Historical & Cultural Background Of Chakwal

Submitted To: Madam Farhat Iftikhar Gill

Submitted By: Muhammad Tahreer Abbas 1st Semester MSc Pakistan Studies

October 2007

National Institute Of Pakistan Studies (NIPS) Quaid-e-Azam University Islamabad

Rajputs. Manak Pur. Turkwal. though a little more rural. Some villages in tehsil Chakwal are Dhudial. Choa Saidan Shah covers an area of 10 square kilometers. a flat stage built of stone by emperor Babar to address his army while coming down from Kabul in the quest of the crown of Delhi. Miani. The culture of Talagang is the same as that of Chakwal. and levelled plains interspaced with dry rocky patches in the north and northeast. Balkasar. Talagang Talagang. Malot. Chakwal is a barani district and the terrain is mainly hilly. Lying at the beginning of the Potohar plateau and the Salt Range. district Jhelum. is the second largest town of the district. Buchal Khurd. Mulhal Mughlan etc b. Bhatti Gujar etc c. Mehr Minhas. Kusak. The tribes clans and castes that inhabit this area are the Awans. The physical features of the district. Shah Said Bulu. Jhamara. Tehsils of district Chakwal a. The town is placed in a bowl shaped valley. Name given to this town in the name of a famous Sufi Sakhi Saidan Sherazi (RA). Some villages in Tehsil Choa Saiden Shah are Watli. Other main occupations of the people are agriculture and mining. Kallar Kahar has always been renowned throughout the country for its peacocks and its lake and for the Takht-e-Babri.1 INTRODUCTION Chakwal is almost 100km from Islamabad and 110km from Jhelum. and amalgamating it with sub-division Chakwal. its society and its economy all combine to make Chakwal one of the main recruiting areas for the Army and the Air Force. commerce and commercial enterprise. Choa Saidan Shah Located 35 kilometers south of Chakwal on the Chakwal-Khewra Road. Gahi. Dulmial. though a large number of rural landlords and industrialists of Chakwal also live here. Bhikari kalan. Ransial etc . Sardhi. Mughals. Neela Dullha. promises to become a tourist attraction if properly developed. Patowali. Choa Saidan Shah was upgraded to the level of a sub-division in 1993. The area it covers is 36 square kilometers. Syeds. Some villages in tehsil Talagang are Budhial. Gondals. Chak Misri. Titral. covered with forest in the southwest. 45 kilometers west of Chakwal on the Chakwal-Mianwali road. making Chakwal a rural district based on an agrarian economy with a very small industrial sector. it covers an area of 26 square kilometers. Choa saidan shah is the tehsil of Chakwal. Kahuts. and as calculated in the 1998 census the total population is 1059451. Sayed. its tribes. Transport and poultry business is also important. Gujars. Chakwal Chakwal is lying 100 kilometers southwest of Islamabad on the Rawalpindi-Sargodha Road. Maghal etc d. Thoa Mahram Khan. Wahula. carved out of Tehsil Pind Dadan Khan. Chakwal became a district of Rawalpindi division in 1985 by combining     Chakwal of district Jhelum Kallar Kahar of district Jehlum (Declared Tehsil recently) Talagang of district Attock Choa Saidan Shah.3% in the urban areas.7% of which lives in rural areas and 12. 87. The total area of district Chakwal is 6609 square kilometers. Kot Sarang. Munara. Some villages in Tehsil Kallar Kahar are Buchal Kalan. The occupation of the people residing in the city is business. The town is surrounded by hills. Arains and the Sheikhs. A museum of fossils of the area has also been built by the Archeology Department in the District Council Rest House. surrounded by lush green hills full of peacocks. Kallar Kahar Lying 30 miles southwest of Chakwal on the Chakwal-Sargodha road. Dalwal. Minhala Gujran. Kahut. Katas. Gufanwala. Lawa.

