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Steven T. Karris

Circuit Analysis I

G=[35/50 −j*3/50; −1/5 1/10+j*1/10]; I=[1 0]'; V=G\I; Ix=5*V(2,1)/4; % Multiply Vc by 5 and divide by 4 to get current Ix magIx=abs(Ix); theta=angle(Ix)*180/pi; % Convert current Ix to polar form fprintf(' \n'); disp(' Ix = ' ); disp(Ix);... fprintf('magIx = %4.2f A \t', magIx); fprintf('theta = %4.2f deg \t', theta);... fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n');

Ix = 2.1176-1.7546i magIx = 2.75 A theta = -39.64 deg

Orchard Publications, Fremont, California www.orchardpublications.com

with MATLAB® Applications

Circuit Analysis I

Students and working professionals will find Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications to be a concise and easy-to-learn text. It provides complete, clear, and detailed explanations of the principal electrical engineering concepts, and these are illustrated with numerous practical examples.

This text includes the following chapters and appendices: • Basic Concepts and Definitions • Analysis of Simple Circuits • Nodal and Mesh Equations Circuit Theorems • Introduction to Operational Amplifiers • Inductance and Capacitance • Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis • Phasor Circuit Analysis • Average and RMS Values, Complex Power, and Instruments • Natural Response • Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits • Introduction to MATLAB • Review of Complex Numbers • Matrices and Determinants Each chapter contains numerous practical applications supplemented with detailed instructions for using MATLAB to obtain quick and accurate answers.

Steven T. Karris is the president and founder of Orchard Publications. He earned a bachelors degree in electrical engineering at Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee, a masters degree in electrical engineering at Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, and has done post-master work at the latter. He is a registered professional engineer in California and Florida. He has over 30 years of professional engineering experience in industry. In addition, he has over 25 years of teaching experience that he acquired at several educational institutions as an adjunct professor. He is currently with UC Berkeley Extension.

Orchard Publications Visit us on the Internet www.orchardpublications.com or email us: info@orchardpublications.com

ISBN 0-9744239-3-9

$39.95

Circuit Analysis I

with MATLAB® Applications

Steven T. Karris

Orchard Publications www.orchardpublications.com

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications Copyright © 2004 Orchard Publications. All rights reserved. Printed in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Direct all inquiries to Orchard Publications, 39510 Paseo Padre Parkway, Fremont, California 94538, U.S.A. URL: http://www.orchardpublications.com Product and corporate names are trademarks or registered trademarks of the MathWorks®, Inc., and Microsoft® Corporation. They are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.

**Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
**

Library of Congress Control Number 2004093171

ISBN 0-9744239-3-9

Disclaimer

The author has made every effort to make this text as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty is implied. The author and publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this text.

This book was created electronically using Adobe Framemaker®.

Preface

This text is an introduction to the basic principles of electrical engineering. It is the outgrowth of lecture notes prepared by this author while teaching for the electrical engineering and computer engineering departments at San José State University, DeAnza college, and the College of San Mateo, all in California. Many of the examples and problems are based on the author’s industrial experience. It can be used as a primary text or supplementary text. It is also ideal for self-study. This book is intended for students of college grade, both community colleges and universities. It presumes knowledge of first year differential and integral calculus and physics. While some knowledge of differential equations would be helpful, it is not absolutely necessary. Chapters 9 and 10 include step-by-step procedures for the solutions of simple differential equations used in the derivation of the natural and forces responses. Appendices B and C provide a thorough review of complex numbers and matrices respectively. There are several textbooks on the subject that have been used for years. The material of this book is not new, and this author claims no originality of its content. This book was written to fit the needs of the average student. Moreover, it is not restricted to computer oriented circuit analysis. While it is true that there is a great demand for electrical and computer engineers, especially in the internet field, the demand also exists for power engineers to work in electric utility companies, and facility engineers to work in the industrial areas. Circuit analysis is comprised of numerous topics. It would be impractical to include all related topics in a single text. This book, Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB® Applications, contains the standard subject matter of electrical engineering. Accordingly, it is intended as a first course in circuits and the material can be covered in one semester or two quarters. A sequel, Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB® Applications, is intended for use in a subsequent semester or two subsequent quarters. It is not necessary that the reader has previous knowledge of MATLAB®. The material of this text can be learned without MATLAB. However, this author highly recommends that the reader studies this material in conjunction with the inexpensive MATLAB Student Version package that is available at most college and university bookstores. Appendix A of this text provides a practical introduction to MATLAB. As shown on the front cover, a system of equations with complex coefficients can be solved with MATLAB very accurately and rapidly. MATLAB will be invaluable in later studies such as the design of analog and digital filters. In addition to several problems provided at the end of each chapter, this text includes multiple-choice questions to test and enhance the reader’s knowledge of this subject. Moreover, answers to these questions and detailed solutions of all problems are provided at the end of each chapter. The rationale

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Preface is to encourage the reader to solve all problems and check his effort for correct solutions and appropriate steps in obtaining the correct solution. And since this text was written to serve as a self-study or supplementary textbook, it provides the reader with a resource to test his knowledge. The author has accumulated many additional problems for homework assignment and these are available to those instructors who adopt this text either as primary or supplementary text, and prefer to assign problems without the solutions. He also has accumulated many sample exams. Like any other new book, this text may contain some grammar and typographical errors. Accordingly, all feedback for errors, advice and comments will be most welcomed and greatly appreciated. Orchard Publications Fremont, California

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Contents

Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions

The Coulomb...................................................................................................................................................1-1 Electric Current and Ampere........................................................................................................................1-1 Two Terminal Devices...................................................................................................................................1-4 Voltage (Potential Difference) ......................................................................................................................1-5 Power and Energy...........................................................................................................................................1-8 Active and Passive Devices ........................................................................................................................ 1-12 Circuits and Networks................................................................................................................................. 1-12 Active and Passive Networks..................................................................................................................... 1-12 Necessary Conditions for Current Flow .................................................................................................. 1-12 International System of Units .................................................................................................................... 1-13 Sources of Energy........................................................................................................................................ 1-17 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 1-18 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 1-21 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 1-25

**Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits
**

Conventions.....................................................................................................................................................2-1 Ohm’s Law.......................................................................................................................................................2-1 Power Absorbed by a Resistor......................................................................................................................2-3 Energy Dissipated by a Resistor ...................................................................................................................2-4 Nodes, Branches, Loops and Meshes..........................................................................................................2-5 Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL)...................................................................................................................2-6 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)...................................................................................................................2-7 Analysis of Single Mesh (Loop) Series Circuits....................................................................................... 2-10 Analysis of Single Node-Pair Parallel Circuits......................................................................................... 2-14 Voltage and Current Source Combinations ............................................................................................. 2-16 Resistance and Conductance Combinations............................................................................................ 2-18 Voltage Division Expressions.................................................................................................................... 2-22 Current Division Expressions.................................................................................................................... 2-24 Standards for Electrical and Electronic Devices..................................................................................... 2-26 Resistor Color Code .................................................................................................................................... 2-27 Power Rating of Resistors .......................................................................................................................... 2-28

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications i

Contents Temperature Coefficient of Resistance .................................................................................................... 2-29 Ampere Capacity of Wires.......................................................................................................................... 2-30 Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment ............................................................................................. 2-30 Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring........................................................................................... 2-33 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 2-38 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 2-41 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 2-50

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

Nodal, Mesh, and Loop Equations ............................................................................................................. 3-1 Analysis with Nodal Equations.................................................................................................................... 3-1 Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations ..................................................................................................... 3-8 Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources.........................................................................3-20 Thevenin’s Theorem....................................................................................................................................3-24 Norton’s Theorem .......................................................................................................................................3-35 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem ........................................................................................................3-38 Linearity.........................................................................................................................................................3-39 Superposition Principle ...............................................................................................................................3-41 Circuits with Non-Linear Devices.............................................................................................................3-45 Efficiency ......................................................................................................................................................3-47 Regulation .....................................................................................................................................................3-49 Summary........................................................................................................................................................3-49 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................3-52 Answers to Exercises...................................................................................................................................3-64

**Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers
**

Signals .............................................................................................................................................................. 4-1 Amplifiers........................................................................................................................................................ 4-1 Decibels ........................................................................................................................................................... 4-2 Bandwidth and Frequency Response.......................................................................................................... 4-4 The Operational Amplifier ........................................................................................................................... 4-5 An Overview of the Op Amp...................................................................................................................... 4-5 Active Filters................................................................................................................................................. 4-13 Analysis of Op Amp Circuits ..................................................................................................................... 4-16 Input and Output Resistance ..................................................................................................................... 4-28 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 4-32

ii Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Contents Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................4-34 Answers to Exercises...................................................................................................................................4-43

**Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance
**

Energy Storage Devices................................................................................................................................. 5-1 Inductance ....................................................................................................................................................... 5-1 Power and Energy in an Inductor ............................................................................................................. 5-11 Combinations of Series and Parallel Inductors........................................................................................ 5-14 Capacitance.................................................................................................................................................... 5-17 Power and Energy in a Capacitor .............................................................................................................. 5-22 Capacitance Combinations ......................................................................................................................... 5-25 Nodal and Mesh Equations in General Terms........................................................................................ 5-28 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ 5-29 Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................ 5-31 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 5-36

**Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis
**

Excitation Functions...................................................................................................................................... 6-1 Circuit Response to Sinusoidal Inputs ........................................................................................................ 6-1 The Complex Excitation Function.............................................................................................................. 6-3 Phasors in R , L , and C Circuits ................................................................................................................. 6-8 Impedance ..................................................................................................................................................... 6-14 Admittance .................................................................................................................................................... 6-17 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................ 6-21 Exercises ........................................................................................................................................................ 6-25 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 6-30

**Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
**

Nodal Analysis ................................................................................................................................................ 7-1 Mesh Analysis ................................................................................................................................................. 7-5 Application of Superposition Principle.......................................................................................................7-7 Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems ...........................................................................................................7-8 Phasor Analysis in Amplifier Circuits .......................................................................................................7-12

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications iii

Contents Phasor Diagrams .......................................................................................................................................... 7-15 Electric Filters............................................................................................................................................... 7-20 Basic Analog Filters ..................................................................................................................................... 7-21 Active Filter Analysis................................................................................................................................... 7-26 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 7-28 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 7-29 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 7-37

**Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values, Complex Power, and Instruments
**

Periodic Time Functions............................................................................................................................... 8-1 Average Values ............................................................................................................................................... 8-2 Effective Values ............................................................................................................................................. 8-3 Effective (RMS) Value of Sinusoids ........................................................................................................... 8-5 RMS Values of Sinusoids with Different Frequencies............................................................................. 8-7 Average Power and Power Factor............................................................................................................... 8-9 Average Power in a Resistive Load ...........................................................................................................8-10 Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads ................................................................................8-11 Average Power in Non-Sinusoidal Waveforms.......................................................................................8-14 Lagging and Leading Power Factors.........................................................................................................8-15 Complex Power - Power Triangle .............................................................................................................8-16 Power Factor Correction ............................................................................................................................8-18 Instruments ...................................................................................................................................................8-21 Summary........................................................................................................................................................8-30 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................8-33 Answers to Exercises...................................................................................................................................8-39

**Chapter 9 Natural Response
**

The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit............................................................................................. 9-1 The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit ......................................................................................... 9-10 Summary........................................................................................................................................................ 9-17 Exercises........................................................................................................................................................ 9-19 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................... 9-25

iv

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Contents

**Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits
**

The Unit Step Function...............................................................................................................................10-1 The Unit Ramp Function............................................................................................................................10-6 The Delta Function......................................................................................................................................10-8 The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit ................................................................................10-14 The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit ................................................................................10-21 Summary ...................................................................................................................................................... 10-31 Exercises ...................................................................................................................................................... 10-33 Answers to Exercises................................................................................................................................. 10-41

**Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB®
**

MATLAB® and Simulink® ........................................................................................................................ A-1 Command Window....................................................................................................................................... A-1 Roots of Polynomials.................................................................................................................................... A-3 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots ......................................................................................... A-4 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values ....................................................................................... A-6 Rational Polynomials .................................................................................................................................... A-8 Using MATLAB to Make Plots ................................................................................................................ A-10 Subplots ........................................................................................................................................................ A-19 Multiplication, Division and Exponentiation.......................................................................................... A-20 Script and Function Files ........................................................................................................................... A-26 Display Formats .......................................................................................................................................... A-31

**Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers
**

Definition of a Complex Number ...............................................................................................................B-1 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers......................................................................................B-2 Multiplication of Complex Numbers ..........................................................................................................B-3 Division of Complex Numbers....................................................................................................................B-4 Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers ..............................................................................B-4

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

v

........................................................................................ C-16 Gaussian Elimination Method ............................C-5 Determinants .......C-2 Special Forms of Matrices ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Contents Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Matrix Definition ..................................................................................................................... C-19 The Adjoint of a Matrix ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................C-9 Minors and Cofactors.............................. C-20 Singular and Non-Singular Matrices ........................................ C-30 vi Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ............................................................................................................... C-23 Exercises........................................................................................................................C-1 Matrix Operations................ C-12 Cramer’s Rule ............................................. C-21 The Inverse of a Matrix ............................................................................................................................................... C-21 Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices..........

----i = dq = lim ∆q ----dt ∆t → 0 ∆t (1. 1.2) 1-1 . that is. The definition of coulomb is illustrated in Figure 1. and includes several practical examples to illustrate these concepts.24 × 10 positive or negative. In terms of this unit.1. the charge of an electron is 1. ---------------------------1 ampere = 1 coulomb 1 sec ond Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications (1.1 The Coulomb Two identically charged (both positive or both negative) particles possess a charge of one coulomb when being separated by one meter in a vacuum. repel each other with a force of 10 c 2 newton where c = velocity of light ≈ 3 × 10 m ⁄ s .Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions T his chapter begins with the basic definitions in electric circuit analysis. the unit and quantities used in circuit analysis. abbreviated as C .2 Electric Current and Ampere Electric current i at a specified point and flowing in a specified direction is defined as the instantaneous rate at which net positive charge is moving past this point in that specified direction. It introduces the concepts and conventions used in introductory circuit analysis.1. – 19 18 electrons. 1. is denoted by the letter q or Q .6 × 10 C and one negative coulomb is equal to 6. 8 –7 q Vacuum 1m F = 10 c 2 N q=1 coulomb –7 q Figure 1.1) The unit of current is the ampere abbreviated as A and corresponds to charge q moving at the rate of one coulomb per second. is the fundamental unit of charge. In other words. Charge. Definition of the coulomb The coulomb.

2. let us consider the charge q transferred from some reference time t 0 to some future time t . t = 0 and t = 9 s i ( mA ) 30 20 10 0 −10 −20 −30 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t (s) Figure 1.1 1-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2. t = 0 and t = 3 s b. To find an expression of the charge q in terms of the current i .3) Example 1. Waveform for Example 1. since ----i = dq dt the charge q is q t t0 = ∫ t i dt 0 t or q( t ) – q ( t0 ) = ∫t i dt 0 t or q(t) = ∫t i d t + q ( t 0 ) 0 t (1. compute the total charge q transferred between a. this is known as conventional current flow.1 For the waveform of current i shown in Figure 1. Then. it is customary to think of current as the motion of positive charge.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions Note: Although it is known that current flow results from electron motion.

we assume a direction by placing an arrow next to the device in which the current flows. total charge = total area = 30 mC + 30 mC = 60 mC. area = ½ × (2 × 30 mA) = 30 mC For 8 < t < 9 s. b. total charge = total area = 30 + 120 + 30 −7. area = 1 × 30 = 30 mC Therefore. or −15 mA / s. Convention: We denote the current i by placing an arrow with the numerical value of the current next to the device in which the current flows. Direction of conventional current flow Caution: The arrow may or may not indicate the actual conventional current flow. For 0 < t < 2 s.3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-3 . 2A Device −2 A Figure 1. For example. for 8 < t < 9 s. for 0 < t < 9 s.3. we conclude that the actual direction of the current flow is opposite to the direction of the arrow. then. the actual direction of the current cannot be determined by inspection. for 0 < t < 3 s. we assume a direction with an arrow for said current i . we conclude that the actual direction is opposite of that of the arrow. the designation shown in Figure 1. Obviously.3 indicates either a current of 2 A is flowing from left to right. area = ½ × (2 × 30 mA) = 30 mC For 2 < t < 3 s.Electric Current and Ampere Solution: We know that q t t=0 = ∫0 i d t t = Area t 0 Then. Then. we observe that the slope of the straight line for t > 6 s is −30 mA / 2 s. we find that: a. In such a case. area = ½ × {1×(−15)} = −7. the direction of the current which flows at some particular instant. We will see later in Chapters 2 and 3 that in some circuits (to be defined shortly). In the case of time-varying currents which change direction from time-to-time. Therefore. that is. reversing the direction reverses the algebraic sign of the current as shown in Figure 1. if the current with the assumed direction turns out to be negative. and if a negative value for the current i is obtained. As before. it is convenient to think or consider the instantaneous current.5 mC. or that a current of – 2 A is moving from right to left. area = ½ × (2 × 30 mA) = 30 mC For 2 < t < 6 s.5 = 172. For 0 < t < 2 s. area = 4 × 30 = 120 mC For 6 < t < 8 s.5 mC. by calculating the areas.

q( t) = ∫0 i dt + q ( 0 ) = 5 × 10 0 –3 ∫0 5 × 10 20 cos 100 πt dt + 0 0.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 1.4.3 Two Terminal Devices In this text we will only consider two-terminal devices. In a two-terminal device the current entering one terminal is the same as the current leaving the other terminal* as shown in Figure 1. What is the current at t = 40 ms ? c.4 ms = 20 cos 40π = 20 mA –3 c.4.4.2 = -----. 7A 7A Two terminal device Terminal A Terminal B Figure 1. a current i ( t ) = 20 cos 100 π t mA enters the left (first) terminal. Example 1.sin 100πt π 0. What is the amount of current which enters that terminal in the time interval – 10 ≤ t ≤ 20 ms ? b.– 0 = -----. This voltage across the terminals of the device is a measure of the work required to move the current (or charge) through the device.sin -. The passage of current (or charge) through the device requires some expenditure of energy.2 = -----. i t t0 = 20 cos 100 πt 20 × 10 –3 –3 – 10 × 10 = 20 cos 100 π ( 20 × 10 ) – 20 cos 100 π ( – 10 × 10 ) –3 –3 = 20 cos 2π – 20 cos ( – π ) = 40 mA b. 1-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4 ms = 20 cos 100 πt 5 × 10 –3 t = 0. and thus we say that a potential difference or voltage exists “across” the device. What is the charge q at t = 5 ms given that q ( 0 ) = 0 ? Solution: a.C 2 π π * We will see in Chapter 5 that a two terminal device known as capacitor is capable of storing energy. a. i t = 0.2 In a two-terminal device.2 π 0. Current entering and leaving a two-terminal device Let us assume that a constant value current (commonly known as Direct Current and abbreviated as DC) enters terminal A and leaves the device through terminal B in Figure 1.

Voltage (Potential Difference) 1. A + Two terminal device −12 v − B = A − Same device 12 v + B Figure 1.4) Convention: We denote the voltage v by a plus (+) minus (−) pair.6. we can say that there is a voltage rise of 10 V in going from B to A . in some circuits the actual polarity cannot be determined by inspection. In the case of time-varying voltages which change (+) and (−) polarity from time-to-time. we assume a voltage reference polarity by placing (+) and (−) polarity signs at the terminals of the device. that is.5. Alternately. We can also say that there is a voltage drop of 10 V in going from point A to point B . As in the case with the current. and if a negative value of the voltage is obtained. A Two terminal device + 10 v B − Figure 1. As before. We must remember that reversing the reference polarity reverses the algebraic sign of the voltage as shown in Figure 1.4 Voltage (Potential Difference) The voltage (potential difference) across a two-terminal device is defined as the work required to move a positive charge of one coulomb from one terminal of the device to the other terminal. In such a case. this means that the potential at the (+) sign terminal is at a lower potential than the potential at the (−) sign terminal. it is convenient to think the instantaneous voltage.6. again we assume a voltage reference polarity for the voltage.5. Alternate ways of denoting voltage polarity in a two-terminal device Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-5 . we say that terminal A is 10 V positive with respect to terminal B or there is a potential difference of 10 V between points A and B . if this reference polarity turns out to be negative. the voltage reference polarity at some particular instance. Illustration of voltage polarity for a two-terminal device Caution: The (+) and (−) pair may or may not indicate the actual voltage drop or voltage rise. in Figure 1. The unit of voltage is the volt (abbreviated as V or v ) and it is defined as 1 joule 1 volt = ---------------------------1 coulomb (1. For example. we conclude that the actual polarity is opposite to that of the assumed reference polarity.

*(exp(0.1: 10.5) a. We use the following code to sketch i ( t ) . it=0.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions Example 1.7. Inc. plot(t.3 b.6) * MATLAB and SIMULINK are registered marks of The MathWorks. grid. Figure 1. 1-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2.it).*t))−1).1 ∫0 ( e t1 0.7. Use the MATLAB quad function to find the charge at t = 5 s given that q ( 0 ) = 0 Solution: a.. MA. Plot of i ( t ) for Example 1. The charge q ( t ) is the integral of the current i ( t ) .1 ( e 0. ylabel('current in amp.2 sin 3t – 1) (10. xlabel('time in sec. q(t) = ∫t t1 0 i ( t ) dt = 0. Natick.') The plot for i ( t ) is shown in Figure 1. 01760.mathworks.com. An introduction to MATLAB is given in Appendix A.'). t=0: 0. Use MATLAB®* to sketch this function for the interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 10 s b.3 The i – v (current-voltage) relation of a non-linear electrical device is given by i ( t ) = 0.*sin(3. 3 Apple Hill Drive.2 sin 3t – 1 ) dt (1. that is.1. www.

If tol is omitted.2*sin(3*t))−1). We define it as shown below. we will use the quad function. we need to create and save a function m-file. It has the syntax q=quad(‘f’. the quad* and quad8. For this example. and we save it as CA_1_Ex_1_3. it is understood to be the standard tolerance of 10 .0. and a and b are the lower and upper limits of integration respectively. 10) We will use numerical integration with Simpson’s rule. MATLAB displays the following message: Warning: Explicit integral could not be found.t = 0.6).3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-7 . Orchard Publications. charge=quad('CA_1_Ex_1_3'.a.0170 * For a detailed discussion on numerical analysis and the MATLAB functions quad and quad8. This is a mnemonic for Circuit Analysis I.m. The description of these can be seen by typing help quad or help quad8.0. MATLAB has two quadrature functions for performing numerical integration.a. the reader may refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB® and Spreadsheets by this author. For this example.Voltage (Potential Difference) We will use the MATLAB int(f.2*sin(3*t))-1). MATLAB displays a warning message but still provides an answer. and performs an integration to a relative error tol which we must specify. this means that these methods can handle irregularities such as singularities.m at line 58 s = int(1/10*exp(1/5*sin(3*t))-1/10. ISBN 09709511-1-6.b. The string ‘f’ is the name of a user defined function. In C:\MATLAB 12\toolbox\symbolic\@sym\int.m. When such irregularities occur. it returns a warning. Both of these functions use adaptive quadrature methods.10) When this code is executed. Note When MATLAB cannot find a solution. t=sym('t').5) and MATLAB returns charge = 0.tol). MATLAB returns the following message when integration is attempted with the symbolic expression of (1. t = 0. First. function t = fcn_example_1_3(t).1*(exp(0. . s=int(0.b) integration function where f is a symbolic expression. Example 1.1*(exp(0. –3 With this file saved as CA_1_Ex_1_3. we write and execute the following code. and a and b are the lower and upper limits of integration respectively.

The passive sign convention states that if the arrow representing the current i and the (+) (−) pair are placed at the device terminals in such a way that the current enters the device terminal marked with the (+) sign. A i Two terminal device v B + − Figure 1. The passive sign convention is illustrated with the examples in Figures 1.10. the numerical value of the product p = vi is negative. A −2 A Two terminal device −12 v Power = p = (−12)(−2) = 24 w B − + = A 2A − Same device 12 v Power = p = (12)(2) = 24 w + B Figure 1. If the numerical value of this product is positive.7) Absorbed power is proportional both to the current and the voltage needed to transfer one coulomb through the device. Examples where power is absorbed by a two-terminal device 1-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . joul coul --------Power = p = volts × amperes = vi = ---------.× ---------.9 and 1. ------Power = p = dW dt (1. Then. Illustration of the passive sign convention In Figure 1. The unit of power is the watt .= joul = watts coul sec sec (1. terminal A is v volts positive with respect to terminal B and current i enters the device through the positive terminal A .8. we say that the device delivers power to some other device. and if both the arrow and the sign pair are labeled with the appropriate algebraic quantities. the power absorbed or delivered to the device can be expressed as p = vi . we satisfy the passive sign convention and power = p = vi is said to be absorbed by the device. That is. If.9.8. In this case. we say that the device is absorbing power which is equivalent to saying that power is delivered to the device.8.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 1.5 Power and Energy Power p is the rate at which energy (or work) W is expended. on the other hand.8) and 1 watt = 1 volt × 1 ampere (1.9) Passive Sign Convention: Consider the two-terminal device shown in Figure 1.

11. the total energy (in joules) supplied d.11 where the time has been converted to seconds.10. power is delivered to the device.Power and Energy A i=6cos3t Two terminal device 1 v=−18sin3t B − A i=−5sin5t − Two terminal device 2 v=cos5t B + + p = (−18sin3t)(6cos3t) = −54sin6t w p = (cos5t)(−5sin5t) = −2.4 It is assumed a 12-volt automotive battery is completely discharged and at some reference time t = 0 . power is absorbed by the device. the average power (in watts) absorbed by the battery Solution: The current entering the positive terminal of the battery is the decaying exponential shown in Figure 1. i(t) (A) 8 i = 8e – t ⁄ 3600 t (s) 28800 Figure 1.5sin10t w Figure 1. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-9 .9. whereas in Figure 1. Example 1.10.4 Then. is connected to a battery charger to trickle charge it for the next 8 hours. Examples where power is delivered to a two-terminal device In Figure 1. It is also assumed that the charging rate is ⎧ 8e – t ⁄ 3600 A i(t) = ⎨ ⎩0 0 ≤ t ≤ 8 hr otherwise For this 8-hour interval compute: a. the total charge delivered to the battery b. Decaying exponential for Example 1. the maximum power (in watts) absorbed by the battery c.

their voltage-current relationship is non-linear.e – 3t 0 0.= -----------------------------.– t ⁄ 3600 dt = --------------------. q 15000 t=0 15000 28800 28800 0 = ∫0 i dt = ∫0 –8 8e – t ⁄ 3600 8 .5 ( e 0. W = ∫ p dt = ∫0 T 28800 vi dt = –8 ∫0 ∫0 28800 12 × 8e – t ⁄ 3600 96 . the charge for 2 seconds is q t t0 = ∫t t 0 i dt = 3 ∫0 ( e 2 0. how much then.= 12 w.4 2 0 = 7.16t 2 0.4t + 1 ) .8 – 1 ) – 6 = 3. 5 d.6 KJ. i = -.4t 0.456 × 10 ( 1 – e ) ≈ 345. If v = 3 ( e 0.16t 2 – 1 ) . These will not be discussed in this text. Diodes and Transistors are non-linear devices.5 The power absorbed by a non-linear device is p = 9 ( e charge goes through this device in two seconds? Solution: The power is 0. i max = 8 A (occurs at t=0) Therefore.4t 9( e – 1) 0.4t v 3(e + 1) 3( e + 1) 0.e – 1 ⁄ 3600 28800 0 = 3. 1-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is. Linear devices are those in which there is a linear relationship between the voltage across that device and the current that flows through that device.– t ⁄ 3600 dt = --------------------. 3 28.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions a. A simple circuit with a diode is presented in Chapter 3.4t 2 – 1 ) dt = -----.4t 3 0.8 × 10 3 Example 1.4t p 9(e + 1 )(e – 1) p = vi.= 3 ( e – 1 ) A 0.4t 0.6 × 10 dt = --------------------------. 1 P ave = -T ∫0 1 p dt = -------------28800 28800 12 × 8e – t ⁄ 3600 345.e – 1 ⁄ 3600 = – 8 × 3600 ( e – 1 ) ≈ 28800 C or 28.8 kC b.12.19 C The two-terminal devices which we will be concerned with in this text are shown in Figure 1.= -------------------------------------------------. p max = vi max = 12 × 8 = 96 w c.

When denoted as k 3 i it is referred to as current controlled current source and when denoted as k 4 v it is referred to as voltage controlled current source. Ideal Independent Current Source − Maintains same current regardless of the voltage that appears across its terminals. Its value is either constant (DC) or sinusoidal (AC). Its value is either constant (DC) or sinusoidal (AC). Dependent Current Source − Its value depends on another current or voltage elsewhere in the circuit. k 3 is a constant and k 4 is a conductance as defined in linear devices below. and when denoted as k 2 i it is referred to as current controlled voltage source. When denoted as k 1 v it is referred to as voltage controlled voltage source. Here. Dependent Voltage Source − Its value depends on another voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit. Here. Voltage and current sources and linear devices Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-11 .12. i or i(t) k 1 v or k 2 i k 3 i or k 4 v − + + − Linear Devices Resistance R iR vR R= sl ope Conductance G R iG iG p slo G= e G + vR − v R = Ri R Inductance L iL L iR + vG − i G = Gv G Capacitance C vG vL l op =s L e iC diL dt vC + C iC l op =s C e + vL − − diL vL = L dt dv iC = C C dt dvC dt Figure 1. k 1 is a constant and k 2 is a resistance as defined in linear devices below.Power and Energy Independent and Dependent Sources v or v(t) Ideal Independent Voltage Source − Maintains same voltage regardless of the amount of current that flows through it.

14. Thus every circuit is a network but not all networks are circuits. A network and a circuit 1. 1.9 Necessary Conditions for Current Flow There are two conditions which are necessary to set up and maintain a flow of current in a network or circuit.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 1. they normally receive (absorb) power from an active device.13.8 Active and Passive Networks Active Network is a network which contains at least one active device (voltage or current source).6 Active and Passive Devices Independent and dependent voltage and current sources are active devices. A network but not a circuit A circuit is a network which contains at least one closed path. Passive Network is a network which does not contain any active device. An example is shown in Figure 1. they normally (but not always) deliver power to some external device.14.13. vS R1 R2 L C + − Figure 1.7 Circuits and Networks A network is the interconnection of two or more simple devices as shown in Figure 1. R L C vS + − Figure 1. Resistors. These are: 1-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 1. inductors and capacitors are passive devices.

R1 R2 R4 R3 Figure 1. The circuit must be closed. These conditions are illustrated in Figures 1. The basic units of the SI system are listed in Table 1. current will not flow. R vS L C I + − Figure 1. 2.17. vS R L C + − Figure 1.International System of Units 1. Figure 1. It is used extensively by the international scientific community.10 International System of Units The International System of Units (abbreviated SI in all languages) was adopted by the General Conference on Weights and Measures in 1960.16. both conditions are satisfied and current will flow.1. A network in which there is no current flow Figure 1. A circuit in which current flows 1. It was formerly known as the Metric System. There must be a voltage source (potential difference) present to provide the electrical work which will force current to flow.17 shows a voltage source present and the circuit is closed. Therefore.15. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-13 .16 shows a closed circuit but there is no voltage present to provide the electrical work for current to flow.15 shows a network which contains a voltage source but it is not closed and therefore.17.15 through 1. A closed circuit in which there is no current flow Figure 1.

1 SI Base Units Unit of Length Mass Time Electric Current Temperature Amount of Substance Luminous Intensity Plane Angle Solid Angle Name Metre Kilogram Second Ampere Degrees Kelvin Mole Candela Radian Steradian Abbreviation m kg s A °K mol cd rad sr The SI uses larger and smaller units by various powers of 10 known as standard prefixes.3. The common prefixes are listed in Table 1.6. 1-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Table 1.4 shows some conversion factors between the SI and the English system.2 and the less frequently in Table 1.5 shows typical temperature values in degrees Fahrenheit and the equivalent temperature values in degrees Celsius and degrees Kelvin.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions TABLE 1. Table 1. Other units used in physical sciences and electronics are derived from the SI base units and the most common are listed in Table 1.

3 Less Frequently Used SI Prefixes Value 10 10 10 10 10 18 15 12 Prefix Exa Peta Tera femto atto Symbol E P T f a Example 1 Em (Exameter) = 10 18 meters 5 Pyrs (Petayears) = 5 × 10 15 years 3 T$ (Teradollars) = 3 × 10 12 dollars 7 fA (femtoamperes) = 7 x 10 –15 ampere 9 aC (attocoulombs) = 9 × 10 –18 coulomb – 15 – 18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-15 .8 x 10 –2 meter 4 mH (millihenries) = 4 × 10 –3 henry 6 µw (microwatts) = 6 × 10 –6 watt 2 ns (nanoseconds) = 2 × 10 –9 second 3 pF (picofarads) = 3 × 10 -12 Farad Mega 3 Kilo –2 centi –3 milli –6 micro –9 nano – 12 pico TABLE 1.2 KV (Kilovolts) = 13.International System of Units TABLE 1.2 Most Commonly Used SI Prefixes Value 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 Prefix Symbol Example Giga 6 G M K c m µ n p 12 GHz (Gigahertz) = 12 × 10 9 Hz 25 MΩ (Megaohms) = 25 × 10 6 Ω (ohms) 13.8 cm (centimeters) = 2.2 × 10 3 volts 2.

(pound) 1 qt.3937 in.609 Km (Kilometers) 0. (mile) 1 lb.2046 lbs (pounds) 1. (inch) 1 mi.5 Temperature Scale Equivalents °F –523.6 212 °C –273 0 –17. (liter) = 1000 1 Å (Angstrom) 1 mm (micron) cm3 2.4 32 0 77 98.4 Conversion Factors 1 in.6214 mi.8 25 37 100 °K 0 273 255. (mile) 2. (quart) 1 cm (centimeter) 1 Km (Kilometer) 1 Kg (Kilogram) 1 lt.057 quarts 10 –10 meter 10 –6 meter TABLE 1. (inch) 0.2 298 310 373 1-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .54 cm (centimeters) 1.4536 Kg (Kilograms) 946 cm3 (cubic centimeters) 0.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions TABLE 1.

a printer. Example 1.) and from mechanical forms (water falls. Suppose that a computer system that includes a monitor.11 Sources of Energy The principal sources of energy are from chemical processes (coal. natural gas.000 BTUs from a pound (lb) of that wood when burned.6 A certain type of wood used in the generation of electric energy and we can get 12.6 SI Derived Units Unit of Force Pressure or Stress Work or Energy Power Voltage Resistance Conductance Capacitance Inductance Frequency Quantity of Electricity Magnetic Flux Magnetic Flux Density Luminous Flux Illuminance Radioactivity Radiation Dose Volume Name Newton ( N ) Pascal ( Pa ) Joule ( J ) Watt ( W ) Volt ( V ) Ohm ( Ω ) Siemens ( S ) or ( Ω ) Farad ( F ) Henry ( H ) Hertz ( Hz ) Coulomb ( C ) Weber ( Wb ) Tesla ( T ) Lumen ( lm ) Lux ( lx ) Becquerel ( Bq ) Gray ( Gy ) Litre ( L ) –1 Formula N = kg ⋅ m ⁄ s Pa = N ⁄ m J = N⋅m W = J⁄s V = W⁄A Ω = V⁄A S = A⁄V F = A⋅s⁄V H = V⋅s⁄A Hz = 1 ⁄ s C = A⋅s Wb = V ⋅ s T = Wb ⁄ m 2 2 2 lm = cd ⋅ sr lx = lm ⁄ m Bq = s –1 2 S = J ⁄ kg L = m 3 × 10 –3 1. Other sources include nuclear and solar energy. wind. fuel oil. etc.).Sources of Energy TABLE 1. wood etc. and other peripherals absorbs an average power of 500 w gets its energy from that burned Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-17 .

if the polarities are opposite (negative/positive or positive/negative). the cost for this energy consumption if the rate is $0. Solution: a. and also on the distance between the objects. the force is attractive. If the polarities are the same (negative/ negative or positive/positive).15 1 kw – hr 6 Cost = ----------------.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions wood and it is turned on for 8 hours.× 14. $0. and 1 joule is equivalent to 0.× --------------------------. the coulomb force decreases in proportion to the square of the distance between their charge centers.4 × 10 joules × 0. Compute: a. Since 1 kilowatt – hour = 3.= 14.3 f t – lb 12000 BTU 1. the so-called coulumb force is repulsive. For any two charged bodies. dq i = ----.6 × 10 joules 6 c. • Electric current is defined as the instantaneous rate at which net positive charge is moving past 8 –7 this point in that specified direction. It is known that 1 BTU is equivalent to 778.× --------------------------------------.60 6 kw – hr 3.4 × 10 = $0. Thus.12 Summary • Two identically charged (both positive or both negative) particles possess a charge of one coulomb when being separated by one meter in a vacuum. repel each other with a force of 10 c 2 newton where c = velocity of light ≈ 3 × 10 m ⁄ s .× ------------------------------.7376 --------------. that is.4 Mjoules 1 hr b. the force with which two electrically charged bodies attract or repel one another depends on the product of the charges (in coulombs) in both objects.= 1. Energy consumption for 8 hours is 3600 s Energy W = P ave t = 500 w × 8 hrs × --------------. the energy consumption during this 8-hour interval b.3 ft-lb of energy.15 per kw-hr c.137 lb joule 778. 1 lb f t – lb 1 BTU 6 14.6 × 10 joules .= lim ∆q ----dt ∆ t → 0 ∆t 1-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Wood burned in 8 hours. the amount of wood in lbs burned during this time interval.7376 ft-lb.

• The unit of voltage is the volt (abbreviated as V or v) and it is defined as 1 joule 1 volt = ---------------------------1 coulomb • Power p is the rate at which energy (or work) W is expended. on the other hand. • The value of an dependent current source depends on another current or voltage elsewhere in the circuit. • The voltage (potential difference) across a two-terminal device is defined as the work required to move a positive charge of one coulomb from one terminal of the device to the other terminal. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-19 . If the numerical value of this product is positive. • The value of an dependent voltage source depends on another voltage or current elsewhere in the circuit. We will discuss practical voltage and current sources in Chapter 3. abbreviated as A. ------Power = p = dW dt • Absorbed power is proportional both to the current and the voltage needed to transfer one cou- lomb through the device. and corresponds to charge q moving at the rate of one coulomb per second. we say that the device delivers power to some other device. • Ideal voltage and current sources are just mathematical models. The unit of power is the watt and 1 watt = 1 volt × 1 ampere • The passive sign convention states that if the arrow representing the current i and the plus (+) minus (−) pair are placed at the device terminals in such a way that the current enters the device terminal marked with the plus (+) sign.Summary • The unit of current is the ampere. If. That is. • In a two-terminal device the current entering one terminal is the same as the current leaving the other terminal. • An ideal independent current source maintains the same current regardless of the amount of volt- age that appears across its terminals. the power absorbed or delivered to the device can be expressed as p = vi . and if both the arrow and the sign pair are labeled with the appropriate algebraic quantities. the numerical value of the product p = vi is negative. • An ideal independent voltage source maintains the same voltage regardless of the amount of cur- rent that flows through it. we say that the device is absorbing power which is equivalent to saying that power is delivered to the device.

inductors. Thus every circuit is a network but not all networks are circuits. wind. • A circuit is a network which contains at least one closed path. • The International System of Units is used extensively by the international scientific community. and capacitors are passive devices. • To set up and maintain a flow of current in a network or circuit there must be a voltage source (potential difference) present to provide the electrical work which will force current to flow and the circuit must be closed. 1-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . natural gas. • Linear devices are those in which there is a linear relationship between the voltage across that device and the current that flows through that device.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions • Independent and Dependent voltage and current sources are active devices. they normally (but not always) deliver power to some external device. It was formerly known as the Metric System. wood etc.) and from mechanical forms (water falls. • A passive network is a network which does not contain any active device. • The principal sources of energy are from chemical processes (coal. • An active network is a network which contains at least one active device (voltage or current source). • Resistors. • A network is the interconnection of two or more simple devices.). Other sources include nuclear and solar energy. fuel oil. etc. they normally receive (absorb) power from an active device.

joule E.13 Exercises Multiple choice 1. watt D. none of the above 5. none of the above 2. watt D. ampere B. coulomb C.Exercises 1. none of the above 3. none of the above 4. ampere B. watt D. the integral of energy Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-21 . The unit of energy is the A. Power is A. The unit of charge is the A. The unit of electric power is the A. volt C. volt C. joule E. joule E. ampere B. coulomb C. coulomb E. watt D. The unit of current is the A. ampere B.

The value of a dependent voltage source can be denoted as A. always delivers the same amount of power to other devices D. normally deliver power to other external devices C. Active voltage and current sources A. the derivative of energy C. kV where k is a conductance value B. kI where k is a resistance value C. kI where k is a capacitance value 1-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . is a source where both voltage and current can be variable E. none of the above 7. is a source where both voltage and current can be variable E. maintains the same current regardless of the voltage that appears across its terminals C. none of the above 6. voltage times some constant k E. none of the above 9. kV where k is an inductance value D. An ideal independent current source A. are just mathematical models E. always deliver power to other external devices B. maintains the same voltage regardless of the amount of current that flows through it B. maintains the same voltage regardless of the amount of current that flows through it B. always delivers the same amount of power to other devices D. current times some constant k D. none of the above 8.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions B. maintains the same current regardless of the voltage rating of that voltage source C. An ideal independent voltage source A. neither deliver or absorb power to or from other devices D.

9 × 10 18 electrons ⁄ s 3. An airplane.5. 0 V.5 V. Answer: 1.15 per kilowatt-hour? Answer: $65.18 below. kI where k is a capacitance value E. a. The value of a dependent current source can be denoted as A. If this energy were converted into electric energy during the period of 20 minutes. A household light bulb is rated 75 watts at 120 volts.000 metric tons. Waveform for Problem 1 2.5 V W (mJ) 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 t (ms) Figure 1. what average number of kilowatts would be generated? Answer: 1. Find the voltage across this device at t = 0. kV where k is a conductance value B.75 and 6. whose total mass is 50.Exercises E. kV where k is an inductance value D. kI where k is a resistance value C.10 c. 450 Kw Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-23 . Compute the number of electrons per second that flow through this bulb when it is connected to a 120 volt source. 1. If this energy could be converted to electric energy with a conversion loss of 10%. – 2. A two terminal device consumes energy as shown by the waveform of Figure 1. none of the above Problems 1. Compute the potential energy that the airplane has gained at this height. and the current through this device is i ( t ) = 2 cos 4000πt A . Answers: 2. none of the above 10. Answer: 3. 2. how much would this energy be worth at $0.18. 736 MJ b.808 feet in 20 minutes after takeoff.5 ms. 4.5. reaches a height of 32.5 V.

The remaining 25 kw of power is converted into heat. 1-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 234 BTU ⁄ hr b.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions 4.56 × 10 ----------------------------------------sec. a.6 × 10 – 19 23 electron – volts J Answer: 1. The power input to a television station transmitter is 125 kw and the output is 100 kw which is transmitted as radio frequency power. How many electron-volts per second is this heat equivalent to? 1 electron – volt = 1. How many BTUs per hour does this transmitter release as heat? 1 BTU = 1054.8 J Answer: 85.

look over your procedures for inconsistencies and computational errors. You should follow this practice with the multiple-choice and problems on all chapters of this book. For the multiple-choice questions and problems that you are uncertain.Answers to Exercises 1. for your benefit. If your answers to the problems do not agree with those provided. make an honest effort to answer the multiple-choice questions and solve the problems without first looking at the solutions that follow.14 Answers to Exercises Dear Reader: The remaining pages on this chapter contain answers to the multiple-choice questions and solutions to the exercises. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-25 . It is recommended that first you go through and answer those you feel that you know. review this chapter and try again. You must. Refer to the solutions as a last resort and rework those problems at a later date.

= ---------------.= ---------------. B 6.= 2. slope v = 0 t = 1.75 × 10 ) A d. A Problems 1.75 ms –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s = ----------------------------------------------------------------. D 2.= ------------i i i a.= 5 J ⁄ s = 2.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions Multiple choice 1.5 ms 5 J⁄s 5 J⁄s = -------------------------------------------------------------.5 V ------------–3 2A 2 cos 2π A 2 cos 4000π ( 0. slope v 1 ms 0 5 mJ = ----------.5 ms = 0 = 0V -i c. B 9. 1-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . slope v 5 ms 4 – 5 mJ = -------------.5 V –3 2 cos 19π A 2 cos π A –2 A 2 cos 4000π ( 4. p dW ⁄ dt slope v = -.5 × 10 ) A 2 ms 1 b.= 5 J ⁄ s 1 ms t = 0. B 7.= -------------------.= -----------------------.= --------------------------. A 8.= – 5 J ⁄ s 1 ms t = 4. B 10. D 5. C 4. A 3.

5 p 75 w i = -.dt = -. 200 sec.= -------------.= 5 × 10 Kg metric ton Then.= ----.3048 m 33.Answers to Exercises slope v 7 ms 6 = – 5 mJ = – 5 J ⁄ s -------------1 ms t = 6.A 8 v 120 V q = 1 s ∫t i dt 0 t q t=1 s = 18 ∫0 5 5 -.= 3.24 × 10 electrons 5 -.⎞ = 173. 1. 736 MJ ⎝3 ⎠ 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 1-27 . min 25 10.5 ms –5 J ⁄ s –5 J ⁄ s = -------------------------------------------------------------.= 1. 2 1 7 25 7 W p = W k = -.m ⁄ s 3 1. 000 m v = ------------------------. 808 ft × ---------------------. 200 sec.= 10.= -. 000 Kg 7 50.61 × 10 J ≈ 1.C ⁄ s 8 6.C ⁄ s × ----------------------------------------------------.mv 2 where m = mass in kg and v = velocity in meters ⁄ sec. 1 2 W p = W k = -.( 5 × 10 ) ⎛ ----.9 × 10 18 electrons ⁄ s 8 1C 3. 000 m = 10 Km ft 60 sec.5 V ---------------–3 2A 2 cos 26π A 2 cos 4000π ( 6. a.t 8 8 1 s 0 5 = -. 000 metric tons × -------------------------.= – 5 J ⁄ s = – 2. 20 minutes × ---------------.5 × 10 ) A 2. 0.= --------------------------.

1 BTU.9 = 482.45 Mw = 1450 Kw t 60 sec 20 min × -------------min 4. a.× 434 Kw-hr = $65. 1 electron – volt = 1.= 85.22 × 0.22 Kw-hr 1 joule 1. 25.× ---------------------. 1 electron – volt ⁄ sec. 736 MJ P ave = ---.22 × 0.= 1.6 × 10 watt -----------------------------------------.× -------------------.= 1.15 Cost of Energy = --------------. W 1.= -----------------------------.= 482. 000 watts × ------------------------------.× ------------------------.9 = 434 Kw-hr $0.6 × 10 – 19 – 19 J – 19 J 1 electron – volt 1.= 1. 1 joule = 1 watt-sec 1 watt-sec 1 Kw 1 hr 6 1. 600 sec.Chapter 1 Basic Concepts and Definitions b.6 × 10 sec.10 Kw-hr c. 736 × 10 J × ------------------------. 1 BTU = 1054. 234 BTU ⁄ hr 1 hr 1054.8 J 1 joule ⁄ sec.= --------------------------------------.56 × 10 ----------------------------------------– 19 sec.8 J watt b. 23 electron – volts 25.3600 sec. 1.6 × 10 watt 1-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the useful energy is 482. 000 watts × --------------------------------------------------------.× -------------------. 000 w 3. sec. and with 10% conversion loss.

mesh. currents. and power respectively. 1V 1 Ω = -------1A (2. The unit of resistance is the Ohm and its symbol is the Greek capital letter Ω . resistances. and p to denote instantaneous values of voltage.2 Ohm’s Law We recall from Chapter 1 that resistance R is a constant that relates the voltage and the current as: v R = Ri R (2. current. Ohm’s law. and we will use subscripts to denote specific voltages. For example. Other notations like v A or v 1 will represent the voltage (potential difference) between point A or point 1 with respect to some arbitrarily chosen reference point taken as “zero” volts or “ground”. One ohm is the resistance of a conductor such that a constant current of one ampere through it produces a voltage of one volt between its ends. and Kirchhoff ’s Current and Voltage laws. i . to be inroduced in Chapter 6. 2. v S and i S will be used to denote voltage and current sources respectively. etc. Thus.2) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-1 . The designations v AB or v 12 will be used to denote the voltage between point A or point 1 with respect to point B or 2 respectively. Thus.1 Conventions We will use lower case letters such as v . We will denote voltages as v ( t ) and i ( t ) whenever we wish to emphasize that these quantities are time dependent. and loop analyses are introduced. V for phasor voltage and I for phasor current. sinusoidal (AC) voltages and currents will be denoted as v ( t ) and i ( t ) respectively. Combinations of voltage and current sources and resistance combinations are discussed. 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits T his chapter defines constant and instantaneous values.1) This relation is known as Ohm’s law. will be represented with bold capital letters. Phasor quantities. and the voltage and current division formulas are derived. Series and parallel circuits are also defined and nodal. Notations like v R1 and i R2 will be used to denote the voltage across resistance R 1 and the current through resistance R 2 respectively.

for a finite voltR age. Likewise.. An open circuit is an adjective describing the “open space” between a pair of terminals.5) Resistances (or conductances) are commonly used to define an “open circuit” or a “short circuit”. 1 That is. a short circuit is an adjective describing the connection of a pair of terminals by a piece of wire of “infinite conductance” or a piece of wire of “zero” resistance.1. the voltage across a short circuit terminals is always zero but the current through it may or may not be zero. Then. a resistor is a device that opposes current flow. The concepts of open and short circuits The fact that current does not flow through an open circuit and that zero voltage exists across the terminals of a short circuit. say v G . In the previous chapter we defined conductance G as the constant that relates the current and the voltage as i G = Gv G (2. can also be observed from the expressions v R = Ri R and i G = Gv G .1. Resistors are used as a current limiting devices and as voltage dividers. infinite R means zero G and zero R means infinite G . A+ Open Circuit A+ R=∞ G=0 A + A+ i R=0 G=∞ i=0 B− i=0 B− v AB = i Circuit 0 Short B− v AB = 0 B− Figure 2.3) This is another form of Ohm’s law since by letting i G = i R and v G = v R . and can be thought of as an “infinite resistance” or “zero conductance”. we get 1 G = -R (2. The current through an “open circuit” is always zero but the voltage across the open circuit terminals may or may not be zero. The open and short circuit concepts and their equivalent resistances or conductances are shown in Figure 2. 2-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . since G = --.4) –1 The unit of conductance is the siemens or mho (ohm spelled backwards) and its symbol is S or Ω Thus. –1 1Ω 1A = ------1V (2. In contrast. and an open circuit.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Physically.

3.3 Power Absorbed by a Resistor A resistor.7) Reminder: We must remember that the expressions v R = Ri R and i G = Gv G are true only when the passive sign convention is observed. being a passive device.Power Absorbed by a Resistor G→0 lim i G = lim Gv G = 0 G→0 (2. This absorbed power can be found from Ohm’s law. vR = –R iR IR − R vR + R IR − (2. absorbs power.8). Voltage polarity and current direction in accordance to passive sign convention But if the voltage polarities and current directions are as shown in Figure 2. say iR. 2. can be thought of as being a math model that supplies energy. This is consistent with our classification of R and G being passive devices and thus v R = Ri R implies the current direction and voltage polarity are as shown in Figure 2.6) Likewise. IR R R − v + R IR + vR − Figure 2.8) + vR Figure 2. Voltage polarity and current direction not in accordance to passive sign convention Note: “Negative resistance.” as shown in (2. then. that is.2. for a finite current. v R = Ri R and the power relation Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-3 . R→0 lim v R = lim Ri R = 0 R→0 (2. and a short circuit.3.2.

say from t 1 to t 2 . is given by the integral of the instantaneous power p R .⎞ = ---⎝ R⎠ R (2. 2 watts. current. Common resistor wattage values are ¼ watt. it never stores energy. dissipates energy in the form of heat. Pie chart for showing relations among voltage. This topic will be discussed in Section 2. current. The energy dissipated in a resistor during a time interval. resistance. 5 watts and so on.16.10) 2-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .9) The voltage. T EN RR CU (W at ts) PO V2 I2R R P V V R I R P I2 W ER re pe m (A s) P V VI PR P⁄R Figure 2.4.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits pR = vR iR Then. besides its resistance rating (ohms) has a power rating in watts commonly referred to as the wattage of the resistor. 2 vR vR 2 p R = v R i R = ( Ri R ) i R = Ri R = v R ⎛ ---. 2.Thus. WR diss t2 1 = ∫t RE SI ST AN C E P I IR V2 P (O hm s) V I E AG LT VO ts) ol (V p R dt (2. resistance and power relations are arranged in the pie chart shown in Figure 2. by its own nature. and power Note: A resistor.4 Energy Dissipated in a Resistor A resistor. 1 watt. ½ watt.4.

+ − Node Figure 2.Nodes. the energy is in joules when the power is in watts and the time is in seconds.11) above.1 A node is the common point at which two or more devices (passive or active) are connected. Definition of branch vS Definition 2.5. 2. that is.6. An example of a node is shown in Figure 2. Branches.2 A branch is a simple path composed of one single device as shown in Figure 2.12) Reminder: When using all formulas.11) Alternately. Definition of node Definition 2. we must express the quantities involved in their primary units. if the energy is known.3 A loop is a closed path formed by the interconnection of simple devices. Loops and Meshes If the power is constant.10) reduces to WR diss = Pt (2. the network shown in Figure 2. For instance in (2.6.7 is a loop. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-5 . For example. pR = d W d t R diss (2.5 Nodes.5. then (2. Loops and Meshes Definition 2. say P . we can find the power by taking the derivative of the energy. + − R Node C Branch Figure 2. Branches.

ABEF is both a loop and a mesh.6 Kirchhoff ’s Current Law (KCL) KCL states that the algebraic sum of all currents leaving (or entering) a node is equal to zero.8.7. we must assign a minus (−) sign to the currents entering the node. Node to illustrate KCL (2. Example showing the difference between mesh and loop 2. i1 + i2 – i3 – i4 = 0 (2. then by KCL.9. but ABCDEF is a loop but not a mesh. in the circuit shown in Figure 2. Then by KCL. For example. in Figure 2. – i1 – i2 + i3 + i4 = 0 i1 i3 Figure 2. For example.8. if we assign a plus (+) sign to the currents leaving the node.14) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-6 .13) i2 i4 But if we assign a plus (+) sign to the currents entering the node and minus (−) sign to the currents leaving the node.9.4 A mesh is a loop which does not enclose any other loops. A B R1 C L vS C + − R2 F E D Figure 2. Definition of a loop Definition 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits vS R + − C L Figure 2.

18) or going counterclockwise. in the circuit shown in Figure 2. 2. Convention: In our subsequent discussion we will assign plus (+) signs to the currents leaving the node.10. 3.16) or going counterclockwise. if we assign a (+) sign to the voltage drops.Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) or – i1 – i2 + i3 + i4 = 0 (2. and have the polarities shown. v 3 . by KVL starting again at node A and going clockwise we get: v1 + v2 – v3 – v4 = 0 (2. v 2 .19) We observe that expressions (2. Device 2 + v2 + + v 3 Device 3 Device 1 v 1 v4 − − − Device 4 + A − Figure 2. Circuit to illustrate KVL Now.7 Kirchhoff ’s Voltage Law (KVL) KVL states that the algebraic sum of the voltage drops (voltages from + to −) or voltage rises (voltages from − to +) around any closed path (mesh or loop) in a circuit is equal to zero. Then. therefore. we must assign a (−) sign to the voltage rises. 2. it does not matter which we choose as plus (+).19) are the same. if we assign a (+) sign to the voltage rises. Then.10. voltages v 1 . and 4 respectively.16) through (2. and v 4 represent the voltages across devices 1.13) and (2.17) Alternately. we get: v4 + v3 – v2 – v1 = 0 (2. For example.15) We observe that (2. we get: – v4 – v3 + v2 + v1 = 0 (2.15) are the same. we must assign a (−) sign to the voltage drops. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-7 . by KVL starting at node A and going clockwise we get: – v1 – v2 + v3 + v4 = 0 (2.

the conductance. For example. the same current i flows through the voltage source.e. For example. in the circuit of Figure 2. the current that flows from a higher (+) to a lower (−) potential. the resistance. Device with established voltage polarity 2-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . if in Figure 2. R + vR − Figure 2. vS R + − C L Figure 2.13. this is classified as a series circuit. and the capacitance and therefore it is classified as a parallel circuit A iS G L A iS A A A C G L C B B B B B Figure 2. A simple series circuit Definition 2.6 Two or more devices are said to be connected in parallel if and only if the same voltage exists across each of the devices.13 we are given the indicated polarity.12. For example. the inductance. in the circuit of Figure 2.. the same voltage v AB exists across the current source.11.12. Accordingly.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Convention: In our subsequent discussion we will assign plus (+) signs to voltage drops. A simple parallel circuit Convention: In our subsequent discussion we will adopt the conventional current flow. i.5 Two or more devices are said to be connected in series if and only if the same current flows through them. Definition 2.11. the inductance and the capacitance.

i vS + − Rest of the Circuit vS + − Rest of the Circuit (a) (b) Figure 2. Voltage polarity in a device with established conventional current flow Note: Active devices. we will assign a (+) sign at the terminal of the device at which the current enters.Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) then. Thus with the voltage polarity as given in the circuit of Figure 2. The current through and the voltage across these devices can easily be determined if these devices deliver power to the rest of the circuit. iR R + vR − Figure 2. we assign a clockwise direction to the current as shown in Figure 2.16.17 (b).14. established as part of their notation. such as voltage and current sources.15. have their voltage polarity and current direction respectively. Direction of conventional current flow produced by voltage sources Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-9 . Device with established conventional current direction then we assign (+) and (−) as shown in Figure 2. This is consistent with the passive sign convention since we have assumed that the voltage source delivers power to the rest of the circuit. R Figure 2. the current arrow will be pointing to the right direction as shown in Figure 2.15. if we are given this designation a device in which the current direction has been established as shown in Figure 2.17 (a). if current flows in an assumed specific direction through a device thus producing a voltage. For example.16. Direction of conventional current flow in device with established voltage polarity Alternately.17.14. R vR − + Figure 2.

and assuming that this source delivers power to the rest of the circuit. we want to find: a. There must be a continuous (closed) external path for current to flow around this path (mesh or loop). There must be some voltage (potential difference) to provide the energy (work) which will force electric cur- rent to flow in a specific direction in accordance with the conventional current flow (from a higher to a lower potential). The external path is usually made of two parts: (a) the metallic wires and (b) the load to which the electric power is to be delivered in order to accomplish some useful purpose or effect. the direction of the current source is clockwise. + iS Rest of the Circuit iS v − (a) (b) Figure 2.18 (b) to be consistent with the passive sign convention.18 (a) below. Example 2. 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Likewise. or a combination of these. There are two conditions required to setup and maintain the flow of an electric current: 1. in the circuit of Figure 2. Voltage polarity across current sources Rest of the Circuit The following facts were discussed in the previous chapter but they are repeated here for emphasis. or a capacitive circuit. The voltage drop across each resistor c. The current i which flows through each device b. 2. The load may be a resistive. we assign the voltage polarity shown in Figure 2.18.19. an inductive. voltage drops and power) in a circuit with a single mesh.8 Single Mesh Circuit Analysis We will use the following example to develop a step-by-step procedure for analyzing (finding current. The power absorbed or delivered by each device 2-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1 For the series circuit shown in Figure 2.

so let us assume that the current i flows in the clockwise direction* as shown in Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2.20) and by Ohm’s law.1 Solution: a. the current direction will be assumed to be that of the conventional current flow. v R1 = R 1 i v R2 = R 2 i v R3 = R 3 i v R4 = R 4 i Then. we get: – v S1 + v R1 + v S2 + v R2 + v S3 + v R3 + v R4 = 0 (2. Step 3: By application of KVL and the adopted conventions. Circuit for Example 2. 4Ω + − 64 V 6Ω v S1 + R − 1 − − v S2 + R − 2 v S3 + 200 V A + − 80 V i R4 + 10 Ω − R3 + 8Ω Figure 2.20.Single Mesh Circuit Analysis + − 4Ω v S1 R1 v S2 64 V 6Ω R2 v S3 + 200 V − R4 10 Ω R3 8Ω + − 80 V Figure 2. Step 1: We do not know which voltage source(s) deliver power to the other sources. starting at node A and going clockwise. by substitution of given values into (2. we get * Henceforth.20.1 with assumed current direction Step 2: We assign (+) and (−) polarities at each resistor’s terminal in accordance with the established passive sign convention.19.20). Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-11 .

Then. This means that this source delivers (supplies) 400 watts to the rest of the circuit. starting at Node A and going counterclockwise. Example 2. we can now compute the voltage drop across each resistor using Ohm’s law v = Ri .1 with the assumption that the current i flows counterclockwise.24). Knowing the current i from part (a). by Ohm’s law.24) From (2. (2.1 shows that the conservation of energy principle is satisfied since the total absorbed power is equal to the power delivered. the power absorbed by each resistor is p R1 = 8 × 2 = 16 w p R3 = 16 × 2 = 32 w p R2 = 12 × 2 = 24 w p R4 = 20 × 2 = 40 w (2.2 Repeat Example 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits – 200 + 4i + 64 + 6i + 80 + 8i + 10i = 0 or 28i = 56 or i = 2A (2. Table 2.21.23) and the power delivered (or absorbed) by each voltage source is pV S1 = – 200 × 2 = – 400 w pV S2 = 64 × 2 = 128 w pV S3 = 80 × 2 = 160 w (2. the voltage drops across each resistor are as indicated in Figure 2. we get: v R4 + v R3 – v S3 + v R2 – v S2 + v R1 + v S1 = 0 Next. v R1 = 4 × 2 = 8 V vR3 = 8 × 2 = 16 V v R2 = 6 × 2 = 12 V v R4 = 10 × 2 = 20 V (2.1. we observe that the 200 volt source absorbs −400 watts of power.21) b. Repeating Steps 2 and 3 of Example 2.22) c. Then. The power absorbed (or delivered) by each device can be found from the power relation p = vi . Solution: We denote the current as i ' (i prime) for this example.25) v R1 = R 1 i' 2-12 v R2 = R 2 i' v R3 = R 3 i' v R4 = R 4 i' Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . However. the other two voltage sources receive (absorb) power from the 200 volt source.

1 Power delivered or absorbed by each device on the circuit of Figure 2.19 Device 200 V Source 64 V Source 80 V Source 4 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor 10 Ω Resistor Total Power Delivered (watts) 400 Power Absorbed (watts) 128 160 16 24 32 40 400 4Ω 64 V − 6Ω R2 + v S3 400 − v S1 R1 + i' v S2 + − + 200 V A − + + R3 8Ω − − 80 V + R4 − 10 Ω Figure 2. (2. Circuit for Example 2.21.26) we see that i' = – i as expected. we get 200 + 4 i' – 64 + 6 i' – 80 + 8 i' + 10 i' = 0 or 28 i' = – 56 or i' = – 2 A Comparing (2.21) with (2.2 By substitution of given values.26) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-13 .Single Mesh Circuit Analysis TABLE 2.

The voltage drop across each device b. voltage drop and power) in a circuit with a single node-pair. A iS G L C A A A A iS G L C B (a) B B (b) B B Figure 2. Circuit with a single node-pair 2.22 (b). The power absorbed or delivered by each device I1 G1 12 A 4Ω –1 I2 G2 18 A 6Ω –1 I3 G3 24 A 8Ω –1 Figure 2.23. which is more conveniently shown as Figure 2.22 (a). Example 2.9 Single Node-Pair Circuit Analysis We will use the following example to develop a step-by-step procedure for analyzing (finding currents. The current i which flows through each conductance c. is a single node-pair circuit.7 A single node-pair circuit is one in which any number of simple elements are connected between the same pair of nodes.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Definition 2.22. find: a. Circuit for Example 2. For example.3 2-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3 For the parallel circuit shown in Figure 2.23. the circuit of Figure 2.

Then. i G2 .24. and G 3 in accordance with the conventional current flow.27) and since i G1 = G 1 v AB i G2 = G 2 v AB i G3 = G 3 v AB (2. we get i S1 – i S2 + i S3 v AB = ------------------------------G1 + G2 + G3 (2. Circuit for Example 2. Node B is chosen as our reference node and it is convenient to assume that this reference node is at zero potential (ground) as indicated by the symbol A A A A A A i S1 v AB 12 A B i G1 G1 –1 i S2 18 A B i G2 G2 6Ω –1 i S3 24 A B i G3 G3 8Ω –1 4Ω B B B Figure 2. and i G3 . we choose node A which is the plus (+) reference point and we form the algebraic sum of the currents leaving (or entering) this node.29) Solving for v AB . These currents are shown as i G1 . – i S1 + G 1 v AB + i S2 + G 2 v AB – i S3 + G 3 v AB = 0 (2.28) by substitution into (2.3 with assumed current directions Step 2: We assign currents through each of the conductances G 1 .27). with plus (+) assigned to the currents leaving this node and with minus (−) entering this node we get –i S1 + i G1 + i S2 + i G2 – i S3 + i G3 = 0 (2.Single Node-Pair Circuit Analysis Solution: a. Step 1: We denote the single node-pair with the letters A and B as shown in Figure 2. Step 3: By application of KCL and in accordance with our established convention. It is important to observe that the same voltage (or potential difference) exists across each device.30) and by substitution of the given values. we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-15 .24. G 2 .

This means that these sources deliver (supply) a total of 36 w to the rest of the circuit. Then.27) is satisfied. Two or more series aiding voltage sources may be replaced by an equivalent voltage source whose value is the algebraic sum of the individual voltage sources as shown in Figure 2. the power absorbed by each conductance is p G1 = 1 × 4 = 4 w p G2 = 1 × 6 = 6 w p G3 = 1 × 8 = 8 w (2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 12 – 18 + 24 v AB = ----------------------------4+6+8 (2. c.2 shows that the conservation of energy principle is satisfied since the absorbed power is equal to the power delivered.31) or v AB = 1 V (2.32) b. 2-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .28). Table 2. The power absorbed (or delivered) by each device can be found from the power relation p = vi . From (2.8 Two or more voltage sources connected in series are said to be series aiding when the plus (+) terminal of any one voltage source is connected to the minus (−) terminal of another. i G1 = 4 i G2 = 6 i G3 = 8 (2. The 18 A source absorbs power. or when the minus (−) terminal of any one voltage source is connected to the plus (+) terminal of another.10 Voltage and Current Source Combinations Definition 2. 2.35) we observe that the 12 A and 24 A current sources absorb – 12 w and – 24 w respectively.33) and we observe that with these values.35) From (2. (2.25.34) and the power delivered (or absorbed) by each current source is p I1 = 1 × ( – 12 ) = – 12 w p I2 = 1 × 18 = 18 w p I3 = 1 × ( – 24 ) = – 24 w (2.

Two series opposing voltage sources may be replaced by an equivalent voltage source whose value is the algebraic difference of the individual voltage sources as shown in Figure 2.2 Power delivered or absorbed by each device of Figure 2.5 v to power up a hand calculator.25.9 Two or more voltage sources connected in series are said to be series opposing when the plus (+) terminal of one voltage source is connected to the plus (+) terminal of the other voltage source or when the minus (−) of one voltage source is connected to the minus (−) terminal of the other voltage source. Addition of voltage sources in series when all have same polarity A good example of combining voltage sources as series aiding is when we connect several AA size batteries each rated at 1.10 Two or more current sources connected in parallel are said to be parallel aiding when the arrows indicating the direction of the current flow have the same direction. or a small flashlight.Voltage and Current Source Combinations TABLE 2. They can be combined into a single current source as shown in Figure 2. Definition 2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-17 .23 Device 12 A Source 18 A Source 24 A Source 4Ω 6Ω 8Ω –1 –1 –1 Power Delivered (watts) 12 Power Absorbed (watts) 18 24 4 6 8 36 36 Conductance Conductance Conductance Total − + + + − − A 200 V v1 64 V 80 V v3 v2 v AB = v 1 + v 2 + v 3 B + 200 + 64 + 80 = 344 V − Figure 2.26. Definition 2.27.

11 Resistance and Conductance Combinations Often.28. Addition of voltage sources in series when they have different polarity i1 12 A i2 i3 iT = i1 + i2 + i3 iT 18 A 24 A 54 A Figure 2. With either of these connections. series or parallel.28. i1 18 A i2 iT = –i1 + i2 iT 6A 24 A Figure 2.11 Two or more current sources connected in parallel are said to be parallel opposing when the arrows indicating the direction of the current flow have opposite direction.27. resistors are connected in series or in parallel.29 shows n resistors connected in series. Addition of current sources in parallel when they have opposite direction 2.26. They can be replaced by an equivalent current source whose value is the algebraic difference of the individual current sources as shown in Figure 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits + + − − A 200 V v1 64 V v2 v AB = v 1 – v 2 B + 200 − 64 = 136 V − Figure 2. 2-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . it is possible to replace these resistors by a single resistor to simplify the computations of the voltages and currents. Addition of current sources in parallel when all have same direction Definition 2. Figure 2.

.37) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-19 . Circuit for Example 2.Resistance and Conductance Combinations A .4 For the circuit of Figure 2. find the value of the current i after combining the voltage sources to a single voltage source and the resistances to a single resistor.= 56 = 2 A ----ΣR 28 28 (2. we add the resistances in accordance with (2.30. Σv 200 – ( 64 + 80 ) i = ------.36).. R1 R2 R3 RN i B Rest of the circuit Figure 2..36) Example 2.+ -----. 4Ω v1 R1 v2 64 V 6Ω R2 v3 + − + − 200 V i R4 10 Ω R3 8Ω + − 80 V Figure 2.29.30. Then.= -----. Addition of resistances in series The combined or equivalent resistance R eq is vR n v AB v R1 v R2 v R3 R eq = ------.+ … + ------i i i i i or R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + … + R n = For Resistors in Series k=1 ∑ RK n (2.= ------------------------------------. and we apply Ohm’s law.4 Solution: We add the values of the voltage sources as indicated in Definitions 8 and 9.+ -----.

+ ----.39) and since v ⁄ i = R .+ ----. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-20 .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Next. . iT B By KCL.38) The same voltage exists across each resistor.39) can be written as 1 1 1 1 -------.+ ----R eq R1 R2 or R1 ⋅ R2 R eq = R 1 ||R 2 = ----------------R1 + R2 (2.= ----. dividing each term of (2. .= ------. R1 iT A . we get in iT i1 i2 ------.+ … + ----R AB R1 R2 Rn or 1 1 1 1 ------. (2. .+ … + ----R eq R1 R2 Rn For Resistors in Parallel (2. .31. we consider thecase where n resistors are connected in parallel as shown in Figure 2.+ ------.41) where the designation R 1 ||R 2 indicates that R1 and R2 are in parallel.31.= ----. i1 i2 R2 Rn in v AB Figure 2. .38) by V AB .= ----.40) For the special case of two parallel resistors. Addition of resistances in parallel . iT = i1 + i2 + … + in (2.+ … + ------v AB v AB v AB v AB (2. therefore.40) reduces to 1 1 1 ------. then i ⁄ v = 1 ⁄ R and thus (2.

5 3Ω R2 12 Ω R3 4Ω R4 20 Ω R5 5Ω i Solution: a. We could use (2. parallel conductances combine as series resistors do.32. a.33 and use (2. since G = 1 ⁄ R . Example 2. R1 v AB 11 ----.Resistance and Conductance Combinations Also. i v AB 11 ----. Compute the voltage v AB across the current source.A 6 Figure 2.5. Then. Replace all resistors with a single equivalent resistance R eq b. However. 12 × 4 R 2 ||R 3 = -------------.38).41) instead. Groups of parallel combinations for the circuit of Example 2. from (2. Circuit for Example 2.A 6 R1 3Ω R2 12 Ω R3 4Ω R4 20 Ω R5 5Ω Figure 2.5 In the circuit of Figure 2.= 3 Ω 12 + 4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-21 .42) that is.32. G eq = G 1 + G 2 + … + G n = k=1 ∑ Gk n (2.33. it is easier to form groups of two parallel resistors as shown in Figure 2.40) to find the equivalent resistance R eq .

5||4 = ---------------.= 1.34. v S .5 × 4 12 R eq = 1.Ω 11 i Figure 2. Reduction of the circuit of Example 2.A 6 12 ----.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Also.= ----.35 R eq v AB 11 ----.5 Ω 3+3 Finally.43) 2.12 Voltage Division Expressions In the circuit of Figure 2.5 Next.36.Ω 1. 20 × 5 R 4 ||R 5 = -------------. and R 2 are known. 1.5 + 4 11 and the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 2. i v AB 11 ----. The voltage v AB across the current source is 11 12 .v AB = IR eq = ----. R 1 . 2-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 3×3 3||3 = ----------.⋅ ----.= 2 V 6 11 (2.5 to its simplest form b. Partial reduction for the circuit of Example 2.= 4 Ω 20 + 5 and the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 2.35.A 6 R1 3Ω 3Ω 4Ω Figure 2.34.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-23 .v S and v R2 = ----------------.45) into (2. the arrows indicate that resistors R 1 and R 2 are variable and that the power supply is set for 12 V .v S R1 + R2 and R2 v R2 = ----------------.v S R1 + R2 (2.6 In the network of Figure 2.36. Circuit for the derivation of the voltage division expressions For the circuit of Figure 2.46) VOLTAGE DIVISION EXPRESSIONS Example 2.36. we get v R1 = R 1 i and v R2 = R 2 i (2. Derivation: By Ohm’s law in the circuit of Figure 2.44) we obtain the voltage division expressions below. Compute v R1 and v R2 if R 1 and R 2 are adjusted for 7 Ω and 5 Ω respectively. ( R 1 + R 2 )i = v S or vS i = ----------------R1 + R2 (2. R1 v R1 = ----------------. a.Voltage Division Expressions vS R1 R2 + − Figure 2.45) and by substitution of (2.36 where i is the current flowing through i.37.44) Also. we will derive the voltage division expressions which state that: R1 R2 v R1 = ----------------.v S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 These expressions enable us to obtain the voltage drops across the resistors in a series circuit simply by observation.

13 Current Division Expressions In the circuit shown in Figure 2.× 12 = 7 V R1 + R2 7+5 and R2 5 v R2 = ----------------.v S = ----------. Since v R1 + v R2 = 3 + 9 = 12 V .38. v R2 = 9 V . Using the voltage division expressions of (2. and the voltage drops are proportional to the resistances. we get R1 7 v R1 = ----------------. and G 2 are known. and R 1 + R 2 = 12 Ω ? + Power Supply (Voltage Source) − 12 V v R1 + − v R2 R1 + R2 − Figure 2. Circuit for the derivation of the current division expressions 2-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .× 12 = 5 V R1 + R2 7+5 b. the voltage drops v R1 and v R2 will be 3 V and 9 V respectively.v S = ----------. R 1 + R 2 = 12 Ω . it follows that if we let R 1 = 3 Ω and R 2 = 9 Ω .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits b. iS v i G1 G1 ( R1 ) i G2 G2 ( R2 ) Figure 2. Network for Example 2.37.6 Solution: a.46). To what values should R 1 and R 2 be adjusted so that v R1 = 3 V . i S .38. G 1 . 2.

we get i G1 = G 1 v and i G2 = G 2 v (2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-25 .50) Example 2. since 1 R 1 = ----G1 by substitution into (2.49) Also.7 For the circuit of figure 2.47) G1 i G1 = -----------------.38.49) we get R2 R1 i R1 = ----------------.i S and i R2 = ----------------.40.i S G1 + G2 and these expressions enable us to obtain the currents through the conductances (or resistances) in a parallel circuit simply by observation. compute the voltage drop v Solution: The current source i S divides into currents i 1 and i 2 as shown in Figure 2.i S G1 + G2 1 R 2 = ----G2 (2.39. we will derive the current division expressions which state that G1 i G1 = -----------------.48) into (2.48) and by substitution of (2.i S G1 + G2 and G2 i G2 = -----------------. ( G1 + G2 ) v = iS or iS v = -----------------G1 + G2 (2.i S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 CURRENT DIVISION EXPRESSIONS (2.Current Division Expressions For the circuit of Figure 2.i S G1 + G2 and G2 i G2 = -----------------.47) Also. Derivation: By Ohm’s law for conductances.

the Electronics Industries Association (EIA) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) have established and published several standards for electrical and electronic devices to provide interchangeability among similar products made by different manufacturers. In the United States.40.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits R2 4 Ω R3 5Ω R 4 20 Ω + R1 v − 12 Ω 3A iS Figure 2. we are only interested in current i 1 .⋅ 12 = – ----------. This is found by the current division expression as R2 + R3 + R4 4 + 5 + 20 87 i 1 = -----------------------------------------.14 Standards for Electrical and Electronic Devices Standardization of electronic components such as resistors.7 R2 4 Ω R3 5Ω i2 R 4 20 Ω + R1 v − 12 Ω i1 3A iS Figure 2. Therefore. capacitors and diodes is carried out by various technical committees. the U.A R1 + R2 + R3 + R4 12 + 4 + 5 + 20 41 and observing the passive sign convention.39. Department of Defense or its agencies issue standards known 2-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Application of current division expressions for the circuit of Example 2. Also. the voltage v is 87 1044 v = – i 1 R 1 = – ----.⋅ i S = -----------------------------------.46 V 2.S.7 We observe that the voltage v is the voltage across the resistor R 1 .⋅ 3 = ----.V 41 41 or v = – 25. Circuit for Example 2.

51) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-27 . As shown in Figure 2. Significant 1st 2nd Figures 3rd Tolerance Wider Space to Identify Direction of Reading Left to Right Multiplier Figure 2. Let A and B represent the first and second significant digits and C represent the multiplier. and the fourth and fifth bands.Resistor Color Code as Military Standards. Resistor Color Code per EIA Standard RS-279 Significant 1st Figures 2nd Multiplier Failure Rate Level on Established Reliability Levels Only Tolerance Figure 2.42. if they exist. the number by which the first two digits are multiplied. or simply MIL-stds.42 show the color coding scheme per EIA Standard RS-279 and MIL-STD1285A respectively. a single digit number can be represented by a particular color band as shown in Table 2. indicate the tolerance and failure rate respectively. The interested reader may find the latest revisions in the Internet or the local library. The failure rate is the percent probability of failure in a 1000-hour time interval. Then the resistance value is found from the expression R = ( 10 × A + B ) ×10 C (2.42.41. Figures 2. the third represents the multiplier. The tolerance is the maximum deviation from the specified nominal value and it is given as a percentage.41 and 2. or conversely. 2.3 that is based on MILSTD-1285A color code. each color represents a single digit number. All of the aforementioned standards are updated periodically.15 Resistor Color Code The Resistor Color Code is used for marking and identifying pertinent data for standard resistors. the first and second bands designate the first and second significant digits respectively. that is. Resistor Color Code per MIL-STD-1285A In a color coded scheme.

75 MΩ. and common resistor wattage values are ¼ watt. the nominal value of this resistor is 15.5 0.000.1% probability that this resistor will fail after 1000 hours of operation. Red. left to right: Brown. The 4th band is Gold indicating a ±5% tolerance meaning that the maximum deviation from the nominal value is 15.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits TABLE 2.3 Resistor values per MIL-STD-1285A Color Code Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White Gold Silver No Color 1st & 2nd Digits 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0. Blue. 2 watts.000. Since the 5th band is Red. What is the value. ½ watt. a resistor. Using the power relation p R = i R . let us refer to the voltage divider circuit of Example 2. That is.2.000 ±5% = 15. Gold.3 yields the following data: Brown (1st significant digit) = 1.01 5 10 20 Multiplier (3rd Digit) 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 0. we find that the wattage of the 7 Ω and 2 2-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .000 × ±0. Green.6. besides its resistance rating (ohms) has a power rating (watts) commonly referred to as the wattage of the resistor. and probability of failure for that resistor? Solution: Table 2.8 The value of a resistor is coded with the following colored band code.16 Power Rating of Resistors As it was mentioned in Section 2.000.000.25 MΩ and 15. this resistor can have a value anywhere between 14.37 where the current is 12 V ⁄ 12 Ω = 1 A .25 0.1 1 2 1 0.000 Ohms or 15 MΩ. and Blue (multiplier) = 1.000.000 Ohms or ±0. Figure 2.05 = ±750. there is a 0.75 MΩ. Therefore.01 0. Green (2nd significant digit) = 5. 2.1 0.001 Tolerance (Percent) Fail Rate (Percent) Example 2. tolerance.1 0. To appreciate the importance of the wattage of a resistor. 1 watt. 5 watts and so on.

