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CORNELL
UNIVERSITY
LIBRARY

GIFT OF

PROF. JOHN K. TILTON

ARCHITECTURE

Cornell University Library
NA 485.P18 1902
A manual of gothic moldings: with direct

3 1924 015 673 217

Cornell University
Library

The original of this book is in

the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in
the United States on the use of the text.

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924015673217

MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS .

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A. WITH NUMEEOUS ADDITIONS AND IMPEOVEMENTS. By F. M. AUTHOR OF "A MANUAL OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. CLEVELAND: CAEL WENDELIN KUEHNY. FELLOW OF SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. FELLOW OF ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS.A.. A. 3554 ATTICA EOAD. MDCCCCII tr . PALEY. A MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS: DIRECTIONS FOE COPYING THEM AND FOE DETEEMINING THEIE DATES. FAWCETT. M. By W. lUoatrsteii bg aptoatius of (Six Utmiuxb (BxnmplzB.. SIXTH EDITION. M. " ETC.

LONDON .PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY WOODFALL AND KINDER.

.98 XII. — CONTENTS Section page I. . —Decorated Moldings 47 VII.12 III.— Capitals 76 X.—Bases 89 XI. The General Principles of Formation . Early Moldings in general 32 V. . . Introductory 1 II. Early English Moldings 38 VI. 103 Descriptions of Plates 107 . Hood-Moldings and String-Courses . . Copying Moldings 26 IV.— Conclusion . Perpendicular Moldings 61 VIII. Plans of Gothic Columns 71 IX.. .

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. and trusts that this edition will meet with the same approval which has been bestowed on its predecessors. Paley's work is required. and also by arranging the plates so that they are more easy for reference. the Editor has endeavoured to improve it by inserting more examples in the text. Several small amendments have also been made. As a sixth edition of Mr. Professor Willis's Nomenclature is now so difficult to obtain that one or two extracts have been made instead of the mere reference given in the former editions. PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION. The Editor has been careful to keep the book within the same limits as to size so as not to increase the cost.

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many of them cannot now be ascer- tained with certainty. Paley. and give the work that practical character which he wished it to have. the present Editor. so generally understood. at the same time. The additions *and alterations that have been made have chiefly been done by way of further explanation where anything might not previously have seemed clear to a student . as far as practicable." " Decorated. A considerable number of woodcuts has also been inserted by way of additional illustration. has undertaken to prepare it for the Press. and are. as these were taken from the Author's note-books when the work was first published. at the request of Mr. A Thied Edition of the Manual of Gothic Moldings having been called for. But the student should . EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. the Editor has been careful to keep the book within its present limits. The Author has employed the terms "Early English. the Author was of opinion that the revision of a professional man would secure accuracy. . Though it is always difficult for one person to carry out satisfactorily the work of another. that the Editor felt it would have been undesirable to attempt any alteration." and " Perpendicular" throughout. lest he should change its whole character from an elementary treatise to one of an entirely different class. and these are so thoroughly engrafted into the work. and. the localities of the examples in the plates have been indexed but. besides.

and have the advantage of being very precise. but he who attempts to practise as an architect (however freely he may use his knowledge) must study them thoroughly. but those here employed have become so generally adopted that no others have succeeded in displacing them. also such terms as "early thirteenth century. . 1864. as scale has a very important effect on the character of Moldings. Cambridge . but by actually going about observing and measuring them himself . the student must be careful that he knows the dates to which they refer. M. perhaps. There is. An accurate knowledge of Moldings is indispensable to any one professing even an amateur's acquaintance of architec- ture . remember that the object to be attained in nomenclature is to define clearly the date and locality at which certain kinds of work prevailed. in Moldings. PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. The Editor." "late fourteenth. and therefore. hardly an old Church existing without something worth sketching in it . Mr Fergusson has proposed the adoption of Edwardian and Plantagenet in a manner analogous to Tudor. not merely by reading a work like this (though that may be of great assistance). charming little variations may be found." &c. Elizabethan. W. not merely to read about them. Several new terms have been proposed. and often. already in common use . which at first sight would hardly be suspected. therefore. and to measure them accurately. 1st December. F. for very little can be learnt without measuring. Now the two latter of these terms do not fulfil this condition. feels that he cannot do better than advise those who wish to attain a true knowledge of the science of Gothic Moldings. but to sketch them carefully. are frequently employed. &c. in using them.

near York. He held the office of Secretary from 1841—2 to its . and naturally became a member of the Cambridge Camden Society. where Dr. He was born on 14th January. Cambridge. of which parish his father was Vicar. EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. While at Cambridge he was much interested in Architecture. " Tales of my Grandfather " —he being ." Whether true or not the tale is certainly characteristic of the man. at Easingwold. and took his degree in 1838. and so was not eligible to enter in the lists for Classical honours. and in 1834 he came up to St. 1815. It was commonly said that he was plucked in one of the college examinations in Paley's " Evidences " because he wrote at the foot of his paper. Since the last edition of this work was issued its talented Author has passed away. but at that time every one going out in honours at all was obliged first to appear in the Mathematical Tripos. Paley either could not or would not take the trouble to do this (probably the greater part of the latter). a grandson of Archdeacon Paley who wrote the "Evidences of Christianity. Butler was then the Head Master. John's College. and it will be probably of interest to our readers. if in the Preface to the new edition I give some account of his life. as well as respectful to his memory. In due time he was sent to Shrewsbury. That such a ripe classical scholar as he was should not have appeared in the Tripos seems a little strange .

" "Part I. and became extremely interested in the subject of English Architecture. E. amongst other Architectural books. and had had considerable opportunity of getting a fair knowledge of them. F. fortunately eventuated in the publication of his book on Moldings. of Lancaster. A. and on 5th March the same notice appears. I measured and sketched moldings as one important part of my studies. and developing into a systematic and careful study of the subject. Gr. A letter to me from his brother. says : — " I well remember going home to my father's Eectory at Gretford. and I like to think that my brother's early interest in this work (not usually much taken up by amateurs) thus commenced. only finishing with "Part II." He had taken great interest in these details. and this quality may account for the somewhat remarkable fact that an amateur should give such close attention to a subject that the majority of students. I had the pleasure to send him from time to time several of the examples that appear in the book. Paley read a paper " On the Moldings of Pointed Architecture. and frequently accompanied me in my visits to examine and sketch the neighbouring churches. Mr. As a young student of Church Architecture. and collecting examples of moldings of various dates. A keen and close observation was certainly a characteristic of my brother. The first form of this book was that of papers written for the Society. 1844. when it merged into the Ecclesiological Society. professional or otherwise. Norman and Early English " .among the notices of which we find that on 13th February. I recollect well. Mr. Eickman's ' Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of Architecture in England.' My brother. Decorated and Perpendicular Styles. which fortunately were singularly good and interesting buildings of every date from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries. consider rather dry and . read this work with avidity.xii PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. near Stamford (about 1839 to 42). and taking with me. dissolution in 1845. Paley.

Your tracing." This letter shows clearly that he was fully qualified to speak when he read his paper before the Cambridge Camden Society in 1844. G. and is too interesting to be omitted here : " My dear Sir. Augustus Welby Pugin. Paley 's powers as a Greek scholar were first proved in 1844 by his edition of the Supplices of iEschylus. which. though undated. This was followed at intervals by editions of all the other plays of iEschylus. " Welby Pugin." "Mr. as it is therefore better received by a host of intermediate men who could not swallow strong drink. Paley has also sent me a letter to our Author from Mr. E. Webb. xiii uninteresting. and I am the more reconciled to its not being quite so strong as you and I could wish. Mr. " In later life he devoted himself almost entirely to Greek . but are exceedingly useful to the cause as far as they go. though really of the first importance. — I was truly gratified by the receipt of your kind letter. but his power of emendation. — PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. "Believe me. —indeed the foundation and groundwork of the art. Would it be trespassing on your goodness to ask for a few tracings from the ' Bestiary ' in the Library ? I want to give some outlines of animals. is evidently written about this time. There are few men whose appreciation I should desire more than your own. In fact I have never met with any one who entertains more correct views of Church Architecture than yourself and our friend Mr. The Ecclesiologist does an infinity of good. will be of the greatest service to me at the present time. which displays not only his knowledge of the language and of his author. yours most sincerely. which you so kindly sent me.

" Architectural Notes on Cartmel Priory Church" (2nd edition. (2nd edition. 1856) . Hesiod and other authors with English notes. which he always seemed to take up as a change whenever time could be found. 1888. Soon after the dissolution of the Cambridge Camden Society. I believe. He remained until he accepted the post of Professor of Classical Literature at the newly-formed Roman Catholic College at Kensington. joined the Church of Rome. This edition of his work on Moldings has been carefully revised by the Editor. in 1847. a fair. Since the dissolution of that establish- ment he resided at Bournemouth. " The Eccle- siologist's Guide to Churches near Cambridge " (1844) ." But he was not idle on the subject of Architecture. and he published editions of Euripides.xiv PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. " Re- marks on the Architecture of Peterborough Cathedral " . and left Cambridge. Paley. Mr. In 1860 he returned to Cambridge. " Notes on Twenty Parish Churches round Peterborough " (1860) . rather than what it originally was. that it may be as well to remind the critical reader that the mass of illustrations were taken from Mr. and " The Church Restorers : a Tale. literature. and was always re- garded as one of the most careful Classical Tutors. and also published a translation of Pindar. 9th December. if not complete." are. He gave most attention to the vexata qu<estio of the authorship of the Homeric poems. and for strict and absolute . The " Manual of Gothic Architecture " (1846) . It has become so much lately a text-book for students. and showed bis knowledge of the Latin language by editing Propertius. 1872) . Paley's note-book when he himself was studying the subject. list of his architectural works besides this book on Moldings. a manual for the amateur. the Introduction to " Illustrations of Baptismal Fonts " . and several new illustrations inserted. on Sunday. where he remained till he passed away.

of ancient work is a matter each must decide for himself. xv accuracy the student must measure for himself and not depend on small scale sketches. &c. he is sure to find great value in a thorough acquaintance with the experience and work of those who have gone before him. but whatever freedom he may 'allow himself in his work. How far an artist should confine him- self to copying the moldings. PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. .

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from mere accident or caprice. lastly. whether from a natural process of gradual develop- ment. throughout the length and breadth of the land. so far as the author is aware. Again. the ancient orthography of the word. B . and were dispensed by authority through the country.* That certain conventional forms or details were in use at certain periods. But whence these forms arose. with varieties rather of combination or disposition than of the component members. A MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. and were uniformly adopted in the constructive decoration of all edifices. are equally interesting speculations. SECTION I. INTBODUCTOKY. or. which. as it was practised in this country during the Middle Ages. is an undoubted fact. how far they emanated from some particular source. perhaps. how far the same forms were arbitrary or obligatory in ancient freemasonwork. ecclesiastical and secular. No person can have devoted much time and pains to the in- vestigation of Christian architecture. are curious questions. has been adopted after Professor Willis. equally * This. or were assumed by some tacit agreement on the part of the masons themselves. have never yet been made the subjects of much investigation. or from some real or pretended secret of freehrasonry. without feeling the im- portance of acquiring an accurate knowledge of Moldings. though. well known to and admitted by all who have paid any attention to the subject.

or coat. indeed. Or can this acknowledged uniformity be referred to no more recondite cause than fashion ? Can it be said. this general resemblance and uniformity. or other article of dress. as hatters and tailors. not only indeed in moldings. that it certainly does appear strange and unaccountable. it is quite certain that a strict intercourse must have been kept up between the members of this body of artisans. to a certain extent. and to make it probable that each architect worked. is apt very freely to indulge his own pleasure. as to make it evident that some system must have been observed both in designing and executing them. and a solecism in moldings would have seemed to the ancient Churchman as striking and offensive a fault as a solecism in dress is now considered ? Perhaps this is the most rational and probable view . with varieties. When the difficulty which then existed of constant and speedy communication between distant parts of the country is considered. as all these things are ex- clusively in the hands of certain bodies.2 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. that as the same kind of hat. must appear still more surprising. and even to ridicule the restraints of strict rule. in which every professor is at liberty to design just as he pleases. and that. inde- pendently. arid a considerable degree of caprice in adorning of diversifying them . but in all the parts and features of Church architecture. so there was at once a fashion and a mono- poly in architecture . may have been. and no one ever dreams of employing others than these in providing them . and yet there is such resemblance and decided adherence to rule. . but then it is one so very different from modern architectural practice. or almost every ancient church would exhibit new and strange varieties in the details of its moldings. However this . is seen in London which is found in common use at York. There is in all these enough of licence and variety to give scope for occasional localisms. difficult to determine. and even when he pretends to imitate.

. contains a large number of reduced outline plans and sections of moldings of the finest period. or ignor- ance of the exact periods at which buildings were erected. and the amount of observation and research necessary for attaining a knowledge of their history and true theory. the delay and difficulty of copying them with minute accuracy. being a series of examples. (London. an important work on Gothic Moldings has been published by Edward Sharpe.) Mr. It may possibly be said. reduced (for the most part) to one-third size." folio. or a want of sufficient data. especially as the writer is incompetent to give any solution of the difficulty which they involve. E.. Probably a fancied uncertainty and obscurity of the study. and printed in different tints. Sharpe's fine work. and as such it is out of place to say anything more about them. To these may be added the tediousness of making any considerable collec- tion of drawings and sections of moldings. arranged according to their dates. and F. that it is to be regretted that so little has yet been done in reducing to a science this interesting and practically important department of Gothic architecture. Esq.A. and so turning an amusing pursuit into a hard lesson. INTRODUCTORY. Spon. 3 However. so as to be readily distin- guished. N. and the apparent anomalies and inconsistencies which seem often to occur. 1871. But this may reasonably -be observed. " Architectural Parallels. that moldings are of the greatest * Since the above was written. Why should so much pains be taken in investigating these comparatively insignificant minutiae : why should they not be copied in our new churches without writing books about them. in six parts 4to. by imposing on beginners so much to learn ? The answer is. Charing Cross. and to induce the reader to pardon any errors or deficiencies which he may notice in the course of the present work. b 2 . M. all these questions are quite foreign to the object of the present work. They are all the province of the anti- quary rather than the architect.* These are causes at once sufficient to render a first attempt imperfect. have all tended to deter even the most competent from writing a complete treatise on the subject.

or of architectural members . it was but too common to find the most wretched and meagre imitations of ancient examples. is partly Early English and partly debased Perpendicular . Hickman's.4 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. It may either contain a great collection of the best examples. very serious. and indeed surprising mistakes were frequently committed. of their designs. the smallest and humblest churches often show very pretty and carefully worked moldings. is surprising. They are by far the most certain. and very frequently the only guides in determin- ing the dates of buildings. they are of the first importance. No one has any claim to the name of architect who thinks the science of moldings beneath his notice. or accompanied by * As an molding of the archway in the centre of the instance. in the details of their moldings. and their uniformity of type. that some years ago. It is gratifying to find such rapid improvement and so much increased attention on the part of our present architects. the cloister to the new buildings of St. A work on moldings may have any one of the three following ends in view. with. as a map is to the study of geography. as well as to the distinctive character. they are just as essential to a knowledge of architecture. and a general poverty of appearance prevailed. accurately reduced to a scale. even by architects of repute. There was but little discrimination of styles. apparently an original composition of the late Mr. minor differences. especially in the working of capitals and bases. . Cambridge. on the first revival of the true principles of Gotbic architecture. In structures of that period^ even of considerable pre- tension. that they have rightly been called "the very grammar of the art. of course. It must be confessed. the spirit and char- acter of which were completely lost or perverted by some violation of leading principles. possible importance : so much so.".* This is in striking contrast with ancient practice . too. In practice. John's College. who are fully sensible of the great importance of correct moldings to the effect.

. nor can he even assert that every one of the examples he has given. is of that perfect and minute accuracy which might have been obtained by a laborious reduction of full-sized outlines to one and the same scale. and from all places where Gothic architecture has prevailed. it may profess to be a complete and elaborate exposition of the theory of moldings. lastly. then. The first could perhaps be satisfactorily accom- plished only by a professional man. who has himself seen the want of some work on the subject. The last alone seems capable of being tolerably well treated by an amateur. intended only to convey plain and easy information on the most ordinary forms. secondly. It is obvious that the number of examples given might be absolutely unlimited. dealing with principles rather than with bare facts. and thus supply the wants of practical men. of which the method of treatment is simple and practical as far as possible. from a collection of a few hundreds of full-sized sections. Such. it may be an elementary treatise. and to point out differences . who might be supposed to know the wants of architects and the best method of supplying them. 5 measurements. who may often be unable to procure in their immediate neighbourhood any available models or. and that to attempt a complete illustration would require many hundreds of engravings. but the observation and collections of many years. and a judicious selection out of thousands of drawings. and on the differences observable in each style. and taking a comprehensive view of the whole subject through the medium of the Classic and Komanesque varieties . or. The second would require not only very considerable acuteness and ingenuity. INTRODUCTORY. and being thrown entirely upon his own resources in examining and investigating it. made at different times and places by the eye alone. so as to form a magazine of reference. Such exten- sive resources the author does not profess to possess . The object being to ex- plain details and formations. and aboutas many drawings. is the aim and object of the present work.

almost imperceptibly. 6 MANUAL. and the examples in the last five plates. they may seem only an unmeaning cluster of hollows. rather than to furnish models for modern imitation.and was in the present case quite impracticable. this ex- treme faithfulness of delineation. if only by the enlarged views he will acquire of the ancient principles of effect. Possessed of these simple qualifi- cations. the study of Gothic moldings is as curious and interesting in itself as it is important in its results. rather than examples of rare ex- ceptions to the general practice of the ancient architects. But such is surely the case and a knowledge of the fact should convince the student of the reasonableness of the study. He will learn to pronounce with some degree of confidence the date of the merest fragment of sculptured stone. Many persons. For the same reason the measurements are only occasionally added. viewed without under- standing. Any one who engages actively in it will he amply repaid. the shadows. . Let him only enter upon it. are not aware that every group can be analysed with perfect ease and certainty . The only necessary con- ditions are a tolerable idea of delineation. nooks. are really in themselves extremely beautiful. ever observing and adding to his store of facts and examples. and he will be rewarded for his pains. and shapeless excrescences. A broken * Most of the woodcuts. that every member is cut by rule. and a general interest in Church architecture.* The specimens engraved are mostly those of ordinary occurrence. and arranged by certain laws of combination. and the blending forms. he will be led on by his subject from step to step. Viewed as an inductive science. and tracing out to his own satisfaction the forms and processes through which he conceives moldings to have passed in the various stages of their development. . The curves. arrangement and composition. is unnecessary. though of course highly desirable. OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. have been reduced from actual measurements. and will soon become the favourites of a familiar eye : though.

and with the effects of light and shade upon it. 10. He will look at every ancient building. the moldings of the respective. perhaps overturning some of his previously formed theories. that the same form seen in the one may not even be recognized in the other. or a door-jamb. Brandon have pointed out the interesting fact. and any * The Messrs. eras were always most faithfully preserved. . Introduction. A few examples in the page of a book are as nothing. He will regard every shattered arch with a new attention. — for he will be sure to find in its very demolition peculiar facilities for research. projected in a reduced size on paper. Supposing a molded archway were to be taken down. that although earlier styles were occasionally imitated in completing or alter- ing buildings at a later period. with a more searching eye. dug up on the reputed site of an ancient building. of which so insignificant a remnant alone remains." p. a herald in an ancient escutcheon. He will find the same satisfaction in examining it which a botanist finds in a rare plant. however dilapidated or defaced. these important members were always worked in strict conformity with the ordinary — system prevalent at the time of their construction. INTRODUCTORY. therefore. The look of a molding is so very different in section. or a geologist in an undescribed fossil. a string-course. The learner must understand that the best work on Gothic moldings which could possibly be written will do no more than set him in the right way to obtain' a knowledge of the subject by his own research.* He will ever and anon meet with some new and singular conformation. 7 piece of a capital. will tell him of what style and date the fabric was. To however great an extent the earlier por- tion ofan edifice may have been subsequently copied. from its appearance in perspective reality. if he does not apply in practice that which he has learned from them. once for all explained how the engravings are to be under- stood. " The assimilating process never extended to the moldings. It is here." " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. —perhaps clearly re- ducible to and confirmatory of them.

Each example is.to a small size (say a scale of half an inch to a foot). tin. sheet of one of the arch-stones placed upon a large square paper. The method adopted by architects is uniformly that which has been followed in the plates illustrating the present work. 5. fig. and shading the cavities and projec- tions. parallel to one side . as in the woodcut and PL. soffit surface. sife. is a good illustration of a templet. and the molded Beoorated door-jamb. fig. and then a pencil were to be carried along the wall-line first. or part of the stone parallel which the plane of the outer wall. V. and a piece of paper inserted in the crevice. the same as the templet or mold. Northampton. or a capital or base down the middle. or wood. in fact. But this. Maxey. and shaded on the part which represents the flat side or bed of the stone. XII. Without the latter. should he lies in and the or inner with the end of the paper nearest to you. would form a diagram exactly similar to our illustra- tions. Again. The usual popular way of engraving Gothic mold- ings is to give a perspective sketch of a stone or slice cut out of the arch. How to do this. if a string-course were to be sawn across. The shaded portion of PL. at right angles with it. and so up a portion of the soffit-plane .. and after- wards in and out of each cavity and round each projection. obtained reduced. . 15. in such a manner that the wall-line. does not give so clear a view of the forms of the separate members. though its general appearance is certainly much more like the reality.8 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. this would in the same way represent the shaded sections of these details. he must copy mold- ings in order to understand them. and marked off by the sharp edge of the mold- ing. the outline thus. a thin plate of zinc. showing at once the flat end or upper face. But the student must not only observe . his knowledge will never be practically perfect. which is used by workmen in marking out the stones previously to cutting them out.

so that they form a book when complete. . leaves fixed on one side. some of the ancient names of moldings have been recovered . * Nothing is better adapted for a pedestrian tourist than a block sketching book. they are somewhat difficult to copy accurately by the eye." for ruling parallel and rectangular lines. should be kept. especially in the present dearth of terms. but it is sur- prising how well and how readily a practised hand can copy in a few minutes a most complex group. the measurements and name of place being duly registered with each example. It is taken from the Itinerarium of William of Worcester. And if the true form is not attained by the first stroke. Perhaps the student's first attempts will result in failure .* For the mediaeval nomenclature of moldings. These are to be obtained with the. and ensure general fidelity. INTRODUCTORY. planes. A small note-book should be kept exclusively for copying moldings by the eye. 9 will shortly be shown. the en- deavours to improve it will seldom be very successful. which are not always geometric. because the exact curves. In this treatise. Willis's treatise. and it is to be hoped they will be revived." being Part 7. at the outset. 1. Vol. the following Schedule and diagram is here inserted. of the Quarto Publications of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. It must be understood. It will be found with fuller explanations in Prof. As this work is not easily obtainable. that though certain lines. and measurements may be drawn in all cases to assist the process. who was born in Bristol in 1415. in the pocket of which a small " T-square. by explaining some of the various methods which have been practised. '+ " The Architectural Nomenclature of the Middle Ages. and the objection to having a number of loose sheets is obviated. the learned and useful work lately published by Professor Willisf supplies an authentic source of information. can scarcely be caught without considerable practice.

