VITAMINS AND MINERALS

Vitamins Vitamins Fat Soluble A / Retinol Notes Function Organic compounds essential for specific metabolic reactions, cannot be synthesized by human cells = dietary essentials Deficiency – primary (inadequate dietary intake) or secondary (Inadequate absorption, Impaired transport, Increased requirement, Increased loss or excretion, Drugs absorbed with other lipids, requires bile and pancreatic juice, transported to liver via lymph as part of lipoproteins, stored in various tissues (may lead to toxicity), not normally excreted in urine Heat stable, UV sensitive, as vitamin or carotene (α,β,γ cryptoxanthine, not as potent as retinol), β carotene (most effective, proVit form, 2 retinols) Metabolism – retinyl ester (animal) or β carotene (plant)  chylomicron transport in lymph to liver for storage  mobilized as retinol bound to RBP to target organs  RBP receptors in targets (eyes, epithelium) Precursors in sterol fractions 7-deOHcholesterol (animals) or ergosterol (plants), requires UV irradiation to become proVit form D3 cholecalciferol and D2 (needs 10-15 min of UV) Metabolism – cholecalciferol + UV  7-deOHcholesterol in skin  25-OHcholecalciferol in liver, 1,25 OH cholecalciferol in kidneys Deficiency – rickets (children, bowlegs, knock-knees, rachitic rosary), osteomalacia (adults, waddling gait, tetany) From tocopherols and tocotrienols, stable to heat and acid, unstable to alkali, UV and oxygen, destroyed with Pb, Fe, rancid fats, inefficient absorption (20-30%), most active as α-tocopherol, normal αTE:PUFA ratio = 0.4

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Growth & maintenance of epithelial tissue Part of visual pigments (11-cis retinal) Teratogen Ca absorption by generating CBP Phosphate absorption ↑ Bone resorption, ↑ Ca reabsorption Antioxidant (anti-PUFA peroxidation, anti-VitA oxidation) Free radical scavenger

D/ Calciferol


E/ Tocopherol K / Antihemorrhagi c factor Water-soluble

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• Quinones, 3 forms: K1 (phylloquinone, green plants), K2 (menaquinone, water-soluble, bacterial action in GI, none in newborn), K3 (menadione, fat• Cofactor for Glu to Gla carboxylase (to become better soluble, twice as potent, in newborns, no long side-chains); heat-resistant, transported via chylomicrons & lipoproteins, concentrated in liver Ca chelators) Deficiency – due to malabsorption, GI flora destruction; causes abnormal bleeding components of enzyme systems, no precursor vit in general, does not require fat and bile for absorption, not normally stored in appreciable amounts, readily excreted in urine (must be replenished), rarely toxic

