A seminar report on


Submitted by

Roshan Kamath 2SD06CS078 8th semester


M COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ENGINEERING CERTIFICATE Certified that the seminar work entitled “Touch Screen” is a bonafide work presented by Roshan Kamath bearing USN NO 2SD06CS078 in a partial fulfillment for the award of degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Computer Science Engineering of the Vishveshwaraiah Technological University.D.VISHVESHWARAIAH TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY S. Belgaum during the year 2009-10. USN:2SD06CS0078 2 .O. Staff in charge H. The seminar report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements with respect to seminar work presented for the Bachelor of Engineering Degree.D CSE Name: Roshan Kamath.

Technology 5. Introduction 2. Understanding how touch screen accepts input using resistive technology as an example.4 Projected capacitative 5.3 Surface acoustic wave (SAW) 5.2 Controller 4. Conclusion 10.INDEX 1.1 Touch sensor 4. 9.2 Resistive 5. History 3. Components that act as Backbone for this technology 4. References 12 13 13 18 18 3 .1 Infrared 5.3 Software Driver 4 4 5 5 5. Capability 4.5 Surface capacitance 7 6. Construction 7. Comparison of technologies 8.

Introduction: TouchScreens are display as well as input devices. on point of sale systems. History: Touch screens originally emerged from academic and corporate research labs in the second half of the 1960s. portable game consoles and many types of information appliances is driving the demand for. Until the early 1980s. 2. display manufacturers and chip manufacturers worldwide have acknowledged the trend toward acceptance of touchscreens as a highly desirable 4 . on ATMs and on PDAs where a stylus is sometimes used to manipulate the GUI and to enter data. In 1971. and few have had the capability to sense how hard one is touching. One of the first places where they gained some visibility was in the terminal of a computer-assisted learning terminal that came out in 1972 as part of the PLATO project. With commercialization of touchscreens the technology used changed to multipoint technology from dingle point. but a 9" Sony CRT surrounded by infrared transmitters and receivers which detect the position of any nontransparent object on the screen. touchscreens. With time. It doesn't actually have a touch screen in the strict sense. However. however. the term touch screen is generally not applicable. and the acceptance of. This sensor was called the "Elograph" and was patented by The University of Kentucky Research Foundation. such as in retail and tourist settings.1. PDAs. as with a light pen. chip or motherboard manufacturers. The HP-150 from 1983 can be considered as the world's earliest commercial touch screen computer. The popularity of smart phones. These are electronic visual devices that are sensitive to pressure thus detect the presence and location of a touch within the display area. the first "touch sensor" was developed by Doctor Sam Hurst (founder of Elographics) while he was an instructor at the University of Kentucky. They have subsequently become familiar in kiosk systems. The term “Touch” generally refers to touch or contact to the display of the device by a finger or hand. Historically. a user interacts with the computer by touching pictures or words on the screen. the touchscreen sensor and its accompanying controller-based firmware have been made available by a wide array of after-market system integrators and not by display. The ability to interact physically with what is shown on a display (a form of "direct manipulation") typically indicates the presence of a touchscreen. The screens are sensitive to pressure. if the object sensed is active. most consumer touch screens could only sense one point of contact at a time.

so it needs to be combined with a display and a PC or other device to make a complete touch input system. property prices] are sky rocketing intelligent utilization of space is of great importance. Components that act as Backbone for this technology: A basic touchscreen has three main components: a touch sensor.1 Touch Sensor A touch screen sensor is a clear glass panel with a touch responsive surface.e. The touch sensor/panel is placed over a display screen so that the responsive area of the panel covers the viewable area of the video screen. a controller. Some of them are discussed below.  Easy to use: This provides for a rich user interface experience as this supports for a very intuitive easy to use environment and is facilitated by just a touch. The sensor generally has an electrical current or signal going through it and touching the screen causes a voltage or signal 5 . There are several different touch sensor technologies on the market today.   4. each using a different method to detect touch input. The touchscreen is an input-output device. Having a touchscreen laptop would make navigation extremely faster and more reliable. 3. No need to worry about clicking the wrong option. 4. Capability: The Touch Screens come with a variety of definite advantages over normal /conventional input-output devices. and a software driver. the amount of time spent to do simple navigations with these devices are extremely slow as compared to simply touching the screen and pointing directly at the option. Saves space: In this world where cost of real estate [i. Thus touch screens facilitate for this by saving space of keyboard and this finds many application in day today activities. Speed and Reliability: While laptops do come with a mouse pad and a USB port to allow you to attach an external mouse to your laptop for easier navigation. especially if you are making transactions over the Internet.user interface component and have begun to integrate touchscreen functionality into the fundamental design of their products..