ARCHEOLOGICAL ATTRACTIONS IN CHAKWAL Fossils. (Zaheerud Din Baber)  I wish to work in area of Chakwal because this area is heaven for Archeologists.  SINGHAPURA . PROMINENT STATEMENTS ABOUT CHAKWAL  Every second person of Chakwal is a soldier and every third one is a poet (Professor Sher Muhammad Grewaal. Rajputs. When Hazrat Baba Farid Gunj Shakar (RA) came to Kallar Kahar. making Chakwal a predominantly rural district pivoted on an agrarian economy with a very small industrial sector. Nandana pass is up North the only place to cross the Salt Range since ancient time. Actually Pakistan is here in Chakwal. 87. It looks like that half residents of country belong to Chakwal. during the British period.3% in the urban areas. 1st June 1998)  Islamabad is not Pakistan. It was finally upgraded to district status in 1985 by the President Zia ul Haq.As noted in District Gazeteer Jehlum 1904. Zaheerudin Baber. who founded it in 1525 during the period of the Mughal Emperor. 4th Feburary 2001) GEOGRAPHICAL EXISTANCE OF CHAKWAL District Chakwal is bordered by the districts of Rawalpindi and Attock in the north. (Dr Saif-urRehman Daar. and as calculated in the 1998 census the total population is 1059451. coins. patriot and nice people. chief of the Mair Minhas Rajput tribe from Jammu. Sudher visited him and asked him to pray for him . The total area of district Chakwal is 6609 square kilometers. district Khushab in the south and district Mianwali in the west. it was declared the Tehsil Headquarter. Chakwal is considered as heaven according to archeological point of view. History Dept. Dhanni remained a hunting ground for the Rajas of Jammu.In 1881. The first Mughal Emperor Baber in 1519 ordered a garden to be laid out over looking the lake in Kallar Kahar. The area of Dhanni (Chakwal Tehsil) for a long time in history was an uninhabited part of the Jammu state of the Dogra. Famous Hindu Temple of Katas on a poolside sacred to the Hindu god Shiva and Malot Hindu Temples were built in Kashmiri Hindu style during 8th century. Kahoon valley and the ancient Thirchak Mahal. Director general Archeology Dept)  The residents of Chakwal are hardworking. Chaku Khan founded Chakwal and Karehn founded a small village named as Karehn.Bairuni the famous scientist of 11th century measured the circumference of the earth here at Nandana fort. Salt range came into being 600 million years ago when Thysis Ocean was trapped and subsequently evaporated by the collision of Indian plate with Asiatic plate leaving behind world's largest salt deposits. Daily News. Following are note-worthy archaeological attractions of Chakwal. and remains of ancient archaeological sites prove significant importance of this area. Baba Farid (RA) prayed for him and Allah bestowed him two sons who were named as Chaku Khan and Karehn. tools. district Jhelum in the east. (Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan. the city is named after Chaudhry Chaku Khan.7%% of which lives in rural areas and 12. (Col (R) S K Tresler. Federal Minister of Heritage and Tourism. Although the powerful tribes like Ghakkars and Janjuas ruled the adjoining territories in Potohar. GC Lahore)  I am very pleased to visit this land of warriors and I pay tribute to this nation (Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah 1946)  This (Kallar Kahar) is child of Kashmir.2 HISTORY It is said that a man named Sudher Minhas had no childern. Al.

Here. Hazrat Ahoo Bahu (RA) was grandson of Hazrat Abdul Qadir Jailani (RA) MALOT FORT The location of the Malot fort is about 15 kilometers westward form Katas. which was built around 980AD. are beautiful specimens of ancient Kashmir architecture. The road is linked with main Kallar Kahar road from where it turns from Karuli Chowk towards Malot via Pakistan cement factory and Choi village along with coalmines. In days gone-by the town and fort of Malot covered and area of over 5square kilometers. are located on the road leading to Malot village near Choi village. CHILLAGAAHS Near Kallar Kahar lake Chillagaah of renowned saints Hazrat Baba Farid Gunj Shakar (RA) and Hazrat Sultan Bahu (RA) is located. as they believed that the title of Malik was given to the one who accepted annexation to the Muslim King of Delhi although in reward the Malik enjoyed the autonomous status with full sovereignty in the assigned area. which are located here. SHRINE OF HAZRAT AHOO BAHU (RA) Shrine of famous saint Hazrat Ahoo Bahu (RA) is also present here which is visited by a lot of people all around the year. The Rajput history claims its name Malot from the word Malik-Kot. This platform was carved out of a single rock by the artisans of Babar’s Army. It is said that over here the last Hindu Shahi Raja Mal embraced Islam. built of local red sand stones of salt range mountains. Two Hindu temples. It is 12 kilometers away from Kallar Kahar in the east. The Mughal King Baber’s travelogue “Tuzk-e-Babri” attests to the corollary of Malik-Kot. a flat stage built of stone by emperor Babar to address his army while coming down from Kabul in the quest of the crown of Delhi. Mal-Kot . The Malot temples. on a hilltop is the ancient fort. It is said that Baba Farid stayed near Bagh-e-Safa at the hill where shrine of Hazrat Ahoo Bahu (RA) is located. The Malot was also called Namrod and Ramrod.3  KATAS RAJ  MALOT FORT  SHIWAYA SUB GANGA  BAGH-E-SAFA  TAKHT-E-BABRI  KUSAK FORT  NANDANA FORT  BHAUN TEMPLES  AANSOO LAKE  GANDHALA TAKHT-E-BABRI Kallar Kahar is known for Takht-e-Babri. The name is after the King of MalDev or Malu.

