of depletion devices are similar to those of the enhancement device already considered. described in Section 2. 2.62a and an npn transistor in processes that use an ntype substrate.5. in turn. and as a result. Another important aspect of the behavior of depletion devices stems from the body effect. Thus in contrast to the nchannel device. In most respects a depletion device closely resembles an enhancement device with a voltage source in series with the gate lead of value (VtD VtE). if it operates in the active region. thepchannel transistor has an effective surface concentration in the channel that is lower than the bulk concentration. Depletion transistors are most frequently used with the gate tied to the source.. Standard CMOS processes also provide another bipolar transistor for which the collector need not be connected to a power supply.62b shows a cross section of such a device. In this case. this finite conductance has a strong effect on the performance of analog circuits that use depletion devices as load elements. The well region forms the base of the transistor. a depletion device with VGS = 0 and v.j # 0 displays a finite conductance in the active region even if the effect of channellength modulation is ignored. where VtDis the threshold voltage of the depletionmode transistor and VtEis the threshold voltage of the enhancementmode transistor.
the undesired current IC2 is comparable to the desired current Icl. the emitter and base connections of the vertical transistor are the same as for the lateral transistor.9 Active Devices in MOS Integrated Circuits E B C (connect to lowest supply) 143 P P J P ntype well ptype substrate Gate (connect to highest supply) ' 2 (connect to lowest supply) ntype well ptype substrate Figure 2. con. and the emitter area as well as the lateral base width are minimized. some flow parallel to the surface and are collected by the collector of the lateral transistor Cl. In Fig. for example.62 ( a )Cross section of a vertical pnp transistor in an nwell CMOS process. the MOS transistor is deliberately biased to operate in the cutoff region. it is a pnp transistor in processes that utilize ntype wells and an n p n transistor in processes that use ptype wells. and Icz is the collector current of the vertical transistor. 2. which is connected to the lowest supply voltage. 2. One limitation of this structure is that when a lateral bipolar transistor is intentionally formed. Although the base current is small because little recombination and reverse injection occur. Figure 2 . but the collector is the substrate. others flow perpendicular to the surmodels this behavior by showing face and are collected by the substrate C2. Even with these techniques. Again. However.6217. In Fig. the gate of thepchannel transistor must be connected to a voltage sufficient to bias it in the cutoff region. (c) Schematic of the bipolar transistors in (b). 6 2 ~ a transistor symbol with one emitter and one base but two collectors.62b. A key point here is that the base width of the lateral bipolar device corresponds to the channel length of the MOS device. a vertical bipolar transistor is also formed.To minimize the ratio. the collector of the lateral transistor usually surrounds the emitter. . The emitter and collector of this lateral device correspond to the source and drain of an MOS transistor. When the emitter injects minority carriers into the base. (b) Cross section of lateral and vertical pnp transistors in an nwell CMOS process. The current Icl is the collector current of the lateral transistor. Since the goal here is to build a bipolar transistor. this device is a lateral bipolar transistor.2.
A cross section and plan view of a typical polysilicon resistor are shown in Fig. Its properties and geometrical layout are much like the epitaxial . Silicide reduces the sheet resistance by about an order of magnitude. metalpoly. the ratio of IC211C1 poorly controlled in practice. such as tungsten. silicide can be used on the sourceldrain diffusions .144 Chapter 2 Bipolar. Silicide is a compound of silicon and a metal. layout geometries. 2. In CMOS technologies the well region can be used as the body of a resistor. the capacitance stems from the oxide layer under the polysilicon instead of from a reversebiased pn junction. To reduce the sheet resistance. the emitter current can be adjusted by negative feedback so that . The diffused layer used to form the source and drain of the nchannel and pchannel devices can be used to form a diffused resistor. In this case. and the resistor exhibits a parasitic capacitance to the underlying layer much like a diffused resistor. polysilicon. and vertical and lateral metalmetal.1 on diffused resistors in bipolar technology. To overcome this problem. At least one layer of polysilicon is required in silicongate MOS technologies to form the gates of the transistors. Since the base width corresponds to the channel length of an MOS transistor. especially in submicron technologies. Capacitors include polypoly. siliconsilicon. Resistors include diffused. variation of IC2/IC1 changes the desired collector current and associated smallsignal parameters such as the transconductance. and this layer is often used to form resistors. The nominal sheet resistance of most polysilicon layers that are utilized in MOS processes is on the order of 20 R I O to 80 R I O and typically displays a relatively large variation around the nominal value due to process variations.~~ as well as on the polysilicon. we describe the various passive components that are available in CMOS technologies.24 the desired collector current is insensitive to variations in IC2/IC1 Some important properties of the lateral bipolar transistor. 6 3 ~ . The resulting resistor structure and properties are very similar to the resistors described in Section 2. Also. Well Resistors. The matching properties of polysilicon resistors are similar to those of diffused resistors. it has little effect on the oxidation rate of polysilicon and is therefore compatible with conventional CMOS process t e c h n ~ l o g i e sFinally. MOS. the steady reduction in the minimum channel length of scaled MOS technologies is improving the performance and increasing the importance of the available lateral bipolar transistor.10.22~23 the total emitter current is If is held constant as in many conventional circuits. improve as the base width is reduced. and well resistors. that can withstand subsequent hightemperature processing with little movement. It is a relatively lightly doped region and when used as a resistor provides a sheet resistance on the order of 10 kCh/O.10 Passive Components in MOS Technology In this section. however.6. including its PF and fT. are Polysilicon Resistors. The sheet resistance of polysilicon can limit the speed of interconnections. 2 . 2. The sheet resistances. and parasitic capacitance~ similar. metalsilicon. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology however. The geometries employed are similar to those used for diffused resistors. a silicide layer is sometimes deposited on top of the polysilicon.1 Resistors Diffused Resistors.
allowing circuits to be designed with properties insensitive to variations in process.42. In practice.2. the drainsource resistance is not constant but depends on the drainsource voltage. that is. . and high temperature coefficient relative to other types of resistors.2 Capacitors in MOS Technology As a passive component. 2.6. It displays large tolerance. the second term on the right side of this equation gives the sheet resistance. Also. Since LIW gives the number of squares. As a result. This equation shows that the effective sheet resistance is a function of the applied gate bias. Higher sheet resistance can be achieved by the addition of the pinching diffusion just as in the bipolar technology case. The drainsource resistance can be calculated by differentiating the equation for the drain current in the triode region with respect to the drainsource voltage.3. this sheet resistance can be much higher than polysilicon or diffused resistors. The principal drawback of this form of resistor is the high degree of nonlinearity of the resulting resistor element. 2.2 and shown in Fig. capacitors play a much more important role in MOS technology than they do in bipolar technology. An example of such a circuit is considered in Section 9. From (1. MOS Devices as Resistors.10 Passive Components in MOS Technology Scale. resistor described in Section 2. supply. Because of the fact that MOS transistors have virtually infinite input resistance. (pm) 145 Metal Polysilicon / Metal \ / Field oxide (4 polysilicon resistor. voltages stored on capacitors can be sensed with little leakage using MOS amplifiers. capacitors can be used to perform many functions that are traditionally performed by resistors in bipolar technology.4.10. it can be used very effectively in many applications. the resistance can be made to track the transconductance of an MOS transistor operating in the active region. The MOS transistor biased in the triode region can be used in many circuits to perform the function of a resistor.153). and temperature. high voltage coefficient. allowing large amounts of resistance to be implemented in a small area. Nevertheless.
.. . . . . . .. . .. and temperature coefficient of the capacitance value. . . ... a . . . . . . .. ... a .. .. . . . . ...146 Chapter 2 Bipolar. . . ....... . the variations in surface potential are small... . ... . . .:.... . .. ..... .63b. . . .. . a . . . . since the impurity concentration in the plate is usually relatively high.26 This effect is analogous to the variation in surface potential that occurs in an MOS transistor when a voltage is applied to the gate. . ... .. The largest parasitic capacitance exists from the bottom plate to the underlying layer. . . .. . . .. voltage coefficient....:.. . Second coly layer / . Because the plates of the capacitor are a heavily doped semiconductor rather than an ideal conductor. .. . . .. ..63 (b) Plan view and cross section of tvuical polypoly capacitor. the drainsubstrate capacitance of an associated MOS transistor contributes to the topplate parasitic capacitance. : .. a .. . .. MOS. . . .. :.... the matching of one capacitor to another identical structure is much more precise and can typically be in the range of 0. .. Increasing the doping in the capacitor plates First poly layer \ . 2.... . .. . .. .. .. . a . ... . . which could be either the substrate or a well diffusion whose terminal is electrically isolated. . .. an extra layer of interconnect. Within the same die. . . . .. . ... . . .. . . . . .. .. . ... . . . plus the parasitic capacitance of the transistor to which it is connected..:. . .. ...... . ... some variation in surface potential relative to the bulk material of the plate occurs as voltage is applied to the capacitor. This bottomplate parasitic capacitance is proportional to the bottomplate area and typically has a value from 10 to 30 percent of the capacitor itself. . ..: . . .. .. In the structure shown in Fig. .... However. . The plate separation is usually comparable to the gate oxide thickness of the MOS transistors.. F Other important parameters of monolithic capacitor structures are the tolerance. . . . . ... . . depending on the geometry. .. . . 2 L . . . ... . . . and can also be used to implement floatinggate memory cells that are electrically programmable and optically erasable with UV light (EPROM). ... . . .63b..... ....05 percent to 1 percent. The tolerance on the absolute value of the capacitor value is primarily a function of oxidethickness variations and is usually in the 10 percent to 30 percent range. The minimum value of this parasitic is technology dependent but is typically on the order of 5 f to 50 fF. . .. . : .. 2..:.. . . SiO.. .:.... .. . An important aspect of the capacitor structure is the parasitic capacitance associated with each plate. .. S .. . . . . . . . . .. . The additional layer provides an efficient capacitor structure. .. ...... and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology PolyPoly Capacitors. ... . . .  a Figure 2.. . .. . . . . Many MOS technologies that are used to implement analog functions have two layers of polysilicon.. . . . however. . ..... . . . A typical polypoly capacitor structure is shown in cross section and plan view in Fig.. .:. The topplate parasitic is contributed by the interconnect metallization or polysilicon that connects the top plate to the rest of the circuit.: . .. . The result of these surface potential variations is a slight variation in capacitance with applied voltage.. . ... . SiSubstrate.. . ..
the voltage coefficient is usually less than 50 ppmN. One approach involves the insertion of an extra mask to reduce the thickness of the oxide on top of the polysilicon layer so that when the interconnect metallization is applied. which is important in some applications. it can be used effectively under two conditions. The MOS transistor itself can be used as a capacitor when biased in the triode region. a large amount of surface potential variation occurs with changes in applied voltage and the capacitor displays a high voltage coefficient.27 a level small enough to be neglected in most applications. is that the capacitance per unit area is small because the oxide used to isolate one layer from another is thick. the bottom plate has a junction leakage current that is associated with it. as shown in Fig.64a. lateral capacitors can be used.28 A lateral capacitor can be formed in one layer of metal by separating one plate from another by spacing S. however. except that the bottomplate parasitic capacitance is that of a pn junction. the top metal and the poly can be connected together to form one plate of a capacitor. such capacitors usually occupy large areas. For heavily doped polysilicon plates. Also. Unfortunately. and the bottom metal can be used to form the other plate. Lateral Capacitor Structures. a thinoxide layer exists between the metal layer and the polysilicon layer in selected areas. The properties of such capacitors are similar to the polypoly structure.2. If W is the width of the metal and t is the metal thickness. In noncritical applications. 2. and channel forming another. capacitors can also be constructed using the metal and poly layers with standard oxide thicknesses between layers. Therefore. drain.26. in a process with one layer of polysilicon and two layers of metal. the thickness of this oxide changes little as CMOS processes evolve with reduced minimum channel length. 26. A variation in the capacitance value also occurs with temperature variations. however. As a result.27 MOS Transistors as Capacitors. alternative structures must be used to implement capacitive elements. This variation stems primarily from the temperature variation of the surface potential in the plates previously d e ~ c r i b e d Also. the gate forming one plate and the source. Another capacitor implementation in singlelayer polysilicon processing involves the insertion of an extra masking and diffusion operation such that a diffused layer with low sheet resistance can be formed underneath the polysilicon layer in a thinoxide area. This is not possible in conventional silicongate processes because the polysilicon layer is deposited before the sourcedrain implants or diffusions are performed. As technologies evolve to reduced feature sizes. Furthermore. the capacitance is ( w t ~ l s ) . and to avoid the need for extra processing steps. The circuit must be designed in such a way that the device is biased in the triode region when a high capacitance value is desired. For the impurity concentrations that are typically used in polysilicon layers. This characteristic is important because reducing the area of an integrated circuit reduces its cost. In processes with only one layer of polysilicon. Such a capacitor has properties that are similar to polypoly capacitors.~~ of the dielectric constant and the expansion and contraction of the dielectric. Other Vertical Capacitor Structures. To reduce the capacitor area. where E is the dielectric constant. the area required by analog circuits using such capacitors undergoes a much smaller reduction than that of digital circuits in new technologies. and the high sheet resistance of the bottom plate formed by the channel must be taken into account. For example. which is voltage dependent and is usually larger than in the polypoly case. To avoid the need for extra processing steps. A key disadvantage of such structures. this temperature variation is usually less than 50 ppm/OC. secondary effects include the temperature variation . because the underlying substrate is lightly doped. the .10 Passive Components in MOS Technology 147 reduces the voltage coefficient.
As a result.6 5 . and the nwell forms the collector.3 Latchup in CMOS Technology The device structures that are present in standard CMOS technology inherently comprise a pnpn sandwich of layers. The source of the pchannel transistor forms the emitter of a parasitic vertical p n p transistor. When the two MOS transistors are fabricated.65b shows the cross section in an nwell process.148 Chapter 2 Bipolar. MOS. Jm. as shown in Fig. the substrate forms the base. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology = h P Figure 2.64be2' The key point here is that each metal layer is composed of multiple pieces. Figure 2. 6 5 ~ .64 ( a )Lateral capacitor in one level of metal. is the oxide thickness between metal layers. and each capacitor node is connected in an alternating manner to the pieces in each layer. The electrical connection of these bipolar transistors that results from the layout shown is illustrated in Fig. (b) Capacitor using two levels of metal in which both lateral and vertical capacitance contribute to the desired capacitance. therefore. 2. 2.~~ lateral capacitance is proportional to the perimeter of each plate that is adjacent to the other in a horizontal plane.10. In normal operation. Geometries to increase this perimeter in a given die area have been proposed. If the two bipolar transistors enter the . two parasitic bipolar transistors are also formed: a lateral npn and a vertical pnp. the total capacitance is increased compared to the case in which the same die area is used to construct only a vertical capacitor when the minimum spacing s < where t is the metal thickness and to. In this example. and the ptype substrate forms the collector. 2 . all the pn junctions in the structure are reverse biased. minimum metal spacing shrinks but the thickness changes little. 2 . For example. the nwell forms the base. the source of the nchannel transistor forms the emitter of the parasitic lateral npn transistor. the total capacitance includes vertical and lateral components arising between all adjacent pieces. It uses one nchannel and one pchannel transistor and operates as an inverter if the two gates are connected together as the inverter input. consider the typical circuit shown in Fig. If the vertical and lateral dielectric constants are equal. the die area required for a given lateral capacitance decreases in scaled t e c h n o l ~ g i e s Note that the . This concept can be extended to additional pieces in each layer and additional layers.29 Lateral capacitors can be used in conjunction with vertical capacitors.
This condition is called latchup. the feedback is positive. a large current flows from the positive supply to ground until the power supply is turned off or the circuit burns out.65. Chapters 8 and 9. causing both transistors to conduct heavily.i.. therefore. (b) Cross section illustrating the parasitic bipolar transistors. This current can come from a variety of causes. the current flowing out of the collector of the pnp transistor increases by Pn. this current flows into the base of the npn transistor if R Iis ignored. ( c ) Schematic of the parasitic bipolar transistors. For latchup to occur..i. In the configuration illustrated in Fig.2.. active region for some reason. the result of this behavior here is usually a destructive breakdown phenomenon called latchup.. If RI and R2 are large enough that base currents are large compared to the currents in these resistors. a widely used component in powercontrol applications. 6 5 ~ Feedback is studied in detail in . In this case. This analysis shows that the circuit generates a current that flows in the same direction as the initial disturbance. Examples are an application of a voltage that is . This current is pulled out of the base of the pnp transistor if R2 is ignored.. However. assume that both transistors are active and that the base current of the npn transistor increases by i for some reason. Finally. The positive feedback loop is labeled in Fig.10 Passive Components in MOS Technology 149 G1 +y Output p output Figure 2.Therefore.. 2. the circuit can display a large amount of positive feedback. current must flow in one of the resistors between the emitter and the base of one of the two transistors in order for this to occur. As a result.. latchup can occur if the product of the betas is greater than unity. 2 . one of the junctions in the sandwich must become forward biased. the gain around the loop is PnPnPpn. In powercontrol applications..65 (a) Schematic of a typical CMOS device pair. To explain why the feedback around this loop is positive. however. This device structure is similar to that of a siliconcontrolled rectifier (SCR). Then the collector current of the npn transistor increases by P.P. If the gain around the loop is more than unity. the property of the pnpn sandwich to remain in the on state with no externally supplied signal is a great advantage. the response of the circuit to the initial disturbance continues to grow until one or both of the bipolar transistors saturate.
improper sequencing of the power supplies. they tend to increase the betas of the two bipolar transistors. This is followed by the growth of about l p m of n. The layout of CMOSintegrated circuits must be carried out with careful attention paid to the prevention of latchup. This approach has the advantage of greatly reducing the bipolar transistor collectorsubstrate parasitic capacitance because the heavily doped highcapacitance regions near the surface are now replaced by lowcapacitance oxide isolation. the bipolar devices can be isolated by using the same localoxidation technique used for CMOS. which is the distance between the source of the nchannel transistor and the ntype well. Such processes are also attractive for analog applications because they allow the designer to take advantage of the unique characteristics of both types of devices. The process begins with masking steps and the implantation of ntype antimony buried layers into a ptype substrate wherever an npn bipolar transistor or PMOS device is to be formed.66. CMOS and bipolar fabrication technologies begin to look rather similar. many substrate and well contacts are usually used instead of just one each. These changes increase the likelihood of the occurrence of latchup.3. as described in Section 2. we showed that to achieve a high collectorbase breakdown voltage in a bipolar transistor structure.or nwell. guard rings of substrate and well contacts are often used just outside and inside the well regions.30 This technology has performance advantages in digital applications because the high currentdrive capability of the bipolar transistors greatly facilitates driving large capacitive loads. oxideisolated BiCMOS process. then a much more heavily doped (on the order of 0. In particular. In addition. MOS. the beta of the lateral bipolar transistor can be decreased by increasing its base width. a thick epitaxial layer is used (17 p m of 5 Incm material for 36V operation). and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology larger than the powersupply voltage to an input or output terminal. Under these conditions.epi. Also.5 Qcm) collector region can be used that is also much thinner (on the order of 1 pm). such as the well depth. Also. as the well is made thinner. 2.1 1 BiCMOS Technology In Section 2. the presence of large dc currents in the substrate or p. 2.65b. that are outside the control of circuit designers. the usual steps are to keep RI and R2. This in turn requires a deepptype diffusion to isolate transistors and other devices. However. small enough to avoid this problem. The beta of the vertical bipolar transistor is determined by process characteristics. 2. Latchup is more likely to occur in circuits as the substrate and well concentration is made lighter. special protection structures at each input and output pad are usually included so that excessive currents flowing into or out of the chip are safely shunted. Although the exact rules followed depend on the specifics of the technology. or the flow of displacement current in the substrate or well due to fastchanging internal nodes. A simplified cross section of a highperformance process31 is shown in Fig. lowvoltage.4.65. and as the device geometries are made smaller. To reduce R I and R2. On the other hand. We now describe the structure of a typical highfrequency. These rings are formed by using the sourceldrain diffusion and provide lowresistance connections in the substrate and well to reduce series resistance. if a low breakdown voltage (say about 7 V to allow 5V supply operation) can be tolerated. shallow. 2.150 Chapter 2 Bipolar. as shown in the simple example of Fig. A second implant of ptype boron impurities forms a pwell wherever an NMOS device is to be formed. ionimplanted bipolar transistors with CMOS devices in a BiCMOS technology becomes feasible (at the expense of several extra processing steps). and the combination of highspeed. as well as the product of the betas. All these trends in process technology tend to increase RI and R2 in Fig. . The devices can also be packed much more densely on the chip.
Bipolar npn transistor NMOS Collector Source Deposited oxide  Field ox~de  " Gate oxide Figure 2. .66 Cross section of a highperformance BiCMOS process.
Maximizing fT is . this structure does not require that the emitter doping be much greater than the base doping to give y = l. Therefore. a tradeoff exists in standard bipolar technology between high fT on the one hand and low rb on the other. whereas the antimony buried layers remain essentially fixed. 2. A second layer of metal interconnects is formed on top of this oxide with connections where necessary to the first layer of metal below. the band gap of silicon is greater than for germanium.4. Fieldoxide growth is then carried out. all the junctions we have considered have been hornojunctions because the same material (silicon) has been used to form both the ntype and the ptype regions.8 shows that the fT of bipolar devices is limited in part by TF. a series of masking steps and p. Furthermore. gate oxide is grown. As a result. a junction between an ntype region of silicon and a ptype region of germanium or a compound of silicon and germanium forms a heterojunction. followed by a planarization step where the field oxide that has grown above the plane of the surface is etched back level with the other regions. If the base doping is fixed to maintain a constant y . which is the time required for minority carriers to cross the base. lowresistance bipolar collector contact. as shown by (1. The key idea is that the different materials on the two sides of the junction have different band gaps. this change also reduces the width of the basecollector depletion .51b). A further deposited layer of Si02 is then added with a third layer of metal interconnect and vias to give even more connection flexibility and thus to improve the density of the layout. In contrast. The relatively large band gap in the emitter can be used to increase the potential barrier to holes that can be injected from the base back to the emitter. Metal contacts are then made to the desired regions. and source and drain regions for the MOSFETs. and thresholdadjusting implants are made for the MOS devices. and both extremes limit the speed that can be attained in practice. To increase f ~the base width can be reduced. In turn. however.and ntype implants are carried out to form bipolar base and emitter regions. One way to overcome this tradeoff is to add some germanium to the base of bipolar transistors to form heterojunction transistors.12 Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors A heterojunction is a p n junction made of two different materials. Until this point. Increasing the base doping allows rb to be constant even when the base width is reduced to increase fT. and forming a SiGe compound in the base reduces the band gap there. In this sequence. the base is relatively lightly doped while the emitter is heavily doped in practice. this approach increases the base resistance rb.152 Chapter 2 Bipolar. During this and subsequent heat cycles. As a result. MOS. the emitter doping is selected to be much greater than the base doping to give an emitter injection efficiency y of about unity. In homojunction bipolar transistors. 2. As a result. important in some applications such as radiofrequency electronics. Section 1. the more mobile boron atoms outdiffuse and the pwell extends to the surface. This eliminates the lumpy surface shown in Fig.57 and helps to overcome problems of ensuring reliable metal connections over the oxide steps (socalled step coverage). and the chip is coated with a layer of deposited SiOa. the emitter doping can be decreased and the base doping can be increased in a heterojunction bipolar transistor compared to its homojunction counterpart. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology which forms the collectors of the npn bipolar devices and the channel regions of the PMOS devices. A masking step defines regions where thick field oxide is to be grown and these regions are etched down into the epi layer. In particular. this base resistance limits speed because it forms a time constant with capacitance attached to the base node. Finally. polysilicon gates and emitters are formed.
~ practice. further reducing TF and increasing fr.13 lnterconnect Delay 153 region in the base when the transistor operates in the forward active region. For example. Not only does increasing the base doping have a beneficial effect on performance. alternative materials are being studied for use in integrated circuits. Because the lattice constant for germanium is greater than that for silicon. reducing the C j . Decreasing the spacing between the lines increases the lateral capacitance between lines. While scaling has increased the speed of the transistors. which in turn increase the fr of these devices. The key point is that the device processing sequence retains the weliestablished properties of silicon integratedcircuit processing because the average concentration of germanium in the base is This characteristic is important because it allows the new processing steps to be included as a simple addition to an existing process. This trend stems partly from the reductions in the minimum base width of bipolar transistors and the minimum channel length of MOS transistors. capacitance and further increasing the maximum speed. 'The use ~ of the heterojunction technology increases the fT by about a factor of two compared to a comparable homojunction technology. the maximum operating speed and bandwidth have steadily increased. However. even a small change in the barrier greatly reduces the reverse injection and results in these benefits. the UHVICVD process is capable of increasing the concentration of germanium in the base from the emitter end to the collector end. thus decreasing the effect of basewidth modulation and increasing the early voltage V*. the SiGe layer forms under a compressive strain. This grading of the germanium concentration results in an electric field that helps electrons move across the base." Since this is an epi layer.^' This delay is increasing as the minimum feature size is reduced because the width of metal lines and spacing between them are both being reduced to increase the allowed density of interconnections. but also decreasing the emitter doping increases the width of the baseemitter. it takes on the crystal structure of the silicon in the substrate. the concentration of germanium in the base need not be constant.34 With only a small concentration of germanium. the concentration of germanium is limited to about 15 percent so that the layer is unconditionally stable. In particular. The delay is proportional to the product of the resistance and capacitance.3 pm and heterojunction bipolar transistors with a fT of 50 GHz has been r e p ~ r t e d . In practice. limiting the concentration of germanium and the thickness of the layer to avoid defect formation after subsequent hightemperature processing used at the back end of conventional t e c h n o l o g i e ~ In ~ . therefore. increasing the resistance.13 Interconnect Delay As the minimum feature size allowed in integratedcircuit technologies is reduced. .2. the change in the band gap and the resulting shift in the potential barrier that limits reverse injection of holes into the emitter is small. 2. it is also increasing the delay introduced by the interconnections to the point where it could soon limit the maximum speed of integrated circuit^. reducing the cost of the new technology. spacecharge region in the emitter.1 km. The base region of the heterojunction bipolar transistors can be formed by growing a thin epitaxial layer of SiGe using ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV~CVD). however. The heterojunction bipolar transistors described above can be included as the bipolar transistors in otherwise conventional BiCMOS processes. a BiCMOS process with a minimum drawn CMOS channel length of 0. Decreasing the width of the lines increases the number of squares for a fixed length. the reverse injection is an exponential function of this barrier. To reduce the delay. with a base thickness of 0.
airborne particles that fall on the surface of the wafer. which leaves the copper in the cavities etched into the oxide. a nonfunctional unit usually results. stability under hightemperature processing.35 The search for a replacement for silicon dioxide is difficult because it is an excellent dielectric in all these ways. The wafer is then polished by a chemicalmechanical process until the surface of the oxide is reached. Proper utilization of the technology to achieve this cost reduction requires an understanding of the factors influencing the cost of an integrated circuit in completed. To overcome the etch problem. and is usually in the range of 10 percent to 90 percent. The nonfunctional units can result from a number of factors. A key advantage of this process is that it results in a planar structure after each level of metalization. crystalline defects in the epitaxial layer. lowpermittivity dielectrics are being studied to replace silicon dioxide to reduce the interconnect capacitance. For relative dielectric constants below about 2. 2. The frequency of occurrence per unit of wafer area of such defects .0. These defects can result from mask defects. Unfortunately. polymers have been studied..154 Chapter 2 Bipolar.1 Yield Considerations in IntegratedCircuitFabrication As pointed out earlier in this chapter. These processes can cause open circuits to appear in metal interconnects and are important failure mechanisms in integrated circuits. 2. At the end of the processing sequence. Two key problems are that copper diffuses through silicon and silicon dioxide more quickly than aluminum. a damascene process has been developed. MOS. copper must be surrounded by a thin film of another metal that can endure hightemperature processing with little movement. For relative dielectric constants between about 2.36 Other important requirements of lowpermittivity dielectric materials include low leakage. Electromigration and stress migration are processes in which the material of a conductor moves slightly while it conducts current and is under tension. copper can not simply be substituted for aluminum with the same fabrication process.37 In this process. we consider these factors. each containing up to several thousand separate but identical circuits. If such a defect occurs in the active region on one of the transistors or resistors making up the circuit. and so on. The dielectric constant of silicon dioxide is 3. but one major source of yield loss is point defects of various kinds that occur during the photoresist and diffusion operations. copper is replacing aluminum in metal layers because copper reduces the resistivity of the interconnection by about 40 percent and is less susceptible to electromigration and stress migration than aluminum. packaged form.5 and 3. Also. pinholes in the photoresist.14. The percentage of the circuits that are electrically functional and within specifications at this point is termed the wafersort yield Y.0. Then the interconnect pattern is etched into the oxide. high thermal conductivity. and adhesion to the metal layers. the proposed materials include foams and gels. which include air. the individual circuits on the wafer are probed and tested prior to the breaking up of the wafer into individual dice. and the wafer is uniformly coated by a thin diffusionresistant layer and then copper. In this section. integrated circuits are batchfabricated on single wafers. a layer of interconnection is formed by first depositing a layer of oxide. respectively. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology First.36 To overcome the diffusion problem. however. and copper is difficult to plasma etch.9 times more than for air.14 Economics of IntegratedCircuit Fabrication The principal reason for the growing pervasiveness of integrated circuits in systems of all types is the reduction in cost attainable through integratedcircuit fabrication. high breakdown voltage.
When the die size is cut to onefourth of the original size. 2. the wafer sort yield is 62 percent.2. is usually dependent primarily on the particular fabrication process used and not on the particular circuit being fabricated. Although the defect locations in both cases are the same. the maturity and degree of development of the process as a whole and the individual steps within it. and perhaps. Three typical curves derived from yield data on bipolar and MOS processes are shownin Fig. improved manufacturing environmental control. These are representative of yields for processes ranging from a very complex process with many yieldreducing steps to a very simple process Die size (rni12 X 1 03) Figure 2. most importantly. increased use of lowtemperature processing steps such as ion implantation. welldeveloped process (curve A). 2. the expected yield for a given die size is a strong function of the complexity of the process.68.68 Typically observed yield versus die size for the three different processes. the higher will be the density of defects on the surface of the finished wafer. ranging from a very simple. Consider the two cases illustrated in Fig. . the nature of the individual steps in the process. a steady reduction in defect densities has occurred as a result of improved lithography. where two identical wafers with the same defect locations have been used to fabricate circuits of different area. Generally speaking. Quantitatively.14 Economics of IntegratedCircuit Fabrication 155 Figure 2. the wafersort yield of the large die would be zero.67. the more mask steps and diffusion operations that the wafer is subjected to. This conceptual example illustrates the effect of die size on wafersort yield. The existence of these defects limits the size of the circuit that can be economically fabricated on a single die. and so forth. Since the inception of the planar process.67 Conceptual exarnple of the effect of die size on yield. to a very complex process with many yieldreducing steps (curve C).
and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology carried out in an advanced VLSI fabrication facility.70 Net good die per wafer for the three processes in Fig.66. wafers.69 Gross die per wafer for 4in..156 Chapter 2 Bipolar. assuming a 4in. and other factors. the yield curves can be raised or lowered by more conservative design rules. .. called the Die size (mi12) Figure 2. The same curve can be obtained approximately for other wafer sizes by simply scaling the vertical axis by a factor equal to the wafer area. but still the overall trend is useful. In addition to affecting yield. 8in. and 12in. Uncontrolled factors such as testing problems and design problems in the circuit can cause results for a particular integrated circuit to deviate widely from these curves. Die size (rnii2X 103) Figure 2. Also. wafer. 2. the die size also affects the total number of dice that can be fabricated on a wafer of a given size. MOS. The total number of usable dice on the wafer.
it is separated into individual dice by sawing or scribing and breaking. while the second is associated with assembly and final testing. incurred once these units have been packaged and tested is The total number of good finished units N . 2. assuming a 4in wafer. This set of conditions might characterize an operational amplifier manufactured on a mediumcomplexity bipolar process and packaged in an inexpensive 8 or 14 lead package. (b) A waferfab cost of $100.2 Cost Considerations in IntegratedCircuitFabrication The principal direct costs to the manufacturer can be divided into two categories: those associated with fabricating and testing the wafer. and the electrical connections to each die are made with bonding wires to the pins on the package. YG.9. and readied for assembly into packages. some will be lost in the die fab process due to breakage and scratching of the surface.00.69 as a function of die size for several wafer sizes. From (2.14 Economics of IntegratedCircuitFabrication 157 gross die per wafer N . Once the wafer has undergone the waferprobe test. 2. The product of the gross die per wafer and the wafersort yield gives the net good die per wafer. sorted. called the packaging cost C. This cost is plotted versus die size in Fig. This expression can be used to calculate the direct cost of the finished product to the manufacturer as shown in the following example. 2 .. 2.14. we first have the wafer cost itself C. diefab yield of .2. The ratio of the electrically good dice following die fab to the number of electrically good dice on the wafer before die fab is called the die fab yield. total cost C. plotted in Fig. The packaged circuits then undergo a final test. and those associated with packaging and final testing the individual dice. is plotted in Fig. The number of electrically good dice that are packaged The from the wafer is NYwsYdf. EXAMPLE Plot the direct fabrication cost as a function of die size for the following two sets of assumptions.9.06. Of the original electricaIly good dice on the wafer. and some loss of good dice occurs in the process. a diefab yield of 0... (a) Waferfab cost of $75. 2. 2. The good dice are then inserted in a package. packaging and testing costs of $1. called the wafer fab cost C.68. The ratio of the number of good units at final test to the number of good dice into assembly is called the$nal test yield Yj. The dice are visually inspected.70 for the yield curve of Fig.. Assume yield curve B in Fig.68. 7 1 ~ . and a finaltest yield of 0.56). If we consider the costs incurred by the complete fabrication of one wafer of dice.00. packaging and testing costs per die of $0.00. and some loss of functional units usually occurs because of improper bonding and handling losses. This step is termed diefab. is Thus the cost per unit is The first term in the cost expression is wafer fab cost.
0.9. .8.7 1 (b) Cost curve for example b. 2. MOS.00 C / Die cost limited 3 a 0 Y U m m 10 20 30 40 Die size (rni12 X 103) 50 C (4 Figure 2. This might characterize a complex analogldigital integrated circuit. multilead package. The minimum cost per unit area of silicon results  4inch wafer yield curve A Die size (miI2 X 103) (b) Figure 2. 2. from (2. and finaltest yield of 0. whereas most of the cost comes from waferfab costs for large die sizes.71 (a) Cost curve for example a. Assume yield curve A in Fig. This example shows that most of the cost comes from packaging and testing for small die sizes. These curves plot of the ratio of the finishedproduct cost to the number of square mils of silicon on the die. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology 4inch wafer yield CUW~B .56). Again.158 Chapter 2 Bipolar. as illustrated in Fig. utilizing an advanced CMOS process and packaged in a large.S U $2. 2.72 for the examples previously given.71b.68. U This cost is plotted versus die size in Fig. This relationship is made clearer by considering the cost of the integrated circuit in terms of cost per unit area of silicon in the finished product.
1 Maximum Power Dissipation When power is dissipated within a device on the surface of the integrated circuit die. midway between the packagecost and diecost limited regions for each example. We will consider these limitations individually.72 with a total silicon area of 80. The preceding analysis concerned only the direct costs to the manufacturer of the fabrication of the finished product. In addition to the cost. test cost of the individual product.70 .2.72 Cost of finished product in terms of cost per unit of silicon area for the two examples. Because the package and testing costs are lower in example a.$0. Many of these costs are fixed. it probably would be most economical to build the system on two chips rather than on a single chip.80 0 5 $0.30 I I I l l I I L 10 20 50 Die area (miI2 X lo3) 30 40 60 Figure 2.50 c N_ . the package also strongly affects two other important parameters. The shape of the cost curves is also a strong function of the package cost. the minimum cost point falls at a much smaller die size. 2. so that the selling price of a particular integrated circuit tends to vary inversely with the quantity of the circuits sold by the manufacturer.15 Packaging Considerations for Integrated Circuits 159 U 3 La $0. 2. 2. characterized by example b in Fig.000 square mils is to be fabricated in silicon. the actual selling price is much higher and reflects additional research and development.15.C U a . and so forth. if a complex analogldigital system. and the additional printed circuit board space required for additional packages. The cost per unit of silicon area at large die sizes is smaller for example b because process A gives higher yield at large die sizes. and selling costs. the effect on performance of the required interconnections. and the second is the reliability of the circuit. First. for example. The significance of these curves is that.. engineering. The first is the maximum allowable power dissipation in the circuit.40 0 Die cost limited g E $0. This decision would also be strongly affected by other factors such as the increase in the number of total package pins required for the two chips to be interconnected. Thus the fabrication of excessively large or small dice is uneconomical in terms of utilizing the silicon die area at minimum cost.15 Packaging Considerations for lntegrated Circuits The finished cost of an integrated circuit is heavily dependent on the cost of the package in which it is encapsulated. two distinct changes occur. however. the dissipated heat must flow away from the individual . yield curve for the particular process. m limited $0.
but the approximation is usually made that this thermal resistance is linear. can occur primarily by conduction. The resistance O.160 Chapter 2 Bipolar.74 along with the plastic dualinline package (DIP). Finally.. This resistance varies from about 30•‹C/W for the TO99 metal package to about 4OC1W for the TO3 metal power package. For this situation. For the situation in which no heat sink is used. This flow of heat to the ambient environment causes the die as a whole to experience an increase in temperature. device through the silicon material.73. is termed the casetoambient thermal resistance. The resistance 6 j . This rate is dependent on package size and on the rate of airflow around the package. MOS. 2.. The voltage drop across the resistance O j c represents the temperature drop between the surface of the chip and the outside of the case of the package. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuit Technology 1  T + Tarnbient Figure 2. However. and in the steady state the average die temperature will be higher than the ambient temperature by an amount proportional to the power dissipation on the chip and the thermal resistance of the package. the heat must then flow out of the silicon material into the package structure. Heat sinks for use with integrated circuit packages vary from small finned structures having a thermal resistance of about 30•‹C/Wto massive structures achieving thermal resistances in the range of 2OC/W. For the case in which the surrounding air is still and no heat sink is used. 2. Effective utilization of lowthermalresistance heat sinks requires that the package and . current is analogous to a flow of heat. if the package is attached to a heat sink. and their effects are studied further in Chapter 6. varies from about 100•‹C/Wfor the TO99 to about 40•‹C/Wfor the TO3. if any. Because thermal radiation effects are present. represents the temperature drop between the outside of the case and the ambient atmosphere. the drop across the resistor O.73 Electrical analog for the thermal behavior of the diepackage structure. These packages are shown in Fig. and then out of the package and to the ambient atmosphere. the rate of heat transfer is not a linear function of case temperature. The current source represents the power dissipation on the integrated circuit die.. which gives rise to temperature gradients across the top surface of the chip. Second. These gradients can strongly affect circuit performance. the resistance O. this resistance is determined primarily by the rate at which heat can be transferred from the outside surface of the package to the surrounding air. is termed the junctiontocase thermal resistance of the package. For integrated circuits that dissipate large amounts of power. This representation is only approximate since in reality the structure is distributed and neither the top surface of the die nor the outside of the case is isothermal. The steadystate thermal behavior of the dielpackage structure can be analyzed approximately using the electrical model shown in Fig. In this model. and voltage is analogous to temperature. the use of a heat sink is often necessary to prevent excessive die temperatures. the casetoambient thermal resistance is determined by the heat sink. The flow of heat from the package to the ambient atmosphere can occur primarily by radiation and convection or. this equivalent circuit is useful for approximate analysis.
291 0. special mica washers and heatsink grease are used to attach the package to the heat sink while maintaining electrical isolation. and in versions with up to 10 leads when required. 10. 14. It is available in both hermetically sealed ceramic and plastic versions. For TO3 packages. The basic TO99 package shape is available in 3. E dia /rOl 0 01 0. The TO3 is used as shown for threeterminal ICs such as voltage regulators.040 0.009 Standoff width DIP Figure 2.74 TO99. and 12 lead versions. The DIP package is available in 8.170 0.100 0. the range of ambient temperatures to be encountered.165 0. 8. and 22 lead versions.011 0.P.2. TO3. + 0. and the maximum allowable chip temperature.15 Packaging Considerationsfor Integrated Circuits 16 1 0. dualinline (DIP) integratedcircuit packages. 18. heat sink be in intimate thermal contact with each other. Dimensions are in inches.4. 16.6. These three quantities are related under .165 Seating plane 4 8 leads :E. The choice of package and heat sink for a particular circuit is dependent on the power to be dissipated in the circuit.200 +T.
The hermetic packages are generally more expensive to produce. The latter group includes the plastic packages.15. For Tambient 70•‹C. The primary parameter describing circuit reliability is the mean time to failure of a sample of integrated circuits under a specified set of worstcase environmental conditions. However. and Pd is the power dissipation on the chip. EXAMPLE What is the maximum permissible power dissipation in a circuit in a TO99 package in still air when the ambient temperature is 70•‹C?125"C? For the TO99 in still air.162 Chapter 2 Bipolar. Once the power dissipation is known. the maximum allowable thermal resistance of the package and heat sink can be calculated. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology steadystate conditions by the following expression: is where Tarnbient the ambient temperature.. MOS. Tchipis the chip temperature. (8jc + OC. reliability considerations dictate that the chip temperature be kept below about 150•‹C. . particularly in the case of high temperaturehigh humidity conditions. The plastic packages are less expensive to produce and are as reliable as the hermetic packages under mild environmental conditions. Thus once the maximum ambient temperature is known. The former group includes most of the metal can packages and the ceramic dualinline and flat packages. = and thus For Tambient 125"C. The study of the various failure modes that can occur in integrated circuits under such conditions and the means to avoid such failures have evolved into a separate discipline. = and thus m 2. which is beyond the scope of this book. For silicon integrated circuits. circuit reliability becomes a primary concern. but are more reliable under adverse environmental conditions. From (2. and this temperature is normally taken as the maximum allowable chip temperature. the temperature drop across the series combination of Bjc and 8.) = 30•‹C/W+ 100"C/W=130"C/W.2 Reliability Considerations in IntegratedCircuitPackaging In applications where field servicing is difficult or impossible.59). is specified. or where device failure has catastrophic consequences. integrated circuit packages can be divided into two distinct groups from a reliability standpoint: those in which the die is in a hermetically sealed cavity and those in which the cavity is not hermetically sealed.
A.2.2. Bipolar 'hansistor Parameters SPICE Symbol IS BF BR VAF RB RE RC TF TR CJE VJE MJE CJC VJC MJC CJS VJS MJS Text Symbol 1s Description Transport saturation current Maximum forward current gain Maximum reverse current gain Forward Early voltage Base series resistance Emitter series resistance Collector series resistance Forward transit time Reverse transit time Zerobias baseemitter depletion capacitance Baseemitter junction builtin potential Baseemitter junctioncapacitance exponent Zerobias basecollector depletion capacitance Basecollector junction builtin potential Basecollector junctioncapacitance exponent Zerobias collectorsubstrate depletion capacitance Collectorsubstrate junction builtin potential Collectorsubstrate junctioncapacitance exponent PF PR VA rb re X rc TF 7~ +oe ne CwO $ 0 ~ nc ccso $OS ns Note: Depending on which version of SPICE is used. SPICE modelparameter symbols are compared with the symbols employed in the text for commonly used quantities.1 SPICE MODELPARAMETER FILES In this section. k' y = = pcox Surface potential dXd .1 SPICE MODELPARAMETER FILES 163 APPENDIX A.Channellength modulation parameter k f ~ V D S COI Gatesource overlap capacitance per unit channel width Col Gatedrain overlap capacitance per unit channel width l '  26 f . a separate diode may have to be included to model basesubsuate capacitance in a lateral pnp transistor. MOSFET Parameters SPICE Symbol VTO KP GAMMA PHI LAMBDA CGSO CGDO A = Text Symbol Description Threshold voltage with zero sourcesubstrate voltage Transconductance parameter Threshold voltage parameter v.
drain junction depth Source. The base pinched layer has a sheet resistance of 5 kR/O. and in which the impurity concentration decreases exponentially with distance into the silicon.6 Estimate the series base resistance. Assume that the concentration has decreased to lle of its surface value at a depth of 0. The emitter dimensions on the test transistor are 100 Frn X 100 pm. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology MOSFET Parameters SPICE Symbol CJ Text Symbol Description Zerobias junction capacitance per unit area from source and drain bottom to bulk (substrate) Sourcebulk and drainbulk junction capacitance exponent (grading coefficient) Zerobias junction capacitance per unit junction perimeter from source and drain sidewall (periphery) to bulk Sourcebulk and drainbulk sidewall junction capacitance' exponent Sourcebulk and drainbulk junction builtin potential Oxide thickness Substrate doping Surfacestate density Source.8 The substrate p n p of Fig. and that the impurity concentration in the sample before the insertion of the ntype impurities was l O I 5 cm3 ptype. MOS.164 Chapter 2 Bipolar.c m resistivity in ptype silicon? In ntype silicon? 2. 2. basecollector capacitance.17. 2. 2.5 Incm.Assume that the width of the depletion layer is negligible.75. drain lateral diffusion MJ CJSW MJSW PB TOX NSUB NSS XJ LD PROBLEMS 2. Determine the resistance of the resistor if it is an emitterdiffused. Assume a constant electron diffusivity. 2.1 What impurity concentration corresponds to a 1 0 . = 10 cm2/s. determine the value of collector current at which the current gain begins to fall off. 2. Assume a base width of 8 pm. 2. Assume that the flow of minority carriers across the base is vertical. or pinch resistor.7 If the lateral p n p structure of Fig. Determine the depth below the surface of the pn junction that results and determine the sheet resistance of the ntype layer. Use this information to calculate the range of values of sheet resistance that will be observed in the pinch resistors in the circuit. Assume a constant electron mobility of 800 cm2/vS. Assume a diffusivity for holes of: D.33a is fabricated with an epi layer resistivity of 0. Assume a doping profile as shown in Fig.. Determine the range of values of QB implied by this data. basediffused. and collectorsubstrate capacitance of the highcurrent npn transistor structure shown in Fig.5 pm. 2.4 A diffused resistor has a length of 200 k m and a width of 5 pm.3 Consider a hypothetical layer of silicon that has an ntype impurity concentration of 10'' cmp3 at the top surface. The sheet resistance of the base diffusion is 100 i l / 0 and the emitter diffusion is 5 i l I 0 . This structure is typical of those used as the output transistor in operational amplifiers that must supply up to about 20 mA. baseemitter capacitance. Assume that the width of the depletion layer is negligible.2 What is the sheet resistance of a layer of 1 Clcm material that is 5 p m thick? 2. 2.. series collector resistance r. and a constant hole mobility of 150 cm2NS. and that the width of the emitterbase and collectorbase depletion layers is . 2.36a is to be used as a test device to monitor epitaxial layer thickness. D.5 A baseemitter voltage of from 520 mV to 580 mV is measured on a test npn transistor structure with 10 y A collector current. of 13 cm2/s.
and a hole mobility F . and an electron mobility of 800 cm2/vS. [See (1. If we assume that the doping in the base N A is much larger than that in the collector No.36a.10 For the substrate pnp structure shown in Fig. Repeat for a resistor width of 12 km. The baseemitter voltage is observed to vary from 525 mV to 560 mV over several wafers at a collector current of 10 pA. Assume a junction depth of 3 p m for the base diffusion. when enough voltage is applied that the depletion region in the base region includes the whole base.6.Account for sidewall effects.] Therefore. the depletion region in the collector must include a number of ionized atoms equal to QB.15) can be used to find the voltage that will result in this depletion layer width. charge neutrality requires that the number of ionized acceptors in the depletion region in the base be equal to the number of ionized donors in the depletion region on the collector side of the base. What range of epitaxial layer thickness does this imply? What is the corresponding range of sheet resistance that will be observed in the epitaxial pinch resistors? Assume a hole diffusivity of 10 cm2/s. Calculate the Qsand the sheetresistanceof the base region. 2. assuming a VBE measured at 560 mV. and that the junction depth is 3 km.Assume the epi doping is 1015cmp3. 165 V =$ Buried layer km l60 l50 l40 l30 120 110 l00 90 80 70 60 5040 B I I  + Isolation =$ Base I i + Emitter 4 //// + Metal Contact opening l E lI I 30 2010 0 C Figure 2. Assume the doping profiles are as shown in Fig. Assume an electron dffusivity D.75 Device structure for Problem 2. Neglect the depletion layer thickness. of 150 cm2NS.Use E = 1. Estimate the punchthrough voltage in the following way.17.11 A baseemitter voltage of 480 mV is measured on a superp test transistor with a l00 p m X 100 p m emitter area at acollector current of 10pA.17. Repeat this problem for the standard device.. Assume the clubheads are 26 pm X 26 km. Since the density of these atoms is known (equal to ND). then (1. When the base depletionregion includes the entire base. for the collectorbasejunction is 0. assume cC. and TF.55 V. Assume the doping profiles are as shown in Fig.. negligible. Cj.2). 2. of 13 cm2/s. calculate Is. 2. 2. 2. ..04 X 1012F/cmfor the permittivity of silicon.Problems Distance. C.9 Calculate the total parasitic junction capacitance associated with a 10kR basediffused 10 resistor if the base sheet resistance is 100 S / and the resistor width is 6 km. Also. Assume that the epi layer resistivity is known to be 2 Rcm by independent measurement. width of the dethe pletion layer in the collectorregion at punchthrough can be determined. 2.
166 Chapter 2 Bipolar. as shown in Fig. 2.15 Calculate the smallsignal model pararneters of the device shown in Fig. Assume the transistor has a threshold voltage of 0. First do the calculation for the unimplanted transistor. Csb.5 V. 1 P 3 Gate c 3 Figure 2.76 is connected in the circuit shown in Fig.1. then for the case in which the device receives the channel implant specified.13 Calculate the threshold voltage of the pchannel transistors for the process given in Table 2.8 V. Cgd.1. 2.12 An MOS transistor biased in the active region displays a drain current of 100 p A at a VGS of 1. Assume the transistor is biased at a drainsource voltage of 2 V and a drain current of 20 pA.4. For simplicity. The source and drain are at an initial voltage of +1. 2. The gate is grounded. gmhr CgJ. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology 2. Sketch the voltage at the source and drain from t = 0 until the drain voltage reaches . and Cdb.76. 2. 2. Assume Vss = 1 V. ~ of 5 V. the substrate is connected to .17 Show that two MOS transistors connected in parallel with channel widths of W1 and W2 and identical channel lengths of L can be modeled as one equivalent MOS transistor whose width is W1 W2 and whose length is L. ro. so that the effective surface concentration is the difference between the background substrate concentration and the effective concentration in the implant layer.16 The transistor shown in Fig.(W/L). 2. and this source has a value of zero for t < 0 and 10 p A for t > 0. . 2. 2..1 displays a measured output resistance of 5 M O at a drain current of 10 pA.6 V. An ideal current source is tied to the source. Note that this is aptype implant. The drawn dimensions of the device are 100 p m by 7 pm.1.C. including g. Neglect subthreshold conduction and assume that the mobility is constant.5 V at t = 0.5 V and a drain current of 10 p A at a VGSof 0.77.14 An nchannel implanted transistor from the process described in Table 2. biased in the active region at a VDs of 5 V.16. and the drain is open circuited.77 Circuit for Problem 2.18 Show that two MOS transistors connected 1 in series with channel lengths of L and L2 and + L Figure 2. Find the output resistance of a second device on the same technology that has drawn dimensions of 50 p m by 12 p m and is operated at a drain current of 30 p A and a V D . 2.78. Use the process parametersthat are specified in Table 2.17. MOS. assume that the sourcesubstrate and drainsubstrate capacitances are constant at their zerobias values.15. 2. Determine the threshold voltage and p. Assume the transistors are identical except for their channel widths.5 V.. Figure 2.78 Circuit for Problem 2.76 Transistor for Problem 2.
Y Tamaki. D. pp.Plot the maximum allowable power dissipation in this package as a function of ambient temperature. K.20 Determine the direct fabrication cost of an integrated circuit that is 150 rnils on a side in size. where A is the die area and A is a constant. for each of the three processes A. Ignore the body effect and channellength modulation.68.68. Philadelphia. Hamilton and W. and then yield curve C. Whittier and D. J. 387410. PrenticeHall. New York.The junctiontocase thermal resistance of the TO99 is 30•‹C/W. T.21 (a) A frequently used empirical approximation for the yield of an IC process as a function of die size is Y. 12811300. Vol. B. and T.. 2..79 Circuit for Problem 2. 1986.40. R." Be21 System Tech. Russell and D.60. B. (b) Use the expression derived in (a). "A Si Bipolar 21 GHz Static Frequency Divider. New York. assuming a maximum die temperature of 150•‹C. 2. and T. Conwell. providing a thermal resistance from case to ambient of 20•‹CtW. pp. the diefab yield is 0. Assume a waferfab cost of $130. March 1962. S. C. Work the problem for yield curves A.9. Lrvin. 2. T. and the finaltest yield is 0. Fundamentals of Silicon Integrated Device Technology. pp. 166168. 140141. R. YG. J. "Advanced Device Process Technology for 0.68. together with the grossdieperwafer curves shown in Fig. Takemura.and C . Yf." Proc. R. to develop an analytical expression for the cost of silicon per unit area as a function of die size. February 1991. I. February 1974. 2. Howard. Donovan.8. G. a diefab yield of 0.3 p m SelfAligned Bipolar LSI. 6. S. "IonImplanted JFETBipolar Monolithic Analog Circuits. 1968. "Resistivity of Bulk Silicon and of Diffused Layers in Silicon.00. M. M. which requires 40. pp. Muller and T. pp. 4. 158159. 7. Using . Karnins. Assume the transistors are identical except for their channel lengths. 1975. = exp (AIAo) Figure 2. Culmer. Repeat the problem assuming yield curve A. Ohyu. Journal. 1974 International Solidstate Circuits Conference. 2. 41. 1991 International SolidState Circuits Conference. 3. 8. Shiba. Plot the yield predicted by this expression and compare with the curves shown in Fig. Cp. 5. Nakarnura. 2. REFERENCES 1. McGrawHill. PA. as shown in 1 Fig. and CinFig. Fig. 9. 2." Proceedings of the IEEE Bipolar Circuits and Technology Meeting. "Properties of Silicon and Germanium.000 square mils of silicon area. September 1990. IRE. Determine whether the system should be put on one or two chips. Ohuchi. Vol. Y. H. Assume the process used follows curve B in Fig. I. Tremere. Wiley. Wiley. 2.8. a package and testing cost of $0. Assume a4in wafer. A. determine approximate values of A for .00. 2. E. 1341 36.Assume that the waferfab cost is $100. A. "Current Gain and Cutoff Frequency Falloff at High . Device Electronics for lntegrated Circuits.8. Kure. each of the three processes shown.79. Sigiyarna. A. and a finaltest yield of 0. pp. Sasyama.References 167 identical channel widths of W can be modeled as one equivalent MOS transistor whose width is W and whose length is L + L2. Kurisu. Englewood Cliffs. M. M.19 An integrated electronic subsystem is to be fabricated. J. 46. June 1958. NJ.69.18. P. 2. Grove. 2. R. Vol. Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices. D. 2.68. 1967. Burger and R. assuming that the fabrication cost of the two chips is the only consideration. M. Basic Integrated Circuit Engineering. and C.22 A TO99 package is used with a heat sink." Digest of Technical Papers. the packaging and testing costs are $0. Use the point on the curve at which the yield is e' to determine Ao. Tashiro. Assume a 4in wafer. Sawairi. W. New York." Digest of Technical Papers. 10. Ogiwara.
C. MOS. J. Crowder and S. A. Inc. 1994 International SolidState Circuits Conference.C. Laber. 20352041. S. and V. October 1971." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. 10281031. May 1993. Vol. 32. Stork. K. R." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. Harame. "High Slew Rate Monolithic Operational Amplifier Using Compatible Complementary pnp's. Meyerson. 184191. 20. and Voltage and Temperature Dependence of MOS Capacitors. 25. "Single Polysilicon Layer Advanced Super Highspeed BiCMOS Technology. Brodersen. Abidi. J. T. Stafford. P. 291293. pp. Integrated Electronics. pp. Tice. Chang. B. Kwok. Shahani. Alvarez. Koupal. Dreyer. pp. pp. 833835. 71. Meyer. SC4. December 1974." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. Nguyen and R. A. J. E. 710714. San Francisco. R. G . and N. and P. A. 455468. W. 27. and G. J. 30. R. A. 14. 26. April 1987." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. Tice. Zirinsky. Vol." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. Vol. W. Nasserbakht. January 1969. Vol. van Schravendijk. February 1994. 182185. L. Blanchard. G. Cressler. 273279. A. "Fractal Capacitors." IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. ED16. B. Uehara. A. Saari. C. August 1990. 1994 International SolidState Circuits Conference. J. C." Proceedings of the IEEE. D. New York. Gaitan. Carter. Millicker. and T. CrabbC. "SiISiGe EpitaxialBase TransistorsPart I: Materials. New York." Proceedings of the ZEEE Bipolar Circuits and Technology Meeting. Meyerson. Camenzind. J. 29. pp. Y. C. "SiliconGermanium Heterojunction Bipolar f Technology: The Next Leap in Silicon?Wigest o Technical Papers. E. "Large Suspended Inductors on Silicon and Their Use in a 2 Frn CMOS RF Amplifier. Lane. SC22. 16. F. "LowPower CMOS Digital Design. 21. HoldenDay." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. J. Y. Third Edition. Cressler." Digest of Technical Papers. P. and M. San Francisco. S. "Si ICCompatible Inductors and LC Passive Filters. McCreary. Black. Gray and R. . "The Influence of Heavy Doping on the Emitter Efficiency of a Bipolar Transistor. 0. Akcasu. F. CA. F. R. L. H. Meyer. Comfort. H. pp. "MOS Transistors Operated in the Lateral Bipolar Mode and Their Application in CMOS Technology." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. R.2 km Digital CMOS Technology. Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits. C. L. Physics. SC18. May 1993. Lin. D. Reprinted by permission of Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 25." ZEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. "High Capacitance Structure in a Semiconductor Device. H. and BiCMOS IntegratedCircuitTechnology Currents. 473484. and T. E. Davis. 967986." IEEE Transactions Electron Devices." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. April 1979. L. 3839. R.208. A. pp. K. P. 28. 33. H. C. Conner. P. pp. pp. August 1969. pp. 181189. B. J. 1989. Dordrecht. San Francisco. R. DeMan. pp. P. 12. 42. "Matching Properties. D." ZEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. S. R. Rahim. 608616. "A Complete Monolithic SampleMold Amplifier. D. pp. "Design Techniques for Monolithic Operational Amplifiers. L. pp. 14. pp. R. C. Vittoz. and R. Vol. SC9. C. September 1989. S. J. Snapp. 19. Wholey. 18. 33. December l98 1. "A Compact LowNoise Operational Amplifier for a 1. H. A. Connelly. Samavati. K. December 1974. N. N. Sheng. Wiley." U. Vol. SC16. August 1983. and Circuits. and T. Vol. G." IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. Vol. pp. ED18. Gray." IEEE Electron Device Letters. Vol. 24. and R. Lee. SC14. SC9. Allstot and W. Vol. J. Negus. Holman and J. Kluwer Academic Publishers. 15. Marion. J. March 1995. 1967. December 1998. Van Nostrand Reinhold. 30. 27. Vol. June 1983.725. February 1994. H. 2427. pp. Chandrakasan. Vol. Vol. 3957. "1 km MOSFET VLSI Technology: Part VIIMetal Silicide Interconnection TechnologyA Future Perspective. April 1992. J. S.168 Chapter 2 Bipolar. Electronic Integrated Systems Design. Widlar. "Highly Integrated Transmitter RFIC with Monolithic Narrowband Tuning for Digital Cellular Handsets. Sun. Vol. Moyer. Vol. 13. Harame. Hajimiri. M. The Netherlands. "Design Considerations for a HighPerformance 3km CMOS Analog StandardCell Library. A. Copyright O 1972 Litton Educational Publishing. de Jong.S. T." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. G. 381387. B. Gray. CA. pp. pp. June 1995. F. 22. R. 17. D. 31. E. H. 11. D. Vol. Patent 5. A. 340346. 23. B. Comfort. "Technological Design Considerations for Monolithic MOS SwitchedCapacitor Filtering Systems. M. T. BiCMOS Technology and Applications. 1993. pp. J. 1972. Jr. 246248.
469482. D. "Full Copper Wiring in a Sub0. M.J. Slattery. ''SiISiGe EpitaxialBase TransistorsPart 11: Process Integration and Analog Applications. Sun. 42. pp. "Interconnect ScalingThe Real Limiter to High Performance ULSI. "Interconnection Challenges and the Na . McDevitt. Y. Lustig. J. J. International Electron Devices Meet. Heidenreich. MelliarSmith. T. Harame. 36. Bohr. F. December 1997. L. D. T. S. T. CrabbC. D. Edelstein. Tice. lEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. Rathore. and IEEE International Interconnect Technology Conference. R. Monnig. S. B. Meyerson." IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting. Cressler. pp. tional Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors." Techni. Su. H. June 1998. P. W. N. 773776. J. 24 1244. December 1995. Cote. Wachnik. Roper. Luce. S. Schulz. J. Simon." E. J. C.References l69 34. C. Dukovic. March 1995. H. R. Comfort. A. K. R. W. Goldblatt.C. Motsiff. and M. Vol.25 cal Digest. and 35. pp. Uzoh. Chang. pp." 37. L. ing. A. 36.p m CMOS ULSI Technology.
The most widely used of . Furthermore. 3. contains a large number of transistors that perform many functions. 3. The circuit of Fig. which increases cost. It uses a CMOS technology and many more transistors than in Fig. The next three chapters analyze various circuit configurations encountered in linear integrated circuits.2. increasing the pin count of the package.~ important application of analog circuits is to provide interfaces between the real world and digital circuits. where the subcircuits may contain many transistors.2 but is not shown for simplicity. The first reflects a costeffective solution in the context of discretecomponent circuits. both increased levels of integration and reduced power dissipations are required. The best way to analyze such circuits is usually to regard each individual transistor as a stage and to analyze the circuit as a collection of singletransistor stages. Feedback is described in Chapter 8. Hence. The most costeffective circuit approach to accomplish a given function may be quite different when the realization of the circuit is to be in monolithic form as opposed to discrete transistors and passive elements. we first consider the dc and lowfrequency properties o f the simplest subcircuits: commonemitter. 3. feedback would be required around the amplifier shown in Fig. A second constraint is that the cheapest component that can be fabricated in the integrated circuit is the one that occupies the least area. usually a transistor. however. for the case of monolithic construction. commonbase. Thus monolithic circuits are often regarded as a collection of subcircuits that perform specific functions. In practice. A typical monolithic circuit. consider the two realizations of a threestage audio amplifier shown in Figs. Capacitors of the values used in most discretecomponent circuits are not feasible and would have to be external to the chip.' As an illustration. In discretecomponent circuits. CMOS technologies have become dominant because of their high densities and low power dissipations. and commoncollector singletransistor amplifiers and their counterparts using MOS transistors. To reduce the cost and increase the portability of mixedanaloganddigital systems. In building digital integrated circuits. and a dccoupled circuit realization is very desirable. the transistors. an ~. In this chapter.2 reflects these constraints. and the interstage coupling is accomplished with capacitors.1 and 3. However. while transistor current sources provide biasing without large amounts of resistance. Thus a circuit realization that contains the minimum possible total resistance while using more active components may be ~ p t i m u r n . As a result. We then consider some multitransistor subcircuits that are useful as amplifying stages. and has no coupling capacitors. we are interested in building analog interface circuits in CMOS technologies. since passive components such as resistors and capacitors are less expensive than the active components. A differential pair is used to allow direct coupling between stages. a key determining factor in cost is the die area used. both passive and active. a high premium is placed on eliminating large capacitors.SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers The technology used to fabricate integrated circuits presents a unique set of componentcost constraints to the circuit designer. has less total resistance. the number of transistors is usually minimized. 3.1. the circuit contains a minimum number of transistors. Therefore.
these multitransistor circuits are the differential pairs.1 Typical discretecomponent realization of an audio amplifier. the effect of mismatches in device characteristics on these voltages and currents. the highfrequency. 3. and the most important single principle that must be followed to achieve success in the hand analysis of such circuits is selecting the simplest possible . In later chapters. lowfrequency input and output resistance. Figure 3.2 Typical CMOS integratedcircuit realization of an audio amplifier. smallsignal behavior of circuits is considered. The subcircuit or circuit under investigation is often one of considerable complexity.3. and the voltage gain of the circuit. which are analyzed extensively in this chapter.1 Device Model Selection for Approximate Analysis of Analog Circuits 17 1 * Figure 3. the smallsignal.1 Device ModelSelection for Approximate Analysis of Analog Circuits Much of this book is concerned with the salient performance characteristics of a variety of subcircuits commonly used in analog circuits and of complete functional blocks made up of these subcircuits. The aspects of the performance that are of interest include the dc currents and voltages within the circuit.
however. certain bias circuits depend on the nonlinear relation between the collector current and baseemitter voltage to control the bias current.2 TwoPort Modeling of Amplifiers The most basic parameter of an amplifier is its gain. hand analysis of a complex circuit is greatly simplified by neglecting certain aspects of transistor behavior. the admittanceparameter equations are: "1 il Twoport network '2 Figure 3. Therefore. assuming constant baseemitter voltages and neglecting transistor output resistances often provides adequate accuracy. A pair of terminals is a port if the current that flows into one terminal is equal to the current that flows out of the other terminal.172 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers model for the devices within the circuit that will result in the required accuracy. If the network is linear and contains no independent sources. and the assumption of a constant VBEwill result in gross errors in the analyses of these circuits. For example. For example. the output resistance must be considered to obtain meaningful results. predicting the dependence of the gain on the source and load resistance is also important. One variable at each port can be set independently. However. We will focus here on the admittanceparameter equations. 3. is to obtain an intuitive understanding of factors affecting circuit behavior so that an iterative design procedure resulting in improved performance can be carried out. twoport networks have four terminals and four port variables (a voltage and a current at each port). and then simplify the model(s) to include only those aspects. When analyzing the activeload stages in Chapter 4. this approach requires a completely new amplifier analysis each time the source or load resistance is changed. To simplify this procedure. One way to observe this dependence is to include these resistances in the amplifier analysis. but this approach does not yield the intuitive understanding necessary for design. However.3. . The principal objective of hand analysis. To model an amplifier. amplifiers are often modeled as twoport equivalent networks. which may result in a 10 to 20 percent error in the dc currents calculated. Unfortunately. one port represents the amplifier input characteristics and the other represents the output. a key step in every analysis is to inspect the circuit to determine what aspects of the behavior of the transistors strongly affect the performance of the circuit. This dependence is expressed by two equations. in the dc analysis of bipolar biasing circuits. such as the output resistance. The performance of the circuit can at any point in this cycle be determined precisely by computer simulation. where the terminal currents are viewed as dependent variables controlled by the independent terminal voltages because we usually model transistors with voltagecontrolled current sources. The other variable at each port is dependent on the twoport network and the independent variables. 3. Since amplifiers may be connected to a wide variety of sources and loads. As shown in Fig. in the case of dc analysis. no specific rules can be formulated regarding the selection of the simplest device model for analysis.3 Twoportnetwork block diagram. This step in the procedure is emphasized in this and the following chapters.
In general. = I I Y ~as shown ~. = y21.3.5 . Figure 3. Instead of calculating yll and y22. 3. the amplifier is said to be bilateral. twoport equivalent circuit. this feedback is negligible and yl2 is assumed to be zero.5b.3) (3. in this book. Also.4. we will sometimes calculate the opencircuit voltage gain a. which will be represented by G. =o = Reverse transconductance with the input shortcircuited y21 y22 = v1 i2 i2 I V 2 =0 = Forward transconductance with the output shortcircuited = v2 I =0 = Output admittance with the input shortcircuited (3..5) il yl2 = v2 I . This substitution is justified by conversion of the Nortonequivalent output model shown in Fig.3) because the connections at the output port do not affect the input admittance when ylz = 0. 3. In many practical cases. Then the amplifier is unilateral and characterized by the other three parameters.2 TwoPort Modeling of Amplifiers i l i2 C  173 V1  Figure 3. finding (b) Unilateral twoport equivalent circuits with (a)Norton output model (b) ThCvenin output model. or the input and output impedances Zi = l/yll and 2.5a. When the signal propagates back from the output to the input as well as forward from the input to the output. instead of calculating the shortcircuit transconductance G. 3.6) The yl2 parameter represents feedback in the amplifier. especially at low frequencies.5a to the Thtveninequivalent output model shown in Fig. Since the model includes only one transconductance when y12 = 0. An equivalent circuit for these equations is shown in Fig.4) (3. The parameters can be found and interpreted as follows: y11 =  il v1 I vz = O = Input admittance with the output shortcircuited (3.4 Admittanceparameter. The voltages and currents in these equations are deliberately written as smallsignal quantities because transistors behave in an approximately linear way only for small signals around a fixed operating point. in the unilateral twoport model of Fig. we will often calculate the reciprocals of these parameters. When an amplifier is unilateral. the calculation of yll is simplified from that given in (3. 3. y21 is usually referred to simply as the shortcircuit transconductance..