393 of 1 percent of what it was at 20 degrees Celsius. for each degree that the temperature drops below 20 °C . This straight line is easily constructed with the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet shown in Figure 2. Solution: a. Example 2. changes with temperature.393 = 11. The relation of (2.Temperature Coefficient of Resistance 5 Ω resistors would be 7 watts and 5 watts respectively. Then.52) where R 20 is the resistance at 20 °C and α 20 is the temperature coefficient of resistance at 20 °C . Construct a curve showing the relation between resistance and temperature. b.17 Temperature Coefficient of Resistance The resistance of any pure metal. with this arrangement the current would be 12 V ⁄ 12 kΩ = 1 mA . What would the resistance be at 50°C ? b.1179 × 48 Ω in resistance or 5. This percentage of change in resistance is called the Temperature Coefficient of Resistance. For each degree that the temperature of a copper wire rises above 20 °C Celsius. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-29 . up to about 200 °C . In general. The wattage of the 7 kΩ and 5 kΩ resistors would then be ( 10 ) × 7 × 10 = 7 × 10 –3 2 3 –3 W = 7 mW and ( 10 ) × 5 × 10 = 5 mW respectively. such as copper. we observe that the resistance reaches zero value at approximately – 235 °C . a. Therefore. –3 2 3 2.79% . Similarly. the resistance of any pure metal at temperature T in degrees Celsius is given by R = R 20 [ 1 + α 20 ( T – 20 ) ] (2.393 of 1 percent of what it was at 20 °C . The temperature rise is 50 – 20 = 30 degrees Celsius and the resistance increases 0.43. the resistance decreases 0.66 Ω . From Figure 2.393% for every degree rise.66 = 53.66 Ω. We could also divide the 12 volt source into two voltages of 7 V and 5 V using a 7 kΩ and a 5 kΩ resistor. the resistance at 50 degrees Celsius is 48 + 5. Therefore the resistance increases by 30 × 0.9 The resistance of a long piece of copper wire is 48 Ω at 20 °C . down to about – 50 °C . This represents an increase of 0.43. the resistance increases 0.52) is an equation of a straight line with slope = R 20 α 20 .

A mil-foot wire is a wire whose length is one foot and has a cross-sectional area of one circular mil.0448 -150 15. these rating are for not more than three conductors in a cable with temperature 30°C or 86°F . A circular mil is the area of a circle whose diameter is 1 mil (one-thousandth of an inch).8176 Resistance of Copper Wire versus Temperature 100 80 Ohms 60 40 20 0 -250 -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 Degrees Celsius Figure 2.4 shows the NEC allowable current-carrying capacities for copper conductors based on the type of insulation. Since the area of a circle is proportional to the square of its diameter. Listed also.84 -220 2. are the circular mils and these denote the area of the cross section of each wire size.4992 -190 8. fuses. Moreover.4 are for copper wires.0464 -230 0. and the area of a circle one mil in diameter is one circular mil. electric power supply (mains) wiring is controlled by local. circuit breakers. radios. primarily on the National Electric Code (NEC) and the National Electric Safety Code.7264 -210 4.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Temp Resistance (deg C) (Ohms) -250 -2.272 -170 12.9312 -140 17. Table 2. the area of any circle in circular mils is the square of its diameter in mils. outlet boxes and appliances are governed by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standards which approves consumer products such as motors.43.5 provides recommended current ratings for copper wire based on 45°C ( 40°C for wires smaller than 22 AWG. state and federal boards.18 Ampere Capacity of Wires For public safety.9328 -240 -1.19 Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment There are also standards for the internal wiring of electronic equipment and chassis. 2. Spreadsheet for construction of equation (2. 2-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .52) 2.1584 -160 14. television sets etc.6128 -200 6.3856 -180 10. many products such as wire and cable. Table 2. Also. The NEC contains tables with correction factors at higher temperatures. The ratings for aluminum wires are typically 84% of these values. The ratings in Table 2.

TBS. TW. (14-2) THW. THHN XHHW† Size (AWG) RUH(14-2) T. XHHW TA. FEP.Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment TABLE 2. THWN.4 Current Carrying Capacities for Copper Conductors Copper Conductor Insulation RH. RHH. SA. UF TFE‡ 14 12 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0 00 000 0000 † Dry Locations Only 15 20 30 40 55 70 80 95 110 125 145 165 195 15 20 30 45 65 85 100 115 130 150 175 200 230 25 30 40 50 70 90 105 120 140 155 185 210 235 40 55 75 95 120 145 170 195 220 250 280 315 370 ‡ Nickel or nickel-coated copper only Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-31 . RUH. FEPB. RHW.

7 6.5 10 13 17 23 33 46 60 80 100 125 150 175 200 225 The resistance of a wire of length l can be computed by the relation ρl R = ---2 d (2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits TABLE 2.83 1.151 0.53) 2-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 7 11 16 22 32 41 55 73 101 135 181 211 245 283 328 380 0.53 Wire Confined in Insulation 0.32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 1 0 00 000 0000 100.4 22 13.1 5 7.31 0.3 2.4 10.185 0.1 404 642.86 1.117 0.5 5.15 3.02 1.2 28.734 0.5 Current Ratings for Electronic Equipment and Chassis Copper Wires Wire Size Nominal Resistance (Ohms/1000 ft) at 100 °C 188 Maximum Current (Amperes) AWG 32 Circular Mils 63.059 0.2 3.2 Wire in Free Air 0.22 1624 2583 4107 6530 10380 16510 26250 41740 66370 83690 105500 133100 167800 211600 116 72 45.8 254.092 0.29 0.074 0.459 0.5 159.4 2.52 0.2 2.

Then.= ---------------------------. Example 2.5 we find that the resistance of 1000 ft of size AWG 12 copper wire at 100°C is 2. The wiring size in each section must be selected such that the current shall not exceed the current carrying capacities as defined by the NEC tables. and T is the desired temperature.51 Ω 2 2 125 d Column 3 of Table 2.10 Compute the resistance per mile of a copper conductor 1 ⁄ 8 inch in diameter given that the resistance per mil-foot of copper is 10. and R is the resistance at 20 °C . Therefore.4 Ω at 20 °C .4 × 5280 ρl R = ---.45 Ω 2.5 shows the copper wire resistance at 100°C . Correction factors must be applied to determine the resistance at other temperatures or for other materials. by (2.54).02 Ω .125 in = 125 mils and from (2.02 [ 1 + 0.004 ( T – 100 ) ] (2. the electrical contractor must accurately determine the current which each wire must carry and make a tentative selection of the size listed in Table 2.004 ( 30 – 100 ) ] = 1. Solution: ( 1 ⁄ 8 ) in = 0. For copper. the resistance of the same wire at 30°C is R 30°C = 2. d = diameter of wire in mils. R 100 is the resistance at 100°C for copper.54) where R T is the resistance at the desired temperature. Solution: From Table 2.4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-33 . the electrical contractor must consider two important factors: a. Example 2.11 Compute the resistance of 1000 ft of size AWG 12 copper wire at 30°C .53) 10.Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring where ρ = resistance per mil-foot. the conversion equation is R T = R 100 [ 1 + 0.20 Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring In the design of an interior electrical installation. l = length of wire in feet.= 3.

For this example. 2-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . in the lighting part of the system referred to as the lighting load. With the 12.29% voltage variation the brightness of the lamps would vary through wide ranges. The voltage drop throughout the electrical system must then be computed to ensure that it does not exceed certain specifications. Use T (thermoplastic insulation) type copper conductor and base your calculations on 25°C temperature environment. kw-hr Meter Circuit Breaker Main Lines L1 Panel Board Lighting Load Utility Company Switch L2 Branch Lines L3 Figure 2. Compute the size of the main lines.12 Figure 2. assume that the distance from the panel to the load center is 60 ft. imperative that the designer consults the latest publications of the applicable codes for compliance. The computations for Parts I and II are shown on the spreadsheet of Figure 2. Each of the three branches has 12 outlets for 75 w.44 shows a lighting load distribution diagram for an interior electric installation. Also. 120 volt lamps. Solution: It is best to use a spreadsheet for the calculations so that we can compute sizes for more and different branches if need be.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits b. The load center is that point on the branch line at which all lighting loads may be considered to be concentrated. the voltage variation in the heating and air conditioning load must not exceed 10% .29 and this is more than twice the allowable 5% drop. It is. depending on how many lamps were in use at one time.44. therefore. Load distribution for an interior electric installation The panel board is 200 feet from the meter. a variation of more than 5% in the voltage across each lamp causes an unpleasant variation in the illumination. They change from time to time. Example 2. For instance.45 where from the last line of Part II we see that the percent line drop is 12. Important! The requirements stated here are for instructional purposes only.

45 and 2. or shorten their life considerably. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-35 . The computations in Parts III through V of the spreadsheet of Figures 2. It is therefore necessary to install larger than 12 AWG main line.46 indicate that we should not use a conductor less than size 6 AWG .Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring A much higher voltage than the rated 120 V would cause these lamps to glow far above their rated candle power and would either burn them immediately.

24 0.74 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Distance from panel to load center Number of wires in each branch Total length of wire in each branch 0 Specified Temperature in C 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 14 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 14 AWG wire at Spec.54) (Step 13 x Step 16) / 1000 Step 7 x Step 17 Step 1 x Step 19 Table 2.12. Parts I and II 60 2 120 25 3.4 ft Step 11 x Step 12 Table 2.02 2 400 2. smaller sizes have insufficient mechanical strength .02 1.5 Equation (2.4 Step 2 x Step 7 Table 2.2) Description Meter to Panel Board Distance No.50 12 Units ft V w w A AWG Carries up to 15 A A AWG Carries up to 20 A Step 3 x Step 5 Step 6 / Step 4 Table 2. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center 26 Percent line drop Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications * No size smaller can be installed.41 0.20 2.45.57 12.269 2.2-36 Calculation Value 200 3 12 120 75 900 7.73 14. Spreadsheet for Example 2.54) (Step 20 x Step 22) /1000 Step 9 x Step 23 Step 18 + Step 24 (Step 25 / Step 4) x 100 0 Part I Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sizing in Accordance with NEC (Table 2.5 Equation (2.50 14 22. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in each branch Number of wires in each main Total length of wire in main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 12 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 12 AWG wire at Spec. of Branches from Panel Board Outlets per branch Outlet Voltage Rating Power drawn from each outlet Power required by each branch Current drawn by each branch Required wire size for branches * Current required by the main line Required wire size for main line Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Part II Check for Voltage Drops ft C Ω Ω Ω V ft Ω Ω Ω V V 12.29 % Figure 2.

89 4.734 0. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center Copper Conductor Sizes for Interior Wiring 47 Percent line drop 2-37 .56 % (Step 32 / Step 4) x 100 AWG Carries up to 30 A Ω Ω Ω V V Table 2.27 8.367 8.62 6.54) (Step 20 x Step 43)/1000 Step 9 x Step 44 Step 18 + Step 45 (Step 46 / Step 4) x 100 6 0.4 Table 2.91 AWG Carries up to 55 A Ω Ω Ω V V 4.5 Equation (2.54) (Step 20 x Step 36)/1000 Step 9 x Step 37 Step 18 + Step 38 (Step 39 / Step 4) x 100 8 0. Spreadsheet for Example 2. Parts III.46.53 % Table 2.310 0. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center 40 Percent line drop Figure 2.206 4.5 Equation (2.917 0. IV.54) (Step 20 x Step 29)/1000 Step 9 x Step 30 Step 18 + Step 24 10 1.4 Table 2. Temp Resistance of actual length of wire Voltage drop in main line Voltage drop from meter to load center 33 Percent line drop Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Part IV Recalculation Using 8 AWG Conductor Size 34 35 36 37 38 39 Next larger conductor size for main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 8 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 8 AWG wire at Spec.5 Equation (2.129 2.Orchard Publications Table 2.64 AWG Carries up to 40 A Ω Ω Ω V V 5.25 10.09 % Part III Recalculation Using 10 AWG Conductor Size 27 28 29 30 31 32 Next larger conductor size for main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 10 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 10 AWG wire at Spec.12.514 0.459 0.4 Table 2. and V Part V Recalculation Using 6 AWG Conductor Size 41 42 43 44 45 46 Next larger conductor size for main line 0 Resistance of 1000 ft 6 AWG wire at 100 C Resistance of 1000 ft 6 AWG wire at Spec.321 0.

• A series circuit with a single mesh can be easily analyzed by KVL. • A mesh is a closed path that does not contain other closed paths • A loop contains two or more closed paths. • Short circuit refers to a branch (defined below) in a network that contains no device between its terminals. • Two or more devices are said to be connected in series if and only if the same current flows through them. It can be thought of as a resis- tor with infinite resistance (or zero conductance). • A resistor absorbs power. The energy is dissipated in the form of heat. • Two or more devices are said to be connected in parallel if and only if the same voltage exists across their terminals. • A node is a common point where one end of two or more devices are connected.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 2. • Kirchoff ’s Voltage Law (KVL) states that the algebraic sum of the voltage drops (or voltage rises) around a closed mesh or loop is zero. The voltage across the terminals of an open may have a finite value or may be zero whereas the current is always zero. • A branch is part of a network that contains a device and its nodes. they can be replaced by a single voltage source with the proper polarity. • A parallel circuit with a single node pair can be easily analyzed by KCL. they can be replaced by an equivalent resistance whose value is 2-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • A resistor does not store energy. The voltage across the terminals of a short is always zero whereas the current may have a finite value or may be zero. they can be replaced by a single current source with the proper current direction. • Open circuit refers to an open branch (defined below) in a network. • If two or more resistors are connected in series. a piece of wire with zero resistance. • Kirchoff ’s Current Law (KCL) states that the algebraic sum of the currents entering (or leaving) a node is zero. • If two or more voltage sources are in series. • If two or more current sources are in parallel. that is.21 Summary • Ohm’s Law states that the voltage across a device is proportional to the current through that device and the resistance is the constant of proportionality.

• For the simple series circuit below vS R1 R2 + − the voltage division expressions state that: R1 R2 v R1 = ----------------. • Conductances connected in parallel combine as resistors in series do. the equivalent resistance is found from the relation R1 ⋅ R2 R eq = R 1 ||R 2 = ----------------R1 + R2 • Conductances connected in series combine as resistors in parallel do.+ ----.v S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 • For the simple parallel circuit below iS v i R1 R1 i R2 R2 the current division expressions state that: R2 R1 i R1 = ----------------.v S and v R2 = ----------------. they can be replaced by an equivalent resis- tance whose value is 1 1 1 1 ------.i S R1 + R2 R1 + R2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-39 .Summary R eq = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + … + R n = k=1 ∑ RK n • If two or more resistors are connected in parallel.+ … + ----R1 R2 Rn R eq • For the special case of two parallel resistors.i S and i R2 = ----------------.= ----.

the Electronics Industries Association (EIA) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) have established and published several standards for electrical and electronic devices to provide interchangeability among similar products made by different manufacturers. Two standards are the EIA Standard RS-279 and MIL-STD-1285A. resistors have a power rating. • Besides their resistance value.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits • In the United States. • The current ratings for wires and electronic equipment are established by national standards and codes. • The resistance of a wire increases with increased temperature and decreases with decreased tem- perature. 2-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • The resistor color code is used for marking and identifying pertinent data for standard resistors.

the current that flows through a device is inversely proportional to the voltage across that device C. R AB = B. Ohm’s Law states that A. the sum of the currents in a closed path is zero B. none of the above 3. the sum of the currents through all the devices in a closed path is equal to the sum of the voltages across all the devices D. none of the above 4. the sum of the voltages in a node is equal to the sum of the currents at that node E. R AB = R1 + R2 + R3 R1 + R2 + R3 2 2 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-41 . the resistance is the slope of the straight line in a voltage versus current plot C. the resistance is the sum of the voltages across all the devices in a closed path divided by the sum of the currents through all the devices in the closed path D. the conductance is the reciprocal of resistance B.47. the sum of the currents entering a node is equal to the sum of the currents leaving that node E. For the three resistors connected as shown on the network of Figure 2. the sum of the resistances around a closed loop is zero E.22 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. the sum of the voltages across all the devices in a closed path is equal to the sum of the currents through all the devices D. Kirchoff ’s Voltage Law (KCL) states that A.Exercises 2. none of the above 2. the voltage across a device is inversely proportional to the current through that device C. Kirchoff ’s Current Law (KCL) states that A. the equivalent resistance R AB is computed with the formula A. the voltage across a device is directly proportional to the current through that device B.

--------. the equivalent conductance G AB is computed with the formula A. Network for Question 4 5.49. 21 Ω –1 –1 B. R AB = ------------------------------ R R R R1 + R2 + R3 D.5 Ω 2-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . G AB = -------------------------------- 11 1 1 D.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 1 2 3 C. R AB = R1 R2 R3 -----------------------------R1 + R2 + R3 E. For the three resistances connected as shown on the network of Figure 2.+ -----G AB E.+ -----. For the three conductances connected as shown on the network of Figure 2.48. G AB = B. none of the above A R1 R2 R AB R3 B Figure 2. none of the above A G1 G2 G AB G3 B Figure 2.48.47. the equivalent conductance G AB is A.= -----. 1. Network for Question 5 6. G AB = G1 + G2 + G3 G1 + G2 + G3 G G G G1 + G2 + G3 G1 G2 G3 2 2 2 1 2 3 C.

Network for Question 7 R 8. none of the above iR + Rest of the Circuit vR − Figure 2. none of the above A R1 G AB B Figure 2. 6 V B. 24 V C. 2 ⁄ 3 Ω –1 –1 D. When R = ∞ .50. The value of the voltage v X is A. the voltage v R = 6 V .51 are relative to some reference node not shown. when R = 4 Ω . In the network shown in Figure 2. 8 V D. – 6 V B. 16 V E. 0 V D. 16 V C. When R = 0 Ω . v R is A. The node voltages shown in the partial network of Figure 2.50. 144 ⁄ 19 Ω E.49. 10 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-43 . i R = 2 A . Network for Question 6 4Ω R2 12 Ω R3 3Ω 7.Exercises C.

– 2 V D. For the network of Figure 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits E.52 the value of the voltage v is A.51. none of the above 2-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 2 V C. Network for Question 8 + − vX 6V 9. none of the above 10 V 2A 2V 8Ω 3Ω 8V 2A 4Ω 20 V Figure 2. ∞ A D. 0 A C. Network for Question 9 10. 8 V B.52. – 8 V E. For the circuit of Figure 2. none of the above 4Ω + v − + 8V − Figure 2. 2 A B.53 the value of the current i is A. 1 A E.

Circuit for Problem 1 a. Circuit for Problem 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-45 . compute the power absorbed by R 2 . In the circuit of Figure 2. Answer: 50 w b.54. R LOAD represents the load of that circuit. the voltage source and both resistors are variable. Network for Question 10 Problems 1. to what value should v S be adjusted to so that the power absorbed by R 2 will be 100 w? Answer: 100 V 2. With v S = 120 V and R 1 = 0 Ω .55. and R 2 = 50 Ω .Exercises 4Ω + 8V − 12 Ω i Figure 2.53. R 1 = 70 Ω . + Power Supply (Voltage Source) − v + − R1 + − R2 S Figure 2.54. With v S = 120 V . to what value should R 2 be adjusted so that the power absorbed by it will be 200 w? Answer: 72 Ω c. With R 1 = 0 Ω and R 2 = 100 Ω .55. − + 3A 5Ω 5A 10 Ω 24 V 2Ω + − i LOAD p LOAD R LOAD + − 75 V v LOAD Figure 2. In the circuit of Figure 2.

5 w 5.57.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits Compute: a. p E = 216 w 4. p C = – 1800 w . p B = 1152 w . compute the power supplied or absorbed by each device.57. In the circuit of Figure 2. i LOAD Answer: 8 A b. v LOAD Answer: 20 V c. compute the power delivered or absorbed by the dependent voltage source. Compute the equivalent resistance R eq . Circuit for Problem 3 Answers: p A = 288 w . 24 A B D 6A + A 12 V − C + 60 V − + E − 36 V Figure 2. R1 2Ω R 3 10 Ω 10 A + 50 V − R2 6Ω iR 2 + − 5i R V 2 R4 10 Ω Figure 2.58. p D = 144 w . each resistor is 10 Ω. For the circuit of Figure 2.56. p LOAD Answer: 160 w 3. Circuit for Problem 4 Answer: 62. In the network of Figure 2.56. 2-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

59.60.59. Answer: 0. R1 i R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 + − 15 V Figure 2. This method is known as analysis by network reduction.60.58. Circuit for Problem 5 Answer: 360 ⁄ 21 Ω 6. Circuit for Problem 6 Hint: Start at the right end and by series and parallel combinations of the resistors. use the voltage division expression to compute v X and v Y . In the circuit of Figure 2. In the network of Figure 2. Circuit for Problem 7 Answers: v X = 8 ⁄ 3 V . reduce the circuit to a simple series circuit. Compute the current i supplied by the 15 V source. v Y = – 16 ⁄ 3 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-47 . R 1 = 10 Ω and R 2 = 20 Ω .75 A 7.Exercises Req Figure 2. + 5Ω vX − 20 Ω 10 Ω + − 24 V − vY 40 Ω + 16 V − + Figure 2.

and decided that the main lines from the substation to the facility will require several copper conductors in parallel. Answer: 70 V 2-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . There are many turns in both the primary and secondary coils but. only few are shown.48 Ω at 20 degrees Celsius. a. i Y = – 8 ⁄ 3 V 9. A new facility is to be constructed at a site which is 1.61. The electrical contractor and the utility company have made load calculations. Circuit for Problem 9 Answer: 36°C 10. it is found that the primary coil resistance has risen to 6. After two hours of operation. It is known that the primary coil has a resistance of 5.61. for simplicity. Primary Coil Secondary Coil Iron Core Figure 2. In the circuit of Figure 2. Circuit for Problem 8 Answers: i X = – 16 ⁄ 3 V .5 miles away from the nearest electric utility company substation. Compute the temperature rise of this coil. use the current division expression to compute i X and i Y .32 Ω.62.62. Each of these conductors must have insulation type THHN and must carry a maximum current of 220 A in a 20 °C temperature environment.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 8. iX 16 A 5Ω iY 24 A 10 Ω 40 Ω 20 Ω Figure 2. Compute the voltage drop on each of these conductors from the substation to the facility when they carry the maximum required current of 220 A in a 20 °C temperature environment. A transformer consists of two separate coils (inductors) wound around an iron core as shown in Figure 2.

The power absorbed by each conductor under the conditions stated above. Answer: 0. The power absorbed per square cm of the surface area of each conductor under the conditions stated above.4 Kw c. Answer: 15.02 w ⁄ cm 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-49 .Exercises b.

E 5.and thus v R = ∞ = 24 V bc ac 2. Therefore.5 A .0 vR = ∞ vR = ∞ a vR ( V ) 6. D We denote the voltage at the common node as v A shown on the figure of the next page. and thus v R = 0 (short circuit). i R = 6 ⁄ 4 = 1.5 b 2.0 d e 1. D 3. we observe that ---------------. when R = 0 Ω .5 = ------------. C 7. Now. A from the branch that contains the 3 Ω resistor.23 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. i R = 0 but v R has a finite value and it is denoted as v R = ∞ in the figure below. D 6. Then be = de or 2. When R = ∞ .0 iR ( A ) 8. E 4.= 2 or v A = 16 and v – 10 3 thus v X = – 6 + 16 = 10 V 2-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we observe that the triangles abc and dbe 6 ---------------------------are similar. Also. i R = 2 A .5 1.0 – 1. B When R = 4 Ω . the voltage v R = 6 V . B 2.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 2. Then.0 c 0.

10. R 1 = 70 Ω .× 120 = 50 V 2 70 + 50 Then.Answers to Exercises 10 V 2A 2V 3Ω vA 2A 4Ω 20 V 8V + − 8Ω vX 6V 9. 70 Ω vS R1 R2 + − 120 V 50 Ω Using the voltage division expression. With v S = 120 V and R 1 = 0 Ω . the circuit is as shown below. there is no voltage drop across the resistor and thus v = 8 V . pR 2 vR 2 50 2 = ------. With v S = 120 V . the circuit is as shown below. A The 12 Ω resistor is shorted out by the short on the right side of the circuit and thus the only resistance in the circuit is the 4 Ω resistor. and R 2 = 50 Ω . we get 50 v R = ----------------. Problems 1.= ------. vS 0Ω R1 R2 + − 120 V 50 Ω We observe that v R = v s = 120V 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-51 .= 50 w R2 50 2 b. A This is an open circuit and therefore no current flows through the resistor. Accordingly. a.

000 = 100 V 2. With R 1 = 0 Ω and R 2 = 100 Ω .= 100 w 100 2 or v S = 100 × 100 = 10. a. 000 2 or vS = 10. the circuit is as shown below.= 100 w R2 2 or vS -------. Application of KVL around Mesh 1 yields – 75 + 3 ( 5 ) + v AB = 0 2-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . vS ----. Application of KCL at node A of the circuit below yields i LOAD = 3 + 5 = 8 A b.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits and vR 2 ------.= 72 Ω 200 2 c. vS 0Ω R1 R2 + − 100 Ω Then.= 200 w R2 2 or 120 ----------.= 200 w R2 2 or 120 R 2 = ----------.

by KCL at Node X i C = i B + i D = 24 + 6 = 30 A Then. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-53 . Also.Answers to Exercises 3A 5Ω − + A i LOAD 5A 10 Ω 24 V 2Ω + − i LOAD p LOAD R LOAD + − 75 V Mesh 1 B v LOAD Mesh 2 or v AB = 60 V Application of KVL around Mesh 2 yields – v AB + 24 + 2i LOAD + v LOAD = 0 or – 60 + 24 + 2 × 8 + v LOAD = 0 or v LOAD = 20 V c. we assign plus (+) and minus (−) polarities and current directions in accordance with the passive sign convention as shown below. p LOAD = v LOAD × i LOAD = 20 × 8 = 160 w ( absorbed power ) 3. Where not shown. 24 A − iB 6A + X+ D − B vB iC + vD iE + iD + iA vA A vE E vC C 60 V − 36 V − 12 V − We observe that i A = i B and i E = i D .

i R . Circuit for Exercise 4 By KVL. We assign voltages and currents v R . v R . 2-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 2 4 3 4 R1 2Ω R 3 10 Ω iR 3 X iR 4 10 A + 50 V − R2 6Ω − + vR iR 2 + 2 + R4 vR 4 − iD 10 Ω 5i R V − 2 Figure 2.63. and i D as shown in the circuit below. v R = 50 – 2 × 10 = 30 V 2 and by Ohm’s law. i R .Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits p A = v A i A = 12 × 24 = 288 w ( absorbed ) p E = v E i E = 36 × 6 = 216 w ( absorbed ) p C = v C ( – i C ) = 60 × ( – 30 ) = – 1800 w ( supplied ) By KVL vA + vB = vC or v B = v C – v A = 60 – 12 = 48 V and thus p B = v B i B = 48 × 24 = 1152 w ( absorbed ) Also by KVL vD + vE = vC or v D = v C – v E = 60 – 36 = 24 V and thus p D = v D i D = 24 × 6 = 144 w ( absorbed ) Check: We must show that Power supplied = Power absorbed p C = p A + p B + p C + p D = 288 + 216 + 1152 + 144 = 1800 w 4.

5 A 3 4 with the indicated direction through the dependent source. the value of the dependent voltage source is 5i R = 5 × 5 = 25 V 2 and v R = 5i R = 25 V 4 2 Then.5 A 4 10 R4 By KCL at Node X iD = iR – iR 3 4 where i R = 10 – i R = 10 – 5 = 5 A 3 2 and thus i D = i R – i R = 5 – 2. The simplification procedure starts with the resistors in parallel which are indicated below.= 30 = 5 A 2 6 R2 Therefore.= 25 = 2.5 w ( absorbed ) 2 5. Therefore. 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 5 10 10 10 10 5 Req 10 Req 5 10 10 10 5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-55 . p D = 5i R i D = 25 × 2.Answers to Exercises vR 2 ----i R = ------. vR 4 ----i R = -----.5 = 62.5 = 2.

Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 10 5 10 15 5 10 6 Req 5 10 10 15 Req 5 10 6 5 16 180 ⁄ 21 Req 5 16 Req 180 ⁄ 21 Req 360 ⁄ 21 6. Next. We start with the right side of the circuit where the last two resistors are in series as shown below.75 A 2-56 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Finally. R1 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R1 + − 15 V i R2 Then. addition of the left most resistor with its series equivalent yields 10 + 10 = 20 Ω and thus i = 15 ⁄ 20 = 0. R 1 + R 1 = 10 + 10 = 20 Ω 20 || 20 = 10 Ω 10 + 10 = 20 Ω and so on.

– 8 = 0 3 3 8.+ ----. We first simplify the given circuit by replacing the parallel resistors by their equivalents.V 3 Check: By application of KVL starting at point A and going counterclockwise. We first simplify the given circuit by replacing the series resistors by their equivalents. + vX − 8Ω i 4Ω A + − 8V − vY + Now. 8 4 v X = ----------.V 3 4+8 and 16 8 – v Y = ----------. The simplified circuit is shown below.× 8 = ----. The simplified circuit is shown below. 5 × 20 5 || 20 = -------------.= 4 Ω 5 + 20 and 10 × 40 10 || 40 = ----------------.Answers to Exercises 7. by the voltage division expression. 5 + 20 = 25 Ω and 10 + 40 = 50 Ω The current sources are in parallel opposing connection and they can be replaced by a single current source with value 24 – 16 = 8 A . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-57 .= 8 Ω 10 + 40 The voltage sources are in series opposing connection and they can be replaced by a single voltage source with value 24 – 16 = 8 V . Thus.V 3 4+8 or 16 v Y = – ----. we get 8 16 v X + ( – v Y ) – 8 = -.× 8 = -. Thus.

32 Ω 20°C ∆T R (Ω) b RX R0 T 20 R 20 e TX d T ( °C ) c From the similar triangles acd and abe.= 0 .5 + 20 + T X RX 234.× ( – 8 ) = – ----.5 + 20 254. Then. Also. the resistance of this conductor that is 1.Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits 8A iX 25 Ω iY 50 Ω By the current division expression.5 0 = = = = 5. we get 16 8 8 + i X + i Y = 8 – ----.5 + T X 234.– -.48 R 20 10. R 20 RX T 20 TX a −234.× ( – 8 ) = – -. We construct the resistance versus temperature plot shown below.5 – 254.4 we find that the cable size must be 0000 AWG and this can carry up to 235 A . From Table 2.= --------------------------------------.A 25 + 50 3 and 25 8 i Y = ----------------.= ------------------------234.059 Ω ⁄ 1000 ft at 100°C .× 254. a. we get 254.× 254.5 + T 20 234.32 ∆T = T X = ------. from Table 2.3 3 9.= ------------------------------------.5 R 20 or RX 6.5 = --------.A 25 + 50 3 Check: By application of KCL starting at point A and going counterclockwise.5 – 254.48 Ω 6.5 miles long is 2-58 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 + T 20 + T X ------.5 = 36°C 5.5 we find that the resistance of this conductor is 0. 50 16 i X = ----------------.

5 gives wire sizes in circular mils.004 ( 20 – 100 ) ] = 0.× --------------. 400 w = 15. we use the relation of (2. We recall that a circular mil is the area of a circle whose diameter is 0. the power absorbed per cm is p cm 2 2 2 Total power 15.Answers to Exercises Ω 5280 0.253 cm and the surface area of the cable is 1. Then.609 Km 10 cm 5 2 Surface area = πdl = 3.5 we find that the cross section of a 0000 AWG cable is 211.5 miles = 0.854 × 10 –7 2 ( 2.035 cm The cross-section circumference of the cable is πd = π × 1. 400 w = ------------------------------.253 cm × 1.54).= 0.× ----------------.3178 Ω and the voltage drop on each of these conductors is v = iR = 220 × 0. R 20 = R 100 [ 1 + 0.= 5.4 Kw c.067 × 10 cm 2 in 2 From Table 2.035 = 3.851 × 10 cm Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 2-59 .600 circular mils.5 miles × ----------------------.059 --------------. The power absorbed by each conductor is p = vi = 70 × 220 = 15.072 cm circular mil –6 2 2 Therefore.4673 Ω at 100°C 1000ft 1 mile To find the resistance of this cable at 20°C . the cross-section of this cable in cm is 5. Thus. To find the diameter in cm.d = -.= --------------------------------------. Table 2.54 cm ) –6 2 in × -------------------------.3178 = 70 V b.= 7.072 = 1.067 × 10 cm 2 211. the cable diameter in cm is d= 1.851 × 10 cm 1 Km 1 mile 5 Then.( 0.001 ) = 7.02 w ⁄ cm 2 5 2 cm 7.001 in .854 × 10 in 4 4 = 7.32 ) = 0.× 1. 600 circular mils × ----------------------------------------.= 1.4673 ( 1 – 0. we perform the following conversion: π π 2 2 –7 2 1 circular mil = -.

Chapter 2 Analysis of Simple Circuits NOTES 2-60 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

v n – 1 . we apply KCL and write a nodal equation for each of the node voltages v 1. If the circuit does not contain any voltage sources between nodes.2 Let L = M = number of loops or meshes . Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . the maximum power transfer theorem. linearity.1 Let N = number of nodes in a circuit . we will only be concerned with the following two theorems. Theorem 3. ….e. B = number of branches . v n – 1 where each of these voltages is measured with respect to the chosen reference node. ground. 3. In this text. N = number of nodes in a circuit. These equations are obtained by setting the algebraic sum of the currents leaving each of the N – 1 nodes equal to zero. we choose one of these as a reference node assumed to be zero volts or ground. then N – 1 independent nodal equations are required to completely describe that circuit.1 Nodal. Mesh. efficiency. 2. v 2.. For a circuit containing N nodes. These equations are obtained by setting the algebraic sum of the voltage drops around each of the L = M = B – N + 1 loops or meshes equal to zero. loop and mesh equations and how they are applied to the solution of circuits containing two or more node-pairs and two or more loops or meshes. we perform the following steps: 1. and regulation.2 Analysis with Nodal Equations In writing nodal equations.Circuit Theorems T his chapter begins with nodal. Other topics included in this chapter are the voltage-to-current source transformations and vice versa. then L = M = B – N + 1 independent loop or mesh equations are required to completely describe that circuit. v 2. superposition. Theorem 3. 3. At each non-reference node we assign node voltages v 1. i. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-1 . and Loop Equations Network Topology is a branch of network theory concerned with the equations required to completely describe an electric circuit. …. 3.

We will follow this practice in the subsequent examples.1 Write nodal equations for the circuit shown in Figure 3. we replace the voltage source with a short circuit thus forming a combined node and we write a nodal equation for this common node in terms of both v j and v k . the current through the 8 Ω resistor is denoted as i 8 . Example 3. v1 8Ω i8 4Ω 12 A G . we have denoted the currents with a subscript that corresponds to the resistor value through which it flows through. . v3 . Verify your answers with Excel® or MATLAB®. 3-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and so on. and G (for ground) as shown in v2 10 Ω i 10 6Ω i4 18 A i6 24 A Figure 3. If the circuit contains a voltage source between two nodes.1 For convenience. Please refer to Appendix A for discussion and examples. Cramer’s rule. Circuit for Example 3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .2. 8Ω 10 Ω 4Ω 12 A 18 A 6Ω 24 A Figure 3.Circuit Theorems 4.1. thus.1. say nodes j and k denoted as node variables v j and v k . the current that flows through the 4 Ω resistor is denoted as i 4 . then we relate the voltage source to the node variables v j and v k . and solve for the unknowns of these equations using matrix theory.2. or the substitution method.1 Solution: We observe that there are 4 nodes and we denote these as Figure 3. Circuit for Example 3.

therefore. With reference to the above circuit and equation (3.2.Analysis with Nodal Equations For the circuit of Figure 3. Remember that we wrote independent node equations at independent nodes and. in equation (3. that is. we denote the coefficients of v1 (1/4 and 1/8 siemens) as self conductances and the coefficient of v2 (−1/8) as mutual conductance. application of KCL at node yields i 4 + i 8 – 12 = 0 or i 4 + i 8 = 12 (3. v 2 .1) where i 8 is the current flowing from left to right.= 12 8 4 or ⎛ 1 + 1 ⎞ v – 1 v = 12 --.3) the coefficients of v2 (1/8 and 1/10 siemens) are the self conductances and the coefficients of v1 (−1/8) and v3 (−1/10) are the mutual conductances. to assign a (+) sign to all currents leaving the node in which we apply KCL. we get v1 v1 – v2 ---. and respectively. however. or even write the node equations by inspection. . * The direction of the current through the 8 Ω resistor from left to right in writing the nodal equation at Node 1. Let us choose node G (ground) as our reference node. It is advantageous.1) for example.+ --------------. we can write a nodal equation at a particular node by inspection.3) where i 8 is the current flowing from right to left * and i 10 is the current that flows from left to right. The advantage is that we can check.2) Next. Therefore.⎝ 4 8⎠ 1 8 2 or 3v 1 – v 2 = 96 (3. and from right to left in writing the nodal equation at Node 2. Likewise. and v 3 at nodes . Expressing (3. and we assign voltages v 1. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-3 .-. Now. any assumptions made in writing the first equation need not be held in writing the second since the latter is independent of the first.1) in terms of the node voltages. application of KCL at node or yields i 8 + i 10 + 18 = 0 i 8 + i 10 = – 18 (3. since G = 1/R. we assign plus (+) values to self conductances and minus (−) to mutual conductances. we could have assumed that the current through the 8 Ω resistor flows in the same direction in both nodal equations. should not be confusing. we need N – 1 = 4 – 1 = 3 nodal equations. these are to be measured with respect to the ground node G. Of course.

+ ---.v 3 = – 18 ⎝ 8 10⎠ 8 10 or 5v 1 – 9v 2 + 4v 3 = 720 (3.4).= – 18 8 10 or 1 1-.v 1 + ⎛ 1 + -----⎞ v 2 – ----. we get v2 – v1 v2 – v3 --------------.1– -.v 2 + ⎛ ----. Then. (3.2).= 24 6 10 (3.+ --------------. v3 – v2 v3 --------------.3) in terms of node voltages. and (3.Circuit Theorems Expressing (3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .5) or 1 1.-– ----. We write them in matrix form as follows: 3 –1 0 5 –9 4 0 1 –6 G v1 v2 v3 V = 96 720 – 240 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I (3.+ 1 ⎞ v 3 = 24 ⎝ 10 6 ⎠ 10 or – 3v 2 + 18v 3 = 720 or v 2 – 6 v3 = – 240 (3. in terms of node voltages.4) Similarly.6) Equations (3.6) constitute a set of three simultaneous equations with three unknowns.7) 3-4 ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . application of KCL at node or yields i 10 + i 6 – 24 = 0 i 10 + i 6 = 24 where i 10 is the current flowing from right to left.

fprintf(' \n') v1 = 12. 5 −9 4.2 For the circuit of Figure 3. Then construct a table showing the voltages across. Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples. the currents through and the power absorbed or delivered by each device. . I=[96 720 -240]'.. fprintf('v2 = %5. and v 3 = 30 V . .183 30 9 Figure 3. V=G\I. V(1)).3. v 2 = – 60 V .050 -0. Solution: We observe that there are 4 nodes and we denote these as Figure 3.025 -0. Simultaneous solution yields v 1 = 12 V . write nodal equations in matrix form and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory.042 -0. V(2)). With these values we can determine the current in each resistor.3 shows the solution of the equations of (3.2f volts \t'. V(3)).2f volts'. Spreadsheet for the solution of (3.. A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 3 -1 0 96 3 G= 5 -9 4 I= 720 4 0 1 -6 -240 5 6 0. . to solve (3.00 volts v3 = 30. .417 -0.Analysis with Nodal Equations We can use Cramer’s rule or Gauss’s elimination method as discussed in Appendix A. and G (for ground) as shown in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-5 ..00 volts Check with Excel®: v2 = -60.00 volts The spreadsheet of Figure 3.. or Gauss’s elimination method.4. fprintf('v1 = %5.250 -0. The procedure is discussed in Appendix A. and the power absorbed or delivered by each device.7) for the unknowns. 0 1 −6].033 12 7 -1 G = 0. fprintf('v3 = %5.100 V= -60 8 0.7). Cramer’s rule.5. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB. Check with MATLAB®: G=[3 −1 0. fprintf(' \n').150 -0.7) Example 3.2f volts \t'..

and the circuit now looks as shown in Figure 3. our next nodal equation will contain three terms.6. We observe that v 1 is a known voltage.2 v1 8Ω v2 − + 10 V 6Ω 18 A G v3 + 12 V − 4Ω 24 A Figure 3. and v 3 at nodes . and one down.4. Circuit for Example 3. that is. We have no difficulty writing the term for the current flowing from node to node . To work around this problem. v 1 = 12 V and thus our first equation is v 1 = 12 (3. we encounter a problem with the third term because we cannot express it as term representing the current flowing from node to node .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . v 2 . we move to node where we observe that there are three currents flowing out of this node. one to the left. and for the 18 A source. Circuit for Example 3. we temporarily remove the 10 V voltage source and we replace it with a “short” thereby creating a combined node (or generalized node or supernode as some textbooks call it). . however. one to the right. Therefore. these are to be measured with respect to the ground node G . and respectively. 3-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 with assigned nodes and voltages We assign voltages v 1.Circuit Theorems 8Ω − + 10 V 6Ω + 12 V − 4Ω 18 A 24 A Figure 3.8) Next.5.

11) To obtain the third equation. we reinsert the 10 V source between nodes v 3 – v 2 = 10 In matrix form.v 1 + -. In this example. to retain the designation of node 2.10). Circuit for Example 3.+ ---. we express the current i 8 as v2 – v1 v3 --------------.8).Analysis with Nodal Equations v1 8Ω i8 v2 v3 Combined Node − + 10 V 6Ω 18 A G + 12 V − 4Ω i6 24 A Removed and replaced by a short Figure 3. equations (3. and (3. (3.11) are * The combined node technique allows us to combine two nodal equations into one but requires that we use the proper node designations. application of KCL at this combined node yields the equation i 8 + 18 + i 6 – 24 = 0 or i8 + i6 = 6 or v2 – v1 v3 --------------. we express the current i 6 as ---.v 3 = 6 8 6 8 or – 3v 1 + 3v 2 + 4v 3 = 144 (3. at node 3. (3.2 with a combined node Now.. Likewise.10) and .9) or 1 1 1 – -..6.v 2 + -. Then. 8 6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-7 .= 6 * 8 6 (3.

3-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For a circuit containing M = L = B – N + 1 meshes (or loops).2f volts \t'. fprintf('v3 = %5. V(2)). Spreadsheet for the solution of (3. V(3)).143 -0. If the circuit does not contain any current sources.00 volts A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 1 0 0 12 3 G= -3 3 4 I= 144 4 0 -1 1 10 5 6 1.429 30 9 Figure 3. and v 3 = 30 V . 3. 0 −1 1]..2f volts \t'.571 V= 20 8 0.00 volts ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ v3 = 30.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .. V(1)).12) Table 3...00 volts Check with Excel: v2 = 20.000 12 7 G-1= 0. v 2 = 20 V . 2. we follow these steps: 1. …. I=[12 144 10]'.. fprintf(' \n'). fprintf(' \n') v1 = 12.3 Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations In writing mesh or loop equations. we assign a mesh or loop current i 1.2f volts'. V=G\I. From these we can find the current through each device and the power absorbed or delivered by each device.Circuit Theorems 1 0 0 –3 3 4 0 –1 1 G v1 v2 v3 V = 12 144 10 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I (3. i n – 1 for each mesh or loop. Check with MATLAB: G=[1 0 0.000 0. i 2. fprintf('v2 = %5.429 0. .1 shows that the power delivered is equal to the power absorbed. we apply KVL around each mesh or loop.12) Simultaneous solution yields v 1 = 12 V .429 0. −3 3 4.143 0.7.000 0. fprintf('v1 = %5.

Cramer’s rule.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations TABLE 3. we replace the current source with an open circuit thus forming a common mesh or loop. write mesh equations in matrix form and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB. say meshes or loops j and k denoted as mesh variables i j and i k . the currents through. Then. Example 3.1 Table for Example 3.2 Device 12 V Source 10 V Source 18 A Source 24 A Source 4 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor Total Voltage (volts) 12 10 20 30 12 30 8 Current (amps) 2 19 18 24 3 5 1 Power (watts) Delivered Absorbed 24 190 360 720 36 150 8 744 744 3. we relate the current source to the mesh or loop variables i j and i k . and we write a mesh or loop equation for this common mesh or loop in terms of both i j and i k .8.3 + 24 V − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-9 . 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − + 12 V + − − 4Ω 6Ω 12 Ω Figure 3. Then construct a table showing the voltages across. and the power absorbed or delivered by each device. Circuit for Example 3. or Gauss’s elimination method. Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples.3 For the circuit of Figure 3. If the circuit contains a current source between two meshes or loops.8.

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . we get the equation 4 ( i 2 – i 1 ) + 36 + 8i 2 + 6 ( i 2 – i 3 ) = 0 or – 4i 1 + 18i 2 – 6i 3 = – 36 (3. and observing the passive sign convention.Circuit Theorems Solution: For this circuit we need M = L = B – N + 1 = 9 – 7 + 1 = 3 mesh or loop equations and we arbitrarily assign currents i 1 .9. going clockwise.3 + 24 V − Applying KVL around each mesh we get: Mesh #1: Starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor. we get the equation for this mesh as 2i 1 + 4 ( i 1 – i 2 ) – 12 = 0 or 6i 1 – 4i 2 = 12 (3. and observing the passive sign convention.9. Circuit for Example 3.13) Mesh #2: Starting with the lower end of the 4 Ω resistor. and i 3 all in a clockwise direction as shown in Figure 3. going clockwise.15) 3-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we get: 6 ( i 3 – i 2 ) + 10i 3 + 12i 3 + 24 = 0 or – 6i 2 + 28i 3 = – 24 (3. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω − − 12 V i1 + + 4Ω i2 6Ω i3 12 Ω Figure 3. and observing the passive sign convention. going clockwise.14) Mesh #3: Starting with the lower end of the 6 Ω resistor. i 2 .

8 Ω . With reference to the circuit of Figure 3.e.13). 18.19) Simultaneous solution yields i 1 = 0. clockwise.e. i. Accordingly. We observe that current i 2 also flows through the 4 Ω resistor. the voltage drop due to current i 2 is – 4i 2 and this is the second term on the left side of (3.13) we have assumed that the upper end of this resistor has the plus (+) polarity. we assigned all three currents with the same direction.15) we get: 3i 1 – 2i 2 = 6 2i 1 – 9 i 2 + 3i 3 = 18 3i 2 – 14 i 3 = 12 (3..e.15) are similarly related to the self and mutual resistances in the third mesh. In Mesh 2. was not mandatory. however. and in writing equation (3. Since i 2 enters the lower end of the 4 Ω resistor. and 6 Ω resistors whose sum.3593 .14) and (3. the self resistances are the 4 Ω .16) (3. i 2 = – 2. then in accordance with the passive sign convention. we see that current i 1 flows through the 2 Ω and 4 Ω resistors. and the second and the third meshes respectively.17) (3. We call this resistance the mutual resistance between the first and the second mesh. or even write the mesh equations by inspection.13). (3.9 and equation (3.13). – 4i 1 and – 6i 3 . Simplifying and rearranging (3. and i 3 = – 1. The 4 Ω and 6 Ω resistors are also the mutual resistances between the first and second. 2. This.18) and in matrix form 3 –2 0 2 –9 3 0 3 – 14 R i1 i2 i3 I = 6 18 12 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3. The advantage here is that we can check. 2 + 4 = 6 is the coefficient of current i 1 in that equation.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Note: For this example. 3. The signs of the coefficients of i 2 and i 3 in (3.4271 . Their sum. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ 3-11 . the voltage drops due to the mutual resistances in the second equation have a minus (-) sign. to assign the same direction to all currents.3627 where the negative values for i 2 and i 3 indicate that the actual direction for these currents is counterclockwise. i. we could have assigned any direction in any mesh. i.. This is best explained with the following observations: 1. of course. It is advantageous. We call these the self resistances of the first mesh.14). is the coefficient of i 2 in equation (3.

397 -0.000 0.124 84.427 2.3593 8 0.996 1..031 -0. fprintf('i3 = %5.874 5.712 0.2 Table for Example 3.. I=R\V.095 -0.3627 9 Figure 3.363 Power (watts) Delivered Absorbed 5. V=[6 18 12]'.427 2.669 122.2f amps \t'.363 0.144 18.2f amps'.976 13.854 11.760 3-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ..078 -1.36 amps i3 = -1.530 5.4271 7 R-1= 0.627 16.359 1.786 2. I(3)).10.288 122. fprintf(' \n').000 36.10.19) Table 3.000 24. Spreadsheet for the solution of (3.570 22. fprintf('i1 = %5.36 amps Excel produces the same answers as shown in Figure 3.Circuit Theorems Check with MATLAB: R=[3 −2 0.. . I(1)). 0 3 −14]. I(2)).020 -0.2f amps \t'.142 -0..3 Device 12 V Source 36 V Source 24 V Source 2 Ω Resistor 4 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 10 Ω Resistor 12 Ω Resistor Total Voltage (volts) 12. fprintf(' \n') i1 = 0.964 44.359 0. A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 3 -2 0 6 3 R= 2 -9 3 V= 18 4 0 3 -14 12 5 6 0.095 -0.352 Current (amps) 0.924 32.365 30. 2 −9 3.031 I= -2. fprintf('i2 = %5.020 0.2 shows that the power delivered by the voltage sources is equal to the power absorbed by the resistors.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .363 1. TABLE 3.952 18.43 amps i2 = -2.

and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory. Then.4 + 24 V − Solution: This is the same circuit as that of the previous example where we found that we need 3 mesh or loop equations.4 For the circuit of Figure 3. the currents through and the power absorbed or delivered by each device.4 with assigned loops Applying of KVL around each loop. Circuit for Example 3. we get: Loop 1 (abgh): Starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor and complying with the passive sign convention. construct a table showing the voltages across.11. all in a clockwise direction. Cramer’s rule. We choose our loops as shown in Figure 3.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Example 3. and we assign currents i 1 . Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB.12. or Gauss’s elimination method. Circuit for Example 3. a 2Ω 36 V 8Ω 10 Ω c d b + 12 V h + − − i3 i2 i1 g 4Ω 6Ω e 12 Ω + 24 V − f Figure 3. and i 3 .12.11. we get: 2 ( i 1 + i 2 + i 3 ) + 4i 1 – 12 = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-13 . i 2 . 2Ω 36 V 8Ω 10 Ω + 12 V + − − 4Ω 6Ω 12 Ω Figure 3. write loop equations in matrix form.

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . we get: 2 ( i 1 + i 2 + i 3 ) + 36 + 8 ( i 2 + i 3 ) + 6i 2 – 12 = 0 or 2i 1 + 16i 2 + 10i 3 = – 24 or i 1 + 8i 2 + 5i 3 = – 12 (3. starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor and complying with the passive sign convention. I(3)).22) and in matrix form 3 1 1 1 8 5 1 5 16 R i1 i2 i3 I = 6 – 12 – 24 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3. 1 5 16]. I=R\V...21) Loop 3 (abcdefgh): Likewise. I(1)). fprintf('i3 = %5.2f amps \t'. . I(2)).00 amps ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ i3 = -1.Circuit Theorems or 6i 1 + 2i 2 + 2i 3 = 12 or 3i 1 + i 2 + i 3 = 6 (3. fprintf(' \n'). we get: 2 ( i 1 + i 2 + i 3 ) + 36 + 8 ( i 2 + i 3 ) + 10i 3 + 12i 3 + 24 – 12 = 0 or or 2i 1 + 10i 2 + 32i 3 = – 48 i 1 + 5i 2 + 16i 3 = – 24 (3.2f amps \t'.79 amps i2 = -1. V=[6 −12 −24]'.20) Loop 2 (abcfgh): As before.23) Solving with MATLAB we get: R=[3 1 1.. 1 8 5.2f amps'..36 amps 3-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . fprintf('i2 = %5. fprintf('i1 = %5.. fprintf(' \n') i1 = 2. starting with the left side of the 2 Ω resistor and complying with the passive sign convention.

5 Voltage (volts) 12.997 1.000 24.359 0.4 Device 12 V Source 36 V Source 24 V Source 2 Ω Resistor 4 Ω Resistor 8 Ω Resistor 6 Ω Resistor 10 Ω Resistor 12 Ω Resistor Total Example 3.053 44.5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-15 .3 shows that the power delivered by the voltage sources is equal to the power absorbed by the resistors and the values are approximately the same as those of the previous example.000 0.964 18.854 11.13. or the substitution method.758 For the circuit of figure 3.283 122. Circuit for Example 3.519 5.872 5.352 Power (watts) Current (amps) Delivered Absorbed 0. Verify your answers with Excel or MATLAB.627 16.000 36. TABLE 3.359 84.574 22.924 1.363 1.365 2.146 18.3 Table for Example 3.427 0.786 2. Table 3. Cramer’s rule.124 2.760 31.363 32.427 5.363 122. Please refer to Appendix A for procedures and examples.13. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω 12 V − − + + 4Ω 6Ω 12 Ω 5A Figure 3. write mesh equations in matrix form and solve for the unknowns using matrix theory.982 13.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Excel produces the same answers.712 0.

Circuit for Example 3. i 2 .25) For Mesh 3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . the equations are the same as in Example 3. 3-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .14. and we assign currents i 1 .24) and – 4i 1 + 18i 2 – 6i 3 = – 36 or 2i 1 – 9 i 2 + 3i 3 = 18 (3. As before.26) and in matrix form. we need M = L = B – N + 1 = 9 – 7 + 1 = 3 mesh or loop equations.5 with assigned currents For Meshes 1 and 2. and i 3 all in a clockwise direction as shown in Figure 3.14.3 where we found them to be 6i 1 – 4i 2 = 12 or 3i 1 – 2i 2 = 6 (3. we observe that the current i 3 is just the current of the 5 A current source and thus our third equation is simply i3 = 5 (3.Circuit Theorems Solution: This is the same circuit as those of the two previous examples except that the 24 V voltage source has been replaced by a 5 A current source. 2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω 12 V − − i1 + + 4Ω i2 6Ω i3 5A 12 Ω Figure 3.

Circuit for Example 3. I(1)).15 and solve for the unknowns using MATLAB or Excel.. 0 0 1].13 amps ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ i3 = 5. we would be tempted to assign mesh currents as shown in Figure 3. compute the voltage drop across the 5 A source.. However.2f amps \t'. we will encounter a problem as explained below. fprintf('i2 = %5. The currents i 3 and i 4 for Meshes 3 and 4 respectively present no problem. fprintf('i3 = %5..27) Solving with MATLAB we get: R=[3 −2 0.. but for Meshes 1 and 2 we cannot write mesh equations for the currents i 1 and i 2 as shown because we cannot write a Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications + − + − 36 V 8Ω 3-17 . 2Ω + 12 V 4Ω 6Ω 5A 10 Ω 16 Ω 12 Ω 18 Ω 24 V 20 Ω − + 12 V − Figure 3.2f amps'. fprintf(' \n'). I(3)). I(2)).09 amps Example 3.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations 3 –2 0 2 –9 3 0 0 1 R i1 i2 i3 I = 6 18 5 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3. V=[6 18 5]'.6 i2 = 0. 2 −9 3.16.. . fprintf('i1 = %5. Then.15. fprintf(' \n') i1 = 2.00 amps Write mesh equations for the circuit of Figure 3. I=R\V.6 Solution: Here.2f amps \t'.

Circuit Theorems term which represents the voltage across the 5 A current source.6 with correct current assignments Now.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .17. We start at the left end of the 2 Ω resistor. we apply KVL around this combined mesh. Circuit for Example 3. 2Ω + 12 V 4Ω i1 i2 5A 10 Ω 16 Ω 12 Ω i4 + − 36 V 8Ω − 6Ω + 12 V − i3 18 Ω 20 Ω 24 V Figure 3. Circuit for Example 3. and we express the voltage drop across this resistor as 2i 1 since in Mesh 1 the current is essentially i 1 . 3-18 + − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . To work around this problem we temporarily remove (open) the 5 A current source and we form a “combined mesh” (or generalized mesh or supermesh as some textbooks call it) and the current that flows around this combined mesh is as shown in Figure 3.16.17.6 with erroneous current assignments 2Ω 36 V 8Ω 12 V + − Mesh − Combined 4Ω 6Ω + − 16 Ω 10 Ω + 12 V + − − i3 18 Ω 12 Ω i4 20 Ω 24 V Figure 3.

we reinsert the 5 A current source between Meshes 1 and 2 and we obtain our second equation as i1 – i2 = 5 (3.28) Now.Analysis with Mesh or Loop Equations Continuing.32) with the following MATLAB code. and the voltage drops across the 8 Ω and 6 Ω resistors are 8i 2 and 6i 2 respectively since in Mesh 2 the current now is really i 2 . The voltage drops across the 16 Ω and 10 Ω resistors are expressed as in the previous examples and thus our first mesh equation is 2i 1 + 36 + 8i 2 + 6i 2 + 16 ( i 2 – i 4 ) + 10 ( i 1 – i 3 ) – 12 = 0 or 12i 1 + 30i 2 – 10 i 3 – 16 i 4 = – 24 or 6i 1 + 15i 2 – 5 i 3 – 8 i 4 = – 12 (3. the equations are 10 ( i 3 – i 1 ) + 12 ( i 3 – i 4 ) + 18i 3 – 12 = 0 or 5i 1 – 20 i 3 + 6i 4 = – 6 (3. The current now enters Mesh 2 where we encounter the 36 V drop due to the voltage source there.31) and in matrix form 6 15 – 5 – 8 1 –1 0 0 5 0 – 20 6 0 4 3 – 12 R i1 i2 i3 i4 I = – 12 5 –6 –6 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3.32) We find the solution of (3. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-19 . we observe that there is no voltage drop across the 4 Ω resistor since no current flows through it.30) and 16 ( i 4 – i 2 ) + 20i 4 – 24 + 12 ( i 4 – i 3 ) = 0 or 4i 2 + 3i 3 – 12 i 4 = – 6 (3.29) For meshes 3 and 4.

of course. This statement applies to an ideal voltage source which. Likewise a practical current source has an internal conductance which is represented as a resistance R p (or conductance G p ) in parallel with the current source i S as shown in Figure 3. does not exist.. it is represented with an external resistance R S in series with the voltage source v S as shown in Figure 3.3975 + 1.455 We can verify this value by application of KVL around Mesh 2 where starting with the lower end of the 6 w resistor and going counterclockwise we get ( 6 + 8 ) × 1.2315 ) – 12 = 0 This yields v 5A = – 36.3975 – 1. we can also compute the power delivered or absorbed by each of the voltage sources and the current source.I(2))..I(1)). fprintf('i2 = %5. 3-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ..3975 + 1.4f amps'. we can find the voltage drop across the 5 A current source by application of KVL around Mesh 1 using the following relation: 2 × 3.2315 amps i4=0.4 Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources In the previous chapter we stated that a voltage source maintains a constant voltage between its terminals regardless of the current that flows through it.4f amps \t'. no voltage source can supply infinite current to a short circuit.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . 3. 1 −1 0 0.4f amps \t'. fprintf(' \n') i1=3. fprintf(' \n').... fprintf('i1 = %5.6025 – 36 + 4 × ( 3. 0 4 3 −12]. fprintf('i3 = %5.6025 + 0. I=R\V.I(4)).4f amps \t'.2737 amps Now. A practical voltage source has an internal resistance which. fprintf('i4 = %5.3975 + 4 × ( 3.I(3)).2737 ) = 0 With these values. no current source can supply infinite voltage when its terminals are open-circuited. V=[−12 5 −6 −6]'.18 (a).. 5 0 −20 6. We also stated that a current source maintains a constant current regardless of the terminal voltage.. for instance. for instance.. This statement applies to an ideal current source which also does not exist.18 (b).Circuit Theorems R=[6 15 −5 −8.6025 amps i3=1.455 + 16 × ( 1.6025 ) – 36.3975 amps i2=-1.6025 ) + v 5A + 10 × ( 3. to be accounted for.

18 (a).34) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-21 .18 (b) can be made equivalent to each other.v S RS + RL (3.18 (a) and 3.19 (b). Practical voltage and current sources In Figure 3. a RS − − + i ab RP RL iS (b) a + v ab − b i ab RL + v ab − b vS (a) Figure 3. Now. the load resistor R L is the same in both.Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources a RS − − (a) b iS (b) b a + vS Rp Figure 3.19 (a) and 3. Likewise. In the networks of Figures 3.19.18 (b) the current of s the source will always be i S but the terminal current i ab will be i ab = i S – i RP if a load is connected at points a and b .33) and vS i ab = -----------------RS + RL (3. Equivalent sources From the circuit of Figure 3. in Figure 3.19 (a). we will show that the networks of Figures 3.18. the voltage of the source will always be v S but the terminal voltage v ab will be v ab = v S – v R if a load is connected at points a and b . RL v ab = -----------------.

i S Rp + RL (3. The voltage-to-current source or current-to-voltage source transformation is not limited to a single resistance load.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .19 (a) and 3. Likewise.= -----------------.35) and RP i ab = -----------------. Example 3. 3-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .v S = -----------------.33) and (3. from (3.20.36) we get: Rp vS i ab = -----------------.19 (b).Circuit Theorems From the circuit of Figure 3.37) Likewise.i S Rp + RL RS + RL (3.37) and (3. RP RL v ab = -----------------.19 (a) and 3.19 (b).35) we get: RP RL RL v ab = -----------------. from (3. from (3. in series with a resistance whose value is the same as R p . it applies to any load no matter how complex.39) and Rp = RS (3. Then.34) and (3.7 Find the current i 10 through the 10 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3.40) Therefore. we want i ab to be the same in both circuits 3.19 (b).38) vS = Rp iS (3. a voltage source v S in series with a resistance R S can be transformed to a current source i S whose value is equal to v S ⁄ R S . in parallel with a resistance R p whose value is the same as R S .i S Rp + RL (3.36) Since we want v ab to be the same in both circuits 3.38) and for any R L . a current source i S in parallel with a resistance R p can be transformed to a voltage source v S whose value is equal to i S × R S .i S Rp + RL RS + RL (3.

75 Ω 2A –1 10 Ω Figure 3.Transformation between Voltage and Current Sources 2Ω − − 32 V − + 4Ω i 10 10 Ω 12 V + Figure 3. Circuit for Example 3.7 Solution: This problem can be solved either by nodal or by mesh analysis.22.7 after combinations of current sources and conductances Converting the 0. Then.5 Ω –1 i 10 10 Ω 0.75 Ω conductance to a resistance and performing current-to-voltage source transformation. i 10 0.21. however.21. 8A 6A 0. we get the circuit of Figure 3.20. –1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-23 . we will transform the voltage sources to current sources and we will replace the resistances with conductances except the 10 Ω resistor. Circuit for Example 3.23.7 where voltage sources have been transformed to current sources Combination of the two current sources and their conductances yields the circuit shown in Figure 3. We will treat the 10 Ω resistor as the load of this circuit so that we can compute the current i 10 through it. Circuit for Example 3.22. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 3.25 Ω –1 Figure 3.

24. Circuit for Example 3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .24 (b) will be equivalent to the network of Figure 3. It states that we can replace a two terminal network by a voltage source v TH in series with a resistance R TH as shown in Figure 3.24 (a) if the load is removed in which case both networks will have the same open circuit voltages v xy and consequently.7 in its simplest form Thus. Replacement of a network by its Thevenin’s equivalent The network of Figure 3.5 Thevenin’s Theorem This theorem is perhaps the greatest time saver in circuit analysis. the current through the 10 Ω resistor is –8 ⁄ 3 i 10 = ---------------------.41) 3-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . x × v xy × y (a) x × v xy Network to be replaced by a Thevenin equivalent circuit Load (Rest of the circuit) R TH Load (Rest of the circuit) + v TH − × y (b) Figure 3. v TH = v xy open (3.= – 4 ⁄ 17 A 10 + 4 ⁄ 3 3. v TH = v xy Therefore. especially in electronic circuits.23.24.Circuit Theorems 4/3 Ω − + + − i 10 10 Ω 8/3 V Figure 3.

26. and it is found from the relation v xy open v TH R TH = -------------------.26. Circuit for Example 3.= -------i xy short i SC (3.8 Breaking the circuit at x – y . 3Ω − − 12 V × x 3Ω 7Ω × x' + 6Ω 10 Ω v LOAD + i LOAD RLOAD v TH R TH x × + + y 5Ω × × − y' 8 Ω − y × Figure 3. opening all (independent) current sources.8 Use Thevenin’s theorem to find i LOAD and v LOAD for the circuit of Figure 3.42) where i SC stands for short-circuit current.27. If the network to be replaced by a Thevenin equivalent contains independent sources only. and calculating the resistance looking into the direction that is opposite to the load when it has been disconnected from the rest of the circuit at terminals x and y . we can find the Thevenin resistance R TH by first shorting all (independent) voltage sources. Example 3. we are left with the circuit shown in Figure 3.Thevenin’s Theorem The Thevenin resistance R TH represents the equivalent resistance of the network being replaced by the Thevenin equivalent. First step in finding the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit of Example 3. first at terminals x and y and then at x' and y' as shown in Figure 3. 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω 6Ω 10 Ω 5Ω 7Ω v LOAD + + i LOAD RLOAD − 8Ω Figure 3.25.8 Solution: We will apply Thevenin’s theorem twice.25. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-25 .

First Thevenin equivalent for the circuit of Example 3.8 Applying Thevenin’s theorem at x and y and using the voltage division expression. and the new circuit now is as shown in Figure 3.Circuit Theorems × x 6Ω R TH 3Ω + − 12 V ×y Figure 3. Second step in finding the Thevenin equivalent of the circuit of Example 3.28.29.8 with first Thevenin equivalent 3-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .28.27.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . R TH 2Ω v TH 8V 3Ω 7Ω × x′ + i LOAD RLOAD − − 5Ω + v LOAD 10 Ω y′ × − 8Ω Figure 3.= 2 Ω 3+6 (3. R TH v TH 2Ω × x + − 8V × y Figure 3.43) and thus the equivalent circuit to the left of points x and x is as shown in Figure 3. we attach the remaining part of the given circuit to the Thevenin equivalent of Figure 3. Circuit for Example 3. we get 6 v TH = v xy = -----------.29.× 12 = 8 V 3+6 R TH V =0 s 3×6 = -----------.28.8 Next.

8 v LOAD = -------------. we apply Thevenin’s theorem at points x' and y' and we get the circuit of Figure 3. and the current i LOAD by Ohm’s law as shown below.8 Using the voltage division expression.31.31.30. Entire circuit of Example 3.× 4 = 1. This is illustrated with the two examples that follow. R TH 2Ω − − 8V 3Ω 7Ω 10 Ω v TH × x′ + 5Ω × y′ Figure 3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-27 .6 V 12 + 8 4 i LOAD = -------------.× 8 = 4 V 2 + 3 + 10 + 5 R' TH v TH = 0 = [ ( 2 + 3 + 5 ) 10 ] + 7 = 12 Ω This Thevenin equivalent with the load resistor attached to it. R' TH v' TH 12 Ω x′ + i LOAD RLOAD + 4V − − v LOAD − 8Ω y′ Figure 3. we get 10 v' TH = v x'y' = ----------------------------------.Thevenin’s Theorem Now.= 0. is shown in Figure 3.30.8 simplified by Thevenin’s theorem The voltage v LOAD is found by application of the voltage division expression. Applying Thevenin’s theorem at points x' and y' for the circuit for Example 3.2 A 12 + 8 It is imperative to remember that when we compute the Thevenin equivalent resistance. we must always look towards the network portion which remains after disconnectinf the load at the x and y terminals.

Thus. 150 × 250 R TH = ( 50 + 100 ) 250 = -----------------------.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . we can find the Thevenin equivalent by shorting the 240 V voltage source.32 (a). we can find the Thevenin equivalent by shorting the 240 V voltage source. Thus.33 (a).33 (b). Computation of the Thevenin equivalent resistance when the load is to the left This network contains no dependent sources. compute the equivalent resistance looking to the left of points x and y 50 Ω 250 Ω 100 Ω × x R TH + − 240 V y × (a) (b) × y Figure 3. therefore.= 93.32 (b). Begin with this series combination Then. and computing the equivalent resistance looking to the left of points x and y as indicated in Figure 3. 300 × 100 R TH = ( 250 + 50 ) 100 = -----------------------.Circuit Theorems Let us consider the network of Figure 3. let us consider the network of Figure 3. therefore.32.75 Ω 150 + 250 3-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Computation of the Thevenin equivalent resistance when the load is to the right This network contains no dependent sources.= 75 Ω 300 + 100 Now. and computing the equivalent resistance looking to the right of points x and y as indicated in Figure 3. compute the equivalent resistance looking to the right of points x and y × x Load 250 Ω 50 Ω 100 Ω 240 V x × RTH 50 Ω 100 Ω 250 Ω + y × − (a) y× (b) Figure 3.33. 50 Ω 250 Ω × x 100 Ω Load Begin with this series combination Then.

Circuit for Example 3. and connecting the rest of the circuit. the Thevenin voltage across the x' and y' points is the algebraic sum of the voltage drop across the 10 Ω resistor and the 24 V source.36.Thevenin’s Theorem We observe that.33 (b) have the same values.9 with first Thevenin equivalent Next.32 (a) and 3. that is.× 8 – 24 = – 20 V 2 + 3 + 10 + 5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-29 .9 Use Thevenin’s theorem to find i LOAD and v LOAD for the circuit of Figure 3. the Thevenin resistance is different since it depends on the direction in which we look into (left or right). although the resistors in the networks of Figures 3.35.9 Solution: This is the same circuit as the previous example except that a voltage source of 24 V has been placed in series with the 7 Ω resistor. There is no current flow in the 7 Ω resistor. Example 3. By application of Thevenin’s theorem at points x and y as before. we get the circuit of Figure 3. therefore.34. + − − 7Ω 10 Ω v LOAD 24 V 3Ω 3Ω 6Ω 5Ω + 12 V + i LOAD RLOAD − − − 8Ω Figure 3. disconnecting the load resistor and applying Thevenin’s theorem at points x' and y' we get the circuit of Figure 3. + − − RTH v TH 2Ω x × 24 V 3Ω 7Ω 10 Ω x′ × + i LOAD RLOAD 8Ω + − − 8V v LOAD y 5Ω × y′ × − Figure 3. Circuit for Example 3.35.34. 10 v' TH = v x 'y ' = ----------------------------------.

Circuit Theorems v TH 2Ω 3Ω 10 Ω + − − RTH x × 24 V 7Ω x′ × + − − 8V y 5Ω × y′ × Figure 3.39. Solution: This circuit contains a dependent voltage source whose value is twenty times the current through the 6 Ω resistor. Applying Thevenin’s theorem at points x' and y' for the circuit for Example 3.37.× ( – 20 ) = – 8 V 12 + 8 – 20 i LOAD = --------------. that is.38.37. use Thevenin’s theorem to find i LOAD and v LOAD . connecting the load R LOAD as shown in Figure 3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . R' TH V TH = 0 = [ ( 2 + 3 + 5 ) 10 ] + 7 = 12 Ω Finally.9 8 v LOAD = --------------.10 For the circuit of Figure 3. Final form of Thevenin equivalent with load connected for circuit of Example 3. we compute v LOAD and i LOAD as follows: R′TH v' TH 12 Ω x′ i LOAD RLOAD 8Ω + −20 V − − v LOAD y′ Figure 3. 3-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= – 1 A 12 + 8 Example 3.9 and the Thevenin resistance is the same as in the previous example.36. We will apply Thevenin’s theorem at points a and b as shown in Figure 3.

39.38.10 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω iX 6Ω 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω 4Ω 7Ω × a + i LOAD RLOAD − 8Ω + + − v LOAD b × Figure 3.40.Thevenin’s Theorem + − 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω iX 6Ω 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω 4Ω 7Ω v LOAD + + i LOAD RLOAD − 8Ω Figure 3. Circuit for finding v OC = v ab of Example 3. we cannot short the dependent source.40. we disconnect the load resistor and our circuit now is as shown in Figure 3. therefore.44) To find the open circuit voltage v OC = v ab . Application of Thevenin’s theorem for Example 3. we will find the Thevenin resistance from the relation v LOAD v OC RL → ∞ R TH = -------. × a + − 3Ω − − 12 V i1 3Ω 6Ω i2 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω i3 4Ω 7Ω + iX b × Figure 3.= ------------------------------i SC i LOAD RL → 0 (3.10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-31 . Circuit for Example 3.10 For the circuit of Figure 3.39.

10 Thus. Spreadsheet for Example 3. we must first compute the short circuit current I SC .118 0.Circuit Theorems We will use mesh analysis to find v OC which is the voltage across the 4 Ω resistor.353 E F G 4 H Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication V= 0 0 0.176 0. we find that i 3 = – 3. the Thevenin voltage at points a and b is v TH = ( – 3. we place a short across points a and b and the circuit now is as shown in Figure 3.294 D 0 5 7 0. to find the Thevenin resistance R TH .53 Figure 3.165 -0.41.43 where i SC = i 4 3-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .882 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ C -2 -12 -15 -0.36 -3. we write the three mesh equations for this network as 9i 1 – 6i 2 = 12 – 6i 1 + 24i 2 – 10i 3 = 0 20 ( i 1 – i 2 ) + 4i 3 + 10 ( i 3 – i 2 ) = 0 (3.53 A A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 B 3 R= 3 10 0.46) Using the spreadsheet of Figure 3. We chose mesh analysis since we only need three mesh equations whereas we would need five equations had we chosen nodal analysis. Please refer to Exercise 16 at the end of this chapter for a solution requiring nodal analysis.106 R-1= -0.42 I= -1. we write them in matrix form as 3 –2 0 3 – 12 5 10 – 15 7 R I1 I2 I3 I = 4 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3.247 -0.45) and after simplification and combination of like terms. Observing that i X = i 1 – i 2 .18 V Next.41.341 -0.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .53 ) × 4 = – 14.42 and we can find the short circuit current i SC from the circuit of Figure 3. Accordingly.

Thevenin’s Theorem × a i SC + − 3Ω − − 12 V 3Ω 6Ω 20i X 10 Ω 4Ω 7Ω + iX 5Ω b × Figure 3.10 The mesh equations for the circuit of Figure 3.47) and after simplification and combination of like terms.42. we write them in matrix form as 3 –2 3 – 12 10 – 15 0 0 R 0 5 7 –4 0 0 –2 11 i1 i2 i3 i4 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 4 0 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V (3.43. Circuit for finding i SC = i ab in Example 3.48) We will solve these using MATLAB as follows: ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-33 .43 are 9i 1 – 6i 2 = 12 – 6i 1 + 24i 2 – 10i 3 = 0 20 ( i 1 – i 2 ) + 4 ( i 3 – i 4 ) + 10 ( i 3 – i 2 ) = 0 – 4i 3 + 11i 4 = 0 (3.10 3Ω − − 12 V i1 3Ω 6Ω i2 5Ω 20i X 10 Ω i3 4Ω 7Ω i4 × a i SC + + iX − b × Figure 3. Mesh equations for finding i SC = i ab in Example 3.

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

R=[3 −2 0 0; 3 −12 5 0; 10 −15 7 −2; 0 0 −4 11]; V=[4 0 0 0]'; I=R\V; fprintf(' \n');... fprintf('i1 = %3.4f A \t',I(1,1)); fprintf('i2 = %3.4f A \t',I(2,1));... fprintf('i3 = %3.4f A \t',I(3,1)); fprintf('i4 = %3.4f A \t',I(4,1));... fprintf(' \n');...fprintf(' \n')

i1 = 0.0173 A Therefore,

i2 = -1.9741 A

i3 = -4.7482 A

i4 = -1.7266 A

i SC = i 4 = – 1.727

and

v OC --------------R TH = -------- = – 14.18 = 8.2 Ω – 1.727 i SC

**The Thevenin equivalent is as shown in Figure 3.44.
**

8.2 Ω a vTH RTH

×

+

− −14.18 V

×

Figure 3.44. Final form of Thevenin’s equivalent for the circuit of Example 3.10

b

**Finally, with the load RLOAD attached to points a and b, the circuit is as shown in Figure 3.45.
**

8.2 Ω vTH RTH

× +

i LOAD RLOAD 8Ω

a

+

− −

v LOAD

−14.18 V

−

×

b Figure 3.45. Circuit for finding v LOAD and i LOAD in Example 3.10

Therefore, using the voltage division expression and Ohm’s law we get

3-34

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Norton’s Theorem

8 v LOAD = ---------------- × ( – 14.18 ) = – 7.00 V 8.2 + 8 – 14.18 i LOAD = ---------------- = – 0.875 A 8.2 + 8

3.6 Norton’s Theorem

This theorem is analogous to Thevenin’s theorem and states that we can replace everything, except the load, in a circuit by an equivalent circuit containing only an independent current source which we will denote as i N in parallel with a resistance which we will denote as R N , as shown in Figure 3.46.

x × v xy × y x ×

Network to be replaced by a Norton equivalent circuit (a)

Load (Rest of the circuit)

Load (Rest of the circuit)

+

iN

−

v xy RN (b) × y

Figure 3.46. Replacement of a network by its Norton equivalent

The current source i N has the value of the short circuit current which would flow if a short were connected between the terminals x and y, where the Norton equivalent is inserted, and the resistance R N is found from the relation

v OC R N = -------i SC

(3.49)

where v OC is the open circuit voltage which appears across the open terminals x and y. Like Thevenin’s, Norton’s theorem is most useful when a series of computations involves changing the load of a network while the rest of the circuit remains unchanged. Comparing the Thevenin’s and Norton’s equivalent circuits, we see that one can be derived from the other by replacing the Thevenin voltage and its series resistance with the Norton current source and its parallel resistance. Therefore, there is no need to perform separate computations for each of these equivalents; once we know Thevenin’s equivalent we can easily draw the Norton equivalent and vice versa.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-35

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

Example 3.11 Replace the network shown in Figure 3.47 by its Thevenin and Norton equivalents.

iX 3Ω 3Ω 6Ω

x

+

− 20i X V

y

Figure 3.47. Network for Example 3.11

Solution: We observe that no current flows through the 3 Ω resistor; Therefore, i X = 0 and the dependent current source is zero, i.e., a short circuit. Thus,

v TH = v OC = v xy = 0

and also

i SC = 0

This means that the given network is some mathematical model representing a resistance, but we cannot find this resistance from the expression

v OC R TH = R N = -------i SC

since this results in the indeterminate form 0 ⁄ 0 . In this type of situations, we connect an external source (voltage or current) across the terminals x and y. For this example, we arbitrarily choose to connect a 1 volt source as shown in Figure 3.48.

iX 3Ω 3Ω 6Ω

x

− − 1V

+

− 20i X V

+

y

i

Figure 3.48. Network for Example 3.11 with an external voltage source connected to it.

3-36

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Norton’s Theorem

In the circuit of Figure 3.48, the 1 V source represents the open circuit voltage v OC and the current i represents the short circuit current i SC . Therefore, the Thevenin (or Norton) resistance will be found from the expression

v OC R TH = R N = -------- = 1 V = 1 V --------------i iX i SC

(3.50) .

**Now, we can find i from the circuit of Figure 3.49 by application of KCL at Node
**

v1 3Ω iX 3Ω 6Ω

x

− − 1V

+

− 20i X V

+

y

i

Figure 3.49. Circuit for finding i X in Example 3.11 v 1 – 20i X v 1 --------------------- + ---- + i X = 0 6 3

(3.51)

where

v1 – 1 i X = ------------3

(3.52)

**Simultaneous solution of (3.51) and (3.52) yields v 1 = 34 ⁄ 25 and i X = 3 ⁄ 25 . Then, from (3.50),
**

1 R TH = R N = ------------ = 25 ----3 ⁄ 25 3

**and the Thevenin and Norton equivalents are shown in Figure 3.50.
**

R TH v TH = 0

25/3 Ω

RN iN = 0

25/3 Ω

Figure 3.50. Thevenin’s and Norton’s equivalents for Example 3.11

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-37

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems 3.7 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
**

Consider the circuit shown in Figure 3.51. We want to find the value of R LOAD which will absorb maximum power from the voltage source v S whose internal resistance is R S .

RS − vS −

+

v LOAD

+

i LOAD R LOAD

−

Figure 3.51. Circuit for computation of maximum power delivered to the load R LOAD

**The power p LOAD delivered to the load is found from
**

R LOAD vS p LOAD = v LOAD × i LOAD = ⎛ ---------------------------- v S⎞ ⎛ ---------------------------- ⎞ ⎝ R S + R LOAD ⎠ ⎝ R S + R LOAD ⎠

or

R LOAD - 2 p LOAD = ----------------------------------- v S 2 ( R S + R LOAD )

(3.53)

**To find the value of R LOAD which will make p LOAD maximum, we differentiate (3.53) with respect to
**

R LOAD . Recalling that d d v (u) – u (v) d ⎛ u⎞ dx dx -- = --------------------------------------2 d x ⎝ v⎠ v

**and differentiating (3.53), we get
**

( R S + R LOAD ) v S – v S R LOAD ( 2 ) ( R S + R LOAD ) dp LOAD = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 d R LOAD (R + R )

S LOAD 2 2 2

(3.54)

**and (3.54) will be zero if the numerator is set equal to zero, that is,
**

( R S + R LOAD ) v S – v S R LOAD ( 2 ) ( R S + R LOAD ) = 0

2 2 2

or

R S + R LOAD = 2R LOAD

or

3-38

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Linearity

R LOAD = R S

(3.55)

Therefore, we conclude that a voltage source with internal series resistance R S or a current source with internal parallel resistance R P delivers maximum power to a load R LOAD when R LOAD = R S or

R LOAD = R P . For example, in the circuits of 3.52, the voltage source v S and current source i N

**deliver maximum power to the adjustable* load when R LOAD = R S = R P = 5 Ω
**

RS 5 Ω

+

−

R LOAD vS

5Ω

+

−

RN iS

R LOAD 5Ω

5Ω

Figure 3.52. Circuits where R LOAD is set to receive maximum power

We can use Excel or MATLAB to see that the load receives maximum power when it is set to the same value as that of the resistance of the source. Figure 3.53 shows a spreadsheet with various values of an adjustable resistive load. We observe that the power is maximum when R LOAD = 5 Ω . The condition of maximum power transfer is also referred to as resistance matching or impedance matching. We will define the term “impedance” in Chapter 6. The maximum power transfer theorem is of great importance in electronics and communications applications where it is desirable to receive maximum power from a given circuit and efficiency is not an important consideration. On the other hand, in power systems, this application is of no use since the intent is to supply a large amount of power to a given load by making the internal resistance R S as small as possible.