father of Maharaja Ranjit singh. similar to those in the portico of the temple. The Brahman Bali Hindus till 1947 looked after the two present temples..The roof is entirely gone. scientific knowledge. Paras Nath Jogi breathed his last here.. Jhelum District. It was the abode of contemplation for larger groups of mystics and Jogies. KATAS TEMPLES The Hindu sacred place “Katas” is located in the salt range at a distance of 18 miles in the south of Chakwal. which. Temples at Katas have been transferred from the federal government to the Punjab Archaeology Department recently. They frequently visited the Guru of Bali Hindus. I conclude that it must have been pyramidal.The temple is a square of 18 feet inside. but judging from the square shape of the building. The mention of Katas is found in “Maha Bharat” which was written in 300 BC. the word “Katak Shell” means chain of tears. According to Gen Cunningham." Photograph of the temple and gateway in Kashmiri style at Malot. the surface having altogether crumbled away. with a vestibule or entrance porch on the east towards the gateway. Efforts are being made to restore and renovate these temples. the Pandava brothers came upon the lake and were about to drink from the water when a Yaksha (protecting spirit of the lake) appeared and said that only people who correctly answered his questions could drink from the lake. At a short distance from the temple. and many parts have suffered severely from the action of the weather. The gateway is.a massive building... Cunningham. During their exile.divided into two rooms.4 and then Malot.. outside with flat panelled ceilings of overlapping stones. was established here. Alexander Cunningham wrote in his report for the Archaeological Survey of India in 1872-3. at that time. Mahan Singh. taken by Joseph David Beglar in the 1870s. There are also cave-type structures near the temples that. Al-Bairuni wrote a famous book “Kitab-ul-Hind” which depicted the religion. forced Lodhi. Guru Tarlok Nath shrines. The etymology of this place as narrated in the old edition of “Tarikh-e-Jhelum” is that according to Brahaman’s belief. The four Pandavas failed the test and were killed by the Yaksha. Katas was considered the second largest holy place in Punjab for Hindu pilgrims after Jawala Mukhi. However the fifth brother. there is also the haveli of Hari Singh Nalwa. Each capital supports a statue of a lion under a half trefoil canopy. The Pandavas.. During his stay at Katas and Nandana Fort. Al-Bairuni during his stay at Katas not only learned Sanskrit but also performed various geographic experiments and eventually succeeded in discovering the radius of the earth. it is believed. also built a small fort here at Malot in early 19th century... These niches are covered by trefoil arches which spring from flat pilasters. Katas was considered the second largest holy place in Punjab for Hindu pilgrims after the Jawala Mukhi. used mystical knowledge to answer the questions and brought his . which later on was pronounced as “Katas”. It is said famous Pando brothers spent 12 years in Katas and built the temples of Satghara. In the year 1527 Daulat khan the royal forces of Mughal king Babur. both Katas and the Paskar (Ajmer) are the eyes of Shiva. to surrender. It is said that Al-Bairuni also spent some period at Katas to learn Sanskrit in a linguistic university.. who used to be a General in the Army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Guru Nanak also visited Katas. They are built of a coarse sandstone of various shades of ochreous red and yellow. In Sanskrit. Yudhishtar. it is believed.On each side of these rooms to the north and south there are highly decorated niches for the reception of statues. and social customs of Hindus.. AANSOO LAKE The lake in the Katas Raj Temple complex is the setting for many stories about the Pandavas in Maha Bharat. According to Gen. It is said that famous Pando brothers spent 12 years in Katas and built the temples of Satghara. Shiv Devta wept so profusely on the death of his beloved wife Satti that two holy ponds one at Pushkar of Ajmair and other at Katak Shell came into being with his tears. constructed these temples. The place is mentioned in Maha Bharat and according to Hindu religious belief. "The only remains of any antiquity at Malot are a temple and gateway in the Kashmirian style of architecture. were used for meditation purposes.

