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By Henry Emery and Andy Roberts with Ruth Goodman and Louis Harrison.
Cleared for Takeoff: English for Pilots, Books 1 & 2.
By Liz Mariner
English for Aviation.
By Sue Ellis and Terence Gerighty Book Reviews Graham Elliott and Theresa White FAA Academy
if any. and when to end. Details of the three courses follow: . all with audio files. Learner needs vary a good deal. no less than three brand new courses are reaching the market to address English language proficiency requirements. testing. ab initio pilot trainees. This timely trio can be added to the recent availability of three online Aviation English courses1. We are pleased to see these three new aviation English courses address mainly the training side of the triangle—those with responsibility for programming for compliance will have to manufacture their administrator support. After a hiatus of more than two decades with no commercially produced aviation English course books widely available.. If you are lacking administrators who will provide support for your training and testing. These aviation English courses appear now due to widening recognition that faulty communication from weak English proficiency has contributed to catastrophe in the past. in 2004. Vocabulary. and hopefully signals a full focus on the installation of successful training (where personnel improve their proficiency) and the end of a 5-year long period where the industry has not quite successfully grappled with what and how to test2. How to decide which of these courses. (where administrators learn who needs to improve their proficiency). and no matter how much support from your organization.S. and groups of dedicated contributors before and since. and will allow them to build skills in plain English so they can interact in non-standard aviation situations. more help has arrived. then no matter how much testing you do. Structure. and Interactions over six levels of which Operational Level 4 (L 4) is the target. Comprehension. The courses vary in purpose. most likely from supplementary providers. and one published in the U. or experienced controllers or pilots. your personnel will not learn English very efficiently. For this the ICAO Doc 9835 asks for assessment of proficiency in six elements of language: Pronunciation. if you can train but not test. with weak language trainers having the deft ability to destroy even the most carefully constructed courses. you will have problems establishing sustainable programs. and many pedagogical qualities. length. and so users of these courses will need to be clear who they are aiming to serve: trainee controllers. The new courses. Twenty five years in aviation English has shown us that cognition is embodied in action—pilots and controllers will learn their target English most readily if they work and interact in a lot of job-related tasks. you won’t know where to start. This realization is thanks in large part to an ICAO study group that produced the key Document 9835 Manual on the Implementation of ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements3. and if you can’t train. two from the U. commendable content.K. It seems logical then that these courses will support learners in acquiring specific aviation vocabulary. and find other sources for testing for ICAO compliance. and approach. and administration. will embrace use of radiotelephony between pilots and controllers so that learners improve their proficiency in the English used in ATC. Fluency.. are not aimed at the same audiences.A. to adopt? Three aspects that combine to address and solve English language proficiency issues are training.For those with responsibilities for arranging compliance with the new International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) English proficiency standards required as of March 2008.
Title. “…can be used in any classroom situation or as an aid in…self-study. with audio CDs.. this seems like a rich collection of industry topics that will be of interest and benefit to aviation personnel.50.. gear/braking problems. and how good are they? Aviation English for ICAO Compliance.. fly by wire. They are said to teach communication skills for pilots and air traffic controllers. Includes a glossary and abbreviations. 26. Teacher's Book. www.com These course books are intended to be part of the solution—training materials for English language development for civil authorities and airlines. Publisher Aviation English for ICAO Compliance. "…from pre-flight checks through the flight path to switching off the engines. Stated target audience: Intermediate level English for Specific Purposes (ESP) “from an introductory level towards ICAO language proficiency.” “…beginning with the basics and progressing to [the] level…of actual flights. Stated target audience: Intermediate level.00) joanna." "Specifically designed to. Levels. Student's Book ISBN 978 0230 02757 2 Contents. bird strike.com Cleared for Takeoff: English for Pilots. and CD-ROM with interactive material. ISBN 978 09795068 26 Two books each with 60 hours.50GBP ($52. or for selfstudy. the primary value will be for ab initio flight trainees from low L 3.” Likely users: For both trainee controllers and flight trainees in ab initio programs to experienced controllers and crews to move from low L 3 to L 4. and is followed by listening and speaking activities presented with professionally produced video and/or audio recordings. either as self-study or for classroom use. helping them to achieve and maintain ICAO Operational Level 4. By Henry Emery and Andy Roberts. Author. Following suggestions from ICAO Doc 9835. ($31." Likely users: For experienced pilots and perhaps controllers to move from low L 3 to L 4.95 when ordered together. www.. ISBN: 9780194579421 One coursebook of 8 units for 30 hours self study. The principal authors are experienced aviation English teachers. decompression. Coursebook.macmillanenglish.95 each or $74. electrical failure. runway incursions. & Uses One book of 12 units for 120 hours..& Contact Student's Pack: book and two CD-ROMS.ICAO. By Liz Mariner AELink Publications Inc. Macmillan Publishers Limited. as a supplementary ESP coursebook. The 127 pages hold 12 units.00GBP. 22. 25. audio CD and interactive CD-ROM) is £15. Express series. intensive course for pilots. Audio CDs.a-e-link. with audio CD.. engine failure. Price +/.. on-board fire.com English for Aviation for Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers By Sue Ellis and Terence Gerighty Oxford University Press. Books 1 & 2. with CDs for classroom use or self study. Each colorfully illustrated unit begins with a reading on an aviation theme.” A future accompanying website includes a list of aviation English ”Test Centres. the units are organized by aviation topics such as aerodrome layout. By Henry Emery and Andy Roberts. hydraulic failure. Stated target audience: Intermediate level short.00).prepare for the language fluency test required by. Despite a lack of empirical evidence to support inclusion.” Likely users: In following a flight training format. Book 1 & 2 are $48. .25GBP.borysiak@oup. What do they contain.