The controller determines what type of interface/connection you will need on the PC. 4. SOFTWARE DRIVER CONTROLLER TOUCHSCREEN SENSOR SETUP Computer [Can also mean processor of hand held devices] Figure 4. DVD players.3. This makes touching the screen the same as clicking your mouse at the same location on the screen. This voltage change is used to determine the location of the touch to the screen.change.2. Integrated touch monitors will have an extra cable connection on the back for the touchscreen. Controller The controller is a small PC card that connects between the touch sensor and the PC.1 6 . Most touch screen drivers today are a mouseemulation type driver. This allows the touchscreen to work with existing software and allows new applications to be developed without the need for touchscreen specific programming. It tells the computer's operating system how to interpret the touch event information that is sent from the controller.3. 4. Specialized controllers are also available that work with DVD players and other devices. Controllers are available that can connect to a Serial/COM port (PC) or to a USB port (PC or Macintosh). Some equipment such as thin client terminals.Software Driver The driver is a software update for the PC system that allows the touchscreen and computer to work together. The controller is usually installed inside the monitor for integrated monitors or it is housed in a plastic case for external touch add-ons/overlays. and specialized computer systems either do not use software drivers or they have their own built-in touch screen driver. It takes information from the touch sensor and translates it into information that PC can understand.

In many cases. have a complex signal-processing demand (which adds cost and power consumption).5. This is most pronounced in direct sunlight conditions where the sun has a very high energy distribution in the infrared region. which reduces the optical quality of the display.The LED and photosensor pairs create a grid of light beams across the display. 7 . Technologies: There are a number of types of touchscreen technologies. The measured photosensor outputs can be used to locate a touch-point coordinate. Another feature of infrared touch which has been long desired is the digital nature of the sensor output when compared to many other touch systems that rely on analog-signal processing to determine a touch position. This latter problem is a result of background light increasing the noise floor at the optical sensor. certain features of infrared touch remain desirable and represent attributes of the ideal touchscreen. These competing analog systems normally require continual recalibration. causing a measured decrease in light at the corresponding photosensors. sometimes to such a degree that the touchscreen’s LED light cannot be detected at all.1 Infrared In this technology infrared(IR) light-emitting diodes(LEDs) are placed at the opposite edges [ aks. An object (such as a finger or pen) that touches the screen interrupts the light beams. This advantage of optical touchscreens is extremely important for many device and display vendors since devices are often sold on the perceived quality of the user display experience. Widespread adoption of infrared touchscreens has been hampered by two factors: the relatively high cost of the technology compared to competing touch technologies and the issue of performance in bright ambient light. and have longer-term system-failure modes due to the operating environment. causing a temporary failure of the touch screen. Some of them are 5. including the option to eliminate the glass or plastic overlay that most other touch technologies require in front of the display. However. Bezel edges] to analyze the system and detect the touch event. this overlay is coated with an electrically conducting transparent material such as indium-tin oxide (ITO). demonstrate reduced accuracy and precision compared to a digital system.

1 5. metallic. presses down on a point on the panel's outer surface the two metallic layers become connected at that point: the panel then behaves as a pair of voltage dividers with connected outputs.1.Figure 5. 8 .2 Resistive A resistive touchscreen panel is composed of several layers. This causes a change in the electrical current which is registered as a touch event and sent to the controller for processing. electrically conductive layers separated by a narrow gap. the most important of which are two thin. When an object. such as a finger.

Contaminants on the surface can also interfere with the functionality of the touchscreen[1]. 9 . When the panel is touched. Surface wave touch screen panels can be damaged by outside elements.Figure 5.1 5.3 Surface acoustic wave Surface acoustic wave (SAW) technology uses ultrasonic waves that pass over the touchscreen panel. a portion of the wave is absorbed.2. This change in the ultrasonic waves registers the position of the touch event and sends this information to the controller for processing.

and operate even under screen protectors.3. perpendicular layers of conductive material with parallel lines or tracks to form the grid (comparable to the pixel grid found in many LCD displays). An XY array is formed either by etching a single layer to form a grid pattern of electrodes. The use of a grid permits a higher resolution than resistive technology and also allows multitouch operation. Bringing a finger or conductive stylus close to the surface of the sensor changes the local electrostatic field. or by etching two separate. Applying voltage to the array creates a grid of capacitors. or behind weather and vandal-proof glass.4 Projected Capacitive Projected Capacitive Touch (PCT) technology is a capacitive technology which permits more accurate and flexible operation.1 5. by etching the conductive layer. The greater resolutions of PCT allows operation without direct contact. such that the conducting layers can be coated with further protective insulating layers. 10 .Figure 5. The capacitance change at every individual point on the grid can be measured to accurately determine the touch location[5].

The sensor's controller can determine the location of the touch indirectly from the change in the capacitance as measured from the four corners of the panel. It is therefore most often used in simple applications such as industrial controls and kiosks[4]. 11 .5 Surface capacitance In this basic technology.4. a capacitor is dynamically formed. it is moderately durable but has limited resolution. A small voltage is applied to the layer. touches the uncoated surface.1 5. such as a human finger. resulting in a uniform electrostatic field. only one side of the insulator is coated with a conductive layer. and needs calibration during manufacture.Figure 5. As it has no moving parts. is prone to false signals from parasitic capacitive coupling. When a conductor.

