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CP 23 : 2000
CODE OF PRACTICE FOR
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this Singapore Standard may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilming, without permission in writing from the Singapore Productivity and Standards Board at the address below: Director Centre for Standardisation Singapore Productivity and Standards Board 1 Science Park Drive Singapore 118221 Telephone: 2786666 Telefax: 2786665 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
CP 23: 2000
This Singapore Standard was approved by Construction Industry Practice Committee on behalf of the Standards Council of Singapore on 4 September 2000. First published, 1982 First revision, 2000 The Construction Industry Practice Committee appointed by the Standards Council consists of the following members: Name Chairman Secretary Members Mr Lam Siew Wah Ms Tan Sock Cheng Er. Ang Chee Keong Mr Boo Geok Kwang Mr Chee Keng Yam Mr Giam Siang Hai Mr Ho Siong Hin Er. Hui Beng Hong Mr Paul Low Khoon Hock Mr Neo Poh Kok Assoc Prof Gary Ong Khim Chye Mr Gilbert Tan Peng Cheng Mr Jimmy Tsen Chee Nam Assoc Prof Yip Woon Kwong Co-opted Members Dr Jimmy Chen Wie Ying Mr Ian Lander Dr Lau Yat Sun Organisation Standards Council Singapore Productivity and Standards Board Institution of Engineers Singapore Singapore Civil Defence Force Association of Consulting Engineers Singapore Singapore Contractors Association Limited Department of Industrial Safety Institution of Engineers Singapore Singapore Institute of Architects Housing & Development Board National University of Singapore Singapore Confederation of Industries PWD Corporation Pte Ltd Nanyang Technological University Individual Capacity Individual Capacity Individual Capacity
The Technical Committee on Construction Practice appointed by the Construction Industry Practice Committee and responsible for the preparation of this standard consists of representatives from the following organisations: Name Chairman Deputy Chairman Secretary Members Mr Giam Siang Hai Er. Low Kam Fook Mr Christopher Ow Mun Kit Assoc Prof Lim Ewe Chye Mr Mak Kwok Leong Mr Ow Chun Nam Mr Tan Kim Leong Mr Joseph Teow Mr Wan Tong Wah Co-opted Members Mr Michael Ho Boon Thong Mr Yap Guan Hwa Organisation Construction Industry Practice Committee Institution of Engineers Singapore Singapore Productivity and Standards Board Nanyang Technological University Housing & Development Board Land Transport Authority Ministry of The Environment Singapore Institute of Architects Ministry of Manpower Individual Capacity Building and Construction Authority
CP 23: 2000
The Working Group appointed by the Technical Committee to assist in the preparation of this standard comprises the following members: Name Convenor Members Mr Michael Ho Boon Thong Er. Ang Chee Keong Mr Richie Lim Teng Han Mr Mak Kwok Leong Er. Teo Tit Ngee Mr Joseph Teow Organisation Member of Technical Committee Institution of Engineers Singapore Individual Capacity Member of Technical Committee Singapore Contractors Association Limited Member of Technical Committee
CP 23: 2000 (blank page) 4 .
1 1.9 3.2 1.10 3.General 1.1 4.6 3.Construction 4.4 3.3 4.2 4.2 General Materials Design _ _ 10 10 Section Three - 3.8 3.2 3.5 4.1 3.7 3.5 3.1 2.11 Scope Application of section Design requirements Loads Analysis and design Shores Diagonal bracing Foundations for formwork Shoring and screwjacks Deflection limits Drawings 11 12 12 13 16 19 19 19 19 19 20 Section Four .6 Safety precautions Tolerances Shoring Adjustment of formwork Removal of formwork and shoring Shoring and reshoring for multi-storey structures _ _ _ _ _ _ 20 22 24 26 26 27 5 .3 Scope New materials or methods Definitions Materials _ _ _ 8 8 8 Section Two - 2.CP 23: 2000 Contents Page Foreword ------------------------------------------------------------ 7 CODE OF PRACTICE Section One .3 3.4 4.
CP 23: 2000 Page ANNEXES A B C Propping time for suspended work _ 29 30 31 Minimum requirements for testing formwork components to establish ultimate strength Information in drawing and specifications _ TABLES Values of coefficient C2 2 Tolerances for bare reinforced concrete structures Spacing of diagonal braces Minimum stripping and propping times _ 15 _ _ _ 23 26 27 3 4 FIGURES Controlled heaping of concrete 2 Bracing _ _ 14 25 6 .
7 . 4. Compliance with a Singapore Standard does not exempt users from legal obligations. AS 3600 : 1994 AS 3610: 1995 BS 5975 : 1996 Concrete Structures Formwork for concrete Code of Practice for Falsework Construction Industry Research and Information CIRIA Report 108 is made for the use of information from the above publications. information from the following publications was used to update the code with modification to suit the local context: 1. In the design aspect of this code. 2. 2. Hence.'Code of Practice for Formwork'. In preparing this code. loading guidelines from established standards and publications were adopted. the Technical Committee appreciated the fact that specifying tolerance for concrete surfaces more exacting than needed may unnecessarily hinder the construction progress and increase in construction costs. 3.CP 23: 2000 Foreword This Code of Practice was prepared by the Technical Committee on Construction Practice under the direction of the Construction Industry Practice Committee. The revisions of Singapore Standards are announced through the issue of either amendment slips or revised editions. Singapore Standards are subject to periodic review to keep abreast of technological changes and new technical developments. the Technical Committee deliberated at length to update the tolerance to make it more practical and universal. The importance of safety in design and construction of formwork is emphasised by the inclusion of recommended safe work practices in the appropriate sections of the code. It is a revision of CP 23 : 1982 . Acknowledgement NOTE 1. Design approaches have also included ultimate strength option to allow for greater flexibility in design methods. In preparing this code. This is to avoid formwork failure.