B1 / Thiamin

2 forms (thiamin pyrophosphate TPP or thiamin triphosphate TTP), thiaminase in uncooked freshwater fish and shellfish destroys 50% of thiamin, dry B1 is stable, acid B1 heat-stable, tea has anti-thiamin factor, alcohol inhibits absorption and storage Deficiency – dry beriberi (nervous symptoms, muscle wasting), wet beriberi (edema, effusions), acute pernicious beriberi (cardiovascular) Ribose + flavin, stable to heat, oxidation & acid, sensitive to alkali (baking soda) & UV, thyroxine-dependent flavokinase = B2  coenzyme form Deficiency – cheilosis (lip inflammation, angular stomatitis [fissure at mouth angle]), ocular disturbances Nicotinic acid  active nicotinamide, whitish crystalline, more stable than thiamin, resistant to heat, light, air, acids & alkali, ↓ serum cholesterol, 3g/day Deficiency – pellagra (dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea, death), due to unabsorbable tryptophan in corn 3 interchangeable forms (Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal PO4 (PLP), Pyridoxamine PO4 (PMP)), crystalline, odorless, water/alcohol soluble, unstable to alkali and light, PLP bound to albumin, muscle is prime reservoir Deficiency – peripheral neuritis (tingling fingers, INH), CNS abnormalities (irritability, convulsions, due to no inhibitory NT) OCP users have depression, ↑ W, ↓ niacin, no B6; anti-PMS Part of pterin compounds, yellow, crystalline, insoluble acid, stable disodium salt, pteroglutamic acid from pteridine+PABA, Synthesis – only monoglutamates are absorbed in small intestine then changes to methyltetrahydrofolate acid (storage form) + Glutamate = Folate + NAD = tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA) + single carbon = formylTHFA or citrovorum factor (more stable) Deficiency – poor growth, megaloblastic anemia, glossitis, neural tube defects in infants (must be supplemented) Active forms (cyanocobalamin, hydroxycobalamin), water-soluble, red, crystalline due to Cobalt 3+ chelated in large tetrapyrrole ring (similar to porphyrin), cyanocobalamin most stable form B12 released from peptide bonds by HCl + Intrinsic factor (Castles) = absorption via receptors in ileum, stored as transcobalamin in liver and kidneys Deficiency – megaloblastic anemia, pernicious (if no CIF), glossitis, hypospermia, GI symptoms, neurologic syndrome (numbness, muscle weakness), strict vegetarians at risk White, crystalline, bitter, stable as solution, β alanine, peptide bond No known deficiencies Monocarboxylic acid, stable to heat, water-/alcohol-soluble Deficiency – scaly dermatitis, nausea, vomiting, anorexia At risk – total parental nutrition / TPN (IV) for years, raw egg white intake (avidin) antagonizes absorption Antiscorbutic vitamin, white, water soluble, stable in dry form, easily oxidized in solution and heat, hexose derivative, classified as carbohydrate (monosaccharide), synthesized from glucose and galactose Ascorbic acid reversibly oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid irreversibly oxidized further into gulonic acid (in warm solutions, no antiscorbutic acid properties) Deficiency – scurvy (< 0.2mg/dL, follicular hyperkeratosis, swollen gums, teeth loosening, mouth and eye dryness, ↓ wound healing, scar breakdown Prevention – 10 mg/day (anti-scurvy but no reserves), 70-75mg/day (4 weeks prevention), 100mg/day (for stressed people, smokers) Toxicity – hemolytic anemia (pro-oxidant), sugar in urine false positive, kidney stones, atherosclerosis


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TPP – oxidative decarboxylation of Pyr to aCoA Oxidative decarboxylation of other α-ketoacids Coenzyme for transketolase in PPP FMN & FAD when combined with phosphoric acid Prosthetic group of flavoprotein enzymes for redox H carriers in ETC Part of NAD & NADP for redox (H acceptors) PLP & PMP CHON metab & transamination coenzymes PLP – α-aminolevulinic acid formation, Trp  niacin, metab, linoleic  arachidonic acid, sphingolipids (myelin), GABA synthesis Single-carbon carrier (formyl, –CH2OH or –CH2) Nucleic acid (G, A,T) & AA metab (Ser, Gly, Met, His) WBC and RBC formation and maturation Heme formation – single carbon carrier Cell metabolism Transfer of methyl groups in nucleic acid synthesis Affects myelin formation Part of CoA, fatty acid degradation as part of aCoA Acetate group acceptor for AA and Vits Cholesterol, phospholipids, steroid & porphyrin synthesis Coenzyme for addition or removal of CO2 from active compounds (FA synthesis, deamination) Enhances Fe absorption (reduces ferric to ferrous) Blocks degradation of ferritin to hemosiderin Coenzyme / cofactor – praline hydroxylation (collagen synthesis), Phe  Tyr, Folacin  THFA, Trp  5-OH Trp, stress hormone formation Infection resistance – interferon production, inflammation, membrane integrity Less severe cold symptoms

B2 / Riboflavin

B3 / Niacin

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B6

B9 / Folate


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B12 / Cobalamin

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B5 / Pantothenic Acid B7 / Biotin

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C / Ascorbic Acid

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Minerals Minerals Macrominerals / Major Minerals Calcium Notes inorganic, remains as ash when food is burned Deficiency – determine their levels in plasma, serum or hair essential at 100mg/day Most abundant, 1.5-2% body weight, 39% of total minerals, 99% in bones & teeth, 1% in blood and ECF, Skeletal Ca: Non-exchangeable pool (not available for short term regulation) and exchangeable pool (1% of skeletal Ca, in trabeculae, may be mobilized if needed) Serum Ca (8.8-10.8mg/dL): 50% ionized (4.4-5.2mg/dL), 5% anion-bound, 5% protein bound, PTH = ↑, calcitonin = ↓ • Membrane stabilizer, ion transmission, NT release, protein hormones, enzyme activation, nerve transmission, heartbeat regulation, clotting Function dissolved ions, regulates enzyme activity, acid-base balance, membrane transport, nerve and muscle irritability, structural constituents, indirectly involved in growth