3.8 Linearity

A linear passive element is one in which there is a linear voltage-current relationship such as

v R = Ri R d vL = L iL dt d iC = C vC dt

(3.56)

*

An adjustable resistor is usually denoted with an arrow as shown in Figure 3.52.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-39

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems

RLOAD 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

PLOAD 0.00 2.78 4.69 4.94 5.00 4.96 4.86 4.73 4.59 4.44 4.15 4.01 3.88 3.75 3.63

Power (Watts)

**Maximum Power Transfer 6 5
**

Power (Watts)

4.08

4 3 2 1 0

0 5 10 Resistance (Ohms) - Linear Scale 15 20

**Maximum Power Transfer
**

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 10 Resistance (Ohms) - Log Scale 100

4.30

Figure 3.53. Spreadsheet to illustrate maximum power transfer to a resistive load

Definition 3.1

A linear dependent source is a dependent voltage or current source whose output voltage or current is proportional only to the first power of some voltage or current variable in the circuit or a linear combination (the sum or difference of such variables). For example, v xy = 2v1 – 3i 2 is a linear relationship but p = vi = Ri 2 = v 2 ⁄ R and i = I S e

v ⁄ nV T

are non-linear.

Definition 3.2

A linear circuit is a circuit which is composed entirely of independent sources, linear dependent sources and linear passive elements or a combination of these.

3-40

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Superposition Principle 3.9 Superposition Principle
**

The principle of superposition states that the response (a desired voltage or current) in any branch of a linear circuit having more than one independent source can be obtained as the sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone with all other independent voltage sources replaced by short circuits and all other independent current sources replaced by open circuits. Note: Dependent sources (voltage or current) must not be superimposed since their values depend on the voltage across or the current through some other branch of the circuit. Therefore, all dependent sources must always be left intact in the circuit while superposition is applied. Example 3.12 For the circuit of Figure 3.54, compute i 6 by application of the superposition principle.

2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω

+

12 V

+

−

4Ω i6

6Ω

12 Ω

5A Figure 3.54. Circuit for Example 3.12

Solution: Let i' 6 represent the current due to the 12 V source acting alone, i'' 6 the current due to the 36 V source acting alone, and i''' 6 the current due to the 5 A source acting alone. Then, by the principle of superposition,

i 6 = i' 6 + i'' 6 + i''' 6

First, to find i' 6 we short the 36 V voltage source and open the 5 A current source. The circuit then reduces to that shown in Figure 3.55. Applying Thevenin’s theorem at points x and y of Figure 3.55, we obtain the circuit of Figure 3.56 and from it we get

4 × 12 v xy = v TH = -------------- = 8 V 2+4

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-41

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

2Ω 8Ω x × 10 Ω

+

12 V

−

4Ω

6Ω i' 6 ×

12 Ω

y

Figure 3.55. Circuit for finding i' 6 in Example 3.12 2Ω 8Ω x ×

− − 12 V

+

4Ω

y

×

Figure 3.56. Circuit for computing the Thevenin voltage to find i' 6 in Example 3.12

**Next, we will use the circuit of Figure 3.57 to find the Thevenin resistance. 2Ω 8Ω x
**

×

4Ω

RTH

y

×

Figure 3.57. Circuit for computing the Thevenin resistance to find i' 6 in Example 3.12 28 4×2 R TH = 8 + ------------ = ----- Ω 3 4+2

We find the current i' 6 from Figure 3.58.

3-42

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Superposition Principle

RTH vTH 10 Ω

+

8V

− i' 6

6Ω

12 Ω

Figure 3.58. Circuit for computing i' 6 in Example 3.12 12 8 i' 6 = ---------------------- = ----- A 23 28 ⁄ 3 + 6

(3.57)

**Next, the current i'' 6 due to the 36 V source acting alone is found from the circuit of Figure 3.59.
**

2Ω 36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω

+

4Ω i'' 6

6Ω

12 Ω

Figure 3.59. Circuit for finding i'' 6 in Example 3.12

and after combination of the 2 Ω and 4 Ω parallel resistors to a single resistor, the circuit simplifies to that shown in Figure 3.60.

36 V 8Ω − 10 Ω

+

4 -- Ω 3 i'' 6

+

6Ω − 12 Ω

Figure 3.60. Simplification of the circuit of Figure 3.59 to compute i'' 6 for Example 3.12

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-43

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

From the circuit of Figure 3.60, we get

54 36 i'' 6 = – ----------------------------- = – ----- A 23 4⁄3+8+6

(3.58)

Finally, to find i''' 6 , we short the voltage sources, and with the 5 A current source acting alone the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 3.61.

2Ω 8Ω 10 Ω

4Ω i''' 6

6Ω

12 Ω

5A Figure 3.61. Circuit for finding i''' 6 in Example 3.12

**Replacing the 2 Ω , 4 Ω , and 8 Ω resistors by a single resistor, we get
**

28 2×4 ------------ + 8 = ----- Ω 3 2+4

**and the circuit of Figure 3.61 reduces to that shown in Figure 3.62.
**

10 Ω 28 ----- Ω 3 i''' 6 6Ω 5A 12 Ω

Figure 3.62. Simplification of the circuit of Figure 3.59 to compute i''' 6 for Example 3.12

**We will use the current division expression in the circuit of Figure 3.62 to find i''' 6 . Thus,
**

28 ⁄ 3 70 i''' 6 = ---------------------- × ( – 5 ) = – ----28 ⁄ 3 + 6 23

(3.59)

Therefore, from (3.57), (3.58), and (3.59) we get

3-44

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

RTH vTH 1 KΩ Diode. Circuit for Example 3.13 Solution: The current i D through the diode is also the current through the resistor.v (current-voltage) relationships are non-linear. we can apply Thevenin’s theorem to reduce the circuit to a Thevenin equivalent in series with the non-linear element.5. If a circuit contains only one non-linear device. Then. Example 3.----.----23 23 23 23 or i 6 = – 4. The procedure is illustrated with the following example.63. However. however we will see how operational amplifiers can be represented by equivalent linear circuits in the next chapter.13 For the circuit of Figure 3. such as a diode.60) and this is the same value as that of Example 3. we can analyze the circuit using a graphical solution. for small signals (voltages or currents) these circuits can be represented by linear equivalent circuit models.10 Circuits with Non-Linear Devices Most electronic circuits contain non-linear devices such as diodes and transistors whose i . and all the other devices are linear.Circuits with Non-Linear Devices 112 i 6 = i' 6 + i'' 6 + i''' 6 = 12 – 54 – 70 = – -----------.87 A (3. 3. We wish to find the voltage v D across the diode and the current i D through this diode using a graphical solution. the i – v characteristics of the diode D are shown in figure 3. Then. A detailed discussion of these is beyond the scope of this text.63.64. conducts current only in the indicated direction + 1V − − vD D iD Figure 3. by KVL Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-45 .

the voltage drop v R across the resistor is v R = 1 kΩ × 0.0 0.2 0. The intersection of the non-linear curve and the straight line yields the voltage and the current of the diode where we find that v D = 0.335 + 0.0 0.6 0.335 V .4 1.2 0.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .0 0.9 1.335 mA . Diode i-v characteristics vR + vD = 1 V or Ri D = – v D + 1 or 1 1 i D = – -.61) We observe that (3.335 mA = 0.2 i D (milliamps) 1. i R = 0.1 0.3 0.8 0.335 mA also.665V and i D = 0. Then.6 0.v D + -R R (3. by KVL v R + v D = 0.8 0. then.0 vD (volts) Figure 3. We obtain the straight line shown in Figure 3.665 = 1 V 3-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7 0.4 0.4 0. Check: Since this is a series circuit. i D = 0 .61) is an equation of a straight line and the two points are obtained from it by first letting v D = 0 .64.65 which is plotted on the same graph as the given diode i – v characteristics.Circuit Theorems 1. Therefore.5 0.

26 0. such as copper.1 0.30 Diode Current (milliamps) 0.18 0.2 1.000 0.0 0.2 0.14 0.14 In a two-story industrial building.3 0.7 0.000 0.22 0.× 100 = -----------------------------------. Output Output % Efficiency = % η = ----------------.2 0.06 0. while the total load of the second floor draws 40 amperes at the same time.13 ID (milliamps) VD (volts) Figure 3. Assuming that the total resistance of the Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-47 .000 0.000 0. Curves for determining voltage and current in a diode 3.02 0. Thus.11 Efficiency We have learned that the power absorbed by a resistor can be found from p R = i R and this power is transformed into heat.000 0.65. The building receives its electric power from a 480 V source.9 1.20 0.12 0.4 1.10 0.000 1.16 0.08 0.× 100 Input Output + Loss (3.Efficiency Diode Voltage (Volts) 0.62) Obviously. Accordingly. In a long length of a conductive material.000 0.000 0. the total load on the first floor draws an average of 60 amperes during peak activity.000 0.04 0.24 0.000 0.28 0.4 0.000 0.4 0.0 ID=−(1/R)VD+1/R Diode I-V Relationship for Circuit of Example 3. we define efficiency η as Output Efficiency = η = Output = ---------------------------------------------------Input Output + Loss 2 2 2 The efficiency η is normally expressed as a percentage.000 0.0 0.00 0.0 0. a good efficiency should be close to 100% Example 3.5 0.6 0. this lost power is known as i R loss and thus the energy received by the load is equal to the energy transmitted minus the i R loss.000 0.000 0.000 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.000 0.

8 Ω 0.68) 3-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we draw a circuit that represents the electrical system of this building.8 Ω ) = 40 × 1.56 = 6.5 Ω ) = 60 × 1 = 3.66.× 100 = 87.65) Total power loss: p loss = p loss1 + p loss2 = 3. compute the efficiency of transmission.67) (3.84 % Efficiency = % η = ----------------.60 + 2.14 Power p S supplied by the source: p S = v S ( i 1 + i 2 ) = 480 × ( 60 + 40 ) = 48 kilowatts (3.63) Power loss between source and 1st floor load: p loss1 = i 1 ( 0. 0.6 = 2.× 100 = -----------.66) Total power p L received by 1st and 2nd floor loads: p L = p S – p loss = 48.8 Ω + 0.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .64) Power loss between source and 2nd floor load: p loss2 = i 2 ( 0.6 Ω .6 kilowatts 2 2 (3.00 – 6.84 kilowatts Output 41.8 Ω vS 480 V − − 0.56 kilowatts 2 2 (3.16 = 41.Circuit Theorems cables (copper conductors) on the first floor is 1 Ω and on the second floor is 1. This is shown in Figure 3.17 % Input 48.16 kilowatts (3.5 Ω 60 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 40 A + 2nd Floor Load Figure 3.00 (3.66. Circuit for Example 3. Solution: First.5 Ω + 0.5 Ω 0.

we must write L = M = B – N + 1 independent loop or mesh equations in order to com- pletely describe that circuit. for a circuit that contains M meshes or L loops. the total voltage drop in the conductors is 60 × 1 = 60 V .Regulation 3.69) Example 3. we create combined nodes as illustrated in Example 3. Solution: The current drawn by 1st floor load is given as 60 A and the total resistance from the source to the load as 1 Ω . Thus. • When using nodal analysis. Then.× 100 v FL (3. the regulation is defined as In other words. we create combined meshes as illustrated in Example 3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-49 .3 % v FL 420 3.12 Regulation The regulation is defined as the ratio of the change in load voltage when the load changes from no load (NL) to full load (FL) divided by the full load.× 100 = 14. v NL – v FL %Regulation = ---------------------. the fullload voltage of the load is v FL = ( 480 – 60 = 420 V ) and the percent regulation is v NL – v FL 480 – 420 % Regulation = ---------------------.15 Compute the regulation for the 1st floor load of the previous example.6. Thus. denoting the no-load voltage as v NL and the full-load voltage as v FL . B branches. and N nodes.2. When the presence of voltage sources in a circuit seem to complicate the nodal analysis because we do not know the current through those voltage sources. for a circuit that contains N nodes.× 100 = ----------------------. Therefore.13 Summary • When using nodal analysis. v NL – v FL Regulation = ---------------------v FL The regulation is also expressed as a percentage. When the presence of current sources in a circuit seem to complicate the mesh or loop analysis because we do not know the voltage across those current sources. we must write N – 1 independent nodal equations in order to completely describe that circuit.

• A linear circuit is composed entirely of independent voltage sources. the value of R TH can be found by first shorting all independent voltage sources.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . by a voltage source denoted as v TH in series with a resistance denoted as R TH . If the circuit contains independent voltage and independent current sources only. • A practical voltage source v S in series with a resistance R S can be replaced by a current source i S whose value is v S ⁄ i S in parallel with a resistance R P whose value is the same as R S • A practical current source i S in parallel with a resistance R P can be replaced by a voltage source v S whose value is equal to i S × R S in series with a resistance R S whose value is the same as R P • Thevenin’s theorem states that in a two terminal network we can be replace everything except the load. independent current sources. opening all independent current sources. inductors. and linear passive devices such as resistors. If the circuit contains dependent sources.Circuit Theorems • A practical voltage source has an internal resistance and it is represented by a voltage source whose value is the value of the ideal voltage source in series with a resistance whose value is the value of the internal resistance. by a current source denoted as i N in parallel with a resistance denoted as R N . and calculating the resistance looking into the direction which is opposite to the disconnected load. The value of i N represents the short circuit current where the circuit is isolated from the load and R N is the equivalent resistance of that part of the isolated circuit. linear dependent sources. the value of R TH must be computed from the relation R TH = v OC ⁄ i SC • Norton’s theorem states that in a two terminal network we can be replace everything except the load. 3-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the value of R N must be computed from the relation R N = v OC ⁄ i SC • The maximum power transfer theorem states that a voltage source with a series resistance R S or a current source with parallel resistance R S delivers maximum power to a load R LOAD when R LOAD = R S or R LOAD = R N • Linearity implies that there is a linear voltage−current relationship. and calculating the resistance looking into the direction which is opposite to the disconnected load. and capacitors. the value of R N can be found by first shorting all independent voltage sources. If a given circuit contains independent voltage and independent current sources only. If the circuit contains dependent sources. The value of v TH represents the open circuit voltage where the circuit is isolated from the load and R TH is the equivalent resistance of that part of the isolated circuit. • A practical current source has an internal conductance and it is represented by a current source whose value is the value of the ideal current source in parallel with a conductance whose value is the value of the internal conductance. opening all independent current sources.

It is normally expressed as a percentage. • Regulation is defined as the ratio of v NL – v FL to v FL and ideally should be close to zero. • Efficiency is defined as the ratio of output to input and thus it is never greater than unity. It is normally expressed as a percentage.Summary • The principle of superposition states that the response (a desired voltage or current) in any branch of a linear circuit having more than one independent source can be obtained as the sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone with all other independent voltage sources replaced by short circuits and all other independent current sources replaced by open circuits. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-51 . .

The voltage across the 2 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3. The current i in the circuit of Figure 3. – 2 A B.67 is A.Circuit Theorems 3. none of the above − 6V + 2Ω 8A + − 8A Figure 3. 4 A E.68 is A. 6 V B. 3 A D.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . Circuit for Question 2 3-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 16 V C.68. 5 A C. Circuit for Question 1 2.14 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. none of the above + 2Ω − 10 V − 4V 2Ω 2Ω i 2Ω + Figure 3. 32 V E. – 8 V D.67.

Exercises 3. 6 A E. – 4 A B.69. – 8 A C. – 6 A E. Circuit for Question 4 + − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-53 .69 are relative to some reference node which is not shown. – 3 A B. The node voltages shown in the partial network of Figure 3. none of the above 4V 6V 2Ω + 6V i 2Ω − 12 V 8V + − 8V 8V 2Ω 13 V Figure 3. The current i is A.70. none of the above 6Ω 12 V 3Ω 6Ω 8A i 3Ω + − Figure 3. 8 ⁄ 3 A C. – 5 A D.70 is A. The value of the current i for the circuit of Figure 3. – 9 A D. Circuit for Question 3 4.

4 V B. 6 V C. no solution is possible if the value of k is A. Circuit for Question 6 4Ω + kv − 3-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For that circuit. 8 V D. none of the above + 2A 4Ω v − Figure 3.72. ∞ D. Circuit for Question 5 vX 2Ω + 2v X − − 6. the value of k is dimensionless. For the circuit of Figure 3. 1 C. 0 E. none of the above + + 2A 2Ω v − Figure 3.71. 2 B.72. The value of the voltage v for the circuit of Figure 3.71 is A. 12 V E.Circuit Theorems 5.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .

5 D. Network for Question 7 8. 1 V D. For the network of Figure 3. – 2 V C. 1 B. 5 V E. the Thevenin equivalent voltage V TH across terminals a and b is A.73. – 3 V B. none of the above a 3Ω R TH 2Ω b 2Ω 4Ω 2Ω 2Ω 2Ω Figure 3. none of the above a 2Ω 2A b Figure 3.73.74. the Thevenin equivalent resistance R TH to the right of terminals a and b is A. Network for Question 8 2Ω + 2V − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-55 .Exercises 7. For the network of Figure 3. 10 E.74. 2 C.

Network for Question 10 3-56 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the Norton equivalent current source I N and equivalent parallel resistance R N across terminals a and b are A.Circuit Theorems 9.5 A.75.76. 5Ω E. none of the above a 5Ω 5Ω b Figure 3. 1.5 Ω D. 0 A. In applying the superposition principle to the circuit of Figure 3. 2 Ω B. 1 A.75.76. – 1 A C. none of the above i 2Ω 8A 2Ω − 2Ω + 4V Figure 3. the current i due to the 4 V source acting alone is A. 8 A B. 4 A D. 4 A. – 2 A E. Network for Question 9 2A 2A 10.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . For the network of Figure 3. 2. 25 Ω C.

12 V 4Ω –1 5Ω –1 8Ω 4Ω 12 A –1 –1 + − 10 Ω v 18 A –1 –1 6Ω 18 A 24 A Figure 3. Use nodal analysis to compute the voltage v 6 Ω in the circuit of Figure 3. Answer: 86.Exercises Problems 1.77. Use mesh analysis to compute the current through the i 6 Ω resistor.6 V + 12 Ω 36 V 15 Ω − + 4Ω 12 A 6Ω 18 A v6 Ω − 24 A Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 1 2. – 499.34 V 5.81. Circuit for Problem 2 3.9 A.78.33 w 6.77. Answers: – 3.78. – 499.79. Use nodal analysis to compute the current through the 6 Ω resistor and the power supplied (or absorbed) by the dependent source shown in Figure 3. and the power supplied (or absorbed) by the dependent source shown in Figure 3. Answers: – 3. Answer: 21. Use mesh analysis to compute the voltage v 10 Ω in Figure 3.9 A. Answer: 1.80.5 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-57 .17 w 4. Use nodal analysis to compute the voltage across the 18 A current source in the circuit of Figure 3.82. Use mesh analysis to compute the voltage v 36A in Figure 3. Answer: 0.

81. Circuit for Problem 3 120 V 4Ω 8Ω 12 Ω 240 V 3Ω + + − 36 V + + 4Ω 12 A 36 A − v 36A 6Ω 24 A Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 4 18 A 12 Ω iX 6Ω 4Ω 12 A i6 Ω 15 Ω − + − 5i X 24 A Figure 3.Circuit Theorems 18 A 12 Ω iX 6Ω 4Ω 12 A − i6 Ω 15 Ω + − 5i X 24 A Figure 3.79.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .80. Circuit for Problem 5 + − 36 V 3-58 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Compute the power absorbed by the 10 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3.84.32 w 2Ω 3Ω − 6Ω + 8.83. Compute the power absorbed by the 20 Ω resistor in the circuit of Figure 3.85: a. In the circuit of Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 7 Figure 3. To what value should the load resistor R LOAD should be adjusted to so that it will absorb maximum power? Answer: 2.84 using any method.73 w + 20 Ω − 9. Answer: 1.82. Circuit for Problem 6 + − 12 V 2Ω 6A 10 Ω + 24 V − 36 V 12 V 3Ω 8A Figure 3.83 using any method.Exercises 10i X 12 Ω 4Ω − 15 Ω 8Ω 6Ω + iX 10 Ω v 10 Ω − + 7.4 Ω Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications + − 12 V 24 V Figure 3. Answer: 73. Circuit for Problem 8 3-59 .

Circuit for Problem 10 5Ω iX 11. R N = 23. Replace the network shown in Figure 3.85.Circuit Theorems b.86. What would then the power absorbed by R LOAD be? Answer: 135 w + 12 Ω − 36 V 15 Ω 4Ω 12 A 18 A 6Ω R LOAD Figure 3.75 Ω a 15 Ω 4Ω 5iX b Figure 3.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .86 by its Norton equivalent.87. Answer: 1. Use the superposition principle to compute the voltage v 18A in the circuit of Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 9 10.87.12 V 4Ω –1 5Ω –1 8Ω 4Ω 12 A –1 –1 + − 10 Ω v 18 A –1 –1 6Ω 18 A 24 A Figure 3. Circuit for Problem 11 3-60 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Answers: i N = 0.

Exercises

12. Use the superposition principle to compute voltage v 6 Ω in the circuit of Figure 3.88. Answer: 21.6 V +

12 Ω 36 V 15 Ω −

+

4Ω 12 A 6Ω 18 A v6 Ω − 24 A

Figure 3.88. Circuit for Problem 12

**13.In the circuit of Figure 3.89, v S1 and v S2 are adjustable voltage sources in the range
**

– 50 ≤ V ≤ 50 V, and R S1 and R S2 represent their internal resistances. Table 3.4 shows the results

of several measurements. In Measurement 3 the load resistance is adjusted to the same value as Measurement 1, and in Measurement 4 the load resistance is adjusted to the same value as Measurement 2. For Measurements 5 and 6 the load resistance is adjusted to 1 Ω . Make the necessary computations to fill-in the blank cells of this table.

TABLE 3.4 Table for Problem 13

Measurement 1 2 3 4 5 6

Switch S 1 Closed Open Closed Open Closed Closed

Switch S 2 Open Closed Open Closed Closed Closed

v S1 (V)

v S2 (V)

i LOAD (A)

48 0 0 15

0 36 0 −42 18 24

16 6 −5

0

Answers: – 15 V , – 7 A , 11 A , – 24 V

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-61

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

+

R S1 1 Ω R S2

−

1Ω − v S2 S2

i LOAD v LOAD

v S1 S1

Adjustable Resistive Load

**14. Compute the efficiency of the electrical system of Figure 3.90. Answer: 76.6%
**

0.8 Ω vS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω Figure 3.90. Electrical system for Problem 14 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

15. Compute the regulation for the 2st floor load of the electrical system of Figure 3.91. Answer: 36.4%

0.8 Ω VS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω Figure 3.91. Circuit for Problem 15 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

+

Figure 3.89. Network for Problem 13

+

−

+

2nd Floor Load

+

2nd Floor Load

3-62

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Exercises

16. Write a set of nodal equations and then use MATLAB to compute i LOAD and v LOAD for the circuit of Example 3.10 which is repeated as Figure 3.92 for convenience. Answers: – 0.96 A, – 7.68 V +

3Ω 6Ω 5Ω Figure 3.92. Circuit for Problem 16 − 3Ω − − 12 V 7Ω 4Ω v LOAD

20i X 10 Ω

+

iX

+

i LOAD RL

− 8Ω

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-63

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems 3.15 Answers to Exercises
**

Multiple Choice 1. E The current entering Node A is equal to the current leaving that node. Therefore, there is no current through the 2 Ω resistor and the voltage across it is zero.

−

6V

+

2Ω 8A A 8A 8A

+

− 8A

**2. C From the figure below, V AC = 4 V . Also, V AB = V BC = 2 V and V AD = 10 V . Then,
**

V BD = V AD – V AB = 10 – 2 = 8 V a n d V CD = V BD – V BC = 8 – 2 = 6 V . T h e r e f o r e , i = 6 ⁄ 2 = 3 A.

+

2Ω

−

4V 2Ω C 2Ω i

A − 10 V

B 2Ω D

+

3. A From the figure below we observe that the node voltage at A is 6 V relative to the reference node which is not shown. Therefore, the node voltage at B is 6 + 12 = 18 V relative to the same reference node. The voltage across the resistor is V BC = 18 – 6 = 12 V and the direction of current through the 3 Ω resistor is opposite to that shown since Node B is at a higher potential than Node C. Thus i = – 12 ⁄ 3 = – 4 A

4V 6V A

2Ω

+

6V C 3Ω i B

−

12 V 8V

+

−

8V

8V

2Ω 13 V

3-64

+

−

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

4. E We assign node voltages at Nodes A and B as shown below.

6Ω 12 V A 3Ω 6Ω B i 8A 3Ω

+

−

At Node A

V A – 12 V A V A – V B ----------------- + ----- + ------------------ = 0 6 3 6

and at Node B

VB – VA VB ------------------ + ----- = 8 3 3

These simplify to

2 -- V A – 1 V B = 2 -3 3

and

2 1 – -- V A + -- V B = 8 3 3

**Multiplication of the last equation by 2 and addition with the first yields V B = 18 and thus
**

i = – 18 ⁄ 3 = – 6 A .

**5. E Application of KCL at Node A of the circuit below yields
**

A + vX + 2A 2Ω v − 2Ω + 2v X − −

v v – 2v X -- + ---------------- = 2 2 2

or

v – vX = 2

Also by KVL

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-65

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

v = v X + 2v X

and by substitution

v X + 2v X – v X = 2

or

vX = 1

and thus

v = v X + 2v X = 1 + 2 × 1 = 3 V

**6. A Application of KCL at Node A of the circuit below yields
**

A + 2A 4Ω v − 4Ω + kv −

v v – kv -- + ------------- = 2 4 4

or

1 -- ( 2v – kv ) = 2 4

and this relation is meaningless if k = 2 . Thus, this circuit has solutions only if k ≠ 2 . 7. B The two 2 Ω resistors on the right are in series and the two 2 Ω resistors on the left shown in the figure below are in parallel.

a 3Ω R TH 2Ω b 2Ω

2Ω 4Ω

2Ω

2Ω

Starting on the right side and proceeding to the left we get 2 + 2 = 4 , 4 || 4 = 2 , 2 + 2 = 4 , 4 || ( 3 + 2 || 2 ) = 4 || ( 3 + 1 ) = 4 || 4 = 2 Ω .

3-66

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

8. A Replacing the current source and its 2 Ω parallel resistance with an equivalent voltage source in series with a 2 Ω resistance we get the network shown below. +

− 2V 2Ω 2Ω i − 4V b a

**By Ohm’s law,
**

4–2 i = ----------- = 0.5 A 2+2

and thus

v TH = v ab = 2 × 0.5 + ( – 4 ) = – 3 V

9. D The Norton equivalent current source I N is found by placing a short across the terminals a and b. This short shorts out the 5 Ω resistor and thus the circuit reduces to the one shown below.

a 5Ω 2A b I SC = I N A 2A

**By KCL at Node A,
**

IN + 2 = 2

and thus I N = 0 The Norton equivalent resistance R N is found by opening the current sources and looking to the right of terminals a and b. When this is done, the circuit reduces to the one shown below.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

+

3-67

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

a 5Ω 5Ω b

Therefore, R N = 5 Ω and the Norton equivalent circuit consists of just a 5 Ω resistor. 10. B With the 4 V source acting alone, the circuit is as shown below.

i − + 2Ω − B 2Ω + − A 2Ω

+ 4V

We observe that v AB = 4 V and thus the voltage drop across each of the 2 Ω resistors to the left of the 4 V source is 2 V with the indicated polarities. Therefore,

i = –2 ⁄ 2 = –1 A

Problems 1. We first replace the parallel conductances with their equivalents and the circuit simplifies to that shown below.

v 1 12 Ω 1 4Ω 12 A

–1 –1

v 2 15 Ω 2

–1

v3 3

+

v 18 A 18 A − 6Ω

–1

24 A

**Applying nodal analysis at Nodes 1, 2, and 3 we get: Node 1:
**

16v 1 – 12v2 = 12

Node 2:

– 12 v 1 + 27v 2 – 15v 3 = – 18

3-68

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

Node 3:

– 15 v 2 + 21v 3 = 24

**Simplifying the above equations, we get:
**

4v 1 – 3v 2 = 3 – 4 v 1 + 9v 2 – 5v 3 = – 6 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 8

**Addition of the first two equations above and grouping with the third yields
**

6v 2 – 5v 3 = – 3 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 8

For this problem we are only interested in v 2 = v 18 A . Therefore, we will use Cramer’s rule to solve for v 2 . Thus,

D2 v 2 = ----∆ D 2 = – 3 – 5 = – 21 + 40 = 19 8 7 ∆ = 6 – 5 = 42 – 25 = 17 –5 7

and

v 2 = v 18 A = 19 ⁄ 17 = 1.12 V

2. Since we cannot write an expression for the current through the 36 V source, we form a combined node as shown on the circuit below. +

v1 1 4Ω 12 A 36 V v3 12 Ω 2 v 2 15 Ω 3 −

+

6Ω 18 A v6 Ω − 24 A

**At Node 1 (combined node):
**

v1 v1 – v2 v3 – v2 v3 ---- + --------------- + --------------- + ---- – 12 – 24 = 0 4 6 12 15

and at Node 2,

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-69

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

v2 – v1 v2 – v3 --------------- + --------------- = – 18 12 15

Also,

v 1 – v 3 = 36

**Simplifying the above equations, we get:
**

7 1 3 -- v 1 – ----- v 2 + ----- v 3 = 36 30 3 20 311 – ----- v 1 + ----- v 2 – ----- v 3 = – 18 20 15 12 v1 – v 3 = 36

**Addition of the first two equations above and multiplication of the third by – 1 ⁄ 4 yields
**

1 --- v 1 + 1 v 3 = 18 6 4 1 1 – -- v 1 + -- v 3 = – 9 4 4

**and by adding the last two equations we get
**

5----- v 3 = 9 12

or

108 v 3 = v 6 Ω = -------- = 21.6V 5

**Check with MATLAB:
**

format rat R=[1/3 −3/20 7/30; −1/12 3/20 −1/15; 1 0 −1]; I=[36 −18 36]'; V=R\I; fprintf('\n'); disp('v1='); disp(V(1)); disp('v2='); disp(V(2)); disp('v3='); disp(V(3))

**v1= 288/5 v2= -392/5 v3= 108/5 3. We assign node voltages
**

v1 , v2 , v3 , v4

and current i Y as shown in the circuit below. Then,

3-70

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

v1 v1 – v2 ---- + --------------- + 18 – 12 = 0 4 12

and

v2 – v1 v2 – v3 v2 – v4 --------------- + --------------- + --------------- = 0 12 12 6

v1

12 Ω v 2 iX 6Ω

18 A 15 Ω

v3

+

i6 Ω − 36 V −

4Ω 12 A

v4

5i X iY 24 A

**Simplifying the last two equations above, we get
**

1 1 -- v 1 – ----- v 2 = – 6 3 12

+

and

111 19 – ----- v 1 + ----- v 2 – ----- v 3 – -- v 4 = 0 12 15 6 60 5 1 2 Next, we observe that i X = --------------- , v 3 = 5i X and v 4 = 36 V . Then v 3 = ----- ( v 1 – v 2 ) and by 12 v –v 12

**substitution into the last equation above, we get
**

19 1 1 5 1 – ----- v 1 + ----- v 2 – ----- × ----- ( v 1 – v 2 ) – -- 36 = 0 60 6 15 12 12

or

1 31 – -- v 1 + ----- v 2 = 6 9 90

**Thus, we have two equations with two unknowns, that is,
**

1 1 -- v 1 – ----- v 2 = – 6 3 12 31 1 – -- v 1 + ----- v 2 = 6 90 9

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-71

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .-------v 3 = ----. we must first find the current i Y .v 1 – ----.v 2 = 4 60 or v 2 = 240 ⁄ 19 We find v 1 from 1 1 -.v 2 = – 6 3 12 Thus.= – ----.⎛ – 282 – 240⎞ = – 435 12 12 ⎝ 19 38 19 ⎠ Therefore. 1.( v 1 – v 2 ) = ----. we find v 3 from 55-----------------.9 A 6 6 19 To compute the power supplied (or absorbed) by the dependent source. the node voltages of interest are: v 1 = – 282 ⁄ 19 V v 2 = 240 ⁄ 19 V v 3 = – 435 ⁄ 38 V v 4 = 36 V The current through the 6 Ω resistor is v2 – v4 74 240 ⁄ 19 – 36 i 6 Ω = --------------.-------1 -.= 0 15 or 3-72 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= -----------------------------.v 1 – ----.Circuit Theorems Multiplication of the first equation above by 1 ⁄ 3 and addition with the second yields 19 ----. v3 – v2 i Y – 24 – 18 + --------------.= – 3.× 240 = – 6 12 19 3 or v 1 = – 282 ⁄ 19 Now. Thus. It is found by application of KCL at node voltage v 3 .

Since we cannot write an expression for the 36 A current source.Answers to Exercises – 435 ⁄ 38 – 240 ⁄ 19 i Y = 42 – ---------------------------------------------15 915 ⁄ 38 1657 = 42 + -----------------. we temporarily remove it and we form a combined mesh for Meshes 2 and 3 as shown below. − 120 V 4Ω + + 240 V 3Ω − i6 8Ω i5 12 Ω 4Ω 12 A i1 i2 i3 6Ω i4 24 A Mesh 1: i 1 = 12 Combined mesh (2 and 3): – 4i 1 + 12i 2 + 18i 3 – 6i 4 – 8i 5 – 12i 6 = 0 or – 2i 1 + 6i 2 + 9i 3 – 3i 4 – 4i 5 – 6i 6 = 0 We now re-insert the 36 A current source and we write the third equation as i 2 – i 3 = 36 Mesh 4: i 4 = – 24 Mesh 5: – 8 i 2 + 12i 5 = 120 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-73 .= ----------15 38 and 1657 --------------------p = v 3 i Y = – 435 × ----------. the dependent source supplies power to the circuit. 4.17 w 38 145 38 that is.= – 72379 = – 499.

..Circuit Theorems – 2 i 2 + 3i 5 = 30 Mesh 6: – 12 i 3 + 15i 6 = – 240 or – 4 i 3 + 5i 6 = – 80 Thus..2f A \t'.. I(2)). I=R\V. −2 6 9 −3 −4 −6. we have the following system of equations: i1 i2 – i3 i4 –2 i2 –4 i3 + 3i 5 = 12 = 36 = – 24 = 30 + 5i 6 = – 80 – 2i 1 + 6i 2 + 9i 3 – 3i 4 – 4i 5 – 6i 6 = 0 and in matrix form 1 –2 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 –2 0 0 9 –1 0 0 –4 0 –3 0 1 0 0 0 –4 0 0 3 0 0 –6 0 0 0 5 i1 i2 i3 ⋅ i4 i5 i6 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 12 0 36 – 24 30 – 80 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V We find the currents i 1 through i 6 with the following MATLAB code: R=[1 0 0 0 0 0.. fprintf('i1=%7.2f A \t'. V=[12 0 36 −24 30 −80]'.. 0 0 0 1 0 0... 0 1 −1 0 0 0.2f A \t'... 3-74 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ R Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . I(1)).. fprintf('\n')..Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations ... 0 0 −4 0 0 5].... fprintf('i2=%7.. fprintf('i3=%7. 0 −2 0 0 3 0. I(3)).... fprintf('\n').

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-75 . We assign mesh currents as shown below.. fprintf('\n') i1= 12.34 = 0. This is the same circuit as that of Problem 3..2f A \t'.18 ] + 86.79 ) ] + 6 × [ ( – 29.34 V To verify that this value is correct.. I(4)). fprintf('i6=%7.27 A 14.27 – 12 ] + 8 × [ 6.27 – 14.Answers to Exercises fprintf('i4=%7. We will show that we obtain the same answers using mesh analysis. we must show that v 4 Ω + v 8 Ω + v 36 A = 0 By substitution of numerical values.00 A i4= -24.2f A \t'...14 5.73 A i6= -39. Thus.00 A i2= i5= 6...18 A i3= -29.00 ) ] or v 36 A = 86. fprintf('i5=%7. I(6)).73 ) – ( – 39. I(5)). we apply KVL around Mesh 2. Thus..2f A \t'.73 ) – ( 24. we can find the voltage v 36 A by application of KVL around Mesh 3. 120 V 4Ω + + − 240 V 3Ω − i5 8Ω i6 12 Ω + 4Ω 12 A i1 i2 36 A v 36 A − i3 6Ω i4 24 A v 36 A = v 12 Ω + v 6 Ω = 12 × [ ( – 29.79 A Now.. we find that 4 × [ 6.

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .Circuit Theorems 18 A 12 Ω iX 6Ω 4Ω 12 A i6 Ω 15 Ω i5 + i3 − 5i X i4 24 A + i1 i2 − 36 V Mesh 1: i 1 = 12 Mesh 2: – 4i 1 + 22i 2 – 6i 3 – 12i 5 = – 36 or – 2i 1 + 11i 2 – 3i 3 – 6i 5 = – 18 Mesh 3: – 6 i 2 + 21i 3 – 15i 5 + 5i X = 36 and since i X = i 2 – i 5 . 3-76 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the above reduces to – 6 i 2 + 21i 3 – 15i 5 + 5i 2 – 5i 5 = 36 or – i 2 + 21i 3 – 20i 5 = 36 Mesh 4: i 4 = – 24 Mesh 5: i 5 = 18 Grouping these five independent equations we get: i1 – 2i 1 + 11i 2 – 3i 3 – i 2 + 21i 3 i4 = 12 – 6i 5 = – 18 – 20i 5 = 36 = – 24 i 5 = 18 and in matrix form.

00 ) ( 19.00 ) = – 499. fprintf('\n').61 = – 3..71 – 18.. fprintf('\n') i1= 12.. 0 −1 21 0 −20. −2 11 −3 0 −6. I=R\V.. fprintf('i5=%7.00 A i4= -24. fprintf('\n').. fprintf('i1=%7. 0 0 0 0 1].00 A By inspection. 0 0 0 1 0.71 – 19. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ i2= i5= 15.71 A 18.. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-77 .. p 5i = 5i X ( i 3 – i 4 ) = 5 ( i 2 – i 5 ) ( i 3 – i 4 ) X = 5 ( 15..00 A i3= 19. I(4)).2f A \t'.2f A \t'.... I(5)). I(2))..9 A Next.....2f A \t'. V=[12 −18 36 −24 18]'..Answers to Exercises 1 –2 0 0 0 0 11 –1 0 0 0 –3 21 0 0 R 0 0 0 –6 0 – 20 1 0 0 1 i1 i2 ⋅ i3 i4 i5 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 12 – 18 36 – 24 18 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V We find the currents i 1 through i 5 with the following MATLAB code: R=[1 0 0 0 0 . I(1)).33 w These are the same answers as those we found in Problem 3.... .61 + 24. 6. fprintf('i2=%7.. I(3)). fprintf('i3=%7..2f A \t'.61 A i 6 Ω = i 2 – i 3 = 15.2f A \t'. fprintf('i4=%7. We assign mesh currents as shown below and we write mesh equations..

Circuit Theorems 10i X 12 Ω 4Ω i1 − i4 15 Ω 8Ω i2 24 V 6Ω + iX i3 10 Ω v 10 Ω − 12 V Mesh 1: or 24i 1 – 8i 2 – 12i 4 – 24 – 12 = 0 6i 1 – 2i 2 – 3i 4 = 9 Mesh 2: Mesh 3: or – 8 i 1 + 29i 2 – 6i 3 – 15i 4 = – 24 – 6 i 2 + 16i 3 = 0 – 3 i 2 + 8i 3 = 0 Mesh 4: or i 4 = 10i X = 10 ( i 2 – i 3 ) 10i 2 – 10i 3 – i 4 = 0 Grouping these four independent equations we get: 6i 1 – 2i 2 – 3 i 2 + 8i 3 – 3i 4 = 9 = 0 – 8 i 1 + 29i 2 – 6i 3 – 15i 4 = – 24 10i 2 – 10i 3 – i 4 = 0 and in matrix form. 6 –8 0 0 –2 0 –3 29 – 6 – 15 –3 8 0 10 – 10 – 1 R i1 i2 ⋅ i3 i4 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I = 9 – 24 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V 3-78 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ + + − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .

0 −3 8 0 .⎞ × 10 = -------. that is.13 – 0.× 10 = 160 = 1. 0 10 −10 −1]. we find v 10 Ω by Ohm’s law...5 V The same value is obtained by computing the voltage across the 6 Ω resistor.. I(3)). v 6 Ω = 6 ( i 2 – i 3 ) = 6 ( 0. I(1)). I(4)). that is.. I=R\V.05 ) = 0..13 A i3= 0. 1Ω 4A 10 Ω Applying the current division expression.94 A i2= 0. fprintf('i4=%7. fprintf('\n').. we obtain the simplified circuit below. we get 4 1 i 10 Ω = -------------. V=[9 −24 0 0]'.48 V 7..79 A Now.05 = 0.× 4 = ----. I(2)).2f A \t'.. fprintf('i1=%7.. fprintf('i2=%7..05 A i4= 0. fprintf('\n') i1= 1.Answers to Exercises We find the currents i 1 through i 4 with the following MATLAB code: R=[6 −2 0 −3..32 w ⎝ 11 ⎠ 121 121 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-79 .2f A \t'..A 11 1 + 10 and thus 4.2f A \t'. −8 29 −6 −15.. Voltage-to-current source transformation yields the circuit below.. fprintf('i3=%7.2f A \t'.. v 10 Ω = 10i 3 = 10 × 0.2 162 -------p 10 Ω = i 10 Ω ( 10 ) = ⎛ ----. 2Ω 6A 8A 6Ω 6A 10 Ω 3Ω By combining all current sources and all parallel resistors except the 10 Ω resistor.

v 1 – ----. 36 V 3 2 v 2 15 Ω 12 Ω 6Ω 18 A × y v3 × x + 1 v1 4Ω 12 A Node 1: v3 – v2 v3 v1 v1 – v2 ---. v 2 .+ ---. and v 3 .Circuit Theorems 8.+ --------------.v 3 = 12 3 30 20 Node 2: 3-80 − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications − − + + 24 V .Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations . 2Ω − 20 Ω 12 V + 3Ω 12 V i From this series circuit. 48 Σv i = -----.A 25 ΣR and thus 48 2 2304 2 p 20 Ω = i ( 20 ) = ⎛ ----. We remove R LOAD from the rest of the rest of the circuit and we assign node voltages v 1 . We also form the combined node as shown on the circuit below.× 20 = 73.– 12 + --------------.⎞ × 20 = ----------.73 w ⎝ 25 ⎠ 625 9.= 0 4 6 12 15 or 1 7 3 -. Current-to-voltage source transformation yields the circuit below.= ----.v 2 + ----.

v 3 = – 18 20 12 15 Also.00 V ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ v3= -36. v2= -136. and use MATLAB for their solution.v 1 – ----.----12 20 1 0 G 7 ----30 1– ----. and we could find it by Gauss’s elimination method. for convenience.v 3 = 12 30 3 20 311– ----.00 V v TH = v 3 = – 36 V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-81 .v 2 + ----. express these in matrix form. V(2)).2f V \t'. 1 0 −1]. 7 1 3 -.2f V \t'. we are interested only in the value of v 3 which is the Thevenin voltage v TH . I=[12 −18 36]'. fprintf('v3=%7. fprintf('v1=%7.3– ----..Answers to Exercises v2 – v1 v2 – v3 --------------.= – 18 12 15 or 311– ----. fprintf('\n') v1= 0. 1 3 -.v 1 + ----. V(3)).⋅ 15 –1 v1 v2 v3 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V = 12 – 18 36 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I We find the voltages v 1 through v 3 with the following MATLAB code: G=[1/3 −3/20 7/30. fprintf('v2=%7. V(1)).v 1 + ----.+ --------------. fprintf('\n')..– ----3 20 1..v 2 – ----. we will group these three independent equations. However. v 1 – v 3 = 36 For this problem.v 3 = – 18 20 15 12 v1 – v 3 = 36 and in matrix form.2f V \t'. V=G\I.v 2 – ----. −1/12 3/20 −1/15.00 V Thus.

that is. The circuit then reduces to the resistive network below.4 Ω Now.4 Ω and the Thevenin equivalent circuit is as shown below. − + 36 V 2. 4 Ω || 6 Ω = 2. − + R LOAD = 2. we connect the load resistor R LOAD at the open terminals and we get the simple series circuit shown below. 12 Ω 4Ω 15 Ω 6Ω × x R TH × y We observe that the resistors in series are shorted out and thus the Thevenin resistance is the parallel combination of the 4 Ω and 6 Ω resistors. For maximum power transfer. R LOAD = 2.4 Ω b.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .4 Ω 2. Power under maximum power transfer condition is 3-82 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4 Ω 36 V a.Circuit Theorems To find R TH we short circuit the voltage source and we open the current sources.

20i X ---------. the Norton current source is open as shown below.+ i X = 5i X 4 or 6i X = 5i X but this can only be true if i X = 0 . a RN iX b To find R N we insert a 1 A current source as shown below.= -----.4 + 2.= ----------.⎞ × 2.Answers to Exercises 36 .4 ⎠ 10.2 2 2 p MAX = i R LOAD = ⎛ -------------------.5 × 2. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-83 . We assign a node voltage Node 1 and a mesh current for the mesh on the right as shown below.= 0 RN RN RN RN Thus.= ------------. Then. v1 1 4Ω 5iX iX b iX 15 Ω 5Ω iX a At Node 1: v1 ---. v OC v ab 5 × iX 5×0 i N = -------.+ i X = 5i X 4 Mesh on the right: ( 15 + 5 )i X = v 1 and by substitution into the node equation above.4 = 135 w ⎝ 2.4 = 7.

19 ----.Circuit Theorems vA A 4Ω 5iX iX b iX v B 15 Ω 5Ω B iX 1A a At Node A: vA vA – vB ---.v A + ----. for convenience.+ ---.= 5i X 4 15 But v B = ( 5 Ω ) × i X = 5i X and by substitution into the above relation vA vA – vB ---.v B = 0 60 15 At Node B: vB – vA vB ---------------. However.v A – ----.+ ---------------.= v B 4 15 or 19 16 ----.v A – 16 v B = 0 ----60 15 4 1 – ----.v A + ----. we are interested only in the value of v B which we could find by Gauss’s elimination method.Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations .+ ---------------. we will use MATLAB for their solution.= 1 15 5 or 1 4 – ----.v B = 1 15 15 For this problem.v B = 1 15 15 3-84 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

V=G\I.⋅ – ----. −1/15 4/15].----15 15 ⎧ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ G vA vB ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V = 0 1 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I –1 We find the voltages v 1 and v 2 with the following MATLAB code: G=[19/60 −16/15.. we can find the Norton equivalent resistance from the relation 11. Let v' 18A be the voltage due to the 12 A current source acting alone.2f V \t'. v 1 12 Ω –1 v 2 15 Ω v3 + 4Ω 12 A − –1 v' 18A 6Ω –1 The nodal equations at the three nodes are 16v 1 – 12v 2 = 12 – 12v 1 + 27v 2 – 15v 3 = 0 – 15 v 2 + 21v 3 = 0 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 3-85 .Answers to Exercises and in matrix form. fprintf('\n') vA= 80. fprintf('vB=%7. fprintf('vA=%7. I=[0 1]'.75 Ω I SC 1 Now. V(1)). fprintf('\n'). V(2)).2f V \t'..75 V V ab VB R N = ------.– ----60 15 1 4..= ----. 19 16 ----. The simplified circuit with assigned node voltages is shown below where the parallel conductances have been replaced by their equivalents.= 23. This is the same circuit as that of Problem 1.00 V vB= 23.

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

4v 1 – 3v 2 = 3

– 4v 1 + 9v 2 – 5v 3 = 0 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 0

Since v 2 = v' 18A , we only need to solve for v 2 . Adding the first 2 equations above and grouping with the third we obtain

6v 2 – 5v 3 = 3 – 5 v 2 + 7v 3 = 0

**Multiplying the first by 7 and the second by 5 we get
**

42v 2 – 35v 3 = 21 – 25 v 2 + 35v 3 = 0

**and by addition of these we get
**

21 v 2 = v' 18A = ----- V 17

Next, we let v'' 18A be the voltage due to the 18 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit with assigned node voltages is shown below where the parallel conductances have been replaced by their equivalents.

vA 12 Ω

–1

v B 15 Ω

–1

vC

+

4Ω

–1

v'' 18A 18 A −

6Ω

–1

**The nodal equations at the three nodes are
**

16v A – 12v B = 0 – 12v A + 27v B – 15v C = – 18 – 15 v B + 21v C = 0

or

3-86

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

4v A – 3v B = 0

– 4v A + 9v B – 5v C = – 6 – 5 v B + 7v C = 0

Since v B = v'' 18A , we only need to solve for v B . Adding the first 2 equations above and grouping with the third we obtain

6v B – 5v C = – 6 – 5 v B + 7v C = 0

**Multiplying the first by 7 and the second by 5 we get
**

42v B – 35v C = – 42 – 25 v B + 35v C = 0

**and by addition of these we get
**

– 42 v B = v'' 18A = -------- V 17

Finally, we let v''' 18A be the voltage due to the 24 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit with assigned node voltages is shown below where the parallel conductances have been replaced by their equivalents.

v X 12 Ω

–1

v Y 15 Ω

–1

vZ

+

4Ω

–1

v''' 18A −

6Ω

–1

24 A

**The nodal equations at the three nodes are
**

16v X – 12v Y = 0 – 12v A + 27v Y – 15v Z = 0 – 15 v B + 21v Z = 24

or

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-87

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

4v X – 3v Y = 0

– 4v X + 9v Y – 5v Z = 0 – 5 v Y + 7v Z = 8

Since v Y = v''' 18A , we only need to solve for v Y . Adding the first 2 equations above and grouping with the third we obtain

6v Y – 5v Z = 0 – 5 v Y + 7v Z = 0

**Multiplying the first by 7 and the second by 5 we get
**

42v Y – 35v Z = 0 – 25 v Y + 35v Z = 40

**and by addition of these we get
**

40 v Y = v''' 18A = ----- V 17

and thus

--------- -------- ----v 18A = v' 18A + v'' 18A + v''' 18A = 21 + – 42 + 40 = 19 = 1.12 V 17 17 17 17

This is the same answer as in Problem 1.

12. This is the same circuit as that of Problem 2. Let v' 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 12 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below.

12 Ω 15 Ω

+

4Ω 12 A 6Ω v' 6 Ω −

The 12 Ω and 15 Ω resistors are shorted out and the circuit is further simplified to the one shown below.

3-88

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

+

4Ω 12 A 6Ω v' 6 Ω −

The voltage v' 6 Ω is computed easily by application of the current division expression and multiplication by the 6 Ω resistor. Thus,

144 4 v' 6 Ω = ⎛ ----------- × 12⎞ × 6 = -------- V ⎝4 + 6 ⎠ 5

Next, we let v'' 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 18 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below. The letters A, B, and C are shown to visualize the circuit simplification process.

15 Ω A 12 Ω B 15 Ω A A B 12 Ω 4Ω 18 A C A 12 || 15 Ω B

+

4Ω 18 A C 6Ω v'' 6 Ω −

+

v'' 6 Ω − 6Ω

+

v'' 6 Ω − 6Ω C 4Ω 18 A

The voltage v'' 6 Ω is computed easily by application of the current division expression and multiplication by the 6 Ω resistor. Thus,

– 216 4 v'' 6 Ω = ----------- × ( – 18 ) × 6 = ----------- V 5 4+6

Now, we let v''' 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 24 A current source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-89

Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems

12 Ω

15 Ω

+

4Ω 6Ω

v''' 6 Ω 24 A

−

The 12 Ω and 15 Ω resistors are shorted out and voltage v''' 6 Ω is computed by application of the current division expression and multiplication by the 6 Ω resistor. Thus,

288 4 v''' 6 Ω = ⎛ ----------- × 24⎞ × 6 = -------- V ⎝4 + 6 ⎠ 5

Finally, we let v 6 Ω be the voltage due to the 36 V voltage source acting alone. The simplified circuit is shown below. +

A 12 Ω 36 V − 15 Ω B A 4Ω

iv

iv

12 Ω

+

4Ω C 6Ω v −

6 Ω

C 6Ω

+

+

v −

iv 6 Ω

−

36 V

15 Ω B

**By application of the voltage division expression we find that
**

v

iv 6 Ω

6 = ----------- × ( – 36 ) = – 108 -------4+6 5

iv 6 Ω

Therefore,

v 6 Ω = v' 6 Ω + v'' 6 Ω + v''' 6 Ω + v 144 216 288 108 108 = -------- – -------- + -------- – -------- = -------- = 21.6 V 5 5 5 5 5

This is the same answer as that of Problem 2. 13. The circuit for Measurement 1 is shown below.

3-90

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

R S1 v S1 1Ω

+

− 48 V R LOAD1

i LOAD1 16 A

**Let R eq1 = R S1 + R LOAD1 . Then,
**

v S1 ----R eq1 = ---------------- = 48 = 3 Ω 16 i LOAD1

For Measurement 3 the load resistance is the same as for Measurement 1 and the load current is given as – 5 A . Therefore, for Measurement 3 we find that

v S1 = R eq1 ( – 5 ) = 3 × ( – 5 ) = – 15 V

**and we enter this value in the table below. The circuit for Measurement 2 is shown below.
**

R S2 v S2 1Ω

+

− 36 V R LOAD2

i LOAD2 6A

**Let R eq2 = R S1 + R LOAD2 . Then,
**

v S2 36 R eq2 = ---------------- = ----- = 6 Ω i LOAD2 6

**For Measurement 4 the load resistance is the same as for Measurement 2 and v S2 is given as
**

– 42 V . Therefore, for Measurement 4 we find that v S2 42 i LOAD2 = ---------- = – ----- = – 7 A 6 R eq2

and we enter this value in the table below. The circuit for Measurement 5 is shown below.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-91

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

R S1

+

v S1 15 V

1Ω R S2

1Ω v S2 v LOAD

i LOAD R LOAD 1Ω

Replacing the voltage sources with their series resistances to their equivalent current sources with their parallel resistances and simplifying, we get the circuit below.

i LOAD 0.5 Ω 33 A R LOAD 1Ω

**Application of the current division expression yields
**

0.5 i LOAD = ---------------- × 33 = 11 A 0.5 + 1

**and we enter this value in the table below. The circuit for Measurement 6 is shown below.
**

R S1 1Ω R S2 A vA 1Ω v S2 i LOAD R LOAD 1Ω

We observe that i LOAD will be zero if v A = 0 and this will occur when v S1 = – 24 . This can be shown to be true by writing a nodal equation at Node A. Thus,

v A – ( – 24 ) v A – 24 ------------------------ + ---------------- + 0 = 0 1 1

+

−

+

− 18 V −

v S1

+

−

+

− 24 V

3-92

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

or v A = 0 Measurement 1 2 3 4 5 6 Switch

S1

Switch

S2 v S1 (V) v S2 (V) i L (A)

Closed Open Closed Open Closed Closed

Open Closed Open Closed Closed Closed

48 0 -15 0 15 −24

0 36 0 −42 18 24

16 6 −5 −7 11 0

**14. The power supplied by the voltage source is
**

p S = v S ( i 1 + i 2 ) = 480 ( 100 + 80 ) = 86, 400 w = 86.4 Kw

**The power loss on the 1st floor is
**

p LOSS1 = i 1 ( 0.5 + 0.5 ) = 100 × 1 = 10, 000 w = 10 Kw

2 2

0.8 Ω vS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

+

2nd Floor Load

**The power loss on the 2nd floor is
**

p LOSS2 = i 2 ( 0.8 + 0.8 ) = 80 × 1.6 = 10, 240 w = 10.24 Kw

2 2

**and thus the total loss is
**

Total loss = 10 + 10.24 = 20.24 Kw

Then,

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-93

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

Output power = Input power – power losses = 86.4 – 20.24 = 66.16Kw

and

66.16 Output % Efficiency = η = ----------------- × 100 = ------------ × 100 = 76.6% 86.4 Input

**This is indeed a low efficiency. 15. The voltage drop on the second floor conductor is
**

v cond = R T i 2 = 1.6 × 80 = 128 V 0.8 Ω VS 480 V − − 0.5 Ω 0.8 Ω 0.5 Ω 100 A 1st Floor Load i1 i2 80 A

+

2nd Floor Load

**and thus the full-load voltage is
**

v FL = 480 – 128 = 352 V

Then,

v NL – v FL 480 – 352 % Regulation = ---------------------- × 100 = ----------------------- × 100 = 36.4% 352 v FL

This is a very poor regulation. 16. We assign node voltages and we write nodal equations as shown below.

3-94

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Answers to Exercises

v1 3Ω − − 12 V v2 3Ω 6Ω 5Ω v5 v 1 = 12 v2 – v1 v2 v2 – v3 --------------- + ---- + --------------- = 0 3 3 6 v3 – v2 v3 – v5 v4 – v5 v4 – v5 --------------- + --------------- + --------------- + --------------- = 0 3 10 4 7+8 v 3 – v 4 = 20i X

2 where i X = ---- and thus

+

−

v3

20i X

v4

combined node 7Ω

+

iX

10 Ω

4Ω

+

v LOAD

i LOAD RL

− 8Ω

v 6

10 v 5 = ----- v 2 3 v5 v5 – v3 v5 – v4 v5 – v4 ---- + --------------- + --------------- + --------------- = 0 10 4 7+8 5

**Collecting like terms and rearranging we get
**

v1 –1 5 –1 ----- v 1 + -- v 2 + ----- v 3 3 6 3 = 12 = 0

–1 ----------------- v 2 + 13 v 3 + 19 v 4 – 19 v 5 = 0 30 60 60 3 10 – ----- v 2 3 + v3 – v4 = 0

19 37 1– ----- v 3 – ----- v 4 + ----- v 5 = 0 60 60 10

and in matrix form

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

3-95

**Chapter 3 Nodal and Mesh Equations - Circuit Theorems
**

1 –1 ----3 0 5 -6 –1 0 ----3 ----0 – 10 3 0 0 0 0 –1 ----0 0 3 13 19 19 ----- ----- – ----30 60 60 1 –1 0

v1 v2 ⋅ v3 v4 v5 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V =

12 0 0 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I

1- ----- 37 0 – ----- – 19 ----10 60 60 G

**We will use MATLAB to solve the above.
**

G=[1 0 0 0 0;... −1/3 5/6 −1/3 0 0;... 0 −1/3 13/30 19/60 −19/60;... 0 −10/3 1 −1 0;... 0 0 −1/10 −19/60 37/60]; I=[12 0 0 0 0]'; V=G\I; fprintf('\n');... fprintf('v1 = %7.2f V \n',V(1));... fprintf('v2 = %7.2f V \n',V(2));... fprintf('v3 = %7.2f V \n',V(3));... fprintf('v4 = %7.2f V \n',V(4));... fprintf('v5 = %7.2f V \n',V(5));... fprintf('\n'); fprintf('\n')

v1 v2 v3 v4 v5 Now,

= = = = =

12.00 13.04 20.60 -22.87 -8.40

V V V V V

v4 – v5 ) ----------------------------------------i LOAD = --------------- = – 22.87 – ( – 8.40 - = – 0.96 A 15 8+7

and

v LOAD = 8i LOAD = 8 × ( – 0.96 ) = – 7.68 V

3-96

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

1.2 Amplifiers An amplifier is an electronic circuit which increases the magnitude of the input signal. or any message transmitted or received in telegraphy. Symbol for electronic amplifier An electronic (or electric) circuit which produces an output that is smaller than the input is called an attenuator. Numerous formulas for the computation of the gain are derived and several practical examples are provided. current. It discusses amplifier gain in terms of decibels (dB) and provides an overview of operational amplifiers.1 Signals A signal is any waveform that serves as a means of communication. telephony. their characteristics and applications. sound. f (t) t Figure 4. electric or magnetic field strength. pressure. A resistive voltage divider is a typical attenuator. vin vout Electronic Amplifier Figure 4. such as voltage. A typical signal which varies with time is shown in figure 4. television. A signal that changes with time 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers T his chapter is an introduction to amplifiers. 4. current. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-1 . temperature. and so on. It represents a fluctuating electric quantity. The symbol of a typical amplifier is a triangle as shown in Figure 4. or radar. radio.2.1 where f ( t ) can be any physical quantity such as voltage. image.2.

Thus for a voltage amplifier. For instance. If the gain (or loss) is 0 dB . Therefore. Note 1: Throughout this text. the common (base 10) logarithm of a number x will be denoted as log ( x ) while its natural (base e) logarithm will be denoted as ln ( x ) . voltage or current) can be expressed in decibels ( dB ) . The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the output to the input. the output is equal to the input. For instance. Output Voltage Voltage Gain = ---------------------------------------Input Voltage or v out G v = -------v in (4. we use absolute values of power. it means that the output is 180 degrees out-of-phase with the input. current amplifier. to avoid misinterpretation of gain or loss. 4.2) Therefore. or power amplifier. we say that an amplifier has 10 dB power gain or a transmission line has a power loss of 7 dB (or gain – 7 dB ). We must remember that a negative voltage or current gain G v or G i indicates that there is a 180° phase difference between the input and the output waveforms.1) The current gain G i and power gain G p are defined similarly.3 Decibels The ratio of any two values of the same quantity (power. voltage and current when these are expressed in dB. if an amplifier has a gain of −100 (dimensionless number).Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers An amplifier can be classified as a voltage amplifier. 10 dB represents a power ratio of 10 10n dB represents a power ratio of 10 n It is useful to remember that 20 dB represents a power ratio of 100 30 dB represents a power ratio of 1000 60 dB represents a power ratio of 1000000 4-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . By definition. p out dB = 10 log --------p in (4.

= 20 log i in i out ------i in (4.= 20 log v in v out -------v in 2 (4. v in 1v v out 2v Figure 4.4.Decibels Also. 1 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 1. p in 1w p out 10 w Figure 4. given that log 2 = 0. 27 dB = 20 dB + 7 dB and this is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 100 × 5 = 500 . Amplifier for Example 4.25 3 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 2 7 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 5 From these. if we let R = 1 . we can estimate other values.1 Solution: p out dB w = 10 log --------.2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-3 .4.3) and i out 2 dB i = 10 log ------.= 10 log 10 = 10 log 10 = 10 × 1 = 10 dBw ----1 p in Example 4. For instance.5 .3 .4) Example 4.2 Compute the gain in dB v for the amplifier shown in Figure 4. Likewise.1 Compute the gain in dB w for the amplifier shown in Figure 4. Amplifier for Example 4. Since y = log x = 2 log x and p = v 2 ⁄ R = i 2 R . the dB values for voltage and current ratios become: v out 2 dB v = 10 log -------.3.3. 4 dB = 3 dB + 1 dB which is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 2 × 1.25 = 2.

is combined with the input signal. v out = 2 ⁄ 2 = 0.5. Gain amplifiers used with feedback In Figure 4.707 or i = 2 ⁄ 2 = 0.6. This summing point may 4-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . amplifiers exhibit a band of frequencies over which the output remains nearly constant.707 . and for R = 1 and v = 2 ⁄ 2 = 0. At these frequencies.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Solution: v out dB v = 20 log -------. or portion of it. for example.5.4 Bandwidth and Frequency Response Like electric filters.3 = 6 dBv -1 v in 4. 1 0. the symbol Σ (Greek capital letter sigma) inside the circle denotes the summing point where the output signal.707 and these two points are known as the 3-dB down or half-power points. that is. the magnitude of the output voltage v out of an electric or electronic circuit as a function of radian frequency ω as shown in Figure 4. the power is 1 ⁄ 2 .6.707 Bandwidth v out ω1 ω2 ω Figure 4. the power is “halved”. we can define the bandwidth as the frequency band between half-power points. Most amplifiers are used with a feedback path which returns (feeds) some or all its output to the input as shown in Figure 4. Consider. Typical bandwidth of an amplifier As shown above. Alternately. They derive their name from the fact that power p = v 2 ⁄ R = i 2 R . the bandwidth is BW = ω 2 – ω 1 where ω 1 and ω 2 are the lower and upper cutoff frequencies respectively. In + − Σ Gain Amplifier Out In + − Feedback Circuit Partial Output Feedback Σ Gain Amplifier Feedback Path Out Entire Output Feedback Figure 4.3 = 20 × 0.6.= 20 log 2 = 20 log 0.

diodes. Very high input impedance (resistance) 2. the negative (−) sign implies negative feedback which means that the output. capacitors. Its symbol is shown in Figure 4. Practically. Figure 4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-5 . differentiation.6 An Overview of the Op Amp The op amp has the following important characteristics: 1. all amplifiers use used with negative feedback since positive feedback causes circuit instability.8 shows the internal construction of a typical op amp. and do not reveal any other useful information for the op amp’s circuit analysis.The Operational Amplifier be also indicated with a large plus (+) symbol inside the circle. addition. Capable of producing a very large gain that can be set to any value by connection of external resistors of appropriate values 4. integration. Symbol for operational amplifier As shown above the op amp has two inputs but only one output. is added to the input.7.7. It derives it name from the fact that it is capable of performing many mathematical operations such as addition. i. 1 2 − + 3 Figure 4. The positive (+) sign below the summing point implies positive feedback which means that the output. On the other hand. integration etc. For this reason it is referred to as differential input. single ended output amplifier. or portion of it. This figure also shows terminals V CC and V EE .5 The Operational Amplifier The operational amplifier or simply op amp is the most versatile electronic amplifier. V CC is +15 volts and V EE is −15 volts. These are the voltage sources required to power up the op amp. These terminals are not shown in op amp circuits since they just provide power. Typically. It is also the basic block in analog computer design. and so on. Frequency response from DC to frequencies in the MHz range 5.e. multiplication. Very low output impedance (resistance) 3. analog-to-digital conversion or vice versa. Operation to be performed. is subtracted from the input. It can also be used as a comparator and electronic filter. 4.. 4. is done externally with proper selection of passive devices such as resistors. or portion of it. Very good stability 6.

8.9. Internal Devices of a Typical Op Amp An op amp is said to be connected in the inverting mode when an input signal is connected to the inverting (−) input through an external resistor R in whose value along with the feedback resistor R f determine the op amp’s gain. The non-inverting (+) input is grounded through an external resistor R as shown in Figure 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers VCC 1 NON-INVERTING INPUT 2 INVERTING INPUT 3 OUTPUT 1 2 3 VEE Figure 4.5) 4-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= – ------v in R in (4. the voltage gain G v is Rf v out G v = -------.9. For the circuit of Figure 4.

Note 3: The input voltage v in and the output voltage v out as indicated in the circuit of Figure 4. when the input signal is positive (+) the output will be negative (−) and vice versa.5). if the input is 1 volt AC and the op amp gain is 5. given that v in = 1 mV . For example. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-7 . hence the name inverting amplifier. For AC (sinusoidal) signals. Thus. Circuit of Inverting op amp − + − + v out Note 2: The resistor R connected between the non-inverting (+) input and ground serves only as a current limiting device. the output will be −5 volts AC or 5 volts AC with 180 degrees out-of-phase with the input. and thus it does not influence the op amp’s gain.9. As shown in the formula of (4.10.An Overview of the Op Amp Rf R in v in + − R Figure 4. if the input is +1 volt DC and the op amp gain is 100. the output will be −100 volts DC. Example 4. the gain for this op amp configuration is the ratio – R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the input.3 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4. The minus (−) sign in the gain ratio – R f ⁄ R in implies that the output signal has opposite polarity from that of the input signal. It will be omitted in our subsequent discussion. should not be interpreted as open circuits. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes.9. these designations imply that an input voltage of any waveform may be applied at the input terminals and the corresponding output voltage appears at the output terminals. the output will be 180 degrees out-of-phase with the input. Therefore.

3 Solution: This is an inverting amplifier and thus the voltage gain G v is Rf 120 KΩ G v = – ------. vOUT / vIN (millivolts) 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 vIN = 1 mV vOUT = −6 mV Time Figure 4.11.3 4-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .10. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4. Circuit for Example 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf R in v in + 20 KΩ − 120 KΩ − + − + v out Figure 4.= – ------------------20 KΩ R in or Gv = –6 and since v out G v = -------v in the output voltage is v out = G v v in = – 6 × 1 or v out = – 6 mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4.11.

given that v in = sin t mV .13.4 Solution: This is the same circuit as that of the previous example except that the input is a sine wave with unity amplitude and the voltage gain G v is the same as before.12. Rf 120 KΩ G v = – ------. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-9 . that is.= – 6 20 KΩ R in and the output voltage is v out = G v v in = – 6 × sin t = – 6 sin t mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4.4 An op amp is said to be connected in the non-inverting mode when an input signal is connected to the non-inverting (+) input through an external resistor R which serves as a current limiter. 8 6 v OUT / v IN (millivolts) 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 vOUT = −6sint vin = sint Time Figure 4.13. Rf R in v in + 20 KΩ − 120 KΩ − + − + v out Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4.= – ------------------. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes.14.12. the resistor R will represent the internal resistance of the applied voltage v in . In our subsequent discussion.4 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4. and the inverting (−) input is grounded through an external resistor R in as shown in Figure 4.An Overview of the Op Amp Example 4. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4.

14. For example. if the input is 0. Thus. For example. in the non-inverting mode the op amp output signal has the same polarity as the input signal.14. the output will be +75 mV DC .5 V AC and the op amp gain is G v = 1 + 19 KΩ ⁄ 1 KΩ = 20 .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf R in v in + − − R + + v out − Figure 4. For AC signals the output will be in-phase with the input. when the input signal is positive (+) the output will be also positive and if the input is negative. Circuit of non-inverting op amp For the circuit of Figure 4.= 1 + ------v in R in (4.15. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. if the input is +1 mV DC and the op amp gain is 75 . the name non-inverting amplifier.6) As indicated by the relation of (4. the voltage gain G v is Rf v out G v = -------. the gain for this op amp configuration is 1 + R f ⁄ R in and therefore.5 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the non-inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4. Rf R in 20 KΩ v in + − 120 KΩ − R + + v out − Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4.15. the output will be also negative. Example 4. hence.6). given that v in = 1 mV .5 Solution: The voltage gain G v is 4-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the output will be 10 V AC and in-phase with the input.

Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4. Rf R in 20 KΩ v in + − 120 KΩ − R + + v out − Figure 4. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes.6 Solution: This is the same circuit as in the previous example except that the input is a sinusoid. given that v in = sin t mV . that is.= 1 + ------------------.= 1 + ------.= 1 + 6 = 7 v in R in 20 KΩ and thus v out = G v v in = 7 × 1 mV = 7 mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4. Therefore.5 Example 4. 8 vOUT / vIN (millivolts) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 vOUT = 7 mV vIN = 1 mV Time Figure 4.6 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the non-inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.= 1 + 6 = 7 v in R in 20 KΩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-11 .16.17.17.= 1 + ------. the voltage gain G v is the same as before.= 1 + ------------------. v out Rf 120 KΩ G v = -------.16. Circuit for Example 4.An Overview of the Op Amp v out Rf 120 KΩ G v = -------.

19. An example will be given in Section 4.= 1 v in (4. 8 6 vOUT = 7sint vOUT / vIN (millivolts) 4 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 Time vIN = sint Figure 4.19. Circuit of unity gain op amp + R + − + v out For the circuit of Figure 4.18. the voltage gain G v is v out G v = -------.18.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers and the output voltage is v out = G v v in = 7 × sin t = 7 sin t mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 4. For example. − v in − Figure 4. and if the input voltage is 2 mV AC . 4-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .19.8. if the input voltage is 5 mV DC the output will also be 5 mV DC . Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 4.7) and thus v out = v in (4.6 Quite often an op amp is connected as shown in Figure 4. the op amp circuit of Figure 4.8) For this reason.19 it is called unity gain amplifier. The unity gain op amp is used to provide a very high resistance between a voltage source and the load connected to it. the output will also be 2 mV AC .

that is. a passive filter is a circuit which consists of passive devices such as resistors.21.8 |vOUT / vIN| Half-Power Point 0.21. this is the half power or the – 3 dB point. and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies above this cutoff frequency. The cutoff frequency ω c is the frequency at which the maximum value of v out ⁄ v in which is unity. Frequency response for amplitude of a low-pass filter In Figure 4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-13 . the gain G v .20.6 0. A low-pass active filter vout Low Pass Filter Frequency Respone 1 Ideal 0. Operational amplifiers are used extensively as active filters.707 × Gv .2 0 Realizable ωc Radian Frequency (log scale) ω Figure 4. The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the ratio of output-to-input voltage v out ⁄ v in . falls to 0. vin Figure 4.Active Filters 4. capacitors and inductors.21. An op amp low-pass filter is shown in Figure 4. A low-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies below a critical (cutoff ) frequency denoted as ω C . the straight vertical and horizontal lines represent the ideal (unrealizable) and the smooth curve represents the practical (realizable) low-pass filter characteristics.4 0. In contrast.20 and its frequency response in Figure 4. and as mentioned before.7 Active Filters An active filter is an electronic circuit consisting of an amplifier and other devices such as resistors and capacitors.

23. An op amp band-pass filter and its frequency response are shown below. falls to 0.6 0.2 0.8 Ideal Half-Power Point |vOUT / vIN| 0. the gain G v . the half power or the – 3 dB point. falls to 0. while it attenuates (blocks) all frequencies outside this band. The cutoff frequency ω c is the frequency at which the maximum value of v out ⁄ v in which is unity.23.e.0 Realizable ωc Radian Frequency (log scale) ω Figure 4. where the maximum value of G v which is unity.25. Frequency response for amplitude of a high-pass filter In Figure 4.24 and its frequency response in Figure 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers A high-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies above a critical (cutoff) frequency ω c .707 × G v ..4 0. A high-pass active filter vout High-pass Filter Frequency Response 1. An op amp band-pass filter is shown in Figure 4. that is. the straight vertical and horizontal lines represent the ideal (unrealizable) and the smooth curve represents the practical (realizable) high-pass filter characteristics. A band-pass filter transmits (passes) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the ratio of output-to-input voltage v out ⁄ v in . and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies below the cutoff frequency. An op amp high-pass filter is shown in Figure 4.707 × Gv .22 and its frequency response in Figure 4. i.22. 4-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . vin Figure 4.0 0.23.

Frequency response for amplitude of a band-pass filter A band-elimination or band-stop or band-rejection filter attenuates (rejects) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 .707 × G v . An op amp band-stop filter is shown in Figure 4.7 0.25. An active band-pass filter Band Pass Filter Frequency Response 1 0.6 0.1 0 Ideal Half-Power Points Half-Power Point |vOUT / vIN| Realizable ω ω ωcω1 ω2 Radian Frequency (log scale) Figure 4.26 and its frequency response in Figure 4.2 0.27. falls to 0.5 0.24. where the maximum value of G v which is unity. while it transmits (passes) all frequencies outside this band.9 0.4 0.8 0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-15 .3 0.Active Filters vin vout Figure 4.

An active band-elimination filter Band-Elimination Filter Frequency Response 1 0.6 0. Frequency response for amplitude of a band-elimination filter 4. we will assume that the reference (ground) is the common terminal of the two power supplies. we must remember that in any op-amp: a.26. That is.27. For circuits containing op amps. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. When analyzing an op amp circuit. For simplicity.1 0 Ideal Half-Power Half-Power PointPoints Realizable |vOUT / vIN| ω1 ωc ω2 ω ω Radian Frequency (log scale) Figure 4.8 0. currents and power) is the same as for the other circuits which we have studied thus far.9 0. we can apply Ohm’s law. KCL and KVL. 4-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The voltage difference between the input terminals of an op amp is zero c.7 0.8 Analysis of Op Amp Circuits The procedure for analyzing an op amp circuit (finding voltages.2 0.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers vin vout Band Elimination Active Filter Circuit Figure 4.4 0. The currents into both input terminals are zero b. the power supplies will not be shown. superposition.5 0.3 0.

v in R in or v out Rf G v = -------. this is discussed in electronic circuit analysis books. since the (+) input terminal is grounded and there is no voltage drop between the (−) and (+) terminals. Also. Circuit for deriving the gain of an inverting op amp v out Rf G v = -------.= – ------v in R in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-17 . and draw its equivalent circuit showing the output as a dependent source.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits We will provide several examples to illustrate the analysis of op amp circuits without being concerned about its internal operation. From the circuit of Figure 4. Rf R in v in + − i R Figure 4. the (−) input is said to be at virtual ground.28.7 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.9) below.9) Proof: No current flows through the (−) input terminal of the op amp. therefore the current i which flows through resistor R in flows also through resistor R f .28 is called inverting op amp.28.= – ------v in R in i − + − + v out (4. Prove that the voltage gain G v is as given in (4. Example 4. v out = – R f i where v in i = ------R in and thus Rf v out = – ------.

10) 4-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .29.v in R in + − v out Figure 4.8 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 4.10) below.30. Rf R in − + v in − + + v out − Figure 4. Circuit of non-inverting op amp v out Rf G v = -------.31.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers The input and output parts of the circuit are shown in Figure 4. and draw its equivalent circuit showing the output as a dependent source. the dependent source is a Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS).29 with the virtual ground being the same as the circuit ground.= 1 + ------v in R in (4. v in+ − R in + − i i − Rf + v out − + Figure 4. Equivalent circuit of the inverting op amp Example 4.31 is called non-inverting op amp. This is the equivalent circuit of the inverting op amp and.30. Prove that the voltage gain G v is as given in (4. + v in − R in − + Rf ------. as mentioned in Chapter 1. Input and output parts of the inverting op amp These two circuits are normally drawn with the output as a dependent source as shown in Figure 4.

+ --------------------.+ -------------------.= 1 + ------v in R in and its equivalent circuit is as shown in Figure 4.+ ---.32. Non-inverting op amp circuit for derivation of (4.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Proof: Let the voltages at the (−) and (+) terminals be denoted as v 1 and v 2 respectively as shown in Figure 4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-19 . we get Rf v out G v = -------. The dependent source of this equivalent circuit is also a VCVS.= 0 R in Rf (4. therefore. v 1 – v 2 = 0 or v 1 = v 2 = v in .11) then can be written as v in v in – v out ------.33. + R in i1 v1 v2 v in − Rf − − i2 + + − + v out Figure 4.⎞ v = v out -------⎝R Rf R f ⎠ in in Rearranging.= 0 Rf R in or 1 1 ⎛ ------. Relation (4.10) By application of KCL at v 1 i1 + i2 = 0 or v 1 v 1 – v out ------.11) There is no potential difference between the (−) and (+) terminals.32.

out f We will obtain the same result if we consider the non-inverting op amp gain G v = --------.. − v in − + + − + v out Figure 4. then v out = v in . Equivalent circuit of the non-inverting op amp Example 4.9 If.13) Proof: With R in open and R f shorted.= 1 + ------.32 with R in open and R f shorted The voltage difference between the (+) and (−) terminals is zero. the non-inverting amplifier of the previous example reduces to the circuit of Figure 4. in the non-inverting op amp circuit of the previous example. Circuit of Figure 4.33. prove that the voltage gain G v is v out G v = -------.= 1 v in (4.34. we replace R in with an open circuit ( R in → ∞ ) and R f with a short circuit ( R f → 0 ).Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers + v in − Rf + ⎛ 1 + ------.34.12) and thus v out = v in (4. - v R v in R in Then. letting R f → 0 .⎞ v . the gain reduces to G v = 1 and for this reason this circuit is called unity gain 4-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .⎟ in ⎜ − ⎝ R in ⎠ v out − + Figure 4.

35. It is also called buffer amplifier because it can be used to “buffer” (isolate) one circuit from another when one “loads” the other as we will see on the next example.36.10 For the circuit of Figure4. With the load R LOAD disconnected the circuit is as shown in Figure 4. With the load connected.36. a × R LOAD 5KΩ b × Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-21 . Circuit for Example 4.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits amplifier or voltage follower. compute the voltage v LOAD across the load R LOAD c.35 a.× 12 = 5 V 7 KΩ + 5 KΩ b. Insert a buffer amplifier between a and b and compute the new voltage v LOAD across the same load R LOAD 12 V 7 KΩ a × R LOAD 5 KΩ b × + − 5 KΩ v in Figure 4. With the load R LOAD reconnected the circuit is as shown in Figure 4. compute the open circuit voltage v ab b. Example 4.10 with the load disconnected 12 V 7 KΩ + − 5 KΩ v in The voltage across terminals a and b is 5 KΩ v ab = --------------------------------. With the load R LOAD disconnected.37.10 Solution: a.

10 with the load reconnected 5 KΩ || 5 KΩ v LOAD = -----------------------------------------------------. Circuit for Example 4.⎟ ⎝ R in 1 R in 2 ⎠ (4.× 12 = 3.11 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 4. × 12 V a − + R LOAD 5 KΩ 7 KΩ + v LOAD = v ab = 5 V − + v in − 5 KΩ 5V × b Figure 4. ⎛ v in 1 v in 2 ⎞ v out = – R f ⎜ --------.10 with the insertion of a buffer op amp From the circuit of Figure 4.38.14) 4-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the circuit now is as shown in Figure 4. c.16 V 7 KΩ + 5 KΩ || 5 KΩ 12 V 7 KΩ + − 5 KΩ v in Here.39 is called summing circuit or summer because the output is the summation of the weighted inputs. Example 4.38. we observe that the voltage across the load is 5 V as desired. With the insertion of the buffer amplifier between points a and b and the load. Prove that for this circuit.37. we observe that the load R LOAD “loads down” the load voltage from 5 V to 3.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers a × R LOAD 5KΩ b × Figure 4.16 V and this voltage may not be sufficient for proper operation of the load.38.+ --------. Circuit for Example 4.

