This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Characterization of Frictional Behavior in Cold Forging
K. H. Jung • H. C. Lee • J. S. Ajiboye Y. T. Im
Received: 25 April 2009 / Accepted: 5 October 2009 / Published online: 15 October 2009 Ó Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009
Abstract In the present investigation, tip test was utilized to characterize the effects of surface roughness of the specimen and forming tools, rate of deformation, and type of lubricants on friction in solid and solid contact under high contact pressure at room temperature. For the test, a cylindrical specimen made of aluminum alloy of 6061-O was used and grease, corn oil, VG100, and VG32 were applied as lubricants. Single punch and two counter punch sets with different surface roughness of Ra = 0.08 and 0.63 lm were manufactured in order to investigate a frictional behavior during the test. In addition, two different deformation speeds of 0.1 and 5.0 mm/s were used for the test to check their effect on friction as well. Load levels and tip distances obtained from the test were compared to ﬁnd out any correlation between the two. The change of surface topology of the specimen was monitored by optical measurement technique to better understand a frictional behavior at the punch and counter punch interfaces. Present investigation clearly shows that tip test is easy to apply to experimentally characterize the frictional behavior in cold forging under various processing conditions considered. Keywords Friction test method Á Forging Á Surface roughness Á Optical microscopy Á Forging ﬂuids
1 Introduction Friction is generated between two bodies in contact under a normal load and deﬁned as the resistance to relative motion between the two. Conventionally, friction was described by Coulomb friction (s = lp, l = coefﬁcient of friction and p = normal stress) or constant shear model (s = mks, m = shear friction factor and ks = shear yield stress of the material) known as Tresca friction model . For the high contact pressure, the latter works better under the condition that m is characterized correctly . It is well known that frictional behavior depends on processing variables such as contact area, deformation speed, temperature, surface condition, and environmental factors in general. Thus, it is not easy to characterize m correctly for general purpose. So far, ring compression test has been widely used for friction measurement because of its simplicity . In this test, calibration curves introduced by analytical or numerical techniques should be employed to determine the m value by measuring dimensional change of the inner diameter. In spite of the extensive literature available on friction studies, an experimental technique for speciﬁcally estimating the effects of processing variables such as deformation speed, surface roughness, and the type of lubricants on friction is rather limited [1–4]. Recently, Im et al. [5, 6] proposed a tip test based on a hybrid of simple compression and backward extrusion in which a radial tip was formed on the extruded end of the specimen to evaluate the friction and lubrication more accurately. A cylindrical specimen, whose diameter was larger than the diameter of the punch and smaller than the diameter of the cylindrical die including the counter punch as shown in Fig. 1, formed the tip in the test. Because of large free surface generation during the backward extrusion, this test can be more suitable for friction
K. H. Jung Á H. C. Lee Á J. S. Ajiboye Á Y. T. Im (&) Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Research Laboratory for Computer Aided Materials Processing, KAIST, 373-1 Gusongdong, Yusonggu, Daejeon 305-701, Korea e-mail: email@example.com
. the punch velocity and surface conditions were maintained to be constant and similar. Using the test setup developed by Im et al. an experimental attempt to characterize the inﬂuence of surface roughness. Kang et al. notable feature of the tip test relies on the linearity among the shear friction factor.354 Tribol Lett (2010) 37:353–359 Fig. For this study. It was also found out that the friction condition on the punch interface (mf p ) was determined to be higher than the one on the counter punch interface (mf d ) in the case investigated earlier based on numerical calibrations using the ﬁnite element analyses.0 to 0. 1. the friction condition at the container was assumed to be the same as the one at the counter punch in numerical simulations [6. soap.  determined a non-dimensional equation for the shear friction factor mf p at the punch interface according to the test results for the materials of copper. the present characterization scheme seems to be valid for the whole stroke. 1 Schematic of the tip test investigated Fig. the tip test characterized friction conditions at the punch and counter punch interfaces separately. 7]. experimentally determined positions of the radial tip from the inner wall of the container (at the ﬁve selected strokes) and forming loads were compared reasonably well for the whole stroke with simulation results by employing different m values for the punch and counter punch interfaces as reproduced in Fig. 3 Comparison of positions of radial tips and forming loads during punch travel obtained from the simulation and experiment of tip test of AL2024-O with VG100  Fig. 2 based on the result from reference . and maximum load measured. and aluminum alloys under various lubrication conditions with grease. the x value was quantitatively determined by matching the slope of the numerically calculated nondimensional load versus tip distance graph with the experimentally determined one in parallel depending on the deforming material and given surface and processing conditions. and type of lubricants on frictional behavior was made at room temperature in which the temperature effect can be negligible. 3. the downsized tip test setup was designed and manufactured as shown in Fig.9  measurement in metal forming compared to ring or other tests under the high contact pressure. Also. In addition. According to these studies. In the present study. industrial mineral oils. In these works. the slope between the measured load and tip distance was dependent on the ratio x ¼ mf d =mf p as reproduced in Fig. deformation speeds. Thus. They also correlated the x value as a function of the strain hardening exponent of the material under the given investigation conditions. In this work. drawing oil. 2 Load versus radial tip distance curves depending on the value of x for the various friction conditions of mf p ranging from 0. radial tip distance. and MoS2: mfp ¼ 4:35 Â d=t À 0:95. respectively. carbon steel. The surface roughness of the counter punch was varied 123 . According to this ﬁgure. where d was the tip distance and t the thickness of the extruded part when the surface roughness of the punch and counter punch was in the same order. In these previous studies carried out so far.