N. Thus PL.—A felet. —A casement with Levys.—A felet. B. —A ressant. —A casement with trayler D. M. —Yn'the my. 22. I. A casement. being the appearance it would present if cut through by a plane at right angles to its bearing.—A felet. 1 to 5. " 10 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Stephen's Church. fig. .— A boutell. 40. A. PL. R. O. K. I. as in PL.—A boutel. would present the appearance of fig. is called the section or profile of a molding. when the edge or surface of it presents continuous lines of alternate pro- jections and recesses.ides of the I A felet. — A cors wythqute. A drawing which represents the outline of these projections and recesses. 8 . —A ressant. . Any architectural member is said to be molded. Facsimile of William of Worcester's drawing. Bristol. fig.—A felet.A filet. — f AA boutel.—A felet. figs. 5. North Door of St. —A casement. 'A felet. A drawing which represents these lines as they would appear to the eye if projected on a vertical plane placed opposite to them.— A felet. -I U. X. —A casement. C. if cut across A b. door a boutelle. 10. "R. I G. I. felet. of Levys. F. is called the elevation of a molding. T. S. Ij. H. A few expressions used in the present work it will be neces- sary clearly to define before entering upon the subject. P. 24. — A bnwtelle. —A double ressaunt.

either full-sized or reduced to a scale. and. is one which is recessed by so many successive planes or retiring sub-arches. when placed in combina- tion. standing prominent or isolated. with tolerable precision. com- monly signifies the entire series which ornaments a jamb or arch ." and fig. but it is here generally used in the sense of a particular part or member of such series. secondly. Members are said to be grouped. each placed behind and beneath the next before it. . fig. before entering upon the consideration of the combinations and more minute varieties of detail. reckoning from the outer wall line. either on a shaft or between two deep hollows. is the section across an arch of "two orders. or molding (the former is the ancient term). 5. to be able to draw or " take " moldings. INTRODUCTORY. first to understand the general principles of formation. but A group is a bunch of moldings or separate members. 11 A mold. An arch of two or more orders. I. as we generally find them . 7 is of "three hollow-cham- fered orders. these preliminary points will be explained as simply and briefly as possible." As it is necessary for every student in this science. Thus PL.

There are some who contend that Gothic moldings are derived. and the steps are so natural. and. as might be expected. SECTION II. - . the transitions so easy. that any two styles working independently of each other from the same beginnings and elemental forms. But the convincing argument is this : that in Gothic molding all the links in the process of formation are connected and complete. from the first and rudest origin to the most elaborate develop- ment . which was most closely connected with the Classic. Again. and one which appears scarcely ten- able. could hardly fail of arriving at least at some of the same results. Augustine downwards. It is also true that the intercourse with Eome was always frequent. if at this or that period. or at least are very partially and indirectly borrowed from the Classic styles . from Koman . yet very de- cidedly. and if they had. some coincidences of form exist between them.12 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. as it * It is true that the Freemasons were an ecclesiastical body under the Pope. It seems certain that all the forms of Gothic Moldings are the peculiar and genuine offspring of Christian architecture. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. This is also the opinion of the authors of the " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. although. a supposition hardly probable in itself. when we observe that in the Norman style (in England at least). and not confined to this or any other particular country in Europe. and entirely undeveloped ." page 48. a new member was introduced. from the consideration that the mediaeval architects of this country* could have known little of Italian architecture. the forms of the moldings which we call Gothic are merely nascent. Still it is impossible to trace in pure Gothic buildings the least symptom of Italianizing either in com- position or details. mediately indeed. we cannot suppose they would have cared to copy in its details what they altogether repudiated in its kind. from the time of St.

it adapted details from Saracenic or Moorish. as the determina- tion of it does not in the least affect the facts of which this work treats. from the debased Classical. the discussion of this question is rather for those who have to do with the "theory of moldings. a new letter added to the alphabet. and it will hereafter clearly be demonstrated that such was the case. (i. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OP FORMATION. and to enlarge its capacity of design- ing according to the requirements it met with.e. In truth. 13 were. from Norman. Arabian). and though it can hardly be said that the early Gothic forms are mere copies of Classic or Eastern ones. and to satisfy special wants . About that time it must be remembered that the whole of Western Europe was engaged in the first Crusade. some of which may be traced to foreign sources : the Early English base is allowed by all to have been borrowed from the Attic . if every Gothic form can be shown to be an improvement or modification of a preceding one. there is such a general resemblance in the character of the work. That the whole tone of Architecture was then altered is an undoubted fact. as to have caused it to be classed under the one title of Komanesque. Also in matters of mere detail. rather than sought for in the resem- blance which an Italian molding may happen to bear to it ? However. from the Byzantine . From the time of the formation of the first Christian Basilica to the middle of the twelfth century. in its origin eclectic. and some leading features were then introduced for the first time. the effect of travel would. why should it not be attributed to invention. we find new forms. it must be concluded that the whole series is the offspring of one and the same progressive art. Still. naturally be to accustom the mind to see beauty in an entirely different class of forms. And it is undeniable that several forms and combinations of the ogee curve are nearly identical in Classic and in Gothic buildings. Gothic architecture grew up under peculiar circum- stances.

1844.changes of form and modifications produced by various climates. and peruse. 14 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. horizontal moldings occur in water-tables and string-courses. The former are repeated to almost any extent. . or in projecting curves on whichaway by degrees into shadow. of successive . and Komanesque edifices of all dates and descriptions. Lombardic. In their use also Gothic moldings differ as widely as possible from Classic. and from Italian. in the latter both are absolutely defined. An intelligent and thoughtful writer in the English Review* has the following remarks on the differences between Grecian and Gothic moldings : "Where the Grecian delighted in broad level surfaces. material. in which posi- tions they invariably form subordinate lines. catching the light in masses. and in capitals and bases. a Grecian molding by its lights. so as entirely to occupy the large recessed spaces in jambs and arches. round the weatherings of buttresses. each group being composed of the same members. that is. and numerous other influences. we read. or. if the expression may be used. and may so far perhaps be regarded as lingering ves- tiges of the Classic usage. though the forms themselves are fixed . the latter in horizontal. and the * For December. especially in the earlier styles. the it dies Gothic roughened and encrusted them with carving. The former run principally in vertical lines. And thus in general we measure. They are repeated too in groups. In Gothic architecture. half Greek in design. and very limited in their application. so as to contrast and display the predominant principles of a vertical ascending sweep. national taste or genius. Its history is truly one of " evolution " . or nearly so. and are carried under windows and arcades. The combinations of the one are in a great measure arbitrary. both internal and external. The latter are few in number. They are also used very effectively to divide lofty walls into stages. and ex- tensively in base-courses. churches.

and combines them in angles and curves. but also the plain continuous lines of light and shadow . the Gothic in narrow. the cornice moldings were carried around it. some may be detected by a super- ficial view. othei> being subdued and rendered secondary and subordinate to the vertical principle. thereby producing the same result as in Gothic. Gothic are entangled in labyrinths. in the. the continuous . the Gothic endeavours to bury it in deep recesses. hori- zontal lines continuing to predominate. vertical moldings are rare. Hori- zontal moldings form the leading lines . When the Eomans broke up. 15 Gothic by its shadows. since . and it is by these. even in later and degenerated specimens. that the vertical moldings are regulated. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. and perplexed with innumerable intricacies. And Grecian moldings are simple and easily divisible into parts . the Gothic in concave. though they are in effect identical. by means of the arch. Gothic architecture revelled in the use of moldings." The notion of ascending moldings is coeval with the intro- duction of the arch. horizontal entablature of the Grecians. The Grecian leads it gently along in sweeping. in the one case. the Grecian delights in convex lines. &c. though with a different effect . vertical moldings are most frequent . and they overrule and determine those which are horizontal. For instance. The lights and shadows of the Grecian melt and slide insensibly into each other . not only what are usually called ornamental moldings. those of the Gothic are planted together in strong and bold contrast In the purest Grecian buildings. the ball-flower. the Grecian in broad lights. and may indeed be traced to a still earlier period in the sides of doorways and similar positions. In the Gothic. the Gothic fractures its lines. The Grecian throws out projections to catch the eye ." " Of the differences between Again : the two classes of molding. and fell on each side in vertical lines into the horizontal. unbroken undula- tions . such as the dog- tooth.

not the essentials. Some buildings of the best periods were quite devoid of mold- ings. or an arch-mold is often found of perfectly the same profile in an abbey or a cathedral. vertical or horizontal. a base. an attempering of bare prominent outlines. and made it dwell on certain parts of higher pretension and more exquisite elaboration than others. that no ordinary pains are requisite in examining any considerable moiety of them for the purposes of investi- gating their principles. Construction gained thereby a rich perspective. t The mediaeval term for what we now call mulUon.f every edge. window.16 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS.* more or less rounded and modified from the first process. If the uniformity in their use had not been tolerably strict. yet not less solemn and striking than richness of detail. and in a village church at the other end of the kingdom . every band. when the molding was left for some reason or accident partially uncut. Hence it is that such a vast quantity every- where remains. and jamb. if there had not been a system of molding. It was their ambition to work them wherever they could possibly find means and opportunity. whence it is evident that they are not necessary even to a perfect design. It is probable that they were gene- rally worked out after the completion of a building. But so little did the mediaeval masons depart from the conventional forms. internal or external. Every door. it had indeed been a hopeless task ever to master the subject . Boldness and simplicity produce effects. arch. . a fine tone. was generally molded. and it is quite evident that they delighted in their extensive use. label. which arrested the eye. string. so that we * This may occasionally be seen. there would have been nothing to investigate. Of course the effect produced by so free and extended a use of them was magnificent in the extreme. a depth of shade. different indeed in their kind. indeed. But the power of moldings was appreciated to the fall by the ancient architects. of architecture. roof. the former are nothing but serrated ridges. And yet moldings are merely the ornamental adjuncts. monial. groin-rib. that a capital. whether of wood or stone.

THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. &c. such as wood. And this. On examining the plan of a Saxon window or doorway. that is. especially in belfry-arches. iron. 17 might almost suspect that the very same working drawing had been used for both. The reader will perhaps be tired of this preliminary chapter. according to the fine- ^IBF B i ness of the material thus. 1. as in fig. I. . when it is considered. and endeavouring to discover the origin of the practice. in the annexed examples. Lincolnshire. . Stonework. This may often be met with. the long narrow opening has a very wide splay inside and a very small one on c . fig. they are on a more delicate scale. And at this point it may be well to proceed. Burgh. the student would do well to notice those in other materials. must appear a very wonderful fact. It may. by sloping or chamfering off the edges. Bottisham. Dear Cambridge. Although the examples given here are in nearly every case from stonework. the monial t. even considerably later. So in an ordinary Early English lancet window. is only half the size of the stone one from Bottisham. however. and then gradually trace the progress of development until the forms have all been analyzed and classified according to their respective dates. as in PL. beginning with very early buildings. but has more members in it.1 . Woodwork. 2. perhaps nothing more will be found than a rude square-edged aperture in a plain wall. trom the screen at Burgh le Marsh. for though the same forms will be found at the same date as in stonework. and will be anxious to enter upon the subject at once. in small and rude country churches. be relieved and expanded by splaying it on one or both sides.

III. fig. In practice. I. like the groin- rib of a vault. or square edge. In the abbey church of St. constructed of fine-jointed ashlar. 5).* or it was carried continuously down to the ground. if the wall be very thick each one retiring behind the other. as fig. is often corbelled off at the impost. Now in this rude arrangement. without any interruption or change of shape. especially in pier arches. In arching over the upper part of an aper- ture as fig. the jambs being left square. And the chamfer may be hollow. the nave and transept-arches are constructed of two rectangular sub-ribs. which are continued from the ground with the intervention: of a mere band or string-course at the impost. made in a thick wall of loose rubble masonry. or simply as in fig. and IV. it was not uncommon to add. Alban's. . with a small shaft at the angles. the plan is at once obtained which was most con- stantly used. we shall find the germs of a usage which ever afterwards prevailed. when worked on a small scale. fig. or sub-arch. for centuries afterwards (PL. 7. which is observable in many continental Romanesque churches. with some improve- ments of form and detail. or of two orders or retiring members. 1. f Potter's Monastic Remains. which is common in Early English and Decorated arches. but no alteration of principle. 3. of this aper- ture. without the least change of form. near Cambridge. molded. . that is. Of course. the sub- arch was no longer a separate constructive formation. but was * In Transition arches. 18 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. a sub-arch. the outside. for the sake at once of ornament and security. This sub-arch rested either on a pillar at each side. the inner order. there may be two or more sub-arches. and was much in TOgue from about 1260 to 1320. 4. however. PL. f By chamfering off each arris. or soffit-pilasters. or a projecting impost. or under-rib. which now becomes recessed. This is the case in the chancel- arch at Cherry Hinton. The same is observable in several of the Transition arches at Buildwas Abbey.

lllatS .

Rut- land . The pier- arches in the nave of Peterborough Cathedral are molded pre- t cisely in the same manner. XXI. They are commonly single. the belfry arch of Morcot Church. the first element of moldings. XVIII. From this latter arrangement is derived the double roll and fillet which forms the central member of PL. 13 is from Great Grimsby. and arch-molds of this kind are of constant occurrence in the Norman and Transition styles. * Facsimile given in Eiokman's " Gothic Architecture.. Now this column seems at first to have borne a square-edged member or sub-arch. 15.20 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Here the howtell is formed by rounding the edge as before. and fig. but occasionally double. Fig. and the other is of very nearly the same period. is from Adel Church. fig." because they occur at the external angles of the receding ordei's.fYork- shire. In Norman doorways every nook formed by the receding under-ribs. 2. as was very usual in this style. is occupied by a detached column. 158. PL. Lincolnshire. an arch-mold from the choir of Ripon Minster. from which this example- is borrowed." Seventh Edition. an arch from Seaton Church. In this the square edge is worked into a shallow triple roll. both in Lincolnshire. + See " Churches of Yorkshire.* bearing the date 1192 ." Part VII. I. p. Both these are good examples of the same principle . near Boston. 1 of the same plate. Fig. as PL. fig. . and are yet not extended on each side. the influence of jamb-shafts must be taken into account. 12 is an Early English pier-arch at Skirbeck. In considering the origin of the cylindrical roll or bowtell. These bold early moldings are generally called " edge-rolls. in the same county. and cutting a deep three-quarter hollow on each side. and illustrates this arrangement. as fig. fig. already described. 8. In the latter church a Dedication inscription still remains. Thus the bowtell becomes attached only by a narrow neck. 14 from Clee.

and coeval with. 16. is of constant occurrence in Early English work. the plan of which may be described as a spherical triangle engaged at the base. Fig. 13. This may very clearly be seen in an Early Norman doorway at Hauxton. 21 which projected above the impost exactly where the jamb receded below it. 19 shows its use in an Early English arch at St. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OP FORMATION. Ely. 17 is a triple respond or half- pier. Benet's. Lincoln. fig. which occurs frequently in the Transition Norman and Early English periods. the idea of continuous moldings is obtained. Fig. as in the annexed example from Croxden Abbey. Hence its occurrence in Early Gothic may be expected. between two cylindrical bowtells. The western porch at Ely is flanked by . In this case the under-edge -is withdrawn at the point. as at a. in some cases. and is generally a mark of its early date. and in truth it is very frequently found in the Transition period. rounded off so as to correspond in form and size with the column itself. r ^r yC/^ which is the plan of a late Norman arch in St. p' Its formation may be seen in PL. resembling. of very singular form. though not in the pure Norman. which seems the origin of what is called the scroll-molding. however. The pointed shaft. This member arose from a desire to decorate the angles of recessed arches. I. hereafter to be explained. fig. and fig. at Clee . Mary's Church. near Cambridge. without either cutting away or rounding off the square edge. This subject. The clustered columns at Byland and Whitby Abbeys (the former circa 1190) exhibit the pointed shaft alternating with the circular. 24 shows this form more at large. Yet something closely resembling this member often occurs in Norman work. Hence. the introduction of the pointed arch. by omitting altogether the impost or capital. is the «^ pointed bowtell. Staffordshire. Another form. and which was afterwards. will be spoken of more fully in treating of capitals and shafts generally.

figs. and in consequence. and must never be regarded as ex- Nave Arcade. that all these moldings are formed. first. And fig. 22 is a groin-rib from Eobertsbridge Abbey. Of all these varieties more will be said hereafter. 4. PI. PL. which are so well known by the name of the " roll-and- fillet. The student will already have perceived. 25 is an Early English arch at Little Casterton. . 22 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. it may be stated that a shaft may take almost any form to suit the primary molding which it sustains on its capital. PL. where both sides are thus filleted. XVIII." As a general rule. all in Lincolnshire. 12 and 23. and fig/ 5 the jamb of the archway of the south porch at Great Grimsby. The first three exhibit the use of the pointed bowtell. is a pier-arch of very Early English date. the filleted shaft and bowtell. is the jamb of a lancet window at the east end of Rivaulx Abbey. show the cylindrical and the pointed bowtells with the addition of a small fillet at one side. where there are three fillets. New Shoreham. fig 1. 18 is a groin-rib from Tintern Abbey. at Middle Easen. Fig. 2 is a doorway at Ludborough. 8. edges and sinking hollows. This is one of the com- monest moldings at the angles of Early English window-jambs. on the principle of continuous moldings already alluded to. from the manner adopted here of drawing the sections. that the groups lie in the planes of the uncut blocks. PL. Vol. and afterwards led to. fig. Undoubtedly this form existed earlier than.out of the solid block solely by removing Soffit plane. I. fig. II. Fig. Sussex. crescences on a plane (Brandon's Analysis. the outermost . 3 the chancel-arch at Langtoft. Fig. clustered columns of pointed shafts. where the fillet is at the end or central point. II.) surface secondly.

may be readily disentangled. the plane formed by chamfering an edge. are represented in our engravings by dotted lines. In PL. which at this time was in most cases worked exactly at an angle of 45° and as the style advanced towards the . the moldings shared in the pre- . and the most complex and extensive combination. 23 edge of each member touching the rectangular or chamfered surface. and sketched with precision. although we occasionally find the jamb molded on the chamfer-plane. arrangement throughout the Early English Gothic period. It may be . a group of moldings would be developed. that is. 10. Without attending to these facts. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OE FORMATION. as a general rule. but then in tolerably frequent connection with the chamfer-plane. When this is done by accurate measurement. which was generally (not invariably) done at an angle of about forty-five degrees. During the earlier portion of the Decorated Gothic period. all attempts to do so will be futile. or parallel with the soffit. the rest of the process becomes comparatively easy. or the chamfer-plane. be- fore the moldings were cut. era of decided architectural debasement. b the soffit-plane. not being cut away so as to fall below or short of it. which may be called the soffit-plane . analyzed. the wall and soffit planes still continued to be most generally used.alleged. or other feature. It is clear that by sinking hollows in any one of these surfaces. The original planes. one parallel with the outer wall. to ascertain the plan of the arch. that is. which we shall designate the wall-plane . one at right angles to it. There are three planes in which moldings will be found to lie . a is the chamfer-plane. which it appears at first sight impossible to copy with anything like accuracy. c the wall-plane. and the third. II. fig. the first point is to lay down on paper the various planes. In considering any series of moldings previously to copying them.* that Early English * " In the Anglo-Norman stylo the jamb-molds were almost always worked in the wall and soffit planes and this continued to be the general . These two facts must be regarded as fundamental canons in the arrange- ment of moldings. or uncut square surfaces.

near Cam- vailing desire to produce a meretricious effect. or Third-pointed. fig. (The semicircle round the central group represents the capital of the jamb-shaft. PL. If some members seem to fall short of one plane. which is much more rarely the case. ac- lie cording to their kind. 9 is a doorway. truly copied according to the above rules. PL. 8 is a pier-arch. both from Over. are instances of Early English moldings not uniformly falling upon the regular planes. III. Fig. II. as in PL. Cherry Hinton. These are Early Decorated. 19 is a very fine molding from the inner door of the south porch. by no means uncommon to meet with moldings of all the styles in which some of the members are withdrawn considerably below the plane of the others. II. . II. the inclination must be determined by bending a ruler or piece of lead across them. Cam- bridgeshire.) Fig. is an Early English molding from the interior of the chancel door. fig. and if they fall on the segment of a circle. 'Fig. p. PL. . and fig. 6 the northern doorway of the same church. fig. and fig. fall either on these. 15. It is obvious that this is the . lie on the last. 16 one at Trumpington. most expensive kind of molding. Fig. a pier-arch at All Saints'. because more has to be cut away from the solid block. 11. 14 is a door- way at Madingley. it was frequently entirely lost. Fig. 2 and 3. moldings on the planes rectangular. they will generally be found referable to some other.The arrangement of moldings on the original block-planes was less and less rigidly adhered to as the styles progressed. 13 a window-jamb." —Brandon's Analysis. and in the latest. It is. and fig. without any reference to correctness of composition. figs. 7. or on the chamfer- plane alone and that Perpendicular moldings almost always . that Decorated. 50.24 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. however. Stamford. 12 is the distorted and inaccurate form it would probably assume if an unpractised and untaught draughtsman were to attempt to copy it by the eye. is an example of a molding from Over.

or con- sists of three orders. already quoted. It is clear. or (as a writer in the English Review. and we only mention it as an opinion entertained by some. The observation of this circumstance immediately removes the principal difficulty. however. This is not an easy example to copy by the eye. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. 18 is a magnificent arch-mold from the doorway of St. Too much stress has frequently been laid on the theory of architectural symbolism. Whether con- structive or symbolical. so that there is a triple triplicity in the entire composition. the angle of each will naturally form a group of three rolls with a hollow on each side. Clement's Church. we need not now consider. since the architects of the period seem to have affected representations of the mystic number three. Fig. as in fig. Occasionally each member has three fillets. imagines) suggested by philosophical principles of effect. but falls on the line of the chamfer. each group having three members. showing the capitals of the two jamb- shafts. Early English and Decorated moldings very often consist of three groups. This section illustrates a very common peculiarity of its style. for the central member in each group does not extend to the angle. that if an archway has two sub-arches. 25 bridge. Cambridge. . though symbolism may have had its influence. 5. These are both pure Decorated. This molding consists of three distinct groups. which may be called the triplicity of moldings.

except in ruined buildings. there are many difficulties to over- come. and laid upon a sheet of paper. their relative position to each other. and here care should be taken not to damage or destroy any portion of the little that is left. But many fragments of monials. and these may readily be placed upon sheets of paper for the purpose of tracing their .26 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. may be rolled into a coil so as to be easily portable. COPYING MOLDINGS. is almost unavoidably bent in transferring it to the paper. that if the molding extends over a con- siderable space. and the copy is incorrect and worth- . or by applying a large sheet of paper where a stone has been removed. The best and simplest of all is by inserting the paper in a loose joint. If this should happen. and left the edges sufficiently clear and sharp to trace their outlines by pressure against them. it is clear. the tape. In this process. by its extreme pliability and great weight. voussoirs. These methods. how- ever. or by a pencil. or some level surface nearest at hand. however. may be found in every old abbey. There are several ways of doing this. and thence carefully removed. groin- ribs. SECTION III. Another way is by the use of the leaden tape. First. are confused or altogether lost. which requires both pains and practice to ensure tolerable accuracy. about a yard in length. and may be traced off with a pencil. By being manipulated and impressed upon the moldings to be copied. that is. the true bearings of the members. and other molded stones. A thin flexible riband of this metal. which must be spread flat on the ground. it retains the exact shape it has received. are but seldom available. By these means alone a large collection of very valuable specimens may be made.outlines.