+ --------. Then. R in 1 10 KΩ v in 1 R in 2 Rf − 1 MΩ + R in 3 + 1 mV 20 KΩ v in 2 4 mV + v out − − + − + − 30 KΩ v in 3 10 mV Figure 4. we can apply the principle of superposition to derive this relation. Example 4. Two-input summing op amp circuit Proof: We recall that the voltage across the (−) and (+) terminals is zero. we get v in 1 v in 2 v out --------.12 Compute the output voltage v out for the amplifier circuit shown in Figure 4. Alternately.40.12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-23 .39.+ -------.= 0 R in 1 R in 2 R f and solving for v out we get (4.14). by application of KCL at the (−) terminal. and thus the voltage at the (−) terminal is at “virtual ground”. We also observe that the (+) input is grounded.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits R in 1 Rf − + + v in 1 − R in 2 + + v out − v in 2 − Figure 4.40. Circuit for Example 4.

v out 2 be the output due to v in 2 acting alone. 4-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 4.41.42. Rf R in 1 v in 1 10 KΩ 1 MΩ − + R in 3 30 KΩ v out 1 − + − 1 mV R in 2 20 KΩ + Figure 4. The circuit of Figure 4. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 4. with v in 2 acting alone and v in 1 and v in 3 shorted.43.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Solution: Let v out 1 be the output due to v in 1 acting alone.41. with v in 1 acting alone and v in 2 and v in 3 shorted.12 with v in 1 acting alone We recognize this as an inverting amplifier whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 100 and thus v out 1 = ( 100 ) ( – 1 mV ) = – 100 mV (4.42 as a non-inverting op amp whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 + 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 101 and the voltage at the plus (+) input is computed from the voltage divider circuit shown in Figure 4.15) Next. v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 First. Then by superposition. Circuit for Example 4. and v out 3 be the output due to v in 3 acting alone.

4 mV 50 KΩ R in 2 + R in 3 and thus v out 2 = 101 × 2.44. The circuit of Figure 4.44 is also a non-inverting op amp whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 + 1 MΩ ⁄ 10 KΩ = 101 and the voltage at the plus (+) input is computed from the voltage divider circuit shown in Figure 4.12 with v in 2 acting alone R in 2 20 KΩ v in 2 4 mV R in 3 − + To v ( + ) + 30 KΩ − Figure 4.4 mV (4.43. with v in 3 acting alone and v in 1 and v in 2 shorted. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 4.× 4 mV = 2.45.16) Finally. Voltage divider circuit for the computation of v ( + ) with v in 2 acting alone Then. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-25 .Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Rf R in 1 10 KΩ R in 2 20 KΩ v in 2 + − 4 mV R in 3 30 KΩ 1 MΩ − + + v out 2 − Figure 4. Circuit for Example 4.× v in 2 = ---------------. R in 3 30 KΩ v ( + ) = -------------------------.4 mV = 242.42.

4 + 404 = 546.4 mV Example 4. Circuit for Example 4.17).15). (4.45. and R f . Voltage divider circuit for the computation of v ( + ) with v in 3 acting alone Then. R in 2 20 KΩ v ( + ) = -------------------------.12 with v in 3 acting alone R in 2 20 KΩ R in 3 + 30 KΩ + v in 3 − 10 mV − To v ( + ) Figure 4. from (4. R 2 .13 For the circuit shown in Figure 4.× v in 2 = ---------------. R 3 . derive an expression for the voltage gain G v in terms of the external resistors R 1 .44. v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 = – 100 + 242.46.17) Therefore.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf R in 1 10 KΩ R in 2 20 KΩ R in 3 1 MΩ − + + v out 3 − 30 KΩ − + v in 3 10 mV Figure 4.× 10 mV = 4 mV 50 KΩ R in 2 + R in 3 and thus v out 3 = 101 × 4 mV = 404 mV (4. 4-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .16) and (4.

⎟ v 1 = ----------------------------------R1 Rf ⎝ R1 Rf ⎠ or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-27 .47.13 Solution: We apply KCL at nodes v 1 and v 2 as shown in Figure 4. Application of KCL for the circuit of Example 4.+ ---. Circuit for Example 4.13 At node v 1 : v 1 – v in v 1 – v out ---------------.⎞ v = v in + -----------⎝R ⎠ 1 Rf R1 Rf 1 or R f v in + R 1 v out ⎛ R 1 + R f⎞ ⎜ ---------------.+ -------------------.47.1⎛ ----.= 0 R1 Rf or v out 1. R1 v1 v2 Rf − + v out − + − v in R2 R3 + Figure 4.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits R1 Rf − + + − v in R2 R3 v out − + Figure 4.46.

19) as R 3 v in v 1 = ----------------R2 + R3 (4.+ ----.20) Equating the right sides of (4.= 0 R2 R3 or R 3 v in v 2 = ----------------R2 + R3 (4.21) 4.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers R f v in + R 1 v out v 1 = ----------------------------------R1 + Rf (4.19) and since v 2 = v 1 . The input resistance R in of a circuit is defined as the ratio of the applied voltage v S to the current i S drawn by the circuit.22) 4-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we get v out R 3 ( R 1 + R f ) R f -------.18) and (4.18) At node v 2 : v 2 – v in v 2 ---------------.( R 1 + R f ) R2 + R3 Dividing both sides of the above relation by R 1 v in and rearranging.= ----------------------------. we rewrite (4. vS R in = ---iS (4. that is.– ----R1 ( R2 + R3 ) R1 v in and after simplification R1 R3 – R2 R v out G v = -------.= -----------------------------f v in R1 ( R2 + R3 ) (4.= ----------------R2 + R3 R1 + Rf or R 3 v in R f v in + R 1 v out = ----------------.20) we get R f v in + R 1 v out R 3 v in ----------------------------------.9 Input and Output Resistance The input and output resistances are very important parameters in amplifier circuits.

14 Solution: By definition. a large gain can be achieved with the circuit of Problem 8. R1 vS − Rf iS − + + + v out − Figure 4. Fortunately. if we make R 1 very high such as 10 MΩ . However. it follows that vS i S = ----R1 (4. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-29 . the value of the feedback resistor R f should be 1 GΩ .25) It is therefore. desirable to make R 1 as high as possible. accordingly. say 100 . we must make the input resistance R in as high as possible.48.Input and Output Resistance Therefore.23) and since no current flows into the minus (−) terminal of the op amp and this terminal is at virtual ground.23) and (4. this is an impractical value. we want i S to be as small as possible.47 in terms of R 1 and R f . Example 4. in an op amp circuit the input resistance provides a measure of the current i S which the amplifier draws from the voltage source v S .24) we observe that R in = R 1 (4. Example 4.15 Compute the input resistance R in of the op amp shown in Figure 4.24) From (4.14 Compute the input resistance R in of the inverting op amp amplifier shown in Figure 4. vS R in = ---iS (4. Obviously. for a large gain. Circuit for Example 4.49. Of course.

v OC R out = -------i SC (4. 4-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . It is desirable to have an op amp with very low output resistance as illustrated by the following example. that is.= 0 iX iX By definition.26) The output resistance R out is not the same as the load resistance. v in 0 R in = -----. we apply a test (hypothetical) current i X as shown in Figure 4. the output resistance R out is the ratio of the open circuit voltage to the short circuit current.= --. Circuit for Example 4.15 with a test current source We observe that v in is zero (virtual ground).49.50. v in is the voltage at the minus (−) terminal. In this case. there is no current i S drawn by the op amp. Rf v in iX 100 KΩ − + + v out − Figure 4. Therefore.49. Therefore.15 Solution: In the circuit of Figure 4. The output resistance provides a measure of the change in output voltage when a load which is connected at the output terminals draws current from the circuit.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers Rf 100 KΩ v in − + + v out − Figure 4. not the source voltage v S . and we treat v in as the source voltage. Circuit for Example 4.49.

× v out R out + R LOAD (4.51. v LOAD 5 KΩ -------------.51.29) that as R out → 0 . we see that v LOAD = v OC Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-31 .Input and Output Resistance Example 4.27).× G v v in R out + R LOAD (4. Partial circuit for Example 4.28) and from (4.16 The output voltage of an op amp decreases by 10% when a 5 KΩ load is connected at the output terminals. Compute the output resistance R out . v out = v OC = G v v in (4.29) reduces to v LOAD = G v v in and by comparison with (4.9 = -----------------------------v OC R out + 5 KΩ and solving for R out we get R out = 555 Ω We observe from (4.= 0.27) With a load R LOAD connected at the output terminals. relation (4.29) Therefore.16 With no load connected at the output terminals. Solution: Consider the output portion of the op amp shown in Figure 4.27) and (4. the load voltage v LOAD is R LOAD v LOAD = -------------------------------.28) R LOAD v LOAD = -------------------------------. − R out + +v − out Figure 4.

integration etc. Operation to be performed. • Most amplifiers are used with feedback where the output. Frequency response from DC to frequencies in the MHz range 5. • The gain of an inverting op amp is the ratio – R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the minus (−) input. such as voltage. 4-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The minus (−) sign implies that the output signal has opposite polarity from that of the input signal. is fed back to the input. The output signal has the same polarity from that of the input signal. • The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the output to the input. elec- tric or magnetic field strength. current. • In a unity gain op amp the output is the same as the input. • The gain of an non-inverting op amp is 1 + R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the minus (−) input which is grounded through the R in resistor. or radar. diodes. is done externally with proper selection of passive devices such as resistors.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 4.. image. Very high input impedance (resistance) 2. or portion of it. • An amplifier is an electronic circuit which increases the magnitude of the input signal.10 Summary • A signal is any waveform representing a fluctuating electric quantity. Capable of producing a very large gain that can be set to any value by connection of external resistors of appropriate values 4. i. al that changes with time. Very low output impedance (resistance) 3. radio. • Op amps are also used as active filters. It is normally expressed in decibel (dB) units where by definition dB = 10 log p out ⁄ p in • Frequency response is the band of frequencies over which the output remains fairly constant. Very good stability 6. capacitors. • The lower and upper cutoff frequencies are those where the output is 0. or any message transmitted or received in telegraphy. They are also known as half-power points. addition. telephony.707 of its maximum value. A unity gain op amp is used to provide a very high resistance between a voltage source and the load connected to it. and so on.e. • The operational amplifier (op amp) is the most versatile amplifier and its main features are: 1. sound. television.

• A summing op amp is a circuit with two or more inputs. R in = v S ⁄ i S • The output resistance (not to be confused with the load resistance) is the ratio of the open circuit voltage when the load is removed from the circuit. • The input resistance is the ratio of the applied voltage v S to the current i S drawn by the circuit. falls to 0. to the short circuit current which is the current that flows through a short circuit connected at the output terminals. where the maximum value of G v which is unity. falls to 0. while it transmits (passes) all frequencies outside this band. that is. • A band-pass filter transmits (passes) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 .707 × G v . where the maximum value of G v which is unity. and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies below the cutoff frequency. • A band-elimination or band-stop or band-rejection filter attenuates (rejects) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . while it attenuates (blocks) all frequencies outside this band. that is. R o = v OC ⁄ i SC Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-33 . • A high-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies above a critical (cutoff) frequency ω c .Summary • A low-pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies below a critical (cutoff) frequency denoted as ω C and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies above this cutoff frequency.707 × Gv .

and it is desired to have v out = 8 V . 1 KΩ B. 2 KΩ C. 4 KΩ E. none of the above R in Rf − v in − + R + + v out − Figure 4. In the op amp circuit of Figure 4. Circuit for Question 2 4-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 4 V E.52 v in = 2 V . none of the above R in v in + − Rf − + − + v out Figure 4. R in = 1 KΩ . Circuit for Question 1 2.53.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 4.52. and R f = 3 KΩ .11 Exercises Multiple Choice 1.53 v in = 6 V . 3 KΩ D. Then v out will be A. This will be obtained if the feedback resistor R f has a value of A. – 4 V D. – 9 V B. 9 V C. In the circuit of Figure 4. R in = 2 KΩ .

indeterminate D. none of the above Rf − iS + − + v out Figure 4. R f = 18 KΩ . Circuit for Question 3 4. Then v out will be A.54 i S = 2 mA and R f = 5 KΩ . In the circuit of Figure 4. Circuit for Question 4 5. and R LOAD = 6 KΩ . R in = 12 KΩ . none of the above − + R iS − + v out Figure 4.54. 10 V D.Exercises 3. ∞ V B. Then v out will be A.55. – 10 V E. 0 V C. ∞ V B. In the circuit of Figure 4. – 12 V E. Then i will be Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-35 . In the circuit of Figure 4. 0 V C.56 v in = 4 V .55 i S = 4 mA and R = 3 KΩ .

none of the above Rf − R in 1 Rf − R in 1 2 2 v in − + + + v out − + Figure 4.57.57 v in = 1 V and all resistors have the same value. none of the above R in v in + − − Rf i R LOAD + + v out − Figure 4. 4 ⁄ 3 mA E. – 4 ⁄ 3 mA D. 1 mA C. In the circuit of Figure 4. – 2 V B. Circuit for Question 5 6. – 1 mA B. Circuit for Question 6 4-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers A. Then v out will be A.56. 4 V E. – 4 V D. 2 V C.

2 V C.Exercises 7. – 90 V E. In the circuit of Figure 4. 8 V E. – 2 V B.59. – 5 V B. Then v out will be A. none of the above 10 KΩ 10 KΩ v in + − 10 KΩ 20 KΩ − + 10 KΩ + v out − Figure 4. Circuit for Question 7 8. – 15 V D. v in2 = 4 V . Circuit for Question 8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-37 .59 v in = 30 V . – 8 V D. In the circuit of Figure 4.58 v in1 = 2 V .58. – 10 V C. Then v out will be A. and R in = R f = 1 KΩ . none of the above R in Rf +v − − in 1 + v in 2 − + − + v out Figure 4.

For the circuit of Figure 4. Network for Question 9 10. 4 KΩ D.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 9. 40 A C. 2 KΩ C. none of the above 4 KΩ v in + − R in 4 KΩ − + 2 KΩ + 2 KΩ v out − 1 KΩ Figure 4. none of the above + 5Ω 2A vX − 10 Ω + i − 40v X Figure 4. the input resistance R in is A. For the circuit of Figure 4. 1 KΩ B. – 40 A B. the current i is A. Network for Question 10 4-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .61.60. 400 A E. 8 KΩ E.61.60. – 400 A D.

and R in 3 represent the internal resistances of the input voltages v in 1 . Circuit for Problem 2 3. Answer: – 0. For the circuit of Figure 4.– --------. R in 2 .⎞ ⎝R R in2 R in1 ⎠ in3 v v v Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-39 . in3 in2 in1 Answer: v out = R f ⎛ --------. Answer: 4µA − + 60 mV 4 KΩ i 5KΩ 5 KΩ + − 3 KΩ 6 KΩ Figure 4.9 V v in 1 3 KΩ 10 mV − + 27 KΩ − 10 KΩ − v ou t1 − 90 KΩ + + v in 2 − + + − + v out 2 Figure 4.63. For the circuit of Figure 4.62. For the circuit of Figure 4. v in 2 .Exercises Problems 1. Circuit for Problem 1 2. compute i 5KΩ . Derive an expression for v out in terms of the input voltage sources and their internal resistances.64.62. and v in 3 respectively. and the feedback resistance R f .63.– --------. R in 1 . compute v out 2 .

compute v out .65.66 (b). compute the value of R L so that it will receive maximum power.66 (a) can be represented by its equivalent circuit shown in Figure 4. 4-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .66.64.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers R in1 − R in2 R in3 Rf + + vout − + v in1 − + v in2 − v in3 − + Figure 4. Answer: – 40 mV 10 KΩ 50 KΩ − + + 40 mV − 20 KΩ 40 KΩ + v out − Figure 4. Circuit for Problem 3 4. Answer: 3.75 KΩ R2 R1 v in+ − v out − + v out − + (a) + v in − R1 − R2 v ----+ R 1 in v out − + (b) Figure 4. For the circuit of Figure 4.67 (c). The op-amp circuit of Figure 4. For the circuit of Figure 4.65. Circuit for Problem 4 5.

Exercises 20 KΩ 2 KΩ v in+ − − 5 KΩ + 15 KΩ + v out R LOAD − (c) Figure 4.69. Circuit for Problem 6 20 KΩ v out − + 7.67. compute v 5KΩ using Thevenin’s theorem. compute the gain G v = v out ⁄ v in . Answer: 20 mV 84 KΩ 100 KΩ 12 KΩ 4 KΩ − + + − + 72 mV 5 KΩ v 5KΩ − Figure 4.69. Circuit for Problem 7 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-41 . For the circuit of Figure 4. Answer: – ( 2 ⁄ 37 ) R3 40 KΩ R2 R1 40 KΩ R4 50 KΩ 50 KΩ + 200 KΩ v in R5 + v out − − Figure 4.68. Circuits for Problem 5 6.68. For the circuit of Figure 4.

Circuit for Problem 8 R2 + v out − 4-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .R 5 + R 3 ⎛ ----.70.= – ----.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 8.+ 1⎞ ⎝R ⎠ v in R1 4 R3 R5 R4 R1 + v in − Figure 4. For the circuit of Figure 4. show that the gain is given by v out R5 1 G v = --------.70.

E All current flows through R and the voltage drop across it is 4 mA × 3 KΩ = 12 V . 7. C v out = – ( 18 ⁄ 12 ) × 4 = – 6 V . B We assign node voltage v A as shown below and we replace the encircled port by its equivalent. 5. i LOAD = v out ⁄ R LOAD = – 6 V ⁄ 6 KΩ = – 1 mA . v out 1 due to v in1 acting alone is – 2 V and v out 2 due to v in2 acting alone is 8 V . Applying KCL at the plus (+) terminal of v out we get 4 –6 V –6 V–4 V 1 i = ------------.= – -. R f = 3 KΩ 2.12 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. the gain must be G v = 4 or 1 + R f ⁄ R in = 4 . it follows that v out = 12 V also. Then v out will be 10 KΩ 10 KΩ v A v in + − 10 KΩ 10 KΩ 20 KΩ − + + v out − We now attach the remaining resistors and the entire equivalent circuit is shown below. Since this circuit is a unity gain amplifier. C For v in = 2 and v out = 8 . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-43 . Therefore. Thus. Therefore. the output of the first op amp is 2 V and the output of the second is 4 V . v in = 30 V . v out = – 2 + 8 = 6 V 8.= – 1 – -. Therefore. E By superposition. D The gain of each of the non-inverting op amps is 2.mA 3 6 KΩ 18 KΩ + 12 KΩ 3 6.Answers to Exercises 4. D All current flows through R f and the voltage drop across it is – ( 2 mA × 5 KΩ ) = – 10 V 4. A v out = – R f ⁄ R in × v in = – 9 V 3.+ --------------------------------------.

not an amplifier.+ ---------------------. this circuit is an attenuator.+ ---.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers + vA − A 10 KΩ 5 KΩ 10 KΩ + + − v out 2v A − + v in 30 V − Application of KCL at Node A yields v A – 30 v A v A – ( – 2v A ) ---------------. 9. 4 KΩ v in + − i R in 2 KΩ 1 KΩ v 4 KΩ − + + 2 KΩ v out − v – v in v – ( – v in ) -------------. v out = – 2v A = – 10V NOTE: For this circuit. the magnitude of the voltage is less than the magnitude of the input voltage. The voltage v at the minus (−) input of the op amp is zero as proved below.= 0 10 10 5 and thus v A = 30 ⁄ 6 = 5 V Therefore. C The voltage gain for this circuit is 4 KΩ ⁄ 4 KΩ = 1 and thus v out = – v in .= 0 4 4 or v = 0 Then v in i = ------------4 KΩ 4-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Op amps are not configured for attenuation.+ --------------------------. A better and simpler attenuator is a voltage divider circuit. This circuit is presented just for instructional purposes. Therefore.

We assign R LOAD . − + 60 mV 4 KΩ + 3 KΩ 6 KΩ − v1 + v LOAD − i 5KΩ + − 5 KΩ 3 KΩ || 6 KΩ = 2 KΩ and by the voltage division expression 2 KΩ v 1 = --------------------------------. v out1 = – ( 27 ⁄ 3 ) × 10 = – 90 mV and thus v in2 = v out1 = – 90 mV Then 90 v out2 = ⎛ 1 + ----.9 V ⎝ 10 ⎠ 2.× 60 mV = 20 mV 4 KΩ + 2 KΩ and since this is a unity gain amplifier.⎞ × ( – 90 ) = – 0.Answers to Exercises and v in R in = -----------------------. v 1 . v X = – 10 V and thus 40v X = – 400 V . Then. and v LOAD as shown below. i = – 400 ⁄ 10 = – 40 A Problems 1. we get v LOAD = v 1 = 20 mV Then Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-45 .= 4 KΩ v in ⁄ 4 KΩ 10. A For this circuit.

= ---------------------. By superposition v out = v out1 + v out2 + v out3 where v out1 v in2 = 0 v in3 = 0 Rf = – --------.v in2 R in2 v in1 = 0 v in3 = 0 and v out3 v in1 = 0 v in2 = 0 Rf = – --------. We assign voltages v − and v + as shown below.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers –3 v LOAD –6 20 mV 20 × 10 i 5KΩ = --------------. 10 KΩ v − 50 KΩ − v+ + + 40 mV − 20 KΩ 40 KΩ + v out − 4-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . v in3 v in2 v in1 v out = R f ⎛ --------.– --------.= --------------. Also.– --------.= 4 × 10 A = 4 µA 3 R LOAD 5 KΩ 5 × 10 3.( – v in3 ) R in3 Then.⎞ ⎝R R in2 R in1 ⎠ in3 4.v in1 R in1 We observe that the minus (−) is a virtual ground and thus there is no current flow in R in1 and R in2 . v out2 Rf = – --------.

21) using MATLAB: R1=10000.---------------------1 ------------------.= 0 10 KΩ 50 KΩ or 1 6 ------------------.+ -------------------. By Thevenin’s theorem Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-47 .= 0 40 KΩ 20 KΩ or 3 -------------------. R2=20000.v out = 4 × 10 – 6 3⎝ 3 ⎠ 3 50 × 10 50 × 10 –3 Multiplication by 50 × 10 yields –6 3 2 × 80 × 10 × 50 × 10 ---------------------------------------------------------. Vout=(R1*R3-R2*Rf)*Vin/(R1*(R2+R3)) Vout = -0.⎛ 80 × 10 . We attach the 5 KΩ . Rf=50000.⎞ – ------------------. and R LOAD resistors to the equivalent circuit as shown below. Vin=40*10^(−3).0400 5.– v out = 4 × 10 × 50 × 10 3 50 × 10 –3 3 3 or v out = – 40 mV Check with (4.Answers to Exercises At the minus (−) terminal v − – 40 mV v − – v out --------------------------. R3=40000.v – ------------------. 15 KΩ .v out = 4 × 10 – 6 3 − 3 50 × 10 50 × 10 At the plus (+) terminal v+ v + – 40 mV --------------------------.v + = 2 × 10 – 6 3 40 × 10 or ---------------------v + = 80 × 10 3 –3 Since v + = v − we equate the nodal equations and we get 6 .+ ---------------.

75 KΩ R LOAD v TH + − Therefore.5v in R TH = ----------------------------.( – 10v in ) 5 KΩ + 15 KΩ or v TH = – 7. we must compute the Thevenin resistance using the relation R TH = v TH ⁄ i SC where i SC is found from the circuit below.= 3.5v in Because the circuit contains a dependent source.75 KΩ 4-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .75 KΩ –3 – 2 × 10 v in and the Thevenin equivalent circuit is shown below. for maximum power transfer we must have R LOAD = R TH = 3. 5 KΩ × a 15 KΩ b × i SC + − 10v in We observe that the short circuit shorts out the 15 KΩ and thus – 10v in –3 i SC = --------------. R TH = 3.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 5 KΩ × a 15 KΩ b × + v in − 2 KΩ + − 10v in 15 KΩ v TH = v OC = v ab = -----------------------------------.= – 2 × 10 v in 5 KΩ Then – 7.

⎟ in ⎜ − ⎝ R in ⎠ v out − + For this circuit v in = v 5KΩ and the value of the VCVS is Rf ⎞ ⎛ 100 ⎜ 1 + ------. When this is done there is no current in the 4 KΩ and the circuit simplifies to the one shown below. 12 KΩ a v ab − b 84 KΩ + − 72 mV i + + 6v 5KΩ − By KVL ( 12 KΩ + 84 KΩ )i + 6v 5KΩ = 72 mV or 72 mV – 6v 5KΩ i = -------------------------------------------( 12 KΩ + 84 KΩ ) Also Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-49 . This is a non-inverting op amp whose equivalent circuit is shown below. + v in − Rf + ⎛ 1 + ------.⎞ v .⎟ v 5KΩ = ⎛ 1 + -------.Answers to Exercises 6.⎞ v 5KΩ = 6v 5KΩ ⎝ 20 ⎠ R in ⎠ ⎝ Attaching the external resistors to the equivalent circuit above we get the circuit below. 84 KΩ 12 KΩ ×a + − 72 mV 4 KΩ 5 KΩ + + v 5KΩ − ×b − 6v 5KΩ To find the Thevenin equivalent at points a and b we disconnect the 5 KΩ resistor.

5 KΩ + 4 KΩ Therefore. We also perform voltage-source to current-source transformation and we get the circuit on the right below. v OC 252 R TH = -------. 12 KΩ + 4 KΩ a i SC b 84 KΩ 6 µA 12 KΩ 84 KΩ − 72 mV 4 KΩ a i SC b Now 12 KΩ || 84 KΩ = 10.5 KΩ i SC = i ab = ----------------------------------------.= -----------------.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 72 mV – 6v 5KΩ v TH = v ab = v 5KΩ = 72 mV – ( 12 KΩ )i = 72 mV – 12 KΩ ⎛ -------------------------------------⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 96 KΩ 3 = 72 mV – 9 mV + -.× 6 µA = -------.= 58 KΩ i SC 126 ⁄ 29 and the Thevenin equivalent circuit with the 5 KΩ resistor is shown below. a R TH = 12 KΩ + − v TH = 252 mV 5 KΩ b 4-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .v 5KΩ 4 or 3 v 5KΩ – -.5 KΩ and by the current division expression 126 10.v 5KΩ = 63 mV 4 and thus v TH = v ab = v 5KΩ = 252 mV The Thevenin resistance is found from R TH = v OC ⁄ i SC where i SC is computed with the terminals a and b shorted making v 5KΩ = 0 and the circuit is as shown on the left below.µA 29 10.

v out 4 14 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-51 .+ ---------------.+ ---------------. We assign node voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below and we write node equations observing that v 2 = 0 (virtual ground).( v in + 5v out ) = – -.+ ---------------. 5 v 5KΩ = -------------.⎞ v = ------------------.+ ---------------⎝ 200 KΩ 40 KΩ 50 KΩ 50 KΩ ⎠ 1 200 KΩ 40 KΩ Multiplication of each term by 200 KΩ and simplification yields 1 v 1 = ----.+ ---------------.× 252 = 20 mV 58 + 5 7.+ ----------------.+ ---------------.+ ------------------.= 0 50 KΩ 40 KΩ or 5 v 1 = – -.v out 4 Equating the right sides we get 5 1 ----.( v in + 5v out ) 14 Node 2: 0 – v 1 0 – v out ---------------. R3 40 KΩ 40 KΩ R4 v 2 50 KΩ 50 KΩ R2 + R1 v 1 200 KΩ v in R5 + v out − − Node 1: v 1 – v in v 1 – v out v 1 – 0 v1 ------------------.Answers to Exercises Finally.= 0 200 KΩ 40 KΩ 50 KΩ 50 KΩ or v in v out 1 1 1 1 ⎛ ------------------.

v2 R3 R4 R5 R1 + v in − v1 R2 + v out − Node 1: 0 – v in 0 – v 2 -------------.= – ----v in 37 8.v out R5 ⁄ R3 + R5 ⁄ R4 + 1 4-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .+ ----.v in 28 14 Simplifying and dividing both sides by v in we get v out 2 G v = -------.⎞ v = v out -------⎝R R5 R4 R5 ⎠ 2 3 or 1 v 2 = ----------------------------------------------.Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers 37 1 ----.= 0 R1 R3 or R3 v 2 = – ----. We assign node voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below and we write node equations observing that v 1 = 0 (virtual ground).+ ------------------.v in R1 Node 2: v 2 – 0 v 2 v 2 – v out ------------.+ ------------.+ ----.v out = – ----.+ ----.= 0 R3 R5 R4 or 1 1 1 ⎛ ----.

v out = – ----.Answers to Exercises Equating the right sides we get R3 1 ----------------------------------------------.v in R5 ⁄ R3 + R5 ⁄ R4 + 1 R1 Simplifying and dividing both sides by v in we get v out R5 1G v = --------.+ 1⎞ ⎝R ⎠ R1 v in 4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 4-53 .= – ----.R 5 + R 3 ⎛ ----.

Chapter 4 Introduction to Operational Amplifiers NOTES 4-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

We will study inductance first. 5. The unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb).Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance T his chapter is an introduction to inductance and capacitance.1 shows a simple loop of wire and its magnetic field represented by the small loops. Procedures for analyzing circuits with inductors and capacitors are presented along with several examples. Magnetic field around a loop of wire The direction of the magnetic field (not shown) can be determined by the left-hand rule if conventional current flow is assumed. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-1 . or by the right-hand rule if electron current flow is assumed. and energy stored in inductors and capacitors. Figure 5.1 Energy Storage Devices In the first four chapters we considered resistive circuits only. Figure 5. circuits with resistors and constant voltage and current sources. Thus. resistance is not the only property that an electric circuit possesses. However. We will see through some examples that will be presented later in this chapter. that inductance and capacitance have an effect on an electric circuit as long as there are changes in the voltages and currents in the circuit. their voltage-current relationships.1. in every circuit there are two other properties present and these are the inductance and the capacitance. that is. The effects of the inductance and capacitance properties can best be stated in simple differential equations since they involve the changes in voltage or current with time. power absorbed.2 Inductance Inductance is associated with the magnetic field which is always present when there is an electric current. The magnetic field loops are circular in form and are referred to as lines of magnetic flux. 5. when current flows in an electric circuit the conductors (wires) connecting the devices in the circuit are surrounded by a magnetic field.

if there are N turns and we assume that the flux ϕ passes through each turn. Then. we define a linear inductor one in which the flux linkage is proportional to the current through it.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance In a loosely wound coil of wire such as the one shown in Figure 5. the total flux. the current through the wound coil produces a denser magnetic field and many of the magnetic lines link the coil several times. + vL − iL L Figure 5. λ = Li (5.2. denoted as λ . the inductance L is defined as the constant which relates the voltage across and the current through a device called inductor by the relation of (5. 5-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . a current through a load. Symbol for inductor * In the first four chapters we have used the subscript LOAD to denote a voltage across a load. Magnetic field around several loops of wire The magnetic flux is denoted as ϕ and. The symbol and the voltage-current* designations for the inductor are shown in Figure 5. λ = Nϕ (5.2) where the constant of proportionality L is called inductance in webers per ampere. is called flux linkage.2.3). and the resistance of a such load as R LOAD to avoid confusion with the subscript L which henceforth will denote inductance.3. Figure 5.4) (5. We also recall Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction which states that v = dλ ----dt and from (5.1) Now.2) and (5.3) Alternately.4). We will continue using the subscript LOAD for any load connected to a circuit.3. that is. di v = L ---dt (5.

more often denoted as i L ( 0 ) . the voltage-current relationship is v L = L -----di L dt (5.5) as di L 1 = -.9) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-3 . Obviously. The unit of inductance is the Henry abbreviated as H . and it is referred to as the initial condition.6) we can say that one henry is the inductance in a circuit in which a voltage of one volt is induced by a current changing at the rate of one ampere per second. Since vL volts L = -----.7) and integrating both sides we get: ∫ or i(t) i ( t0 ) di L ∫ t t0 v L dt 1 i L ( t ) – i L ( t 0 ) = -L ∫t t 0 v L dt or iL ( t ) 1 = -L ∫ t t0 v L dt + iL ( t0 ) (5. By separation of the variables we rewrite (5. v L has a non-zero value only when i L changes with time.Inductance For an inductor.8) as 1 i L ( t ) = -L ∫ 1 v L dt = -L –∞ t ∫ 1 v L dt + -L –∞ 0 ∫0 vL dt t (5.= --------------------amperes di L --------------------sec onds dt (5. We can also express (5. is the current flowing through the inductor at some reference time usually taken as t = 0 .8) where i L ( t 0 ) .5) where v L and i L have the indicated polarity and direction.v L dt L 1 = -L (5.

The flux linkage λ is directly proportional to the current. Compute the flux linkage λ at t = 2. t = 5 ms . Compute and sketch the voltage v L ( t ) for the time interval – ∞ < t < 14 ms iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 10 12 14 t (ms) Figure 5. 9.1 The current i L ( t ) passing through a 50 mH inductor is shown in Figure 5. then from (5. Waveform for Example 5. 5. (5. by inspection. a. and 11 ms b.10) yields i = – 5 mA . is 25 mA . The slope m is --------------------m = – 20 – 25 = – 15 3–0 and thus i 3 ms t=0 = – 15 t + 25 (5. and t = 11 ms For time interval 0 < t < 3 ms . t = 9 ms .2) λ = N ϕ = Li Therefore. i = mt + b where m is the slope of the straight line segment.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance where the first integral on the right side represents the initial condition. and b is the i – axis intercept which.4.1) and (5.1 Solution: a. the flux linkage is 5-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4. Example 5. Then. we need to compute the current i at t = 2 ms .10) At t = 2 ms .

5 t + 90 (5. and the flux linkage is λ = Li = 50 × 10 –3 10 –3 × ----.t + b 3 To find b we use the fact that at t = 3 ms .12) and therefore at t = 5 ms .16) Likewise. λ t = 9 ms = Li = – 125 µWb (5. i = – 20 mA as seen in Figure 5.15) and with (5.5t – 70 (5. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-5 .= ----3–0 3 and thus 35 i = ----.× 3 + b 3 from which b = – 55 . i 10 ms t = 8 ms = 7.t – 55 3 (5. 35 – 20 = ----.µWb 3 500 (5.13) Using the same procedure we find that i 8 ms t = 6 ms = – 12. i = 10 ⁄ 3 mA . Then. Thus.15).11) For the time interval 3 < t < 6 ms .4. i = mt + b where 15 – ( – 20 ) 35 m = ------------------------.Inductance λ = Li = 50 × 10 –3 × ( – 5 ) × 10 –3 and λ t = 2 ms = – 250 µWb (5.× 10 3 or λ t = 5 ms = -------. the straight line equation for the time interval 3 < t < 6 ms is i 6 ms t = 3 ms 35 = ----.14) Also.

(5.23) slope vL 10 < t < 12 ms = – 2.17). (5.5 mA ⁄ ms = – 12.× ( – 15 A ⁄ s ) = – 750 mV A⁄s (5.3 mV (5.15). Since di L v L = L -----dt to compute and sketch the voltage v L ( t ) for the time interval – ∞ < t < 14 ms . (5.18) b.20) = 35 ⁄ 3 mA ⁄ ms = 35 ⁄ 3 A ⁄ s –3 vL 3 < t < 6 ms = L × slope = 50 × 10 6 < t < 8 ms × ( 35 ⁄ 3 ) = 583.24) 12 < t < 14 ms 5-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 A ⁄ s –3 = L × slope = 50 × 10 slope 8 < t < 10 ms × ( – 12. Then.17) and with (5.5 ) = – 125 mV = 0 (5. compute the slope of the straight line segments for this interval.22) = 7.5 A ⁄ s –3 vL 8 < t < 10 ms = L × slope = 50 × 10 10 < t < 12 ms × 7.21) slope vL 6 < t < 8 ms = – 12. slope vL slope vL –∞ < t < 0 –∞ < t < 0 = 0 = L × slope = 0 = – 15 mA ⁄ ms = – 15 A ⁄ s –3 (5.5 = 375 mV (5. we only need to differentiate.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance i 12 ms t = 10 ms = – 2.5 A ⁄ s –3 = L × slope = 50 × 10 slope × ( – 2.5 ) = – 625 mV (5.10). λ t = 11 ms = Li = 125 µWb (5.12).14). and (5.5 mA ⁄ ms = 7. that is.17).5 mA ⁄ ms = – 2. These were found in part (a) as (5.19) 0 < t < 3 ms 0 < t < 3 ms = L × slope = 50 × 10 slope 3 < t < 6 ms v--------.5 t + 30 (5.

Voltage waveform for Example 5.25) to sketch v L as a function of time.500 −0.375 0.6.2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-7 .625 0.2 The voltage across a 50 mH inductor is as shown on the waveform of Figure 5.950 0 -4. and it is given that the initial condition is i L ( t 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 25 mA .600 0 -4.750 Figure 5.6.250 0.500 0 Voltage waveform for Example 5. Compute and sketch the current which flows through this inductor in the interval – 5 < t < 5 ms vL ( t ) 0.25) We now have all values given by (5.800 0 -4.750 0 -4.125 (V) 1.625 −0.5.850 0 -4.125 −0. vL(t) t -5.900 0 -4.375 −0.19) through (5. We can do this easily with a spreadsheet such as Excel as shown in Figure 5.75 ⁄ 3 2 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 t (ms) −0.1 Example 5.5.500 0.650 0 -4.700 0 -4.550 0 -4.250 −0.000 0 -4.Inductance vL 12 < t < 14 ms = L × slope = 0 (5.1 800 Voltage (mV) 400 0 t (ms) -400 -800 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Figure 5. Waveform for Example 5.

the current has dropped linearly from 25 mA at t = 0 to – 20 mA at t = 3 ms as shown in Figure 5.7. vL 0 < t < 3 ms = – 0. iL 1 = ---------------------–3 0 < t < 3 ms 50 × 10 ∫0 3 ms ( – 0.2 The same result can be obtained by graphical integration.7. iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 t (ms) Figure 5. that is. 1 i L ( t ) = -L ∫t t 0 v L dt + i L ( t 0 ) where i L ( t 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 25 mA is the initial condition. Inductor current for 0 < t < 3 ms . iL –∞ < t < 0 = 25 mA From the given waveform.25 × 10 ) + 20 × 0 + 25 × 10 ⎠ –3 –3 + 25 × 10 = – 20 × 10 –3 = – 20 mA that is.75 V Then. 5-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Thus. Example 5.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance Solution: The current i L ( t ) in an inductor is related to the voltage v L ( t ) by (5.75t ⎝ = – 45 × 10 3 0 × 10 ⎞ –3 –3 –3 + 25 × 10 = 20 ( – 2.75 ) dt + 25 × 10 –3 –3 = 20 ⎛ – 0.8) which is repeated here for convenience.

× 3 × 10 ⎞ – 20 × 10 = 15 mA ⎝ 3 ⎠ and now the current has increased linearly from – 20 mA at t = 3 ms to 15 mA at t = 6 ms as shown in Figure 5.( Area t = 3 ) + initial condition L t = 6 ms 1. the current has decreased linearly from 15 mA at t = 6 ms to – 10 mA at t = 8 ms as shown in Figure 5.9.8.( Area t = 6 ) + initial condition L t = 8 ms = 20 ( – 0. Example 5. Inductor current for 0 < t < 6 ms .8. we get iL 8 ms 1 = -.Inductance iL 3 ms 1 = -. iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 t (ms) Figure 5.625 × 2 × 10 ) + 15 × 10 –3 –3 = – 10 mA Therefore.2 For the time interval 6 < t < 8 ms . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-9 . t = 3 ms = – 20 mA now becomes our initial condition for the time interval Continuing with graphical integration.( Area t = 0 ) + initial condition L t = 3 ms = 20 ( – 0.750 × 3 × 10 ) + 25 × 10 –3 –3 = – 20 mA and the value of i L 3 < t < 6 ms . we get iL 6 ms 1 = -.75 –3 –3 = 20 ⎛ --------.

Finally.2 For the time interval 8 ms < t < 10 ms we get iL 10 ms 1 = -.10.( Area t = 10 ) + initial condition L t = 12 ms = 20 ( – 0.11. Example 5. Inductor current for 0 < t < 8 ms . the current has increased linearly from – 10 mA at t = 8 ms to 5 mA at t = 10 ms as shown in Figure 5. for the time interval 10 ms < t < 12 ms we get iL 12 ms 1 = -. 5-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .9.( Area t = 8 ) + initial condition L t = 10 ms = 20 ( 0.125 × 2 × 10 ) + 5 × 10 –3 –3 =0 that is.375 × 2 × 10 ) – 10 × 10 –3 –3 = 5 mA that is.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 t (ms) Figure 5. the current has decreased linearly from 5 mA at t = 10 ms to 0 mA at t = 12 ms and remains at zero for t > 12 ms as shown in Figure 5.

11.3 Power and Energy in an Inductor Power in an inductor with inductance L is found from Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-11 . 6. Inductor current for 0 < t < 10 ms .2 Example 5. and 12 ms . We observe that the voltage across the inductor can change instantaneously as shown by the discontinuities at t = 0.2 confirms the well known fact that the current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously. the current through the inductor never changes instantaneously. Example 5.Power and Energy in an Inductor iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 10 t (ms) Figure 5. it displays no discontinuities since its value is explicitly defined at all instances of time. 3. Example 5.2 iL ( t ) 25 20 15 10 5 0 −5 −10 −15 −20 (mA) 3 6 8 10 12 14 t (ms) Figure 5. However. 8. This can be observed from the voltage and current waveforms for this and the previous example.10. Inductor current for 0 < t < 12 ms . 10. 5. that is.

that is.12.27) Unlike the resistor which dissipates energy (in the form of heat).Li L ( t ) 2 (5. after some transient disturbances.3 For the circuit shown in Figure 5.L [ i L ( t ) – i L ( t 0 ) ] 2 t0 2 i ( t0 ) t or 2 2 1 W L ( t ) – W L ( t 0 ) = -. have subsided. 5-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Li L = -. Then. Since vL di L L -----dt d ( cons tan t ) dt = = L = 0 * By steady state conditions we mean the condition (state) where the voltages and currents. v 2 . Electric circuits that contain inductors can be simplified if the applied voltage and current sources are constant as shown by the following example. after steady-state*conditions have been reached.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance di L di L p L = v L i L = ⎛ L ⎞ i L = Li L ⎝ dt ⎠ dt (5.26) and the energy in an inductor. the voltages and the currents in all branches of the circuit will be constant after steady-state conditions have been reached. compute v 1 . Example 5. Transients will be in Chapter 10. designated as W L is the integral of the power. compute the power absorbed and the energy consumed by the 5 mH inductor. we get the energy stored in an inductor as 1 2 W L ( t ) = -.L [ i L ( t ) – i L ( t 0 ) ] 2 and letting i L = 0 at t = 0 . the (ideal) inductor is a physical device capable of storing energy in analogy to the potential energy of a stretched spring. WL t i ( t ) di L i(t) t p L dt = L = i L dt = L i L di L t0 t0 i ( t0 ) d t i ( t0 ) ∫ ∫ ∫ or WL i(t) 1 1 2 2 2 = -. and v 3 . Solution: Since both the voltage and the current sources are constant.

12. all voltages across the inductors will be zero and therefore we can replace all inductors by short circuits. let us first find v A and v B using nodal analysis.13. The given circuit then reduces to the one shown in Figure 5.28) At Node v B Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-13 . by inspection. To find v 2 and v 2 . in Figure 5.-.+ ---.3 then.Power and Energy in an Inductor 6Ω 4Ω 40 mH 3Ω 25 mH 9Ω 5Ω + − v3 15 A − + 35 mH v2 8Ω + − 24 V 30 mH 5 mH + v1 − 12 Ω 20 mH 10 Ω 60 mH 15 mH Figure 5.+ ---------------. v A – 24 v A v A – v B ---------------. v 1 = 0 since the 12 Ω resistor was shorted out by the 60 mH inductor. vA 4Ω 9Ω 5Ω 2 Ω vB + v2 − + v3 15 A 8Ω + − 24 V + v1 − − Figure 5. At Node v A .-.3 after steady-state conditions have been reached Now.⎝ 4 9 7⎠ A 7 B (5.13.13 where the 3 Ω and 6 Ω parallel resistors have been combined into a single 2 Ω resistor.= 0 4 5+2 9 or ⎛ 1 + 1 + 1⎞ v – 1 v = 6 --. Circuit for Example 5.. Circuit for Example 5.

I=[6 15]'. v A = 360 ⁄ 11 V v B = 808 ⁄ 11 V v 2 = v A – v 2 = – 448 ⁄ 11 V v 3 = v 2 = 808 ⁄ 11 V and p 5 mH = v 5 mH × i 5 mH = 0 × i 5 mH = 0 that is. format rat % Express answers in rational form G=[1/4+1/9+1/7 −1/7.⎞ = 0. V=G\I. L N in Figure 5.L ⎛ ---.14 (b) where the source voltage v S is the same for both circuits. We wish to find an expression for the equivalent inductance which we denote as L Seq in terms of L 1.5 × 5 × 10 × ⎛ ------------------⎞ ⎝ 8 ⎠ 2 2 ⎝8⎠ or W 5 mH = 0. 5-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . p 5 mH = 0 watts Also. disp(V(1)).v A + ⎛ -. 1 2 1 v3 2 808 ⁄ 11 2 –3 W 5 mH = -.+ --⎞ v B = 15 .28) and (5.29). disp(V(2)) vA= 360/11 vB= 808/11 Therefore.Li 5 mH = -. disp('vB='). ….Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance vB vB – vA ---------------.= 0 5+2 8 or 1 1 1 – -. disp('vA=').4 Combinations of Series and Parallel Inductors Consider the circuits of figures 5.– 15 + ---.⎝ 7 8⎠ 7 (5.14 (a) so that the current i will be the same for both circuits.14 (a) and 5.211 J 5. −1/7 1/7+1/8]. L 2.29) We will use the MATLAB code below to find the solution of (5.

Combinations of Series and Parallel Inductors + vS L1 − + L2 − − + LN − vS + + − + − i (a) i (b) L Seq − Figure 5.= v S dt (5.31) Equating the left sides of (5. L 2. di L Seq ---. L N in Figure 5.30) From the circuit of Figure 5. We wish to find an expression for the equivalent inductance which we denote as L Peq in terms of L 1.14.14 (a). Circuits for derivation of equivalent inductance for inductors in series From the circuit of Figure 5.15 (a) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-15 . iS + v − i1 L1 (a) i2 L2 iS iN LN + v − (b) L Peq Figure 5.14 (b). we will consider the circuits of Figures 5.30) and (5. Circuits for derivation of equivalent inductance for inductors in parallel From the circuit of Figure 5. Next.15 (a) and 5.32) Thus.= v S dt dt dt or di ( L 1 + L 2 + … + L N ) ---.15 (a) so that the voltage v will be the same for both circuits.+ L 2 ---.31) we get: L Seq = L 1 + L 2 + … + L N (5. inductors in series combine as resistors in series do.15 (b) where the source current i S is the same for both circuits.+ … + L N ---.15.= v S dt (5. …. di di di L 1 ---.

+ ---.= ---. Network for Example 5.⎞ S ⎝L L2 L N⎠ – ∞ 1 ∫ (5.+ … + ----L Peq L1 L2 LN (5.t ---v dt + ---v dt + … + ----v dt = i S LN –∞ L2 –∞ L1 –∞ ∫ ∫ ∫ or 1. replace all inductors by a single equivalent inductor.t 1.+ ---. 35 mH L eq 45 mH 125 mH 30 mH 40 mH 60 mH 120 mH 90 mH 15 mH Figure 5. inductors in parallel combine as resistors in parallel do. Example 5.33) From the circuit of Figure 5.t 1.16.34) we get: 11.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance i1 + i2 + … + iN = iS or 1.4 For the network of Figure 5.34) Equating the left sides of (5.4 5-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .11---------.36) Thus.+ … + ----.15 (b) 1 ---------L Peq ∫– ∞ v d t t = iS (5.1⎛ ---.35) and for the special case of two parallel inductors L1 L2 L Peq = ----------------L1 + L2 (5.16.t v dt = i 1.33) and (5.

5 mH Figure 5.5 mH = 92. and L eq = 30 mH + 62. RS S C vS − + Figure 5. just as we considered the entire inductance to be concentrated in a single inductor. Now.18. Simple circuit to illustrate a charged capacitor Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-17 .Capacitance Solution: Starting at the right end of the network and moving towards the left end.18. 75 mH L eq 30 mH 125 mH 40 mH 10 mH Figure 5. Network showing the equivalent inductance of Figure 5. capacitance is associated with an electric field.19 where the device denoted as C . In a simple circuit we can represent the entire capacitance with a device called capacitor.17. a n d a l s o 45 mH || 90 mH = 30 mH . we find that 60 mH || 120 mH = 40 mH . 30 mH || 15 mH = 10 mH . First step in combination of inductances Finally.17. ( 40 mH + 35 mH + 10 mH ) || 125 mH = 62.5 mH as shown in Figure 5.5 mH . A capacitor consists of two parallel metal plates separated by an air space or by a sheet of some type of insulating material called the dielectric. is the standard symbol for a capacitor. Similarly.16 5. L eq 92. with reference to Figure 5.5 Capacitance In Section 5. let us consider the simple series circuit of Figure 5.19. The network then reduces to that shown in Figure 5.2 we learned that inductance is associated with a magnetic field which is created whenever there is current flow. 40 mH + 35 mH = 75 mH .17.

This action leaves the upper plate of the capacitor deficient in electrons and thus it becomes positively charged. whereas magnetic lines of force are always complete loops. At the same time. but it decreases in density beyond the edges of the plates. the voltage source will force electrons from its negative terminal through the conductor to the lower plate of the capacitor and it will accumulate negative charge.20. in an electric field the lines of force start at the positive plate and terminate at the negative plate. + + + + + + − − − − − − Figure 5.37) and recalling that the current i is the rate of change of the charge q. an electric field has been established between the plates of the capacitor. Figure 5.38) where i C and v C in (5. The distribution of the electric field set up in a capacitor is usually represented by lines of force similar to the lines of force in a magnetic field.= ( Cv ) dt dt or dv C i C = C -------dt (5. Thus. we have the relation dq d i = ----.20 shows the distribution of the electric field between the two plates of a capacitor. Therefore. electrons which were present in the upper plate of the capacitor will move towards the positive terminal of the voltage source. Electric field between the plates of a capacitor We observe that the electric field has an almost uniform density in the area directly between the plates. q = Cv (5.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance When the switch S closes in the circuit of Figure 5.38) obey the passive sign convention. The charge q on the plates is directly proportional to the voltage between the plates and the capacitance C is the constant of proportionality. However.19. The unit of capacitance is the Farad abbreviated as F and since 5-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

5 The waveform shown in Figure 5. and denoted as v C ( 0 ) . that is.Capacitance iC amperes C = ------.= --------------------volts dv C -------------------sec onds dt (5.39) we can say that one farad is the capacitance in a circuit in which a current of one ampere flows when the voltage is changing at the rate of a one volt per second. By separation of the variables we rewrite (5.40) and integrating both sides we get: ∫ or vC ( t ) 1 dv C = --C vC ( t0 ) ∫t t 0 i C dt 1 v C ( t ) – v C ( t 0 ) = --C ∫t t 0 i C dt or 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫t t 0 i C dt + v C ( t 0 ) (5.41) as 1 v C ( t ) = --C 1 i C dt = --C –∞ t ∫ ∫ 1 i C dt + --C –∞ 0 ∫0 iC dt t where the initial condition is represented by the first integral on the right side. We can also write (5. the voltage across a capacitor at some reference time usually taken as t = 0 . Example 5.38) as 1 dv C = --. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-19 .i C dt C (5.21 represents the current flowing through a 1 µF capacitor. Compute and sketch the voltage across this capacitor for the time interval 0 < t < 4 ms given that the initial condition is v C ( 0 ) = 0 .41) where v C ( t 0 ) is the initial condition.

25 (mA) 1 0 2 3 4 t (ms) −0.5 Solution: The initial condition v C ( 0 ) = 0 .Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance iC ( t ) 1.5 5-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .50 0. 0 ) on the v C ( t ) versus time plot of Figure 5.25 (V) ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ 0 vC ( 0 ) −0.00 0.50 −0.25 −0. vC t = 1 ms 1 = --C –3 ∫0 1 × 10 –3 i C dt + or vC t = 1 ms 1 = --.75 −1.00 0 1 2 3 4 t (ms) Figure 5. Straight line segment for 0 < t < 1 ms of the voltage waveform for Example 5.( 1 × 10 –3 × 1 × 10 –3 ) = 1 volt –6 ⎠ 1 × 10 and this value establishes the second point of the straight line segment passing through the origin as shown in Figure 5.⎛ Area C⎝ 1 × 10 t=0 1 ⎞ = ------------------.50 −0. establishes the first point at the coordinates ( 0.22.00 Figure 5.75 −1. Waveform for Example 5.75 0.75 0.25 −0.22.00 0.22.50 0. Next. vC ( t ) 1.21.

50 −0.50 0.75 0.25 (V) −0.( – 1 × 10 × ( 2 – 1 ) × 10 ) + 1 = 0 volts –6 1 × 10 Thus. vC ( t ) 1.00 0 1 2 3 4 t (ms) Figure 5. Accordingly.25 −0.25 −0.00 0. the capacitor voltage then decreases linearly from 1 volt at t = 1 ms to 0 volts at t = 2 ms as shown in Figure 5.23.5 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-21 .⎛ Area C⎝ 1 × 10 t=0 –3 ⎞ +1 ⎠ 1 –3 –3 = ------------------. the capacitor voltage v c waveform of figure (b) starts repeating itself also as shown in Figure 5. Voltage waveform for 0 < t < 4 ms of Example 5.00 0 1 2 3 4 t (ms) Figure 5.5 There is no need to calculate the values of the capacitor voltage v c at t = 3 ms and at t = 4 ms because the waveform of the current i c starts repeating itself at t = 2 ms .50 −0.24.23. and the initial conditions and the areas are the same as before.24.00 0. vC ( t ) 1. Voltage waveform for 0 < t < 2 ms of Example 5.75 −1.50 0.75 0.75 −1. Continuing.25 (V) −0.Capacitance This value of 1 volt at t = 1 ms becomes our initial condition for the time interval 1 < t < 2 . we get vC t = 2 ms 1 = --.

However.42) where we observe that if the current in an inductor or the voltage across a capacitor could change instantaneously.5 has illustrated the well known fact that the voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously. that is.Cv c 2 1 2 2 = -. then the energies W L and W C would also change instantaneously but this is. the voltage and current sources are constant.6 In the circuit of figure 5. equations (5.42) Like an inductor.27) and (5. 2. 5. These facts can also be seen from the expressions of the energy in an inductor and in a capacitor. a physical impossibility. we observe that the current through the capacitor can change instantaneously as shown by the discontinuities at t = 1.C [ v c ( t ) – v c ( t 0 ) ] 2 and letting v C = 0 at t = 0 . the voltage across the capacitor never changes instantaneously. 5-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . it displays no discontinuities since its value is explicitly defined at all instances of time as shown in Figure 5.6 Power and Energy in a Capacitor Power in a capacitor with capacitance C is found from dv C ⎞ pC = vC iC = vC ⎛ C ⎝ dt ⎠ and the energy in a capacitor. Example 5.C [ v c ( t ) – v c ( t 0 ) ] 2 or 1 2 2 W C ( t ) – W C ( t 0 ) = -. a capacitor is a physical device capable of storing energy. of course. we get the energy stored in a capacitor as 1 2 W C ( t ) = -.24. denoted as W C is the integral of the power.21. 3.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance Example 5.Cv C ( t ) 2 (5. It was stated earlier that the current through an inductor and the voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously. Referring to the current and voltage waveforms for this example. and 4 ms in Figure 5. WC t t0 = ∫t t 0 p C dt = C i(t) i ( t0 ) ∫ v(t ) 0 v(t) vC dv C dt = C dt ∫ v (t ) vC dvc 0 v(t) 1 2 = -. that is.25.

26. Compute i L1 and v C2 b. Compute the power and energy in the 2 µF capacitor. thus. But Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-23 . First simplification of the circuit of Example 5. R1 4Ω R2 7Ω R3 2Ω i L1 R4 R6 R5 6 Ω 10 Ω 5Ω 15 A R8 8Ω + − 24 V v C2 + − Figure 5.27. we can replace the inductors by short circuits and the capacitors by open circuits and the given circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 5. Thus.25.Power and Energy in a Capacitor a. R1 4Ω C1 R2 7Ω R3 2Ω 1 µF L3 5Ω C2 30 mH 15 A C3 R7 3 µF 5Ω R8 i L1 L 1 40 mH R 4 R6 8Ω − 24 V + L2 R5 6 Ω 10 Ω v C2 + − 2 µF L4 L5 25 mH 60 mH 20 mH Figure 5. after steady-state conditions have been reached.26.26 by first exchanging the 15 A current source and resistor R 8 for a voltage source of 15 × 8 = 120 V in series with R 8 as shown in Figure 5. Circuit for Example 5. We also combine the series-parallel resistors R 1 through R 4 .6 Solution: a.6 We can simplify the circuit of figure 5. The voltage and current sources are constant. the voltages across the inductors will be zero and the currents through the capacitors will be zero. R eq = ( 4 + 2 ) || ( 7 + 5 ) = 4 Ω . Therefore.

−6 14]. however. R=[20 −6. this presents no problem since we can apply the current division expression once i.27. with reference to the circuit of Figure 5. Final simplification of the circuit of Example 5.28. we will write two mesh equations and we will solve using MATLAB. disp(‘i2=’). shown in Figure 5. disp(‘i1=’). I=R\V.6 5-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . is found.6 We can apply superposition here.27. V=[24 −120]'. The simplified circuit then is i + R eq 4Ω R6 R8 + v C2 8Ω − 24 V i1 R5 10 Ω 6Ω − i2 + − 120 V Figure 5. disp(I(1)).28 R1 4Ω R2 7Ω R3 2Ω i L1 R4 R6 R5 10 Ω 5Ω 15 A R8 8Ω − 24 V + 6Ω − + v C2 Figure 5. disp(I(2)) i1= -96/61 i2= -564/61 Therefore. Instead.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance now we observe that the branch in which the current i L1 flows has disappeared. Circuit for computation of i L1 and v C2 for Example 5. These in matrix form are 20 – 6 i 1 = 24 – 6 14 i 2 – 120 Solution using MATLAB: format rat.

43) From the circuit of Figure 5.29. C N in Figure 5. + − + C1 − vS + − C2 − (a) vS i + CN − i (b) + + − C Seq Figure 5.⎞ = ----------. C 2.+ -------.5 × 2 × 10 × ⎛ -----------⎞ = 2 mJ ⎝ 61 ⎠ 2 5.525 A ( 4 + 2 ) + ( 7 + 5 ) ⎝ 61⎠ 61 and 96 564 2808 v C2 = 6 ⎛ – ----. ….Cv 2 µF = 0.29 (b) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-25 . Circuits for derivation of equivalent capacitance for capacitors in series From the circuit of Figure 5.03 V ⎝ 61 61 ⎠ 61 b.= 46.+ ----.29 (a) and 5.29 (a) so that the current i will be the same in both circuits. v C1 + v C2 + … + v CN = v S or 1 ----C1 ∫ 1 i dt + ----C2 –∞ t ∫ 1 i dt + … + ------CN –∞ t t ∫–∞ i dt t = vS or 1 1 1 ⎛ ----.29 (a).7 Capacitance Combinations Consider the circuits of figures 5. We want to find an expression for the equivalent capacitance which we denote as C Seq in terms of C 1.Capacitance Combinations (4 + 2) --------i L1 = ---------------------------------------. p 2 µF = v 2 µF × i 2 µF = v C2 × 0 = 0 and 2808 2 1 2 –6 W 2 µF = -.29 (b) in which the source voltage v S is the same for both circuits.⎞ ⎝C C C ⎠ 1 2 N ∫– ∞ i d t = vS (5.+ … + ------.× ⎛ – 96⎞ = – 32 = – 0.

30 (b) where the source current i S is the same for both circuits. C 2.+ ----.30 (a).47) From the circuit of Figure 5. Next.+ … + ------C Seq C1 C2 CN (5. We wish to find an expression for the equivalent capacitance which we denote as C Peq in terms of C 1.47) and (5.+ C 2 ----.30 (b). dv C Peq ----.46) Thus capacitors in series combine as resistors in parallel do.44) Equating the left sides of (5.30.43) and (5.45) and for the special case of two capacitors in series C1 C2 C Seq = -----------------C1 + C2 (5.48) we get: 5-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= i S dt (5. we will consider the circuits of figures 5.30 (a) so that the voltage v will be the same in both circuits. ….44) we get: 1 1 1 1 ---------.= i S dt (5. iS + v − i1 C1 (a) i2 C2 + iN CN iS v − (b) C Peq Figure 5.= i S dt dt dt or dv ( C 1 + C 2 + … + C N ) ----. Circuits for derivation of equivalent capacitance for capacitors in parallel From the circuit of Figure 5.30 (a) and 5. C N in Figure 5.+ … + C N ----. i1 + i2 + … + iN = iS or dv dv dv C 1 ----.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 1---------C Seq ∫–∞ i dt t = vS (5.48) Equating the left sides of (5.= ----.

32.Capacitance Combinations C Peq = C 1 + C 2 + … + C N (5. 4. the series combination of 20 µF and 20 µF yields C eq = 10 µF as shown in Figure 5. First step in combination of capacitances N e x t . capacitors in parallel combine as resistors in series do. Example 5.7 For the network of Figure 5. replace all capacitors by a single equivalent capacitor. 10 µF 560 -------.32.49) Thus. C eq 20 µF Figure 5. and 8 µF || 12 µF = 20 µF .µF 31 2 µF 1 µF 3 µF 8 µF 12 µF 4 µF Figure 5. Network for Example 5. T he network then reduces to that shown in Figure 5.µF 31 4 µF 6 µF C eq 20 µF Figure 5. 2 µF || 4 µF = 6 µF . Finally. t h e s e r i e s c o m b i n a t i o n o f 10. 15 µF in series with 30µF = 10µF . 15 µF 30 µF C eq 560 -------.31. Network showing the equivalent inductance of Figure 5. we find that 3 µF || 1 µF = 4 µF .33.16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-27 .31.7 Solution: Starting at the right of the network and moving towards the left.33. and 6µF capacitors y i e l d s 60 ⁄ 31 µF a n d 60 ⁄ 31 µF || 560 ⁄ 31 µF = 20 µF .

8 Nodal and Mesh Equations in General Terms In Examples 5. we need N – 1 = 5 – 1 = 4 nodal equations.+ C ---. if the voltage and current sources are time-varying quantities we must apply KCL or KVL in general terms as illustrated by the following example. Nodal analysis for the circuit of Example 5.8 At Node 1: v 1 = v S1 At Node 2: v2 – v1 d 1 --------------. mesh or any other method of analysis as we learned in Chapter 3.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 5.8 Solution: Nodal Analysis: We assign nodes as shown in Figure 5. Thus. Circuit for Example 5.34. R1 v S1 − C L + v S2 + − R2 Figure 5. However. Example 5.35.8 Write nodal and mesh equations for the circuit shown in Figure 5.35.3 and 5.6 the voltage and current sources were constant and therefore.34. the steadystate circuit analysis could be performed by nodal.( v 2 – v 4 ) + -dt L R1 ∫– ∞ ( v 2 – v 3 ) d t v3 = 0 t = 0 At Node 3: 1 -L ∫–∞ ( v3 – v2 ) dt + -----R2 t 5-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . v1 R1 v S1 − v2 v4 C L v3 R2 + v S2 + v0 − Figure 5.

• Unlike the resistor which dissipates energy (in the form of heat). • The magnetic field loops are circular in form and are called lines of magnetic flux. The unit of magnetic flux is the weber (Wb).8 For Mesh 1: 1 R 1 i 1 + --C ∫–∞ ( i1 – i2 ) dt – vS1 – vS2 t t = 0 For Mesh 2: 1 dL ---. we can add the initial condition terms and replace the lower limit of integration – ∞ with zero in the integrodifferential equations above.36. • The magnetic flux is denoted as ϕ and. Alternately. R1 v S1 − C L + i1 v S2 + − R2 i2 Figure 5. the total flux. 5.36. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-29 . the voltage-current relationship is v L = L ( di L ⁄ dt ) • The unit of inductance is the Henry abbreviated as H. Then.Summary At Node 4: v 4 = – v S2 Mesh Analysis: We need M = B – 1 = 6 – 5 + 1 = 2 mesh equations. if there are N turns and we assume that the flux ϕ passes through each turn. is called flux linkage. we assign currents i 1 and i 2 as shown in Figure 5. denoted as λ . the initial conditions are included in the limits of integration.9 Summary • Inductance is associated with a magnetic field which is created whenever there is current flow. Mesh analysis for the circuit of Example 5. the (ideal) inductor is a physical device capable of storing energy in analogy to the potential energy of a stretched spring. Thus.i 2 + R 2 i 2 + v S2 + --C dt ∫– ∞ ( i 2 – i 1 ) d t = 0 In both the nodal and mesh equations. λ = N ϕ • For an inductor.

if the applied voltage and current sources are time-varying quantities. an inductor behaves like a short circuit. the voltage-current relationship is i C = C ( dv C ⁄ dt ) • The unit of capacitance is the Farad abbreviated as F. • Capacitors in series combine as resistors in parallel do. • Inductors in parallel combine as resistors in parallel do. • Capacitance is associated with an electric field. • A capacitor consists of two parallel metal plates separated by an air space or by a sheet of some type of insulating material called the dielectric. a capacitor is a physical device capable of storing energy. 5-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • In a circuit that contains inductors and/or capacitors. • In circuits where the applied voltage source or current source are constants. integrodifferential equations. • The charge q on the plates of a capacitor is directly proportional to the voltage between the plates and the capacitance C is the constant of proportionality. • In circuits where the applied voltage source or current source are constants. a capacitor behaves like an open circuit. q = Cv • In a capacitor. • Inductors in series combine as resistors in series do. • Capacitors in parallel combine as resistors in series do. Thus. • Like an inductor. the nodal and mesh equations are.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance • The energy stored in an inductor is W L ( t ) = ( 1 ⁄ 2 )Li L ( t ) • The current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously. after steady-state con2 ditions have been reached. • The energy stored in a capacitor is W C ( t ) = ( 1 ⁄ 2 )Cv C ( t ) • The voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously. after steady-state con2 ditions have been reached. in general.

Farad B. None of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-31 . start at the negative plate and end at the positive plate D. are complete loops B. λ = Li C. Ohm C. λ = Nϕ B. None of the above 2. µF B. v = dλ ⁄ dt E. None of the above 3. Farad D. v = L ( di ⁄ dt ) D. Weber E. start at the positive plate and end at the negative plate C. The unit of inductance is the A.Exercises 5. are unpredictable E. None of the above 4. Coulomb E. In an electric field of a capacitor. Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction states that A. mH D. The unit of capacitance is the A. Ohm C.10 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. the lines of force A.

v C i C D.37 after steady-state conditions have been established. ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Li ) B. the voltage cannot change instantaneously B. the current cannot change instantaneously C. the current i L through the inductor will be 2 2 2 2 5-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . both the voltage and the current can change instantaneously E. ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Cv ) C. neither the voltage nor the current can change instantaneously D. neither the voltage nor the current can change instantaneously D. ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Lv ) C. In a capacitor A. None of the above 6. dissipated in the form of heat E. None of the above 7. dissipated in the form of heat E. None of the above 9. In the circuit of Figure 5. None of the above 8. the current cannot change instantaneously C.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 5. the voltage cannot change instantaneously B. The energy in an inductor is A. ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( Ci ) B. In an inductor A. The energy in a capacitor is A. v L i L D. both the voltage and the current can change instantaneously E.

In the circuit of Figure 5. the voltage v C across the capacitor will be + − + C 2 µF R 5Ω vS − 10 V Figure 5. 10 V E. Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p L absorbed by this inductor is p L = 50 µw Answer: t = 5 ms Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-33 .Exercises iL 5 mH 5Ω iS 5 A Figure 5. ∞ A C. 5 A E. None of the above Problems 1. Circuit for Question 10 A.38 after steady-state conditions have been established. Circuit for Question 9 A.5 A D. 2. 0 A B. None of the above 10. – 10 V D. Compute and sketch the voltage v L across this inductor for t > 0 b. The current i L flowing through a 10 mH inductor is shown by the waveform of Figure 5.38. 0 V B.37.39. a. ∞ V C.

Compute and sketch the voltage v C across this capacitor for t > 0 b. Waveform for Problem 1 2. and inductor at t = 10 ms if: a.39. Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p C absorbed by this capacitor is p C = – 5 mw .56 ms 3.41. Answer: 23. Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p C absorbed by this capacitor is p C = 5 mw . capacitor.4 mJ b.4 mH C 100 µF Rest of the Network Figure 5.40. Compute the first time after t = 0 when the power p L absorbed by this inductor is p L = – 50 µw Answer: t = 25 ms 10 iL (mA) 40 0 10 20 30 50 60 t (ms) −10 Figure 5. Answer: 1 mJ 5-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .85 ms c. compute the energy stored in the 5 mH inductor at t = 1 s given that i ( 0 ) = 0 . Answer: 7. Answer: 3.1e – 100t mA and it is known that v C ( 0 ) = – 10 V . Answer: 50 µJ vC ( t ) + − i(t) R 5Ω L 0.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance c. and it is known that v C ( 0 ) = 0 a. For the network of Figure 5. compute the total energy stored in the series combination of the resistor. Network for Problem 3 4. The current i C flowing through a 1 µF capacitor is given as i C ( t ) = cos 100t mA . i ( t ) = 0.40. i ( t ) = 0.5 cos 5t mA and it is known that v C ( 0 ) = 0 . For the circuit of Figure 5.

C1 R1 L2 C2 L1 + − vS ( t ) R2 Figure 5.44.41. Write nodal equations for the circuit of Figure 5. replace all capacitors with an equivalent capacitance C eq and then compute the energy stored in C eq at t = 1 ms given that v C ( 0 ) = 0 in all capacitors.42. Circuit for Problem 4 5.Exercises i(t ) + − 5 mH 3 mH 10 mH 7 mH v S ( t ) 10e – t mV Figure 5. Circuit for Problem 7 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-35 . Circuit for Problem 6 7.42.43.43. For the circuit of Figure 5. Answer: 10 pJ 10 µF 3 µF 6 µF 8 µF iS ( t ) 10 µA Figure 5. Circuit for Problem 5 6.44. C1 R2 + vS ( t ) − R1 C2 L Figure 5. Write mesh equations for the circuit of Figure 5.

a.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance 5.= 10 mV –3 ∆t 10 × 10 s 20 ms 10 Likewise. B 7. B 8. vL vL 40 ms 20 = L × slope = L × 0 = 0 mV –3 = L × slope = 10 × 10 vL 50 ms 40 [ – 10 – ( 10 ) ] × 10 A × -------------------------------------------------. vL 10 ms 0 –3 ∆i L A – 3 10 × 10 = L × slope = L ------. E – 5 A 10.11 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. D Problems 1.= 10 mV –3 ( 60 – 50 ) × 10 s –3 The current. D 4.= – 10 mV –3 ( 40 – 20 ) × 10 s –3 = L × slope = L × 0 = 0 mV –3 vL 10 ms 0 = L × slope = 10 × 10 [ 0 – ( – 10 ) ] × 10 A × -------------------------------------------------. voltage. 5-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Thus. and power waveforms are shown below. In an inductor the voltage and current are related by v L = L ( di L ⁄ dt ) = L × slope . A 9. E Henry 2. A 6. we need to compute the slope of each segment of the given waveform and multiply it by L . B 5. C 3.= 10 × 10 × ---------------------------.

we observe that p L = v L i L = 50 µw occurs for the first time at point A where t = 5 ms c. we observe that p L = v L i L = – 50 µw occurs for the first time at point A where t = 25 ms 2.sin 100τ 100 t = 10 sin 100t 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-37 . a. For this problem C = 1 µF = 10 –6 F and the current i C is a sinusoid given as i C ( t ) = cos 100t mA as shown below. From the power waveform above. The voltage v C ( t ) across this capacitor is found from 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫0 3 t i C dτ + v C ( 0 ) = 10 t 3 6 ∫0 ( 10 t –3 ) cos 100τ dτ + 0 = 10 ∫0 10 cos 100τ dτ = -------. From the power waveform above.Answers to Exercises 10 10 mH 0 iL (mA) 40 10 20 30 50 60 t (ms) iL ( t ) −10 vL 10 (mV) + vL ( t ) − 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 t (ms) −10 pL ( µ w ) 100 A pL = vL iL 20 0 10 30 40 50 60 t (ms) B −100 b.

10 sin ----.t = 10 sin 100t or 2π ⁄ T = 100 and T = 2π ⁄ 100 or T = π ⁄ 50 2π T b. Then.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance iC ( t ) ( mA ) cos 100t t (s) and the waveform of v C ( t ) is shown below. Since v C ( t ) is a sine function and i C ( t ) a cosine function. ωT = 2π or ω = 2π ⁄ T . vC ( t ) (V) 10 10 sin 100t π -------100 – 10 T π ----50 Now. the first time after zero that their product will be positive is in the interval 0 < t < π ⁄ 200 where we want p C = v C i C = 5 mw or p C = ( 10 sin 100t ) ( 10 cos 100t ) = 5 × 10 –3 –3 w or p C = ( 10 sin 100t ) ( cos 100t ) = 5 w Recalling that 5-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

There is no energy stored in the resistor.Li L + -.00785 s = 7.= -------.85 ms after t = π ⁄ 200 s or after t = 1000π ⁄ 200 ms = 5π ms .85 ms 200 200 400 –1 c. The time where p C = – 5 mw will occur for the first time is 7.= 0. Therefore. WT t = 10 ms 1 –3 – 100t 2 1 –4 – 100t 2 = -. WT=2.1e ) + ( – 10e ) ] = 3.× 0. For this part Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-39 .1*exp(−1))^2+((−10)*exp(−1))^2).85 + 15.4 × 10 × ( 0.4f J'.5*10^(−4)*((0. it is dissipated in the form of heat. the total energy is stored in the capacitor and the inductor. fprintf('WT=%7.Cv C 2 2 where i L = i ( t ) = 0.× 10 × ( – 10e ) 2 2 = 2. Thus.71 = 23. that is.e – 10 = 10e – 100 0 0 t = 10 – 10e – 10 or v C ( t ) = – 10e – 100t Then. p C = – 5 mw will occur for the first time at t = 7.1e ) + -.85 + 5π = 7. 1 2 1 2 W T = W L + W C = -. fprintf(' \n').5 × 10 [ ( 0.4 mJ –4 –1 2 –1 2 We’ve used MATLAB as a calculator to obtain the answer.Answers to Exercises sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x it follows that p C = 5 sin 200t = 5 w or sin 200t = 1 or sin 1 π⁄2 π t = -------------. that is.1e t – 100τ dτ – 10 – 100t 10 × 0.1 – 100τ – 100τ = --------------------.WT). fprintf(' \n') WT= 0.56 ms 3. a.= --------.1e – 100t and 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫0 4 t i C dτ + v C ( 0 ) = 10 t 4 ∫0 0.0034 J b.

1 –4 2 1 –4 2 W T = W L + W C = -.× 0.× 5 × 10 ( 1 – e ) 2 ∫0 t e dτ = – e –τ –τ t 0 =e –τ 0 t = 1–e –t Then.5 × 10 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 1 –4 cos 5 t + sin 5 t 2 2 = 0.4 × 10 × ( 0.Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance i L = i ( t ) = 0. 10 || 10 = 5 . Starting with the right side and proceeding to the left.5 cos 5t ) + -.5 × 10 –3 × ( 1 – e ) ≈ 1 mJ –1 2 6. v 2 . and 5 + 5 = 10 mH reduces the given circuit to the one shown below. W 5 mH t=1 s t=1 s = 2. v1 C1 R2 + vS ( t ) − v2 R1 C2 v3 L Then.× 10 × ( sin 5t ) 2 2 = 0. 4. + v S ( t ) 10e iL ( t ) 10 mH –t − mV The current i L ( t ) is i L ( t ) = -1 L ∫0 t 1 –3 v S dτ + i L ( 0 ) = ---------------------. We assign node voltages v 1 .× 10 × 10 –3 10 × 10 1 –3 –t 2 = -. 5-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and v 3 as shown below.05 mJ = 50 µJ We observe that the total power is independent of time.5 cos 5t mA and 1 v C ( t ) = --C ∫0 t i C dτ + v C ( 0 ) = 10 × 10 t 0 4 –4 ∫0 5 cos 5τ dτ + 0 t = sin 5τ = sin 5t Then. the series-parallel combination of 7 + 3 = 10 .

i 2 . We assign mesh currents i 1 . C1 R1 + − vS ( t ) i2 L2 C2 L1 i1 R2 i3 Then.( i3 – i2 ) + R2 i3 dt t d = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 5-41 .( v 3 – v 2 ) + -dt L R2 ∫–∞ v3 dτ t = 0 7.+ L 2 ---.( v 2 – v 3 ) + ----.+ C 2 ---.= 0 dt dt R1 v3 – v1 d1 --------------.Answers to Exercises v1 = vS v2 d d C 1 ---. 1----C1 ∫ 1i 1 dτ + R 1 ( i 1 – i 2 ) + ----C2 –∞ t ∫– ∞ ( i 1 – i 3 ) d τ t = vS di 2 dR 1 ( i 2 – i 1 ) + L 1 -----. and i 3 as shown below.( i 2 – i 3 ) = 0 dt dt 1 ----C2 ∫–∞ ( i3 – i1 ) dτ + L2 ----.( v 2 – v 1 ) + C 2 ---.

Chapter 5 Inductance and Capacitance NOTES 5-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

6. Thus the response may be anything we define it as a response.2 Circuit Response to Sinusoidal Inputs We can apply the circuit analysis methods which we have learned in previous chapters to circuits where the voltage or current sources are sinusoidal. the response is the voltage or current at the output of a circuit. and ω where the subscript p is used to denote the peak or maximum value of a time varying function. we say that a circuit is “excited” or “driven” by a constant. the response will also be some constant value. Another term used in circuit analysis is the word response. if the excitation is a constant voltage or current. or a sinusoidal.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis T his chapter is an introduction to circuits in which the applied voltage or current are sinusoidal. susceptance. Reactance. an inductor behaves like a short circuit and a capacitor behaves like an open circuit. or an exponential function of time. if the excitation is a sinusoidal voltage or current. If not.1 Excitation Functions The applied voltages and currents in electric circuits are generally referred to as excitations or driving functions.1. superposition. and the Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-1 . Generally. In Chapters 1 through 4 we considered circuits that consisted of excitations (active sources) and resistors only as the passive devices. we will consider the simple series circuit of Example 6. but we need to specify what the output of a circuit is. Thus. The circuit analysis procedure for these circuits is the same for DC and AC circuits. inductive and capacitive circuits. In Chapter 5 we learned that when the excitation is a constant and steady-state conditions are reached. C . derive an expression for v C ( t ) in terms of V p . when the excitation is a time-varying function such as a sinusoid. the response will also be sinusoidal with the same frequency but different amplitude and phase. R . The time and frequency domains are defined and phasor relationships are developed for resistive. that is. impedance and admittance are also defined. 6. Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems to find the desired response such as the voltage and/or current in any particular branch.1. Example 6. this may be the voltage or current in the “load” part of the circuit or any other part of it. inductors and capacitors behave entirely different as we will see in our subsequent discussion. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with sinusoids and complex numbers.1 For the circuit shown in Figure 6. To find out how easy (or how difficult) the procedure becomes. However. We used various methods such as nodal and mesh analyses. it is strongly recommended that Appendix B is reviewed thoroughly before reading this chapter.