At low frequencies. the input and output impedances are usually dominated by resistances. the gain is reduced by a factor of ~ ~ ~ = ~ ~ four to ~ o .. the signal is applied to the base or gate and the output signal is taken from the emitter or source. EXAMPLE A twoport model of a unilateral amplifier is shown in Fig. Z.. Rs and RL represent the source resistance of the input Let generator and load resistance. RL + m.174 Chapter 3 m SingieTransistor and MuitipleTransistor Amplifiers Figure 3. we will characterize the lowfrequency behavior of many amplifiers in this book by finding the input and output resistances. any two of the three parameters including G.. = 0.3 Basic SingleTransistor Amplifier Stages Bipolar and MOS transistors are capable of providing useful amplification in three different configurations.5(1~ mAN)(5OO kQ) = 250. Rs = 0.assuming that the input is an ideal voltage source and the output is unloaded. and a.6 Example of loading at the input and output of an amplifier modeled by a twoport equivalent circuit. and G. In the commoncollector or commondrain configuration. In the commonemitter or commonsource configuration. 3. = l M.1000. and v ~ = . and since the output resistance appears in parallel with the load resistance. The opencircuit voltage gain of the twoport amplifier model by itself from v1 to vOut is Since the source and input resistances form a voltage divider. as well as G. ~ l ~ ~ 3. With Rs v 1 kSZ and RL = 1 MSZ. Ri and R. the overall gain from vin to vOutis U With an ideal voltage source at the input and no load at the output. or a . Repeat. specifies the third parameter because Once two of these parameters and the input impedance are known. R. Therefore. . Find the lowfrequency gain vOutlvin.6. Assume Ri = 1 kQ. the signal is applied to the base or gate of the transistor and the amplified output is taken from the collector or drain. calculation of the effects of loading at the input and output ports is possible. assuming that Rs = 1 k R a n d R L = IMSZ. respectively. = l MSZ. This configuration is often referred to as the emitter follower for bipolar circuits and the source .
the transistor operates in the cutoff state and no collector v. For example. MOS transistors have essentially infinite input resistance from the gate to the source. bipolar transistors have a g. We assume that the base of the transistor is driven by a voltage source of value Vi.1 CommonEmitter Configuration The resistively loaded commonemitter (CE) amplifier configuration is shown in Fig. integratedcircuit processes of many varieties now exist. the signal is applied to the emitter or the source. In other applications. the higher g. As described in Chapter 2. The short horizontal line labeled Vcc at the top of RC implies that a voltage source of value Vcc is connected between that point and ground. The resistor RC represents the collector load resistance. and the output signal is taken from the collector or the drain. On the other hand. output resistance. that is usually an order of magnitude larger than that of MOS transistors biased with the same current. designers must appreciate the similarities and differences between bipolar and MOS transistors so that appropriate choices of technology can be made. in contrast with the finite r. We showed in Chapter 1 that the smallsignal equivalent circuits for the bipolar and MOS transistors are very similar. In particular. of bipolar transistors makes the realization of highgain amplifiers with bipolar transistors easier than with MOS transistors. Examples include processes with bipolar or MOS transistors as the only active devices and combined bipolar and CMOS devices in BiCMOS processes. integratedcircuit designers generally use the simplest process available that allows the desired circuit specifications to be achieved. 3. In many instances. However. When V iis zero. Therefore.3.  $ 5 r   Figure 3. and current gain. This symbol will be used throughout the book. These differences often make one or the other device desirable for use in different situations. 3. . In the commonbase or commongate configuration. amplifiers with very high input impedance are more easily realized with MOS transistors than with bipolar transistors.3 Basic SingleTransistorAmplifier Stages 175 follower for MOS circuits.3. We first cakulate the dc transfer characteristic of the amplifier as the input voltage is increased in the positive direction from zero.7. the analysis of complex multistage amplifiers can be reduced to the analysis of a number of singletransistor stages of these types.7 Resistively loaded commonemitter amplifier. with the two devices differing mainly in the values of some of their smallsignal parameters. Each of these configurations provides a unique combination of input resistance. voltage gain. the exponential largesignal characteristics of bipolar transistors and the squarelaw characteristics of MOS transistors may each be used to advantage. of bipolar transistors. Because the more complex processes involve more masking steps and are thus somewhat more costly to produce.
9.I. Figure 3.176 Chapter 3 m SingleTransistor a n d MultipleTransistorAmplifiers Ib + This diode has a saturation current of JLVb.8 Largesignal PF 1s   equivalent circuit valid when the transistor is in the forwardactive = PFIO region. As long as the transistor operates in the forwardactive region. Once the transistor becomes saturated. In practice.8. and Vbe. 3. The smallsignal . the transistor enters the forwardactive region. RC = Therefore. We now proceed to calculate the voltage gain in the forwardactive region. and the collector current is given by Vi Is expVT The equivalent circuit for the amplifier when the transistor operates in the forwardactive region was derived in Chapter 1 and is repeated in Fig. LT v. The base current.As the input voltage is increased. the calculations are simplified by using the smallsignal hybrid. the base current is equal to the collector current divided by PF. the forward current gain Ic/Ibdecreases from PF as the transistor leaves the forwardactive region of operation and moves into saturation. Because of the exponential relationship between I. or Ic = The output voltage is equal to the supply voltage. however. When the signal source can no longer increase the base current. the collectorbase junction of the transistor becomes forward biased and the device enters saturation. The circuit thus provides voltage gain.Rcls exp VT When the output voltage approaches zero. Note that when the device operates in the forwardactive region. 3. continues to increase with further increases in Vi. While incremental performance parameters such as the voltage gain can be calculated from derivatives of the largesignal analysis. Vcc. the output voltage and collector current take on nearly constant values: V.rr model for the transistor developed in Chapter 1. small changes in the input voltage can give rise to large changes in the output voltage.the value of the collector current is very small until the input voltage reaches approximately 0.5 V. the current available from the signal source is limited. minus the voltage drop across the collector resistor: Vi Vcc . The output voltage and the base current are plotted as a function of the input voltage in Fig. = Vcc . The saturation current of the equivalent baseemitter diode is current flows other than the leakage current lco. Vi is maximum.
The collector resistor RC is included because it is usually present in some form as a biasing element. This equivalent circuit does not include the resistance of the load connected to the amplifier output. assuming that it is much smaller than r.5 Saturation region Figure 3. Forwardactive region Saturation region V~~ (sat) I. we will calculate the smallsignal input resistance.10 Smallsignal equivalent circuit for the CE amplifier.10. A 4 Spturation . We have also neglected r. is the change in the shortcircuit output current per unit change of input voltage and is given by Figure 3. transconductance. For the CE amplifier. Our objective is to characterize the amplifier alone so that the voltage gain can then be calculated under arbitrary conditions of loading at the input and output.9 Output voltage and base current as a function of Vi for the commonemitter circuit. and output resistance of the circuit as explained in Section 3.region I 1..3 Basic SingleTransistor Amplifier Stages 177 vcc . 3. The transconductance G. .. L 1 1 0.3... Since the commonemitter amplifier is unilateral when r.5 I. is neglected. The input resistance is the ThCveninequivalent resistance seen looking into the input. equivalent circuit for the commonemitter amplifier is shown in Fig. Here we have neglected rb.2.
+ ai = PO = 100 (b) Calculate the voltage gain of the circuit of Fig. voltage gain is If the collector load resistor RC is made very large. output resistance. and r. becomes where Ic is the dc collector current at the operating point. rb = 0. Assume that VBIAsis adjusted so that the dc collector current is maintained at 100 pA. VA is the Early voltage.11a. to ii when the output is shorted. This parameter is the ratio of i.178 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistorAmplifiers Equation 3. and current gain of the commonemitter amplifier in Fig. and the magnitude is approximately 5000 for typical npn devices. . and 77 is given in (1.14 shows that the transconductance of the CE amplifier is equal to the transconductance of the transistor. 3. ca. Assume that Ic = 100 pA.1 lb. PO = 100. EXAMPLE (a) Find the input resistance. or unloaded. voltage gain. VT is the thermal voltage. Another parameter of interest is the shortcircuit current gain ai. then a. or The opencircuit.114). It is independent of the collector bias current for bipolar transistors. For the CE amplifier. This gain represents the maximum lowfrequency voltage gain obtainable from the transistor. The output resistance is the ThCveninequivalent resistance seen looking into the output with the input shorted. 3.
V. The largesignal model . > VGs . 3.12b..3 B a s k SingleTransistor Amplifier Stages 179 Figure 3.2 CommonSource Configuration The resistively loaded cornmonsource (CS) amplifier configuration is shown in Fig. The corresponding smallsignal equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. (b) Circuit for calculation of voltage gain with typical source and load resistance values.3. As in the case of the bipolar transistor. nonzero drain current flows and the transistor operates in the active region (which is often called saturation for MOS transistors) when V. l l (a) Example amplifier circuit. 3. Vi is increased beyond the threshold voltage As Vt.3. 3. the MOS transistor is cutoff for Vi = 0 and thus Id = 0 and V.12a using an nchannel MOS transistor. = VDD.
In the triode region.30 can then be used together with (1. . These results are illustrated in the plot of Fig. < VGS. of Fig. commonsource amplifier. where its output resistance becomes low and the smallsignal voltage gain drops dramatically.180 Chapter 3 m SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers (4 Figure 3.12 (a) Resistively loaded.19).13 Output voltV. (b) Smallsignal equivalent circuit for the commonsource amplifier.13.the transistor enters the triode region. 1. The slope of this transfer characteristic at any operating I I I I l I I o l I Figure 3.157) to derive The output voltage is equal to the drainsource voltage and decreases as the input increases.(V) I f V t 2 1 3 age versus input voltage for the commonsource circuit.152) in (3. When V.V t . the output voltage can be calculated by using (1. 3.
or The opencircuit. the maximum voltage gain in the commonemitter amplifier is independent of current.13) because MOS transistors behave like bipolar transistors with infinite Do. the g. as in a commonemitter amplifier.2. Since the source and body of the MOS transistor both operate at ac ground. As explained in Section 1. input resistance. 1. The CS amplifier is unilateral because it contains no feedback. the active region for the MOS CS amplifier extends over a much larger range of V ithan in the bipolar commonemitter amplifier. Under this assumption. however. the gain approaches a constant value comparable to that of a bipolar transistor. the input resistance Riis Another way to see this result is to let Do + in (3. In the case of the CS amplifier. and output resistance as described in Section 3. Equation 3. This region is sometimes called subthreshold.8. the dc input current and its lowfrequency.3. smallsignal variation ii are both assumed to equal zero.36. = 0 in Fig.10. vb. The transconductance G . .b generator is omitted in Fig. the lowfrequency behavior of this circuit can be characterized using the transconductance. where the transistor operates in weak inversion and the squarelaw characteristic in (1.21 shows that the transconductance of the CS amplifier is equal to the transconductance of the transistor. RD RD+m and a. is Equation 3.25 gives the maximum possible voltage gain of a onestage CS amplifier.17) for a commonemitter amplifier.3 Basic SingleTransistorAmplifier Stages 181 point is the smallsignal voltage gain at that point. is inversely proportional to ID from (1.25) lim a. therefore. At very low currents. 3.180) whereas r. we find in (3.In contrast.r. this circuit is topologically identical to the smallsignal equivalent circuit for the commonemitter amplifier shown in Fig. 3. 3. is proportional to from (1. the drain current becomes an exponential function of the gatesource voltage in this region.12b. voltage gain is . The output resistance is the Thkveninequivalent resistance seen looking into the output with the input shorted. resembling the collectorcurrent dependence on the baseemitter voltage in a bipolar transistor. If the drain load resistor RD is replaced by a current source. As a result. Thus. g. Since the input of the CS amplifier is connected to the gate of an MOS transistor. therefore.194). becomes (3. A plot of the maximum voltage gain versus ID for a typical MOS transistor is shown in Fig. This result is identical to the first part of (3. or unloaded. = g.25) that the maximum voltage gain per stage is proportional to 11A.14. Therefore. The MOS transistor has much lower voltage gain in the active region than does the bipolar transistor.157) is no longer valid.
Then V .8V. Xd = 0.25) can also be expressed as RD+m lim a.kt = p.Vt is the gate overdrive.C. as assumed. Using (1. the limiting gain given by (3. = g.26) gives RD +m lim a.) = 100 X 1oP6 X (l 1 50  0.W = 5 0 p m .2 VA Vov where V.163) into (3. =  VA WGS. = VGS. (1.If the transistor operates in the active region. V . = ID  gm IDvA In the squarelaw region in Fig.VtY2 .12a with VDD = 5 V.~ 10G l0 " to4 IO~ ID(A) Figure 3. V.17) for the bipolar case. the transistor does operate in the active region.27) is usually much smaller than that predicted by (3.14.27) gives lim a.181) into (3.182 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers Maximum MOSFET voltage gain 10' I o4 1o . = VDD. Then from (l.. Substituting (1..8) = PA 1000  v . = VD.194).14 Typical variation of maximum MOSFET voltage gain with bias current. To determine whether the transistor operates in the active region. =  gm IDr. =  RD+m EXAMPLE Find the voltage gain of the commonsource amplifier of Fig 3. L = l p m . RD = 5kCI. Assume that the bias value of Vi is 1 V. l mA)(5 k l l ) = 4. Since the gate overdrive is typically an order of magnitude larger than the thermal voltage VT. = 0.2 V.157) gives . substituting (1.IDRD = 5 V .5 V Since Vos = 4. the magnitude of the maximum gain predicted by (3.Ld = 0 .Vt = 0.l8O). and h = 0. 3.r. we first find the dc output voltage V = VDs.5 V > VGS. = 10OFA/V2.(0.
. input signal is applied to the emitter of the transistor.1 even though the dc bias currents are equal.24) gives Note that the opencircuit voltage gain here is much less than in the bipolar example in Section 3. 1 6 ~ It has ter.16a. For dc and low input frequencies.15.16d. The circuit behavior is unchanged if we replace this single current source with two current sources of the same value. however.3. Assume at first that rb = 0 and r. The commonbase connection is shown in Fig. Therefore. and C. In this section. 3.rr model provides an accurate representation of the smallsignal behavior of the transistor independent of the circuit configuration. by the application of Ohm's law to this branch. 3.^ The analysis of commonbase stages can be simplified if the model is modified as shown in Fig. The base is tied to ac ground.3. The hybrid. so that the circuit is unilateral. one going from the collector to the base and the other going from the base to the emitter. 0..3 Basic SingleTransistor Amplifier Stages 183 * Then since A = Figure 3. 3. the capacitors C. We next note that the controlled current source connecting the base and emitter is controlled by the voltage across its own terminals. the equations that describe the operation of these circuits are identical. First note that the dependent current source flows from the collector terminal to the emitter terminal. as shown in Fig. and the parallel combination of the two is called the emitter resistance re. is also neglected. the hybridT model is somewhat cumbersome because the dependent current source is connected between the input and output terminal^. 3.3. 3. minal properties exactly equivalent to those of the hybridT model but is often more convenient to use for commonbase calculations. This resistance appears in parallel with r. Using the T model under these conditions. For the commonbase stage. the smallsignal equivalent circuit of the commonbase stage is shown in + . While the connection is not as widely used as the commonemitter amplifier. The smallsignal hybrid.rr model is shown in Fig. Since the Currents fed into and removed from the base are equal. this dependent current source can be replaced by a resistor of value llg. it has properties that make it useful in certain circumstances.16. and the output is taken from the collector.3 CommonBase Configuration In the commonbase (CB) ~ o n f i ~ u r a t i othe~ n . we calculate the smallsignal properties of the commonbase stage. When r . appear as highimpedance elements and can be neglected.16b. 3 .15 Typical commonbase amplifier. the model reduces to the simple form shown in Fig. VA + and (3. The new equivalent circuit is called the T model and is shown in Fig. 3.
17. (c) The current source between base and emitter is converted to a resistor of value lg. This change does not affect the current flowing in the base. 3. ( a )Hybrid. 3.17.184 Chapter 3 W SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers CP II 0 Collector Emitter (4 0 Collector (b) Base d Emitter (C) Figure 3. neglecting r.16 Generation of emittercurrentcontrolledT model from the hybridT.. By inspection of Fig. and the chargestorage elements. the shortcircuit transconductance is The input resistance is just the resistance re: . Fig. T model for low frequencies. (d) l. r.vl is changed to two current sources in series.. and the point between them attached to the base. (b) The collector current source g.n model.
3 Basic SingleTransistor Amplifier Stages 185 Figure 3. 3. assume the transistor operates in the forwardactive region and parameters with Tb consider the smallsignal model shown in Fig.. and v. To recalculate these 0. the transconductance is To find the relationship between v. respectively. In practice. the input resistance in Fig.. r.17 Smallsignal equivalent circuit of the commonbase stage. however.13) shows that the input resistance of the commonbase configuration is a factor of (po + 1) less than in the commonemitter configuration. r b . From KCL at node D. substituting into (3. Here. the opencircuit voltage gain and the shortcircuit current gain are Comparing (3.18) shows that the current gain of the commonbase configuration is reduced by a factor of (po + 1) compared to that of the commonemitter configuration. 3. Also. the base resistance has a significant effect on the transconductance and the input resistance when the commonbase stage is operated at sufficiently high current levels. Until now.37) for vb. and r . Solving (3. The output resistance is given by Using these parameters. 0) From KVL around the input loop.36).31) and (3.18. and rearranging gives Substituting (3. Kirchoff's current law (KCL) and Kirchoff's and around the input voltage law (KVL) can be applied at the internal base node (node loop. comparing (3. are assumed negligible.n "l T f v e  ?Fo  3.18 is .34) and (3. we have assumed that rb is negligible.35) gives Similarly.38) into (3.
For example.20d is bilateral because of feedback provided through r.20c. Substituting (3. the input signal is applied to the source of the transistor. 3. In Fig. Since equal currents are pushed into and pulled out of the gate. then vb.18 Smallsignal model of the commonbase stage with rb > 0.3.. because the gate also operates at ac ground. m so that the circuit is unilateral. the circuit of Fig. By inspection of Fig.rr model is shown. the lowfrequency hybrid. the combined current source from the source to the drain is replaced by two current sources: one from the source to the gate and the other from the gate to the drain. then the effects of base resistance must be included.3.rr configuration to a T model.38) into (3. As a result. 3. If r. As described in Chapter 7.21. the commonbase configuration can be used as a current source whose current is nearly independent of the voltage across it.as in Fig.19. 3. equal. 3.186 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers Figure 3. the commonbase amplifier can achieve much larger output resistance than the commonemitter stage in the limiting case where RC t m. the collectorbase capacitance does not cause highfrequency feedback from output to input as in the commonemitter amplifier. in Fig. then a collector current of 26 mA makes rb and r. and its behavior is similar to that of a commonbase stage.. = v. is finite.  . the two dependent current sources are combined. this change can be important in the design of highfrequency amplifiers.20b.20a. As in the analysis of commonbase amplifiers in Section 3. This configuration is shown in Fig. At first. + gmb). First. as described in Chapter 4. Using the T model under these conditions. The main motivation for using commonbase stages is twofold. Therefore. if rb = 100 L(t and p.20.21. Note that both transconductance generators are now active. If the substrate or body connection is assumed to operate at ac ground.4 CommonGate Configuration In the commongate configuration. In Fig. the smallsignal equivalent circuit of the commongate stage is shown in Fig. and the output is taken from the drain while the gate is connected to ac ground. 3. because the current source from the source to the gate is controlled by the voltage across itself. 3.206 and 3. 3. = 100.20~ are identical. 3.3. Second.20d. 3. we will assume that r. it can be replaced by a resistor of value l/(g. the analysis of commongate amplifiers can be simplified if the model is changed from a hybrid. Finally. as shown in Fig. is comparable with rb. the equations that describe the operation of the circuits in Figs. 3.40) gives Thus if the dc collector current is large enough that r. 3.
the opencircuit voltage gain and the shortcircuit current gain are . Using these parameters. (b) The two dependent sources are combined.rr model. ss D gm+gmb  f (grn+ gmb) vsg  (d) Figure 3.20 Conversion from hybridn to T model. ( c )The combined source is converted into two sources. v 0 f Figure 3. (d) The current source between the source and gate is converted into a resistor. (a) Lowfrequency hybrid.3 Basic SingleTransistor Amplifier Stages l87 v.+ uTo + 3.19 Commongate configuration.
a test voltage source v.3.48) gives Rearranging (3. Let R = RC in Fig.i sv vy #  e L  + f a  Smallsignal equivdent circuit of the commongate stage. KCL at the output node in Fig.22a. we have neglected the effects of r. and the resulting test current it is calculated. 3.50) with .47) for v . causes each circuit to be bilateral.22b gives KCL at the input in Fig.188 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers g. 3. making the input resistance depend on the connection at the amplifier output. 3 . > l/Gm.21. Also. r. and Ri(ideal) re = = a0/gm from (3. depending on which circuit is under consideration. In Fig.. must be included in the smallsignal model to accurately predict not only the input resistance.31) into (3.43) for a commongate amplifier.30) and (3. 3. 3. 2 2 ~ shows a smallsignal T model of a commonbase or commongate stage including finite r..5.30). but also the output resistance. is used to drive the amplifier input. from (3. where Ri(ideal) given by (3. the input resistance is Ri = vllii.5 CommonBase and CommonGate Configurations with Finite r. is connected from each amplifier output back to its input.17 or RD in Fig. To find the input resistance.49) gives / common~ase Input Resistance. 3. finite r . 3. On the other hand. In calculating the expressions for G. of the commonbase and commongate amplifiers. and R has no effect on this calculation. Substituting (3.31). r. When R becomes large enough that it is comparable with r. Since r . and R. the relationship between r . Ri. and substituting into (3.22b gives Solving (3.1 CommonBase and CommonGate lnput Resistance Figure 3 . > 3. and the effect of finite r . respectively.21 3. G. Figure 3. = g.17 or R = RD in Fig..22b is often used. Connections to the load and the input source are shown in Fig.. For the commonbase amplifier. on transconductance can be ignored if r. a simplified equivalent circuit such as in Fig.3. R represents RC in Fig. 3. Here. 2 2 to include their contri~ butions to the input and output resistance. is assumed negligible. since the transconductance is calculated with the output shorted. 3.21.31) for a commonbase amplifier or by is (3.
51).42) and (3. when (Po + l)ro > RC 11 RL.43) into + . The second term shows that the input resistance now depends on the connection to the output (because finite r. the effect of. When r. R = RC and rearranging gives > From (3. The second term is about equal to > the resistance at the amplifier output divided by the G..r.3. gmb) Ri(ideall = I/(g.31).52).&e second term can be neglected. From (3..J L4 I I I I I I 1 Input generator model Amplifier model Load model (4 (4 Figure 3. > The first term on the right side of (3. > (Rc (1 RL). where the commonbase amplifier was unilateraI because infinite ro was assumed... G. + gmb)from (3.42) and CommonGate Input Resistance.. when gmro > ao. / from (3.53) is the same as in (3. l89 . rl l 1 I I I I I I RL . I I R.43). product. = (g.22 (a) Model of commonbase and commongate amplifiers with finite r. Substituting (3.3 Basic SingleTransistor Amplifier Stages R. For the commongate amplifier. (c) Equivalent circuit for calculation of R. showing connections to the input source and load. (b) Equivalent circuit for calculation of R. provides feedback and makes the amplifier bilateral).
vl + vt . = 0. Neglecting the second term usually causes only a small error when RD here or RC in the commonbase case is built as a physical resistor even if the amplifier is unloaded ( R L 4 W).. However. the calculation will be done in two steps. this result is placed in parallel with R to give the overall output resistance. it = G. 3.50) with R RD and rearranging gives The first term on the right side of (3.57) gives Rearranging (3. was assumed.22c. 2 2 ~ R. where the commongate amplifier was unilateral because infinite r. product and shows the effect of finite r. 3 . First. and the resulting test current it can be calculated.3. 3. = vo/io with v. Chapter 4 describes techniques used to construct transistor current sources that can have very high equivalent resistance. For this calculation. the output resistance with R is calculated. which makes the circuit bilateral.190 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers = (3. + With R .v1 r 0  Solving (3. the output resistance is .5. = 0. 2 2 where v.43). when RD or RC is replaced by a transistor current source. A test voltage vt is used to drive the amplifier output. From KCL at the input node in Fig. Second. 3 . the effect of the second term can be significant.55) is the same as in (3.r.2 CommonBase and CommonGate Output Resistance The output resistance in Fig. KCL at the output node gives .56) for vl and substituting into (3. Since R appears in parallel with the amplifier output. The second term is about equal to the resistance at the amplifier output divided by the G. When ro > ( R D11 RL). conis ~ sider the equivalent circuit shown in Fig.58) gives With finite R.the effect of the second > term can be neglected.W.
= R 11 ro + (3.43).60) and rearranging gives + + gmb) (3. > >  R I/ ((gm + gmb) T O R S ) (3. G. = g.3. 3.3. Substituting (3.67) and (3.)] + gmb)ro > 1 and (g. From (3.42) and Ri(ideall= l / ( g m gmb)from (3. when Rs < r. product in each case. when gmr.67) The term in parentheses in (3.65) is about equal to the input source resistance multiplied by the G. product in each case. = R 11 [ r . Therefore.61) shows that the output resistance of the commonbase amplifier depends on the resistance of the input source Rs when r.6 CommonCollector Configuration (Emitter Follower) The commoncollector connection is shown in Fig. r From (3. For the commonbase amplifier.b) r.66). 3 .55) together show that the commongate amplifier is also a resistance scaler.60) The term in brackets on the right side of (3.42) and (3.. CommonGate Output Resistance.3 1 ) into (3.. > a0 and gmRs > The term in parentheses in (3. from (3.61).3 1).43) into (3.65) and (3. + gmb)Rs > 1.30) and (3. (3. this configuration is that the signal is applied to the base and the output is taken from the . Therefore.r. if the input comes from an ideal current source. where the resistance is scaled up from the source to the drain and down from the drain to the source by a factor approximately equal to the G. G . For the commongate amplifier. where the resistance is scaled up from the emitter to the collector and down from the collector to the emitter by a factor approximately equal to the Gmr. Rs and < From (3. Rs = 0 and R.30) and Ri(ideaU re = and rearranging gives = aO/gm from (3. is finite. For example. if the input comes from an ideal voltage source. 2 3 ~ The distinguishing feature of .62) m On the other hand.3 Basic SingleTransistor Amplifier Stages 191 CommonBase Output Resistance.53) together show that the commonbase amplifier can be thought of as a resistance scaler. from (3. + Rs (l + ( g . = (g.when ( g . (3.ro product. + g.66) R.64). Substituting (3.67) is equal to the input source resistance multiplied by the Gmroproduct.
the baseemitter voltage depends to some extent on the collectoremitter voltage if the Early voltage is finite. Furthermore. 3.23 (a) Commoncollector configuration. However. even if the collector current were exactly constant. which decreases the baseemitter voltage by negative feedback.sr. and the smallsignal gain of the circuit would be unity.23b. As a result. (1. emitter. The key point here is that the commoncollector configuration is not unilateral. increases. the baseemitter voltage is almost constant even when the collector current varies.192 Chapter 3 m SingleTransistorand MultipleTransistorAmplifiers "cc l  Figure 3. If the baseemitter voltage were exactly constant. These effects are most easily studied using smallsignal analysis. Instead. increases the output voltage v.. the output voltage of the commoncollector amplifier would be equal to the input voltage minus a constant offset. and the smallsignal equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. For example. For this reason. the circuit is also known as an emitter follower because the emitter voltage follows the base voltage. Therefore.4 From a largesignal standpoint.23b. which increases the output current i. the output voltage is equal to the input voltage minus the baseemitter voltage. (b) Smallsignal equivalent circuit of the emitter follower circuit including RL and Rs. 3. When the input voltage v. the characterization of the emitter follower by the corresponding equivalent twoport network is not particularly useful for intuitive understanding. the baseemitter voltage of the transistor increases. In practice.. Negative feedback is covered thoroughly in Chapter 8.82) shows that the baseemitter voltage must increase by about 18 mV to double the collector current and by about 60 mV to increase the collector current by a factor of 10at room temperature. we find . the input resistance depends on the load resistor RL and the output resistance depends on the source resistance Rs. the baseemitter voltage is not exactly constant if the collector current varies. From KCL at the output node. including both the source resistance Rs and the load resistor RL. increasing i. we will analyze the entire emitterfollower circuit of Fig. Since the baseemitter voltage is a logarithmic function of the collector current. The appropriate smallsignal transistor model is the hybrid.
) > > (Rs + r. In this case. is applied as shown in Fig. 2 4 ~From KCL at the . by removing the load resistance RL and finding the Thtveninequivalent resistance looking into the output terminals. The voltage gain is always less than unity and will be close to unity if PO(RL 11 r. and ro > RL. We now calculate the output resistance R. (3. the value of v. output node. is not analogous to a. driving the input with a test current source it. this condition holds. The voltage v1 is given by The total output current it is thus . and calculating the resulting voltage vt across the input terminals.72). 3 . the calculation is simpler if a test voltage v. it can simply be added to Rs in these expressions. + I in (3. Note that because we have included the source resistance in this calculation. PO> 1.69) can > > > be approximated as We calculate the input resistance R iby removing the input source.3 Basic SingleTransistor Amplifier Stages 193 from which we find If the base resistance rb is significant.24b.3. When r . The factor of p.lv. The circuit used to do this calculation is shown in Fig. which increases the voltage drop on the resistance connected from the emitter to smallsignal ground and its contribution to the test voltage vt in (3. > Rs. calculated for the CE and CB stages. We can do this by either inserting a test current and calculating the resulting voltage or applying a test voltage and calculating the current.73) stems from the current gain of the commoncollector configuration from the base to the emitter. In most practical circuits.). plus (po+ 1) times the incremental resistance connected from the emitter to smallsignal ground. Then the voltage vl is and thus A general property of emitter followers is that the resistance looking into the base is equal to r. 3.
> (llg. + 1 because the base current flows in Rs.77).77 shows that the resistance at the output is about equal to the resistance in the base lead. "cc 7 Therefore.194 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers +"t  m 4 (Q) o+ Figure 3. (c) Example emitter follower. It is most widely used as an impedance transformer to reduce loading of a preceding signal source by the input impedance of a following stage.In (3. and the base current is PO+ 1 times smaller than the emitter current. Therefore. the emitter follower has high input resistance. divided by (po+ l). If PO > 1 and r. (b) Circuit for calculation of the output resistance of the emitter follower. Rs is divided by p.24 (a) Circuit for calculation of f  v0 RL L the input resistance of the emitter follower. low output resistance.) > > + Rsl(Po + l). Equation 3. and nearunity voltage gain. It also . plus l/gm.
and Ic = 100 FA.7 CommonDrain Configuration (Source Follower) The commondrain configuration is shown in Fig.24~. We will use smallsignal analysis to study these effects. From KVL around the input loop. r . output resistance. and the smallsignal gain would be unity. 2 5 ~The input signal is appIied to the . and the overdrive depends on the drain current. substituting into (3. Therefore.3.80) simplifies to . (3. 3. 3. + With the output open circuited. vb. the body effect changes the threshold voltage. even if the current were exactly constant. and voltage gain of the emitter follower of Fig. 3 . the resulting output voltage is simply offset from the input. EXAMPLE Calculate the input resistance. io = 0. The smallsignal equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. In practice. Since the body terminal is not shown in Fig. + 3.25a. changes when the output changes because the source is connected to the output. From a largesignal standpoint. the output voltage is equal to the input voltage minus the gatesource voltage. rb = 0.79). and the gmb generator is active in general.3. we assume that the body is connected to the lowest supply voltage (ground here) to keep the sourcebody p n junction reverse biased. m.3 Basic SingleTransistor Amplifier Stages 195 finds application as a unityvoltagegain level shift because the dc output voltage is shifted from the dc input voltage by VBE(on). Furthermore. gate and the output is taken from the source. Assume that Do = 100. The gatesource voltage consists of two parts: the threshold and the overdrive. which changes as the output voltage changes unless RL a . the overdrive depends to some extent on the drainsource voltage unless the Early voltage is infinite. 3.78) for vgs. and the circuit is also known as a source follower. and KCL at the output node gives Solving (3. the source follows the gate. If both parts are constant. and rearranging gives If RL + 03. As a result.25b.
1 to 0. + m. Furthermore. the type of source follower (nchannel or pchannel) can be chosen so that it can be fabricated in an isolated well. when the body is connected to ground. Unfortunately. variation in the output voltage changes the drainsource voltage and the current through r.Vt shows that the overdrive also depends on the drainsource voltage unless the channellength modulation parameter h is zero. As a result. this gain is less than unity even if the body effect is eliminated by connecting the source to the body to deactivate the g .3. (b) Smallsignal equivalent circuit of the commondrain configuration.81 gives the opencircuit voltage gain of the source follower with the load resistor replaced by an ideal current source.2. the gain of an emitter follower would be unity under these conditions. which is typically in the range of 0. Equation 3. the sourcefollower gain is not as well specified as that of an emitter follower when body effect is a factor. the gain calculated in (3. the parasitic capacitance from the well to the substrate increases the capacitance attached to the source with this connection. setting Vss = 0 and v. Therefore. A significant difference between bipolar and MOS followers is apparent from (3. causing distortion to arise for largesignal changes in the output as shown in Section 5. In this case.200) shows that X depends on the sourcebody voltage which is equal to V. To overcome these limitations in practice. In contrast. Then the well can be connected to the source of the transistor.25 (a) Commondrain configuration. This dependence causes the smallsignal gain to be less than unity. From a largesignal standpoint.82) depends on the output voltage.82 shows that the sourcefollower gain is less than unity under these conditions and that the gain depends on X = gmb/gm. If r. .196 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers Figure 3.165) for VGS. If RL + and r. b generator.3. Equation 3.b = 0. The frequency response of source followers is covered in Chapter 7. reducing the bandwidth of the source follower. is finite.80).. (1. solving (1.
In this section. 3.84 shows that the body effect reduces the output resistance.25b7which increases the output current for a given change in the output voltage. this output resistance approaches l/(g. and focus on vi. 3. we calculate the input resistance. they are more flexible than emitter followers because the dc value of VGS can be altered by changing the W / L ratio. When used as a level shifter. the presence of nonzero RE reduces the baseemitter voltage through a negativefeedback process termed emitter degeneration. reducing the baseemitter voltage compared to the case where RE = 0. These changes stem from negative feedback introduced by the emitter resistor R E . and increasing the input resistance. From KCL at the emitter. When V iincreases. and transconductance of the emitterdegenerated. Then v. 3. Therefore. the signal is applied to the base. This beneficial effect stems from the nonzero smallsignal current conducted by the gmbgenerator in Fig. . which increases the collector current. the output is taken from the collector. the commonemitter circuit is often used with a nonzero resistance in series with the emitter as shown in Fig. + gmb). ib. output resistance. increasing the output resistance. however. = v.3 Basic SingleTransistor Amplifier Stages 197 The output resistance of the source follower can be calculated from Fig. consider the smallsignal equivalent circuit shown in Fig. the voltage dropped across the emitter resistor increases. As r.26b.83) gives Equation 3.25b by setting vi = 0 and driving the output with a voltage source v. and the emitter is attached to ac ground.3. In practice.. 3.The commongate input resistance given in (3. From KVL around the input loop. which is desirable because the source follower produces a voltage output. reducing the transconductance. 2 6 ~ The resistance has several effects. As a result. source followers are used as voltage buffers and level shifters. To find the input resistance and transconductance. 3 . commonemitter amplifier.8 CommonEmitter Amplifier with Emitter Degeneration In the commonemitter amplifier considered earlier. As with emitter followers. + and RL + CO.3. the baseemitter voltage increases. and io is Rearranging (3. including . This circuit is examined from a feedback standpoint in Chapter 8.. From KCL at the collector. and i..54) approaches the same limiting value.
(6)Smallsignal. (b) Smallsignal equivalent circuit for emitterdegenerated.l98 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers v .  Figure 3. commonemitter amplifier. twoport equivalent of emitterdegenerated CE amplifier. ( c ) Circuit for calculation of output resistance.26 (a)Commonemitter amplifier with emitter degeneration. .
86) with RC = 0 and rearranging gives > > > In most practical cases.85) for i. The error in the approximation is usually small unless the resistances represented by RC or RE are large. > 1. Therefore.266 because G m = i0hi with the output shorted. 3 . In practice.90) Ri = r.87) and rearranging gives If r.89) and (3. comparing (3. This reduction stems from nonzero current that flows in r. increasing the base current and reducing the input resistance.89) is less than one.Rc) decreases by an amount determined by the smallsignal gain from the base to the collector. The test current if flows in . 2 6 ~For the . (3.87) and (3. follows vi because the baseemitter voltage is approximately constant. 3. Substituting (3.90) is usually used to calculate the input resistance. First. > 1.91) into (3. > RE. reduces the input resistance of the commonemitter amplifier with emitter degeneration.3 Basic SingleTransistor Amplifier Stages 199 Solving (3.85) with RC = 0 and rearranging gives Substituting (3. > RC and r. and gmr.87) into (3. is finite. Active loads are considered in Chapter 4. r . > R E . v. time being.86) and rearranging gives Substituting (3.3. from the emitter to the collector increases. + (Po + 1) RE Because the last term in parentheses in (3. such as when implemented with transistors in activeload configurations. but the collector voltage (i. when r. substituting into (3. Now we will calculate the transconductance of the stage.88) into (3. Then Equation 3. The output resistance is calculated using the equivalent circuit of Fig. p. the last term in parentheses in (3. assume that RC is very large and can be neglected. If vi increases. set RC = 0 in Fig..89) is approximately equal to > > unity and (3.93 is usually used to calculate the transconductance of a commonemitter amplifier with emitter degeneration. the current that flows in r.90) shows that finite r.
If g RE < PO. SO that . First.98) shows that  ro (1 + g m R ~ ) The output resistance is finite even when RE r . > On the other hand. the first term is much smaller than the second. Its smallsignal equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. Ri + a. = i. If the first term is neglected.27.1. set RD = 0 because G.26d. 3. Ri + even without degeneration in the MOS case. 3. However.3.9 CommonSourceAmplifier with Source Degeneration Source degeneration in MOS transistor amplifiers is not as widely used as emitter degeneration in bipolar circuits for at least two reasons. examining the effects of source degeneration is important in part because it is widely used to increase the output resistance of MOS current sources. neglecting RC. If the collector load resistor RC is not large enough to neglect. is finite. 3.97)(3. it must be included in parallel with the expressions in (3.To calculate the transconductance. because smallgeometry MOS transistors can be modeled as ideal squarelaw devices with added source resistors as shown in Section 1. the transconductance of MOS transistors is normally much lower than that of bipolar transistors so that further reduction in transconductance is usually undesirable. we will consider the effects of source degeneration below. we obtain. Also. is shown in Fig.then . A commonsource amplifier with source degeneration is shown in Fig. is In this equation. A smallsignal equivalent circuit. + because nonzero test current flows in 3.lvi with the output shorted. Second. since a connection to the body is not shown in . Also.28.7. when p.200 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistorAmplifiers the parallel combination of r and RE. The current through r.99).This fact makes the use of emitter degeneration desirable in transistor current sources.(3. < R0 Thus the output resistance is increased by a factor (1 + gmRE). Because the input is connected to the gate of the MOS transistor. although degeneration increases the input resistance in the bipolar case. if gmRE> PO.
3. From KCL at the drain with RD = 0.. (3. assuming > > that r.104) shows that the value of G. > 1. and rearranging gives For large Rs. Even in this limiting case. for a commonemitter amplifier with degeneration approaches Pol[(Pn 1) RE]for large RE. the transconductance of the commonsource amplifier with degeneration is dependent on an activedevice parameter X .102). Solving (3. which is ground. > RE and g. Therefore.28 Smallsignal equivalent of the sourcedegenerated. the dc body voltage is constant and v b = 0.Therefore.r. substituting into (3.101) for v.92) indicates that the value of G. the transconductance of this bipolar amplifier is within l percent of l / R E . we assume that the body is connected to the lowest powersupply voltage. + RD VU @ n +    Figure 3. In contrast. approaches 1/[(1 + X ) Rs]. (3. 3.3 Basic SingleTransistor Amplifier Stages 201 vi 1 + Vi + " P Figure 3. the body effect causes the transconductance in this case to deviate from lIRs by about 10 to 20 percent. the transconductance of a commonsource amplifier with degeneration is usually much more dependent on activedevice parameters than in its bipolar counterpart.27. Since X is typically in the range of 0.27 Commonsource amplifier with source degeneration.3. From KCL at the source with RD = 0. + ..1 to 0. Fig. commonsource amplifier. If PO > 100.
)] (3. 3.30~. The biasing current source IBIAs present to establish the quiescent dc operating current is this in the emitterfollower transistor Ql.V.100) shows that R. + r. the value of R.4 MultipleTransistor Amplifier Stages Most integratedcircuit amplifiers consist of a number of stages. The usefulness of these topologies varies considerably with the technology being used.Rs (3. 3.g m (0 . andlor impedancelevel transformation from input to output. However.106) and rearranging gives This equation shows that as Rs is made arbitrarily large. [it . 3. CCCC and Darlington Configurations The commoncollector commonemitter (CCCE). The commoncollectorcommoncollector configuration is . each of which provides voltage gain. (3. In contrast.106) Substituting (3. Since the current gain and input resistance are infinite with MOS transistors however. as RE + m. continues to increase. certain combinations of transistors occur so frequently that these combinations are usually characterized as subcircuits and regarded as a single stage.29 Circuit for calculation of output resistance. v. the Darlington twotransistor connection is widely used in bipolar integrated circuits to improve the effective current gain and input resistance of a single bipolar transistor. current source may be absent in some cases or may be replaced by a resistor. the cascode connection achieves a very high output resistance and is useful in both bipolar and MOS technologies. + ilro = V. commoncollectorcommoncollector (CCCC).105) into (3. Then = i.105) vt = V. this connection finds little use in pure MOS integrated circuits. They incorporate an additional transistor to boost the current gain and input resistance of the basic bipolar transistor. where RD is neglected.4.202 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers Figure 3.gmb (0 . Since the entire test current flows in Rs. and ~ a r l i n g t o n ~ configurations are all closely related. The output resistance of the circuit can be calculated from the equivalent circuit of Fig. current gain.1 The CCCE.vs) . in the commonemitter amplifier with degeneration approaches a maximum value of about (po 1) r. + 3.29. For example. Such circuits can be analyzed by considering each transistor to be a stage and analyzing the circuit as a collection of individual transistors. On the other hand. The commoncollectorcommonemitter configuration is shown in Fig.
is constant. of the composite device. The effective value of r. PO. assuming that the effects of the r..30b.3.30 (a) Commoncollectorcommonemitter cascade. For the purpose of the lowfrequency. 3..2. The smallsignal equivalent circuit for this composite device is shown in Fig. g. .32. In both of these configurations.and r. Referring to Fig.4 MultipleTransistor Amplifier Stages 203  "cc 0 Q2 0 Out Figure 3. of Ql are negligible. the effect of transistor Ql is to increase the current gain through the stage and to increase the input resistance. Thus (3.32. as illustrated in Fig. Substituting r.73) for the input resistance of the emitter follower can be used.3 1 The composite tran  0 EC sistor representation of the CCCE and CCCC connections. 3. we see that the resistance looking into the base of Q2 with ECgrounded is simply r. We will now calculate effective values for the r.. r. We will also denote the terminal voltages and currents of the composite device with a superscript c.. Figure 3.2 for RL and allowing r B C0 "cc C" Q2 Figure 3. and we will designate these composite parameters with a superscript c. smallsignal analysis of circuits. 3. (b) Commoncollectorcommoncollector cascade.32 Smallsignal equivalent circuit for the CCCE and CCCC connected transistors. is the resistance seen looking into the composite base BC with the composite emitter ECgrounded. illustrated in Fig.3 1. the two transistors Ql and Q2 can be thought of as a single composite transistor. We assume that p. 3.
To calculate this transconductance. The emitter current of Ql is given by iel Since iel = = 'C (P0 + ib2.116 shows that the current gain of the composite transistor is approximately equal to p i .115) (3. is the change in the collector current of Q2.. This smallsignal equivalent can be used to represent the smallsignal operation of the composite device.116) Therefore.69 can be used directly.33. simplifying the analysis of circuits containing this structure. 3. we have r: = r02 (3. Pc = PO(PO+ 1) Equation 3. with C Cand E" grounded. twoport network equivalent for the CCCE connection is shown in Fig. . for a unit change in v$. 3.". and (3. giving Also Thus is For the special case in which the biasing current source IBIAs zero.32. where the collector resistor RC has not been included. assuming r. by inspection of Fig. Also. i.117) The smallsignal. : ic2 = i = POib2= PO(PO+ 1) ibl = PO(PO+ 1) :i (3. Equation 3. is negligible. ~ r.2 is (Po + l).204 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers The effective transconductance of the configuration g. we first find the change in v2 that occurs for a unit change in v..111) reduces to L The effective current gain PCis the ratio pc=fr= i. Thus the ratio of r . the emitter to current of Ql is equal to the base current of Q2.
3. is a composite twotransistor device in which the collectors are tied together and the emitter of the first device drives the base of the second. The term Darlington is often used to refer to both the CCCE and CCCC connections. m EXAMPLE and Find the effective r. Also. and r. The result is a threeterminal composite transistor that can be used in place of a single transistor in commonemitter. for the composite transistor shown in Fig. the CCCE connection is normally preferable in integrated smallsignal amplifiers. but also the large transconductance of the bipolar transistor. Darlingtontype connections are used to boost the effective current gain of bipolar transistors and have no significant application in pureMOS circuits. PC.4 MultipleTransistorAmplifier Stages 205 Figure 3.. gF.34. For both devices. except that the collector of Ql is connected to the output instead of to the power supply.35. r b = 0. this change increases the input capacitance because of the connection of the collectorbase capacitance of Ql from the input to the output. assume that PO= 100. When used as an emitter follower. illustrated in Fig. of Ql. As mentioned previously.34 The Darlington configuration. The Darlington configuration.3. and commoncollector configurations. . assume that Ic = 100 pA and that IBrAs = 10 pA. One effect of this change is to reduce the effective output resistance of the device because of feedback through the r. 3. + m. In BiCMOS technologies. For Q2. commonbase. a potentially useful connection is shown in Fig. This configuration not only realizes the infinite input resistance and current gain of the MOS transistor. 3. Because of these drawbacks. A biasing element of some sort is used to control the emitter current of Q l . the device is very similar to the CCCE connection. CCCE connection. the device is identical to the CCCC connection already described. where an MOS transistor is used for Ql. however.3 1. When used as a commonemitter amplifier. A Figure 3.33 Twoport representation.
206 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistorAmplifiers Figure 3.35 Compound Darlington connection available in BiCMOS technology. the effects of nonzero r b are important in the highfrequency performance of this combination.4. .36.2. and the terminal that collects electrons is the anode. Then = 1 FA.2 The Cascode Configuration The cascode configuration was first invented for vacuumtube circuit^. The high output resistance attainable is particularly useful in desensitizing bias references from variations in powersupply voltage and in achieving large amounts of voltage gain. the terminal that controls current flow is the grid. Here. smallsignal properties of the cascode configuration.4. 3. as shown in Fig. 3. The topic of frequency response is covered in Chapter 7. The cascode configuration is important mostly because it increases output resistance and reduces unwanted capacitive feedback in amplifiers. the cascode is a commonemittercommonbase (CECB) amplifier. The base current of Q2 is 100 pA1100 11 pA.^. allowing operation at higher frequencies than would otherwise be possible. The cascode is a cascade of commoncathode and commongrid stages joined at the anode of the first stage and the cathode of the second stage. Thus the emitter current of Ql is rn Thus the composite transistor has much higher input resistance and current gain than a single transistor. we will focus on the lowfrequency. We will assume here that rb in both devices is zero.^ With vacuum tubes. These applications are described further in Chapter 4. Although the base resistances have a negligible effect on the lowfrequency performance.1 The Bipolar Cascode In bipolar form. 3. the terminal that emits electrons is the cathode. These effects are considered in Chapter 7.
output resistance.37 Smallsignal equivalent circuit for the bipolartransistor cascode connection.36 The cascode amplifier using bipolar transistors. the input resistance is simply Ri = r . Therefore. 3.  "BIAS Figure 3. 3 . and transconductance of the cascode circuit.37. using (3. Since we are considering the lowfrequency performance. 2 6 ~ a bipolar transistor with emitter degenerafor tion. By inspection of Fig. 3. the voltage gain is '0 2 + 0 + ro l  Figure 3. Then v1 = 0 in Fig. we neglect the capacitances in the model of each transistor.3.lvl generator is inactive. 3. The circuit is then identical to that of Fig. If this circuit is operated with a hypothetical collector load that has infinite incremental resistance. We will determine the input resistance. l (3. The smallsignal equivalent for the bipolar cascode circuit is shown in Fig.4 MultipleTransistor Amplifier Stages 207 Q2 +C v. 4.37 and the g.37. the CECB connection displays an output resistance that is larger by a factor of about POthan the CE stage alone.98) with RE = rol shows that the output resistance is Therefore. .119) The output resistance can be calculated by shorting the input vi to ground and applying a test signal at the output. the transconductance of the circuit from input to output is Gm X gm1 (3.118) Since the current gain from the emitter to the collector of Q2 is nearly unity.
For lateral pnp transistors.. the ratio of P o l q is approximately 2 X 105.125) for vdsl. . r.2.. In this analysis. and decreases R. and then r.38. From KCL at the output. somewhat. '0  2 0 +  +  "i  A  Figure 3.208 Chapter 3 m SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers Thus the magnitude of the maximum available voltage gain is higher by a factor p.2 The MOS Cascode In MOS form.39 Smallsignal equivalent circuit for the MOStransistor cascode connection. set R i. as shown in Fig. 3. we have neglected r. = 0 to short the output and calculate the current From KCL at the source of M2. substituting into (3.1 N). The smallsignal equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. has little effect on R.. and Solving (3. 3.VDD Figure 3. the input resistance is To find the transconductance. 3. is comparable with Par.4. For a typical npn transistor.39. the value of r. Since the input is connected to the gate of M1. than for the case of a single transistor. rearranging gives   . As described in Chapter 1. however.38 Cascode amplifier using MOSFETs.. for integratedcircuit npn transistors is usually much larger than Pore. the cascode is a commonsourcecommongate (CSCG) amplifier.
Therefore. The two resistors in current (gm2+ gmb2)vdsl in Fig. 3.66).3. 3. + gmb).130) into (3. represents the resistance looking into the source of In (3. which was derived for a commongate amplifier. the difference is small.4 MultipleTransistor Amplifier Stages 209 Equation 3. is replaced by an equivalent resistor of value 1/(gm2+ gmb2). giving Substituting (3. set v. 3 . If > (gm2+ gmb2)rol > 1.20 to convert the hybrid. From (3. Therefore. To focus on the output resistance of the cascode itself.lv. and the two generators grn2vdsland gmb2vdslhave been combined into one equivalent generator (grn2 gmb2) + vdsl. 3. 4 0 ~ Fig.l generator in Fig.40a and Fig. 3. the current gain from the source to the drain of M2 is unity.39 when the output is driven by voltage v. is much less than rol. Then Ri2 = l/(g. the circuit in Fig.128). = gml. the (gm2+ gmb2) vdsl generator from the source to the drain of M2 has been replaced by two equalvalued generators: one from ground to the drain of M2 and the other from the source of M2 to ground. consider the modified smallsignal circuits shown in Fig. and the main point here is that the cascode configuration has little effect on the transconductance.126). This result stems from the observation that Ri2.40a.The result is Equation 3. 3. and G. as shown in (3.128 shows that the MOS cascode increases the output resistance by a factor of ro about (g. 3 . let R + a.40b is equivalent to that in Fig. the output resistance of the cascode can be found by substituting Rs = rol in (3. however. To find the output resistance. in Fig. 4 0 ~ ~ current source from the source of M2 to ground. which deactivates the g.54) and (3. represent the current that flows in the output node in Fig.~.129) and rearranging gives the same result as in (3.130). 3.55) with R = RD 11 RL. 3.40a. + gmb) compared to a commonsource amplifier. 4 0 ~ form a voltage divider. = 0. The flows into the test source v. R + so we can concentrate on the output resistance of the cascode circuit itself. most of the gmlvicurrent flows in the output. Since vdsl = iorolwhen vi = 0. generator is eliminated because vi = 0.the resistance looking in the source of M2. the output resistance is To find the ratio vdslh0. Also. In Fig. 3. < and most of the g.lvi current flows in the source of M2 because Ri2 < roleFinally. Because the equations that describe the operation of the circuits in Fig. the g. which is controlled by the the voltage across itself.40b.126 shows that the transconductance of the simple cascode is less than g. = 0.40b are identical. This replacement is similar to the substitution made in Fig. we set R = 0 so that v. In Fig.. The increase in the output resistance can be predicted in another way that provides insight into the operation of the cascode. 3 . Finally.40.39 and reduces the model for commonsource transistor M1 to simply rol. 3. Let i. In finding the transconductance. 3.rr model to a T model for a commongate amplifier.. the term l/(gmz + gmb2) .
the commongate transistor M2 when the output in Fig. ( c )The current source between the source of M2 and ground is converted into a resistor. the number of levels of cascoding is limited by the powersupply voltage and signalswing requirements. ( a )The dependent sources are combined. This topic is considered further in Chapter 4. of the commonbase stage Q2 when the output is grounded is Ri2 = l/gm2 this configuin ration. Unlike in the bipolar case. Since the transconductance for a given bias current of bipolar transistors is usually much greater than for MOS transistors.9 or by leakage current in the reversebiased junction diode at the output. The frequency response of a cascode amplifier is described in Chapter 7. Each additional level of cascoding places one more transistor in series with the input transistor between the power supply and ground. .36. the maximum output resistance is limited by impact ionization as described in Section 1.l and i. the resistance looking into the emitter has the infinite input resistance given by M1. such as Q2 in Fig.210 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers Figure 3.~/v. This configuration Also.therefore. Ultimately. the drainsource voltage of each transistor must be greater than its overdrive VGS. (b) The combined source is converted into two sources. further increases in the output resistance can be obtained by using more than one level of cascoding.. This approach is used in practice. cascodes are sometimes used with the MOS transistor M2 in Fig.38 replaced by a bipolar transistor. In BiCMOS technologies. the BiCMOS configuration is often used to reduce the load resistance presented to M 1 and to improve the highfrequency properties of the cascode amplifier.Vt. reducing the amount by which the output can vary before pushing one or more transistors into the triode region.40 Construction of a cascode model to find vd. the maximum value of the output resistance in the MOS cascode does not saturate at a level determined by PO. 3.. 3.39 is voltage driven. 3. To operate all the transistors in the active region. The key point here is that the output resistance of the cascode can be increased by reducing the input resistance of the commongate transistor under these conditions because this change reduces both vd. additional levels of cascoding use some of the available powersupply voltage. Also. Since the cascode transistors operate in series with the input transistor.
however. In practice. Assume that both transistors operate in the active region with g. ~ . In practice. From (3.4. If the drainsource voltage of M 1is constant. the drainsource voltage of M . Figure 3. From (3. is zero. and r . and are usually close enough for hand calculations. = 20 kfl. In this section. which means that the drainsource voltage of M 1 is not exactly constant and the output resistance is finite. . 4 1 . is driven to equal VBIAs. 3.128) give G. One way to increase the output resistance of the MOS cascode circuit without increasing the number of levels of cascoding is to use the activecascode circuit. If the amplifier gain a is infinite. we will derive the smallsignal properties of the activecascode circuit by comparing its smallsignal model to that of the simple cascode described in the previous section. increasing the number of levels of cascoding increases the output resistance of MOS amplifiers.1. The approximations in (3. the powersupply voltage and signalswing requirements limit the number of levels of cascoding that can be applied.38. These approximations deviate from the exact results by about 4 percent and 8 percent.I B ) . 440 kfl . 1 m A N and R.126).126) and (3.3 The Active Cascode   I As mentioned in the previous section. the change in the drain current in response to changes in the output voltage V. The effect of negative feedback on output resistance is considered quantitatively in Chapter 8.4 MultipleTransistor Amplifier Stages 21 1 EXAMPLE Calculate the transconductance and output resistance of the cascode circuit of Fig. the negative feedback loop adjusts the gate of M2 until the voltage difference between the two amplifier inputs is zero. ~ This circuit uses an amplifier in a negative feedback loop to control the voltage from the gate of M2 to ground. as shown in Fig. and the output resistance is infinite. respectively. 3 . 3. In other words.41 Active cascode amplifier using MOSFETs. X = 0.3. the amplifier gain a is finite. = 1 mAN.
130) and increases the output resistance. the activecascode circuit can be analyzed using the equations for the simple cascode with g.42 Smallsignal equivalent circuit for the activecascode connection with MOS transistors. To find the transconductance of the active cascode. the activecascode structure is generally not used to modify the transconductance. : giving + Again. Substituting (3.z replaced by ( a 1 ) gm2. smallsignal equivalent circuit.and since vgs2 is only used to control the current flowing in the g. the active cascode behaves as if it were a simple cascode with an enhanced value of g.42 shows the lowfrequency.131) amplifies the gatesource voltage of M2 compared to the case of a simple cascode..130) into (3. where the voltage from the gate of M2 to ground is held constant. .2 ( a + 1 ) replacing gm2 gives  . the resistance looking into the source of M2. which reduces the vdsl/v. This voltage increase is amplified by a. increasing the output resistance compared to a simple cascode. Gm g.2. the factor ( a + 1) in (3. The falling gate voltage of M2 acts to reduce the change in its drain current. g! (a+ 1) replaces g.129) with g. ratio given in (3. Qualitatively. the drain current of M2 increases. compared to the simple cascode.2 12 Chapter 3 D SingleTransistorand MultipleTransistorAmplifiers Figure 3. Figure 3. 3. if a > 0. therefore.! generator. causing the voltage from the gate of M2 to ground to fall. Therefore. vgs2 = vdsl in a simple cascode because the voltage from the gate of M2 to ground is constant in Fig. The active cascode reduces Ri2.l under most conditions. Since the smallsignal diagrams of the simple and activecascode circuits are identical except for the value of vgs2.38.In other words. This amplification is central to the characteristics of the activecascode circuit. The gatesource voltage of M Zis In contrast. when the output voltage increases. The bodyeffect transconductance generator for M 1 is inactive because vbsl = 0. which increases the drain current and drainsource voltage of M1.126).2 in (3.
Finally. In practice. ( a + 1) + gmb] r. However. rl + and 72 + m. when the input voltage is constant and the output voltage increases. the drain current of M 2 increases. the magnitude of the drain current of M1 also increases. The bodyeffect transconductance generator for M 2 is inactive because vbs2 = 0.43 is sometimes used. the gain of this amplifier falls with increasing frequency. Equation 3. Because MOS transistors usually have much lower transconductance than their bipolar counterparts. .44.128).and pchannel devices are identical. I I > Z2 is required for proper operation. 3..4. + gmb). From a qualitative standpoint. 3. One way to reduce the output resistance is to increase the transconductance by increasing the WIL ratio of the source follower and its dc bias current. in turn increasing the gatesource voltage of M2. that flows in the output node when the output is driven by a voltage v. A potential problem with the activecascode configuration is that the negative feedback loop through M2 may not be stable in all cases. respectively. Techniques to build highresistance current sources are considered in Chapter 4. set vi = 0 and calculate the current i. Negative feedback is studied quantitatively in Chapter 8. From KCL at the output under these 1 y2 1 1  Figure 3. In practice. Also. To find the output resistance.133 shows that the activecascode configuration increases the output resistance by a factor of about [ g . compared to a commonsource amplifier.3. especially when a resistive load must be driven.2 (a + 1) for g. reducing the potential benefits of the activecascode circuits in highfrequency applications. these resistances are large but finite. To minimize the area and power dissipation required to reach a given output resistance. the bias current in M 2 is the difference between I I and 12. this output resistance may be too high for some applications. The smallsignal equivalent circuit is shown in Fig.4 The Super Source Follower Equation 3. From a dc standpoint.. the polarities of the voltagecontrolled current sources for n. the super source follower configuration shown in Fig.43 Supersourcefollower configuration. A key limitation of the activecascode circuit is that the output impedance is increased only at frequencies where the amplifier that drives the gate of M2 provides some gain.4 MultipleTransistor Amplifier Stages 213 This result can also be derived by substituting g. 3.84 shows that the output resistance of a source follower is approximately l/(g.2 in (3. this approach requires a proportionate increase in the area and power dissipation to reduce R. This information can be used to find the smallsignal parameters of both transistors. therefore. As a result. If the current sources are ideal. reducing the output resistance by increasing the total current that flows into the output node under these conditions. the output resistances of current sources I I and I2 are represented by rl and r2. This circuit uses negative feedback through M 2 to reduce the output resistance.
Solving (3. and rearranging gives Assume Il and I2 are ideal current sources so that rl > if (gm1 + gmbl) rol > 1. + and 72 + a If . Now we will calculate the opencircuit voltage gain of the supersource follower.84) and (3.137) shows that the negative feedback through M2 reduces the output resistance by a factor of about gm2rol. From KCL at the drain of M 1 with vi = 0. Solving (3.and rearranging gives With ideal current sources.l34). With the output open circuited. substituting into (3.44 Smallsignal equivalent circuit of the supersource follower. substituting into (3.137) Comparing (3. KCL at the output node gives From KCL at the drain of M 1 .214 Chapter 3 m SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistorAmplifiers Figure 3. .139).  1 gm1 +gmbl grn2rol iL ! (3. and R. conditions.135) for v2. r02 + m.138) for vz.
respectively. It is also used in bipolar technologies in output stages to reduce the current conducted in a weak lateral pnp transistor. ITAIL RTAIL together form a Nortonequivalent = and model of the tail current source. or a simple resistor. The biasing circuit in the lead connecte. 3. As mentioned earlier. Otherwise.5 Differential Pairs 215 Comparing (3."1l2 In this section. ITAIL 0 in Fig.141) and (3. First.5 Differential Pairs The differential pair is another example of a circuit that was first invented for use with vacuum tubes. the supersource follower is sometimes used in MOS technologies to reduce the sourcefollower output resistance.45.1 The dc Transfer Characteristic of an EmitterCoupled Pair The simplest form of an emittercoupled pair is shown in Fig. If gm2r02> l . This application is described in Chapter 5. especially when driving a capacitive load. which al is called a t i current source. we consider the properties of emittercoupled pairs of bipolar transistors and sourcecoupled pairs of MOS transistors in detail.45.5. The usefulness of the differential pair stems from two key properties. however. Figure 3. allowing a high degree of rejection of signals common to both inputs.81) shows that the deviation of this gain from unity is greater > than with a simple source follower. The main potential problem with the supersourcefollower configuration is that the negative feedback loop through M2 may not be stable in all cases. 3. .45 Emittercoupled pair circuit diagram. the differential pair is primarily sensitive to the difference between two input voltages. the difference is small and the main conclusion is that the supersourcefollower configuration has little effect on the opencircuit voltage gain.3.'' The original circuit uses two vacuum tubes whose cathodes are connected together. cascades of differential pairs can be directly connected to one another without interstage coupling capacitors.d to the emitters of Ql and Q2 can be a transistor current source. The stability of feedback amplifiers is considered in Chapter 9. 3. Second. and are perhaps the most widely used twotransistor subcircuits in monolithic analog circuits. 3. Modern differential pairs use bipolar or MOS transistors coupled at their emitters or sources. If a simple resistor RTAL is used alone.
Vo2 = ( Y F I ~tanh~ ~ R ~ ~ (2) .146). 2 = Vil .149) (3. that the output resistance of each transistor r. a. l44). Also.Vi2.which we define as Vod. and Vo2. From KVL around the input loop.143). the collector currents are almost independent of Vid because one of the transistors turns off and the other conducts all the current that flows. where the response time would be increased because of excess charge storage in the base region. + + Assume the collector resistors are small enough that the transistors do not operate in saturation if Vil 5 Vcc and Viz 5 Vcc. Then VOd = Vol . we assume that the output resistance of the tail current source RTArL W. When the magnitude of Vid is greater than about 3VT.142). the circuit behaves in an approximately linear fashion only when the magnitude of Vid is less than about VT. the largesignal behavior shows that the amplitude of analog signals in bipolar circuits can be limited without pushing the transistors into saturation.= 1~2 exp ( Vil vT Vi2 ) = exp (g) where Vid a ~ = aF. Furthermore.216 Chapter 3 B SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers The largesignal behavior of the emittercoupled pair is important in part because it illustrates the limited range of input voltages over which the circuit behaves almost linearly. 3. the EbersMoll > > equations show that Assume the transistors are identical so that Isl = IS2. For simplicity in the analysis. a Then KCL at the emitters of the transistors shows ~ = 1 Combining (3. we find that These two currents are shown as a function of Vid in Fig.. We can now compute the output voltages as V01 V02 = = Vcc Vcc ICI RC . largesignal behavior of the circuit. If Vbel > VT and Vbe2 > VT. (3. which is approximately 78 mV at room temperature. we find I cl .150) The output signal of interest is often the difference between V. and that the base resistance of each transistor rb = 0. These assumptions do not strongly affect the lowfrequency.Ic2Rc  (3. Then combining (3.46. Since we have assumed that the transistors are identical.145) and (3. and (3.
differential output voltage as a function of differential input voltage. except that the voltage drop across these resistors must be included in the KVL equation corresponding to (3.47. This property allows direct coupling of cascaded stages without offsets.5 Differential Pairs 217 ITAIL .142).5. The analysis of this circuit proceeds in the same manner as without degeneration. A transcendental equation results from this analysis and a closedform solution like that of (3. This function is plotted in Fig.47 Emittercoupled pair. @TAIL& I I I l I I  Vid W ~F~TAILRC Figure 3. but the effect of the resistors may be understood intuitively from the examples plotted in Fig.49. VOd is zero if Ql and Q2 are identical and if identical resistors are connectedto the colldctors of Ql and Qz.2 The dc Transfer Characteristic with Emitter Degeneration To increase the range of Vid over which the emittercoupled pair behaves approximately as a linear amplifier. as shown in Fig.4 v T . Here a significant advantage of differential amplifiers is apparent: When Vld is zero. the linear range of operation is extended by an amount approximately equal to ITAILRE.151) does not exist. since the voltage gain is the slope of . 0 Vrd V. 4VT Figure 3. For large values of emitterdegeneration resistors. and the value of Vid required to turn one transistor off is changed by the difference of the voltage drops on these resistors. 3.2 v T V.3 v T . 3.3. the voltage drop is ITAILRE one resistor and zero on the other. 3. Therefore. 3. result stems This flows in one of the degeneration resistors when one from the observation that all of ITAIL on transistor turns off.48. 2 v T 3 v .46 Emittercoupled pair collector currents as a function of differential input voltage. Furthermore. emitterdegeneration resistors are frequently included in series with the emitters of the transistors.
we assume that the output resistance of the tail current source is RTAIL+ m. the emitter resistors introduce local negative feedback in the differential pair.5.48 Circuit diagram of emittercoupled pair with emitter degeneration.49 Output voltage as a function of input voltage.2 18 Chapter 3 m SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistorAmplifiers Figure 3. they could have a significant impact on the smallsignal behavior. we will reconsider these assumptions when we analyze the circuit from a small+ .50. Also. In operation. called a tail current source.3 The dc Transfer Characteristic o a SourceCoupled Pair f Consider the nchannel MOStransistor sourcecoupled pair shown in Fig. For this largesignal analysis. In that case. This topic is considered in Chapter 8. Although these assumptions do not strongly affect the lowfrequency. 3. emittercoupled pair with emitter degeneration. In monolithic form. 3. Therefore. is usually connected to the sources of M 1 and M 2 . the voltage gain is reduced by approximately the same factor that the input range is increased. we assume that the output resistance of each transistor r. largesignal behavior of the circuit. ITAIL and RTAIL together form a Nortonequivalent model of the tail current source. The following analysis applies equally well to a corresponding pchannel sourcecoupled pair with appropriate sign changes. "id Figure 3. a. the transfer characteristic. a transistor current source.
rearranging. signal standpoint. we assume that the drain current of each transistor is related to its gatesource voltage by the approximate squarelaw relationship given in (1.155). substituting into (3. = ITAIL + I IT AIL k' (WIL)  v.154) into (3. If the transistors are identical. Id1 + Id2 = ITAIL (3.153) and Substituting (3. . and using the quadratic Id. Furthermore.3. We assume that the drain resistors are small enough that neither transistor operates in the triode region if Vil 5 VDD and Vi2 5 VDD.153) and (3.156) for formula gives Id2.156) Solving (3.50 nchannel MOSFET sourcecoupled pair. From KVL around the input loop.157) to each transistor and rearranging gives (3.157).5 Differential Pairs 219 Figure 3. applying (1.152) and rearranging gives From KCL at the source of M 1 and M2.
the potential solution where the second term is subtracted from the first in (3. the range in (3.160) can be rewritten as Equation 3. This result is illustrated in Fig. Since the overdrive of an MOS transistor depends on its current and WIL ratio. On the other hand..2 v v v. Substituting these values in (3.157) cannot occur in practice. = 0.1 v.5 1.159 are valid when both transistors operate in the active or saturation region. Since we have assumed that neither transistor operates in the triode region.4 V Figure 3. Substituting (3. = VGS. 3.220 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistorAmplifiers Since Idl > ITAIL/2when Vid > 0..51 dc transfer characteristic of the MOS sourcecoupled pair.158 and 3.158) into (3. determined when Vid = 0.. .156) gives Equations 3. offset.= 0. The parameter is the over drive V. affecting not only the input range of differential pairs. and output swing of MOS amplifiers. Idl = ITAIL and Id2 = 0 when M2 turns off.V. I d l = 0 and Id2 = ITAL.2 v V. the limitation here stems from turning off one of the transistors.155) shows that both transistors operate in the active region if Since Idl = Id2 = when Vid = 0. the range of a sourcecoupled pair can be adjusted to suit a given application by adjusting the value of the tail current andor the V". but also other characteristics including the speed. The overdrive is an important quantity in MOS circuit design.161 shows that the range of Vid for which both transistors operate in the active region is proportional to the overdrive calculated when Vid = 0.. Therefore. = 0. When M 1 turns off. = 0..