27 less. In all cases. from being so far undercut that portions of the projecting members have fallen or been broken off. or the sharp and rounded edges. jamb or arch) may be first marked out on the paper. in the second case. to produce such a result. by the aid of the measure. There is a process similar in its nature and results to the . An experienced hand is required for making an accurate copy and the process. dirt. As Early English moldings are often mutilated. or slide affixed to one leg and passing through the other. and curvature. In the first instance. it is better to copy only eight or ten inches of the molding at once . and if furnished with a segmental scale-bar. and subsequently to deter- mine their breadth and width by inserting a measure into them. moss. A pair of compasses with the ends bent inward is very useful in obtaining the breadth of the members . on the whole. and afterwards drawn upwards or down- wards till it finds exit at a broken place. the lead may frequently be manipulated into a part which is entire. though the tape has in some cases been successfully used. &c. COPYING MOLDINGS. a full-sized plan by measurement of the block. or con- tains deep and wide hollows with a narrow neck. where the molding is much undercut. is rather tedious. and the tape adjusted to them . pro- jection. Secondly. . the depth of the hollows. so that these especially must be supplied by the eye . and whitewash must first be scraped clear away from the part to be copied. it is so clumsy that it can hardly be recommended to the student. and every separate member should be tested as to size. the width of the neck of each undercut bowtell may be exactly marked. Sharp edges and angular hollows cannot be closely copied with the leaden tape. it is advisable to carry the tape merely over the necks of the hollows. or the planes in which the members respectively lie (that is. the rough draught of the pencil must invariably be corrected by close comparison with the original. In using the tape. the lead when fitted into them cannot be withdrawn. cannot truly be ascertained. bearing.

It is described and illustrated in the Engineers' and Architects' Journal. is to copy by the eye alone. use of the leaden tape. . that the instrument. and the most extensive and complex moldings can be taken by its aid. so that a number of separate pieces of paper must be pinned together on the spot. or a composition purposely prepared of wax and some other in- gredients. by which moldings may be copied with the most perfect accuracy. This is technically called squeezing. though the convex and concave surfaces are of course reversed. the original molding is exactly copied. has drawn them for the most part with the com- passes. and called by him the Cymagraph. the form of which is thus readily and accurately obtained. plaster. and for ordinary purposes much the best and simplest way. on a reduced scale. to the part to he copied. But in the case of undercutting. or the planes and bearings will be incorrect. and that only about a foot's width of a molding can be taken at once . By pouring plaster of Paris into the matrix thus formed. the difficulty is here insurmountable. and is practised hy applying wet clay. though by no means large. for the members and curves were very often drawn libera manu* especially in earlier work . Potter.28 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. and in this case no doubt correctly. so that very consider- able deviations from geometric precision must be expected in pbserving ancient examples. and the whole operation is tedious. in giving the full-sized sections of moldings from Tintern Abbey. It can be successfully used with a very little practice. and only fit to be applied when a model is necessary. and that with great accuracy. clumsy. which is very successful where the mold- ings are not too much undercut. * If not so designed by the master. No. is an inconven- ient appendage to the equipment of a pedestrian. Mr. they certainly were often so cut by the mason. Another. A beautiful and ingenious instrument has been invented by Professor Willis. The only disadvantages are. 58. and of the full size. . Geometric methods both of copying and reducing moldings are fallible .

it is enough to give the whole breadth or width of a series of mold- ings. fig. if tha planes in which they lie be carefully attended to. 1. fig. in copying moldings. 12. as in PL. is of the greatest importance in acquiring a sound acquaintance with the subject. In this way also moldings which are quite out of reach may be sketched very tolerably at the distance of many feet. indispensable. The practice of copying moldings by the eye alone. as in PL. it is obvious that the double groove or hollow chamfer in the centre cuts off a less portion of the projecting angle than the diagram represents . It is indeed. figs. . as before stated. fig. XVII. Generally. and a perfect copy of the ordinary and plainer moldings. If the particular measurements of each member are required. The depth to which hollows are sunk from the surface of any plane may readily be added. and thus a great degree of accuracy is in time attained. I. as in PL. 29 adding the measurements of each face. as in other cases. 22. already pointed out. an Early English Doorway at Louth. of drawing the outer wall-line parallel with the bottom of the page. For example. in PL. and the soffit parallel to the side. fig. By adding the measurements of all the parts. it is well to adopt uniformly the plan. 3. 3. may be made in two or three minutes. as PL. VIII. they should be given in respect of wall and soffit planes. COPYING MOLDINGS. any inaccuracy of proportion resulting from a hasty sketch will readily be recti- fied. the measurement serves to correct the drawing. should the molding be adopted in practical architecture. 20. This is rather a troublesome process. In this. 21. for the line marked 3f inches is nearly as long as that marked 7. II. The eye becomes perfectly familiar with every kind and variety by fre- quently contemplating new examples and collections previously made . which is simple and easy when they lie in one plane. with their measurements. For the sake of neatness. III. and is apt to produce a complex diagram.

must be invariably observed. this. Another fey the use of a triangle of wood or brass. as they will tend very much to correct the eye for sketching. and the relative proportions of the parts. and the practised eye will seize the outline almost instinctively. fig. he must be careful not to neglect to get full- sized details whenever he has the opportunity. with a bullet is best) from the outer edge of the abacus. the planes in which moldings lie. It has been observed that edges are frequently chamfered at an angle of forty-five degrees. 15). In copying the moldings of capitals. the plane is marked by a line. It may be remarked. and the projection of the abacus over the shaft. But as this is by no means invariably the case. in his " Archi- tectural Nomenclature. however small the copy may be -. measure the depth from the top of the abacus to the under side of the neck- molding . which will prevent it being placed close against the wall. Though the student should always carry his sketch-book and pencil with him. it is advisable in every instance to put it to the test. and applying the foot rule and triangle. Both these are easily taken by dropping a small plummet (a string. One is by bending the measure at its joint (PL. 30 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. as in the illustrations of the pre- sent work. with angles of forty . II. with a very close approximation to truth. and frequently show important deviations from geometric forms which are liable to be overlooked at first sight." from the Journal of William of Worcester. These two points. the only difficulty is in the hinge of the rule. There are several simple and effective means of doing. that in the example given by Professor Willis. by which the angle can be accurately transferred to the paper.

the end just meeting the other. in addition. See PL. Every member may be reduced separately by means of the compass and scale . if the chamfer is at an angle of forty-five. If. the direction of the chamfer is obtained. and thus either the dimensions a b or b c may be obtained . however. and the enclosed angle being a right angle. by applying the hypotenuse of which to the chamfer the two sides will be respectively parallel to the wall- plane and the soffit-plane. inclosing certain portions of the copy. which may generally be done very easily by placing the rule against one plane and sighting the end of it to a line with the other. . 31 five degrees. Where the rule is placed against one plane. . COPYING MOLDINGS. the cross measurement be taken. Full-sized moldings are reduced by the use of the well- known instrument called the Pentagraph. 12. All other methods require both time and care. as in diagram. is to measure along the wall and soffit-planes. and re- peated of the proportionate size in the same positions on the reduced drawing.fig. whether the walls are at right angles or not. the splay will be obtained correctly. V. but not otherwise. The best plan. or circles may be drawn.

Norman string-courses often consist of a square projecting fillet. generally semi-cylindrical. both in its groin-ribs and pier-arches. the very nature of the case would lead us to conclude that the earliest element arose out of a desire to relieve. Cambridge. so as to form a semi-hexagonal projection. with the angles chamfered off. the balustre shafts in the tower of St. an exact parallel to which occurs in a doorway of the Bomanesque palace of Theodoric at Bavenna . SECTION IV. Having thus far explained the general principles and the methods of drawing moldings in section. PL. This last example. XVI. A square-edged rib Parti. St." a plain flat surface. by coarse irre'gular channelling.32 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 14. easily became a semi-cylindrical bowtell by first chamfering. and then removing indefinitely the remaining angles. From Mr. fig. 10. fig. affords. PL. to which must be added the very curious and antique attempt at a molded architrave on the impost of the belfry-arch at Barna:ck. and of setting off the parts . for instance. III. Benet's. The first and rudest attempts at molding which are found in this country. such as occur in the Ante-Norman chancel-arch at Wittering. are the rough and coarsely chiselled members. EAKLY MOLDINGS IN GENEKAL. Sepulchre's Church. Northamptonshire. Gaily Knight's " Italian Architecture. and other churches of that date. Cambridge. an excellent illustration of the first idea of forming rounds by removing edges. and. Thus. the theory of the first formations of moldings must now be considered more fully. indeed.

the one from Glastonbury. a square-edged arch with its sub-arch or soffit-rib was either worked into rounds at each angle. 5. and PL. when it was carried to an extravagant excess. is a very Early English pier-arch. which represents. and the sub- arch cut away into a broad semi-cylindrical rib. a semi-Norman arch at Barholme. as in fig. 1. at Barnack. fig. early Norman : both clearly and satisfactorily exhibiting the formation of the roll- molding or bowtell. was an after-thought. 85 of Professor Willis's "Canterbury. the other from Peterborough.. circa 1200 . figs. XXI. each independent and unconnected. The deep rounded hollow (as contrasted with the mere notch)." p. the eye being unable to penetrate to the depth of the dark hollow. Thus. circa 1200 . as fig. in which the first ap- pearance of the deep hollows may be traced. Norfolk. others worked into rolls. 7 and 8. 33 thus rounded. which is an arch at Keymerston. which was not developed till the Early English period. or some edges were chamfered. PL. fig. PL. IV. IV." where j^tffc the Contrast between ^j^. fig. From Winto . D . IV. 1. are groin-ribs of common profile in Norman work . PL. so that roll-moldiDgs were extensively undercut or attached only by a small neck of stone . then. Lincolnshire. the Norman edge-mold b and Transition bowtell A with side hollows is well shown. "Canterbury. or into pointed rolls. thus bearing the effect of a series of detached arches or ribs. rising in succession above and behind each other. by sinking a small channel or furrow on each side a little below the surface. 2. The accompanying example of a similar kind is engraved in p. EARLY MOLDINGS IN GENERAL. 4. by which the contrast of light and shade was obtained. 85.

with the profile scratched or marked on its sur- face. . so that the pieces. VI. corresponding to the bowtell at the edge or point of the exterior rectangle of the sub-arches. when put together. and PL. in place of two or three heavy round moldings placed at the angles only. till no space was left unoccupied. From these two points both the hollow and the bowtells may have been extended each way. so that this view is hardly correct. and without hollows of any great depth. this inner hollow at the angle is not very observable in the earliest arches. The roll-molding being once established. we find a whole series of minute and skilfully diversified members. represents such a stone. We may suppose the architect to have drawn on a board or a stone. it became natural to multiply it as an ornamental feature to an unlimited extent and to prevent sameness of effect many modifications in the forms of the projecting members were introduced. being applied to every stone to be worked. 7. as well as considerable variety in the size and depth of the alternating hollows. and PL. and no doubt. Still. but is rather characteristic of the work of the first two Edwards. designed not on any exact geometric principle. so that. . at the point of the interior angle. coincided with perfect accuracy. Deeply recessed archways consist of several courses of molded . with a free hand. 34 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. fig. afforded exactly the same shape for each. hollow and prominent. fig. VII. the outline to be followed in working out the hollows . IV. The templet. but regulated by taste. as in diagram and PL. effect. 10. multiplication naturally implies reduction in size . It might appear probable that the true origin of the deep three-quarter circular hollow must be looked for in the wish to form a cutting inwards. '>i and thus a great width was covered with '. to a certain extent. by caprice. Now. alternately dark and light. fig. 3. minute members.

and each joint being overlapped by the stone next to the back of it. fig. It was reserved for the period of Transition to effect this. them. When the moldings are meagre. I. 20. or sub-arch. EAELY MOLDINGS IN GENERAL. if so. The first and by far the most important of these is the eoll-and-fillet. In later times. each order-. having its own independent construction. 4. In taking a molding of the former kind. Coton. Thus each group of arch-molding in an Early English door- way is borne by a detached jamb-shaft below the impost. The grouping and multiplying of members was greatly facili- tated in its development by the Gothic principle of distributing weights and thrusts under a number of different supports. 35 stones. or. The Norman architects never got much beyond the plain cylindrical edge-roll and shallow hollow. the arch generally consists of a single row of voussoirs. but with small pseudo-capitals and bases attached after the manner of real columns. and all used with the most refined taste in varying the members of complex Early English grouping. similar to the annexed example from Coton. it is essential to mark the joints of the different courses. II. fig. a doorway in the precinct of Lincoln Cathedral. The introduction of this new feature may be said to have wrought a complete revolution in the system d 2 . They paid so much atten- tion to surface sculpture and shallow ornamental Ip work in the fiat faces of their arches. opened the way to a great number of new forms. all more or less referable to this common origin. contemporaneously with the general use of the pointed arch. and PL. the shafts were engaged in the wall. The invention of the pointed bowtell. was found to be incompatible with the enrichment by detail in Bas-relief. that the Jp notion of alternate hollows and projections does jj§ not appear to have been fully comprehended by . and at the latest period the roll-moldings were often continuous. PL.

afterwards. or as in PL. II. St. in strings. most commonly. with a slope or ogee curvature. figs. as at Great. It. at first with a square under-edge. 15. being merely the un- Ovolo and Fillet. and in other places. This appears to be an acci- dental one. Or it may be that. the idea of a surface-line having been suggested by the pointed bowtell. Cambridge. String Nave. however.. I. It is not certain at what precise period. A certain analogy may be traced in the annexed examples . It may be defined to be a flat band set on the surface of a roll-molding. suggested the use of fillets with the roll. was itself a common enough feature down from Classic times. 9). It is the keynote of almost all the subsequent formations. or as PL. fig. II.36 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 17. to the roll is figured PL. 9. As. and in Norman work was used in the abaci of capitals. 12.m cu t surface of the Wall. fig. the fillet was first added to the cylindrical bowtell. and Little Casterton. An example of a single side fillet. Rutland. a groin-rib from Tintern Abbey. as at Little Casterton. 18. or from what. and in . so as to produce- a more prominent effect. 19. or was throated or widened.. as in PL. it will be found in the earliest examples that this fillet frequently falls in a line with the chamfer-plane. cause. Cambs. I. fig. Great Shelford. fig. Forms of this kind have probably first.Sepulchre's Selby. IV. the fine feather edge was either cut off (PL. and that from Selby is simply the ordinary roll-and-fillet used as a string. of molding. Shelford.

Another plausible account of the origin of the roll-and-fillet may be offered. though the first seems the most probable. has in the central group a filleted roll between two pointed ones. II. the addition of the fillet presents important advantages in neatness of con- struction. as in fig. from their distance. as well as in making them die into or spring out of plain surfaces. examples are not wanting in much earlier molding . till towards the end of the thirteenth century. fig. 37 fig. 6. . Still. and the fillet is not often found coincident with either of the other planes. For example. introduced for the sake of contrasting and diversifying the members of a group. 8 . But all these are mere conjectures. and the juxtaposition of these two forms may be noticed in many other instances. EAELY MOLDINGS IN GENEEAL. the north doorway at Cherry Hinton. Its occurrence in early groin-ribs cannot have escaped the notice of the observer. the earliest instances of its use may be traced to the obvious propriety of forming sharp and hard edge-lines instead of mere round mem- bers in positions in which. the eye would otherwise have an ill-defined and imperfect outline. The position of diagonal projection is undoubtedly the ordinary one throughout the Early English period . One fact is worthy of notice in the use of the roll-and-fillet that it commonly occurs in alternation with the pointed bowtell whence it would appear to be merely a variety of the latter. so that it is not intended to insist on this theory of its origin. it may possibly have been left as a standing portion of the uncut surface . a view which is certainly borne out by the general analogy of molding. but without satisfying himself with any of the theories given above. So also fig. PL. a pier-arch from Cherry Hinton. Perhaps. 8. . indeed. The author has devoted considerable pains and attention to the discovery of the true origin of this very important feature. Again. 5. in mitering. or joining rolls at right angles.

as shown in PL. SECTION V. a great depth or extent of molded surfaces . Cathedral. hollows are seldom true circles %'^^^K* an(^' ^ie ^ e P roJ ec ting parts. r~\ 3. they fTjkw assume a great number of capricious |Mj forms. ' ^ e sa ^ *° comP r i se *ne following ( / ' p V \ members: \ ~ 1. EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. The m_™.^ ^ ^^^ graph. FROM THE ACCESSION OF RICHARD I.D. III.arch \at Plymouth. which comprise a great variety of pointed and filleted bowtells. The scroll-molding (rare).. and the general arrange- ment in rectangular faces. II. 1189 TO 1272. g^ were taken ^. would alone be quite sufficient to convey to the eye an idea of the general method. 2 and 3. 4 2. Wmit llllllp. . The characteristics of the moldings of this style may be de- fined as deep undercut hollows between prominent members. — . 5. A. clustered. TO DEATH OF HENRY III. figs. W/a Early English moldings may llilli^ -. The first is the belfry. and are reduced to a scale of half an inch to a foot. Ripen archeS in the choir ° f E ty Cathedral. 38 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. The annexed section will also serve as an illustration of the ordinary forms of Early English moldings. The plain bowtell or edge-roll. The roll-and-fillet. PL. and repeated at certain intervals . 4. The pointed bowtell. fig. the second the pier- Ea^English Arch. isolated.

Sometimes only one side has a fillet attached (PL. a. 1. PL. are varieties of very frequent occur- rence. The roll-and-triple-fillet (PL. figs. one at the top. I. the other on the side. 39 5. I. Fountains Abbey. It will be observed in PL. II. fig. VII. consisting of chamfered ridges and inter- vening projections. as at Fountains. and may be found in door- ways of that kind in many of our abbeys. 23). which are so capricious as almost to defy any attempt to assign them distinct names and formations. 90 of Professor Willis's " Canterbury " (fig. 5. . figs. EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. each side of which is undercut by a deep hollow. this compound molding. fig. 13. fig. XVIII. fig. 12). V. 25 . PL. as in the cut from Ripon. The other forms chiefly consist of modifications of the roll- and. briefly to point out some of the most com- monly occurring varieties. 9. fig. V. PL. 11 and Ripon Cathedral. fig. 7. pier-arches of the choir. figs. fig. as fig. is a form often found in labels. This is of frequent occurrence even in semicir- cular arches. figs. and PL. in consequence of a slight hollow immediately below. and was the favourite form during the reigns of the first two Edwards. the edges being sharp on each side. Doorway. naturally produces. 12. 6. VI. 13. and therefore probably suggested. 5. PL. A plain bowtell or roll very often stands forward upon a short ridge or neck in Transition moldings. 8. Angular forms. therefore. 3. VII. It will be right. Sometimes there are two fillets.fillet. figs. p. 3. IV. II. 37). 18 and 19.) is much used in the more advanced buildings of the style. 12. It is illustrated also in . leaving a more particular investiga- tion to the student's own exertions. PL. of irregular character. The ordinary roll-and-fillet projecting from a ridge (PL. PL. IV. and PL.

near Cambridge. in PL. the beautiful Decorated window-jamb at North- borough. in fact. and PL. III. are groin-ribs from Robertsbridge Abbey . and indeed in any position. Mary's Abbey. that it is difficult to disconnect the idea of the one from the other. Lincolnshire. they seem to have been used together with the utmost licence. 11 is the chancel doorway at Ludborough. are examples. But in Early English it is almost always a narrow edge-line. 4 and 7. Northamptonshire. XIII. the latter also illustrates the fillet as it were depressed into the roll. III. of full size. It may often be found between the detached shafts of large doorways. If set square on the roll. 5 and 6 are fragments from Tintern and St. See the outline diagrams in * There is sometimes so close a resemblance to the head of a fleur-de- lis in this complex molding. IV. Potter's Monastic Remains. somewhat in the form of a fleur-de-lis. In some cases it closely approaches the character of the roll-and-triple-fillet. fall wholly on the chamfer- plane. which is quite invaluable in showing the curves and geometric formations of early moldings. 5. and which every lover of Gothic archi- tecture ought to possess. PL. as at Peterborough and Ely. Fig. fig. or even four inches. 9 is the arch-mold of a double piscina with its capital from Histon. with many minor varieties of shape. it is generally a sign of early work. 19.40 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. It contains an immense number of moldings of the finest era and the richest design. York. The members in PL. In this case it may be said to lose its original character. In Decorated work the fillet became extremely broad. we may here observe. 15 is a groin-rib from Furness Abbey. An example is given. Tintern Abbey. the combination of the roll-and-fillet having been once suggested. V. Three pointed rolls placed together. Fig. fig. as PL. fig. PL. figs. —a work. both from Lincoln Minster . PL. fig. where it very often occurs. 21. which shows some other varieties. which is seldom the case in this style. II. IV. especially in clustered piers. fig.* form a combination of very frequent occurrence. 1. Fig. 11. 6. as in those to the east of the octagon at Ely. IV. as in PL. fig. often as much as three. .

Hunts. fig. of Mr. grooved at the end. or shifted a little behind the upper. Almost every conceivable modifica- tion of the plain roll. I. 6. . and very often in strings and base- moldings. for example. represent the jambs of the immense Early Decorated and Geometric windows in the south aisle of Grantham Church. The depressed %and elongated forms on each side of fig. VIII. in PL. See its PL. and in figs. fig. the under half of which is withdrawn.* is the sceoll-molding . II. 11 are principally found in later buildings. so called from its resemblance to a roll of thick paper. the latter in perpendicular. 3. 41 PL. XVIII. It has been before stated that a great degree of licence is observable in the forms of Early English roll-and-fillet mold- ings. * It occurs. It is represented in PL. Benet's. An important form. elliptical. 11 and 16. per- haps in an accidental or undeveloped form. but not very uncommon in advanced Early English work. is a proof of this. EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. PL. having been commonly preferred. generally considered distinctive of Deco- rated. together with the contiguous sections. IV. and that geo- metric accuracy was avoided in a rather remarkable manner the irregular shape. the first in Decorated. in respect of size. It is almost universally used in the abacus and neck of Decorated capitals. It may be described as a cylinder. the outer edge of which overlaps upon the side exposed to view. It also occurs. might be found and catalogued by a careful observer. fig. 6. 19. The presence of the scroll-molding in any elaborate group marks approach towards the Geometric age. which. XVII. in the moldings of the very elaborate triplet at the east end of Castle Eising Church. Here is seen the unusual com- bination of the scroll-molding and the side-fillet. and composition. an Early Decorated door- way at Yaxley. engraved in PL. VII. PL. Bowman's account of that church in his Specimens of Ecclesiastical Architecture. from St. figs. and the freely undulating curve. shape. fig. . IV. peaked. 14. Lincoln. 4 and 9. depressed. —the latter an arcade in Lincoln Minster. It is certain that this form was known and in use even in the pure lancet architecture of 1200-1240. PL. fig.