Accordingly. Circuit for Example 6.4) and recalling that sin ( x + y ) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y and cos ( x + y ) = cos x cos y – sin x sin y 6-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . differentiation (and integration) of a sinusoid of radian frequency ω results in another sinusoid of the same frequency ω .2) As we know. and ω . R i( t) v S = V p cos ωt + C − vC ( t ) Figure 6. vR + vC = vS (6.3) into (6.1 Solution: By KVL.1) we get dv C RC -------.3) where the amplitude A and phase angle θ are constants to be determined from the circuit parameters of V p . C . R .+ v C = v S = V p cos ωt dt (6.2) yields – AωRC sin ( ωt + θ ) + A cos ( ωt + θ ) = V p cos ωt (6.1) where v R = Ri = Ri C and dv C i C = C -------dt Then.1. the solution of (6.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis sine symbol inside the circle denotes that the excitation is a sinusoidal function. Substitution of (6.2) must have the form v C ( t ) = A cos ( ωt + θ ) (6. dv C v R = RC -------dt and by substitution into (6.

after some more tedious work. and it is driven (excited) by a sinusoidal voltage source v S ( t ) . 6. it just entails the use of complex numbers. there is nothing “imaginary” about this value. In other words. the imaginary part is just as “real” as the real part of the complex number but it is defined on a different axis. Complex numbers are discussed in Appendix B. solving for amplitude A and phase angle θ we get: Vp –1 v C ( t ) = -------------------------------. and the imaginary part on the imaginary axis or the y-axis. We should remember also that when we say that the imaginary part of a complex number is some value.The Complex Excitation Function we rewrite (6.3 The Complex Excitation Function We recall that the derivatives and integrals of sinusoids always produce sinusoids of the same frequency but different amplitude and phase since the cosine and sine functions are 90 degrees out-of-phase.2 which consists of resistors. Thus. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-3 . equating like terms and. if v ( t ) = A cos ( ω t + θ ) then dv = – ω A sin ( ω t + θ ) dt and if i ( t ) = B sin ( ω t + φ ) then di = ω B cos ( ω t + φ ) dt Let us consider the network of Figure 6.5) Obviously. We will see on the next section that the complex excitation function greatly simplifies the procedure of analyzing such circuits. using the above procedure is impractical. analyzing circuits with sinusoidal excitations when they contain capacitors and/or inductors. The complex excitation function does not imply complexity of a circuit.cos ( ωt – tan ( ωRC ) ) 2 1 + ( ωRC ) (6. Thus we display the real part of a complex function on the axis of the reals (usually the x-axis).4) as – AωRC sin ωt cos θ – AωRC cos ωt sin θ + A cos ωt cos θ – A sin ωt sin θ = V p cos ωt Collecting sine and cosine terms. inductors and capacitors.

find the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 6. Circuit for Example 6. the nodal and mesh equations for such circuits are integrodifferential equations.6) and therefore.2.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Excitation Linear Network Consisting of Resistors. As we know from Chapter 5. † This topic is also discussed in Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB® Applications by this author 6-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and it is shown in differential equations textbooks† that the forced response or particular solution of these circuits have the form v LD ( t ) = A cos ( ω t ) + B sin ( ω t ) We also know from Euler’s identity that A cos ω t + jA sin ω t = Ae jωt LOAD i LOAD ( t ) + v LOAD ( t ) − (6. we will represent all sinusoidal variations in terms of the cosine func- Example 6. which is excited by a sinusoidal source. Inductors and Capacitors vS ( t ) Figure 6. in this text. R i( t) v S = V p cos ωt + C − vC ( t ) Figure 6. As we stated previously. General presentation of a network showing excitation and load Let us also define the voltage across the load as v LOAD ( t ) * as the response. In this text.1.3 using the complex excitation method.2 Repeat Example 6. we use the v LOAD and i LOAD notations to avoid confusion with the voltage v L across and the current i L through an inductor. using the complex function Ae tion. that is.2 to illustrate the ease by which we can obtain the response of a circuit. the real component is the response due to cos ω t and the imaginary component is the response to sin ω t We will use Example 6. jωt approach.2 * Some textbooks denote the voltage across and the current through the load as v L and i L respectively.3.

( V C e ) + VC e = Vp e dt or ( j ω RC + 1 )V C e j ( ωt + ϕ ) = Vp e jωt The last expression above shows that radian frequency ω is the same for the response as it is for the excitation. we use Euler’s identity on both Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-5 . therefore we only need to be concerned with the magnitude and the phase angle of the response.The Complex Excitation Function Solution: Since cos ωt = Re { e jωt } we let the excitation be vS ( t ) = Vp e jωt and thus the response will have the form vC ( t ) = VC e j ( ωt + ϕ ) As in Example 6. we simply multiply both sides by e we get VC e j ( ωt + ϕ ) –1 Vp . dv C jωt RC -------.7) or dj ( ωt + ϕ ) j ( ωt + ϕ ) jωt RC ---. since the excitation is the real part of the complex excitation.j [ ωt – tan ( ωRC ) ] = -------------------------------. its radian frequency and the circuit constants R and C .1.= -------------------------------.= --------------------------------------------------------------.e 2 2 2 1+ω R C jωt and Finally.e –1 j ω RC + 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 j [ tan ( ωRC ) ] 1+ω R C 1+ω R C e This expression above shows the response as a function of the maximum value of the excitation. we can eliminate the radian frequency ω by dividing both sides of that expression by e jωt and thus the input-output (excitation-response) relation reduces to ( jωRC + 1 )V C e jϕ = Vp from which VC e jϕ –1 Vp Vp Vp – j [ tan ( ωRC ) ] = ---------------------. If we wish to express the response in complete form. Accordingly.+ v C = V p e dt (6.

and the frequency domain as the jω – domain . we will denote the time domain as the t – domain . m ( t ) = A sin ( ω t + θ ) = A cos ( ω t + θ – 90° ) and in the jω – domain it is expressed as M = Ae j ( θ – 90 ) ° Vp –1 (6.8) = A ∠( θ – 90° ) (6. to jω – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1. Extract the magnitude and phase angle from it.9) where M represents a phasor (rotating vector) voltage V or current I∗ . the t – domain . Example 6. we must first convert it to a cosine function. we have v ( t ) = 10 sin ( 100t – 60° ) = 10 cos ( 100t – 60° – 90° ) or ° ⎧ j ( 100t – 150 ) ⎫ v ( t ) = 10 cos ( 100t – 150° ) = Re ⎨ 10e ⎬ ⎩ ⎭ 6-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Express the given sinusoid as a cosine function 2. In summary.cos [ ω t – tan ( ω RC ) ] 2 2 2 1+ω R C The first part of the above procedure where the excitation-response relation is simplified to amplitude and phase relationship is known as time-domain to frequency-domain transformation. For brevity. If a sinusoid is given in terms of the sine function.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis sides and equating reals parts. we get v C ( t ) = V C cos ( ω t + φ ) = ------------------------------. Thus. Express the cosine function as the real part of the complex excitation using Euler’s identity 3. Solution: For this example.3 Transform the sinusoid v ( t ) = 10 sin ( 100t – 60° ) to its equivalent jω – domain expression. the second part where the excitation-response is put back to its sinusoidal form is known as frequency-domain to timedomain transformation.

4 Transform the phasor I = 120 ∠– 90° to its equivalent time-domain expression. Add the radian frequency ω multiplied by t to the exponential form 3.The Complex Excitation Function Since the jω – domain contains only the amplitude and phase. and we get the phasor V as V = 10e – j150 ° = 10 ∠– 150° The jω – domain to t – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1. I = 120 ∠– 90° = 120e – j90 ° Next. we express the given phasor in exponential form. Example 6. adding the radian frequency ω multiplied by t to the exponent of the above expression we get i ( t ) = 120e and finally we extract the real part from it. multiply and divide sinusoids of the same frequency using phasors as illustrated by the following example. Example 6. Extract the real part from it. subtract. Solution: First. we extract these from the bracketed term on the right side of the above expression. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-7 . Compute the sum i ( t ) = i1 ( t ) + i2 ( t ) . ° ⎧ j ( ωt – 90 ) ⎫ i ( t ) = Re ⎨ 120e ⎬ = 120 cos ( ω t – 90° ) = 120 sin ω t ⎩ ⎭ j ( ωt – 90 ) ° We can add.5 It is given that i 1 ( t ) = 10 cos ( 120 π t + 45° ) and i 2 ( t ) = 5 sin ( 120 π t – 45 ° ) . Then. that is. Convert the given phasor from polar to exponential form 2.

We must always remember that phasor quantities exist only in the jω – domain . 6-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . L. is considerably simplified with the use of phasor voltages and phasor currents which we will represent by the boldface capital letters V and I respectively. We will show that this relationship also holds for the phasors V R and I R shown in circuit 6. we get i ( t ) = 5 cos ( 120 π t + 45° ) Also. and which are excited by sinusoidal sources. and C respectively. L .4 (a) we let v R ( t ) be a complex voltage.– j ------⎞ ⎝ 2 ⎝ 2 2⎠ 2⎠ or 2 2 I = 5 ⎛ -----. that is. L .+ j ------⎞ + 5 ⎛ – -----. for brevity. inductive and capacitive circuits as R .4 (a) below where the load is purely resistive. and C devices. We know from Ohm’s law that v R ( t ) = Ri R ( t ) where the resistance R is a constant. 2 2 2 2 I = I 1 + I 2 = 10 ∠45° + 5 ∠– 135 ° = 10 ⎛ -----. 1.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Solution: As a first step. we perform the t – domain to jω – domain transformation and we obtain the phasors I 1 = 10 ∠45° and I 2 = 5 ∠– 135 ° and by addition. i 2 ( t ) = 5 sin ( 120 π t – 45 ° ) = 5 cos ( 120 π t – 45 ° – 90° ) = 5 cos ( 120 π t – 135 ° ) Next. V and I phasor relationship in R branches Consider circuit 6. that is.4 (b).+ j ------⎞ = 5 ∠45° ⎝ 22⎠ and finally transforming the phasor I into the t – domain . we express i 2 ( t ) as a cosine function. 6. We will now derive V and I phasor relationships in the jω – domain . in our subsequent discussion we will designate resistive. and C Circuits The circuit analysis of circuits containing R . we will prove that V R = RI R Proof: In circuit 6.4 Phasors in R. that is.

Voltage across a resistive load in t – domain and jω – domain j ( ωt + φ ) Vp e = V p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jV p sin ( ω t + φ ) (6.12) Therefore.5. it will produce a current of the same frequency ω and the same phase φ * whose form will be Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) = I p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jI p sin ( ω t + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) and by Ohm’s law. Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) = RI p e (6. we let V p ∠φ = V R and I p ∠φ = I R and it follows that V R = RI R (6. we obtain the phasor relationship Vp e jφ = RI p e jφ or V p ∠φ = RI p ∠φ Since the phasor current I is in-phase with the voltage V (both I and V have the same phase φ ). Example 6. find i R ( t ) when v R ( t ) = 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) . obeys Ohm’s law also.4. and C Circuits vS ( t ) + iR ( t ) − vR ( t ) VS IR + VR − v R ( t ) = Ri R ( t ) = V p cos ( ω t + θ ) ( a ) t – domain network V R = RI R ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network Figure 6.10) and since R is a constant.11) to the jω – domain .Phasors in R. L. * The phase will be the same since neither differentiation nor integration is performed here.11) Transforming (6. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-9 . the phasor V and I relationship in resistors.6 For the network of Figure 6. and the current through a resistor is always in−phase with the voltage across that resistor.

vR ( t ) 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) i R ( t ) = ----------.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis vS ( t ) + iR ( t ) R=5Ω v R ( t ) = 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) − vR ( t ) Figure 6. VR 40 ∠– 165° I R = -----.e.6. Voltage across the resistive load of Example 6. V and I phasor relationship in L branches Consider circuit 6. we can compute i R ( t ) directly from the t – domain expression for v R ( t ) .6 (b) is 6-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .6 (a) below where the load is purely inductive. v R ( t ) ⇔ V R transformation as follows: v R ( t ) = 40 sin ( 377t – 75° ) = 40 cos ( 377t – 165° ) ⇔ V R = 40 ∠– 165° Then. that is. since the resistance R is a constant.= 8 ∠– 165° A R 5 Therefore.. Voltage across an inductive load in t – domain and jω – domain We will prove that the relationship between the phasors V L and I L shown in circuit 6. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ jω – domain ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ t – domain I R = 8 ∠– 165° A ⇔ i R ( t ) = 8 cos ( 377t – 165° ) = 8 sin ( 377t – 75° ) A Alternately.= -------------------------------------------.5.= ------------------------.6 Solution: We first perform the t – domain to jω – domain i.= 8 sin ( 377t – 75° ) A 5 R 2. vS ( t ) + iL ( t ) di L v L ( t ) = L -----dt ( a ) t – domain network − vL ( t ) VS IL V L = j ω LI L + VL − ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network Figure 6.

16) to the jω – domain .Phasors in R.6 (a) we let v L ( t ) be a complex voltage.17) The presence of the j operator in (6. we obtain the phasor relationship Vp e jφ = j ω LI p e jφ or V p ∠φ = j ω LI p ∠φ and letting V p ∠φ = V L and I p ∠φ = I L we get V L = j ω LI L (6.16) Next. Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) = V p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jV p sin ( ω t + φ ) (6.14) and recalling that if x ( t ) = sin ( ωt + φ ) then dx ⁄ dt = ω cos ( ωt + φ ) . Example 6. and C Circuits V L = j ω LI L (6. L.7 For the network of Figure 6.7.17) indicates that the voltage across an inductor leads the current through it by 90° .e. differentiation (or integration) does not change the radian frequency ω or the phase angle φ . Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) d = L ---. that is.13) Proof: In circuit 6. Solution: We first perform the t – domain to jω – domain i. that is. v L ( t ) ⇔ V L transformation as follows: Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-11 .15) and since then. the current through the inductor will have the form Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) = I p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jI p sin ( ω t + φ ) di L v L ( t ) = L -----dt (6. transforming (6.. find i L ( t ) when v L ( t ) = 40 sin ( 2t – 75° ) .( I p e ) = jωLI p e dt (6.

vS ( t ) + iC ( t ) dv C i C ( t ) = C -------dt ( a ) t – domain network − vC ( t ) VS IC I C = j ω CV C + VC − ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network Figure 6.8 (a) we let v C ( t ) be a complex voltage.7 v L ( t ) = 40 sin ( 2t – 75° ) = 40 cos ( 2t – 165° ) ⇔ V L = 40 ∠– 165° mV and –3 VL ----------------------------------------------------------------------I L = --------.8 (b) is I C = jωCV C (6.7.= 40 ∠– 165° = 4 ∠– 255° = 4 ∠105° A –3 10 ∠90° jωL j10 × 10 Therefore. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ jω – domain ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ t – domain I L = 4 ∠105° A ⇔ i L ( t ) = 4 cos ( 2t + 105° ) = 4 sin ( 2t – 165° ) A 3. 6-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8 (a) below where the load is purely capacitive. V and I phasor relationship in C branches Consider circuit 6. Voltage across a capacitive load in t – domain and jω – domain We will prove that the relationship between the phasors V C and I C shown in the network of Figure 6.= ( 40 ∠– 165° ) × 10 .18) Proof: In circuit 6. that is.8. Voltage across the inductive load of Example 6.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis vS ( t ) + iL ( t ) vL ( t ) − L = 5 mH v L ( t ) = 40 sin ( 2t – 75° ) Figure 6.

we obtain the phasor relationship Ip e jφ = jωCV p e jφ or I p ∠φ = j ω CV p ∠φ and letting I p ∠φ = I C and V p ∠φ = V C we get I C = j ω CV C (6.( V p e ) = j ω CV p e dt (6.Phasors in R. Example 6.e.19) Next.20) The presence of the j operator in (6. find i C ( t ) when v C ( t ) = 170 cos ( 60 π t – 45° ) .26) indicates that the current through a capacitor leads the voltage across it by 90° . transforming (6.. v C ( t ) ⇔ V C transformation as follows: Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-13 . vS ( t ) + iC ( t ) vC ( t ) − C=106 nF v C ( t ) = 170 cos ( 60 π t – 45° ) Figure 6. and C Circuits Vp e j ( ωt + φ ) = V p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jV p sin ( ω t + φ ) then the current through the capacitor will have the form Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) = I p cos ( ω t + φ ) + jI p sin ( ω t + φ ) dv C i C ( t ) = -------dt and since then Ip e j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) j ( ωt + φ ) d = C ---. Voltage across the capacitive load of Example 6. L.9.8 Solution: We first perform the t – domain to jω – domain i.19) to the jω – domain .8 For the circuit shown below.

R L vS ( t ) V + v (t) − + v (t) − C + v (t) S R L C i (t) − + I VR −+ VL − C + − VC ( a ) t – domain network v R ( t ) = Ri R ( t ) di v L ( t ) = L ---dt 1 t v C ( t ) = --.10.I = V S jωC Algebraic Equation ( Much easier to work with ) Figure 6.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis v C ( t ) = 170 cos ( 60 π t – 45° ) ⇔ V C = 170 ∠– 45° Then.+ --.10 (a) and its equivalent phasor circuit shown in Figure 6. The t – domain and jω – domain relationships in a series RLC circuit The last equation of the phasor circuit may be written as 1⎛ R + jωL + --------. ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ jω – domain ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ t – domain R L I C = 3.4 × 10 –3 × 1 ∠– 45° = 3.5 Impedance Consider the t – domain circuit in Figure 6.∫ i dt C –∞ vR ( t ) + vL ( t ) + vC ( t ) = vS ( t ) di 1 t .10 (b).4 × 10 ∠45° = 3.4 ∠45° mA Therefore.I jωC VR + VL + VC = VS 1RI + jωLI + --------.Ri ( t ) + L ---.4 cos ( 60 π + 45° ) mA 6. I C = jωCV C = j × 60π × 106 × 10 –3 –9 × 170 ∠– 45° = 1 ∠90° × 3.⎞ I = V S ⎝ jωC⎠ 6-14 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Integrodifferential Equation ( Very difficult to work with ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ .∫ i dt = v S ( t ) dt C – ∞ ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network V R = IR V L = jωLI 1 V C = --------.4 ∠45° mA ⇔ i C ( t ) = 3.

e.21) Expression (6.23) We must remember that the impedance is not a phasor. 1 Re { Z } = R and Im { Z } = ω L – ------ωC (6.26) by I we obtain the impedance which.27) The unit of the inductive and capacitive reactances is also the Ohm (Ω).22) in polar form as Z = 2 1 R + ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ∠ tan ⎝ ω C⎠ 2 –1 1 ⎛ ω L – ------. it is a complex quantity whose real part is the resistance R and the imaginary part is ω L – 1 ⁄ ω C . The two components of reactance are the inductive reactance X L and the capacitive reactance X C . by definition. Like resistance..= – j -. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-15 .= – j ------ωC jωC and thus 1Z = R + j ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ⎝ ω C⎠ (6. We can express the impedance Z as the sum of a real and an imaginary component as follows: Since j1 = 1 ⋅ . the unit of impedance is the Ohm (Ω).Impedance and dividing both sides of (6.26) (6.24) The imaginary part of the impedance Z is called reactance and it is denoted with the letter X .22) We can also express (6. that is. i.= R + jωL + --------Phasor Current I jωC (6.j -2 j j j j then 1 1 --------.21) is referred to as Ohm’s law for AC Circuits.= -----.⎞ ⁄ R ⎝ ωC ⎠ (6. is VS Phasor Voltage 1 Impedance = Z = -------------------------------------.25) (6. X = X L + X C = ωL – 1 ⁄ ω C XL = ω L XC = 1 ⁄ ω C (6.= --.

1 = j10 Ω and 11 1--------.= – jX C = – j ---------------------------------------. V S = 100 ∠– 30° and the phasor circuit is as shown in Figure 6. Example 6.− Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis In terms of reactances. find the current i ( t ) given that v S ( t ) = 100 cos ( 100t – 30° ) .9 From the phasor circuit of Figure 6.9 For the circuit below. Phasor circuit for Example 6.= – j100 2 2 –6 ωC jωC 10 × 10 × 10 Also.9 Solution: If we attempt to solve this problem in the time-domain directly. Here. ω = 100 rad ⁄ s and thus j ω L = jX L = j100 × 0.12.= – j ------. vS ( t ) − + 5Ω − + 100 mH C + i (t) − 100 µF R L v S ( t ) = 100 cos ( 100t – 30° ) Figure 6.11. Circuit for Example 6. V S = ZI S VS + 5Ω −+ I − j10 Ω C + − −j100 Ω Figure 6. But as we now know.12.28) By a procedure similar to that of Chapter 2. we can show that impedances combine as resistances do. the impedance can be expressed as Z = R + jX = R + j ( X L – X C ) = R + ( X L – X C ) ∠ tan [ ( X L – X C ) ⁄ R ] 2 2 –1 (6. a much easier solution is with the transformation of the given circuit to a phasor circuit.12 6-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we will need to solve an integrodifferential equation.

13. that is. I = 1.6 Admittance Consider the t – domain circuit in Figure 6.11 ∠56.82° 2 2 –1 and VS 100 ∠– 30° I = -----.∫ v dt L –∞ iG ( t ) + iL ( t ) + iC ( t ) = iS ( t ) dv 1 t .11 cos ( 100t + 56.82° ) ] 90.Gv ( t ) + C ----. by definition Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-17 .82° Z Therefore.13 (a) and its equivalent phasor circuit shown in Figure 6.82 ) 6.V = I S jωL Algebraic Equation ( Much easier to work with ) Figure 6.= ------------------------------------.29) by V .13 (b).V jωL IR + IL + IC = IS 1 GV + jωCV + --------.= 1. The t – domain and jω – domain relationships in a parallel RLC circuit The last equation of the phasor circuit may be written as 1 ⎛ G + --------.14 ∠– 86. we obtain the admittance.+ jωC⎞ V = I S ⎝ ⎠ jωL ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Integrodifferential Equation ( Very difficult to work with ) ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (6.82° ⇔ i ( t ) = 1.+ -.29) Dividing both sides of (6.Admittance Z = 5 + j10 – j100 = 5 – j90 = 5 + 90 ∠ tan ( – 90 ⁄ 5 ) = 90. + v (t) iS ( t ) iR ( t ) iL ( t ) − ( a ) t – domain network i G ( t ) = Gv ( t ) dv i C ( t ) = C ----dt 1 t i L ( t ) = -.11 ∠[ – 30° – ( – 86.∫ v dt = i S ( t ) dt L – ∞ R L C + V R L C iC ( t ) IR IL IC − ( b ) jω – domain ( phasor ) network IS I G = GV I C = jωCV 1 I L = --------.14 ∠– 86.

Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis IS 1 1 Phasor Current Admit tan ce = Y = -------------------------------------. the admittance Y it is not a phasor. the admittance Y can be expressed as Y = G + jB = G + j ( B C – B L ) = G + ( B C – B L ) ∠ tan [ ( B C – B L ) ⁄ G ] 2 –1 (6.37) By a procedure similar to that of Chapter 2.36) 2 –1 (6. that is. Like conductance. In terms of susceptances.⎞ ∠ tan ⎝ ω L⎠ 2 –1 1 ⎛ ω C – -----. that is. we can show that admittances combine as conductances do..⎞ ⎝ ω L⎠ –1 (6. B = BC + BL = ω C – 1 ⁄ ω L BC = ω C BL = 1 ⁄ ω L The unit of the susceptances B C and B L is also the siemens ( Ω ) .⎞ ⁄ G ⎝ ω L⎠ (6. ωL 1 Re { Y } = G and Im { Y } = ωC – ------ωL (6. we can express the admittance Y as the sum of a real component and an imaginary component as follows: 1Y = G + j ⎛ ω C – -----. The two components of susceptance are the capacitive susceptance B C and the inductive susceptance B L .+ jωC = -V jωL Z Phasor Voltage (6. the unit of admittance is the siemens or mho ( Ω ) .35) (6.= G + --------. As with the impedance Z .30) Here we observe that the admittance Y is the reciprocal of the impedance Z as conductance G is the reciprocal of the resistance R . 6-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .33) The imaginary part of the admittance Y is called susceptance and it is denoted with the letter B .= ---. it is a complex quantity whose real part is the 1 conductance G and the imaginary part is ω C – -----.34) (6.31) and in polar form Y = 2 1 G + ⎛ ω C – -----.32) Like the impedance Z .

The dual quantities we have encountered thus far are listed in Table 6.⋅ -------------.10 Parallel Current Conductance Norton Capacitance Susceptance Admittance Consider the series and parallel networks shown in Figure 6. Example 6.15.Admittance Duality is a term meaning that there is a similarity in which some quantities are related to others. Therefore.1 Dual quantities Series Voltage Resistance Thevenin Inductance Reactance Impedance Example 6.= G + jB = -------------.10 Solution: For these circuits to be equivalent.= -------------.1.38) is worth memorizing.= -----------------. TABLE 6. their impedances Z or admittances Y must be equal. How should their real and imaginary terms be related so that they will be equivalent? R Z L C Y G L C Figure 6. Networks for Example 6.11 Compute Z and Y for the network of Figure 6.38) Relation (6. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-19 .14.= -----------------.– j -----------------2 2 2 2 2 2 R + jX R – jX Z R + jX R +X R +X R +X and equating reals and imaginaries we get R G = -----------------2 2 R +X and –X B = -----------------2 2 R +X (6.14. R X 1 R – jX R – jX 1 1 Y = -.

Z2 Z3 ( 10 + j5 ) ( 20 – j16 ) ( 11. it follows that 1 1 Z = -.12 Solution: Let the given network be represented as shown in Figure 6.+ jωC = 4 – j2 + j5 = 4 + j3 = 5 ∠36.9 ° = 0.7° ) Z = Z 1 + ----------------.2° 6-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Thus.95 ∠– 20.25 = 10.85 ∠35.18 ∠26.12 Y 5 ∠36.25 = 8. and Z 3 = 20 – j16 Then. Y G 4Ω –1 L – j2 Ω –1 C –1 j5 Ω Figure 6.96 ∠8° = j5 + 8.9° jωL Since the impedance is the reciprocal of admittance. it is easier to compute the admittance Y first.= j5 + ---------------------------------------------. L1 j13 Ω C1 −j8 Ω R1 L2 j5 Ω 10 Ω 20 Ω Z.= 0.15. Network for Example 6.6° ) ( 25.2 ∠– 36. Y R2 −j16 Ω C2 Figure 6.= -------------------.87 + j1.11 Solution: Since this is a parallel network.87 + j6.= j5 + --------------------------------------------------------------------------Z2 + Z3 10 + j5 + 20 – j16 31.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Z. Verify your answers with MATLAB.9° Example 6. Z 2 = 10 + j5 .61 ∠– 38.1° = j5 + 8.17 where Z 1 = j13 – j8 = j5 .16.16 – j0.12 Compute Z and Y for the circuit shown below. 1 Y = G + --------. Network for Example 6.

8737+ 6. inductors and capacitors do not behave like short circuits and open circuits respectively as they do when the excitation is a constant and steady-state conditions are reached. • If the excitation is a time-varying function such as a sinusoid. the response will also be sinusoidal with the same frequency but with different amplitude and phase.2° = 0. the response will also be some constant value.0. • The procedure where the excitation-response relation is simplified to amplitude and phase rela- tionship is known as time-domain to frequency-domain transformation. • If the excitation is a constant voltage or current.531 Z 10. z2=10+j*5. Y Z2 Z3 Figure 6. They behave entirely different.7 Summary • Excitations or driving functions refer to the applied voltages and currents in electric circuits.2537i y=1/z % Find admittance y y = 0. z3=20−j*16. • A response is anything we define it as a response.0753.0531i 6.12 and 1 1 Y = -.0754 – j0. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-21 .= -----------------------------.85 ∠35.17. Simplified network for Example 6. • If the excitation is a sinusoidal voltage or current.092 ∠– 35. • The complex excitation function greatly simplifies the procedure of analyzing such circuits when excitation is a time-varying quantity such as a sinusoid.Summary Z1 Z. Typically response is the voltage or current in the “load” part of the circuit or any other part of it. z=z1+(z2*z3/(z2+z3)) % Find impedance z z = 8.= 0. in general. • Circuit analysis in circuits where the excitation is a time-varying quantity such as a sinusoid is very difficult and thus impractical in the t – domain .2° Check with MATLAB: z1=j*5.

• If a sinusoid is given in terms of the sine function. Express the cosine function as the real part of the complex excitation using Euler’s identity 3. and the frequency domain as the jω – domain . Extract the real part from it. • Impedance is a complex quantity whose real part is the resistance R . • Phasor quantities exist only in the jω – domain • In the jω – domain the current through a resistor is always in−phase with the voltage across that resistor • In the jω – domain the current through an inductor lags the voltage across that inductor by 90° • In the jω – domain the current through a capacitor leads the voltage across that capacitor by 90° • In the jω – domain the impedance Z is defined as VS Phasor Voltage 1 Impedance = Z = -------------------------------------. L . • The circuit analysis of circuits containing R . • The t – domain to jω – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1. 6-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • The jω – domain to t – domain transformation procedure is as follows: 1. is considerably simplified with the use of phasor voltages and phasor currents which we represent by the boldface capital letters V and I respectively. it is convenient to convert it to a cosine function using the identity m ( t ) = A sin ( ω t + θ ) = A cos ( ω t + θ – 90° ) before converting it to the jω – domain . and the imaginary part is ω L – 1 ⁄ ω C . that is. Express the given sinusoid as a cosine function 2. Convert the given phasor from polar to exponential form 2.= -----. Extract the magnitude and phase angle from it. we denote the time domain as the t – domain . • For brevity. and which are excited by sinusoidal sources. and C devices.= R + jωL + --------Phasor Current I jωC • Like resistance.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis • The procedure where the excitation-response is put back to its sinusoidal form is known as fre- quency-domain to time-domain transformation. Add the radian frequency ω multiplied by t to the exponential form 3. the unit of impedance is the Ohm (Ω).

1B = B C – B L = ω C – -----ωL • In polar form the admittance is expressed as Y = 2 1 G + ⎛ ω C – -----.Summary 1 Re { Z } = R and Im { Z } = ω L – ------ωC • In polar form the impedance is expressed as Z = –1 2 1 2 1 R + ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ∠ tan ⎛ ω L – -------⎞ ⁄ R ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ωC ω C⎠ • The imaginary part of the impedance Z is called reactance and it is denoted with the letter X . 1 X = X L – X C = ωL – ------ωC • The unit of the inductive and capacitive reactances is also the Ohm (Ω). • In the jω – domain the admittance Y is defined as IS Phasor Current 1 1 Admit tan ce = Y = -------------------------------------. ωL –1 1 Re { Y } = G and Im { Y } = ωC – ------ωL • The imaginary part of the admittance Y is called susceptance and it is denoted with the letter B . i.. that is..e. The two components of susceptance are the capacitive susceptance B C and the inductive suscep- tance B L . • The admittance Y is a complex quantity whose real part is the conductance G and the imaginary 1part is ω C – -----. that is. • The unit of admittance is the siemens or mho ( Ω ) .= ---.⎞ ∠ tan ⎝ ω L⎠ 2 –1 1 ⎛ ω C – -----.= G + --------.+ jωC = -Phasor Voltage V jωL Z • The admittance Y is the reciprocal of the impedance Z as conductance G is the reciprocal of the resistance R .⎞ ⁄ G ⎝ ω L⎠ –1 • The unit of the susceptances B C and B L is also the siemens ( Ω ) . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-23 . The two components of reactance are the inductive reactance X L and the capacitive reactance X C .

the ratio i ( t ) ⁄ v ( t ) is not admittance. and when we deal with conductance and susceptance we must think of devices in parallel. and suscep- tance is not the negative reciprocal of reactance. Although the ratio v ( t ) ⁄ i ( t ) could yield some value. Whenever we deal with resistance and reactance we must think of devices in series. Similarly. • Duality is a term meaning that there is a similarity in which some quantities are related to others. the admittance is always the reciprocal of the impedance • The ratio V ⁄ I of the phasor voltage to the phasor current exists only in the jω – domain and it is not the ratio v ( t ) ⁄ i ( t ) in the t – domain . However. this value is not impedance. • In phasor circuit analysis.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis • Admittances combine as conductances do. conductance is not necessarily the reciprocal of resistance. 6-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

none of the above 3. inductors.Exercises 6. independent and dependent sources with resistors. We can transform this circuit to a phasor equivalent to find the cur- rent by first replacing these with a single voltage source v ( t ) = v 1 ( t ) + v 2 ( t ) whose value is A. all voltages and all currents in that circuit will be of the same A. radian frequency ω . and capacitors. The sinusoid v ( t ) = 120 sin ( ω t + 90° ) in the jω – domain is expressed as A. A series RLC circuit contains two voltage sources with values v 1 ( t ) = 100 cos ( 10t + 45° ) and v 2 ( t ) = 200 sin ( 5t – 60 ° ) . and phase angle θ . none of the above 2. amplitude A but different radian frequency ω and different phase angle θ B. inductors. V = 120e j ( ωt + 90° ) jωt j90° j0° E. v ( t ) = 100 cos ( 5t + 105° ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-25 . amplitude A same radian frequency ω and same phase angle θ E. radian frequency ω but different amplitude A and different phase angle θ C. phase angle θ but different amplitude A and different radian frequency ω D. V = 120e C. independent and dependent sources with resistors only B. none of the above 4.8 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. V = 120e D. and capacitors E. independent and dependent sources with resistors and inductors only C. Phasor voltages and phasor currents can be used in the t – domain if a circuit contains A. independent and dependent sources with resistors and capacitors only D. If the excitation in a circuit is a single sinusoidal source with amplitude A . and the circuit contains resistors. v ( t ) = 300 cos ( 15t – 15 ° ) B. V = 120e B.

5 6 ----B. v ( t ) = 150 cos ( 7. If a current of i ( t ) = 4 cos ωt A flows through that coil and operates at the frequency of f = 60Hz .18. 1 + j1 B. 12 + j ----37 D. 1 – j1 C. none of the above 5. The resistance of a coil is R = 1.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis C. none of the above 2Ω j0.18 is A. The equivalent admittance Y eq of the network of Figure 6. Network for Questions 5 and 6 6.1° V 6-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . – j1 D.5t + 15° ) E. the phasor voltage V across that coil is A.5 Ω Z eq −j2 Ω 2Ω Figure 6. 16 + j ----73 73 37 2----C. 4 – j 1. The equivalent impedance Z eq of the network of Figure 6. 2 – j2 E.5t – 15 ° ) D.5 Ω and the inductance of that coil is L = 5. 10 ∠53.18 is A. v ( t ) = 150 cos ( 7.3 mH . 2 + j0 E. none of the above 7.

3 Ω . none of the above 10.8 ∠45° V E. 3 cos ωt + j3 sin ωt B. none of the above 9. 3 cos ωt – j 3 sin ωt C. A resistor with value R = 5 Ω is in series with a capacitor whose capacitive reactance at some particular frequency ω is – jX C = – 5 Ω . If the phasor I = je A.3 Ω –1 –3 is in parallel with a capacitor whose capacitive suscep–1 tance at some particular frequency ω is jB C = j0. 5 sin ( ωt + 53.3 × 10 ∠90° V D. sin ( ωt + π ⁄ 2 ) C. 56.Exercises B. A phasor current with value I = 8 ∠0° A is flowing through this series combination. – cos ωt D. 56. 6 ∠0° V C.6 cos ( ωt – 45° ) D. cos ( ωt + π ⁄ 2 ) B. The t – domain total current through this parallel combination is A. none of the above 8. 80 sin ωt C. 6.2° ) D. A phasor voltage with value V = 10 ∠0° is applied across this parallel combination. then in the t – domain i ( t ) is 6-27 . none of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications j(π ⁄ 2) . – sin ωt E. 80 cos ωt B.6 cos ( ωt + 45° ) E. 5 cos ( ωt + 53.2° ) E. The t – domain voltage across this series combination is A. 5. A conductance with value G = 0.

20. the current at t = 1 ms Answers: i ( t ) = 50e – 750t mA . Circuit for Problem 3 6-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .605 ms I = 5. Circuit for Problem 1 2.1° ) v (V) −2.20.27 mA at 3.21 operating if it is known that v S = 120 cos ω t V and i = 12 cos ( ω t – 36.19. At what frequency f is the network of Figure 6. Compute i ( 1 ) . ω .533 KHz R 8Ω 1 mH L C 1 µF vS i Figure 6.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis Problems 1.62 V 0. The current i ( t ) through a device decays exponentially as shown by the waveform of Figure 6. and two values are known as indicated.21. Express the sinusoidal voltage waveform of Figure 6.94 ms 0 t (ms) Figure 6.000 ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 t (ms) Figure 6. and θ .9° ) A ? Answer: f = 5. that is. 23. that is.2 ms 1. Circuit for Problem 2 3.62 mA I i (mA) i = 15.00 mA at 1. find A . Answer: v ( t ) = 2 cos ( 1000t + 36.18 as v ( t ) = A cos ( ω t + θ ) .

For this exercise.23. what are these values? Answer: Yes.6 µF A R vS Other Part of the Network 2Ω V L C 0. For the circuit shown on Figure 6. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-29 . In the circuit of Figure 6. Assume that the ammeter has negligible internal resistance.22.5 mH Figure 6. if C = 1 F and R 1 = 1 Ω vS Other Part of the Network ZIN YIN L 1H C R2 1Ω R1 Figure 6. is it possible to adjust the variable resistor R 1 and the variable capacitor C so that Z IN and Y IN have the same numerical value regardless of the operating frequency? If so. Network for Problem 5 * Voltmeters and Ammeters are discussed in Chapter 8. Answer: C = 89.22.23. v S = V cos ( 2000t + θ ) V and the symbols V and A inside the circles denote an AC voltmeter* and ammeter respectively. Find the value of the capacitor. The variable capacitor C is adjusted until the voltmeter reads 25 V and the ammeter 5 A. it will suffice to say that these instruments indicate the magnitude (absolute) values of voltage and current.Exercises 4. Network for Problem 4 5.

Then. z2=2*(−2j)/(2−2j).28 = 10 ⁄ 2π . z=z1+z2 z = 3.2 ms 1. to find the current we must apply superposition. ω = 2πf or ω = 2π × 10 ⁄ 2π = 1000 r ⁄ s 3 3 3 Next. E 3 – j0. C Problems 1. B 3.62 V 0.5 + j2 = 2.2 + 0.13° . Thus. The t – axis crossings define half of the period T.2 ms v (V) −2.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis 6.94 = 3. C 9. and one period is T = 6.28 ms . jX L = jωL = j × 377 × 5.94 ms 0 t (ms) θ or 6-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .13° × 4 ∠0° = 10 ∠53. D 4.14 ms . D 10.5000i 6.9 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1.5j. E The voltage sources v 1 ( t ) and v 1 ( t ) operate at different frequencies.13° 8.5 ∠53. Therefore. 5.3 × 10 –3 = j2 Ω Z = 1.5 ∠53. V = ZI = 2. T ⁄ 2 = 2.5 This value is obtained with the MATLAB code z1=2+0. A ω = 2πf = 2π × 60 = 377 r ⁄ s .E Phasors exist in the jω – domain only 2. we find the phase angle θ from the figure above observing that π ⁄ 2 + θ = 2. The frequency is f = 1 ⁄ T = 10 ⁄ 6.0000-0. C 7.

28 × 10 s = 2.605 × 10 )α –3 and i t = 3.605 ms – αt = 15 mA = Ae – ( 1.× ------------.2ms – π = 2.000 ms = 5. Then. v ( 0 ) = 1.27 mA = Ae – ( 3. The decaying exponential has the form i ( t ) = Ae mA where the time is in ms and thus for this problem we need to compute the values of A and α using the given values. i t = 1.605 × 10 )α + ( 3.27 or e 1.1° ) or 1.62 A = --------------------.27 ) × 10 α = -------------------------------------------.1° ---------------------------------.62 V .000 × 10 )α –3 Division of the first equation by the second yields Ae 15 mA ------------------------------------. we find the amplitude A by observing that at t = 0 .⎞ = 1.1° – 90° = 36.2 × 2 × 180° – π = 126.= 750 1.395 × 10 α –3 15 = --------5. that is.1° Therefore.000 × 10 )α –3 –3 15 = --------5.27 mA – ( 3.28 Finally.-2 6.395 3 and thus i ( t ) = Ae Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications – 750t mA 6-31 .605 × 10 )α –3 or e – ( 1.27 ⎠ or ln ( 15 ⁄ 5. v = 1. v ( t ) = 2 cos ( 1000t + 36.--θ = 2.000 × 10 )α Ae – ( 1.1° ) 2.395 × 10 α ⎝ 5.62 = A cos ( 0 + 36.2 × 10 s × ------------------------------.= -------------------–3 5.Answers to Exercises 2π rad 180° –3 .27 or 15 –3 ln ⎛ --------.– π –3 π rad 2 2 6.= 2 V cos 36.

VS 120 ∠0° V Z = ----. and – j ⁄ ωC = – j10 ⁄ ω Then. I = 12 ∠– 36.27 mA . jωL = j10 ω .Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis To find the value of A we make use of the fact that i 5.27 × 10 -------------------------– 2. Then.9° A .9° A and Z = 10 = R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) 2 2 2 or R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) = 100 2 or 8 + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) = 100 2 2 or ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) = 36 2 or ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC = 6 or 6-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .62 mA and i t = 1 ms = 50e – 750 × 10 –3 3.050 A = 50mA Therefore. – 750 × 3 × 10 or A = 5.9° I 12 ∠– 36. R 8Ω L jωL C 1 µF –3 6 vS I j– ------ωC In the jω – domain V S = 120 ∠0° V .= 10 ∠36.27 = Ae t = 3 ms –3 = 5.25 e –3 or A = 0. i ( t ) = 50e – 750t mA = 23. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below.= -------------------------------.

= 12 ∠– 36.= 34.= ---------------------------. V = Z I = 25 = R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) × 5 –4 2 2 2 or V 2 2 2 2 5 × 10 = 25 = [ R + ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ωC ) ] × 25 = 4 + ⎛ 1 – ------------------.= 0 L LC or ω – 6 × 10 ω – 10 = 0 2 3 9 Solving for ω and ignoring the negative value. we get p=[500 250*10^(−4) −625*10^(−8)]. 765 r ⁄ s 2 3 6 9 and ω 34.533 KHz 2π 2π Check: jωL = j34.+ ------------------------.ω – -----. 765 r ⁄ s f = ----. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 6-33 .⎞ ⎝ ⎠ C × 25 625 × 10 250 × 10 = 100 + 25 – ------------------------.6 µF The second root of this polynomial is negative and thus it is discarded. and impedance. We group the series devices as shown below. we get -----------------------------------------------------------------------ω = 6 × 10 + 36 × 10 + 4 × 10 .= 5.9° 4. 533 Hz = 5.765 .9° and 120 ∠0° I = ----------------------. r=roots(p) and this yields C = 89. – j ⁄ ωC = – j28. phasor current. 5. Thus. Since the instruments read absolute values.765 Z = R + j ( ωL – 1 ⁄ ( ωC ) ) = 8 + j ( 34.9° 10 ∠36. we are only need to be concerned the magnitudes of the phasor voltage.= 625 2 C C –4 –8 and after simplification we get 500C + 250 × 10 C – 625 × 10 2 –4 –8 = 0 Using MATLAB.765 – 28.Answers to Exercises 2 6 1ω – -.765 ) = 8 + j6 = 10 ∠36.

= R 1 + 1 + j ⎛ ω – ------.Chapter 6 Sinusoidal Circuit Analysis ZIN YIN L 1H C R2 1Ω R1 Z1 Z2 Thus Z 1 = R 1 + jω .+ jω + --. Z 2 = 1 – j ⁄ ( ωC ) .= --------------------------------------------------R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) [ ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) ] = [ R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC ] ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) = R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC R1 11 R 1 – j ------. that is. if the condition Y IN = Z IN is to hold for all frequencies. and Z1 ⋅ Z2 ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) Z IN = ----------------.⎞ + j ⎛ ω – ------.= R 1 + 1 C R1 1ω – ------. ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC --------------------------------------------------.⎞ + jω = ( R + 1 ) + j ⎛ ω – ------.= --------------------------------------------------Z1 + Z2 R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC and at any frequency ω R 1 + jω + 1 – j ⁄ ωC 1 Y IN = ------. the right sides of Z IN and Y IN must be equal.= ω – ------ωC ωC From the first equation above we get C = 1 F and by substitution of this value into the second equation we get R 1 = 1 Ω 6-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= --------------------------------------------------Z IN ( R 1 + jω ) ( 1 – j ⁄ ωC ) Therefore.⎞ ⎝ ωC ωC ⎠ C R1 11 ⎛ R + --.⎞ 1 ⎝ ⎝ 1 C⎠ ⎝ ωC ⎠ ωC ⎠ 2 2 Equating reals and imaginaries we get 1 R 1 + --.

1 VB Solution: As before.3° Z 3 = 8 – j3 = 8.606 ∠56. Also.2. Example 7. superposition. and Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems in phasor circuits. Z 2. VA 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.544 ∠– 20.1.6° * A phasor is a rotating vector Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-1 .Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis T his chapter begins with the application of nodal analysis.1. Circuit for Example 7. 7. for convenience.1 Nodal Analysis The procedure of analyzing a phasor* circuit is the same as in Chapter 3.3° Z 2 = 2 + j3 = 3. mesh analysis. we choose a reference node as shown in Figure 7. and the input-output relationships for an RC low-pass filter and an RC high-pass filter are developed. and then we write the nodal equations in terms of these impedances.1 Use nodal analysis to compute the phasor voltage V AB = V A – V B for the circuit of Figure 7.211 ∠–56. Then. and Z 3 as shown. except that in this chapter we will be using phasor quantities. phasor diagrams are introduced. The following example illustrates the procedure. we designate the devices in series as Z 1. and we write nodal equations at the other two nodes A and B . Z 1 = 4 – j6 = 7.

1) or 1⎛ Z 1 + Z 2⎞ V – ----.= – 10 ∠0° Z2 Z3 or 7-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3° 6 – j3 -------------------.6° ---------------------------------. Nodal analysis for the circuit for Example 7.V A – ( 0.= 5 ∠0° Z2 Z1 or 1 1 1 ⎛ ---.1 By application of KCL at V A .277 ∠– 56.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° 26 ∠0° ( 0.277 ∠– 56.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis VB 2Ω Z2 Z1 VA 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω Z3 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.+ -----.V B = 5 ∠0° ( 7.0 ∠0° A 6.606 ∠56.6° )V A – ( 0.3 ) ( 3.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° 26.2) Next.258 ∠– 26.708 ∠– 26.+ -----------------.⎞ V – ---.V A – -----------------------------. VA VA – VB -----.2.3° ) 3.277 ∠– 56.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° (7.V = 5 ∠0° ----------------⎝ Z1 Z2 ⎠ A Z B 2 and by substitution for Z 1 and Z 2 we get 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------.+ ---.V = 5 ∠0° ⎝Z Z ⎠ A Z2 B 1 2 (7.V – ( 0.211 ∠– 56.606 ∠56. at V B : VB – VA VB ------------------.

810 ∠35.V A + ⎛ ---.325 ∠– 35. We rewrite (7.7° )V B = 10 ∠180° (7.1– ---.6° ) 3.+ ---.Nodal Analysis 1 1.7° )V B = 10 ∠180° (7.⎞ V B = – 10 ∠0° ⎝Z Z2 Z3 ⎠ 2 (7.V A + --------------------------------------------------------------------------.325 ∠– 35.⎞ ⎝Z Z ⎠ 1 2 1 – ---Z2 2 3 VA 1 – ---Z2 1 1 ⎛ ---.544 ∠–20.5) the system of equations is ( 0.3° ) ( 8.3) In matrix form (7.⎞ V B ⎝Z Z ⎠ = 5 – 10 (7.1) and (7.V A + ⎛ -----------------⎞ V B = 10 ∠180° ⎝ Z2 Z3 ⎠ Z2 2 + j3 + 8 – j3 1 – -----------------------------.606 ∠56.+ ---.277 ∠– 56.277 ∠– 56.8) The determinant ∆ is * If unfamiliar with MATLAB.V B = 10 ∠180° ( 3.3) as Z2 + Z3 1 – ---. please refer to Appendix A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-3 .5) and thus with (7.3° )V A + ( 0.7) and D2 V B = ----- ∆ (7.4) We will follow a step-by-step procedure to solve these equations using Cramer’s rule.3° )V A + ( 0.277 ∠– 56.3° )V A + --------------------------------.277 ∠– 56.7° – ( 0. and we will use MATLAB®* to verify the results.6) We find V A and V B from D1 V A = ----- ∆ (7.3° 10 – ( 0.3) are 1 1 ⎛ ---.3° )V B = 5 ∠0° – ( 0.V B = 10 ∠180° 30.606 ∠56.2) and (7.258 ∠– 26.6° )V A – ( 0.+ ---.

807 ∠– 177.9° V B = ----.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis ∆ = ( 0.9° = – 4. disp(Vab).161 ∠101.003 = 1.769 – j1. −1/z2 1/z2+1/z3]. V AB = V A – V B = – 4.277 ∠– 56.357 = 1. % Column vector I V=Z\I.084 ∠– 62. D1 = 5 ∠0° – ( 0. z2 and z3 Z=[1/z1+1/z2 −1/z2.258 ∠– 26.= --------------------------------.385 ∠– 56. z3=8−j*3.320 – j0.169 0.039 – j0.374 ∠99.780 – j1.4° + 1. disp(Vb).625 ∠– 35.277 ∠– 56.570 + j21.570 + j21.6° ) ⋅ ( 0. disp(Va).6° ) 5 ∠0° – ( 0.8).3° ) ( 0.1° and D2 = ( 0.169 ) = 20.023 – j0.3° ) 10 ∠180° = ( 0.1). % Va = V(1).7° ) – ( 10 ∠180° ) [ – ( 0.= 22.7° + 2. disp('Vb = ').1).3° = – 24. % Elements of matrix Z I=[5 −10]'.071 ) = ( 0.277 ∠– 56.258 ∠– 26.780 – j1.358 + j0.277 ∠– 56.948 + ( – 1.074 ) – ( – 0.8° ) Also.1° V A = ----.21 + j22. Vb=V(2.9° Therefore.7° ) = ( 0.062 ∠– 2.685 0.3° ) – ( 0.8° ∆ Finally.277 ∠– 56.5° Check with MATLAB: z1=4−j*6.358 ∠179.305 ) = – 0.277 ∠– 56.277 ∠– 56.6° ) – ( 0.307 + j1.7) and (7.3° ) – ( 0.5 ∠48. % Define z1.3° ) ] = ( 1.003 = 0.6 ) – ( 0.325 ∠– 35.537 + j2. 7-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . fprintf(' \n').770 ∠123.685 – ( – 24.3° ) 10 ∠180° ( 0. disp('Va = ').325 ∠– 35.= 24.062 ∠– 2.258 ∠– 26.85 = 30.374 ∠99.325 ∠– 35. Vb = V(2) are also acceptable % With fprintf only the real part of each parameter is processed so we will use disp fprintf(' \n').580 ∠153.152 ) = – 1.217 + j1. we get D1 1. Va=V(1.3° ) ⋅ ( – 0.258 ∠– 26.3° ) ( 5 ∠0° ) = 2.7° ) = 1.6° ) ( 10 ∠180° ) – ( – 0.7° ) = ( 5 ∠0° ) ( 0.077 ∠– 112.3 ) = ( 0.062 ∠– 2.7° ) – ( 0.8° ∆ and D2 1. Vab=Va−Vb. by substitution into (7.277 ∠– 56. disp('Vab = '). z2=2+j*3.325 ∠– 35.= ------------------------------.358 ∠179.3° = ( – 2.155 + 0.062 – j0.

MATLAB performs calculations with accuracy of 15 decimal places. the procedure of analyzing a phasor circuit is the same as in Chapter 3 except that in this chapter we will be using phasor quantities. for convenience. the voltage across the 10 ∠0° current source.2 Mesh Analysis Again. Z 2. We observe that the voltage across the 10 ∠0° current source is the same as the voltage across the 8 Ω and – j 3 Ω series combination. 7. and we write mesh equations in terms of these impedances. The following example illustrates the procedure.4138 . I 1 = 5 ∠0° (7. Accordingly.6552i Vb = -22. use mesh analysis to find the voltage V 10A . The circuit then is as shown in Figure 7. and Z 3 .6897i These values differ by about 10% from the values we obtained with Cramer’s rule where we rounded the values to three decimal places. although it only displays four decimal places in the short (default) number display format. that is.Mesh Analysis Va = -4.3.9) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-5 .4 with the mesh currents assigned in a clockwise direction.1379 + 19.2 For the circuit of Figure 7. Circuit for Example 7.2759 + 20. Example 7.0345i Vab = 18.3.2 Solution: As in the previous example.1. 2Ω 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω j3 Ω + 8Ω –j 3 Ω V 10A − 10 ∠0° A Figure 7. we denote the passive devices in series as Z 1. we should accept the MATLAB values as more accurate. By inspection. for Mesh 1.

4.1. the voltage across the 10 ∠0° A current source is V 10A = Z 3 ( I 2 – I 3 ) = ( 8 – j3 ) ( 7. i1 = 5 i2 = 7.417 – j1. * As we experienced with Example 7.11) and in matrix form. disp('i1 = '). 0 0 1]. Mesh analysis for the circuit of Example 7.* Z=[1 0 0. V=[5 0 10]'. – Z 1 I 1 + ( Z 1 + Z 2 + Z 3 )I 2 – Z 3 I 3 = 0 or – ( 4 – j6 ) I 1 + ( 14 – j6 )I 2 – ( 8 – j3 )I 3 = 0 (7. fprintf(' \n').10). 7-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .035 – 10 ) = – 22. disp('i3 = ').11) are written as 1 – ( 4 – j6 ) 0 I1 5 0 0 ( 14 – j6 ) – ( 8 – j3 ) I 2 = 0 – 10 0 1 I3 (7. i3=I(3). fprintf(' \n').12) We use MATLAB for the solution of 7.586 – j1. disp(i3).9). (7.5862 . disp('i2 = ').1.12.038 We observe that this is the same value as that of the voltage V B in the previous example. disp(i1). (7. I 3 = 10 ∠0° (7.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis Z2 4Ω Z1 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω I1 I2 2Ω j3 Ω + 8Ω –j 3 Ω Z3 I3 V 10A − 10 ∠0° A Figure 7. −(4−j*6) 14−j*6 −(8−j*3). in our subsequent discussion we will use MATLAB for the solution of simultaneous equations with complex coefficients. disp(i2). I=Z\V.2 By application of KVL around Mesh 2. by inspection for Mesh 3. i1=I(1). and (7. Accordingly. the computation of phasor voltages and currents becomes quite tedious. i2=I(2).0345i i3 = 10 Therefore.10) Also.

5. V C2 = V ' C2 + V '' C2 With the 5 ∠0° A current source acting alone. 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω C2 10 ∠0° A Figure 7. Example 7.6.5 ∠0° = 2.1° 15.2° 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 + 8 – j3 The voltage across C 2 with the 5 ∠0° current source acting alone is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-7 . the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 7.3 Solution: Let the phasor voltage across C 2 due to the 5 ∠0° A current source acting alone be denoted as V ' C2 .5 ∠0° = ------------------------------------. Then. The following example illustrates the application of the superposition principle in phasor circuits.211 ∠–56. the superposition principle is most useful when a circuit contains two or more independent voltage or current sources. the current I ' C2 through C 2 is 7. 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω V ' C2 C2 4Ω 5 ∠0° A –j 6 Ω Figure 7.232 ∠– 23. Circuit for Example 7.Application of Superposition Principle 7.3° 4 – j6 I ' C2 = -----------------------------------------------------. and that due to the 10 ∠0° A current source as V '' C2 .6.367 ∠– 33.3 Application of Superposition Principle As we know from Chapter 3.3 with the 5 ∠0° A current source acting alone By application of the current division expression.5. Circuit for Example 7.3 Use the superposition principle to find the phasor voltage across capacitor C 2 in the circuit of Figure 7.

3 with the 10 ∠0° A current source acting alone and by application of the current division expression.784 + j13.13) Next.15) 7. the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 7.1° = – 3.6° = ------------------------------------. Circuit for Example 7.367 ∠– 33.404 ∠176. 7-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis V ' C2 = ( – j3 ) ( 2.189 ) (7. 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω –j 3 Ω V '' C2 C2 4Ω –j 6 Ω 10 ∠0° A Figure 7.213 ∠86.6° 15.13) with (7.10 ∠180° = 4.7. the current I '' C2 through C 2 is 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 I '' C2 = -----------------------------------------------------.1° (7.1° ) = ( 3 ∠– 90° ) ( 2.14) Addition of (7.2° The voltage across C 2 with the 10 ∠0° current source acting alone is V '' C2 = ( – j3 ) ( 4.784 + j13.094 + j7.( – 10 ∠0° ) 4 – j6 + 2 + j3 + 8 – j3 6.404 ∠176.240 = 7.7.102 ∠– 123.949 (7.232 ∠– 23.189 or V C2 = – 3.367 ∠– 33.4 Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems These two theorems also offer a very convenient method in analyzing phasor circuits as illustrated by the following example. with the 10 ∠0° A current source acting alone.708 ∠– 26.6 = 0.404 ∠176. apply Thevenin’s theorem to compute I X and then draw Norton’s equivalent circuit.6° ) = ( 13.6° ) = ( 3 ∠– 90° ) ( 4.949 + 0. Example 7.878 – j5.14) yields V C2 = V ' C2 + V '' C2 = – 3.878 – j5.4 For the circuit of Figure 7.873 ∠113.1° ) = 7.8.

13 – ( 34 + j68 ) or V TH = 110 – j6.4 with the 100 Ω resistor disconnected By application of the voltage division expression. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-9 . from (7.170 ∠0° = --------------------------------------.170 ∠0° = 76 ∠63.17).8 ∠( – 63.4° = 34 + j68 50 – j100 111. V TH = V OC = V 12 = V 1 – V 2 = 144 + j61.9.87 = 110.18) Next. Circuit for Example 7. Circuit for Example 7. 200 ∠90° j200 V 1 = ---------------------.9.170 ∠0° = ----------------------------.46 ∠23° = 144 + j61.4 Solution: With the 100 Ω resistor disconnected. The circuit then reduces to that shown in Figure 7.16) and (7.4 )° (7.10. we find the Thevenin equivalent impedance Z TH by shorting the 170 ∠0° V voltage source.Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems 85 Ω IX 170 ∠0° V 100 Ω j200 Ω 50 Ω – j100 Ω Figure 7. 85 Ω V1 170 ∠0° V j200 Ω – j100 Ω V2 50 Ω Figure 7.8.17) Then.6 ° (7. the circuit reduces to that shown in Figure 7.21 ∠– 3.170 ∠0° = 156.13 217.31 ∠67° 85 + j200 (7.16) and 50 50 V 2 = ---------------------.

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis X 85 Ω X j200 Ω – j100 Ω Y 50 Ω X j200 Ω 50 Ω Y Figure 7.+ -----------------------------85 + j200 50 – j100 and with MATLAB.4 −j100 Ω 85 Ω From Figure 7.12.10. X j200 Ω ZTH 50 Ω Y Figure 7.11.0 + j10.5 ∠5.0598e+001i or Z TH = 112. Zth=85*200j/(85+200j) + 50*(−100j)/(50−100j) Zth = 1.11.1200e+002 + 1.6 = 112. Network for the computation of Z TH for Example 7. 85 × j200 50 × ( – j100 ) Z TH = ---------------------.4° Ω The Thevenin equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 7.11. Circuit for Example 7.4 with the voltage source shorted 85 Ω – j100 Ω Y ZTH 50 Ω – j100 Ω j200 Ω 85 Ω We observe that the parallel combinations j200 || 85 and 50 || j100 are in series as shown in Figure 7. 7-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

4 VTH = 110−j6.519 ∠– 6. Zth=112+10.13.5160 .98 ∠– 9° A Z TH 112. V TH 110.21∠−3. X 112 Ω j10.13.4 With the 100 Ω resistor connected at X-Y.6 Ω X VTH = 110.6° I N = --------. Thevenin equivalent circuit for Example 7.058 = 0.6j. disp(Ix).516 – j0.4° and Z N = Z TH = 112.19) The same answer is found in Example C. fprintf(' \n').= 0. fprintf(' \n'). the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 7.4° Ω Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-11 .Thevenin’s and Norton’s Theorems ZTH 112 Ω j10.21 ∠– 3.= 0. Simplified circuit for computation of I X in Example 7.0582i that is.87 We find I X using MATLAB: Vth=110−6.5 ∠5.14.6° = 110−j6.5 ∠5. Norton’s equivalent is obtained from Thevenin’s circuit by exchanging V TH and its series Z TH with I N in parallel with Z N as shown in Figure 7. Ix = 0.0. Thus. disp('Ix = ').= ---------------------------------.4° A Z TH + 100 Ω (7.6 Ω IX 100 Ω Y Figure 7.87 Y Figure 7. V TH I X = -------------------------------. Ix=Vth/(Zth+100).87j.12.18 of Appendix C where we applied nodal analysis to find IX .

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis

IN

ZN

Figure 7.14. Norton equivalent circuit for Example 7.4

**7.5 Phasor Analysis in Amplifier Circuits
**

Other circuits such as those who contain op amps and op amp equivalent circuits can be analyzed using any of the above methods. Example 7.5 Compute i X ( t ) for the circuit below where v in ( t ) = 2 cos ( 30000 ω t ) V .

2Ω 50 Ω 10 Ω

iX ( t )

v in ( t )

8Ω 0.2 mH

+

−

vC ( t )

+

− 5v ( t ) C

4Ω

10 ⁄ 3 µF

Figure 7.15. Circuit for Example 7.5

**Solution: As a first step, we perform the t – domain , to jω – domain transformation. Thus,
**

jX L = j ω L = j0.2 × 10

–3

× 30 × 10 = j6

3

and

1 1 – jX C = – j ------- = – j ------------------------------------------------- = – j10 ωC 3 10 –6 30 × 10 × ----- × 10 3

Also,

V IN = 2 ∠0°

and the phasor circuit is shown in Figure 5.16.

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Phasor Analysis in Amplifier Circuits
**

V1

2Ω

V2

10 Ω 8Ω j6 Ω

50 Ω

V3

IX

+

−

V IN 2 ∠0°

+

−

VC −j10 Ω

+

− 5V C

4Ω

Figure 7.16. Phasor circuit for Example 7.5

At Node

:

V1 V 1 – V C V 1 – 5V C V 1 – 2 ∠0° ------------------------- + ------------- + ------------------ + ---------------------- = 0 2 10 50 8 + j6

(7.20)

and since

3 1 8 –j 6 8 –j 6 4 1 ------------- = ------------- ⋅ ---------- = ---------- = ----- – j ----8 + j6 8 – j 6 100 50 50 8 + j6

**the nodal equation of (7.20) simplifies to
**

3 ⎛ 35 – j -----⎞ V – 1 V = 1 ∠0° -----⎝ 50 50⎠ 1 5 C

(7.21)

At Node

:

VC – V1 VC ------------------ + ---------- = 0 10 – j10

or

111 – ----- V 1 + ⎛ ----- + j -----⎞ V C = 0 ⎝ 10 10⎠ 10

(7.22)

At Node

:

V 3 = 5V C

**We use MATLAB to solve (7.21) and (7.22).
**

G=[35/50 −j*3/50; −1/5 1/10+j*1/10]; I=[1 0]'; V=G\I; Ix=5*V(2,1)/4; % Multiply Vc by 5 and divide by 4 to get current Ix magIx=abs(Ix); theta=angle(Ix)*180/pi; % Convert current Ix to polar form fprintf(' \n'); disp(' Ix = ' ); disp(Ix);... fprintf('magIx = %4.2f A \t', magIx); fprintf('theta = %4.2f deg \t', theta);... fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n');

Ix = 2.1176 - 1.7546i

magIx = 2.75 A

theta = -39.64 deg

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-13

**Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
**

Therefore,

I = 2.75 ∠– 39.6° ⇔ i ( t ) = 2.75 cos ( 30000t – 39.6° )

**Example 7.6 Compute the phasor V out for the op amp circuit of Figure 7.17.
**

−j5 Ω 4Ω 5Ω V in = 4 ∠0° V −j10 Ω 10 Ω V out

Figure 7.17. Circuit for Example 7.6

**Solution: We assign phasor voltages V 1 and V while observing that V out = V
**

+ +

as shown in Figure 7.18, and we apply KCL at these nodes,

**V1 4Ω V in = 4 ∠0° V 5Ω −j10 Ω V
**

+

10 Ω

V out

Figure 7.18. Application of KCL for the circuit of Example 7.6

At Node

:

V 1 – 4 ∠0° V 1 – V out V 1 – V out V1 ------------------------- + ---------------------- + ---------------------- + ---------- = 0 4 – j10 – j5 5

or

39 ⎛ ----- + j -----⎞ V – ⎛ 1 + j 1 ⎞ V -- -= 1 ∠0° ⎝ 20 10⎠ 1 ⎝ 5 5 ⎠ out

(7.23)

At Node

,

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-14

Phasor Diagrams

V2 = V

+

= V out

and thus,

V out V out – V 1 V out – V 1 ---------- + ---------------------- + ---------------------- = 0 5 – j5 10

or

1 1 1 3 – ⎛ -- + j -- ⎞ V 1 + ⎛ ----- + j -- ⎞ V out = 0 ⎝5 5 ⎠ ⎝ 10 5 ⎠

(7.24)

**Solving (7.23) and (7.24) with MATLAB we get:
**

format rat G=[9/20+j*3/10 −1/5−j*1/5; −1/5−j*1/5 3/10+j*1/5]; I=[1 0]'; V=G\I; fprintf(' \n');disp(‘V1 = ’); disp(V(1,1)); disp(‘Vout = ’); disp(V(2,1)); format short magV=abs(V(2,1)); thetaV=angle(V(2,1))*180/pi; fprintf('magIx = %5.3f A \t', magIx); fprintf('theta = %4.2f deg \t', theta);... fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n')

V1 = 68/25 - 24/25i magIx = 2.750 A Therefore,

**Vout = 56/25 - 8/25i theta = -39.64 deg
**

V out = 2.263 ∠– 8.13°

(7.25)

7.6 Phasor Diagrams

A phasor diagram is a sketch showing the magnitude and phase relationships among the phasor voltages and currents in phasor circuits. The procedure is best illustrated with the examples below. Example 7.7 Compute and sketch all phasor quantities for the circuit of Figure 7.19. +

VS I

2Ω j3 Ω

− +

−

VR

VL VC

+

− −j5 Ω

Figure 7.19. Circuit for Example 7.7

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

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**Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
**

Solution: Since this is a series circuit, the phasor current I is common to all circuit devices. Therefore, we assign to this phasor current the value I = 1 ∠0° and use it as our reference as shown in the phasor diagram of Figure 7.20. Then,

V R = ( 2 Ω ) ( 1 ∠0° ) = 2 ∠0° V V L = ( j3 Ω ) ( 1 ∠0° ) = j3 = 3 ∠90° V V C = ( – j 5 Ω ) ( 1 ∠0° ) = – j5 = 5 ∠– 90 ° V V S = V R + ( V L + V C ) = 2 – j2 = 2 2 ∠– 45° VL VR VL+VC VC Figure 7.20. Phasor diagram for the circuit of Example 7.7 I = 1∠0°

VS=VR+(VL+VC)

**Example 7.8 Compute and sketch all phasor quantities for the circuit of Figure 7.21. +
**

V IS − IR

10 Ω

IL

j20 Ω

IC −j10 Ω

Figure 7.21. Circuit for Example 7.8

Solution: Since this is a parallel circuit, the phasor voltage V is common to all circuit devices. Therefore let us assign this phasor voltage the value V = 1 ∠0° and use it as our reference phasor as shown in the phasor diagram of Figure 7.22. Then,

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

Phasor Diagrams

I R = 1 ∠0° ⁄ 10 = 100 ∠0° mA I L = 1 ∠0° ⁄ j20 = 1 ∠0° ⁄ 20 ∠90° = 50 ∠– 90 ° m I C = 1 ∠0° ⁄ ( – j 10 ) = 1 ∠0° ⁄ 10 ∠– 90 ° = 100 ∠90° mA I C + I L = 50 ∠90° mA I S = I R + ( I C + I L ) = 100 + j50 = 111.8 ∠26.6° IC IC+IL IS=IR+(IC+IL) V = 1∠0° IR IL Figure 7.22. Phasor diagram for Example 7.8

We can draw a phasor diagram for other circuits that are neither series nor parallel by assigning any phasor quantity as a reference. Example 7.9 Compute and sketch all phasor voltages for the circuit of Figure 7.23. Then, use MATLAB to plot these quantities in the t – domain . +

VS VR1

2Ω

−

+ +

VL

j3 Ω

−

+

5Ω

IR2 VR2

−j5 Ω −

VC

−

Figure 7.23. Circuit for Example 7.9

**Solution: We will begin by selecting I R2 = 1 ∠0° A as our reference as shown on the phasor diagram of Figure 7.24. Then,
**

V R2 = 5 Ω × I R2 = 5 × 1 ∠0° = 5 ∠0° V L = j3 Ω × I R2 = 3 ∠90° × 1 ∠0° = 3 ∠90° V C = V L + V R2 = 5 ∠0° + 3 ∠90° = 5 + j3 = 5.83 ∠31°

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

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**Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
**

VC ----------------------V R1 = 2 Ω × I R1 = 2 ( I C + I R2 ) = 2 ⎛ ------- + I R2⎞ = 2 ⎛ 5.83 ∠31° + 5 ∠0° ⎞ ⎝ 5 ∠– 90° ⎠ ⎝ – j5 ⎠ = 2.33 ∠121° + 10 ∠0° = – 1.2 + j2 + 10 = 8.8 + j2 = 9 ∠12.8°

and

V S = V R1 + V C = 8.8 + j2 + 5 + j3 = 13.8 + j5 = 14.7 ∠20° V C = 5.83 ∠31° V S = 14.7 ∠20° V L = 3 ∠90° V R1 = 9 ∠12.8° V R2 = 5 ∠0° I R2 = 1 ∠0° A

Figure 7.24. Phasor diagram for Example 7.9

Now, we can transform these phasors into time-domain quantities and use MATLAB to plot them. We will use the voltage source as a reference with the value V S = 1 ∠0° , and we will apply nodal analysis with node voltages V1, V2, and V3 assigned as shown in Figure 7.25.

V1 + VR1 − V2 + VL − V3 j3 Ω IR2 2Ω + VS + 5Ω VR2 VC − − −j5 Ω 1 ∠0° V Figure 7.25. Circuit for Example 7.9 with the voltage source taken as reference

**The node equations are shown below in matrix form.
**

1 –1 -2 0 0 1 - 1⎛ 1 + ------- + ---- ⎞ -⎝ 2 – j5 j3 ⎠ 1– ---j3 G 0 1– ---j3 1- -⎛ ---- + 1 ⎞ ⎝ j3 5 ⎠ V1 V2 V3 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ V = 1 0 0 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I Orchard Publications

The MATLAB code is as follows:

7-18

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications

Phasor Diagrams

% Enter the non-zero values of the G matrix G(1,1)=1; G(2,1)=−1/2; G(2,2)=1/2−1/5j+1/3j; G(2,3)=−1/3j; G(3,2)=−1/3j; G(3,3)=1/3j+1/5; % % Enter all values of the I matrix I=[1 0 0]'; % % Compute node voltages V=G\I; % VR1=V(1)−V(2); VL=V(2)−V(3); % Compute magnitudes and phase angles of voltages magV1=abs(V(1)); magV2=abs(V(2)); magV3=abs(V(3)); phaseV1=angle(V(1))*180/pi; phaseV2=angle(V(2))*180/pi; phaseV3=angle(V(3))*180/pi; magVR1=abs(VR1); phaseVR1=angle(VR1)*180/pi; magVL=abs(VL); phaseVL=angle(VL)*180/pi; % % Denote radian frequency as w and plot wt for 0 to 2*pi range wt=linspace(0,2*pi); V1=magV(1)*cos(wt-phaseV(1)); V2=magV(2)*cos(wt-phaseV(2)); V3=magV(3)*cos(wt-phaseV(3)); VR1t=magVR1*cos(wt-phaseVR1); VLt=magVL*cos(wt-phaseVL); % % Convert wt to degrees deg=wt*180/pi; % % Print phasor voltages, magnitudes, and phase angles fprintf(' \n'); % With fprintf only the real part of each parameter is processed so we will use disp disp('V1 = '); disp(V(1)); disp('V2 = '); disp(V(2)); disp('V3 = '); disp(V(3)); disp('VR1 = '); disp(VR1); disp('VL = '); disp(VL); fprintf('magV1 = %4.2f V \t', magV1); fprintf('magV2 = %4.2f V \t', magV2); fprintf('magV3 = %4.2f V', magV3); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('phaseV1 = %4.2f deg \t', phaseV1); fprintf('phaseV2 = %4.2f deg \t', phaseV2); fprintf('phaseV3 = %4.2f deg', phaseV3); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('magVR1 = %4.2f V \t', magVR1); fprintf('phaseVR1 = %4.2f deg ', phaseVR1); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf(' \n'); fprintf('magVL = %4.2f V \t', abs(VL)); fprintf('phaseVL = %4.2f deg ', phaseVL); fprintf(' \n'); % plot(deg,V1,deg,V2,deg,V3,deg,VR1t,deg,VLt) fprintf(' \n');

**V1 = 1 V2 = 0.7503 - 0.1296i
**

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-19

**Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
**

V3 = 0.4945 - 0.4263i VR1 = 0.2497 + 0.1296i VL = 0.2558 + 0.2967i magV1 = 1.00 V phaseV1 = 0.00 deg magVR1 = 0.28 V magVL = 0.39 V and with these values we have

v S ( t ) = v 1 ( t ) = cos ω t v 2 ( t ) = 0.76 cos ( ω t – 9.8° ) v 3 ( t ) = 0.65 cos ( ω t – 40.8° ) v L ( t ) = 0.39 cos ( ω t + 49.2° )

magV2 = 0.76 V phaseV2 = -9.80 deg phaseVR1 = 27.43 deg phaseVL = 49.24 deg

magV3 = 0.65 V phaseV3 = -40.76 deg

v R1 ( t ) = 0.28 cos ( ω t + 27.4° )

**These are plotted with MATLAB as shown in Figure 7.26.
**

1

0 .8

0 .6

0 .4

0 .2

0

-0 .2

-0 .4

-0 .6

-0 .8

-1

v1 ( t ) = vS ( t ) v2 ( t ) v R1 ( t ) v3 ( t )

vL ( t )

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Figure 7.26. The t – domain plots for Example 7.9

7.7 Electric Filters

The characteristics of electric filters were introduced in Chapter 4 but are repeated below for convenience. Analog filters are defined over a continuous range of frequencies. They are classified as low-pass, highpass, band-pass and band-elimination (stop-band). Another, less frequently mentioned filter, is the all-pass

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Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

**Basic Analog Filters
**

or phase shift filter. It has a constant amplitude response but is phase varies with frequency. This is discussed in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications, ISBN 0-9709511-3-2, by this author. The ideal amplitude characteristics of each are shown in Figure 7.27. The ideal characteristics are not physically realizable; we will see that practical filters can be designed to approximate these characteristics. In this section we will derive the passive RC low and high-pass filter characteristics and those of an active low-pass filter using phasor analysis.

V out --------V in 1

PASS BAND

V out --------V in

STOP (CUTOFF) BAND

1

STOP BAND PASS BAND

ωc Ideal low− pass filter V out --------V in

ω

ωc Ideal high− pass filter

ω

1

STOP BAND PASS BAND STOP BAND

V out --------V in

1

PASS BAND STOP BAND PASS BAND

ω1

ω2

ω

ω1

ω2

ω

Ideal band− pass Filter

Ideal band − elimination filter

Figure 7.27. Amplitude characteristics of the types of filters

A digital filter, in general, is a computational process, or algorithm that converts one sequence of numbers representing the input signal into another sequence representing the output signal. Accordingly, a digital filter can perform functions as differentiation, integration, estimation, and, of course, like an analog filter, it can filter out unwanted bands of frequency. Digital filters are discussed in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications by this author, Orchard Publications.

**7.8 Basic Analog Filters
**

An analog filter can also be classified as passive or active. Passive filters consist of passive devices such as resistors, capacitors and inductors. Active filters are, generally, operational amplifiers with resistors and capacitors connected to them externally. We can find out whether a filter, passive or active, is a low-pass, high-pass, etc., from its the frequency response that can be obtained from its transfer function. The procedure is illustrated with the examples that follow. Example 7.10 Derive expressions for the magnitude and phase responses of the series RC network of Figure 7.28, and sketch their characteristics.

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

7-21

**Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis
**

+

V in −

R

C

+

−

V out

Figure 7.28. Series RC network for Example 7.10

**Solution: By the voltage division expression,
**

1 ⁄ jωC V out = -------------------------- V in R + 1 ⁄ jωC

**and denoting the ratio V out ⁄ V in as G ( jω ) , we get
**

V out 1 1 G ( jω ) = --------- = ----------------------- = ----------------------------------------------------------------------1 + jωRC V in 2 2 2 ( 1 + ω R C ) ∠ atan ( ωRC ) 1 = -------------------------------- ∠– atan ( ωRC ) 2 2 2 1+ω R C

(7.26)

The magnitude of (7.26) is

V out 1 G ( jω ) = --------- = -------------------------------2 2 2 V in 1+ω R C

(7.27)

**and the phase angle θ , also known as the argument, is
**

V out θ = arg { G ( jω ) } = arg ⎛ ---------⎞ = – atan ( ωRC ) ⎝ V in ⎠

(7.28)

We can obtain a quick sketch for the magnitude G ( jω ) versus ω by evaluating (7.27) at ω = 0 , ω = 1 ⁄ RC , and ω → ∞ . Thus, as ω → 0 , G ( j ω ) ≅ 1 for ω = 1 ⁄ RC , G ( j ω ) = 1 ⁄ 2 = 0.707 and as ω → ∞ , G ( j ω ) ≅ 0 To obtain a smooth curve, we will use a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel to plot G ( jω ) versus radian frequency for several values of ω . This is shown in Figure 7.29 where, for convenience, we let

7-22

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications

where the positions of the resistor and capacitor have been interchanged. ω = – 1 ⁄ RC .707) RC=1 1/RC Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7. θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } versus ω by evaluating of (11. This is shown in Figure 7. Thus.6 0. θ = – atan ( – ∞ ) = 90° and as ω → ∞ . i.. + V in − C R V out − + Figure 7.200 0. to the amplitude characteristics of a low-pass filter.9998 0.98744 0.11 The network of Figure 7.30 is also a series RC circuit.9982 0.e.120 0. The plot shows that this circuit is an approximation.220 |G(jω)| 1 0. as ω → 0 .Basic Analog Filters RC = 1 .4 0.9992 0.8 0. ω = 1 ⁄ RC .080 0.98058 0. ω 0.180 0.99288 0. θ ≅ – atan 0 ≅ 0° for ω = 1 ⁄ RC .98418 0.100 0. θ = – atan 1 = – 45° for ω = – 1 ⁄ RC . Amplitude characteristics of a series RC low-pass filter We can also obtain a quick sketch for the phase angle. again for convenience.31 where.99504 0.040 0. Derive expressions for the magnitude and phase responses.020 0.30.97664 Series RC Low-pass Filter Frequency Response |G(jω)| 1 0. ω → – ∞ and ω → ∞ .3) at ω = 0 . RC network for Example 7. θ = – atan ( – 1 ) = 45° as ω → – ∞ .99034 0.29. we let RC = 1 Example 7.99682 0. and sketch their characteristics.000 0.2 0 Half-power point (|G(jω)|=0.140 0.060 0.160 0. θ = – atan ( ∞ ) = – 90 ° We use Excel to plot θ versus radian frequency for several values of ω . although not a good one.11 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-23 .

22 85.18 85.00 -45.78 -11.00 0.31.20 85.⎞ ⎝ ωRC⎠ 2 2 2 1 1+ω R C 1 + -----------------2 2 2 ω R C (7.V in R + 1 ⁄ j ωC or 2 2 2 V out ωRC ( j + ωRC ) j ωRC .∠ atan ⎛ ----------.84 -11.= -------------------------------.14 85.88 -11.74 θ 85.29) is 1 G ( j ω ) = -------------------------------1 1 + -----------------2 2 2 ω R C (7.98 -11.= ----------------------.92 -11.29) The magnitude of (7.00 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 1------RC –1 ------RC 2 RC = 1 4 6 8 Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7.16 85.= ------------------------------------2 2 2 2 2 2 V in 1 + j ωRC 1+ω R C 1+ω R C 1 2 2 2 ωRC 1 + ω R C ∠ atan ⎛ ----------.00 -11.23 85. is 1 θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } = atan ⎛ ----------.16 85. Phase characteristics of a series RC low-pass filter Solution: R V out = -------------------------.30) and the phase angle or argument.86 -11.00 Phase Angle θ (deg) 45.96 -11.17 85.24 85.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis ω -12.76 -11.⎞ ⎝ ωRC⎠ 1 1 = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------.j ωRC + ω R C G ( j ω ) = --------.31) 7-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .19 85.13 Series RC Low-Pass Filter Phase Angle θ versus ω 90.21 85.20 85.80 -11.= ---------------------------------------.00 -90.94 -11.90 -11.82 -11.15 85.⎞ ⎝ ωRC⎠ (7.

33 shows the phase angle θ versus radian frequency for several values of ω . where RC = 1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-25 . G ( j ω ) ≅ 0 for ω = 1 ⁄ RC .707 and as ω → ∞ .19612 0. ω = 1 ⁄ RC .07975 0.060 0. The plot shows that this circuit is an approximation. θ = – atan 1 = – 45° for ω = – 1 ⁄ RC . θ = – atan ( ∞ ) = – 90 ° Figure 7.020 0. although not a good one.180 0. to the amplitude characteristics of a high-pass filter.0995 0.13865 0. G ( j ω ) = 1 ⁄ 2 = 0.02 0. by evaluating (7.03997 0.17715 0. and ω → ∞ .11915 0.31) at ω = 0 .000 0.05989 0.32 shows G ( j ω ) versus radian frequency for several values of ω where RC = 1 . θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } versus ω .e.120 0.040 0.080 0. as ω → 0 .4 0.220 |G(jω)| 1E-07 0.30) at ω = 0 .2 0 Half-power point (|G(jω)|=0. as ω → 0 . Thus. i.21486 Series RC High-Pass Filter |G(jω)| versus ω |G(jω)| 1 0. ω = 1 ⁄ RC .200 0. ω → – ∞ .707) RC=1 1/RC Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7. and ω → ∞ . G ( j ω ) ≅ 1 Figure 7.8 0. θ ≅ – atan 0 ≅ 0° for ω = 1 ⁄ RC .32.100 0.Basic Analog Filters We can obtain a quick sketch for the magnitude G ( j ω ) versus ω by evaluating (7.6 0.140 0. ω = – 1 ⁄ RC . ω 0.160 0..15799 0. θ = – atan ( – ∞ ) = 90° and as ω → ∞ . Amplitude characteristics of a series RC high-pass filter We can also obtain a quick sketch for the phase angle. Thus. θ = – atan ( – 1 ) = 45° as ω → – ∞ .