An actual artillery gun awarded to a valiant soldier Subedar Gul Muhammad of Dulmial in the Second World War mounted on a platform in front of his village is testimony to the fact. SINGHAPURA It is said that this city located in the valley of Gandhala close to Choa Sadien Shah was the capital of the Buddhist State of Singhapura and a Buddhist university was located here. Now the only remains of the city are the relics of Ashok’s Stupa and the nearby sacred Moorti Hill. and the town surrounded by verdant hills. Relics belonging to the age of Alexander the great have been found here. The building contains arches and paramedical mouldings bearing carvings of animals.5 brothers back to life. The gun is one of the only two such awards in the world. It is almost 14 km from Kallar Kahar. GUN(DULMIAL) There is a famous saying that every second person of area is a soldier (and every third one is a poet). In Sanskrit. Remains of a number of ancient cities built during the period of Alexander and Rana Syedan have been discovered near Bhaun and Bhapur. The lake is still said to have magical powers. They show the architecture of that era. At Subganga near village Dalwal there is Buddhist temple made of red sand-sand near a beautiful pond. BAGH-E-SAFA . the word "Katak shell" means chain of tears that later on was pronounced "Katas". BHAUN TEMPLES There are temples in Bhaun that belong to Hindus and Sikhs who left them at the time of partition of Sub Continent. The Etymology of this place as narrated in the old edition of "Tarikh-e-Jhelum" is that according to Brahaman's belief. In Bhaun animal and plants fossils dating back to thousands of years have been discovered. The only option available to the spirited and rugged people of the area famous for martial traditions was service in the armed forces. Maharaja Singh is said to have besieged this fort till the Janjua Sardar.In the 2nd world war about 500 men participated from this village. In Sardhi there are still some buildings that were left by Hindus during partition of Sub-Continent. the number of tourists visiting Kallar Kahar has increased manifold. This was the only village in Asia that was awarded by the gun. Sultan Fateh Muhammad Khan surrendered to him. THE KUSAK FORT This fort lies on the narrow top of a hillock in southern part of the Salt Range about 10 kilometers from Choa Sadien Shah. promises to become a tourist attraction if properly developed. SHIWAYA SUB GANGA Subganga is about 5 kilometers from Malot. Shiv Devta wept so profusely on the death of his beloved wife Satti that two holy pounds one at Pushkar of Ajmair and other at Katak shell came into being with his tears. SARDHI Sardhi is located in west of Kallar Kahar. A museum of fossils of the area has also been built by the Archeology Department in the District Council Rest House. KALLAR KAHAR FOSSIL MUSEUM With the construction of the Motorway that passes by the edge of the lake.