Roche Abbey. fig.d. When worked in with more deeply cut moldings it stood more Rivauix. ing close to the edge. isolated. It may be traced from one form to the other through such gradual changes. as in these examples from Barnwell and Ely. as to leave but little doubt on the subject. and. exhibits the scroll form on the interior order. Cambridge. Ely. Byland. we find it occasionally turning . This form has been called the keel molding. The earliest pointed bowtell was simply the new form of the pointed arch used as a molding (as at Roche and Byland). so as to make it a little sharper. The shadowed edge- line was presented by the scroll-molding as well as by the roll- and-fillet . from its likeness to the section of a ship show- ing the form of the keel. circa a. the rich and beautifully molded doorway at Northborough. or afforded a more effective drip in strings and weather- ings. Fig. probably from the combination of the two forms. It may perhaps be regarded as a roll-and-fillet with one side left uncut.42 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. with a long neck . 1270. and the principles of effect which suggested both Ha Ik. Antiquaries are not agreed as to the origin of this molding. as in capitals. 5. 7. but this was soon modified by having a slight sink- Barnwell. is a fragment from Rivaulx Abbey. But it is more probable that it was derived from the pointed bowtell. forms are probably identical. where it most constantly occurs. either because it was removed from sight.

St. Two rolls-and-fillets conjoined at their |||L bases. show how closely allied the two Jj| <Wm forms are. Mary's Abbey. which is a regular scroll-molding . and those in ^^^^^^^k the choir arches of Ei. f. IS times. Tintern. 1 and 10. XVIII. Northants. from . ' > \ \aulx Abbey are an early example. from St. St. (PL. Though the under edge of the scroll-molding is usually rounded. constitute the double-ogee. and in this case it will be observed that it pairs off with a pointed bowtell. and Tintern Abbey. The annexed examples. Mary s. Cambridge. as it was ™™ anciently called. Elsworth. fig. figs. from which we immediately obtain the form in fig. it is frequently to be found cut square where sharpness of shadow was desired . Michael's. in a position in | llllL P. 2 . York. i|» ^ll Ilk drawn surface is placed Jm ™^ |j| uppermost. as at Elsworth. jjlf ^Ujimli' ^mm-- The scroll-edge is some. as in some of ** Wm the bases at Tintern Abbey Warmington. also. 6. Cambridge. as it is to be found both in early work. XIV. Northants. but this can hardly be considered as a criterion of date. § JSt> r ' which the pointed bow- Hil Hr' : 7. so that the with. EAKLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS 43 the edge to one side. so that their respective fillets are at / right angles to each other. as in PL. as at Warmington. . York. and down to the middle of the fourteenth century. though rarely. in. near Cambridge. expected.* —one of the commonest * Professor "Willis says this molding is sometimes called a brace. 33). or double-ressant. jj| J|jj| verted.2*| ^mBi tell might ° J be naturally Jt* _ .

moldings of the Decorated and Perpendicular styles. 3. VII. of pure Early English detail. See also PL. is the west doorway of Llandaff Cathedral. that it is not necessary either to say more in explanation of their peculiarities. where the shafts which carry the capitals are set together so as to form the double-ogee. 1845. XVII. ("History of Winchester Cathedral. PL. Early English arch-moldings are so easy to distinguish from all others.) . 12. as in PL. fig. often many feet across. the inner doorway of the south porch at Deopham . 17. is a decorated molding of sufficiently common occurrence (as in the belfry archway at Trumpington). Proceedings of the Archseological Institute. fig." p. in the angle of every receding sub- arch. PL. II. 12. It is rare in Early English. fig. 14 and 15. fig. The numerous deep and dark hollows constitute the most charac- teristic difference between the moldings of this and those of the succeeding style. 11. And these hollows must be particularly observed as the real division. We there find a hollow of three-quarters of a circle. figs. The capitals which hear the two moldings in question are marked in outline. V. 60. 1. Lincolnshire . fig. And the same may be constantly observed in the common arrangement of Early English and Decorated piers. and their great extent. its resemblance to a printer's bracket r-*-N. fig. But the extravagant display of deep cavernous undercutting is lost in Decorated moldings. the west doorway at Hingham. accurately formed with the compasses. Norfolk. or to give a great number of examples. They are by far the most difficult of all to copy with exactness. and PL. IV. from Bottisham. and apparently the result of accident rather than intention when it does occur. fig. renders it an extremely tedious process to draw any of the rich and complex examples on a reduced scale. from the irregular and capricious forms of the curves and undercuttings . PL.44 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 6. Cambridgeshire. 2. VI. as in PL. IV. fig. in which most of the forms already enumerated will be found to recur. the same from Benington.

The ingenuity that was never at a loss in any difficulty of finish or constructive irregularity. and show a love for the art above the sordid considerations of minimum cost. 45 of the orders of moldings when they all lie on the chamfer-plane. taste. an Early English doorway is often a wonderful piece of art. too. in the Early English indi- vidual members. and in the village church as much so as in the most glorious cathedral. The deepest hollows are all as cleanly and perfectly cut as the most prominent and conspicuous details . as if they had overgrown their original and proper limits. to admire the floriated boss and the foliaged capital intruding their luxuriance upon the moldings and hollows. and there is this general difference in their use. The exquisite skill. EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. are circumstances of much interest. Still. to see the end of some inconvenient member got rid of by throwing a flower across the point where it suddenly stops or dies into the wall . How beautifully. and in correcting this tendency the Decorated moldings were developed. dividing the plainer moldings into groups. It is most pleasing to notice the long trails of dog-tooth lurking in the dark furrow of a label or chancelled recess . and almost imparting life and vegetation to the very stones ! There are abundance of doorways of this style which exhibit the most . that in the Decorated they divide groups. the knots of pierced and hanging leaves extend like some petrified garland or bower of filigree work round the arch. are truly admirable. and patient labour invariably evinced in the working of Early English moldings. and the minute- ness with which even the most concealed and darkened parts were executed. But there was evidently a feeling that the designs had become weakened by the use of a large number of small members of much the same size massed together so that the eye did not readily distinguish the different groups. however little it may attract the attention of ordinary observers. The Decorated hollows are usually of larger size than the Early English .

9 is borrowed from Brandon's " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. Plate XVIII. The entrance doorway of the Chapter House at Lichfield is a very fine example of the molding of this style. fig. both on a scale of half an inch to one foot. in the south aisle of the nave. PL. are taken from Mr. But almost every cathedral and every ruined abbey will supply good specimens. fig. is a doorway in the cloisters at Peterborough . 7. * This and 10 from the same. whose arch-moldings extend five or six feet in width. fig. that the eye cannot \\\/^j§ fathom the point of attachment. often of different sizes.* fig." These latter examples (6. always. t From Weale's Quarterly Papers. an arch-mold from the choir of Ripon Minster. from Beaulieu Abbey. a curious variety of the dog-tooth is set in hollows of such depth. shape and planes of projection. 8. Norfolk. Fig. 10) show the method of insert- ing the tooth ornament in. shows. 5 is a ruined doorway at Bivaulx Abbey. II. fig. PL. Some examples occur at Bolton and Furness Abbeys. as the accompanying illustration Dog-tooth. the same.of our cathedrals have Early English doorways of amazing magnificence. hollows. Many of the more elaborate groups of Early English moldings contain several successive trails of this decoration. II. Bowman's illus- trations of that church. The tooth i/^jilfjJ! molding is an evident development of the f^plll|| Norman nail-head by cutting incisions on | each side. so that it would be useless to multiply illustrations. . 7. a doorway immediately opposite.' The west fronts of several . yet never. VIII. 3. Vol.46 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. or rather across. In the very beautiful west doorway at Binham Priory. t the southern triplet of the Eefectory . delightful varieties in their forms and groupings . Fig. 6 is from the east window of Castle Kising Church. 2. fig.

though in description the distinction may appear very trifling. Generally. and. In fact. and there are not a few instances in which. 1272-1377. it may discern at a glance the style to which any example belongs. much greater geometrical precision may be observed in drawing both the hollows and the projecting mem- bers than prevailed in the preceding style. though it can hardly be asserted that all the differences of style admit of being reduced to unvarying and infallible rules. as it were. and several important modifications of grouping. with the addition of some new members. of examining the separate details. and the size of the . And the latter will be found to produce an entirely different effect. DECORATED MOLDINGS. without the aid of such marks. so that. 47 SECTION VI. this science does not appear capable of more than general treatment . it would be impossible to say whether a molding is of the fourteenth or the fifteenth century. And this may be done with a considerable degree of certainty by practice and attention. DECORATED MOLDINGS. though there is quite enough of uniform system to enable us to apprehend the broad distinctive principles which obtained in the different periods. analyzing the group. The student will bear in mind that the details of Decorated moldings are in great measure identical with those of the pre- ceding style. then. DURING THE REIGNS OF THE FIRST THREE EDWARDS. without dismembering. Sometimes moldings are met with of much earlier or later date than we should have expected from other characteristic marks in the building . The eye must be familiarized to the profile and general appearance of moldings of different dates.

so slightly. so that tbe entire I - group looks like a mere alternation of dark \ and light. A great many of the finest buildings in this style scarcely afford as good examples of molding as small and humble churches of the Early English age. Rich Decorated moldings are of rather rare occurrence. both concave and convex. In the Geometric-Decorated age (that is. a delicacy and gentleness of grouping. Segments of circles. for the ogees. members is somewhat larger. but also in kind . an avoid- ance of strong and violent contrasts of light and shade. and its many varieties. were much used.). though much less striking. as in PL.48 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. first. and wide shallow casements of the Perpendicular period. that these moldings took the characteristic turn which brought about the surrender of the roll-and-fillet. and. For not only do the members vary in size. that each stands WgUm. The roll-and-fillet is formed with as little undercutting as possible. It was not until the Flowing. figs. secondly. Now the composition of Deco- Decorated roii-and-fiiiet. the moldings of arches and jambs differ very slightly from those of pure Early English . and there is no extravagant isolation of small and unimportant parts. in the reign of the first two Edwards). in size . Early English arch-moldings have sometimes a monotonous effect. Very often plain chamfers are used in . The reason is. and there was a softness of blending. which imparted a more pleasing. rated moldings is essentially different. and fanciful members. 9. which is but imperfectly remedied by the free use of quaint. that frequently the numerous members do not vary materially . 2. irregular. the deep hollows are principally confined to the inner angles. XVII. 10 : in fact.Decorated era (that is. 3. repeated with little change several Ww§ Jill times over. between two deep hollows. only just enough is hollowed away at the sides to develop the outline. indeed. that they cannot alone be taken as decisive of this or that date. during the reign of Edward III. effect. bowtells.

entirely omitted. so that the jamb-moldings are. The monials stand near the outer surface of the wall. the sunk and the hollow chamfer of two or more orders. without any edge-lines to relieve them. In arches. sepulchral recesses. such as bases. fig. There appear to be three distinct kinds to which Decorated moldings may generally be referred .: a 1. — DECORATED MOLDINGS. fig. while minor parts. from the scarcity of stone in those parts. doorways. 5) is perhaps most commonly found. capitals. which. i E . the tracery of good Decorated windows stands quite flush with the wall. and pier-arches . how- ever rich their tracery may be. the plain chamfer of two orders (PL. as it were. 20 and 21. and so. two orders being intro- duced in the monial. VII. It is in this kind of work that we must look for the best moldings in the Decorated style. and the like. and separated from or recessed behind it only by a single order with a plain or hollow chamfer. 19. form only a step preparatory to molding. fig. and windows. and not the exception. I. doorways. the monials and tracery often consist of merely chamfered planes. Norfolk. 20. though of equally plain character. though there are many examples which it might be difficult to assign to any one of them. PL. have fine and elaborate details. * In the churches of Norfolk and Suffolk this is the rule. and stopping short of that ulterior process. the east window at Trumpington. Frequently. figs. Windows especially are often singularly meagre in their moldings. The plain. 49 all the windows. is one degree richer than this. These are : m ><. properly speaking. indeed. VII. as PL. sedilia. a window at Hingham.* And again.

Koll-and-fillet moldings. twenty-three inches. is similar ^%?v. Norfolk. might be described in words thus : —" A double-ogee order between two hollow chamfer orders. 12. Here the chamfers are hollow. in the Early Decorated style. VI.50 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. divided by three-quarter hollows .-. 2. 4.. molding. V. — way at Attleborough. And as they rarely occupy any other position than the chamfer-plane. The inner angle which divides the orders (and which has been called the re-entering angle). though. fig. fig. total width across." The plain or hollow chamfer is extremely common in all jambs and archways (especially if they be continuous. XVII. as in PL. or other ornamental leaf-work disposed at regular inter- . with hollows between each member. Ely. as PL. all lying in the chamfer-plane of 43° . nearly resembling. In such cases there are often trails of ball-flowers. or have no imposts or jamb-shafts). quatrefoil paterae. It is not unusual to find these two varieties com- bined. and PL. 6. VI. II. fig. PL. it might be difficult to name a better example than the west doorway of St. 12 a door. roses. Mary's. which pro- duces a very bold and good effect. 11. and both of these are ^Bllfe i exceedingly common moldings in this style. Their distinctive peculiarity con- sists in the repetition of the same members in each order. or cut into a deep three-quarter hollow. 11. Thus PL. VII. fig. the Early English method. other varieties of the chamfer are sometimes intermixed. c — the belfry-arch at Deopham. is either left solid. A succession of double ogees. in kind. The wave -I ''[ . as in diagrams PL. 14. or quarter-circles. it seems proper to regard them as virtually the plain chamfered edges of class 1. in principle and arrangement. 16. 3. Norfolk. as we have observed. figs. 8. 9. divided by hollows of three- quarters of a circle. figs. Of this latter arrangement. slightly relieved from their flat and naked form.

2 . VI. 8. of the Geometric age. VII. the priest's door at Hingham. H/ . PL. 17. a doorway at Burfield. XVII. V. . many in- In stances the roll-and-fillet forms a member of very large size. and repeated in rows in two or more of the chamfers. 51 vals. dtjyjjk single members. 3. Fig. fig. VII. VII. XVII. PL. PL. as in the west doorway at Trumpington Church. 10 is a window-jamb. XX. 11. and PL. Eutland. fig. Norfolk . PL. fig. In the later style the fillet "is broader. are combined with those of the third. XX. as PL. near Cam- bridge. fig. fig. the chancel door at Willingham. PL. and the neck is wider from the hollows between the . fig. 15. There is. but not always. - Fig. 1. a monument in the choir of Bolton Abbey. Suffolk. 3. are all of this second kind. PL. a monument at Boston. The capricious and irregular forms of the earlier style are no longer found. figs. 10. and it is perhaps the most perfect and beautiful of all. DECORATED MOLDINGS. fig. is generally one member "of the group. over. as PL. early in the style . V. The second kind is generally. fig. is from the south porch of Bottisham Church. Sometimes moldings of this class window-jamb. 8 . not set square on the roll. from Grantham "wll Church. Fig. 5 is from a doorway at Lang- ham. fig. however.£/h is from the beautiful Decoi-ated archway of the south porch at Over. and the gently bulging ogee fl e 00 ate d Je t F 1 curvature predominates throughout. near Cambridge ." 7. 7. Cambridgeshire. being less deeply undercut. on the wall-planes and soffit-planes in succession). ar- ranged upon rectangular lines. While moldings of the second kind are generally borne by b 2 . 12. See PL. a perceptible difference in the shape of the Early English and the Decorated roll-and-fillet. The members in this case usually fall in squares (that is. . the roll-and-triple-fillet.

jamb-shafts. one at Hingham.* except in pier-arches. is a pier-arch at Trump- ington . A simple molding is a plain single form. as in the Early English style (though now engaged in. in which case they are stopped by the capitals. fig. PL. the west doorway at Attleborough. fig. " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. the untouched portions of the rectangular nook) almost invariably stand at right angles with each other. Exceptions. Thus. This is properly the character of the ogee itself. those which are continuous on the chamfer-planes. the wall). VII. 3. fig. that is. complete in itself. V. It must be particularly observed that in the third class of Deco- rated moldings the fillets on each side of the three-quarter hollows (i. those of the first and third are almost always continuous. VI. 2. as a roll-and-fillet. — 52 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Moldings are either simple or compound. 3. VII. the angle of the chamfer-plane is ascertained by measuring the two sides of the central nook. or those of one order of different size from the others. 4. gives a very deep and rich effect to a doorway. are seldom found in ancient moldings. It is not uncommon to find one member of a double ogee considerably larger than the other. 3. fig. as PL. as a bowtell or three- quarter round. 68. it forms an angle of 45°. . and not detached from. fig. such as PL. or involves a profile of reflex or double curvature.. A compound molding is either composed of two or more distinct parts. 12. where they constantly occur. PL. the principle of which is shown at PL." p. in PL. XVII. VI. the chamfer-plane is the diagonal of a square. Sometimes the group appears to have been designed on the principle of a series of squares. fig. fig. V. which is formed by a segmental inward curve conjoined continuously with a similar outward * In doorways the moldings borne by the jamb-shafts always lie on the rectangular planes. So. VII. Sometimes a series of four or five of these together. Norfolk. 3.e. a. fig. We may further observe on PL. as seen in PL. a double ogee . that if the sides of the re-entering angle are equal.

The latter is not improbable on the analogy of the earlier and later (that is. Indeed. or the wave-molding.molding . or later Decorated.shaft into a rectangular nook. and especially of the Flowing. the edges at the points of junction being rounded instead of sharp and abrupt. but usually in the same plane with them. VII. IV. Inigo Jones applied the term ivave to the ogee. * Professor "Willis calls this the stuelled chamfer. which may be called the compound ogee. 17. . fig. 333.* It is represented in PL. DECORATED MOLDINGS. this style. or to the insertion of a quarter. It is composed of two ogee curvatures._ bulge or entasis. 18. the other half being considered as undeveloped. and elsewhere. There are several modifications of it. sometimes projecting forward beyond the edges. as PL. or to the fillet. and is represented in the " Guide to the Neigh- bourhood of Oxford. It fre- quently occurs with a hollow between. the form shown in the accom- panying outline is sometimes found.. or merged in the block . of Potter's " Buildwas Abbey" (Early English). fig. See "Architectural Nomenclature. Scarcely any method of molding is so common in. figs. Of the same kind is a very important and universal Decorated form. from its gently undulating outline. VII. PL. and in PL. near Cambridge. Triply filleted roll." § 16. XXIV. Varieties of wave . The formation of this detail may be traced either to Tib \M the ordinary edge-roll being simply somewhat Sll Edge-roll. 17. 10. forming a central |_ . Halt roll-and- less undercut. It occurs in \~] the sedilia at Elsworth Church." p. 9. or so characteristic of. to which era its use was principally confined. 53 curve. half of a triply filleted roll. c. 19. the square and rounded) forms of the roll-and- fillet. from Garsington Church .

* Sometimes. It is clear from PL. or there is a small width of the chamfer-plane left uncut on each side. a window-jamb from Quy Church. 2. in default of other proofs. in the form approximating to the outline diagram in p. be taken as a presumptive evidence of the style. 1 and 2. XIX. It also occurs. 16. This may be termed the sunken chamfer. It may be called a double wave-molding. and the lowest order of fig. the side hollows are less deep. fig. 1. See PL. And sometimes we find nothing more than a flat surface sunk between two raised edges. VII. as PL. PL. fig. 11 . Another variety is shown in PL. one end of the member. It is generally a mark of Transition to Perpen- dicular. b. as PL. as PL.54 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. V. Cambridgeshire. the wavy line is so faint as to be scarcely different from the plain chamfer. and PL. The former is most common in Decorated. VII. It is not of very common occurrence . 50. near Cam- bridge. XX. from Headington Church. It will be seen that the early form involves the equilateral. 3. that this form was not unknown in Early English architecture. instead of scooping out in an ogee curve. the edges are either sharp. 8. 17. . 16. fig. XIX." p. VII. * The formation is shown in PL. the latter in Perpendicular. fig. A rare form is exhibited in PL. figs. By cutting the central hollow down to an angle (as shown in the shaded part). It is also wider and shallower in early than in late work . the later the obtuse triangle. in an archway at Croxden Abbey. XX. It is so much more common in Decorated work. fig. VII. fig. fig. Isle of Ely. This appears to have arisen from cutting down to an angle. 13. a very good specimen is engraved in the " Oxford Guide. a double ogee would be the result. In this case the concaves are sometimes slightly undercut. XIX. and in the east window of the south aisle at Bottisham. and the central entasis less bulging. fig. fig. that its occurrence may. PL. that is. indeed. 23. This molding occurs in the Decorated belfry- arch at Stretham. Cambridgeshire. V. 281. a doorway from Landbeach Church. a. 5. circa 1240. figs.

fig. It is believed that the ogee scarcely. be regarded literally as half of that member. XVII. In fig. or short of. were there not abundant opportunities of self-development presented by the varieties of the roll-and-fillet. the rectangular plane. that it is almost impossible to do more than point out its general and leading characteristics. It should be especially noted that whenever the ogee occurs in Decorated moldings. fig. in England at least. fig. 10. 9. 2). is from the north porch of Bottisham Church. is found in Decorated work. the quirked ogee (see PL. Cambridgeshire . and here it must. as PL. however. or a roll-and-fillet. PL. it seems extremely difficult to decide how far the form was introduced from' this or that suggestion. it is very sparingly used. DECORATED MOLDINGS. In its most ordinary position in a window-jamb. 2. The ogee molding is a form so extensively used. is identical in form with this part of a monial (fig. from the outer archway of the south porch (fig. 3). 55 A plain bowtell. the ogee curve is so prevalent in the Classic styles. 2. between two wave-mold- ings. VII. 1. figs. however. the earliest forms would be found of Classic character with the large concave portion. that it might easily be supposed it was thence imported into the Gothic. 3 being the inner) of the same church. Since. because they would otherwise have been too large. occurs in Norman architecture. XVI. the convex portion being much larger than the concave. Its occasional appearance in the Early English style has been already mentioned. whatever may be the case in the Komanesque edifices in other countries. and so difficult to explain fully in its origin and varied relations. But in this latter case. if ever. In respect of its origin. where.. so common in Classic edifices. the rolls-and-fillets fall within. of course. it actually corresponds to a perfect roll-and-fillet in the ^ monial. 11 . whereas we can actually trace its gradual formation from the roll-and- . it always suggests to the mind the idea of one side of a roll-and-fillet .

