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SEM-I_Presentation of Data

SEM-I_Presentation of Data

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Introduction to Data and Presentation of Data
Introduction to Data and Presentation of Data

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Published by: api-3697538 on Oct 15, 2008
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Presentation of Data

Rohit Vishal Kumar
Reader, Department of Marketing Xavier Institute of Social Service P.O. Box No: 7, Purulia Road Ranchi – 834001, Jharkhand, India

Introduction to Data

What is Data?
Data refers to unorganized information Datum – refers to a single piece of Information

Types of Data
Primary Data:
Data collected primarily for the purpose of the given enquiry are called primary data

Data is the measurement (or outcome) of an experiment. This is frequently referred to “raw data”. Data is processed to get information A collection of data is referred to as “data-set” Height of 10 college going students in cm
140.90 159.10 161.20 147.20 153.90 773.50 172.20 181.50 162.90 1590.0

Secondary Data:
Data which has been collected by some other agencies (either Government or Private) and exist in published or unpublished form is known as secondary data


Collection of Data
Complete Enumeration:
Each and every individual of the group to be surveyed is covered and the information is collected for each individual separately Leads to greater accuracy in analysis Is time-consuming, costly and at times impractical

Methods of Data Collection
The Questionnaire Method:
Questionnaire GIVEN to the respondent for filling up Investigator collects the filled in questionnaire

The Interview Method:
Questionnaire NOT GIVEN to the respondent Investigator asks the questions and records responses

A subset of individuals (called the sample) which are representative of the group to be surveyed is covered and the information is collected only for the sample Low accuracy, but gives sufficiently accurate results Requires knowledge of statistics to do it correctly

Method of Direct Observation
Respondent not told that he is under observation Investigator observes and records response

Scrutiny of Data
Collected data should be checked for errors before being used in analysis
Errors due to decimal point shifting
E.g. : 10.97 or 109.7

Types of Data Series
Non Frequency Data
Time Series (Historical) Data
Values of the variables are given for different period of time E.g. : Food grain production in India for the last twelve month

Errors due to wrong recording
E.g. : 107 or 707

Spatial Series (Longitudinal) Data
Values of the variables are given for different individual in a group for the same period of time E.g. : Height, weight and Sex composition of babies born in May ’06 in the various districts of Jharkhand

Improbable (but not impossible)
E.g. : Age of father 45, Age of Son 30

Errors of date
E.g. : Output of a factory on 2nd October 2006 Find the error in the following data

Frequency Data
Data in which the “characteristics” formed by a group of individuals is of interest. Frequency of occurrence is important
E.g. : IQ of a group of class 10 students


Textual Presentation

Types of Data Presentation

“Total geographical area of India is about 329 mn hectare, but statistical information is available for only 305 mn hectare. 41 mn hectare of the total reporting area is classified as barren land and as area under non agricultural use. 67 mn hectare is under forest. Permanent pastures or grazing land is about 12 mn hectare. Cultivable waste land accounts for 19 mn hectare. Fallow land account for a further 30 mn hectare. The net sown area is only 136 mn hectare” CMIE Land Use Statistics 1987-88

Textual Presentation
Appeals to people with analytical bent of mind Allows all details to be explored Attention can be focused on special issues Normally employed in official reports

Tabular Presentation
Stub Describes what is contained in the rows

Title Contains a brief description of the table

Table 2.1 Land Utilization Pattern in India 1987-88 Area (mn ha) 329 305 41 67 12 19 30 136

Caption Describes what is contained in the columns

Not very useful for a large mass of data Can become monotonous and boring

Item 1. Total Geographic Area 2. Total Reporting Area 3. Barren Land 4. Area under forest 5. Permanent Pastures 6. Cultivable waste land 7. Fallow Land 8. Net Sown Area

Percentage 100 93 Body Contains the relevant 13 Figures 20 4 6 9 41
Footnote Contains the source and other explanatory material

Source: CMIE Land Use Statistics, 1987-88


Tabular Presentation
Shows data in a compact form Puts the information in a clear perspective Does not require explanatory material Enables easy comparison to be made Errors and Omissions can be easily detected

Graphical Presentation - Types
Line Diagram:
Normally used with time-series data Variations: Log & Semi Log Chart, Band Chart, Multiple Axis Chart

Bar Diagram
Can be used for time series or any other series Variations: Multiple bar chart,

Pie Chart
Used for representing percentage

Requires expertise in preparation Wrong presentation can lead to faulty inference

Pictorial Diagram
Similar to Bar Diagram, uses pictures instead of bars

Statistical Maps

Line Diagram
60000 50000

Bar Diagram

7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 20000 2.00 10000 1.00 0.00 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Rice Whe at Jowar Bajra M aize


Rs. Crores



Value of Exports

Fig 1: Value of Indian Exports (including re-exports) in India during 1985-94

Kg. per month

Fig 2: Average Per Capita Consumption of Cereals per month during 1985-94


Pie Chart
0.56 0.95 0.52

Pictorial Diagram

Kg. per month

Rice 6.93 Wheat Jowar Bajra Maize 4.7

Fig 2: Average Per Capita Consumption of Cereals per month during 1985-94

Fig 3: Input needed to produce food energy

Statistical Map

Graphical Presentation
Easily understood by laymen

Only a limited amount of information can be presented Can only provide a rough idea about magnitude of variation Numerous charts can become boring

Fig 4: Map of India showing Land Types Classification


Thank You


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