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I. HISTORY AND LINGUISTIC CLASSIFICATION
Kannada is one of the four major literary languages of the Dravidian family, the other three being Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam. It is spoken in the state of Karnataka comprising of an area of 74,122 Sq,miles. It is the official language of Karnataka and is the mother tongue of 32590177 people (1991 census of India pp-11). Adjoining areas are of Tamilnadu (tamiLuna:Du), Kerala (ke:raLa), Andhrapradhesha (a:ñdʰraprade:śa) and Maharashtra (maha:ra:s̡tra). It is one of the 18 languages listed in the VIII schedule in the constitution of India. It has a fine literary tradition which goes back to the 9th century and exhibits a complex pattern of sociolinguistic and stylistic variation marked by a thorough assimilation of Indo-Aryan (mainly Sanskrit, Prakrit, Hindi, Urdu etc) and more recently English elements too. The earliest written document in Kannada is the Halmidi (halmiDi) inscription which is dated about 450 A.D. A few Kannada words are also noticed in Greek Drama of 2nd century A.D. The name Karuna:Dar is said to occur in cilappatika:ram of the 2nd century A.D of Tamil literature (epic). Govinda pai, the indefatigable research scholar of Kannada has recognized some of the place names mentioned in the travelogue of the Greek traveller Ptolemy as Banavasi, Mudgal and Malpe. In ga:tʰasaptaśati (prakrit literature) by Halaraja of the 2nd century A.D, some Kannada words such as poTTe ‘belly’ tuppa ‘ghee’ peTTu ‘beat’ etc… have been identified by scholars and the names karna:Ta/kannaDa in vara:hamihara’s Brihatsamhita of the 6th century A.D of Sanskrit literature. Kavira:jama:rga (9th century A.D) is very important from the point of view of history, linguistics, literature and culture, because it is the first kannada literary work discovered so far. It throws considerable light on the so called dark period of kannada language and literature and it is the first work dealing with certain problems of kannada grammar also.
A few note worthy statements are given by the author of Kavira:jama:rga (Srivijaya) such as: 1) The geographical boundary of the then Karnataka-
[The tract between the rivers Ka:ve:ri and Go:da:vari is the area where Kannada is spoken (Kavirajamarga 1.36) The region in which kannada was spoken extended from the Ka:ve:ri as far as the go:da:vari.]
Ka:ve:riyindama: go:da:varivaram irda na:Dada: KannaDa doL …….
adaroLagam kisuvoLala: viditamaha:kopaNa nagarada: puligereya: sadabʰistutamappońkun dada naDuvaNa na:De na:De kannaDada tiruL
2) A standard form of kannada was spoken in the urban area between the city of koppana nagar (the present koppala) okunda and kisuvoLalu (the present PaTTadakallu) (Kavira:jama:rga 1.37) .......................................
. koraga kannaDa etc….Upadhyaya U. It is characterized primarily by a number of phonological. In addition to regional varieties.A study of two styles’ (1967)]. Hindi. Sanskrit aspirated consonants. news broadcast and so on. morphological and lexical features (eg: distinction between /S̡/ is and /Ś/ as well as by the unassimilated retention of foreign language sounds in borrowed words. The early form of the kannada scripts are found in the inscription of kadamba’s of Banavasi (banava:si) and ca:lukya’s of Badami (ba:da:mi). It is therefore.Rajpurohit B. morphology. journalism. Sangamesha’s ‘KannaDa Bʰa:s̡a Sampada (1998) among others). Urdu.N. Telugu. The use of the literary variety is not confined to literature. lexicon and syntax [see for more details Nayak.Sridhar – 1990 ‘Kannada’). It is used in personal and official correspondence. One learns this variety at school and the ability to control it is a test of one’s elite status. Kodagu etc. The spoken variety regarded as the standard/prestigious is what used to be that of the middle class. Malayalam. Marathi. 1. social and stylistic variation. (1982)] The difference among the regional varieties was accentuated by long periods of political (and hence cultural. ………………………………… …………… kannaDańgaLoLendum va:sugiyumaruyala:rade be:sarugum de:si be:re ve:rappudarum 3) There were a number of mutually unintelligible dialects (Kavira:jama:rga 4) The people were intelligent. ‘Kannada: literary and colloquial. baDaga kannaDa. It is written from left to right. upright and heroic (Kavira:jama:rga 1. Ex.46) ** Dravidian Encyclopedia – source 1997 vol.P (1976) Prasaranga. kumta and nanjangud dialects) . ha:lakki kannaDa. Mysore and Accoustic characteristics of kannada . on the basis of the proper historical stages and literary forms of kannada it is classified into four important groups. Tamil. such as /bʰ/ and /dʰ/. The prestige variety of the written language is based on the Mysore-Bangalore variety. LINGUISTIC HISTORY OF KANNADA LANGUAGE Mainly. class room and public lectures. gulbarga.H. this variety has ceased to be the presence of the brahmins and has become a ‘class’ rather than a ‘caste’ dialect. The formal/literary variety differs in several respects from the spoken (or colloquial) variety in pholology.46)and Kannada has a very complex range of regional. perhaps more appropriate to call this the ‘formal’ variety and the colloquial variety is the informal variety.M. Kannada also has a number of social varieties (like so:liga kannaDa. The english /f/ and /z/ used without simplification with the spread of education. Konkani. administrative and commercial) isolation from one another. such as: 2 o f 5 9 / 2 7 / 2 0 1 1 7 : 1 6 P M . Kannada is a diglossic language. Dharwar dialect (kannada) Kalaburgi dialect (kannada) [see for more details “A comparative study of kannada dialects” (bellary. .K a n n a d a H i s t o r y h t t p : / / w w w . text books and most types of writing. Source: ( S..) Characterized by class/caste (see the works of Bright’s ‘Social Dialect’ and language history (1960). In the west scholars traced the origin of kannada script to the Brahmi (bra:hmi) script. 3 The evidence of kannada language has got a history of about 1500 years of writing system. . havyaka kannaDa. as well as by contact with a number of different neighbouring languages. Four major regional varieties may be identifie (a) (b) (c) (d) Mysore/Bangalore dialect (kannada) Mangalore dialect (kannada)/coastal dialect. educated Brahmin dialect of the Mysore/Bangalore area. l i .