Vi 6 - ressant. or three-quarter round. Ogee and fillet. Sunken chamfer. or double l*^ ^ I& _ ^m^W ' 8 : I . in Decorated work. Double ogee. Wave-molding. circa 1360—80. as PL. Scro11 molding. Sometimes a semicircle sunk in the chamfer-plane is found. PL. is a doorway of Transition date. The roll-and-fillet. — . 8. 2. fig. VI. and PL. 13. rather than refer it to an imitation of uncongenial Classic details. VII. therefore. are the principal forms found in Decorated moldings : 1. but rather sparingly. fig. PL. fig. V. 56 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Plain or hollow chamfer. having at first the roll the predominant portion. V. VI. fillet. . Other minor varieties might be added of forms which are principally found in Decorated work. at Swanton Morley. and PL. Norfolk . PL. or swelled chamfer. fig. The bowtell. Roll-and-triple-fillet. So also PL. it was extremely common in Perpendicular. This detail is the most usual in Transition to Perpendicular. 14. fig. is used. a fragment from Rivaulx Abbey. 6. 18. VII. The following. a very fine archway at Hardingham. fig. so that it would not perhaps be saying too much to vindicate for Gothic architecture the self-development of the ogee. 9. It is difficult to give a name to the form shown in PL. <mm m 5^m «jj 4. Norfolk. fig. 7. b. Rife ti^k. in which the bowtell occupy- ing the centre forms an engaged shaft. 16. or ressant lorymer. When this is the case. and the hollow gradually gaining in importance in later work . VII. and perhaps it is not of sufficiently frequent occurrence to render a particular term desirable. 5. Norfolk . fig. a window at Hing- ham. 14. / gjj • jflnP 2. VII. a door- way at Deopham.

except in very advanced work. The occurrence of the small three-quarter round. Yet these orders are not always of the same nature as those we have before described as such —namely. II. 1. is . Leicestershire. This should be noticed as a very characteristic detail of Decorated moldings of the second class. 14. show the method of principal and secondary monials. 15. In drawing the section of a window- jamb. for shortness' sake.* Sometimes the bowtell is seen in juxta- position with the sunken semicircle. In PL. See also PL. 5. figs. V. as in these examples. But the plain roll appears in PL. 14. VI. XVII. which. 5. 48. DECORATED MOLDINGS 57 the fillet is seldom wanting. . all of which are late in the style. are Late Decorated. The moldings are. fig.' 9. is from Stoke Golding. This occurs also in jambs and arches. as in PL. When a window has primary and secondary monials. 1. the monial-members may be represented by lines across. fig. 3. V. VI.the inner jamb of the east window at Heckington PL. PL. fig. V. V. V. as in figs. 1. and in the corresponding parts or planes of the jamb . 4. 15. 1. is a sure indication of approach to Perpendicular. 14. XVI.3. fig. a window at Fen Stanton. 4. PL. of course. PL. figs. VII. 6. fig. figs. Thus the outer edge represents the actual profile of the jamb. may of course be also taken to represent one side of the monials. the same part of a window in the chancel at Boston . fig. the group of members constituting the separate sub-arches . it is obvious that they carry distinct planes or orders of moldings. coincident in every part of the tracery and monials. fig. for the face of the smaller * All the examples in PL. 5. A combination extremely common in labels and capitals is shown in PL. as PL. architects generally draw double monials. as being identical in detail. so that. VI. fig. . to which this example belongs. a small tongue- shaped member projects from the inner side of the principal roll-and-fillet. parallel with the wall-plane. 5. merged into one another. and PL.

VIII. This produces a very fine effect. In these cases the moldings of the ^^'IjIf < tracery follow the *' t common law of pier- Sleaford. the slope or inclination of which must of course be the same on both sides of each aperture or light. a triple. Many Decorated windows have shafts in the jambs and monials both internally and externally. 58 -MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 5 PL. for this would in most cases give too great thickness to the monials themselves. fig. as at the west end of King's College Chapel. or member of a group. . The difference of inclination is sometimes very slight. Thus. . bat this point must be carefully attended to in copying moldings. it has small stilted bases in the jamb. with that on which the monial members are arranged. Wells Cathedral. In Decorated windows the face of the monials is generally a flat edge or fillet . The plane in which the outer moldings of the jamb lie is seldom coincident. but in some early examples a roll- molding is carried all round. . on the other hand. follow the principle of continuous archways. and is furnished with small bases resting on the cill. monial often falls within or behind that of the larger only by a single retiring step. Ordinary windows. in PL. See PL. they are different in section above the capitals. XX. especi- ally when the pri- < 1 !i mary monials carry '. 8. j JJ ' . VI. arches and shafted doorways. and sometimes. 14. but different members of it. both the monials combined carry (properly speaking) the same order. the second- M y / - '<fm W l ary a single shaft. that is. This roll-tracery is very common in Perpendicular windows . as in the last example. fig. fig.

in fact. V. fig. as in PL. that it is very important to compare their moldings with other parts of the same church. Fig. VI. The aisles and clerestory in the nave of St. and II. sunk in the surface of the wall. 59 The interior arch. the soffit at a. a monument in the same church. . form a very essential part in the composition of the more elaborate. 7 from a monument at Boston. and fig 13. of unusual and decidedly early character. Stafford. are often undercut by a three-quarter circle. and the south choir-aisle of St. 8. 6. because a strong presumption of coeval date is thence to be derived. fig. It measures three feet across from outer face of the label to the soffit. of Early English and Geo- metric windows is generally borne by a shaft.* except in very plain and inexpensive buildings. DECORATED MOLDINGS. the rear-shaft. Fig. Mary's Church. Norfolk. is a doorway at Great Ellingham. 1 and 10. 2. 4 is the inner doorway of the south porch at Boston. 4 is the molding of the pier-arches in the same church. and the effect is remarkably fine. figs. Willis's " Architectural Nomencla- ture. afford most beautiful instances of shafted window- . The labels or hood-moldings of the date of Edward I. from being cut away too deeply and widely from the block surface. at Hardingham. Alban's Abbey. Fig. There is a close resemblance in the composition of this and of fig. This latter example is un- usually bold and deep. The character of these two examples is rather late . or rear-rib. This resem- blance should always be attended to. 57. doorways at Little Ellingham. 5 is the interior of a window jamb at Sleaford. but in the neighbouring edifices. * Called anciently. Fig. not only in the same church." p. It closely resembles PL. the north doorway at Hing- ham . fig. though of rather late Decorated date. and they are wiry and poor in their effect. PL. betraying the hand of the same artist. VI. And monuments especially were so often inserted subsequently. 1. Shafts. windows in these styles.

Peterborough . and the profile beautifully relieved by the deep side- hollows with which it is necessarily connected. to illustrate the difference in appearance which exists between the same molding exhibited in section and in elevation. Lincolnshire . 10 the exterior of the same. Fig. 5. PL. Hecking- ton. fig. 13 is from the outer porch doorway at North- borough. 16. 9 is a very common plan of a Decorated window. Thurlby. is from a fine Decorated tomb at Ewerby Church. is the interior of a window-jamb at Bennington. with double jamb-shafts. PL. * This example is badly copied. Fig. The roll-and-triple-fillet produces a fine effect in moldings of this style. It is taken from Yaxley. Fig. . 12 is a Decorated window from the chancel at Over. This also is a very common form in Decorated windows. a noble structure. near Market Deeping. fig. a groin-rib from Rivaulx Abbey. the south doorway at Langtoft. 23. and fig. This molding is a good and effective composition. is an archway in the cloisters at Peterborough. an effective decorated group. the molding at the angle of a piscina. Kutland — window which is elegantly enriched by a trail of ball-flowers in the hollow chamfer of the outer order. Suffolk. Its edge-lines are sharp and deli- cate. from Horbling. Fig. 11. 10 is from Clipsham. fig. XX. is the outer archway of the west entrance to the precinct. 13 is one side of the belfry-arch at West Keal. Hunts. PL. or Ketton. VII. V. fig. 7. fig. a 60 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Fig. fig 8. a doorway from West Keal . fig. Fig. Lincolnshire.* PL. 15. It is shown in perspective. 22. Fig. Lincolnshire. 21 is a window from the fine Decorated chancel at Keddington. Andrew's. 8 is the interior of a window-jamb at Heckington. Fig. V. 4. Lincolnshire. Lincolnshire. and must not be depended upon. which almost rivals its immediate neighbour. the celebrated St. Fig.

Vicar's Close. gives a flatness which is unpleasing to the eye in comparison with the rectangularly recessed grouping of the two preceding styles. The mold- ings of this style frequently die into a basement composed of the simple uncut chamfer . there is such a mass of really high art in the work of this period. cutting channels that the moldings are developed from it Three peculiarities are so * This might fairly be divided by the student into Perpendicular and Tudor. occupying spaces which. In the moldings of this style a debasing influence will at once be perceived in the comparatively meagre save-trouble method of working them. Large and coarse members. wide and shallow hollows. and general shallowness of cutting. hard wiry edges in place of rounded and softened forms. in indulging any predilection he may have formed for earlier work. that the student must be careful not to slur it over. perpendicular moldings. At the same time. . with little of minute and delicate detail.. which is a marked feature of the Perpendicular period. in early work. that their general arrange- ment on the chamfer-plane.d. 1485. Wells. since it is only by Fireplace. 1377 to 1546. plane.* a. would have been filled with groups of separate moldings . from the accession of richard ii. are all con- spicuous characteristics. commencing the latter with the reign of Henry VII. Add to these. in which case the outer edges of each molding of course coincide with it. to death of henry viii. 61 SECTION VII. PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS.

a window in the chancel of Grantham Church. The constant use of bowtells. Cambridge. Of many forms which the casement assumes. John's College. or external line of the group. VIII. Botolph's Church. fig. 11. it is generally a mark of early Perpendicular work when the casement is deep and narrow. VIII. sunken but little below the chamfer-plane. figs. 14. the most frequent are those represented in PL. that their absence almost forms the exception to general Tisage. The bowtell will be observed in some form or other in almost every example given in PL. and some varieties of it peculiar to the period. and PL. and if the student . It is very common to find one or both ends of the hollow returned in a kind of quasi-bowtell. VIII. compares the three plates of Decorated moldings. he will per- ceive the importance of assigning this feature as a peculiarity . as it were. usually occupying the centre of the group. of three-quarters of a circle. or hollow. and PL. as in PL. figs. The frequency of the double ogee. 16. and in those of the older portions of St. G2 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. as seen in PL. 13. Frequently. 14. 2 and 15. so stretched as to become almost or quite a flat surface. or beads. IX. The latter result may be observed in the windows of St. XX. The casement alluded to may undoubtedly be regarded as an elongation or extension of the Decorated three-quarter hollow. 4. perhaps generally. however. common in Perpendicular moldings. Accordingly. 2. VIII. and of debased when it is. PL. resembling small shafts. in the same group with the great casement or central hollow. fig. 3. XX. 10. as PL. fig. and often used as such 3. of late when wide and shallow. or PL. The three-quarter hollow also occurs in this style. 3. IX. IX. . and equal to about one-third of the width 2. and sometimes. fig. the ends are sharp and angular. — . and IX. fig. These are : 1. figs. A wide shallow casement. the arch-mold of the nave of Lancaster Church. by which width is gained at the sacrifice of depth.

figs. 1. Other varieties. both from Bolton Abbey . . b. as before stated. 13. the western doorway at Newtown Church. 8. 10 and 14 PL. Occasionally it stands like an excrescence on the surface of a plane. J||lllllS> mon in Perpendicular mold. as fig. too. All these may be considered as dis- tinctive criteria of the style. figs. IX. 63 of the Perpendicular. as in PL. IX. and especially in the \-/ Perpendicular members. figs. 7. the earlier -^^ vm form. PL. * This is one of the commonest and most decisive combinations in Perpendicular moldings. fig. It is often formed from a plane by sinking a channel on each side. double ogee. : — all contain examples of the cylindrical bowtell. 3. an ogee with a small bead or fillet at the base. In PL. XX. 11 and 12. The double ogee is much more common in Perpendicular than in Decorated moldings. 17 . 9 . peculiar to the style. near Camhridge . Fig. IX. XVI. an ogee combined with a quarter-circle. fig. figs. as well as from the true principle of moldings. from a small door- way in the choir of Grantham Church and . VIII. 5. 3. 5 . There is some difference. 1. the Perpendicular appears rather to be composed of a semicircular hollow continued in a bowtell. u. an ogee with a bowtell forming one side of the great casement. However. 15. 6. VIII. IX. c . but this is a departure from the usual practice. For whereas the Decorated ogee. PL.* fig. fig. where the depth of the hollows is generally conclusive. XX. PL. fig. fig. and the combination exhibited in fig. are the double ogee with a bowtell in the centre. figs. in the form which it assumes in the later style. PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. forming a section more like the letter S— see PL. from Rivaulx Abbey a small double bowtell forms the central member. figs. as PL. fig. 6. as PL. 10. 4 ib* and 5. is extremely com. 5. a "doorway in Ripon Minster. always represents the profile of the half of a roll-and-fillet. fig. j OP ings. 16. 10. .

and is principally confined to the outer members of door- ways and windows. varieties of the Per- pendicular roll-and-fillet. as in PL. as in PL. The debased form of the bowtell mold. The shape. in fact. Sometimes we find the roll-and-triple. PL. the Other two. 3. fig. the inner doorway of the south porch at Great Shelford. it usually springs from the capital of a small bowtell. The form represented in outline in the preceding woodcut is found in all the styles. IV. When' itdoes occur. fig. is also jBjlllI peculiar to the style .* is that of the diagram between figs. . The double ogee is sometimes of large and clumsy size in Perpendicular arch-moldings. and it * The absence of the roll-and-fillet. In Decorated. 16. that is. fig. A half roll-and-fillet frequently occurs. a window-jamb from the south aisle of the nave at Eipon Cathedral . IX. It occurs in Early English work. The form of the roll-and-fillet. before 1400. in a doorway at Fountains Abbey.V grams the upper figure represents the Early Ijjp English. in which. 21. Two other corrupted varieties are exhibited in fig. it is shown in fig. it is of the Transition period. fig. VII. PL. VIII. 10 and 11. 64 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. fig.fillet in a debased form as in 'Ijjljl' PL. fig. 9. except in a very corrupted form. II. a doorway from Bolton Abbey. it is usually rather small. however. it is much used in base- Jjjjl ment moldings and capitals. one of the most remarkable -features in the moldings of the late Gothic. near Cambridge. prevalent in this style. IP Cambridgeshire. with the roll or bowtell plain and not filleted. is. of the ogee curve and the breadth of the fillet will be found to follow the rules laid down. the belfry arch at Haslingfield. . VIII. A roll-and-fillet between two ogees is properly a late Decorated combination. In PL. XX. 13. The pointed bowtell is very rare in this style . In the annexed dia- V'^. it was not extensively used. however. 16. 7. fig. 3. 14 PL.

Rich and good Perpendi- cular moldings are not very common. especially in earlier examples. to arrest our atten- tion and add to our store of knowledge. VIII. Having pointed out these facts (which deserved to be regis- tered as essential and characteristic differences). most examples consisting but of three or four very ordinary members. But the great casement. Window-moldings are usually extremely meagre. 2 is the same. fig. for many points may be found. represents the almost universal plan of Perpendicular windows. PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. from the isolated tower at Dereham. and illus- trate the remarkable uniformity which prevailed in the use of moldings. and the monial-members on the inside — by which term those moldings of the : jamb are meant which coincide with the monials. a larger space is available for the pur- pose. encroaches so much upon the group that little room is left for more than a double ogee on the outside" of it. fig. we find the double ogee externally. VIII. comprising the first order. 6 F . without any casement in the angle. 3 the same. is from the west doorway at Uffington. which form groups of considerable delicacy. Sometimes. PL. 4 from Fishtoft.. Fig. Norfolk. But Perpendicular work is by no means to be despised. 5 is from the east window at Leverton. near Stamford. figs. and. fig. or beautiful. little remains to be said on this part of the subject. 12. fig. Stamford. however. which offer nothing either novel or interesting to the view . 12 and 18. John's Church. IX. consequently. while in the two pre- ceding styles there is ever something singular. or hollow. in the same county . are taken from different churches. 1.. such as the jamb-shafts in deeply recessed doorways. Fig. 65 occurs in the aisle windows at the west end of St. PL. though the tracery is generally set deeper in the wall than in the preceding style. early in the style. Lincolnshire. or ingenious in the treatment of the moldings. PL. Fig. and the monial-members occupying the next. from Saham Toney .

15 the east window at Stapleford. from Partney . 15 a molding of constant occur- rence . near Cambridge . near St. Brandon's excellent figs. Lincoln Cathedral fig. near Cambridge . 11. It will be observed that the distinction of the orders is often completely lost in this style. fig. fig. IX. both doorways . 17 a doorway. Martin's." . fig. 8 from Stewton. 14 the south doorway at Grantchester . fig. Stamford. fig. 7 a window. 8 and 10. 9 from an oriel window in Lin- coln . 10 the south doorway. 14 from a niche at Great Gransden. that in many cases the chamfer-plane is either more or less tban an angle of 45° . fig. fig. and fig. Martin's. 1. * The two moldings. 20 the pier-arches of the same church. 12 a window of common form . 17 a pier-arch from Holy Trinity." and 11 and 16. fig. two parallel planes are taken for the basis of the arrangement. 2 the west doorway of the same . the " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. fig. is from the east window of St. fig. and fig. John's Church. 5 is from a pier-arch in the noble church of All Saints . The former has large sculp- tured paterae in the central casement. It also appears. Stamford . fig.* fig. 66 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 12 from the south Choir Chapel. 9 the north doorway at Harlton. from Byhall. 7 from Louth. Fig. fig. Rutland. fig. as PL. and that occasionally. fig. near Cambridge . VIII. Skirlaugh. from the examples given. fig. near Cambridge . of Yorkshire. 6 the west doorway. 16 from St. fig. fig. 18 the same from Long Melford. Sepulchre's Church . 4 from the Bede House in that town . PL. Albans. fig. fig. 16 from Great Shelford . fig. . 13 an arch in St. 11 from Basingstoke. fig. Yorkshire. fig. 21 from Louth. 3 the same from St. fig. a window-jamb. fig. 18 a window. 10 the east window at Chesterton. fig. from Histon. work. Suffolk . while it is seldom undefinable in Decorated moldings. from Messrs. fig. Stamford . are borrowed from the " Churches figs. Colchester . 13 the belfry-arch at Haslingfield . fig. fig. 19 a doorway at St. Hampshire . Neots . 8 is from the chancel door at Skirlaugh.

PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. 76. the centre being occupied by a different one. and in many other accounts of cathedrals by the same author. IX. **^ll \:lass This is a great fault. The question of composition involves that of the grouping of molding. Overstrand. and on these capitals elaborate arch moldings are often arranged. especially in late ones. x and arch- West doorway. and always produces a very unsatisfactory result to the eye which desiderates the idea of perfect and substantial support. i'tafto itt window of Grantchester Church. for instance. in the arch-jamb of a doorway or window. Norfolk. In early work the jamb is frequently formed with detached shafts carrying their own capitals. 6. as. One principle of composition may sometimes be traced in moldings. or of the arch and column in an arcade. An instance may be noticed in the west The w ° ' GranteTeste^ch^b Ki«. of weakening the jamb. the variation of the same feature. Students of the present subject will find a very valu- able series of illustrations of base. 1845. This may be illustrated by PL. This is the custom of ending with a repetition of the same members which commenced U|| the group. 8 or by the annexed cut. molds of the three styles in pp. In the annexed example from p 2 . 3. and probably the actual effect. 67 The casement is sometimes so extravagantly hollowed as to give the appearance." published by the Archaeological Institute. capital. 77 of Professor Willis's " Architectural History of Win- chester Cathedral. figs.

Scale. to 1 ft. in Norfolk this is clearly shown. Heacham. Inner door. Norfolk. . In this example the square of the stone out of which the moldings are cut is dis- tinctly seen. Even in this case the chamfer forming the inner member close to the Priests' door. 2 in. Lincolnshire. and it will be noticed that the fore- most angles of the jamb are in position immediately below the re- 1 «# entering angle of the arch- mold. Heckington. Heacham. 1 in. to 1 ft.68 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Scale. south porch.

69 door itself is continuous. As the styles developed the detached were superseded by engaged columns. Some- times. Cam- bridge. When we get into Perpendicular work we find the fiat case- ment very com- mon and it was invariably con- tinuous. Cambridge. The shafts are smaller and a larger number of the members are continuous. The Early English columns in an arcade with the detached shafts carried arch moldings which at first sight seem to have but little connection with the shaft as an example. as in the annexed example from KiDg's College Chapel. This is shown in the annexed example from Heckington Church. Portion of Arch and Jamb. indeed. to 1 ft. PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. 1 in. King's College Chapel. Lincolnshire . Scale. inner door. In Decorated work the plain octagon shaft carries the sub and main arch-molds with their hollow chamfer or other mold- . they become mere beads. The same as- sertion of the continuous molding is found in other positions as the styles advanced. but frequently amuch larger proportion of the moldings are continuous and common to both. being the same in the jamb and in the arch-mold. but we still frequently find considerable variety in the jamb and arch-mold. south porch.

as in accompanying diagram. ings. in the hands of the master designer. and where a member which seemed only sufficiently strong in a mullion looked heavy in tracery it was frequently thinned down. excepting for small shafts which carry a varied arch-mold. but when we get to later work we find the molding continuous. contained in it. . In tracery also the mullion will have all the different orders. The real master of his craft never hesitated to make his moldings exactly what he thought best suited for the position they were in.70 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. but beyond this the moldings are wonderfully plastic. or rather sub-orders. so much was thought of real artistic effect and so little of what one may term cast-iron regularity. and these will branch out and break into the different forms so well known under the name of tracery .