165) v01 = Allvil + A12~i2 (3. In contrast. Subtracting (3. direct smallsignal analysis of differential pairs leads to two equations for each circuit (one for each output). This property allows direct coupling of cascaded MOS differential pairs. In fact.and ground). four voltage gains. 3.163) shows that VOd = 0 when Vid = 0 if M1 and M2 are identical and if identical resistors are connected to the drains of M1 and M2.4 Introduction to the SmallSignal Analysis of Differential Amplifiers The features of interest in the performance of differential pairs are often the smallsignal properties for dc differential input voltages near zero volts. and ground) and three output terminals (Vo1. In contrast. the input range of the bipolar emittercoupled pair is about ? 3 V T . as in the bipolar case. In the next two sections. Vi2.158) gives We can now compute the differential output voltage as Vod = Vol . Therefore. Smallsignal analysis of such circuits leads to one equation for each circuit. we assume that the dc differential input voltage is zero and calculate the smallsignal parameters.IdlRD .independent of bias current or device size. A21. All. the key output of the differential pair is not Idlor Id2 alone but the difference between these quantities. AI2.VDD+ Id2RD = (AId) RD (3. and ground). and A22.Vo2. where each output depends on each input: (3.159) from (3.5 Differential Pairs 221 aspect ratio of the input devices. If the parameters are constant.5. In previous sections.166) V 0 2 = A ~ l ~+ A22vi2 il Here. differential pairs have three input terminals (Vil. the sourcecoupled pair behaves somewhat like an emittercoupled pair with emitterdegeneration resistors that can be selected to give a desired input voltage range. such as Here. the smallsignal model predicts that the circuit operation is linear.3. specify the smallsignal operation of the circuit under given loading conditions.Vo2 = VDD. (3. we have considered amplifiers with two input terminals (Vi and ground) and two output terminals (V. In many practical cases.163) Since AId = 0 when Vid = 0. A is the smallsignal voltage gain under given loading conditions. The results of the smallsignal analysis are valid for signals that are small enough to cause insignificant nonlinearity. These gains can be interpreted as .
Instead.222 Chapter 3 W SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers Although direct smallsignal analysis of differential pairs can be used to calculate these four gain values in a straightforward way.52. In practice. to which differential pairs are insensitive. undesired signals will also appear. mixedsignal integrated circuits use both analog and digital signal processing. the results are difficult to interpret because differential pairs usually are not used to react to vil or viz alone. we will define new differential and commonmode variables at the input and output as follows. For example.52 A differential amplifier with its inputs ( a )shown as independent of each other and (b) redrawn in terms of the differential and commonmode components. To highlight this behavior. and the analog signals are vulnerable to corruption from noise generated by the digital circuits and transmitted through the common substrate. differential pairs are used most often to sense the difference between the two inputs while trying to ignore the part of the two inputs that is common to each. The differential output is The commonmode or average output is LP' Figure 3. The commonmode input is the input component that appears equally in vil and viz. New output variables are defined in the same way. to which differential pairs are sensitive. is The commonmode or average input.174) to redraw the input connections to a differential amplifier as shown in Fig. The differential input. The hope in using differential circuits is that undesired signals will appear equally on both inputs and be rejected. Desired signals will be forced to appear as differences in differential circuits. . 3. is These equations can be inverted to give vil and vi2 in terms of vid and vie: The physical significance of these new variables can be understood by using (3. The differential input is the input component that appears between vil and viz.173) and (3.
By substituting the expressions for vil. output voltage per unit change in the differentialmode input: gain The commonmodetodiflerentialmode AcmPdmis the change in the differentialmode output voltage per unit change in the commonmode input: _The_purposeof a differential amplifier is to sense changes in its differential input .166). 2 i (3. and v. vi2.182).180) can be rewritten as The differentialmode gain Admis the change in the differential output per unit change in differential input: The commonmode gain A.3. we find voc = (Ail  A12 + A21 4  A22 )vid + ( A11 + A12 + A21 + A22 vj. (3... The desired output is differential. each component on the side of one output corresponds to an identical component on the side of the other output.. and it$vHZZ€Ef~Shou1d%e propot9tonal'ro the variation in the differential input. an important design goal in differential u f i e.165) and (3.while rejecting changes in its commonmode input.a in terms of the new variables back into (3. v01.179) and (3. Therefore. is the change in the commonmode output voltage per unit change in the commonmode input: is the change in the commonmode The differentialmodetocommonmodegain Ad.s is to make Adm large compared to the other three r 81) __ .. Variation in the commonmode output is undesired because it must be rejected by another differential stage to sense the desired differential signal.and (3.. With such  . '>~&fferential amplifiers with perfect symmetry.180) Defining four new gain factors that are equal to the coefficients in these equations.we obtain We have now defined two new input variables and two new output variables.5 Differential Pairs 223 Solving these equations for vol and vv2.
from the entire smallsignal equivalent circuit of a differential amplifier is possible. we will define the magnitude of this ratio as the commonmoderejection ratio. however. 3 . + because p.5. 3. we carried out largesignal analyses of differential pairs and assumed that the Nortonequivalent resistance of the tail current source was infinite. Even with perfect symmetry. and A.. Acmdm = 0 and Ad. nonzero g. the first is particularly important because ratio AdmlAcmdmdetermines the extent to which the differential output is produced by the desired differential input instead of by the undesired cornrnonmode input. Because the analysis here is virtually the same for both bipolar and MOS differential pairs. .6. In other words. In previous sections.l = v. in multistage differential amplifiers.224 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers perfectly balanced amplifiers. AdmPcm # 0 and # 0.. 3. Consider the bipolar emittercoupled pair of Fig. the ratio Ad. In fact. Similarly. . The smallsignal equivalent circuit for both cases and is shown in Fig. the two cases will be considered together. imperfectly balanced differential amplifiers from the same standpoint. we first find the response of a given circuit to pure differential and pure commonmode inputs separately. CMRR: CMRR E l l  Adm Furthermore. 3. we will study perfectly balanced differential amplifiers.5.45 and the MOS sourcecoupled pair of Fig.. the output of a perfectly balanced differential ampli= 0 .. giving the ratio of the desired differentialmode gain to the undesired commonmode gain.5 SmallSignal Characteristics o Balanced Differential Amplifiers f In this section. 5 3 ~ RD in 3.b is ignored and r. Although calculating Ad.50 from a smallsignal and standpoint. = 0 here. These circuits are redrawn in Fig. 3. In Section 3. Of these.9. when the input is purely differential (vic = O). in Section 3.m.IAcm is one figure of merit for a differential amplifier. Since this resistance has a considerable effect on the smallsignal behavior of differential pairs.5. .53b with the commonmode input voltages set to zero so we can consider the effect of the differentialmode input by itself. however. and thus inputs (for which vid = 0) produce pure commonmode outputs and Acmdm = 0 in perfectly balanced differential amplifiers. and A. the commonmodetodifferentialmode gain of the first stage is usually an important factor in the overall CMRR. 3. Also. Therefore. This ratio is important because once a commonmode input is converted to a differential output. and our goal is to calculate A d . In this book.z. we now assume that this resistance is finite. In general. Then the results can be superposed to find the total solution. these calculations are greatly simplified by taking advantage of the symmetry that exists in perfectly balanced amplifiers. the following analysis is strictly valid only from a smallsignal standpoint and approximately valid only for signals that cause negligible nonlinearity. since differential amplifiers are not perfectly balanced in practice. Since superposition is valid only for linear circuits. Note that the smallsignal equivalent circuit neglects finite r. pure commonmode fier is purely differential (v..54 with R used to replace RC in Fig.. the result is treated as the desired signal by subsequent differential amplifiers.. in both cases. Therefore. Then Vil = vil and V i z = V Q . when vil = viz. = O). in the MOS case. we consider perfectly balanced differential amplifiers from a smallsignal standpoint.53b..5. 3 . The ratios AdmlAcmdmand AdmlAdmcm two other figures of merit are that characterize the performance of differential amplifiers. v.. 5 3 ~ Fig. Acm Z 0 is possible.
5 Differential Pairs 225  Q2 "id  1 RTAI L 2 Figure 3. (b)Sourcecoupled pair with pure differential input.3. * Figure 3.53 (a) Emittercoupled pair with pure differential input. .54 Smallsignal equivalent circuit for differential pair with pure differentialmode input.
the other side pulls down. By inspection of Fig. the voltage across RTAn does not vary at all. .55 Differentialmode circuit with the tail current source grounded.56. Because the circuit in Fig. note that neglecting g. the response to smallsignal differential inputs can be determined by analyzing one side of the original circuit with RTAL replaced by a short circuit. 3.. This simplified circuit. 3. Because of the symmetry of the circuit. = 0. 3. Another way to see this result is to view the two lower parts of the circuit as voltage followers. Finally.189) should be replaced by R (1 r. shown in Fig. we recognize this circuit as the smallsignal equivalent of a commonemitter or commonsource amplifier.54 is perfectly balanced. and To include the output resistance of the transistor in the above analysis. resulting in a constant voltage across the tail current source by superposition.55. Therefore. and because the inputs are driven by equal and opposite voltages. When one side pulls up. R in (3.226 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers Figure 3.and highfrequency performance of all types of differential amplifiers. After placing this short circuit.b from this analysis for MOS sourcecoupled pairs has no effect on the result because the voltage from the source to the body of the input transistors is the same as the voltage across the tail current source. we see that the two as sides of the circuit are not only identical. i. Since the voltage across RTAILexperiences no variation. but also independent because they are joined at a node that operates as a smallsignal ground. shown in Fig. the behavior of the smallsignal circuit is unaffected by the placement of a short circuit across RTAIL. which is constant with a pure differential input. 3.56. is called the diferentialmode half circuit and is useful for analysis of both the low. Therefore.
57a and Fig. and g. 3. each of value twice the original. Setting Vil= Vi2 = vie.57b. 3. 3.57 ( a ) Emittercoupled pair with pure commonmode input. 5 7 ~ RD in 3. The circuits in Fig.b is neglected in the MOS case.57b. and Again r.3. Also R has been used to replace RC in Fig. 3. but with the modification that the resistor RTAK has been split into two parallel resistors. + + . is neglected in both cases. The smallsignal equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. (b) Sourcecoupled pair with pure commonmode input. 3 . because PO m.5 Differential Pairs 227 Figure 3. commonmode standpoint.50 are now reconsidered from a smallsignal.58.45 and Fig. the circuits are redrawn in Fig. 3. where r.
we see that the two halves of the circuit in Fig. commonmode inputs can be determined by analyzing one half of the original circuit with an open circuit replacing the branch that joins the two halves of the original circuit. Because the circuit in Fig. flows in the lead connecting the half circuits.58 Smallsignal equivalent circuit. The circuit behavior is thus unchanged when this lead is removed as shown in Fig. and because each half is driven by the same voltage vie. Since degeneration reduces the transconductance. (3.59. but also independent because they are joined by a branch that conducts no smallsignal current.189) and (3.191) show that IAd. pure commonmode input. 3. In other words. 3. By inspection of Fig. no current i.. 3. I I equivalent circuit. As a result. This simplified circuit. and since degeneration occurs only in the commonmode case.58 is divided into two identical halves. the tail current source provides local negative feedback to commonmode inputs (or local commonmode feedback). we recognize this circuit as a commonemitter or commonsource amplifier with degeneration. 3. . the response to smallsignal.l > \A. the differential pair is more sensitive to differential inputs than to commonmode inputs. shown in Fig.). 3. is the transconductance of a commonemitter or commonsource amplifier with degeneration and will be considered quantitatively below. Then where G.228 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers "ic A m  m  Figure 3.60. Negative feedback is studied in Chapter 8.60. is called the commonmode half circuit. therefore. Therefore.58 are not only identical.
which increases with increasing POand decreasing collector current. R in (3.90) gives Ric as . is defined as the ratio of the smallsignal. on G.187). Techniques to achieve small bias currents are considered in Chapter 4. For the bipolar case. High input resistance is therefore obtained when an emittercoupled pair is operated at low bias current levels. 3..d to the smallsignal input current ib when a pure differential input voltage is applied.192) into (3. the differential input resistance of the emittercoupled pair is Thus the differential input resistance depends on the r. is the output resistance of a commonemitter amplifier with emitter given in (3.98). Since bipolar transistors have finite PO. This topic is considered in Chapter 4.3.. The commonmode input resistance Ri. of the transistor. we find that Therefore.92) and is usually negligible.5 Differential Pairs 229 Figure 3.97) or (3.189) and (3. with RE = 2RTAIL (3. which gives CMRR = 1 + 2gmRTAIL (3. The CMRR is found by substituting (3. This substitution ignores the effect degeneration of RE = 2RTAIL. where R.60 is the same as that for a commonemitter amplifier with emitter degeneration. to the smallsignal input current ib in one terminal when a pure commonmode input is applied. By inspecting Fig. Since the commonmode half circuit in Fig. commonmode input voltage vi. the input resistance of emittercoupled pairs is also an important design consideration.56. It shows that increasing the output resistance of the tail current source RTMLimproves the commonmoderejection ratio. in the above analysis. The differential input resistance Ridis defined as the ratio of the smallsignal differential input voltage v.192) should be replaced by R 11 R. 3. emittercoupled pair. which is shown in (3. Bipolar EmitterCoupled Pair.191) and rearranging gives into To include the effect of finite r.and since differential amplifiers are often used as the input stage of instrumentation circuits. substituting into RE = 2RTAIL (3.193) This expression applies to the particular case of a singlestage.60 half circuit. of finite r. substituting (3.93) for G.
6 1 ~ by the Tequivalent circuit of Fig..rr model.104) into (3. if Ry is chosen to be less than RiJ2 as shown. where R. a simple way to include the body effect here is to allow nonzero g. for the T model. 3.61 are valid if Ric is much larger than Rid. smallsignal. which gives .189) and (3. On the other hand. on Gm. the commonmode gain depends on gmb in practice because the body effect changes the sourcebody voltage of the transistors in the differential pair. independent of R.199) and (3.60 ignore the bodyeffect transconductance gmb. the value of R. should be more than RLdto account for nonzero current in Ri. The CMRR is found by substituting (3.191) and rearranging gives into = 0 Although (3. MOS SourceCoupled Pair. The result is To include the effect of finite r . The approximations in Fig. R in (3.b was included in the derivation of the transconductance of the commonsource amplifier with degeneration.107).199) and the commonmode half circuit in Fig.200) into (3. (b)Tequivalent input circuit.103) and is usually negligible.b when substituting (3..230 Chapter 3 SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers figure 3. is the output resistance of a commonsource amplifier with given in (3. This substitution ignores the effect source degeneration of Rs = 2RTAIL.rr equivalent circuit of Fig.187). in the above analysis. substituting (3.. 3. 3 .61b. the commonmode input resistance is exactly Ri. To make the differentialmode input resistance exactly Rid. For the . of finite r .which is shown in (3. The smallsignal input current that flows when both commonmode and differentialmode input voltages are applied can be found by superposition and is given by Zbl =  vid Rid Vic +Ric where ibl and ibZ represent the base currents of Ql and Q2.200) should be replaced by R 11 R.104) for Gm with g.191). or The input resistance can be represented by the . the differentialmode input resistance is exactly Rid independent of R. and the commonmode input resistance is Ri. Since nonzero g. Tequivalent input circuit for the differential amplifier. For the MOS case.b and Rs = 2RTAIL (3. 3.61 ( a ) General lowfrequency. respectively..
the effect of mismatches on dc performance is most conveniently represented by two quantities.5.62 Equivalent input offset voltage (Vos) and current (Ios) for a differential amplifier. these types of errors pose the basic limitation on the resolution of the system. . and hence consideration of mismatchinduced effects is often central to the design of analog circuits. The presence of component mismatches within the amplifier itself and drifts of component values with temperature produce dc differential voltages at the output that are indistinguishable from the dc component of the signal being amplified.201 is valid for a singlestage. These quantities represent the inputreferred effect of all the component mismatches within the amplifier on its dc performance.5. Differential amplifier with mismatches Differential amplifier without mismatches (b) (4 Figure 3. and the offset voltage generator is needed to model the effect of mismatch.62. the input offset current does not contribute to the amplifier output. Also. This topic is studied in Chapter 4. (a) Actual circuit containing mismatches. Nonzero Acmdm especially important because it converts commonmode inputs to differential outputs.5 Differential Pairs 23 1 Equation 3. In the next several sections. if the input terminals are driven by an ideal voltage source with zero resistance.12As illustrated in Fig. if the input terminals are driven by an ideal current source with infinite resistance.1 Input Offset Voltage and Current For differential amplifiers. 3. the dc behavior of the amplifier containing the mismatches is identical to an ideal amplifier with no mismatches but with the input offset voltage source added in series with the input and the input offset current source in shunt across the input terminals. 3.11. the input offset voltage and the input offset current. sourcecoupled pair and shows that increasing RTAILincreases the CMRR. the input offset voltage does not contribute to the amplifier output. such mismatches and drifts cause nonzero commonmodetodifferentialmode gain as well as nonzero differentialtocommonmode gain to is arise.3. In many analog systems. we calculate the input offset voltage and current of the emittercoupled pair and the sourcecoupled pair. 3. For example.6. which are treated as the desired signal by subsequent stages. On the other hand. (b)Equivalent dc circuit with identically matched de vices and the offset voltage and current referred to the input.6 Device Mismatch Effects in DifferentialAmplifiers An important aspect of the performance of differential amplifiers is the minimum dc and ac differential voltages that can be detected. These quantities are usually a function of both temperature and commonmode input voltage. and the offset current generator is needed to model the effect of mismatch. Both quantities are required to represent the effect of mismatch in general so that the model is valid for any source resistance.
232 Chapter 3 m SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers
3.5.6.2 Input Offset Voltage of the EmitterCoupled Pair
The predominant sources of offset error in the emittercoupled pair are the mismatches in the base width, base doping level, and collector doping level of the transistors, mismatches in the effective emitter area of the transistors, and mismatches in the collector load resistors. To provide analytical results simple enough for intuitive interpretation, the analysis will be carried out assuming a uniformbase transistor. The results are similar for the nonuniform case, although the analytical procedure is more tedious. In most instances the dc base current is low enough that the dc voltage drop in r b is negligible, so we neglect rb. Consider Fig. 3.45 with dc signals so that Vil = VI1, Viz = VI2, Vol = VO1, and Vo2 = VO2.Let VrD = VI1  V12. Also, assume that the collector resistors may not be identical. Let Rcl and Rc2 represent the values of the resistors attached to Q1 and Q2, respectively. From KVL around the input loop, Therefore,
The factors determining the saturation current Is of a bipolar transistor are described in Chapter l. There it was shown that if the impurity concentration in the base region is uniform, these saturation currents can be written
where WB(VcB) is the base width as a function of VcB, NA is the acceptor density in the base, and A is the emitter area. We denote the product NAWB(VcB) as QB(VcB),the total base impurity doping per unit area. The input offset voltage Vos is equal to the value of VID = VI1  V12 that must be applied to the input to drive the differential output voltage VoD = Vol  VO2to zero. For VoD to be zero, IclRcl = IC2RC2; therefore,
Substituting (3.204), (3.205), and (3.206) into (3.203) gives Qas (VCB) This expression relates the input offset voltage to the device parameters and RC mismatch. Usually, however, the argument of the log function is very close to unity and the equation can be interpreted in a more intuitively satisfying way. In the following section we perform an approximate analysis, valid if the mismatches are small.
3.5.6.3 Offset Voltage of the EmitterCoupled Pair: Approximate Analysis
In cases of practical interest involving offset voltages and currents, the mismatch between any two nominally matched circuit parameters is usually small compared with the absolute value of that parameter. This observation leads to a procedure by which the individual contributions to offset voltage can be considered separately and summed.
3.5 Differential Pairs
233
First, define new parameters to describe the mismatch in the components, using the relations
Thus AX is the difference between two parameters, and X is the average of the two nominally matched parameters. Note that AX can be positive or negative. Next invert (3.208) and (3.209) to give
These relations can be applied to the collector resistances, the emitter areas, and the base doping parameters in (3.207) to give
With the assumptions that ARC < RC, AA < A, and AQB < QB, (3.212) can be sim< < < plified to
If X < l, a Taylor series can be used to show that <
Applying (3.214) to each logarithm in (3.213) and ignoring terms higher than first order in the expansions gives
Thus, under the assumptions made, we have obtained an approximate expression for the input offset voltage, which is the linear superposition of the effects of the different components. It can be shown that this can always be done for small component mismatches. Note that the signs of the individual terms of (3.215) are not particularly significant, since the mismatch factors can be positive or negative depending on the direction of the random parameter variation. The worstcase offset occurs when the terms have signs such that the individual contributions add. Equation 3.215 relates the offset voltage to mismatches in the resistors and in the structural parameters A and QB of the transistors. For the purpose of predicting the offset voltage from device parameters that are directly measurable electrically, we rewrite (3.215) to express the offset in terms of the resistor mismatch and the mismatch in the
234 Chapter 3
SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers
saturation currents of the transistors:
where
is the offset voltage contribution from the transistors themselves, as reflected in the mismatch in saturation current. Mismatch factors ARclRc and AIs/Is are actually random parameters that take on a different value for each circuit fabricated, and the distribution of the observed values is described by a probability distribution. For large samples the distribution tends toward a normal, or Gaussian, distribution with zero mean. Typically observed standard deviations for the preceding mismatch parameters for smallarea diffused devices are
In the Gaussian distribution, 68 percent of the samples have a value within +vof the mean value. If we assume that the mean value of the distribution is zero, then 68 percent of the resistor pairs in a large sample will match within l percent, and 68 percent of the transistor pairs will have saturation currents that match within 5 percent for the distributions described by (3.218). These values can be heavily influenced by device geometry and processing. If we pick one sample from each distribution so that the parameter mismatch is equal to the corresponding standard deviation, and if the mismatch factors are chosen in the direction so that they add, the resulting offset from (3.216) would be
Large ionimplanted devices with careful layout can achieve Vos = 0.1 mV. A parameter of more interest to the circuit designer than the offset of one sample is the standard deviation of the total offset voltage. Since the offset is the sum of two uncorrelated random parameters, the standard deviation of the sum is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the standard deviation of the two mismatch contributions, or
The properties of the Gaussian distribution are summarized in Appendix A.3.1
3.5.6.4 Offset Voltage Drift in the EmitlerCoupled Pair
When emittercoupled pairs are used as lowlevel dc amplifiers where the offset voltage is critical, provision is sometimes made to manually adjust the input offset voltage to zero with an external potentiometer. When this adjustment is done, the important parameter becomes not the offset voltage itself, but the variation of this offset voltage with temperature, often referred to as drift. For most practical circuits, the sensitivity of the input offset voltage to temperature is not zero, and the wider the excursion of temperature experienced by the circuit, the more error the offset voltage drift will contribute. This parameter is easily calculated for the emittercoupled pair by differentiating (3.207) as follows
using V r = kTlq and assuming the ratios in (3.207) are independent of temperature, Thus the drift and offset are proportional for the emittercoupled pair. This relationship
3.5 Differential Pairs
235
is observed experimentally. For example, an emittercoupled pair with a measured offset voltage of 2 mV would display a drift of 2 mV/300•‹Kor 6.6 kVI0C under the assumptions we have made. Equation 3.221 appears to show that the drift also would be nulled by externally adjusting the offset to zero. This observation is only approximately true because of the way in which the nulling is accomplished.13 Usually an external potentiometer is placed in parallel with a portion of one of the collector load resistors in the pair. The temperature coefficient of the nulling potentiometer generally does not match that of the diffused resistors, so a resistormismatch temperature coefficient is introduced that can make the drift worse than it was without nulling. Voltage drifts in the 1 pV/"C range can be obtained with careful design.
3.5.6.5 Input Offset Current o the EmitterCoupled Pair f
The input offset current Ios is measured with the inputs connected only to current sources and is the difference in the base currents that musrbe applied to drive the differential output to voltage VoD = Vol  VO2 zero. Since the base current of each transistor is equal to the corresponding collector current divided by beta, the offset current is
when VoD = 0. As before, we can write
Inserting (3.223) and (3.224) into (3.222), the offset current becomes
Neglecting higherorder terms, this becomes
For VOD to be zero, ICIRCI currents is
=
IczRc;?;therefore, from (3.206), the mismatch in collector
Equation 3.227 shows that the fractional mismatch in the collector currents must be equal in magnitude and opposite in polarity from the fractional mismatch in the collector resistors to force VoD = 0. Substituting (3.227) into (3.226) gives
A typically observed beta mismatch distribution displays a deviation of about 10 percent. Assuming a beta mismatch of 10 percent and a mismatch in collector resistors of
236 Chapter 3 M SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers
l percent, we obtain
In many applications, the input offset current as well as the input current itself must be minimized. A good example is the input stage of operational amplifiers. Various circuit and technological approaches to reduce these currents are considered in Chapter 6.
3.5.6.6 Input Offset Voltage of the SourceCoupled Pair
As mentioned earlier in the chapter, MOS transistors inherently provide higher input resistance and lower input bias current than bipolar transistors when the MOS gate is used as the input. This observation also applies to differentialpair amplifiers. The input offset current of an MOS differential pair is the difference between the two gate currents and is essentially zero because the gates of the input transistors are connected to silicon dioxide, which is an insulator. However, MOS transistors exhibit lower transconductance than bipolar transistors at the same current, resulting in poorer input offset voltage and commonmode rejection ratio in MOS differential pairs than in the case of bipolar transistors. In this section we calculate the input offset voltage of the sourcecoupled MOSFET pair. Consider Fig. 3.50 with dc signals so that Vil = VI1, Vi2 = V12, Vol = VO1, and Vo2 = VO2.Let VID = Vll  VI2, Also, assume that the drain resistors may not be identical. Let RD1 and RD2 represent the values of the resistors attached to M 1 and M2, respectively. KVL around the input loop gives
Solving (1.157) for the gatesource voltage and substituting into (3.230) gives
As in the bipolar case, the input offset voltage Vos is equal to the value of VID = VI1  Vrz that must be applied to the input to drive the differential output voltage VoD = Vol  VO2 to zero. For VoDto be zero, ID1 RD1 = ID2RD2;therefore,
subject to the constraint that IDl RDl = ID2RD2.
3.5.6.7 Offset Voltage of the SourceCoupled Pair: Approximate Analysis
The mismatch between any two nominally matched circuit parameters is usually small compared with the absolute value of that parameter in practice. As a result, (3.232) can be rewritten in a way that allows us to understand the contributions of each mismatch to the overall offset. Defining difference and average quantities in the usual way, we have
3.5 Differential Pairs
237
AVt = Vtl

v,,
Rearranging (3.233) and (3.234) as well as (3.235) and (3.236) gives
(WIL)l
=
(WIL) +
A(W1L) 2
(WIL)2 = (WIL)  A(W1L) 2
(3.242)
Substituting (3.237), (3.241), and (3.242) into (3.232) gives
Rearranging (3.243) gives
Vos
=
AVt
+( V s

v
t
)
(
~
x
(S)
(3.244) 2 (WIL) (3.245)
2 (WIL)
If the mismatch terms are small, the argument of each square root in (3.244) is approxi( 1 + x)/2 when X = 1 for the argument of each square root in mately unity. Using (3.244), we have
fi

Vos
AVt
+
2
A I D / ~ ~ D  AID/21D  1 A(WIL) A(WIL) 12 (WIL) 2 (WIL)
Carrying out the long divisions in (3.245) and ignoring terms higher than first order gives
When the differential input voltage is Vos, the differential output voltage is zero; therefore, ID1 R L ~ I D ~ R L ~ , = and
In other words, the mismatch in the drain currents must be equal and opposite the mismatch of the load resistors to set VoD = 0. Substituting (3.247) into (3.246) gives
Vos
=
AVt
+ ("CS
2

V t )  R ~ A ( w l L ) ) A RL (WIL)
(
238
Chapter 3
SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers
The first term on the right side of (3.248) stems from threshold mismatch. This mismatch component is present in MOS devices but not in bipolar transistors. This component results in a constant offset component that is biascurrent independent. Threshold mismatch is a strong function of process cleanliness and uniformity and can be substantially improved by the use of careful layout. Measurements indicate that largegeometry structures are capable of achieving thresholdmismatch distributions with standard deviations on the order of 2 mV in a modern silicongate MOS process. This offset component alone limits the minimum offset in the MOS case and is an order of magnitude larger than the total differentialpair offset in modem ionimplanted bipolar technologies. The second term on the right side of (3.248) shows that another component of the offset scales with the overdrive V,, = (Vcs  V,) and is related to a mismatch in the load elements or in the device WIL ratio. In the bipolar emittercoupled pair offset, the corresponding mismatch terms were multiplied by V T ,typically a much smaller number than Vov12.Thus sourcecoupled pairs of MOS transistors display higher input offset voltage than bipolar pairs for the same level of geometric mismatch or process gradient even when threshold mismatch is ignored. The key reason for this limitation is that the ratio of the transconductance to the bias current is much lower with MOS transistors than in the bipolar case. The quantities VT in (3.216) and (VGS Vt)/2 = Vov/2 (3.248) are both equal in for to IBIAS/gm the devices in question. This quantity is typically in the range 100 mV to 500 mV for MOS transistors instead of 26 mV for bipolar transistors.
3.5.6.8 Offset Voltage Drift in the SourceCoupled Pair
Offset voltage drift in MOSFET sourcecoupled pairs does not show the high correlation with offset voltage observed in bipolar pairs. The offset consists of several terms that have different temperature coefficients. Both Vt and V,,, have a strong temperature dependence, affecting VGS in opposite directions. The temperature dependence of V,, stems primarily from the mobility variation, which gives a negative temperature coefficient to the drain current, while the threshold voltage depends on the Fermi potential. As shown in Section 1.5.4, the latter decreases with temperature and contributes a positive temperature coefficient to the drain current. The drift due to the AV, term in Vos may be quite large if this term itself is large. These two effects can be made to cancel at one value of ID, which is a useful phenomenon for temperaturestable biasing of singleended amplifiers. In differential amplifiers, however, this phenomenon is not greatly useful because differential configurations already give firstorder cancellation of VGStemperature variations.
3.5.6.9 SmallSignal Characteristics of Unbalanced Differential ~mplifiers'
'
As mentioned in Section 3.5.4, the commonmodetodifferentialmode gain and differentialmodetocommonmode gain of unbalanced differential amplifiers are nonzero. The direct approach to calculation of these crossgain terms requires analysis of the entire smallsignal diagram. In perfectly balanced differential amplifiers, the crossgain terms are zero, and the differentialmode and commonmode gains can be found by using two independent half circuits, as shown in Section 3.5.5. With imperfect matching, exact halfcircuit analysis is still possible if the half circuits are coupled instead of independent. Furthermore, if the mismatches are small, a modified version of halfcircuit analysis gives results that are approximately valid. This modified halfcircuit analysis not only greatly simplifies the required calculations, but also gives insight about how to reduce Acmdm and Ad,,, in practice. First consider a pair of mismatched resistors RI and R2 shown in Fig. 3.63. Assume that the branch currents are il and i2, respectively. From Ohm's law, the differential and
3.5 Differential Pairs
239
I
and
I
Figure 3.63 A pair of mismatched resistors.
commonmode voltages across the resistors can be written as
Define id = il  i2,ic = (il + i2)/2,AR and (3.250) can be rewritten as
v d = 1,
=
R I  R2, and R = ( R 1+ R2)/2.Then (3.249)
+
) ( + A;)
R
 
i
( c
 
) ( 'z")
R
=
idR + ic ( A R )
(3.251)
and
These equations can be used to draw differential and commonmode half circuits for the pair of mismatched resistors. Since the differential half circuit shouId give half the differential voltage dropped across the resistors, the two terms on the righthand side of (3.251) are each divided by two and used to represent one component of a branch voltage of vd/2.The differential half circuit is shown in Fig. 3 . 6 4 ~The first component of the branch . voltage is the voltage dropped across R and is half the differential current times the average resistor value. The second component is the voltage across the dependent voltage source controlled by the current flowing in the commonmode half circuit and is proportional to half the mismatch in the resistor values. The commonmode half circuit is constructed from (3.252) and is shown in Fig. 3.64b. Here the total branch voltage v, is the sum of the voltages across a resistor and a dependent voltage source controlled by the current flowing the differential half circuit. In the limiting case where A R = 0, the voltage across each
Figure 3.64 ( a ) Differential and (6) commonmode half circuits for a pair of mismatched resistors.
240
Chapter 3 W SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers
Figure 3.65 A pair of mismatched voltagecontrolled current
sources.
dependent source in Fig. 3.64 is zero, and each half circuit collapses to simply a resistor of value R. Therefore, the half circuits are independent in this case, as expected. In practice, however, AR # 0, and Fig. 3.64 shows that the differential voltage depends not only on the differential current, but also on the commonmode current. Similarly, the commonmode voltage depends in part on the differential current. Thus the behavior of a pair of mismatched resistors can be represented exactly by using coupled half circuits. Next consider a pair of mismatched voltagecontrolled current sources as shown in Fig. 3.65. Assume that the control voltages are v1 and v2, respectively. Then the differential and commonmode currents can be written as
(gand
+
+)(vc
+
7)


r)
where vd = V,  v2, v, = (v1 + v2)/2, Agm = gml  g2, and g, = (gml gm2)/2. The corresponding differential and commonmode half circuits each use two voltagecontrolled current sources, as shown in Fig. 3.66. In each case, one dependent source
+
Figure 3.66 (a) Differential and (b) commonmode half circuits for a pair of mismatched voltagecontrolled current sources.
3.5 Differential Pairs
241
is proportional to the average transconductance and the other to half the mismatch in the transconductances. With perfect matching, the mismatch terms are zero, and the two half circuits are independent. With imperfect matching, however, the mismatch terms are nonzero. In the differential half circuit, the mismatch current source is controlled by the commonmode control voltage. In the commonmode half circuit, the mismatch current source is controlled by half the differential control voltage. Thus, as for mismatched resistors, the behavior of a pair of mismatched voltagecontrolled current sources can be represented exactly by using coupled half circuits. With these concepts in mind, construction of the differential and commonmode half circuits of unbalanced differential amplifiers is straightforward. In the differential half circuit, mismatched resistors are replaced by the circuit shown in Fig. 3.64a, and mismatched voltagecontrolled current sources are replaced by the circuit in Fig. 3.66a. Similarly, the circuits shown in Fig. 3.64b and Fig. 3.66b replace mismatched resistors and voltagecontrolled current sources in the commonmode half circuit. Although mismatches change the differential and commonmode components of signals that appear at various points in the complete unbalanced amplifier, the differential components are still equal and opposite while the commonmode components are identical by definition. Therefore, smallsignal short and open circuits induced by the differential and commonmode signals are unaffected by these replacements. For example, the differential and commonmode half circuits of the unbalanced differential amplifier shown in Fig. 3.67 are shown in Fig. 3.68. KCL at the output of the gives differential half circuit in Fig. 3 . 6 8 ~
KCL at the output of the commonmode half circuit in Fig. 3.68b gives
Also, KVL around the input loop in the commonmode half circuit gives
Substituting (3.257) into (3.256) and rearranging gives
I
'tail
Figure 3.67 The smallsignal diagram of an unbalanced differential amplifier.
242
Chapter 3
SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistorAmplifiers
Figure 3.68 ( a ) Differential and (b) commonmode half circuits of the differential amplifier shown in Fig. 3.67.
Substituting (3.257) and (3.258) into (3.255) and rearranging gives
From KVL in the R branch in the differential half circuit in Fig. 3.68a,
Substituting (3.258) and (3.259) into (3.260) and rearranging gives
where Adm and
are
From KVL in the R branch in the commonmode half circuit in Fig. 3.68b,
3.5 Differential Pairs
243
Substituting (3.258) and (3.259) into (3.264) and rearranging gives
where Admrm and A,, are
The calculations in (3.255)through (3.267) are based on the half circuits in Fig. 3.68 and give exactly the same results as an analysis of the entire differential amplifier shown in Fig. 3.67. Because the half circuits are coupled, however, exact halfcircuit analysis requires the simultaneous consideration of both half circuits, which is about as complicated as the direct analysis of the entire original circuit. In practice, the mismatch terms are usually a small fraction of the corresponding average values. As a result, the dominant contributions to the differential signals that control the mismatch generators in the commonmode half circuit stem from differential inputs. Similarly, the dominant part of the commonmode signals that control the mismatch generators in the differential half circuit arise from commonmode inputs. Therefore, we will assume that the signals controlling the mismatch generators can be found approximately by analyzing each half circuit independently without mismatch. The signals that control the mismatch generators in Fig. 3.68 are iRc, iRd/2,v, and vid/2.We will find approximations to these quantities, h,, 0, and Gid/2using the half circuits shown in Fig. 3.69, where the inputs are the same as in Fig. 3.68 but where the mismatch terms are set equal to zero. By ignoring the secondorder interactions in which the mismatch generators influence the values of the control signals, this process greatly simplifies the required calculations, as shown next.
Figure 3.69 (a) Differ
ential and (6) commonmode half circuits of the differential ampIifier shown in Fig. 3.67 with mismatch terms set equal to zero.
244
Chapter 3 m SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistor Amplifiers
From inspection of the differential half circuit in Fig. 3.69a,
and
From the commonmode half circuit in Fig. 3.69b,
Therefore,
Now reconsider the differential half circuit with mismatch shown in Fig. 3.68a. Assume that iRc= GCand v D. Then

From (3,272),
and
Equation 3.274 shows that the ratio Adm/Acmdm approximately proportional to 1 + is 2g,rtail. Also, (3.274) agrees exactly with (3.263) in this case because the g, generator in Fig. 3.68a is controlled by a purely differential signal. In other examples, the commonmodetodifferentialmode gain calculated in this way will be only approximately correct. Now reconsider the commonmode half circuit with mismatch shown in Fig. 3.68b and assume that iRd = L. From KCL at the tail node,
Then
From KCL at the output node in Fig. 3.68b,
Assume that iRd = hd. Substituting (3.269) and (3.276) into (3.277) and rearranging gives
3.5 Differential Pairs
245
From (3.278),
&mcm =
voc
yid
1 v,c = 0
+
1 (.4 A.
+
and
These equations show that increasing the degeneration to commonmode inputs reprereduces the magnitude of Acmdm,Admcm,and Acm. sented by the quantity 1 + 2gmrtail in this case, Acmdm 0 and Acm + 0. On the other hand, Admcmdoes As rtail not approach zero when rtail becomes infinite. Instead,
+
With finite and mismatched transistor output resistances, Acmdm also approaches a nonzero value as r,,il becomes infinite. Therefore, r t ~ should be viewed as an imporl tant parameter because it reduces the sensitivity of differential pairs to commonmode inputs and helps reduce the effects of mismatch. However, even an ideal tail current source does not overcome all the problems introduced by mismatch. In Chapter 4, we will consider transistor current sources for which r,,il can be quite large.
W
EXAMPLE Consider the unbalanced differential amplifier in Fig. 3.67. Assume that
Find Adm, Acm, Acmdm, and Admcm Calculating average and mismatch quantities gives
From (3.269)
From (3.271)
A
l Vie V
Vir
From (3.273), (3.274), (3.279), and (3.280),
246 Chapter 3 W SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistorAmplifiers
APPENDIX
A.3.1 ELEMENTARY STATISTICS AND THE GAUSSIAN DlSTRlBUTION
From the standpoint of a circuit designer, many circuit parameters are best regarded as random variables whose behavior is described by a probability distribution. This view is particularly important in the case of a parameter such as offset voltage. Even though the offset may be zero with perfectly matched components, random variations in resistors and transistors cause a spread of offset voltage around the mean value, and the size of this spread determines the fraction of circuits that meet a given offset specification. Several factors cause the parameters of an integrated circuit to show random variations. One of these factors is the randomness of the edge definition when regions are defined to form resistors and active devices. In addition, random variations across the wafer in the diffusion of impurities can be a significant factor. These processes usually give rise to a Gaussian distribution (sometimes called a normal distribution) of the parameters. A Gaussian distribution of a parameter X is specified by a probability density function p(x) given by
where U is the standard deviation of the distribution and m is the mean or average value of X. The significance of this function is that, for one particular circuit chosen at random from a large collection of circuits, the probability of the parameter having values between X and (X + dx) is given by p(x)dx, which is the area under the cuwe p(x) in the range X to (X + dx). For example, the probability that x has a value less than X is obtained by integrating (3.282) to give
In a large sample, the fraction of circuits where X is less than X will be given by the probability P(x < X), and thus this quantity has real practical significance. The probability density function p(x) in (3.282) is sketched in Fig. 3.70 and shows a characteristic bell shape. The peak value of the distribution occurs when x = m, where m is the mean value of X.The standard deviation U is a measure of the spread of the distribution, and large values of U give rise to a broad distribution. The distribution extends over m < X < m, as shown by (3.282), but most of the area under the curve is found in the range X = m t 3a, as will be seen in the following analysis. The development thus far has shown that the probability of the parameter X having values in a certain range is just equal to the area under the curve of Fig. 3.70 in that range.
A.3.1 ELEMENTARY STATISTICS AND T E GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION H
P(.)
247
linear scale
linear scale
Figure 3.70 Probability density function p ( x ) for a Gaussian distribution with mean value m and
standard deviation U . p(x) = exp[
(X 
r n ) 2 / ( 2 ~ 2 )&U) ]/(
Since X must lie somewhere in the range +CO, the total area under the curve must be unity, and integration of (3.282) will show that this is so. The most common specification of interest to circuit designers is the fraction of a large sample of circuits that lies inside a band around the mean. For example, if a circuit has a gain X that has a Gaussian distribution with mean value 100, what fraction of circuits have gain values in the range 90 to 110? This fraction can be found by evaluating the probability that X takes on values in the range x = m + 10 where m = 100. This probability could be found from (3.282) if c is known by integrating as follows:
This equation gives the area under the Gaussian curve in the range X = m + 10. To simplify calculations of the kind described above, values of the integral in (3.285) have been calculated and tabulated. To make the tables general, the range of integration is normalized to U to give
Values of this integral for various values of k are tabulated in Fig. 3.71. This table shows that P = 0.683 for k = 1 and thus 68.3 percent of a large sample of a Gaussian distribution lies within a range X = m L U. For k = 3, the value of P = 0.997 and thus 99.7 percent of a large sample lies within a range x = m 5 3 0 . Circuit parameters such as offset or gain often can be expressed as a linear combination of other parameters as shown in (3.216) and (3.248) for offset voltage. If all the parameters are independent random variables with Gaussian distributions, the standard deviations and means can be related as follows. Assume that the random variable X can be expressed in terms of random variables a, b, and c using
248
Chapter 3 W SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistorAmplifiers
Then it can be shown that
where m, is the mean value of X and a, is the standard deviation of X. Equation 3.289 shows that the square of the standard deviation of X is the sum of the square of the standard deviations of a, b, and c. This result extends to any number of variables. These results were treated in the context of the random variations found in circuit parameters. The Gaussian distribution is also useful in the treatment of random noise, as described in Chapter 11.
EXAMPLE
rn
The offset voltage of a circuit has a mean value of m = 0 and a standard deviation of a = 2 mV. What fraction of circuits will have offsets with magnitudes less than 4 mV? A range of offset of +4 mV corresponds to 22a. From Fig. 3.71, we find that the area under the Gaussian curve in this range is 0.954, and thus 95.4 percent of circuits will have offsets with magnitudes less than 4 mV.
k
Area under the Gaussian curve in the range m + k u
Figure 3.71 Values of the integral in (3.286) for various values of k. This integral gives the area under the Gaussian curve of Fig. 3.70 in the range x = + k g .
PROBLEMS
For the npn bipolar transistors in these problems, use the highvoltage bipolar device parameters given in Fig. 2.30, unless otherwise specified.
3.1 Determine the input resistance, transconductance, and output resistance of the CE ampli
fier of Fig. 3.7 if RC = 20 kCl and Ic = 250 pA. Assume that rb = 0. 3.2 ACE transistor is to be used in the amplifier of Fig. 3.72 with a source resistance Rs and collector resistor RC. First, find the overall smallsignal gain v,lvi as a function of Rs, RC, PO,VA, and the
Problems
249
collector current lc. Next, determine the value of dc collector bias current Ic that maximizes the smallsignal voltage gain. Explain qualitatively why the gain falls at very high and very low collector currents. Do not neglect r, in this problem. What is the voltage gain at the optimum Ic? Assume that r), = 0.
Figure 3.72 Circuit for Problem 3.2.
3.3 Assume that Rs = Re = 50 kL! in Problem 3.2, and calculate the optimum I=.What is the dc voltage drop across RC?What is the voltage gain? 3.4 For the commonsource amplifier of Fig. 3.12, calculate the smallsignal voltage gain and the bias values of Vi and V, at the edge of the triode region. Also calculate the bias values of Vi and V, where the smallsignal voltage gain is unity with the transistor operating in the active region. What is the maximum voltage gain of this stage? Assume VDD = 3 V, RD = 5 kfl, p,C,, = 200 W = 10 pm, L = 1 pm, V, = 0.6 V, and A = 0. Check your answer with SPICE. 3.5 Determine the input resistance, transconductance, and output resistance of the CB amplifierofFig. 3.15 if Ic = 250 p A and RC = 10 kQ. Neglect rb and r,. 3.6 Assume that Re is made large compared with r, in the CB amplifier of Fig. 3.15. Use the equivalent circuit of Fig. 3.17 and add r, between the input (emitter terminal) and the output (collector terminal) to calculate the output resistance when (a) The amplifier is driven by an ideal current source. (b) The amplifier is driven by an ideal voltage source. Neglect rb. 3.7 Determine the input resistance of the CG amplifier of Fig. 3.19 if the transistor operates in the active region with ID = 100 pA. Let
RD = 10 kR, pnC,, = 200 A = 0.01 V', W = 100 pm, and L = 1 pm. Ignore the body effect. Repeat with RD = 1 ML!. If the 100 p A current flows through RD in this case, a powersupply voltage of at least 100 V would be required. To overcome this problem, assume that an ideal 100pA current source is placed in parallel with RD here. 3.8 Determine the input resistance, voltage gain v,lv,, and output resistance of the CC amplifier of Fig. 3.23a if Rs = 5 kfl, RL = 500 fl, and Zc = 1 mA. Neglect rb and ro. Do not include Rs in calculating the input resistance. In cakulating the output resistance, however, include RL. Include both RS and RL in the gain calculation. 3.9 For the commondrain amplifier of Fig. 3.73,assume W I L = 10 and A = 0. Use Table 2.2 for other parameters. Find the dc output voltage V . and the smallsignal gain v,lv, under the following conditions: (a) Ignoring the body effect and with R (b) Including the body effect and with R + (C) Including the body effect and with R = 100 kil (d) Including the body effect and with R = 10 kil
*
Figure 3.73 Circuit for Problem 3.9.
3.10 Determine the dc collector currents in Ql and Q2, and then the input resistance and voltage gain for the Darlington emitter follower of Fig. 3.74. Neglect r,, rb, and r,. Assume that VBE(onj= 0.7 V. Check your answer with SPICE and also use SPICE to determine the o u t ~ u resist tance of the stage. 3.1 1 Calculate the output resistance r; of the commonemitter Darlington transistor of Fig. 3.75 as a function of ZBIAs. not neglect either r,, or DO r,2 in this calculation, but you may neglect rb and r. If Zc2 = 1 mA, what is r', for 1 ~ = 11 mA? , ~ For ]BIAS = O?
~
250
Chapter 3 m SingleTransistorand MultipleTransistorAmplifiers
v,,=
IOV
T
Figure 3.76 BiCMOS Darlington circuit for ProbFigure 3.74 Circuit for Problem 3.10.
lem 3.12. Assume that all the transistors operate in the active region with dc drain currents of 100 pA. Use the transistor parameters in Table 2.4. Ignore the body effect. Assume W = 10 pm, Ldrwn = 0.4 pm, and Xd = 0.1 p m for all transistors. Check your answer with SPICE.
Q1
ac ground

Figure 3.75 Circuit for Problem 3.1 1.
3.12 A BiCMOS Darlington is shown in Fig. 3.76. The bias voltage Vn is adjusted for a dc output voltage of 2 V. Calculate the bias currents in both devices and then calculate the smallsignal voltage gain v,/vi of the circuit. For the MOS transis= tor, assume W = 10 pm, L = 1 pm, pnCOx 200 V, = 0.6 V, y = 0.25 V'/', +f = 0.3 V, and h = 0. For the bipolar transistor, assume 1, = 1016 A, PF = 100, Q = 0, and V A , m. Use SPICE to check your result. Then add h = 0.05 V', rb = 100 fl,and VA = 20 V and compare the original result to the result with this new transistor data. Finally, use SPICE to compute the dc transfer characteristic of the circuit. 3.13 Determine the input resistance, transconductance, output resistance, and maximum opencircuit voltage gain for the CECB circuit of Fig. 3.36 if Zcl = IC2 = 250 pA. 3.14 Determine the input resistance, transconductance, output resistance, and maximum opencircuit voltage gain for the CSCG circuit of Fig. 3.38 if IDl = ID2 = 250 p,A. Assume W I L = 100, A = 0.1 V', and X = 0.1. Use Table 2.2 for other parameters. 3.15 Find the output resistance for the activecascode circuit of Fig. 3.77 excluding resistor R.

Figure 3.77 Activecascode circuit for Problem
3.15.
3.16 Find the shortcircuit transconductance of the supersource follower shown in Fig. 3.43. Assume I , = 200 pA, 12 = 100 pA, W , = 30 p ~ , and W2 = 10 pm. Also, assume that both transistors operate in the active region, and ignore the body effect. Use the transistor parameters in Table 2.4. Assume Ldrwn 0.4 p m and Xd = 0. l p m for all = transistors. 3.17 A BiCMOS amplifier is shown in Fig. 3.78. Calculate the smallsignal voltage gain v,,lvi. Assume IS = 10l6 A, pF = 100, rt, = 0, V A m, ,unCo, = 200 p A N 2 , Vt = 0.6 V, and h = 0. Check your answer with SPICE and then use SPICE to investigate the effects of velocity saturation by including source degeneration in the
+
Problems
 .
251
10 kc2
1)
,l
11
l
+0
R, ,
30 kS1
0
+
kCR
. v 


Figure 3.78 BiCMOS amplifier for Problem 3.17.
MOS transistors as shown in Fig. 1.41 using 8, = 1.5 X 106 vim. 3.18 Determine the differentialmode gain, commonmode gain, differentialmode input resistance, and commonmode input resistance for the circuit of Fig. 3.45 with zTArL 20 pA, RTAIL= = 10 M a , RC = 100 k!2, and VEE = VCC = 5 V. Neglect rh, r,, and r,. Calculate the CMRR. Check with SPICE and use SPICE to investigate the effects of adding nonzero r b and finite V A as given in Fig. 2.30. 3.19 Repeat Problem 3.18, but with the addiL tion of emitterdegenerationresistors of value 4 k R each. 3.20 Determine the overall input resistance, voltage gain, and output resistance of the CCCB
connection of Fig. 3.79. Neglect r,, r,, and rb. Note that the addition of a 10k LR resistor in the collector of Q , would not change the results, so that the results of the emittercoupled pair analysis can be used. 3.21 Use halfcircuit concepts to determine the differentialmode and commonmode gain of the circuit shown in Fig. 3.80. Neglect r,, r,, and ?h. Calculate the differentialmode and commonmode input resistance.
v,,=
+15 v
Figure 3.80 Circuit for Problem 3.21.
Figure 3.79 Circuit for Problem 3.20.
3.22 Consider the circuit of Fig. 3.80 except replace both npn transistors with nchannel MOS transistors. Neglect the body effect, and assume A = 0. Use halfcircuit concepts to determine the
252
Chapter 3
SingleTransistor and MultipleTransistorAmplifiers
differentialmode and commonmode gain of this modified circuit. 3.23 Design an emittercoupled pair of the type . shown in Fig. 3 . 5 3 ~Assume ITAIL= 0 and select to values of RC and RTAIL give a differential input resistance of 2 MR, a differential voltage gain of 500, and a CMRR of 500. What are the rninimum values of Vcc and V E Ethat will yield this performance while keeping the transistors biased in the forwardactive region under zerosignal conditions? Assume that the dc commonmode input voltage is zero. Neglect rb, r,, and r,. 3.24 Determine the required bias current and device sizes to design a sourcecoupledpair to have the following two characteristics. First, the smallsignal transconductance with zero differential input voltage should be 1.0 M. Second, a differential input voltage of 0.2 V should result in a differential output current of 85 percent of the maximum value. Assume that the devices are nchannel transistors that are made with the technology summarized in Table 2.4. Use a drawn device channel length of 1 pm. Neglect channellength modulation, and assume Xd = 0.
3.25 For the circuit of Fig. 3.45, determine the input offset voltage if the transistor base widths mismatch by 10 percent but otherwise the circuit is balanced. Let RrAIL' m. 3.26 Determine the input offset voltage of the sourcecoupled pair in Fig. 3.50 for which ITAIL= 50 pA. The drawn device dimensions are W = 10 p m and L = 1 pm. Use the process parameters given in Table 2.4. Assume that the worstcase WIL mismatch is 2 percent and the device thresholds are identical. Also assume that Xd = 0, R T A ~ L CQ and the load resistors are identical. 3.27 Use halfcircuit analysis to determine Ad,, Acm, Armdm,and Ad ,,, for a resistively , 10,aded differential pair with mismatched resistive loads, R I and R2. Assume that Rl = 10.1 kfl and Rz = 9.9 kR. Also assume that gml = g,:! = 1 mA/V, rOl + a,and r,2 + W. Finally, assume that the equivalent resistance of the tail current source r,,il = 1 M R . 3.28 Repeat Problem 3.27 but with matched loads and mismatched transistor output resistances. Assume R I = R2 = 10 kR, r , ~ 505 kR, and = r,2 = 495 kR. What happens when r,,il + m?
+
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. R. J. Widlar. "Some Circuit Design Techniques for Linear Integrated Circuits," IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory, Vol. CT12, pp. 586590, December 1965. 2. H. R. Camenzind and A. B. Grebene. "An Outline of Design Techniques for Linear Integrated Circuits," IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, Vol. SC4, pp. 110122, June 1969. 3. J. Giles. Fairchild Semiconductor Linear Integrated Circuits Applications Handbook. Fairchild Semiconductor, 1967. 4. C. L. Searle, A. R. Boothroyd, E. J. Angelo, P. E. Gray, and D. 0.Pederson. Elementary Circuil Properties of Transistors. Wiley, New York, 1964, Chapter 7. 5. S. Darlington. "Semiconductor Signal Translating Device," U.S. Patent 2,663,806, May 1952. 6. F. V. Hunt and R. W. Hickman. "On Electronic Voltage Stabilizers," Review of ScientiJic Instruments, Vol. 10, pp. 621, January 1939. 7. H. Wallman, A. B. Macnee, and C. P. Gadsden. "A LowNoise Amplifier," Proceedings of the I.R.E.. Vol. 36, pp. 700708, June 1948.
8. B. J. Hosticka. "Improvement of the Gain of MOS Amplifiers," IEEE Journal of Solidstate Circuits, Vol. SC14, pp. 111111 14, December 1979. 9. E. Sackinger and W. Guggenbiihl. "A HighSwing, HighImpedance MOS Cascode Circuit," IEEE Journal of Solidstate Circuits, Vol. 25, pp. 289298, February 1990. 10. A. D. Blumlein. "Improvements in or relating to Thermionic Valve Amplifying Circuit Arrangements," British Patent 482,740, July, 1936, 11. R. D. Middlebrook. Differential AmpEiJiers. Wiley, New York, 1963. 12. L. J. Giacoletto. Differential Amplifiers. Wiley, New York, 1970. 13. G. Erdi. "A LowDrift, LowNoise Monolithic Operational Amplifier for Low Level Signal Processing," Fairchild Semiconductor Applications Brie$ No. 136, July 1969.
Current Mirrors,Active Loads, and References
4.1 Introduction
Current mirrors made by using active devices have come to be widely used in analog intedevices grated circuits both as biasing elements and as load     for amplifier stages. The use of current mirrors in biasing can result in superior insensitivity of circuit performance to variations in power supply and temperature. Current mirrors are frequently more economiG s h a nresistors in terms of the die area required to provide bias current of a certain value, particularly when the required value of bias current is small. When used as a load element in transistor amplifiers, the high incremental resistance of the current mirror results in high voltage gain at low powersupply voltage~. The first section of this chapter describes the general properties of current mirrors and compares various bipolar and MOS mirrors to each other using these properties. The next section deals with the use of current mirrors as load elements in amplifier stages. The last section shows how current mirrors are used to construct references that are insensitive to variations in supply and temperature. Finally, the appendix analyzes the effects of device mismatch.
4.2 Current Mirrors
4.2.1 General Properties
A current mirror is an element with at least three terminals, as shown in Fig. 4.1. The common terminal is connected to a power supply, and the input current source is connected to the input terminal. Ideally, the output current is equal to the input current multiplied by a desired current gain. If the gain is unity, the input current is reflected to the output, leading to the name current mirror. Under ideal conditions, the currentmirror gain is independent of input frequency, and the output current is independent of the voltage between the output and common terminals. Furthermore, the voItage between the input and common terminals is ideally zero because this condition allows the entire supply voltage to appear across the input current source, simplifying its transistorlevel design. More than one input and/or output terminals are sometimes used. In practice, real transistorlevel current mirrors suffer many deviations from this ideal behavior. For example, the gain of a real current mirror is never independent of the input frequency. The topic of frequency response is covered in Chapter 7, and mainly dc and lowfrequency ac signals are considered in the rest of this chapter. Deviations from ideality that will be considered in this chapter are listed below.
1. One of the most important deviations from ideality is the variation of the currentmirror output current with changes in voltage at the output terminal. This effect is
254
Chapter 4 m Current Mirrors, Active Loads, a n d References
VIN
I
Current mirror COMMON
+
VIN
l
COMMON Current mirror
OUT
IN

"OUT
(b)
Figure 4.1 Currentmirror block diagrams referenced to (a) ground and (b) the positive supply.
characterized by the smallsignal output resistance, R,, of the current mirror. A Nortonequivalent model of the output of the current mirror includes R, in parallel with a current source controlled by the input current. The output resistance directly affects the performance of many circuits that use current mirrors. For example, the commonmode rejection ratio of the differential amplifier depends directly on this resistance, as does the gain of the activeload circuits. Increasing the output resistance reduces the dependence of the output current on the output voltage and is therefore desirable. Generally speaking, the output resistance increases in practical circuits when the output current decreases. Unfortunately, decreasing the output current also decreases the maximum operating speed. Therefore, when comparing the output resistance of two current mirrors, they should be compared at identical output currents. 2. Another important error source is the gain error, which is the deviation of the gain of a current mirror from its ideal value. The gain error is separated into two parts: ( l ) the systematic gain error and (2) the random gain error. The systematic gain error, E , is the gain error that arises even when all matched elements in the mirror are perfectly matched and will be calculated for each of the current mirrors presented in this section. The random gain error is the gain error caused by unintended mismatches between matched elements. 3. When the input current source is connected to the input terminal of a real current mirror, it creates a positive voltage drop, Vm, that reduces the voltage available across the input current source. Minimizing VIN is important because it simplifies the design of the input current source, especially in lowsupply applications. To reduce VIN,current mirrors sometimes have more than one input terminal. In that case, we will calculate an input voltage for each input terminal. An example is the MOS highswing cascode current mirror considered in Section 4.2.5.
4.2 Current Mirrors
255
4. A positive output voltage, VOUT, required in practice to make the output current deis pend mainly on the input current. This characteristic is summarized by the minimum voltage across the output branch, VOUT(rnin),that allows the output device(s) to operate in the active region. Minimizing VOUT(min) maximizes the range of output voltages for which the currentmirror output resistance is almost constant, which is important in applications where current mirrors are used as active loads in amplifiers (especially with low powersupply voltages). This topic is covered in Section 4.3. When current mirrors have more than one output terminal, each output must be biased above its VOUT(rnin)to make the corresponding output current depend mainly on the input current. In later sections, the performance of various current mirrors will be compared to each other through these four parameters: R,, E , VIN,and VOUT(rnin).
4.2.2 Simple Current Mirror
4.2.2.1 Bipolar
The simplest form of a current mirror consists of two transistors. Fig. 4.2 shows a bipolar version of this mirror. Transistor Q1 is diode connected, forcing its collectorbase voltage to zero. In this mode, the collectorbasejunction is off in the sense that no injection takes place there, and Ql operates in the forwardactive region. Assume that Q2 also operates in the forwardactive region and that both transistors have infinite output resistance. Then IoUT controlled by VBE2,which is equal to VBEl by KVL. A KVL equation is at the is heart of the operation of all current mirrors. Neglecting junction leakage currents, (4.1) where VT = kTlq is the thermal voltage and Isl and Is2are the transistor saturation currents. From (4. l),
If the transistors are identical, Isl = IS2 and (4.2) shows that the current flowing in the collector of Q, is mirrored to the collector of Qz. KCL at the collector of Ql yields
"cc
0
bur = ' c 2
+
0
+
+
VIN
+
I82
A
Q2
VOUT


mirror.
Figure 4.2 A simple bipolar current

256 Chapter 4
Current Mirrors, Active Loads, and References
Therefore, with identical transistors,
If PF is large, the base currents are small and Thus for identical devices Qland Q2, the gain of the current mirror is approximately unity. This result holds for both dc and lowfrequency ac currents. Above the 3dB frequency of the mirror, however, the base current increases noticeably because the impedance of the baseemitter capacitance decreases, reducing the gain of the current mirror. Frequency response is studied in Chapter 7. The rest of this section considers dc currents only. In practice, the devices need not be identical. Then from (4.2) and (4.3),
When ZS2 = IS1, (4.6) is the same as (4.4). Since the saturation current of a bipolar transistor is proportional to its emitter area, the first term in (4.6) shows that the gain of the current mirror can be larger or smaller than unity because the emitter areas can be ratioed. If the desired currentmirror gain is a rational number, MIN, the area ratio is usually set by connecting M identical devices called units in parallel to form Q2 and N units in parallel to form Ql to minimize mismatch arising from lithographic effects in forming the emitter regions. However, area ratios greater than about five to one consume a large die area dominated by the area of the larger of the two devices. Thus other methods described in later sections are preferred for the generation of large current ratios. The last term in (4.6) accounts for error introduced by finite PF. Increasing IS211S1 increases the magnitude of this error by increasing the base current of Q2 compared to that of Ql. In writing (4.1) and (4.2), we assumed that the collector currents of the transistors are independent of their collectoremitter voltages. If a transistor is biased in the forwardactive region, its collector current actually increases slowly with increasing collectoremitter voltage. Fig. 4.3 shows an output characteristic for Q2. The output resistance of the current mirror at any given operating point is the reciprocal of the slope of the output characteristic at that point. In the forwardactive region,
Figure 4.3 npn output characteristic.
Vm is changes little with changes in bias current. Since the ideal gain of the current mirror is IS2/IS1. extrapolation of the output characteristic in the forwardactive region back to the VCE2 axis gives an intercept at VA. If VA > VCEI.22. = at for the variation in IC2 changes in VCE2 can be predicted by a straight line that goes through the labeled point.8).2. Therefore. cancellation is unlikely in practice. and the transistor operates in the saturation or active region if the threshold is positive.2. the currentmirror currents can differ by more than 20 percent from those values calculated by assuming that the transistor output resistance and PF are infinite.2 Current Mirrors 257 The point where VCE2 = VCEl and VBE2 = VBEl is labeled on the characteristic. Because the collector current is controlled by the baseemitter and collectoremitter voltages.4. Although the first term in (4. the minimum output voltage required to keep Q2 in the forwardactive region is 4. Therefore.4 shows an MOS version of the simple current mirror. Since the two terms are independent. and Since VBE(on) proportional to the natural logarithm of the collector current. Although the principle of operation for MOS transistors does not involve forward biasing any diodes. however. A KVL equation is at the heart of .9) stems from finite output resistance and the second term from finite PF. changing the bias current in a current mirror changes systematic gain error mainly through changes in VCE2. IC2 (IS2/IS1)IC1 this point. Then ID2 is controlled by VGS2.9) stems from finite output resistance. the channel does not exist at the drain.which is equal to VGsl by KVL. then the systematic gain erand ror (30 . if the collectoremitter voltage of Q2 is 30 V. For example.the polarities of the two terms are opposite.2 directly but instead on the collectoremitter and Early voltages. with identical transistors and VA = 130 V.2 MOS Figure 4. Finally. The Early voltage is independent of the bias current.0.6)1130 . current mirror can be calculated from (4. of the The first term in (4. Thus for a circuit operating at a powersupply voltage of 30 V. If VCE2 > VCE1. If the slope of the characteristic in saturation is constant. therefore. Assume that M 2 also operates in the active region and that both transistors have infinite output resistance. E.21200 = 0. M 1 is said to be diode connected in an analogy to the bipolar case.the slope of the straight line is about equal > to (IS211S1)(IC11VA). where VA is the Early voltage. The draingate voltage of M1 is zero. if the collectoremitter voltage of Ql is held at VBE(on).the systematic gain error. As described in Chapter 1. it does not depend on r. The first term dominates when the difference in the collectoremitter voltages and PF are large.
the overdrive rises with temperature.3. however. Section 1.. The part of the input current that flows into the gate leads does not flow into the drain of M1 and is not mirrored to M2. the gain of the current mirror decreases as the frequency of the input current increases. and since mobility falls with increasing temperature. the devices need not be identical.16) is at least approximately correct for dc and lowfrequency ac currents.5.13) and (4. (WIL)2 = and therefore Equation 4.157). (4. If the transistors are identical. Since PF + for MOS transistors. As described in Section 1. Active Loads. therefore.258 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors.15) and KCL at the drain of M 1 yield Thus for identical devices operating in the active region with infinite output resistance.157).4 A simple MOS current mirror. Equation 4.5.15 shows that the current that flows in the drain of M 1 is mirrored to the drain of M2. and the overdrive V. As the input frequency increases.16)..13 shows that the overdrive of M2 is equal to that of M 1 . Assuming squarelaw behavior as in (1. and References Figure 4.4 shows that the threshold falls with increasing temperature. Then from (4. the gain of the current mirror is unity. the operation of all current mirrors. the overdrive for M2 is Since the transconductance parameter k' is proportional to mobility. In contrast. This result holds when the gate currents are zero. In practice. . (4. The rest of this section considers dc currents only. that is. the gate currents of M 1 and M2 increase because each transistor has a nonzero gatesource capacitance. the gatesource voltage of a given MOS transistor is usually separated into two parts: the threshold V. From KVL and (1.
17) are the effective channel lengths given by (2. the widths are ratioed rather than the lengths in most practical cases. The output resistance of the current mirror at any given operating point is the reciprocal of the slope of the output characteristic at that point.1 shows that the effective width of a given transistor differs from the drawn width because of lateral oxidation resulting in a bird's beak. In writing (4.19. Similarly. . a ratio of unequal channel lengths depends on process parameters that may not be well controlled in practice. Because the drain current is controlled by the gatesource and drainsource voltages. either the widths or the lengths can be made unequal in principle.13) and (4. If the desired currentmirror gain is a rational number. Therefore. Equation 2.9. The point where VDS2 = VDSl and VGS2 = VGSl is labeled on the characteristic. If a transistor is biased in the active region. In the active region. ID2 = [ ( W / L ) 2 / ( W / L ) I ] I D I this point.5 shows an output characteristic for M2. a ratio of two effective channel lengths is equal to the drawn ratio only if the drawn lengths are identical. the drawn channel widths are usually many times larger than the minimum dimensions allowed in a given technology. the shortest channel length allowed in a given technology is selected for most transistors to maximize speed and minimize area. In many applications.35). In contrast. As in the bipolar case. to minimize the effect of the offset terms when the currentmirror gain is designed to differ from unity. Section 2. however. To ratio the transistor sizes. ratios greater than about five to one consume a large die area dominated by the area of the larger of the two devices. we assumed that the drain currents of the transistors are independent of their drainsource voltages. Therefore. the lengths of M 1and M2 are rarely made unequal.4. its drain current actually increases slowly with increasing drainsource voltage. a ratio of unequal channel widths will also be process dependent. the variation in ID2 for changes in VDS2can be predicted by a straight line that goes Figure 4. MIN. In practice. Figure 4. Thus other methods described in later sections are preferred for the generation of large current ratios.5 Output characteristic of simple MOS current mirror. If the slope of the characteristic in saturation is conat stant.17 shows that the gain of the current mirror can be larger or smaller than unity because the transistor sizes can be ratioed. the ratio is usually set by connecting M identical devices called units in parallel to form M2 and N units in parallel to form M1 to minimize mismatch arising from lithographic effects in forming the gate regions. Since the offset terms are independent of the drawn length. The lengths that enter into (4. As a result. however.2 Current Mirrors 259 Equation 4.35 shows that the effective channel length of a given transistor differs from its drawn length by offset terms stemming from the depletion region at the drain and lateral diffusion at the drain and source.
the result is invalid except to indicate that the transistors operate in weak inversion.38 with VA = 10 V. the input voltage is  With squarelaw behavior.43 l .2)/10 0.1. Since the Early voltage is independent of the bias current. for a given change in the input current.3.2. In contrast. However. As described in Chapter 1.19). Thus for a circuit operating at a powersupply voltage of 5 V. as shown in Fig. this observation shows that changing the input bias current in a current mirror changes systematic gain error mainly through changes to the drainsource voltages.1 Bipolar In addition to the variation in output current due to finite output resistance.260 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors.9) shows that the collector current IC2 differs from the input current because of finite .2. of the current mirror can be calculated from (4. 2nVr = 78 mV. the second term in (4.2 V. Active Loads. if the drainsource voltage of M1 is held at 1. the currentmirror currents can differ by more than 35 percent from those values calculated by assuming that the transistor output resistance is infinite.21) is proportional to the square root of the input current.247) and VT is a thermal voltage. the systematic gain error. Since the ideal gain of the current mirror is (WIL)21(WIL)I. the slope of the straight line is about equal Therefore.llh. to [(WIL)21(WIL)l][IDlIVA]. and if the drainsource voltage of M 2 is 5 V.10) shows that the entire VIN in a simple bipolar mirror is proportional to the natural logarithm of the input current. E .22) is less than 2nVT. 4. where n is defined in (1. it does not depend on ro2 directly but instead on the drainsource and Early voltages. and References through the labeled point. If VA > VDS1. 1. the minimum output voltage required to keep M2 in the active region is Equation 4. For the simple MOS current mirror. At room temperature with n = 1. then the systematic gain error is (5 . unlike in the bipolar case.5. the variation in Vm in a simple MOS current mirror is generally larger than in its bipolar counterpart. (4.VA = . the overdrive in (4.22 predicts that VOUT(rnin) depends on the transistor geometry and can be made arbitrarily small in a simple MOS mirror. For example. If the transistors operate in weak inversion. Therefore. Although E stems from finite output resistance. > where VA is the Early voltage.3 Simple Current Mirror with Beta Helper 4. Finally. extrapolation of the output characteristic in the active region back to the VDS2 axis gives an intercept at . if the overdrive predicted by (4.