As demanded by flight training. The first six units focus on primary flight training principally in a U. page 72) which will require explanations. and so on. weather and weather reports. cause it not be taken as seriously as it warrants by the aviation community. with trainees at Pre-Operational L 3. and English for aviation in language schools. page 8) and in the vicinity of (Book 1. apply. Publicity says it was designed for use in flight schools. perversely. learners will struggle to correctly recall. question forms. expressing non-understanding. The principal author is a flight instructor experienced in working with non-native English speakers in flight training. . and there are useful collocations with such as “The ramp is sometimes called the tarmac or the apron. and operating in controlled airspace. The units in Book 2 are pattern work. In essence. presentations are for the most part wellcontextualized lists that a tireless instructor will have to explain. there is a heavy vocabulary load across both books. for example. thoughtful terms for instructors and students to work together. this is a simplified flight training manual made to be a starting point for flight training. stating intentions. In addition. The course targets standard procedures at the start of pilot training. air traffic control communications. and listening scripts. its color and interesting graphic design may. aircraft checklists. and remember them. understanding.” However. and practice correctly before eventually being able to start applying the terms fluently. one by one. including. such as VOR (Book 1. While the useful 36-page glossary for both books holds over 500 items. and use of this vocabulary is clearly necessary. and navigational features on charts. The accompanying Teacher's Book (which we did not see for this review) should help less well trained aviation instructors to operate the contents. The twelve units include many excellent descriptive graphics with suitably slower-paced audio recordings in U. and the basics of flight. each unit contains a series of functions of language that include asking for clarification. VFR navigation. Because Aviation English is designed in the tradition of English teaching texts. word and sentence stress. use a wide range of accented Englishes.-flavored setting. Everything is shown in a clear context. which are all issues probably beyond the knowledge of flight personnel to organize and tackle. delivered for the classroom at an appropriately slower rate than in the real world. However. and surrounded by an English grammatical context in explicit and repeated activities.S. it does not systematically address the ICAO requirements. Even in the hands of minimally qualified language instructors. In Unit 2 alone. intonation and pausing. and surface features. there are hundreds more items appearing in the texts which are not included in the glossary. Books 1 & 2. student and instructor communications. new vocabulary could amount to well over a hundred items on airports. this course by itself cannot lead users to meet ICAO L 4. Systematically organized among these topics are exercises that address features of pronunciation and English grammatical structure and include. international airline training. for handling of emergencies. aircraft features. nor explicit inclusion of plain language elements for example. either as an individual workbook or with classroom groups. It continues with vocabulary associated with small aircraft. this well-conceived English training product can play a central role in an English for Aviation program that is targeting L 4. Each of four sections in the Units contain vocabulary exercises.S. hazards. and past tense endings. By Liz Mariner. there appears to be no explicit means of supporting learners to understand. abbreviations.The accompanying recordings. and the back of the book has a pair work section. …a well structured vocabulary program needs a balanced approach that includes explicit teaching (as demanded in this course) together with activities providing appropriate contexts for incidental learning4.English speaking trainees. explaining how something works. airport features and traffic pattern. acquire. announcing decisions. and a list of useful abbreviations adds nearly 90 more. As it was developed before the ICAO proficiency standards were published. often reaching above delivery of a single word into appropriate chunks of language. for example. As such it will find favor with flight instructors who are working to build a language foundation with their non. accented English. This two-book course also provides activities in an accompanying DVD. Cleared for Takeoff: English for Pilots. While the recognition. And as there is no coverage of the functions of language recommended in ICAO Doc 9835. unless it is delivered in structured and logical patterns. ATIS. which gives Aviation English a solid international footprint. diphthongs.