71 SECTION VIII. See Professor Willis's "Architectural Nomen- clature. is undoubtedly early). The general plan of the columns which support the nave or other principal arches is either square." pp. or parallelogramic . and these forms are either simple or complex. Polygonal Norman piers. whether Harold's Church or not. Sepulchre's Church. and Decorated * The mediaeval terms for columns. A few sections have been given for the purpose in PL. The earliest form of column is the circular. Early English. Complex. III. 39-41. or footing of columns.* This subject falls properly under the head of Moldings. Cambridge. support the eastern transept walls at Peterborough Cathedral. of vast size and strength. And of these the bases and capitals will generally afford the surest indications. since the forms of piers or columns more or less partake of the details of the arch-moldings. and shafts. London (pro- bably the earliest piece of Norman architecture in England). and many other places. as is proved by those in the ancient chapel in the White Tower. . chapiters. were respec- tively pillars. And these simple forms continued in common use throughout the Transitional. that is. at Norwich Cathedral. not involving a number of aggregate parts. capitals. was the patin. PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. The the plinth. and verges. when composed of one plain member. diamond-shaped. detached or engaged. and by similar examples at Waltham Abbey (which. Simple. But it is one of such extensive scope that only a few general rules can here he given for dis- tinguishing the styles. St. when consisting of a core surrounded by smaller shafts. octagonal. PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. circular.

surrounded by four. But a very common arrangement is that of the square plan. or eight. and taking a fine polish. fig. composed of comminuted freshwater shells (whence it is called lumachella marble). thus it was sometimes cut with angular recesses. though liable to disintegrate. The clustered capitals and bases are often worked out in one large piece. was brought to a wonderful degree of lightness and elegance. and the member also carry- ing the sub-arch was often made into a semicircular form. though in a heavy and simple form. or in opposite rows. Thus we obtain. and these recesses were soon filled with small shafts. They are so varied in arrangement that it would be impossible in this place to do more than notice their general characteristics^ which consist principally in the number of smaller isolated shafts clinging to a central column. being part of the "Wealden formation. which. Examples are very common . A circular column. is a beautiful and common device. to which they are at intervals attached in reality as well as in appearance. The Purbeck limestone. except for tombs and the beds of sepulchral brasses.72. These shafts are generally of native marble. smaller detached shafts. the Lady Chapel of Fountains Abbey (PL. and many parts of West- * It is a curious fact that the mediaeval English architects appear never to have used any foreign marbles. These complex Early English piers are often extremely beau- tiful . . the choir-aisles at Ely.* or of some other kind of stone than the central pillar. 8). or forms derived from it . but they were frequently brought down to the ground with the rectangular plan. perhaps. MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. XIX. where the flat face of the pier was continuous with that of the wall . than those of any other style. more so. in construction at least. was much used in the thirteenth century. like the arch and sub-arch. a regular clustered shaft. by molded bands or fillets. six. periods in ordinary parochial churches. but much more sparingly afterwards. during the Early English period. With circular columns the vault- ing shafts were commonly stopped above the capitals by a corbel. where they are some- times disposed alternately.

In some cases the column is made up of several shafts. Lincolnshire. worked into annular fillets to the shafts. near York . as fig. 5. that is. from Stretton Church. without any central core. as in PL. fig. at Lincoln. Fig. The annexed is from Rus. Mary's Abbey. 73 minster Abbey. HP Ruskington. the addition of the shafts changes the outline to the diamond form. It forms an ex- quisitely graceful feature in the Chapter House of Furness Abbey. III. is of constant occur- rence. . 11. 8. placed close together. the corners of which project. 12 from St. fig. \M \ Rutland. fig. Towards the Geometric era. still stands in the vestibule of St. Stamford . 16. fig. 17 is from Skelton. III. The lower part of a similar one. with some varieties. is an instance of attached shafts so deeply undercut that they have the appearance of complete isolation. and fig. as in the round nave of the Temple Church. 13 from Ruskington. In this case there is always a midway band or bonding-stone. Half of a roll-and-fillet set on each side of a square. 40. PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. and in PL. and this is a very common form of Early English and Decorated piers. Lin- colnshire . ^m^-^-^---^ Bowman^s illustrations of that church. and die into the bell of the capital. The fillets running up the face of each shaft usually pass over or round the astragal. Rutland. after 1240. The square being set to the cardinal points. Peter Gowt's. and there is a very good example at Exton. is a beautiful example of the ^>Wg. have this kind of compound pillar. is from All Saints'. though usually so in the pure lancet style. PL. fig. XIX. the shafts or . former style. figs. 6 is from Grantham w/ m^^ / Church. and are some- times worked into smaller pointed beads. X.\^'^ wS^ kington Church. Fig. rather later in date. PL. York . The shafts are not always separately applied. and is ^jIlP reduced from the section given in Mr. generally four. 15. 17. V. PL.

and is remarkable for the hollow faces. began to be generally engaged. the whole dia- metric section being worked out of one block. no longer of any use.shafts are attached. PL. figs.* This will be seen in the choir of the Temple Church. is entirely different. 14 and 16. Norfolk. being usually continuous. as they were anciently called. III. On the east and west sides half. Very good examples exist at Great St. Perpendicular piers are generally of oblong or parallelogramic plan. 14 is from Utterby. PL.which bear the innermost order. Cam- bridge. Stamford. without the interruption of any impost.. . III. . Fig. John's. Lincolnshire. or attached to the central mass. " Brandon's Analysis. which are seldom found but in small shafts in Perpendicular work. isfrom Attleborough. — . so that a clustered column is in reality formed by chan- nelling the surfaces of the mass in lines and hollows of graceful lights and shadows. or soffit-moldings. The principle which led to this form was the desire to obtain width in the direction of the thickness of the wall. 2. iitl III. erected at the above period. but the richness and extent of the great piers in cathedrals and abbeys it would require a volume to set forth. 15. for the sake of greater strength. including the great casement or hollow. fig." p. Mary's.74 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. from Saffron Walden. fig. the longitudinal direction extending from north to south. where vaulting shafts arealso added on the northern and southern faces. being suppressed. Decorated piers always have their shafts engaged. of the arch . from St. and became instead firmly compacted into a mass the bands. are among the commonest forms . therefore. The construction. PL. the rest. XIX. ( of late Decorated date. real or apparent. * Shafts ceased to stand detached or banded into clusters. PL. fig. verges. a plain but good illustration of this almost universal method. 18. Essex. 4.

20). IV. built about. In the first case. PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. Ensham Church. Wood Ditton Church. figs. Another form. Stamford. in fact. which is shown in Swavesey. 1400. PL. fig. This is usually of later date than the parallelbgramic plan. as at Swavesey. or rather before. which runs continuously round the arches. they fo/K become nothing more nor less than exaggerated monials with shafts attached to carry the sub. a hollow is sunk in the face between the shafts. PL. not wanting of early Perpendicular character. The nave columns in this church consist of a square. XIX. with a three-quarter circular shaft engaged on each face. the second from St. the angles are chamfered away . the first from St. Somersetshire. III. Still. in the second. carries an engaged shaft. or each angle (as fig. as in Long Ashton Church. however. Martin's. In these the ground-plan is a square. and the greatest span between the columns.wise. In this they followed the j& plan of window monials . Mary's." PL. 7. occurs not 'infrequently in Perpendicular columns. examples are \ / IP Long Ashton. if set diamond. 1 arch. 75 combined with the least possible bulk. the angles being cut away into the wave-molding. re- . The example is taken from Bowman's " Specimens of Ecclesias- tical Architecture. 19). 19 and 20. and each face (as in fig. in some late H churches. near Cambridge.

as the bed or . a great square stone would naturally be placed upon the top of the pillar or post. than any other kind of moldings. and that from Ensham Church. This failure suggested the necessity of a plinth. in the various periods of architecture." p. or decline from the perpendicular. Again. erect. near Newmarket. on which it might stand firm. It. given in " The Oxford Architectural Guide. CAPITALS. and important part of the study. or broad footing of masonry. by a great superincum- bent pressure. The woodcuts on the previous page represent such a column from "Wood Ditton Church. provided it possessed any character at all. even for an experienced eye. The parallelogramic plan is sometimes found in Decorated columns. SECTION IX. The moldings of capitals and bases form not the least in- teresting. to mistake the details of a Decorated for those of a Perpendicular archway . but no one moderately acquainted with the subject could hesitate in pronouncing the style of a capital or base.76 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. To go very rapidly through the history of a column. in which the same principle of formation is exhibited. 139. extensive. and immovable. presents a column of good Decorated date in the crypt at Gran- tham. c. This arrangement we may often observe in the construction of wooden sheds or rustic homesteads of rude timber-work. we may suppose that an upright post planted in the earth was found to sink. And they have the peculiar advantage of being more definitely marked. but not until the close of the style. 1400.is by no means impossible.

fig. have square pillars on each side. York. and extend to the otherwise vacant and superfluous angles of the plinth. It was from such an origin that the highly elaborated Gothic base and capital arose. 77 cushion to receive the superstructure. in the tongue-shaped leaves or other grotesques which are often seen to issue from the circular moldings of Transition-Norman bases. In the Norman period. is worthy of observation. whether arch or entabla- ture. and it is seen in the ordinary form of what has been called the cushion capital. It was felt that these angles were not necessary . shown in PL. . Transition' Norman Capitals. the parts immediately below the one and above the other being rounded off to suit the shape of the shaft. Even in the advanced Early English columns in Westminster Abbey instances of floriated bases may be observed. The ante-Norman belfry arches at Barnack and St. Examples fully as rude as this do actually exist in English ecclesiastical architecture. with a great many others of probably much later date. when the shaft was round. but the mediaeval builders preferred to decorate what as yet they did not wish to cut away. How this was done in Norman capitals is Cushion Capital. resting upon and surmounted by rude and clumsy blocks of stone. Bolton Abbey. 2. The lingering re- luctance to get rid of the square plinth. the highest and lowest members only. respectively called the abacus and the plinth (anciently the patin) were square. CAPITALS. Mary Bishophill Junior. so that we have positive fact to guide us instead of mere theory. X.

through the medium of the Classic to the Christian styles. as it were. Gothic capitals may be divided into two kinds. and this took place first in capitals. That is. They either cut off or cut out the corners. the others being only decorative adjuncts. and examples may also be seen in Potter's " Illustrations of Buildwas Abbey. we obtain the circular capital and base of the first and second Gothic periods. But capitals became octagonal before plinths . corresponding to the graduation of the sub-arch. is also common to both kinds ." pi. in fact. This seems. and. practical member. I. more probably. with its accompanying moldings. But the simple square was sure to undergo some changes. and is the relic of the rude impost which first surmounted the stone post. called the neck or astragal. is common to both. From the former process came the octagonal. but this method of relieving and lightening the massive impost does not seem to have occurred to the Komanesque builders. ^^ ^^ or involving a sub-arch (PL. the sides were cut out or curved inwards —a feature some- times seen in Perpendicular octagonal capitals . Tbe lowest member. molded and floriated. by becoming recessed Hy . as in the accompanying cut. rectan- gular nooks were cut in the angles of the square abacus. or abacus. and similarly octagonal plinths were retained long after circular capitals had become universal. In the Transi- . [form . and either by removing angles indefinitely. 4). or. which is otherwise occupied by the overhanging and undercut member called the bell. by adopting the shape of the shaft.78 MANUAL OK GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 6. as soon as the pier-arch. but in floriated capitals foliage covers the intermediate space. from which it was transferred. The upper member. In the more elaborate Classic styles. fig. to be the primary and essential. left a portion of the bearing surface unemployed and superfluous.

Cambridge. more frequently small leaves. for example. as in some very interesting Early English capitals in the south transept and the north porch of Wells Cathedral. or patera. from the deep overhanging foliage of the earlier styles. and other orna- mental moldings. This kind of capital may be called Pictorial. and in later work the Tudor flower. since in the Bomanesque we find the style of it. CAPITALS. But the vine and the strawberry leaf is sometimes seen. being only a shallow kind of surface ornament.* Or a subject is intermixed with the foliage. among others. Of this there is a very curious example at West Keal. very closely approaching the Corinthian acanthus. and not unfrequently in parochial churches (as at Barnack). are also frequently found. the Transitional Norman capitals at the east end of Canterbury Cathedral. is arranged vertically. the nail-head. however. sometimes occur in capitals. Suffolk. round the capital. Even angels' heads with spread wings are sometimes found. the ball-flower. Lincolnshire." p. as in the belfry-arch of Great Shelford. The Decorated capitals in Oakham Church exhibit the same design. as in Great St. as the author has suggested in the " Manual of Gothic Architecture. and almost so in their details. as is well known. floriated capitals are rare . however. seem clearly to be. as used in capitals. But of floriated or sculptured work it is not at present our province to speak. In Perpendicular. Others. or rather transversely. or the Ionic volute . It is enough to observe that the origin of foliage is probably Classical. the foliage. very differently worked. Mary's Church. 110.. in the Decorated it twines horizontally. will have it that * On one of the capitals (which are Decorated) a fox is carrying off a goose. Classical in general features. and in the choir of Wingfield Church. Occasionally (in Norman work commonly) some subject is grotesquely sculptured below the abacus. while a chained ape is laying hold of it behind. near Cambridge. The dog-tooth. are set like studs at intervals round the shaft above the neck. or crestings of minute battlements (occasion- ally floriated). . 79 tion-Norman and Early English.

* while the intervening hollows are continued to the ground. This. are furnished with quasi-capitals and bases. Here the soffit or innermost moldings are borne by a shaft. or even the arm. And in Perpendicular they become entirely subordinate. the origin of the foliated capitals is rather from the East. figs. is particularly the case in Perpendicular piers and arches. the others carried by shafts. they must either die away at the spring (in which case they are called discontinuous) or be abruptly stopped by a projecting impost. the shafts stand isolated . forming at the same time deep lines of division between the groups of arch-molds above and the separate jamb-shafts below. mere bowtells. when the arch-molds are not wholly identical with those of the jamb or column. fewer in number.e. II. may be passed round them. in Norman and Early English. by an ulterior debasement. and not con- tinued down to the ground. There can be little doubt that the influence of both prevailed in the introduction of foliage into Gothic capitals." Chap. certain groups being borne by shafts. 18 and 19. II. . as in PL. as described in Section VII. apparent construction. and merely decorative. Again. . less prominent. In some cases a member of the same projection and diameter as * By what is called decorative. The mold- ings would in reality remain in their places as well without as with the bearing shafts. to speak constructively. .—"Willis's "Architecture. The use of capitals. in pure Gothic architecture. 80 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. In Decorated. In many cases the moldings are partly continuous and partly stopped by the capitals . as may be observed in the porches and doorways of King's College Chapel. from whence it was subsequently transferred to other parts of buildings. the outer being continuous while in Early English doorways the soffit is generally con- tinuous. in the latter so far that the hand. i. they are engaged. less important in the apparent work of support. is to receive the clusters of arch-molds which are stopped by it at the summit of the column. as we before remarked. For. Hence.

the abacus. both in the same county. Small in projection. 11 and 15. 78. they intercept and at the same time form a satisfactory termination to the vertical lines above and below. or those in which the members have not been worked out. but the lower edge- . while. complex and graceful in their members. The moldings of pier-arches became entirely continuous only in very late work . the shafts themselves. 4 from Middle Rasen. those of the piers in the nave of Trumping- ton Church. The earlier forms of the abacus had the upper edge always left square. Cambridge. and therefore the impost. Such may occasionally be met with in village churches. or the woodcuts on pages 77. Norfolk. but slightly varied in form and profile. and the under edge rather plainly chamfered or cut into a flat ovolo . X. as fig. XII. c the neck. and gave a heavy appearance. The most certain evidence of date is furnished by the mold- ings of the abacus. Hera a is the abacus. fig. and the neck. the bell. and the reason is. b the bell. 1 shows the two uppermost members in their rudest state. while in the jambs of doorways and entrance arches. and Hingham. Gothic capitals consist of three parts . Fig. Take. yet judi- ciously subordinate to both arch and pier. Lincolnshire . CAPITALS. may be omitted or added at will. by their reversed or horizontal outlines. PL. 5 from Walesby. fig. Cambridge- shire. ' It will be observed that Gothic capitals may generally be reduced to this outline. as a mere matter of decoration. 81 the bowtell is continued above this quasi-capital (if the term be allowable). and fig. they seem to bind into one the bundles of shafts which form the column. 16. for example. from Great Abington. A good Gothic capital is a feature of remarkable beauty. at first the fillet was large in proportion. 3 is from Laceby. figs. PL. And these parts are distinctly visible in block capitals. that the idea of a capital or impost is essential to that of an isolated column.

82 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS.
mold gradually became more important, and was frequently cut
into a hollow chamfer, and sometimes quirked and finished also
with a bead, as at Heacham, Norfolk. By this means a light

t i I s \ I 4
Coton. St. Sep., Cant. Oath. Blatherwick, Byland. Heacham, Wadenhoe,
Cambridge. Crypt. IXorthants. Norfolk. Korthanta.

abacus was obtained, which held its ground far into the Early
English style, as maybe seen at the Eefectory, Eivaulx, &c.
But then they began to cut away the upper edge, the projec-

tion was made greater, and the under side was cut or hollowed
out, so that it seems to overhang the bell just as the bell does
the shaft, and with the same profile, consisting of the half of a
roll-smd-fillet. The Decorated abacus has the scroll-molding,

with a cylindrical roll of rather less size below it. PL. X.
figs. 38 and 39, represent these peculiarities, and an examination
of the sections of the capitals of both styles will show how rarely

this distinctive mark is wanting. In Early English capitals the
abacus is sometimes quite plain, as fig. 17, from Thurlby, and
fig. 8, from Frieston, Lincolnshire. In the reign of Edward I.

a peculiar molding occurs, something between the two, which
may be called an undercut scroll-molding. This is seen in
fig. 9, from Stickney, and fig. 12, from Lincoln Cathedral, and
it may be considered a characteristic of Transition from Early
English to Decorated.

The moldings of the bell are generally kept within the limits

shown in fig. 5, but in very minute work exceptions are some-
times found; for instance, at Temple Balsal, Warwickshire,
the capitals to the small shafts on the moni-als of some of the
windows have the bell projecting quite beyond the abacus.
The woodcut is taken from Bowman and Crowiher's " Churches
of the Middle Ages." Where foliage is introduced it often

CAPITALS. 83

projected a long way even in large capitals, and a molding
seems to have been allowed the same
license when the scale was small. Small
capitals and bases appear frequently to

have been turned in lathes, and this
might account for treating a molding like

foliage where the effect of foliage was
desired. In Early English capitals the
bell has sometimes a double set of
moldings, which gives a very handsome " —W— (111
effect. This is seen in PL. X. figs. 19,
28, from Tintern ; fig. 22, from Furness ; capital onMoniafK window.
and fig. 24, from Bolton.
Capitals occur in their greatest perfection in shafts. The
larger piers, of octagonal or circular form, are seldom so
elaborate or so decidedly marked. In these the abacus is the
only member which affords any sure indication of date.
The distinguishing feature of Decorated capitals has been
stated to be the scroll-molding
of the abacus, and in perhaps
ninety-nine out of every hundred
examples the rule holds good.
Yet some capitals presenting the

same feature are said to be of
Early English date. It is believed

that the Early English abacus
scarcely ever occurs in pure Deco- Decorated Capital, Grantham.

rated work.
The bell is seldom so prominent or so deeply undercut in this
as in the preceding style. As a general rule, the projection

(i.e. the relative diameter to that of the shaft) became gradually
less, both in capitals and bases, as the styles advanced. The
above cut furnishes an exception to the rule. Thus, in Per-
pendicular work, when the shafts became, as it were, mere parts
g 2

84 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS.
of the entire groups of moldings, both these features became
minute and subordinate. Decorated capitals preserve the happy
medium between the clumsiness of constructive members, and
the inutility of mere ornaments. In this their remarkable
beauty really consists, in that they occupy the truest and most
consistent position as architectural parts of the whole. With
respect to their details, the moldings of the bell present the

principal varieties ; but these are generally some modification or
corruption of the roll-and-fillet. Very often the under
part of the bell is composed of an entire roll-and-fillet,

as in PL. XII. figs. 3, 8, and PL. XI. figs. 12, 20.

It is still more frequently formed by the compound
member shown in the cut, and in PL. XL fig. 4.

Out of forty-three examples of Decorated capitals given in

PL. XI. and XII. ten of them have the bell thus formed, and
others present some slight variety of it. It is seen in elevation

in PL. XII. fig. 15, the beautiful capital of the nave-piers at
Hingham.
Decorated capitals seldom have double moldings to the bell,

at least much less frequently than in the Early English style.

Three examples are given, PL. XI. fig. 2, from Yaxley, Hunts,
very early in the style, as appears by the abacus, PL. XII. fig. 9,

and the annexed cut, from Harringworth, Northants.
The neck, or astragal, forms
an important detail in deter-
mining the dates of capitals. In
the Early English it is usually
a heavy and bold annular mold-
ing, of a stilted or oval shape, or

rather more than half a circle,
as PL. X. fig. 11. Either this
or the semi-hexagon (fig. 15) is
n ;

the prevailing form. The Deco-
rated neck is almost always the scroll-molding ; but both the

;

CAPITALS. 85

Early English forms, with many others, will be found to occur.
The capitals of both styles are often so nearly identical in
general character and principles of formation, that a practised
eye may now and then be deceived in their date. And it is

here important to remark, that though the vast majority of
capitals in all English buildings will be found to fall in with the

rules laid down in this work, anomalies do occur which present
difficulties in any attempt to classify them and the same
; is true
of bases.

Perpendicular capitals present very marked features, which
are seldom liable to be mistaken. The moldings are large,
angular, meagre, and few. Neither abacus nor bell is so clearly

defined — a fact similar to that already stated with regard to
the arch-moldings of this style, that the distinction of orders is

generally lost. Frequently the abacus appears so far blended
into the other part of the capital as hardly to be a separate

member, and the bell either wholly vanishes or is very- im-
perfectly developed. The upper part of the abacus is usually
sloped off to a sharp edge, like the chamfer of an angle ; the
section of the molding below resembles the letter S, being an
ogee formed by a bold concave returning into a
prominent convex (as at Coton) ; and, above all, %
the capital is nearly always octagonal, while that K>
of the preceding styles is commonly round. The <j^

shaft, however, is circular in Perpendicular work
while octagonal capitals only occur in the other
styles in the case of large single columns of
,. i /. , n n Coton, Cam b.
the same shape, it we except a few cases ot

Early English arcading shafts with octagonal capitals, as in

the transepts at Histon, near Cambridge, the west front of
Peterborough Cathedral, and in the choir-aisle of Fountains
Abbey.
The same principle which induced the latter architects to

prefer sharp edges and abrupt lines in their moldings to the

fig. 15. fig. however. 20. figs. 7. as PL. figs. soft and blending Decorated forms. 3 and 5. com- mon to both members. the bell remains. The section of the Perpendicular abacus is a mere corruption of the Decorated scroll-molding. is that shown in PL. and reducible to no certain rule.86 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Perpendicular capitals are often embattled. as in figs. XII. as in PL. made them revert to the octagonal capital to the rejection of the circular. as figs. Its form seems capricious. 26. figs. Lincolnshire. Perhaps greater license was taken in general in designing the moldings of this style than in any other. PL. & 'M fig. as in the abacus. though the profile is often much the same as in Decorated work. 10. X. but not very often. an arrangement which is rare in the preceding style. we obtain the ordinary profile of fig. we see nearly the same form as in the Decorated . 7. p j ain ^^ ^ & j^ of deba8fld scroll-molding with the upper edge chamfered. XIII. 21. which occurs in the abacus of PL. ill 21. 1 and 2. The astragal. The base. and octagonal below. and the neck of fig. . 8. Thus in PL. It will not be necessary to occupy much space in stating the places from which our numerous sections of capitals and bases are taken. Another form. the projection of the capital is often produced by a meagre slope. XIII. A few only of the most remarkable shall be thus specified. m The bell with its overhanging and undercut moldings having vanished. VIII. IV. This debasement of the scroll- molding is separately shown in PL. or neck. 8. XY. figs. resembling a coarse keel-mold. however. 16. and 12. and by omitting the under roll. Sometimes. are from Frieston. 22. 22. is generally circular in its upper members. is either a Lancaster Church. 15. 29.