05 lm) surfaces by employing Olympus OLS-3000. application of a hair dryer blew away residue of acetone and each lubricant was brushed manually. In the tip test.63 lm. 5 for various experimental conditions.65 lm). Before applying each of the four kinds of lubricants of grease (AMSOIL GLC-12).17 lm. cooking corn oil. and type of lubricants were not noticeable at the upsetting stage of deformation. 99%) to avoid adulteration among lubricants. respectively. optical measurements were made by employing a confocal microscopy (Olympus OLS-3000) and white-light scanning interferometer microscopy.02 mm. 2 Experiment The tip test experiments were performed with the device illustrated in Fig. respectively. Commercially available AL6061-O bar with the diameter of 12 mm was fully annealed by heating from room temperature to 415 °C and soaked at this temperature for 3 h according to Metals Handbook . and die were cleaned by a wiper (Kimtech Wipers) soaked with acetone (Junsei Assay (GC) min. and the tolerance of specimens was maintained to be less than ±0.1 mm. 4 Initial surface topologies of the rough and smooth counter punches measured by a whitelight scanning interferometer microscope 355 from Ra = 0. and circumferential (1. The environmental factors such as temperature and humidity were carefully monitored during the test. bottom (0. followed by machining into a cylindrical specimen size of 10 mm in diameter and 5 mm in height. beginning of the 123 .65 lm).08 to 0. To measure surface topologies of the billet. For the measurement. surfaces of the punch. punch. The load was applied using a computer-controlled MTS machine (Alliance RT/100) with a maximum load of 100 kN. while the counter punch and container were stationary.63 lm to examine variations of friction behavior and material ﬂow in the test using AL6061-O depending on surface topology. Since it is not easy to maintain the axi-symmetry perfectly in experiments. centering should be carefully monitored for achieving an axi-symmetric deformation. Figure 4 compares surface topologies of the counter punch used for the tip test in terms of arithmetic mean values of Ra = 0. counter punch. Four different lubricants such as grease (AMSOIL GLC-12). 3 Results and Discussion The measured load versus stroke curves is given in Fig. 1. After cleaning. The average values of measured forming loads and tip distances obtained from ﬁve experiments were compared depending on the test conditions. The arithmetic mean value of surface roughness of the specimen was also measured at the top (0. while the surface roughness of the punch was maintained to be the same as 0. deformation speed. a confocal laser microscope (Olympus OLS-3000) and white-light scanning interferometer microscope were used. the bar was cooled off at a cooling rate of 30 °C/h to 265 °C and ﬁnally exposed to air-cooling until reaching the room temperature. ﬁve experiments were carried out. and VG32 (Shell Tellus). Measurement of the dimension of the specimen with vernier calipers (Mitutoyo CD-15CPX) reduced a size irregularity. and counter punch. the tip distance was measured at four different points to determine the average value used in the present investigation. respectively. In this ﬁgure. VG100. As deformation increases. The punch and counter punch including the container used for the tip test were made of tool steel alloy AISI D2 and were chromium coated and polished. which has an extended focal imaging function to integrate pictures of different focuses. the effects of the surface roughness.Tribol Lett (2010) 37:353–359 Fig. and VG32 (Shell Tellus) were used in experiments to determine the effect of viscosity on friction. The tip distance d of the deformed specimen was measured as depicted in Fig. In earlier works [5–7]. 1 by an optical microscope (Olympus B201). Then.1 to 5 mm/s in experiments to check their effect on friction as well. The ram velocity was also varied from 0. the diameter and height of the specimen used in experiments were 30 and 15 mm. VG100. The upper punch was moving downward at the speed of 0.1 or 5 mm/s up to the stroke of 3.08 or 0. For each lubricant. cooking corn oil.