5. the system records the change in the electrical current that flows through the display. to interpret the command that this represents. the capacitive or resistive approach. 2. 3. Dispersive-signal technology which 3M created in 2002. 12 . 4. CONSTRUCTION: There are several principal ways to build a touchscreen. there are typically four layers. When a user touches the surface. measures the piezoelectric effect — the voltage generated when mechanical force is applied to a material — that occurs chemically when a strengthened glass substrate is touched.1 6. The key goals are to recognize one or more fingers touching a display. Top polyester layer coated with a transparent metallic conductive coating on the bottom Adhesive spacer Glass layer coated with a transparent metallic conductive coating on the top Adhesive layer on the backside of the glass for mounting. 1.Figure 5. and to communicate the command to the appropriate application. In the most popular techniques.

Comparison of touch screen technologies: 8.7. 13 . Understanding how touch screen accepts input resistive technology as an example : [5][6][7] This part can be considered as a case study where we shall explore resistive screen technology and understand how exactly the exact location of touch will be calculated by the controller [AD7879] circuit.

is excited by the supply voltage. the X-plate in the diagram above.2. is sensed through the Y+ electrode. The screen is formed by two plastic films. which represents the position on the X-plate. When the screen is touched. as shown in Figure 8. each coated with a conductive layer of metal—usually indium tin oxide (ITO)—that are separated by an air gap. creating a resistor divider along the X-plate. The process is then repeated by exciting the Y-plate and sensing the Y position through the X+ electrode. the two conductive plates come together. The voltage at the point of contact.1 Shows a basic diagram of the construction and operation of a touch screen.Figure 8.1 Figure 8. One plate. 14 .

2 Next. the touch resistance is given by: 15 . the supply is placed across Y+ and X–. and Z2 is measured as the voltage at Y–. and two further screen measurements are made: Z1 is measured as the voltage at X+.Figure 8. If the resistance of the X-plate is known. These measurements can be used to estimate the touch pressure in one of two ways.

the AD7879 delivers an interrupt to the host microcontroller. An interrupt is sent to the host at the end of the conversion. waking it from its low-power mode to process the data. After each conversion sequence. Thus. Figure 3 shows the setup for the wake-up-on-touch function.Wake Up on Touch The AD7879 can be configured to start up and convert when the screen is touched and to power down after release. which then starts converting. This can be useful for battery-powered devices where power conservation is important.and Y-plates connect. pulling the deglitch input low and waking the AD7879. When the screen is touched. the X. 16 . the microcontroller also draws little power until the screen is touched.

This is computed for all three coordinates. 17 . Y and Z are activated in succession to take the reading.Touch screen acquisition flowchart: Initially the touch screen controller’s pen interrupt (PENIRQ) is held high. Y and if needed Z coordinate. Thus the end result of this reading is the coordinate where the touch has been sensed. Drivers for X. When the user touches the screen this line is made low indicating the drivers to read X. In the averaging stage the inputs which are read are checked to fall within a permissible limit and if found to fall outside this limit then these are discarded and are to be read again.

and Shneiderman. Number 4. 4." Analog Dialogue. B. www. B. 5. 8. and Shneiderman. Ablex. J. Touch screens now offer compelling uses. Rick Downs: Using resistive touch screens for human/machine interface. Its needless to say that the further improvement in this technology is inevitable and this can change the way we think what input-output devices are. References: 1. C.C. Number 4. B. Weldon. Improving the accuracy of touch screen: An experimental evaluation of three" Analog Dialogue. 3 . Potter. Hartson. 593-613. Paul. In Advances in Human-Computer Interaction.gadgets with gait recognition all thanks to ground breaking technology of touchscreens that set the ball rolling. and Shneiderman. Our world today has already started to see the emergence of visual screen that are flexible. A. of Man-Machine Studies. 18 .analog. Conclusion: Touch screen can be considered as the future on which all new gadgets shall bank on. 2.. Volume 40. 27-32. 1-33. Kearney. ACM Press. can be worn on wrist like a wrist watch . (Eds. Proc. Volume 35. A new era for high precision touchscreens. Int. High precision touchscreen: Design strategies and comparison with a mouse. Plaisant. "The PDA Challenge—Met by the AD7873 Resistive-Touch-Screen Controller ADC. D. R. A. 7. 1988). R and Hix. 2. We are already in the era that has seen many ground breaking technologies emerge and touch screen is one amongst them which has changed the way users interact with their gadgets to a whole new level. (March 1991) 93-94.. IEEE Software. Susan. D. May. L.. Ask The Applications Engineer—35. 6. CHI'88.). Sears. 3 (1992). Pratt.9.. www.analog. NJ.Sears. (Washington. 10. Shneiderman. B. "Capacitance Sensors for Human Interfaces to Electronic Equipment. 34 (1991).

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