6. Fig. 11. in the same county. and almost identical. 13 from Waltham.* Fig. rather late. fig. 16. 18 is from the Chapter House of Furness Abbey. perhaps more so in this than in the next style. X. are all from Lincolnshire. 23. are mostly from churches in the neighbourhood of Cambridge. Fig. fig. Isle of Wight. XI. 7. CAPITALS. 26 are from Bolton Abbey. 30 from Saffron Walden. 15. from Leverton. depth one foot . 9. a noble capital from Stickney. 9 from Sibsey. XL figs. fig. are from Yaxley . 40 is the elevation of the most ordinary form in shafts and clustered piers. drawn on a large scale. in a chapel used as the vestry in the church at Boston. Fig. 17. by studying which.' * The student is again referred to Potter's illustrations of this abbey for many beautiful capitals and bases. PL. of large size (15 inches in depth) fig. fig. figs. Hunts . 17. Fig. 9. 16. Fig. This is the form of the pier capitals at Heckington. Fig. 29 is from Arreton. 22 is from Abington. as in PL. and remarkable in its profile. 24. 10 from Stickford. Fig. 28 is from Tintern. fig. PL. Figs. 4 is a fine capital of very unusual size and depth. fig. Lincolnshire. 22 is shown in elevation. 87 Here the bell is of rather unusual form. 37 is from Bolton Abbey. Cambridgeshire. with the nail-head in the hollow above the bell. The sections of Decorated capitals in PL. 18 is from Aswardby. 11 from Partney — all in Lincolnshire. * . 10 is from the same place. very rich and fine in its profile. and has the double bell . Lincolnshire. 15. It is from Furness Abbey. Of the same date and character are 12 and 13 . late in the style. as appears from the undercut scroll-abacus. Fig. the latter from Kuskington. 12 is from Legburn. XII. 19 from Tintern Abbey. 1 and 2. Fig. of much larger size than usual. 14 is not uncommon in Transition caSindge. Fig. fig. figs. those who are unacquainted with the details of the styles may form a correct idea of the leading characteristics of the capitals of this period. the former from Lincoln Cathedral. Figs. 3 is from Fletton. Fig.

16 from Dry Drayton. 13 is from a fine monu- ment at Little Shelford. This and the next illustrate the methods of obtaining the plane of the moldings. fig. the bell and neck circular. fig. XII. is from Long Melford. near Stamford. and fig. 16. Fig. 29 from the Bede House. * An interesting specimen. fig. from Fen Ditton . it occurs at Maxey. XL fig. Norfolk. Martin's. figs. Northamptonshire. of a moated mansion of the Fifteenth Century. PL. 4 from Louth . and at Louth (see PL. figs.88 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. This has a battlement above. 23. the abacus. is from Uffington. fig. The rest of the sections in this plate are Perpendicular. Suffolk . 22. to Perpendicular . PL. 19 from Saham Toney. from Colchester . Here the abacus is octagonal. 28). 26 and 27 from St. John's. all in Stamford. is from Careby. XIII. near Cambridge. 19. 8. Fig. A similar feature is the wave molding. Warwick- shire. fig 13. 12. Figs. Lincolnshire. fig.* Norfolk . which in this style should be attended to. fig 17 from Mat- tishall. 9. fig. fig. 24. PL. George's. near Cambridge . and the double ogee below. 14 from Harston. very little known. near Cambridge . in the same position. in the Decorated capitals of the nave columns at Dunchurch. XII. 1. 28 from St. 18 is from Els worth Hall. are from St. . fig.

In shafts. it will be sufficient to direct the attention of the student to the upper members. BASES. and consisting only of the single member thus presented to view. like the after styles. but octagonal in later . or tables. BASES. by gradually spreading courses. slopes. generally square in early work. a series of annular rolls. The earliest examples of bases must be looked for in the rude monolith blocks which support the pillars or pilasters in the Ante-Norman churches. and the base-moldings. and from that arrange- ment those of the subsequent styles are readily deduced. Of Norman bases it is not necessary to treat at length. Bases consist. taking the form of the column. Often a bold . each separated from the next by a plain or molded chamfer. such as at "Wittering. or hollows. of at least two distinct members —the plinth. in early work. In Decorated and Perpendicular columns. and forming an ornamental junction between the shaft and its essential constructive member. The Classic pillar was evidently the prototype of all these. The varieties of form are not numerous . laid down as they were raised from the quarry. the plinth. the plinth is usually divided into heights. and as they do not involve complex moldings. These are often mere shapeless lumps. Norman architecture first adopted a more regular method in constructing the footing of a column. and others already mentioned. stages. or lower step. of solid masonry. near Stamford. in which the character of a base may be said principally to consist. the base often resembles the capital inverted . in some instances. the one might be substituted for the other with scarcely any perceptible change of appearance. 89 SECTION X.

10 is a little later. divides the shaft from the plinth. XIV. where the present bases were cut from a very small piece. 7). a concave above and a convex below. was." p. St. fig. PL. a modification (often with very trifling departure from the Classic) of the Attic base was introduced. Fig. figs. omitted in most if not in all * Willis's " Canterbury. or first member at the lower ex- tremity of the shaft. 3. from the nave of Peterborough Cathedral. with an intervening hollow separated from them by fillets. If we compare this form with some of the early Italian-Gothic bases. e . A very common form is shown in PL. Sepulchre's.1 Cambridge." f % Canterbury Cathedral has a very French character in the work of William of Sens. 4. It consists of two rounds. Huntingdon. A little before the Transition period. however. 8. This occurs in St. HelmsloyCh. figs. quirked on the under side (as seen iu PL. The uppermost fillet and curve. j. 9. only a few inches wide. Cambridge. XIV. and this is more like Classic work than English archi- tecture generally. annular roll. is from Fountains Abbey. From Willis's " Architecture of the Middle Ages. and with one from Canterbury Cathedral j (date about 1180). from which the Early English is directly derived." Nothing approaching to developed isolated members and dis- tinct gradations was known St. figs. 76.. . XXI. 1 and 2. . XIV. 5. The Attic base is given in PL."* " and gener- ally consist of two reverse curves. from the Chapter House of the same place. . Yorkshire. which alone remained in the eight massive columns of the circular part. The moldings of the earliest Norman bases are frequently "little better than scratches upon the surface. fig. Sepulchre. . IU the early part 01 tJie twelfth century. we shall find them rather identical with than similar to the Classic. fig. 3. Mary's.90 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS.

X. 12). as in figs. which may often be observed standing in exterior bases. 10. Here we most distinctly recognise the peculiar feature of the Attic base. 1 — the lateral semi- circle in place of the descending three-quarter circle. 15. or even by an IIIIIIf IPPwK* interposed square edge. •*' V or from supplying its place by another > ("" similar roll. It is found in the Transition work of William of Sens at Canterbury. 6. from Peterborough Cathedral. 76. 7. and the form in fig. 11. JBm altogether. and by far the most common. are naturally formed by cutting off the feather edges seen in fig. f . as early as 1160 or 1170. or plinthiform 12 u member. is the form given in PL. See Potter. BASES. 3. XIV. taken from the great central piers of Byland Abbey. as fig. i. — f Willis's " Canterbury. A valuable example of the Transition base is fig. the chief peculiarity of which consists in the intermediate hollow being cut downwards rather than sideioays. PL. The filleted rolls on each side. was very much in vogue. It must be perfectly remembered that this water-holding base is contemporary with the first dawn of the Transition style. f There are two kinds of Early English bases. the side-hollow of fig. 91 " cases . and may commonly be met with in pointed Norman work. and iBI ttmJlm thus bringing the rolls into contact. fig. above and below the hollow. as fig. . The first. 12 . shortly after some extensive excavations had revealed a great part of the ground- plan and lower portions of the columns of that once splendid church.e.* This example leads us at once to the ordinary Early English base (fig." p. and extended from half to three-quarters of a circle. the bases of the choir columns in Eivaulx * The bases of the pointed Nornian columns in the nave of Buildwas Abbey are nearly identical with this. the other seems to be derived either from omitting the hollow JSm. so that it is capable of containing water. 9.

when geometric windows of two or more lights had begun to supersede the single lancet. from the shaft not standing true in the centre. of great richness and considerable spread. And below these. XXI. will convey a correct idea of the general appearance. or even triple. from Furness Abbey. is an example. is a fine piece of detail. It is seldom found except in tbe more advanced or florid period of the Early Englisb. 35. Fig.* The spread of the base generally equals that of the capital. where the bases are worked out of hard Purbeck marble. 27 is from Skelton. occur other series of very bold annular rolls. 34. from the revestry or chapter-room at Kipon Cathedral. is remarkable for the omission of the hollow in the upper member. Generally. is the base of a great pier in Lincoln Cathedral. In fig. * These engravings are slightly incorrect. 26. tbis intermediate roll is rather smaller. PL. XIV. fig. fig. figs. figs. the latter from Furness Abbey. The examples given in elevation. PL. near York. double. from Ely. Fig. fig. XIV. 18. as PL. from Lincoln Cathedral. from the beautiful Galilee at Ely. 18. 25. Fig. . single. 30. 33. and often a little depressed inwardly. Tbis base occurs almost invariably in Westminster Abbey. at some distance. Fig. the former from Tintern. 16. 28 and 29. 20. and have all been elaborately polished. the hollow again approaches that of the Attic base. or nearly so. Fig. as fig. 7 is from York Cathedral.92 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. In very rich Early English bases there are often double hollows between filleted rolls — after the analogy of the double row of moldings to the bell in capitals. of the most ordinary form. Sometimes the fillet is omitted in the upper roll. 4. Peterborough Cathedral. Abbey. Hence was at once derived the ordinary Decorated base.

fig. . 37. is worked out of the block. 15. Mary's Abbey. In Early English bases it is also to be remarked that the large spreading roll. the base of the beautiful central column in the Chapter House at Wells . moss. 43 is from the nave-pillars at Bottisham. as fig. and it is. Fig. 11. from the nave-piers at Trumpington . Not a few modifications of this form occur . 35. from St. Here we usually find either the scroll-molding (fig. 42. by a quirk or angular nook. fig. This is generally a mark of late or florid Early English. 17. as it will almost invariably be found to be. or because the hollow was exter- nally apt to be filled up with standing water. One of the commonest Decorated bases is that shown in PL. as fig. from Fishtoft. In fig. but the uppermost is of lead. 39 there are four . but often only two. Lincolnshire. from Coton. with which it usually stands flush. 40. Probably the desire of forming a better weather- ing had much influence in the change. 39. so that it overhangs clear. the number of rolls being generally three. by which the shaft is fastened. and it is mentioned particularly with reference to Decorated bases. 5. XIV. where a marked difference in this part is observable. 45. or in the same plane. 21) may possibly have gradually superseded the more elaborate. 93 There is something extremely elegant in the form of this. BASES. surprising to notice the uniformity which everywhere pre- vails hoth in it and the capital of this period. York. the more usual kind of Early English base . an elegant base from the library of York Cathedral. or the part of the base below it cut away. fig. 35 . and internally with dust and dirt. as fig. more- over. near Cambridge) or a flat under-edge. The plainer form (figs. XXI. either from the difficult and complex work of the latter. which forms the lower of the two mem- bers between which the deep hollow is placed. but they are seldom very complex. This is almost invariable . from the doorway in the same place . 16. fig. 34. or earth.. 10. when found in work of the thirteenth century. as PL. fig.

and the moldings approximating to the Decorated profile. fig. XIV. This is seen in PL. with the plinth formed by graduated stages or tables. as those under the western tower at Ely. is of un- usual profile . from Over and Histon . 1 and 2) was immediately derived. 38 is from the arcade in the Lady Chapel at Ely. one member. 41. XV. PL. is sometimes. fig.94 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. It is partially developed in fig. near Cambridge . figs. figs. the base-moldings are raised a considerable height from the floor. worked in Purbeck marble. the principle of stilting the bases * may be seen. This form is not unusual late in the style. In the choir at the Temple Church (1240). Instead of the three half-rounds which ordinarily constitute the Decorated base. 3. Decorated bases are often stilted. with fig. XXI. the uppermost member stands six or even eight feet from the ground. Compare PL. and sometimes these faces are fluted or hollow-chamfered. a Decorated base from the nave of York Cathedral. in what might be called the inverted wave-molding. fig. Hence the bell-shaped base of the next style (PL. The lower part of Decorated bases is sometimes octagonal. a Perpendicular base from Ripon . scooped out in the middle. Ely). or raised above the floor. the plinth being very large and high. as in the columns which support the octagon at Ely . is from the nave-piers at Tintern — already noticed as a specimen of the inverted scroll- molding. This principle was carried to an extravagant excess in the next style . it is from the chancel at Over. In the Decorated columns support- ing the vault of the Lady Cbapel at Wells. 40. Transition to Perpendiculav. 33. as before described. 8. an example which retains a singular trace in its upper member of the side hollow of the Attic base. Fig. XV. but often the first. generally the second. and 42. 44 is from Boston. 36 (from the Lady Chapel. as it were. Here the lower member is the roll-and-fillet. which is not uncommon. so as to form an ogee curvature. 6. PL. fig. or polygonal. XIV. in some instances.

that some pure Deco- rated bases may occasionally be found which would have been equally correct in a Perpendicular column. but rather in degrees of richness and the number of gradations than in difference of form in the principal members. according to the rules already laid down. and give a correct representation of the most ordinary kind. BASES. But few examples of Decorated bases have been given. . though sometimes. So similar. The bases of Perpendicular columns are various . $he capital always is. XV. figs. will readily remove it. because any important varieties from the forms described are not of sufficiently frequent occurrence to render it necessary to illus- trate them. are from Crosby Hall. It will be particularly observed that the lower part is almost invariably octagonal. PL. and forming with it the contour of a double ogee in section. as Lancaster. are the two forms. especially in shafts. often standing but a little above the floor-line. They are for the most part of decided character . octagonal. the upper being generally round. 95 Cathedral. an inspection of the capital. decisive of Decorated work. often rest- ing on a cushion-like member. and where any difficulty occurs in determining their date. however. being a natural variation to avoid repetition. and thus of modest and unpretending contour. It does not appear to occur in early. This ogee curve seems to be derived from the several rolls which we have seen were used in the bases. they are not so . They are very chaste and elegant in profile . The prevailing- characteristic is a large bell-shaped spread in the upper part. The sharp under-edge of the second member in the former example is a peculiar feature. 1 and 2. From the great size and height of the best examples. or geometric Decorated.

" § 39 : The word leggement simply implies lying or horizontality . . 16. resembling the neck of capitals. . . 15. 14. to begin. All Perpendicular bases have an annular roll. fig. . ' easily engraved iu a small space. thus. 13 from All Saints'. This passage shows that the legement-table was immediately above the ground-table. 5. but may fairly be taken in the more limited one of a . 96 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Stamford . Cambridge . as figs. to the legement-table. or by a second bell-shaped slope. for the uppermost member. and d. XV. This is often the * The following note is taken from Willis's "Architectural Nomen- clature. Edward's. "The ground of the same body and isles to be maad within the erthe under *he ground-table-stones with rough stone and fro the ground-table-stone (to the lege- ." etc. contains enough specimens to guide the student under ordinary circum- stances. Colchester . shall be paid by instalments as the work rises. which I shall venture to supply as follows : — XXXIII." The direc. in which. s Almost every Perpendicular base has either one or more stages. tions for these members in the body of the contract are unfortunately interrupted by an illegible portion. W. " when he hath hewyn and set his ground-table stones and his Ugements. to the- . as I shall show. 21 from Heme. fig. fig. the whole mass of which lies on the ground below the wall and this is confirmed by the two examples of Fotheringhay and Eton. 17. PL.. fig. the inner side of rough stone except the bcncli-table-sloncs. 6. and we may therefore assign b. 20 from St. with clene hewen Asshler altogedir in the outer side unto the full hight of the said Quire and all . 17 from Haslingfield . the basement moldings are described under this epithet. then he shall haf vj 11 xijj iiij d . 5 is from Louth . ments and alio the remanent of the said body and isles unto the full bight of the said Quire. The ancient name' for the lower member was the ground-table* (especially when applied to mural basement moldings). however. fig. — ground-table. Kent. sloping off by a hollow ledgement or -chamfer. and the wall thereto wythyn and without as it ought 8 to be well and duly made. in adjoining example. but as all tables are horizontal the epithet cannot be in this case applied in its general sense. — — . 18 from Holy Trinity. as figs. Horwode. Fig. basement. At the end of the Fotheringhay contract it is covenanted that the mason.

from Colchester fig. Albans . 1 5. as in the interior of King's College Chapel. 21. abruptly from the floor to the height of two feet and more. John's. It is singular that edge lines occur less in Perpendicular than in any other bases. figs. 1 and 2. . 10 from Mattishall . 15. XV. figs. 22 from Saffron Walden. figs. as it does. fig. "VIII. Fig. rising. XIV. 9 from Norwich Cathedral . 18. 97 debased roll-aud-fillet shown in PL. and perhaps few will prefer the contour of PL. 8 from Dereham . and is not found in the same isolated form in any other style. 11 from Swanton Morley — all in Norfolk . almost every point being carefully rounded off. XV. but the bell is of remarkably graceful form. XV. fig. to that of PL. Stamford . fig. 6 from Carbrook . as in PL. fig. . fig. or the debased scroll-molding. Peterborough . fig. 4 is from the Lady Chapel. There is a peculiar naknedess in the straight unbroken line of the lower or ground-table. fig. BASES. This feature is almost invariable. 29 or 32. 7 from Saham . fig. 14 from St. fig. fig. fig. 12. as in PL. 16 from St.

SECTION XI. details.from the other). breaking playfully from the horizontal. Of the immense diversity of forms only some of the most ordinary can be enumerated . and seemingly insignificant. tower-stages. They consist of pro- jecting ledges of stone. round buttresses and other angular projections . PL. often identical. or the one continued . contains a series of moldings of this sort (for hood- moldings and string-courses must be classed together. and other parts of edifices. . hardly claim a place in laying do. so that they form a most genuine piece of decorative construction. Sometimes. carried below windows. they are of the greatest possible importance in imparting a character to a building. though the form may be arbitrary. and are • almost essential to the feeling of repose. seem reducible to no certain rule. This is by no means an unimportant branch of the study of Gothic moldings. for capricious irregularities constantly occur. as they. both within and without . and in cornices. illustrating the three styles. the character is generally maintained. XVI. they rise in graduated and rectangular heights.wn the principles of a system. It has been before observed that string-courses may be regarded as the successors of the horizontal lines by which Classical is principally distinguished from Gothic architecture . Though subordinate. Yet. the varieties and peculiar characteristics of the styles being as well defined in such details as in any hitherto described. divided into three parts.98 MANUAL. HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. and the importance of them will be felt when it is remembered that all masonry is made up of successive layers. being in fact very. which. parapets. used as dividing lines to set off one particular portion as distinct from another.OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS.

now dying into the wall . Two or three only are given in PL. h 2 . plain half-hexagon. The upper edge is often left square. Cambridge. Norman string-courses are generally of heavy and massive profile — full of edges or hard chamfered surfaces. as the billet. is one of the commonest forms. cannot he said to have any real use . as specimens of the kind. and the like. the chevron. Giles's.. the hatched or serrated molding. 8. strings are those given in PL. when used internally. erected before the year 1100. nothing baffled by it. 25. especially in windows.* at St. viz. and 9. and the wide but shallow form presents an appearance suiting well with the massive character of the work and the low relief decoration. figs. XVI. as it were. 10 and 12 may also very often be found. The semi-hexagon. In most cases. of Potter's work on Buildwas Abbey. 8. instead of being weathei*ed off. and. 22. 18.than eleven of this form. reappearing on the other side . figs. but they form a decorative finish of too important a kind to be neglected with impunity. HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. Figs. with varieties scarcely perceptible and merely accidental. passing into some interrupting projection. a string-course at once relieves naked masonry. 6. is frequently found. The. now. now starting aloof into a window-label. and playing the most fantastic tricks before again descending . though not relieved by the dark shadows caused by undercutting the lower surface. are given in PL. XVL. and binds into a whole the geemjngly detached portions of a rambling and irregular construction. The latter is from the chancel- arch. In most cases they are adorned with some sculptured decoration of the style. They follow the same changes as the * Rebuilt in the South Aisle of new Church. Not less. 99 Sometimes carried over a doorway or round an arch . 7. 13. it forms a real drip or weathering. 15. grooved or worked on the middle of the outer face similar to that in fig. Hood-moldings. or square bead with chamfered angles. The commonest Early English. and of course adapts its upper surface especially to this end. XIX.

Fig. 24 is from All Saints'. Figs. 36. 44. 50 is from Over. in which even the characteristic Perpen- dicular ogee of fig. Fig. 45 from Bottisham. The rounding of the upper edge began in this style. the same as in the abacus of capitals of this period. . . fig. The rounded form of the upper side. 49. 41 is gene- Decorated. 4 occurs. 52 and 55. Fig. Fig. Fig. 11 is from Furness Abbey . or weathering. In this Tradition strings. 17 from Tintern fig. may * Early English strings are often continued from the abaci of capitals. XVI. the angular or chamfered of the last —although this peculiarity is also very com- mon in late Decorated buildings. but the undercutting is the most striking characteristic of this. 100 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. from Furness. as of all other moldings of the style. are also very common. 23 is from Lincoln Minster. 21 from Byland. 43 is from the vestibule of the Chapter House at Wells. The scroll-moldiDg with a half-round next below it. which perhaps accounts for this fact. Fig. abaci of capitals of which several successive forms are given on page 77. 53. respect a i so string-courses follow the prin- ciple of the abacus of capitals. 26 the roll-and-fillet complete. 25 has the scroll-molding. is very characteristic. is characteristic of the first two styles . 20. Fig. though the date is about 1200. figs. rally found in Transition to Perpendicular. early in the style. Early English.. near Cambridge fig. and of frequent occurrence. and II. fig. The most frequent Decorated form is perhaps figs. 19 from Eivaulx . It is peculiarly elegant. 28 generally marks the time of Edwards I. form The latter is curious from its late (see fig. Stamford. Both are equally common in Decorated work.* PL. The same remark applies to fig. Fig. as fig. 35 or 48. 71). fig.