827713 -4. C 2 10 nF v2 v out 25 nF R2 R1 200 kΩ v in C1 40 kΩ v1 R3 50 kΩ Figure 7.8521853 -4.880 -11.800 -11.33.34.8196102 -4.760 -11.960 -11.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis ω -12.860 -11.7874686 -4.34 which is known as a Multiple Feed Back (MFB) active low-pass filter.8034858 -4. such as those we discussed in Chapter 4. Example 7.12 Solution: We write the phasor circuit nodal equations as follows: At Node : v 1 – v in v 1 – v out v 1 – v 2 v1 ----------------.+ ----------------------.8440004 -4. Low-pass filter for Example 7. Phase characteristics of an RC high-pass filter 7.8603978 -4.+ -------------------.980 -11.820 -11.7636417 -4.920 -11.9 Active Filter Analysis We can analyze active filters.835843 -4.7794999 -4. using phasor circuit analysis.8115345 -4.12 Compute the approximate cut-off frequency of the circuit of Figure 7.+ --------------.900 -11.840 -11.000 -11.= 0 R3 1 ⁄ ( j ω C1 ) R1 R2 (7.940 -11.8686381 Series RC High-pass Filter Phase Angle θ versus ω 90 Phase Angle θ (deg) 45 0 -45 -90 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 RC=1 Radian Frequency (ω) Figure 7.7954638 -4.740 θ -4.780 -11.7715577 -4.32) 7-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

v = ----.5. rearranging.*10.37) with the following code.33) reduces to v 1 = ( – j ω R 3 C 2 ) v out and by substitution of (7.34) (7.+ ----.5 × 10 ω – j5 × 10 –3 ω + 5 w=1:10:10000. and collecting like terms.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. ylabel('|Vout/Vin|').35) or v out 1 --------.+ j ω C 1 ⎞ ( – j ω R 3 C 2 ) – ----⎝ R ⎠ R2 R3 R2 1 By substitution of given values of resistors and capacitors. title('Magnitude Vout/Vin vs.abs(Gjw)). Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-27 . semilogx(w.^(−6). we get: 1 1 1 1 1 ⎛ ----.5 × 10 ω ( – j5 × 10 × 10 ω ) – ----------------⎝ ⎠ 3 4 20 × 10 4 × 10 (7. grid. Gjw=−1.*w+5).+ j2.1.+ j ω C ⎞ ( – j ω R C ) – ----.33) and since v 2 = 0 (virtual ground).^2−5.+ ----.707 = 0.+ ----.32).v in 1 ⎠ 3 2 ⎝ R R1 R2 R3 R 2 out 1 (7.Active Filter Analysis At node : v2 – v1 C2 --------------.*10. Radian Frequency') (7.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------–6 2 v in 2.36) or v out –1 G ( j ω ) = --------.2 × 0.1v in R 1 ⎛ ----.+ ----.35 where we see that the cutoff frequency occurs at about 700 rad ⁄ s .37) and now we can use MATLAB to find and plot the magnitude of (7. hold on xlabel('Radian Frequency w').^(−3).34) into (7.141 .= ----------------------R3 1 ⁄ ( j ω C2 ) (7. We observe that the half-power point for this plot is 0. relation (7. The plot is shown in Figure 7.*w. we get v out 1 --------.= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 ⎛ –8 ⎞ 4 –8 1 1 v in 2 × 10 -------------------.*j./(2.

7-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the first step is to select one phasor as a reference. usually with zero phase angle.04 0.10 Summary • In Chapter 3 we were concerned with constant voltage and constant current sources.06 0. Plot for the magnitude of the low-pass filter circuit of Example 7. resistances and conductances. • Whenever a branch in a circuit contains two or more devices in series or two or more devices in parallel. • Nodal analysis. and so on before writing nodal or mesh equations. mesh analysis.12 0.16 0. When constructing a phasor diagram. In this chapter we were concerned with alternating voltage and alternating current sources.35.08 0. and all other phasors must be drawn with the correct relative angles.18 0.2 0. Thevenin’s theorem.14 Magnitude Vout/Vin vs. and admittances. Radian Frequency |Vout/Vin| 0.12 7. They serve as a good introduction to electric filters. • The RC low-pass and RC high-pass filters are rudimentary types of filters and are not used in prac- tice. and Norton’s theorem can also be applied to phasor circuits.02 0 10 0 10 1 Radian Frequency w 10 2 10 3 10 4 Figure 7. it is highly recommended that they are grouped and denoted as z 1 . • The use of complex numbers make the phasor circuit analysis much easier.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 0. • MATLAB can be used very effectively to perform the computations since it does not require any special procedures for manipulation of complex numbers.1 0. impedances. • Phasor diagrams are sketches that show the magnitude and phase relationships among several pha- sor voltages and currents. the principle of superposition. z 2 .

11 Exercises Multiple Choice 1.Exercises 7. 50 cos ( 2000t – 45° ) V –4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-29 . 2 + j2 A E.36. Circuit for Question 1 2. Circuit for Question 2 3. 0 + j2 A B.37.37 the phasor current I is A. In the circuit of Figure 7. In the circuit of Figure 7.36 the phasor voltage V is A. none of the above IS 1 ∠0° A + j0. 0 – j2 A C. 1 + j V E.38 the voltage across the capacitor C 2 is A.5 Ω V − −j Ω 1Ω Figure 7. 1 + j0 A D. 1 + j0 V C. 8 × 10 sin ( 2000t + 90° ) V B. 2 + j0 V B. none of the above VS 2 ∠0° V I 1Ω 1Ω 1Ω −j1 Ω j1 Ω Figure 7. 1 – j 0 V D. In the circuit of Figure 7.

40 is A. 10 ∠– 53.5 mH 5. Circuit for Question 4 iC 500 µF 0. Circuit for Question 3 4.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis C. 10 ∠– 90° V B. 10 ∠– 45° V E. none of the above 7-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 32 cos ( 2000t – 45° ) 32 cos ( 2000t + 90° ) E.13° V C. D.39. none of the above L1 vS ( t ) 4Ω 3 mH C1 500 µF L2 2 mH C2 8 sin ( 2000t + 90° ) 100 µF Figure 7.13° V D.38. D. In the circuit of Figure 7. 4 sin 2000t B. 10 ∠53.39 the current i C ( t ) through the capacitor is A. none of the above iS ( t ) 1Ω i S ( t ) = 4 cos 2000t Figure 7. 50 cos ( 2000t + 45° ) V 50 cos ( 2000t + 90° ) V E. 4 sin ( 2000t + 180° ) C. The Thevenin equivalent voltage V TH at terminals A and B in the circuit of Figure 7.

5 ∠– 90° V B. The Thevenin equivalent impedance Z TH at terminals A and B in the circuit of Figure 7.40 is A.1° V D.42 the phasor voltage V R A. In the circuit of Figure 7. 4 + j2 Ω C. – j 5 Ω E. 4 ∠53. none of the above VS 20 ∠0° V IX + − 4Ω j3 Ω + − IX −j4 Ω 4IX V Figure 7. In the circuit of Figure 7. 20 + j0 V B. Circuit for Question 7 8. Circuit for Questions 5 and 6 6.1° V E. 4 ∠– 53. 5 ∠– 45° V C. 0 + j20 V 5Ω is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-31 .40. 4 – j 2 Ω D.41 the phasor voltage V C is A.41.Exercises 4Ω VS 10 ∠0° V j2 Ω A −j5 Ω B Figure 7. 2 + j4 Ω B. none of the above 7.

none of the above IS + 4Ω j4 Ω VX − + 5 Ω VR − 5Ω 2V X A 4 ∠0° A Figure 7. 20 + j20 V D. 1 + j1 V E. In the circuit of Figure 7. 0. 0.43 the phasor voltage V OUT 2 is A. In the circuit of Figure 7. Circuit for Question 8 9.42. 4 – j 0 V D. 2 cos ωt V D.89 cos ( ωt + 45° ) V B. Circuit for Question 9 10.5 cos ( ωt + 53. none of the above j5 Ω V IN 1 ∠0° − V OUT 1 V OUT 2 10 Ω –j 5 Ω 10 Ω Figure 7. 80 – j80 V E. 4 + j0 V C.43.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis C.53 cos ( ωt – 45 ° ) V C.1° ) V 7-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 1.44 the t – domain voltage v AB ( t ) is A. 2 + j0 V B.

Write mesh equations and use MATLAB to compute i L ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 1 2.46. Circuit for Question 10 Problems 1.44. Write nodal equations and use MATLAB to compute i C ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 7.45. none of the above A j2 Ω 2Ω VS −j Ω 2Ω 2 ∠0° V B Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 2 3. Compute v AB ( t ) and i C ( t ) .46 given that v S ( t ) = 12 cos ( 1000t + 45° ) V .Exercises E. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-33 .45. i S ( t ) = 2 cos 1000t A .47 given that v S ( t ) = 100 cos ( 10000t + 60° ) V . For the circuit of Figure 7. 4Ω 2Ω vS ( t ) 10 Ω 5Ω + − iC ( t ) 20 Ω 5 mH 100 µF Figure 7. A 8Ω 20 mH 6Ω iC ( t ) 1000 ⁄ 6 µF 2Ω iS ( t ) 7Ω 5Ω B Figure 7.

L1 2 mH R1 10 Ω R2 25 Ω L2 5 mH + v S1 ( t ) − 20 µF + vC ( t ) − + − v S2 ( t ) Figure 7.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 4Ω 10 Ω 2Ω 5Ω + − v (t) S 20 Ω 2 mH iL ( t ) 10 µF Figure 7. 10 Ω 1 mH 2 mH v S1 + + − + 500 µF − vC ( t ) 5Ω iS ( t ) v S2 ( t ) − Figure 7. find v C ( t ) if v S1 = 15 V .49. For the circuit of Figure 7.48. Circuit for Problem 3 4. Plot v C ( t ) using MATLAB or Excel.47. it is given that v S1 ( t ) = 40 cos ( 5000t + 60° ) V and v S2 ( t ) = 60 sin ( 5000t + 60° ) V . find the value of Z LD which will receive maximum power. For the circuit of Figure 7.49.48. 7-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Use superposition to find v C ( t ) . Circuit for Problem 5 6. and i S ( t ) = 4 cos 2000t A .50. For the circuit of Figure 7. v S2 ( t ) = 20 cos 1000t V . Circuit for Problem 4 5.

51.52.Exercises + vS − ZS Z LD Figure 7. For the op amp circuit of Figure 7. to what value should the load impedance Z LD be adjusted so that it will receive maximum power from the voltage source? Z LD 10 Ω 5Ω 4Ω + − 20 Ω j5 −j10 170 ∠0° Figure 7.51. v in ( t ) = 3 cos 1000t V .53. For the circuit of Figure 7. 4Ω 10 Ω 5Ω + VS − 20 Ω j5 −j10 Figure 7. draw a phasor diagram which shows the voltage and current in each branch.50. For the circuit of Figure 7.52. Find v out ( t ) . Circuit for Problem 8 9. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-35 . Circuit for Problem 6 8. Circuit for Problem 6 7.

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis C R2 R1 v in ( t ) 1 KΩ v out ( t ) 3 KΩ Figure 7. Circuit for Problem 9 7-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .53.

jωL 2 = j4 . G = 1 ⁄ R = 1 Ω .= 1 + ------------------------------------. – j ⁄ ωL = – j1 Ω . D 4 cos 2000t ⇔ 4 ∠0° .+ -----.= ------------------. C Denoting the resistor in series with the voltage source as z 1 . 2 VS 8 + j0 4 – j4 32 – j32 8 + j0 I = ----. L1 VS + 8 ∠0° V − 4Ω C1 j6 Ω −j1 Ω L2 j4 Ω C2 I −j5 Ω Z = 4 + j6 – j1 + j4 – j5 = 4 + j4 .= ------------.= 1 – j1 . – j ⁄ ωC 1 = – j1 and the phasor equivalent circuit is shown below.= 1 + j0 A Z 2 + j0 3. and the resistor in series with the capacitor as z 3 .× --------. 4 + j4 4 – j4 32 Z 4 + j4 50 ∠– 45° ⇔ 50 cos ( 2000t – 45° ) V –1 –1 and thus V C = – j5 × ( 1 – j ) = 5 – j5 = –1 4. E V = V L + V C where V L = 1 ∠0° × j1 ⁄ 2 = j1 ⁄ 2 V and V C is found from the nodal equaVC VC 1 1 1–j 1– . the equivalent impedance is z2 ⋅ z3 ( 1 – j1 ) ( 1 + j1 ) -Z eq = z 1 + --------------. jωC = j1 Ω .V .Answers to Exercises 7. Therefore.12 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1.= ------------.-tion -----.= ------------. – j ⁄ ωC 1 = – j1 . IS 4 ∠0° A 1Ω –1 IC j1 Ω –1 – j1 Ω –1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-37 . the resistor in series with the capacitor as z 2 .= 1 + j0 or ( 1 + j )V C = 1 or V C = ---------.⋅ ------------. B 8 sin ( 2000t + 90° ) = 8 cos 2000t ⇔ 8 ∠0° V .= ---------j = 1 – j -. 1 –j 1+j 1–j 2 2 2 V = j1 ⁄ 2 + 1 ⁄ 2 – j1 ⁄ 2 = 1 ⁄ 2 + j0 V 2. jωL 1 = j6 . and the phasor equivalent circuit is shown below.= 1 + 2 = 2 + j0 2 1 – j1 + 1 + j1 z2 + z3 and VS 2 + j0 I = ----.

C We short the voltage source and looking to the left of points A and B we observe that the capacitor is in parallel with the series combination of the resistance and inductance.= 4 – j2 -------------------------------------------------) 4 – j3 4 + j3 25 4 – j3 4 + j2 – j5 20 ∠0° 20 ∠0° 7.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis Denoting the parallel combination of the conductance and inductance as Y 1 = 1 – j1 and using the current division expression for admittances we get jωC j1 I C = --------------------.9° and 4I X -------------------------I C = ------. 4I X = 16 ∠– 36.× 1 ∠0° = j2 × 1 ∠0° = 2 ∠90° × 1 ∠0° = 2 ∠90° 10 j5 and V OUT 2 10 = – ------.+ j ------⎞ = 80 + j80 ⎝ 2 2⎠ 9.⋅ I S = -----------------------.1° V 4 + j2 – j5 5 ∠– 36. E V X = ------------.= 10 – j20 = ------------------.∠45° = 2 32 ∠45° 4 + j4 32 ∠45° 32 and VR 5Ω 2 2 = 2V X × 5 = 20 × 32 ∠45° = 20 32 ⎛ -----.= 10 ∠– 53.= --------------------.⋅ 10 ∠0° = 5 ∠– 90° × 10 ∠0° = ----------------------.= ---------------------.= j1 × 4 ∠0° = 1 ∠90° × 4 ∠0° = 4 ∠90° A jωC + Y 1 j1 + 1 – j1 and thus i S ( t ) = 4 cos ( 2000t + 90° ) A 5.1° 4 ∠– 90° – j4 64 × 32 4 64 ∠90° 8. 10 – j20 4 + j3 100 – j50 Z TH = ( – j5 ) ( 4 + j2 . D I X = ---------------.= 4 ∠– 36. Thus. B V OUT 1 = – ----. B By the voltage division expression – j5 50 ∠– 90° -----------------------------------------V TH = V AB = -----------------------.× 4 ∠0° × j4 = ----------------------.⋅ ------------. A We write the nodal equation at Node A for V AB as 7-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= 16 ∠– 36.9° .× V OUT 1 = – j 2 × 2 ∠0° = 2 ∠– 90 ° × 2 ∠90° = 4 ∠0° = 4 + j0 –j 5 10.9° 4 – j3 6.9° 4 + j3 5 ∠36.= -------------------.9° = 4 ∠53.

+ ------------. and we draw the phasor circuit below. jωL = j10 × 20 × 10 3 3 –6 3 –3 = j20 Ω and – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 10 ⁄ 6 × 10 ) = – j6 . A z2 8Ω j20 Ω z1 6Ω 5Ω IC z3 – j6 Ω 8Ω + 15 Ω − C VS 10 ∠0° V B For this phasor circuit.+ ---------------------------. V S = 2 ∠0° × 5 = 10 ∠0° V . V A – V B V A – 10 ∠0° V A – V B ------------------. z 2 = ( 15 + j20 ) Ω .06 ∠45° or V AB = 1. and z 3 = ( 8 – j 6 ) Ω We observe that V A = V AB = V AC + V CB = V AC + 10 ∠0° V and V B = 0 . we combine the series resistors.= 0 z2 z1 z3 1 1 1 ⎛ --.89 cos ( ωt + 45° ) Problems 1.+ --. We transform the current source and its parallel resistance to a voltage source series resistance.+ ------------------.= --------------------------.89 ∠45° and in the t – domain v AB ( t ) = 1. z 1 = 5 Ω .= 2 ∠0° -⎝ 5 15 + j20 8 – j 6 ⎠ A 5 and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-39 .⎞ V = 10 ∠0° --------------⎝z z1 z2 z3 ⎠ A 1 1 1 10 ∠0° ⎛ 1 + ------------------. At Node A.+ --------.Answers to Exercises V AB – 2 ∠0° V AB V AB ---------------------------.⎞ V = --------------.⎞ V = 2 ∠90° -⎝2 2 + j2 ⎠ AB 2 ∠90° 2 ∠90° 2 ∠90° V AB = -----------------------------------------------.= ----------------------1⁄2+j+1⁄4–j⁄4 3 ⁄ 4 + j3 ⁄ 4 1.= 0 –j 2 2 + j2 1 ⎛ 1 + j + ------------.+ ---------.+ --.

1 ° + 0. VA=(10+0j)/(z1*(1/z1+1/z2+1/z3)).2 + 0.1 sin 36.9° z3 and i C ( t ) = 0.9° 2 ∠0° = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------0. fprintf('phaseVA = %5.1° + 0.7° ) Check with MATLAB: z1=5.6 0.04 × 0.26° = 0.04 sin 53.= ---------------------------------0.1 ∠36.304 + j0.6 – j0.2 + ----------------------.55 ∠– 5.305 ∠5.1° 10 ∠– 36.1 cos 36..+ -------------------------25 ∠53.. fprintf(' \n').55 cos ( 1000 + 5.8 + j0.9° 2 ∠0° 2 ∠0° = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. VA ------------------------------I C = -----. z3=8−6j.. Also.655 ∠31.+ -----------------z2 z1 z3 z7 7-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .04 cos 53.26° ) . magVA = 6. in the t – domain v AB ( t ) = 6.55 V 3 –4 phaseVA = -5.2f deg \t'.2 + 0.26° 0. z2=15+20j.9° 1 0.55 ∠– 5. fprintf('magVA = %5.= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1 0.1° – j0.04 × 0.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 2 ∠0° 2 ∠0° V A = ----------------------------------------------------------------------.1 × 0.7° 10 ∠– 36.abs(VA)). fprintf(' \n'). fprintf(' \n').26° Then...= 6.04 ∠– 53.angle(VA)*180/pi).655 cos ( 1000 + 31.26 deg 3 –3 2.8 + 0.+ -----------------.9° + j0.1 × 0.028 2 ∠0° = -----------------------------.2f V \t'.2 + 0.= 6. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where jωL = j10 × 5 × 10 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 10 ) = – j10 z1 4Ω = j5 and z7 z3 10 Ω 20 Ω 2Ω VS + − 12 ∠45° V1 V2 z5 5Ω V3 IC z 6 – j 10 Ω j5 Ω z4 z2 Node V 1 : V1 – VS V1 – V2 V1 V1 – V3 -----------------.+ ----..

fprintf(' \n').V 2 + ⎛ --...⎞ ⎝z z z z ⎠ 1 2 3 7 1 – --z3 1 1 1 ⎛ --.V S z1 0 0 1– --z5 Shown below is the MATLAB code to solve this system of equations.+ -----------------. disp('V2=').V 3 = 0 ⎝z ⎠ z3 z5 z4 z5 3 Node V 3 : V3 – V2 V3 – V1 V2 – V3 -----------------.1– --.+ --. Y=[1/z1+1/z2+1/z3+1/z7 −1/z3 −1/z7. z6=−10j.⎞ ⎝z z z ⎠ 3 4 5 1 – --z7 1 – --z5 1.+ --.V 1 – --. V1 = 5..+ --.= 0 z4 z3 z5 or 111 1 1 – --..1..9950 .4. Ic=V(3)/z6. disp('phaseIc=')....+ --.V = --. z5=5.V ⎝z ⎠ 1 z3 2 z7 3 z1 S z2 z3 z7 1 Node V 2 : V2 – V1 V2 V2 – V3 -----------------.+ ----....V 1 + ⎛ --..+ --.1⎛ --.. format bank % Display magnitude and angle values with two decimal places disp('magIc=').1... phaseIc=angle(Ic)*180/pi.= 0 z5 z7 z6 or 111. magIc=abs(Ic)... disp(phaseIc). −1/z3 1/z3+1/z4+1/z5 −1/z5..+ --. disp('Ic=')... disp(V(2)).⎞ ⎝z z z ⎠ 5 6 7 1 – --z3 1– --z7 V1 ⋅ V2 = V3 1 --.+ --.. I=[Vs/z1 0 0]'. V=Y\I. disp(magIc). z4=5j.+ -----------------. disp(Ic). disp(V(3))..⎞ V – --.. disp('V3='). z3=10.8789i Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-41 . % Express Vs in rectangular form z1=4.Answers to Exercises or 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ⎛ --.+ --.+ --..+ --.+ --.⎞ V 3 = 0 ⎝z z7 z5 z6 z7 ⎠ 5 and in matrix form 1 1 1 1 ⎛ --.V – --.. z2=20.+ --. disp('V1=')..⎞ V 2 – --.+ -----------------.. −1/z7 −1/z5 1/z5+1/z6+1/z7]. Vs=12*(cos(pi/4)+j*sin(pi/4)).+ --. disp(V(1)).+ --. z7=2.

46 Therefore.69 ∠50.3552 .69 cos ( 1000t + 50.46° ⇔ i C ( t ) = 0.9658 .69 phaseIc = 50.46° ) A 3.4420 + 0. I C = 0.5960i V3 = 5.5355i magIc = 0.4203i Ic = 0.0.4. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where jωL = j10 × 2 × 10 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 10 × 10 ) = – j10 z1 4Ω 4 –6 4 –3 = j20 and z7 I2 z 3 10 Ω 2Ω z5 5Ω + − V S = 100 ∠60° I1 z2 I3 20 Ω z4 IL j20 Ω I4 z6 – j10 Ω Mesh I 1 : ( z 1 + z 2 )I 1 – z 2 I 3 = V S Mesh I 2 : ( z 1 + z 2 + z 7 )I 2 – z 3 I 3 – z 5 I 4 = 0 Mesh I 3 : – z 2 I 1 – z 3 I 2 + ( z 2 + z 3 + z 4 )I 3 – z 4 I 4 = 0 Mesh I 4 : – z 5 I 2 – z 4 I 3 + ( z 4 + z 5 + z 6 )I 4 = 0 and in matrix form 7-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis V2 = 5.

. −z2 −z3 z2+z3+z4 −z4. z2=20. I1 = 5..4364 + 1. disp(phaseIL).6787i magIL = 3.4345 .7028i I3 = 4.. disp('IL=').4150.... disp('I4='). % Express Vs in rectangular form z1=4. format bank % Display magnitude and angle values with two decimal places disp('magIL=').. z4=20j.. disp(I(1))..4110i I2 = 4.82 Therefore...82° ) 4. disp('phaseIL=').. z6=−10j..81 phaseIL = -153.. Z=[z1+z2 0 −z2 0...9157i IL= -3.. 0 −z5 −z4 z4+z5+z6]. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where jωL 1 = j5 × 10 × 2 × 10 jωL 2 = j5 × 10 × 5 × 10 3 3 3 –3 4 = j10 = j25 –6 –3 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 5 × 10 × 20 × 10 ) = – j10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-43 .. disp('I1=')..3.81 ∠– 153.. fprintf(' \n').. Vs=100*(cos(pi/3)+j*sin(pi/3)).Answers to Exercises z1 + z2 0 –z2 0 0 z1 + z2 + z7 –z3 –z5 –z2 –z3 z2 + z3 + z4 –z4 0 –z5 –z4 z4 + z5 + z6 ⋅ I1 I2 I3 I4 = VS 0 0 0 Shown below is the MATLAB code to solve this system of equations...81 cos ( 10 t – – 153. z7=2. I=Z\V.5527 + 0. disp(IL). IL=I(3)−I(4). z3=10. disp(I(4)). V=[Vs 0 0 0]'.... disp(I(3))... 0 z3+z5+z7 −z3 −z5... disp('I3='). phaseIL=angle(IL)*180/pi..0214 + 0. disp('I2='). magIL=abs(IL).1. I L = 3.2369i I4 = 7.82° ⇔ i L ( t ) = 3.. z5=5. disp(I(2)). disp(magIL)..

With V S1 acting alone the circuit reduces to that shown below. z1 V S1 j10 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω z2 j25 Ω + − 40 ∠60° V z3 – j 10 Ω + − V' C By KCL V' – V S1 V' V' C C C -------------------.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis j10 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω j25 Ω V S1 + − 40 ∠60° V – j 10 Ω + − VC + V S2 − 60 ∠( – 30 )° V We let V C = V' + V'' C where V' is the capacitor voltage due to V S1 acting alone. V' = 36. z2=−10j.= 0 z1 z2 z3 1.+ --.⎞ V' = V S1 -------⎝z z2 z3 ⎠ C z1 1 V S1 V S1 V' = -------------------------------------------. V1c=Vs1/(1+z1/z2+z1/z3) V1c = 36.⎞ ⎛ 1 + z 1 + --.76 – j5.+ --.7595 . with V S2 acting alone the circuit reduces to that shown below.+ ----. z3=25+25j.1.1.= --------------------------------C z1 1.+ --.⎞ z1 ⋅ --⎝z ⎝ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ 1 and with MATLAB Vs1=40*(cos(pi/3)+j*sin(pi/3)).1⎛ --. 7-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .30 V C Next.5.1⎛ --. z1=10+10j.+ --.2962i Therefore. and V'' C is the C C capacitor voltage due to V S2 acting alone.+ ----.

.+ --..5. disp('V1c = ').31 V Then. V1c = 36.. z2=−10j.= 0 z3 z1 z2 1 1 1 ⎛ --...+ --...5818 . disp('Vc=V1c+V2c'). disp(V1c).0557i Vc = V1c+V2c Vc = 33. z1=10+10j.1777 .⎞ V'' = V S2 -------⎝z z3 z2 z3 ⎠ C 1 V S2 V S2 V'' = -------------------------------------------.+ --.35 = 43.+ 1 ⎞ z 3 ⋅ ⎛ --..⎞ --⎝z ⎝z ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 1 1 and with MATLAB Vs2=60*(cos(pi/6)−j*sin(pi/6)).31 cos ( 5000t – 27.2962j. disp('V2c = ').58 – j27.3519i magVc = 43.16 deg and v C ( t ) = 43.2f deg \t'.22..7595−5.abs(Vc)). V1c=36.. z3=25+25j.31 ∠27. V2c=Vs2/(z3/z1+z3/z2+1).+ -----.= --------------------------------C z3 1 1 1 ⎛ z 3 + --.. disp(Vc). fprintf(' \n').2f V \t'.2962i V2c = -3.27. fprintf(' \n'). disp('Vc = ').35° C phaseVc = -39.. fprintf('phaseVc = %4. disp(V2c)...Answers to Exercises z1 j10 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω z2 j25 Ω z3 – j 10 Ω + − V'' C + V S2 − 60 ∠( – 30 )° V By KCL V'' V'' V'' – V S2 C C C -----.35° ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-45 ... Vc=V1c+V2c... fprintf(' \n')... V C = V' + V'' C = 33.7595 .angle(Vc)*180/pi). fprintf('magVc = %4..+ --------------------.+ --. fprintf(' \n').

the capacitor voltage C due to all three sources acting simultaneously will be V C = V' + V'' + V''' C C C With the DC voltage source acting alone. 10 Ω + V' C VR + 5Ω + − 15 V 5Ω − − By the voltage division expression V' = V R C 5 = -------------. Let V' be the capacitor voltage due to v S1 acting alone. 7-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we will apply the superposition principle. with the sinusoidal voltage source v S2 ( t ) acting alone the reactances are jω 1 L 1 = j10 × 1 × 10 jω 1 L 2 = j10 × 2 × 10 3 3 3 –3 = j1 Ω = j2 Ω –3 – j ⁄ ω 1 C = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 5 × 10 ) = – j 2 Ω –4 and the equivalent phasor circuit is as shown below.⋅ 15 = 5 V DC 10 + 5 5Ω v'C ( t ) = 5 V DC and Next. an AC (sinusoidal) voltage source. and an AC current source of different frequency. This circuit is excited by a DC (constant) voltage source. and V''' the capacitor voltage due to i S ( t ) acting alone. Then. after steady-state conditions have been reached the inductors behave like short circuits and the capacitor as an open circuit and thus the circuit is simplified as shown below. V'' the capacitor voltage due to v S2 ( t ) C C acting alone.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis 5. Therefore.

z2=−2j.+ --.1⎛ --. z3=5+2j.97 ∠– 62.2f deg \t'. fprintf('magV2c = %4. fprintf(' \n')..54 = 3.+ --.+ --..5362i magV2c = 3. V2c=Vs2/(1+z1/z2+z1/z3). disp(V2c).= ---------------------------------C z1 z1 1.⎞ z1 ⋅ ⎝z ⎝ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ 1 and with MATLAB Vs2=20+0j.+ -----.9° ) C Finally.⎞ ⎛ 1 + --.2f V \t'.= 0 z1 z2 z3 1..9 ° and v'' ( t ) = 3. fprintf(' \n').angle(V2c)*180/pi).3.1.+ --. V2c = 1.1.81 – j3.97 V phaseV2c = -62.+ -----.Answers to Exercises z1 V S2 j1 Ω 10 Ω 25 Ω z3 j2 Ω + − 20 ∠0° V z2 – j 10 Ω + − V'' C By KCL V'' – V S2 V'' V'' C C C --------------------.1⎛ --.8089 . fprintf('phaseV2c = %4.91 deg Then. fprintf(' \n').+ --... z1=10+j.⎞ V'' = V S2 -------⎝z z2 z3 ⎠ C z1 1 V S2 V S2 V'' = -------------------------------------------. disp('V2c = '). V'' C = 1.. with the sinusoidal current source i S ( t ) acting alone the reactances are jω 2 L 1 = j2 × 10 × 1 × 10 jω 2 L 2 = j2 × 10 × 2 × 10 3 3 3 –3 = j2 Ω = j4 Ω –3 – j ⁄ ω 2 C = – j ⁄ ( 2 × 10 × 5 × 10 ) = – j 1 Ω –4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-47 .abs(V2c)).97 cos ( 1000t – 62.

4395 .*pi. V''' = – 1.+ --. disp(V3c).abs(V3c)).angle(V3c)*180/pi)..43 cos ( 2000t – 114.12 = 3.= 0 z1 z2 z3 1 1 1 ⎛ --.+ 1 ⎞ z3 ⋅ --⎝z ⎝z ⎠ z2 z3 ⎠ z2 1 1 and with MATLAB Vs3=20+0j.9° ) + 3. fprintf('phaseV3c = %4.79 deg Then.44 – j3. z1=10+2j. V2c=3..9. fprintf(' \n'). fprintf(' \n').+ --.+ ------..97 cos ( 1000t – 62.3.8 ° C or v''' ( t ) = 3./180).= --------------------------------C z3 1. deg=wt*180/pi.+ --. 7-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1.2f deg \t'.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis and the equivalent phasor circuit is as shown below where the current source and its parallel resistance have been replaced with a voltage source with a series resistor. z3=5+4j. V3c = -1...2*2*pi). fprintf(' \n').+ --.*cos(wt−62. disp('V3c = ').+ ---------------------.2f V \t'. V1c=5.43 V phaseV3c = -114..1170i magV3c = 3.⎞ ⎛ z 3 + --.8° ) C C These waveforms are plotted below using the following MATLAB code: wt=linspace(0.97.1⎛ --.8° ) C and v C ( t ) = v' C + v'' ( t ) + v''' ( t ) = 5 + 3. V3c=Vs3/(z3/z1+z3/z2+1).43 ∠– 114. z1 j2 Ω 10 Ω z3 5Ω j4 Ω z2 –j 1 Ω + − V''' C + V S3 − 20 ∠0° V By KCL V''' V''' V''' – V S3 C C C ------.43 cos ( 2000t – 114.⎞ V''' = V S3 -------⎝z z2 z3 ⎠ C z3 1 V S3 V S3 V''' = -------------------------------------------. fprintf('magV3c = %4. z2=−j.

p LOAD simplifies to p LOAD v S ⋅ R LOAD = ----------------------------------2 ( R S + R LOAD ) 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-49 .V1c. Under this condition.*pi. deg. Since Z S and Z LOAD are complex quantities./180).*cos(2.V1c+V2c+V3c) 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 vC ( t ) v' C = 5 V DC v''' ( t ) C 0 100 v'' ( t ) C 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 6.V3c.deg.Answers to Exercises V3c=3.8. that is. we will express them as Z S = Re { Z S } + jIm { Z S } and Z LOAD = Re { Z LOAD } + jIm { Z LOAD } where Re and Im denote the real and imaginary components respectively.V2c.43. We want to maximize p LOAD = i 2 LOAD vS ⋅ Z LOAD = ---------------------------------.*wt−114.⋅ Z LOAD 2 ( Z S + Z LOAD ) 2 2 v S ⋅ Z LOAD = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 [ Re { Z S } + jIm { Z S } + j ( Re { Z LOAD } + jIm { Z LOAD } ) ] The only that can vary are Re { Z LOAD } and Im { Z LOAD } and we must consider them independently from each other. plot(deg. From the above expression we observe that p LOAD will be maximum when the denominator is minimum and this will occur when Im { Z LOAD } = – Im { Z S } . when the imaginary parts of Z LOAD and Z S cancel each other.deg.

the load impedance Z LOAD will receive maximum power when Z LOAD = Z S∗ that is. we will compute Z TH using the relation Z TH = V OC ⁄ I SC where V OC is the open circuit voltage. as we found in Chapter 3. it is best to replace the circuit with its Thevenin equivalent. This and the Delta to Wye transformation are very useful in threephase circuits and are discussed in Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications by this author. We disconnect Z LOAD from the circuit at points X and Y as shown below. we only need to compute Z TH . that is. X z3 z1 z2 z4 z5 z6 Y We observe that z 1 is in parallel with z 2 and this combination is shown as z 12 in the simplified circuit below. and other similar problems involving the maximum power transfer theorem. Moreover. Therefore. 7. when Z LOAD is adjusted to be equal to the complex conjugate of Z S . For this. 7-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The remaining circuit then is as shown below. for maximum power transfer R LOAD = R S . X z3 z 12 z4 z5 z6 Y But this circuit cannot be simplified further unless we perform Wye to Delta transformation which we have not discussed. Thus. V TH and I SC is the current that would flow between the terminals when the load is replaced by a short. to find Z TH we remove Z LOAD and we short the voltage source. we will begin our computations with the Thevenin voltage. Therefore. For this problem.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis and.

+ --. z2=20. z3=10.= 0 z1 z3 z2 VS 1 1 1 1 ⎛ --.+ ----. 4Ω X 10 Ω 2 V2 z4 j5 Ω – j 10 Ω 5Ω Y VY z5 + VS − z1 z2 1 V z3 1 20 Ω 170 ∠0° Now.2 1 ⎝z z3 z1 z2 z3 ⎠ 1 At Node 2: V2 – V1 V2 V2 -----------------.V 1 + ⎛ --. Thus..+ -----------------. z4=5j. with Z LOAD disconnected the circuit simplifies to that shown below.+ --..+ --.+ ----.V = ----. we will find V TH = V XY = V X – V Y = V 1 – ( V 2 – V R 5Ω ) At Node 1: V1 – VS V1 V1 – V2 -----------------.⎞ V – --.⎞ V 2 ⎝z z3 z4 z5 ⎠ 3 and with MATLAB Vs=170. z1=4.+ ----..Answers to Exercises X 4Ω 10 Ω Z LD Y 5Ω + − 20 Ω j5 −j10 170 ∠0° We will replace the remaining circuit with its Thevenin equivalent.= 0 z3 z4 z5 1 1 1 1 – --.+ --. z5=5−10j. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-51 .

1. VY=(5/z5)*V2.1538i VTH = 1. fprintf(' \n')..2308+46..2692e+002 .. we must find I SC from the circuit shown below.2f deg '. disp('V2 = '). VTH=VX−VY.. fprintf(' \n').1731e+002 + 1. V=Y\I. V TH = 127. z1 4Ω a X 10 Ω I SC Y I4 5Ω + VS 20 Ω b z2 I2 z3 z4 j5 I3 z5 z6 −j10 − I 1 170 ∠0° We will write four mesh equations as shown above but we only are interested in phasor current I 4 . fprintf(' \n'). V1=V(1). V2=V(2).Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis Y=[1/z1+1/z2+1/z3 −1/z3.91 deg Thus. fprintf('phaseVTH = %4.... V1 = 1... disp(VTH).angle(VTH)*180/pi). Observing that a and b are the same point the mesh equations are ( z1 + z2 ) I1 – z2 I2 = VS – z2 I1 + ( z2 + z3 + z4 ) I2 – z4 I3 – z3 I4 = 0 – z4 I2 + ( z4 + z5 + z6 ) I3 – z5 I4 = 0 – z3 I2 – z5 I3 + ( z3 + z5 ) I4 = 0 and in matrix form z1 + z2 –z2 0 –z2 z2 + z3 + z4 – z4 –z3 0 –z4 z4 + z5 + z6 –z5 0 –z3 –z5 z3 + z5 ⋅ I1 I2 I3 I4 = VS 0 0 0 7-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . disp('VTH = '). disp(V1)...85 V phaseVTH = -6.85 ∠– 6. −1/z3 1/z3+1/z4+1/z5]. I=[Vs/z1 0]'. VX=V1. disp('V1 = ').abs(VTH))..1538e+001i V2 = 44.91° Next.5385e+001i magVTH = 127.2f V '. fprintf('magVTH = %4. disp(V2).

z2=20. 4Ω 10 Ω 5Ω + VS − I4 I 20 I 10 20 Ω I5 j5 IL −j10 IC We choose I 5 as a reference.0520 + 10.7302i I4 = 6.0084 . fprintf(' \n'). Z TH = 18..4728i ZTH = 18. I3=I(3). z3=10.92−15..09 – j6.6745 . disp(I1).2. disp(I2).18 ∠– 63. −z2 z2+z3+z4 −z4 −z3. z4=5j.4° V and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-53 .. for maximum power transfer there must be Z LOAD = Z∗ or TH Z LOAD = 18.4260i Thus.5223 + 1.6. ZTH=VTH/I4. V 5 = 5 ∠0° V and since I C = I 5 V C = I C ⁄ ( – j10 ) = 1 ∠0° ⋅ 10 ∠– 90° = 10 ∠– 90° V Next.. disp(ZTH)...1559i I3 = -1. Z=[z1+z2 −z2 0 0. z5=5. 0 −z3 −z5 z3+z5]. we let I 5 = 1 ∠0° A Then..43 Ω 8.6300i I2 = 10. that is. disp('I3 = '). disp('ZTH =').Answers to Exercises With MATLAB Vs=170. V=[Vs 0 0 0]'. 0 −z4 z4+z5+z6 −z5.3. VTH=126.. We assign phasor currents as shown below.09 + j6.43 Ω and by Problem 6.. I1=I(1). I1 = 15.. disp(I3). disp('I1 = '). z6=−10j.. z1=4. disp('I4 ='). I4=I(4).3094 .39j. I2=I(2). V L = V 5 + V C = 5 ∠0° + 10 ∠– 90° = 5 + ( – j10 ) = 5 – j10 = 11. disp('I2 = ').. fprintf(' \n'). disp(I4). I=Z\V.

25 – j A Also.Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis I L = V L ⁄ j5 = ( 11. it would be more practical if we rotate it by 109.7° V The magnitudes (not to scale) and the phase angles are shown below.73 ∠– 109.25 – j2 A and V 4 = 4I 4 = 4 × ( – 1.24 ∠– 153. V S = V 4 + V 20 = – 5 – j8 – 5 – j20 = – 10 – j28 = 29. I4 IL V 10 V4 VS VL I10 I20 I5 = IC V 20 V C The phasor diagram above is acceptable. I5 = IC I20 I4 VL VC V 20 I10 V4 V 10 VS IL 7-54 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .4° ) ⁄ ( 5 ∠90° ) = 2. However. I 4 = I 20 + I 10 = – 0.25 – j – 1 – j = – 1.25 – j2 ) = – 5 – j8 V Finally.18 ∠– 63.7° to show the voltage source V S as reference at 0° as shown below.4° = – 2 – j A Now I 10 = I L + I 5 = – 2 – j + 1 = – 1 – j = 2 ∠– 135° A and V 10 = 10 × 2 ∠– 135° = 10 × ( – 1 – j ) = – 10 – j10 V Continuing we find V 20 = V 10 + V L = – 10 – j10 + 5 – j10 = – 5 – j20 V and I 20 = V 20 ⁄ 20 = ( – 5 – j20 ) ⁄ 20 = – 0.

Vout=−Vin/(z1/z2+z1/z3).angle(Vout)*180/pi). z1=1000.--⎝z ⎝z z3 ⎠ z3 ⎠ 2 2 and with MATLAB Vin=3. fprintf(' \n'). fprintf(' \n').Answers to Exercises 9. z2=3000..2 cos ( 1000t + 143. z 2 = R 2 = 3 KΩ .+ ---------------------.= 0 z1 z2 z3 and since V = 0 the above relation reduces to – V IN 1 1 ⎛ --. and z 3 = – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ ( 10 × 0.= -----------------------1.2 ∠143.. The equivalent phasor circuit is shown below where z 1 = R 1 = 1 KΩ .76 + j4..⎞ --.32 = 7.20 V Thus..2f V \t'.. disp('Vout = ').+ ---------------------..7600 + 4.3200i magVout = 7. fprintf('magVout = %5. fprintf('phaseVout = %5. fprintf(' \n').13° V phaseVout = 143.+ --.+ --.25 × 10 ) = – j4 KΩ z3 z2 1 KΩ z1 V IN = 3 ∠0° V V OUT 3 KΩ V 3 –6 Application of KCL yields V – V IN V – V OUT V – V OUT -----------------. z3=−4000j.abs(Vout)).2f deg \t'.13 deg and v out ( t ) = 7.⎞ V OUT = ----------⎝z z1 z3 ⎠ 2 or – V IN – V IN V OUT = --------------------------------.13° ) V Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 7-55 . disp(Vout). V OUT = – 5. Vout = -5.1⎛ z1 + z1 ⎞ z 1 ⋅ ⎛ --.

Chapter 7 Phasor Circuit Analysis NOTES 7-56 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Complex Power.1) where n is a positive integer and T is the period of the periodic time function. The sinusoidal and sawtooth waveforms of Figure 8. voltage.1. 8.1 are examples of periodic functions of time. Examples of periodic functions of time Other periodic functions of interest are the square and the triangular waveforms. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-1 . power. resistance.1 Periodic Time Functions A periodic time function satisfies the expression f ( t ) = f ( t + nT ) (8. and complex power. It also discusses electrical instruments that are used to measure current. the power triangle. and energy.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. and Instruments T his chapter defines average and effective values of voltages and currents. instantaneous and average power. cos(ωt+θ) cosωt θ T T T T T T T T Figure 8. power factor.

( cos ω t ) 2π Vp = ----.1 Compute the average value of the sinusoid shown in Figure 8. 1 V ave = -T ∫0 T 1 v ( t ) dt = -----ωT 2π 0 ∫0 ωT Vp V p sin ω t d( ωt ) = ----2π 0 2π ∫0 2π sin ω t d( ω t ) Vp = ----. f (t) a b t Figure 8.( 1 – 1 ) = 0 2π 8-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Complex Power.3. Waveform for Example 8.1 Solution: By definition. Example 8. and Instruments 8.3.2 over an interval a ≤ t ≤ b. v(t) Vp V p sin ω t 0 π /2 π 3π /2 ω t (r) 2π −V p T Figure 8.2.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.2) The average value of a periodic time function f ( t ) is defined as the average of the function over one period.( – cos ω t ) 2π Vp = ----. where V p denotes the peak (maximum) value of the sinusoidal voltage.2 Average Values The average value of any continuous function f ( t ) such as that shown in Figure 8. A continuous time function f ( t ) is defined as 1 f ( t ) ave = ----------b–a ∫a f ( t ) d t b 1 b = ----------.( area a ) b–a (8.

2 Compute the average value of the half-wave rectification waveform shown in Figure 8.Effective Values as expected since the net area of the positive and negative half cycles is zero.4) In other words. Waveform for Example 8.( – cos ω t 0 ) = ----.4. the instantaneous power is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-3 .3) Then.[ 1 – ( – 1 ) ] = --2π π (8.4.3 Effective Values The effective current I eff of a periodic current waveform i ( t ) is defined as the current which produces heat in a given resistance R at the same average rate as a direct (constant) current I dc . 8.cos ω t 2π 2π Ip Ip = ----. Example 8.2 Solution: This waveform is defined as ⎧ I p sin ω t i(t) = ⎨ 0 ⎩ 0 < ωt < π π < ωt < 2π (8. Average Power = P ave = RI eff = RI dc 2 2 (8. the average value of the half-wave rectification waveform is equal to its peak value divided by π .5) Also. in a periodic current waveform i ( t ) . its average value is found from 1 I ave = ----2π ∫0 2π 1 I p sin ω t d( ω t ) = ----2π 0 π ∫0 π I p sin ω t d( ω t ) + ∫π 2π 0 d( ω t ) Ip Ip π = ----. Half-Wave Rectifier Waveform Current (I) I p sin ω t π T 2π Radians Figure 8. that is.

Thus.5 illustrates this point. Waveforms to illustrate that ave ( i 2 ) ≠ ( i ave ) 2 Caution 2: In v ( t ) = V p cos ω t and i ( t ) = I p cos ( ω t + ϕ ) . i2ave = 0 and sqrt(i2ave) = 0 Figure 8.7) Equating (8.6) and 1 P ave = -T ∫ T 0 1 p ( t ) dt = -T ∫ T 0 R Ri dt = -T 2 ∫ T i 0 2 dt (8. ave ( i 2 ) ≠ ( i ave ) 2 since the expression ave ( i 2 ) implies that the function i must first be squared and the average of the squared value is then to be found. sqrt(ave(i2)) ≠ 0 ave(i2) ≠ 0 0 i2 i iave = 0. general.5. ( i ave ) 2 implies that the average value of the function must first be found and then the average must be squared.8) Caution 1: In general. The waveform of Figure 8. then V ave = 0 . and Instruments p(t) = R i 2(t) (8. However.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. and also I ave = 0 . Complex Power.7) we get R RI eff = -T 2 ∫ T i 0 2 dt or 1 2 I eff = -T ∫0 i T 2 dt or 1 -T I eff = ∫ T i 0 2 dt = I Root Mean Square = I RMS = Ave ( i ) 2 (8. if 8-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . On the other hand.5) with (8. P ave ≠ V ave × I ave . For example. P ave = 0 .

Definitions of V p – p . and the RMS values as V RMS and I RMS . I p – p .4 Effective (RMS) Value of Sinusoids Now.6. 1 2 I RMS = -T ∫0 T 2 1 i dt = ----2π ∫0 2π I p cos ( ω t – θ ) d( ω t ) 2 2 and using the identity 1 2 cos φ = -.6. Their notations and relationships are shown in Figure 8. V RMS . we will derive an expression for the Root Mean Square (RMS) value of a sinusoid in terms of its peak (maximum) value. The value from positive to negative peak will be denoted as V p – p and I p – p .Effective (RMS) Value of Sinusoids T T T 1 P ave = -T ∫ 0 1 p ( t ) dt = -T ∫ v ( t )i ( t ) dt = 0 1 -T ∫ ( V p cos ωt ) [ I p cos ( ωt + ϕ ) ] dt ≠ 0 0 8. and I RMS in terms of V p and I p Let i = I p cos ( ω t – θ ) then.707 × Peak = 120 V Peak (Max) Value = 170 V 90 180 Time (Degrees) 270 360 Peak (Max) Value = −170 V Peak-to-Peak Value = 340 V Figure 8. We will denote the peak values of voltages and currents as V p and I p respectively. RMS Value = 0.( cos 2 φ + 1 ) 2 we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-5 .

707I p 2 FOR SINUSOIDS ONLY (8.-----------------------------) 4π 2 I p sin ( 4 π – θ ) – sin ( – θ ) 2π + ( ω t 0 ) = ----. i(t) 10 A t Figure 8.--------------------------------------------------------------------------.3 Solution: By inspection. 8-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and Instruments I RMS 2 Ip = ----4π 2 2 ∫0 2π cos ( 2 ω t – θ ) d( ω t ) + 2π 0 ∫0 2π d( ω t ) 2 I p sin ( 2 ω t – θ = ----. the period T is as shown in Figure 8. Example 8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.10) We observe that the RMS value of a sinusoid is independent of the frequency and phase angle. Waveform for Example 8.= 0. Complex Power.9) Using the trigonometric identities sin ( x – y ) = sin x cos y – cos x sin y and – sin ( – α ) = sin α by substitution into (8.+ 2 π 4π 2 (8. in other words.sin 4 π cos θ – cos 4 π sin θ + sin θ = ----.7.---------------------------------------------------.( 2 π ) = ---4π 4π 2 2 2 Ip 1 2 2 and therefore. it is dependent on the amplitude of the sinusoid only. Ip I RMS = -----.8.7.3 Compute the I ave and I RMS for the sawtooth waveform shown in Figure 8. we get 0 I RMS 2 Ip Ip .9).+ 2 π = ----.

we must use the definition of the RMS value as derived in (8.8).10). Then. Then.3 The average value is Area ----------------------------------I ave = ----------------.= ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) × 10 × T = 5 A T Period To find I RMS we cannot use (8.I 2 1p 2 2p 2 Np (8.= 5.11) where I 0 represents a constant current. is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the RMS values of each sinusoid. Defining the period for the waveform of Example 8.8. I RMS 2 T 1 = -T ∫0 T 1 i ( t ) dt = -T 2 ∫0 T 3 2 1 ⎛ 10 t⎞ dt = -.13) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-7 .5 RMS Values of Sinusoids with Different Frequencies The RMS value of a waveform which consists of a sum of sinusoids of different frequencies. if i = I 0 + I 1 cos ( ω 1 t ± θ 1 ) + I 2 cos ( ω 2 t ± θ 2 ) + … + I N cos ( ω N t ± θ N ) (8. I 2 …. this is for sinusoids only.12) or I RMS = 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 I 0 + -.⎟ ⎝T ⎠ T ⎝ T2 3 ⎠ 0 3 1 ⎛ 100 T ⎞ = -. and I 1. the RMS value of i is found from I RMS = I 0 + I 1 RMS + I 2 RMS + … + I N RMS 2 2 2 2 (8. I N represent the amplitudes of the sinusoids.I + … + -.77 A -------3 3 8.⎛ 100 ⋅ t ⎞ ----.⋅ ----.⎜ -------.⎜ -------. Accordingly.RMS Values of Sinusoids with Different Frequencies i(t) 10 A t T Figure 8.---. Thus.I + -.⎟ = 100 -------T ⎝ T2 3 ⎠ 3 or I RMS = 10 100 = -----.

1 π 2π ωt −1 Figure 8.15) 8-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .⎛ sin ω t + -. the period T = 2π is as shown in Figure 8. a.9.[ π + 2 π – π ] = 1 2π I RMS = 1 or (8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. 2 1 I RMS = -T ∫ 1 i 2 dt = ----2π 0 T ∫0 2π 2 1 i d( ω t ) = ----2π ∫0 π 1 d( ω t ) + 2 ∫ π ( –1 ) 2π 2 d( ω t ) 1 π = ----. ISBN 0-9709511-3-2 by this author. Waveform for Example 8. and Instruments Example 8.9 by application of (8.4 Find the I RMS value of the square waveform of Figure 8.[ ω t 0 + ω t 2π 2π ] π 1 = ----. (8.12) 1 ωt −1 Figure 8. Determination of the period to the waveform of Example 8.sin 5 ω t + …⎞ ⎠ π⎝ 3 5 * Such a textbook is Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. Fourier series analysis textbooks* show that the square waveform above can be expressed as 4 1 1 i ( t ) = -.sin 3 ω t + -. Complex Power.10.9.4 Then.4 Solution: By inspection.14) b.

e. ins tan tan eous power = ins tan tan eous voltage × ins tan tan eous current and the instantaneous power p LOAD ( t ) absorbed by the load is p LOAD ( t ) = v LOAD ( t ) × i LOAD ( t ) = V p I p cos ω t × cos ( ω t + θ ) (8. Then from (8.( 1 ) + -.⎞ + … = 0. R Rest of the Circuit + i LOAD ( t ) vS ( t ) Load v LOAD ( t ) − Figure 8.17) Using the trigonometric identity 1 cos x cos y = -.16) The numerical accuracy of (8. if v LOAD ( t ) = V p cos ω t .17) as Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-9 .. I RMS = 0.97 π 2 2⎝ 3 ⎠ 2⎝ 5 ⎠ (8.15).I RMS = -.6 Average Power and Power Factor Consider the network shown in Figure 8.⎞ + -. 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 4 . We want to find an expression for the average power absorbed by the load. and it is equal to 0.11.707 times its peak value. that is. the RMS value of a sinusoid is a real number independent of the frequency and the phase angle. i.12) and (8.⎛ -. As we know p = vi that is. 8. Network where it is assumed that i LOAD ( t ) and v LOAD ( t ) are out-of-phase We will assume that the load current i LOAD ( t ) is θ degrees out-of-phase with the voltage v LOAD ( t ) .11.16) is good considering that higher harmonics have been neglected.Average Power and Power Factor and as we know.707 × I p .0 + -.⎛ -..[ cos ( x + y ) + cos ( x – y ) ] 2 we express (8. then i LOAD ( t ) = I p cos ( ω t + θ ) .

18) and the average power is 1 P ave LOAD = -T ∫0 T 1 p LD dt = -T ∫0 T Vp Ip ⎛ ---------.[ cos ( 2 ω t + θ ) + cos θ ]⎞ dt ⎝ 2 ⎠ Vp Ip = ---------2T ∫0 T Vp Ip ( [ cos ( 2 ω t + θ ) ] ) dt + ---------2T ∫0 cos θ dt T (8. being a constant. Complex Power. denoting that resistive branch with the subscript R we have: 8-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .21) is known as the power factor and thus P ave LOAD Power FactorLOAD = PF LOAD = cos θ LOAD = ----------------------------------------------------V RMS LOAD I RMS LOAD (8.19) as P ave LOAD = V RMS LOAD I RMS LOAD cos θ (8. The term cos θ in (8. and Instruments Vp Ip p LOAD ( t ) = ---------.[ cos ( 2 ω t + θ ) + cos θ ] 2 (8.19) We observe that the first integral on the right side of (8. that is.21) and it is imperative that we remember that these relations are valid for circuits with sinusoidal excitations.cos θ 2 (8.20) and (8.20) and using the relations Vp V RMS = -----2 and Ip I RMS = -----2 we can express (8. the phase angle θ = 0° . Then. has an average value of that constant. and the second integral.7 Average Power in a Resistive Load The voltage and current in a resistive branch of a circuit are always in phase.22) 8. Therefore. V p Ip P ave LOAD = ---------.19) is zero.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.

---------. find the average power supplied by the voltage source. inductors and capacitors.Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads P ave R = V RMS R I RMS R cos 0° = V RMS R I RMS R (8. 10 Ω j20 Ω I V S = 170 ∠0° – j 10 Ω Figure 8.= -------------------------.I p R R 2 R 2 R 2 2 (8.5 For the circuit of Figure 8. VS 170 ∠0° 170 ∠0° 170 ∠0° I = ----.23) or P ave R V RMS R 1 Vm R 1 2 2 = ---------------.12. Obviously.= -. the phase angle θ between V RMS LOAD and I RMS LOAD will be within 0 ≤ θ ≤ 90° .8 Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads With inductors and capacitors there is a 90° phase difference between the voltage and current.= I RMS R R = -.24) 8. the inductor. denoting that inductive or capacitive branch with the subscript X we get: P ave X = V RMS X I RMS X cos 90° = 0 Of course. Example 8.= --------------------------------.= 12 ∠– 45° 10 + j10 10 + j20 – j10 Z 10 2 ∠45° (8. if the load of a circuit contains resistors.5 Solution: Since this is a series circuit. Then. the average power absorbed by the resistor.= ------------------.25) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-11 . Circuit for Example 8. and the capacitor. the instantaneous power is zero only at specific instants. we need to find the current I and its phase relation to the source voltage V S . θ = 90° and therefore.11. that is. and the power factor cos θ will be within 0 ≤ cos θ ≤ 1 .

24) we find that the average power absorbed by the resistor is 1 2 1 2 P ave R = -. find the power absorbed by each resistor.138 + j19.086 ∠101.414 – j1. and Instruments Relation (8. 8-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .I p R R = -.1 where we found that V A = – 4. Check: The average power delivered by the voltage source is Vp Ip ( 170 ) ( 12 ) P ave SOURCE = ---------. Example 8.655 = 20.26) The average power absorbed by the inductor and the capacitor is zero since the voltages and currents in these devices are 90° out-of-phase with each other.707 Therefore.( 12 ) 10 = 720 w 2 2 (8. and the power factor is cos θ = cos ( – 45° ) = 0. Circuit for Example 8.27) are in close agreement.6 For the circuit of Figure 8.440 ∠– 177.9° VA 4Ω 2Ω j3 Ω 8Ω (8. θ = – 45° .cos θ = -----------------------.707 = 721 w 2 2 (8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. Solution: This is the same circuit as in Example 7.28) VB 5 ∠0° A −j6 Ω −j3 Ω 10 ∠0° A Figure 8.13. and the power supplied (or absorbed) by the current sources. using (8.26) and (8.29) Then.13.25) indicates that I p = 12 A .035 = 22. Complex Power.4 ° (8.27) and we observe that (8.6 and V B = – 22.0.

786 ∠158.70 w 2 2 p2Ω (8.= -----------------------------------.54 ∠– 20.I ( 2 Ω ) = -.= ---------------------------------------.999 ) = – 112. Therefore. VA -----------------------------------I 4 Ω = ------------.28) and (8.I ( 4 Ω ) = -.= ---------------------------------------.4 ° .= 8.cos θ 2 = ----------------------.4 ° I 8 Ω = ------------.35 w 2 (8.cos ( – 177. VB 22.7 ° 8 – j3 8.33) and the power absorbed by the 10 A source is Vp Ip V B 10 A P ave 10 A = ---------.31) Likewise.627 × 8 = 27.9° = 2.cos ( 101.08 w 2 (8.30) Also.34) indicate that both current sources supply power to the rest of the circuit. we let θ 1 = 101. Then.627 ∠– 156.61 ∠56. Check: Total average power absorbed by resistors is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-13 .276 + j20.4 ° ) 2 2 22.61 ∠56.= 20.786 × 4 = 15.32) The voltages across the current sources are the same as VA and VB but they are 101.9° and θ 2 = – 177.440 × 10 = ---------------------------.= 2.440 ∠– 177.3° 3.29).× 8.I ( 8 Ω ) = -.086 × 5 = ------------------------.21 ∠– 56.206 ) = – 10.4° out-of-phase respectively with the current sources as shown by (8.9° and – 177.Average Power in Inductive and Capacitive Loads VA – VB 18.cos θ 1 = -------------------.9° ) 2 2 20.× 2.52 w 2 2 p4Ω (8.690 32.983 ∠88.0° I 2 Ω = ------------------.× ( – 0.3° and 1 1 2 2 P ave 2 Ω = -.× ( – 0.× 2.983 × 2 = 80.6° and 1 1 2 2 P ave 8 Ω = -.34) The negative values in (8.430 ∠145. the power absorbed by the 5 A source is Vp Ip VA 5 A P ave 5 A = ---------.3° 4 – j6 and 1 1 2 2 P ave 4 Ω = -.61 w 2 2 p8Ω (8.2° 7.33) and (8.086 ∠101.7° 2 + j3 3.

14.7 Compute the average power absorbed by a 5 Ω resistor when the voltage across it is the half-wave rectification waveform shown in Figure 8.9 Average Power in Non-Sinusoidal Waveforms If the excitation in a circuit is non-sinusoidal. the total average power supplied by the current sources is equal to the total average power absorbed by the resistors.83 w and the total average power supplied by current sources is 112. Waveform for Example 8.70 + 15.08 + 10.61 = 123.7 Solution: We first need to find the numerical value of ω . Half-Wave Rectifier Waveform Voltage (V) 10sinωt 1 2 t (ms) Figure 8.dt = ------------------–3 R 2 × 10 ∫0 10 –3 10 sin 10 π t --------------------------------. It is found as follows: T = 2 ms = 2 × 10 –3 s ωT = 2π ω 3 2π = ----.dt = -R T ∫0 i R dt 2 T (8. P ave 1 = -T ∫0 T v2 1 ----.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. 8.+ 5 2 2 3 ∫ 10 2 × 10 –3 –3 0 dt 8-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and Instruments 80.= 10 π T and thus 10 sin ωt = 10 sin 10 π 3 Then.52 + 27. we can compute the average power absorbed by a resistor from the relations 1 P ave = -T ∫0 T 1 p dt = -T ∫0 T v2 1 ----. Complex Power. The small difference is due to rounding of fractional numbers.35 = 122.14.35) Example 8.43 w Thus.

Lagging power factor In Figure 8. the last term of the expression above reduces to P ave = 5 w 8. I LOAD θ2 V LOAD Figure 8. cos θ 1 is referred to as lagging power factor and it is denoted as pf lag. The term “inductive load” means that the load is more “inductive” (with some resistance) than it is “capacitive”.10 Lagging and Leading Power Factors By definition an inductive load is said to have a lagging power factor.16. This refers to the phase angle of the current through the load with respect to the voltage across this load as shown in Figure 8. that is.14. Again. Leading power factor Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-15 . the cosine of the angle θ 1 .16.15. this refers to the phase angle of the current through the load with respect to the voltage across this load as shown in Figure 8.⎟ ⎟ 3 2 × 10 π ⎠ and since sin 2n π = 0 for n = integer .Lagging and Leading Power Factors or 100 P ave = ---------------------–3 10 × 10 ∫0 10 –3 1 -. But in a “purely inductive load” θ 1 = 90° and thus the power factor is cos θ 1 = cos 90° = 0 By definition a capacitive load is said to have a leading power factor. θ1 V LOAD I LOAD Figure 8.( 1 – cos 2 × 10 3 πt )dt = 5 × 10 3 2 10 –3 ∫0 10 –3 dt – ∫0 10 –3 cos 2 × 10 π t dt 3 ⎛ 3 3 sin 2 × 10 π t = ⎜ 5 × 10 t – -----------------------------⎜ 3 2 × 10 π ⎝ = 5 × 10 10 0 3 –3 3 –3 ⎞ sin 2 × 10 π × 10 – --------------------------------------------.14.

The product V RMS × I RMS × sin θ is referred to as the reactive power.39) (in VARs) (in VAs) 8-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .17.17 (a) shows the power triangle of an inductive load.17. Figure 8.16. P real = P ave = V RMS I RMS cos θ = Q = Reactive Power = V RMS I RMS sin θ = P a = Apparent Power = V RMS I RMS (in watts) (8.V p I p cos θ = V RMS I RMS cos θ 2 (8. The term “capacitive load” means that the load is more “capacitive” (with some resistance) than it is “inductive”.38) (8. Thus. and Figure 8.11 Complex Power . cos θ 2 is referred to as leading power factor and it is denoted as pf lead. The apparent power is expressed in volt – amperes or VA . the cosine of the angle θ 2 . and it is denoted as P a .Power Triangle We recall that 1 P ave = -. and Instruments In Figure 8. The reactive power is expressed in volt – amperes reactive or VAR .36) This relation can be represented by the so-called power triangle.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. But in a “purely capacitive load” θ 2 = 90° and thus the power factor is cos θ 2 = cos 90° = 0 8. Complex Power. P real = P ave θ Pa Q θ −Q Pa P real = P ave (a) Power Triangle for Inductive Load (b) Power Triangle for Capacitive Load Figure 8. Power triangles for inductive and capacitive loads In a power triangle. for either triangle of Figure 8. and it is denoted as Q . the product V RMS × I RMS is referred to as the apparent power.37) (8.16 (b) shows the power triangle for both a capacitive load. that is.

the relation of (8. that is. the average power delivered to the load b. the power factor of the load e. Circuit for Example 8. we redraw the circuit as shown in Figure 8.Complex Power . For this reason. R line = 2 Ω VS I RMS 480 ∠0° V RMS Z LD Load 10 + j10 Figure 8.8 Load 10 + j10 Solution: For simplicity.18. Circuit for Example 8. Example 8.8 with the line resistances combined From the circuit of Figure 8. P a = P real power ± jQ = P ave ± jQ (8. find: a.19 where the line resistances have been combined into a single 2 Ω resistor.19.40) where the (+) sign is used for inductive loads and the (−) sign for capacitive loads. we find that Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-17 .41) is known as the complex power.8 For the circuit shown in Figure 8. the apparent power supplied by the voltage source d.Power Triangle The apparent power P a is the vector sum of the real and reactive power components.19. the power factor of the line plus the load R line = 1 Ω VS 480 ∠0° V RMS R line = 1 Ω Figure 8. the average power absorbed by the line c.18.

Complex Power. The power factor of the line plus the load is P ave line + P ave LOAD P ave total 1889 + 9443 pf ( line + LOAD ) = cos θ ( line + LOAD ) = ---------------------.73 = 14750 w = 14. – 39. The average power delivered to the load is P ave LOAD = I RMS Re { Z LOAD } = ( 30.77 P a source 14750 P a source 8.73 ) 13354 e. a low power factor (larger angle θ ) demands more current.73 ∠– 39.20. this additional current creates larger i 2 R 8-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8° VS I Figure 8. The average power absorbed by the line is P ave line = I RMS R line = ( 30. the current lags the voltage as shown on the phasor diagram of Figure 8.8° 2 + 10 + j10 R line + Z LD and therefore.73 ∠– 39.= ----------------------------.= --------------------------------------. The power factor of the load is P ave LOAD 9443 pf LOAD = cos θ LOAD = -----------------------.= 0.443 Kw 2 2 b.707 ( 480 ∠0° – 2 ( 30.73 ) × 2 = 1889 w = 1.750 Kw d. and Instruments V S RMS 480 ∠0° 480 ∠0° I RMS = --------------------------.56 ) ( 30.73 ) × 10 = 9443 w = 9. This additional current must be furnished by the utility company which must provide larger current-carrying capacity if the voltage must remain constant.20.= ----------------------------. Moreover.= 0. a. as we have seen.12 Power Factor Correction The consumer pays the electric utility company for the average or real power. Phasor diagram for the circuit of Example 8.8° 15.889 Kw 2 2 c.62 ∠39. The apparent power supplied by the voltage source is P a source = V S RMS I RMS = 480 × 30.8° ) ) × 30.73 ( 434.= -------------.8 Then.= -----------------------------. not the apparent power and.= ---------------------------------------------------.= ------------------------------------------V RMS LOAD I RMS P a LOAD 9443 9443 9443 = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.= 30.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.

For this reason. The power factor correction procedure is illustrated with the following example. say Q 3 . VS 480 ∠0° V RMS 60 Hz Figure 8. in opposite direction of Q 1 must be added. and must be connected in parallel with the existing load. the Q 3 load must be capacitive.Power Factor Correction losses in the utility’s transmission and distribution system. Solution: The power triangles for the existing and desired power factors are shown in Figure 8.95 lagging.9° –1 1 Kw θ2 Q2 Q1 θ 2 = cos 0.9 In the circuit shown in Figure 8.8 lag It is desired to “raise” the power factor of the load to 0.21. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-19 . 1 Kw θ1 θ 1 = cos 0. Circuit for Example 8. and thus can be neglected. Obviously.8 = 36. will accomplish this. the resistance of the lines between the voltage source and the load and the internal resistance of the source are considered small. typically lower than 0. Example 8. Power triangles for existing and desired power factors Since the voltage across the given load must not change (otherwise it will affect the operation of it). it is evident that a load. electric utility companies impose a penalty on industrial facility customers who operate at a low power factor.21.21 must be modified as shown in Figure 8. Accordingly. facility engineers must install the appropriate equipment to raise the power factor.23. the circuit of Figure 8.22.95 = 18. when added across the load.2° –1 This is what we have This is what we want Figure 8. Accordingly.9 1 Kw Load @ pf =0.22.85 . Compute the size and the rating of a capacitor which.

the added capacitive load must be a vector Q 3 such that Q 3 = Q 1 – Q 2 = 750 – 329 = 421 VAR The current I C through the capacitive load is found from Q3 = IC VC = IC VS Then. Q3 421 I C = ---------------. the capacitor must be capable of withstanding a maximum voltage of V C max = 2 × 480 = 679 V and for all practical purposes.88 A 480 V S RMS and VC 480 X C = -----. not any 4. Complex Power. Circuit for power factor correction For the existing load. Q 1 = ( 1 Kw ) tan 36.95 .2° = 329 VAR Therefore.9° = 750 VAR and for the desired pf = cos θ 2 = 0.= -------.88 IC Therefore.= 4.= 0. and Instruments VS 480 ∠0° V RMS 60 Hz IC Capacitive Load with Leading pf 1 Kw Load @ pf =0.85 µF 2 π f XC 2 π ( 60 ) ( 547 ) ω XC However. we can choose a 5 µF capacitor rated at 700 volts or higher.23.= --------.= 547 Ω 0.= --------------. 8-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the capacitive load must consist of a capacitor with the value 1 1 1 C = ---------.= -----------------------------.8 lag Figure 8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. the VAR value of Q 2 must be reduced to Q 2 = ( 1 Kw ) tan 18.85 µF capacitor will do.

and microammeters must always be connected in series with the circuits in which they are used. Figure 8. wattmeters measure power. The basic meter movement consists of a permanent horse shoe magnet. a torque is produced that tends to rotate the coil. is proportional to the current in the coil. In such a case. Figure 8. voltmeters measure voltage. Ohmmeters. ohmmeters measure resistance. Ammeters. Voltmeters.13 Instruments Ammeters are electrical instruments used to measure current in electric circuits. An oscilloscope is an electronic instrument that produces an instantaneous trace on the screen of a cathode-ray tube corresponding to oscillations of voltage and current. For currents less than one ampere. A typical analog VOM An ammeter measures current in amperes. and Figure 8.26. an electromagnet which typically is a metal cylinder with very thin wire wound around it which is referred to as the coil. and a control spring. the electric current to be measured.25 shows a typical digital type VOM. DC ammeters and voltmeters read average values whereas AC ammeters and voltmeters read RMS values. exceeds the range of the instrument. For example. and Milliammeters (ammeters which measure current in milliamperes) are normally combined into one instrument called VOM. The coil is free to move on pivots.24. We will see how a digital VOM can be constructed from an analog VOM equivalent at the end of this section.Instruments 8. a milliammeter or microammeter may be used where the former measures current in milliamperes and the latter in microamperes. we cannot directly measure a current of 5 to 10 milliamperes with a milliammeter whose range is 0 to 1 milliampere. and when there is current in the coil. A typical oscilloscope is shown in Figure 8.24 shows a typical analog type VOM. Often. we can use a low range milliammeter with a shunt (parallel) resistor as Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-21 . and watt-hour meters measure electric energy. Rotation of the coil is restrained by a helical spring so that the motion of the coil and the pointer which is attached to it. milliammeters.

and Instruments shown in Figure 8. where the circle with mA represents an ideal milliammeter (a milliammeter with zero resistance).26.27. and R S is the shunt resistance. R M is the milliammeter internal resistance. Figure 8.27 I T is the total current to be measured.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. A typical oscilloscope 8-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .25. I S is the current through the shunt resistor. In Figure 8. A typical digital VOM Figure 8. Complex Power. I M is the current through the meter.

27.10 In the circuit of Figure 8. that is. IM =Maximum allowable current through the milliammeter I fs = 1 mA IT IM mA RM 40 Ω RS IS Figure 8. RM IM = RS IS and since we normally need to calculate the shunt resistor. then IM R S = ----.R M IS (8. the total current entering the circuit is 5 mA and the milliammeter range is 0 to 1 milliampere. Compute the value of the shunt resistor R S .Instruments IT IM IT mA RS IS Figure 8.41) Also. the shunt resistor R S is in parallel with the milliammeter branch. the milliammeter has a full-scale current I fs of 1 mA . the voltages across these parallel branches are equal. Milliammeter with shunt resistor R S RM From the circuit of Figure 8.27. IT = IM + IS (8. that is.28. we observe that the sum of the current flowing through the milliammeter I M and the current I S through the shunt resistor is equal to the total current I S . therefore.28.42) Example 8. and its internal resistance is 40 Ω . that is. Circuit for Example 8.10 IT Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-23 .

IM 1 R S = ----. a voltmeter is a modified milliammeter where an external resistor R V is connected in series with the milliammeter as shown in Figure 8. IT + RS A IM RM − IT IS Figure 8. Figure 8.e. measures voltage in volts.. I S = I T – I M = 5 – 1 = 4 mA The required value of the shunt resistor is found from (8.42). and Instruments Solution: The maximum current that the milliammeter can allow to flow through it is 1 mA and since the total current is 5 milliamperes. the 10 Ω resistor will allow four times as much current as the milliammeter to flow through it. the remaining 4 milliamperes must flow through the shunt resistor. that is.30 where I = current through circuit R M = internal resis tan ce of milliameter R V = external resistor in series with R M V M = voltmeter full scale reading 8-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .29 shows the circuit of a typical multi-range ammeter/milliammeter. as stated earlier. Circuit for a multi-range ammeter/milliammeter A voltmeter.× 40 = 10 Ω IS 4 Check: The calculated value of the shunt resistor is 10 Ω . this is one-fourth the value of the milliammeter internal resistor of 40 Ω . Complex Power. Typically. A multi-range ammeter/milliammeter is an instrument with two or more scales.R M = -.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. i. Therefore.29.

Instruments RV = Voltmeter internal resistance VM = Voltmeter range IM mA + RM VM RV − Figure 8.11 Here.31.43) Voltmeters must always be connected in parallel with those devices of the circuit whose voltage is to be measured. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-25 . Typical voltmeter circuit For the circuit of Figure 8. IM mA + 100 Ω RM VM RV − Figure 8. we only need to compute the value of the external resistor R V so that the voltage across the series combination will be 1 volt full scale. Circuit for Example 8. Then. Solution: The voltmeter circuit consists of the milliammeter circuit and the external resistance R V as shown in Figure 8. IM ( RM + RV ) = VM or VM R V = -----.11 Design a voltmeter which will have a 1 volt full-scale using a milliammeter with 1 milliampere fullscale and internal resistance 100 Ω .30.43). from (8. Example 8.31.30.– R M IM (8.

and Instruments VM 1 R V = -----.33. For this reason. I VS + − mA + Figure 8. we only need to attach a 900 Ω resistor in series with that milliammeter.32.9 kΩ 100 Ω mA 900 Ω 1V RM 10 V IM = 1 mA fs VM − An Ohmmeter measures resistance in Ohms.– R M = --------. is connected in series with the Ohmmeter circuit shown in Figure 8. Complex Power.44) Therefore.33. and the infinity symbol appears on the left-most point of the scale.33 that for the series type Ohmmeter. is in parallel with the Ohmmeter circuit. and the current is zero when R X is infinite (open circuit).34 shows the circuit of a shunt (parallel) type Ohmmeter where the resistor R X whose value is to be measured. Figure 8. 8-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . to convert a 1 milliampere full-scale milliammeter with an internal resistance of 100 Ω to a 1 volt full-scale voltmeter. the 0 (zero) point appears on the right-most point of the Ohmmeter scale.– 100 = 1000 – 100 = 900 Ω –3 IM 10 (8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. Circuit for a series type Ohmmeter We observe from Figure 8. 99. Figure 8.32 shows a typical multi-range voltmeter. Circuit for a multi-range voltmeter RM Zero Adjust RX ∞ 0 Figure 8.9 kΩ 100 V I 9. the current I is maximum when the resistor R X is zero (short circuit). the resistor R X whose resistance is to be measured. In the series type Ohmmeter.

say R 3 is adjusted until the bridge is balanced. the 0 (zero) point appears on the left-most point of the Ohmmeter scale.R 3 R1 (8. is the unknown resistor whose value is to be measured. and the infinity symbol appears on the right-most point of the scale. that is.35. An instrument which can measure unknown resistance values very accurately is the Wheatstone Bridge shown in Figure 8. For this reason.45) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-27 . the current through the milliammeter branch is maximum.Instruments VS + − mA RX I RM Zero Adjust 0 ∞ Figure 8. R1 + − VA R2 µA R4 0 µA VS R3 VB − + Figure 8. Wheatstone Bridge Circuit One of the resistors. for the shunt type Ohmmeter.35. This balance occurs when R1 R3 ----. when R X is infinite (open circuit). until there is no current flow through the meter of this circuit. However. say R 4 .34. the current through the milliammeter circuit is zero when the resistor R X is zero (short circuit) since all current flows through that short. and another resistor.34 we see that.= ----R R2 4 from which the value of the unknown resistor is found from R2 R 4 = ----. Circuit for a parallel type Ohmmeter From Figure 8.

We will discuss the flash converter only because of its simplicity.12 In the Wheatstone Bridge circuit of Figure 8. Wheatstone Bridges are also used to accept or reject resistors whose values exceed a given tolerance. and an eight-to-three line encoder. where W is the product of the average power P in watts and time t in hours. comparators (denoted as triangles). resistor R 3 is adjusted until the meter reads zero. A watt-hour meter is an instrument which measures electric energy W . the flash type ADC consists of a resistive network. W = Pt in watt-hours. its value is 120 Ω . and one end of the resistor whose value is to be measured must be disconnected from the circuit.× 120 = 40 Ω 600 R1 When measuring resistance values. the time-window converter. A wattmeter is an instrument which measures power in watts or kilowatts. and Instruments Example 8. There are different types of analog-to-digital converters such as the flash converter. This and the other types are discussed in digital circuits textbooks. a current coil and a voltage coil where the interacting magnetic fields of these coils produce a torque which is proportional to the V × I product.R 3 = -------. and when this occurs. Because of their great accuracy. Compute the value of the unknown resistor R 4 . Electric utility companies use kilowatt-hour meters to bill their customers for the use of electricity. that is.37.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. that is. slope converter and tracking converter.45) holds. Circuit for Example 8. Complex Power. when the current through the meter is zero. relation (8.36. As shown in Figure 8. 8-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .36. the voltage sources in the circuit to which the unknown resistance is connected must be turned off.12 Solution: When the bridge is balanced. Then. Digital meters include an additional circuit called analog-to-digital converter (ADC). 600 Ω + − VA R2 200 Ω R1 µA R4 R3 120 Ω VB 0 VS µA − + Figure 8. It is constructed with two sets of coils. R2 200 R 4 = ----.

Instruments 12 V Supply 12 V 10. Figure 8. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-29 .0 V 6.5 V 3V 1.0 V 9.2 V.5 V 9V 7.0 to less than 10.5 V 10. Typical analog-to-digital converter Analog Input A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 B2 B1 B0 Less than 0 V 0 to less than 1.5 to less than 9.0 to less than 4.5 V 6V 4. it converts digital values to equivalent analog values.5 to less than 6.5 to 12 V Greater than 12 V † Underflow ‡ Overflow 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 x x 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 x x† 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 x‡ A digital-to-analog converter (DAC) performs the inverse operation.5 to less than 3.38 shows a four-bit R-2R ladder network and an op-amp connected to form a DAC.0 V 3. then A0 = A1 = A2 = A3 = 1 and A4 = A5 = A6 = A7 = A8 = 0 Figure 8.5 V 7. if Analog Input = 5.5 V 4.5 V 1. that is.5 V 0V − ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERTER Overflow A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 Analog Input 8-to-3 Encoder B2 B1 B0 Comparator VX VY − + − + − − + + − − + Ai Inputs Output VX = VY Previous Value VX > VY Ai = 0 VX < VY Ai = 1 + + − + − − + + For Example.0 to less than 7.37.

• The average value of any continuous function f ( t ) over an interval a ≤ t ≤ b . • A half-wave rectification waveform is defined as ⎧ A sin ω t f(t) = ⎨ 0 ⎩ 0 < ωt < π π < ωt < 2π 8-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . A typical digital-to-analog converter 8. lsb = least significant bit msb = most significant bit Figure 8.38.is defined as 1 f ( t ) ave = ----------b–a ∫a f ( t ) dt b 1 b = ----------.14 Summary • A periodic time function is one which satisfies the relation f ( t ) = f ( t + nT ) where n is a positive integer and T is the period of the periodic time function. and Instruments DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTER 2R R 2R (lsb) B0 R R 2R − 2R 2R 2R B1 B2 B3 (msb) + V out − + − 1 Volt Switch Settings: For Logic “0” (ground) positioned to the right For Logic “1” (+5 V) positioned to the left With the switches positioned as shown. Complex Power. B3 B2 B1 B0 = 0100 Negative reference voltage is used so that the inverting op amp’s output will be positive.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.( area a ) b–a • The average value of a periodic time function f ( t ) is defined as the average of the function over one period.

