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Summary Statistics

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04/22/2012

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# Summary Statistics  Population: entire collection or outcomes about which information is sought.

 Sample: subset of a population, containing the objects or outcomes that are actually observed.  Simple Random Sample: size n is a sample chosen by a method in which each collection of n population items is equally likely to comprise the sample (i.e. a lottery) *Sample items are independent if knowing the values of some of the items does not help predict the values of others. ∑ Sample Mean: gives an indication of the center of the data ̅ Sample Standard Deviation: gives an indication of “spreadoutedness” √ ∑ ̅ √ ∑ ̅

Histograms: skewed right if tail is to the right (mean>median), skewed left is tail is to the left (mean < median). Anatomy of a box plot 1. Compute the median and 1st(median of 1st half) and 3rd(median of 2nd half) quartiles. Q3 – Q1 is the Inter quartile range IQR 2. Draw fences at Q1–1.5IQR and Q3+1.5IQR. Extend whiskers from box to fences. 3. Plot outliers individually (anything outside the upper and lower fences) Probability  The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment is called the sample space for the experiment.  A subset of a sample space is called an event. Combining events  The union of two events A and B, denoted , is the set of outcomes that belong either to A, to be or to both; means “A or B”, thus indicating that the event occurs when either A or B (or both) occurs.  The intersection of two events A and B, denoted , is the set of outcomes that belong both to A and B; means “A and B” the event occurring when both A and B occur.  The complement of an event A, denoted Ac, is the set of outcomes that do not belong to A, meaning “not A,” the events occurring when A does not occur. *Two events A and B are mutually exclusive is they have no outcomes in common. Axioms of Probability 1. Let S be a sample space. Then P(S)=1 4. For any event A, P(Ac)=1-P(A) 2. For any event A, 0≤P(A)≤1 5. Let Ø denote the empty set, then P(Ø)=0 3. If A and B are mutually exclusive events, then 6. P( )=P(A)+P(B)-P( ). Note that if A and B are P( )=P(A)+P(B) mutually exclusive, P( )=0. *A probability that is based on a part of a sample space is called a conditional probability. An unconditional probability is one based on the entire sample space.   Let A and B be events where P(B)≠0. The conditional probability of A given B is

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Two events A and B are independent if the probability of each event remains the same whether or not the other occurs. If P(A)≠0 and P(B)≠0, then | | A and B are independent if or if . If either P(A)=0 or P(B)=0, then A and B are independent. | . The Multiplication Rule: • If A and B are two events with P(B)≠0, then P( )=P(B) | . • If A and B are two events with P(A)≠0, then P( )=P(A) | =P(A) and | =P(B) so the above condense to P( • When two events are independent, then )=P(A)P(B). Law of Total Probability: If A1,…An are mutually exclusive and exhaustive (meaning their union covers the whole sample space) events, and B is in any event, then P(B)= P( ) + P( ). Equivalently, if P(Ai)≠0 for each Ai then P(B)= P | P(A1) + P | P(An). Bayes’ Rule: Let A and B be events with P(A)≠0 and P(Ac)≠0 and P(B)≠0 then

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then If X and Y are independent random variables with and (the spreadoutedness does not change) | | . the mean of X (E[V]. the pth percentile is the cumulative distribution function F(x). Then P(a≤X≤b)= P(a≤X<b)= P(a<X≤b)= P(a<X<b)=∫     .  The probability mass function of a discrete random variable X is the function p(x)=P(X=x). X2. Note that ∫ Let X be a CRV with probability density function f(x). The PMF is sometimes called the probability distribution. ∑ ∑ ∑ F(x)=P(X≤x) F(x)= . the mean (or expected Value E[V]) of X is ∑ given by  The population standard deviation is the square root of the variance (also V[X]) described as ∑ ∑ √ Therefore. the standard deviation is Continuous Random Variables  A random variable is continuous if its probabilities are given by areas under a curve. The pdf is sometimes called the probability distribution. or center of mass) is given by ∫ Let X be a CRV with probability density function f(x). ) ( ) ∫ Linear Functions of Random Variables If X is a random variable and b is a constant. and ∑ where the sum is over all possible values of x. X3.  Let X be a CRV with probability density function f(x) and let a and b be any two numbers with a<b. Let X be a discrete random variable with probability mass function p(x)=P(X=x). . are independent random variables.  A function called the cumulative distribution function specifies the probability that a random variable is less than or equal to a given value. standard deviation ∫ ∫ Let X be a CRV with probability density function f(x) and  If p is a number between 0 and 100. and | | . Random variables can de discrete (coming from a finite set with gaps between the ordered values) or continuous (contained on an interval). If X is a random variable and a and b are constants. then If X1. then . …Xn.  The population mean of a discrete random variable can be thought of as the mean of a hypothetical sample that follows the probability distribution perfectly. . or the moment of inertia) is given by ∫ √ or . . . the variance of X (V[X]. then .Random Variables  An assignment of a numerical value to an outcome of an experiment is called a random variable. In addition P(X≤b)=P(X<b)= ∫ and P(X≥a)=P(X>a)= ∫ . The curve is called the probability density function for the random variable. Therefore. the median of X is given by point xp that solves the equation ∫ ( . then If X and Y are random variables and a and b are constants. then If X is a random variable and a is a constant. The cumulative distribution function of X is the function Let X be a CRV with probability density function f(x).

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