VIN increases by an extra baseemitter voltage for each additional emitter follower.28) T multiple emitter followers are cascaded to further reduce the gain error arising from finite f PF. 4. IC.27 shows that the systematic gain error from finite PF has been reduced by a factor of [PF + l]. Also. To reduce this source of error. KCL at the collector of Qlgives Since Icl and IC3 are equal when Ql and Q3 are identical.2 Current Mirrors 261 Figure 4. PF.6. and IBare defined as positive when flowing into the transistor. If Q . As a result. The base current of transistor Q2 is equal to Finally. posing one limit to the use of cascaded emitter followers. 4. the emitter current of transistor Q2 is where IE.6 Simple current mirror with beta helper. (The effects of nonzero resistances will be considered in Section 4. Another application of the betahelper configuration is in current mirrors with multiple outputs. and where we have neglected the effects of finite output resistance. Q2 is often referred to as a beta helper.4. Current mirrors often use a beta helper when they are constructed with pnp transistors because the value of PF for pnp transistors is usually less than for npn transistors. as shown in Fig. Although the beta helper has little effect on the output resistance and the minimum output voltage of the current mirror. an additional transistor can be added. An example with two independent outputs is shown in Fig. which is the current gain of emitter follower Q2. let RI = R3 = R4 = 0 here. it increases the input voltage by the baseemitter voltage of Q2: VIN = VB~l(on) V B E ~ ( O ~ ) + (4. Equation 4. ignore Q2 and imagine that Ql is simply diode connected.4.7. and Q3 are identical.) Then the gain from the input to .2. At first.
each output is primarily determined by the area ratios Is3/Is1 Is4/Is1.6 can be improved by the addition of emitter degeneration as shown in Fig. 4.4. multiple outputs. Furthermore. and emitter degeneration.7 Simple current mirror with beta helper. 4.2 MOS Since PF + for an MOS transistor. From (4.7 for a current mirror with two independent outputs. Q2. the use of emitter degeneration boosts the output resistance of each output of the current mirror. reduces the gain error from the input to each output by a factor of [PF + l].2.3. we find This increase in the output resistance for a given output current also decreases the component of systematic gain error that stems from finite output resistance by the same factor. and Because the bases of three instead of two transistors are connected together.1 Bipolar The performance of the simple bipolar transistor current mirror of Fig. as shown in Section 3. . Appendix A. Therefore.30) with infinite P F . Transistors Qland Q2 combine to present a very low resistance at the bases of Q3 and Q4.99).4 Simple Current Mirror with Degeneration 4. Since the beta helper.1 shows that the matching between IINand outputs Ic3 and IC4 can be greatly improved by using emitter degeneration. it is often used in bipolar current mirrors with multiple outputs. 4. a betahelper configuration can increase the bandwidth of MOS and bipolar current mirrors.2. However.8. the smallsignal output resistance seen at the collectors of Q3and Q4 is if r. and References * 1 Figure 4.262 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. First.4. which increases the gain error from the input to either output arising from finite PF.9) and (4. the gain errors worsen as the number of independent outputs increases.2. 4. Second. from (3. the total base current is increased here. beta helpers are not used in simple MOS current mirrors to reduce the systematic gain error.3. Active Loads. > RETaking Q3as an example and using > grn3 = Ic3/Vr. The purpose of the emitter resistors is twofold.
we find from which Since Is4 = 21S1. matching in MOS current mirrors is improved simply by increasing the gate areas of the transistor^. at room temperature.1 Bipolar Section 3. is about 10r. in effect. and emitter resistances can be added to improve the matching. the channel width must be increased as much as the length.5 Cascode Current Mirror 4. A bipolartransistor current mirror based on the cascode connection is shown in Fig.35) is because the last term in (4. and Q4 may be matched or ratioed. Transistor .2. MOS transistors are inherently controlled resistors. Rg.2 MOS Source degeneration is rarely used in MOS current mirrors because. and only to a secondary extent by the emitter area ratio. 4. and Q4 consist want IoUTl IIN IOUT2 of two copies of Ql connected in parallel so that Is4 = 21sl. and the price paid for the improved output resistance is that increased chip area is consumed by the current mirror. To increase the output resistance while keeping the current and VGS . Q3. the output resistance can be increased by increasing the channel length.2. we could make R3 = RI. Therefore.the solution to (4.Vt constant. If this quantity is 260 mV. if we = and = 21m. for example. is limited by corresponding increases in the input and minimum output voltages of the mirror: and The emitter areas of Ql. Since this is a desirable characteristic for a current mirror. Thus. and R4 consist of two copies of RI connected in parallel so that R4 = R1/2.2. Note that all the dc voltage drops across RI. because the natural log term in (4.8. exploring the use of cascodes for highperformance current mirrors is natural. and R4 would then be equal.4. 4.4.5.2 shows that the cascode connection achieves a very high output resistance. In addition. the WIL ratio must be held constant. Unfortunately. If we make the voltage drops ImRl and IC4R4 much greater than V T . Transistors Q3 and Ql form a simple current mirror. Using KVL around the loop including Ql and Q4 and neglecting base currents. 4.35) goes to zero. then R.35) varies slowly with its argument.the currentmirror gain to the Q4 output is determined primarily by the resistor ratio R4/R1.2 Current Mirrors 263 The quantity IC3R3is just the dc voltage drop across R3.4. For example. and E is reduced by a factor of about eleven.^^^^^ Furthermore. this improvement in R. we would make Q3 identical to Ql.
AS a result. For PO = 100. it must be reexamined here because the output resistance is so high. . however. and References Figure 4. A key problem with this calculation. the variation in the collector current of Q2 splits into two equal parts and half flows in r. we have neglected the effects of r. as described in Chapter 1.. A smallsignal analysis shows that R. and lC2 l mA. in (4. Then the simple mirror forces ie2 ib2.264 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. The colIectorbase resistance r. Transistor Q4 acts as a diode level shifter and biases the base of Q2 so that Ql operates in the forwardactive region with VCEl = VCE3= VBE3(on). results from modulation of the baserecombination current as a consequence of the Early effect. Let ib2 and ie2 represent increases in the base and emitter currents flowing out of Q2 caused by increasing output voltage. = In this calculation of output resistance. ~ concludes that because gm2rol = gmlrol > PO..98) with RE = r .8 Cascode current mirror with bipolar transistors. the percentage change in base current when VCE changed at a constant VBE would equal that of the collector current. Active Loads. the cascode configuration boosts the output resistance by approximately Po/2. a direct application of (3. and r.37) is reduced by half to  Thus.~. Q2 acts as the commonbase part of the cascode and transfers the collector current of Ql to the output while presenting a high output resistance. VA = 130 V. For a transistor whose base current is composed entirely is of baserecombination current. Although this assumption is easy to justify in the case of the simple current mirror.This calculation assumes that almost all of the small> signal current that flows into the collector of Q2 flows out its base because the smallsignal resistance connected to the emitter of Q2 is much greater than that connected to its base. is that it ignores the effect of the simple current mirror formed by Q3 and Ql. we assume that the smallsignal resistances of diodes Q3 and If Q4 are small. would be equal to Par.
This increase poses an important limitation on the minimum supply voltage when the current mirror is used as an active load for an amplifier.2 Current Mirrors 265 In this case. is much smaller than for npn transistors because most of the base current results from baseregion recombination. on the output resistance can be significant. the observed values of r. the feedback resistance r. The actual value of this resistance depends on a number of process and devicegeometry variables. On the other hand. Ql acts as if it were diode connected. has a negligible effect here with npn transistors. Since VCEl = VCE3 = v~E(on) 3 Comparing (4.IC1 IC3. Since only this component is modulated by the Early effect. for lateral pnp transistors.38) must allow both Ql and Q2 to be biased in the forwardactive region. As a result. feedback from r. must be considered. The collector current of Q2 is . the effect of r. Since VCEl = VCE3. for a cascode current mirror constructed with lateral pnp transistors. and the systematic gain error arising from finite transistor output resistance is almost zero. however.38) by a factor of 1S. From KCL at the collector of Q3. if the resistance from the base of Ql to ground is increased while all other parameters are held constant. only a small percentage of the base current results from recombination in the base.10) for a simple current mirror. In actual integratedcircuit npn transistors. r . local feedback from r. however. In the cascode current mirror. the increase becomes a limitation only if the powersupply voltage is reduced to nearly two diode drops. On the other hand. when considering current mirrors that give output resistances higher than Par.l is greatly attenuated and has negligible effect on the output resistance. Local feedback is considered in Chapter 8. but observed values range from 2 to 5 times Par. A key limitation of the cascode current mirror. Furthermore. are a factor of 10 or more larger than Par. the base of Ql is connected to a lowresistance point because Q3 is diode connected. From KCL at the collector of Q4.4.11) shows that the minimum output voltage for a cascode current mirror is higher than for a simple current mirror by a diode drop.. Therefore.. would be to reduce the output resistance of the cascode current mirror given in (4. Therefore. the effect of r.41) and (4.. The minimum output voltage for which the output resistance is given by (4. the effects of r. is that the systematic gain error arising from finite PF is worse than for a simple current mirror. In the limit where the resistance from the base of Q1 to ground becomes infinite. The input voltage of the cascode current mirror is Although VINis higher here than in (4.l significantly affects the baseemitter voltage of Ql and reduces the output resistance.
r.5. the MOS substrate leakage current described in Section 1. This limitation of a cascode current mirror is overcome by the Wilson current mirror described in Section 4.42) and (4.9 shows the simplest form. the MOS cascode is capable of realizing arbitrarily high output resistance by increasing the number of stacked cascode devices because PO+ m for MOS transistors. the systematic gain error stemming from finite PF in a simple current mirror with identical transistors is about 2/PF./2 because PO is finite and nonzero smallsignal base current flows in the cascode transistor. 4. Figure 4. and g.48) simplifies to > In contrast. which is less in magnitude than (4. and References Substituting (4.50) R0 = ro2[1 + (gm2 + gmb2)roll + r o l As shown in the previous section.2 MOS The cascode current mirror is widely used in MOS technology. where it does not suffer from finite PF effects. The output resistance of each transistor is . From (3. Assume all the transistors operate in the active region with ID = 10 FA.44) gives Equation 4.2.43) gives Rearranging (4. = 50.46 can be rearranged to give Equation 4. 4.10. the smallsignal output resistance is (4. Neglect body effect. In contrast.107). EXAMPLE ~ Find the output resistance of the doublecascode current mirror shown in Fig.6. the bipolar cascode current mirror cannot realize an output resistance larger than Por. Active Loads. which can dominate the output resistance for VoUT > v ~ ~ ~ ( ~ ~ ~ ) .44) into (4.2. (4.9 can create a resistive shunt to ground from the output node.45) to find IC3 and substituting back into (4. However. V A = 50 V.266 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors.47 shows that the systematic gain error is When > 1.49) predicts for a cascode current mirror if PF > 4.
4. M . (b) Cascode current mirror using MOS transistors. VDD Figure 4. . ( b )IV characteristic. in triode region Both M and M.10 Example of a doublecascode current mirror. active. in triode region .2 Current Mirrors 267 \ Figure ' M .
4. such as the substrate leakage path.9. Although the overdrive term in (4.9 is The input voltage here includes two gatesource drops.268 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. = r. Active Loads. 4. and because PF + for MOS transistors. From KVL in Fig. each composed of threshold and overdrive components. For M 2 to operate in the active region.).(4. VGS2 is not exactly equal to VGS4 even with perfect matching unless VoUT = VIN because of channellength modulation.53) + rn With such a large output resistance. the minimum output voltage for which M 1and M2 operate in the active region is  If the transistors all have equal overdrives.57) Also.These results are shown graphically in Fig. Together. When M1 and M2 both operate in the active region. the systematic gain error of the cascode current mirror is zero because M1 and M3 are identically biased.59) .9b. Furthermore. M2 operates in the triode region if VoUT < VOUT(rnin). VDsl VDS3 and  The input voltage of the MOS cascode current mirror in Fig. and On the other hand.(l + gmr.)2 = 5 ( 5 1 ) ~ MSZ = 13 GCl R. looking into the drain of M3 Each cascode stage increases the output resistance by a factor of about (1 Therefore. and References From (4. looking into the drain of M2: Similarly. Since VDSS = VGS3.54) shows that VDsl = VDS3 when VGS2 = VGS4. As a result. In practice. the threshold term represents a significant loss of voltage swing when the current mirror is used as an active load in an amplifier. VIN = 2Vt + 2Vov (4. Ignoring the body effect and assuming the transistors all have equal overdrives. could be comparable to this resistance in practice. other parasitic leakage paths. VDS2> Vov2is required. Under this condition. (4. VDsl VDS3 = VGS3. the body effect increases the threshold of all transistors with Vss > 0. 4. both M1 and M2 operate in the triode region if VoUT < Vovl. adding extra cascode levels increases the input voltage by another threshold and another overdrive component for each additional cascode.59) can be made small by using large values of W for a given current. gmr.50). these facts increase the difficulty of designing the input current source for low powersupply voltages. Therefore. The threshold term in (4.
stems from the biasing of the drainsource voltage of M 1 so that Ignoring the body effect and assuming that M1M4 all operate in the active region with equal overdrives. 4 . Because the gatesource voltage of M5 is greater than its threshold by the overdrive. Therefore.4. To reduce VDsl. level shifted down by a threshold as shown in Fig.11 b. (c) IV characteristic.2 Current Mirrors 269 (b) Figure 4. (b) Practical implementation. voltage from the gate of M2 to ground can be the . the drainsource voltage of M 1 would be zero with equal thresholds and overdrives on all transistors. however. as shown in Fig. 4. . the drainsource voltage of M 1is a threshold larger than necessary to operate M 1 in the active region. a source follower is used to implement the level shift. 1 1 ~In practice.6 Transistor M5 acts as the source follower and is biased by the output of the simple current mirror M3 and M6.1 1 (a) MOS cascode current mirror with improved biasing for maximum voltage swing.
Therefore. and References To bias M1 at the boundary between the active and triode regions. 4. Since the sourcebody voltage of MS is higher than that of M4. the input voltage and the systematic gain error are worsened compared to the cascode current mirror without level shift. is required.65) shows that IoUT < I I N .64) Since Mg and M1 form a simple current mirror with unequal drainsource voltages. V .9.11 places much less restriction on the range of output voltages that can be achieved in an amplifier using this current mirror as an active load than the mirror in Fig.62). respectively. the threshold term in (4. it operates in the active region as long as the input current and threshold are . the desired difference in the gate voltages is V. In practice. The output resistance of the highswing cascode current mirror is the same as in (4. the mirror in Fig.50). the current mirror in Fig. To bias M1 at the edge of the active region. the overdrive on M4 is doubled by reducing its W I L by a factor of four to satisfy (4.59) is eliminated and Because the minimum output voltage does not contain a threshold component..270 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. This type of level shifting to reduce VOUT(rnin) also can be applied to bipolar circuits. but the overdrive component of the gatesource voltage of M4 has increased by a factor of two because its WIL has been reduced by a factor of four. For this reason. 1 2 ~ Since M6 is diode . E = 0. In a single combined input branch. the systematic gain error is The negative sign in (4.11 is called a highswing cascode current mirror. Therefore. VIN = 2Vt + 3V.~ connected.1. Vt5 > Vt4. Therefore. Therefore. Combining the input branches eliminates the possibility of mismatch between the two branch currents and may reduce the power dissipation. = 1 V.. 4.50) when both M 1 and M2 operate in the active region. although the body effect was not considered in this analysis. if IIN = 100 pA... + V. the required voltages from the gates M 1and M2 to ground are V. 4 .. which is determined by the following KVL loop Each of the gatesource voltage terms in (4. Active Loads. However. as shown in Fig. increasing the drainsource voltage of M1 by a few hundred millivolts above VOv1 usually is required to realize the incremental output resistance predicted by (4. the range of output voltages for which M1 and M2 both operate in the active region is significantly improved.56). which means that IoUT * 90 p A. some element must provide a voltage drop equal to the desired difference between the gate voltages of M1 and M2. and VA = 10 V..11 is that the input current is mirrored to a new branch to do the level shift. Second. Therefore. One drawback of the current mirror in Fig. Also. The input voltage is still given by (4. (4. 4. Simulations with highaccuracy models are usually required to find the optimum (WIL)4. First. Vt2 > Vt3 because the sourcebody voltage of M2 is higher than that of M3.For example. it tends to reduce the drainsource voltage on M1. MOS transistors display an indistinct transition from the triode to active regions. and Vt + 2V.As a result. (WIL)4 < (1/4)(WIL)is usually selected for two reasons. 4.66)contains a threshold component. This voltage difference can be developed across the drain to the source of a transistor deliberately operated in the triode region.
.2 Current Mirrors 271 Figure 4. since the gatesource voltage of M6is equal to the gatedrain voltage of M 5 .. The goaI is to set when . Since M5 operates in the triode region. Since M6 operates in the active region. 1 2 ~ a current mirror. However. (b) Sooch cascode current mirror using the circuit in (a). a channel exists at the drain of M5 when it exists at the source of M6. positive.12 (a) Circuit that forces M> to operate in the triode region. To use the circuit in Fig. M6 forces M5 to operate in the triode region. we would like to choose the aspect in ratios of the transistors so that the drainsource voltage of M5 is V. 4 . In other words.4.
Since Equation 4.70). and M 1is biased at the edge of the active region. At first. . the systematic gain error is E = O (4. By choosing equal aspect ratios for all devices except M 5 .7which is called the Sooch cascode current mirror after its inventor. input voltage. The purpose of M4 is to set the drainsource voltage of M3 equal to that of M 1 . causing nonzero systematic gain error. With M4. The output resistance. Active Loads... 4. increasing the systematic gain error.68) . (4.73). VGS5 = V G S + V D S S= Vt f 2Vov ~ Substituting (4.79) Therefore.67) gives Equation 4. 12b. checking the region of .77) Then substituting (4. the purpose of M4 is to equalize the drainsource voltages of M3 and M 1 to reduce the systematic gain error. Now we will consider the effect of transistor M4. Since increasing temperature causes the threshold to decrease.77) into (4.(4.65) respectively. and References From (4. but the overdrive to increase. 4. Although this condition is usually satisfied. For M4 to operate in the active region.50). where Ignoring channellength modulation.69) and (4. V G S= ~ v t + vov (4.71) into (4..64). VDS4 > Vo. and systematic gain error are the same as in (4.76) and (4. > V.74) gives If M2 also operates in the active region under these conditions. (4.12a is used in the current mirror of Fig.72 can be simplified to The circuit of Fig.Without M4. and (4. a low threshold andlor high overdrive may cause M4 to operate in the triode region.. minimum output voltage. these drainsource voltages differ by a threshold. is required.272 Chapter 4 B Current Mirrors. ignore transistor M4 and assume that M3 is simply diode connected. The difference between the voltages to ground from the gates of M 1 and M2 is set by the drainsource voltage of M5. VDS3 = V D S I AS a result.80 shows that M4 operates in the active region if V. whose aspect ratio is given by (4. the gatesource voltage of M4 depends strongly on its drainsource voltage.63). the drainsource voltage of M5 is V. If this happens. Ignoring the body effect and assuming that M4 operates in the active region.
Also. allowing the input current sources to operate properly with powersupply voltages greater than about 2 V. reduced thresholds or a new configuration is required.81 shows that the input voltage of the highswing cascode current mirror in Fig.79).4. the cascode current mirrors in Figs.64) for Fig.50) applies is still given by (4. the input branch can be split into two branches.2 Current Mirrors 273 operation of M4 in simulation at the maximum expected operating temperature is important in practice. Since the mirror in Fig. 4. is that the input voltage is large. 4. In Fig.11. the drainsource voltage of M3 is equal to that of M1.13 has two input branches.12 is the same as in (4.12 can operate properly for powersupply voltages greater than about 3 V.1 1. 4.13 MOS highswing current mirror with two input branches. 4. assuming thresholds of about 1 V. and the systematic gain error is still zero as in (4. .12b by more than a threshold.64) for Fig.50). Below about 2 V. In Fig. circuit techniques to reduce the input voltage are important to minimize cost. but this solution increases process complexity and cost. however. if M4 operates in the active region. as shown in Fig. 4. 4.13. Furthermore. + Figure 4. the input voltage is Equation 4. 4. With threshold voltages of about 1 V. Therefore. the output resistance is still given by (4.11 and 4. Reducing the magnitude of the threshold for all transistors increases the difficulty in turning off transistors that are used as switches. The main limitation of the highswing cascode current mirrors just presented. To reduce the input voltage. the minimum output voltage for which (4. 4.63). This problem can be overcome by using lowthreshold devices in the current mirror and highthreshold devices as switches. The large input voltages may limit the minimum powersupply voltage because a transistorlevel implementation of the input current source requires some nonzero drop for proper operation.12. an input voltage can be calculated for each: Both VINl and VIN2 are less than the input voltage given in (4.64) ignoring body effect. If M1 and M2 are biased in the active region. the input voltage is the sum of the gatesource voltages of M gand M4 and is given by (4.
14b. SO reducing the systematic gain error caused by finite PF.14a. activating Q3 to reduce the basecurrent error and raise the output resistance. and References Finally. as given in (4. Active Loads..3 > 1. (b) Smallsignal model. the This circuit uses negative Wilson current mirror can be used as shown in Fig. and g.lr. 4.13. which causes current of the same magnitude to flow in Q3. To overcome this limitation. Similarly. +  (4 (b) Figure 4.3 in parallel with ro3. Transistor Q3 could be modeled as a voltagecontrolled current source of value gm3v. Assume that an unknown current il flows in this resistance. Since Q1 is diode connected. When g. To find the output resistance of the Wilson current mirror when all transistors operate in the active region. Therefore. the drainsource voltage of M5 is only used to bias the source of M6. the smallsignal resistance from the base of Ql to ground is (llgml))lr. as shown in Fig.6 Wilson Current Mirror 4. 4. the collector current of Q2 also increases. .2. in turn increasing the collector current of Q1.l > 1. This model represents the behavior of the simple current mirror directly: The input current il is mirrored to the output by the currentcontrolled current source.l \lrm3 lIrol. The aspect ratio of M7 should be a factor of four smaller than the aspect ratios of M1M4 to maintain the bias conditions as in Fig. when the output voltage increases. gmlr.3 = v.14b. Transistors Ql and Q3 form a simple current mirror. (See Chapter 8. Call this replacement transistor M7. the aspect ratio of M7 is further reduced to bias M1 past the edge of the active region and to overcome a mismatch in the thresholds of M7 and M2 caused by body effect. in Fig. 4.13. this resistance is approximately > > > equal to l/gml.Since v. which reduces the base current of Q2. 4. in which a test current source it is applied at the output.274 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. A feedback path is thus formed that regulates IC3 that it is nearly equal to the input current.~ feedback through Ql.2. In practice. the voltagecontrolled current source in the model for Q3 can be replaced by a currentcontrolled current source of value (gm3/gml)(il)= l(il). the difference between the input current and IC3 flows into the base of Q2. As a result. 4. This base current is multiplied by (PF 1) and flows in the diodeconnected transistor Q1.) From a qualitative standpoint. r.6. we will analyze the smallsignal model shown in Fig.14 (a) Bipolar Wilson current mirror.l > 1.49). The decrease in the base current of Q2 caused by negative feedback reduces the original change in the collector current of Q2 and increases the output resistance.l illgml. 4. the collector current of Q3 increases.1 Bipolar The main limitation of the bipolar cascode current mirror is that the systematic gain error stemming from finite PF was large. M j and M6 can be collapsed into one diodeconnected transistor whose source is grounded.
2 Current Mirrors 275 Using this model.88) into (4. On the other hand.2.85) gives To find the relationship between il and it.84) and rearranging gives If rg .14b to show that Rearranging (4. use KCL at node @ in Fig. note that the voltage across r03 is (illgml vT2) + and use KCL at node @ in Fig.86) into (4. m.4.88) and (4.86) and rearranging gives l 1 + Substituting (4.90)reduces to + This result is the same as (4. in the Wilson current mirror. In the cascode current mirror. 4. 4. the smallsignal current that flows in the .14b to show that Substituting (4.38) for the cascode current mirror.87) and rearranging gives Substituting (4. the smallsignal current that flows in the collector of Q3 is equal to il and (4.89) into (4. the smallsignal current that flows in the base of Q2 is mirrored through Q3 to Ql so that the smallsignal base and emitter currents leaving Q2 are approximately equal. the resulting voltage vt is To find the relationship between il and v.
40) for a cascode current mirror.99)into (4. Therefore. Ic3 = Ic1 Substituting (4.14a. and References emitter of Q2is mirrored through Q to Q3 and then flows in the base of Q2. the minimum output voltage for which both transistors in the output branch operate in the forwardactive region is (4. 1 Although the cause and effect relationship here is opposite of that in a cascode current mirror. the output resistance is unchanged because the smallsignal base and emitter currents leaving Q2are still forced to be equal. the smallsignal collector current of Q2that flows because of changes in the output voltage still splits into two equal parts with half flowing in r. To find the systematic gain error. For the purpose of dc analysis. we assume that VA C and that the transistors are O identical. Inserting (4. start with KCL at the collector of Q lto show that Since we assumed that the transistors are identical and V A + CO. Active Loads.we find that In the configuration shown in Fig.the collector current of Q2is then Rearranging (4.98) and (4. operate with collectoremitter voltages . the systematic gain error arising from finite output resistance is not zero because Q3 and Q.97)we obtain From KCL at the base of Q2.41)for a cascode current mirror. Then the input voltage is + which is the same as in (4.93)is the same as in (4. 4.276 Chapter 4 m Current Mirrors.93) V ~ ~ ~ ( r n = V C E ~ V c ~ 2 ( s a t ) = V B E ( O ~ ) VCE2(sar) in) + + The result in (4.95)into (4.96). Also.95).94) gives Using (4.2.
4 . 4. 1 4 ~ than in the cascode current mirror shown in Fig.2. With finite VA and finite PF. Second. 4. 4. Therefore. 4. the systematic gain error arising from finite output resistance is worse in the Wilson current mirror shown in Fig. the circuit operation is essentially identical to the bipolar case with PF + m.6. Ignoring M4.103) is based on the smallsignal model for the bipolar Wilson current mirror in Fig.2 + in (4. the systematic gain error is Comparing (4. as shown in Fig.104) because M 1 is diode connected and therefore the voltage from the source of M2 to ground is almost constant.4.14b.90). which gives Since the calculation in (4. .2 MOS Wilson current mirrors are also used in MOS technology.49) shows two key points.15 Improved MOS Wil    son current mirror with an additional device such that the drain voltages of M 1 and M3 are equal.2 gives The body effect on M2 has little effect on (4.2 Current Mirrors 277 that differ by the baseemitter voltage of Q2.9. the systematic gain error arising from finite PF in a Wilson current mirror is much less than in a cascode current mirror. it ignores the body effect in transistor M 2 .15. this limitation is not fundamental because it can be overcome by introducing a new diodeconnected transistor between the collector of Q3 and the base of Q2 to equalize the collectoremitter voltages of Q3 and Ql . First.102) to (4. One way to calculate the output resistance is to let r. However. VIN VOUT Figure 4. Repeating the analysis with a bodyeffect generator in parallel with r.
Therefore. .3. the minimum output voltage is Under the same conditions. In Chapter 9. maximizing the gain of each stage is important. (4.104) applies or the input voltage. we will show that the required gain should be obtained in as few stages as possible to minimize potential problems with instability. which in turn requires a large powersupply voltage.1 Motivation In differential amplifiers of the type described in Chapter 3. Furthermore. and let the resistive loads be RD. Therefore. For example. the required die area for the resistors can be large. Also. the differentialmode (dm) voltage gain is Large gain is often desirable because it allows negative feedback to make the gain with feedback insensitive to variations in the parameters that determine the gain without feedback. Ignoring body effect and assuming equal overdrives on all transistors. and References Although PF + for MOS transistors. resistors are used as the load elements. Multiplying the numerator and denominator of (4. For this circuit. by the gatesource voltage of M2. (4. let I represent the collector current Ic of each transistor in the differential pair.110) can be rewritten as To achieve large voltage gain. Let I represent the drain current ID of each transistor in the differential pair.104) if all transistors operate in the active region.3 Active Loads 4. This topic is covered in Chapter 8. From (1. As a result. insertion of M4 does not change either the minimum output voltage for which (4.91). A similar situation occurs in MOS amplifiers with resistive loads. the output resistance is still given by (4. the systematic gain error is not zero without M4 because the drainsource voltage of Mg differs from that of M. 3. consider the differential amplifier shown in Fig.45.109) by I gives With bipolar transistors. without M4.278 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors.111) shows that the IcRc product must be made large. Active Loads. the input voltage is 4. large values of resistance are required when low current is used to limit the power dissipation. Transistor M4 is inserted in series with Mg to equalize the drainsource voltages of Mg and M1 so that With M4.
114) show that the output IV characteristics of T1 can be used directly in the analysis of the relationship between the output variables.and the output current. Also.16b.3.1 12) shows that the gain of an MOS differential pair is usually much less than the gain of its bipolar counterpart with equal resistive drops. comparing (4.9 Since the load element in such a circuit is a transistor instead of a resistor. . 4.4. since the overdrive is usually much larger than the thermal voltage. If the powersupply voltage is only slightly larger than the drop on the resistors.110) can be rewritten as Equation 4. This result stems from the observation that bipolar transistors provide much more transconductance for a given current than MOS transistors provide. 1 6 ~ the gatesource voltage of T 1 in Fig.1. commonsource counterpart with a pchannel MOS currentmirror load is shown in Fig. the input voltage is the parameter that determines the particular curve (4 (b) Figure 4.57) and (1. lout. 4 . 4.16b.2 CommonEmitter/CommonSourceAmplifier with Complementary Load A commonemitter amplifier with pnp currentmirror load is shown in Fig. (b) Commonsource amplifier with active load. (4. the load element is said to be active instead of passive. a large power supply is usually required for large gain. To overcome this problem and provide large gain without large powersupply voltages or resistances. relationship between these variables is governed by both the input The transistor and the load transistor. VOut. the range of commonmode input voltages for which the input transistors would operate in the active region would be severely restricted in both bipolar and MOS amplifiers. and Equations (4.111) and (4. and large resistance is usually required to limit power dissipation. From the standpoint of the input transistor T1.3 Active Loads 279 From (1. of a transistor can be used as a load element. Since the inand put voltage is the baseemitter voltage of T1 in Fig. the r. In both cases. 1 6 ~ The .16 ( a ) Commonemitter amplifier with active load.1 12 shows that the IDRDproduct must be increased to increase the gain with constant overdrive. 4 .l 80). there are two output variables: the output voltage. As a result. 4.113) and (4.
(d)dc transfer characteristic of commonemitter or commonsource amplifier with currentmirror load. 4.116 shows that the load curve should be shifted to the right by an amount equal to the powersupply voltage.Therefore.V characteristics with load characteristic superimposed. as shown in Fig.17b. Initially. 1 7 ~As Vi is increased. and Vout = VCC + Vce2 or Vout = VDD + Vds2 Equation 4. (b) IV characteristic of the active load. (c) I .280 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. Active Loads. . and the load is saturated in the bipolar case and linear in the MOS case. 1 7 ~ . Then the input transistor is turned off.17 (a) IV characteristics of the input transistor.115 shows that the output characteristic of the load transistor should be mirrored along the horizontal axis to plot in the same quadrant as the output characteristics of the input transistor. in the family of output characteristics under consideration at any point. In contrast. 4 . only one curve in the family of output IV characteristics needs to be considered for the load transistor. the input transistor eventually begins to conduct current but the load remains saturated or . Equation 4. We now consider the dc transfer characteristic of the circuits. corresponding to point @ in Fig. as shown in Fig. and References Figure 4. From the standpoint of the load transistor. 4 . the baseemitter or gatesource voltage of the load transistor T2 is fixed by diodeconnected transistor T 3 . assume that Vi = 0.
lvl = 0.l + CC and r. the results are often so complicated that the effects of the key parameters are difficult to understand. causing distortion to appear in the amplifier output. as shown in (4. which is important because the slope is the gain of the amplifier. the amplifier is nonlinear in general. the output is low and the gain is low because the input transistor does not operate in the active region. 4. we set the input to zero. A key point of this analysis is that the slope of the output characteristic is not constant.1 17 together with (1. Unfortunately.16 maintain high incremental output resistance as long as the drop across the load is more than VOUT(rnin) the current mirror. 4.16 is assumed constant. the output is high and the gain is low because the load transistor does not operate in the active region.4.11 1) and (4. In contrast.Since IREF Fig. for large Vi. the range of outputs for which the gain is high and nearly constant is much less than with an active load. increasing the difficulty of designing with these results. Furthermore. after completing such a largesignal analysis. the smallsignal baseemitter or gatesource voltage of the load transistor. where all transistors operate in the active region. 4.112) and (1. The smallsignal equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. Since we are ultimately interested in being able to analyze and design circuits with a large number of transistors.18. which is (VCE2(sat)in the bipolar case and I Vov2I of I in the MOS case here. this procedure requires writing equations for the various curves in all of Fig. Since v2 = 0. Therefore. In general. we will concentrate on the smallsignal analysis. The change in V irequired to move from point @to point @is small because the slopes of the output IV characteristics in the active region are small for both transistors.lvl flows in rOlllro2 and . is zero. 4.17d. The range of outputs for which all transistors operate in the active region should be maximized to use the powersupply voltage to the maximum extent. Therefore. The gain at any output voltage can be found by finding the slope in Fig. the smallsignal analysis provides no information about nonlinearity because it assumes that all transistor parameters are constant. minimizing VOUT(rnin) the mirror maximizes the range of of outputs over which the amplifier provides high and nearly constant gain. it is so complicated analytically that it is difficult to carry out for more than just a couple of transistors at a time. TO find the output resistance of the amplifier. 4. which is much simpler to carry out and interpret than the largesignal analysis.17. the amplifier should be operated in the intermediate region of Vi. The active loads in Fig. Therefore. It is drawn for the bipolar case but applies in for the MOS case as well when r. As a result. The primary characteristics of interest in the smallsignal analysis here are the voltage gain and output resistance when both devices operate in the active region. v1 = 0 and g. Similarly. the smallsignal voltagecontrolled current gm2v2 = 0. Although this process is required to study the nonlinear behavior of the circuits. v2. an ideal passive load requires a large voltage drop to give high gain.17d. As a result. Since the gain of the amplifier depends on the input voltage.194) show that the output resistance is inversely proportional to the current in both the bipolar and MOS cases.2 t because PO + a. where the input transistor saturates in the bipolar case or enters the linear region in the MOS case. For low Vi.1 12). To minimize distortion while providing gain. the largesignal baseemitter or gatesource voltage of the load transistor is constant. Here the load enters the active region and a small further increase in Vi moves the operating point through point @ to point @. g. 4. and the output resistance is Equation 4.3 Active Loads 281 linear until point @ is reached. The transfer curve (Voutas a function of Vi) is sketched in Fig.
224). In contrast. The IV characteristic of an nchannel MOS depletionload transistor is illustrated in Fig. the gain in (4. however.180) shows that the transconductance is proportional to the square root of the current in the MOS case assuming squarelaw operation. Therefore. 4. With channel lengths less than 1 pm. the drain current is almost linearly related to the gatesource voltage.A complete gain stage is shown in Fig. Typical values for this voltage gain are in the 1000 to 2000 range. typical values for the voltage gain in the MOS case are between 10 and 100. Neglecting body effect. which is much less than with bipolar transistors.112) into (4. When the body effect is included. The smallsignal equivalent model when both transistors operate in the active region is shown in . Therefore. 18 Smallsignal equivalent circuit for commonemitter amplifier with active load.118) is inversely proportional to the square root of the current. Therefore. A depletion transistor is useful as a load element because it behaves like a current source when the transistor operates in the active region with the gate shorted to the source.19.118) gives for the bipolar case. Substituting (1. Equation 4. as shown in (1.91) and (1.119 shows that the gain is independent of the current in the bipolar case because the transconductance is proportional to the current while the output resistance is inversely proportional to the current. and the gain is inversely proportional to the current with very short channel lengths. 4. the device exhibits a very high output resistance (equal to the device r.3 CommonEmitter/CommonSourceAmplifier with Depletion Load Actively loaded gain stages using MOS transistors can be realized in processes that include only nchannel or only pchannel transistors if depletion devices are available. and References Figure A.282 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. 4. the resistance seen across the device drops to approximately l/gmb.) as long as the device operates in the active region. the transconductance is almost constant. (1.20 together with its dc transfer characteristic. the actively loaded bipolar stage provides very high voltage gain. Active Loads. Furthermore.3.
4. (b) IV characteristic.21 Smallsignal equivalent circuit of the commonsource amplifier with depletion load. M 2 in triode region Both transistors active M in triode region . (b) dc transfer characteristic. Figure 4. Figure 4. including the body effect in the load and the channellength modulation in the load and the commonsource device.Without body effect .19 (a) nchannel depletionmode load transistor. (4 (b) Figure 4. v. ..3 Active Loads I 283 .20 (a) Commonsource amplifier with depletionmode transistor load.
120). Since the load is diode connected.120 applies for either a commonemitter or commonsource driver with a depletion MOS load. the load resistance is no more than the reciprocal of the transconductance of the load.120) gives Although the gain predicted in (4. Equation 4. From (1.123) is much higher than in (4. and it is often used in wideband amplifiers that require low gain. 4. As a result. and the circuit provides amplification. From this circuit. we examine the commonemitter/source amplifier with diodeconnected load as shown in MOS form in Fig.157). this connection reduces the bandwidth of the amplifier because it adds extra capacitance (from the well of M z to the substrate of the integrated circuit) to the amplifier output node.4 CommonEmitter/CommonSourceAmplifier with DiodeConnected Load In this section. transistor M 1 is off and no current flows in the circuit. . Assume that both transistors operate in the active region. For input voltages that are less than one threshold voltage. 4. transistor M 1 turns on. rearranging (4.180) and (1. the gain of this circuit is low. If this circuit is implemented in a pwell CMOS technology. Active Loads. it eliminates the body effect.3. Setting gmb2 = 0 in (4. incremental voltage gain varies with output voltage. 4. and References Fig.200) gives the Since X depends on V.284 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors.22. Since this connection sets the sourcebody voltage in the load transistor to zero. 4.120) and using (1.20b.22. When the input voltage exceeds a threshold. which can be connected to the source of M2.21. the drain currents of M1 and M 2 are and From KVL in Fig. = VSB. giving the slope variation shown in the active region of Fig. M2 can be built in an isolated well. we find that the gain is For a commonsource amplifier with a depletion load. 4.
129 holds when both transistors operate in the active region and when channellength modulation and body effect are negligible.125) for Vgs2 and substituting into (4. the requirement that both transistors operate in the active region leads to an important performance limitation . assuming that the thresholds are constant. (4.4.22 ( a ) Commonsource amplifier with enhancementmode load.124) into (4.129 shows that the slope of the transfer characteristic is the square root of the aspect ratios. ( b ) IV characteristic of load transistor. in triode region Figure 4. the gain is constant and the amplifier is linear for a wide range of inputs if the thresholds are constant. Solving (4. This amplifier is useful in implementing broadband. lowgain amplifiers with high Iinearity. (c) Transfer characteristic of the circuit. Since the slope of the transfer characteristic is the gain of the amplifier. In practice.3 Active Loads 285 Both transistors in cutoff VDD (vDDvt2) Both transistors active Transistor M 2 active Transistor M.126) gives Since 1 2 = I l . Equation 4.128) with Vgsl = Vi gives Equation 4.127) can be rewritten as Substituting (4.
Also. Active Loads. Alternatively. The load device remains in the active region only if the drainsource voltage of the load is at least a threshold voltage.130) gives as in (4.49. From KCL at the output node. including output resistance and body effect in the load.23.l Q ~ ~ I V ~ S I o L o  Figure 4. the amplifier is incapable of producing an output more positive than one threshold voltage below the positive supply.For practical device geometries. In this case. the load transistor enters the cutoff region and carries no current. and References + + vgs l ll I I . To limit the current but maintain unity gain. The smallsignal voltage gain can be determined by using the smallsignal equivalent circuit of Fig. In contrast.286 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors.o + v0 vi .Vt2. The magnitude of its gain would be approximately equal to the ratio of the transconductances. emitter degeneration is used in the differential pair to increase the range of inputs for which all transistors operate in the active region. Therefore. For output voltages more positive than VDD. the input transistors can be replaced by a differential pair. 4. equalvalue resistors can be placed in series with the emitter of each transistor. However. source degeneration is . in practice. Rearranging (4.22 is a commonemitter amplifier with a diodeconnected load. in which both the body effect and the output resistance of the two transistors have been included. channellength modulation and body effect reduce the gain as shown in the following smallsignal analysis. in enhancementload inverters. as in Fig. 3. 4.23 Smallsignal equivalent circuit for the commonsource amplifier with enhancementmode load. this relationship limits the maximum voltage gain to values on the order of 10 to 20. which would be unity.129). The bipolar counterpart of the circuit in Fig. where the current is limited by the tail current source. the current that would flow in this circuit would be extremely large for inputs greater than Vbe(on)because the collector current in a bipolar transistor is an exponential function of its baseemitter voltage.
5. (b) Figure 4. and that all pchannel transistors are identical.5 Differential Pair with CurrentMirror Load 4. (b) Commonmode half circuit for differential pair with active load.3.4. 4. however.3. 4. as in Fig. 4.3Active Loads 287 rarely used in MOS differential pairs because their transconductance and linear range can be controlled through the device aspect ratios. Then the differentialmode half circuit for this differential pair is just a commonsource amplifier with an activeload. has the drawback that the quiescent value of the commonmode output voltage is very sensitive to changes in the drain currents of vs.24~.1 LargeSignal Analysis A straightforward application of the activeload concept to the differential pair would yield Assume at first that all nchannel transistors are identical the circuit shown in Fig. Thus the differentialmode voltage gain is large when all the transistors are biased in the active region. .16b. The circuit as it stands.24 (a) Differential pair with active load.
and v. 4 . shifts in the commonmode input voltage have little effect on the commonmode output unless the inputs become low enough that M7 and MS are forced to operate in the triode region. and Mg. reducing the differential gain or the range of outputs for which the differential gain is high. these circuits each provide a single output with much better rejection of commonmode input signals than a standard resistively loaded differential pair with the output taken off one side only. + m. 4 . M4. Key parameters of interest in this circuit include the smallsignal transconductance and output resistance.24b. This topic is covered in Chapter 12. 4.. the required change in the commonmode output voltage can be large even for a small mismatch in reference currents or transistors. KCL requires that the current in M3 must be equal to the current in Mg. Since M 1and M2 act as cascodes for M7 and M 8 . IREF2 is not exactly equal to IREF1. Instead. the combination of M. M3 operates in the triode region. Although these circuits can be analyzed from a largesignal standpoint. the active load is a current mirror that forces the current in its output transistor T4 to equal the current in its input transistor T3. For example. Assume that all transistors operate  . and the current mirrors contain nonzero mismatch. Furthermore. KCL can be satisfied while all transistors = operate in the active region. of the active load must equal ITAIL KCL. 2 5 ~ because each npn and p n p transistor has been replaced by nchannel and pchannel MOS transistors. this problem is usually overcome in practice through the use of a separate commonmode feedback circuit. which is connected to the simple current mirror formed by M3 and MS. Therefore. This fact is illustrated by the dc commonmode halfcircuit shown in Fig.288 C h a ~ t e4 r Current Mirrors.25a.25. and M8 form a cascode current mirror. suppose that the current pushed down by Mg when it operates in the active region is more than the current pulled down by M8 when it operates in the active region. 2 4 ~ not usually adequate to overcome the commonmode bias is problem. 4. Since the sum of the currents in both transistors by flows in each of side of the active load. M3 pushes down a current about equal to and MS pulls down a current about equal to IEF2. In the commonmode half circuit. even if all the transistors continue to be biased in the active region. The circuit in Fig. ITAIL/2 Therefore.2 SmallSignal Analysis We will analyze the lowfrequency smallsignal behavior of the bipolar circuit shown in Fig. If the commonmode output voltage rises within Vov3 VDD. however. and References M3. we will concentrate on the smallsignal analysis for simplicity.5. 4. respectively. Since the output resistance of each current mirror is high.25a because these results cover both the bipolar and MOS cases by letting p. 4. feedback to the inputs of the circuit in Fig. If IREF2 IREF1. assume that PF + m. the circuit is not symmetrical and a halfcircuit approach is not useful. Active Loads.) Since only one transistor in the active load is diode connected. Then the commonmode output voltage must rise to reduce the current of in M3. which either adjusts the sum of the currents in M3 and M4 to be equal to the sum of the currents in M7 and Mg or vice versa for a given commonmode output voltage. For simplicity in the bipolar circuit shown in Fig. we will analyze the smallsignal model of this circuit directly. M6. Furthermore. In practice. Then under ideal conditions in both the bipolar and MOS circuits. causing changes in the commonmode output to satisfy KCL. 4. 4. Therefore. these circuits eliminate the commonmode bias problem by allowing the currents in the active load to be set by the tail current source. and one or more transistors can easily move into or near the triode region.25b is the MOS counterpart of the bipolar circuit in Fig. M7. some transistors may operate in or near the triode region. An alternative approach that avoids the need for commonmode feedback is shown in Fig.3. any change in the commonmode output voltage from its desired value reduces the range of outputs for which the differential gain is high. If all transistors operate in the active region. As a result. (The product of these two quantities gives the smallsignal voltage gain with no load.
Let r3 represent the total resistance connected between the base or gate of T3 and the power supply.r. Let rt. > 1 and g.4. resulting smallsignal circuit is shown in Fig. The Since T3 and T4 form a current mirror. we will write + where E. Then the drop across r.25 ( a ) Emittercoupled pair with currentmirror load. we expect the mirror output current to be approximately equal to the mirror input current.r. 4. Then r3 is the parallel combination of 1/gms. > 1.l represent the output resistance of in the active region with r . (b) Sourcecoupled pair with currentmirror load (MOS counterpart).4.g. .4 is F+ v 1 + vil 1  C =I T2Q v 2+ viz 1 &  "ss (b) Figure 4. r.. Under the simplifying assumptions that p. this parallel combination > > is approximately equal to llgm3. the tail current source ITAIL. Therefore. and r.s.3 Active Loads 289 VDD  T3 l1 ll1 0 + V0 + V0 and rb = 0. is the systematic gain error of the current mirror calculated from smallsignal parameters.26a.
ro(dp). Then grn(dp) = gm1 = g 2 gm(mir) = gm3 = gm49 ra(dp). = 0 and thus the active load acts as a current mirror in a smallsignal sense.134).the smallsignal circuit is redrawn .ir) . as expected. as do the two transistors in the currentmirror load.ra1 = ra2.290 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. From (4. and ro(. (b) Simplified drawing of smallsignal model of differential pair with currentmirror load.135 show that E. differential pair with currentmirror load.ro3 = ro4.roi = r02. Using (4. We will also assume that the two transistors in the differential pair match perfectly and operate with equal dc currents.26 (a) Smallsignal equivalent circuit. the resulting voltagecontrolled current gm4v3 is Equations 4. and References Figure 4. Active Loads. rrcmir) = r ~ 3 m7 = rr4.133).133 and 4.
143) shows that the currentmirror load doubles the differential transconductance compared to the passiveload case.3 Active Loads 291 in Fig. 4. This result stems from the fact that the current mirror creates a second signal path to the output.(dp) + since the transistors are primarily controlled by their baseemitter or gatesource voltages. with the active loads in Fig. To simplify the analysis.) Although frequency response is not analyzed in this chapter.139) in (4. Equation 4. sub(4.26b is Assume at first that the current mirror is ideal so that E. t vid/2 and vi2 = V j c . and the smallsignal collector or drain currents and With a resistive load and a singleended output. which is often important in highspeed applications. Therefore.vi2 represent the differentialmode component of the input. From KCL at node @. Then vjl = vi.141) gives lout = = 0. where v1 and v3 are the voltages to ground from nodes @ and 0 . Let vid = vil . the transconductance for a differentialmode (dm) input with a passive load is On the other hand.25. we will assume at first that rtail 00 and r. and these KCL equations plus (4. Note that r.136) could be solved simultaneously. note that the two signal paths usually have different frequency responses. the output current in Fig. this procedure is complicated algebraically and leads to an equation that is difficult to interpret.vid/2. not only iz but also most of i3 flows in the output because of the action of the current mirror.135). .142) gm(dp)vid Therefore. stituting (4. Then from (4. (The first path is through the differential pair. is the commonmode component of the input. only i2 flows in the output. However. Therefore. with an active load. 4. 4.143 applies for both the bipolar and MOS amplifiers shown in Fig.25. 4.138) and (4.136) a  where vi.26b with the output grounded to find the transconductance. as shown by (4. KCL equations could also be written at nodes and 0 . To complete an exact smallsignal analysis. Then since i3 = il.3 is omitted because it is attached to a smallsignal ground on both ends.4.140) and (4. Comparing (4.
In practice. However. we find that the effective output resistance looking into the collector or drain of T2 is Hence If rtail > l/gml. The current in r. The resulting current it has four components.(dp) + m. The output resistance is calculated using the circuit of Fig. and References Figure 4.27 Circuit for calculation of the output resistance of the differential pair with currentmirror load.143) are that the current mirror is ideal so E .99) for a transistor with degeneration. as shown in Section 4. Another important parameter of the differential pair with active load is the output resistance. Under these assumptions.5.27. = 0 and that rtail + m and r.292 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. in which a test voltage source vt is applied at the output while the inputs are connected to smallsignal ground. this dependence is small because the active load greatly enhances the commonmode rejection ratio of this stage. 4. Active Loads. and is mirrored to the > output with a gain of approximately unity to produce Thus .142) and (4.this current flows into the emitter or source of T1.which is approximately l/gml. none of these assumptions is exactly true. the output current is independent of the commonmode input. and the output current depends on the commonmode input.4 is The resistance in the emitter or source lead of T2 is rtail in parallel with the resistance seen looking into the emitter or source of T 1 . using (3.3.3.Thus. The key assumptions that led to (4.
(dp1as in the resistively loaded case. Finally. The effects of asymmetrical input resistance have been neglected. that is. The simplest differentialtosingleended converter is a resistively loaded differential . 4. the differential input resistance of the actively loaded emittercoupled pair is simply 2r.25. the actively loaded differential pair is capable of providing differentialtosingleended conversion. although the sourcecoupled pair has infinite input resistance. 4. a. In contrast. pair in which the output is taken from only one side. Such a conversion is required in all differentialinput. the circuits in Fig.3 CommonMode Rejection Ratio In addition to providing high voltage gain.3. the lowfrequency gain of the loaded circuit is likely to be reduced by the input resistance of the next stage because the output resistance is high.4. and the output is . is finite. The high output resistance of the circuit requires that the next stage must have high input resistance if the large gain is to be realized. as shown in Fig. In practice.25 provide conversion from a differential input signal to an output signal that is referenced to ground. .28 Twoport representation of smallsignal properties of differential pair with currentmirror load. A. In multistage bipolar amplifiers. the emittercoupled pair has finite input resistance because p.149)applies for both the bipolar and MOS amplifiers shown in Fig. however. A smallsignal twoport equivalent circuit for the stage is shown in Fig. < 0. lowfrequency loading is probably not an issue in multistage MOS amplifiers because the next stage has infinite input resistance if the input is the gate of an MOS transistor.28. 2 CMRR Figure 4. 4 . 4.3 Active Loads 293 The result in (4. singleended output amplifiers.. the conversion from a differential voltage to a voltage referenced to the ground potential. 4. 2 9 ~In this case.5. Adm > 0. the asymmetry of the circuit together with the high voltage gain cause feedback to occur through the output This feedback causes the input resistance to differ slightly from resistance of T2 to node 2rv(dp) In summary. If the effects of the ro of T2 and T4 are neglected.
29 Differentialtosingleended conversion using ( a )resistively loaded differential pairs and ( b ) actively loaded differential pairs.Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. 4. and References Figure 4. a commonmode half circuit can be used to find Gm[cm]. Thus. Active Loads. The commonmode rejection ratio (CMRR) is where the commonmode (cm) transconductance is Since the circuits in Fig. commonmode signals at the input will cause changes in the output voltage.29a are symmetrical. commonmode half circuit is a commonemitterlsource amplifier with The .
153)gives CMRR = 1 + 2gm(dp)rtail ' gm(dp)rtail = 2 gmlro5 Equation 4. il is not exactly equal to i2 because of finite ro(dp) in T1and T2.155) because the output current is defined as positive when it flows from the output terminal into the smallsignal ground to be consistent with the differential case. As a result. Substituting (4.. changes in the commonmode input will cause changes in the tail bias current itailbecause the output resistance of T5 is finite.160)is infinite because the change in the current in T4 cancels that in T2 even when rtail is finite under these assumptions. CMRR + CO (4. 4 . Furthermore.? and rt..141) with ig = . = 0.[cm] = v. Then substituting (4.29 are taken only from one side of each differential pair instead of from both sides. 4 . Because gmro is much higher for bipolar transistors than MOS transistors. For simplicity. the change in the current in T1and T2is + + If E .93) and (3. As with a resistive load.29b are connected to smallsignal ground to allow calculation of the commonmode transconductance.157) into (4. the activeload stages shown in Fig 4. 2 9 ~Assume . the gain of the current mirror is unity. the currents in the differentialpair transistors are not only controlled by their baseemitter or gatesource voltages. 4.155 applies for both the bipolar and MOS cases if the base current is ignored in the bipolar case. CO at first. and rol and r.160) are that ro(dp) SO il = i2 and that the current mirror is ideal so E. In practice. 4.il gives As a result. the gain of the current mirror is not + .160) The commonmode rejection ratio in (4.The negative sign appears in (4. The key assumptions that led to (4.29b have commonmode rejection ratios much superior to those of the corresponding circuits in Fig. On the other hand. = O .159) Therefore. the body effect is ignored in the MOS case. as in Fig. The smallsignal model is the same as shown in Fig.156) applies for both the bipolar and MOS amplifiers shown in Fig. From (3.193)because the outputs in Fig. If we assume that the currents in the differentialpair transistors are controlled only by the baseemitter or gatesource voltages. where gm(dp) = gml = gm. 2 9 ~ . iout (4.3 Active Loads 295 degeneration.104). but also to some extent by their collectoremitter or drainsource voltages. let p. the CMRR of a bipolar differential pair with resistive load is much higher than that of its MOS counterpart.4. = 0. G.26b. 4. Equation 4.2 are ignored in both cases. that the outputs in Fig. The result in (4. and r.l represents the output resistance of the tail current source T 5 .156 shows that the commonmode rejection ratio here is about half that in (3.155) into (4. reducing the differentialmode gain by a factor of two.140) and (4.26b with vil = vi2 = vie. 4.
165).165 applies for the activeload circuits shown in Fig. 4.which gives Substituting (4.164)into (4. To find ~ d we will refer to Fig. < 1 .161) into (4. is not exactly zero in practice because of finite ro(mir) in T3 and T4. however. 4. the use of the active load greatly improves the commonmode rejection ratio compared to the resistive load case. Active Loads.29b. Substituting (4.156) shows that the active load improves the commonmode rejection ratio by a factor of 2/(Ed+ E .168)gives . the product term < < glected. we will substitute (4. E ~ E .155) into (4. Therefore.162)gives If ~d < l and E . However. we write and Substituting (4.is a secondorder error and can be ne Substituting (4.154)gives Equation 4.141)with i3 = il gives Rearranging (4. the commonmode rejection ratio is finite in practice. ) . The factor of 2 in the numerator of this expression stems from the increase in the differential transconductance. and References exactly unity.26b with Vil = vi2 = V i c e First. For these reasons. Suppose that where ~d can be thought of as the gain error in the differential pair. as we will show next.166)and (4. Therefore.153) gives Comparing (4.296 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors.167) and (4. and the denominator stems from the decrease in the commonmode transconductance. which means that E .143)into (4. Finite PO also affects the systematic gain error of the current mirror when bipolar transistors are used. . the first term has approximately the same value as in the passiveload case.134) and is = il into (4.
176) gives For bipolar transistors.178) into (4. Since r. r.We will now reconsider this assumption and write C We will still assume that the two transistors in the differential pair match perfectly and operate with equal dc currents.173) and (4. In writing (4. 4. we will again refer to Fig.134)..26bwith vil = viz = vi.29b.167) gives CMRR C . + for MOS transistors. as do the two transistors in the active load. For the bipolar circuit in Fig. substituting (4.17 1) gives Substituting (4.175) into (4.169) into (4. 1 + 2gm(dp)rtail \ .4.161) into (4. 4.174) can be rewritten as Substituting (4.133) into (4.3 Active Loads 297 Equation 4.172) gives To find E.135) gives Substituting (4..170 can be rearranged to give Substituting (4. is usually much less than ro. Then (4.therefore. we assumed that r3 l/gm3.
(4.2 has only a minor effect on G.184 shows that the mismatch between gml and g.[dm] is most sensitive to the mismatch between gm3and gm4. 4.l + and r.173) and (4. This result stems from the fact that the smallsignal voltage across the tail current source.(mir)r. The combination of these two effects causes il to be insensitive to gmr .3 and g. In practice. for the MOS circuit in Fig.i.167) gives CMRR  .l = gm2. increasing gm.~for a fixed vid. 4 . perfect matching was assumed so that g.298 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. 4. (4.18 1) and (4. Agm34 = gm3 . 4 .(.(.184) shows that G.182) can be simplified to give > > > > Comparing (4.See Problem 4. Equation 4.ir)/2)) for the bipolar circuit in Fig.184) is valid to the extent that > > gmro> 1 for each transistor and (gml+ gm2)rtail> 1 for the tail current source. compared to gm2tends to increase the smallsignal drain current il if v.183) and (4.gm3 = gm4. rol = ro2.29b.gm22 gm12 = (gm1 + g d 2 .179) into (4.182) If (gm(mir)ro(dp)) 1 and (gm(. 2 9 ~ . For these calculations. mismatch between g..4 directly modifies the contribution of il through the current mirror to the output current. Active Loads. nonzero mismatch occurs. this change also increases v.gm43 and gm34 = (gm3f gm4)/2.ir~/2) > 1. which reduces v. assuming r. substituting (4. however.156) shows that the active load increases the commonmode for the rejection ratio by a factor of about 2gm(mir)(ro(dp~~~ro~mir)) MOS circuit in Fig.2 m. With mismatch in a MOS differential pair using a currentmirror load. On the other hand. and ro3 = ro4. (4. and References If (gm(mir)~o(dp))l and (g. For example. is zero with a purely differential input only when gml = gm2. On the other hand.(.~ro(mir)) 1.29b compared to its passiveload counterpart in Fig.l is constant.180) can be simplified to give > > > Comparing (4. the differentialmode transconductance is where Agml2 = gm1 . However. 2 9 ~ . vhil. 1 + 2gm(dp)rtail (4. Therefore.il.18. The approximation in (4. the commonmode transconductance is + .il) (ro(dp)ll(r.[dm]. With mismatch in a MOS differential pair using a currentmirror load. 4.29b compared to its passiveload counterpart in Fig.gm2..156) shows that the active load increases the commonmode rejection ratio by a factor of about 2g.
19.19. Resistors of this magnitude are costly in terms of die area. and if VB. stems from the observation that the smallsignal input resistance of the > but The current mirror is not exactly l/gm3 (l/gm3)llro3. and interactions between terms are ignored.186)stems from mismatch between g.4. is the gain error in the current mirror defined in (4.. the tail current is on the order of 5 pA. 3 0 ~ assuming a maximum practical emitter area ratio between transistors of ten to one.187). The contribution of this mismatch to G. 2 term in (4. 4. The third term in (4. Each term in (4.4 alone.161)and E .[cm] under ideal conditions.30a is 5 V.186) is consistent with (4. using a simple bipolar current mirror as in Fig.1 Bipolar Widlar Current Source In ideal operational amplifiers. [cm]is significant because the action of the current mirror nearly cancels the contributions of the input g . mismatch usually reduces the CMRR by increasing IGm[cmlI. generators do not cancel at the output.  Each term in (4.187)for ~d and E. Bias currents of this magnitude are also required in a variety of other applications.[dm] in (4. Since the opamp inputs are usually connected to a differential pair. The simple current mirrors shown in Fig.4 Voltage and Current References 299 where ~d is the gain error in the sourcecoupled pair with a pure commonmode input defined in (4.179) when gm3r03 > 1 .[dm] arising from the input g .187) stems from mismatch between g.The second .4. [cm]in (4.From Problem 4.qon) 0.7 V. The CMRR with mismatch is the ratio of G.173) when gm3r0(dp)> l and stems from the observation that the drain of T 1 is not connected to a > smallsignal ground during the calculation of Gm[dm]. If the powersupply voltage = C in Fig.g and g. the mirror would need an input current of 50 pA for an output current of 5 pA. the current is zero in each of the two input leads. which is consistent with (4.l and g alone.187) corresponds to one source of gain error by itself.186) stems from the mismatch between rol and r. G. In contrast.1 LowCurrent Biasing 4.[dm] is insensitive to the mismatch between rol and r02 because the dominant contributions to G. unlike the drain of T2.186)and (4.2 alone. the tail current must usually be very small in such op amps to keep the input current small.133). 4.166). The first term in (4. second term in (4.1.185).30 are usually not optimum for such small and currents. The first term in (4.4. respectively. and interactions between terms are ignored. R = 86 k ! would be required. causing Gm[cm] 0 in (4. especially where minimizing power dissipation is important. the input current is not zero in real op amps with bipolar input transistors because PF is finite.4 Voltage and Current References 4. 4. Typically. From Problem 4.using (4. However.184)to G. 4 . generators to G.186) corresponds to one source of gain error by itself. Currents of such low magnitude can be obtained . Since the commonmode transconductance is very small without mismatch (as a result of the behavior of the currentmirror load). For example.
4 .300 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. however. p4 l Q1  M 1 t = R. . KVL around the baseemitter loop gives 0 .4. (b) Figure 4. (4 (b) Figure 4. If Im > 0. ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ J & 1'. by modifying the simple current mirror so that the transistors operate with unequal baseemitter voltages.3 la. In the Widlar current source of Fig. 4. Q1 operates in the forwardactive region because it is diode connected.2. Active Loads. RI O r u r VDD 14.31 Widlar current sources: (a) bipolar and (b) MOS. We will now calculate the output current of the Widlar current source. and transistors Q. and References Vcc +'IN "DD ~IIN O t R 'OUT R 0 O i 'OUT M 1 * I (4 voltage and a resistor using (a) bipolar and (b) MOS transistors.30a. 4. 3 1 ~ is much less dependent on the input current and the powersupply voltage than in the simple current mirror of Fig.30 Simple twotransistor current mirrors where the input current is set by the supply with moderate values of resistance. and Q2 operate with unequal base emitter voltages if R2 Z This circuit is referred to as a current source rather than a current mirror because the output current in Fig. Assume that Q2 also operates in the forward active region. as shown in Section 4. resistor R:! is inserted in series with the emitter of Q2.
V B E ( ~=) 0. In conis trast. however. however.190) becomes This transcendental equation can be solved by trial and error to find louTif R2 and Im are known. it is greater than zero under the usual bias conditions. simplifying convergence of the trialanderror process.189) simplifies to are For identical transistors.191). Find . Although IoUT is small in practice. and (4. are EXAMPLE In the circuit of Fig. In design problems. small differences between them are important. = 5 kfl. and PF + a. the desired Im and loUT usually known.7 kfl. and PF " m.7 V in (4. determine the proper value of R2 to give IoUT that Vcc = 5 V. which means that the standard assumption about VBE(on)invalid here. (4. + = 5 pA.35) as If PF 3 a.191).31a.7 V.188) can be rewritten using (1.3 la. Because the logarithm function compresses changes in its argument. the standard assumption is usually valid in calculating IINbecause small variations > . in VBElhave little effect on IINif VCC> V B E l When one baseemitter voltage is subtracted from another.3 k a . R2 IOUT.19 1) IoUTR2 = 137 mV and The total resistance in the circuit is 3 1. 4.188). (4. 4. Assume Thus from (4. attention can be focused on the linear term in (4. EXAMPLE In the circuit of Fig. From (4. R1 = 4. assume that IIN = 1 mA. as in typical analysis problems.4 Voltage and Current References 301 If we assume that VBEl = VBE2= VBE(on) 0.4. Isl and ls2 equal. and (4. we would predict that = IoUT = 0.191) provides the required value of R2. If V A + a .
which means that > 0 and the potential solution where the second term in VGsZ > V t . . KVL around the gatesource loop gives If we ignore the body effect.197 shows that a closedform solution for the output current can be written for a Widlar current source that uses MOS transistors operating in strong inversion.195) is subtracted from the first. Equation 4. If IIN > 0. the threshold components of the gatesource voltages cancel and (4. unlike the bipolar case where trial and error is required to find IouT. Assume that M2 also operates in the forward active region. / ~ I ~ ~ I [ ~ ' ( w I L )(1.192) simplifies to If the transistors operate in strong inversion and V A + a. Active Loads. From ~ ] .1.100 mV  0 rn Therefore. Equation 4.302 Chapter 4 fl Current Mirrors. as shown in Fig. This quadratic equation can be solved for G. the logarithm term decreased by only about 6 mV because the logarithm function compresses changes in its argument. therefore.196 applies only when M2 operates in the active region. IoUT > 15 p A should be tried.4. and References The linear term IOUTR2 too small.31b. 4. where VOv1 = .7 mV . the output current is close to 20 pA. Therefore. 4. cannot occur in practice. M 1 operates in the active region because it is diode connected. Notice that while the linear term increased by 25 mV from the first to the second trial.2 MOS Widlar Current Source The Widlar configuration can also be used in MOS technology. Try is IoUT = 20 p A 101. the numerator of (4.157).As a result.
4. as assumed. = J ~ o o / ( ~ o o 25) V = 0.4.35) as If Q.20 1) [OUT + Figure 4. (4198) can be rewritten using (1. Assume the temperature is 27•‹C and that n = 1.2 V. 4. R2 = 4 kn. and Q2 are identical. To reach such low currents with moderate values of resistance.200 is useful for analysis of a given circuit.1 allows currents in the microamp range to be realized with moderate values of resistance. and (WIL)] = (WIL)% = 25. = Therefore.31b.004 MSZ. . both transistors operate in strong inversion. ' Neglecting base ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ ~ currents.4.5 in (1. Biasing integratedcircuit stages with currents on the order of nanoamps is often desirable. (4. Then R2 = 0.199) can be rewritten as VT R = . k' = 200 p N v 2 .3 Bipolar Peaking Current Source The Widlar source described in Section 4.32 can be ~ s e d . find IoUT if IIN = 100 pA. 4. we have \ If VA + 03. Also.4 Voltage and Current References 303 EXAMPLE In Fig. the circuit shown in Fig.247).InI I N I I N (4. X and IoUT 25 pA.1.199) can be rewritten as IoUT = Im exp ( 9)  Equation 4.4.1. (4. For design with identical Ql and Q 2 .32 Bipolar peaking current source.
the voltage drop on the resistor is small.34 MOS peaking current source.33 Transfer characteristics of the bipolar peaking current source with T = 27•‹C For example. 4. . When the input current = is small.34. The output current reaches a maximum when VBE2is maximum. increases in the input current eventually cause the baseemitter voltage of Q2 to decrease.201) can be used to show that = R 12 k f l . the voltage drop on R is small and M1 operates in the active region. The name peaking current source stems from this behavior. as shown in Fig.4.33. and the location and magnitude of the peak both depend on R. Active Loads. AS the input current increases. KVL around the gatesource loop gives Since the sources of M 1 and M2 are connected together. the thresholds cancel and (4. If IINis small and positive. As a result.200) is shown in Fig. A plot of IoUT versus Im from (4. and References Figure 4.1. (4. for IIN = 10 pA and IoUT 100 nA. 4. 4. VBElincreases in proportion to the logarithm of the input current while the drop on the resistor increases linearly with the input current. and VBE2* VBElSO IOUT Im.4 MOS Peaking Current Source  The peakingcurrent configuration can also be used in MOS technology. Assume that M2 also operates in the active region.304 Chapter 4 8 Current Mirrors.202) simplifies to Figure 4.
As a result. and IoUT = Im.206) and (4. where n is defined in (1. increases in the input current eventually cause the gatesource voltage of M2 to decrease. substituting (4.252) to M1 and substituting into (4. the name peaking current source stems from this behavior. As in the bipolar case. the stronginversion equation (4. In practice. VGsl increases more slowly than the drop on the resistor. where Vovl = . . Plots of (4. where the drain current is an exponential function of the gatesource voltage as shown in (1.4 Voltage and Current References 305 From (1.(WILl2 = (WIL)l = 25.35 Transfer characteris tics of the MOS peaking current source assuming both transistors operate in weak inversion or in strong inversion. the input current is usually small enough that the overdrive of M 1 is less than 2nVT.200) shows that the output cur> rent in an MOS peaking current source where both transistors operate in weak inversion is the same as in the bipolar case except that 1. Figure 4.204) usually underestimates the output current.205) into (1. 4. The output current reaches a maximum when VGs2 is maximum.4. is given by (1. If VDsl > 3VT.157). Therefore. when the input 2 current is small.5. R = 10 k f l .252).204 assumes that the transistors operate in 1. Equation strong inversion. WIL = 1. T = 27"C.. / ~ I ~ I [ ~ ~ ( W I L ) ~ 4.3 In 5 1.202) gives Then if the transistors are identical and VDS2 > 3VT.252) gives where I.251) and represents the drain current of M2 with VGS2= V*. k' = 200 F ~ / ~and .35 for n = 1.5 in the MOS case and n = 1 in the bipolar case.203 shows that the overdrive of M2 is even smaller than that of M. and VDs > V T . In both cases. Because the overdrives on both transistors are usually very small. both transistors usually operate in weak inversion.247) and VT is a thermal voltage. Equation 4. AS the input current increases. applying (1. the voltage drop on the resistor is small. Comparing (4.204) are shown in Fig. and the location and magnitude of the peak both depend on R.206) with (4.