to switching off the engines. The course needs fewer touch-and-go language learning activities such as Choose the correct definition…. and applied vocabulary for both standard radiotelephony and nonstandard plain English. runway conditions and ground movement. however. we likely won’t need to worry about how they pronounce one. It includes an audio CD. The book is attractively designed and laid out. unit 4 is departure. unit 5 contains en route events and leads to descent. through the flight path. such as Ask for permission to…. one. and aims to include learner experience of familiar routes and airports. zero. it contains up to 30 hours of work in eight units.. this 69-page pre-intermediate coursebook leads sequentially from pre-flight checks. reports in climbing and cruising and includes traffic and weather.. diagrams. The first unit introduces air communications. Unit 3 includes ground movements from start up and push back. and they approved of the handling of the technical topics included. two. recorded with varied foreign English accents in interactive exercises for each unit. and tables. It is followed by aerodrome information. This course is a shadow flight training manual with an excess of Q & A methodology for English learners. . This can be remedied in part by informed training design and tight benchmarking by each organizational user. it is approximately half the length of the other two courses. . For English for Specific Purposes training to proceed efficiently and effectively. leading to pre-flight checks. until the learner can handle the demands of English for Aviation. users might find that by itself the course doesn’t go deep enough or is long enough to truly impact their English performance. And this is the tight sequence the course follows. By Sue Ellis and Terence Gerighty. to taxi and take off. photos. it can work (and apparently has worked for the author).repeat the numbers after the speaker. clearances. The experienced flight and controller personnel we showed this book to see that it covered all phases. These provide interactions and listening comprehension of realistic pilot and air traffic controller interchanges. unit 7 deals with aspects of landing clearances.. Because of its brevity. Part of the OUP Express series that offer “short courses in specialist English”. but the technical content is probably above the capacity of an uninformed English instructor (“What’s a VOR?”) to deliver. The gate-to-gate syllabus is closest of the three to work realities in aviation. Practice approaches to…. the course will benefit from a teacher guide (currently in preparation) where more activities will lead to practice and fuller exploitation of the many excellent recordings. it could provide a basis for more than 60 classroom hours. Fill in the missing words… (Book 2. in prior preintermediate ESL programming we first have to establish in learners a basic facility in manipulating English grammar. English for Aviation for Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers.” (Book 1.. Conduct the checklist for…. In the hands of a flight instructor who is sensitive to learner needs. To solve this. and uses clear photographs and informative graphics. and also by additional activities on a students’ website being prepared by the publisher. Unit 7) and needs to provide more explicit opportunities for learners to repeatedly prepare and deliver specific language they will need on the job.. and signs in support of unit topics. grammar uses.A mistake common among those who are not aware of the need for comprehensible input for English learners occurs frequently—that of using teaching language above a learner’s ability to comprehend: “. We consider that with suitable instructor guidance. so they will gain guided experience in creating and manipulating English to say what they want to say. Describe when…. unit 6 contains VFR and IFR contacts and approaches with radar vectoring. It includes a list of all key words in the book. a basis of common vocabulary with intelligible pronunciation and some fluency. and handling delays and problems. Written by two authors with long experience in aviation English and aligned to ICAO guidelines. Stressed syllables are shown with CAPITAL letters. This course will meet the approval of many other learners in aviation because its structure follows the world they know. and finally unit 8 includes exercises on dealing with authorities. Explain why…. missed approaches. page 2.) If learners know what a stressed syllable is. Complete the table…. illustrations. Draw lines to match….
and tougher security restrictions. unlike the generic language included of necessity in all these courses. Ed. 4. to bring safety benefits to the aviation safety and efficiency of global aviation systems. 2004. know how to diagnose language needs.icaea. Further. for example. 2001.dyned. See www.com/products/ae/. These courses each contribute solid English content at appropriate levels for various trainee targets. we would wish to see the industry move towards using better trained language instructors. References. for which phraseologies do not exist—therefore. and those responsible for English compliance have three new tools from which to select. and who can accurately test progress and proficiency can install efficient and successful programming.. 2. With this. know ways to encourage learners and enhance fluency.com/AETContent/EnglishTraining/englishtrainingOverview. and www. .aeservices. see www. usually non-routine. we will see an end to weak profiency contributing to unnecessary catastrophe. repair pronunciation problems. only continuous and sustained commitment from organizations across the industry will raise English standards and so produce safer communications in English. International Civil Aviation Organization.net/English/5. avoidance of catastrophe is now not the only compelling reason to see improved communications in aviation.pata. Third Edition. ever more stringent environmental concerns. in Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language.pl/?opis=looking. who can deliver content. It is clear that there will always be situations. Montreal. DeCarrico.htm In a May 2008 meeting sponsored by the International Civil Aviation English Association a paper is entitled “What do we want to test?” 3. Only trainers who are know something of how people acquire language.html. ICAO Document 9835: Manual on the Implementation of ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements.html. Vocabulary Learning and Teaching. Marianne Celce-Murcia. 1. While the Doc 9835 initiative is aimed at improving radiotelephony communications. We would like to see organizations recognize the need for their pilots and/or controllers to become familiar with the language required to be safe in the regions and airports in which they are training and working. who. to see success in this issue. in fact. dispatch and other operational efficiencies that fully English proficient crews and controllers achieve together in the face of soaring fuel costs.Recommendations. from Jeanette S. A currently unresearched and potentially more profitable benefit for the industry will be to measure routing. Heinle & Heinle. For three e-learning courses available. http://aviationenglishtraining.