NOTE 2 .3 Bracing Secondary structural members which normally do not support gravity loads but are required to provide lateral stability to other structural members or to transfer horizontal loads to support.6 Diagonal bracing Supplementary formwork member designed to resist lateral loads.3. persons or organisation 1. 1.1 Approved to the context. 1. The person. NOTE 1 .3. this code should be read in conjunction with AS 3610 : 1995.If surface finish or colour uniformity is important.1 Scope The recommendations of this code apply to the design. 1. 8 . fabrication.CP 23: 2000 Code of practice for formwork Section One .3.The titles of the publications referred to in this standard are listed at the end of the standard.5 Designer responsible for the design of the formwork.3 Definitions For the purpose of this code. persons or organisation agreeing under a contract to execute the work.3. 1.2 Architect A person who is registered with the Board of Architects in Singapore. 1.3.3. approved either by the Engineer/Architect or the relevant Statutory According Authority. 1. which sets out in detail requirements for formwork to achieve various degrees of surface finish and colour uniformity.General 1. "Formwork for concrete". the following definitions shall apply: 1.4 Contractor The person.2 New materials or methods or of methods of design or This code shall not be interpreted to prevent the use of materials construction not specifically referred to herein. erection and stripping of form work and formwork for any reinforced concrete structures.
3. 1.3. support and framing used to define the shape of concrete until it is self-supporting.3. 9 . 1.3. concrete or metal spreader used to distribute the load from a standard or baseplate to the ground or supporting structure. which temporarily loads either the formwork assembly or the previously placed concrete. assemblies.3. 1.18 Stacked materials Construction materials such as formwork components.12 Permissible stress The stress that can be sustained with acceptable safety by structural component under the particular condition of service loading. 1. the form face to achieve a desired surface finish.CP 23: 2000 1.13 Prop A compression member used as a temporary fixing its length.3. beams and the like.11 Form tie (also called 'wall tie' or 'tie rod') A device which penetrates a form.7 Engineer A person who is registered with the Professional Engineers Board in Singapore. 1. and whose load 1. 1. 1. extends through the permanent structure and retains the form from movement due to concrete pressure. 1.8 Formwork The surface. or part of.9 Formwork assembly An assembly of formwork components including footings which together constitute a structure.3.3.3. reinforcement.14 Proprietary item An item made in quantity production for general use in formwork capacity has been proven by analysis or test. and 1.16 Soffit formwork Formwork to the undersides of slabs.3. bricks.3. support and incorporating a means for varying and 1.17 Sole plate A timber.15 Repropping A process used during the construction operation in which the original props are removed replaced in a sequence planned to avoid any damage to partially cure concrete.3.10 Form lining (also called 'form liners') Non-structural material placed on.
3. 2.21 Strut A member in compression. Section Two .CP 23: 2000 1.2.Materials 2. 1. Load factors applied to ultimate strengths claimed by manufacturers shall conform to the requirements of this code. "Plywood" and other timber relevant codes. 188.8.131.52.1 General Responsibility for materials The selection of materials for formwork and shoring is primarily the responsibility of the Contractor to meet the safety and the specified finish of the concrete. If approval of any material by the Engineer is specified.2 Non-proprietary formwork material 2. 1.22 Tie A member in tension.1 2. should comply with Singapore 10 . If approval of any formwork material by the Engineer is specified. such approval shall be based only upon considerations of safety and the quality of the finished concrete work. 1.3.1 Timber materials It is recommended that timber material used for the formwork Standards SS 1.1 Materials Proprietary formwork material Manufacturers' data should be supported by tests at an accredited or a recognised laboratory before they are accepted.2 2.19 Stripping (also called 'striking') The removal of forms from the surface of the hardened concrete.20 Statutory Authority A body having statutory powers to control the design and erection of buildings or structures in the area in which the building or structure concerned is to be erected. 2.1.2. For proprietary formwork the manufacturer shall provide documentary evidence to substantiate the design strength of the formwork material. such approval shall be based only upon considerations of safety and the quality of the finished work.3.23 Tolerance Acceptable limits for deviation.3.
(b) (c) (d) Care shall be taken to ensure compatibility of coatings with form surfaces and plastic concrete.4) and sets out analysis and design by: (a) (b) (c) ultimate strength methods (see 3. and with the finished surface requirements of the hardened concrete. and testing (see 3.3). but an Section Three .3 Other formwork materials of this Other materials may be used for formwork provided these materials meet the requirements Code. Minimum requirements for the documentation 11 . "Code of practice for scaffolds".2 Scaffolding tubes and fittings given in the current Singapore Standard CP Tubes and fittings shall conform to the recommendations 14.Design 3. and to seal the form surfaces from the intrusion of moisture.4).2.5. It provides information on the loading to be considered in the design of the formwork assembly (see Clause 3.2. including admixtures in the concrete.4 Form coatings The choice of form coatings to give the specified quality of finished concrete surface shall be the responsibility of the Contractor and approved by the Engineer/Architect.1 Scope This section specifies minimum structural design requirements applicable to formwork assemblies and components. to facilitate the production of a specified texture of concrete surface. The purposes of form coatings are: (a) to facilitate the clean separation of the contact surface of the form and the concrete during stripping. permissible stress methods (see 3.5).2. be followed. When coatings are applied to forms in the field. 2. Form coatings on form surfaces shall be maintained so that they retain the required properties up to the time of stripping of forms.CP 23: 2000 2. The recommendations of manufacturers of form coating material should independent investigation of their performance is recommended before use. taking into account the application of further materials such as paint and tile adhesive to the concrete surface. of the formwork design are also provided in Annex C. care shall be exercised to prevent contact of the coating material with construction joint surfaces or reinforcing steel. 184.108.40.206. to improve the durability of the contact surface of the form.
3. the loading should then be assessed from the best available information: (a) (b) (c) Where the formwork assembly is of unusual configuration.3. shall be used for formwork design except for the following situations where the requirements of this section may not be sufficient. as appropriate. sliding and sidesway under the action of all appropriate load combinations.3. (b) Strength The formwork assembly and its component appropriate load combinations.CP 23: 2000 3. It is more effective for the restraint member to be designed for the transfer of forces to the foundation or permanent structure.3.2 Structural requirements The structural requirements are as follows: (a) Stability The formwork assembly shall resist overturning.3 Restraint systems Lateral restraint may be introduced to reduce the effective length of a compression member provided the restraint member is designed to support the load.3. timing. where applicable. they are to be included in the formwork documentation. restraint system. uplift. Where the formwork assembly is subject to special loads.3 3. or Where the formwork assembly is to be used under conditions adverse than those given in this section.1 Design requirements General The design of the formwork shall consider the structural stability adequacy. of loading that are more The technique of formwork fabrication. materials or geometry. erection. footings and construction techniques. surface finish and long term deformation of both the concrete elements it is used to produce and the previously cast portions of the permanent structure. use and removal can affect the structural integrity. 3.4. members shall withstand the effects of all 3. It is therefore essential that the matters listed in Annex C be known prior to commencement of the formwork activity and that.2 Application of section The loads given in Clause 3. accuracy. 3.4 Construction to be erected and The detailed design of the formwork assembly shall permit the components dismantled without conflict with other structures or the newly cast structure. 12 . (c) Stiffness The stiffness shall be such that the deformation under the appropriate loading on the formwork assembly and its component members does not exceed the limits specified in this Code.