4.208) to find the sensitivity of the output current to small variations in the powersupply voltage gives The supply voltage VsUpis usually called Vcc in bipolar circuits and VDDin MOS circuits. where the input current source has been replaced by a resistor. 4.30a.30a. Therefore.1 Widlar Current Sources For the case of the bipolar Widlar source in Fig.30 depend strongly on the powersupply voltages. 4. this configuration should not be used when supply insensitivity is important. circuit has the drawback that the output current is proportional to > this = the powersupply voltage. if VBE(on) 0. and if VDD> VGsl in Fig. the output current is given implicitly to by (4.(4. 4.306 Chapter 4 = Current Mirrors.To determine the sensitivity of IoUT the powersupply voltage.3 la.191). > in > Equation 4. Active Loads. 4. Ignoring the effects of finite PF and VA.2.4.7 V.30b. For example.210 shows that the output currents in the simple current mirrors in Fig. we obtain . and if this current mirror is used in an operational amplifier that has to function with powersupply voltages ranging from 3 V to 10 V.4. One measure of this aspect of biascircuit performance is the fractional change in the bias current that results from a given fractional change in supply voltage. this equation is differentiated with respect to Vcc: Differentiating yields Solving this equation for dlouT/dVcc. and the power dissipation would vary over a thirteentoone range.2 SupplyInsensitiveBiasing Consider the simple current mirror of Fig. and References 4. If Vcc > VeE(on) Fig. The most useful parameter for describing the variation of the output current with the powersupply voltage is the sensitivity S.5)shows that the output current is If Vcc > VBE(on). The sensitivity of any circuit variable y to a parameter X is defined as follows: Applying (4. 4. the bias current would vary over a fourtoone range.
Vov2is usually small and IOUTR2 (4.4 Voltage and Current References 307 Substituting (4. Differentiating with respect to VDDgives where Substituting (4.213) into (4. as in the simple current mirror of Fig. or the breakdown voltage of a reversebiased pn junction (a Zener diode). the thermal voltage. but the drawback of the first three standards is that the .2 Current Sources Using Other Voltage Standards The level of powersupply independence provided by the bipolar and MOS Widlar current sources is not adequate for many types of analog circuits.2.30b. the output current is given by (4. Much lower sensitivity can be obtained by causing bias currents in the circuit to depend on a voltage standard other than the supply voltage. a 10 percent powersupply voltage change results in only 1. 4. Bias reference circuits can be classified according to the voltage standard by which the bias currents are established. For the case of the MOS Widlar source in Fig. The most convenient standards are the baseemitter or threshold voltage of a transistor.209) gives Since IoUT is usually much less than IIN. 4.IIN = VDDIR1and the sensitivity of IN to VDDis approximately unity.209) gives > IIN If Vcc > VBE(on). = VCC/R1and the sensitivity of Im to Vcc is approximately unity. 4. > as in the simple current mirror of Fig.216) and (4.197). Thus for this case.4.31b. Each of these standards can be used to reduce supply sensitivity. IoUT = 5 FA.214) gives Thus for this case.6 percent change in IOUT.4.217) into (4. and R2 = 27. a 10 percent powersupply voltage change results in a 5 percent change in IouT.2 18) simplifies to  Vovl and If VDD> VGSl. (4.1 where IIN = 1 mA.1.30~.4.For the example in Section 4. 4.4 kfi.
The Zener diode has the disadvantage that at least 7 to 10 V of supply voltage are required because standard integratedcircuit processes produce a minimum breakdown voltage of about 6 V across the most highly doped junctions (usually npn transistor emitterbase junctions). and References Figure 4. 4.36 (a) Baseemitter referenced current source. Since the voltage drop on R2 is V B E 1the output current is proportional to this baseemitter voltage. transistor T2 must supply enough current into R2 so that the baseemitter voltage of T1 is is If we neglect base currents. Both the baseemitter and threshold voltages have negative temperature coefficients of magnitude 1 to 2 mVI0C.308 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors.209) gives > IIN and If Vcc > 2VBE(on). and the thermal voltage has a positive temperature coefficient of klq = 86 pVI0C. Furthermore. IoUT equal to the current flowing through R2.36a. neglecting base currents. For the input current to flow in T1. With VBE(on) 0. reference voltage is quite temperature dependent. We now consider bias reference circuits based on the baseemitter or gatesource voltage. = VCCIRI the sensitivity of Imto Vcc is approximately unity. This circuit is similar to a Wilson current mirror where the diodeconnected transistor is replaced by a resistor. Active Loads. (b) Threshold referenced current source.221) and substituting into (4. Noise in avalanche breakdown is considered further in Chapter 11. pn junctions produce large amounts of voltage noise under the reversebreakdown conditions encountered in a bias reference circuit. The circuit in simplest form in bipolar technology is shown in Fig. Thus. . we have Differentiating (4. = .7 V.
This case can be achieved in practice by choosing sufficiently low input current and large (WIL)l. I N . Instead of developing the input current by connecting a resistor to the supply. and = 1 These circuits are not fully supply independent because the baseemitter or gatesource voltages of T 1 change slightly with powersupply voltage. if Vt = l V. Differentiating (4. (b) Determination of operating point.37 percent The change in IOUT. .2. / Current mirror I 'our t Current mirror 4 N = 'OUT \ .1 V.224)with respect to VDDand substituting into (4. 4. VmI = 0.37 ( a )Block diagram of a selfbiased reference.4 Voltage a n d Current References 309 Thus for this case. Fig. The resulting supply sensitivity is often a problem in bias circuits whose input current is derived from a resistor connected to the supply terminal. .3 Self Biasing Powersupply sensitivity can be greatly reduced by the use of the socalled bootstrap bias technique. 3 7 ~Assuming that the feedback loop formed by this connection has a stable operating point. a 10 percent powersupply voltage change results in a 0. Therefore. Here The case of primary interest is when the overdrive of T 1is small compared to the threshold voltage. this circuit is known as a thresholdreferenced bias circuit. 4.result is significantly better than for a bipolar Widlar current source. The two key variables here are the input current.36b. also referred to as selfbiasing. since this configuration causes the currents in some portion of the circuit to change with the supply voltage. 4 . the currents flowing in the circuit are much less sensitive to powersupply voltage than in the resistively biased case. The concept is illustrated in blockdiagram form in .209)gives For example. the input current is made to depend directly on the output current of the current source itself. This change occurs because the collector or drain current of T 1 is approximately proportional to the supply voltage./ ' Current source 1 OUT Current source 1 b 1N 1 Figure 4.4.In this case.4. The MOS counterpart of the baseemitter reference is shown in Fig. the output current is determined mainly by the threshold voltage and R2.
and R dictates that the current IoUT depends weakly on ZIN. the gain around the feedback loop is deliberately made greater than unity so that the two characteristics shown in Fig. This situation is analogous to a gasoline engine that is not running even though it has a full tank of fuel. Therefore. actual circuits of this type are usually unable to drive themselves out of the zerocurrent state. Except for the effects of finite output resistance of the transistors. Point A is the desired operating point. which are matched to T5 and Tl. If the output current in Fig. unless precautions are taken. The operating point of the circuit must satisfy both constraints and hence is at the intersection of the two characteristics. the current mirror increases ~ the input current by the same amount because the gain of the current mirror is assumed to be unity. is assuming that the gain of the current mirror is unity. If required. The application of this technique to the VBEreferencedcurrent source is illustrated in Fig. The zerocurrent state can be avoided by using a startup circuit to ensure that some current always flows in the transistors in the reference so that the gain around the feedback loop at point B in Fig.3827. the output resistance of the current source and mirror could be increased by the use of cascode or Wilson configurations in the circuits. 4 . and the circuit would ideally tend to drive itself out of this state. this simplified analysis shows that point B is an unstable operating point in principle. For these reasons. On the other hand. Similarly. and the gain around the loop is the gain of the current source. An electrical or mechanical device is required to start the engine. The actual bias currents for other circuits are supplied by T6 andfor T3. 3 7 increases for any reason.221) and (4.3 10 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. ZoUT. At such low current levels. An additional requirement is that . the circuit may operate in the zerocurrent condition.37b intersect at a point away from the origin. In the plot of Fig. respectively. 4. selfbiased circuits often have a stable state in which zero current flows in the circuit even when the powersupply voltage is nonzero. the bias currents are independent of supply voltage.37b. In Chapter 9.37b does not fall below unity. T2. the output current is almost independent of the input current for a wide range of input currents as shown in Fig. a startup circuit is usually required to prevent the selfbiased circuit from remaining in the zerocurrent state. and point B is an undesired operating point because IoUT = z. = 0. the current source increases the output current by an amount that depends on the gain of the current source. 4. the gain around the loop is quite small because the output current of the current source is insensitive to changes in the input current around point A. From the standpoint of the current source. 4.38a. At point A.224). we will show that circuits with positive feedback are stable if the gain around the loop is less than unity. 4. and the thresholdreferenced MOS counterpart is shown in Fig. 4. as indicated by (4. often in the picoampere range. 3 7 ~ forms a positive feedback loop. and References and the output current. Second. In other words.373. usually causing the gain around the loop to be less than unity. We assume for simplicity that V A + W. point B is frequently a stable operating point because the currents in the transistors at this point are very small. however. 4. Thus. The relationship between these variables is governed by both the current source and the current mirror. the loop responds to an initial change in the output current by further changing the output current in a direction that reinforces the initial change. From the standpoint of the current mirror. 4 . The operating point of the circuit must satisfy both constraints and hence is at the intersection of the two characteristics as in Fig. the current mirror composed of matched transistors T4 and T5 dictates that IINis equal to ZOUT. ITN set equal to IouT.37b. The circuit composed of T1. In practice. two intersections or potential operating points are shown. at point B. Active Loads. As a result. the connection of a current source and a current mirror as shown in Fig. leakage currents and other effects reduce the current gain of both bipolar and MOS transistors. As a result. 4. As a result.
the gatesource voltage of T7 rises to IOUTR. T9 is on and pulls down on the gates of T4 and Ts. pulling the gatesource voltage of T9 up to VDD. and D 1is. The thresholdreferenced current source with a typical startup circuit used in MOS technologies is illustrated in Fig. that the circuit is in the undesired zerocurrent state. The Vmreferenced current source with a typical startup circuit used in bipolar technologies is illustrated in Fig.the voltage drop across R. (b) Selfbiasing V. D2D5.Therefore.4. This action would cause current to flow in T4 and T5. disconnected from the circuit for steadystate operation.. The baseemitter voltage T2 would be tens of rnillivolts above ground.38 (a) Selfbiasing VBEreference. and we require that the startup circuit not affect the steadystate current values.avoiding the zerocurrent state. Floating diodes are not usually available in MOS technologies. This can be accomplished by causing R. in effect. determined by the leakage currents in the circuit. In the steady state.39b. In other words. so that a voltage of at least three diode drops would appear across R. 3 9 ~We first assume . reference. the voltage on the lefthand end of D 1is four diode drops above ground. T7 is off and T g operates in the triode region. 4 .. which turns on T7 and In steady state. The bias reference circuit then drives itself toward the desired stable state. and the lefthand end of D 1is four diode drops above ground. reduces the gatesource voltage of T9. Thus if we make ImR. the collectoremitter voltage of T 1 is two diode drops above ground. into the T1T2combination. As a result. the gatesource voltage of T 1 would be less than a threshold voltage. If this were true. the baseemitter voltage of T 1 would be zero. If the circuit is in the undesired zerocurrent state. However. to be large enough that when the steadystate current is established in T 1 . 4. the startup circuit must not interfere with the normal operation of the reference once the desired operating point is reached. the startup circuit composed of R. is large enough to reverse bias D 1 . This action causes current to flow in T4 and T 5 . equal to two diode drops. avoiding the zerocurrent state. D 1will have zero voltage across it in the steady state. T7 and T g form a CMOS inverter . As a result.4 Voltage and Current References 3 11 Figure 4. and a current would flow through R.
the inverter output should fall low enough to turn T9 off in steady state. this requirement is satisfied by choosing the aspect ratio of T7 to be much larger than that of T8. Therefore. reference with startup circuit. This variation is most conveniently expressed in terms of the fractional change in output current per degree centigrade of temperature variation. (b) Selfbiasing V. whose output falls when the reference circuit turns on.39 (a) Selfbiasing VBEreference with startup circuit. Active Loads.312 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. Since the startup circuit should not interfere with normal operation of the reference in steady state. and References Figure 4. which we call the . In practice. Another important aspect of the performance of biasing circuits is their dependence on temperature. the gatesource voltage of T9 must fall below a threshold voltage when the inverter input rises from zero to IouTR.
4. Differentiating (4.227) gives . For the thresholdreferenced circuit of Fig. the net TCF is quite large. and thus W The term ppm is an abbreviation for parts per million and implies a multiplier of 1OP6. The current in T1 will be equal to IOUT.Is = 10l4 A.38b. 4.38a to produce 100 pA output current. 4.232) and substituting into (4. 4.228). Thus the temperature dependence of the output current is related to the difference between the resistor temperature coefficient and that of the baseemitter junction. Since the former has a positive and the latter a negative coefficient. Find the TCF.38a. Assume that dVBE/dT = 2mVI0C and that (l/R)(dRldT)= + 1500 ppd•‹C.23l ) . EXAMPLE Design a bias reference as shown in Fig.4Voltage and Current References 3 13 fractional temperature coefficient T C F : For the VBEreferencedcircuit of Fig.Assume that for T 1 . From (4.SO that Thus from (4. Therefore.
The difference in junction potential between two junctions operated at different current densities can be shown to be proportional to VT. 4. if we assume that PF + and V A + a. 3 8 ~ . A corresponding circuit utilizing npn transistors can be used in nsubstrate CMOS technologies. 4. The feedback circuit formed by M2. IS2 = 21S1and the voltage across R2 is . 4.31a.41 also shows that Q2 has two emitters and Ql has one emitter. Here Q3 and Q4 are selected to have equal areas.23 1 ) show that the temperature dependence of the thresholdreferenced current source in Fig. Since the threshold voltage of an MOS transistor and the baseemitter voltage of a bipolar transistor both change at about 2 mVIoC. Assuming matched devices.41. M4. 4. (4. and References Figure 4. For the Widlar source shown in Fig.40. 4. Under these conditions.40 Example of a VBE referenced selfbiased circuit in CMOS technology. current mirror formed by Q3 and Q4 forces the collector current of Ql to the equal that of Q2.38b is about the same as the VBEreferencedcurrent source in Fig. Therefore. 4. Figure 4. An example is shown in Fig. This voltage difference must be converted to a current to provide the bias current. VGS2= VGS3 thus and An alternate source for the voltage reference is the thermal voltage V T . 4 . As in other selfbiased circuits. M3. which indicates that the emitter area of Q2 is twice that of Ql in this example.233)and (4. (4. the voltage across R2 is indeed proportional to V T . where the pnp transistor is the parasitic device inherent inpsubstrate CMOS technologies. Active Loads.190) shows that the voltage across the resistor R2 is Thus if the ratio of the input to the output current is held constant. VBEreferencedbias circuits are also used in CMOS technology. and Ms forces the current in transistor Ql to be the same as in resistor R.This fact is utilized in the selfbiased circuit of Fig.37b to be more than unity so that point B is an unstable operating point and a stable nonzero operating point exists at point A. a startup circuit is required to make sure that enough current flows to force operation at point A in Fig.37b in practice. This selection is made to force the gain around the positive feedback loop at point B in Fig.314 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors.
237) in (4.238) gives This circuit produces much smaller temperature coefficient of the output current than the VBEreference because the fractional sensitivities of both VT and that of a diffused resistor R:! are positive and tend to cancel in (4. Assume the resistor temperature coefficient (lIR)(dRIdT) = + 1500 ppmI0C.237) Substituting (4. Find the TCF of IOUT.4 Voltage and Current References 3 15 Figure 4. the output current is The temperature variation of the output current can be calculated as follows. this ratio is often chosen to minimize the total area required for the transistors and for resistor R2. From (4. Therefore.4. EXAMPLE Design a bias reference of the type shown in Fig. In practice.41 Bias current source using the thermal voltage.239). From (4.237) . 4.41 to produce an output current of 100 FA. We have chosen a transistor area ratio of two to one as an example.
As a result. A typical example of a practical circuit is shown in Fig.and References From (4. In general. . Such gatesource voltage differences can result from device mismatches or from channellength modulation in M3 and M4 because they have different drainsource voltages. T = 300•‹Kand VTreferenced bias circuits are also commonly used in CMOS technology.42. The main limitation of the application of cascoding is that it increases the minimum required powersupply voltage to operate all transistors in the active region. A simple example is shown in Fig.43. Practical implementations of this circuit typically utilize large geometry devices for M gand M4 to minimize offsets and cascode or Wilson current sources to minimize channellength modulation effects. The resulting current is In the circuit of Fig. 4.42. 4. small differences in the gatesource voltages of M3 and M4 result in large variations in the output current because the voltage drop across R is only on the order of 100 mV. 4.316 Chapter 4 m Current Mirrors. and the feedback loop forces them to operate at the same bias current. cascoding is often used to improve the performance of reference circuits in all technologies. Figure 4. Active Loads. where bipolar transistors Ql and Q2 are parasitic devices inherent in psubstrate CMOS technologies. Here the emitter areas of these transistors differ by a factor n. the difference between the two baseemitter voltages must appear across resistor R.239) Assuming operation at room temperature.42 Example of a CMOS V r referenced selfbiased circuit.
The voltage reference for a voltage regulator is a good example. Thus we are led to examine other possibilities for the realization of a biasing circuit with low temperature coefficient. the baseemittervoltage..the possibility exists for referencing the output current to a composite voltage that is a weighted sum of VBE(on)and V T . In practice. 4. even its temperature coefficient is not low enough for many applications.). we have concentrated on the problem of obtaining a current with low temperature coefficient.1 BandGapReferenced Bias Circuits in Bipolar Technology Since the bias sources referenced to VBE(on)and VT have opposite T C F .4 Voltage and Current References 3 17 Figure 4. .44. Neglecting base current. Although the temperature sensitivity is reduced considerably in the thermalvoltage circuit. we assume for simplicity that the objective is a voltage source of low temperature coefficient. First consider the hypothetical circuit of Fig.2.3 TemperatureInsensitive Biasing As illustrated by the examples in Section 4.43 Example of a CMOS V T referenced selfbiased reference circuit with cascoded devices to improve powersupply rejection and initial accuracy.4. In the biasing sources described so far. requirements often arise for lowtemperaturecoefficientvoltage bias or reference voltages. a temperature coefficient must be intentionally introduced into the voltage reference to compensate for the temperature coefficient of the resistor that will define the current. An output voltage is developed that is equal to VBE(on)plus a constant M times V T .4.To determine the required value for M. In the following description of the bandgap reference. The design of these two types of circuits is similar except that in the case of the current source.. we must determine the temperature coefficient of VBE(.4. zero temperature coefficient should be attainable.3.By proper weighting.4. 4..and thermalvoltagereferenced circuits have rather high temperature coefficients of output current. 4.
As shown in Chapter 1. the constants B and B' involve only temperatureindependent quantities. is dependent on the doping level in the base. (4.247) . = (qlkT)D. The quantities in (4.44 Hypothetical bandgap reference circuit. the saturation current Is can be related to the device structure by where ni is the intrinsic minoritycarrier concentration. A is the emitterbasejunction area.3 18 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. and (4.243). The exponent n in the expression for baseregion electron mobility p. was used to write Is in terms of p. Here. Combining (4. Active Loads. QBis the total base doping per unit area.Here again C and D are temperatureindependent quantities whose exact values are unimportant in the analysis.242).241). (4. and References generator / t T Figure 4.. and n:. and T is the temperature.243) where VGOis the bandgap voltage of silicon extrapolated to 0•‹K. the current Zlis not constant but varies with temperature.245) where E is another temperatureindependent constant and y =4n (4. p. The Einstein relation p..244) yields V B E ( ~ ~VT In = ) exp (4.. We assume for the time being that this temperature variation is known and that it can be written in the form I I = GT" (4.246) In actual bandgap circuits.242) that are temperature dependent are given by15 f i n = CT" (4. is the average electron mobility in the base.
and G in terms of the device parameters E and y .4. Our objective is to make VoUT independent of temperature. However. the output voltage is VOUT = VBE(O~) M V T f Substitution of (4. the output voltage at the zero TCF temperature (T = To) is given by For example. the output voltage for zero temperature coefficient is close to the bandgap voltage of silicon.4 Voltage and Current References 3 19 where G is another temperatureindependent constant. 4. E.which in turn is determined by the constants M.250) gives where To is the temperature at which the TCF of the output is zero and VTOis the thermal voltage VT evaluated at To.VT [(Y .44.) = VGO.ln(EG)I (4.f f )ln 7' . a .2 and a = 1. a .248) (4. The result is Thus the temperature dependence of the output voltage is entirely described by the single parameter To.248) into (4. we take the derivative of VoUT with respect to temperature to find the required values of G. In principle. The bandgap voltage of silicon is VGO = 1.251 can be rearranged to give This equation gives the required values of circuit parameters M.245) and (4. to achieve zero TCF at 27OC.249) (4.VT( y  a ) ln T + VT [M + ln(E G)] This expression gives the output voltage as a function of temperature in terms of the circuit parameters G. Differentiating (4.253) with respect to temperature yields .252).Differentiating (4. these values could be calculated directly from (4.253). To this end. which explains the name given to these bias circuits.205 V so that Therefore. and G. Combining (4. and M. assuming that y = 3.247) gives VBE(O.Equation 4. and M to give zero T C F .252) into (4. Using (4.249) gives VoUT = VGO. further insight is gained by backsubstituting (4. and the device parameters E and y .250) From Fig.250). y .
and we have As shown by (4.45 Variation of bandgap reference output voltage with temperature. Similarly.45 stem from the nonlinear dependence of the baseemitter voltage with temperature.259). 4. the temperature coefficient of the output is zero only at one temperature T = To. the gain M can be chosen to set the temperature coefficient of the output to zero only at one temperature. write an equation for VoUT as a function of temperature.44. and References Figure 4.Because of component variations. the actual room temperature output voltage is 1. and calculate the TCF at room temperature. 4.the slope is positive because the argument of the logarithm in (4.45 for different values of To for the special case in which a = 0 and Il is temperature independent.320 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. the thermal voltage generator is used to cancel the linear dependence of the baseemitter voltage with temperature. In other words.280 V.257) is more than unity. Assume that y = 3.'~~'~~~~ EXAMPLE A bandgap reference is designed to give a nominal output voltage of 1. This result stems from the addition of a weighted thermal voltage to a baseemitter voltage as in Fig. Active Loads.262 V. Since the temperature coefficient of baseemitter voltage is not exactly constant. Find the temperature of actual zero TCF of VOUT. the changing outputs in Fig. The slope of each curve is zero at T = To. For values of T near To.Also. 4. Equation 4.2 and a = 1.257 gives the slope of the output as a function of temperature. When T < To. the slope is negative when T > To. After this cancellation. A typical family of outputvoltagevariation characteristics is shown in Fig.257) and (4. which gives zero TCF at 27•‹C. . Bandgap references that compensate for this nonlinearity are said to be curvature ~orn~ensated.
significant inaccuracy in (4.244). however. TCF(eff) over the 55 to 125•‹Crange for case (b) of Fig. Since the TCF expresses the temperature sensitivity only at one temperature. A key parameter of interest in reference sources is the variation of the output that is encountered over the entire temperature range.249)(4. 4. TCF(eff)improves to 17 ppd0C.252) is often trimmed at one temperature so that the bandgap output is set to a desired target voltage. the TCF will be zero at To = 41 1•‹K= 138"C. By this standard. Saturated standard cells (precision batteries) have a TCF of about 2 30 ppm/"C. Initially.253) at T = 27•‹C = 300•‹K.45 is 44 pprnf'c. a different parameter must be used to characterize the behavior of the circuit over a broad temperature range.qon) plus a voltage proportional to the difference between two baseemitter voltages. and we can express VoUTas From (4. In practice. this reference is comparable with the standard cell in temperature stability once the zero TCF temperature has been set at room temperature. Practical realizations of bandgap references in bipolar technologies take on several forms.15~19~23 such circuit is illustrated in Fig.20As a result. with V1 = 0. The operation of the feedback loop is best understood by reference to Fig. An effective temperature coefficient can be defined for a voltage reference as where VMAX VMw are the largest and smallest output voltages observed over the temand is perature range. and TMAX TMLN the temperature excursion.4 Voltage and Current References 321 From (4.procedure reduces the T CF at the reference temper~~ ~~ ature to a level of about 10 ppm/ "C. and thus Therefore. .This. in which a portion of the circuit is shown. If the temperature range is restricted to 0 to 70•‹C.253). Thus over a restricted temperature range. the constant M in (4.46b. 4. We first consider the variation of the output voltage V2 as the input voltage V1 is varied from zero in the positive direction.I5 This circuit uses a feedback One loop to establish an operating point in the circuit such that the output voltage is equal to a VB.4. the target voltage is given by (4.46a.19 In principle. the T CF at room temperature is To reduce the TCF. 4. VoUTis the nominal output voltage.259) with T = 300•‹Kand To = 41 1•‹K Therefore. the target voltage is usually determined experimentallyby measuring the T CF directly for several samples of each bandgap reference in a given p r o c e ~ s .253) stems from an approximation in (4.
the voltage drop across R2 is much larger than (V1. Active Loads. a = l in (4. Thus the ratio of R2 to R1 determines the ratio of II to 12. corresponding to point Qin Fig. 4.6V1 V2 = V1 since the voltage drop on R2 is zero. R3. Now consider the complete circuit of Fig. The output voltage is the sum of the voltage across Q2.46~. The magnitude of the current in Ql is roughly equal to (V1 . 4.As V1 is increased. exactly as in the Widlar source. Because of the presence of R3. transistor Q3 is initially turned off.6 V). When V1 < 0. the voltage across R2 must be This equation shows that the voltage across R2 is proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) because of the temperature dependence of the thermal voltage. 4. Assume that a stable operating point exists for this circuit and that the op amp is ideal. assuming base currents are negligible. The voltage across R3 is Since the same current that flows in R3 also flows in R2. the baseemitter voltage of Q3. Since R2 is much larger than R1. Ql and Q2 do not conduct significant current until the input voltage reaches about 0.46~. Thus the circuit stabilizes with voltage V2 equal to one diode drop.46b. The voltage drop across Rg is equal to the difference in baseemitter voltages of Ql and Q2.6 V. and transistor Q2 saturates.which can occur at point @ or point @ in Fig. 4. the output voltage VoUT is the sum of the baseemitter voltage of Q3 and the voltage drop across R2.247). however. 4. The drop across R2 is equal to the voltage drop across R3 multiplied by R21R3 because the collector current of Q2 is approximately equal to its emitter current. the collector current that would flow in Q2 if it were in the forwardactive region has an approximately logarithmic dependence on V1. the currents Il and I2 are both proportional to temperature if the resistors have zero temperature coefficient. When V1 exceeds 0. 4.6 V)IR1. and R2: .46b.322 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors.0. A drawback of this reference is that the current I is set by the power supply and may vary with powersupply variations. Ql begins to conduct current. Then the differential input voltage of the op amp must be zero and the voltage drops across resistors R1 and R2 are equal. If transistor Q4will drive V1 in the positive direction. These two currents are the collector currents of the two diodeconnected transistors Q2 and Q1. Thus for this reference. a point is reached at which Q2 comes out of saturation because V1 increases faster than the voltage drop across R2.46b. A selfbiased bandgap reference circuit is shown in Fig. The ratio of currents in Ql and Q2 is set by the ratio of R2 to RI. This process will continue until enough voltage is developed at the base of Q3to produce a collector current in Q3 approximately equal to I. This point is labeled point @in Fig. and References devices Ql and Q2 do not conduct and V2 = 0. Since the op amp forces the voltages across RI and R2 to be equal.46b. For small values of this current. Thus as V1 is further increased.6 V. Appropriate startup circuitry must be included to ensure operation at point @. Q1 and Q2 carry the same current because the drop across R3 is negligible at low currents. Assuming that the circuit has reached a stable operating point at point @. corresponding to point @ in Fig.0.
. I 1 (C)  Figure 4. in a nwell process. the offset of op amps in CMOS technologies is usually larger than in bipolar technologies. (c) Improved bandgap reference.4. the voltage across R3 is .4 Voltage and Current References 323 v. For example. with the value of M set by the ratios of Rzl R3.and IS2/Zs1.) Because of the threshold mismatch and the low transconductance per current of CMOS transistors.46c.46 (a)Widlar bandgap reference. (The inputreferred offset voltage of an op amp is defined as the differential input voltage required to drive the output to zero. substrate p n p transistors can be used to replace the npn transistors in Fig. The circuit thus behaves as a bandgap reference.4. With the offset voltage. R 2 / R 1 . 4. 4. Assume that the CMOS op amp has infinite gain but nonzero inputreferred offset voltage Vos.2 BandGapReferenced Bias Circuits in CMOS Technology Bandgapreferenced biasing also can be implemented using the parasitic bipolar devices inherent in CMOS technology.3. as shown in Fig. (b) Bandgap subcircuit.47. 4.
the resulting slope of the output versus temperature is negative when the offset is positive and the gain is too small. With zero offset and a target that assumes zero offset.267 and 4. and References p. plus the outputreferred offset. We will now calculate the magnitude of the slope of the output versus temperature at T = To. Since the offset is assumed to be temperature independent. Therefore. the same gain that is applied to the difference in the baseemitter voltages is also applied to the inputreferred offset voltage.ammx in nwell The emitterbase voltages are used here because the baseemitter voltages of the pnp transistors operating in the forwardactive region are negative.266)gives where the outputreferred offset is Equations 4. Active Loads.324 Chapter 4 m Current Minors.266)with Vos = 0 to (4.249) shows that the gain M here is proportional to (1 + R2/R3). Then the voltage across R2 is Figure 4.268 show that the output contains an offset voltage that is a factor of ( 1 + R2/R3)times bigger than the inputreferred offset voltage.267)shows that the gain is too small if the offset voltage is positive and that the gain is too big if the offset voltage is negative. comparing (4. (4. To set TCF of the output equal to zero. where zero offset was assumed. Assume that the offset voltage is independent of temperature. On the other hand. If the gain is trimmed at T = To to set the output to a target voltage assuming the offset is zero.47 A band and the output voltage is18 Since the difference in the baseemitter voltages is proportional to the thermal voltage. this cancellation occurs when the output is equal to the target. Since the gain is applied to the PTAT term. the gain must be changed so that temperature coefficients of the VEB and AVEB terms cancel. Rearranging (4. trimming R2 andfor R3 to . this slope is positive when the offset is negative and the gain is too big.
267) to the target forces the slope of the AVEBterm to cancel the slope of the V E term. (4. Since this error is multiplied by AVEBin (4. Furthermore. however. 1 . and the resulting AVEB'= 120 mV at room temperature. the emitter area of Q2 is larger than that of Ql to make Is2 > ISl and this relationship is shown by drawing the symbol of Q2 larger than the sym. to .'~ Equation 4. Therefore. In practice. 4. Equation 4. the opamp offset is usually the largest source of nonzero temperature coeffi~ient. Since the reference output at T = To for zero TCF is approximately equal to the bandgap voltage. Because the logarithm function compresses its argument. Ignoring base currents. the required gain can be minimized by maximizing the AVEBterm. as shown in Fig. Similarly. when the gain is trimmed at one temperature to set the bandgap output to a desired target voltage. I1 > I2is emphasized by drawing the symbol for II larger than the symbol for 12. To maximize the AVEB term. these ratios are often each set to be about equal to ten. a limitation of this approach arises. variation in the opamp offset causes variation in the output temperature coefficient. AVEBincreases by only V ln(l0) 60 mV.48 A circuit that increases A V E B by increasing 1 112 and I s d I s l .   AVEB < + m m  = Figure 4.4.269) gives Therefore.48.272 shows that maximizing the product of the ratios 11/12and Is2/IS1 maximizes AVEB.48. Therefore.267). if the argument is increased by a factor of ten.271 shows that the temperature coefficient at T = To is proportional to the outputreferred offset under these circumstances. designers generally push a large current into a small transistor and a small current into a large transistor.268) shows that the outputreferred offset is equal to the gain that is applied to the A V E ~ term times the inputreferred offset. Substituting (4. the factor (1 + R2/R3) differs ~ from its ideal value after trimming by VOS(outjAVE~.4 Voltage and Current References 325 set the output in (4. 4.24 In practice. minimizing this gain minimizes the variation in the temperature coefficient at the output. For example. With nonzero offset but the same target.270) into (4. bol of Q1. where H is a temperatureindependent constant. the resulting slope of the output versus temperature is Since AVEBis proportional to the thermal voltage VT. In Fig.
4.and ZS4 = Is2. where two emitterfollower stages are cascaded. Therefore.25 For example.and the transistors that form I2 are minimumsized devices when (11/12)(IS2/IS1) the required die area would be dominated by the biggest devices = 100. Then ignoring base currents & Figure 4.49 are identical to the corresponding original devices in Fig. (Ill12)(IS2/IS1) increased by a factor of 100 to 10. .49. Active Loads.326 Chapter 4 H Current Mirrors. must be On the other hand.49 A circuit that cascades emitter followers to double AVEB if IS3 = I S . (Q2 andlor the transistors that form Il). stages that each contribute to AVEB can be cascaded.I4 = I2 Is3 = IS1.. double AVEBto 240 mV. and References Figure 4. and Is4 = IS^.48 so that I3 = I.50 Example of a VBEreferenced selfbiased reference circuit in CMOS technology.000. if Q.000would increase the die area by about a factor of 100 but only double AVEB. Here Assume the new devices in Fig. increasing (11/12)(IS2/IS1) to from 100 10. consider Fig. 4. To overcome this limitation. 4.
where cascoded current mirrors are used to improve supply rejection. APPENDIX A. 4. the collector currents will match precisely.1 MATCHING CONSIDERARTION IN CURRENT MIRRORS In many types of circuits. desired. A VTdependent current from MI1 develops a VTdependentvoltage across resistor xR.1 MATCHING CONSIDERARTION IN CURRENT MIRRORS 327 Thus cascading two identical emitter followers doubles AVEB while only doubling the required die area.50.4. an objective of currentmirror design is generation of two or more current sources whose values are identical.51 Matched bipolar current sources. A proper choice of the ratio X can give a bandgap voltage at VOUT.51. and instrumentation amplifiers. A highperformance CMOS bandgap reference is shown in Fig. . operational amplifiers. Figure 4. 18. A. If the resistors and transistors are identical and the collector voltages are the same.4. a temperatureindependent output current can be If realized by choosing X to give an appropriate temperature coefficient to VoUTto cancel the temperature coefficient of resistor R2. nonzero base resistance. We first examine the factors affecting matching in active current mirrors in bipolar technologies and then in MOS technologies. 4. An example of offset cancellation in a CMOS bandgap reference with curvature correction in addition to an analysis of other highorder effects arising from finite PF. This objective is particularly important in the design of digitaltoanalog converters. PF mismatch. mismatch in the transistor parameters a~ and Is and in the emitter resistors will cause the currents to be unequal. The effect of the offset in a bandgap reference can also be reduced by using offset cancellation. For Q3. However.A. and nonzero temperature coefficient in the resistors is presented in Ref.4.1 BIPOLAR Consider the bipolar current mirror with two outputs in Fig. PF variation with temperature.1.
Active Loads. This set of equations for the various parameters is now substituted into (4.277).R4 a ~ 4 Ic4 = 0 We now define average and mismatch parameters as follows: These relations can be inverted to give the original parameters in terms of the average and mismatch parameters.328 Chapter 4 m Current Mirrors. For example. and References VT In Ic4 15'4 Ic4 + R44 ffF = VB Subtraction of these two equations gives VT InIc3 Ic4  VT InIs3 4 Ic3 + R33 ffF . The result is The first term in this equation can be rewritten as .
when g.1 percent depending on geometry. the second term in (4.2 MOS Matched current sources are often required in MOS analog integrated circuits. First.R < 1. In this case. = zc/VT. Therefore. Resistor mismatch typically ranges from 2 2 to 20. Observed mismatches in Is typically range from k 10 to 2 1 percent depending on geometry. for pnp current sources. the first term in (4.1. In this case.significant with pnp than npn current sources. Then Applying the same approximations to the other terms in (4. The drain . since g.A. the voltage drop > on an emitter resistor is much larger than the thermal voltage. the ~ advantage of emitter degeneration is less. the use of emitter resistors offers significantly improved current matching. we obtain We will consider two important limiting cases. A.1 MATCHING CONSIDERARTION IN CURRENT MIRRORS 329 < If AZc/2Zc < 1.296) is small and the mismatch is mainly determined by the transistor Is mismatch in the first term. when gmR > 1. < the voltage drop on an emitter resistor is much smaller than the thermal voltage. The factors affecting this mismatch can be calculated using the circuit of Fig.4. and c r matching is in the 50. Thus for npn current sources. the c r mismatch is larger due to the lower PF. The two transistors M 1 and M2 will have mismatches in their WIL ratios and threshold voltages.296) is small and the mismatch is mainly determined by the resistor mismatch and transistor ( Y F mismatch in the second term. let X < = AIclZc. typically around 2 1 percent.52. 4.1 percent range ~ for npn transistors.292) when AIclZc < 1. On the other hand.288). The logarithm function has the infinite series To simplify (4. Second.4. this term can be rewritten as where the squared term is neglected.
52 Matched MOS current sources. Consider the current mirror shown in Fig. This change occurs because as the overdrive is reduced. At first. the fixed threshold mismatch progressively becomes a larger fraction of the total gate drive that is applied to the transistors and therefore contributes a progressively larger percentage error to the current mismatch.Vt) is reduced. we obtain The current mismatch consists of two components.53. which has one input and two outputs. assume that the input current is generated by a . currents are given by Defining average and mismatch quantities. we have Substituting these expressions into (4.298) and neglecting highorder terms. In practice. and References Figure 4. The second is dependent on threshold voltage mismatch and increases as the overdrive (VGS . these observations are important because they affect the techniques used to distribute bias signals on integrated circuits.297) and (4. The first is geometry dependent and contributes a fractional current mismatch that is independent of bias point. Also.330 Chapter 4 m Current Mirrors. 4. Active Loads. assume that Rsl = RS2 = 0.
305). especially when the overdrive is small. the output currents may have considerable variation from one IC to another with voltage routing. Current routing reduces the problems with mismatch and supply resistance by reducing the distances between the input and output transistors in the current mirror in Fig.Although these resistances were assumed to be zero above.4. but a betahelper configuration can be used to reduce such errors as described in Section 4. 4. respectively. voltage routing has two important disadvantages.and currentrouting techniques. First. The second disadvantage of voltage routing is that the output currents are sensitive to variations in the supply resistances Rsl and RS2. and the errors in the output currents can be predicted by an analysis similar to that presented in Section 4.53 can be built so that M1M3 are close together physically. Furthermore the gains from the input to each output of the current mirror are not affected by the number of outputs in MOS technologies because PF + m. In particular. any number of output currents can be produced. the output > currents are less than the input current. large current mismatch can result from biasing current sources sharing the same gatesource bias.) Unfortunately.1 for Widlar current sources.A.53 . increasing the errors in the output currents.3. when the devices are physically separated by large distances. the threshold voltage typically displays considerable gradient with distance across a wafer. 4. An advantage of this approach is that by routing only two nodes (the gate and the source of M1) around the IC. this case is referred to as an example of the voltage routing of bias signals. Finally.2. To overcome these problems.53 is to place MI on the IC near the input current source Im. a selfbiased bandgap reference might be used to make IIN insensitive to changes in the power supply and temperature. with perfectly matched transistors. PF is finite. assume that each output current is used to provide the required bias in one analog circuit on the integrated circuit (IC). This case is referred to as an example of the current routing of bias signals. (In bipolar technologies. As a result of both of these disadvantages. M2and M3 could each act as the tail current source of a differential pair. the circuit in Fig. The key point here is that Rsl and RS2 increase as the distances between the input and output transistors increase. increasing the potential mismatches in (4. nonzero resistances cause VGS2 < VGSland VGS3< VGSl when IoUTl > 0 and loUT2 0. they are nonzero in practice because of imperfect conduction in the interconnect layers and their contacts. and the gain error increases as the number of outputs increase. and the current outputs IoUTl and IoUTZare routed as required on the IC. For example. For example. Therefore. 4. One way to build the circuit in Fig.4.1 MATCHING CONSIDERARTION IN CURRENT MIRRORS 33 1 Figure 4. increasing the difficulty of designing the circuits biased by M2 and M3 to meet the required specifications even if IN is precisely controlled. the input and output transistors in the current mirror may be separated by distances that are large compared to the size of the IC.53 Current mirror with two outputs used to compare voltage. Therefore. Since IOUT2 flows in RS2and (IOUTl IOUT2) + flows in Rsl. while M2 and M3 are placed near the circuits that they bias. circuit with desirable properties. Since the gatesource voltage of M1 must be routed to M2 and M3 here.
when the number of bias outputs is large. Fig. For example. compared to voltage routing. A.and voltagerouting techniques. For example. we showed in Chapter 3 that the input offset voltage arises primarily from mismatches in Is in the input transistors and from . If the current routing bus in Fig.4.2. increased parasitic capacitance can reduce performance in some ways.1 BIPOLAR For the resistively loaded emittercoupled pair. Although simple current mirrors are shown in Fig. the parasitic capacitances on the drains of M2 and M3 may be large. where bias currents are routed between blocks and bias voltages within the blocks. increased parasitic capacitance will increase the commonmode gain and reduce the commonmode rejection ratio of each differential pair at high frequencies. and References + Figure 4. currents are routed globally and voltages locally.54 shows a circuit with five current mirrors. 4. cascoding is often used in practice to reduce gain errors stemming from a finite Early voltage. Active Loads. When the distance is large enough to significantly worsen mismatch or supplyresistance effects.53. However. 4. 4.332 Chapter 4 m Current Mirrors. Otherwise.54 travels over a large distance. the die area required for the interconnect to distribute the bias currents can be much larger than that required with voltage routing.54.2 INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE OF DIFFERENTIAL PAIR WITH ACTIVE LOAD A. Therefore. the parasitic capacitances on the drains of M7 and MI1 are minimized by using voltage routing within each current mirror. if M2 and M3 act as the tail current sources of differential pairs. where the input and output currents are still referenced as in Fig. One disadvantage of current routing is that it requires one node to be routed for each bias signal. In practice. If these nodes are connected to circuits that process highfrequency signals.4. where the difference between global and local routing depends on distance. it is local. In ICs using both current and voltage routing. the routing is global. 4. Another disadvantage of current routing is that it can increase the parasitic capacitance on the drains of M2 and M 3 .54 Biasdistribution circuit using both current routing and voltage routing. many ICs use a combination of current. An effective combination of these bias distribution techniques is to divide an IC into blocks.
this expression can be approximated as .312) gives because VCEl = VCE2 when (4. 4. (4.25a.306).308) can be simplified to = Since IC2 IC4. In the activeload. and which is required by KVL when VI1 = VIZ.311) in (4.309) can be written as From KCL at the collector of T3. Equation 4. KVL shows that VBE~ VBE~ = Solving (1. the offset is usually nonzero. solving (1.2 INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE OF DIFFERENTIAL PAIR WITH ACTIVE LOAD 333 mismatches in the collector load resistors. From KVL in the input loop.306)is the inputreferred offset voltage.A. Vos.307) Assume that the Early voltages of T3 and T4 are identical.3 12) 1 1 VID = V 1 .V 2 = VBE~ VBE~ Then the input offset voltage. is the value of VID for which the output voltage is given by (4.310) and (4. Since VCE3 = VCE4 when (4. In the activeload case.where Icl = IC2 VBEl = VBE2. With finite PF in the activeload transistors andor device mismatch.307) gives and (4.306) is satisfied. (4. where PF is the ratio of the collector to base current in the activeload devices.58) for VsEl and VBE2 and substituting into (4.58) for VBE3 VBE4and substituting in (4. The differential input required to drive the output to the value given by (4.4.306) is satisfied. Substituting (4. the input offset voltage results from nonzero base current of the load devices and mismatches in the input transistors and load devices. Refer to Fig. If the Early voltages of T 1 and T2 are identical. If the matching is perfect and if PF + in T3 and T4.306 holds because only this output voltage forces VCE3 = VCE4.3 13) gives If the mismatches are small. Assume the inputs are grounded. (4.
where In the derivation of (4. Active Loads.321) is the inputreferred offset voltage. we have added the mismatch terms for the pnp and n p n transistors in (4. 4. To reduce the offset arising from finite PF in the load devices.4. Assume that the Early voltages of T 1 and T2 are identical. and References using the technique described in Section 3. applying (1. A.where I I = I2 and VGsl = VGSZ. the offset is usually nonzero. the polarity of the mismatch terms is unknown in general. but the effect is usually negligible when the transistors are biased with collectoremitter voltages much less than their Early voltages. Equation 4.334 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. Since VDsl when VID = Vos.2 MOS The offset in the CMOS differential pair with active load shown in Fig.322) gives = VDs2 = VDsN If the mismatches are small. Therefore. mismatch in Early voltages also contributes to the offset.315) because the mismatch terms are random and independent of each other in practice. Assuming a worstcase value for AIs/Is of +5 percent and a pnp beta of 20. the current mirror in the load can use a beta helper transistor as described in Section 4.320) to (3.219) shows that the actively loaded differential pair has significantly higher offset than the resistively loaded case under similar conditions. If the matching is perfect with the inputs grounded. With device mismatch.165) to Vovl and VoR in (4. this expression can be approximated as . The offset arising here from mismatch in the load devices can be reduced by inserting resistors in series with the emitters of T 3 and T4 as shown in Section A.3.2517 is similar to the bipolar case.3. which is required by KVL when VI1 = V12The differential input required to drive the output to the value given by (4. the worstcase offset voltage is To find the worstcase offset. we assumed that the Early voltages of matched transistors are identical.1.4.321 holds because only this output voltage forces VDS3 = VDS4.315).2.2.6. In practice.320) instead of subtracting them as shown in in (4. Comparing (4.5.
6.324) gives . where Substituting (4.335) and (4.4. Assume that the Early voltages of T3 and T4 are identical. we will use KVL in the gatesource loop in the load as follows Since T3 and T4 are pchannel transistors. where Since Il = I3 and I2 = I4 where To find A I p / I p .A. their overdrives are negative. absolute value functions have been used so that the arguments of the squareroot functions are positive.333) can be rewritten as In (4.7.7. this expression can be approximated as using the technique described in Section 3. Since V D S 3 = VDS4 = VDSP when V I D = Vos (4. If the mismatches are small.6.5.5.2 INPUT OFFSET VOLTAGE OF DIFFERENTIAL PAIR WITH ACTIVE LOAD 335 using the technique described in Section 3.334).330) into (4.
unless otherwise specified.AlV2) 100 100 50 50 Assume that ITAIL 200 p A and that ANVosN < l and = < and KCL.332) and KCL Substituting (4.315) shows that the MOS differential pair with active load includes terms to account for threshold mismatch but excludes a term to account for finite beta in the active load because PF + in MOS transistors.336 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. (V) 0.339) to (4. 2.328) into (4. PROBLEMS For the bipolar transistors in these problems.705 0.342) and (4. and References Comparing (4. From (4.695 0. 4.336) gives I Substituting (4. 2. the mismatches have been chosen so that the individual contributions to the offset add constructively to give the worstcase offset.339) gives In this example. < l. Assume that rb = 0 and r p + .340) and (4. use the highvoltage device parameters given in Fig.337) and (4.329) into (4.327) < Substituting (4.338) into (4.30 and Fig.702 W (pm) 49 51 103 97 L (pm) l 1 1 1 k' (p.25b using the transistor parameters in the table below. from (4. Active Loads.35. EXAMPLE Find the inputreferred offset voltage of the circuit in Fig. Transistor T 1 T2 T3 T 4 V.325) gives Similarly.698 0.
Show that for large R I .5 Calculate the output resistance of the circuit of Fig. (C) The output current must change less than 1 percent for a change in output voltage of 1 V. calculate the output resistance.4 Calculate an analytical expression for the smallsignal output resistance R.8. 4.1. Make M1 and M2 identical. Find the output current if VoUT = 1 V. Make all devices identical except for Md. 4. assume that (WIL)s = (WIL). 4'4 t' meet the constraints: (a) Transistor M2 must operate in the active region for values of VOUT within 0. Use the process parameters given in Table 2. and R I = 10 kfl.1 1b to satisfy the constraints in Problem 4. 4. assuming that IIN 100 p A and the = devices have drawn dimensions of 100 pm11 pm. Figure 4.8 For the circuit of Fig. 4. Calculate the value of R.1 including the effects of nonzero base currents.9. the minimum output voltage for which all three transistors in the output branch operate in the active region.57. Use SPICE to plot the largesignal ZOUTVOUT characteristic.9. Ignoring the body effect. and the systematic gain error.5.Problems 337 in all problems.9 Calculate the output resistance of the Wilson current mirror shown in Fig. 4. will begin to decrease substantially.02 percent for a 1 V change in the output voltage. Also.4. Ignore the effects of nonzero base currents. U Figure 4.3 Design a current of the shown in Fig. 4. the total voltaee across all the devices in the i n ~ u t branch. include the effects of substrate leakage in the calculation of the output resistance for the circuit of Problem 4. Use SPICE to check your calculations and also to investigate the PF sensitivity by varying by 50 percent and examining ZOUT.56 to bias both cascode devices in the output branch. What is . find (W/L)6 and (W/L)7 so that VDS6 = VDS7 = Vov8.6 Using the data given in the example of Section 1.55 Circuit for Problem 4. 4. and assume for all devices that Xd = 0. to (b) The output current must be 50 pA./2. Draw the schematic of a doublecascode current mirror that uses the circuit of Fig. ignore the body effect for simplicity. 4. Assume all bipolar transistors operate in the forwardactive region.3 except the output resistance objective is that the output current change less than 0. of the bipolar cascode current mirror of Fig. 4. 4. 4.56.2 Repeat Problem 4. Assume that the input current source is not ideal and that the nonideality is modeled by placing a resistor R in parallel 1 with ZIN. Compare your answer with a SPICE simulation. 4. Use SPICE to check your design and also to plot the loUTVOUT characteristic for VoUTfrom 0 to 3 V. 4. the output resistance approaches /?or. 4. 4. Here the device area will be taken to be the total gate area (W X L product).56 Circuit for Problem 4. 5 V. and 30 V.4.2 V of ground.7 Design the circuit of Fig.8. Let VOUT= 2 V and 3 V. and estimate the value of VOTJT below which R. 4. if Vcc = 5 V. Assume Xd = 0 and take other device data from Table 2. You are to minimize the total device area within the given constraints. For this current mirror. Compare your answer with a SPICE simulation and also use SPICE to plot the IOUTVOUT characteristic for VOUT from Oto3V. and neglect base currents in bias calculations unless otherwise specified. Ignore the body effect for simplicity. ZIN = 0.1 Determine the output current and output resistance of the bipolar current mirror shown in Fig.55.
For both transistors. Also.5 V. and References (b) Repeat part (a) including the effects of weak inversion by using (1. (a) At first. 4. 4. Use SPICE to check the PF sensitivity by varying PF by 50 percent and examining IoUT. assume the transistors operate in strong inversion in all cases. Use SPICE to determine the CMRR if the currentsource output resistance is l MLR. but now assuming that ZkcR resistors are inserted in series with the emitters of Q3 and Q 4 . 4. 100 pA. Assume that M I has drawn dimensions of W = 100 pm and L = 1 pm.V ~ transfer characteristic for VsUp = 2. For all transistors.57 Circuit for Problem 4. Also.338 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. Assume that VDD = 3 V and that the dc input voltage is adjusted so that the dc output voltage is 1 V. Check with SPICE and also use SPICE to plot out the largesignal V o .4 for other parameters of both transistors.12.12 except replace Ql and Q2 with nchannel MOS transistors M1 and M 2 . 10 pA.12 Determine the unloaded voltage gain v.9.13 Repeat Problem 4. . 4. + Figure 4. Active Loads. 4.5 to calculate the transconductance of M . use SPICE Also.14 Repeat Problem 4. and 1 pA.12. = 50 pm and W. .58. = 100 pm. including both the body effect and channellength modulation.Ivi and output resistance for the circuit of Fig.255).10 Calculate the smallsignal voltage gain of the commonsource amplifier with active load in Fig. Assume that a transistor operates in weak inversion when its overdrive is less than 2nVr. as given in (1. 4. assume the percentage change in IoUT a 5V change for in V O U ~Compare your answer with a SPICE ? simulation using a full device model. (c) Use SPICE to check your calculations for both parts (a) and (b). assume that M2 has drawn dimensions of W = 10 Km and L = 1 pm.253) with n = 1. 4.58 Circuit for Problem 4.4 for other parameters.20. Do the of calculations for values of IREF 1 mA. I +SUP Figure 4. Assume that VDu = 3 V and that all the transistors operate in the active region.16b. Assume Xd = 0 and use Table 2. to plot the largesignal IouTVovT characteristic for Vour from 0 to 15 V.1 1 Calculate the smallsignal voltage gain of a commonsource amplifier with depletion load in Fig. Use Table 2. 4. Assume that the drawn dimensions of each transistor are W = 100 p m and L = l pm. replace Q3 and Q 4 with pchannel MOS transistors M3 and M+ Assume W. assume that Xd = 0.
lvi and output resistance for the circuit of Fig. (C) Calculate ~ d if llgm3= 0 and if the only mismatch is g. and < > 2gmzrtai1> 1 . 4.9 1. (MR) T1 1.161).05 T3 1. 4. For all transistors.14. the mismatch terms are often a small fraction of the corresponding average values.[cml of a differential pair with a currentmirror load can be calculated exactly from a smallsignal diagram where mismatch is allowed. and the results are difficult to interpret..59 Cascode activeload circuit for Problem 4. but now assuming that 2 kfl resistors are inserted in series with the sources of M3 and Mq..17 Repeat Problem 4.Problems 339 Figure 4.184).Calculate the value of Gm[dm] following data: g. 4. (d) Calculate ~ d if l/gm3 = 0 and if the only mismatch is r . compare your answer to the result that would apply without mismatch. where e d represents the gain error of the differential pair with a pure commonmode input and is defined in (4. Ignore the body effect. In practice.[cm] including the effects of mismatch.15 Repeat Problem 4. the calculation is complicated because the mismatch terms interact. 4.5 V . Also. ~ r02.05 0. Let ITAIL 100 pA. Ignore the body effect. 4. Use = Table 2. = 100 pm.. gm2r02 > 1 .16 Determine the unloaded voltage gain v. (a) Derive the ratio i21vicincluded in (4. 4.0 T5 2.95 T2 0. = 50 pm and W . # gm2.0 0. respectively.95 1.0 T 4 0.16 except replace the npn and pnp transistors with nchannel and pchannel MOS transistors. and the interactions between mismatch terms are often negligible. 4. = 1 pm and X d = 0 .59. ( m m ) r. Use Table 2.18 Find Gm[dm]of a sourcecoupled pair with a currentmirror load with nonzero mismatch (Fig. Verify with SPICE and also use SPICE to plot the largesignal VoV1 transfer characteristic for VsUp = 2. > (b) Use (4. # .165) and show that this ratio is approximately 1/2rtail as shown in (4. Assume W.3 for other parameters.3 for other parameters.29b) and show that it is approximately given using the by (4. calculate an approximation to G.16.1 1. assume LdWn= 1 p m and Xd = 0 .185) if ~ d < 2.173) to calculate ~ d with perfect matching. Ld.19 Although G.Neglect r.5 Compare your answer with a SPICE simulation. Using the following steps as a guide.
187).5. and thus has a TCF of . 4. let IIN 1 FA and find the required = ulation.22 Determine the output current in the circuit of Fig. Active Loads. 0. Find the output resistance.20 Design a Widlar current source using npn quired IIN. Resistor R1 sets IIN. 4.22. where S = (Vcc/lou~)(dIou~/dVcc). and Xd = Ld = 0. that would apply without mismatch. the emitter resistor R:! sets louT. Determine the new value of V o U ~ required to achieve zero TCF at 25•‹C. . the current I.1 pA.27 In the analysis of the hypothetical reference of Fig. Compare your answer with a SPICE sim(a) First.185) and the CMRR for the data given in Prob.62. Use In both cases.. (g) Calculate the value of G.1 p.2 V.20? Are these values practical? 4. assume that both transistors are Fig.44.31b to meet the following constraints with VDD = 3 V: (a) The input current should be 100 FA. transistors that produces a 5pA output current. = 0.61 Circuit for Problem 4. identical and operate in weak inversion with It = and R1 = 30 kCl.Fig. compare your answer to the result value of R. 4. find the minimum WIL 4. 4.Neglect base current.Vt < 0 is reFig. (0 Calculate E.". assuming that VGS. 4. and (d).Assuming a supply 4. ~ lem 4.[cm] using 4. Figure 4. + Figure 4. parameters. 4.3 1a with identical transistors. two quired to operate a transistor in weak inversion as resistors must be selected.3 1a to produce a specified output current. (b) V.26 Determine the value of sensitivity S of output current to supply voltage for the circuit of Fig.186) is at least 0. Also.340 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. if g m 3 r o ( d p ) > 1. gion if the voltage from the drain of M2 to ground (c). Your answer should be given as expressions for R1 and R:! in terms of Vcc and I O U ~ . resistance of the circuit shown in Fig.25. 1. 4. let R = 10 kfl and find the re4. > (d) The output resistance should be 50 MC!.45.18. Show that the result agrees with (4. determine the values of the two resistors so that the total resistance in the circuit is minimized.34 so that I o U= 0.and References (C) Transistor M2 must operate in the active reincluding rnis(e) Now estimate the total match by adding the values calculated in parts (b). Vcc = 30 V.A and n = 1. (b) Second.and shown in Fig.21 In the design of a Widlar current source of in both cases. values would these What expressions give for Problem 4. Assume LdWn= 1 p m ror of the current mirror and is defined in (4.2 V.25 Determine the output current and output voltage of Vcc and a desired output current I O U ~ .1500 pprn/"C. Assume instead that this current is derived from a diffused resistor. 4.60. Also. Use Table 2. and the output current should be 10 pA. 4.60 Circuit for Problem 4.. was assumed proportional to temperature. 4.4 for other Show that the result agrees with (4.6 1.133). 4.24 Design the MOS peaking current source in (4. which represents the gain erIgnore the body effect.23 Design a MOS Widlar current source using the circuit shown in Fig.
29. ~~ is R2.31 Repeat Problem 4. Also. Assume VBE(on) 0. ZS1 = differential input voltage and current are both zero 1 X 10l5 A.6 V . 4. 4. Assume the and op amp is ideal except for a possibly nonzero offset voltage Vos. and RI are nominal but that R3 is l percent low. Find dVoUTldT at that ( V B .Neglect base currents. 4.29 assuming that the Figure 4.25 X 10l7 A and Is2 = 1 X 10l6 A. In SPICE.28 The circuit of Fig. R2. 4. If the op amp is ideal. Use SPICE to adjust the gain so that VoUTis equal to the target at 25•‹C.63. at d VouTldT positive or negative? Explain.47 4. (a) Suppose that R is trimmed to set VoUT 2 equal to the target voltage for which d VouTldT = Assume that II is to be made equal to 200 pA.29 A bandgap reference like that of Fig. V A + m. is Determine R I .63.VBE2) to be made equal to 100 mV. values of Is. 4. adjust the closedloop gain of the amplifier (by choosing suitable resistor values) so that the output TCF is zero at 25•‹C.29 on SPICE.63 Bandgap reference circuit for Problem 4. Assume that the amplifier is just a voltagecontrolled voltage source with an openloop gain of 10.62 Circuit for Problem 4.33 For the circuit of Fig. 4.Assume Due to process variations. 4. What is the resulting target value of VOUT? NOWdouble Isl and IS^. (b) Under the conditions in part (a). .64. = 1. and R3 to realize zero TCF of V o U ~ 25•‹C.30 Simulate the bandgap reference from Problem 4.Find the new dVoUTldT at 25•‹Cwith SPICE. = 4.32. Also assume that Is. T = 25•‹Cwhen Vos = 30 mV. find the value is designed to have nominally zero TCF at 25•‹C.Problems 341 value.32 A bandgap reference circuit is shown in a bandgap reference. assume that the * 4 Figure 4. its Fig. the saturation current that the threshold voltage falls 2 mV for each IS of the transistors is actually twice the nominal 1•‹Cincrease in temperature. What is dVouT/dT at 25"C? Neglect base currents. Assume that PF + m. Compare this result with the calculations from Problem 4. Assume VOS = 0. and 0 at T = 25•‹Cwhen Vos = 0. of WIL for which dVGsldT = 0 at 25•‹C. 4 6 ~ to be used as is 4. 4 . which is modeled by a voltage source in Fig.26. and IS2 = 8 X A.000 and that the resistor values are independent of temperature.
determine the bias current.37 A pair of bipolar current sources is to be designed to produce output currents that match with 5 1 percent.65 Circuit for Problem 4.IVGS31. in this calculation.4 to calculate the transconductance * Figure 4. how much voltage must be dropped across the emitter resistors? 4.39 Repeat Problem 4.65 as a function of R.+ (WIL)2= 20 and (WIL)3 +(WIL)4 = 60..243) with n = 1. use Table 2.58. and transistors a worstcase VBE mismatch of 2 mV. Use Table 2. Assume the worstcase Is mismatches in the transistors are +5 percent and PF = 15 for the pnp transistors.33.38 Determine the worstcase input offset voltage for the circuit of Fig. Calculate the ratio of smallsignal variations in IBIAs smallsignal variations to in VDD low frequencies. Finally. and References mobility temperature dependence is given by (4. and also use SPICE to determine the supplyvoltage sensitivity of IBIAS. 4. mismatches are 5 10 mV. Assume M4 is identical to Mg. 4. 4. 4.14. (WIL)I. Ignore the body effect at but include finite transistor r. 4. 4. Assume the dc output voltage to ground is VsUp .38.5 percent and the worstcase pnp PF mismatch is t.Also.5.35 The circuit of Fig. 4. p. Neglect base currents and the bodv .C. but assume that 2kfl resistors are placed in series with the emitters of Q3 and Q4. Assume the dc output voltage is VsUp ..36.Comment on the temperature behavior of the bias current.342 Chapter 4 Current Mirrors. Comment on the temperature dependence of the bias current. and let I = 200 pA.4.4 for other parameters at 25"C. Active Loads. Assume that Xd = LA = 0.34. 4. assume that Xd = Ld = 0 and ignore the body effect. Assume the worstcase resistor mismatch is 20.4.I VB/?(on) 1.and (WIL)2.34 Calculate the bias current of the circuit shown in Fig.66 Circuit for Problem 4. Compare your calculations to a SPICE simulation using a full circuit model from Table 2. If resistors display a worstcase mismatch of ? O S percent.65 produces a supplyinsensitive current.38 but replace the bipolar transistors with MOS transistors as in Problem 4.40 Repeat Problem 4.10 percent. %A Q2 Q1  IX  transistors Bipolar Figure 4.36 For the bias circuit shown in Fig.64 Circuit for Problem 4. effect. Assume the worstcase WIL mismatches in the transistors are %5 percent and the worstcase V. 4.66. 50 1 M3 M4 (I 50 1 M2 lzB'As 3 2 1 1ox 100 1 Figure 4. For simplicity. assume that (WIL). 4. Assume a channel mobility and oxide thickness from Table 2.
388393. Nagata. Private Communication. SC8." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. and M. pp. 948955. Y. 27. Private Communication. October 1985. "A Precision CurvatureCompensated CMOS Bandgap Reference. "A Curvature Corrected Micropower Voltage Reference. Palmer and R.550. T. 11391143. M. March 1991. "A Monolithic Junction FETnpn Operational Amplifier. T. Widlar. C. "Random Error Effects in Matched MOS Capacitors and Current Sources. Vol. pp. 341348. 26. pp. SC18. "MOS Cascode Current Mirror.S. C. Shyu. 586590. E. Widlar. Tsividis. G. J. Sooch. Lakshmikumar. A. and F. Vol. J. M. and K. Frederiksen. "A NewPerformance Monolithic Operational Amplifier. Gowda. R. 18. R. "Design of Reliable VLSI Circuits Using Simulation Techniques. SC19." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits.V ~ Characteristics with Application to Bandgap Reference Sources.284. June 1973. Temes. Kuijk. "Accurate Analysis of TemE perature Effects in Ic . Wilcox. SC. Dobkin. Krurnmenacher. Vol. 5859. P." Japanese Patent 628. P. SC3." IEEE Journal of Solidstate Circuits. Brodersen. pp. December 1980. pp. 634643. Choi. Webers. A. A." U. Vol." IEEE Journal of Solidstate Circuits. C.B. D. R." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. 13. B. Viswanathan. 23. W. 7. December 1968. 652464." Fairchild Semiconductor Applications Brie$ May 1968. P. 5. "Matching Properties of MOS Transistors. 19.228. J.References 343 REFERENCES 1. pp. M. 9. A. Brokaw. "A New CurvatureCorrected Bandgap Reference. R. N. R. April 25. December 1974. 16. 11. 3. 1972. pp. Vol. S. "Constant Current Circuits. Brokaw. Vol." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. Vol. 22. Vol. pp. C. SC4. pp. December 1965. C. Vittoz and 0. Pelgrom. W. J. R. 24. 573577. February 1971. 139. 1987.121. Vol." IEEE Joumal of SolidState Circuits. December 1984. pp. May 6. 20. A. G. SC20. A. "A LowVoltage CMOS Bandgap Reference. Pease." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. B. 12. G." IEEE Journal of Solidstate Circuits. June 1985. "A Simple ThreeTerminal IC Bandgap Reference. G. Copeland." U. "HighFrequency CMOS SwitchedCapacitor Filters for Communications Application. "New Developments in IC Voltage Regulators." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits.659. pp. . R. pp. 2. "Some Circuit Design Techniques for Linear Integrated Circuits. pp. K. "LowVoltage Peaking Complementary Current Generator. M. December 1982." ZEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits.J. 222226. Vol. J. W. R. 14331440. February 1981. 10761084. 3. R. Gray. Schmale. P. SC18. R. Fullagar. C.S. 6." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistol. Patent 4. Gray." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. McGraw Hill. and A." Inte~nationalSolidState Circuits Conference. 21. 8. C. Tsividis. Kaneshiro. Kwok. "Design Techniquesfor Monolithic Operational Amplifiers. p. and M. 816818. P. C. Private Communication. Neyroud. M. R. Vol. 17. Song and P. pp. June 1979. Hsu. Duinmaijer. Vol. SC14.S. A. 452457. P. pp. Vol. October 1989. "A Precision Reference Voltage Source. T." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. Wilson. SC21. CT12.15. T. K. 4. and S. P. pp. 25. Y. 10571066. 15. Vol. Meijer. Y. "Characterisation and Modeling of Mismatch in MOS Transistors for Precision Analog Design. December 1983. SC6. December 1986. "Constant Current Source. December 1983. SC9. R. B. SC17. Vol. Vol. pp. J. van Zalinge. M. August 1969. 24. Sheu. Jett. E." IEEE Transactions on Circuit Theory. 10. 1971. Widlar. R. 14." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. New York. Patent 3. Hadaway. 184191.
The output stage is driven by voltage V i . _I__. Q3 can be those used to bias other stages in the circuit.signal p of load with acceptably low levels of s i g d distorti&&other common a b i e c e e of stage design is to minimize the output impedance so that the voltage gain is relative11 _ unaffected by the value of load impedance. Because any large current flow to the substrate can initiate the pnpn latchup phenomenon described in Chapter 2. To simplify the analysis.2 The Emitter Follower as an Output Stage An emitterfollower output stage is shown in Fig. Rg.1. As a result. is also zero. resistor R2 is usually smaller than R I to accommodate this difference. that is.2. in addition. = 0 V.. Extensive substrate taps in the vicinity of the emitter follower are essential to collect the substrate current flow. The simplest outputstage configurations are the emitter and source . several outputstage configurations will be considered to satisfy the above requirements. although these supplies may have different values in practice. the smallsignal analyses that have been used extensively up to this point . Because of their excellent currenthandling capability.1 Introduction The output stage of an amplifier must satisfy a number of special requirements. positive and negative bias supplies of equal magnitude Vcc are assumed.Output Stages 5. and comparisons are made of poweroutput capability and efficiency.1 Transfer Characteristicsof the EmitterFollower The circuit of Fig. 5. More complex output stages employing multiple output devices are also treated. however. The bias components RI. This circuit topology can also be implemented in CMOS technologies using an MOS current source for bias and the parasitic bipolartransistor emitter follower available in standard CMOS processes. Since the quiescent current IQin Q2 will usually be larger than the reference current IR. this configuration should be used carefully in CMOS technologies with lightly doped substrates. is zero. A welldesigned output stage should achieve these performance specifications while consuming low quiescent power and. In this chapter. Although parasitic bipolar transistors can be used in some CMOS output stages. 5. bipolar transistors are the preferred devices for use in output stages. Onkof ~ toO_a r the most important requirements is to deliver a specified amount . The emitterfollower output device Ql is biased to a quiescent current IQ by current source Q2.which has a quiescent dc value and of Vbel for V . output stages in CMOS technologies are usually constructed without bipolar transistors and are also described in this chapter. should not be a major limitation on the frequency response of the amplifier. the current and voltage swings resulting from the presence of signals may be a large fraction of the bias values.1 must handle large signal amplitudes. When output voltage V.1_ ~UP: 5. output current I. 5.A followers.
and V iif both Ql and Q2 are in the forwardactive region. For this reason. The largesignal transfer characteristic can be derived as follows: In this case.therefore. Also if Q2 is in the forwardactive region and (5. the current in Q1 and Vbel are both almost constant as V. if Ql is in the forwardactive region.2) in (5. The transfer characteristic from (5. we first determine the dc transfer characteristic of the emitter follower. the first term on the righthand side of (5. which is labeled RL1.1) gives PF is assumed large. This characteristic allows calculation of the gain of the circuit and also gives important information on the linearity and thus on the distortion performance of the stage. As a result. the center part of the transfer characteristic for RL = RL1is nearly . Consider the circuit of Fig. changes.5.2 The Emitter Follower as an Output Stage 345 4 I0 Figure 5.4) has been plotted in Fig. consider the case where RL is large. which represents the baseemitter voltage Vbel of Ql.In this case. changes in this case.4 is a nonlinear equation relating V.4). This result stems from the observation that the current in the load is small for a large RL. 5. First.1.3) and Equation 5. 5. Substitution of (5. If the load resistance RL is small compared with the output resistance of the transistors. the baseemitter voltage Vbel of Ql cannot be assumed constant but must be expressed in terms of the collector current IC1of Ql and the saturation current Is.2.1 Emitterfollower output stage with currentmirrorbias. is almost constant as V. "cc must be used with care in this situation.