Summary • The effective current I eff of a periodic current waveform i ( t ) is defined as I eff = 1 -T ∫ T i 2 dt = I Root Mean Square = I RMS = Ave ( i ) 2 0 • For sinusoids only. I RMS = I p ⁄ 2 = 0. I RMS = I 0 + I 1 RMS + I 2 RMS + … + I N RMS 2 2 2 2 • For circuits with sinusoidal excitations the average power delivered to a load is Vp Ip P ave LOAD = ---------. and cos θ is known as the power factor defined within the range 0 ≤ cos θ ≤ 1 .dt = -T R ∫0 i R dt 2 T • An inductive load is said to have a lagging power factor and a capacitive load is said to have a leading power factor. • In a power triangle P real = P ave = V RMS I RMS cos θ (in watts) (in VARs) (in VAs) Q = Reactive Power = V RMS I RMS sin θ P a = Apparent Power = V RMS I RMS Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-31 .707I p • For sinusoids of different frequencies.cos θ = V RMS 2 LOAD I RMS LOAD cos θ where θ is the phase angle between V LOAD and I LOAD and it is within the range 0 ≤ θ ≤ 90° . we can compute the average power absorbed by a resistor from the relations 1 P ave = -T ∫0 T 1 p dt = -T ∫0 T v2 1 ----.= I RMS R R R 2 • The average power in inductive and capacitive loads is P ave X = V RMS X I RMS X cos 90° = 0 • If the excitation in a circuit is non-sinusoidal. • The average power in a resistive load is P ave R V RMS R 2 = ---------------.

• Watt-Hour meters are instruments used to measure energy. Ammeters. milliammeters. When measuring resistance values. and Instruments • The apparent power P a . • Wattmeters are instruments used to measure power. 8-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • A power factor can be corrected by placing a capacitive load in parallel with the load of the cir- cuit. • Ohmmeters are instruments used to measure resistance. • DC ammeters and DC voltmeters read average values • AC ammeters and AC voltmeters read RMS values. • Digital meters include an additional circuit called analog-to-digital converter (ADC). that is. and microammeters must always be connected in series with the circuits in which they are used. • Voltmeters are instruments used to measure voltage. P a = P real power ± jQ = P ave ± jQ where the (+) sign is used for inductive loads and the (−) sign for capacitive loads. and Milliammeters (ammeters which measure current in milliamperes) are normally combined into one instrument called VOM. • Ammeters are instruments used to measure current in electric circuits. and one end of the resistor whose value is to be measured must be disconnected from the circuit. Complex Power. Ohmmeters. • Voltmeters. • An oscilloscope is an electronic instrument that produces an instantaneous trace on the screen of a cathode-ray tube corresponding to oscillations of voltage and current.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. is the vector sum of the real and reactive power components. Voltmeters must always be connected in par- allel with those devices of the circuit whose voltage is to be measured. the voltage sources in the circuit to which the unknown resistance is connected must be turned off. also known as complex power. • A Wheatstone Bridge is an instrument which can measure unknown resistance values very accu- rately.

Exercises 8. 12 × 2 V E. 5 A E. 12 ⁄ 2 V D. The RMS value of a constant (DC) voltage of 12 V is A. 12 V D. none of the above 4. 6 V B. The average value of a constant (DC) voltage of 12 V is A. 12 ⁄ 2 V B. 5 + 2 ⁄ 2 A B. 12 × 2 V E. 5 × 2 A C. none of the above 2. 5 × 2 A C.15 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. 5 + 2 ⁄ 2 A B. 5 ⁄ 2 A D. 6 × 2 ⁄ 2 V C. 5 A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-33 . The average value of i = 5 + cos 100t A is A. none of the above 3. The RMS value of i = 5 + cos 100t A is A. 5 ⁄ 2 A D. 12 V C.

10 ⁄ 2 V 8-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and Instruments E.40. Waveform for Question 7 A. 176. 6 V E.39 is v (V) 24 4 8 12 Figure 8. Complex Power. none of the above 6.39. none of the above 7.33 w B.67 w E. The average power absorbed by that load is A. 157. 352. The voltage across a load whose impedance is Z = 75 + j38 Ω is 115 V RMS.3 w D. 16 V C. 12 V D. Waveform for Question 6 A. 24 V B. none of the above 5. The average value of the waveform of Figure 8.40 is i (A) 10 1 3 t (s) Figure 8.44 w C. The RMS value of the waveform of Figure 8. 71.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.

85 by adding A. If the average power absorbed by a load is 500 watts and the reactive power is 500 VAR . none of the above 10. a capacitor in series with the load E. L = 1 mH . 500 × 2 VA E. an inductor in parallel with the load C. 10 w C. none of the above 9. a capacitor in parallel with the load B.Exercises B.60 can be corrected to a lagging power factor of 0. and C = 10 µF . the apparent power is A. 10 × 2 V C. an inductor is series with the load D. none of the above 8. 5 w D. 0 w E. 250 VA D. 0 VA B. The average power absorbed by this load is A. none of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-35 . 10 × 3 V E. 10 ⁄ 3 V D. 500 VA C. A load with a leading power factor of 0. A current with a value of i = 5 cos 10000t A is flowing through a load that consists of the series combination of R = 2 Ω . 25 w B.

5 H inductor is given as i L ( t ) = 5 + 10 sin t A . The power output during the transmission of a pulse. b. Compute: a. A radar transmitter sends out periodic pulses. It sends out one of these pulses every 1 ms . 8-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Compute the RMS value of the voltage waveform of Figure 8. b. It transmits for 5 µs and then rests.42. The RMS values of the current and voltage. 2. and Instruments Problems 1.41.41. The current i L ( t ) through a 0. voltage and power for this inductor. Waveform for Problem 3 4. Compute: a. Waveform for Problem 2 3. Complex Power. v( t) V 15 5 t(s) 0 Figure 8. The average values of the current.42. Compute the RMS value of i ( t ) = 10 + 2 cos 100t + 5 sin 200t 5. The average output power of this transmitter is 750 w . The energy transmitted in each pulse. Compute the average and RMS values of the voltage waveform of Figure 8.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. v( t) A V t(s) 0 Figure 8.

the meter full scale is 1 mA . Compute the average power delivered (or absorbed) by each device. Compute the values of R 1. R 2.45. 10 mA 980 Ω IT + 100 mA R1 R2 mA IM RM =20 Ω 1A − IT R3 Figure 8.44. Network for Problem 7 8.45. R 3. vS ( t ) 2Ω 3 mH 5Ω 200 µF Figure 8. and R 4 so that the instrument will display the indicated values. Circuit for Problem 6 7. For the circuit of Figure 8. For the multi-range ammeter/milliammeter shown in Figure 8. VS ZIN PCB Figure 8. Multi-range ammeter for Problem 8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-37 .Exercises 6. For the circuit of Figure 8.43.44. the input impedance of the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) is Z IN = 100 – j100 Ω and the board must not absorb more that 200 mw of power. Compute the largest RMS value that the variable voltage source V S can be adjusted to.43. otherwise it will be damaged. v s ( t ) = 100 cos 1000t V.

46. through the diode D 1 to point B .46 is known as full-wave rectifier. 8-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . I Diode − Allows current to flow in the indicated direction only B A vIN F D3 D1 D2 D − vOUT R + C D4 DC Voltmeter V E Figure 8.47.47. During the negative input half cycle. Input and output waveforms for the network of Problem 9 * For silicon type diodes. through diode D 3 to point E .Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. The input and output voltage waveforms are shown in Figure 8. through D 2 to point C . During the positive input half cycle. Compute the value indicated by the DC voltmeter. Complex Power. through diode D 4 to point C . Network for Problem 9 v in (t) Vp V p sin ω t 0 ω t (r) Vp Full Rectified Waveform Vpsinωt Figure 8. and Instruments 9. There is a small voltage drop v D across each diode* but it can be neglected if v in » v D . through the resistor R to point D . The circuit of Figure 8. and returns to the other terminal point A of the input voltage source. current flows from point A to point B . current flows from point F to point E. through the resistor R to point D .7 volt. and returns to the other terminal point F of the input voltage source. the voltage drop is approximately 0.

∫ 10 sin t dt = 0 .87° .87° ) = 140. B 7.08 ∠26. B Problems L 1.= 0.37 ∠– 26.5T = 5 A . I RMS = 115 ∠0° ⁄ 84. 1 i L ave = -T 1 -T ∫0 T 1 i L dt = -T ∫0 T ( 5 + 10 sin t ) dt 1 and since -.16 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. 1 = -T 1 p L ave = -T ∫0 T 1 p L dt = -T ∫0 T 1 v L i L dt = -T ∫0 5 cos t ( 5 + 10 sin t ) dt T ∫0 T ( 25 cos t + 50 sin t cos t ) dt and using sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x it follows that 50 sin t cos t = 25 sin 2t and thus 1 p L ave = -T ∫0 T ( 25 cos t + 25 sin 2t ) dt = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-39 . B 2. E Z = 75 + j38 = 84.37 × cos ( – 26. Likewise. it follows that T T 0 ∫0 T 1 1 5 dt = -. C 8. D 10.54 w 6. Also.5 ---.Answers to Exercises 8. D 3. C 4.87° and thus P ave = V RMS ⋅ I RMS cos θ = 115 × 1. i L = 5 + 10 sin t .08 ∠26. A 5. v L = L -----. v L ave = -T T ∫0 T 5 cos t dt = 0 . A 9.87° = 1.( 5 + 10 sin t ) = 5 cos t di dt d dt a.

66 A For sinusoids V RMS = V p ⁄ ( 2 ) = 0.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.707V p and since V p = 5 it follows that V RMS = 0.707 × 5 = 3. From the waveform below we observe that Period = T = 5τ and since V ave = Area ⁄ Period = ( 15τ + 20τ ) ⁄ 5τ = 7 V Also.t 0⎞ = ----. 8-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .⎛ t T⎝ T 0 25 4 T + -. 1 2 I L RMS = -T 1 = -T 1 = -T ∫0 ∫0 T 2 i L dt T ∫0 T ( 5 + 10 sin t ) dt 2 25 2 [ 5 ( 1 + 2 sin t ) ] dt = ----T ∫0 T ( 1 + 4 sin t + 4 sin t ) dt 2 1 T 2 1 T ----------------------Using sin x = 1 – cos 2x and observing that -. We choose the period T as shown below.∫ 4 sin t dt = 0 and -.( 225τ + 125τ – 25τ ) = 65 5τ and thus V RMS = 65 = 8.( T + 2T ) = 75 and I L RMS = T 2 ⎠ 75 = 8.54 V 2. Complex Power. and Instruments b.06 V 3. v( t) V 15 τ 5 4τ T 0 1 2 V RMS = -T t(s) ∫0 T 1 2 v dt = ----5τ ∫0 τ ( 15 ) dt + 2 ∫τ 5τ 1 2 ( 5 ) dt = ----.∫ cos 2t dt = 0 we get 2 T 0 T 0 25 2 I L RMS = ----.

Answers to Exercises v( t) A V 2A v ( t ) = -----T t(s) 0 T T 2A Using the straight line equation y = mx + b we find that for 0 < t < T ⁄ 2 . v ( t ) = -----. Since Area Area P ave = 750 w = ----------------.= ----------Period 1s Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-41 .13). The RMS value of sinusoids with different frequencies is given by (8. Then. For this problem I RMS = 2 1 2 1 2 10 + -.t 3 3T 2 0 2 4A = -------.5 = 2 2 100 + 2 + 12.2 + -.41A 6 4.7 A 5. The waveform representing the transmitter output pulses is shown below. The effective (RMS) value of a sinusoid is a real number that is independent of frequency and phase angle and for current it is equal to I RMS = I p ⁄ 2 .5 = 10. A 5 µs 1 2 t(s) For this problem we do no know the amplitude A of each 5 µs pulse but we know the average power of one period T = 1 s .t . 1 2 V RMS = -T ∫0 T 1 2 v dt = -T T⁄2 ∫0 T⁄2 2 1 ⎛ 2A t⎞ dt + ------⎝T ⎠ T ∫ 4A 0 ⋅ dt = -------3 T⁄2 T T 2 ∫0 T⁄2 t dt 2 4A 3 = -------.A = 0.= A ⁄ 6 24 2 and V RMS = 6 2 A ⁄ 6 = -----.

.+ --. and Instruments it follows that a. z3=5+3j.... disp('magI2 = '). disp(abs(I2))... Ic=Vc/z2. Complex Power..= 0 z1 z2 z2 or 1 1 1 ⎛ --. disp('magVc = ')... fprintf(' \n').⎞ ⎝ z z ⎠ 2 3 Also. z2=−5j.. Vc=Vs/(1+z1/z2+z1/z3).+ --. The power during the transmission of a pulse is P = W ⁄ t = 750 w ⋅ s ⁄ 5 µs = 750 w ⋅ s ⁄ 5 × 10 –6 = 150 × 10 w = 150 Mw 3 –3 6 6.. disp(Vc).. disp('Vc = ').+ --. disp(abs(Vc)). disp(angle(I2)*180/pi). Energy transmitted during each pulse is Area of each pulse = 750 w ⋅ s b.. disp('phaseVc = '). disp('phaseI2 = '). I2=(Vs−Vc)/z1. The phasor equivalent circuit is shown below where jωL = j10 × 3 × 10 – j ⁄ ωC = – j ⁄ 10 × 2 × 10 3 –4 = j3 Ω and = – j5 Ω z1 2 Ω VS VC j3 Ω IL 5Ω I2 Ω IC z2 – j5 Ω z3 100 ∠0° By application of KCL VC – VS VC VC -----------------.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values..+ -----.... 8-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . disp('I2 = ').⎞ V = V S ----⎝z z1 z2 z3 ⎠ C 1 or VS V C = -------------------------------z1 z1 ⎛ 1 + --. IL=Vc/z3. VS – VC I 2 Ω = -----------------z1 VC I C = -----z1 VC I L = -----z3 and with MATLAB Vs=100. disp(I2).+ -----. z1=2. disp(angle(Vc)*180/pi)..

.5 × ( 14. disp('magIc = ').07 × cos 27.97 w 2 and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-43 .4829 + 6..I p R 2 Ω = 0.2002 IL = 9.4 w 2 Also.. disp('IL = '). disp(Ic).9604i magVc = 76. disp(IL).7998 I2 = 12.0588 phaseIL = -40. 1 P S ave = -..5266i magIL = 13.43° as shown by the phasor diagram below..8909 .0341-12. disp(abs(Ic)). I2 Ω θ = 27. disp('phaseIL = '). disp('phaseIc = ').× V S × I 2 Ω cos θ = 0. disp('magIL = ').4350 Ic = 2..5921 + 15...8. 1 2 2 P 2 Ω ave = -. disp(angle(IL)*180/pi).0068i magIc = 15.2290 phaseIc = 80.07 ) × 2 = 197. disp(angle(Ic)*180/pi).Answers to Exercises disp('Ic = ').43° = 624. Vc = 75..43° VS Therefore. disp(abs(IL)).7636 The average power delivered by the voltage source V S is computed from the relation 1 P ave = V RMS I RMS cos θ = -.0647 phaseI2 = 27.4802i magI2 = 14.5 × 100 × 14.1452 phaseVc = -9.V p I p cos θ 2 where θ = 27.

I L R 5 Ω = 0. i(t) ZIN vS ( t ) PCB Let and Then. we can find its value from the given input impedance. and Instruments 1 2 2 P 5 Ω ave = -.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values.41 = P S ave = 624.06 ) × 5 = 426. Let us consider the t – domain network below.2 w 2 and therefore we must find the phase angle θ .5 × ( 13. Complex Power.= 100 2 ∠– 45° 100 8-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Since θ appears also in the jω – domain .2 w .[ cos ( 2ωt + θ ) + cos θ ] ≤ 0.[ cos ( x + y ) + cos ( x – y ) ] 2 we get Vp Ip p = ---------. p = v S i = V p I p cos ωt ⋅ cos ( ωt + θ ) v S = V p cos ωt i = I p cos ( ωt + θ ) and using 1 cos x ⋅ cos y = -. that is.41 w 2 Check: P 2 Ω ave + P 5 Ω ave = 197. we must satisfy the condition Vp Ip p = ---------.4 w The average power in the capacitor and the inductor is zero since θ = 90° and cos θ = 0 7.[ cos ( 2ωt + θ ) + cos θ ] 2 We require that the power p does not exceed 200 mw or 0. that is.97 + 426. Z IN = 100 – j100 Ω or Z IN = Z IN ∠θ = – 1( – 100 ) 2 2 100 + 100 ∠ tan -------------------.

9 × 10 ( R 1 + R 2 + R 3 ) = ( 980 + 20 ) × 10 –3 –3 or ----------R 1 + R 2 + R 3 = 1000 (1) 9 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-45 .⎛ 1 + ------⎞ = 0.14 = 5.= 4.= -----------.Answers to Exercises and in the t – domain Vp Ip p = ---------. Vp Ip 2 p max = ---------. that is.4 ⁄ 1.14 1.4 × 100 2 = 33.2 w 2 ⎝ 2⎠ Then.707 and now we can express I p in terms of V p using the relation Z IN = 100 2 and I p = V p ⁄ Z IN and by substitution 2 ----------------------------V p = 0.76V RMS = -----.[ cos ( 2ωt – 45° ) + cos ( – 45° ) ] 2 The maximum power p occurs when cos ( 2ωt – 45° ) = 1 . With the switch at the 10 mA position. V p I p = 0.07 V 1.76 and Vp 5. the circuit is as shown below. 980 Ω 10 mA + R1 9 mA R2 20 Ω mA 1 mA R3 10 mA − Then.707 or Vp = 33.414 2 8.

99 × 10 ( R 2 + R 3 ) = ( R 1 + 980 + 20 ) × 10 –3 –3 or – R 1 + 99R 2 + 99R 3 = 1000 (2) With the switch at the 1 A position.+ 1000 = -------------9 9 or 8-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and Instruments With the switch at the 100 mA position.Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. the circuit is as shown below. 980 Ω 100 mA + 99 mA R3 10 mA − 1 mA R1 R2 mA 1 mA 20 Ω Then. Complex Power. 999 × 10 R 3 = ( R 1 + R 2 + 980 + 20 ) × 10 –3 –3 or – R 1 – R 2 + 999R 3 = 1000 (3) Addition of (1) and (3) yields 1000 10000 1000R 3 = ----------. 980 Ω 1A + 1 mA R1 R2 mA 1 mA 20 Ω 1A − 999 mA R3 Then. the circuit is as shown below.

Answers to Exercises 10 R 3 = ----. this average is twice the average value of the half-wave rectifier waveform of Example 8. The period of the full-wave rectifier waveform is taken as π.( – cos ωt ) π 0 0 π Vp = ----. v OUT ave 1 = -π ∫ π Vp V p sin ωt d( ωt ) = ----.cos ωt π Vp 2V p = ----. Full Rectified Waveform Vpsinωt Vp π 2π π ωt = 0 Then. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 8-47 .( 1 + 1 ) = -------π π As expected. Therefore.2. the DC voltmeter will read the average value of the voltage v OUT across the resistor.+ 1000 = -------------9 9 or -------R 2 + R 3 = 100 (5) 9 Substitution of (4) into (5) yields R 2 = 10 Ω (6) and substitution of (4) and (6) into (1) yields R 1 = 100 Ω (7) 9.Ω (4) 9 Addition of (1) and (2) yields 1000 10000 100R 2 + 100R 3 = ----------. DC instruments indicate average values.

Chapter 8 Average and RMS Values. and Instruments NOTES 8-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Complex Power.

we seek a value of i which satisfies the differential equation of (9. − R + L + i − Figure 9. the circuit is source-free. Circuit for determining the natural response of a series RL circuit Application of KVL yields vL + vR = 0 or di L ---. we get R di ---.+ Ri = 0 dt (9.1 The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit Let us find the natural response of the circuit of Figure 9. The natural response is also referred to as the transient response. we need to find the natural response which in differential equations terminology is the complementary function.1 where the desired response is the current i. Separation of Variables Method Rearranging (9. 1.1). As we know.The term natural implies that there is no excitation in the circuit. and it is given that at t = 0 .1) Here.1). two common methods are the separation of variables method and the assumed solution method. that is. We will consider both.= – -. integrating both sides and using the initial condition. so that the variables i and t are separated.dt L i Next. we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-1 .1. and we seek the circuit’s natural response. i = I 0 . the initial condition is i ( 0 ) = I 0 .Chapter 9 Natural Response T his chapter discusses the natural response of electric circuits. 9. that is. that is.

then every response is zero and this represents a trivial solution.2) into (9.3) where A and s are constants to be determined. it must satisfy the differential equation (9.t L or R iln --. or if s = – ∞ .= – -. by substitution. Assumed Solution Method Relation (9. Thus.1) yields 0 = 0 and that at t = 0 . s = – R ⁄ L is the only logical solution. 2. An exponential function will accomplish that and therefore. when added to its first derivative will become zero.1).σ 0 L or R ln i – ln I 0 = – -. if A = 0 or s = – ∞ . we assume a solution of the form i ( t ) = Ae st (9. Now. Then.di = – R dσ -L 0 I i ∫ where σ is a dummy variable. both the differential equation and the initial condition are satisfied.2) Substitution of (9. i ( 0 ) = I 0 . and by substitution into (9. Therefore.3) we get i ( t ) = Ae –( R ⁄ L ) t 9-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Integration yields ln i i I0 R t = – -.t L I0 Recalling that x = ln y implies y = e . if (9. we get: RAe + sLAe st st = 0 or ⎛ s + R ⎞ Ae st = 0 -⎝ L ⎠ The left side of the last expression above will be zero if A = 0 . we get i ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t x (9. But. or if s = – R ⁄ L .1) indicates that the solution must be a function which.3) is a solution.Chapter 9 Natural Response ∫0 i1 t -.

0 0. I 0 = Ae or A = I 0 and therefore.2 we observe that at t = 0 .⎞ . This is done with the use of the initial condition i ( 0 ) = I 0 .4) Percent i(t) / I 0 0. The initial rate (slope) of decay is found from the derivative of i ⁄ I 0 evaluated at t = 0 . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-3 . Then.9 0.8% 13.2 0.e = – -L L t=0 t=0 and thus the slope of the initial rate of decay is – R ⁄ L Next. i ⁄ I 0 = 0 .8 0 –( R ⁄ L ) t (9.dt ⎝ I 0 ⎠ R –( R ⁄ L ) t R = – -.0 0 1 e−(R/L) t i(t) / I 0 = −(R / L) t +1 36. d i ---.5 0.= e –( R ⁄ L ) t ) ------I0 and sketch it as shown in Figure 9.7 0. Plot for i ( t ) ⁄ I 0 in a series RL circuit From Figure 9. i ⁄ I 0 = 1 .6 0. 1. we define the time constant τ as the time required for i ⁄ I 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant. Next. and i → 0 as t → ∞ .1 0. This constant rate of decay is represented by the straight line equation i( t) = – R t + 1 -------L I0 and at t = τ .The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit We must now evaluate the constant A . that is. Thus.2.⎛ --.2. i ( t ) = I0 e as before. we rewrite it as i ( t .5% 5% Time Constants 2 3 4 5 Figure 9.4 0.3 0.

current i ( t ) has reached ½ of its initial value? b.368I 0 (9.1 i ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t where I 0 = i L ( 0 ) . 9-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5) Evaluating (9.2.3. the response has dropped to approximately 36. Example 9.1 For the circuit shown in Figure 9.4) at t = τ = L ⁄ R .τ + 1 L or L τ = -R Time Cons tan t for RL Circuit (9. i − Figure 9. in how many seconds after t = 0 has the a. in one time constant.6) Therefore.3. it reaches its final value after five time constants. we find that i ( t ) ⁄ I 0 ≈ 0 after t = 5τ .8% of its initial value. If we express the rate of decay in time constant intervals as shown in Figure 9.2). we get – ( R ⁄ L )τ –( R ⁄ L ) ( L ⁄ R ) –1 i(τ) -------. power dissipated in R has reached ¾ of its initial value? − 10 Ω R + L 10 mH + Solution: From (9.= e = e = e = 0. energy stored in L has reached ¼ of its initial value? c. Circuit for Example 9. Then.Chapter 9 Natural Response R 0 = – -. that is.368 I0 or i ( τ ) = 0.

The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit a.LI 0 ⎞ ⎠ 4⎝ 2 4 Therefore.LI 0 ⎞ ⎠ 2 2 4 4⎝ 2 or e –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t = 1⁄4 = 1⁄4 e – 2000t – 2000t = ln ( 0.W L ( t ) = -. and since for the given circuit i ( t ) = iR ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t 2 then.5I 0 = I 0 e – ( 10 ⁄ 10 × 10 –3 )t = I0 e – 1000t or e – 1000t = 0. we start with 1 2 W L ( t ) = -. To find the power dissipated in R when it reaches ¾ of its initial value. –( R ⁄ L ) t 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 -.386 and t = 693 µs This is the same answer as in part (a) since the energy is proportional to the square of the current.L ( I 0 e . t = 693 µs b.Li ( t ) 2 and at t = 0 .⎛ -. I 0 = i L ( 0 ) . c. Then. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-5 .Li ( t ) = -.W L ( 0 ) = -.) = -. we start with the fact that the instantaneous power absorbed by the resistor is p R = i R R . The current i ( t ) will have reached ½ of its initial value when 0.5 or – 1000t = ln ( 0. 2 1 W L ( 0 ) = -.LI 0 2 and 2 1 1 1 .693 and therefore. To find the energy stored in L which reaches ¼ of its initial value.25 ) = – 1.⎛ -.5 ) = – 0.-.

W R = 3 W L ( 0 ) = 1 Li ( t ) = 1 L ( I 0 e -. in our subsequent discussion. the expression “long time” will mean that sufficient time has elapsed so that the circuit has reached its steady-state conditions.--) = -. Find i L ( t ) for t > 0 .LI 0 2 Also. at steady state conditions the inductor behaves as a short circuit.7) where i L ( 0 ) will be used to denote the time just before a switch is opened or closed.LI 0 ⎞ ⎠ 4 4 4⎝2 2 2 or e –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t – 2000t = 3⁄4 = 3⁄4 e – 2000t = ln ( 0.288 and t = 144 µs In some examples and exercises that follow. Example 9.Chapter 9 Natural Response p R = I 0 Re 2 –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t and the energy dissipated (in the form of heat) in the resistor is WR = ∫0 ∞ p R dt = I 0 R 2 ∫0 ∞ e –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t 2 L –2 ( R ⁄ L ) t dt = I 0 R ⎛ – ------⎞ e ⎝ 2R⎠ ∞ 0 1 2 = -. iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) − + − + (9.2 In the circuit of Figure 9. 1 2 W L ( 0 ) = -. and i L ( 0 ) will be used to denote the time just after the change has occurred. As we know from Chapter 5.LI 0 2 and thus 2 –( R ⁄ L ) t 2 3 3 1 2 -.75 ) = – 0. the switch S has been in the closed position for a long time and opens at t = 0 . Also. from part (b) above.⎛ -. the initial condition may not be given directly but it can be found from the fact that the current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously and therefore. and the capacitor behaves as an open circuit.4. v R ( 0 ) . when the excitations are constant. and v R ( 0 ) − + 9-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

5. Circuit at t = 0 + + + vR ( t ) − 1 mH 20 Ω iL ( t ) + Figure 9. however. at t = 0 the inductor acts as a short thereby shorting also the 20 Ω resistor.6.2 A We also observe that vR ( 0 ) = 0 − At t = 0 .6.The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit t = 0 + vR ( t ) − iL ( t ) 20 Ω 1 mH S 10 Ω + − 32 V Figure 9. the 32 V source and the 10 Ω resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9.2 at t = 0 From the circuit of Figure 9.2 at t = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-7 .2A − + and thus the initial condition has now been established as I 0 = 3. we see that i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 32 ⁄ 10 = 3. Circuit for Example 9. Circuit at t = 0 − − + vR ( t ) 10 Ω + − 32 V − − iL ( t ) Figure 9. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 9.4.5.2 Solution: We are not given an initial condition for this example. Circuit for Example 9.5.

Circuit for Example 9. i 48 ( t ) at t = 200 µs 4Ω t = 0 S 30 Ω 24 Ω + − + − 72 V 60 Ω 1 mH i 60 ( t ) iL ( t ) 48 Ω i 48 ( t ) Figure 9.Chapter 9 Natural Response For the circuit of Figure 9.3 In the circuit shown in Figure 9.2e – ( 20 ⁄ 10 –3 )t or i L ( t ) = 3. Then.= -------------. iL ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t = 3. At t = 0 the inductor acts as a short thereby shorting also the 24 Ω and 48 Ω resistors. − 72 V 72 V i T ( 0 ) = --------------------------.= 3 A 4 + 60 || 30 4 + 20 − 9-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .6.2e – 20000t and v R ( 0 ) = 20 ( – I 0 ) = 20 ( – 3. Find: a.2 ) + or v R ( 0 ) = – 64 V + We observe that v R ( 0 ) ≠ v R ( 0 ) Example 9. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 9.7. the switch S has been closed for a long time and opens at t = 0 .8.7.3 Solution: a. i 60 ( t ) at t = 100 µs c. i L ( t ) for t > 0 b.

8. 60 6 − − i L ( 0 ) = ----------------.The Natural Response of a Series RL circuit Circuit at t = 0 4Ω − 30 Ω iT ( 0 ) − + − 72 V 60 Ω iL ( 0 ) − Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9. Circuit at t = 0 30 Ω 24 Ω + + 60 Ω 1 mH 48 Ω i 60 ( t ) iL ( t ) i 48 ( t ) + Figure 9. iL ( t ) = I0 e – ( R eq ⁄ L ) t where R eq = ( 60 + 30 ) || (24+48) = 40 Ω and thus i L ( t ) = 2e – ( 40 ⁄ 10 )t –3 or i L ( t ) = 2e Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications – 40000t 9-9 .⋅ i T ( 0 ) = -.2).9. the 72 V source and the 4 Ω resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9.× 3 = 2 A 30 + 60 9 and thus the initial condition has been established as I 0 = 2 A At t = 0 . Circuit for Example 9.9.3 at t = 0 From (9.3 at t = 0 − and by the current division expression.

iC + iR = 0 (9. that is.( – 2e ) 27 t = 100 µs 8 –4 = – -. and it is given that at t = 0 .10 where the desired response is the capacitor voltage v C .( – 2e ) 27 t = 200 µs 10 – 8 = – ----. Circuit for determining the natural response of a series RC circuit By KCL.10.e = – 16. v C = V 0 .[ – i L ( t ) ] ( 30 + 60 ) + ( 24 + 48 ) t = 100 µs or i 60 ( t ) t = 100 µs 12 – 40000t = ----.[ – i L ( t ) ] ( 30 + 60 ) + ( 24 + 48 ) t = 200 µs or i 48 ( t ) t = 200 µs 15 – 40000t = ----. we will find the natural response of the RC circuit shown in Figure 9.2 The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit In this section.Chapter 9 Natural Response Also.e = – 0.3 mA 9 and i 48 ( t ) t = 200 µs ( 30 + 60 ) = ---------------------------------------------------. iC iR vC ( t ) R + C − Figure 9.8).373 mA 9 9. i 60 ( t ) t = 100 µs ( 24 + 48 ) = ---------------------------------------------------. we obtain the differential equation 9-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8) and with dv C i C = C -------dt and vC i R = ----R by substitution into (9. the initial condition is v ( 0 ) = V 0 .

and i → 0 as t→∞ The initial rate (slope) of decay is found from the derivative of v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 evaluated at t = 0 . d vC ---. i.= 0 RC st st or 1⎛ s + -------⎞ Ae st = 0 ⎝ RC⎠ (9.11) as vC ( t ) – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t ----------.10) will be satisfied when s = – 1 ⁄ RC and therefore. we assume a solution of the form v C ( t ) = Ae st and by substitution into (9.e.11.11) We express (9. we define the time constant τ as the time required for v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant.10) Following the same reasoning as with the RL circuit.= e V0 and we sketch it as shown in Figure 9. We observe that at t = 0 .e = – ------RC RC t=0 t=0 and thus the slope of the initial rate of decay is – 1 ⁄ ( RC ) Next. that is.9) As before.9) Ae Ase + --------.+ ------. This constant rate of decay is represented by the straight line equation Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-11 .= 0 dt RC (9.⎛ ----.⎞ . (9. v C ⁄ V 0 = 1 . Therefore.dt ⎝ V 0 ⎠ 1 – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 1 = – ------. v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = Ae or A = V 0 .. v C ( t ) = Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t The constant A is evaluated from the initial condition.The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit dv C v C -------. the natural response of the RC circuit is vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 0 (9.

= – ------.8 0.6 0.368 V0 or v C ( τ ) = 0. 10 = – ------.5% 5% 2 3 Time Constants 4 5 Figure 9.5 0.3 0. Circuit for determining the natural response of a series RC circuit vC ( t ) 1-----------. the response has dropped to approximately 36.15) 9-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2 0.τ + 1 RC (9. in one time constant.0 0 1 Percent vc(t) / V0 e−(1/RC) t vc(t) / V0 = −(1/RC) t +1 36.0 0.Chapter 9 Natural Response 1.368V 0 (9. we get vC ( τ ) – τ ⁄ RC – RC ⁄ RC –1 -----------.14) Therefore.13) Evaluating (9.9 0.1 0.7 0. v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 = 0 .4 0. we find that v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 ≈ 0 after t = 5 τ .8% of its initial value. In the examples that follow.11.= e = e = e = 0.t + 1 RC V0 and at t = τ . Then. it reaches its final value after five time constants.11) at t = τ = RC . If we express the rate of decay in time constant intervals as shown in Figure 9. that is.12) or τ = RC Time Cons tan t for R C Circuit (9. we will make use of the fact that vC ( 0 ) = vC ( 0 ) = vC ( 0 ) − + (9.11.8% 13.

13 we see that 60 V − + − v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 50 KΩ × i ( 0 ) = 50 × --------------------------------------.11). From (9. the switch S has been in the closed position for a long time.= 1 mA 10 KΩ + 50 KΩ + At t = 0 the 60 V source and the 10 KΩ resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9. i ( 0 ) .The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit Example 9.4 Solution: At t = 0 the capacitor acts as an open. t = 0 10 µF S 10 KΩ − + i (t) 50 KΩ + − vC ( t ) + − 60 V Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9.4 at t = 0 From the circuit of Figure 9. and opens at t = 0 . Find v C ( t ) for t > 0 .13. Circuit at t = 0 − − i (t) 50 KΩ vC ( t ) 10 KΩ + − 60 V − Figure 9. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 9.12. vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-13 .4 In the circuit of Figure 9. Circuit for Example 9.14. and i ( 0 ) .12.= 50 V 10 KΩ + 50 KΩ and thus the initial condition has been established as V 0 = 50 V .13. We also observe that − 60 V i ( 0 ) = --------------------------------------.

hence. the voltage across the resistor must be the same at t = 0 and at t = 0 .µF + 9 v 60 ( t ) − − + vC ( t ) v 10 ( t ) 10 KΩ − Figure 9. v 60 ( t ) at t = 100 µs c.14.15. This is true because the voltage across the capacitor cannot change instantaneously. v C ( t ) for t > 0 b.= 1 mA R 50 KΩ We observe that i ( 0 ) = i ( 0 ) . v 10 ( t ) at t = 200 µs 6 KΩ t = 0 S 30 KΩ 20 KΩ − + + − + − 72 V 60 KΩ + 40 ----.4 at t = 0 + where RC = 50 × 10 × 10 × 10 3 –6 = 0. Circuit for Example 9.Chapter 9 Natural Response Circuit at t = 0 + i (t) 50 KΩ + − 10 µF vC ( t ) Figure 9. the switch S has been in the closed position for a long time and opens at t = 0 .5 9-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Circuit for Example 9.5 )t = 50e and V0 + 50 V i ( 0 ) = ----.5 – 2t Then. Find: a.= ---------------. v C ( t ) = 50e – ( 1 ⁄ 0. Example 9.15.5 In the circuit of Figure 9.

17. Circuit for Example 9. Circuit for Example 9.16.5 at t = 0 − From the circuit of Figure 9.The Natural Response of a Series RC Circuit Solution: a. v C ( 0 ) = ( 20 KΩ + 10 KΩ ) ⋅ i 10 ( 0 ) = 30 V − − and thus the initial condition has been established as V 0 = 30 V At t = 0 . the 72 V source and the 6 KΩ resistor are disconnected from the circuit which now is as shown in Figure 9.⋅ i T ( 0 ) = -.= -----------------------------------.× 2 = 1 mA 60 KΩ + 60 KΩ 2 Then.16.5 at t = 0 + Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-15 .= 2 mA 6 KΩ + 60 KΩ || 60 KΩ 6 KΩ + 30 KΩ and using the current division expression.µF 9 60 KΩ + − + vC ( t ) 10 KΩ v 10 ( t ) − Figure 9. − 72 V 72 V i T ( 0 ) = ----------------------------------------------------------. Circuit at t = 0 6 KΩ 30 KΩ − − 20 KΩ iT ( t ) + 60 KΩ + − 72 V v 60 ( t ) v C ( t ) − − + + 10 KΩ i 10 ( t ) v 10 ( t ) − Figure 9.17.16. At t = 0 the capacitor acts as an open and the circuit then is as shown in Figure 9. we get 60 KΩ 1 − − i 10 ( 0 ) = --------------------------------------. Circuit at t = 0 30 KΩ + + 20 KΩ + v 60 ( t ) − 40 ----.

3 40 –6 R eq C = 22.⋅ v C ( t ) 10 KΩ + 20 KΩ t = 200 ms or v 10 ( t ) t = 200 ms 1 – 10t = -. Circuit for Example 9.36 V c.5 × 10 × ----.35 V Example 9.18. v 60 ( t ) t = 100 ms 60 KΩ = --------------------------------------. a. What would then the energy in the capacitor be after two time constants? C + − 10 µF vC ( t ) R Figure 9.Chapter 9 Natural Response From (9. it is known that v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = 25 V .11).( 30e ) 3 = 20e t = 100 ms –1 = 7.1 )t = 30e – 10t b.⋅ v C ( t ) 30 KΩ + 60 KΩ t = 100 ms or v 60 ( t ) t = 100 ms – 10t 2 = -.18. v 10 ( t ) t = 200 ms 10 KΩ = --------------------------------------.5 KΩ Then. vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ R eq C ) t where R eq = ( 60 KΩ + 30 KΩ ) || ( 20 KΩ + 10 KΩ ) = 22.( 30e ) 3 = 10e t = 200 ms –2 = 1. To what value should the resistor R be adjusted so that the initial rate of change would be – 200 V ⁄ s ? b.× 10 = 0.6 For the circuit of Figure 9.6 9-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1 9 and v C ( t ) = 30e – ( 1 ⁄ 0.

5 × 10 = – --------------------. The capacitor voltage decays exponentially as vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t and with the given values. the energy after two time constants will be WC t = 2τ –6 2 1 2 = -. • The natural response of the inductor current in a simple RL circuit reaches its final value.⎞ 25e ⎝ ⎠ R t=0 t=0 2. and its value is τ = L ⁄ R • In one time constant the natural response of the inductor current in a simple RL circuit has dropped to approximately 36. v C ( t ) = 25e – ( 100000 ⁄ R )t Now.5 KΩ b.= – 200 R 6 and solving for R we get R = 12. that is.3 Summary • The natural response of the inductor current i L ( t ) in a simple RL circuit has the form iL ( t ) = I0 e –( R ⁄ L ) t where I 0 denotes the value of the current in the inductor at t = 0 • In a simple RL circuit the time constant τ is the time required for i L ( t ) ⁄ I 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant. • The initial condition I 0 can be established from the fact that the current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously and thus i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) − + Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-17 . After two time constants the capacitor voltage will drop to the value of v C ( 2 τ ) = 25e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )2τ = 25e – ( 2RC ⁄ RC ) = 25e –2 = 3. then dv C -------dt – ( 100000 ⁄ R )t 100000 = ⎛ – ----------------.Summary Solution: a.Cv C = 5 × 10 × 3.38 = 57. it decays to zero. if the initial rate (slope) is to be – 200 V ⁄ s .2 µJ 2 9. after approximately 5 time constants.38 V Therefore.8% of its initial value.

that is. it decays to zero after approximately 5 time constants. and its value is τ = RC • In one time constant the natural response of the capacitor voltage in a simple RC circuit has dropped to approximately 36.Chapter 9 Natural Response • The natural response of the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) in a simple RC circuit has the form vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t where V 0 denotes the value of the voltage across the capacitor at t = 0 • In a simple RC circuit the time constant τ is the time required for v C ( t ) ⁄ V 0 to drop from unity to zero assuming that the initial rate of decay remains constant.8% of its initial value. • The initial condition V 0 can be established from the fact that the voltage across a capacitor cannot change instantaneously and thus v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) − + 9-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . • The natural response of capacitor voltage in a simple RC circuit reaches its final value.

the second B. At t = 0 . Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes. the millisecond C. Circuit for Question 3 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-19 .4 Exercises Multiple Choice 1. none of the above 2.. 2e D. The current i L ( t ) for all t > 0 is –1 –1 τ is A. 2e – 100t – 50t A A C.Exercises 9. i. dimensionless B. s E. In a simple RL circuit the unit of the time constant A. the millisecond D.. In the circuit of Figure 9. i.e. the reciprocal of second.19 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time. 2 A B.e. In a simple RC circuit the unit of the term 1 ⁄ RC is A. the reciprocal of second. none of the above 3. s C. none of the above S1 5Ω 5Ω t = 0 2A t = 0 S2 i L ( t ) 100 mH Figure 9. the microsecond E. the microsecond D. e – 50t A E.19.

The voltage v C ( t ) for all t > 0 is A. 10e – 10t –t V C. In the circuit of Figure 9.1t V E.21. 10e V D. Circuit for Question 4 5. At t = 0 . 10 V B. 1 w C. 2 w D.20 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time.Chapter 9 Natural Response 4.2 w E. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes.21 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time. 10e – 0. Circuit for Question 5 9-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . The power absorbed by the inductor at t = +∞ will be A. 0. At t = 0 . none of the above 50 KΩ S1 50 KΩ t = 0 + t = 0 − 10 V S2 vC ( t ) + − 20 µF Figure 9.20. 0 w B. In the circuit of Figure 9. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes. none of the above S1 5Ω 5Ω t = 0 2A t = 0 S2 i L ( t ) 100 mH Figure 9.

0 w B. 5 w D. 10 mw E. 100 µs D. Switch S 1 opens and Switch S 2 closes.01 µs E. In a simple RL circuit where R = 10 MΩ and L = 10 µH the time constant A.22. 0. In the circuit of Figure 9. 10 – 12 E. none of the above 50 KΩ S1 50 KΩ t = 0 + t = 0 − 10 V S2 vC ( t ) + − 20 µF Figure 9. 100 s C.Exercises 6. In a simple RC circuit where R = 10 MΩ and C = 10 µF the time constant A. none of the above 9. In a simple RL circuit the condition(s) ___ are always true τ is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-21 .22 Switch S 1 has been closed for a long time while Switch S 2 has been open for a long time. 10 12 τ is s s D. 100 s B. 0. 1 s B. 10 w C. The power absorbed by the capacitor at t = +∞ will be A. Circuit for Question 6 7. At t = 0 . none of the above 8.01 s C.

10. none of the above. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) and i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) E. Circuit for Problem 1 2. Compute the current i S2 ( t ) through switch S 2 for t > 0 3Ω t = 0 S1 − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + − + 8Ω 5Ω i S2 ( t ) + − 15 V 6Ω 10 Ω t = 0 S2 2. Problems 1. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) and v L ( 0 ) = v L ( 0 ) = v L ( 0 ) B. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) and i C ( 0 ) = i C ( 0 ) = i C ( 0 ) B. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) and v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) D. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) and v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) = v R ( 0 ) C.5 mH Figure 9.23. none of the above. Compute and sketch the current i L ( t ) for the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 ms 9-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . at t = 0 switch S 1 opens while S 2 closes. switch S 1 has been closed for a long time and switch S 2 has been open for a long time.23. In a simple RC circuit the condition(s) ___ are always true A. In the circuit of Figure 9. In the circuit of Figure 9. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) and i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) = i R ( 0 ) C. v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) D.24.Chapter 9 Natural Response A. Then. both switches S 1 and S 2 have been closed for a long time and both are opened at t = 0 . i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) E.

both switches S 1 and S 2 have been closed for a long time.Exercises 12 V 2Ω S2 t = 0 8Ω 16 Ω S1 t = 0 + − 6Ω iL ( t ) 10 ⁄ 3 mH 12 Ω 10 Ω + − 24 V 4Ω Figure 9.26. 4. Compute the values of R and L for that circuit. In the circuit of Figure 9. In a series RL circuit. while switch S 3 has been open for a long time. At t = 0 S 1 and S 2 are opened and S 3 is closed. the voltage v L across the inductor is v L = 0. switch S 1 has been closed and S 2 has been open for a long time.24. In the circuit of Figure 9.25. Compute the voltage v C2 ( t ) for t > 0 .2e – 2000t V and the current i L at t = 0 is i L ( 0 ) = 10 mA . Circuit for Problem 2 3. 10 KΩ 1 KΩ S1 3 mH t = 0 t = 0 S2 2 KΩ − + + − v in1 t = 0 S3 iL ( t ) + 5 KΩ 10 mV + v in2 v out − 10 KΩ − 20 mV Figure 9. Compute the current i L ( t ) for t > 0 .25. Circuit for Problem 4 5. At t = 0 switch S 1 is opened and S 2 is closed. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-23 .

switch S has been open for a long time and closes at t = 0 . Compute i SW ( t ) for t > 0 100 Ω 6 mH S 10 µF t = 0 6Ω + 36 V − 3Ω i SW ( t ) Figure 9. Circuit for Problem 5 6.28.27.26.28. Circuit for Problem 6 7. In the circuit of Figure 9.27. Circuit for Problem 7 9-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 2 KΩ A t = 0 16 KΩ 5 µF 6 KΩ S B 4 KΩ + − vC ( t ) + − 24 V 8 KΩ Figure 9. In the circuit of Figure 9. switch S has been in the A position for a long time and at t = 0 is thrown in the B position. Compute the voltage v C ( t ) across the capacitor for t > 0 .Chapter 9 Natural Response 10 KΩ S1 S2 t = 0 + − 12 V v C1 ( t ) + 6 µF t = 0 + − − v C2 ( t ) 3 µF 10 KΩ 50 KΩ Figure 9. and the energy stored in the capacitor at t = 1 ms .

D 8. C 5. A 7.⋅ 15 = 10 V and R TH = ----------. D 10. C Problems 1. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-25 .+ 8 = 10 Ω and attaching the rest of the circuit 3+6 3+6 to it we get the circuit below. A 6. B 3. E τ = L ⁄ R = [ volt ⁄ ( ampere ⁄ sec ond ) ] ⁄ [ volt ⁄ ampere ] = sec ond ( s ) 2.5 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. D 4. 10 Ω v TH 10 V R TH 10 Ω iL ( 0 ) − + − 5Ω By voltage-source to current-source transformation we get the circuit below.Answers to Exercises 9. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below. 3Ω 8Ω 6Ω 15 V × x 10 Ω y × 5Ω iL ( 0 ) − − + − Replacing the circuit above with its Thevenin equivalent to the left of points x and y we find 6 3×6 that v TH = ----------. B 9.

5 × 10 )t –3 + Thus for t > 0 . 8Ω 6Ω i S2 ( t ) 5Ω Closed Switch i L ( 0 ) = 0. i L ( 0 ) = i 3 – i 4 − 9-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5e – 2000t A 2. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and the mesh equations are 20i 1 – 4i 3 = 24 16i 2 – 6i 3 – 8i 4 = – 12 – 4i 1 – 6i 2 + 20i 3 – 10i 4 = 0 8i 2 – 10i 3 + 30i 4 = 0 Then.5e = – 0. the initial condition has been established as i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = 0. that is.5 mH + + We observe that the closed shorts out the 6 Ω and 8 Ω resistors and the circuit simplifies to that shown below.5 A 2.5 A .5 A 2.5 A − + The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below. i L ( 0 ) = 0. i S2 ( t ) = – i L ( t ) = – I 0 e − = – 0.5 mH – ( R ⁄ L )t – ( 5 ⁄ 2. 5Ω i S2 ( t ) i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = 0.Chapter 9 Natural Response 10 Ω 10 Ω − 1A − 5Ω 5Ω iL ( 0 ) and by inspection.

.. −4 −6 20 −10. fprintf('i3 = %4. fprintf(' \n').1 A Shown below is the circuit at t = 0 and the steps of simplification.Answers to Exercises 12 V 16 Ω 2Ω i2 6Ω + − iL ( 0 ) − 8Ω + − 24 V 4Ω i1 i3 10 Ω 12 Ω i4 and with MATLAB R=[20 0 −4 0. V=[24 −12 0 0]'.03 A i3 = -0.1e – 5000t A and iL t = 0. I(4)).10 A Therefore. I(1)). fprintf('i1 = %4.. fprintf(' \n')... iL0=I(3)-I(4).4 ms = 0. I(3)−I(4)).26 A i4 = -0.2f A \t'. I(2)).2f A \t'... I=R\V.mH 3 10 Ω iL ( 0 ) 20/3 Ω + 10 ----.mH 3 10 ----.2f A \t'.2f A \t'...7 mA Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-27 . 20/3 Ω iL ( 0 ) 12 Ω 10 Ω 20 Ω + + − + 6Ω 4Ω iL ( 0 ) 10 Ω + 8Ω 10 ----. fprintf('i4 = %4. fprintf('iL0 = %4.0137 A = 13.15 A i2 = -1. iL ( t ) = I0 e – ( R ⁄ L )t = 0.. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = 0. 0 16 −6 −8. i1 = 1. fprintf(' \n').. fprintf('i2 = %4.mH 3 Thus for t > 0 .1e –2 = 0.2f A \t'. I(3)).36 A iL0 = 0.. 0 −8 −10 30].

6 0.. 5 0.*10.+ --------. by substitution R ( 10 × 10 ) = 0.⎟ ⎝ R in 1 R in 2 ⎠ that was developed in Example 4.4 0.6 0.2 0.8 0. From the figure below v L = Ri L = 0.2e or R = 0.*exp(−5000.01: 1)*10^(−3).2 0 0 0.9 x 10 1 -3 3. from R ⁄ L = 2000 . iLt=0.11 we have 9-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1.Chapter 9 Natural Response To compute and sketch the current i L ( t ) for the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 ms we use MATLAB as shown below...8 0.7 0. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and using the relation ⎛ v in 1 v in 2 ⎞ v out = – R f ⎜ --------.*t).iLt). grid x 10 -4 1 0.^(−3).2 ⁄ 10 –2 –3 –0 = 0. L = 20 ⁄ 2000 = 0..2e + − – 2000t for t > 0 + L − vL iL R and with i L ( 0 ) = 10 mA .3 0..2 = 20 Ω Also.01 = 10 mH − 4. t=(0: 0. plot(t.4 0..1 0.

when a circuit is excited by a constant (DC) source. 5.2 V ⎝ 1 KΩ 2 KΩ ⎠ –2 –2 and − –6 --------------i L ( 0 ) = I 0 = i 5 KΩ = – 0.⎞ = – 10 × 2 × 10 = – 0.Answers to Exercises 10 KΩ 1 KΩ − + v in1 iL + − 10 mV 2 KΩ + 5 KΩ v in2 v out − + − 20 mV –2 2 × 10 10 v out = – 10 KΩ ⎛ ------------.2V − 3 mH − 15 KΩ + Then for t > 0 iL ( t ) = I0 e ( R ⁄ L )t + i ( 0+ ) L + = 40 × 10 e – 6 ( 15 × 10 ⁄ 3 × 10 )t 3 –3 = 40e – 5 × 10 t 6 µA with the direction shown. As we’ve learned in Chapter 5.+ ------------------. after sufficient time has elapsed the capacitor behaves as an open and thus the voltage across the capacitor C 1 is 12 V as shown. + 3 mH − + + + iL ( 0 ) 10 KΩ 5 KΩ − 0. − Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-29 .2 V = – 40 × 10 A = – 40 µA 5 KΩ The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below where i L ( 0 ) = 40 µA with the direction shown. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below.

The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below.= ----------. 12 V + − + v C1 C1 6 µF – ( 1 ⁄ RC eq ) + − 3 µF 50 KΩ + − v C2 ( t ) C2 Now. v C2 ( t ) = v C1 e C1 ⋅ C2 6×3 where v C1 = 12 V and C eq = -----------------. 6 KΩ − v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = v 6KΩ = --------------------------------. 1 ⁄ RCeq = 1 ⁄ ( 5 × 10 × 2 × 10 ) = 10 and thus v C2 ( t ) = 12e 6.= 2 µF C1 + C2 6+3 –6 – 10t Then.× 24 = 12 V 6 KΩ + 6 KΩ The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below where v C ( 0 ) = 12 V . + + 9-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 2 KΩ 4 KΩ 16 KΩ 5 µF 6 KΩ 24 V − 4 + − + − vC ( 0 ) − Then.Chapter 9 Natural Response 10 KΩ + − 12 V 10 KΩ C1 6 µF + − v C1 ( 0 ) = 12V − The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below where the 12 V represents the voltage across capacitor C1 .

i L ( 0 ) = ----------------------. R eq C = 2 × 10 × 5 × 10 WC 1 ms 4 –6 = 0.35 mJ 7. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below. 1 ⁄ R eq C = 10 and v C ( t ) = V 0 e = 0.+ 16 = 4 + 16 = 20 KΩ 12 + 6 and the circuit for t > 0 reduces to the one shown below.Cv C ( t ) 2 × 144e – 20t t = 1 ms = 360 × 10 e − = 0. Also.1 . 6Ω − 100 Ω + + 36 V − 3Ω iL ( 0 ) vC ( 0 ) − − 36 V Then. 1 2 = -. 5 µF 20 KΩ + − vC ( t ) – 10t Now.5 × 5 × 10 1 ms – 6 – 20t t = 1 ms –6 = 12e – 10t .Answers to Exercises 4 KΩ 16 KΩ 5 µF 8 KΩ 6 KΩ + − vC ( 0 ) + Series and parallel resistances reduction yields 12 × 6 R eq = [ ( 8 KΩ + 4 KΩ ) || 6 KΩ ] + 16 KΩ = -------------.= 4 A and v C ( 0 ) = 3 × i L ( 0 ) = 3 × 4 = 12 V − − − (6 + 3) Ω Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-31 .

L = 6 mH . the circuit is as shown below. 100 Ω 10 µF + + + 6Ω + 36 V − + i L ( 0 ) = 4 A 6 mH + − i SW ( t ) v C ( 0 ) = 12 V + 3Ω We will apply superposition three times. With the 36 V voltage source acting alone where i L = 0 (open) and v C = 0 (shorted). 6Ω 100 Ω iL ( t ) = 0 + 36 V − 3Ω 6 mH i' SW ( t ) vC ( t ) = 0 Since the 100 Ω is shorted out. we have i' SW ( t ) = 36 ⁄ 6 = 6 A II. R ⁄ L = 3 ⁄ ( 6 × 10 ) = 500 and thus i'' SW ( t ) = – i L ( t ) = – 4e – 500t –3 9-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and due to v C ( 0 ) = 12 V .Chapter 9 Natural Response The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and the current i SW ( t ) through the switch is the sum of the currents due to the 36 V voltage source. With the i L ( 0 ) = 4 A current source acting alone the circuit is as shown below where we observe that the 6 Ω and 100 Ω resistors are shorted out and thus i'' SW ( t ) = – i L ( t ) where iL ( t ) = I0 e – ( R ⁄ L )t + . I 0 = 4 A . R = 3 Ω . due to i L ( 0 ) = 4 A . Thus for t > 0 : I.

12e – 1000t A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 9-33 . i''' SW ( t ) = v C ( t ) ⁄ 100 Ω = 0.12e Therefore.Answers to Exercises 6Ω 100 Ω + i L ( 0 ) = 4 A 6 mH i SW ( t ) vC ( t ) = 0 V 3Ω III. Then. + 6Ω 100 Ω iL ( t ) = 0 6 mH 3Ω i''' SW ( t ) v C ( 0 ) = 12 V + and thus vC ( t ) = V0 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t = 12e – [ 1 ⁄ ( 100 × 10 ) ]t –5 = 12e – 1000t – 1000t . With the v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = 12 V voltage source acting alone the circuit is as shown below where we observe that the 6 Ω resistor is shorted out. the total current through the closed switch for t > 0 is i SW ( t ) = i' SW ( t ) + i'' SW ( t ) + i''' SW ( t ) = 6 – 4e – 500t + 0.

Chapter 9 Natural Response NOTES 9-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10-1 .2. Waveform for u 0 ( t ) u0 ( t ) In the waveform of Figure 10. the unit step function is denoted as u ( t ) . if the function jumps from one value to another without taking on any intermediate values. In this text we will reserve this designation for any input. A well-known discontinuous function is the unit step function u 0 ( t ) * that is defined as ⎧0 u0 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t<0 t>0 (10. without the subscript 0. and its response to that excitation is analyzed. that is.that is. 1 u0 ( t – t0 ) t0 t 0 ⎧0 u0 ( t – t0 ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t < t0 t > t0 Figure 10. But if it changes at t = t 0 instead.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits T his chapter discusses the forced response of electric circuits.1. Then. the unit step function u 0 ( t ) changes abruptly from 0 to 1 at t = 0 .2.1. its waveform and definition are as shown in Figure 10. the forced response is added to the natural response to form the total response. 10.The term “forced” here implies that the circuit is excited by a voltage or current source.1.1) It is also represented by the waveform of Figure 10. 1 0 Figure 10.1 The Unit Step Function u 0 ( t ) A function is said to be discontinuous if it exhibits points of discontinuity. Waveform and definition of u 0 ( t – t 0 ) * In some books.

4. it is denoted as u 0 ( t + t 0 ) 1 −t0 0 u0 ( t + t0 ) t ⎧0 u0 ( t + t0 ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t < –t0 t > –t0 Figure 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits Likewise.5. if the unit step function changes from 0 to 1 at t = – t 0 as shown in Figure 10.3. 1 u0 ( t ) – u0 ( t – 1 ) 1 u0 ( t ) 0 t 0 t 1 0 t –u0 ( t – 1 ) Figure 10.3. Waveform and definition of u 0 ( t + t 0 ) Other forms of the unit step function are shown in Figure 10. A rectangular pulse expressed as the sum of two unit step functions 10-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . t (a) –A u0 ( t ) Au 0 ( – t ) Au 0 ( – t + T ) Τ 0 −A –A u0 ( t – T ) (b) −A 0 −A t −Τ 0 (c) –A u0 ( t + T ) t A A 0 Τ Τ 0 −A (h) (e) Au 0 ( – t – T ) A 0 (d) t t −Τ 0 (f) t 0 −A –A u0 ( –t ) (g) t t −Τ 0 −A (i) t –A u0 ( – t + T ) –A u0 ( – t – T ) Figure 10.4. Other forms of the unit step function Unit step functions can be used to represent other time-varying functions such as the rectangular pulse shown in Figure 10.5. This pulse is represented as u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 1 ) .

2) The line segment has height – A . v(t) A T 2T 3T 0 −A t Figure 10. The vertical dotted lines indicate the discontinuities at T.2) through (10.6 can be expressed as the summation of (10. the square waveform of Figure 10.The Unit Step Function The unit step function offers a convenient method of describing the sudden application of a voltage or current source. starts at t = 3T .1 Solution: The line segment has height A . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.6. or any other recurring pulse. can be described as v ( t ) = ( V m cos ωt )u 0 ( t – t 0 ) V . 3T .3) Line segment expressed as has height A . starts at t = 0 . or sawtooth. Likewise. starts at t = T . 2T. a sinusoidal voltage source v ( t ) = V m cos ωt V that is applied to a circuit at t = t 0 .1 Express the square waveform of Figure 10. This segment can be v 4 ( t ) = – A [ u 0 ( t – 3T ) – u 0 ( t – 4T ) ] (10.5) Thus. if the excitation in a circuit is a rectangular. This segment can be v 3 ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t – 2T ) – u 0 ( t – 3T ) ] (10.3 . and so on. starts at t = 2T . and terminates at t = 2T . Then.5). and terminates at t = 4T . it can be represented as a sum (difference) of unit step functions. a constant voltage source of 24 V applied at t = 0 .6 as a sum of unit step functions. on the time axis. and terminates at t = 3T . and terminates at t = T on the time axis. or triangular. as in Figure 10. Also. This segment can be expressed as v 2 ( t ) = – A [ u 0 ( t – T ) – u 0 ( t – 2T ) ] (10. this segment can be expressed as v1 ( t ) = A [ u0 ( t ) – u0 ( t – T ) ] (10.5. For example. Example 10. Square waveform for Example 10.4) Line segment expressed as has height – A . that is. can be denoted as 24u 0 ( t ) V .

3 and 10. we get v ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t ) – 2u 0 ( t – T ) + 2u 0 ( t – 2T ) – 2u 0 ( t – 3T ) + … ] (10. and terminates at t = T ⁄ 2 .3 Solution: As a first step. Therefore.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v ( t ) = v1 ( t ) + v2 ( t ) + v3 ( t ) + v4 ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – T ) ] – A [ u 0 ( t – T ) – u 0 ( t – 2T ) ] +A [ u 0 ( t – 2T ) – u 0 ( t – 3T ) ] – A [ u 0 ( t – 3T ) – u 0 ( t – 4T ) ] (10.9. i(t) A −T/2 0 T/2 t Figure 10. it starts at t = – T ⁄ 2 .6) Combining like terms.7) Example 10. Symmetric rectangular pulse for Example 10. with reference to Figures 10.3 Express the symmetric triangular waveform shown in Figure 10.2 Solution: This pulse has height A .8) Example 10.2 Express the symmetric rectangular pulse of Figure 10.8 as a sum of unit step functions. we get ----i ( t ) = Au 0 ⎛ t + T ⎞ – Au 0 ⎛ t – T ⎞ = A u 0 ⎛ t + T ⎞ – u 0 ⎛ t – T ⎞ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ (10. 10-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .7 as a sum of unit step functions. we derive the equations of the linear segments and shown in Figure 10.7.4 (b). Symmetric triangular waveform for Example 10. 1 v(t) −T/2 0 T/2 t Figure 10.8.

4 Solution: As in the previous example. we first find the equations of the linear segments Figure 10.10 as a sum of unit step functions. 2 -v 2 ( t ) = ⎛ – -. Equations for the linear segments of Figure 10.⎞ – u 0 ( t ) + ⎛ – -.t + 1⎞ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ⎛ t – -.4 Express the waveform shown in Figure 10. Waveform for Example 10. 2 -v 1 ( t ) = ⎛ -.11) Example 10.The Unit Step Function v(t) 1 2 -.⎞ ⎝T ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ T ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ (10.t + 1 T T/2 0 t Figure 10.10).t + 1⎞ u 0 ⎛ t + T ⎞ – u 0 ( t ) ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝T ⎠ (10.9) and for line segment . we get v ( t ) = v1 ( t ) + v2 ( t ) 2 T 2 T = ⎛ -.8 For line segment .10.5 .11.9) and (10.10) Combining (10.9. v(t) 3 2 1 t 0 1 2 3 Figure 10.t + 1⎞ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ⎛ t – T ⎞ ⎝ T ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ (10.t + 1⎞ u 0 ⎛ t + -.t + 1 T −T/2 2 – -. and shown in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.

We will discuss the unit ramp function first.12) Two other functions of interest are the unit ramp function and the unit impulse or delta function. we get v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) – ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t – 1 ) + 3u 0 ( t – 1 ) – 3u 0 ( t – 2 ) + ( – t + 3 )u 0 ( t – 2 ) – ( – t + 3 )u 0 ( t – 3 ) or v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) + [ – ( 2t + 1 ) + 3 ]u 0 ( t – 1 ) + [ – 3 + ( – t + 3 ) ]u 0 ( t – 2 ) – ( – t + 3 )u 0 ( t – 3 ) and combining terms inside the brackets.13) where τ is a dummy variable. we get v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 1 ) ] + 3 [ u 0 ( t – 1 ) – u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] + ( – t + 3 ) [ u0 ( t – 2 ) – u0 ( t – 3 ) ] Multiplying the values in parentheses by the values in the brackets.10 Following the same procedure as in the previous examples. is defined as u1 ( t ) = ∫– ∞ u 0 ( τ ) d τ t (10. 10-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . denoted as u 1 ( t ) .2 The Unit Ramp Function u 1 ( t ) The unit ramp function. 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v(t) 3 2 2t + 1 1 –t+3 t 0 1 2 3 Figure 10. Equations for the linear segments of Figure 10.11. we get v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) – 2 ( t – 1 )u 0 ( t – 1 ) – t u 0 ( t – 2 ) + ( t – 3 )u 0 ( t – 3 ) (10.

12.---.u n ( t ) n dt (10.17) and in general.13) by considering the area under the unit step function u 0 ( t ) from – ∞ to t as shown in Figure 10. ⎧0 u1 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩t t<0 t≥0 (10.14) and since u 1 ( t ) is the integral of u 0 ( t ) . we define u 2 ( t ) as ⎧0 u2 ( t ) = ⎨ 2 ⎩t t<0 t≥0 or u2 ( t ) = 2 ∫– ∞ u 1 ( τ ) d τ t t (10.12. then u 0 ( t ) must be the derivative of u 1 ( t ) .18) Also. 1d ..u 1 ( t ) = u 0 ( t ) dt (10. i.u n – 1 ( t ) = -. Area under the unit step function from – ∞ to t Therefore.The Unit Ramp Function We can evaluate the integral of (10.e. integrating u 0 ( t ) twice and multiplying by 2 . For example. ⎧0 u3 ( t ) = ⎨ 3 ⎩t t<0 t≥0 or u3 ( t ) = 3 ∫– ∞ u 2 ( τ ) d τ t (10.16) Similarly.7 . d ---.15) Higher order functions of t can be generated by repeated integration of the unit step function. 1 Area = 1τ = τ = t τ t Figure 10. ⎧0 un ( t ) = ⎨ n ⎩t t<0 t≥0 or un ( t ) = 3 ∫– ∞ u n – 1 ( τ ) d τ (10.19) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.

zero width. Figure 10.20) δ ( t ) = 0 for all t ≠ 0 (10. multiplication of any function f ( t ) by the delta function δ ( t ) results in sampling the function at the time instants where the delta function is not zero. we can think of δ ( t ) as approaching a very large spike or impulse at the origin. is the derivative of the unit step u 0 ( t ) . 1 −ε Area =1 −ε 0 ε 0 Figure (a) ε t 1 2ε Figure (b) t Figure 10. Two useful properties of the delta function are the sampling property and the sifting property. 1 ⁄ 2 ε becomes unbounded.13. Therefore.13 (a).21) To better understand the delta function δ ( t ) .13 (a).Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 10. The study of discrete-time systems is based on this property.23) that is. with unbounded amplitude. The Sampling Property of the Delta Function states that f ( t )δ ( t ) = f ( 0 )δ ( t ) (10. It is generally defined as ∫– ∞ δ ( τ ) d τ where t = u0 ( t ) (10. where we see that as ε → 0 .22) or f ( t )δ ( t – a ) = f ( a )δ ( t ) (10. Representation of the unit step as a limit. and area equal to 1 . The function of Figure 10.3 The Delta Function δ ( t ) The unit impulse or delta function. 10-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . but the area of the rectangle remains 1 . let us represent the unit step u 0 ( t ) as shown in Figure 10. in the limit.13 (b) is the derivative of Figure 10. denoted as δ ( t ) .13 (a) becomes the unit step as ε → 0 .

5 s b. These are designated by the names of the mathematicians who used them in their work. They are provided in Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications.14.22) through (10.24) that is. The proofs of (10. we will obtain the value of f ( t ) evaluated at t – α .5 s c. Shown below are examples of how they are being used. MATLAB has two built-in functions for the unit step and the delta functions. Compute v out at: a. t = – 0. t = 1. the inputs are applied at different times as indicated. syms k a t u=k*sym('Heaviside(t-a)') % Create unit step function at t=a u = k*Heaviside(t-a) d=diff(u) % Compute the derivative of the unit step function d = k*Dirac(t-a) int(d) % Integrate the delta function ans = Heaviside(t-a)*k Example 10. The unit step u 0 ( t ) is called Heavyside(t) and the delta function δ ( t ) is called Dirac(t).9 .5 For the circuit shown in Figure 10. t = 5 s Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. Orchard Publications 2001. ISBN 09709511-3-2 by this author. if we multiply any function f ( t ) by δ ( t – α ) and integrate from −∞ to +∞.24) and additional properties of the delta function are beyond the scope of this book.The Delta Function The Sifting Property of the Delta Function states that ∫–∞ f ( t )δ ( t – α ) dt ∞ = f(α ) (10.

14 [ u 0 ( t + 1 ) + u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] mA 0 1 u0 ( t – 1 ) t(s) [ u0 ( t + 1 ) + u0 ( t – 2 ) ] −1 0 1 2 t(s) a.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v in 1 = 0.14 [ u 0 ( t + 1 ) + u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] mA 3 KΩ 50 KΩ − Rf + − + 6 KΩ + v in 1 + v in 2 − 5 KΩ v out − i in Figure 10. v in 1 = 0.8u 0 ( t – 3 ) V 0 1 2 3 u0 ( t – 3 ) t(s) v in 2 = 0.15.5 s only the signal due to i in is active.14.5 Solution: Let us first sketch the step functions for each of the inputs. the input circuit becomes as shown in Figure 10. therefore.8u 0 ( t – 3 ) V v in 2 = 0. Circuit for Example 10.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V i in = 0. 10-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V i in = 0. exchanging the current source and its parallel resistance with an equivalent voltage source with a series resistance. At t = – 0.

Input to the circuit of Example 10. At t = 1.2 mV ) = 7 V ⎝ 10 ⁄ 7⎠ (10.= 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω 7 KΩ + − + v TH1 − −0.2 V Figure 10.5 when i in is acting alone Replacing the circuit of Figure 10.17.11 .16. 3 KΩ 6 KΩ = 2 KΩ 5 KΩ 2 KΩ −0.( – 0.2 V v TH1 + + v out 1 − Figure 10.5 when i in is acting alone Now.17.7 V 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω 2 KΩ v TH1 = V 2 KΩ = ---------------------------------. Simplified input to the circuit of Example 10.15 with its Thevenin equivalent.14 [ u 0 ( t + 1 ) + u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] mA and Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. we can compute v out 1 with the circuit of Figure 10.5 s the active inputs are i in = 0.25) b. 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω Rf − 50 K Ω + − −0.16.7 ) = – 0.2 V 2 KΩ + 5 KΩ 2 KΩ × 5 KΩ R TH1 = ---------------------------------. Circuit for computation of v out 1 50 v out 1 = – ⎛ ------------⎞ v TH1 = – 35 × ( – 0. we get the network of Figure 10.The Delta Function To op amp’s inverting input 5 KΩ 3 KΩ 6 KΩ − + −0.15.7 V Figure 10.

20.5 V Figure 10. 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω Rf 50 KΩ − + v TH2 − 5----.18. To op amp’s inverting input 6 KΩ 3 KΩ 5 KΩ − + 0. the input circuit is as shown in Figure 10.18 with its Thevenin equivalent. Input to the circuit of Example 10.V 15 ⁄ 8 + 6 42 R TH 2 = R TH 1 = 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω + − + 0.19. we will find the output due to v in 2 acting alone and then apply superposition to find the output when both of these inputs are present.5 when v in 2 is acting alone Replacing this circuit of Figure 10.V 42 + v out 2 − + Figure 10. we get the network of Figure 10.( 0. 3 KΩ 5 K Ω = 15 ⁄ 8 K Ω 15 ⁄ 8 5 6 KΩ 15/8 KΩ 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω v TH2 = v ( 15 ⁄ 8 ) KΩ = --------------------.18. Thus.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits v in 2 = 0.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V Since we already know the output due to i in acting alone. Simplified input to the circuit of Example 10. Circuit for computation of v out 2 10-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 V − ----5 42 V Figure 10. with the input v in 2 acting alone.20.5 when v in 2 is acting alone Now.19. we can compute v out 2 with the circuit of Figure 10.5 ) = ----.

21. we can compute v out 3 with the circuit of Figure 10. with the input v in 1 acting alone. the input circuit is as shown in Figure 10. 6 KΩ 5 K Ω = 30 ⁄ 11 kΩ 30 ⁄ 11 10 3 KΩ 30 /11 KΩ 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω v TH3 = v ( 30 ⁄ 11 ) KΩ = -----------------------. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.8 V − 10 ----21 V Figure 10. Simplified input to the circuit of Example 10.8u 0 ( t – 3 ) V and v in 2 = 0. To op amp’s inverting input 3 KΩ 6 KΩ 5 KΩ − + 0. we get the network of Figure 10. Thus.27) c.25) and (10. Input to the circuit of Example 10.26) Therefore.5 when v in 1 is acting alone Now.23.5u 0 ( t – 1 ) V Since we already know the output due to v in 2 acting alone.26) the op amp’s output voltage at t = 1.V 30 ⁄ 11 + 3 21 R TH 3 = R TH 2 = R TH 1 = 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω + − + 0.22.13 .8 ) = ----.21 with its Thevenin equivalent.22.⎞ = – 25 V ⎝ 10 ⁄ 7⎠ ⎝ 42 ⎠ 6 (10.5 when v in 1 is acting alone Replacing this circuit of Figure 10.8 V Figure 10. from (10. At t = 5 s the active inputs are v in 1 = 0. we will find the output due to v in 1 acting alone and then apply superposition to find the output when both of these inputs are present.21.5 s is 17 v out 1 + v out 2 = 7 – 25 = ----.The Delta Function 50 5----v out 2 = – ⎛ ------------⎞ v TH2 = – 35 × ⎛ ----.( 0.V ----6 6 (10.

Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 10 ⁄ 7 K Ω Rf 50 KΩ − + v TH3 − 10 ----21 V + v out 3 − + Figure 10.24. that is.26) and (10.+ Ri = V S u 0 ( t ) dt (10.⎞ = – ----.V 6 3 6 (10. from (10.28) the op amp’s output voltage at t = 5 s is 25 50 125 v out 2 + v out 3 = – ----. The switch in Figure 10. the inductor current i L ( t ) will be referred to as the total response. Circuits for derivation of the total response i L ( t ) = i ( t ) We start by applying KVL.= – -------.23. V S is constant.4 The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit For the circuit shown in Figure 10.24 (b). We will derive an expression for the inductor current i L ( t ) = i ( t ) for t > 0 given that the initial condition is i L ( 0 ) = 0 . di L ---.V ⎝ 21 ⎠ ⎝ 10 ⁄ 7⎠ 3 (10. Here.– ----.24 (a). Circuit for computation of v out 3 10 50 50 v out 3 = – ⎛ ------------⎞ v TH3 = – 35 × ⎛ ----.24 (a) can be omitted if we multiply the excitation V S by the unit step function u 0 ( t ) as shown in Figure 10.28) Therefore.30) 10-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .29) 10. R − t = 0 R + VS − i(t) (a) L + VS u0 ( t ) − i(t) (b) L Figure 10.

rearranging (10.32).= dt V S – Ri or ∫ ----------------. at t = 0 + L – -. and integrating we get: di L ---.ln ( V S – 0 ) = 0 + k R or L k = – -. we must solve the differential equation di L ---. we get L L – -.The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit The initial condition states that i L ( 0 ) = 0 .ln V S R and by substitution into (10.31) It is shown in differential equations textbooks that a differential equation such as the above. can be solved by the method of separation of the variables.32).= V S – Ri dt or Ldi ---------------.= ∫ dt V S – Ri and referring to a table of integrals.15 . we get L – -.+ Ri = V S dt − (10. Thus. separating the variables.ln V S R R or L – -.ln ( V S – Ri ) = t – -. and as we stated in the previous chapter iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) − + (10.33) Therefore.[ ln ( V S – Ri ) – ln V S ] = t R or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.32) The constant k in (10.ln ( V S – Ri ) = t + k R Ldi (10.32) represents the constant of integration of both sides and it can be evaluated from the initial condition. i ( t ) = 0 For t > 0 . thus for t < 0 .

= – -.= t R VS or V S – Ri R ln ---------------.35).– ----.34) We observe that the right side of (10.e – ( R ⁄ L )t that has the same form as that of the previous V R chapter which we call the natural response. 10-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is. The amplitude of the natural response is – V S ⁄ R and depends on the values of V S and R . i ( t ) total = i ( t ) or i total = i f + i n (10. The forced response V S ⁄ R is a result of the application of the excitation (forcing) function V S u 0 ( t ) applied to the RL circuit.35) forced response + i ( t ) natural response Now. V S ⁄ R which is constant called the S forced response.ln ---------------.= e VS or Ri = V S – V S e –( R ⁄ L ) t or VS VS –( R ⁄ L ) t i ( t ) = ----. The summation of the forced response and the natural response constitutes the total response or com- plete response.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits V S – Ri L – -.t L VS or V S – Ri –( R ⁄ L ) t ----------------. and the exponential term – ----.e u (t) ⎝R R ⎠ 0 (10. let us return to the RL circuit of Figure 10.– ----.e R R The general expression for all t is V S V S – ( R ⁄ L ) t⎞ i ( t ) = ⎛ ----.34) consists of two terms.24 to find the complete (total) response i total by the summation of the forced and the natural responses as indicated in (10. This value represents the steady-state condition reached as t → ∞ since the inductor L at this state behaves as a short circuit.

+ Ae R or VS A = – ----R Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.25 where we let t → ∞ R − VS u0 ( t ) Short Circuit as t → ∞ + if L Figure 10.38) yields VS 0 i ( 0 ) = 0 = ----. R VS u0 ( t ) = 0 in L Figure 10.38) − + where the constant A is evaluated from the initial condition i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) Substitution of the initial condition into (10.36) Next.17 . Circuit for derivation of the forced response i f Then.26. Circuit for derivation of the natural response i n We found in Chapter 9 that the natural response i n has the exponential form i n = Ae – ( R ⁄ L )t (10.25. from the circuit of Figure 10.26. the total response is VS – ( R ⁄ L )t i total = i f + i n = ----.25. VS i f = ----R (10.37) Therefore.+ Ae R (10. we need to find the natural response. This is found by letting the excitation (forcing function) V S u 0 ( t ) go to zero as shown in the circuit of Figure 10.The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit The forced response i f is found from the circuit of Figure 10.

6 -0.i total = ⎛ ----.27.2 0. S S –( R ⁄ L ) t We can sketch i total easily if we sketch ----. This is V R V R done with Excel and the plots are shown in Figure 10.0 τ Figure 10.2 -0. and its numerical value can be found from the circuit constants R and L as follows: The equation of the straight line with slope = V S ⁄ L is found from d---. Exponential Rise in RL Circuit 1.8 -1.= ----.– ----.0 -0.τ L R or τ = -L R 10-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .8 0.34).632VS / R i(t) = VS / R −(VS/ R) e−Rt / L Time Constants −(VS / R) e−Rt / L Percent VS / R 0.0 0.e ⎝R R ⎠ 0 (10.= -.4 0.( i total ) dt R V S –( R ⁄ L ) t .27. Curves for forced.39) and this is the same as (10.6 VS / R i(t) = (VS / L) t 0. natural.and – ----.e L R VS = ----L t=0 t=0 Assuming constant rate of change as shown in Figure 10. VS i ( t ) = ----R and thus VS VS ----.38) is rewritten as V S V S – ( R ⁄ L )t ⎞ u (t) .e separately and then add these. at t = τ .4 -0. and total responses in a series RL circuit The time constant τ is defined as before.27.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits and with this substitution (10.⋅ ----.

6 For the circuit of Figure 10.29.40) Therefore.( 1 – e ) = ----.6 for t < 0 From the circuit of Figure 10. from (10. compute the energy stored in the 10 mH inductor at t = 100 ms .The Forced and Total Response in an RL Circuit as before. Circuit of Example 10.= ----.6 Solution: For t < 0 . in one time constant has reached 63. 6Ω + − 12 V iL ( t ) Figure 10. the current in a series RL circuit which has been excited by a constant source.39) VS V S V S –( R ⁄ L ) ( L ⁄ R ) VS –1 .28.29 where the 3 Ω resistor is shorted out by the inductor.41) 10.28.( 1 – 0. 6Ω + − 12 V 10 mH iL ( t ) 3Ω 5u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10.29. the circuit is as shown in Figure 10. Example 10.368 ) i ( τ ) = ----. − ----i L ( 0 ) = 12 = 2 A 6 and this value establishes our initial condition as iL ( 0 ) = 2 A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications + (10. Also.2% of its final value. Circuit for Example 10.e R R R R or VS i ( τ ) = 0.632 ----R (10.19 .– ----.

the circuit is as shown in Figure 10.6 for determining the natural response The natural response of RL circuit of Figure 10. The circuit then reduces to that shown in Figure 10.32. i f = 2 – 5 or if = –3 A (10.32. 6Ω + − 12 V 10 mH iL ( t ) 3Ω 5A Figure 10. 2A 10 mH 5A if Figure 10. Circuit of Example 10. 6Ω 10 mH 3 Ω || 6 Ω = 2 Ω in 3Ω in 10 mH 2Ω Figure 10.31 where the voltage source and its series resistance have been exchanged for an equivalent current source with a parallel resistor.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits For t > 0 .6 under steady-state conditions By inspection.6 for t > 0 We will find i L ( t ) from the relation iL ( t ) = if + in The forced component i f is found from the circuit at steady state conditions. It is shown in Figure 10. Circuit of Example 10. The resistors have been shorted out by the inductor.30. Circuit of Example 10.31.30.32 is i n = Ae – ( R ⁄ L )t = Ae – ( 2 ⁄ 10 × 10 )t –3 10-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .42) To find i n we short the voltage source and open the current source.