Absorption: 20-35%; increase with acidity, VitD3, ↑ needs, lactose, moderate fat, taken with meals; decrease with no VitD, oxalates, phytates Excretion: increase with caffeine, theophyllines, dermal losses, immobility Phosphorus Magnesium Sulfur Na, Cl, K Trace Elements Essential 80% as CaPO4, 10% metabolically active. regulated by PTH at 3-4 mg/100 mL 2nd most abundant intracellular ion, 20-28g, 1.5-2.1mEq/L or 0.75-1.1 mmol/L, 50% free, 33% bound to albumin, 17% in bone (non-exchangeable) Constituent of cysteine, cysteine, methionine, Occurrence – insulin and keratin, GSH, heparin, chondroitin sulfate, in Vits (thiamine, biotin, pantothenic acid) Total body mineral content 2%, 3% and 50% respectively, in ECF, ECF and ICF respectively • • Bones and teeth, nucleic acids, phospholipids, energy cycle, high energy compounds, coagulated proteins, acid-base buffer Muscle contractility Nerve excitability

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Water balance, osmotic equilibrium, acid-base balance, muscular balance, membrane potential, volume regulation, transport, Na/K/ATPase pump

Iron

Copper Iodine Fluoride

<100mg/day required for optimal performance of a specific function, action depends on dosage and nutritional state, ↑ amounts have a response that plateaus but eventually becomes toxic Most abundant, 3-5g, 30-40% in storage form, 90% recovered and reused, must be supplemented Absorption • Oxygen transport (hemoglobin, myoglobin) • ↑ with VitC, VitA, MFP factor, gastric acidity, intrinsic factor, physiologic states, human milk • Oxidative ATP production (Cytochromes transfer e- and energy via iron redox iron) • ↓ with phytates, tannin, ↑ motility, ↑ Ca, ↑ Zn • CytP450 system (solubilization of water-insoluble compounds) • Heme iron as intact porphyrin, non-heme ionized to ferrous state • Immune System (buffs leukocytes, iron withholding as anti-infection, cognitive Transport – Mucosal transferrin (lumen to mucosal cell  + apoferritin = ferritin) and Serum transferrin (ferric iron performance) from mucosal cell to tissues, 30% TIBC (↑ = less transfer, ↓ = more)) Storage – ferritin (readily mobilized), hemosiderin (not readily) Excretion – bleeding, feces, sweat, exfoliation • Enzyme component (CytC oxidase, SOD, tyrosinase, lysyl oxidase) Adult has 100-150mg, in liver, brain, kidney and heart Absorbed in mucosal cell associated with metallothionein, transported in plasma with albumin, taken up by liver • Iron oxidation prior to plasma transport, Collagen cross-linking, Mitochondrial energy bound to ceruloplasmin, unabsorbed secreted in bile production, Anti-oxidant, melanin and catecholamines 20-30mg, 75% in thyroid, 25% in lactating mammary + gastric mucosa + blood • Part of thyroid hormones 2.5mg, in skeleton, toxic at 0.1/kg/day = teeth molting


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Chromium Cobalt Selenium Manganese Molybdenu m Zinc Essentiality not Clear

Exact amount not well established, function not well-defined With B12 stores in liver, plasma has 1mg/100mL GSH peroxidase (selenoenzyme) Adult = 20mg, ↑ if plenty mitochondria, Bound to β-globulin transmanganin

Tooth enamel (max resistance) Fluoroapatite (replaces OH in Ca phosphorous salts – less readily absorbed) CHO and fat metabolism Insulin Glucose tolerance factor – biologically active chromium B12 component GSH peroxidase – converts peroxides to water VitE synergism – anti-oxidant, O+H binding, ion transfer, Ig and ubiquinone synthesis Enzyme component – Glu synthetase, Pyr CX, mitochondrial SOD CT & bone formation, growth and reproduction, CHO and fat metab Enzyme cofactor – xanthine, aldehyde oxidase, sulfite oxidase Redox enzymes has prosthetic group with Mb CHO, CHON, fat metab, CHON and nucleic acid stabilization, transport, immunity, gene expression, metallothionein (Metal detox, sulfur AA metabolism), DNA / RNA stabilization, RNA polymerase activity, chromatin proteins, osteoblastic activity


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Second most abundant, metallothionein most abundant non-enzymatic zinc-containing protein, zinc and child growth, Fe, Ca, Cu interferes with absorption silicon, vanadium, nickel, tin, cadmium, arsenic, aluminum and boron

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