Next consider the case where RL in Fig. (The portion of the curve for V ilarge positive where Ql is saturated actually has a positive slope if the effect of the collector series resistance r.1 has a relatively small value.2 Transfer characteristic of the circuit of Fig. a straight line with unity slope that is offset on the Vi axis by VBEl. of Q1 is included. In particular. (The voltage drop across R2 is asat sumed small and is neglected. In practice. the voltage swing must be limited to the region between these two break points.2. this portion of the transfer characteristic must be avoided. and the slope abruptly decreases. The output voltage follows the input until V. because the saturation of Qlresults in large nonlinearity and a major reduction of power gain. 5.4) can become large. the driver stage supplying Vi usually cannot produce values of Vi that have a magnitude exceeding Vcc (if it is connected to the same supply voltages) and the driver itself then sets the upper limit. 5. VCEl(sat) which point Ql saturates. Further increases in Vi thus produce little change in V. the first term in (5. another discontinuity in the transfer curve occurs. Output voltage V follows Vi until V. as Vi is made large positive or negative. and the characteristic flattens out. This nearlinear region depends on both Ql and Q2 being in the forwardactive region. However. as shown in Fig. As mentioned above.the quiescent value of Vbel. the preceding stage often limits the maximum positive output voltage in a practical circuit because a voltage larger than Vcc usually cannot be generated at the base of the output stage. one of these devices saturates and the transfer characteristic abruptly changes slope. Then when V .346 Chapter 5 Output Stages Figure 5. approaches the critical value . Consequently. = Vcc . 5. the transistor base resistance (and any source resistance present) limit the current in the forwardbiased collectorbase junction and prevent the voltage at the internal transistor base from rising appreciably higher. The collectorbase junction of Ql is then forward at biased and large currents flow from base to collector. is made large and negative. It could be lumped in with the saturation voltage VCE2(sat) of Q2 if necessary.) Now consider Vimade large and negative. The value of V irequired to cause this behavior is slightly larger than the supply voltage because Vbel is larger than the saturation voltage VCE(sat).) When Q2 saturates. In any event. = Vcc + VCE2(sat). Consider Vi made large and positive.1 for a low (RL2) a high ( R L 1value and ) of load resistance. For acceptable distortion performance in the circuit. this term approaches minus infinity when V. which point Q2 saturates.
leaving Q2 to draw the current IQfrom the load. these signals are applied as inputs at Vi in Fig. Consider the two sinusoidal waveforms in Fig. Waveform @has an amplitude V1 IQRU and waveform @ has an amplitude V2 > IQRL2.1 (together with a bias If voltage). .3b for RL = RL2. (b) ac output waveforms corresponding to the inputs in (a)with RL = R L ~ . Further decreases in V iproduce no change in V. 5. . 5.V. 5. l and is Figure 5.5. 5. 5..2 holds. For a given IQand RL.the stage will produce severe waveform distortion if Vi is a sinusoid with amplitude exceeding IQRL2.IRL) is equal to the current IQ.3a.1 can be obtained from Fig.For the smaller input signal. 5. the output waveforms that result are as shown in Fig. and device Ql cuts off. The equation for the load lines can be written from Fig. 5. which is apparent for the larger input. Note that if IQRLis larger than Vcc.2 Power Output and Efficiency Further insight into the operation of the circuit of Fig. and the transfer characteristic is the one labeled RL2 in Fig. the situation shown for RL = RL1in Fig. is termed "clipping" and must be avoided in normal operation of the circuit as a linear output stage.2 The Emitter Follower as a n Output Stage 347 In this situation..1.V.4 where three different load lines are drawn on the I. 5. The transfer characteristic for positive Vi is similar for both cases. the current drawn from the load (. 5.2. For the case RL = RL2. 5. characteristics of Ql. and the output voltage can swing almost to the positive and negative supply voltages before excessive distortion occurs. the circuit acts as a nearlinear amplifier and the output is near sinusoidal.3 (a)ac input signals applied to the circuit of Fig. the onset of clipping limits the maximum signal that can be ham dled. The output waveform distortion.2.
avalanche breakdown of a bipolar transistor occurs for V.2 is IQRL2 and the maximum possible value of VCe1 (Vcc + IQRL2).. As Vi decreases and VCe1 increases.4 for load resistances RLl.6) for any value of Vi and the line includes the quiescent point Q. 5.1 when both Ql and Q2 are in the forwardactive region. 5. When sinusoidal signals are present. as was illustrated in Fig.1 should always be less than BVcEo by an appropriate safety margin. limiting the maximum allowable instantaneous power dissipation for safe operation of any device. We are concerned both with the instantaneous power dissipated and with the average power dissipated. In the preceding analysis.4. Also note that if an output stage handles only highfrequency . However. As Vi increases and VCe1 decreases. Figure 5. which is the worst case for breakdown voltage. if RL is small (RL2). and thus BVcEo must be greater than this value. V decreases and VCe1increases until Q2 saturates.348 Chapter 5 Output Stages Curves of constant V .2. there are two possibilities as described above.  V. In a conservative design.. As described in Chapter 1.. Consider now the power relationships in the circuit. the value of V. 5. 5.6 is plotted in Fig. Equation 5. the power dissipated in various elements varies with time. If RL is large (RL1). The values of V. the maximum value that VCe1can attain in this circuit for any load resistance was calculated as approximately 2Vcc. is Thus far no mention has been made of the maximum voltage limitations of the output stage.RL2.4 Load lines in the I. and ZC1 are related by (5. Average power levels are important because the power delivered to a load is usually specified as an average value.. Thus the maxi. = and and RL3 and the device operating point moves up and down these lines as Vi varies. in Fig.. The junction temperature of the transistor will tend to rise and fall with the instantaneous power dissipated in the device. 5. = BVcEo in the commonemitter configuration.VCE2(sat)] this value is marked on can and Fig. where IC1 IQ VCe1= Vcc. in the circuit of Fig.the maximum negative value of V as illustrated . Ql eventually saturates. 5..1 plane for emitter follower Ql of Fig. mum possible value that VCe1 attain is [2Vcc . Instantaneous power is important when considering transistor dissipation with lowfrequency or dc signals....I l I I VE CI (sat) 'cc + IQ Maximum possible value of V.
5..4 as This load line gives the triangle of largest area ( C ) and thus the largest average output power. the average output power delivered to RL is where POand I^.2 and 5. the average power drawn from the supplies is constant and independent of the presence of sinusoidal signals in the circuit.4.4 show that clipping occurs symmetrically in this case.4 since the base of the triangle As RLl equals Q. is increased.7a). are the maximum values of 13.VcE(sat)] and G. we have To calculate the efJiciency of the circuit. the maximum average power that can be delivered is diminished. Assuming that V . the maximum average output power that can be delivered diminishes because the triangle becomes smaller.4 shows that the poweroutput capability of the stage is maximized for RL = RL3. the transistor junction temperature will not vary appreciably over a cycle and the average device power dissipation will then be the limiting quantity. the power drawn from the supply voltages must now be calculated. Using (5. 5.which can be calculated from (5. Consider the case of the large load resistance. This value of power can be interpreted geometrically as the area of the triangle A in Fig. An examination of Fig. As described previously. the maximum output signal amplitude that can be attained before clipping occurs depends on the value of RL. = [Vcc . As RL2is decreased. Q.. The current flowing in the negative supply is constant and equal to IQ (neglecting bias current IR).2 The Emitter Follower as an Output Stage 349 signals. Since the supply voltages are constant. is approximately sinusoidal. are the amplitudes (zero to peak) of the output sinusoidal voltage and current. 5.4. = IQ. In this case.5. V o m / ~ L 1 . that can be attained before where Q and I". which is assumed sinusoidal with an average value IQ. If PLIma.7a).is the maximum value of PL that can be attained before clipping occurs with sinusoidal signals. The maximum output voltage amplitude remains essentially the same but the current amplitude decreases as RLl increases.7a). Using (5. The total power drawn . = IQ.. Consider the output signal power that can be delivered to load RL when a sinusoidal input is applied at Vi. shown in Fig. 5. the maximum average that output power PLJmax can be delivered is given by the area of triangle B. Figures 5. and its height is tom. and to clipping. maximum average power that can be delivered to RL1is calculated by substituting these values in (5.6) and Fig. 5. RLl. the maximum output voltage swing before clipping occurs is The corresponding current amplitude is fo. If RL = RL2 in Fig. then . and we have assuming equal saturation voltages in Qland Q 2 The corresponding sinusoidal output = The current amplitude is to. The current drawn from the positive supply is the collector current of Ql.
(c)Collector power dissipation waveform. then substitution of (5. Since the power drawn from the supplies is constant in this circuit. which is the instantaneous power dissipation in the transistor.5 (assuming VCE(sat) 0 for simplicity) together with their product.5 Waveforms for the transistor Ql of Figure 5. (b) Collector current waveform. The current and voltage waveforms in Ql at maximum signal swing and with RL = RL3are shown in Fig.the maximum efficiency of the stage is 114 or 25 percent.11) and (5. the efficiency increases as the output power increases.1 at full output with RL = RL3. < Another important aspect of circuit performance is the power dissipated in the active device.. 5. The curve of instantaneous power dissipation in Ql as a function of time varies at twice the signal frequency and has an average value of onehalf the quiescent value.13) power output. the efficiency also depends on RL. (a)Collectoremitter voltage waveform. Thus if < VCC. Also. since the previous analysis shows that the poweroutput capability of the circuit depends on the value of RL. .12) in (5. If RL = RL3 and gives for the maximum possible efficiency v.350 Chapter 5 Output Stages from the two supplies is thus The power conversion eficiency (qc) of the circuit at an arbitrary output power level is defined as the ratio of the average power delivered to the load to the average power drawn from the supplies. The best efficiency occurs for RL = RL3 since this value gives maximum average = Q. This result can be shown % A I I I I I Quiescent power bVcc c t Figure 5.
The maximum possible value of Vcel is (2Vcc .P2. At the other extreme of the swing where VCe1= 0. 5.18) with (5. .10) for Comparing (5. the instantaneous device power dissipation increases. For values of Vcel greater than the quiescent value. Thus at maximum output the average power dissipated in Ql is half its quiescent value. 5.5. The load line for RL + m (opencircuit load) is also shown in Fig.sin o t ) = (~ + cos 2or) Vccz l 2 (5. therefore. As the operating point leaves the quiescent point and moves on the load line with RL = RL3...the load line then intersects constantpower hyperbolas representing lower power values. In that case.6). Using (5. this value. the power dissipation in Q2 is also 2Vcc IQ. Further information on the power dissipated in Ql can be obtained by plotting curves of constant device dissipation in the I.6 for constant transistor instantaneous power dissipation values P1.15a) is VcclQ/2. The power hyperbola of value P2 passes through the quiescent point Q.V.2 The Emitter Follower as an Output Stage 35 1 analytically as follows. = IQ and Vcel = Vcc Thus the slope is From (5.5) PC1= Vcc(l + sin wt)lQ(l . plane.6.6. and Pg (where P1 < P2 < P3). and the average device temperature when delivering power with RL = RL3 is less than its quiescent value.15 indicates that such curves are hyperbolas. since both curves have the same slope at that point. and this possibility should be taken into account when considering the powerhandling requirements of Ql.16) in this equation gives At the quiescent point Q.VCE2(sat)). and the equation of this curve can be calculated from (5. 5. Pcl can be expressed as (from Fig. the instantaneous device power dissipation decreases. The instantaneous power dissipation in Ql is At maximum signal swing with a sinusoidal signal. we have I.15a) The average value of Pcl from (5. the transistor collector current does not vary over a period but is constant. This point of view is consistent with the power waveform shown in Fig.19) shows that the load line with RL = RL3is tangent to the power hyperbola passing through the quiescent point. Equation 5. 5. the slope of the load line with RL RL3 gives = RL3 is (1/RL3). 5. which are plotted in Fig. . the instantaneous At power dissipation in Ql is approximately 2VcclQ if VCE2(sat)< VCCThis dissipation < is twice the quiescent value of VcclQ.5. This result is illustrated in Fig.15) as The slope of the curve is and substitution of (5.
the maximum instantaneous device power dissipation occurs at the midpoint of the load line where VCe1= .352 Chapter 5 Output Stages High transistor power dissipation Low transistor power dissipation "cc VCPl the I. these limits may be sufficient to prevent burnout of Ql. is called a Class A output stage. P2 < P3. Load lines are included for RL = 0. the midpoint is the point of maximum instantaneous device power dissipation with any load line. A useful general result can be derived from the calculations above involving load lines and constantpower hyperbolas. the current source is sometimes replaced by a resistor connected to the negative supply. the emitter follower in this analysis was assumed to have a current source IQ in its emitter as a bias element. and V. In practice. Figure 5.6  A situation that is potentially even more damaging can occur if the load is short circuited. In that case. Figure 5. An example of such protection is given in Section 5. of Fig.. and Ps in V. In particular.) It can be seen from (5.(The midpoint of the load < line is assumed to be midway between its intersections with the I. Hyperbolas of constant instantaneous transistor power dissipation P I .17) that any load line tangent to a power hyperbola makes contact with the hyperbola at the midpoint of the load line. the collector current (and thus the device power dissipation) of Ql can become quite large.1. Note that P . 5. described in Chapter 1. 5. 5.6. For example. With large input signals. axes. plane for emitter follower Q . . in Fig. P 2 . as shown in Fig..4 with RL = RL2.4.6 shows that the maximum instantaneous device power dissipation for RL = RL3occurs at the quiescent point Q (since P1 < P2 < P3). where the output device always conducts appreciable current. Consequently. which is the midpoint of the load line if VCE2(sat) < VCC. ..(vcc + IQRt2)An output stage of the type described in this section. RL = RL3. and such a configuration will give some deviations from the above calculations.. In practice.and RL + m.6. The limit on collector current is set by the ability of the driver to supply the base current to Q . the output power available from the circuit will be reduced. This type of operation can be realized with different transistor configurations but always has a maximum efficiency of 25 percent. Finally. and also by the highcurrent falloff in PF of Q l . the load line is vertical through the quiescent point. but currentlimiting circuitry may be necessary.
the maximum sinusoidal output voltage swing is limited to 1.86 mW = 1.X 1. What is the maximum possible efficiency with this stage and what value of RL is required to achieve this efficiency? Assume the signals are sinusoidal. The solution proceeds as follows. The maximum average output power available from the circuit for sinusoidal signals can be calculated from (5. and RL3 is given by (5.4.7 percent is quite low and is due to the limitation on the negative voltage swing.13) The efficiency of 4. 5. R. The maximum out.86 X 1.4.5.12) as The efficiency of the circuit at the output power level calculated above can be determined from (5. The product.10) as In this instance.2 The Emitter Follower as an Output Stage 353 EXAMPLE An output stage such as shown in Fig. 5. IQRL. 5. put voltage and current swings are thus $.7a) as 1 1 PLImax Qomiom = . R3 = 5 kfi. (a) Calculate the maximum average output power that can be delivered to RL before clipping occurs. and the corresponding efficiency.1 has the following parameters: Vcc = 10V.14) is .Assume that the dc input voltage is adjusted so that the dc output voltage is 0 volts. (a) The bias current IQ is first calculated. RL = 1 ka. (b) Calculate the maximum possible instantaneous power dissipation in Ql .is given by Since the dc output voltage is assumed to be 0 volts.5 V and the output voltage is sinusoidal.86 V and f.86 V by clipping on negative voltage swings and the situation corresponds to RL = RL2in Fig.11) as The corresponding efficiency using (5.73 mW = 2 2 The power drawn from the supplies is calculated from (5. The maximum possible efficiency with this stage occurs for RL = RL3 in Fig. the maximum average power that can be delivered to the load before clipping occurs is found from (5.86 mA.Also calculate the average power dissipation in Ql when Q. VCE(sat) = 0. = R2 = 0. and since IpRL is less than Vcc.2 V. = 1. = 1.. = 1.
further reducing the possible output voltage swing. Although it has only unity voltage gain.5 V. However. and a smaller geometry can be used for the driver device. which is a requirement of any output stage. = Pc. constant. However. = 1.93/RL = 5. (b) The maximum possible instantaneous power dissipation in Ql occurs at the mid point of the load line. and in practice it may introduce additional limitations on the circuit performance.4 and the load line RL occurs for = RL2 shows that this The corresponding collector current in Ql is IcI = 5. this condition could easily occur if the circuit is overdriven by a large input signal.93 V.6 mW For Q. the quiescent power dissipated in Q1 is PcQ = Vccle = 10 X 1. The average power dissipation in Ql can be calculated by noting that for sinusoidal signals. and RL must be constant and independent of the presence of sinusoidal signals.354 Chapter 5 Output Stages This result is close to the theoretical maximum of 25 percent. the emitter follower has substantial power gain. Thus as Q is increased. and thus the average power dissipated in Ql and RL together is .Q2. of the emitter follower to its maximum positive value required an input voltage slightly greater than the supply voltage. = 1. the driver stage generally cannot produce voltages greater than the supply. the average power dissipated in Ql decreases by the same amount as the average power in RL increases.5 mW 5. For example.5 V with a sinusoidal signal is P.1. the average power delivered to the load is Thus the average power dissipated in Ql when v. This power dissipation occurs for Veer = 5. Consequently. the driver bias current can be much lower than the outputstage bias current.86 V as calculated in (a)]. it was shown that to drive the output voltage V.93 mA since RL Thus the maximum instantaneous power dissipation in Ql is = lk0.. which is about l / P F times the emitter current.  PL = 17. Since the driver stage is connected to the same supplies as the output stage in most cases. Reference to Fig. .2. which represents a signal swing beyond the linear limits of the circuit [clipping occurs when the output voltage reaches . the total average power dissipated in Q*. With no input signal. 5. the average power drawn from the two supplies is constant and independent of the presence of signals.86 mW = 18. the driver can be a much lower power stage than the output stage because the current it must deliver is the base current of the emitter follower.3 EmitterFollower Drive Requirements The calculations above have been concerned with the performance of the emitterfollower output stage when driven by a sinusoidal input voltage. The above limitations stem from the observation that the emitter follower has a voltage gain of unity and thus the driver stage must handle the same voltage swing as the output. The stage preceding the output stage is called the driver stage. Since the power input to the circuit from the supplies is constant. The average power dissipated in Q2 is constant because IQ is constant.
(5. I EXAMPLE Calculate the incremental slope of the transfer characteristic of the circuit of Fig.2. 5.2 The Emitter Follower a an Output Stage s 355 Figure 5.7. 5.7 Lowfrequency. can be expressed approximately for p.86 rnA. as illustrated in the following example. and since g.1. 5. As described in Chapter 7.2 at any point. = 14 In at the quiescent point and the quiescent gain is .5. If this equation is evaluated at the extremes of the signal swing. smallsignal equivalent circuit of the emitter follower of Fig. 5. smallsignal equivalent circuit for the emitter follower of Fig. an estimate of the curvature of the characteristic is obtained. the emitter follower is an extremely wideband circuit and rarely is a source of frequency limitation in the smallsignal gain of an amplifier. Thus the equivalent circuit of Fig.7 is useful over a wide frequency range and an analysis of this circuit shows that the voltage gain A. 5.20 can also be used as a means of estimating the nonlinearityl in the stage by recognizing that it gives the incremental slope of the largesignal characteristic of Fig. and the output resistance R.6 V.21) must be applied with caution.1 is shown in Fig. for smalltomoderate signal swings.20) the smallsignal gain with Rs = 0 is Since IQ = 1. 5. ]/g. both AV and R. > 1 as > These quantities are smallsignal quantities. Since the emitter follower is being considered here for use as an output stage where the signal swing may be large. are functions of Ic. = qIc/ kT is a function of bias point.20) and (5. From (5. these equations may be used to estimate the average gain and output resistance of the stage if quiescent bias values are used for transistor parameters in the equations. Equation 5.1 as the quiescent point and at the extremes of the signal swing with a peak sinusoidal output of 0.4 SmallSignal Properties of the Emitter Follower A simplified lowfrequency. Use data as in the previous example and assume that Rs = 0. However. 5.
3. llg.22) gives the smallsignal gain as This gain is 0.23) V i = V. The largesignal transfer characteristic can be derived as follows: (5. it is often used as an output stage.3 The Source Follower as an Output Stage The smallsignal properties of the source follower are calculated in Chapter 3.7 percent less than the quiescent value. the transistor collector current is At this current. 5. = 20.26 mA At this current. Although the collectorcurrent signal amplitude is onethird of the bias current in this example. . This circuit thus has a high degree of linearity.6 fl and use of (5.86 .8 Sourccfollowcr output stage with currentmirror bias. 5. Since the nonlinearity is small. At the negative signal peak. the resulting distortion can be determined from the three values of the smallsignal gain calculated in this example.6 = 1. llg. the output current swing is Thus at the positive signal peak.0. See Problem 5. the transistor collector current is IQ  & = 1.1 Transfer Characteristics of the Source Follower A sourcefollower output stage is shown in Fig.3 percent more than the quiescent value.6 V.6 fl and use of (5.8 with equal magnitude positive and negative power supplies for simplicity. The large signal properties of the source follower are considered next. + Vtl + Vovl + Figure 5..22) gives the smallsignal gain as This gain is 0. VgS1 = V. Since this circuit has low output resistance.8. 5. = 10. the smallsignal gain variation is extremely small.356 Chapter 5 Output Stages Since the output voltage swing is 0.
1 to 0.8.5. 5. which is V.8 for a low (RL2) and a high ( R L I ) value of load resistance. The overdrive Figure 5. In contrast.80).7 to 0. + VDDand (1. t V Din~Fig. the slope typically ranges from about 0. which is The slope at this point is the incremental gain calculated in (3. the slope of the emitterfollower transfer characteristic is unity under these conditions. In practice. It intersects the X axis at the inputreferred offset voltage. dramatically reducing the slope of the transfer characteristic. When the output voltage rises within an overdrive of the positive supply. Fig. 5. M 1enters the triode region. The transfer characteristic is plotted in Fig.9 ignores this variation in the slope. however. slope is + a.the When RL + Since X is typically in the range of 0.3. causing distortion. 2 3 )gives operate in the active region with output This equation is valid provided that M1 and M.9.3. Therefore. Also. changes even when M 1 operates in the active region.9 Transfer characteristic of the circuit of Fig.9. Substituting (1.? resistances much larger than RL. (1.140) with VSb = V. the overdrive is not constant mainly because the drain current is not constant.27) changes as V. 5. the slope calculated in (5. but it is considered in Section 5.3 The Source Follower as an Output Stage 357 If the threshold and overdrive terms are exactly constant.166) with Idl = IQ + VoIRL into ( 5 . With r.200) shows that X depends on the sourcebody voltage. 5. the output voltage follows the input voltage with a constant difference. Furthermore. the body effect changes the threshold voltage.2. .
Under this condition. 5.the slope is almost constant until M 1 turns off. = f (")(V.2 Distortion in the Source Follower The transfer function of the sourcefollower stage was calculated in (5. the input must be larger than VDD by at least the threshold voltage to bias M 1 in the triode region. If IQRL> VDD.l4O) (5. 5. the input voltage can be written as where f (") represents the nth derivative o f f . From a design standpoint. as in the emitter follower. and (5.31) + V i = VI where b. written as c c = V.23).) = 1 + ?(V. but this effect is not shown in Fig.9. however. . Vi Then = = + vi = C bn(v0)" n=O Vo)/(n!). Since v . For simplicity./V.9 holds. The corresponding minimum output voltage is This case is labeled as RL2in Fig. the location of the break point depends on RL.I f '(V. 5.. From (1 .32) f (V.so that the situation shown for RL = RL1in Fig.23). which exceeds IQ if RL is finite..the slope of the transfer characteristic is approximately constant until M2 enters the triode region. The calculation of signal distortion from a nonlinear transfer function will now be illustrated using the sourcefollower stage as an example. where Vi is expressed as a function of V. In practice. 2 + VDD+ 241)lR Therefore. If the input voltage is limited to VDD. assume that RL V. m + VDD+ 24f  + V. the output can pull up asymptotically to the supply voltage with unlimited input voltage.3.9. Using a Taylor series. the output voltage can swing almost to the positive and negative supply voltages before excessive distortion occurs.358 Chapter 5 Output Stages at this break point is calculated using the total drain current. (5. m.30) can be re(5.9.M 1never reaches the triode region. 5.) = + V + y (. if IQRL < VDD. the minimum value of the output voltage depends on RL. I e R ~ usually set larger is than VDD. On the other hand.  Vo. Unlike in the emitter follower. For negative input voltages. 5. which happens when This case is labeled as RL1 in Fig. Therefore.
45) and rearranging gives For the source follower. substituting (5.46) into (5.41) into (5.47) into (5.47) and rearranging gives . (5.38) into (5.43).37) and (5.46) gives Substituting (5.40) gives Matching coefficients in (5.31) can be rewritten as To find the distortion.37) into (5.46) and (5.3 The Source Follower as an Output Stage 359 Since the constant bo is the dc input voltage VI.44) and rearranging gives Substituting (5.42) shows that 1 = blal + b2a: 0 = bla3 + 2b2ala2+ b3a: 0 = bla2 From (5.5. Substituting (5. we would like to rearrange this equation into the following form Substituting (5.
w (the input frequency). neglecting the effect of y on Vo.53) is small compared to a .2 Equation 5. For small distortion. then This equation shows that the secondharmonic distortion can be reduced by increasing the dc output voltage Vo.53 shows that the output voltage contains frequency components at the fundamental frequency.49) and (5. alCi sinwt + l 2( 1 . as vi becomes comparable to alla2. P.50) in (5. However. .50. . (5. and also at harmonic frequencies 2w. which is defined for a single sinusoidal input applied to the amplifier.49. For small values of vi such that a2vi2 < Salvi. Therefore. = = = Ci sinwt alCi sin w t h3 + a2$ sin2 wt + a3v.53) Equation 5. The latter terms represent distortion products that are not present in the input signal.54) to give If y < 2 JVo < + VDD + 24 . (5.38).360 Chapter 5 Output Stages Substituting (5. 5.52) into (5. Secondharmonic distortion HD2 is defined as the ratio of the amplitude of the outputsignal component at frequency 2w to the amplitude of the first harmonic (or fundamental) at frequency w. compared to its dc value caused by an input with fixed peak amplitude. Again for small distortion.41) dominates and the circuit is essentially linear. the term (3/4)a3f sin wt in (5. and 5.56 also shows that the secondharmonic distortion is approximately proportional to y.The value of HD2 can be expressed in terms of known parameters by substituting (5.cos2wt) + a3c3 l(3sinwt 4  sin3wt) + .30. higherorder terms in (5.48) and rearranging gives Equations 5. 5. other terms become significant and distortion products are generated. sin wt. increasing V decreases the variation of the sourcebody voltage . and the amplitude of the fundamental is approximately alOi. .39) into (5. A common method of describing the nonlinearity of an amplifier is the specification of harmonic distortion. .41) gives v. . sin3 w t + .51 can be used to calculate the distortion of the sourcefollower stage. This result is reasonable because this distortion stems from the body effect. and (5. as is illustrated next.37).53) may be neglected and Under these assumptions. and so on. HD2 varies linearly with the peak signal level Oi. the first term on the righthand side of (5. Thus let vi Substituting (5.41.
reducing its bandwidth. and y = 0.5 V . From (5.5 V1I2.and thirdharmonic distortion in the circuit of Fig.7 V.49) and (5.53) and assuming small distortion. Also. EXAMPLE Calculate second. First. Squaring both sides and rearranging gives V .59) gives This quadratic equation can be solved for JVo positive.3 The Source Follower a an Output Stage s 36 1 Similarly.5. this approach adds the wellsubstrate parasitic capacitance to the output load of the source follower.5 V. However. Also.8 for a peak sinusoidal input voltage Bi = 0.2qbf . 5. Assume that V I = 0. The value of HD3 can be expressed in terms of known parameters by substituting (5.51) in (5. k' = 200 Vto= 0.C$f = 0. + VDD + 2 4 1 ~Since the result must be . assume that (WIL)l = 1000. VDD = 2. and RL a. =  VDD . it can be eliminated by placing the source follower in an isolated well and connecting the source to the well. H D 3 varies as the square of the signal amplitude. this approach specifies the type of sourcefollower transistor because it must be opposite the type of the doping in the well. thirdharmonic distortion HD3 is defined as the ratio of the output signal component at frequency 3w to the first harmonic.IQ = 1 rnA. the dc output voltage . Under these assumptions.57) to give Since the distortion calculated above stems from the body effect.3 V. is V ) Rearranging (5.
In practice. A Class B output stage alleviates this problem by having essentially zero power dissipation with zero input signal. From ( 5 . any power wasted in the circuit is dissipated in the active devices. the power dissipated in the devices affects the physical size of device required.018 percent. Second. 5 9 From (5.40 percent and the thirdharmonic distortion is 0.362 Chapter 5 Output Stages In this example. rn Thus the secondharmonic distortion is 0. ~ 5.58). Furthermore. In many applications of power amplifiers. This circuit uses both pnp and npn devices and is known as a complementary output stage. Since VDD + 2c.10 in bipolar technology.8 V.*  Vto= 0.1 V and V I . Note that the load resistance RL is connected to the emitters of the active devices. The pnp transistor is usually a substrate pnp. . Power dissipated in these standby periods is wasted. the circuit may spend long periods of time in a standby condition with no input signal. Therefore.6 percent at full output power). the devices act as emitter followers. 5. the secondharmonic distortion is usually d ~ m i n a n t . This behavior is the origin of the name pushpull. in batteryoperated equipment. or with intermittent inputs as in the case of voice signals. A typical integratedcircuit realization of the Class B output stage is shown in Fig. and larger devices are more expensive in terms of silicon area. increasing their operating temperatures and thus the chance of failure. Two active devices are used to deliver the power instead of one.bf = 3. which is important for two reasons. First. .V. therefore.4 Class B PushPull Output Stage4r5 The major disadvantage of Class A output stages is that large power dissipation occurs even for no ac input. supply power must be conserved to extend the battery life. and each device conducts for alternate half cycles. Another advantage of Class B output stages is that the efficiency is much higher than for a Class A output stage (ideally 78.
this region. 5. 5. In this circuit. the distortion is high for small input signals with amplitudes somewhat larger than vBE(on). This deadband is common in Class B output stages and gives rise to crossover distortion.12. across its baseemitter junction. in The characteristic of Fig. where the output waveforms from the circuit are shown for various amplitude input sinusoidal signals.10 is shown in Fig.5. V. 5. 5. Q2 is off with a reverse bias of VBE(On) and is made even more positive.11 shows a notch (or deadband) of 2VBE(on) Vi centered around V i = 0. . As Vi is made positive. because Ql acts as an emitter foIlower. the characteristic flattens out as for the conventional emitter follower considered earlier. 5. As V iis taken negative from Vi = 0. is still approximately zero. For Vi equal to zero. a similar characteristic is obtained except that Q2 now acts as an emitter follower for Vi more negative than VBE(on). V.10. In Ql is held in the off condition with a reverse bias of VBE(on) across its baseemitter junction. At this point.saturates I I I I ["CC + 'be1 V ~ (sat)] l ~ I I I I V~~(on) Q2 saturates vcc + /v~~2(sat)l Figure 5. but further increases in Vi will cause similar increases in V.VCEl(sal)).11.1 1 Transfer characteristic of the Class B output stage of Fig. is also zero and both devices are off with Vbe = 0. Q. which is illustrated in Fig. QIeventually saturates (for Vi = Vcc + Vbel.4.4 Class B PushPull Output Stage 363 Figure 5.10 Simple integratedcircuit Class B output stage.1 Transfer Characteristic of the Class B Stage The transfer characteristic of the circuit of Fig. As Vi When Vi > 0. current will start to flow in Ql. 5. the when appreciable baseemitter voltage of Ql increases until it reaches the value VBE(On).
13.10.12 Output waveforms for various amplitude input signals applied to the Class B circuit of Fig.. where the current source IQ forces bias current in diodes Q3 and Q4. saturation of Ql and Q2 occurs and distortion rises sharply again due to clipping. In this scheme. The effect of this source of distortion diminishes as the input signal becomes larger and the deadband represents a smaller fraction of the signal amplitude. 5. The diodes reduce crossover distortion. The crossover distortion described above can be reduced by using Class AB operation of the circuit. for very large signals. . the active devices are biased so that each conducts a small quiescent current for V i = 0. A Figure 5. and Q4. 5. Eventually.13 Class AB output stage.364 Chapter 5 Output Stages Figure 5. Since the diodes are connected in parallel with the baseemitter junctions of Ql and Q2. Q2. This behavior is characteristic of Class B output stages and is why distortion figures are often quoted for both low and high output power operation. the output transistors are biased on with a current that is dependent on the area ratios of Q.Q3. Such biasing can be achieved as shown in Fig.
In this case. where crossover distortion is ignored. then the average current drawn from the + Vcc supply is . 5. The load current flows through Q2. 5. If the waveforms are assumed to be halfsinusoids. and Ql acts as the emitter follower delivering current to RL with Q2 conducting only a very small current. typical transfer characteristic for this circuit is shown in Fig.11 and Fig. The collector current waveforms of Fig.15 also represent the waveforms of the current drawn from the two supplies.4 Class B PushPull Output Stage 365 Figure S.VCE(sat)). This point will be investigated further when practical output stages are considered in later sections. Since the diodes maintain a constant total bias voltage across the baseemitter junctions of Ql and Q2. However. which point saturation of the currentsource transistor occurs. For Vi taken positive. Thus during the negative output voltage excursion. whose baseemitter voltage will increase slightly.the baseemitter voltage of Ql will decrease by the same amount that Q2 increased.2 Power Output and Efficiency of the Class B Stage The method of operation of a Class B stage can be further appreciated by plotting the collector current waveforms in the two devices. 5. somewhat less than shown in Fig. 5. the positive and negative limits of V where clipping occurs are generally . In the characteristic of Fig. as in Fig. Consequently.13. 5. 5. Ql stays on but conducts little current and plays no part in delivering output power. the current source IQ in Fig. 5. In the derivation of the characteristics of Figures 5. we assumed that the magnitude of the input voltage Vi was unlimited. the opposite occurs. 5. practical driver stages generally cannot produce values of Vi exceeding Vcc if they are connected to the same supply voltages as the output stage.4.14. emitter follower Q2 forces V. 5. Note that each transistor conducts current to RL for half a cycle. the current source IQ supplies the basecurrent drive to Ql. The operation of the circuit in Fig. The remaining nonlinearities due to crossover in conduction from Ql to Q2 can be reduced by using negative feedback. and the deadband has been effectively eliminated. and the limitation usually occurs in the driver stage.5.15.11.13 is usually realized with a pnp transistor and thus the voltage at the base of Ql cannot at exceed (Vcc . As V i is taken negative from its quiescent value.13 is quite similar to that of Fig. to follow. the magnitude of Vi required to cause saturation of Ql or Q2 exceeds the supply voltage VC. 5.11. For example.14. as in the case of the single emitter follower described earlier. 14 Transfer characteristic of the circuit of Fig.14.11 and 5. as described in Chapter 8. 5.
for a Class BVoltage stage. Unlike in the Class A case. The average power delivered to RL is given by From the definition of circuit efficiency in (5. the total average power drawn from the two supplies is where (5.. Also. Q.=  v . ( b ) Output voltage. RI..13). and is directly proportional to p. (c) Q ..15 output and current waveforms age. and are the zerotopeak amplitudes of the output sinusoidal voltage and current. . collector current. where T is the period of the input signal. (a) Input voltFigure 5. the average power drawn from the supplies does vary with signal level for a Class B stage. I.366 Chapter 5 Output Stages Ct . Since each supply delivers the same current magnitude... (d) Q2 collector current. ..66) has been substituted.
For values of V... axis and the portion of the load line traversed by the operating point.786 or 78. From (5.16.. can attain before clipping occurs with the characteristic The maximum value that . = (Vcc . the corresponding maximum efficiency is If VcE(sat) is small compared with Vcc. Equation 5. is (2Vcc .5. axis because the device under consideration turns off and the other device conducts.the load line lies along the V...4 Class B PushPull Output Stage 367 where (5.VCE($at)) and thus the maximum average signal power that can be delivered to RL for sinusoidal signals can be calculated from (5.14 is Q. . 5.VCE(sat)).68) have been substituted.lIRL).69). increases. are the peak sinusoidal current and voltage delivered to RL.P. = constant Quiescent point I vcc 2 Load line I I vce ..68) as v. the circuit has a maximum efficiency of 0.6 percent. Consider the instantaneous power dissipated in one device: I P = Ic V. This maximum efficiency is much higher than the value of 25 percent achieved in Class A circuits. where toand Q. the V. greater than VC=. of the device under consideration increases while its collector current is zero. The maximum value of V. 5.69 shows that 7 for a Class B stage is independent of RL but increases linearly as the output voltage amplitude p. 5. a geometrical interpretation of AS the average power PL delivered to RL can be obtained by noting that Pr = f i. The load line for one device in a Class B stage is shown in Fig..16 Load line for one device in a Class B stage. of Fig. the standby power dissipation is essentially zero in the Class B circuit.For values of V.67) and (5. less than the quiescent value (which is Vcc).Thus PL is the area of the triangle in Fig. I I vcc sat) 2 v ~ v~ ~ ( s a t ) ~ Figure 5. the load line has a slope of (. in the case of a Class A stage.. As a result. These advantages explain the widespread use of Class B and Class AB output stages.16 between the V. In addition.
and their product are displayed for one device in a Class B stage at maximum output.17. 5. 5. the load line in Fig. and VCE(sat)= 0 is assumed. ( c ) Collector power dissipation waveform. the operating temperature of a Class B device always increases when nonzero signal is applied. ( a )Collector current waveform. the load line in Fig. Since the quiescent device power dissipation is zero. 5. Thus.) When the device conducts.74) shows that P. in a Class B stage. and the l c ' Figure 5.16 becomes vertical through the quiescent point for a shortcircuited load.16 is tangent to a power hyperbola at the point of peak dissipation.. 5. the load line in Fig. C Substitution of (5. reaches a peak for This peak lies on the load line midway between the I. axis and the device has zero dissipation. (b) Collector voltage waveform. and V. ..ICRL Differentiation of (5. The instantaneous device power dissipation as a function of time is shown in Fig. As in the case of Class A stage.72) gives = V c c .16 lies along the V. collectoremitter voltage. The device power dissipation is zero for the half cycle when the device is cut off.368 Chapter 5 But Output Stages V. As in that case. the power dissipation varies at twice the signal frequency. (Crossover distortion is ignored.73) in (5. For an opencircuited load. maximum instantaneous device dissipation occurs for an output voltage equal to about half the maximum swing. where collector current. axis intercepts and agrees with the result derived earlier for the Class A stage.17 Waveforms at maximum output for one device in a Class B stage.
6 percent. there is no base current in these devices.3 Practical Realizations of Class B Complementary Output Stages6 The practical aspects of Class B outputstage design will now be illustrated by considering two examples. the average power delivered to RL is From (5.6.. the average power dissipated per device is P. = 0 and V1 = 0.18.3 percent This result is close to the theoretical maximum of 78. is sinusoidal. V. the maximum instantaneous device power dissipation occurs when The corresponding value of V. Therefore. From (5.= P s u ~ ~ l P~  207 ~275 75. is Vcc/2 device dissipation is = 7. If the positive and negative supplies have magnitudes of 15 V. and a simplified schematic of this is shown in Fig. the average of supply current is Use of (5. calculate the maximum average power that is delivered to RL for to 14..4. and the maximum = instantaneous device dissipation. the corresponding efficiency.75).4.68). Transistor Q3acts as a commonemitter driver stage for output devices Ql and Q2.5. The transfer characteristic of this stage can be calculated as follows. Assume that V.4 Class B PushPull Output Stage 369 instantaneous device power dissipation can then become excessive.. the bias current in Q3 is . the corresponding efficiency is qc = .67) gives the average power drawn from the supplies as From (5. EXAMPLE A Class B stage of the type shown in Fig. From (5.5 V and thus the maximum instantaneous By conservation of power.13). Since Q1 and Q2 are then off. 5. In the quiescent condition. 5.207) mW = 34 mW 5. Methods of protection against such a possibility are described in Section 5.66). One of the simplest realizations is the output stage of the 709 op amp.4 V. for Vcc = 10 V. = 1 1 (Psupply.PL)= (275 2 2 .10 drives a load RL = 500 0..
the limit on V.76) V = VCC + VCE3(sat) . the maximum positive value of V. However. the current in Q3 decreases and V1 rises. is reduced. The limiting values that V. . turning Ql on. As Vi is taken negative. at which point the negative voltage limit V . can take are determined by the driver stage. (5.Vcc + VCE3(sat)) (.77) and rearranging gives For RL = 10 k a and PF1 = 100. Q3 and Q2 are in the and both forwardactive region.18 Simplified schematic of the output stage of the 709 op amp.Vbe2 .79) gives In this case. going positive. For values of V1 between (.370 Chapter 5 D Output Stages Vcc Figure 5. if RL = 1 ki2 and PF1 = 100. and V. is similar for positive and negative swings. When V iis taken large positive. follows V1 with Q2 acting as an emitter follower. The positive voltage limit V: is reached when Q3 cuts off and the base of Ql is simply fed from the positive supply via RI. Then where PF1is the current gain of Ql. V1 decreases until Q3 saturates.79) gives For this lower value of RL.VBE(on)). Thus 17s Substituting (5.78) in (5. (5. is reached: (5. and clipping on a sine wave occurs first for V.
A second example of a practical Class B output stage is shown Fig.5.2 devices.21 can be determined as follows.18 with Vcc = 10 V and RL = 1 kfl and 10 kn. the transfer characteristic may be even more nonlinear than shown in Fig.In practice.21. The linearity of this stage is further improved by the fact that the output devices are driven from a low resistance provided by the emitter follower Q23.which is driven by commonemitter stage Q17 biased to 0. This circuit is a simplified schematic of the 741 op amp output circuitry. 5. The value of the bias current in Q14 and Q20 depends on the effective area ratio between diodes Q18 and QI9 and the output devices. 5.) The reduced positive voltage capability for RL = 1 k 1 is apparent.20. Consequently.. negative feedback is applied around this output stage to reduce these nonlinearities in the transfer characteristic. Computergenerated transfer curves using SPICE for this circuit with Vcc = 10 V are shown in Fig.17 mA by the diodes Q18 and QI9. As Vi is taken positive. as is the deadband present in the transfer characteristic. differences in PF between Q14 and QZ0produce little effect on the transfer characteristic because smallsignal gain AVoIAV1 1 for any practical value of PF with either Q14 or Qzo conducting. The output devices Q14and QZ0are biased to a collector current of about 0.) The output stage is driven by lateral pnp emitterfollower Q23. 5.19 for RL = 1 kfl and RL = 10 kQ. ( P F = 100 is assumed for all . which can be seen in the SPICEgenerated transfer characteristic of Fig.20 essentially eliminate crossover distortion in the circuit. The curvature in the characteristic is due to the exponential nonlinearity of the driver Q3. follow with Q20 drawing current from RL.19 because PF for the npn transistor Ql is generally larger than PF for the pnp transistor Q2. 5. In the actual 709 integrated circuit.19 SPICEgenerated transfer characteristic for the circuit of Fig. This behavior can be seen by calculating the smallsignal gain AVolAVi for positive and negative V. causing the positive and negative sections of the characteristic to differ significantly.When Q17 saturates. the output  . The diodes in Fig. 5.68 rnA by current source Q13B.4 Class B PushPull Output Stage " 0 371 Volts Vi Volts Figure 5. where SPICEcalculated bias currents are included. 5. The limits on the output voltage swing shown in Fig. and voltages V2 and V. 5. the voltage V1 at the base of Q23goes negative. (Qls and QI9 are implemented with transistors in practice.
which is the stage preceding driver stage Q23.. = 0).372 Chapter 5 Output Stages (a) "cc +v. is limited by saturation in QI7. Thus V . The positive output . As V iis taken negative from its quiescent value (where V. voltage limit for negative excursions is reached at This limit is about 1. (b) Schematic of the 741 output stage showing the detail of Q18and Q19. .20 (a) Simplified vcc (b) schematic of the 741 op amp output stage.4 V more positive than the negative supply. Figure 5. follow with QI4delivering current to the load. voltage V1 rises and voltages V2 and V.
Figure 5.21 SPICEgenerated transfer curve for the circuit of Fig. In fact.The maximum possible output current delivered by Q14 is thus . the negative voltage limit is reached when QI7saturates and can no longer drive the base of Q23 negative. is taken positive (by V igoing negative and Vl going positive). ~ the current in QI4 increases. and current source Q 1 3supplies base current to QI4.20 require some consideration. As V.8 V below the positive supply because VCE13A(sat) 0. V2. a large input signal could cause QZ3and Q20to conduct such heavy currents that they burn out. and the current in Q 1 3is progressively diverted to the base of Q14. : The power requirements of the driver circuits in a configuration such as shown in Fig.5. 2 0 ~ with Vcc = 15 V and Rr = 1 kR. Thus V is also limited by the driver stage. As explained before. the circuit must be protected in case of a shortcircuited load.As V1. voltage limit V: is reached when current source saturates and This limit is about 0. is taken negative.22 mA available for driving QI4. 5 . Otherwise in this case. 5. Q23draws current from the base of Qzo with essentially no limit. The basic requirement of the driver is to supply sufficient drive to the output stage so that it can supply the desired power to RL.The maximum output current is limited by the current of 0. Q23 conducts ~ less.4 Class B PushPull Output Stage 373 v 0 Volts Volts v.and V.1 V for the = pnp device. As V. go positive.
20b with the output protection circuitry omitted.83 may be used to calculate the output bias current in circuits of the type shown in Fig. generally have emitter areas larger than the standard device geometry (typically four times larger or more) so that they can maintain high PF while conducting large output currents. however. is reached when Q17 saturates. The actual circuit is shown in Fig. However. the collector current in QI9 is approximately equal to the current in Rlo if PF is large and thus G. 5.20b. at the base of (223can be driven to within VCE(sat)of either supply voltage with only a very small fractional change in the collector current of Q17. . The results described above can be illustrated quantitatively by calculating the bias currents in QI4and QZ0of Fig. voltage V. the circuit of Fig. the basic aim of achieving a voltage drop equal to two baseemitter voltages is achieved.AS mentioned above. The outputstage bias current from (5. The basic reason for this result is that the small bias current in Q19in Fig.4 does not saturate on the positive voltage excursion.83) is proportional to and For this specific example.20b. > ~ > from which Equation 5. the negative voltage limit of V. First.20b can be designed to bias Q14 and to a current comparable to the current in the diodes.374 Chapter 5 Output Stages If DFI4 = 100. The stage preceding the driver in this circuit is QI7. However. The driver stage may thus limit the maximum positive current available from the output stage. the maximum output current is 22 mA. and thus If we assume that the circuit is biased for V. Finally. this output current level is only reached if RL is small enough so that Q13. reducing the total bias voltage between the bases of Q14 and Qzo.20b gives it a smaller baseemitter voltage than for the same device in Fig. the bias voltage produced by Q18 and Q19 across the bases of Q14 and Qzo is less than would result from a connection as shown in Fig. reducing die area. we will now examine the detail of the fabrication of diodes Q18and Q19in the 741. Second. 5. 5 . 5. 2 0 ~This observation is important because output transistors Q14and QZ0 .20a. 5. Diode Q19conducts only a current equal to the base current of Q18plus the bleed current in pinch resistor Rlo. Thus in the circuit of Fig. Transistor Q18 thus conducts most of the bias current of current source Q13*.68 mA in Q17is much greater than the base current of Q23. 5. 5. Since Q18 and QI9 have common collectors. then llC141 = llC201 (5.82) becomes and = 0 V and also that PF14> 1 and P F 2 > 1.and thus Q23 produces very little loading on Q17. This arrangement is used for two reasons.which would be excessive in a 741type circuit. The bias current of 0. From KVL. they can be placed in the same isolation region. 5. the bias current in Q14and Q20 would be about four times the current in Q18and Q19. even though the output devices have a large area.20a. since Q19 conducts only a small current.Consequently.
84) and rearranging gives Also Thus ICl9 Icls = Ic23 (0. Substitution of these data in (5.83) gives IC14 IC20 0. assume all devices have equal area and for each device Assuming that Q14supplies the load current for positive output voltages. values for the various reverse saturation currents are required.17 rnA Substitution in (5.0. = + 10 V. = = EXAMPLE For the output stage of Fig. the collector current of Qlg is To calculate the outputstage bias currents from (5. Assume that Vcc = 15 V. For simplicity.4 Class B PushPullOutput Stage 375 If the base currents of QI4 and QZ0 are neglected.5. These values depend on the particular IC process used.l ~ A. Finally . and PF = 100. we have Substitution in (5.9 p A and the collector current in Q20 is quite small as predicted. IS14 41S18= 8 X 10'S A.20a. calculate bias currents in all devices for V. and 1S20 = = = 4 X 10l5 A.84) gives Iczo= 5.83). RL = 2 kfl.84) and rearranging gives Thus Vbe20 = (Vbel9 + Vbel8  Vbel4) = 525 mV Use of (5.22 . but typical values are IS18 Isl9 = 2 X 1 0 .16 mA.05) mA =  = 0. 5.
4 Allnpn Class B Output Stage71819 The Class B circuits described above are adequate for many integratedcircuit applications where the output power to be delivered to the load is of the order of several hundred milliwatts or less. The output voltage then has its maximum positive value V:. = V:.22. In contrast. Then diodes D 1and D2must both be off and all of the collector current of Q3is delivered to the base of Q2. If RL is big enough. and emitter follower Q2 delivers power during the positive halfcycle. consider Vitaken negative from its quiescent value so that Q lis off and Zc1 = 0. Q3 saturates and To attain this maximum positive value. these circuits are inadequate because the substrate pnp transistors used in the output stage have a limited currentcarrying capability. The condition for Q3 to be saturated is that the nominal collector bias current IQ3 in Q3(when Q3is not saturated) should be larger than the required base current of Q2when V. we have 11 v2 JLDl . However. A circuit design that uses highpower npn transistors in both halves of a Class B configuration is shown in Fig. > 0. This limit stems from the fact that the doping levels in the emitter. transistor Q3must saturate in this extreme condition.l I D 2 v 1 +L  Vi  Figure 5. . if outputpower levels of several watts or more are required.4.22 Allnpn Class B output Vcc stage. In this circuit. commonemitter transistor Ql delivers power to the load during the negative halfcycle. 5. Q2 in this circuit cannot saturate because the collector of Q2 is connected to the positive supply and the base voltage of Q2 cannot exceed the positive supply voltage.376 Chapter 5 B Output Stages 5. To examine the operation of this circuit. Thus we require Since Q2supplies the current to RL for V . base. and collector of these devices are not optimized for pnp structures because the npn devices in the circuit have conflicting requirements.
2 0 ~ It gives limits on Ic3. As I.23. . The maximum negative voltage occurs when Ql saturates and is where Vd2is the forward voltage drop across D2.. where V . This point corresponds to Zc1 = (IC3(. which will be off with zero volts across its junction. cause increasing current to flow through D2. The negative half of the cycle consists of Ql acting as the output device and feeding RL through D2. V . V . to be able to swing close to the positive supply. on and produce nonzero I.22 from I. stays constant at 0 V while V 2is reduced to 0 V also. Q will eventually come out of saturation. When V .. The current IC1will flow through D1 and will be drawn from Q3. the load current is zero and I.23 Transfer characteristic of the circuit of Fig. V.. 5 .85) in (5. Since the current in D1 is essentially fixed by Q3.further increases in l. which is assumed saturated at first.. This behavior occurs during the positive half of the cycle.. as shown in Fig.86) gives the requirement on the bias current of Q3 as Equation 5. The sequence just described gives rise to a highly nonlinear transfer characteristic. PZ. 5.and RL . to V. all of the bias current in Q3 passes through D1 to Ql. Now consider V imade positive to turn Q. and Ql acts as a driver with Q2 as the output device. If lC1 increased and is further.87) and (5.5. Since the base of Q2 is more positive than its emitter. is Figure 5. diode DI will turn on in preference to D2. is plotted as a function of Icl for convenience.88). V 1is negative by an amount equal to the diode voltage drop of D1.85) and Q 3 will never saturate. Since Q2 acts as an emitter follower. Therefore. for V . will begin clipping at a positive value less than that given by (5. = 0. When V. increases.88 also applies to the circuit of Fig. and voltage V2 at the base of Q2 will then be 3 pulled down.4 Class B PushPull Output Stage 377 Substitution of (5. 5. will follow V2 down. and thus power diode D2 turns on.. If IQ3 is less than the value given by (5.. is reduced to 0 V.
378 Chapter 5 a Output Stages positive. 5. the power and efficiency results derived previously for the complementary Class B stage apply equally to the allnpn Class B stage if allowance is made for the voltage drop in D2.24. negative feedbackmust be used around this circuit to linearize the transfer characteristic. Note the small deadband in Fig. 5. is even more nonlinear than shown in Fig.22. 5. These features are illustrated in Fig. Diode D2 is a largepower diode that also occupies considerable area. 5. In integratedcircuit fabrication of the circuit of Fig. which is a die photo of the 791 highpower op amp. .In practice. the current IC1 feeds into the base of Q2 and the smallsignal gain is where the impedance of D1 is assumed negligible. the impedance at the base of Q2 is equal to the parallel combination of the output resistances of Qland Q3 and the input resistance of emitter follower Q2. Figure 5. ZC1 feeds RL directly and the smallsignal gain is where the impedance of D2 is assumed negligible.24 Die photo of the 791 highpower op amp. in Fig. Thus the ideal maximum efficiency is 79 percent. they may occupy 50 percent of the whole die.23 because it includes the exponential nonlinearity of Ql . This deadband can be eliminated by adding a second diode in series with D 1 . and such feedback will reduce any crossover effects. When V. devices Ql and Q2 are identical largepower transistors. In highpower circuits (delivering several watts or more). This circuit can dissipate l 0 W of power and can deliver 15 W of output power into an 8 .22 is negative. 5.0 load. The large power transistors in the output stage can be seen on the righthand side of the die. Finally. The transfer characteristic of the circuit from Vi to V.23 where diode D2 turns on. That is.
4 Class B PushPull Output Stage 379 5.4. .26. The pair Q3Q4is equivalent to a p n p transistor as shown in Fig. and the collector current of Q3 is The composite collector current Ic is the emitter current of Q4. 5. 5.25. Note VC. 5.20.25 Quasicomplementary Class B output stage. Figure 5. B0 t \ [c3 Q4 C the composite connection and a p n p transistor.25 is almost identical to that of Fig. This circuit is called a quasicomplementary output stage. 5. Another solution is shown in Fig.5. where a composite pnp has been made from a lateral p n p Q3 and a highpower npn transistor Q4. most of the current is carried by the highpower npn transistor. Qa 11 4l Q2 I t Q6 !L Q5 +0 v.5 QuasiComplementary Output Stageslo The allnpn stage described above is one solution to the problem of the limited powerhandling capability of the substrate pnp. which is The composite device thus shows the standard relationship between Zc and VBEfor a p n p transistor. The operation of the circuit of Fig. However.
5. As an example. Initially assume that R6 = 0 and ignore Q15. and VBE4 must be added to this voltage. the compound bipolar device Q3Q4can be replaced by the MOSbipolar combination" of Fig.6 Overload Protection The most common type of overload protection in integratedcircuit output stages is shortcircuit current protection.25. one of the diodes Q5 or Q6 in Fig. 5. 5. then the output current can become destructively large: then IcI4= 500 X 0. With this circuit.27. 5. in Fig. The major problem with the configuration of Fig. QI8. . The maximum positive drive delivered to the output stage occurs for Vi large positive.92 shows that the composite PMOS device appears to have a WIL ratio (PF4 1) times larger than the physical PMOS device M3. The quasicomplementary Class B stage can also be effectively implemented in BiCMOS technology. 5.25 would now be replaced by a diodeconnected PMOS transistor to set up a temperaturestable standby current in the output stage.380 Chapter 5 Output Stages that the magnitude of the saturation voltage of the composite device is ( I v ~ ~+~VBE4). where Q4 is a largearea highcurrent bipolar device.28 with partial shortcircuit protection included. The stability of feedback loops is considered in Chapter 9. A bias bleed resistor can be connected from the base to the emitter of Q4 to optimize the bias current in M3 and to speed up the turnoff of Q4 in highfrequency applications by allowing reverse base current to remove the base charge.25.27 Compound highcurrent PMOS connection. as Vi is ~ taken positive. 5. In the circuit of Fig. and QI9will cut off and all of the current of Q I 3is fed to QI4. consider the 741 output stage shown in Fig.particularly with capacitive loads on the amplifier. Such a resistor can also be connected from the base to the emitter of Q4 in Fig.25 is potential instability of the local feedback loop formed by Q3 and Q4.4. If this is a highPF device. is held at zero volts and V. If RL = 0 then V. The overall transfer characteristic is Equation 5. 5.Thus.~ ~ ) ~ ( ~ This magnitude is higher than normal because saturation occurs when Q3 saturates.22 = 110 mA D Figure 5.28 is equal to Vbe14. + 5.
this current level gives a power dissipation in QI4 of which is sufficient to destroy the device. 5.The drive current is thus harmlessly passed to the output instead of being multiplied by the PF of Q14. When the current through R6 reaches about 20 mA (the maximum safe level). If Vcc = 15 V. The shortcircuit protection operates by sensing the output current with resistor R6 of about 25 C l . This can be done using Fig. and this objective is achieved using R6 and Q15for positive V.94) But .4 Class B pushPull Output Stage 381 'lASo Q I ~ A Figure 5.. Thus the current under shortcircuit conditions must be limited. The operation of this circuit can be seen by calculating the transfer characteristic of QI4 when driving a shortcircuit load. Also From (5.29.5.28 Schematic of the 741 op amp vcc showing partial shortcircuit protection. QI5begins to conduct appreciably and diverts any further drive away from the base of Q14. The voltage developed across R6 is the baseemitter voltage of Q15. which is normally off.
the value of IcI4is effectively limited to 24 rnA.30. 5.29 is achieved by sensing the voltage across R7 and diverting the base drive away from one of the preceding stages.98) in Fig.96) in (5.29 Equivalent circuit for the calculation of the effect of &l5 on the transfer characteristic of QI4in Fig. using PF14 = 500. For values of ICl4 below 20 mA. These issues are described below.13 can also be implemented in standard CMOS technology.30 Transfer characteristic of the circuit of Fig. .95) and (5. Substitution of (5.(mA) 0.22 mA. If this term is negligible.97) gives The second term on the left side of (5. Similar protection for negative output voltages in Fig.382 Chapter 5 m Output Stages Figure 5. 40  a 30E . 5. and R = 25 Cl.98) stems from QI5. QI5 has little effect on circuit operation.28 when RL = 0. IS15 = 10l4 A. Although the swing can be improved using a commonsource configuration.5 CMOS Class AB Output Stages The classical Class AB topology of Fig. 5. the output swing of the resulting circuit is usually much worse than in the bipolar case.2 Figure 5. 5. this circuit suffers from poor control of the quiescent current in the output devices.' No protection I / [cl 4 = PFI4It / / / 1 / / I I / / I With protection I I I I I I I I I I I 0. However. For a maximum drive of Ii = 0.1 I. The transfer characteristic of the stage is plotted from (5. 5. then Ic14 = PF141ias expected. 5.29 with and without protection transistor Ql5 (&4 = 500).
157) in (5. With standard enhancementmode devices.1 CommonDrain Configuration Figure 5.ID4 gives If V..31 Complementary sourcefollower CMOS output stage based on traditional bipolar implementation. Similarly. From KVL. then Id2 = Id l and (5.5. = 0. VSG5+ VGS4 0 and both M 1 and M2 are biased to conduct nonzero drain current when V.3 1 shows the commondrain classAB output configuration. < 0. M2 operates as a source follower and M1 is off when v.5 CMOS Class AB Output Stages 383 5. Ignoring the body effect. For simplicity. Under these conditions.100) can be rearranged to give where I D 1 = Idl with V. M1 operates as a source follower and M 2 is off. VgS1 > V. . = 0. The key point of this equation is that the quiescent current in the output transistors is well controlled with respect to the bias current that flows in the diodeconnected transistors.. In Fig. Therefore. is required.. Then VsG5 + VGS4 = 0 and V.99).5. M 1and M 2do not both conduct simultaneously under these conditions. Vtl > 0 and Vt2 < 0. Vgs2 < Vt2 is required for M2 to conduct nonzero drain current. > 0. = 0. 5. which is a characteristic of a ClassAB output stage. increasing VgS1decreases Vsg2and vice versa. Similarly. When V. using (1. = Vgs2 from (5. which is a characteristic of a ClassB output stage.99) with ID5 = . as in the bipolar case. If Vtl = Vt4 and Vt2 = Vr5. VSG5 + VGS4 is constant if the bias current from Mg is constant. For M 1 to conduct nonzero drain current.3 1. however. assume at first that a short circuit is connected from the drain of M4 to the drain of Ms. 1 +ss  Figure 5.
5. Thus the circuit of Fig. increases.31 is required to produce a maximum output voltage of 0. In this case.7 V)l(35 a) = 20 rnA.21. Vgsl > Vtl and M1 acts as a source follower.3 l .7 V. From (5.5. 5.81) if Vcc in Fig.103) is usually much less than in (5.7 V with RL = 35 0 and VDD = Vss = 1. Since Table 2. Therefore. If Id2= 0 under these conditions.4 gives Vrl = 0. Using the transistor parameters in Table 2. A circuit with this substitution for both output transistors is shown conceptually in Fig. and ignore the body effect.103).2 CommonSource Configuration with Error Amplifiers Another alternative is the use of quasicomplementary configurations. the limit in (5. the gatesource voltage includes a threshold component that is absent in the baseemitter voltage. 5. the output voltage swing can be increased by increasing the WIL ratios of the output devices to reduce their overdrives. find the required WIL of M1.Vr31 . the required transistor sizes are sometimes so large that the parasitic capacitances associated with the output devices can dominate the overall performance at high frequencies. (See Problem 5. From (5.81) for three reasons.102).384 Chapter 5 Output Stages An important problem with this circuit is that its output swing can be much less than the corresponding bipolar circuit with equal supply voltages. Idl = 20 mA. Assume IVov31= 100 mV. Rearranging (1. 5. I The minimum Vsd3 required to operate M3 as a current source is [Vov3= lVGS3. With V. 5.20 is equal to VDDin Fig. Second. For V.4. the overdrive part of the gatesource voltage rises more steeply with increasing current than the entire baseemitter voltage because the overdrive is proportional to the square root of the current and the baseemitter voltage is proportional to the logarithm of the current. Finally.3 1 is generally limited to much smaller currents than its bipolar equivalent. the current in the load is (0.6 V. However. W EXAMPLE An output stage such as shown in Fig.) Although (5.5 V. First. the body effect increases the threshold voltage Vtl as V. a commonsource transistor together with an error amplifier replaces an output sourcefollower device.103) appears to be quite similar to (5.157) gives rn which is a very large transistor.l2>l37l4 combination of the error amplifier and the commonsource The . > 0. 5.32. In practice. = 0. the maximum output voltage V is : The minimum output voltage can be found by similar reasoning.
5. 5. This operation can be viewed as negative feedback.33 Smallsignal model of the output stage in Fig. The function of the amplifiers is to sense the voltage difference between the input and the output of the stage and drive the gates of the output transistors so as to make the difference as small as possible. is much less than the drainsource resistance of M 1 or M:! because of the negative feedback. we will analyze this structure with straightforward circuit analysis. To find the output resistance. To find the transfer characteristic.34. consider the smallsignal model of this output stage shown in Fig.5 CMOS Class AB Output Stages VDD 385 Error amplifier Error amplifier  \ vs5 Figure 5. . The model includes the inputreferred offset voltages of the error amplifiers as Figure 5. 5.32 used to find R.33. A key advantage of the use of negative feedback here is that it reduces the output resistance.5. The current i.32 A complementary Class AB output stage using embedded commonsource output devices. device mimics the behavior of a source follower with high dc transconductance. is Rearranging this equation to solve for vJit gives This equation shows that increasing the gain A of the error amplifiers reduces R. and that R. consider the dc model of the output stage shown in Fig. Since negative feedback is covered in Chapter 8..
Assuming that the output of each error amplifier changes by its gain A times the change in its input. and VosN = 0.386 Chapter 5 Output Stages Figure 5. If M 1and M 2 operate in the active region.11 5) and rearranging gives . .(Vi . voltage sources. = 0 and where With nonzero input and offsets. the differential input to the top error amplifier changes from zero to V. Under these conditions.(Vi .34 A dc model of the output stage in Fig.VOSP).(WIL)2 = kf(WIL) and Vt1 = Vt2 = Vt.VOSN). As a result. Substituting (5.110)(5. . Assume kb(WIL)l = k. V. v0 I =O RL (5. Similarly.114) From KCL at the output. Vosp = 0.32 used to find the transfer characteristic. the differential input to the bottom error amplifier changes from zero to V. the output may not be zero. Also assume that the error amplifiers are designed so that ID1 = ID2 = IQ when Vi = 0. Also. 5.114) into (5.
RL).5 CMOS Class AB Output Stages 387 where g. decreasing VgS1 and Vgs2. (5. and 2Ag. With nonzero offsets. turn. increasing the bandwidth of the error amplifiers worsens the stability margins.. the error amplifiers must have large bandwidth to prevent crossover distortion problems for high input frequencies. these changes increase /ld1 reduce Id2.RL > 1. proper control of the quiescent current with nonzero offsets is also a key design constraint.180). they suffer from two main problems. The topics of stability and compensation are covered in Chapter 9.. As a result.12 This method is not considered further here. however. The key point is that the error is reduced if A. when V iincreases. or RL are increased. See Problem 5. The term (2Ag. the differential inputs to the error amplifiers both In I but decrease. such increases also increase the power dissipation and reduce the output swing. especially in the presence of large capacitive loads. one of the two output .l3>l4 concept is The that the quiescent current is controlled by the gatesource voltages on the output transistors. For example.116 is valid as long as both M1 and M2 operate in the active region. < > Therefore.VosN) < 2V. Unfortunately. as shown in (1. As a result. One way to control the quiescent current is to sense and feedback a copy of the current. From a design standpoint.5. the above analysis can be repeated with Id2 = 0. If the magnitude of the output voltage is large enough. nonzero offset voltages in the error amplifiers change the quiescent current flowing in the output transistors. Therefore. If A(Vosp . Another way to limit the variation in the quiescent current is to design the error amplifiers to have low gain. the output voltage can pull within an overdrive of either supply. .116) shows that the circuit also displays an offset error. First. The primary motivation for using the quasicomplementary configuration is to increase the output swing. and M2 turns off for large enough V i . in the active region but M 2 off.. V also increases but the gain is slightly less than unity. This result is an improvement compared to the limit given in (5. To find the portion of the transfer characteristic with M. g. the input offset voltage of the buffer is about (VOSP + VOSN)/2. If the output transistors are not allowed to operate in the triode region. Although further increases in the quiescent current reduce the crossover distortion.23.) The gain error here is approximately 1/(2Ag. the quiescent current is chosen to be barely high enough to limit crossover distortion to an acceptable level. these circuits present difficult design problems in compensation. (The concept of loop gain is described in Chapter 8.103) for the commondrain output stage mostly because the threshold voltages of the output transistors do not limit the output swing in the commonsource configuration. Although quasicomplementary circuits improve the output swing. Second. transistors turns off. RL)is the gain around the feedback loop or the loop gain and is usually chosen to be high enough to make the slope of the transfer characteristic to be unity within an allowable gain error. = kl(WIL)V. Equation 5.
121). that is.123) into (5. Then Subtraction is used in the above equation because the drain current of each transistor is defined as positive when it flows into the transistor.124) and (5.110)(5. The result is . Substituting (5.120) shows that From (5. Substituting (5. reducing the erroramplifier gain reduces the variation of gatesource voltages and the quiescent current for a given v'ariation in the offset voltages. = 0 if Vosp = VOSN = 0. Substituting (5.113) into (5.121) into (5.125) gives To evaluate the magnitude of AIQ. define the quiescent current in the output devices as the commonmode component of the current flowing from VDD to . To study this situation quantitatively. (5. Therefore.126) by (5. we will compare it to the quiescent current with zero offsets by dividing (5.122) and (5.120) gives Define AIQ as the change in IQ caused by nonzero offsets.118) with V i = 0.388 Chapter 5 Output Stages which in turn are controlled by the outputs of the error amplifiers.119) gives Since V.Vss with Vi = 0.