4.1 Working areas Allowance should be made for access and working area loading on the formwork.2.4. hand tools and small equipment commonly used in reinforced concrete construction. superimposed. Provision for wind loading shall comply with requirements Building Control Act and Singapore Standard CP 14.4.5 Foundations and footings The foundation material beneath the formwork assembly shall be investigated to determine its bearing capacity and settlement characteristics. strength and stiffness. Should it be necessary to exceed these limitations. In computing the vertical loads.2 Vertical loads 3. and the common situations of impact and heaping of concrete occurring during placing operations.2 Superimposed 3.1 Loads General Formwork shall be designed to withstand all forces. individually and collectively shall be taken into account in the design.4. freshly placed concrete.5 kN/m2 is recommended to allow for the following situations: (a) (b) (c) (d) construction operatives. materials required for immediate use. 13 . The magnitude of all such forces. loads For this loading allowance to be valid.2. nor should the concrete be allowed to heap and accumulate on the formwork to a height more than 3 times the depth of the slab.3. 3. of the Building Control Regulations of the 3. A footing system shall be designed to support the formwork assembly on the foundation material so that the whole support system satisfies the requirements for stability. allowance for the additional loading should be made in the design. the dead load shall include the weight of formwork. a loading of 0. 3.CP 23: 2000 3.4 3. with a limit in area for any such accumulation to this height of 1 m2 (see figure 1). the concrete should not be dropped into the reception arrangements or on to horizontal surfaces from a free height greater than 1 m. Where allowance has only to be made for access and inspection purposes. wind and any other loads which could occur simultaneously during the period the formwork is used.4.2. resulting from dead. A loading of 1.1 Dead loads.2.75 kN/m2 should be adequate. both vertical and lateral. reinforcement and other embedded materials.
C1 1 for columns._.g.Designers are warned that it may be necessary in some cases to allow for much higher superimposed loads.CP 23: 2000 1 m max.4.=:0-_+ d .JR+ C2K-i (H. 3. Figure 1 .l.C1-iR)]. and when concrete is dumped from large-capacity skips or in the use of concrete pumps. p = = = = = maximum lateral concrete pressure.2 Storage areas Where materials to be stored on the working area produce concentrated or distributed pressures greater than 1. The limits of the area. the nature of the materials to be stored and the height to which the materials may be stacked. e. C1 1. = Pmax.5 C1 = = R rate at which the concrete rises vertically up the form. in the case of isolated beams.1 Lateral concrete The maximum lateral pressure exerted by the plastic concrete shall be the smaller of the following: (a) Pmax.4. Q_ [C(.5 kN/m2.4. Finished slab level Form surface d is the depth of the slab. This provision should either extend over the whole of the working area or the storage areas should be specifically designated and clearly marked on the drawings and on the site. in kilograms per cubic metre coefficient dependent on the size and shape of formwork: for walls.2. or 100 (b) = 100 where Pmax. provision should be made in the design for the additional loading. should be clearly defined and communicated in a form suitable for use and understanding on site. 2 2dmax.3. in metres per hour coefficient given in Table 1 for the constituent materials of the concrete 14 . hence the intensity of loading. ______ _--":::__ .-. Similar precautions will be necessary to guard against excessive storage of materials on a recently formed deck before this is self-supporting.2.3 Horizontal loads pressure (P) 3.Controlled heaping of concrete 3. NOTE . in kilopascals wet density of concrete.
15 .3 0. whichever is the greater. NOTE 1 .The equation is conservative for no-fines concrete.3 0. RHPC or SRPC with any admixture. These equations are not suitable for use in the following cases: (a) (b) (c) Grout injected concrete. PPFAC or blends containing less than 70% ggbfs or 40% pfa with a retarder Blends containing more than 70% ggbfs or 40% pfa 0. PBFC.6 0.Values of coefficient C2 Concrete OPC.6 0. in metres concrete temperature at placement. in degrees Celsius T Where C(J R > H. or where R or H are not known. 108. PBFC.The above equations were obtained from CIRIA Report No. NOTE 2 . PBFC.45 For all cementitious following apply: (a) (b) types the value of C2 shall be increased by 0. in metres vertical pour height. PPFAC or blends containing less than 70% ggbfs or 40% pfa with any admixtures. RHPC or SRPC with a retarder LHPBFC. Deep re-vibration of the concrete. Equation (b) above shall be used. RHPC or SRPC without admixtures OPC.45 0.The equation has not been proven for temperatures degree Celsius.15. and/or A superplasticizing admixture is used in the concrete. except a retarder LHPBFC.CP 23: 2000 K H h = = = = = temperature coefficient ( 36 / ( T + 16 )) 2 vertical form or concrete discharge height.45 a retarder Value of C2 0. Where one or both of the A retarding admixture is used in the concrete. and External vibration. NOTE 3 . PPFAC or blends containing less than 70% ggbfs or 40% pfa without admixtures LHPBFC. underwater concreting and very permeable forms such as expanded metal. or where the concrete is pumped from below into the forms. in excess of 30 degree Celsius or below 5 Table 1 .except OPC.