K a n n a d a H i s t o r y h t t p : / / w w w . . belonging to A. the earliest of them being a work on poetics. 450. ಲ ( l ) (voiced dental lateral) and ರ ( r ) (voiced dental trill) – alliteration carefully based also on this distinction. The proper distinction between the letters ( l̥ ) (retroflex flap voiced sound) call it as in kannada ‘raLa’ ‘ರಳ’ (flap alveolar voiced sound) call it as “sakaTare:pha/banDiya ‘ra’. The use of –n.D.D. The use of –uL for the locative suffix The lengthening of the vowel in the suffixes of the negative mood.D. ba:ļe ba:le/ba:Le aṛe are ‘banana ’ ‘a kind of fish ’ ‘half ’ ‘rock ’ Change of initial ‘p’ becomes ‘h’ in old kannada pa:lu pa:vu > ha:lu ‘milk’ > ha:vu ‘snake’ In pre-old kannada locative marker –uL changes to –oL in old kannada na:DuL dʰ araNiyuL > > na:DoL ‘In the country’ dʰ araNiyoL ‘In the earth’ (iii) Medieval Kannada: (From 1150 A. The earliest known inscription of kannada is that of Halmidi. to 1150 A. namely kavira:jama:rga by Sreevijaya dated to 850 A.Pre old kannada is available in the inscriptions of the 6th and 7th century A.for bindu The lengthening of –a: the genitive and adjectival suffix (ii) Old Kannada: (From 750 A. ಳ ( ļ/L ) (voiced retroflex lateral) called as kuLa. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) pre-old kannada/early old kannada/pu:rvada haLagannaDa old kannada / haLagannaDa medieval kannada / naDugannaDa modern kannada/hosagannaDa (i) Pre old kannada:. l i . . Ex: The lengthening of the vowel in the conjugational suffixes of the third person.D. to 1700-1750) Medieval Kannada is more or less a transition period and could probably be seen as a connecting link between the old and modern kannada stages.D. It is represented mainly by the poetic 3 o f 5 9 / 2 7 / 2 0 1 1 7 : 1 6 P M .D ) Old kannada is available in a number of mature literary works.
two roots coalesce to form a word.D. infixing sounds and syllables which are no longer independent words.K ardu > addu karte > katte male ba:Le ‘to dip’ ‘donkey’ ‘rain’ ‘plantain’ When followed by a stop. the other sinking down to a mere termination. kannada is one of the major languages of Dravidian family to be more precise of the South Dravidian group and typologically it is an agglutinative language. and are clearly distinguishable from the full words they modify and not inextricably blended with them. O.K a ļ du kalte male ba:Le > > > > M.K to:Ta da:Tu -. . In the agglutinative group like the Dravidian Languages. comprising the present kannada of prose writings and common conversations is less particular in the choice of words. suffixing. onwards….Ø magu Ø ‘child’ ‘garden’ ‘to jump’ 3) The nominative is unmarked maguvu > ** See for more details . the one retaining its radical independence.K a n n a d a H i s t o r y h t t p : / / w w w . LINGUISTIC CLASSIFICATION OF KANNADA LANGUAGE: Genetically. ba:rcu pardu > > ba:cu haddu ‘comb’(v) ‘eagle’ Words ending in consonants add -u kaN nil > > kaNNu nillu ‘eye’ ‘stand’(v) iv) Modern Kannada: (From 1850 A. 2) Omission of bindu (change which old kannada words become modern kannada) O. is written mostly in s̡aTpadi (Six feet of metro) The flap retroflex l ( ಲ ) had become r ( ರ ) before a consonant and l/L ( ಳ ) elsewhere. r was deleted after a long vowel and assimilated to the consonatnt after a short vowel.R ‘History of the kannada language’ B. l i .) Modern kannada. . arbitrary about the use of suffixes and not sparing in the use of vulgarisms especially in ordinary talk. works of ve:raśaiva authors.Narasimhachary. This language show grammatical relations by prefixing. Ex: Noun Base + case suffix ra:ma + (n) + inda > ramninda ‘ by rama’ 4 o f 5 9 / 2 7 / 2 0 1 1 7 : 1 6 P M . 1) r and l phonemes are not used in this period.K to:NTa da:NTu > > M.
. l i .number markers a > da :sa i > da:si (y) aru > da:siyaru ‘servent’ ‘female servant’ ‘female servants’ [see for detail information noun and verb morphology part] t Copyright CIIL-India Mysore o p 5 o f 5 9 / 2 7 / 2 0 1 1 7 : 1 6 P M . Base + da:s + da:s + da:si + gender . .K a n n a d a H i s t o r y h t t p : / / w w w .
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