Choa Saidan Shah Chillagaah. at that time. and a woolen Shawl or Sweater in the winter. Jawar. it is influenced by Hindu rites. SHRINES Chakwal has been frequented by a number of saints who came here to spread Islam. large dowries for brides. During his stay at Katas and Nandana Fort. Agriculture Farming is the main occupation of the people of Chakwal. Sarhis or western dresses are never worn. but owing to the fact that Chakwal before independence was an area where a large number of Hindus lived. have also been planted by farmers but only on small areas owing to shortage of water. Masoor. Peanut. the people of Chakwal live a simple and straight life as enjoined by their religion. Fair sized Loquat orchards exist in Kallar Kahar and Choa Saiden Shah. Hazrat Ahoo Bahoo. Grams. In the winter months they add a coat. Darbar. With the exception of a few large landholders in subdivision Talagang. The total area of the district is 1652443 acres. and capital intensive. Women almost invariably wear Shalwar Kameez with Dopatta. the hosting of a lavish meal by the bride’s parents on the barat. especially of citrus. The more educated class also wear shirts with trousers. Mausoleums and shrines of these holy men were built after their death by the followers. over-looking a natural lake. Ornaments of gold and silver are also worn depending on the occasion and the financial position. a vast orchard planted by the Mughal emperor Babar which is supposed to be the first orchard in the Mughal tradition NANDANA FORT It is said that Al-Bairuni also spent some period at Katas to learn Sanskrit in a linguistic university. The farmers have also begun to use fertilizer and pesticides. and the total cultivated area is 786212 acres. was established here. is the Bagh-e-Safa. On occasions of festivity the Kameez and Dopatta are heavily embroidered. Vegetables Fruit orchards. Maize. Women and Children of Chakwal wear very simple dress. Footwear consists of Chappals or Sandals. and social customs of Hindus. with Chappals. though new techniques and the Barani Agricultural Institute Chakwal is introducing methods. The ceremonies of mayun and mehndi. Holdings are small in the district and farming is conventional. Al-Bairuni during his stay at Nandana fort (Katas) not only learned Sanskrit but also performed various geographic experiments and eventually succeeded in discovering the radius of the earth. rituals and even ideas. Customs and Traditions The culture of Chakwal is primarily based on the way of living as taught in Islam. which. time saving inputs like tractors and harvesters. a turban on special occasion. Hazrat Baba Farid Gunj Shakar. are being used eversince their introduction in the country. Mash. Kallar Kahar Darbar. the belief that parents must not stay in the houses of their married daughters. Sakhi Saidan Shah Shirazi. scientific knowledge. sweater or a Dhussa with it. Al-Bairuni wrote a famous book “Kitab-ul-Hind” which depicted the religion. CULTURE OF CHAKWAL Dress Men. The more important of these shrines are: Chillagaah. Young boys can be seen wearing jeans and shirts occasionally. Kallar Kahar Darbar Pattalian . Men generally wear shalwar Kumeez or Dhoti Kurta. Kallar Kahar.6 Here. The main crops of the district are: Wheat. adding a coat in the winters. Hazrat Sultan Bahu. and melas at the mausoleums of pirs are all of Hindu origin. Besides this. Khusas or Sandles . Bajra. the extravagant expenditures made on feasting guests at death.

who was designated to become the first local Cnc of the Pakistan army but died in an unfortunate aircrash all belonged to Chakwal. Muhammad Zafar. MARTIAL TRADITIONS Chakwal is known for furnishing some of the finest soldiers to the British and later on to the Pakistan Army. Chakwal has produced more Army men and Generals than any other city in the country which includes valiant Generals like Tajmmal Hussain Malik and a long list of officers mentioned in the list that follows. the first Indian to get commissioned and to become a General in British Indian Army. Former Governor Punjab (Dulmial) General Dr Riaz Chohan General Nazeer Hussain General Dr Asad Malik General Sheraz Lodhi General Dr Shahida Malik Genereal Imtiaz Shaheen General Afzal Muzzafar . It is also a worth mentioning fact that the later four were all real brothers and belonged to famous Mair-Minhas tribe of Chakwal. General Muhammad Anwar Khan and the great General Iftikhar Khan. Generals and Decorated Officers Only                        General Muhammad Akbar Khan. At Eid and other celebrations Halwa has a special importance.7 Darbar Alawal Sharif Darbar Pir Waliat Shah. Subedar Khudadad Khan. Brigadier Gen. Khan General Abdul Razzaq Khan General Faiz Jilani (retired) Major General Muhammad Muzaffar Kahut (Chief Pathologist AFIP) General R D Bhati General Tajjamul malik General Ashraf Janjua General Safdar. It is a remarkable fact that the first native Indian to get Victoria Cross. After the creation of Pakistan. First Muslim Officer/General of British/Pakistan Army General Muhammad Iftikhar Khan(Designated to become the first CnC of the Pakistan Army. Karsal Darbar Pir Khara Sharif SWEETS Chakwal is renowned for its special PEHLWAN REWRI. the first Indian Commander of Cavalry. the first Engineer in Chief of the Pakistan Army.D. died in an aircash in 1949) General Muhammad Anwar Khan (First EnC of the Pakistan Army) Brigadier Muhammad Zafar (First Indian Commander of Cavalry) Air Marshal Nur Khan Tamman Lt General Abdul Majid Malik (former Federal Minister) General Abdul Qayyum General Muhammad Farooq Malik (DG Artillery) General P. Muhammad Akbar Khan.

Victoria Cross Subedar Muhammad Shah Kahut . Victoria Cross . Gen.8       General Mehboob ul Muzaffar General Yaqoob Chaudhry Maj. Syed Mujtaba Hasan Shah Hamdani (Reena Sadat) Air Vice Marshal Altaf Hussain Shah Subedar Khudadad Khan.

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