8 and formwork documentation shall be in accordance with Annex C.4. such as asymmetrical placement of concrete. 3.3 Special loads The formwork shall be designed for any special conditions of construction likely to occur. uplift. Where differences exist between requirements of the material design standards and this standard. different from that for which the supporting structure is designed.5 percent of total load on the form.5.5. Where the whole formwork assembly is composed of members of different materials. 3. etc. impact of machine-delivered concrete. the requirements of this standard shall take precedence. inclined supports. eccentricity shall be taken into account.2 Theoretical analysis and design Formwork components or assemblies shall be analysed and designed in accordance with one of the following methods: (a) ultimate strength design. Design information shall be provided in accordance with 3. as well as wind loads on the forms themselves.5.5 kN/m of floor edge or 2. dumping of concrete. and starting and stopping of equipment.2 Other lateral loads Braces and shores shall be designed to resist all foreseeable lateral loads arising from forces such as wind. Load factors applied to ultimate strengths claimed by manufacturers shall conform to the requirements.5.5. in accordance with the appropriate material structural design code and 3.5 3.3 Testing data and testing Manufacturers' data should be supported by tests at an accredited or a recognised laboratory before they are accepted.3. whichever is greater.2 or tested in accordance with 3. For all members or assemblies loaded in compression. in accordance with the appropriate material structural design code and 3. Wind loads on any attachments to the forms shall be considered. In no case shall the assumed value of lateral load due to wind.1 Analysis and design General Formwork components or assemblies shall be analysed and designed in accordance with 3. cable tensions. 3.5. mortar. and equipment acting in any direction at each floor line be less than 1.5.5. concentrated loads of reinforcement and storage of construction materials. or permissible stress design.4.3.CP 23: 2000 3. (b) 3.3. Formwork should be designed for special loading conditions such as walls constructed over slabs or beams which exert a loading pattern before hardening of concrete or brickwork. dumping of concrete.4. a combination of the methods described in 3.2(a) and (b) may be used.5. 16 .5.
5.8. the additional requirements of 3. or Design for 1.5.4 D + 1.The above load factors are obtained from BS 5950 : Part 1 : 1990.5 factor of safety against overturning should be provided.6 Stability The formwork assembly shall be designed for safety to ensure stability against overturning.2 the design information and procedures shall be in accordance with the listed Singapore Standard.5.4.2 D + 1. Interpretation of results from testing.5.2 Unidentified materials Where it is not possible to identify materials as being of the type and grade which is specified in the formwork documentation.5.4 are not exceeded. sliding and sidesway taking into account the sequence of construction under the action of the most adverse load combination.8.2 W. For unidentified materials.6 L.8.1 Load combinations for ultimate strength approach Factored load combinations for use in ultimate strength design shall be one of the followings which produces the most critical design condition: (a) (b) (c) 1. uplift. The following requirements shall apply to the identification of materials: 17 .4 W.1 General For materials given in Clause 2. 3. NOTE .5.8.3 shall apply.4 Ultimate strength design 3.5.4 D + 1. 1.5. This is to ensure that a safe and stable formwork assembly can be erected.0 times allowable stress. these materials shall not be used in the construction of formwork.5. or 1. presentation of design data and use of this data shall be in accordance with Annex B. A minimum 1.2 L + 1. 3.25 times allowable stress with 25% overstress allowed for wind effect.1 Load combinations Unfactored load combinations for use in permissible stress design shall be one of the following: (a) (b) D+L Design for 1.2 shall apply.CP 23: 2000 Determining and proving the structural capacity of formwork components and assemblies shall be either by destructive or non-destructive evaluation.7 Deflection and movement Deflection and movement of the formwork shall be such that the permitted tolerances given in Clause 4.8 Design Information 3. 3. 3. For components the requirements of 3. 220.127.116.11 Permissible stress design for permissible stress approach 3.5. 3.
and Singapore Standard CP 7. (c) Anchors This standard does not make recommendations relating to anchors into concrete or masonry. by established visual grading methods. the relevant Singapore Standards or manufacturers' information should be referred. (d) Other materials Appropriate means of identification. the yield strength shall be assumed to be not more than 200 N/mm2 (mild steel). other acceptable standards may be used. 3. A representative sample of the material shall be submitted to an appropriate testing authority for identification. in its absence. A representative sample of timber may also be submitted to an appropriate testing authority for identification to enable visual stress grading to be achieved in accordance with the above standards.5. If anchors are to be used. assemblies shall comply with this and 18 . shall be undertaken before the material is used for formwork construction. Consequently requirements for limit state or permissible stress loads are not provided. (b) Scaffold tubes and fittings Scaffold tubes and fittings forming part of formwork Standard and Singapore Standard CP 14. The following additional requirements apply: (a) Proprietary items The design structural capacity of proprietary items used in formwork assemblies recommendation on the application shall be derived from manufacturer's information.8. The visual grading of timber shall be made in accordance with the following standards: (i) (ii) Singapore Standard CP 1. (c) Timber Unless the stress grading of the timber is clearly marked on the members no assumptions shall be made in respect of grading. (b) Steel Unless the steel can be positively identified by brand marks or other distinguishing features as being of a particular grade.CP 23: 2000 (a) Aluminium No assumptions shall be made in respect of alloy or temper. non-destructive evaluation or laboratory tests.3 Components Components for torrnwork assemblies shall comply with and be used in accordance with the relevant Singapore Standard or.
3. unless otherwise specified.6.2 specifies the minimum intensity of lateral loading to be carried by the bracing.8 Foundations for formwork during Foundations of sufficient capacity to carry the maximum loads imposed by formwork construction shall be provided on ground. live and impact loads on the formwork exceed 732.4. Bracing shall be provided if necessary. lateral bracing shall be provided in whatever directions are necessary to ensure a slenderness ratio less than the maximum permissible for the load to be supported. or where the dead. soleplates. 3. splices in shoring or methods of shoring are used.CP 23: 2000 3. manufactures' recommendations on load-carrying capacities may be used if supported by test reports by an accredited or recognised testing organisation provided the load factors are in accordance with the requirements of this code. Diagonal bracing shall be provided in vertical and horizontal planes where required to provide stability and to prevent buckling of individual members.3.5% of the axial compression in the main member and secured in such a manner to ensure stability of the whole formwork system. 3.1 Shores Proprietary shores When proprietary shores. Where the only bracing requirement is to prevent buckling of individual members.3 kgf per square metre. 3.. Such a laterally braced system shall be able to resist 2.10 Deflection limits The deflection of unsupported areas of form facing shall not exceed 1/270 of the clear span between supports or 3 mm whichever is the greater. Screwjacks may be used at both top and bottom of tubular shores and frame-type shoring. 3.6 3. Particular attention shall be given to unsupported shore lengths. the formwork structure shall be designed by an Engineer. spread footings or pile footings. Differential settlements between elements of formwork and between formwork and permanent structure shall be limited to avoid damage to or unacceptable deformation of the permanent structure.14 metres or where the formwork deck is supported by shores constructed in two tiers.6.9 Shoring and screwjacks Shoring shall be designed to allow vertical adjustments to be made to facilitate erection and stripping of forms and to compensate for movements.7 Diagonal bracing The formwork system shall be designed to transfer all lateral loads to the foundation or to construction of adequate strength and stiffness already in place.2 Special shoring conditions Where the floor to ceiling height exceeds 9. 3. The specification and drawings shall be kept on the job site. 19 .