The load of the differential pair consists of two parts: current mirror MI3 and M14 and commondrain transistors MI5 and MI6. the maximum erroramplifier gain is For example. the basic idea can be understood here as follows.32. is sensed by the differential pair Mll and M12.current source IBIAS the gate voltage of MI5 pulls down. (10171 increases until (IDl7[IBIAS.35 shows a schematic of the top error amplifier and M1 from Fig. therefore. If 1IDI71less than is IBIAS.. and up to 20 percent variation in the quiescent current is allowed. This circuit adjusts the voltage at the gate of MI5 SO that MI7 operates in the active region and conducts IBIAs. = 200 mV. The gates of the commondrain transistors are biased by a negative feedback loop including MI3. .M17. (5.13. if V.Although negative feedback is studied in Chapter 8. Vosp .5 CMOS Class AB Output Stages 389 Therefore.1 Because M13and MI7 together form a current mirror.If MI5and is M17 are enhancementmode devices. increasing )IDl3. The purpose of the commondrain transistors is to reduce the output resistance of the error amplifier to set its gain to a welldefined low value. The difference between V i and V.VOSN= 5 mV. the source of MI5is pulled down.reasoning also = Similar shows that this equality is established when 1IDI7(initially greater than IBIAS. to keep the fractional change in the quiescent current less than a given amount.129) shows that the error amplifier gain should be less than about 8.14 Figure 5. MI7operates in the active region because VGDI7= VsG15 = (Vrl5/ (Vovl5( 0 > VtI7. .35 Schematic of the top error amplifier and output transistor M .and M15. the channel does not exist at the drain k > of MI7.5.14 A complementary structure used to drive M2 is not shown. G Figure 5. which is biased by the tail current source ITAIL.IBIAS. Since MI5 operates as a source follower. 5. Since MI3 and M17form a current mirror.
136) and rearranging gives This equation shows that the drain current in Ml is controlled by IBIAs a ratio of and transistor sizes if the offset voltage of the error amplifier is zero so that V. From KCL. Therefore. 1016 = ID14 + ID11 Substituting (5. ignoring channellength modulation.133) gives = when IDll= IDl2. Since ID15 ID16 Therefore. > Another design consideration comes out of these equations.133). Since the maximum value of IDll is ITAIL. Therefore. (5.130) into (5. This change reduces the gate voltage of MI5 because MI7 operates as a commonsource amplifier. and since (WIL)14 = (WIL)13. ignoring channellength modulation. = 0 when Vi = 0.If the smallsignal voltage at the drain of M13 changes. the error amplifier is simply a differential pair with a .Furthermore. Therefore.390 Chapter 5 Output Stages Since M13 and M14also form a current mirror. the drain voltage of Ml3 must be held exactly conis stant because id17 = 0 if IBIAS constant.131) and (5. Instead. With Vi = V. Ignoring channellength modulation. To keep the gain of the error amplifier low under all conditions. This result stems from the operation of the same negative feedback loop that biases the gate of MI5. (IDl4( should be greater than the maximum value of IDll.. AS a result. suppose that the drain voltage of M13 increases. Substituting (5. from (5. none of the smallsignal drain current from M12 flows into the source of MI5. the shortcircuit transconductance of the error amplifier is the same with or without the commondrain transistors MI5 and MI6. In practice. Then the drain voltage of MI3 falls because M I 5 operates as a source follower.132) into (5. For example.131) and (5. (WIL)l > (WIL)17SO that little power is dissipated in the bias circuits. MI6 must never cut off. it is all mirrored to the output of the error amplifier by M13and M14.133) show that To find the gain of the error amplifier. the smallsignal drain current from Mll flows directly to the output of the error amplifier. the negative feedback loop works to undo the change. the key observation is that the smallsignal resistance from the drain of M13 to ground is zero. the smallsignal resistance at the input of the current mirror M13 and M14is zero.Without these transistors.
for two main reasons. as described next.From (3. Figure 5. commonsource output stage. the commondrain buffer controls the quiescent output current and improves the frequency response.5. The commonsource buffer is dominant when the output swing is maximum.1 Combined CommonDrain CommonSource Configuration One way to overcome this problem is to use a combination of the commondrain and commonsource configurations shown in Fig. Therefore.15 The combined schematic is shown in Fig.3.3 Alternative Configurations The main potential advantage of the commonsource output stage described in the last section is that it can increase the output swing compared to the commondrain case. but off with zero output. Second. G m = gm11 = gm12 Ignoring channellength modulation.M 2 ) and a ClassB quasicomplementary commonsource buffer (MllMI2 and the error amplifiers A).5 CMOS Class AB Output Stages 391 currentmirror load. the bandwidth of the error amplifiers is usually limited. First.84). However. to avoid stability problems. the gain of these amplifiers is limited to establish adequate control on the quiescent output current. On the other hand.5. the output resistance is set by commondrain transistor MI6. the commonsource configuration suffers from an increase in harmonic distortion. From KVL.36. 5. 5. especially at high frequencies. 5. the gain of the error amplifier is 5. The key aspect of this circuit is that it uses two buffers connected to the output: a ClassAB commondrain buffer ( M 1 . From (4.36 Combined commondrain.143). 5.5.32.31 and Fig. .
After MI1 turns on. 5. we expect the commonsource stage to have a larger output swing than the commondrain stage. This condition is usually satisfied because Id4< Id. the maximum output V can be de: signed to be Comparing (5. 5.V. pdllJ increases but Idl decreases.this equation can be rewritten as 0. Therefore V1 . V. rises beyond this point. From (5. = V:.101). rises until Vgsl .36 is not limited as in (5. 5. Then Since V1 is the input to the commonsource stage. Define V as the maximum : value of V1 for which M3 operates in the active region. which includes a threshold component. Such a maximum occurs when the output swing from the commonsource stage is greater than that of the commondrain stage.166)..147) with (5. 5. Since the commonsource stage in Fig. when the output is maximum with finite RL. When the two circuits are combined as in Fig. and this circuit can swing within an overdrive of the positive supply. 5. 5. the circuit in Fig.36 is not responsible for establishing the quiescent output current. and both VSsl1and Vgs12decrease. = 0 and Vos > 0. As a result. the error amplifiers are designed to give and Vgsll > Vtll and Vgs12< Vt12 SO that M l l MI2 are off. however. follows but with less than unity gain if RL is finite. when Vi is adjusted so that V1 (1. the output swing allowed by the commondrain stage in Fig. In this case.31 provided < that Vgs4 < Vgsl when V.103). MI1 and M12 are designed to be cut off.Vtl reaches its maximum value. So with proper design. V1 increases and V. the error amplifiers are often designed as onestage amplifiers with a . M1M5force V. On the other hand. With V1 = V.36 exceeds that of the commondrain output stage in Fig.103) shows that the positive swing of the combined output stage in Fig. = 0 when V1 = 0. In practice. and the commonsource stage becomes dominant. From Therefore. the gain of the error amplifiers in Fig. As Vi decreases from the value that forces V1 = 0.] = Vov4if = = Substituting (5. Therefore.32 does not include a threshold term.36.129).31 is limited in part by Vgsl. the quiescent output current is controlled by the commondrain stage and its biasing circuit M1M5.36 and can be introduced by intentionally mismatching the input differential pair in each error amplifier.101) into (5.144) and rearranging shows that Vovl = Vov4if We will assume that this condition holds so that V. 5. As V. 5. eventually turning on Mll but keeping M12 off. as shown in (5. This characteristic stems from small offsets designed into the error amplifiers.36 can be designed to increase the output swing.392 Chapter 5 If Vtl = Output Stages Vt4. the output swing is limited by the driver stage that produces V1. These offsets are shown as voltage sources Vos in Fig. 5. increases. the output swing limitation of commonsource stage in Fig. both Idl and IIdI1Iincrease as V. 0 if VOv1= Vov4.
these terms alone reduce the available output swing by about 1. because of the body effect. the main limitation to the positive swing in Fig.147).5 V to 2 V. which increases with increasing V 1 and V. as shown in Chapter 7. we will consider the frequency response of the circuit in Fig.15 and the harmonic distortion for highfrequency signals is reduced.2 Combined CommonDrain CommonSource Configuration with High Swing Although the swing of the circuit in Fig. Similarly. The path through the commonsource transistors M l l and M I 2 may be slow because of the need to limit the bandwidth of the error amplifiers to guarantee that the circuit is stable.36 except that one extra branch is included. and other instances are described in Chapter 9.36 is improved compared to the circuit in Fig. the fast path will dominate for highfrequency signals. 5. The circuit has two paths from V1 to the output. BIAS + v 1 (1 I M2 vos I. As shown in (5.5.36 is limited by the swing of Vl. reducing the phase shift that would otherwise be introduced by the slow error amplifiers.3. 5.5. 5. and r. 5. 5.36 stems from Vgs4. In contrast.37 shows a circuit that overcomes this limitation. the design required to guarantee stability is simplified. This voltage includes a threshold component. Since the output swing in Fig. 5. decrease.36 is limited by the threshold voltages of M4 and M5 as described above. Since the circuit sums the current from the commondrain and commonsource stages in the load to produce the output voltage. As a result. Figure 5. Finally. that can be achieved in a given technology. (Stability is studied in Chapter 9. 5. This technique is called feedfonuard. 5.whose threshold component increases in magnitude as V1 and V. In practice. The swing of V1 in Fig. This increase in gain reduces the harmonic distortion because it reduces the error between the input and the output of the commonsource stage. 5. commonsource output stage with improved swing. the negative swing is limited by Vgs5. 5.) On the other hand. it can be improved even further.16 The circuit is the same as in Fig.36 qualitatively. the new branch in Fig. the path through the commondrain transistors M1 and M2 is fast because source followers are highbandwidth circuits. The new branch consists of transistors M7 and M s and operates in parallel with the branch containing M3M6 to produce voltage V1.37 Combined commondrain.37 can drive V1 within an overdrive of either supply while M7 and M8 operate in the active region.37 also improves the output swing. .5 CMOS Class AB Output Stages 393 gain related to the product of g.31. improving the swing of V1 as in Fig. It causes the circuit to take on the characteristics of the source followers for high frequencies. vs Figure 5.
37. 5.3. As a result. This equation shows that the gain is determined by the ratios of the transconductance of a differentialpair transistor to that of a load transistor. which in turn are driven by the differential outputs of the A l amplifiers. M 1 and M2 operate in the active region when Vi = 0. 5. At first. The error amplifiers with gain A2 together with M l l and M I 2 form the other buffer. In particular. 5.38 Output stage with a Class AB commonsource buffer and a Class B cornrnonsource buffer. On the other hand. Ignoring channellength modulation.38.148) .17 Like the circuit in Fig. which controls the operation of the output stage with V i = 0. This behavior stems from small offset voltages intentionally built into the Al amplifiers. 5.38 and are introduced in practice by intentionally mismatching the input differential pairs in the Al amplifiers. 5. which are implemented by the outputs of pchannel current mirrors in practice. Figure 5. The load of the differential pair consists of two parts: diodeconnected transistors M 5and M6 and current sources IBIAS. Therefore. the product V O S A l A 2is chosen b y design to be big enough to force V g s l l > V i l l and Vgs12 V t I 2SO < that M1 and M12 are off when V i = 0. The difference between V i and V. the offsets force M l l and M I 2 to operate in cutoff when V i = 0 because the gates of these transistors are driven by the outputs of the A2 amplifiers. The error amplifiers with gain A l along with M 1 and M2 form one buffer.5. the quiescent output current of this output stage is controlled by M 1 .3 is shown in Fig. and the A l amplifiers.39 shows a schematic of the top A I amplifier and M 1 from Fig. assume that these offsets have little effect on the drain currents of M1 and M2 because Al is intentionally chosen to be small. Substituting (1.180) into (5. is sensed by the differential pair M3 and M4. These offsets are shown as voltage sources Vos in Fig.17 A complementary configuration is used for the bottom A l amplifier but is not shown for simplicity. The purpose of the diodeconnected transistors is to limit the gain of the error amplifier to a small value so that the output quiescent current is well controlled. and the buffer that includes these transistors operates in a ClassAB mode.394 Chapter 5 Output Stages vs$ Figure 5. this circuit combines two buffers in parallel at the output. M2.5. which dominates the operation of the output stage for largemagnitude output voltages.38. the gain of this error amplifier is where A l is the gain from the differential input to the differential output of the error amplifier.3 Parallel CommonSource Configuration Another circuit that overcomes the problem described in the introduction of Section 5.
where ID3> IBIAS.39 Schematic of the top A.149) gives This equation shows that the purpose of the IBIAs current sources is to allow the bias current in a transistor in the differential pair to exceed that in a diodeconnected load. the transistor sizes. From (1. In practice. for each transistor. = 0 when Vi = 0.5 CMOS Class AB Output Stages 395 Figure 5. 5.152) and rearranging gives . From KCL at the drain of M5. and the bias currents.150). Therefore. a positive I offset reduces [ID1. amplifier and output transistor M . + = into Substituting ID3 ID4 ITAIL (5. .17 Assume that V. Vov3 = Vod. and rearranging gives This equation shows that the gain is determined by the product of the ratios of the transconductance parameters. 5.151) is greater than unity and contributes to the required gain. Increasing Vos reduces 103.38. the offset is implemented in Fig. if Vt3 = Vt4.5. As a result. Under the assumption that V. = 0 when V i = 0.Substituting (5. Now consider the effect of the offset Vos in Fig. Since M5 and M1 form a current mirror. the differential pair in the error amplifier operates with Vgs3 = Vgs4. making [ID5 less than the value given in (5. the term in parentheses in (5.39 by choosing the width of M3 to be less than the width of M4 by about 1 20 percent.150) into (5.166).
differential pairs are not required at the inputs of the A2 amplifiers.Increasing the loop gain reduces the error between the input and output. Since the commonmode components of the outputs of the AI amplifiers are well controlled by diodeconnected loads. = V i = 0. Also. 5.396 Chapter 5 Output Stages when V. If Mll operates in the triode region. Vgll = Vss + . and RL. increasing A2 allows the output stage to drive reduced loads with constant g. the error ampli> .38 is that it allows the output swing with a given level of nonlinearity to be increased by allowing the dominant transistor to operate in the triode region. Thus. Therefore. fiers contain some unintentional mismatches stemming from random effects in practice. a key advantage of the outputstage configuration shown in Fig. Since the quiescent output current is controlled by the AI error amplifiers along with M1 and M2. If the load is fixed.38 reduces ID2. 5. the offset must be chosen to be small enough that ID3 0 when V = Vi = 0. Assuming that the gains Al and A2 are constant. Because the output resistance of the cascodecurrent mirror is large compared to the output resistance of the commonsource transistor M22. = 0 when Vi = 0 is assumed.38 is zero even with nonzero Vos in the error amplifiers.154) and A2 = 70 in Ref. One potential concern here is that reducing the transistor sizes also reduces the range of outputs for which the devices operate in the active region. Figure 5. Vos is chosen to be bigger than the expected random offset. In other words. 5. Because another design goal is to bias MI1 in cutoff. where K is a constant. increasing A2 compensates for this effect.17 A complementary configuration used for the bottom A2 amplifier is not shown for simplicity.The A2 amplifiers operate on the differential outputs of the AI amplifiers. and the loop gain is proportional to the product A2gmll(ro11 RL). This loop gain is related to the product of A2. gmllor &12. respectively. the offset of the entire output stage shown in Fig. let Vgll represent the voltage from the gate of Mll to ground. 5. The Al and A2 amplifiers together form the twostage error amplifiers that drive Mll and M12. the reductions in (ID1( ID2 caused by the mismatches intentionally introduced into the differential pairs are equal and V. the gain of the A2 error amplifiers driving Mll and M12need not be small.40 is zero. To determine the range of input voltages for which Mll and M I 2 are both off. The cascode current mirror M23M26 then converts the differential signal into a singleended output. its drainsource resistance roll is finite. and if the fractional mismatches in the and differential pairs are identical. increasing A2 allows the transconductance to be reduced. Therefore. Furthermore. With large A2.ll and roll. Similarly.40 shows a schematic of the top A2 amplifier. Substituting this = Fig. operation of MI1 in the triode 11 region increases the error by reducing g. However. the random component must not be allowed to be larger than the systematic offset in magnitude and opposite in polarity. If the tail and bias current in the top Al amplifier are identical to the corresponding values in the bottom Al amplifier. which in turn allows (WIL)ll to be reduced. as shown in Chapter 8. A2 cl gm227022 (5. If the differential input voltage to the top A2 amplifier shown in + SO that Id21 Id22. increasing A2 has the advantage of increasing the loop gain when MI1 or M I 2 turns on. Because a design goal is to bias M1 in the active region when Vi = 0. The inputs are applied to the gates of commonsource transistors M21 and M22. If Mll conducts. MI1 or M12 becomes the dominant output device for large output magnitudes if the aspect ratios of MI1and M12are at least as big as M1 and M2.ll and error.17. a positive offset in the bottom AI amplifier as labeled in Fig.
. 5. (5.With these substitutions. To interpret this result.160) is equal to the reciprocal of the difference in the slopes of the two lines in Fig.117) with g . that is. = .157) into (5. this difference must be equal to Vos so that the circuit operates at the intersection of the two lines in Fig. Therefore. (5.41.(V. As the input voltage increases.156) . 5. the output voltage follows with a slope less than unity if RL is finite. The term in parentheses in (5. = g. Substituting (5..5. To turn M I 1barely on. gives where Vi(h. V i. the required differential input of the top A 1 amplifier is zero.5 CMOS Class AB Output Stages 397 V. Also. 5.Vss boundary condition into (5. Then to turn M l l on.158). as shown by the solid plot.157) into (5.117) gives To turn M on. the required differential input voltage of the top A2 amplifier VZt = 0. let A2 m. 1 Substituting this condition and (5. as V iincreases. in terms of V i for the output stage in Fig.) is the minimum value of Vifor which M l l conducts nonzero drain current.l = g.155) gives K + Vt25 + Vov25.159) gives This equation agrees with the result that would be obtained by allowing A2 + in (5. Since the gates of M 1 and M2 are each driven by only one output of the correspondingAI amplifiers. + This equation and (5. also increases.V. A = A1/2.41.ss Figure 5.z gives V.157) are both plotted in Fig. V. < VDD . .38 as long as the random offset is negligible.therefore.41. and M l l and M12 are off. 5.40 Schematic of the top A2 amplifier. both M 1 and M2 operate in the active region. Therefore.
398 Chapter 5 Output Stages . Sketch corresponding waveforms for IC1.7 V. (b) Repeat (a) if RL = 10 kS1. Vi. if a sinusoidal input voltage with an amplitude (zero to peak) of 10 V is applied at Vi in (a) and (b) above.V. Vtll = 0.RL = 2 klR.2 . (Neglect power dissipated in Q3 and R3. and (C) Calculate the circuit efficiency for each value of RL in (b). avoiding distortion that would be introduced by turning Mll and M12on or off17 if a zerolevel output pulse were required.. EXAMPLE Find the minimum input voltage in Fig. 5.VCe1.5 V.1 A circuit as shown in Fig.1.158) shows that m This example shows that the minimum input voltage required to turn on M11 is reduced from the value given in (5. (b). and (c) and also to determine second and third harmonic distortion in V. when A2 = 70. Al = 8.. assuming at first that Az CO and then that A2 = 70.160) when A2 is finite. . (5. On the other hand. Vt25 = 0. R 3 = 5 kQ. .7 V. V.. V C E ~= 0.1 V. +OS L R .1 has Vcc = 15 V .41 Graphical interpretation of which is the minimum Vi needed to turn on MI1 in Fig. because the fractional term in (5. R I R2 = 0 . plane for RL = 2 kQ and RL = 10kS1. (a) Sketch the transfer characteristic from Vi to V. (d) Use SPICE to verify (a).RL = 60 1(1. 5.) (d) Select RL for maximum efficiency in this circuit and calculate the corresponding average output power with sinusoidal signals. All ~~~ = device areas are equal. 5. this circuit is well suited for the ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network) linedriving application for which it was designed because the required fourlevel output code does not include zero. Therefore. From (5.' Vi(min) Figure 5. and Vov25= 0.E(~") 0.. 5. (C) Sketch the waveform of V. g.l = 5 m m . As a result. VDD = Vss = 2.7 V.38 remain off for only a small range of input voltages. The key point of this analysis is that Mll and M12in Fig. for the conditions in (c). PROBLEMS 5.2 (a) For the circuit of Problem 5.inl = l 0 mV[1 + 8(0.38.160).158) is positive.38 for which Mll turns on. sketch load lines in the &V. and V~. 5. P. the nonlinearity introduced by turning on M1l or MI2 occurs when lVil is small.005)(60)] = 34 mV + when A2 + m. Let Vos = 10 mV. (b) Calculate the maximum average sinusoidal output power that can be delivered to RL (both values) before clipping occurs in (a) above.
1 at the quiescent point and at the extremes of the signal swing with a peak sinusoidal output of 1 V and RL = 2 k n . and VC~(sao 0. scale from 0 to 30 mA. calculate the minimum allowable value of RL. and A = 0.5 V : (a) Let A: = A.Problems 399 5.01 V and V D = 3 V. (b) Sketch the output voltage waveform and the collector current waveform in each device for a sinusoidal input voltage of amplitude 1 V. 5.57) to calculate HD2 and H D 3 in terms of E+ and E.Q = A .Q and calculate expressions for (Ef E) and (E+ .0. (C) Let A. Compare the results to the results of the Example in Section 5.6 (a) For the circuit of Problem 5. . 5.7.3.A. Repeat for RL = 10 k a .10.6 V . Also.10 has Vcc = 15 V. Assume that there is sufficient sinusoidal input voltage available at V.2 W .6 V. 20 v.~ (ii) E. for the conditions in (b). draw load lines in the I.8 under the conditions given in Problem 5. Also draw constant power hyperbolas for P. 5. (d) Compare the results of part (c) with (5. 5. and RL + m.1 with RL = 2 k 0 and RL = l0 k n .41). ( C ) Define two normalized differential gain error terms as (i) E+ = (A: . Use SPICE to determine second and third harmonic distortion in V. assume that the two transistors have identical parameters except for unequal threshold voltages.3 (a) Prove that any load line tangent to a power hyperbola makes contact with the hyperbola at the midpoint of the load line. when vi = 0.7 Calculate the incremental slope of the transfer characteristic of the circuit of Fig.1 W . (b) Calculate the maximum possible instantaneous power dissipation in Ql for the circuit of Problem 5.E).3 V . = 0.4 If / 3 ~ 100 for Ql in Problem 5.8 at the quiescent point and at the extremes of the signal swing with vi = Vli sinwt and Ci = 0. and 0. (ej Use the results of part (d) and Problem 5. and the maximum + 1 . lem 5. What is the maximum possible instantaneous power dissipation in Q.3 V . RL = 1 kQ.V. = 20 IR = for each device. = A. to its limits of clipping. ( C ) Check (a) and (b) using SPICE with Is = 10l6 A . +f = 0. RL = 2 kfi.. plane for RL = 0 and RL m. 5. is sinusoidal with an amplitude equal to the maximum possible before clipping occurs.5 V'". and VC. 5.7. for the above values of RL? Assume that the driver stage can supply a maximum base current to Q1 of 0. and y = 0.7 to calculate H D 2 and HD3 for the circuit of Fig..1. assuming that the transistors turn on abruptly for Vbe = V B E ( ~ ) .6 V . = dv. 10 V. (b) Let vi = v^i sin wt as in (5.qsat. for the circuit of Problem 5.5V.3 mA &d PF = 100 for Q .A. when vi is minimum. (A graphical solution is the easiest. (b) Let A.Q)IA.10 The circuit of Fig. is 0. Calculate the maximum average power that can be delivered to RL before clipping occurs. k' = 200 (*AN2. 5. the second and third harmonicdistortion terms of an amplifier can be calculated from the smallsignal gains at the quiescent and extreme operating points. assume that (WIL)] = 1000.2. VDo = 2. Assume that V .1. + (a) Calculate an expression for the smallsignal gain A. : and .= (A.Use SPICE to verify the result.54) and (5. Assume Vll vsB. Starting with the power series given in (5.2 W. 4 . A as defined in Prob.2 V.8 When the distortion is small. the corresponding efficiency. and derive expressions for A AVQ. (C) Calculate the average power dissipated in Q . 4f= 0. Thus calculate the power gain of the circuit.) 5. ~ F 100. assume that Vcc = 12 V. Let WIL = 100.Q)IA. = 0. by its driver stage if V. to drive V. 5. V ? / vSB2=o= 0.9 Calculate secondharmonic distortion in the commonsource amplifier with a depletion load for shown in Fig.5 Calculate the incremental slope of the transfer characteristic of the circuit of Problem 5. calcu= late the average signal power delivered to Q .5 V1I2. Vto = 0. k' = 200 p. Za = 1 mA.3 W. = 0. 5. V B E ( ~= )0.rb = 100 CR.AN2. ~ = (a) Sketch the transfer characteristic from V ito V.1 with RL = 2 ka and RL = 10 k a .ldvi.2 V. 5. (b) If the maximum allowable instantaneous power dissipation in Q. Use an I.52). 2 0 ~ a peak sinusoidal input voltage Bi = 0. . is sinusoidal with an amplitude equal to the maximum possible before clipping occurs. and r. For simplicity. Assume that V. Assume that ~ the dc input voltage is adjusted so that the dc output voltage is 1 V.7 V . when v i is maximum. and y = 0.1 1 For the circuit of Fig. =o 0. 5.
18. PF = 100. and the current in each device for V. Neglect crossover distortion.. Neglect crossover distortion and assume sinusoidal signals. and 3 V. Calculate the corresponding circuit efficiency (for the output devices only) and the average power dissipated per output device. 5. calculate and sketch the waveforms of I. Calculate the value of V. for RL = 10 k R and RL = 2 k R . 5.15 For the output stage of Fig. RL = 1 kfl.17 For the circuit of Problem 5. IQ = 0. calculate the maximum possible average output power than can be delivered to a load RL if the instantaneous power dissipation per device must be less than 100 mW. Q19. Is = 10l4 A. . PF = 150. Assume sinusoidal signals.2 V.1 mA.. = 0 V. (b) Calculate the maximum average power that can be delivered to RL before clipping occurs for RL = 10 k R and RL = 2 k f i .. Use Is = 1013A for all devices. 5. 5.7 V.12 For the circuit of Problem 5.7 V. = 10V. Neglect crossover distortion and assume sinusoidal signals.I. V.14 For the output stage of Fig. and Q14 for V. . and for all devices IS = 10'5A. calculate the maximum positive and negative limits of V. ? 5 V. and RL = 200 R. Do this for output voltage amplitudes (zero to peak) of 11.5 V. VCE(sat) 0. &l*.15. 5. (a) Calculate the maximum positive and negative limits of V. for RL = 10 k n .42 Allnpn Darlington output stage. and the corresponding circuit efficiency (for the output devices only). The magnitude = of the collector current in Q3 is 2 mA. assume that Vcc = 15 V and for all devices VCE(sat) 0. I for device Qr over one cycle. (b) Repeat (a) if the maximum instantaneous power dissipation per device is 200 mW. Assume that the magnitude of the collector current in Q13*is 0. Also specify the corresponding value of RL and the circuit efficiency (for the output devices only). Then sketch the transfer characteristic from V. assume = that Vcc = 15 V. 5. (b) Calculate the power dissipated in the circuit for V..20n.13 In the circuit of Fig. PF(pnp) = 50.2 V. P ~ ( n p n ) 200. (b) Calculate the maximum average power that can be delivered to RL = 1 kfl before clipping occurs. 5. 5. For a11 devices VLiE(. = 1 0 V t o V .7 V. Vcc = 12 V. calculate bias currents in 1220. Assume sinusoidal signals. 5.. = 0.42.qsat) = = 0. = 0. 5. (a) Calculate the maximum positive and negative limits of V.15.2 V.400 Chapter 5 Output Stages instantaneous device dissipation. = 10 V with RL = 1 k R . and C 10 V..) = 0. Vc. and PF = 50..10. Also calculate the peak instantaneous power dissipation in each output device. and P. 6 V. and for all devices VRE(on) 0.2 mA. (a) If RL = 8 R .18 An allnpn Darlington output stage is shown in Fig.16(a) For the circuit of Problem 5. RL = 1 k R .13. Figure 5. 5.
= 26 p m 2 . 0. Also calculate the maximum instantaneous power dissipated in each output transistor.22 Design a CMOS output stage based on the circuit of Fig. . Use the transistor parameters in Table 2. Q2. 5. AS= sume that Q5 and Q6 are npn devices and the collector current in Q7 is 0. Is(pnp) = lOI5 A. rb = 1 0. = r. Calculate the corresponding value of RL.2 p.8 V.43 BiCMOS Class AB output stage. Assume that feedback is used around the circuit so that V.Problems 401 (C) Calculate the maximum average power that can be delivered to RL = 8 Ln before clipping occurs and the corresponding efficiency of the complete circuit. (C) Calculate the maximum average output power (sine wave) that can be delivered to RL if the maximum instantaneous dissipation in any device is 100 mW. Thus calculate the maximum average power that can be delivered to RL before clipping occurs. and V. Device parameters are ~ P ~ ( n p n )= 80. with RL = 1 kQ and VDD = Vss = 2. P F ( P ~ P )= 20. (d) Use SPICE to plot the clc transfer characteristic from Vi to V. for RL = 1 k R . Use 10 p A bias current in M3 and 100 p A idling current in M 1 and M?.. For Ql.7 V.3 (apart from the values of PF and pFLpCox above). (a) Calculate the maximum positive and negative limits of V. Also plot the waveforms of ].20 A BiCMOS Class AB output stage is shown in Fig. and D1 assume Is = lOI5 A. 2. Q5. = 100. Set (WILj3 = 5011 and (W/& = 2511.and the peak currents in Q3 and Q4.43. and VA = 30 V. as V. and D3 are 11100 the size of the large devices. 5. is varied over the complete output voltage range with RL = 8 R.15 mA. 5.. The minimum channel Figure 5. is approximately sinusoidal.5 V. (C) Use SPICE to check (a) and also to plot the complete dc transfer characteristic of the circuit from Vi to V. for RL = 200 Ln. assume bipolar parameters as in Fig. 5. and for all devices VeE(on) = 0. VCE(sat) 0.I. PF(npn) = 150.21 Find the minimum output voltage for the circuit in Fig. and Id2 for a sinusoidal output voltage at V. Ic2. For Q3 assume r.3 1. a. D2. given 5.2 V. Specify the WIL for M1 M6 that minimizes the total chip area.7 V. ppC. Is(npn) = 10l4 A. = 50 C! and VA = 30 V. Assume Q4.19 For the circuit of Fig. = 0.3 1 to deliver 5 1 V before clipping at V. (a) Calculate bias currents in all devices for v. V B E ( ~ =) 0. assume that Vcc = 15 V. (b) Calculate quiescent currents in QlQ7 for v.25. 5. = 0. &(pnp) = 30. In the simulation. 5. of 2 V and then 4 V zerotopeak. (b) Calculate the positive and negative limits of V.3 except assume that Leff = Ldrwn for simplicity. = 0 v. 5.32 and MOS parameters as in Table 2.
5. and the body of each pchannel transistor is connected to VDD.116).402 Chapter 5 Output Stages (C) length is 1 pm. Similarly. = vi + .23 For the circuit in Fig. Fig. To alv.24 Using a circuit that is the complement of Problem 5.35 and IrArLP = 51BIASP Problem 5. assume that the input voltage Vi is high enough that M 1 operates in the active region but M2 is cut off. 5.vosp + W A ~ I . by the following expression RL = 100 a.A ~ R ~ low these ideal current sources to be replaced by L real transistors in a design step not required in this problem. draw the schematic for the botdo not cut (h) To guarantee that M I 6 and tom error amplifier and output transistor M2.32 to satisfy the following requirements. aswhere M 2 .35 and minimized under the above conditions. (WIL). 5.Use SPICE to verify your design by plotting the V." current sources.25 Using the schematics from Fig.35. (WIL)27 = (WIL)2/100 and (W/L)23 = (W/L)24 = (WIL)2/10. and and ITAILP. Ld = Xd = 0. (a) VDD = Vss = 2.and pchannel transistors. label the current body effect..35.24.24 must be at least 0.etc.24. (j) The distortion of the output stage should be 5. 5.24..5 V when V. (d) The maximum allowed gain error with zero offsets and all transistors operating in the active region is 1 percent. label the transistors as M21 . is the complement of M 1 l . Also. Use Ldmn = 1 k m for all transistors.5 V when . show that V .5 V. M22 is the sume that h = 0 . 5.3 for other transistor parameters.35 must be at least 0.which off under these conditions. 1 . (g) Your solution is allowed to use four ideal 1 V. and ignore the complement of M12. is related to V. 5. Assume the body of each nchannel transistor is connected to Vss. two in each error amplifier. In in Fig. respectively. (b) The standby power dissipation should be no more than 70 mW.32.. in the error amplifier. (i) For both n. the one in Fig. assume ITAIL51BIAS = are shown in block diagram form in Fig. = (WIL)1/100 and ( W / L ) 1 3= (WIL)14 = (WIL)IIIO. the voltage across each ideal current source in the complementary circuit from 5. Similarly. and as sources complementary to IBTAs ITAILI B I A ~ P use Table 2.+ 2k'V i + . 5. 2 0. in Problem 5. 5 0.M 2 7 . the voltage across each ideal current source in Fig.Vosp L RL wA2( V. (e) In Fig. Using the same assumptions as in the derivation of (5. Problem 5. vs. the maximum allowed erroramplifier gain is 5. Vi characteristic. (f) To control the quiescent current. 5. 5.34. design the output stage shown in Verify your design using SPICE.
25. New York. H. Millman and C. February 1989. E. 2. " A Wideband Class AB Monolithic Power Amplifier. Tsugaru. 14. Cherry and D. R." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. 27." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. Vol. W. Peterson. J. SC6. "HighGain 15W Monolithic Power Amplifier with Internal Fault Protection. E. 181183. Vol. P." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. T. M. Amplihing Devices and LowPass AmplGer Design. Integrated Electronics. Ch. 653459. Khorrarnabadi." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. June 1968. G. Ch. Vol. Ch. pp. 5. Sugimoto. "A HighPerformance CMOS Power Amplifier. Gray. 4. Vol. "Harmonic Distortion in SingleChannel MOS Integrated Circuits. Gray. 3 5 4 4 . 16. 7. Solomon. 11. B." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. 17231729. 24. Frederiksen. Vol." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. 892899. pp. 1972. Frederiksen and J. 474480. M. Brehmer and J. R. J. L.References 403 REFERENCES 1. New York. E. cit. A. E. Hooper. Grebene. 712. R. 8. and G. "A Highly Efficient CMOS Line Driver with 80dB Linearity for ISDN UInterface Applications. 1968. pp. E. Vol. Noda. Vol. 9. 15.. T. Vol. pp. McGrawHill. April 1992. 9. pp. pp. M. December l98 1. T. and Y. pp. Vol. Vol. 624629. SC20." IEEE Journal of Solidstate Circuits. February 1971. 12. 18. Op. Baxter. H. Suwa. 3. pp. and T. "A 15W Monolithic Power Operational Amplifier. M. 13. R. New York. pp. Fisher. M. Fraser. Jr. Anidjar." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. SC3. December 1972. 56. Nagaraj. February 1989. B. K. "A SinglePowerSupply 10b Video BiCMOS SampleandHold IC. 539544. K. Ch. E. Khorramabadi. June 1990. 16. M. Vol. December 1983. pp. Y." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. "A HighPerformance 3Watt Monolithic ClassB Power Amplifier. Meyer and W. "LargeSwing CMOS Power Amplifier. "A Programmable CMOS Dual Channel Interface Processor for Telecommunications Applications. Ahuja. K. . SC18. 10. SC. A. E." IEEE Journal ofsolidState Circuits. Mack. K. Tsividis and D. "A CMOS Line Driver with 80 dB Linearity for ISDN Applications. Wieser. "Analysis of Harmonic Distortion in SingleChannel MOS Integrated Circuits. Fong and R. December 1984. "LargeSwing CMOS Buffer Amplifier. 6. E. 17. Wiley." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. Long and T. SC16. Vol. P. SC7. 12001205. Halkias.17. Uehara. Vol. pp. Hooper. Van Nostrand Reinhold. 8386. Y. December 1985. 694702. Ito. Cherry and D. L. C. 27. 1972. pp. P. Analog Integrated Circuit Design. B. J." IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits. Zeman. D. December 1992. SC19. pp. 24. February 1982. 152160.
For these reasons. Since these systems often operate on signals that originate in analog form. (The topic of noise is considered in Chapter l l. 6. is analyzed. .OperationalAmplifiers with SingleEndedOutputs In the previous three chapters. However. analog circuits such as op amps are required to interface to the digital CMOS circuits. While actual op amps do not have these ideal characteristics. In opamp design. op amps made from bipolar transistors offer the best performance in many cases. To reduce system cost and increase portability. CMOS op amps are considered next. higher speed. we first explore several applications of op amps to illustrate their versatility in analog circuit and system design. bipolar transistors offer many advantages over their CMOS counterparts. An ideal op amp with a singleended output has a differential input. we will consider monolithic operational amplifiers (op amps) with singleended outputs. including for example dccoupled. infinite input resistance. and zero output resistance. providing a strong economic incentive to use CMOS op amps.). Op amps with fully differential outputs are considered in Chapter 12. the 741. analog and digital circuits are now often integrated together. lower inputreferred offset voltage and lower inputreferred noise voltage. The highfrequency and transient response of op amps are covered in Chapters 7 and 9.1. and the ways in which the performance of the circuit deviates from ideality are described. their performance is usually sufficiently good that the circuit behavior closely approximates that of an ideal op amp in most applications. CMOS technologies have become dominant in building the digital portions of signalprocessing systems because CMOS digital circuits are smaller and dissipate less power than their bipolar counterparts. bipolar op amps became commercially significant first and still usually offer superior analog performance. In this chapter. the most important circuit building blocks utilized in analog integrated circuits (ICs) have been studied. but it involves application of the circuit techniques described throughout the book. a few standard circuits stand out as perhaps having the widest application in systems of various kinds. Design considerations for improving the various aspects of monolithic opamp lowfrequency performance are described. These include operational amplifiers. lowdrift applications. Most analog ICs consist primarily of these basic circuits connected in such a way as to perform the desired function. both as an example of the utilization of the previously described circuit building blocks and as an introduction to the design and application of this important class of analog circuit. In this chapter. The design of AID and DIA converters is not covered. lowoffset. A conceptual schematic diagram is shown in Fig. and voltageregulator circuits are considered in Chapter 8.r. voltage regulators. higher gain (g. and analogtodigital (AID) and digitaltoanalog (DIA) converters. infinite voltage gain.) As a result. Although the variety of standard and specialpurpose custom ICs is almost limitless. Then a generalpurpose bipolar monolithic op amp. such as higher transconductance for a given current.
1 Applications of Operational Amplifiers 6. A generalized feedback amplifier is shown in Fig.1. The topic of feedback amplifiers is covered in detail in Chapter 8. a.1 Basic Feedback Concepts Virtually all opamp applications rely on the principles of feedback. When T becomes large compared to unity.2. below that of the openloop case (for which f = 0)when a and f have the same sign. The function of the feedback network is to sense the output signal S. the feedback signal tends to reduce the magnitude of S. and the difference S. For the circuit shown in Fig.. The gain of the system when the feedback network is present is called the closedloop gain.6. . This case is called negative feedback and is the case of practical interest in this chapter. where f is usually less than unity. This feedback signal is subtracted from the input signal Si. of the amplifier. 6. The block labeled a is called the forward or basic amplifier. the value off can be set > to an arbitrary degree of accuracy and will establish the gain at a value of l1f if T > 1. 6. we now consider a few basic concepts necessary for an understanding of opamp circuits. 6. which is equal to f S. The gain of the basic amplifier when the feedback network is not present is called the openloop gain. This independence of closedloop performance from the parameters of the active amplifier is the primary factor motivating the wide use of op amps as active elements in analog circuits. independent of any variations in the openloop gain a. For the basic amplifier we have and thus where T = a f is called the loop gain. and the block labeled f is called the feedback network. the closedloop gain becomes Since the feedback network is composed of passive components.2.1 Applications of Operational Amplifiers 405 Figure 6. is applied to the basic amplifier.1 Ideal operational amplifier. and develop a feedback signal Sfb .
6. the feedback is negative. direct analysis with Kirchoff's laws is easier than attempting to consider them as feedback amplifiers. Since Rz is connected between the amplifier output and the inverting input. On the Figure 6. and that the output resistance is zero as shown in Fig.406 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs Si +  L a T *S*  f S ~ b 4 Figure 6. 6.3 (a) Inverting amplifier configuration.1. We ~ ~ 8 assume that the opamp input resistance is infinite. From KCL at node X. we proceed to a consideration of several examples of useful opamp configurations. .2 A conceptual feedback amplifier. 6 . ( c ) Voltagefollower configuration.2 Inverting Amplifier The inverting amplifier connection is shown in Fig. Because these example circuits are simple. more complicated feedback configurations are considered in which the use of feedback concepts as an analytical tool is more useful than in these examples. With this brief introduction to feedback concepts. ' . Therefore. V iwould be driven to zero with infinite openloop gain. In Chapter 8. ( b )Noninverting amplifier configuration.1. 3 ~ .
7) is valid. if the opamp gain were to change from 5 X lo4 to 105. 6. From (6. .6.and RI = 1kcR.1 Applications of Operational Amplifiers 407 other hand. and that the circuit has a stable operating point at which (6. 3 to be performed by the use of summingpoint constraints. then for a finite value of output voltage the input voltage must approach zero since Thus one can analyze such circuits approximately by assuming a priori that the opamp input voltage is driven to zero. and if the gain of the op amp is very large.10) is valid. For example. Since these components can be selected with arbitrary accuracy.6) with a = 104.' If the op amp is ~ connected in a negativefeedback circuit. this 100 percent increase in gain would have almost no observable effect on closedloop performance provided that (6.6) with a = 105. An implicit assumption in doing so is that the feedback is negative.5) into (6. = 104and a = 105. R2 = From (6.7) holds. Substituting (6.8) shows that the closedloop gain depends primarily on the external passive components RI and R2. with finite openloop gain a. The large gain of op amps allows the approximate anaIysis of circuits like that of Fig.3a. (6. a high degree of precision can be obtained in closedloop performance independent of variations in the active device (opamp) parameters.4) and rearranging gives If the gain of the op amp is large enough that then the closedloop gain is When the inequality in (6. EXAMPLE Calculate the gain of the circuit Fig. for a 10 kfl. 6 .
408 Chapter 6 m Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs The assumption that V i = 0 is called a summingpoint constraint. it flows through R2. If the openloop gain is a .  I2R2 . > In contrast to the inverting case. serves to convert the voltage Vs to an input current of value VsIR1.la and Rearranging (6. and its gain is close to unity if a > 1.1. An important variation of this connection is the voltage follower. assume that no Using current flows into the inverting opamp input terminal. Since the inverting input of the amplifier is forced to ground potential by the negative feedback. since no voltage exists across the input resistance of the op amp if Vi = 0.1.6 . 6. is then given by The current I1 is The output voltage is given by V. 6 . this circuit displays a very high input resistance as seen by V . in which R1 + and R2 = 0. 6. 3 b . . it is sometimes called a virtual ground.12) is valid to the extent that aRII(RI+ R2) > 1. The circuit is shown in Fig. This circuit is shown in Fig. Vi = V.. > 6. ' ~ ~ this circuit.3 Noninverting Amplifier The noninverting amplifier is shown in Fig. A second constraint is that no current can flow into the opamp input terminals. the noninverting connection causes the commonmode input voltage of the op amp to be equal to V.This current cannot flow in the input terminal of an ideal op amp.1. producing a voltage drop of VsR21RI.1 1) gives aR1 The approximation in (6.) Also unlike the inverting case. therefore. 4 . 3 ~ Since the inverting input terminal is forced to ground potential. Voltage V . the input resistance of the overall circuit as seen by Vs is equal to R1. 6 . l ~ ~ ~ ~ Fig.4 Differential Amplifier The differential amplifier is used to amplify the diflerence between two voltages.3c. Because the opamp input terminal operates at ground potential. because of the type of feedback used. This summingpoint approach allows an intuitive understanding of the operation of the inverting amplifier configuration of Fig. = V. (See Chapter 8. 6. Iil = 0 and thus resistors R1 and R2 form For a voltage divider. the resistor RI .
If the openloop gain is infinite. For example. the 1  Figure 6. Log amplifiers find wide application in instrumentation systems where signals of very large dynamic range must be sensed and recorded.15) and rearranging gives The circuit thus amplifies the difference voltage (V1 .V2).6. Because the input voltage of the op amp must be zero. 6.1. the summingpoint constraint that Vi = 0 is valid and forces V. > 6. Differential amplifiers are often required to detect and amplify small differences between two sizable voltages...1 Applications of Operational Amplifiers 409 Figure 6. 6. The logarithmic amplifier.1'4) into (6.4 Differential amplifier configuration. . a typical application is the measurement of the difference voltage between the two arms of a Wheatstone bridge.5 Logarithmic amplifier configuration. and (6. the op amp of Fig. As in the case of the noninverting amplifier.4 experiences a commonmode input that is almost equal to the commonmode voltage (V1 + V2)/2 applied to the input terminals when R2 > R 1 . The operation of this circuit can again be understood by application of the summingpoint constraints. op amps can be used to perform nonlinear operations on one or more analog signals. shown in Fig.13). Substituting V. = V. is an example of such an application. = V.5. (6.5 Nonlinear Analog Operations By including nonlinear elements in the feedback network.
This current flows into the capacitor C. 6. peak detection.410 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs resistor R serves to convert the input voltage V. . This same current must then flow into the collector of the transistor. Differentiator The integrator and differentiator circuits. into a current. Figure 6. These voltages can be summed. and Thus The log amplifier is only one example of a wide variety of opamp applications in which a nonlinear feedback element is used to develop a nonlinear transfer characteristic. and division can be performed in conceptually similar ways. square rooting.6. raising to a power. shown in Fig. Thus the circuit forces the collector current of the transistor to be proportional to the input voltage. rectification. and then the exponential function of the result can be developed using an inverting amplifier connection with R1 replaced with a diode. two log amplifiers can be used to develop the logarithm of two different signals. In terms of equations. The result is an analog multiplier.6 Integrator. Since the output voltage is equal to the negative of the capacitor voltage. In terms of equations.lr2 In the case of the integrator. Other nonlinear operations such as limiting. the transistor operates in the forwardactive region because VcB = 0. Furthermore. the output is proportional to the integral of the input voltage with respect to time. the resistor R is used to develop a current I I that is proportional to the input voltage. are examples of using op amps with reactive elements in the feedback network to realize a desired frequency response or timedomain response.1. Since the baseemitter voltage of a bipolar transistor in the forwardactive region is logarithmically related to the collector current. For example. a logarithmic transfer characteristic is produced. whose voltage is proportional to the integral of the current Il with respect to time. 6. squaring. ( b ) Differentiator configuration. and since the output voltage is just the emitterbase voltage of the transistor.6 ( a ) Integrator configuration.
is still given by the ratio of the impedance of the feedback element C2 to the impedance of the input element Cl. l. 6.25) . In the case of the differentiator. standalone generalpurpose amplifiers usually must be designed to achieve a certain level of performance that is independent of changes in capacitive loads up to several hundred picofarads and resistive loads down to 2 kln or less. The topic of MOS switchedcapacitor amplifiers is one important application of internal amplifiers. Here. The current through the capacitor is proportional to the time derivative of the voltage across it.1 Applications of Operational Amplifiers 41 1 and V. This current flows through the feedback resistor R. and MOS transistors can act as switches to connect to the capacitors without offset and with little leakage. In terms of equations. Figure 6. Also. which is proportional to the time rate of change of the input voltage. capacitors can store charge proportional to analog signals of interest. =  t. Perhaps the most important difference is that the load an internal amplifier has to drive is well defined and is often purely capacitive with a value of a few picofarads. only a few of the amplifiers must drive a signal offchip where the capacitive and resistive loads are significant and variable. capacitors instead of resistors are often used as passive elements in feedback amplifiers in part because capacitors are often the best available passive components. These amplifiers will be termed output bufers.1. the gain from a change in the input AV. 6.7 Internal Amplifiers The performance objectives for og amps to be used within a monolithic analog subsystem are often quite different from those of generalpurpose op amps that use external feedback elements.1 SwitchedCapacitor Amplifier In MOS technologies. and the inverting opamp input. or (6. which is equal to the input voltage. allowing the discretetime signal processing of analog quantities.21) yields The performance limitations of real op amps limit the range of V. If the op amp is ideal.7 shows the schematic of an inverting amplifier with capacitive feedback in contrast to the resistive feedback shown in Fig. In a monolithic analog subsystem.20) and (6. and the rate of change of V. 6. In contrast. Combining (6.3a. and the amplifiers whose outputs do not go off chip will be termed internal amplijiers. we introduce the application to help explain the construction of MOS op amps.1.' Z2dr + V (0) . to a change in the output AV. the capacitor C is connected between V.6.7. for which this relationship is maintained. producing a voltage at the output proportional to the capacitor current.
7 Inverting amplifier configuration with capacitive feedback without dc bias for the inverting opamp input.8d and 2 show the connections when is high (during + l ) and when 4 is high (during 42). . respectively. switches controlled by a twophase nonoverlapping clock are used to control the operation of the above circuit. Since both sides of C2 are grounded in Fig. when is high and to ground through switch S 2 when 42 is high. and the gate conducts zero dc current. is known as the chargetransfer phase. the switches controlled by one clock phase are never closed at the same time as the switches controlled by the other clock phase. Figures 6 .412 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs " 0  Figure 6. To find the output for a given input. This property stems partly from the fact that the passive elements connected to the opamp input node are capacitors. 8 ~ 6. Switches that are closed are assumed to be short circuits. Because of this property. the opamp input is connected to the gate of one transistor in the differential pair. which conduct zero dc current. Since and are never both high at the same time. this phase is known as the input sample phase. 8 shows the schematic of a switchedcapacitor amplifier. Finally. For example. The resulting circuit is known as a switchedcapacitor amplijel: Figure 6 . but this node is never simultaneously connected to both the input and ground. If the op amp is ideal. if the op amp is constructed with an MOS differential input pair. they are often redrawn twice. Also. however. We will assume that each switch is closed when its controlling clock signal is high. By charge conservation. the voltage V ifrom the inverting opamp input to ground is driven to zero by negative feedback during $2. To simplify the description of the operation of switchedcapacitor circuits. Therefore. 6. Q2 = Ql . After switch Sg opens. Each switch in the ~ schematic is controlled by one of two clock phases and 42. this circuit does not provide dc bias for the inverting opamp input because the impedances of both capacitors are infinite at dc.8c. through switch S . an analysis based on charge conservation is used. and switches that are open are assumed to be open circuits. once for each nonoverlapping clock phase. if we assume that switch S3 conducts zero current when it is open. the charge on the plates of the capacitors that connect to the opamp input node is conserved until this switch closes again. the left side of Cl is connected to the input V. the charge stored cannot leak away while S3 is open. To overcome this problem. therefore. the charge stored on the plates of the capacitors that connect to the the opamp input node during 4. Unlike the case when resistors are used as passive elements. the charge stored during is $2 Because the sampled charge appears on Cl during c$1 and on C2 during 42.8b are known as nonoverlapping. is Because the input voltage is sampled or stored onto capacitor Cl during 41. 6. and the timing diagram is shown in Fig. 6. the clock signals in Fig.8b. and open when its clock signal is low.
the input V.28) and depends on the rates at which the capacitors are charged and discharged. and V. (6) Timing diagram of clock signals. ( c )Connections during $1. represents the input voltage at the end of + l . In (6. In practice. these rates depend on the bandwidth of the op amp and the resistances of the closed switches.8 (a) Schematic of a switchedcapacitor amplifier with ideal switches.28) is valid as long as the op amp is ideal.28).6.1 Applications of Operational Am~lifierS 4 13 Figure 6. The result in (6. and the intervals over which #q and C$z are high are long enough to completely charge . The shape of the output voltage waveform is not predicted by (6. is dc. represents the output voltage at the end of C$2. V. (d) Connections during $2.
. where the drainsource voltage is zero when the v. (Since the source is the source of electrons in nchannel transistors.414 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs and discharge the associated capacitors. The arrows indicating the source terminals of M 1 . Under these conditions. +ss st . Furthermore. 6. (b) Figure 6. Also assume that all node voltages are no lower than .9b. is a dc signal. 6. (b) Clock waveforms with labeled voltages. this negative change in the applied voltage during 49 is multiplied by a negative closedloop amplifier gain. each transistor turns off when its gate is low.Vss and VDDas shown in Fig. the dc current that flows into the input terminals of MOS op amps is zero as long as the inputs are connected only to the gates of MOS transistors.8 can be implemented without offset by using MOS transistors. each transistor turns on when its gate is high as long as its source operates at least a threshold below VDD. as shown in Fig. MOS technologies are well suited to building switchedcapacitor circuits for two key reasons. First. Second. giving a positive ratio in (6. assume that the transistor threshold voltages are positive.28). Therefore.9 ( a ) Schematic of a switchedcapacitor amplifier with nchannel MOS transistors used as switches.) Assume that the clock voltages alternate between . As the drain currents approach zero.M 5 are arbitrarily chosen in the sense that the source and drain terminals are interchangeable. > 0 during from a positive value to zero during 49.Finally. bipolar op amps have nonzero dc input currents that stem from finite PF in bipolar transistors. in (6. the switches in Fig. In contrast. .Vss and no higher than VDD. the sourcetoground voltage is lower than the draintoground voltage.9a. all drain currents approach zero as the capacitors become charged...28) is positive because if the voltage applied between the left side of Cl and ground decreases V. 6. If V. the MOS transistors that are on operate in the triode region. The ratio of VJV.
28). Under these conditions.29) collapses to (6. 6. E predicted in (6. one for each clock phase. the voltage from the inverting opamp input to ground during 4 is given by (6.10). bipolar transistors operating as switches do not give zero collectoremitter voltage with zero collector current. which is the substrate or a well diffusion. Therefore. As a result. The duration of 4 must be long enough for the opamp output to reach and stay 2 within a given level of accuracy. the charge stored on the opamp input node during becomes When the opamp gain becomes infinite. Therefore. with finite opamp gain. Furthermore. however. parasitic capacitance on the opamp input node does affect the accuracy of the circuit gain. The switchedcapacitor amplifier shown in Fig. This property of MOS transistors is important in the implementation of switchedcapacitor circuits. These undesired capacitances stem in part from the drainbody and sourcebody junction capacitances of each transistor. as described in Section 2.2. One important parameter of the switchedcapacitor amplifier shown in Fig. and the gain of the switchedcapacitor amplifier approaches CI/C2as As a + m.26) by charge conservation gives This closedloop gain can be written as where E is a gain error given by 0. the opamp input capacitance contributes to the parasitic capacitance on the opamp input node. This period is divided into two main parts.27). the bottom plates of capacitors Cl and C2 exhibit at least some capacitance to the underlying layer.6. If the opamp gain is a. (6.9a is important in practice mainly because the gain of this circuit has little dependence on the various parasitic capacitances that are present on all the nodes in the circuit. the circuit gain is said to be parasitic insensitive to an extent that depends on the opamp gain. but the error is inversely proportional to the opamp gain. (Such parasitics do reduce the maximum clock rate. as we will now show. Let C p represent the total parasitic capacitance from the opamp input to all nodes with constant voltage to ground. the presence of parasitic capacitance from any node except the opamp input to any node with a constant voltage to ground makes no difference to the accuracy of the circuit. 6. as expected. Since the gain of the circuit is determined by charge conservation at the opamp input node. 2 Cl and C p are not completely discharged during &. Setting Q2 in (6.1 Applications of Operational Amplifiers 41 5 drain current is zero.) On the other hand.29) equal to Q1 in (6. This time is defined as the opamp settling time and + .10.9a is the minimum clock period. is sampled onto Cl with zero offset inserted by the MOS transistors operating as switches. Also. In contrast. the input voltage V.
depending on the value of V. failure to reach a constant output voltage during causes the initial condition defined above to vary. 6 . Such simulations should be run for both clock phases because the opamp output voltage during is not well controlled in practice. If the opamp gain is large. First. such a switch can be connected between the opamp output and a bias point between the two supplies. If the initial condition and the desired final output at the end of $2 happen to have far different values. 6. if the op amp has differential outputs as described in Chapter 12.41 6 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEndedOutputs depends on the switch resistances. which is not controlled perfectly in practice because of randommismatch effects. As a result of this memory effect. If the op amp is ideal.6.1. 6 . even with an ideal op amp. weighting together the results of more than one previous input sample to determine any given output. the circuit can behave as a filter (which is possibly nonlinear). a switchedcapacitor integrator. opamp offset limits the minimum signal that can be distinguished from the offset in the switchedcapacitor amplifier.The main value of such a reset switch is that it can reduce both the maximum output voltage produced by a nonzero offset voltage during and the time required to reach this value. 6. such a reset switch can be connected between the two opamp outputs. With nonzero offset voltage. One way to reduce the effect of nonzero offset voltage on the minimum clock period is to include a reset switch at the opamp output. The settling time is usually determined by SPICE simulations. the frequency response . 6. the output voltage will be driven to a nonzero value during that depends on both the offset voltage and the opamp gain. The output voltage at the end of can be thought of as an initial condition for the circuit during $2. Although the circuit output voltage defined in (6. The key point is that an increase in the minimum duration of either phase requires an increase in the minimum clock period.5. the circuit capacitances.9a is limited by several other factors that we will now consider briefly. For example. 6. In either case. the offset can easily be large enough to force the output voltage to clip near one of the supplies.7. this output voltage is zero. at the end of the preceding c)2. and the opamp properties. Second. Techniques to overcome these limitations are often used in practice but are not considered here. This effect should be included in simulation by intentionally simulating with nonzero offset voltages. The accuracy of the switchedcapacitor amplifier shown in Fig. is illustrated . in its simplest form in Fig. This property extends to op amps and stems partly from the reduced transconductancetocurrent ratio of MOS transistors compared to their bipolar counterparts and partly from the threshold mismatch term. the gain depends on the ratio of capacitors C1/C2. If the op amp has a singleended output as shown in Fig. the time required for the output to reach a given level of accuracy during $2 can be increased. First. Third. however. nonzero offset can increase the time required for the opamp output voltage to reach a constant level during c)1. some of the charge stored under ~ the gate of transistor M3 in Fig. As shown in Section 3. which appears only in the MOS case. On the other hand.9a. Furthermore.30) only appears during $2. the chargeconservation equation and accuracy of the switchedcapacitor amplifier are affected by the charge stored under the gates of some of the MOS transistors acting as switches in Fig.2 SwitchedCapacitor Integrator Another application of an internal op amp.9a. 1 0 ~This circuit is widely utilized as the basic element of monolithic switchedcapacitor filters for two main reasons. the reset switch would be turned on during and off during 49. the inputreferred offset of CMOS differential pairs is usually worse than for bipolar differential pairs. in turn reducing the effect of nonzero offset on the minimum durations of both phases. 9 is injected onto the opamp input node after M3 is turned off.
and &.an integrating capacitor Cl. a sampling capacitor CS. Typical values for the sampling. Second. 4.10 (a)Schematic of a switchedcapacitor integrator. using switchedcapacitor integrators as the basic elements. and four MOS transistor switches.6. integrating.10a. The load capacitance shown represents the sampling capacitor of the following integrator.1 Applications of Operational Amplifiers 417 Figure 6. The integrator consists of an op amp. that control the operation of the circuit as well as typical input and output waveforms. (c) Continuoustime equivalent circuit for input frequencies much less than the clock frequency. of the integrator is insensitive to the various parasitic capacitances that are present on all nodes in the circuit. the synthesis of desired filter frequency responses is relatively straightforward. (b) Timing diagram. and load capacitances are labeled in Fig. Figure 6. plus any parasitic capacitances that may be present. 6. . In this section. we will analyze the frequency response of the switchedcapacitor integrator.10b shows the timing diagram of two nonoverlapping clock signals.
jw T12 2 jwTI2 )=A( jw ejuT/2 sinoTI2 ) (6. If the switches and the op amp are ideal. causing transistors M2 and M4 to turn on and the sampling capacitor to be connected between the inverting opamp input. respectively.37) with X = = (.10b. the charge stored at time index [n + 1/21 is From charge conservation. V. and ground.418 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs During the interval when clock phase is high.j w T in the frequency domain. 6.35 can be used to find the frequency response of the integrator by using the fact that the operation of delaying a signal by one clock period T in the time domain corresponds to multiplication by the factor e . the charge on the plates of the capacitors connected to node Top and the inverting opamp input is conserved until M 1 closes again. therefore. the charge stored at time index [n]is Under the same conditions. Define points [n]and [ n + 1/21 as the time indexes at which c$1 and +2 first fall in Fig.10a. one complete clock cycle results in a change in the integrator output voltage that is proportional to the value of the input voltage and to the capacitor ratio. After transistor M l opens in Fig. Q[n + 1/21 = Q[n]. If the op amp is ideal. a chargeconservation analysis is used. 6. the resulting change in the summingnode voltage causes the opamp output to move so that the summingnode voltage is driven back to ground. .JX 1 .39) where . Combining these relations gives Thus. Subsequently.[n + l] = V. the charge stored on Cl is constant during under these conditions. which is sometimes called the summing node.[n + 1/21. transistors M 1 and M3 operate in the triode region and serve to charge the sampling capacitor to a voltage that is equal to the input voltage. The points [n]and [n + l ] are separated by one clock period T. Equation 6. Thus Therefore. clock signal falls. Point [n + l] is defined as the next time index at which +I falls. Also. After the transient has gone to completion. Then clock signal c$2 rises. the integrator frequency response is Using the identity sin in (6. the voltage across CS is driven to zero.. To find the relationship between the input and output.jx) 2j wT/2 we find V0 v( j w ) = ~ ( o T / 2 3 CI sin wT/2 )(' .
6. The main effects of these deviations are to limit the frequency range of the signals that can be accurately amplified. the time constant of a switchedcapacitor integrator can be well controlled in monolithic technologies. 1 0 ~ that dc currents at the and is input terminals must be extremely small to minimize the loss of charge over the time when the above analyses assumed that charge was conserved.6. and the input bias current is defined as the average of the two input currents: Nonzero bias current violates the assumption made in summingpoint analysis that the current into the input terminals is zero. Therefore. 6. and to place an upper limit on the magnitudes of the impedance of the passive elements that can be used in the feedback network with the amplifier. the time constant of a switchedcapacitor integrator is determined by the ratio of two capacitor values and the clock frequency. If the two capacitors have the same properties. and the rightmost term in parentheses in (6.39) must often be taken into account. the circuit can be thought of as providing an analog integration of the signal. the excess phase and magnitude error contributed by the term in parentheses in (6. In practical designs. The time constant of a continuoustime integrator depends on the product of a resistance and a capacitance as in (6. as in (6. the time constant of a continuoustime integrator is not well controlled over variations in process. From a conceptual standpoint. Therefore.39) reduces to unity.22). the ratio is well controlled even when the absolute values are poorly controlled. 9 ~ 6 . switchedcapacitor amplifiers and integrators are ideally suited to the use of op amps with MOS transistors in the input stage. however. 6. In dc . The remaining term is simply the frequency response of an analog integrator. to place a lower limit on the magnitude of dc signals that can be detected. Typical magnitudes for the bias current are 10 to 100 nA for bipolar input devices and less than 0. resistance and capacitance values do not track each other. However. Since the clock frequency can be precisely determined by a crystalcontrolled clock generator. A key requirement for the op amps in Figs. For input frequencies that are much less than the clock frequency. 6. and temperature in general.2. Note that the time constant of the integrator is the same as would occur if the sampling capacitor and switches were replaced by a continuousvalue resistor of value l/(f C S ) . supply. A key advantage of a switchedcapacitor integrator compared to its continuoustime counterpart is that the time constant of the switchedcapacitor integrator can be much better controlled in practice. as desired.10~.40). This section summarizes the most important deviations from ideality and their effects in applications.1 Input Bias Current An input stage for a bipolar transistor op amp is shown in Fig. the quantity oT is much less than unity.11. Here Ql and Q2 are the input transistors of the amplifier.2 Deviations from ldeality in Real Operational Amplifiers Real op amps deviate from ideal behavior in significant ways. This equivalence is illustrated in Fig. 6 .001 pA for MOS input devices. In monolithic technologies. The base currents of Ql and Q2 flow into the amplifier input terminals. equal to IIT. Here f is the clock frequency.2 Deviations from ldeality in Real Operational Amplifiers 419 where r is the time constant of the integrator.
causing nonzero output in Fig. This equation shows that the error in the dc output voltage is proportional to both the input offset current and the feedback resistance under these conditions. inverting and noninverting amplifiers.420 Chapter 6 W OperationalAmplifiers with SingleEndedOutputs Figure 6.4 for that circuit with nonzero Ios and V1 = V 2 = 0 gives a dc output voltage of If Ios = 0.6. To the extent that the currents are equal in the two input leads. The key point is that the size of the feedback resistance is limited by the maximum offset current that can arise and by the allowed error in the dc output voltage in practice. their effects can be canceled in some applications by including a balancing resistor in series with one of the input leads so that the same resistance is seen looking away from each opamp input. this bias current can cause undesired voltage drops in the resistors forming the feedback network.1 1 Typical opamp input stage. .4 when V1 = V2 = 0.4 produces zero output with V1 = V2 = 0 if identical currents flow in both opamp input leads. however.2. For example. the two input bias currents will be equal only if the two transistors have equal betas. defined as Consider the differential amplifier in Fig. 6. the input bias current is indistinguishable from the current being integrated and causes the output voltage to change at a constant rate even when V. = 0 here. 6. 6. This aspect of opamp performance is characterized by the input offset current. Repeating the analysis in Section 6. is zero.4. In integrator circuits. Since this mismatch in the two currents varies randomly from circuit to circuit. it cannot be compensated by a fixed resistor.2 Input Offset Current For the emittercoupled pair shown in Fig. 6. the two input currents are not exactly equal because of random mismatches. with the result that a residual dc voltage appears at the output when the amplifier is ideal in all other ways and the external input voltage is zero. the differential amplifier of Fig.1.11. then V. 6. Geometrically identical devices on the same IC die typically display beta mismatches that are described by a normal distribution with a standard deviation of a few percent of the mean value. In practice. See Problem 6. however.
voltage that must b.. 6. input the .2 Deviations from ldeality in Real Operational Amplifiers 421 6.3 lnput Offset Voltage As described in Chapter 3. is the differentialmode gain and A. however. If we keep the applied differential voltage constant and increase the commonmode input voltage by an amount AVic. mismatches result in nonzero input offset voltage in amplifiers.2. output to zero..45) and (6. The input offset voltage is the differential"... This same principle is used in chopperstabilized op amps. by an amount W To drive the output voltage back to zero. In some sampleddata applications such as switchedcapacitor filters. Using (6. For example. the commonmode rejection ratio of the op amp is Adm CMRR = A.6.47)..with an external potentiometer in the case of standalone op amps. .1U). Including one or both powersupply voltages in the commonmode input range is sometimes important.*. the op amp behaves normally with its offset voltage and input bias current within specifications. ~assume that we apply zero commonmode input voltage to the amplifier and then apply just enough differential voltage to the input to drive the output voltage to zero.5 CommonMode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) If an op amp has a differential input and a singleended output. the input offset voltage of the op amp is sampled and stored on the capacitors every clock cycle. is the commonmode gain.2. v m _____ I U ..m . Thus the input offset is effectively canceled and is not a critical parameter. . for MOS inpit devices. Over this range. As defined in (3. / 1 I _ _ From an applications standpoint.. the offset and drift place a lower limit on the magnitude of the dc voltage that can be accurately amplified..4 CommonMode lnput Range The commonmode input range is the range of dc commonmode input voltages for which all transistors in the first stage of an op amp operate in the forwardactive region. we will have to change the differential input voltage by an amount Thus we can regard the effect of finite CMRR as causing a change in the input offset voltage whenever the commonmode input voltage is changed. l to 2 mV for bpolar input__d_efic_esand to 20.emliedl~.2. the output voltage will change. . This offset can be nulled 1 .. For unti'imme6monoiithic op amps. its smallsignal output voltage can be described in terms of its differential and commonmode input voltages (vid and vic) by the following equation where Ad..mV . The dc voltage we have applied is just the input offset voltage Vos. " 6.drbe . this offset is typically 0. In dc amplifier applications.e. the CMRR can be regarded as t h e ~ h a n g e input in offset voltage that results from a unit change in commonmode input voltage. the variation of offset with temperature (called drzfi) does not necessarily go to zero when the input offset is nulled.
this equation is rewritten below in a form that simplifies comparison of these gains:  . the resulting smallsignal opamp output voltage is where A+ and A are the smallsignal gains from the positive and negative powersupplies to the output.11.422 Chapter 6 we obtain OperationalAmplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs In circuits such as the differential amplifier of Fig. If vi.12 Block diagram of an op amp with varying powersupply voltages. an offset voltage is produced that is a function of the commonmode signal input..6 PowerSupply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) In (6. we assumed that the powersupply voltages are constant so that the opamp output voltage depends only on the differential'and commonmode input voltages provided to the op amp. (6. = 0 is assumed for simplicity.12 shows a block diagram of an op amp with varying powersupply voltages.44). however. . producing a voltage at the output that is indistinguishable from the desired signal. 6. Since op amps should be sensitive to changes in their differentialmode input voltage but insensitive to changes in their supply voltages.48) shows that a 10V commonmode signal produces a lmV change in the input offset voltage. and variations in the powersupply voltages contribute to the opamp output. Figure 6.p where PSRR+ =  Adm A+ and PSRR =  Adm A Figure 6. In practice. respectively. respectively. 6.. The smallsignal variation on the positive and negative power supplies is vdd and v.2. For a commonmode rejection ratio of 104 (or 80 dB). the powersupply voltages are not exactly constant.
