• • • • •

Nutrition – use of food for maintaining the body in an optimum, functional state, concerned with biochemical mechanisms (digestion, absorption, transport and metabolism), Nutritional status / nutriture – result of consumption and utilization of nutrients Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI, formerly RDA) – level of intake of a specific nutrient considered adequate for health plus reserves, based on current scientific knowledge Minimum Daily Requirement (MDR) – least amount of nutrient to prevent manifestations of deficiency, no extras or reserves Essential Nutrients – substances that the body cannot synthesize in sufficient amounts, must be taken in via diet

CARBOHYDRATES Energy source, major source of food, least expensive, most easily obtained, most readily digested fuel, 40-80% total energy intake, 74% for Filipinos, the simpler the sugar, the sweeter 4kcal/g, 300g in adult body, in blood, liver and muscles as glycogen Functions: energy, protein-sparing, fat regulation, dietary fiber, non-essential AA synthesis, part of tissues, detoxification (glucuronic acid) Bananas become sweeter, corn becomes starchy (not sweet)

Forms Monosaccharides Glucose Fructose Galactose Disaccharides Sucrose Lactose Maltose Alcohol sugars Sorbitol Mannitol Xylitol Polysaccharides Starch Dextrins Glycogen Dietary Fiber

Dextrose, fruits, sweet corn, honey Fruit sugar, sweetest sugar, from starch, sweeteners Not found in nature, from lactose (milk sugar) via hydrolysis Table sugar, sugar cane, maple, fruit, veggies, honey Milk sugar, none in plants, only in lactating mammary glands, less soluble, 1/6 as sweet as glucose Malt sugar, created via digestion, enzymes convert cereal grain sprouts into maltose Polyol derivatives of sucrose, mannose and xylose, some retain sweetness, absorbed more slowly and requires fat, inhibits rapid ↑ blood glucose Fruits, sweetness and energy value similar to glucose, absorbed eventually Fruit, poorly digested, half of calories as glucose Absorbed 1/5 as fast as glucose, sugarless chewing gums, unusable for cariogenic bacteria Less soluble, more stable Plants only, amylase (long, straight) or amylopectin (branched) proportion determines starch nature Hydrolysis of starch, ↓ size = ↑ sweetness and solubility, corn syrup Storage form of CHO, primary and most readily available source of glucose, branching chains of glucose, 340 g in muscle and liver, oysters, destroyed by heat

• Nonstarch polysaccharides, undigestible, roughage or bulk, holds water, maintains bowel regularity Soluble intracellular gel forming in plants, gums, pectins, mucilage, holds water, substrate for fermentation Cellulose plants only, fruit and veggie pulp, skins, stalks, leaves,seed covering Hemiless glucose than cellulose, synthetic fibers (methyl and carboxymethyl cellulose) for laxatives and low-calorie cellulose foods Lignin woody, stems and seeds, phenylpropl alcohol and acid polymer Insoluble plant cellwall, cellulose, lignin; regulates sugar absorption, ↓ GIT transit time, holds water, ↓ cholesterol Gums pectin-like, galactose and other polysaccharides, plant secretions, seeds Pectin non-cellulose polysaccharides, derivative of galactose, absorbs water, forms a gel, apples, citrus • • •
Algal polysaccharides – seaweed and algae, carageenan as thickening agent Importance: prevents constipation, ↑ fecal bulking, ↓ colon cancer; fermentation  SCFA  ↓ cholesterol synthesis; hypoglycemic RNI = 20-25 g dietary fiber, excess may cause ion malabsorption

Sugar Substitutes Aspartame Saccharin Acefsulfame K Sucralose

Equal, Nutrasweet, nutritive, Asp+Phe, metabolized into methanol, 200x as sweet as sucrose Non-nutritive, 350x as sweet as sucrose Oxathizinone, non-nutritive, 200x as sweet as sucrose Disaccharide, Cl groups, Splenda

Alcohol • Ethanol, metabolized @ 0.1g/kg BW/hr, has rice and fat equivalents • Energy: 1 mL = 5.6 kcal, 1g =7.1 kcal


16% nitrogen, 1g N = 6.25g CHON o Indispensable AA – body synthesis inadequate

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o o

Totally – Lys, Thr  Carbon skel – His, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe Dispensable – made in the body sufficiently; Glu, Asp, Ala, His Conditionally Dispensable – dependent on clinical condition, Cys, Tyr