formwork drawings shall provide all relevant details.Annex C lists information which should be included in contract plans and specification. 20 . Multi-storey work requires.In addition to fulfilling the very real moral and legal responsibility to maintain safe conditions for workmen and the public. it is essential that the design requirements contained in this code should be observed. These tolerances apply to the finished structure.11 Drawings 3. in addition to consideration of the adequacy of forms. These include assumed values of superimposed load. 3. weight of moving equipment which may be operated on formwork. and the calculated structural deflection of the formwork is only one of many factors contributing to the final tolerance.11. he shall so state in the specification.1 Contract drawings and specifications The contract drawings and specifications for the permanent works shall include and cover all information necessary for formwork design and for the preparation of formwork drawings.2.1 Safety precautions General Attention to safety is particularly significant in formwork construction as these structures support the concrete during its plastic state and as it is developing its strength. sizes. NOTE . Formwork drawings shall include the following information: (a) Design assumptions All major formwork design values and loading conditions shall be shown on the formwork drawings. rate of placement. NOTE . 3.11. safe construction is the final goal. To ensure the safe performance of formwork.Construction 4. foundation pressures. if applicable. camber diagrams. temperature of concrete.Annex C lists details which should be shown if applicable. further consideration of the shoring of new work onto recently completed work which may not have attained adequate strength. height of drop. Section Four . or which may not itself be adequately shored. lengths and connection details. The advice of an Engineer shall be sought where any doubt exists as to the adequacy of the newly-completed work to support following-on loads. (b) Other items In addition to specifying types of materials. All formwork members and their connections shall be designed so that sound determination of loads thereon is accurately made and allowed for.CP 23: 2000 Care should be taken to ensure that the calculated deflections are less than the tolerances given in Clause 4. irrespective of any short-term cost savings from cutting corners on safety provisions.2 Formwork drawing If the Engineer requires formwork drawings to be submitted for his approval. design stresses.1 4. NOTE . at which time it may be unstable.1. and other pertinent information.
1. type of vibration used. Prevent premature removal of supports. Proper field inspection by Supervisor to see that form design has been properly interpreted by the formwork erectors. adequate and not improvised. with regard to slump. Control vertical rate of placement of concrete. Avoid using a prop on top of another prop. and therefore the lateral pressure on the forms. and effect of low concrete temperatures. Control of vibrations and shock arising from impact loading. Locking devices on metal shoring secured. Inspect formwork during and after concrete placement to detect abnormal deflections or other signs of incipient failure which could be corrected. Adequate lateral and diagonal bracing of shores. Adequate bracing at joints in shores. especially under cantilevers. Shore soleplates resting of stable soil. Comply with recommendations limits required by the designer.CP 23: 2000 4. of manufacturers of standard components and to keep within (j) (k) (I) (m) (n) (0) (p) (q) (r) (s) Protect cardboard forms (usually tubes) from the weather or water before concrete is placed into or around them. Adequately tightened or secured form ties. Regulate properly the horizontal rate and sequence of placing concrete to avoid unbalanced loading on the formwork. Plumbed shoring. Ensure tightness of reshores on floors below.2 Safe formwork construction practice Some good common construction practices to prevent formwork failure are: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) Adequate shoring or re-shoring. Sufficient nailing. Adequately secured wedges for forms and for shoring. Provide adequate shoring or re-shoring. effect of admixtures. Adequate provision for lateral pressures on forms. Avoid use of faulty timbers or other materials. (t) (u) (v) 21 .
For expansion joints or construction joints. Forms shall be sufficiently tight to prevent excessive leakage of cement grout. Where the bottom of the form is inaccessible. The Engineer/Architect may specify alternative tolerances. 22 . 4.2 4. and Ensure proper splices in shores.3 Ensure proper positioning of shores from floor to floor. for a particular project or part of a project. Forms shall be thoroughly cleaned before placing of concrete. Placing of building materials shall be planned and located in advance so as not to cause damage or overloading to the formwork.- .~.4 All materials and components used for the formwork shall be inspected before each use and particularly for those which will be re-used. stability and that they are erected according to the approved design and drawings by Engineer. Forms shall be inspected and checked to ensure that the concrete will have the dimensions and be in the location shown on the drawings.1. This is to avoid reverse bending in floor slabs which are not designed for such stresses. The erection of the formwork and its supporting and bracing system shall be supervised by designated person. access shall be provided to permit thorough removal of extraneous material before placing concrete. Gaskets and tapes may be used to seal joints. Cumulative tolerances shall be considered as well as tolerances on single members. provision shall be made for stripping of the form without applying undue force to projecting reinforcement.1. where applicable before concreting. Planning Planning of formwork construction and placement of concrete is to ensure safety of all personnel involved and the quality of the finish structure. struts and walling. Inspection of materials and forms 4.~. Particular consideration shall be given to the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) Unsupported areas of plywood forms shall be arranged so that deflections and bending stresses due to the pressure of plastic concrete are within allowable limits.. which might damage the concrete.1 Tolerances General Formwork shall be so constructed that the finished concrete is within the required tolerances as specified in Table 2. adequacy. Formwork and its supporting and bracing system shall be inspected to ensure their rigidity.CP 23: 2000 (w) (x) 4.-. either greater or less. No tolerances specified for horizontal or vertical building lines or footings shall be construed to permit encroachment beyond the legal boundaries.2.~. --~~~~ -~~~~- . In specifying tolerances for concrete work. recognition should be given to the needs of other trades whose work adjoins the concrete construction.