and d VG32 backward extrusion indicated in an arrow in this ﬁgure occurred earlier for the rough counter punch case than in the smooth counter punch case due to the friction effect of surface roughness in terms of barreling. especially largest for VG100. 6 for both deformation speeds. in the present experiments. c VG100. It is well known that asperities in the specimen surface produced by machining prevented free deformation by the restraint of the underlying elastically stressed material . This shows that load measurement alone might not be a good parameter to determine friction levels depending on the interfacial and processing conditions. According to Fig. Since the rough counter punch surface with Ra = 0. c. For both surface roughness cases of the counter punch.1 and 5. 5a. the changes of surface topologies at the bottom surface of the specimen during two deformation stages are compared with the initial one at the same place in Fig. and d for the lubricants of corn oil.25 mm. In order to ﬁgure out load conversion for the case of VG32. According to these ﬁgures. and VG32. This kind of load drop might be due to the larger hydrodynamic support of lubrication pockets for liquid lubricants at the boundary interfaces. interlocking of grooves between the specimen and counter punch surfaces is likely. more vividly in VG100 and VG32 when the stroke was higher than approximately 2. thereby increasing resistance to free 123 . load levels were about the same for all the strokes for the grease irrelevant of the experimental conditions. the case with VG32 and rough counter punch at the lower speed requires the highest load requirement as expected. For the higher ram velocity of 5 mm/s load levels were measured to be lower at the later stage of backward extrusion than those for the lower deformation speed of 0. measured load levels were interestingly almost the same between the rough and smooth counter punch cases for all the lubricants for higher and lower deformation speeds except for the cases of VG100 and 32 of lower deformation speed of 0.1 mm/s in Fig. 5 Load versus stroke curves depending on the surface roughness of the counter punch and deforming speed for the lubricants of a grease. 5b. VG100. The patterns observed at the bottom of the specimen revealed the type of constraint encountered by the deforming material. b corn oil.1 mm/s.356 Tribol Lett (2010) 37:353–359 Fig. In the same ﬁgure.0 mm/s. load requirements were the lowest under the lubrication case with grease and VG100 for the deformation speed of 0.63 lm used in the present investigation was left as machined. respectively.
1.08 lm) for the lower deformation speed of 0. d. and c 5 mm/s. These two mechanisms will govern the load requirement during deformation. new surface contact with no lubricant will be generated to increase the load level and lubricant pockets can also be formulated to create a hydrodynamic pressure to partly support the load for the liquid lubricants . In the case of the smooth counter punch (Ra = 0. resulting in higher new surface contact and smaller lubrication pockets leading to a higher load requirement at the later stage of deformation for VG100 and 32 as seen in Fig. For the case of the higher deformation speed of 5 mm/s.Tribol Lett (2010) 37:353–359 Fig. As the load increases. of b 0. however. 5c.1 mm/s the asperities in the original specimen were reduced continuously in this ﬁgure as deformation increased. respectively. observed by a white-light scanning interferometer microscope 357 deformation. 6 Surface topologies of a the bottom of the initial specimen and deformed specimens at two different strokes under the lubrication of VG32 for deforming speeds. By comparing the changes of surface 123 . this kind of conversion between the rough and smooth counter punch surfaces was not noticeable owing to counter balance between the new surface contact and lubrication pocket generation.
respectively. According to the previous work by Im et al. -0. Owing to the effect of hydrodynamic lubrication pockets for liquid lubricants. the normalized tip distance d/t for the sticking condition at the punch interface was numerically calculated to be around 0. deformation speed. In this ﬁgure. 7 Plots of normalized maximum load versus tip distance of the tip test result for AL6061-O specimen topologies. If the measured value of the normalized tip distance is larger than the converging point value in this ﬁgure. then the friction at the punch interface is larger than the one at the counter punch interface and vice versa. The measured tip distances clearly demonstrated different aspects of frictional behavior depending on the processing and interfacial conditions in this ﬁgure. . It is demonstrated that the friction level of the counter punch interface due to the variation of surface roughness compared to the one of punch interface plays a key role for the slope shift from positive (0 \ x \ 1) to negative (x [ 1) during the test regardless of deformation speeds. Interestingly. load levels for the higher deformation speed decreased at the later stage of backward extrusion for both surface conditions compared to the lower deformation speed. This reassures reproducibility of the test results for the linearity. the slope is notably dependent on the surface and processing conditions at the interfaces during the deformation and is determined to be positive when 0 \ x \ 1 and negative for x [ 1.214 mm. However.5 for the smooth (Ra = 0.44). x values were determined to be 0. 