Acquired – Arg, Cys, Tyr

Functions: build tissue, energy, enzymes, hormones, fluids, secretions, antibodies, osmotic control, acid-base balance, transport Sources: animal (egg, poultry, fish, milk, seafood) and plants (legumes, rice, bread, cereals) RNI = 1.14g/kg DBW/day; 67g/day males, 58g/day females, 10-15% TCA or TEE o Toddlers = 2.g/kg DBW/day, pre-schoolers 2.15, adolescents 1.26-1.59; add 6g/day if pregnant or lactating Nitrogen balance – total N equilibrium; N consumed = N excreted; + = intake exceeds excretion Protein Quality o PER (Protein Efficiency Ratio) – weight gain divided by CHON intake; 2.5 = high quality

o o o • • •

AAS (Amino Acid Score) – mg IDAA test protein / mg IDAA reference; reference = 100; limiting AA (lysine) lowest score BV (Biological Value) – fraction of absorbed N retained; animals > plants; complementarity, 2/3 animal + 1/3 plant NPU (Net Protein Utilization) – BV * digestibility (percentage of ingested nitrogen absorbed, plants > animals)

Deficiency and Excess Kwashiorkor – ↓ CHON, excess calories Excess – kidney overloading, fluid imbalance (300g water = metabolize 100g CHON)

LIPIDS Functions: energy source (9kcal/g), protein sparing, vitamin vehicles, fatty acid supplier, membrane and myelin component, flavor, eicosanoid precursor, insulator, anti-atheromatous, protection Sources o Visible – butter, margarine, oils o Neglibile – veggies, fruits except olives and avocados (MUFA) o Invisible – dessert, egg yolk

Classification: most natural fats are 98-99% TAGs, 1-2% MAGs, DAGs, FFA, phospholipids, etc Neutral MAG, DAG, TAG (esters of FA + glycerol) Simple Esters of FA w/ Waxes, sterol esters, non-sterol esters –vitamin A and D esters) high MW alcohols FA+phosphoric acid+nitrogenous base; lecithins, cephalins, sphingomyelins, 2nd largest lipid component of body, affinity for water- & fat-soluble substances  effective structural materials Phospholipids Lecithin: functions in transport and utilization of FA through the enzyme lecithin-cholesterol acytransferase, most widely distributed, liver, egg yolk, soybean Compoun d Glycolipids Compounds of Fa + CHO + nitrogenous base – cerebrosides, gangliosides Sulfolipids Sulfur-containing lipids; lipoproteins; lipids + proteins (apolipoproteins) lipopolysaccharide Polysaccharide-containing lipids s FA and derivatives s.a prostaglandins contain –OH groups of the remaining alcohol portion of glycerol = water-soluble MAG and DAG Derived -possess emulsifying properties in both digestion and commercial processing Sterols Chole-, ergo-, steroid hormones, vitamin D, bile salts Miscellaneous Carotenoids, vitamins A, E, K Fatty Acids Fatty Acids Saturated Unsaturated Mono-unsaturated Poly-unsaturated Animal / Plant (%) 40-60 / 10-20 30-50 / 80-90 30-50 / see above Trace / see above Notes Animal sources meat, eggs, milk Olive oil, peanuts, almonds Veggie oils, coconut and palm oil

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Coconut oil – SFA: 50-57% lauric acid (MCFA), absorbed directly, readily utilized Cis-FA hydrogenation  trans-FA, fried foods, processed foods Essential Fatty Acids / PUFAs – precursors of PG, TX, PC; fat transport,and metab, immune function, cell membranes


Omega-6 (18:2) / linoleic and arachidonic acids – linoleic only absolute essential FA; corn and safflower oil o Functions: capillary and cell membrane strengthening, cholesterol esters, ↓ serum cholesterol (↓ LDL & HDL), blood clotting, arachidonic precursor

o 2. o

RNI = 1-2% TCA

Omega-3 (18:3) / linolenic acid – synthesizable from linoleic, eicsapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid derivates o Plant leaves, few veggie oil, linseed, rapessed, soyberan, fish oils Functions: balances arachidonic acid action, ↑ chylomicron clearance, ↓ hepatic TAG and ApoB production

Deficiency and Excess • Deficiency – poor growth, dermatitis, mental retardation, reproductive failure, ↓ PG • Excess - ↑ PUFA = tumor dev’t, suppressed immune function

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RNI = PUFA = 3% total energy intake; 20-30% TCA = 1/3 SFA + 1/3 PUFA + 1/3 MUFA

Triacylglycerols Functions: major storage form, protein sparing, protection, insulation, transport and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins MAG and DAG – OH groups = water-soluble, emulsifiers Cholesterol – in all animals, not in plants, essential structural component in membranes and nerves, intermediate of steroids, bile acids, hormones; implicated in CV diseases (atherosclerosis, hypertension), liver can make 1-2 g/day Sources: animal foods, egg yolk, organ meats RNI = 300mg/day + dietary fiber

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