beams slabs and walls) STAIRS Deviation of staircase tread mean level to TBM (Current Building Control Regulations requirements on dimension are also to be complied with) 5 mm 23 . with maximum at 60mm VARIATION FROM LEVEL Deviation of mean level (in 3m) Deviation from position of cast-in place elements OPENINGS Variation in size Variation in location CROSS-SECTIONAL DIMENSION +10/-5 mm 10 mm 25mm 10 mm 10 mm 10 mm 20mm 40mm 15 mm Variation in cross-sectional dimension of elements (columns.For building up to 20 storey high . the Engineer/Architect should anticipate and provide for this effect by setting a cumulative tolerance. Where a particular situation involves several types of generally accepted tolerances which become mutually incompatible. Contractors are to use proper material. Contractors should establish and maintain sufficient control points and bench marks as references in establishing the tolerances.For building up to 4 storey high . Where a project involves particular features sensitive to the cumulative effect of generally accepted tolerances on individual portions.CP 23: 2000 Whatever tolerances to be used must be clearly mentioned so that the Contractor is aware of the requirements particularly when strict tolerances are desired. equipment. The overall cost and time of the whole project should receive proper consideration. the Engineer/Architect should anticipate the difficulty and specify special tolerances or indicate which controls.Tolerances for bare reinforced concrete structures VERTICALITY Allowable variation from plumb .Allowable increase for each subsequent 10 storeys above 20th.Between each floor . training and techniques in attaining the specified tolerances. Stringent tolerances should be avoided as far as possible so that the progress of the project will not be hindered by the use of inappropriate tolerances. Table 2 .
CP 23: 2000 4. one horizontal scaffold tube coupled to the shore within 300 mm of the bottom. Inclined shores shall be braced securely against slipping or sliding.7 and all calculations are available for inspection on site. (b) (c) The bracing system shall extend in two directions at right angles. The bearing ends of shores shall be cut square and have a tight fit at splices. Figure 2 shows typical bracing arrangements. Bracing shall be fixed to shores at all passings. Shoring resting on intermediate slabs or other construction already in place shall be located directly above shores or reshores below.3. with diagonals spaced in accordance with Table 3. Vertical shores shall be erected so that they cannot tilt.3 Bracing of tubular metal shores This shall be designed by an Engineer under provisions of 3. Splices shall be secured against bending and buckling. but if this is not practicable. Shoring shall be constructed to allow vertical adjustments to be made.g.2 and Clause 3. The following are guidelines on bracing of tubular metal shores: (a) All shores shall be effectively braced to provide adequate safety against lateral loads which may occur during construction. jacks shall be secured against falling out. in hollow tile construction. Diagonals shall be at a slope between 30 and 60 degrees to the horizontal. on spread footings. Each row of diagonal bracing shall have at least two diagonals. (d) (e) 24 .3.3 4. Connections of shore heads to other framing shall be adequate to prevent the shores from falling out when reversed bending causes upward deflection of the forms. Fixing of the bracing shall be by couplings. e. with the same number of diagonals inclined in opposite directions (see Figure 2).1 Shoring General Shoring shall be supported on firm ground with soleplates and if necessary. Special attention shall be given to prevention of overloading and punching shear when a heavilyloaded shore rests on a thin slab.3. the possibility of stress reversal in the concrete shall be checked by the Engineer. Where frames are made into tables and are lifted by cranes. 4. Screwjacks for tubular shores or frame-type shoring may be used at both top and bottom.2 Shore members All shore members shall have a firm bearing.3. and scaffold tubes placed diagonally between the shore top tube joint on one shore and the shore bottom tube joint on the other. An effective bracing system shall consist of : (i) (ii) (iii) one horizontal scaffold tube coupled to the shore within 300 mm of the top. 4.4.
12 shores: 6 shores per brace For right to left loads 3-4m F or left to right loads (b) 8 shores per brace Erec ti on bracing on y not considered effective bracing 4-5m r I~ L l~ ~ \___ Between 30 V a V and 60 a (c) 12 shores per brace Figure 2 .Bracing 25 .CP 23: 2000 r- The se diagonals effective for loads from right to left only - .-- For Ie ft to nigh t Ioa ds 2-3m L 1\ } f\ \V V Y _l_ (a) 2 braces.
4. but before initial set of the concrete. Where working platforms are used the formwork shall be designed for the support of such platforms without significant deflections.Spacing of diagonal braces Height of shore (rn) not exceeding 2 2-3 3-4 4-5 Number of shores per diagonal brace 4 6 8 12 4. the formwork systems should be checked for movement.5. If. Appropriate adjustments shall be promptly made where necessary. positive means of adjustment with jacks should be provided to permit re-alignment or re-adjustment of shores. as in cases where beams frame into other beams. and the affected formwork shall be strengthened. construction.4.1 Removal of formwork and shoring General Although the Contractor is normally responsible for the design. and such platforms shall not bear on the reinforcement steel. 26 . Formwork shall be continuously watched so that any corrective measures found necessary may be promptly taken. the Engineer shall specify exactly the manner in which this condition is to be handled.4 4. stripping andsafety of formwork.5 4. during concreting. vibrations or lateral movement. Proper provision shall be made for adequate curing to ensure the maximum rate of strength development. 4. it shall be so stipulated on the structural drawings. If camber is required in formwork to compensate for deflection.1 Adjustment of formwork Before concreting Formwork before concreting shall comply with the following requirements: (b) Forms shall be secured to the shores below so that upward or lateral movement of any part of the forms will be prevented during concrete placement. Forms shall not be disturbed until the concrete in contact with them has acquired sufficient strength to support safely its own· mass and any superimposed load.2 During and after concreting During and after concreting. (c) Where there is a possibility of movement due to settlement and take up of clearances. 4.CP 23: 2000 Table 3 . Form watchers shall always work under safe conditions and shall establish in advance a method of communication with placing crews in case of emergency. any weakness develops and the formwork shows any undue settlement or distortion. or replaced if permanently damaged. the work shall be stopped. Where camber requirements may become cumulative. the minimum time of removal of forms and shoring should be specified by the Engineer because the concrete may not have attained its design strength.
