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Meaning of Interventions
• “ The planned activities client &
consultants participate during the
course of an organization
development program”
• Attempt to improve the “ fit ”
between the individual &
organization between the
organization & its environment.
• Emphasis more on collaboration,
confrontation & participation
Types of Interventions
• Sensitivity training
• Purpose is to sensitize people to the
perceptions & behavior related aspects of
themselves & others.
• Feedback helps the member to know about
• Improves listening skills, add openness,
helps to accept individual differences
• Used to reduce interpersonal conflict
• Enhances group cohesiveness & improves
organizational productivity & efficiency
• Facilitator plays important role by
moderating the discussion & by providing
constructive feedback.
• Broader scope , lacks specific goal
Types of Interventions
• Survey Feedback
• Systematic data collection from all levels
of the organization.
• Sharing of the information
• Interpretation/analysis of data
• Transfers the ownership of the data from
change agent to participants
• Participants plays key role in developing
solutions to the problem.
Types of Interventions
• Process consultation
• Emphasizes more on resolving
interpersonal problems.
• Increases the participation in
problem solving.
• Specific goal of improving a
particular process.
• Emphasizes on organizational
process Coaching & counseling by
Types of Interventions
• Team interventions
• Used to improve the performance of work teams.
• Problem diagnosis Task accomplishment
• Maintaining team relationships improving team &
organizational processes
• Forms of team building interventions
• Analyze the reason for the existence of team,
objectives of the team & how the team prepares the
action plan for the accomplishment.
• General critic of the team
• Team leader & members decide about the need for the
diagnostic meetings.
• Information is collected through whole groups, or
subgroups or pairs of individual.
• Half a day duration Meeting.
• Based on the need formal meeting is conducted
• Action plan is prepared
• Guidance towards the achievement of the goal.
Types of Interventions
• The formal group team building meeting
• Aims at improving relationship between
team members & their effectiveness.
• Meeting is initiated by manager or team
members under the supervision of
external consultant.
• Issues are prioritized Responsibilities are
assigned to each member
• Action plan is prepared.
• Meeting is conducted away from the work
Types of Interventions
• Gestalt approach to team building
• Focuses on individuals based on
• Self awareness is essential
• Accepting as a whole as it is (+ ve, -ve)
• Awareness know-how Authenticity
Accepting responsibility
• Negative feeling can be resolved through
confrontation & repression
• Practiced by trained practitioner
Other exercises used for
team building
• Role analysis Technique (RAT) John Thomas
• The role defined is known as focal role
• Defining the role by team members
• Expectations, suggestions by team members
• Preparation of role profile explaing the authority,
obligation of the role
• Role clarity is achieved
• Role negotiation technique ( RNT)- Roger Harrison
• Resolving conflict by making some compromises
• RNT consultants act as a negotiator between the
conflicting parties
Other exercises used for
team building
• Steps during RNT
• Contract setting Ground rules submitted in
written format
• Issue diagnosis what kind of change is
• Hoe change will affect on performance.
• Negotiation period ( 2 days)
• Discussion of most important changes required
from each other
• Expectations from each others
• Content of the agreement in written format
• Follow up meeting
Other exercises used for
team building
• Forced field analysis- Kurt Lewin
• Used for understanding problematic situation & for planning
corrective action.
• Two types of forces-
• Driving forces forces for change
• Restraining forces forces resisting change
• Equilibrium can be obtained to get desired outcome of the
change program
• Essential steps-
• Defining current problem situation
• Desired condition
• Identifying driving, resisting forces
• Strong & weak forces are identified
• Strategy to move from current condition to desired
• Implementation of action plan
Other exercises used for
team building
• Intergroup team building interventions
• Improves intergroup relations between work teams
• Easy flow of communication
• Steps-
• OD practitioner meets the leaders of the groupfor
understanding the requirement.
• A & B two groups meet separately & are asked to
write about the attitudes & perceptions towards
each other, problem related to group etc
• Group also tries t o anticipate what the other group
would write
• Exchange of written information
• Understands the communication gap
• Helps in soarting out many issues
• Unresolved problems are again discussed
• Helps to improve interactions
Third party peace making
• Method for solving interpersonal conflict
• Confrontation technique
• Motivating parties to resolve conflict
• Insist on exploring possible solutions
• Sufficient time is given to understand each
• Efforts to overcome negative feeling-
• Differentiation phase- Concentrate on
differences in opinion
• Integration phase- Shares positve feeling
& common things
Structural Interventions
• Also known as Technostructural
• Bring about the changes in the task ,
structure & technological processes.