7.08 lm) to negative (Ra = 0.358 Tribol Lett (2010) 37:353–359 Fig. the normalized load requirement for the frictionless or sticking condition can be estimated in this ﬁgure as well. linearity between the normalized load and tip distance was reconﬁrmed and change of the slope from positive (Ra = 0. In other words. it can be seen in Fig. the slope of the L/1000 versus d/t graph obtained from the current investigation for the positive case (0 \ x \ 1) was almost the same to the one obtained in the earlier investigations [5–7] in which the bigger specimen size (diameter 9 height = Ø30 9 15 mm2) was used in experiments. According to this ﬁgure. This experimental observation obtained from the tip test is very unique in determining the relative magnitude of the friction at the punch and counter punch interfaces depending on the given surface and processing conditions. respectively. and type of lubricants on the normalized maximum load and tip distance are clearly observed in the current tip test investigation.08 lm or positive slope. further work is necessary to calibrate the present experimental observation to derive a nondimensional equation between mf p and d/t for both positive and negative slope cases.63 lm or negative slope.000 kN and tip thickness t of 1. According to the ﬁnite element simulations using an inhouse program CAMPform [10–12] to match the slope of L/1000 versus d/t graphs.2) and rough counter punch (Ra = 0. For the lubricant of grease. It is clear in Fig. 4 Conclusions The effects of surface roughness. The variation of tip distances due to surface roughness of the counter punch increased as the viscosity of lubricant and the deformation speed decreased. 6 that the new surface contact increased and lubrication pockets decreased as deformation speed increased. the measured load and tip distance were normalized by 1. 7 that measurement of the slope between the normalized maximum load and tip distance can be used as a determining parameter of the friction levels between the punch and counter punch interfaces without measuring their surface conditions based on this observation.5 although it is not possible to achieve the fully frictionless and sticking conditions in the experiment. Figure 7 shows the plots of experimental data of normalized maximum load (L/1000) versus tip distance (d/t) obtained from the tip test under various lubrication conditions and two different surface roughness of the counter punch. the tip test can be used for characterizing the effects of the surface condition and lubricant viscosity on frictional and ﬂow behavior at various processing conditions under high contact pressure at room temperature. the variation of maximum load and tip distance was measured to be minimal among the cases tested. . In most bulk forming 123 . these two lines converge to one point which is close to the frictionless case ideally. From the current investigation.63 lm) was observed due to the relative levels of friction between the punch and counter punch interfaces depending on the surface and lubrication conditions at the interfaces. For the negative case (x [ 1) it was also the same to the one reported in the work by Chauviere et al.7 and 3. Thus. In Fig. 0.
2501–2528 (2002) 13.: A model for friction in metal forming processes. Ohio (1979) 9.H.: Finite element investigation of friction condition in a backward extrusion of aluminum alloy.: Three-dimensional ﬁnite element analysis of non-isothermal shape rolling. Science and Technology (No. A. Kim. Chauviere.Y.: Remeshing for metal forming simulations—Part I: two-dimensional quadrilateral remeshing. 189–194 (1978) 3. J. Prof. Kim. D. pp. 6. Trans ASME.: Analysis of friction in ring compression: a factorial experiment.... Lee.A. Im. Kang. J Mater Process Technol 127. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea through the National Research Laboratory program funded by the Ministry of Education.Tribol Lett (2010) 37:353–359 359 5.Y.S. 409–415 (2002) 6. Y.... Wanheim. Kang. Lee. J.A.T. Y. Kwak. 855–869 (2004) 8. J.C.) Handbook of Metal Forming. K. 924–930 (2008) processes.. J Manuf Sci Eng 125. D.H. London and New York (1979) 2. Cheon. Im. Cheon. careful friction characterization using the tip test might be more beneﬁcial for general practice according to the present observations. S. Y.. Trans ASME. Cheon. 378–383 (2003) 7. Thus. the punch and dies are used for generating deformation which mostly consists of upsetting and extrusion mode. Dowson.1–6. Int J Numer Methods Eng 53(11). J. Y. Im.S.. Annal CIRP 27(1).T. Mulc. K. J Manuf Sci Eng 124. References 1.Y. J Mech Sci Technol 22. Im.H.T. N.: Tribology. ASM International: Metals Handbook Ninth Edition: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous Alloys and Pure Metals. Ajiboye appreciates the visiting scholarship from the Ministry of Education. Schey.T.25.H. Y. D.T.. J. Im. T. S. B. S. Kang. S. Y. Wiley... R0A-2006-000-10240-0). P.S. New York (1999) 10.. (ed. Cheon. 2463–2500 (2002) 12. J.: The effect of strain hardening on frictional behavior in tip test. Bay. H. Kalpakjian. 57–63 (2002) 11.: Remeshing for metal forming simulations—Part II: three-dimensional hexahedral mesh generation. Science and Technology through the BK21 program..S.: History of Tribology.K.: Principles and Applications of Tribology.H.: Determination of friction condition by geometrical measurement of backward extruded aluminum alloy specimen. Im. New York (1985) 123 . In: Lange. Kang. Int J Mech Sci 46...: Experimental study of miniaturized tip test. D. Bhushan. Kwak. Trans ASME J Eng Ind 94. Int J Numer Methods Eng 53(11).H.. Y.T. Longman. Jung. S.. S. American Society for Metals. Im. 1189– 1192 (1972) 4.T. McGraw-Hill.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?