the shoring which supports green concrete is necessarily supported by lower floors which may not be designed for these loads. The use of accelerators or retarders have not been considered. 4. such as multi-storey work.6 4.CP 23: 2000 4. the speed of construction customary in this type of work provides the additional advantage of permitting other trades to follow concreting operations from floor to floor as closely as possible. In cases where there is a possibility of increased loading.5.Minimum stripping and propping times Minimum period for reinforced concrete members or structures using Ordinary Portland Cement Location Sides of columns. For this reason shoring shall be provided for a sufficient number of floors to develop the necessary capacity to support the imposed loads without excessive stress or deflection. Re-use of form material and shores is an obvious economy. 4.2. excessive load or eccentric load. 27 . However.5.3 Removal of shores No reshores or undisturbed shores shall be removed until the structural member has attained sufficient strength to support all superimposed loads. 3 and 4. sampling and testing should be carried out in accordance with SS 78 Parts1.2 Recommended minimum stripping and propping times The recommended minimum stripping times for reinforced concrete structures are shown in Table 4 taking into consideration variations due to types of member and temperature.1 Shoring and reshoring for multi-storey structures General Multi-storey work presents special conditions.5.1 Cube Tests Results When standard cube tests are used to determine stripping times. walls and beams Soffits of slabs and beams (props left under) Soffits of cantilevers (with reshoring) Re-props to slabs and beams Re-props to cantilever slabs and beams Duration after last pour 12 hrs 3 days 7 days 14 days 21 days Minimum stripping times may be reduced provided evidence is furnished to the satisfaction of the Engineer that the concrete to be stripped has acquired sufficient strength to support safely its own mass and any superimposed load. Removal operations shall be carried out in accordance with planned sequence so that the structure is not subject to impact. particularly in relations to removal of forms and shores. the times given in Table 4 may be lengthened.6. Furthermore. Table 4 . 4.
6.CP 23: 2000 4. Where shores above are not directly over reshores. The reshoring system shall be such that it contains a sufficient number of shores of adequate size to carry any loads that may be imposed on the system. Use of undisturbed shores eliminates the cost of a second placing of shores.2 Systems of shoring and reshoring 4. (b) Secondary shoring Where undisturbed shoring is not used. with additional rows of reshores being provided as required. the use of secondary shores is the preferred alternative. 4. and provides better assurance that shores are placed in the same pattern on each floor. not a jack.2. an analysis shall be made to determine whether or not detrimental bending and shear stresses are produced in the slab. avoids the special attention required to ensure uniform tightness of reshores under the slab. Secondary shores are additional shores placed before any formwork or falsework is disturbed. and shall be tightened only to the extent that it is firmly in place against the concrete.6. The reshore is simply a strut.2.6.1 Summary of systems Two systems of shoring and two systems of reshoring are described below: (a) Undisturbed shores It permits stripping of forms at an earlier age than is possible with any other system because large areas of concrete are not required to carry their own mass. When reshoring flat slab constructions one row of reshores shall be placed along each common boundary between column and middle strips in both directions.2. such reshores as remain shall be located directly under shores on the floor above. (c) Partial reshoring Where a soffit is stripped bay by bay and reshores are placed in the stripped bay before further stripping is undertaken. Reshores should be located in the same position on each floor so that they will be continuous in their support from floor to floor.2 Procedures In either method (c) or (d) of 4. In no case shall reshores be so located as to alter significantly the pattern of stress determined in the structural analysis. (b) (c) (d) 28 . Where the number of reshores on a floor is reduced. (d) Total reshoring Complete stripping of whole soffit and the subsequent placing of reshores.8. The bearing pressure on the cap and base of reshores shall not exceed the permissible bearing stress of the material.1 reshoring should be carried out only under proper supervision and shall comply with the following requirements: (a) Operations shall be performed so that at no time will areas of new construction be required to support combined dead and construction loads in excess of their capabilities as determined by design load and developed concrete strength at the time of stripping and reshoring.
The first stage occurs when it is desired to remove the formwork. A. If cracking is allowed to take place at this stage. it will usually occur in parts of the slab where the construction loading exceeds the capacity of the original slab design (note that the pattern of construction loading usually differs widely from the structural design loading).2 Formwork removal This normally occurs only a few days after placement of the concrete. It is emphasised that even if the concrete exceeds the specified 28-day compressive strength. leaving undisturbed shores or reshores in place to support the work. A. During this stage of stripping the work it is desirable that all cracking be prevented. and it may be worthwhile considering the use of reshores instead of undisturbed shores. The safe load at any age bears the same ratio to the original design working load as does the concrete compressive strength at the age under consideration to the 28-day compressive strength. can be calculated from the gain in compressive strength of the concrete. The maximum uniformly distributed load any floor can safely carry at earlier ages.3 Shore removal During the removal of the undisturbed shores or reshores the cracking that does occur should be controlled to the extent that it is not greater than does occur if the full design working load were applied to the slab at the time the concrete reached its full design strength (usually at age 28 days). the original design working load shall not be exceeded without the agreement of the original design engineer. both of which can be critical.1 General There are generally two distinct stages. A. The second occurs on the removal of the undisturbed shores or reshores. 29 . In such cases extreme caution is needed. there is considerable danger of overloading the slab during construction.4 Slabs where self-mass exceeds design super-imposed load In some multi-storey work where original design load minus slab self-mass is less than slab self weight. The use of reshores will usually result in the floor slab being subjected to a higher initial loading during construction. in the stripping of suspended work. but the maximum loading may be considerably reduced. consistent with the above philosophy.CP 23: 2000 Annex A Propping times for suspended work A.
fittings. When it is intended that a component or assembly of components shall carry both vertical and lateral loads in combination. number of storeys of shores to which these claims relate. and the lateral load is resisted other than by a complete triangulated bracing system consisting of diagonal and horizontal members.3 Framed shores claims for strengths shall specify the In the case of framed shores used in tower type construction. Tests shall accurately simulate the conditions under which the components will be used. This system shall employ accepted statistical sampling techniques to verify continued uniformity of production with a minimum 95 percent assurance that all products exceed the claimed specified strength properties.2 Components produced under mass production conditions An adequate quality control system shall be instituted to guarantee uniformity of physical dimensions. extension pieces. Regular samples drawn from production shall be tested to determine ultimate strength in an approved testing laboratory and regular supervision of material quality shall be maintained to detect batches failing to meet the specified ultimate strengths. strength and deformation characteristics. tests shall be carried out to determine the effect upon the ultimate vertical load of varying magnitudes of co-existent ultimate lateral loads.1 General All tests performed to establish ultimate strength of formwork components shall be carried out on production items complete in all respects and tested with all accessories.CP 23: 2000 Annex 8 Minimum requirements for testing formwork components to establish ultimate strength B. B. screw jacks and appurtenances normally used in conjunction with the component under test. B. 30 .