Norfolk. as in fig. 57. or even overhangs. 56. The double ogee. as fig. to be said on the subject . PL. 44. 71. is left quite indefinite. from Grantham Church. Much more might. 68. and II. as in figs.. yet. more or less clearly developed. HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. The details of the parts underneath are so varied as to render it almost impossible to give anything like a complete account of them. is another example. nu- merous as they are. 59. XVI. without this. 62. is also a common variety. i p t i Perpendicular Strings. Perpendicular strings and hood-moldings are generally marked by the sloping plane of the upper surface. Embattled string-courses occur now and then in this style. 32. as in the cornice of the aisles at Cromer Church. and the combination of the ogee with the under fillet. In copying string-courses. as figs. they will generally be found to recur with tolerable uniformity. is rather a characteristic mark of the style. 16. and thus the exact angle can readily be transferred to paper. 58. as PL. 77. XVI. as fig. figs.. Undercuttings. 68. 18 is a string-course from the same place. fig. it has already been remarked. 64. as in figs. Perhaps the most ordinary forms are PL. as" fig. 71. The angles of the chamfers can best be attained by bending a piece of lead across them. 78 exhibits the peculiar Perpendicular form already pointed out. 67. A semicircle sunk in the under side of half a square pro- jecting diagonally. but also because the wall often recedes above the string. already described. which. Sometimes a foot-rule may be bent against the wall and the under part. and indeed ought. 60. Fig. often occur. Fig. figs. and others. occur principally in the time of Edwards I. 60. 51. not only for a guide to show the direction of inclination or projection. Usually there is a small bowtell in the lowest part. 61. it is better to draw the parts of the wall above and below perpendicularly on the paper. 66. XX. 101 therefore be pronounced late in the style. . 61. This .

102 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS.
of moldings, were it the intention of the writer to attempt any-
thing like a complete essay. For example, there yet remain
wholly unnoticed several important cases of the application of
moldings in Gothic architecture. Basements, weatherings of
buttresses, cappings of parapets and battlements, plans of
monials, groin-ribs, timbers of roofs, and other wood-work,
besides the many and interesting varieties of ornamental or

floriated moldings, are all well deserving of the closest attention.

But a great book is a great evil, as a philosopher of old has

declared ; and it has been the wish of the author rather to win
the attention of the reader, by pointing out the way to copy and
observe, than to deter him by the uninviting form of a grave
and heavy book. Quite enough has been said, it is conceived,
to illustrate the really essential principles of the science. And
no one need feel any difficulty or perplexity in recognizing the
details of the styles, who will take the trouble to apply the rules

laid down in this little work.

CONCLUSION. 103

SECTION XII.

CONCLUSION.

In studying the history and development of moldings in the
ancient buildings in this country there is much that is of great
interest to the antiquary, but that interest is very much en-
larged when the student feels that he is learning not only what
has been done heretofore, but, if I may so term it, his alphabet,
for designs he may himself make in the future.
Whatever building he may have the opportunity of designing
he is so sure to find himself requiring some ornament of this

kind, that the study of the subject will assist him in bringing
his design to a successful issue.' Whatever the class of building

may be, whether he is wishing to make it effective by its mas-
siven'ess and its solid character, or by its delicacy of treatment
and carefully adjusted proportion, whether he chooses to
render this by the flat broad moldings of the Norman period,
or the deeply cut and sharply defined molding of the Early
English period, or the softer and rounder outlines of the
Decorated, or if he chooses later work, his knowledge of what
has been done, and his experience of the effect produced, will,

more surely than anything else, enable him to set out such

work as will. produce the effect he is aiming at.

Whether, again, he limits his aims to mere selection, or

whether he uses his study to enable him to design, as far' as he
has powers to do so, or even if he indulges in mere inventing,
his knowledge of what has been done must be of value to him.
One of the first things to be considered in designing a
molding is the use it is intended for. Mr. Euskih forcibly

brings an example of what I mean, though it is a very simple

case. He illustrates the ordinary square angle, and shows that

104 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS.
in order to prevent the probable chipping and breaking of
a fine edge, the angle was simply rounded ; but, as he says, this
was not Art : it was only when the angle was treated further,

m.
'At

M1 A
m Wm^ W illk

either as a simple bead or a more enriched molding, that the
mind of the artist stepped in ; and yet the use of this molding
really was to obtain a surface that would have a fair chance of
retaining its form without damage.
A very prominent use of the ordinary exterior string-
course is to throw the water off the building and prevent its

running down and staining the wall ; and care should be taken
that it will do this —a care not always thought of in modern
buildings.
Take, again, the case of the ordinary Arcade found in almost
.every church. The wall carrying the main roof is to be pierced
so as to extend the area of the floor into the aisles : if this were
done simply by leaving square piers and rectangular arches,
the value of much space would be lost, and therefore the
columns were reduced in section and the strength maintained
by making them solid stone instead of mere walling. And the
work of the Artist comes when this column has to be enlarged
at the base so that there is the same support from the founda-
tion, and where the capital is formed to receive the arch, and
again where the arch is divided into its various parts to make
it work harmoniously with the capital, &c. The manner of
accomplishing these ends may be varied immensely. Some of
the methods used in ancient work are described above, and the
object of the Artist is so to bring all these parts together, that

"

CONCLUSION. 105

while gaining the utmost utility the design forms one harmo-
nious whole.
In order to obtain this there are one or two points which
should be carefully studied. In the first place, moldings should

be designed with a careful attention to the position from which
they will be most commonly seen. To say that the upper
surface of the base and the lower side of the capital should be

those molded seems too obvious to need pointing out ; but the
same principle should be carried out where it is not quite so
obvious, and where it requires a little thought
to make it effective. As an instance of this in
old work, I may mention a purlin which was
taken down in Pembroke College, Cambridge. ^^HUli )>

The natural tendency of the draughtsmen in
an office would be to set out the moldings
symmetrically, the roll being placed so that the hollow molds
on each side were alike ; but the Artist who built Pembroke
noted the fact that the upper side would be much less seen
than the lower when viewed from the floor, and therefore
widened the upper side thus.
Other instances will continually occur, and ^..^^^
the thought of where the molding will be -'ij|||jjf\
chiefly seen from should be continually pre- ^^^H/^
''--•''
sent.

The question of scale, is also a most impor-
tant consideration. Few have any idea, until they have been
startled with the appearance of their finished work, how small
a molding looks when executed and placed a few feet from the

eye, that had seemed very large when on the drawing-board.
And nothing but actual measurement of executed work, new or
old, will ever fix this on the mind.
When this preliminary difficulty is overcome, there still

remains that of 'whether the work will be coarse from an over
attempt to be bold, or weak from a too intense desire to bo

106 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS.
refined. To steer clearly between these — to know when to allow

free scope and emphasize a feature by a little over boldness,
and when to draw attention by an exceeding delicate treatment,

is the knowledge of the Artist which study and experience alone
can give. The principles of design are beyond the scope of

this little book, but it has been thought well to note a few
points that may be useful to the student and those commencing
their career, in the hope that, when they look back in future

years on their early work, they may find that they have learnt

by study and observation what others have had to discover by
the experience of failure in obtaining the results they were
aiming at.

.

Plate 1 J. . London. Gurney & Ja-dkaaa.if.ZelX&tji.. Paternoster Bow..i! sc.

Clee. Lincolnshire. 5. 9. 21. 15. Tintern Abbey —Groin Eib. Adel. near Leeds. 3. 1190. Rutland. 10. 4. Cambridgeshire c. 18. Great Grimsby. Benet's. do. . Lincoln Cathedral — Doorway in Precincts. Cherry Hinton— Cambridgeshire — Chancel Arch. 11. 2. Fig. Lincolnshire —Respond. — Horningsea. Friesland. 14. Example of Thirteenth-Century Chamfered Window. 23. 19 enlarged. 13. Bobertsbridge Abbey — Groin Bib. Skirbeck. Lincolnshire — Norman Pier Arch. 25. 19. Do. St. 16. 6 enlarged.Chamfered. Broach Stop. 22. Waterbeach. 1. Early English Pier Arch. . St. Ely. Little Casterton — Transition Norman Arch. Fig. Lincoln. 6. 24. Diagram of Pointed and Side Filleted Bowtell. 12. do. do. Little Casterton. 20. Diagram of Sub-arch. PLATE I. Clee. Plain Saxon "Window (Diagram). Little Casterton—Arch Mold. 17. Example of Chamfer. Mary's. 8. 7.

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Paternoster Row . Plate 11 4 i m# § j Ulsii 3Hifii_ f- ul London. &uni«y * Jaiiceoii.

do. Cambridge. 5. Great Grimsby. Diagram of Planes a Chamfer Plane. Pier Arch. Madingley. Chancel Arch. 16. Lincolnshire Doorway. — Ludborough. — PLATE II. 15. 19. do. 10. Do. Doorway. c Wall Plane. do. 17. St. 3. Trumpington. 11. 14. . do. b Soffit Plane. Tintern Abbey— Groin Bib. 2. 18. Cambridgeshire North Door. Stamford. do. Jamb. South Porch. Over. Window Jamb. 8. Cherry Hinton— Inner Door. South Porch. 9. Do. Cambridgeshire —Doorway. 6. Over. Clement's — South Doorway. — Middle Basen Early English Pier Arch. do. 13. All Saints'—Pier Arch. Chancel Door. Interior. 1. Langtoft. Do.do. 7. do. — Cherry Hinton. Cambridgeshire. .

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If. Paternoster Row.:r jr London.. J ^HW J. . S3 Plate m Fiji ml mK mm 1 im l _ ' * • A HI 1 k Hi V '.Ze A' i.: Gurney & Jackson.

Peter Gowts. 12. Wittering. 9. Mary's. 11. Skelton. — Eobertsbridge Abbey Groin Bib.— 7. — Louth Early English Doorway. . York Fragment. Norfolk. — Tintern Abbey Fragment. — Ely Cathedral Pier Arches. do. Lincolnshire. do. 5. St. Euskington. 19. — Robertsbridge Abbey Groin Rib. St. Cambridgeshire —Arch over Piscina and Capital. 17. 10. Furness Abbey — Chapter House. Stamford. 2. 13. St. Histon. 14. 4. Choir. Utterby. Stamford. 15. John's. do. Common form of Decorated Pier. St. 8. near York. 3. 16. — Northants Chancel Arch. PLATE III. Mary's Abbey. Martin's. — Plymouth Belfry Arch. St. All Saints'. Attleborough. 18. Lincoln. 20. 6. 1.

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BARXT EWGLISH. Paternoster Row. jOP^'lS Lon&tm: Girrney* Jaclnjoiv. .

. 8. 3. 5. 1.) Lincoln Cathedral. Diagram of first sketch of Mold. Diagram of Boll and Fillet. 15. Glastonbury— c. 9. Norfolk. Do. Ludborough. 6. — Furness Abbey Groin Bib. 16. PLATE IV. .} 14. 18. Fleur-de-lis Molding. variety of Scroll Molding. 1200— Groin Bib. Diagram of possible first formation of Fillet. Scroll Molding. Do. Beymerston. — Trumpington Belfry Arch. 19. 7. 11. Yaxley. Do. Boll and Triple Fillet. 2. 20. Hunts —Doorway. — Lincoln Cathedral Arcade. Broad Fillet. 17. 10. Diagram of Boll Molding. Lincolnshire — Chancel Doorway. 22. 12. 21. Do. — Barholme semi-Norman Arch. — Barnack Early English Arch. 4. Do. Diagram of common form. do. 13. Peterborough Cathedral— Groin Bib.

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Paternoster Row. Lantfon: Oaww * Jackson. DECORATED. .

10. 2. Hingharn —Window. Variety of Decorated Pier. West Keal. Benington. 4. Attleborough — Doorway. do. Attleborough. Lincolnshire —Belfry Arch. Stretham. Variety of Decorated Pier. Norfolk—West Doorway. Hingharn. Heckington. Northants—Window Jamb. do. Benington. 8. East Window. Cambridgeshire. — Boston Monument. 7. 5. do. Exterior Jamb of Window. 6. 1. Ewerby— Monument. Do. — Great Ellingham Doorway. 14. 17. South Porch. Inner Jamb. 9. 15. PLATE V. Northborough. Lincolnshire — Interior of Window Jamb. 3. 13. Interior of Window Jamb. Boston—Inner Doorway. 11. 12. Norfolk — Chancel Doorway. 16. .

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tc Jackson. ..ff.ZcfiTctucso- London. Qurncy . DECORATED J. Paternoster Row.

Hingham. — Benington. — Hardingham. Double Ogee and Hollow. 1. Pier Arch. — Deopham Inner Doorway. 3. Do. PLATE VI. — Hingham North Doorway. Sleaford —-Window Jamb. South Porch. — Boston East Window. — Boston Monument in Church (a. Norfolk —West Door. Norfolk Archway. Boston—Pier Arch. 11. Lincolnshire South Porch. Double Ogee and Hollow. . 7. 10. 2. — Deopham Doorway. 12. do. 9. 5. 14. Little Ellingham. 13. 15. 8. Norfolk — Doorway. Norfolk Doorway. Leicestershire. Do. 6. Little — Ellingham. Soffit). 4. Stoke Golding.

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.Qurney tc Jackson. Paternoster Row. London. DECORATED.

Swanton Morley. Window. Hingham. west entrance to precincts. 8. 13. 2. 7. 17. — Peterborough Outer Archway. — Yaxley. Horbling. Pier Arch. 11. Llandaff Cathedral — West Doorway. Hunts —Window. 15. Groin Eib. 1. Yorkshire Fragment. Norfolk. _ Do. 12. PLATE VII. — Eivaulx Fragment. Do. — West Keal Doorway. do. 5. Lincolnshire — Piscina. Cambridgeshire Window in Chancel. 9. Fen Stanton. do. — Northborough. Northants Doorway. Butland. b Sunken Chamfer. Lincolnshire. Keddington (or Ketton). — Eivaulx. a Shallow Wave Mold. 22. 19. 4. 14-. Hunts Window. Lincolnshire — South Doorway. . 6. Double Chamfer. 23. 16. Wave Molds and Hollow. 21. 20. Suffolk — Chancel Window. — Over. 18. — c Deopham Belfry Arch. 3. Diagram. — Trumpington West Doorway. Trumpington —East Window. Clipsham. Langtoft. 10. — Northborough Outer Porch Doorway. Thurlby.

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temoet. . so. JILZcSkuo. London. Fa. Qnrney & Jaokaorv..er Row.

Lincolnshire. Long Melford. Doorway. do. 18.' Hunts Niche. Uffington. 15. do. Partney. PLATE VIII. Sepulchre's. do. Window Jamb. St. Do. Cambridgeshire East Window. Pier Arch. Martin's. —West Doorway. near Stamford —West Doorway. Stamford — Doorway. 7. 9. East Window. — St. — Staplefprd. near St. Norfolk—West Doorway in isolated Tower. Neots. 2. — Lincoln Cathedral South Choir Chapel. Cambridge Arch. 16. 19. 8. do. Louth. do. Lincoln— Oriel Window. do. Colchester Pier Arch. — Great Gransden. 5. 14. 10. 12. Dereham. Suffolk-Pier Arch. do. . Inner Doorway. Saham Toney. 6. Leverton. 3. Cambridgeshire East Window. 17. 4. Great Shelford. Stewton. — Holy Trinity. 20. Doorway. South Porch. 1. Louth. 13. Fishtoft. — Chesterton. 21.

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Paternoster How. £$ JO-t. . jt so. 7 KfiPENDICULAB. Landaxt: Oanuy * JacTcson. J. . .H.

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sc- Londbn. ^ in? a =fT' J. Paternoster Sow.Y ENGLISH CAPITALS.: Qumey & Jackson.EATU. .ff.Ed HTsuas.

Laceby. 28. do. 24.. Arreton. 40. 4. Walesby. Bolton Abbey. 30. Thurlby. 38. Furness Abbey. 9. do. Early English Abacus. Yorkshire. Cambridgeshire. 10. Kuskington. Tintern Abbey. 13. Bolton Abbey. 19. do.. do. Early English Capital. 23. 37. Great Abington. 7. 12. ' < Do. Stiekney. 22. Middle Basen. 16. Decorated Abacus. 26. 18. Lincolnshire. 17. Frieston. Lincolnshire. 29. Do. PLATE X. do. 5. Do. Diagram of rudimentary Capital. Do. Furness Abbey. do. do. 3. Chapter House. do. Lincoln Cathedral. Isle of Wight. Tintern Abbey. 39. Essex. . Saffron Walden. 8. 1.

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'J«. BE C ORATED CAPI TAL S £ITJ.eZe. .«K. . Rov . toiidon: \XBCBxy k Jackaon PateragaJSP.

PLATE XI. 3. Leverton. Waltham. do. do. Lincolnshire — Chapel used as Vestr* 6. 7. 4. Abingtbn. Hunts. Partney. 18. Do. do. Aswardby. 22. . Stickford. Boston. Cambridgeshire. do. Sibsey. Do. 28. 12. Fletton. • 9. 11. do. Yaxley. do. 13. Legburn. 10. Hunts. 2. Louth. do. do. do. 1.

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London. Jackson Pat ernoster Row. . . Onrney A.

do. 14. 11. St. 16. Lincolnshire. — Hinghan. -I 23. Martin's. 27 28. 19. Stamford. Monument.' 29. Careby. Little Shelford. do. Bede House. Trumpington. 24. PLATE XII. do."\ J-St. John's. George's. Norfolk Nave Piers. 13. 1st. do. 22. Cambridgeshire — Capital of Nave Pier. Maxey. Northamptonshire. J 26. . Uffington. do. 15.

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Paternoster Row .PERPENDICULAR CAPITALS. London: Qurxicy 6c Jackeon..

Dry Drayton. 16. do. Long Melted. Harston. Elsworth Hall. k 2 . 9. Mattishall. 19. do. 17. Cambridgeshire. 4. Suffolk. J 13. 12. Lincolnshire. PLATE XIII. Fen Ditton. 18. Saham Toney. do. Louth. 14. Norfolk. do. 1. }-Colchester.

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London.fT. Bate XIV J. Paieraooter "Raw. se.Ze 7&uj£. .: G-urney & Jackson .

27. 40. 39. 16. - 7. 45. Chapter House. 41.' Lincolnshire. York. 18. 35. Do. — Trumpington Nave Pier. near York. Cambridgeshire Nave Piers. 36. Do. do. '37. Coton. Cambridgeshire. do. — Tintern Abbey Nave Piers. Peterborough Cathedral. do. Ely Cathedral— Galilee. Cambridgeshire. i}' 3. do. Furness Abbey. St. 17. Over and Histon. from Willis's " Architecture of the Middle 4. Fishtoft. 20. 38. v 8. Do. Mary's Abbey. a /Attic Base. Ely Cathedral— Lady Chapel. 9. 6. 26. Tintern Abbey. 30. 28. — Wells Cathedral Doorway. By land Abbey — Central Piers. Ely Cathedral./ Ages." 5. Lincoln Cathedral — Base of Great Piers. Do. 33. 43. Central Column. — Bottisham. PLATE XIV. Furness Abbey.\Italian Gothic Bases. do. Canterbury Cathedral. . Ely Cathedral— Lady Chapel. Skelton. Bivaulx Abbey — Choir Columns. 29. 42. Boston. 44.

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.. Paternoster Row.ZeJfouc.. Ourney &* Jackson.tf6> London. 2E.

8. Haslingfield. 1. 18. Kent. Holy Trinity. 6. 13. Swanton Morley. 22. 12. Norfolk. — Peterborough Cathedral Lady Chapel. Colchester. 7. Saffron Walden. Edward's. Cambridgeshire. 2. 15. do. Cambridge. do. Do. Stamford. St. 4. do. Norfolk. 3. Norwich Cathedral. — Over. 16. 20. Colchester. 17. All Saints'. 9. John's. Essex. St. Mattishall. Crosby Hall. 5. St. Louth. Cambridgeshire Chancel. Sahara. Heme. 21. Colchester. 14. 10. do. do. Alban's Abbey. Carbrook. 11. Dereham. PLATE XV. .

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London.. Paternoster Row.ZeJJ!ewx:. J.: Qurnajr tk Jaeltoon.3. STRINGS -AND LABELS. jr. .

from various sources. PLATE XVI. Examples of Strings. / 'd ^ . &c. Hood Molds.

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..: Quinsy it Jackson. Paternoster Row. Plate XV11 LanSaa.

Lincolnshire South Aisle Window. 3. do. 9. Eutland Doorway. — Langham. 8. 5. — Grantham. — Grantham South Aisle Window. Do. North Porch. Inner Doorway. PLATE XVII. do. — Over. 6. Do. Cambridgeshire — South Porch. . Bottisham. 4. — Grantham -Window Jamb. Cambridgeshire South Porch. 2. Lincolnshire South Aisle Window. — Grantham. 1. 10. South Porch.

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ey A Jackson.: G-u. Plate XVM1 London. . Paternoster Row. .rn.

2. Doorway in Cloister : half-inch scale. PLATE XVIII. 8. Do. . Castle Bising. Do. 7. Norfolk. 1. Bivaulx Abbey. Castle Bising. Buined Doorway. 4. 10. do. Bivaulx Abbey— Window Jamb. — Beaulieu Abbey South Transept Befectory. 3. — Bipon Cathedral Choir. 5. do. 6. Norfolk — East Window. Peterborough Cathedral —Doorway opposite South Aisle of Nave: half-inch scale.

Plate
XIX

SAafts aZternatety
St & St metier dzam f

ScaZft vneKte lfi>et.

TXvrniidls

LonioR. 0-uriu37 A Jactoon Paternoster
,
Row

PLATE XIX.

t," ^Diagrams showing the formation of the Wave Molding.

3. Bottisham, Cambridgeshire — East Window, South Aisle.
4. Saffron Walden, Essex.
5. Stretton, Eutland.
6. Grantham, Lincolnshire.
7. Do. do. Crypt.
8. —
Fountains Abbey Lady Chapel.

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.: Currier & Jackson. T. London. Row. Patornoatoi.Tvrnbuil sc.

PLATE XX. Eivaulx Abbey. — Lancaster Arch Mold of Nave. Grantham. — Bolton Abbey Monument. 15. South Aisle. 5. — WOlingham. 10! — Newton. 17. 11. — Grantham Choir Doorway. — Bolton Abbey Doorway. Do. 3. 2. 6. 4. do. Guy. 12. — Peterborough Cathedral Archway in Cloister. 18. 7. — Bipon Cathedral Window Jamb. Cambridgeshire Chancel Door. 16. . Cambridgeshire Doorway. Ripon Cathedral. Bolton Abbey. near Cambridge West Doorway. 13. 14. do . Grantham. 9. 1. — Landbeach. — Grantham Chancel Window. Window.

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. Plate XXI T. Qupn«y & Jackson.TurnbuZL jo... Louden. Paternoster Row.

1. do. 5. 8. — Ripon Cathedral Revestry or Chapter Room. 2. Do. Rutland. Fountains Abbey. do. 7. York Cathedral—Library. Seaton. . 4. Chapter House. do. Nave. do. 6. 10. 9. Do. Moroot. PLATE XXI. Ripon Cathedral. Do.

. LONDON. PAINTED BY WOOD FALL AND K1NDEB. LONG ACRE.