6. avoiding some coupling from the digital circuits to the analog supplies. The use of fully differential circuit techniques has emerged as an important tool in this effort.13 shows one way to interpret (6. nonlinearity may result and limit the extent of the cancellation. Integrating analog and digital functions on the same chip reduces cost but increases the coupling from the digital circuits to the analog supplies. In practice. however. such separation provides an opportunity to filter interference generated by the digital circuits at the printedcircuitboard level w j t t external capacitors connected in parallel with the supplies.12 is redrawn using an op amp with constant power supplies. 6. analog and digital functions were isolated from each other on separate chips. Equation 6. In practice. d~gegs. For example.2 Deviations from ldeality in Real Operational Amplifiers 423 Vdd vsS PSRR* PSRR 'r "DD Figure 6. the required area is 1. the difference can be independent of the supply variations and the coupling in principle. mismatches cause differences in the two signal paths. if the powersupply noise is large enough. To reduce the cost.45 Wpm2.6. another option is to build circuits with low sensitivities to powersupply variations.13 show that the powersupply rejection ratios should be maximized to minimize the undesired contributions to the opamp output voltage. Therefore. however. With smallscale integration.13 equal to that in Fig. 6. Fully differential op amps are considered in Chapter 12. .7 . L(a commonly used value to filter supplies F on printedcircuit boards). instead of concentrating only on reducing supply variations through filtering. = 0. In principle. 6.12. Also.01 ~ . With largescale integration. Fully differential circuits represent all signals of interest as differences between two corresponding quantities such as voltages or currents. and the coupling may not be identical. If two identical signal paths are used to determine corresponding quantities. the powersupply variations from Fig. many transistors can be integrated on one integrated circuit.50). Although the op amps considered in this chapter have differential inputs. 6.12 are included as equivalent differential inputs in Fig.7 mm2. few tran&&ors could be integrated on one integrated circuit. they are not fully differential because their outputs are singleended. if the oxide thickness is 100 A. causing imperfect cancellation. the required areas of such capacitors are large in practice. Figure 6. monolithicfilter capxitarscan be used __ _to reduce the resulting supply variations. the powersupply rejection ratios are functions of frequency and often . For a capacitor of 0. and if the coupling from supply variations to one quantity is the same as to the other quantity. 6.the capacitance per unit area is 3. Since many integrated circuits occupy areas less than 100 mm2. To set the output in Fig.50 and Fig. where the diagram in Fig. Also.e gcreae= frecquency.13. f~ Powersupply rejection ratio has become an increasingly important parameter in MOS amplifierdesign as the level of integration increases.13 Block diagram of an op amp with supply variations modeled in the input differential loop and with vi. this single capacitor would account for a significant fraction of the cost of many integrated circuits.
_ e infinite input resistance in principle.10 OperationalAmplifier Equivalent Circuit The effect of some of these deviations from ideality on the lowfrequency performance of an op amp in a particular application can be calculated using the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. if a particular circuit displayed . For example. produces an output resistance on thkordder of 40 Cl to 100 Cl. internal op amps usually do not have to drive resistive loads.14 applies for an npn transistor input stage.2. In practice. called the slew rate. which is the frequency at which the magnitude of the openloop voltage gain is equal to unity. 6. and the resulting output resistance can be much larger than in the bipolar case. and in the case of power op amps that must drive a small load resistance. 6. This protection is typically achieved by connecting backbiased clamping diodes and from VDD Vss to the gate. to ensure that the circuit does not oscillate when connected in a feedback loop.7 Input Resistance In bipolar transistor input stages. (This model does not include the effects of finite PSRR or CMRR. is described more extensively in Chapter 9. The polarity of these current sources shown in Fig. This limitation stems from the limited current available within the circuit to charge the compensation capacitor. this frequency is typically in the 1 to 100 MHz range.424 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs 6. protection is not required and op amps with MOS transistor gates as inputs do realize ultrahigh input resistance.2. called compensation capacitance.technologies. This maximum rate. On the other hand. the voltage gain decreases at high frequencies.8 Output Resistance Generalpurpose bipolar op amps usually use a buffer as an output stage. and thus the effective input leakage currents are determined by junction leakage and are of the order of picoamps. however. The current source labeled Ios represents the diference between the currents flowing into the amplifier terminals. T h e r e s i c internal MOS op amps usually do not use a buffer output stage.) Here. This falloff must usually be controlled by the addition of extra capacitance. protection is required only at the inputs and outputs of integrated circuits. which typically. 6. the represent the average value of dc current flowing into the two current sources labeled IBIAS input terminals.2. However.9 Frequency Response Because of the capacitances associated with devices in the op amp. the input resistance is typically in the 100 kCl to l MO range. where opamp inputs are not connected to the external pins of an integrated circuit. (See Chapter 9. This topic is considered in detail in Chapters 7 and 9. Op amps whose inputs are connected to the gates of MOS transistors have e s sn t m . however. the voltage gain is large enough that this input resistance has little effect on circuit performance in closedloop feedback configurations. For generalpurpose amplifiers. In internal applications. XI . in MOS .14. A second aspect of opamp highfrequency behavior is a limitation of the rate at which the output voltage can change under largesignal conditions.) This aspect of opamp behavior is characterized by the unitygain bandwidth. In both cases. 6. Usually. MOStransistor gates connected through package pins to the outsideworld must be protected against damage by static electricity.2.. the output resistance does not strongly affect the closedloop performance except as it affects stability under large capacitive loading.. 6.. however.
3 Basic TwoStage MOS Operational Amplifiers 425 Figure 6. then the value of IBIAs Fig. a current of 1. output swing. 6. This circuit configuration provides good commonmode range.5 FA. and CMRR in a simple circuit that Figure 6.5 p A flowing into the noninverting input terminal and a current of 1 p A flowing into the inverting input terminal.15 Basic twostage CMOS operational amplifier.15 shows a schematic of a basic twostage CMOS op amp. voltage gain. .14 would be in 1.3 Basic TwoStage MOS Operational Amplifiers Figure 6. and the value of Ios would be 0.14 Equivalent circuit for the operational amplifier including input offset voltage and current.6.4~5*6 differential input A stage drives an active load followed by a second gain stage. 6. input and output resistance.25 pA. An output stage is usually not used but may be added for driving heavy loads offchip. and voltage gain.
. The first stage is precisely the same configuration as that considered in Section 4.1 Input Resistance.3. Output Resistance. 6. the input resistance is essentially infinite when the op amp is used in internal applications. In this section.5.16 Moredetailed schematic diagram of a typical twostage CMOS operational amplifier. which do not require the protection diodes described in Section 6. the input resistance of the second stage of the op amp is also essentially infinite. 6. low output resistance is usually not required when driving purelycapacitive loads. V  . The circuit is redrawn in Fig.3.2. 6.16 consists of a pchannel differential pair MIM2 with an nchannel current mirror load M3M4 and a pchannel @ j 4 m s a w c e M5. and OpenCircuit Voltage Gain The first stage in Fig. The output resistance is the resistance looking back into the second stage with the opamp inputs connected to smallsignal ground: Although this output resistance is almost always much larger than in generalpurpose bipolar op amps. Since the input resistance of the second stage is essentially infinite. 6. Because the opamp inputs are connected to the gates of MOS transistors.426 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs +ss Figure 6.16 can be found by considering the two stages separately. the voltage gain of the amplifier in Fig. where the ideal current sources are replaced with transistor current mirrors. we will analyze the various performance parameters of this CMOS opamp circuit.channel currentsource load MT.7. For the same reason.16. can be compensated with a single capacitor. The smallsignal voltage gain is . The second stage consists of an nchannel commonsource amplifier M6 with a . .
3 gives . ID6.56) This equation shows that the overall gain is related to the quantity (g.56) shows that where the absolutevalue function has been used so that each quantity in (6.59) with the given data and dXd/dVDs from Table 2.60) into (6. is given in (6. From (1. are the transconductance and output resistance of the first stage.. A..8 k m and IV. rn EXAMPLE Calculate the gain of the op amp in Fig. (6.3..16 assuming that it uses the 0. =  2 2 V A ~ V A ~ v~61v. Recall from (3. because ID. Also.2 V for all devices. assume that Leff = 0.163).= ID2 Substituting (6.8km process technology described in Table 2. and ID7 represent the bias currents flowing into the drains of M 2 . 6.181).52). As a result. From (4. respectively.47 IVovll Vov6 IV. ID4. M6.149). the overall voltage gain is a strong function of the Early voltage (which is proportional to the effective channel length) and the overdrive (which is set by the bias conditions).58) is positive.I = /vGS V*l = 0. = gm1 (~02IIro4)gm6(ro6llr07) (6.ro)2.143) and (4. M4. the overall gain of the amplifier is AV =__ AvlAv2 .42(+ V 4 V A + IVA~I A ~ ( )( ) with zero differential input.3 Basic TwoStage MOS Operational Amplifiers 427 where Gml and R.6. Similarly. Since ID4 ID2 = and ID7 = ID6. and M7. From (1.27) that Therefore. Let ID2. the secondstage voltage gain is where R. respectively.
6. Therefore. In bipolar technologies.2 Output Swing The output swing is defined to be the range of output voltages V . 6. = ID2 = ID5/2. Beyond these limits. As a result.3. M6 operates in the triode region if the output voltage is less than Vov6.16 has a singleended output. = V.428 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs The overall gain can be increased by either increasing the channel lengths of the devices to increase the Early voltages or by reducing the bias current to reduce the overdrives. reducing the gain per stage and sometimes causing the offset of the second stage to play an important role in determining the opamp offset voltage. Fig. Because is . Referring to the voltage between the output node and ground as the output voltage. for which all transistors operate in the active regionso that the gain calculated in (6. From inspection of Fig.6 and 6.3. AS a result.3. v. then the dc drainsource voltage of M4 must be equal to the dc drainsource voltage of M 3 . The offset voltage of an op amp is composed of two components: the systematic offset and the random offset. 6. with VDS3 = VDS4.3 Input Offset Voltage In Sections 3.56) approximately is constant. M7 operates in the triode region if the output voltage is 1 more than VDD. To study the systematic offset. the input offset voltage of a differential amplifier was defined as the differential input voltage for which the differential output voltage.17 shows the op amp of Fig. this definition must be modified here. zero.Therefore. the op amp in Fig. 6.2. the most straightforward modification is to define the input offset voltage of the op amp as the differential input voltage for which the opamp output voltage is zero. 6. the output swing is This inequality shows that the op amp can provide high gain while its output voltage swings within one overdrive of each supply. the output voltage should be set midway between the supply voltages to maximize the output swing. Therefore.If VDD# Vss. we will define the input offset voltage of op amps with differential inputs and singleended outputs as the differential input voltage for which the dc output voltage is midway between the supplies. In MOS technologies. This definition is reasonable if VDD= Vss because setting the output voltage to zero maximizes the allowed variation in the output voltage before one transistor operates in the triode region provided that Vov6= IVov71. The latter results from mismatches in supposedly identical pairs of devices. however.16.then VDsl = VDS2and ID. The former results from the design of the circuit and is present even when all the matched devices in the circuit are identical.VSS.5. one of the output transistors enters the triode region. If the inputs of the first stage are grounded. ID3 = ID4 = ID5/2.r. the gain of each stage in an op amp + can be quite high (on the order of 500) because the g. 6.16 split into two separate stages. where the overall gain of the amplifier would be greatly diminished. product is usually between about 20 and 100. and if the matching is perfect.r. VDS3must be equal to VDS4because this operating point is the only point for which the . This result stems from the observation that if VDS3 = VDS4.Similarly. As a result.I Vnv7. product is usually greater than 1000. the output swing can be increased by reducing theovgdfiyxsof the output transistors. however. the inputreferred offset voltage of a bipolar op amp usually depends mainly on the design of the first stage. the g. Systematic Offset Voltage.
requiring that the transistors have equal overdrives is equivalent to requiring that they have equal draincurrenttoW11 ratios (or current densities). Substituting (1. To set the output voltage midway between the supplies. increasing the drainsource voltage of M4 would increase the current flowing into the drain of M4 but decrease the current flowing out of the drain of M2 because of the effects of channellength modulation. is required. With perfect matching and zero input voltages.3 Basic TwoStage MOS Operational Amplifiers 429  J F M 2 1 ~ .62)gives In other words. . On the other hand. If the first stage gain is 50. the gatesource voltage of M6 should be chosen so that the drain current of M6 is equal to the drain current of M7 while both transistors operate in the active region. Therefore. the dc drainsource voltages of M3 and M4 must be equal under these conditions. Therefore.166) into (6. for example. For example. the current in these transistors is independent of their drainsource voltages if they operate in the active region. Ignoring channellength modulation in M5 and M7. VDS4 = VDS3 VGS3 = and Vt3 = Vt4 = Vt6. the value of the gatesource voltage of M6 required to set the amplifier output voltage midway between the supplies may differ from the dc output voltage of the first stage. each 50mV difference in these voltages results in 1 mV of inputreferred systematic offset.6. 4 tJ0 0 + Figure 6. Since ID3 = ID^ = lJ~51/2 106 = 11~71. When the input of the second stage is connected to the output of the first stage. 0 %S current flowing out of the drain of M2 is equal to the current flowing into the drain of M 4 . and Since Ms and M7 have equal gatesource voltages.17 Twostage amplifier with first and second stages disconnected to show the effect of interstage coupling on inputreferred offset voltage. VGS6= VDS4.
Since the gatesource voltages and current densities of M 3 . the channel lengths are almost never ratioed directly because the use of small channel lengths for highspeed operation would result in a large sensitivity to process variations.65) into (6.1. M6 should have a large transconductance and thus a short channel length.66). but also on its drainsource voltage to some extent. In this case. the drawn channel lengths and widths of the ratioed transistors can each be chosen to be identical. M4. In practice for matched devices. Xd.67). and M6 operate with equal current densities. Second. Although the systematic offset voltage is nonzero in general. Then if M5 is constructed of 2J identical devices calledpchannel units. this difference should be divided by the opamp gain. the systematic offset is usually nonzero. In the active region. and M6 are equal. the channel widths of matched devices are sometimes ratioed directly when the width is large enough to make the resulting sensitivity to process variations insignificant. Ignoring the contribution of the second stage in the op amp to the inputreferred random offset. and M6 conflicts with a combination of other requirements. the dc output voltage will not be midway between the supplies because VGS3 = Vt3+ VovS# (VDD+ VSS)/2.430 Chapter 6 r Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs Substituting (6. for low noise and random input offset voltage. sourcecoupled pairs gener ally display a higher random offset than their bipolar counterparts. To keep the ratio in (6. for stability reasons described in Chapter 9. A key point of this analysis is that the use of identical channel lengths for M3. the choice of aspect ratios as given in (6.35 shows that the effective channel length of a MOS transistor differs from its drawn length by offset terms caused by the side diffusion of the source and drain (Ld) and the depletion region width around the drain ( X d ) .66) can result in an operating point that is insensitive to process variations. Random Input Offset Voltage. On the other hand.56). the ratio in (6. As described in Section 3. the effective width of a MOS transistor differs from the drawn width by an offset term dW caused by the bird'sbeak effect in the oxide described in Section 2. the drainsource voltages of these transistors must also be equal. and random input offset voltage is considered next. First.6.66) can be set equal to any rational number J I K by connecting J identical devices called nchannel units in parallel to form M3 and M4 while K nchannel units in parallel form M6. a voltage midway between the supplies should be subtracted from the output voltage in (6. the current density of a device depends not only on its gatesource voltage. is the opamp gain given in (6.64) gives With the aspect ratios chosen to satisfy (6. as explained next. M4. and dW. Therefore. Therefore.66) constant in the presence of processinduced variations in Ld. Similarly. a straightforward . M7 should be constructed from K pchannel units. Noise is considered in Chapter 11. In most cases. The result is where A. To refer the systematic offset voltage to the opamp input.5. Equation 2. M3. M g and M4 should have a small transconductance and therefore a long channel length.9. M4. the dc output voltage under these conditions is To find the systematic offset voltage at the opamp output.
182) and (4.45) gives where CMRRl is the commonmode rejection ratio of the first stage. 6. gives The first term represents the threshold mismatch of the input transistors. For this reason. By a process similar to the derivation of (6. 6.4 CommonMode Rejection Ratio For the op amp in Fig. which is analogous to the analysis leading to (3. In (4. The third term represents the effects of WIL mismatches in the input transistors and loads and is minimized by operating the input transistors at low values of overdrive. the commonmode rejection ratio of a stage with a differential pair and a currentmirror load was calculated assuming perfect matching. and M4. typically on the order of 50 to 200 mV.3 Basic TwoStage MOS Operational Amplifiers 43 1 analysis for the offset voltage of the circuit of Fig.(d. Applying (4. (6. Unfortunately.ir) and VA(mir)are the overdrive and Early voltage of the mirror.248).59).3. gm(rnir)and ro(mjr) the transconductance and output resistance of M .72 shows that the commonmode rejection ratio of the op amp can be increased by reducing the overdrive voltages.183). selecting a longer channel length for M. Equation 6.il is are the output resistance of M s .16. Another way to increase the commonmode rejection ratio is to replace the simple current mirror Ms and M8 with one of the highoutputresistance current mirrors considered in Chapter 4. this equation can be simplified to give where Vov(dp)and VA(dp) are the overdrive and Early voltage of the differential pair.16. and Vov(n. The second is the threshold mismatch of the currentmirrorload devices and is minimized by choosing the WIL ratio of the load devices so that their transconductance is small compared to that of the input transistors.. and r. such a replacement would also worsen the commonmode input range.6. The second stage does not contribute to the commonmode rejection ratio of the op amp because the second stage has a singleended input and a singleended output.) are the transconductance and output resistance of M1 and M 2 . 6.183) here gives where g m ( d p ) and r. . and M4 than for M 1 and M2 reduces the random input offset voltage.
If the bodies of M1 and M:! are connected to VDD implied in Fig. Furthermore. On the other hand. This point defines the lower end of the commonmode range.4 p m CMOS . when Vlc decreases. The gatedrain voltage of M1 and M2 is When V I c is reduced to the point at which VGDl= VGD2= Vtl = Vt2. The drainsource voltage of M5 is From the standpoint of drainsource voltages. the upper limit in (6.16. 6. however. Under this assumption. nchannel transistors operate in the active region only if their drainsource voltage is more than their overdrive. 6.78) can be found approximately by using the zerobias value of V t l . if M1 is an enhancementmode device. the gatedrain voltages of nchannel transistors must be less than their thresholds so that their channels do not exist at their drains. their gatesource voltages must be less than their thresholds for the channel to exist at the source. On the other hand.75) and (6. pchannel transistors operate in the active region only if their drainsource voltage is less than their overdrive. EXAMPLE For the twostage CMOS op amp in Fig.432 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs 6. their overdrives are negative.pchannel transistors operate in the active region only if their gatedrain voltages are more than their thresholds. 6. the body effect on the input transistors can be as used to increase the range. Therefore. which is If Vlc is too high. and M2 operM1 ate at the edge between the the triode and active regions. MS operates in the triode region. Use the 0. widening the depletion region around the source and making the threshold voltage of these transistors more negative. the body effect can be used to include the negative supply in the commonmode range.3. choose the device sizes to give a dc voltage gain greater than 5000 and a peak output swing of at least 1 V. the sourcebody voltage of these transistors is low when Vlc is high. Similarly. Therefore. Therefore.77) can be rewritten as This inequality shows that the magnitudes of the overdrive terms should be minimized to maximize the commonmode range. again so that their channels do not exist at their drains. the upper end of the commonmode input range is Since M1 and Ms are pchannel transistors. With a pure commonmode input V I c applied to the inputs of the op amp in Fig.16. that is. the sourcebody voltage of M1 and M2 becomes more negative. To operate in the active region.5 CommonMode Input Range The commonmode input range is the range of dc commonmode input voltages for which all transistors in the first stage of the op amp operate in the active region.16. Also. its threshold is negative because it is ptype. the commonmode range limits in (6.
the allowed overdrives on M 1 and M2 are limited by (6.5 V.6.5 V gives Therefore. we will 1 choose Vov6 = I Vov71 = 0. however. VI = 0 and V . Ignore the body effect.771. Using (1. Since the peak output swing should be 1 V and the magnitude of each supply is at least 1.66).65 V +. This calculation assumes that dXdldVDs and Leffare constant for each type of transistor. and using data from Table 2.3 Basic TwoStage MOS Operational Amplifiers 433 model parameters in Table 2.61) shows that  To maximize the transition frequency fT of each device subject to this constraint. To simplify the design.5 V. Since the commonmode input range should include Vlc = 0. Use bias currents of IZD1 I = 1 D 1 100 pA. allowing us to use constant Early voltages. (6.59) and (6. Assume perfect matching and that all transistors operate in the active (or saturation) region with dc voltages VIc = 0 (where Vlc is the commonmode input voltage).157) with lID7= 106 = 400 p A gives and Since VovS= Vov7by KVL and + ZD2 = From (6.60) with Leff = Ldrwn. a drawn channel length L = 1 p m will be used for all transistors. dXdldVDs and Leff . From (6. In practice.4. Assume VDD = Vss = 1.2Ld.0. and rearranging this equation with VIc = 0 and VoD = 1.4.15 V. This selection avoids shortchannel effects that degrade output resistance and cause transistor operation to deviate from the squarelaw equations. 0. and ID6 1 2 = = 400 pA.
7. + Figure 6. we will divide the smallsignal gain A + = v o h d d into the gain from the input.b.6 PowerSupply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) To calculate the PSRR from the V d d supply for the op amp in Fig. this current is constant. and the output stage appears as a simple voltage divider to the supply variation. 6.18a.. where the g. TOfind the gain with finite r. circuit simulations are an important part of the design process. For this calculation.16. As a result.. SPICE simulation of the op amp under the conditions described above gives a gain of about 6200. v. We will find v.18a.(. In Fig. . the gatesource voltage of M S must be constant because M8 is diode connected. 6. assume that the V.18 Smallsignal diagrams of the twostage op amp used to calculate the coupling from v.~ . which shows that the hand calculations are accurate within about 20 percent.18b.6 is inactive. In Fig.. the output is defined as v. Therefore. and the vdd supply variation is set equal to zero at the point where rt.. the first stage experiences no variation. and the vdd supply variation is set equal to zero at the point where ro7 is connected. In Fig. g. Since the dc drain current in M6 is equal and opposite to that in M 7 .16 are If connected to smallsignal grounds. 6.. The current in M8 is equal to IBIAS.. 6. 6.7 + m. and accurate values of the Early voltages are rarely available to circuit designers when channel lengths are less than about 1. consider the smallsignal diagrams shown in Fig.18. generators in M5 and M7 are inactive. and the g.il and r. the output is defined as v.il is connected. 6.. supply voltage is constant and that both opamp inputs in Fig. v o h d d = 0.. As a result. if r.v.to the output ( a )through the second stage and (b) through the first stage. generators for M5 and M7 are omitted because they are inactive.~ = v. and v& = 0. Therefore.434 Chapter 6 m Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs rn both depend on the operating point.b separately and use superposition to find the total gain v o h d d = (voa vob)lvdd.. 6.5 pm.g = rtail + CO and r.3. and v.7 = 0.
85) gives for low frequencies with perfect matching because Therefore. gm6/gm(rnir) ID6/1D3. In other words. + . To calculate the PSRR from the Vs. Therefore. 6.52) into (6. 6.v d d to the first stage.PSRR+ the coupling from v d d to the output through the first stage cancels that through the second stage.3 Basic TwoStage MOS Operational Amplifiers 435 In Fig.179) into (6. This situation is equivalent to grounding the top of rtail and applying a voltage of .5 l).80) gives If Vov3 = Vov6 in (6. we will calculate the smallsignal gain A. 6. mismatch can increase the commonmode transconductance of the first stage as shown at the end of Section 4.18b.6.62) to control the systematic offset. = Combining (6. where the first term on the right side represents the gain of the first stage.18b appears as a commonmode input vi.16. as = Since the dc drain current in M6 is equal and opposite to that in M?.83). and the second term represents the gain of the second stage.v d d between the gates of M 1 and M2 and ground.3.149). the vdd input in Fig.3.81) gives Substituting (6. because VA5 = VA7 and /ID5( 21D3. and (6. 6.55). the gain of the first stage can be expressed as where Gm[cm] the commonmode transconductance of the first stage and Rot is the is output resistance of the first stage. from (6. disrupting this cancellation and decreasing the lowfrequency PSRR+ . The vdd input to the first stage in Fig. supply for the op amp in Fig.18b is applied between the top of rtail and ground while the gates of M1 and M2 are grounded. (4. and (4.5. Substituting (4. = .= volvss and then normalize to the gain from the input.79) and (6. (6. In practice.173).166). (4.
and since vds4 = vds3 under these conditions. Another important contribution to nonzero gain between the power supplies and the opamp output is termed supply ~ a ~ a c i t a n c eThis ~ . This rejection worsens as frequency increases. Since the drain current in M6 is equal and opposite to that in M7. the gain from C. attempting to keep the bias current in M3 and M4 constant. The same phenomenon causes the gains Admand A+ to decrease as frequency increases. If the gatesource voltage on M6 is constant. 6. causes the voltage from the drain of M1 to ground to vary to hold the gatesource voltage of M3 constant. causes the current flowing in the tail current source to vary. the supply capacitance CSup= Cgdl. the variation on the negative supply is fed directly to the output at high frequencies.decreases and reaches unity at the frequency where (Adml= 1. the gatesource voltage of M3 must be constant because M3 is diode connected. To understand the effect of this biascurrent variation.. assume that the Vddsupply voltage is constant and that both opamp inputs in Fig.19. Substituting (6. If the supplycoupling capacitance is C. and the m output stage appears as a simple voltage divider to the supply variation.87) into (6. of cascode transistors in series with the drains of the input transistors. 6. Under these conditions. so that the PSRR+ remains relatively constant with increasing frequency. Four important ways in which supply capacitance can occur are described below.436 Chapter 6 = Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs For this calculation. Therefore. which are the gatedrain and gatesource capacitance of M 1 . The topic of frequency response is covered in detail in Chapters 7 and 9.19 shows two possible sources of supply capacitance. which shows a . Since v d s = vg. For simplicity. PowerSupply Rejection and Supply Capacitance. Therefore. the impedance of the compensation capacitor Cc in Fig. As the applied frequency increases. a variation on Vs.16 are connected to smallsignal grounds. phenomenon manifests itself as a capacitive coupling between one or both of the power supplies and the opamp input leads when the op amp is connected with capacitive feedback Cl as shown in Fig.Figure 6. 1.. vgs3 = 0. vds4 = vgS6 = 0. 2. assuming that Cc > CL.. This variation couples to the summing node through the gatedrain capacitance of M 1. effectively shorting the gate of M6 to its drain for highfrequency ac signals.20a. g 6 is inactive.8 8) This equation gives the lowfrequency supply rejection from the negative supply. decreases. If the drain current of M3 is constant. Since A increases to unity as Ad. 6. If the drain current of M3 is constant. 6.3. however.16 decreases.= 1 at frequencies high enough to short circuit Cc. Therefore. ~ . A variation on Vddor V... consider Fig.. but the essence of this behavior can be understood without a complete frequencyresponse analysis. that This problem is usually overcome by the use is. to the opamp output is CsuplCI.51) gives PSRR =  A v0 (6. PSRR. where CL > is the load capacitance of the op amp connected between the opamp output and ground.. M1 and M2 act as commongate amplifiers.59) and (6. assume that the opamp openloop gain is infinite. A.
20 (a) Source follower and (b) smallsignal diagram to calculate the dependence of v. in Fig.6. First. .20b. The source follower models the behavior of M 1in Fig. ignore the body effect because it is not needed to demonstrate the problem here. The smallsignal diagram of the source follower is shown in Fig. 6. in the source follower.19.19 from the standpoint of for variation in Itail two reasons.3 Basic TwoStage MOS Operational Amplifiers 437 Figure 6. pchannel source follower whose biasing current source Itail = ITAIL itailis not constant. MOS transistors that operate in the active region are controlled mainly by their gatesource voltages. on itail. 6. = ' Figure 6. + Rearranging this equation gives itail ro hail (6. Therefore. 6. From KCL at the source. nonzero itdl arising from supply variations causes nonzero v. Similarly. the voltage from the source of M 1 to ground varies v.19 Supply capacitance in a twostage MOS amplifier with capacitive feedback. the voltage from the gate of M1 to ground is held to smallsignal ground by negative feedback. For simplicity. Second.90) l+gd0 g.
In turn. (See Chapter 11 . on vdd through the body effect. Here ITAZ assumed to be constant.) 4. nonzero vdd in the source follower in Fig. 6. This solution has two potential disadvantages. Rearranging this equation gives Therefore.5. This requirement might conflict with the polarity of the input transistors that would be chosen for other reasons. The smallsignal diagram is shown in Fig. the supply capacitance Csup= Cgsl. but Vdd = is VDD vdd is assumed to vary. and this variation couples to the summing node through the gatesource capacitance of M 1 that . First. A solution to this problem is to place the input transistors in a well and connect the well to the sources of the input transistors to eliminate the body effect. the voltage from the source of M1 to ground varies with Vdd. then the substrate bias changes as the supply voltage changes.19. From + KCL at the source. Second. as shown in Fig. 6. the input devices must be nchannel devices to place them in a p well.A supplyindependent bias reference is usually used to overcome this problem. is.21b.. pchannel input transistors would be used to minimize the inputreferred flicker noise. Interconnect crossovers in the opamp and system layout can produce undesired capacitive coupling between the supplies and the summing node. it disallows the use of the body effect on the input devices to increase the commonmode input range of the op amp. the supply capacitance is a parasitic or undesired capacitance.21a. this mechanism can be studied with the help of a source follower.21 ( a ) Source follower and (b) smallsignal diagram to calculate the dependence of v. Similarly. 3. In this case.3. . as described in Section 6.438 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEndedOutputs with Itail. the supply capacitance CSup= Cgsl. this solution dictates the polarity of the input transistors in a given process.21 causes nonzero v. 6. 6. Again. This problem is usually overcome Figure 6. For example. that is. substrate bias variation changes the threshold through the body effect. which changes the gatesource voltage. If the substrate terminal of the input transistors is connected to a supply or a supplyrelated voltage. For example. in Fig.and this variation couples to the summing node through the gatesource capacitance of M 1 . in a pwell process.
163). overcome the supply capacitance problem to the extent that the coupling from a given supply to one output is the same as to the other output.69). 6 .7 Effect of Overdrive Voltages The overdrive of a MOS transistor can be reduced by reducing the ratio of its drain current to its WIL. Also. Connections to each region are omitted for simplicity. Therefore. Although such a layout saves area and minimizes undesired capacitance connected to the sources.88). Figure 6 . 6. 6.59).72).88). suppose that two additional grounded segments of metal are added to the layout to produce the layout shown in Fig.3. Mismatch affects the performance of the differential pair not only at dc.78). Five nodes are labeled: two ~ gates. However. These observations are valid provided that the transistors in the op amp operate in strong inversion. The sources of the two transistors are connected to each other by merging the two sources together into one diffusion region. In particular. The key problem is that the layout in Fig. The result of supply capacitance can be quite poor powersupply rejection in switchedcapacitor filters and other sampleddata analog circuits that use capacitive feedback.8 Layout Considerations A basic objective in opamp design is to minimize the mismatch between the two signal paths in the input differential pair so that commonmode input signals are rejected to the greatest possible extent. Reducing the overdrive voltages in the op amp in Fig. increasing the swing as shown by (6. and thereby increases the opamp gain. 6. C p l increases but Cp2decreases.3. In . and one source. (6. two drains.16 improves the opamp performance by increasing the voltage gain as shown by (6.2227.72).209).61). the transition frequency of MOS transistors is proportional to the overdrive and inversely proportional to the square of the channel length from (1. and powersupply rejection ratio as shown by (6. 2 2 shows a possible layout of a differential pair. but also at high frequencies where it reduces the commonmode and powersupply rejection ratios. increasing the commonmode range as shown by (6. and (6. reducing overdrives and increasing the channel lengths degrades the frequency response of the transistors and in turn the amplifier. 6. In exactly these locations. where it causes nonzero offset voltage. one important layout technique is to shield the opamp inputs with metal lines connected to ground.3 Basic TwoStage MOS Operational Amplifiers 439 with careful layout.59). increasing the CMRR as shown by (6. The output voltage of interest is the voltage difference between these outputs. the parasitic capacitance Cpl from D 1to ground is equal to the parasitic capacitance CP2from D2 to ground. In addition to the solutions to this problem mentioned above. if the mask that defines the metal shifts to the right compared to the mask that defines the diffusion. For example. another solution is to use fully differential op amps. creating mismatch. reducing the input offset voltage as shown by (6.6. 2 2 ~ ~ uses only mirror symmetry in the sense that each transistor is a mirror image of the other. Thus we find a fundamental tradeoff between the frequency response and the other measures of performance in CMOS opamp design. this layout is not optimum from the standpoint of matching in part because it is sensitive to alignment shifts between masks that define various layers in an integrated circuit. commonmode rejection ratio. increasing the channel lengths increases the corresponding Early voltages as shown by (1. Fully differential op amps. which are considered in Chapter 12. which have two outputs. Unfortunately. and increasing the powersupply rejection ratio as shown by (6.
This struc~ ture has both translational and mirror symmetry.24 also shows two layers of metal used to cross connect the devices. Structures with translational symmetry are insensitive to alignment shifts. Figure 6.24 shows a commoncentroid layout of the differential pair.440 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs Figure 6. causing the transistors to have unequal thresholds and unequal transconductance parameters. Such amplifiers are considered in Chapter 12. in Fig. this layout overcomes the effect of linear process gradients in any direction. In a geometric sense.23c. Figure 6. In Fig. the centroid of both composite devices lies at center of the structure. Because any gradient can be decomposed into horizontal and vertical components.23c. Each side of the differential pair is split into two components that are cross connected in the layout. 6 . The other is drawn with dashed lines. Figure 6.22 Differentialpair layouts with mirror symmetry. One layer of metal is drawn with solid lines. To maintain the same widthllength ratio as in the previous drawings. One limitation of these layouts is that they are sensitive to process gradients perpendicular to the line of symmetry. 6 . 6. that is.bthe transistors are drawn using translational symmetry. 6. each transistor is a copy of the other without rotation. . For example. 2 3 has been reduced by a factor of two. 2 3 ~ . where each transistor has been split into two pieces. suppose the oxide thickness increases from left to right. balancing the parasitics in a way that is insensitive to alignment shifts is most important in amplifiers that have both differential inputs and differential outputs. Another option is shown in Fig. practice. the width of each transistor in Fig. The two .23 shows layouts that overcome these problems. Then the gate stripes connected to G1 have thinner oxide than those connected to G2. The effects of processrelated gradients across the die can be partially alleviated by use of commoncentroid geometries.
and can allow undesired signals to couple to the opamp inputs. This characteristic is important because such crossings create a small parasitic capacitance between the two layers that cross. Finally. however. This balance helps to keep undesired signals in commonmode form so they can be rejected by the differential pair. 6. The interconnect drawn here is shift insensitive and balanced in the sense that any signal line that crosses a node on one side of the differential pair also crosses the corresponding node on the other side. Since op amps are designed to have high gain. In Fig. Since the parasitics may not be perfectly matched in practice. Therefore. the only line that crosses the metal connected to the two input gates is the metal line to the sources of the differential pair. the value of a commoncentroid layout must be determined on a casebycase basis. if any signal line is allowed to cross one gate. 6. .3 Basic TwoStage MOS Operational Amplifiers 441 Figure 6.24.6. it should also cross the other to balance the parasitic capacitances. A disadvantage of commoncentroid layouts is also apparent in Fig. That is.23 Differentialpair layouts with translational symmetry. the gates are allowed to cross the source of the differential pair because the transistors themselves already provide a large capacitance between each gate and the source in the form of the gatesource capacitance of each transistor. layers connect at intersections only where dots are drawn.24. opamp inputs are the most sensitive nodes in analog integrated circuits. the need to crossconnect the devices increases the separation between matched devices and may worsen matching in cases where linear process gradients are not the main limitation. Therefore. avoiding crossings is better than balancing them.
rO)' instead of (g.)2. An important problem with this approach. One approach to increasing the opamp gain is to add another commonsource gain stage to the op amp so that the overall gain is approximately (g.12) and is approximately unity because R2 = 0 in the follower configuration. assume that the opamp gain is about (g. 6.24 Commoncentroid S structure for the MOS differential pair.4 TwoStage MOS Operational Amplifiers with Cascodes The basic twostage op amp described above is widely used with many variations that optimize certain aspects of the performance. however. or 400 in this case. requiring an increase in the opamp gain. For simplicity. For example. In this section.16 may be inadequate in a given application to achieve the required accuracy in the closedloop gain. 3 ~The opamp gain is given in (6.442 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEndedOutputs Figure 6.r. stems from the fact that op amps are . The error in this approximation is one part in the opamp gain or at least 0. and is less than (g. = 20 and is connected in the voltagefollower configuration shown in Fig. this error may be too large to meet the given specifications.r. suppose the basic op amp uses transistors with g.56) . 6 . In precision applications.r0l2. The voltage gain that is available from the basic circuit shown in Fig. we consider an important variation on the basic circuit to increase the voltage gain.25 percent.)2 in practice.r. 6. The closedloop gain is given by (6.
Figure 6. it does not act as an amplifier but as a latch or oscillator. Figure 6. To avoid this problem. op amps are usually designed with no more than two gain stages because each stage contains a node for which the impedance to ground is high and as a result contributes a significant pole to the opamp transfer function. the WIL of M9 is chosen so that M1 and M2 are operated barely in the active region. commongate transistors can be added. The effect of these replacements is to increase the unIoaded output impedance of the differential pair by a factor that is approximately equal to g. Similarly. Since the phase shift from one pole approaches 90•‹ asymptotically. . a cornmongate transistor forms a cascode that increases the output resistance and gain of the stage while contributing a less significant pole to the amplifier transfer function than would be contributed by another commonsource stage. of the cascode device. Together with a commonsource transistor.25 replace M2 in Fig.6. Here. Therefore. The key point here is that if an op amp is unstable in a given feedback configuration.16. replace each commonsource transistor in the first stage. In practice.9 is used instead.16. 6.M4 were not also cascoded. 4. Transistor M9 and current source Ic have also been added to bias the gates of M I A and M2. an op amp with no more than two poles cannot provide the 180•‹phase shift that is required to convert negative feedback into positive feedback. M 1 and M I Ain Fig. respectively. The topics of frequency response and stability are covered in detail in Chapters 7 and 9. To overcome this limitation. 6. As a result. however. 6. a series connection of two transistors. 6. If the current mirror M3 .4 TwoStage MOS Operational Amplifiers with Cascodes 443 intended to be used in negativefeedback configurations.25 replace M 1 in Fig. the output resistance of the first stage including the currentmirror load would be limited by the mirror. and the op amp may be unstable. If the op amp introduces an additional phase shift of 180' at some frequency.r.25 illustrates the use of cascodes to increase the voltage gain of a twostage amplifier. the negative feedback that was intended becomes positive feedback at that frequency. M 2 and M Z Ain Fig. To increase the voltage gain without adding another commonsource gain stage.25 Twostage amplifier with cascoded first stage. opamp frequency response is not constant. one in the commonsource connection and one in the commongate connection. a cascode current mirror shown in Fig.4. In practice.
11 and 4. 6. Fortunately. where the opamp gain here is on the order of (g. and Cc in Fig. In addition to the poor commonmode input range calculated in Problem 6. 6. With nonzero Vss. In that case. assume that all transistors are enhancement mode with identical overdrive magnitudes. which would eliminate the threshold term from (6. however. For example. M7. and if each commongate transistor is identical to its commonsource counterpart.r. Assume that the commonmode input .93) and give With this change.)2 in Fig. 6. One disadvantage of this circuit is a substantial reduction in the commonmode input range. This structure has been called a telescopiccascode op ampg because the cascodes are connected between the power supplies in series with the transistors in the differential pair. 6.68).16. cascode configurations may be used to increase the voltage gain of CMOS transistor amplifier stages. For simplicity. In contrast. (See Problem 6.444 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs the stage gain and output resistance including the load are increased by approximately a factor g.~. we can see that to achieve a gain comparable to (g.16. resulting in a structure in which the transistors in each branch are connected along a straight line like the lenses of a refracting telescope. 4. first consider the cascode current mirror by itself.~.25 and define the dc opamp output ~ voltage as the voltage Vol from the drains of M2A and M 4 to ground. this limitation can be overcome by using one of the highswing cascode current mirrors shown in Figs.59). MI1.)~in one stage.r. the basic twostage op amp in Fig. In this circuit. another disadvantage of the telescopiccascode configuration is that the output swing is small. as shown by (6. the minimum output voltage for which M4 and M 4 operate in the active region would be ~ given by (4. cascoding could be added instead to the second stage. If the aspect ratios are chosen to satisfy (6. the systematic offset voltage with this level shift is given by (6.Vss.61).16..16 gives about the same gain but allows the output to swing within one overdrive of each supply.16. this condition becomes The presence of a threshold term in this equation is an important limitation because it causes a substantial reduction in the allowed output swing.25. If Vss = 0. Such designs use fully differential configurations and are considered in Chapter 12. the stage gain can be increased enough so that a single commonsourcecommongate stage can provide enough voltage gain to meet the accuracy requirements. 6. To calculate the output swing. The first stage of Fig. the swing is limited at best to two overdrives away from the supply.66). To find the maximum output voltage swing of the telescopiccascode op amp. Mlo. In many applications. consider the cascoded differential pair shown in Fig. ignore M6.)~ instead of (g. the output swing of the op amp would be degraded by the cascodes.5 MOS TelescopicCascode Operational Amplifiers As mentioned in the previous section. 6. Mlo and Mll are included to level shift the output of the first stage down by VGslo so that the second stage input is driven by a signal whose dc level is VGS3 above .25 is sometimes used by itself as an op amp and provides a gain comparable to the gain of the twostage opamp in Fig.12.) To overcome this problem. The main potential advantage of telescopic cascode op amps is that they can be designed so that the signal variations are entirely handled by the fastestpolarity transistors in a given process. 6.
98) gives This equation shows another limitation of the telescopiccascode op amp from the standpoint of output swing.16 can be overcome in switchedcapacitor circuits.95) into (6.96) and rearranging gives I. For example. that is. First.95) into (6.94) from (6. with a peaktopeak output swing of 1 V and IVo.25 with optimum commonmode input biasing is three overdrives less than the positive supply.5 V. which gives assuming that the magnitudes of all the overdrives are all equal.94) shows ) that the minimum output swing is limited by two overdrives. and M 2 ~are connected between VDD and the output. which conduct zero dc current even with a nonzero dc voltage drop. M2 to ground is (6. In practice. supply. we will subtract (6. Substituting (6.99). M2.. which gives This equation shows that the maximum output voltage of a telescopic op amp that consists of the first stage of Fig. This property holds because the only coupling of signals to the opamp inputs is through capacitors. if transistors are deliberately biased at the edge of the active region.6. the maximum output voltage depends on the commonmode input. If we assume that M9 and Ic are chosen to operate M 1 and M2 at the edge of the active region. To determine the minimum required supply voltage difference. this limitation as well as the limitation on the commonmode input range calculated in Problem 6. This result stems from the observation that three transistors (M5.loo). Assuming that the opamp inputs are biased to the maximum commonmode input voltage for which MS operates in the active region. or . its sourcedrain voltage should be at least I V. In contrast.. The voltage from the source of MI and.102) This equation shows that the minimum difference between the supply voltages in a telescopic cascode op amp must be at least equal to the peaktopeak output signal swing plus five overdrive voltages to operate all transistors in the active region.I = 100 mV for each transistor. Rearranging this equation gives VDD .(VSS) = V~~(rnax) Vol(rnin) 5IVovl  (6. 6. Such circuits allow the opamp commonmode input voltage to be set to a level that is independent of all other commonmode voltages on the same integrated circuit. the maximum output voltage for which M2 and h!t2A operate in the active region is Substituting (6. a small change in the process.95) V S = V I C+ (hp( + (VovI To operate M5 in the active region. this calculation has two main limitations. the minimum difference between the supply voltages is 1. Therefore.5 MOS TelescopicCascode Operational Amplifiers 445 from the gates of M 1and M2 to ground is Vlc.97) into (6. (6. the maximum output voltage can be found by substituting the maximum Vlcfrom (6. However.
(b) Foldedcascode configuration.26a. this calculation determines the supply requirements only for transistors between the output node and each supply. The extra three overdrive terms in (6.16 would include only two overdrive terms. MIA. This requirement exceeds the requirement given in (6. However..M 3 ~and M3 in Fig. the corresponding equation for the op amp in Fig. In Fig.26 ( a )Standard cascode configuration. body effect for simplicity..102) includes five overdrive terms.26b. and other branches may require a larger supply difference than given in (6. I. Second. the drainsource voltage of each is V. one for M6 and the other for M7. the voltage drop from the drain of MSAto the source of M3 is 2Vt + 3V0. if the WIL of M 3 is reduced by a factor of four to build ~ the highswing cascode current mirror shown in Fig./is more than the peaktopeak output swing. 1 .25.102). both M1 and M I Aare pchannel devices. however.11. 4.102) if 2Vt + )Vo. To avoid this problem. If the other three transistors in this path are biased the required supply difference for all the transistors in this path to so that lVDsl = Iv.. transistors in practical op amps are usually biased so that the magnitude of the drainsource voltage of each transistor is more than the corresponding overdrive by a margin of typically at least one hundred millivolts. the overdrive of the tail current source can be eliminated from the minimum required supply difference using the circuit described in the next section. reducing the output resistance and gain of the op amp. The overdrives from the cascodes should be viewed as the cost of using cascodes. Furthermore.102) stem from the two cascode devices and the tail current source. 6. 6. For example. In Fig. consider the path from one supply to the other through MS. 6. The presence of the three extra overdrive terms increases the minimum required supply difference or reduces the allowed overdrives for a given supply difference. The minimum supply voltage difference in (6. this result does not pose a fundamental limitation to the minimum required powersupply voltage because lowthreshold devices are sometimes available. + V. M1 is still apchannel device but M I A Figure 6. 6. Since MgAand M3 are diode connected. . 6. The margin allowed for each transistor directly adds to the minimum required supply voltage difference. Ignore the . operate in the active region is 2Vt + 61V.Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs temperature may cause one or more transistors to operate in the triode region.6 MOS FoldedCascode Operational Amplifiers Figure 6. In contrast.26 shows two cascode circuits where VDD = 0 for simplicity. M1..
11. In both cases. Smallsignal variations in the drain current of M 1 are conducted primarily through M I Ain both cases because lBWsa constant current source. Thus .26b is said to be folded in the sense that it reverses the direction of the ~ i ~ a l . the lower end of the range can be reduced significantly compared to both other configurations if VBIAs2is adjusted so that M l l and M12 operate at the edge of the active region. The current mirror converts the differential signal into a singleended output by sending variations in the drain current of M I Ato the output. As in Fig.Vss is V. and M I Ais connected in a commongate configuration.6. first consider the ptype cascode current mirror by itself. 6. To calculate the output swing. M 1 is connected in a commonsource configuration. 6. the foldedcascode configuration improves the commonmode input range. Bias is realized by making the currents in current sources M l l and M12 larger than (Iv5)/2. Also. . Therefore.27. Under this condition.18. W  Compared to the other opamp configurations we have considered. The upper end of the range is the same as in the basic twostage op amp and the telescopic cascode op amp. M1 and M I Aform one cascode structure in Fig.W . First. This reversal has two main ackantagks when usedwith ok a differential pair. M2 and MZAform another. which can be much less than in the other configurations.6 MOS FoldedCascodeOperational Amplifiers 447 is now an nchannel device.27 Simplified schematic of a foldedcascode op amp.. it increases the output swing.77). See (6.75).28.f l back toward ground. Figure 6. the bias voltage from the drain of M 1 to . 6.27 shows a simplified schematic of a circuit that applies the foldedcascode structure to both sides of a differential pair. the voltage from VDD to the gate of M4A is COMMON Current mirror I Figure 6. both circuits are examples of cascodes. The is cascode in Fig. and Problem 6.. 6. On the other hand. (6.266. The resulting op amp is called afoldedcascode op amp. Since M3 and M j A are diode connected. it increases the commonmode input range.5j10A complete schematic is shown in Fig. Second. however.
28 More detailed schematic of a foldedcascode op amp. the output of a telescopiccascode op amp can swing within two overdrives of one supply and three overdrives of the other while providing nearly constant gain. the range of typical gain magnitudes is from several hundred . and the minimum output voltage for which both M2* and M I 2 operate in the active region is Therefore.. assume that VBIAS2is adjusted so that M I 2operates at the edge of the active region. 4.. When all the transistors operate in the active region.11 and 4. The smallsignal voltage gain of this circuit at low frequencies is where G. The threshold term in this equation can be eliminated by using a ptype version of one of the highswing cascode current mirrors shown in Figs. and the maximum This equation is analogous to (6. In contrast. a foldedcascode op amp can provide nearly constant voltage gain while its output swings within two overdrives of each supply.93) where an ntype cascode current mirror limits the minimum output swing of the telescopic op amp. the sourcedrain voltage of M4 is I VtpI + I V.12. 1 1 operate in the active region is output for which both M4 and 1.448 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs "ss Figure 6. is the transconductance and R. is the output resistance.].. 2 VtpI + 2 V. Then the drainsource voltage of M I 2is V. Therefore. The result is To find the minimum output voltage.
M4. First. 2 9 causes little change in ~ R. and R. causing no change to the output current i. the change in the output resistance introduced by these considerations is usually negligible..M2 do not operate at ac ground. (b) Simplified circuit.6. can be found. 6 . Therefore. In practice. + in M3 . variation in the drain current of M1 and M2 contribute constructively to the transconductance.M2 to a smallsignal ground as shown in Fig.M4. because of the action of the current mirror M3 .l and Vds2 are not exactly equal. Second.M2 operate at ac ground. in MIA and M2Abecause M3 and M 3 are diode connected ~ but their counterparts M4 and M4* are not diode connected. the smallsignal current gain of the current mirror is not exactly unity with finite r. assuming that the sources of M1 . the sources of M1 . necting the sources of M1 . Therefore. However. because vds3 and Vds4 are not exactly equal. However. R. Differences between vd. connecting this node to smallsignal ground as shown in Fig.! represent the corresponding changes in idl and id2caused by con. r. 6 . Although the input voltages do not move in this case. Aidl = Aid2because this connection introduces equal changes in the gatesource voltages of M1 and M2. KCL at the output shows that Aidl and Aid2 cancel. (These effects are related to the explanation of how a Figure 6. As a result. is altered slightly by connecting this point to ac ground for two reasons. or the output resistance R. Let zdl and id2 represent the smallsignal drain currents of M1 and M2 respectively.where it is mirrored to the output with a gain of unity if r. ... Also. in all the transistors is finite.M4. and Vds2 stem from finite r. Because of the action of the current mirror M3 . Aidl and Aid2 are not exactly equal with finite r. because vd.6 MOS FoldedCascode Operational Amplifiers 449 to several thousand.29 ( a ) Test voltage source applied to the output to calculate the output resistance. To find R. both inputs are connected to ac ground. let Aid*and Aid. 2 9 ~If r. as explained next. Then Aidl flows in the source of MIA. + m.
can be carried out using the circuit of Fig. the activecascode technique described in Chapter 3 can be used. of M4. reduces the output swing by at least another overdrive in it each direction.M 2 ~M 3 ~and M 4 are no longer . Although this approach gives a gain on the order of (grnro)3. From (3.7 MOS ActiveCascode Operational Amplifiers One way to increase the gain of the foldedcascode op amp without cascading additional stages is to add another layer of cascodes. The output resistance of transistor current sources with nonzero source resistance was considered in Chapter 4. Furthermore.5.. Let the gains of the auxiliary amplifiers driving M3. This feedforward does not occur in onestage op amps such as the folded cascode and telescopic cascode structures.3. and An important advantage of this circuit is that the load capacitance CL performs the compensation function (see Chapter 9). . supply. These auxiliary amplifiers are themselves connected in negative feedback loops to increase the resistance looking into the drain of each cascode transistor. improving their highfrequency powersupply rejection ratios from the V. 6. 6.) With the sources of M1 . in the basic twostage op amp. the activecascode configuration increases the output resistance by increasing the effective transconductance of the cascode transistor by (a + l). as described in Section 6.21. of MI2 while the incremental resistance in the source of M 4 is the r.29b." Fig.107). So little error is intro~ ~ duced by assuming that the gates of M4 and M 4 are connected to smallsignal ground.3. This reduction becomes increasingly important as the difference between the powersupply voltages is reduced in scaled technologies.M2 connected to ac ground.6. Furthermore. By inspection. ~ connected to a constant bias source but instead to the output of an amplifier.450 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs currentmirror load increases the commonmode rejection ratio of a differential pair presented in Section 4. the drain current of M1 is constant.3. As shown by (3.133). Thus no additional capacitance (such as Cc in previous circuits) need be added to keep the amplifier from oscillating when connected in a feedback loop. Applying (3. Cc feeds the variation from one power supply forward to the opamp output at high frequencies.4 and MdAbe Al. the calculation of R. 6 . where a is the voltage gain of the auxiliary amplifier. The result is the same as for a commonsource amplifier with source degeneration. The incremental resistance in the source of M 2 is the ro of M2 in ~ ~ parallel with the r. See Problem 6. ~ Therefore. 3 0 ~ shows the schematic of a foldedcascode op amp with active cascodes. The gates of each of the four cascode transistors MIA. the Thgvenin equivalent resistances presented to the gates of M4 and M 4 are small because M3 and M 3 are diode connected. To increase the opamp gain without reducing the output swing.133) to .
30 (a) Foldedcascode op amp with activecascode gainenhancement auxiliary ampli fiers. (6.30a.133) to (6. Therefore. In Fig... 6 .113) can be substituted into (6. the auxiliary amplifiers with gain AI drive the gates of M3* and M4A so that the voltages from the drains of M3 and M4 to ground are approximately equal to VBIAS2..7 MOS ActiveCascode Operational Amplifiers 45 1 Figure 6.109) and the result in (6.. Also assume that all and nchannel transistors have positive thresholds and all pchannel transistors have negative thresholds.112) and (6. these auxiliary amplifiers are included in Fig. However. the Al amplifiers to is . (6. 3 0 ~ because they reduce the systematic offset of the foldedcascode op amp. Also.110) to find the output resistance looking into the drain of MZAgives To find the overall opamp gain. To maximize the positive output swing of the foldedcascode amplifier.(.11 1) to find the output resistance looking into the drain of M 4 gives ~ Let the gains of the auxiliary amplifiers driving MIAand be A2.and nchannel tranFor sistors operating in the active region are VoVp V. 6. the voltage drop from VDD VBIAS2 chosen to be about (Vo. Applying (3. using identical auxiliary amplifiers balances the two signal paths until the differential to drive the gates of both MIAand signal is converted into singleended form by the current mirror. respectively. assume that the overdrive voltages for all p. This analysis shows that the gain enhancement in the foldedcascode op amp does not rely on the use of auxiliary amplifiers driving the gates of M I Aand M 3 ~ .6.107). simplicity.
IVt.30b. must operate with a high commonmode input voltage. the maximum commonmode input voltage would be no more than VDD . Figure 6.I + IV. 1 and the voltage from VBIAS4 VSS is ...21V0.. to V.. the gatedrain voltage of Mz2 is approximately IV. (d) Bias circuit. and the voltage from VDDto VBIASZis at least I V.I.lso that the sourcedrain voltages of M3 and M4 are )V...as shown in Fig.( if . The voltage from VDDto VsrAsl is l Vtpl + I V.l . To overcome this limitation... In operation."..30 (b) Auxiliary amplifier with gain Al.l.. and the commonmode inputs are close to Vss in this case..30c. If these amplifiers use apchannel differential input pair.. The schematic is shown in Fig. 6. ( c )Auxiliary amplifier with gain AZ. 6.30~c. Therefore.452 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs "ss (4 Figure 6.. and MZ2 operates in the active region only if its threshold (with the body effect) is greater than this value.30d shows a circuit that produces the bias voltages needed in Fig. + V. the dc voltage from VDD to the output of the A1 amplifiers is about lvtpl+ 21~~. A similar argument can be made to explain the use of pchannel differential pairs in the auxiliary amplifiers with gain A2. the AI amplifiers use an nchannel differential pair M21 and MZZ. Transistor MIo5 forces MlO6to operate in the triode region.I. 6.
Similarly.31 Basic twostage bipolar operational amplifier.. The issue of stability in feedback amplifiers is considered in detail in Chapter 9. a compensation capacitor can be placed from each auxiliaryamplifier output to a smallsignal ground.3 1. The need for such capacitors stems from the observation that the capacitance looking into the gates of MIA. In practice. 6.compensation capacitors for the Al amplifiers Ccl are connected to VDD.8 Bipolar Operational Amplifiers 453 if ignoring body effect as in (4. it consists of an input stage with a differential pair and a currentmirror load followed by a second stage with a commonemitter amplifier and an active load. As a result. To avoid instability. capacitances of these transistors are bootstrapped. Most MOS technologies are complementary Figure 6. the voltage from VBIASS Vss is at least V. zero ac current flows into the gatesource capacitances. Similarly. Since the AI amplifiers are used to improve the performance of a pchannel current mirror.6. to One potential problem with the structure shown in Fig. where signals are referenced to VDD. the gatesource voltages are not exactly constant because of variations in the drain currents caused by variations in the differential input voltage of the foldedcascode op amp.73).8 Bipolar Operational Amplifiers The basic topology used for most bipolartransistor op amps is shown in simplified form in Fig. 6. 6 . but the bootstrapping effect is significant. the load capacitances of the auxiliary amplifiers are dominated by parasitics that may vary considerably over variations in processing unless a capacitor is added at the output of each auxiliary amplifier. If the gatesource voltages are exactly constant. This expression means that the source of each of these transistors follows its gate when the corresponding drain current is constant. and the capacitances looking into the gates of the cascode transistors are independent of their gatesource capacitances. compensation capacitors for the A2 amplifiers CC2are connected to Vss.and M4Acan be quite small because the gatesource . As in the case of the basic twostage MOS op amp. .M 2 ~M3A. 3 0 is instability in the feed~ back loops around the auxiliary amplifiers.
To reduce the sensitivity to commonmode inputs. These six transistors taken together actually perform three separate functions that must be carried out in monolithic opamp realizations. The simplest approach would be to simply take one of the outputs of an emittercoupled pair and feed that into a singleended circuit. this shift is usually accomplished by inserting lateral pnp transistors in the signal path. input resistance. A simplified conceptual circuit diagram is shown in Fig. As a result. The pnp transistors produced by standard IC technology have poor frequency response.32a.2. an activeload circuit is used. most bipolar transistor technologies produce pnp transistors that are far inferior to the npn transistors in the same process because the lightly doped ntype epitaxial material is used to form the base of the pnp transistors. as described in Chapter 4. It is a widely used standalone op amp. where thepnp devices are used in a way that reduces their impact on the frequency response of the op amp. and its popularity stems from the fact that it is internally compensated (see Chapter 9) and is a relatively simple circuit that can be made to fit on a die less than 1 mm (40 mils) on a side. The realization of some voltage gain in the input stage is desirable since the noise and offset voltage associated with the second and later stages are divided by this gain when referred to the input. First the operation of the circuit is described qualitatively. as mentioned in Section 2. They drive the emitters of the commonbase differential pair of pnp devices Q3 and Q4. 6. One example of such circuit design is the 741 op amp. The transistors Q5 and Q6 form an active load for Q3 and Q4. However. a key challenge in bipolar opamp design is often to produce highperformance op amps with fast npn transistors but slow pnp transistors. In this section. and output resistance. It has large voltage gain and good commonmode and differentialmode input voltage ranges. . Finally. the fT of pnp transistors is usually much lower than for npn transistors in the same process. However. this approach tends to result in high sensitivity to commonmode input voltages.2. Differential to singleended conversion. Somewhere in the amplifier. and the base must be made wide enough to accommodate this depletion region. Since (1. They provide a differential input that is relatively insensitive to commonmode voltages. however. The 741 circuit is shown in Fig.454 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs in the sense that the performance of the pchannel transistors is almost as good as the nchannel transistors in the same technology. a smallsignal analysis is carried out to determine the voltage gain. In generalpurpose amplifiers like the 741. has high input resistance. the collectorbase depletion region extends mostly into the base. as realized by transistors Q5 and Q6.5. Although the performance of the pnp transistors can be improved by increasing the complexity of the integratedcircuit processing. so within the circuit a conversion must be made to singleended operation. Qualitative Description of Circuit Operation. 3. In the 741.5. such changes increase cost.32b. and then a dc analysis is carried out to determine the quiescent currents and voltages in the circuit. 6. the dc level of the signal path must be shifted in the negative direction to maximize the range of possible opamp output voltages.3 The analysis is carried out in three parts. the emitters of the pnp devices Q3 and Q4 operate near the input voltages while the collectors rest at a potential very near the negative supply. Thus the most desirable approach to an opamp realization would be to use only npn transistors. To minimize cost. Level shifting. we analyze the 741 op amp. The input transistors Ql and Q2 are emitter followers that maintain high input resistance and low input current. 1. as described in Section 2. 2.21 1) shows that the transition frequency of a bipolar transistor is inversely proportional to the square of its base width. and provides some voltage gain. The op amps considered in this chapter have differential inputs and singleended outputs.
.
Transistor Q23 is another emitter follower that prevents the output stage from loading the output of the gain stage. also has an active load formed by Q13B. conceptual schematic diagram of the 741 amplifier.456 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs VC. Transistor QI3is a multicollector lateral pnp The geometry of the device is shown in Fig. .32 (b) Simplified. Output Figure 6. Transistor QI6 is an emitter follower that reduces the loading effect of QI7 on the output of the actively loaded first stage. Note that the collector ring has been split into two parts. 6. Transistor Q17is a commonemitter amplifier that This amplifier stage provides large voltage gain. one that faces three Where Is = saturation current of structure with both collectors connected together Figure 6.33.33 Electrical equivalent for multicollector lateral pnp. Transistors QI4 and Qzo form the Class AB output stage.
only 0.6. which is usually zero. Thus the dc analysis must start with an assumption that the circuit is enclosed in a feedback loop that forces the output to some specified voltage.34 Bias circuitry for the 741. 6 . the calculation would usually show that the output stage would not operate in the active region but would be saturated in one direction or the other. the output resistance must be included in the smallsignal analysis since it strongly affects the gain for the activeload amplifiers. for a voltage gain of 105. 6.8 Bipolar Operational Amplifiers 457 fourths of the emitter periphery and collects the holes injected from that periphery. = 1 5 V Figure 6.1 The dc Analysis of the 741 Operational Amplifier The first step in evaluating the performance of the circuit is to determine the quiescent operating current and voltage of each of the transistors in the circuit. . In fact. 6. we can calculate the reference V. 3 2 ~This subcircuit is shown in Fig.33. Of course. This assumption results in 10 to 20 percent error in the calculated currents.1 mV of input offset voltage is required to drive the output into saturation with 2 10V power supplies when the input voltage is zero. ing that all transistors are in the forwardactive region. This dc analysis presents a special problem in opamp circuits because of the very high gain involved. A second assumption that simplifies the analysis is to assume that for the dc analysis. If we were to begin the dc analysis with the assumption that the two input terminals are grounded and then try to predict the output voltage. We can then work backward and determine the operating points within the circuit.8. we would find that a small variation in the beta or output resistance of the devices in the circuit would cause large changes in the output voltage we predict. and a second that faces onefourth of the emitter periphery and collects holes injected from that face. in We first calculate the currents in the biasing current sources Qlo and Fig.. the output resistance of the transistors does not greatly affect the dc currents flowing in the circuit. Thus the structure is analogous to two pnp transistors whose baseemitter junctions are connected in parallel and one of which has an Is that is onefourth that of a standard pnp transistor and the other an Is that is threefourths that of a standard pnp with fuIly enclosed emitter. 6. This equivalence is depicted in Fig. This problem exists in practice. Neglecting base currents and assum.34.
18mA The circuit can now be simplified to the form shown in Fig.. however. We first determine the bias currents in the input stage. respectively.35.35 Simplified schematic of the 741 with idealized biasing current sources. as described in Chapter 4. The output current I I must be found by trialanderror solution of the relation The result is II = 19 p A The currents I2 and I3 are threefourths and onefourth of the reference current. Since the betas of the lateral pnp transistors are typically much lower than for the npn transistors. . 6. The combination of Qll and Qlo forms a Widlar current source.= 15 v Figure 6.7 V. 12=0.458 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEndedOutputs current as = where we have assumed that VBE(on) 0. For this analysis.55mA 13=0. we will neglect the effects of the dc base currents flowing in the npn transistors since these transistors typically have betas of several hundred. we will consider the effects v.
8 Bipolar Operational Amplifiers 459 of the pnp base currents. which is the output current of the Wilson current mirror. Q4. transistors Q8 and Q9 sense and feed back the sum of the currents in Q3 and Q4. In Fig. This result can also be predicted by observing that the input stage of the 741 uses a structure similar to a Wilson current mirror. (6. Icl IC2 is still given by (6. As a result.120 shows that the input stage of the 741 op amp is biased so that the sum of IC3 and IC4 is insensitive to pp. Substitution of (6.116) gives = gives Substitution of (6. it k an example of a commonmode negativefeedback loop. Because the feedback in the input stage of the 741 op amp acts to stabilize the sum of IC3 and IC4. Since Q8 and Q9 are identical. and Q9 until 1Ic9l = 19 FA and equilibrium is established. the baseemitter voltages and collector currents of Ql and Q2 are unequal. transistors Ql and Q3 sense and feedback the current in Q2. IQz..119) into (6.Q6 each have collector current magnitudes of about 9. The 19 FA current source pulls down on the bases of Q3 and Q4.118) in (6. the baseemitter voltages of Ql and Q2 are equal and the current IA splits into two equal parts.35.5 pA if the pnp beta is reasonably large.. 6.6. and about equal to Iclo in magnitude.116) gives From KCL at the collector of Q9. If we neglect the base current of Ql and Q2.117) with IE3 + IE4 (IC3+ IC4)(1+ l l p p n p ) Equation 6. increasing dc currents in Q3. If the differential opamp input voltage is zero. Icx = Ic9.91 ")l + ( l1 + P p n p (6.100). Q1 .118) where (6. This + . Qx.14.117 ) has been used. if IC3+ IC4 in the 741 op amp is viewed as the output of a Wilson current mirror whose input is Iclo = 19 FA. then KCL at the collectors of Ql and Q2 together with (6. Q. from KCL at the collector of Qx. 4. and since the effect of finite Early voltage is ignored. However.119). if the differential input voltage is nonzero. Therefore. On the other hand. 19 p A = Ic9 + IE~ 1 + Ppnp + IE~ 1 + Ppnp = 1. As a result. from KCL at the collector of Q8. In Fig.120) agrees with (4.
The baseemitter drop. all of the 180pA from the current source flows through transistor Qz3. The magnitudes of the collector currents of transistors Q5 and Q6 are equal to those of transistors Q3 and Q4 if base currents are neglected. however. and the current flowing in the 50kfl resistor.VEEis Assuming a beta of 250. so that the current in the 50kfl resistor is 547 mVl50 klR or l l pA. We next consider transistor QI6in Fig. Second. The voltage from the base of QI7to . Commonmode feedback is studied in Chapter 12. The voltage assuming an Is of drop across the lkfl resistors is 9. and the output current is zero. We must now calculate the dc collector current in transistor Q7. Q19.VEE is equal to the baseemitter voltage of QI7 plus the drop across the 100Cl resistor. We must now determine the dc bias currents in Q14. The voltage across this resistor is the sum of the baseemitter drop of Q5 or Q6 and the drop across the lkCl resistors in series with the emitters of Q5and Q6. recalculating the collector current of QI9 taking the base current in Q18into account gives Then IC18 ( l 8 0 . Under this assumption. since the bases of Q3 and Q4 and the collectors of Ql and Qz are differentialmode ac grounds.5 pA. the collector current of Q17must be equal to the current supplied by current source Q13B. this result is satisfactory. Thus the collector current of Q7 is equal to 11 pA. the base current of Q17is Thus the collector current of QI6 is the sum of the current in the 50kCl resistor in its emitter and the base current of QI7. Now that we know the currents in QI8and Q19. neglect the base current of transistor Q18.6 V140 klR or 15 pA. we can estimate the output transistor bias current using (5. Then the voltage at the base of QI7with respect to . If this is true.or We now consider the output stage shown in Fig.35.83). the collector current of QI8 would be approximately (180 . A and a collector current of 9.We assume that the circuit is connected with feedback in such a way that the output is driven to zero volts. Q]*. First. assuming for the time being that base currents are negligible.5 mV. which we will neglect.460 Chapter 6 Operational Amplifiers with SingleEnded Outputs feedback action affects the commonmode (bias) quantities only and is not felt by differential signals in the circuit.16) p A or 164 pA.15) pA or 165 FA. repeated below for convenience: .36. To find ICI8 IcI9.Then the collector current of Q19will be approximately 0. 6. is 537 mV. Further iterations could be used to improve the = accuracy. we will use an iterative approach. The emitter current of Q7 consists of the base current of Q5 and Q6. If the output voltage of the amplifier is to be zero as we have assumed. 6. and Q20. Thus Ic14 Iczo and are and equal in magnitude.which is 550 pA. since the second iteration produced little change from the first.
Since the maximum = 180 pA. the current that can be provided to the collector of QI5 is limited by maximum output current flows almost entirely in the emitter of Q14and is approximately 0. To limit the maximum current that can flow in Q20to a level that will not destroy this device.4operates as an emitter follower that sinks an increasing emitter current as its base voltage is decreased. The specific geometry used varies with manufacturer but the Is of these devices is typically about three times as large as a small geometry device. the current in QZ3. Figure 6. V o U is zero for ~ the bias current calculation. As in the previous case. Transistor Q15 turns on only when the voltage drop across R6 exceeds about 550 mV. the collector of Q21is not simply connected to the base of Qzobecause Q23. where it pulls down on the base of Q16.and Q23Bare normally off. we can see that the circuit contains several devices that are active only during overload conditions. preventing damage to the amplifier due to excess current flow and power dissipation should the output be shorted. In this case. when current flows in Qzl. Thus QI5 performs shortcircuit protection.4. 6. to the negative power supply. Thus Referring to the schematic diagram of Fig. Qzl.. so they are made with larger geometry than the other transistors in the circuit. such as when the output is shorted to the positive power supply. it is mirrored through Q24 to Q22. The actual quiescent current that flows in the output transistors depends on their Is values.Because  . for example. Q22. Transistors Q21.Q22.36 Here we have neglected the voltage drops across the small resistors in series with the emitters of QI4 and Q20. Transistors Qls.4 does not