If this is critical. and preferably the locations and detail of all construction joints. where these are known.11.2 Formwork drawings (See 3. Anchors. Information regarding available foundation materials. Camber. Design allowances for construction loads on new work. The contract drawings should state the amounts of camber required.CP 23: 2000 Annex C Information in drawings and specifications C.2) Should have a statement before listing items (a) Sequence of removal of forms and shores (when this is critical for placing loads on new concrete).11. and any other special supports. form ties. Sequence of placement. and the Contractor should be advised of any special provisions that must be made in the formwork for this condition. (b) (c) Intermediate supports under permanent forms (such as metal deck used for forms. (I) C. The effect of load transfer during tensioning of post-tensioned members may be critical. The superimposed load allowed for in design. if desired for slab soffits or structural members. and permanent forms of other materials). waterstops. it should be so indicated. the contract drawings. location and details of all design joint that will be required for the particular job or parts of it. holes through concrete. of special structures and special construction (j) (k) Special requirements for post-tensioned concrete members. built-in frames for openings.1) Number. supports required by the structural engineer's design for composite action. (b) (c) 31 .4). Location and order of erection and removal of shores for composite construction. (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Architectural details to be cast into structural concrete. to compensate for elastic deflection. Such chamfers should be shown on (i) Details of any requirements for inserts. Measurement of camber attained should be made after initial set of the concrete and before stripping of formwork. and braces.1 (a) Contract drawings and specifications (See 3. These should be shown when such allowances will affect the development of shoring and/or reshoring schemes (see Clause 3. and similar requirements where work of other trades will be attached to or supported by formwork. shores. Special provisions essential for formwork methods such as shells and folded plates. Chamfers required for beam soffits or column corners.
Location of blockouts. Safety provisions. boxouts. Sequence of concrete placements and minimum elapsed time between adjacent placements. Means of obtaining specified concrete surface. conforming with design drawings. Waterstops and inserts.CP 23: 2000 (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) Provisions for field adjustment of the forms during placing of concrete. Camber (see C1 (e) above). inserts in the concrete (j) (k) (I) (m) (n) (0) (p) (q) (r) 32 . Working scaffolds and related platforms. cleanout. Soleplates or other foundation provisions for shoring. Special provisions such as protection from floodwater. ducts and miscellaneous attached to or penetrating the forms. Pour strips and chamfer strips. Construction joints and expansion joinst. pipes. and placing. Access openings for inspection. and from debris at water crossings. Form coatings and release agents. Protection against fire.
CP 23: 2000 Standards referred to: AS 3610: Part 1 : 1995 BS 5950 : Part 1 : 1990 Control of concrete surfaces Code of practice for design construction: hot rolled sections Concrete pressure on formwork Specification for plywood Testing Concrete Code of practice for the use of timber in building construction Code of practice for structural use of timber Code of practice for scaffolds in simple and continuous CIRIA Report No. 108. SS 1 : 1984 SS 78:SS CP 1 : 1982 SS CP 7: 1997 SS CP 14: 1996 Building Control Regulations of the Building Control Act 33 .
The standards are drawn up by various Technical Committees appointed by the Product Standards Committees (for product standards). It enables companies to gain greater international recognition thereby facilitating access to overseas markets. synergy is derived by putting the "soft" and "hard" aspects of productivity with the same organisation so that PSB is greater than the sum of NPB and SISIR. the final approval body being the Standards Council. nomenclature. ~~. ~ 0 ~~. trade and manufacturing organisations. Unlike Singapore Standards. Figure 3. 34 . The Board's vision is to be a leading player with a global perspective in matters related to productivity and standards. In addition. While NPB's activities focused on training. Certified companies are entitled to use the PSB ISO 9000 symbol as shown in Figure 3 in their marketing programme including letterheads. control and testing operated during manufacture and including regular inspection at the manufacturer's premises. as public comments are not sought. It is governed by a board of directors comprising representatives from government. or the product has been batch-tested. tertiary institutions and consumer. employers. professional bodies. With the formation of PSB. PSB operates a number of national certification schemes. Certified companies are entitled to use the PSB ISO 14000 Mark as shown in Figure 4 in their promotional materials. For further information on PSB services and activities. methods of test. It also helps companies to reduce reject costs and improve quality and productivity. please write to PSB. PSB's mission is to raise the productivity and enhance Singapore's competitiveness and economic growth. 2 Bukit Merah Central. publication and promulgation of Singapore Standards and Technical References and the promotion of their adoption. codes of practice.CP 23: 2000 THE SINGAPORE PRODUCTIVITY AND STANDARDS BOARD The Singapore Productivity and Standards Board (PSB) is a statutory board established in April 1996. The Board is the owner of the Certification Marks shown in Figures 1 and 2. the Practice Committees (for codes of practice) or the Standards Committees (for both product standards and codes of practice). To ensure adequate representation of all viewpoints in the preparation of Singapore Standards. SINGAPORE QUAUTY MARK Figure 1. PSB also operates the PSB ISO 14000 (Environmental Management System) Certification Scheme which is a third party certification of environmental management systems to the ISO 14001 environmental management system standard. all Committees appointed consist of representatives from various interest groups which include government agencies. Technical References are documents developed to help meet urgent industry demand for specifications or requirements on a particular product or process in an area where there is an absence of reference standards. productivity consultancy and promotion. advertisements and other promotional materials. The scheme provides an independent and impartial assessment with a view for continuous improvement in environmental performance. ~ Figure 4. PSB also operates the PSB ISO 9000 Certification Scheme which is a third party quality system certification of manufacturing processes and services to the relevant part of the SS ISO 9000 series of standards on quality systems. One of the functions of PSB is the establishment of a national standardisation programme to support industrialisation in Singapore. SISIR's work centered on technology. they are issued without full consensus. The Board is vested with the authority to appoint a Standards Council to advise on the preparation. with the integration of the functions of the National Productivity Board (NPB) and the Singapore Institute of Standards and Industrial Research (SISIR) and the takeover of the small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) development function from the Economic Development Board (EDB). PSB TEST ~ Figure 2. etc. quality. These Marks can be used only by companies certified under the Singapore Quality Mark Certification Scheme and Product Listing Scheme operated by PSB. standards and industrial research. Singapore 159835. PSB Building. The presence of these Marks on a product with the inscription "Certified/Listed to Singapore Standard" is an assurance that either the product has been produced to comply with requirements of the relevant Singapore Standard under a system of supervision. Technical References will be reviewed with a possibility of processing them to Singapore Standards. Singapore Standards are in the form of specifications for materials and products. The scheme confers recognition to companies which have properly designed and implemented quality systems. trade unions and academia.
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