R − t = 0 C R VS + − + − (t) vC − VS u0 ( t ) (b) + + v (t) − R C + − vC ( t ) (a) Figure 10. we get i L ( 0 ) = 2 = – 3 + Ae + –0 or A = 5 Finally.42).45) and the energy stored in the inductor at t = 100 ms is –3 – 200 × 100 × 10 ⎞ 1 2 1 WL = -. that is.10 × 10 ⎛ – 3 + 5e ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 t = 100 ms t = 100 ms = 5 × 10 –3 ( – 3 + 5e – 20 2 ) = 45 mJ –3 2 (10. the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) will be referred to as the total response.43) The total response is the summation of (10. We will derive an expression for the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) for t > 0 given that the initial condition is v C ( 0 ) = 0 . by substitution into (10.43).44) we get i total = ( – 3 + 5e – 200t )u 0 ( t ) (10.46) 10.The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit or i n = Ae – 200t (10.Li L = -.5 The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit For the circuit shown in Figure 10. Here.44) Using the initial condition of (10.42) and (10. Circuits for derivation of the total response v C ( t ) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.33.21 . V S is constant. i total = i f + i n = – 3 + Ae – 200t (10.33 (a).

dt RC vC – VS or ∫ ----------------. We start by applying KVL.+ v C = V S u 0 ( t ) dt (10.33 (b).50) 1 ln ( v C – V S ) = – ------.47) and since dv C i = i C = C -------dt we can express v R as dv C v R = Ri = RC ------dt By substitution into (10. Then.47). separating variables and integrating. that is.dt vC – VS or dv C 1= – ------. we get dv C RC -------.dt RC ∫ (10.= – ------.t + k RC where k represents the constant of integration of both sides of (10.33 (a) can be omitted if we multiply the excitation V S by the unit step function u 0 ( t ) as shown in Figure 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits The switch in Figure 10. vR + vC = VS u0 ( t ) (10. vC – VS = e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t + k = e e k – ( 1 ⁄ ( RC ) ) t = k1 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 10-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . we must solve the differential equation dv C RC -------.48) The initial condition states that v C ( 0 ) = 0 .+ v C = V S dt − (10. thus for t < 0 . we get: RCdv C = ( V S – v C )dt or dv C 1 ----------------. v C ( t ) = 0 For t > 0 .51).49) Rearranging.

The forced response v C f is found from the circuit of Figure 10.. The summation of the forced response and the natural response constitutes the total response. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. we observe that the solution consists of a forced response and a natural response. let us return to the RC circuit of Figure 10.34.52) As with the RL circuit of the previous section. i.53). v C ( t ) complete response = v C ( t ) forced response + v C ( t ) natural response or v C total = v C f + v C n (10. from the circuit of Figure 10. Circuit for derivation of the forced response v C f Then.23 .53) Now.49) is vC ( t ) = ( VS – VS e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t )u 0 ( t ) (10.34.33 to find the complete (total) response by summing the forced and the natural responses indicated in (10.51) we get vC ( 0 ) = 0 = VS – k1 e + 0 or k1 = VS Therefore. The constant term V S is the voltage attained across the capacitor as t → ∞ and represents the steady-state condition since the capacitor C at this state behaves as an open circuit.e.34 where we let t → ∞ R + − vCf VS u0 ( t ) Open Circuit as t → ∞ Figure 10.The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit or vC = VS – k1 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t − (10.51) + The constant k 1 can be evaluated from the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 0 where by substitution into (10. The amplitude of the exponential term natural response is – V S . the solution of (10.

and its numerical value can be found from the circuit constants R and C as follows: 10-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .55) − + where the constant A is evaluated from the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 0 Substitution of the initial condition into (10.54) Next. we need to find the natural response and this is found by letting the excitation (forcing function) V S u 0 ( t ) go to zero as shown in Figure 10. R C VS u0 ( t ) = 0 vCn Figure 10.36.56) and this is the same as (10.52). The time constant τ is defined as before. This is done with Excel and the plots are shown in Figure 10.55) is rewritten as vC ( t ) = ( VS – VS e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t )u 0 ( t ) (10.55) yields v C ( 0 ) = 0 = V S – Ae + 0 or A = –VS With this substitution (10. Circuit for derivation of the natural response v C n We found in Chapter 9 that the natural response v C n has the exponential form v C n = Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t and thus the total response is v C ( t ) = v C f + v C n = V S + Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t (10. We can sketch v C total easily if we sketch V S and – V S e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t separately and then add these.35.35.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits vCf = VS (10.

2 0.0 -0.0 0. at t = τ .2 -0.368 ) –1 or v C ( τ ) = 0.8 0.4 -0. Curves for forced.56) vC ( τ ) = VS –VS e – ( 1 ⁄ RC )RC = V S ( 1 – e ) = V S ( 1 – 0.2% of its final value.36.632VC / V S vC(t) = VS − VS e−t / RC Time Constants −VS e−t / RC τ Figure 10. natural.25 .0 VC / V S vC(t) = (VS / RC) t 0.v C ( t ) dt – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t 1 = ------.6 -0.6 Percent VC / V S 0.57) Therefore. vC ( t ) = VS and thus VS V S = ------. in one time constant has reached 63.8 -1. and total responses in a series RC circuit The equation of the straight line with slope = V S ⁄ RC is found from d ---. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. from (10.The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit Exponential Rise in RC Circuit 1. Also.36.632V S (10.τ RC or τ = RC as before.⋅ V S e RC t=0 t=0 VS = ------RC Assuming constant rate of change as shown in Figure 10. the voltage across a capacitor in a series RC circuit which has been excited by a constant source.4 0.

the circuit at t = 1 is as shown in Figure 10. since there is no voltage or current source present to cause current to flow.37 find: a. Exchanging the current source and the 10 KΩ resistor with a voltage source with a 10 KΩ series resistor. Circuit for Example 10. iC ( t ) 9u 0 ( t – 1 ) V + + C 10 µF 10 KΩ 60 KΩ + − 20 KΩ − vC ( t ) Figure 10.7 Solution: a. v C ( 1 ) and i C ( 1 ) c. v C ( t = 10 min. ) and i C ( t = 10 min. i C ( t ) for t > 1 9u 0 ( t – 1 ) mA iC ( t ) 10 µF + + − − + C − vC ( t ) 10 KΩ 60 KΩ 20 KΩ Figure 10. v C ( 1 ) and i C ( 1 ) b. Circuit for Example 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits Example 10. We assume time is in seconds since we are not told otherwise. No initial condition is given so we must assume that sufficient time has elapsed for steady-state conditions to exist for all t < 1 s. 38. ) d.37.7 at t = 1 + 10-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .38.7 For the circuit shown in Figure 10. Then. we get vC ( 1 ) = 0 − and iC ( 1 ) = 0 − b.

90 V v C ( t = 10 min ) = v C ( ∞ ) = v 60 KΩ = ---------------------------------------------.2 ) t = Ae – 5t (10. the voltage across the capacitor would change instantaneously. the equivalent resistance is R eq = ( 10 KΩ + 20 KΩ ) || 60 KΩ = 20 KΩ or R eq C = 20 × 10 × 10 × 10 3 –6 = 0.38.⋅ 60 KΩ = 60 V ( 20 + 10 + 60 ) KΩ Also. i C n = Ae – ( 1 ⁄ 0.e. no current flows through the 60 kΩ resistor at t = 1 . this is a physical impossibility.59) where i C ( 1 ) = 3 mA = Ae + –5 or Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. iC ( t ) dv C = C -------.27 . since v C ( 1 ) = v C ( 1 ) . the current path is through the capacitor which at exactly t = 1 acts as a short circuit since v C ( 1 ) = v C ( 1 ) = 0 . Instead. Therefore. The time t = 10 min is the essentially the same as t = ∞ . For t > 1 iC ( t ) t>1 where from part (c) iC f ( ∞ ) = 0 and i C n = Ae –( 1 ⁄ R eq C) t With the voltage source shorted in the circuit of Figure 10. i.58) c.59) We can evaluate the constant A using (10. and at this time the capacitor voltage v C ( t = 10 min ) is constant and equal to the voltage across the 60 KΩ resistor.= 0 t=∞ dt = iC f + iC n d.2 s Therefore. + 90 V i C ( 1 ) = --------------------------------..= 3 mA ( 20 + 10 ) KΩ + − + + − + (10.The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit Now. if it did. and as we know.

the capacitor is discharged. at the end of the first period when the switch is open. Compute and sketch the voltage across the capacitor for two repetitive cycles.= 0.e. Circuit for Example 10. the voltage across the capacitor is vC ( t ) t = 15 µs = vC f + vC n = VS – VS e – t ⁄ RC = 6 – 6e – 4 × 10 t 4 = 6 – 6e – 0. v C ( 0 ) = 0 .445 ------------------e–5 –3 and by substitution into (10. with the switch closed for 15 < t closed < 30 µs the circuit is as shown in Figure 10.59).39.40 is τ open = R eq C = ( 1 KΩ + 0. VS 1 KΩ 250 Ω C + + − vC ( t ) − 6V Switch open 0.71 V (10.8 with the switch in the open position For the time period 0 < t open < 15 µs the time constant for the circuit of Figure 10.61) Next.60) Example 10. iC ( t ) t>1 = i C f + i C n = i C n = 0. Circuit for Example 10.02 × 10 –6 = 25 µs Thus. the switch is actually an electronic switch and it is open for 15 µs and closed for 15 µs .Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits A = 3 × 10 .8 In the circuit shown in Figure 10. Initially. VS 1 KΩ 250 Ω 350 Ω 6V 0. 10-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .40. i..02 µF Figure 10.25 KΩ ) × 0.6 = 2.445e – 5t u 0 ( t – 1 ) mA (10.40.39.41.8 Solution: With the switch in the open position the circuit is as shown in Figure 10.02 µF + C + − (t) vC − Figure 10.

56 + 1.The Forced and Total Response in an RC Circuit × VS 1 KΩ x 250 Ω + − 6V Switch closed 350 Ω C + − (t) vC 0.56 V 0.56 + A 1 e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.56 + A 1 e A 1 = 1.41.2 ) ( 15 – 15 ) Then. Thevenin equivalent circuit for the circuit of Figure 10.42.2 ) ( t – 15 ) (10.42 is v C ( t ) = v C f + v C n = V TH + A 1 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) ( t – 15 ) = 1.2 µs The capacitor voltage v C ( t ) for the circuit of Figure 10.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10. VTH RTH 259 Ω 250 Ω C + + − 350V TH = ----------.02 µF × y Figure 10.02 × 10 –6 = 10. Circuit for Example 10.02 µF v C ( t ) Figure 10.8 with the switch in the closed position Replacing the circuit to the left of points x and y by its Thevenin equivalent.41 The time constant for the circuit of Figure 10.× 6 = 1.2 ) ( t – 15 ) (10. vC ( t ) 15 < t < 30 µs = 2.15 or and by substitution into (10.62) vC ( t ) 15 < t < 30 µs = 1.56 V 1350 350 × 1000 R TH = -------------------------. is τ closed = R eq C = ( 259 Ω + 250 Ω ) × 0.62) and the constant A 1 is evaluated from initial condition at t = 15 µs which by (10.42.62) is vC ( t ) t = 15 µs = 2.= 259 Ω 1350 − 1.71 V – ( 1 ⁄ 10.42 where the switch is closed.71 = 1.63) At the end of the first period when the switch is closed. the voltage across the capacitor is Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.29 . we get the circuit shown in Figure 10.

56 + 2.82 V (10. that is.05 V (10. the time constant τ open is the same as before. τ open = 25 µs and the capacitor voltage is vC ( t ) = vC f + vCn = 6 + A2 e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( t – 30 ) (10.2 ) ( t – 45 ) (10..71) 10-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .18 e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( 45 – 30 ) = 3.e.68) and with (10.67) The second period when the switch is closed is 45 < t closed < 60 µs Then. we get vC ( t ) 60 < t < 75 µs = 6 – 3. for 30 < t open < 45 µs when the switch is open.66) At the end of the second period when the switch is open.2 ) ( t – 45 ) (10.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.65) The constant A 2 is computed with (10.64) For the next cycle.15 Therefore.71 V (10.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.56 + A 3 e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.67) we get A 3 = 2.18 – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( 30 – 30 ) or and by substitution into (10. vC ( t ) 45 < t < 60 µs = v C f + v C n = V TH + A 3 e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) ( t – 45 ) = 1.69) and vC ( t ) t = 60 µs = 1.65) vC ( t ) 30 < t < 45 µs = 6 – 4.82 = 6 + A 2 e A 2 = – 4.95e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( t – 60 ) (10.15e – ( 1 ⁄ 10.65) as vC ( t ) t = 30 µs = 1.2 ) ( 60 – 45 ) = 2. i.56 + 1.56 + 2.70) Repeating the above steps for the third open and closed switch periods. vC ( t ) 45 < t < 60 µs = 1. the voltage across the capacitor is vC ( t ) t = 45 µs = 6 – 4.18e – ( 1 ⁄ 25 ) ( t – 30 ) (10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits vC ( t ) t = 30 µs = 1.2 ) ( 30 – 15 ) = 1.

1 0 • Unit step functions can be used to represent other time-varying functions. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.08 V (10.73) and vC ( t ) t = 90 µs = 2. Voltage across the capacitor for the circuit of Example 10. Capacitor Voltage (V) 4 3 2 1 0 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 Time (µs) Figure 10.27e – ( 1 ⁄ 10. vC ( t ) 75 < t < 90 µs = 1. • The unit step function offers a convenient method of describing the sudden application of a voltu0 ( t ) age or current source.83 V (10.56 + 2.43.43.8 10.2 ) ( t – 75 ) (10.Summary and vC ( t ) t = 75 µs = 3.6 Summary • The unit step function u 0 ( t ) is defined as ⎧0 u0 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩1 t<0 t>0 and it is represented by the waveform below.74) and using Excel we get the waveform shown in Figure 10.72) Likewise.31 .

– ( 1 ⁄ RC )t . i n = ( – V S ⁄ R )e is v C ( t ) = v C f + v C n = ( V S + Ae – ( 1 ⁄ RC )t –( R ⁄ L ) t • In a simple RC circuit that is excited by a voltage source V S u 0 ( t ) the voltage across the capacitor )u 0 ( t ) where the forced response v C f represents the steady-state condition reached as t → ∞ . is the derivative of the unit step u 0 ( t ) . that is. that is. u1 ( t ) = ∫– ∞ u 0 ( τ ) d τ t<0 t≥0 t where τ is a dummy variable.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits • The unit ramp function u 1 ( t ) . that is. Since the capacitor C at this state behaves as an open circuit.– ----. The natural response v C n is the second term in the parenthesis of the above expression. It is defined as dδ ( τ ) = ---.u 0 ( t ) dt or ∫– ∞ δ ( τ ) d τ and t = u0 ( t ) δ ( t ) = 0 for all t ≠ 0 • In a simple RL circuit that is excited by a voltage source V S u 0 ( t ) the current is V S V S – ( R ⁄ L ) t⎞ u (t) i ( t ) = i f + i n = ⎛ ----. v C n = Ae must be evaluated from the total response. is defined as the integral of the unit step function. The constant A 10-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .e ⎝R R ⎠ 0 where the forced response i f represents the steady-state condition reached as t → ∞ . denoted as δ ( t ) . i f = V S ⁄ R . v C f = V S . It is also expressed as ⎧0 u1 ( t ) = ⎨ ⎩t • The unit impulse or delta function. The natural response i n is the second term in the parenthesis of the above expression. Since the inductor L at this state behaves as a short circuit.

2. The forced response component i Lf of the inductor current for the circuit of Figure 10.5 ms B. For the circuit of Figure 10. Circuit for Question 2 10 KΩ 5 KΩ 10 µF 3. 10 A Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. none of the above 4 KΩ 6 KΩ 5u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10.7 Exercises Multiple Choice 1.2 ms E. 71. 78.43 µs C. For the circuit of Figure 10.45 the time constant is A.46 is A. 16 A B. 50 ms B. 000 s D. 190 ms D.6 ms E. Circuit for Question 1 2. 100 ms C.45. 0. none of the above 4Ω 2Ω 1 mH + 12u 0 ( t ) V − 12 Ω Figure 10. 0.44 the time constant is A.Exercises 10.44.33 .

10 V B. 6 – 4 e –5000t A E.47. 6 A B. none of the above 10-34 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 6 A D. 2 A E. 32 ⁄ 3 V D. For t > 0 the total response of i L ( t ) is A. none of the above 4 KΩ 2 KΩ 1 µF + 16u 0 ( t ) V − 12 KΩ Figure 10. none of the above 5Ω 4Ω 16u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. 2 V C. Circuit for Question 3 12 Ω 1 mH 4. 8 V E.47 is A. Circuit for Question 4 5. The forced response component v Cf of the capacitor voltage for the circuit of Figure 10.46. 6 + 6e − D. 6e –5000t A – 5000t A C.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits C. For the circuit of Figure 10.48 i L ( 0 ) = 2 A .

For t > 0 the total response of v C ( t ) is A. 12 V B. 32e – 8000t – 8000t V E. 12 – 7e D. – 32e D. Circuit for Question 6 7. 12 + 7e – 500t – 200t – 200t − V V V E.35 . none of the above Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.50 i L ( 0 ) = 2 A . 10 – 5e C.Exercises 5Ω 4Ω 16u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. 20e – 5000t – 5000t − V V V C.49.48. 20e B. Circuit for Question 5 12 Ω 1 mH iL ( t ) 6. For the circuit of Figure 10. For the circuit of Figure 10. none of the above 4 KΩ 2 KΩ 1 µF + 16u 0 ( t ) V − 12 KΩ + − vC ( t ) Figure 10. For t > 0 the total response of v L ( t ) is A.49 v C ( 0 ) = 5 V .

3500e D. none of the above 4 KΩ 2 KΩ 1 µF iC ( t ) + 16u 0 ( t ) V − 12 KΩ Figure 10. 3t [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 1 ) ] + ( – 1.52 can be expressed as A. 1400e B. 1.51.4e – 200t − A – 200t A A C. none of the above 10-36 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 ) [ u 0 ( t – 1 ) – u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] A D.51 v C ( 0 ) = 5 V . 3. 3 [ u 0 ( t ) ] – 3 [ u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] A C. For the circuit of Figure 10.5e – 500t – 500t A E. Circuit for Question 8 9. 3tu 0 ( t ) A B.5 ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] A E. 3t [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 3 ) ] + ( – 1. The waveform of Figure 10.50. Circuit for Question 7 12 Ω 1 mH + − vL ( t ) 8.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 5Ω 4Ω 16u 0 ( t ) A Figure 10. For t > 0 the total response i C ( t ) is A.5t + 4.5t + 4.

The waveform of Figure 10.53. none of the above vC ( t ) V 2 1 – αt 2e – βt 2 – 2e 1 2 3 t (s) Figure 10. the voltage source v S ( t ) varies with time as shown by the waveform of Figure 10. Waveform for Question 9 10. and express v LOAD ( t ) as a sum of unit step functions for 0 ≤ t ≤ 5 s. ( 2 – 2e C. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. sketch.54. ( 2 – 2e D.55.52. ( 2 – 2e ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] + ( 2e ) [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 2 ) ] – ( 2e ) [ u 0 ( t ) ] – ( 2e – βt ) [ u0 ( t – 2 ) – u0 ( t – 3 ) ] V – αt – αt – βt ) [ u0 ( t – 2 ) – u0 ( t – 3 ) ] V ) [ u0 ( t – 3 ) ] V E. Waveform for Question 10 Problems 1. Compute.37 . In the circuit of Figure 10. 2 ( 1 – e – αt – αt –e – βt )u 0 ( t ) V – βt B.53 can be expressed as A.Exercises 3 2 1 t (s) iL ( t ) A 1 2 3 Figure 10.

Compute and sketch i L ( t ) for all t > 0 10-38 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .57 (b). Compute i L ( t ) for 0 < t < 0. In the circuit of Figure 10. v S ( t ) = 15u 0 ( t ) – 30u 0 ( t – 2 ) V . the excitation v S ( t ) is a pulse as shown in Figure 10.54.56. R 3 KΩ + L − vS ( t ) iL ( t ) 1 mH Figure 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 6Ω 6Ω 12 Ω + v LOAD ( t ) 10 Ω + − vS ( t ) − Figure 10. Compute i L ( t ) for t > 0 . a. In the circuit of Figure 10. Waveform for Problem 1 2.56.57 (a). Circuit for Problem 2 3.55.3 ms b. Circuit for Problem 1 v S ( t ) (V) 120 60 0 −60 t(s) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Figure 10.

i SW ( t ) S 4Ω vS 6Ω t = 0 + − 20 V 8Ω 1H iL ( t ) Figure 10.58. compute v out ( t ) for t > 0 in terms of R . C .57. Circuit for Problem 4 5. 10u 0 ( t ) A vS 38 Ω + − 24 V 2Ω 50 µF + − vC ( t ) Figure 10. For the circuit of Figure 10. Circuit and waveform for Problem 3 4. For the circuit of Figure 10.60.39 .Exercises iL ( t ) 3Ω 1 mH 6Ω 6Ω 0.3 (a) (b) t (ms) vS ( t ) V 24 + − vS ( t ) Figure 10. Compute and sketch i L ( t ) and i SW ( t ) for t > 0 . and v in u 0 ( t ) given that v C ( 0 ) = 0 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications − 10.58. In the circuit of Figure 10.59. Circuit for Problem 5 6.59. switch S has been open for a very long time and closes at t = 0 . compute v C ( t ) for t > 0 .

switch S has been open for a very long time and closes at t = 0 . Hint: Be careful in deriving the time constant for this circuit.60. Compute and sketch v C ( t ) and v R3 ( t ) for t > 0 . Circuit for Problem 6 7.62. it is given that v C ( 0 ) = 5 V . In the circuit of Figure 10. Compute i C ( t ) for t > 0 . For the circuit of Figure 10.61. iC ( t ) C − R1 18 Ω R2 12 Ω + − vC ( t ) 1F + − 10i ( t ) C Figure 10.61. R1 v S2 − R2 + 25 KΩ v S1 50 KΩ 50 V + − t = 0 100u 0 ( – t ) V S vC ( t ) − 1 µF v R3 ( t ) R3 C + − + 100 KΩ Figure 10.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits C R v in u 0 ( t ) v out ( t ) Figure 10. Circuit for Problem 7 8.62. Circuit for Problem 8 10-40 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

D 8.Answers to Exercises 10. 6Ω 6Ω 12 Ω – 8000t A × x 10 Ω + v LOAD ( t ) − 10 Ω + 10 Ω + − vS ( t ) + y × v S ( t ) (V) 120 60 0 −60 − v TH ( t ) v LOAD ( t ) − 1 2 3 4 5 6 t(s) For the Thevenin equivalent voltage at different time intervals is as shown below. A 9. C 10. We replace the given circuit shown below with its Thevenin equivalent. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. B 3. D 2. C 4.41 . E 12 V 5. B Problems 1. E 6 – 4e 6.8 Answers to Exercises Multiple Choice 1. C 7.

v TH ( t ) = 0.× 60 = 40 V 3 t>4 s 0<t<1 s 1<t<3 s 3<t<4 s t>4 s and ⎛ 0.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits ⎛ 12 v s ( t ) ----⎜ 18 ⎜ ⎜ 12 v ( t ) ----⎜ 18 s v TH ( t ) = ⎜ ⎜ 12 v ( t ) ⎜ ----. i L TOTAL ( t ) = i L1 ( t ) + i L2 ( t ) 10-42 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .× ( – 60 ) = – 40 V 3 2 = -. we will assume that iL ( 0 ) = 0 − − For t > 0 we let i L1 ( t ) be the inductor current when the 15u 0 ( t ) voltage source acts alone and i L2 ( t ) when the 30u 0 ( t – 2 ) voltage source acts alone.× 60 = 40 V 3 2 = -.v s ( t ) 18 2 = -.5 × 40 ⎜ 0. v LOAD ( t ) 40 20 0 – 20 1 2 3 4 5 t (s) (V) The waveform above can now be expressed as a sum of unit step functions as follows: v LOAD ( t ) = 20u 0 ( t ) – 20u 0 ( t – 1 ) + 40u 0 ( t – 1 ) – 40u 0 ( t – 3 ) + 20u 0 ( t – 4 ) – 20u 0 ( t – 3 ) + 20u 0 ( t – 4 ) + 20u 0 ( t – 4 ) = 20u 0 ( t ) + 20u 0 ( t – 1 ) – 60u 0 ( t – 3 ) + 40u 0 ( t – 4 ) 2.s 18 ⎜ ⎜ 12 ⎝ ----.5v TH ( t ) = ⎜ ⎜ 0.5 × ( – 40 ) 20 ⎜ ⎝ 0.× 120 = 80 V 3 0<t<1 s 1<t<3 s 3<t<4 s 2 = -. Then.5 × 80 10 v LOAD ( t ) = ----. The circuit at t = 0 is as shown below and since we are not told otherwise.5 × 40 = 20 V = 40 V = – 20 V = 20 V The waveform of the voltage across the load is as shown below.

i L1 ( t ) = i L1f + i L1n where i L1f = ------------. 3 KΩ + − 15 V i L1 ( t ) 1 mH – ( R ⁄ L )t – 3 × 10 t 6 15 Then. i L2 ( t ) = i L2f + i L2n . 3 KΩ + 30 V 1 mH − iL ( t ) 6 –( R ⁄ L ) ( t – 2 ) – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) – 30 Then. i L2 ( t ) = – 10 + A 2 e above as i L1 i L2 t=2 s t=2 s – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) – 6 × 10 t 6 6 mA and the initial condition at t = 2 is found from (1) = 5 – 5e ≈ 5 mA . with the 30u 0 ( t – 2 ) voltage source acts alone the circuit is as shown below. i L1 ( t ) = 5 + A 1 e 0 – 3 × 10 t 6 mA and using the initial condition i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 0 . i L2f = ------------.Answers to Exercises 3 kΩ 1 mH vS ( 0 ) = 0 − iL ( 0 ) = 0 − For 0 < t < 2 s the circuit is as shown below. Therefore.= 5 mA and i L1n = A 1 e 3 KΩ = Ae + Thus. i L1 ( t ) = 5 – 5e – 3 × 10 t 6 (1) Next. – 3 × 10 ( 2 – 2 ) 6 = i L1 t=2 s = 5 = – 10 + A 2 e mA or A 2 = 15 and 6 i L2 ( t ) = – 10 + 15e – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) mA (2) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10. we get − i L1 ( 0 ) = 5 + A 1 e mA or A 1 = – 5 .= – 10 mA and i L2n = A 2 e = Be 3 KΩ Thus.43 . Therefore.

that is. i L TOTAL ( t ) = i L1 ( t ) + i L2 ( t ) = 5 – 5e = – 5 – 5e – 3 × 10 t 6 – 3 × 10 t 6 6 – 10 + 15e mA – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) 6 mA + 15e – 3 × 10 ( t – 2 ) 3.3 ) ] Then. For t > 0. a.3 ms . For this circuit v S ( t ) = 24 [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 0. the total current when both voltage sources are present is the summation of (1) and (2). 3Ω − × 6Ω 6Ω 1 mH 8Ω + − iL ( t ) + × v S ( t ) = 24 [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 0.3 ms iL ( t ) = 2 –2 e – 8000t (1) b. that is. with (1) above we get 3Ω × 6Ω 6Ω 1 mH vS ( t ) = 0 iL ( t ) 8Ω 1 mH iL ( t ) × 10-44 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .3 ms the circuit is as shown below.3 ms the circuit and its Thevenin equivalent are as shown below. For this circuit iL ( t ) = A2 e – ( R ⁄ L ) ( t – 0.3 ) = A2 e – 8000 ( t – 0.3 ) (2) and A 2 is found from the initial condition at t = 0. we will assume that i L ( 0 ) = 0 . i L ( t ) = i Lf + i Ln = 16 ⁄ 8 + A 1 e – ( R ⁄ L )t = 2 + Ae 0 – 8000t and at t = 0 iL ( 0 ) = iL ( 0 ) = 0 = 2 + A1 e − or A 1 = – 2 and thus for 0 < t < 0.3 ) ] vS ( t ) − 1 mH iL ( t ) v TH ( t ) v TH ( t ) = 16 [ u 0 ( t ) – u 0 ( t – 0.3 ) ] and since we are not told otherwise.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits Therefore. For 0 < t < 0.

82e – ( t – 0.3 ) or A 2 = 1. At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below where i L ( 0 ) = 20 ⁄ ( 4 + 6 ) = 2 A and thus the initial condition has been established.3 ms i L ( t ) = 1.4 = 1.3 ms = 2 – 2e – 8 × 10 × 0. 4Ω 6Ω − − vS + − 20 V iL ( 0 ) − For t > 0 the circuit and its Thevenin equivalent are as shown below where 8 v TH = ----------.3 4. Therefore for t > 0.82 = A 2 e – 8000 ( 0.82 A and by substitution into (2) above iL t = 0.3 – 0.Answers to Exercises iL t = 0.82 t ( ms ) 0.45 .3 × 10 3 –3 = 2 – 2e 2. iL ( A ) 1.3 ms ) The waveform for the inductor current i L ( t ) for all t > 0 is shown below.× 20 = 40 ⁄ 3 V 4+8 and 8×4 R TH = ----------.+ 6 = 26 ⁄ 3 Ω 8+4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.3 ms = 1.82 .

4Ω vS i SW ( t ) + − 20 V 8Ω 6Ω + − v8 Ω 1H iL ( t ) Now.54 + 0.e.46e = 9.46e ) dt – 8.67t 20 6.46e (1) i L ( t ) = ----.24 – 1. – ( R ⁄ L )t – ( 26 ⁄ 3 )t -----------i L ( t ) = i Lf + i Ln = 40 ⁄ 3 + Ae = 20 ⁄ 13 + Ae 26 ⁄ 3 and A is evaluated from the initial condition.54 + 0.( 1.23e – 8. i.67t ) + 1 × ---. i L ( 0 ) = i L ( 0 ) = 2 = 20 ⁄ 13 + Ae − + 0 from which A = 6 ⁄ 13 and thus for t > 0 – 8.24 + 2.46e – 8.e 13 13 Next.76e = 9.67t d – 8.67 × 0.–( 26 ⁄ 3 )t = 1.67t – 8.. to find i SW ( t ) we observe that this current flows also through the 8 Ω resistor and this can be found from v 8 Ω shown on the circuit below.+ ----. di L v 8 Ω = v 6 Ω + v L ( t ) = 6i L ( t ) + L -----dt = 6 ( 1.54 + 0.67t and 10-46 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 4Ω vS Closed Switch 6Ω R TH 26 ⁄ 3 Ω v TH + − 20 V 8Ω + − iL ( t ) 40 ⁄ 3 V 1H iL ( t ) 1H Then.67t – 8.

vS 38 Ω 2Ω 50 µF + − 24 V + − vC ( t ) The circuit for t > 0 is shown below where the current source has been replaced with a voltage source.15e (2) 8 8 Therefore.= 1.5 t − − i SW ( t ) A 1. from the initial condition.54 i SW ( 0 ) = 1.16 – 0.15 = 1. − vS 38 Ω 2Ω + + − 24 V 20 V 50 µF + − 40 Ω vC ( t ) + − 4V 50 µF + − vC ( t ) Now. At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below where v C ( 0 ) = 24 V and thus the initial condition has been established. iL ( t ) A 2.= ----------------------------------------.0 0.67t 9.Answers to Exercises – 8.01 + i SW ( ∞ ) = 1.24 – 1. v C ( t ) = v Cf + v Cn = 4 + Ae – 1 ⁄ ( RC ) t = 4 + Ae – 500t Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.67t v8 Ω – 8. (1) and (2) above we have iL ( 0 ) = 2 + i L ( ∞ ) = 1.16 and with these values we sketch i L ( t ) and i SW ( t ) as shown below.16 t 5.16 – 0.0 1.01 1.5 1.47 .23e i SW ( t ) = i 8 Ω = --------.

Then.t ⎞ u 0 ( t ) ⎝ RC ⎠ and v in ⁄ RC is the slope as shown below.t + k RC where k is the constant of integration of both sides and it is evaluated from the given initial condition. vC ( 0 ) = vC ( 0 ) = 0 = 0 + k − + or k = 0 .= ------dt RC Integrating both sides and observing that v out ( t ) = – v C ( t ) we get v in v out ( t ) = – ------. For t > 0 the op amp circuit is as shown below.+ C -------. Therefore. 10-48 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .= -----dt R or v in dv C -------. v in v out ( t ) = – ⎛ ------. + − C + R v in ( t ) − v− v out ( t ) − + Application of KCL at the minus (−) input yields v − – v in dv C -----------------.Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits and with the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 24 V = 4 + Ae from which A = 20 we get v C ( t ) = 4 + 20e – 500t − + 0 6.= 0 dt R and since v − = 0 v in dv C C -------.

Answers to Exercises slope = – v in ⁄ RC 7. 175 KΩ − − + + − 150 V 1 µF − vC ( 0 ) − The circuit for t > 0 is shown below where the voltage source v S1 is absent for all positive time and the 50 KΩ is shorted out by the closed switch. At t = 0 the circuit is as shown below where v C ( 0 ) = 150 V and thus the initial condition has been established.= 10 × ( – 8 × 10 e ) dt Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.49 . 125 KΩ + + − 50 V 1 µF − vC ( t ) For the circuit above v C ( t ) = v Cf + v Cn = 50 + Ae – t ⁄ ( RC ) = 50 + Ae – 8t and with the initial condition v C ( 0 ) = v C ( 0 ) = 150 = 50 + Ae − + 0 from which A = 100 and thus for t > 0 v C ( t ) = 50 + 100e – 8t V To find v R3 ( t ) we will first find i C ( t ) from the circuit below where dv C –6 – 4 – 8t i C ( t ) = C -------.

For this circuit we cannot short the dependent source and therefore we cannot find R eq by combining the resistances R 1 and R 2 in parallel combination in order to find the time constant τ = RC .Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits 25 KΩ 1 µF − 50 V 100 KΩ + vC ( t ) + + − v R3 ( t ) − – 4 – 8t – 8t Then. Instead.= 0 dt RC From the given circuit shown below vC iC ( t ) C R1 18 Ω R2 12 Ω + − vC ( t ) 1F + − 10i ( t ) C v C – 10i C v C i C + ---------------------.9) of the previous chapter. we will derive the time constant from the differential equation of (9. v R3 ( t ) = ( 100 KΩ )i C = 10 ( – 8 × 10 e 5 ) = – 80e V The sketches below show v C ( t ) and v R3 ( t ) as they approach their final values. dv C v C -------.+ ------. vC ( t ) V 150 100 50 t 0 – 80 0 v R3 ( t ) V t 8. that is.+ ----R1 R2 or 10-50 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

C -------.= 0 ⎝R ⎠ dt R 1 dt R2 1 or R1 + R2 10 ⎛ 1 – ----.51 .v C = 0 10 dt ⎛ 1 – ----.3125t ) = – 1.= 0.⎞ ⋅ C ⎝ R1 ⎠ and from this differential equation we see that the coefficient of v C is 515 × 930 ⁄ 216 1 -----------------------------------.Answers to Exercises dv C 10 dv C 1 1 C -------. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications 10.3125t and the minus (−) sign indicates that the i C ( t ) direction is opposite to that shown.3125t Then.3125 16 432 4 × 108 8 ⁄ 18 τ R eq C ⎛ 1 – 10 ⎞ ⋅ 1 ----⎝ 18 ⎠ and thus v C ( t ) = Ae − – 0.⎞ ⎝ R1 ⋅ R2 ⎠ dv C -------.3125 × 5e – 0.= 1 = ---------------------------.5625e – 0.+ ----.= 135 = ----. using dv C i C = C -------dt we find that for t > 0 i C ( t ) = ( 1 ) ( – 0.⎞ v C – ----.= 30 ⁄ 216 = ----------------.+ ⎛ ----.3125t and with the given initial condition v C ( 0 ) = V 0 = A = 5 V we get v C ( t ) = 5e – 0.+ ----------------------------.⎞ v = 0 -------⎝ R ⎠ ⎝ dt ⎠ ⎝ R 1 ⋅ R 2 ⎠ C 1 or R1 + R2 ⎛ ----------------.⎞ ⎛ C dv C⎞ + ⎛ ----------------.

Chapter 10 Forced and Total Response in RL and RC Circuits NOTES 10-52 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Inc.2 Command Window To distinguish the screen displays from the user commands. we will use the following conventions: Click: Click the left button of the mouse Courier Font: Screen displays Helvetica Font: User inputs at MATLAB’s command window prompt >> or EDU>>* Helvetica Bold: MATLAB functions Times Bold Italic: Important terms and facts.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® T his appendix serves as an introduction to the basic MATLAB commands and functions. Several examples are provided with detailed explanations. notes and file names When we first start MATLAB. electronics. and MATLAB functions. we choose New and click on M-File. we see the toolbar on top of the command screen and the prompt EDU>>. finding the roots of a polynomial. and environmental applications. MATLAB now waits for a new command from the user. From the File menu on the toolbar. and return to the command screen to execute the program as explained below. A. Simulink is a block diagram tool used for modeling and simulating dynamic systems such as controls. procedures for naming and saving the user generated files. In this appendix we will discuss MATLAB only. and communications. comment lines. This prompt is displayed also after execution of a command. aerospace. and making plots. save it.1 MATLAB® and Simulink® MATLAB and Simulink are products of The MathWorks. To use the Editor/Debugger: 1. access to MATLAB’s Editor/Debugger. A. It is highly recommended that we use the Editor/Debugger to write our program. important terms. This takes us to the Editor * EDU>> is the MATLAB prompt in the Student Version Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-1 . MATLAB enables us to solve many advanced numerical problems fast and efficiently. These are two outstanding software packages for scientific and engineering computations and are used in educational institutions and in industries including automotive. signal processing. telecommunications.

m. we press <enter> and observe the execution and the values obtained from it. t and T are two different letters in MATLAB language. Henceforth. variables. and thus it is ignored during the execution of a program. MATLAB then returns to the command window. we ought to name and save that file as matrices01. or open a previously saved file. We must save our program with a file name which starts with a letter. we must make sure that it is added it to the desired directory in MATLAB’s search path. we may exit the Editor/Debugger window by clicking on Exit Editor/Debugger of the File menu. we should use the command clear. % The next statement performs partial fraction expansion of p(x) / q(x) are both correct. To appreciate MATLAB’s capabilities. we can type help followed by any topic from the displayed menu. we type help matlab\graphics. But if we want to clear all previous values. We should also use a floppy disk to backup our files. In other words. The command help matlab\iofun will display input/output information. For instance. All text after the % (percent) symbol is interpreted as a comment line by MATLAB. To get help with other MATLAB topics. to get information on graphics. we type the file name without the . for example. we type quit or exit. myfile01. that is.q) % performs multiplication of polynomials p and q. Important! MATLAB is case sensitive.m extension at the >> prompt. if we want to clear all previously entered commands.m or any other similar name. it will be understood that each input command is typed after the >> prompt and followed by the <enter> key. A comment can be typed on the same line as the function or command or as a separate line. it distinguishes between upper. We can do this periodically to become familiar with them.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Window where we can type our code (list of statements) for a new file. It is a good practice to save the code in a file name that is descriptive of our code content. it is like exiting MATLAB and starting it again. When we are done and want to leave MATLAB. This command erases everything. The files that we create are saved with the file name we use and the extension . 3. If we have saved our file in drive a or any other drive. The command clc clears the screen but MATLAB still remembers all values.m. 2. A-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . conv(p. The MATLAB User’s Guide contains numerous help topics. variables and equations that we have already used. we click on the Close button. and equations without exiting. we type demo and we see the MATLAB Demos menu. For example. we use the clc command. Thus. For instance. Once the code is written and saved as an m-file. The MATLAB User’s Guide provides more information on this topic. Whenever we want to return to the command window. To execute a program. leaving only the >> prompt on the upper left of the screen.and lower-case letters. then. if the code performs some matrix operations.

if the imaginary part is a function. However. A.0000i In the above example. or variable such as cos ( x ) . the statement z=3−4j displays z = 3. We find the roots of any polynomial with the roots(p) function.1 Find the roots of the polynomial p 1 ( x ) = x – 10x + 35x – 50x + 24 4 3 2 Solution: The roots are found with the following two statements where we have denoted the polynomial as p1. we must type cos(x)*j or j*cos(x) for the imaginary part of the complex number. that is. a multiplication (*) sign between 4 and j was not necessary because the complex number consists of numerical constants. and the roots as roots_ p1.Roots of Polynomials One of the most powerful features of MATLAB is the ability to do computations involving complex numbers.0000-4. These are the coefficients of the polynomial in descending order. For example. We can use either i . Example A. or j to denote the imaginary part of a complex number. we must use the multiplication sign. such as 3-4i or 3-4j.3 Roots of Polynomials In MATLAB. p is a row vector containing the polynomial coefficients in descending order. a polynomial is expressed as a row vector of the form [ a n a n – 1 … a 2 a 1 a 0 ] . We must include terms whose coefficients are zero. p1=[1 −10 35 −50 24] % Specify and display the coefficients of p1(x) p1 = 1 -10 35 -50 24 roots_ p1=roots(p1) % Find the roots of p1(x) roots_p1 = 4.0000 3.0000 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-3 .

3202i A. * By definition.4 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots We can compute the coefficients of a polynomial. complex roots always occur in complex conjugate* pairs. where we have defined the polynomial as p2.3366.3202i -0.3366+ 1. from a given set of roots.5014 2.5711 -0. we must enter zero as its coefficient.0000 1. the conjugate of a complex number A = a + jb is A∗ = a – jb A-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Example A. The roots are found with the statements below.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 2.7428 -1. with the poly(r) function where r is a row vector containing the roots.2 Find the roots of the polynomial p 2 ( x ) = x – 7x + 16x + 25x + 52 5 4 2 Solution: There is no cube term. and the roots as a column vector. Of course.0000 We observe that MATLAB displays the polynomial coefficients as a row vector.1. and two complex roots. therefore. p2=[1 −7 0 16 25 52] p2 = 1 -7 0 16 25 52 roots_ p2=roots(p2) roots_ p2 = 6. The result indicates that this polynomial has three real roots. and the roots of this polynomial as roots_ p2.

and we find the polynomial coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below. say r3 .0000i poly_r4 = 1 14 100 340 499 246 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-5 .4 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are – 1. 4 + j5 and 4 – j5 . Solution: We form a row vector. Compute the coefficients of this polynomial. with the given roots. and 4 . Find the coefficients of this polynomial. – 3.0000+ 5.0000 Column 5 -4. then.0000 -4.Polynomial Construction from Known Roots Example A.0000 -3. with the given roots as elements of this vector.5. 2. r4=[ −1 −2 −3 −4+5j −4−5j ] r4 = Columns 1 through 4 -1. say r4 . 3. Example A.1. we find the coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below. r3=[1 2 3 4] % Specify the roots of the polynomial r3 = 1 poly_r3 = 1 -10 35 -50 24 2 3 4 poly_r3=poly(r3) % Find the polynomial coefficients We observe that these are the coefficients of the polynomial p 1 ( x ) of Example A.0000.3 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are 1.0000i poly_r4=poly(r4) -2. Solution: We first define a row vector. – 2.

% val_minus3=polyval(p5.b) − multiplies two polynomials a and b [q. Solution: p5=[1 −3 0 5 −4 3 2].) after the right bracket suppresses the display of the row vector % that contains the coefficients of p5.6 Let p 1 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 5 4 2 and A-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .d) −divides polynomial c by polynomial d and displays the quotient q and remainder r. polyder(p) − produces the coefficients of the derivative of a polynomial p.5 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values The polyval(p.x) function evaluates a polynomial p ( x ) at some specified value of the independent variable x. −3) % Evaluate p5 at x=−3.r]=deconv(c. % These are the coefficients % The semicolon (. Example A. no semicolon is used here % because we want the answer to be displayed val_minus3 = 1280 Other MATLAB functions used with polynomials are the following: conv(a.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Therefore.1) at x = – 3 . the polynomial is p 4 ( x ) = x + 14x + 100x + 340x + 499x + 246 5 4 3 2 A. Example A.5 Evaluate the polynomial p 5 ( x ) = x – 3x + 5x – 4x + 3x + 2 6 5 3 2 (A.

p2=[2 0 −8 0 4 10 12]. p1p2=conv(p1.r]=deconv(p3. [q. Solution: p1=[1 −3 0 5 7 9].7 Let p 3 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 7 5 3 and p 4 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 5 2 Compute the quotient p 3 ⁄ p 4 using the [q.Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values p 2 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 4 2 Compute the product p 1 ⋅ p 2 using the conv(a. p4=[2 −8 0 0 4 10 12]. p 1 ⋅ p 2 = 2x 11 – 6x 5 10 – 8x + 34x + 18x – 24x 4 3 2 9 8 7 6 – 74x – 88x + 78x + 166x + 174x + 108 Example A. Solution: % It is permissible to write two or more statements in one line separated by semicolons p3=[1 0 −3 0 5 7 9].d) function.p4) q = 0.r]=deconv(c.b) function.5000 r = 0 4 -3 0 3 2 3 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-7 .p2) % The coefficients of p1 % The coefficients of p2 % Multiply p1 by p2 to compute coefficients of the product p1p2 p1p2 = 2 -6 -8 34 18 -24 -74 -88 78 166 174 108 Therefore.

8 Let p 5 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 Compute the derivative ----. as + bn – 2 x + … + b1 x + b0 bn x + bn – 1 x Num ( x ) R ( x ) = ------------------. if we separate them by commas or semicolons.p 5 using the polyder(p) function. d dx 6 4 2 Solution: p5=[2 0 −8 0 4 10 12]. As noted in the comment line of Example A.2) where some of the terms in the numerator and/or denominator may be zero. A-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . that is. der_p5=polyder(p5) % The coefficients of p5 % Compute the coefficients of the derivative of p5 der_p5 = 12 Therefore.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Therefore.p 5 = 12x 5 – 32x 3 + 4x 2 + 8x + 10 dx 0 -32 0 8 10 A.6 Rational Polynomials Rational Polynomials are those which can be expressed in ratio form.= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m m–1 m–2 Den ( x ) + am – 2 x + … + a1 x + a0 am x + am – 1 x n n–1 n–2 (A. We can find the roots of the numerator and denominator with the roots(p) function as before. q = 0.5 r = 4x – 3x + 3x + 2x + 3 5 4 2 Example A. d----.7. Commas will display the results whereas semicolons will suppress the display. we can write MATLAB statements in one line.

4922i -0.9961i -1.4922i -0.0712 ) ( x + 1.2108 – j 0.0.Rational Polynomials Example A. while the product of the roots is equal to the constant term c .0712i -0.= ------------------------------------------------------6 4 2 p den x – 4x + 2x + 5x + 6 Express the numerator and denominator in factored form. we have p den = ( x – 1. – ( x 1 + x 2 ) = b .9304 ) ( x + 0.3370+ 0. using the roots(p) function.2108-0. the complex roots occur in complex conjugate pairs. in a quadratic equation of the form x 2 + bx + c = 0 whose roots are x 1 and x 2 .1633 As expected.6760-0.0000 2. Accordingly.9870 ) ( x + 1.6760 – j0.3370.0712i -0.9304 -1. Solution: num=[1 −3 0 5 7 9].9870i 1.4922 ) ( x – 1.0712 ) ( x – 2.9870i -1. For the numerator.9961 ) ( x + 0. den=[1 0 −4 0 2 5 6].9 Let 5 4 2 p num x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 R ( x ) = ----------.1.3370 + j0. we have the factored form p num = ( x – 2. the negative sum of the roots is equal to the coefficient b of the x term. we form the coefficient b by addition of the complex conjugate roots and this is done by inspection.4922 ) ( x + 1.6760 + j0.6760+0. that is. then we multiply the complex conjugate roots to obtain the constant term c using MATLAB as follows: Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-9 .1633 ) ( x + 0.2108+0. roots_den=roots(den) % Do not display num and den coefficients % Display num and den roots roots_num = 2.4186 – j1.0000 ) We can also express the numerator and denominator of this rational function as a combination of linear and quadratic factors.9961 ) and for the denominator. that is.9870 ) ( x + 0.4186 + j1. We recall that.4186+ 1.9961i roots_den = 1.2108 + j0. x 1 ⋅ x 2 = c .4186. roots_num=roots(num).3370 – j0.

we must create one or more symbolic variables such as x.8372*x+6.0712i)*(2. we use the following code: syms x % Define a symbolic variable and use collect(s) to express numerator in polynomial form collect((x^2−4. polynomial coefficients.9971 ) ( x + 0.1058 ) ( x + 1.3520x + 3.0000 ) ( x + 1.4922i)*(1.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® (2.7 Using MATLAB to Make Plots Quite often.9961i)*(−0.3370−0.0512 ) ( x + 0.2108+ 0.3370+ 0. we want to plot a set of ordered pairs. This is a very easy task with the MATLAB plot(x.4186 + 1.0186 ) ( x + 1.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 p den ( x – 3.6760−0.q) function is used with numeric expressions only. They are discussed in detail in MATLAB’s Users Manual.0186 Thus.9304 ) We can check this result with MATLAB’s Symbolic Math Toolbox which is a collection of tools (functions) used in solving symbolic expressions.6760+ 0. We can use the same procedure to verify the denominator.6740x + 1.4922i) ans = 3.9971)*(x^2+0.4186 −1.9870i) ans = 1.2108−0.1633 ) R ( x ) = ----------. t.1633)) ans = x^5-29999/10000*x^4-1323/3125000*x^3+7813277909/ 1562500000*x^2+1750276323053/250000000000*x+4500454743147/ 500000000000 and if we simplify this. A-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . For the present. x is the horizontal axis (abscissa) and y is the vertical axis (ordinate). Here. Before using a symbolic expression. we find that is the same as the numerator of the given rational expression in polynomial form.0512 (−0. 2 2 p num ( x – 4.8372x + 6.6740*x+1. We must remember that the conv(p.1058)*(x+1.9870i)*(−0.4216x + 1. our interest is in using the collect(s) function that is used to multiply two or more symbolic expressions to obtain the result in polynomial form. For our example.9961i) ans = 1.0712i) ans = 6.1058 (1. that is.y) command that plots y versus x. A. and so on. y.9971 (−0.

1 Table for Example A.938 469. while the amplitude was held constant.665 140.Using MATLAB to Make Plots Example A.611 51. |Z| versus radian frequency ω .182 436.10 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A.845 Plot the magnitude of the impedance. where the radian frequency ω (radians/second) of the applied voltage was varied from 300 to 3000 in steps of 100 radians/second.437 222.83 266.339 52.353 103.751 120.184 97.428 48. If a statement. Electric circuit for Example A. so we will use the English letter w instead.240 54. or a row vector is too long to fit in one line. that is.10 ω (rads/s) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 |Z| Ohms 39.589 71.481 58.032 187.286 44.056 1014.717 46. The ammeter readings were then recorded for each frequency.052 145. it can be continued to the next line by typCircuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-11 .513 62.1.10 TABLE A. The magnitude of the impedance |Z| was computed as Z = V ⁄ A and the data were tabulated on Table A.111 ω (rads/s) 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 |Z| Ohms 90. A R V L C Figure A.1.1.088 73.122 42.182 40.432 38. Solution: We cannot type ω (omega) in the MATLAB command window.603 81.588 67.

104 97.182 40.830 266. For this example.603 81. The data are entered as follows: w=[300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900. 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000].10 A-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .122 42.2. as mentioned before.611 51. we use the semicolon (..468.938 469.286 44.432 38.111.. MATLAB displays the plot on MATLAB’s graph screen.z).. % z=[39. This is illustrated below for the data of w and z.437 222....513 62.. When this command is executed. 48..751 120.665 140. 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Figure A. if we want to see the values of w or z or both. we use plot(w.789 71. then pressing <enter> to start a new line.588 67. This plot is shown in Figure A. Plot of impedance z versus frequency ω for Example A. and we press <enter>...2.052 145. 90.y) command.. and continue to enter data.353 103.182 436.) to suppress the display of numbers that we do not care to see on the screen. we simply type w or z.240 54.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® ing three or more periods. Also.056.481 58.717 46. 1014. Of course.088 73. To plot z (y-axis) versus w (x-axis).339 52.845]..032 187. we use the plot(x.

the function log(x) in MATLAB is the natural logarithm. that is.z). and the logarithm to the base 2 as log2(x). and the x-axis as a linear scale. we press any key. % Replaces the plot(w. more presentable with the following commands: grid on: This command adds grid lines to the plot. The decibel unit is defined in Chapter 4. * A default is a particular value for a variable that is assigned automatically by an operating system and remains in effect unless canceled or overridden by the operator. The command box toggles them. Let us now redraw the plot with the above options by adding the following statements: semilogx(w.and y-axis respectively. we select MATLAB Command Window. and we select Figure. To see the graph again. we click on the Window pull-down menu.Using MATLAB to Make Plots This plot is referred to as the amplitude frequency response of the circuit. or any plot. We can use the semilogx(x. grid. whereas the common logarithm is expressed as log10(x). or from the Window pull-down menu. voltage or current. xlabel(‘string’) and ylabel(‘string’) are used to label the x. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-13 .y) command uses logarithmic scales for both axes. We must remember. ylabel('|Z| in Ohms') After execution of these commands. except that the y-axis is represented as a log scale. changes from off to on or vice versa. If the y-axis represents power. our plot is as shown in Figure A. Radian Frequency'). however. and the y-axis as a linear scale. the x-axis of the frequency response is more often shown in a logarithmic scale. The default* is off.z) command title('Magnitude of Impedance vs. title(‘string’): This command adds a line of the text string (label) at the top of the plot. The default is on.y) command is similar to the plot(x. Throughout this text it will be understood that log is the common (base 10) logarithm.3.y) command.y) command. and the y-axis in dB (decibels). the semilogy(x. The amplitude frequency response is usually represented with the x-axis in a logarithmic scale. The grid off command removes the grid. and ln is the natural (base e) logarithm. except that the x-axis is represented as a log scale. The command grid toggles them. We can make the above.y) command that is similar to the plot(x. xlabel('w in rads/sec'). Likewise. box off: This command removes the box (the solid lines which enclose the plot). The loglog(x. To return to the command window. and box on restores the box.

3. and displays a cross-hair that can be moved around with the mouse.y. The first line of the code below has the form linspace(first_value.’string’) is similar to gtext(‘string’). we add the relation dB=20*log10(v). lines and arrows directly into the graph using the tools provided on the Figure Window. We will illustrate its use with the following example that plots a 3-phase sinusoidal waveform. The command gtext(‘string’)* switches to the current Figure Window.z) command with semilogx(w. using the mouse. A-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . Then. For instance. The command text(x. It places a label on a plot in some specific location specified by x and y. Modified frequency response plot of Figure A. we can move the cross-hair to the position where we want our label to begin.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 10 2 10 3 10 4 Figure A.dB). number_of_values) * With MATLAB Versions 6 and 7 we can add text. last_value. and this will place a cross-hair in the Figure window.2. and string is the label which we want to place at that location. we can use the command gtext(‘Impedance |Z| versus Frequency’). and we press <enter>. To display the voltage v in a dB scale on the y-axis. and we replace the semilogx(w.

we did not specify line styles. 0. text(4. plot symbols. and colors. u=sin(x+2*pi/3). 'sin(x+4*pi/3)') These three waveforms are shown on the same plot of Figure A.8 -1 sin(x) sin(x+2*pi/3) sin(x+4*pi/3) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure A.65. However.95. % we could have used x=0:0. y=sin(x).4. text(2.65.2 0 -0. 2*pi. % The x-axis must be specified for each function % turn grid and axes box on text(0. 60).4 0.8 0. and colors for our plots.02: 2)*pi instead. Three-phase waveforms In our previous examples.y. markers.02*pi:2*pi or x = (0: 0. 'sin(x+2*pi/3)'). or a combination Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-15 .85. 1 0.2 -0. 0.u. 'sin(x)').75.6 0.x. % pi is a built-in function in MATLAB.6 -0.4. An alternate function is x=first: increment: last and this specifies the increments between points but not the number of data points. plot(x. These. The code for the 3-phase plot is as follows: x=linspace(0. v=sin(x+4*pi/3). box on.4 -0. MATLAB allows us to specify various line types.65.x.v). grid on. 0.Using MATLAB to Make Plots This function specifies the number of data points but not the increments between data points.

A-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .'rs') plots a red square at each data point. it starts with blue and cycles through the first seven colors listed in Table A.z) command plots a line in 3-space through the points whose coordinates are the elements of x.. y and z are three vectors of the same length. MATLAB has also a three-dimensional (three-axes) capability and this is discussed next.'m*:') plots a magenta dotted line with a star at each data point.2 Styles.2. The default line is the solid line. and sn are strings specifying color.s) command. Also. The plots we have discussed thus far are two-dimensional. TABLE A. y and z.z3.z2. The general format is plot3(x1. that is. or line style.y.z1. MATLAB has no default color. where x.y. yn and zn are vectors or matrices.x3. colors.x2.y3.s1. For additional information we can type help plot in MATLAB’s command screen. we must type plot(x. These strings are the same as those of the two-dimensional plots.y1.y.s2. but does not draw any line because no line was selected.y. there is no default marker. −− ∨ ∧ < > p h For example... plot(x.y.'rs−'). they are drawn on two axes. and markets used in MATLAB Symbol b g r c m y k w Color blue green red cyan magenta yellow black white Symbol Marker point circle x-mark plus star square diamond triangle down triangle up triangle left triangle right pentagram hexagram Symbol Line Style solid line dotted line dash-dot line dashed line .) where xn.2 for each additional line in the plot. o x + * s d − : −. where s is a character string containing one or more characters shown on the three columns of Table A. can be added with the plot(x.s3. and plot(x.y2. marker symbol. no markers are drawn unless they are selected.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® of these. The plot3(x. If we want to connect the data points with a solid line.

Likewise.^2−1. in a three-dimensional plot we can set the limits of all three axes with * This statement uses the so called dot multiplication. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-17 . z= −2.Using MATLAB to Make Plots Example A.3) Solution: We arbitrarily choose the interval (length) shown on the code below. y= x.y. grid % Length of vector x % Length of vector y must be same as x % Vector z is function of both x and y* The three-dimensional plot is shown in Figure A. and dot exponentiation where the multiplication.11 In a two-dimensional plot. and exponential operators are preceded by a dot.5.8. These operations will be explained in Section A. division. dot division.5: 10. x= -10: 0. 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 10 5 0 -5 -10 -10 -5 5 0 10 Figure A.11 Plot the function z = – 2x + x + 3y – 1 3 2 (A.*y.^3+x+3.z).and y-axes with the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command. plot3(x. Three dimensional plot for Example A.5.*x. we can set the limits of the x.

% Creates R and H matrices from vectors r and h V=(pi .H]=meshgrid(0: 4.πr h 3 (A. zlabel('z-axis. or on the same line without first executing the plot command. volume (cubic meters)').Y]=meshgrid(x. V) xlabel('x-axis. Example A. title('Volume of Right Circular Cone'). altitude h (meters)').z) commands. Z ( i. and the matrix Y whose columns are copies of the vector y.z) on the plot. y ( i ).y) function that creates the matrix X whose rows are copies of the vector x. These must be defined as length ( x ) = n and length ( y ) = m where [ m.’string’) command will place string beginning at the co-ordinate (x. This must be done for each plot.^ 2 .y.y. dot division. It must be placed after the plot(x. V = f ( r. We observe that x corresponds to the columns of Z. box on The three-dimensional plot of Figure A.4) Plot the volume of the cone as r and h vary on the intervals 0 ≤ r ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ h ≤ 6 meters. A-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . We can also use the mesh(x. h ) The three-dimensional plot is created with the following MATLAB code where. This will be explained in Section A.y) or plot3(x. For three-dimensional plots. y ) . n ] = size ( Z ) .y. j ) } . 0: 6). say z = f ( x. The three-dimensional text(x. To produce a mesh plot of a function of two variables.12 The volume V of a right circular cone of radius r and height h is given by 1 2 V = -. as in the previous example. that is. [R.8. and dot exponentiation. shows how the volume of the cone increases as the radius and height are increased. Solution: The volume of the cone is a function of both the radius r and the height h./ 3. We can generate the matrices X and Y with the [X. grid on and box off are the default states.z) command with two vector arguments. radius r (meters)').Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax zmin zmax]) command. H. we must first generate the X and Y matrices that consist of repeated rows and columns over the range of the variables x and y. in the second line we have used the dot multiplication.z. and y corresponds to the rows.y. In this case. the vertices of the mesh lines are the triples { x ( j ).* H) . mesh(R. ylabel('y-axis.6.* R .

This. The possible combinations are shown in Figure A.p). altitude h (meters) 0 x-axis.n. MATLAB can generate very sophisticated threedimensional plots. No spaces or commas are required between the three integers m. are rudimentary.Subplots V olume of Right Circular Cone 120 z-axis. 111 Full Screen 211 212 221 222 212 221 223 211 223 224 222 224 221 223 122 Default 121 122 222 224 121 Figure A.7.7. This command divides the window into an m × n matrix of plotting areas and chooses the pth area to be active.n. Possible subplot arrangements in MATLAB Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-19 . Volume of a right circular cone. n and p. radius r (meters) Figure A.5. and the plot of Figure A. A.8 Subplots MATLAB can display up to four windows of different plots on the Figure window using the command subplot(m.p) command following the discussion on multiplication. volume (cubic meters) 100 80 60 40 20 0 6 4 4 3 2 2 1 0 y-axis. The MATLAB User’s manual contains more examples.6. division and exponentiation that follows. We will illustrate the use of the subplot(m.

3. and then transpose it into a column vector.9 Multiplication. MATLAB uses the single quotation character (′) to transpose a vector. Matrix Multiplication (multiplication of row by column vectors) Let A = [ a1 a2 a3 … an ] and B = [ b 1 b 2 b 3 … b n ]' A-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . division. An easier way to construct a column vector. 6. We recall that the elements of a row vector are separated by spaces.2. They are explained in the following paragraphs. b=[−1. consisted of one row and multiple columns. is to write it first as a row vector. division. To distinguish between row and column vectors. 11] or as b=[− 1 3 6 11]'. division. and exponentiation. 6. and exponentiation.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® A. 11] b = -1 3 6 11 b=[−1 3 6 11]' b = -1 3 6 11 We will now define Matrix Multiplication and Element-by-Element multiplication. Division and Exponentiation MATLAB recognizes two types of multiplication. 3. If an array has one column and multiple rows. such a those that contained the coefficients of polynomials. Thus. the arrays [ a b c … ] . 1. the elements of a column vector must be separated by semicolons. In Section A. and thus are called row vectors. MATLAB produces the same display with either format as shown below. These are the matrix multiplication. a column vector can be written either as b=[−1. it is called a column vector. and the element-by-element multiplication. and exponentiation.

multiplication of the row vector A by the column vector B. we must perform this type of multiplication with a different operator. MATLAB expects vector B to be a column vector. Here. MATLAB displays the following message: ??? Error using ==> * Inner matrix dimensions must agree. because we have used the matrix multiplication operator (*) in A*B. if A = [1 2 3 4 5] and B = [ – 2 6 – 3 8 7 ]' the matrix multiplication A*B produces the single value 68. Division and Exponentiation be two vectors. We observe that A is defined as a row vector whereas B is defined as a column vector. 2. let us suppose that both A and B are row vectors. as indicated by the transpose operator (′). A*B = [ a 1 b 1 + a 2 b 2 + a 3 b 3 + … + a n b n ] = sin gle value (A. A=[1 2 3 4 5]. and we attempt to perform a row-by-row multiplication with the following MATLAB statements. It recognizes that B is a row vector.Element-by-Element Multiplication (multiplication of a row vector by another row vector) Let C = [ c1 c2 c3 … cn ] and D = [ d1 d2 d3 … dn ] Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-21 . Here. B=[−2 6 −3 8 7].5) For example. that is. not a row vector. A∗ B = 1 × ( – 2 ) + 2 × 6 + 3 × ( – 3 ) + 4 × 8 + 5 × 7 = 68 and this is verified with MATLAB as A=[1 2 A*B 3 4 5].Multiplication. A*B When these statements are executed. and warns us that we cannot perform this multiplication using the matrix multiplication operator (*). is performed with the matrix multiplication operator (*). Then. This operator is defined below. Accordingly. B=[ −2 6 −3 8 7]'. ans = 68 Now.

C.∗ D = 1 × ( – 2 ) 2 × 6 3 × ( – 3 ) 4 × 8 5 × 7 = – 2 12 – 9 32 35 Check with MATLAB: C=[1 2 3 4 5]. Here. whereas dot division (.7) in the 0 ≤ t ≤ 5 seconds interval.) is never required with the plus (+) and minus (−) operators.) and the multiplication. and exponentiation operators. as the elements of C and D.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® be two row vectors. Solution: The MATLAB code for this example is as follows: A-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . division. Thus. the division (/) and exponentiation (^) operators. We must remember that no space is allowed between the dot (. multiplication of the row vector C by the row vector D is performed with the dot multiplication operator (. D=[−2 6 −3 8 7]. are used for matrix division and exponentiation. C. Note: A dot (. Example A. let C = [1 2 3 4 5] and D = [ –2 6 –3 8 7 ] Dot multiplication of these two row vectors produce the following result.6) This product is another row vector with the same number of elements.*D % Vectors C and D must have % same number of elements % We observe that this is a dot multiplication ans = -2 12 -9 32 35 Similarly.*). C. As an example.∗ D = [ c 1 d 1 c2 d2 c3 d3 … cn dn ] (A.^) are used for element-by-element division and exponentiation./) and dot exponentiation (. There is no space between the dot and the multiplication symbol.13 Write the MATLAB code that produces a simple plot for the waveform defined as y = f ( t ) = 3e –4 t cos 5t – 2e –3 t t sin 2t + ---------t+1 2 (A.

say as – 3 ≤ t ≤ 3 .* cos(5 . xmax.* t) .8 shows the plot for this example.2 × 10 – 16 .13 5 4 3 y=f(t) 2 1 0 -1 0 0. which is a number approximately equal to 2. It will be used with the next example. is divided by zero when t = – 1 . This command must be placed after the plot command and must be repeated for each plot.01 increments y=3 . Division and Exponentiation t=0: 0. The following example illustrates the use of the dot multiplication. title('Plot for Example A. Plot for Example A. ylabel('y=f(t)'). the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command. MATLAB would have displayed the following message: Warning: Divide by zero.5 4 4.* exp(−3 .13 Had we.* exp(−4 . and exponentiation. This is because the last term (the rational fraction) of the given expression.* t) + t .* t)−2 . in this example. To avoid division by zero.5 1 1. we use the special MATLAB function eps.01: 5 % Define t-axis in 0. The command axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) scales the current plot to the values specified by the arguments xmin. and also MATLAB’s capability of displaying up to four windows of different plots.8. Example A.* sin(2 . plot(t./ (t+1). grid. There are no commas between these four arguments.* t) . the eps number.14 Plot the functions Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-23 .Multiplication.y). xlabel('t'). ymin and ymax. Plot for E xample A. division.5 t 3 3.13') Figure A. defined the time interval starting with a negative value equal to or less than – 1 .5 2 2.5 5 Figure A.^2 .

w = sin 2x ⋅ cos 2x. z=(cos(x).9. % add eps to avoid division by zero subplot(221). subplot(223). w=y. title('z=(cosx)^2').* z. axis([0 2*pi 0 400]).6 0. % upper right of four subplots plot(x. 1 y=(sinx)2 1 z=(cosx)2 0. title('w=(sinx)^2*(cosx)^2').100). title('y=(sinx)^2').2 0.y).% upper left of four subplots plot(x. z = cos 2x. v = sin 2x ⁄ cos 2x in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π using 100 data points. Subplots for the functions of Example A.z)./ (z+eps).6 0. axis([0 2*pi 0 1]).2 300 0. % Interval with 100 data points y=(sin(x). These subplots are shown in Figure A.^ 2).25 0.^ 2).15 200 0. Use the subplot command to display these functions on four windows on the same graph.w). axis([0 2*pi 0 0. % lower left of four subplots plot(x.9.2 0 0 2 4 6 0 0 400 2 4 6 w=(sinx)2 *(cosx)2 v=(sinx)2/(cosx)2 0. subplot(224).Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® y = sin 2x.14 A-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2*pi.4 0. axis([0 2*pi 0 1]). subplot(222).05 100 0 0 2 4 6 0 0 2 4 6 Figure A.3]). % lower right of four subplots plot(x.4 0.8 0. Solution: The MATLAB code to produce the four subplots is as follows: x=linspace(0.8 0. v=y. title('v=(sinx)^2/(cosx)^2').1 0.v).

for simplicity. We will also use the polar(theta. plot(w. Division and Exponentiation The next example illustrates MATLAB’s capabilities with imaginary numbers. denoted as z./ (w+eps)) .1ω – 10 ⁄ ω ) a. inductance. grid. a 10 Ω Z ab b Figure A. Solution: The MATLAB code below computes the real and imaginary parts of Z ab that is. 4 6 (A. theta is the angle in radians.1 .10. Example A. xlabel('radian frequency w').* w −10. and plots these as two separate graphs (parts a & b). w=0: 1: 2000. the abs(z). % Define interval with one radian interval z=(10+(10 .15 10 Ω 0. the impedance Z ab as a function of the radian frequency ω can be computed from the following expression: 10 – j ( 10 ⁄ ω ) Z ab = Z = 10 + ------------------------------------------------------5 10 + j ( 0. % % The first five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Re{z} real_part=real(z).1 H 10 µF With the given values of resistance.Multiplication. and capacitance. It also produces a polar plot (part c). Plot Im { Z } (the imaginary part of the impedance Z) versus frequency ω.real_part).* (0./ (w+eps)))). % Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-25 . where r is the magnitude.15 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A. Plot Re { Z } (the real part of the impedance Z) versus frequency ω.10.^5./ (10 + j .^ 4 −j . Plot the impedance Z versus frequency ω in polar coordinates.r) function that produces a plot in polar coordinates. ylabel('Real part of Z').8) b.^ 6 . Electric circuit for Example A.* 10 . We will introduce the real(z) and imag(z) functions that display the real and imaginary parts of the complex quantity z = x + iy. and the angle(z) functions that compute the absolute value (magnitude) and phase angle of the complex quantity z = x + iy = r∠θ. c. and the round(n) function that rounds a number to its nearest integer.

Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® % The next five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Im{z} imag_part=imag(z).imag_part). Plot for the real part of the impedance in Example A. fast. % Computes the phase angle of impedance Z polar(theta. and polar plots are shown in Figures A. % The last six statements (next six lines) below produce the polar plot of z mag=abs(z).10 Script and Function Files MATLAB recognizes two types of files: script files and function files. % Angle is the first argument grid. ylabel('Polar Plot of Z').13 respectively. Both types are referred to as m-files since both require the . Generally. A.11. ylabel('Imaginary part of Z'). accurate. A script file consists of two or more built-in functions such as those we have discussed thus far.rndz).15 A-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . plot(w. make up a script file. % Rounds |Z| to read polar plot easier theta=angle(z).11. and A.m extension. imaginary. Thus. the code for each of the examples we discussed earlier. The real. 1200 1000 800 Real part of Z 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A. grid. xlabel('radian frequency w'). and flexible MATLAB is. A.15 clearly illustrates how powerful. % Computes |Z| rndz=round(abs(z)).12. a script file is one which was generated and saved as an m-file with an editor such as the MATLAB’s Editor/ Debugger. Example A.

15 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-27 .13. Polar plot of the impedance in Example A.12.15 90 120 1015 812 60 609 150 406 30 Polar Plot of Z 203 180 0 210 330 240 270 300 Figure A. Plot for the imaginary part of the impedance in Example A.Script and Function Files 600 400 Imaginary part of Z 200 0 -200 -400 -600 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A.

or returns NaN if the search fails.x2) function in MATLAB.x) tries to find a zero of a function of one variable.lims) plots the function specified by the string fcn between the x-axis limits specified by lims = [xmin xmax].m For the next example.01 ( x – 1.16 Find the zeros. Using lims = [xmin xmax ymin ymax] also controls the y-axis limits.1 and A. We use function files for repetitive tasks.x1. the function file consisting of the two lines below function y = myfunction(x) y=x.m. MATLAB searches for a value near a point where the function f changes sign.x2) to find both minimum and maximum values of a function. or inability to produce a result as described on the next paragraph.x1. the equal sign ( = ). For example.1 ) + 0. where f is a string containing the name of a real-valued function of a single real variable.2 ) + 0. maxima and minima of the function 1 1 f ( x ) = --------------------------------------. we will use the following MATLAB functions.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® A function file is a user-defined function using MATLAB.* x) is a function file and must be saved as myfunction. that we mentioned earlier. fplot(fcn. but since a maximum of f ( x ) is equal to a minimum of – f ( x ) . and minima using the following code.2.– 10 2 2 ( x – 0. that is.x2) minimizes a function of one variable. fmin(f. and returns that value. The function name and file name must be the same.04 Solution: We first plot this function to observe the approximate zeros. Note: NaN (Not-a-Number) is not a function. it is MATLAB’s response to an undefined expression such as 0 ⁄ 0 . ∞ ⁄ ∞ . there is no fmax(f. It attempts to return a value of x where f ( x ) is minimum in the interval x 1 < x < x 2 . we can use fmin(f. The first line of a function file must contain the word function. Example A. but the file name must have the extension . fzero(f.^ 3 + cos(3. A-28 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and the input argument enclosed in parentheses.+ --------------------------------------. followed by the output argument. Note: MATLAB does not have a function to maximize a function of one variable. such as those in Examples A.x1. The string f contains the name of the function to be minimized. maxima. We can avoid division by zero using the eps number. The string fcn must be the name of an m-file function or a string with variable x . Important: We must remember that we use roots(p) to find the roots of polynomials only.

Plot for Example A.Script and Function Files x=−1.^ 2 + 0./ ((x−0.01) −1.5 1 1. y max = 90 .5 0 0.5]).16 using the plot command The roots (zeros) of this function appear to be in the neighborhood of x = – 0. 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1.01: 1.2 and x = 0. [−1.y).04)-10. plot(x. we can use the fplot(fcn.3 .5 1. this plot is identical to the plot of Figure A. Next.14.04) −10.5.2 where.5 -1 -0. we define and save f(x) as the funczero01.5: 0. approximately. Now.1 where. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-29 . The maximum occurs at approximately x = 0./ ((x−1.m function m-file with the following code: function y=funczero01(x) % Finding the zeros of the function shown below y=1/((x−0. approximately. and the minimum occurs at approximately x = 1.1).2)^2+0. y=1.1)^2+0.y) command. fplot('funczero01'.2). grid This plot is shown in Figure A.lims) command to plot f ( x ) as follows. y min = – 34 .01)−1/((x−1. As expected.5 Figure A.14 that was obtained with the plot(x.15. grid The plot is shown in Figure A.^ 2 + 0.14.

x1.5 . x1).1919 and r2= 0.16 using the fplot command We will use the fzero(f. x2= fzero('funczero01'. fprintf(' and r2= %3. min_val=fmin('funczero01'.lims) command to find the smallest possible interval within which the function minimum lies. When the entire range is considered. we must remember that this function searches for a minimum and it may display the values of local minima* . For this example.15.x2) function as follows.5 -1 -0.x) function to compute the roots of f ( x ) in (A. 1.3). A-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . therefore. the maxima and minima are considered be to the maximum and minimum values in the entire range in which the function is defined. The minimum of f(x) is found with the fmin(f.5 rather than the interval – 1. 0.x1.5) min_val = 1.y) or the fplot(fcn.5 ≤ x ≤ 1. Plot for Example A.5 0 0.x2) function. x1= fzero('funczero01'. 0.2012 * Local maxima or local minima. we specify the range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. fprintf('The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= %3.4f'. before displaying the function minimum.5 Figure A. and then invoked with that file name. It is. are the maximum or minimum values of a function within a restricted range of values in the independent variable. The code below must be saved with a file name.2).20) more precisely. advisable to plot the function with either the plot(x. x2) MATLAB displays the following: The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= -0.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1.3788 Whenever we use the fmin(f.4f \n'.5 1 1. if any. -0.

that is.01) −1 / ((x−1. MATLAB performs all computations with accuracy up to 16 decimal places.2) ^ 2 + 0. Same as SHORT.1) max_val = 0. FORMAT may be used to switch between different output display formats as follows: FORMAT Default. x=1. Of course. We have placed the minus (−) sign in front of the right side of the last expression above.0999 x=0.04)−10).1) ^ 2 + 0. this is equivalent to the negative of the funczero01 function. Now.1812 To find the maximum value.2) ^ 2 + 0. so that the maximum value will be displayed. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications A-31 . The format displayed has nothing to do with the accuracy in the computations.2012.04) −10 y = -34.1) ^ 2 + 0.2)^2+0.1)^2+0.2000 A. we substitute it into f ( x ) .11 Display Formats MATLAB displays the results on the screen in integer format without decimals if the result is an integer number. max_val=fmin('minusfunczero01'. or in short floating point format with four decimals if it a fractional number. The output format can changed with the format command. All computations in MATLAB are done in double precision.04) −10 y = 89.Display Formats This is the value of x at which y = f ( x ) is minimum. 0. we execute the following code to get the value of x where the maximum y = f ( x ) occurs. y=1 / ((x−0.0999.% Using this value find the corresponding value of y y=1 / ((x−0. To find the value of y corresponding to this value of x. The available formats can be displayed with the help format command as follows: help format FORMAT Set output format. we must first define a new function m-file that will produce – f ( x ) .01)−1/((x−1. We define it as follows: function y=minusfunczero01(x) % It is used to find maximum value from -f(x) y=−(1/((x−0.01) −1 / ((x−1.

if %f is used. FORMAT LONG G Best of fixed or floating point format with 15 digits.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® FORMAT SHORT Scaled fixed point format with 5 digits. FORMAT SHORT G Best of fixed or floating point format with 5 digits. It uses specifiers to indicate where and in which format the values would be displayed and printed. The fprintf(format.333 Better of format short or format short e format bank 33.array) command displays and prints both text and arrays. With this command only the real part of each parameter is processed. FORMAT BANK Fixed format for dollars and cents.3335 Four decimal digits (default) format long 33. FORMAT + The symbols +. A-32 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . FORMAT HEX Hexadecimal format. Imaginary parts are ignored. FORMAT RAT Spacing: FORMAT COMPACT Suppress extra line-feeds. the values will be displayed and printed in fixed decimal format.and blank are printed for positive. the text is displayed. Thus. . format short 33.3333e+01 Four decimal digits plus exponent format short g 33. negative and zero elements. FORMAT LOOSE Puts the extra line-feeds back in. The disp(X) command displays the array X without printing the array name. FORMAT LONG E Floating point format with 15 digits. If X is a string. Some examples with different format displays age given below. the values will be displayed and printed in scientific notation format.33 two decimal digits format + only + or − or zero are printed format rat 100/3 rational approximation Approximation by ratio of small integers. FORMAT LONG Scaled fixed point format with 15 digits. and if %e is used. FORMAT SHORT E Floating point format with 5 digits.33333333333334 16 digits format short e 3.

i = – 1 . Thus. Essentially.1. that is. Therefore. In this case. we conclude that j = – 1 . we denote i as j to avoid confusion with current i . Also. but it has been rotated counterclockwise by 90 ° .Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers T his appendix is a review of the algebra of complex numbers. another multiplication of the new vector jA by j will produce another 90 ° counterclockwise direction. When this vector is rotated by another 90 ° for a total of 270 ° . j is an operator that produces a 90-degree counterclockwise rotation to any vector to which it is applied as a multiplying factor.1. B. multiplication of this vector by the operator j will result in a new vector jA whose magnitude remains the same. and the exponential and polar forms are discussed and illustrated with examples. j = – j . its value becomes j ( – A ) = – j A .1 Definition of a Complex Number In the language of mathematics. The basic operations are defined and illustrated by several examples. In the electrical engineering field. A fourth 90 ° rotation returns the vector to its original position. The j operator Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-1 . and j = 1 . if it is given that a vector A has the direction along the right side of the x-axis as shown in Figure B. and thus its value is again A . jA j ( j A ) = j2 A = –A y 2 3 4 A x 2 j ( –j A ) = –j A = A j ( –A ) = j 3 A = –j A Figure B. the square root of minus one is denoted as i . the vector A has rotated 180 ° and its new value now is – A . Applications using Euler’s identities are presented.

two complex numbers A and B where A = a + jb and B = c + jd . the number A = a + jb where a and b are both real numbers. Thus. and the yaxis (ordinate) as the imaginary axis with the understanding that the “imaginary” axis is just as “real” as the real axis. For example. we change the signs of the components of the subtrahend and we perform addition.* An imaginary number is the product of a real number. if A = a + jb and B = c + jd then A + B = (a + c) + j(b + d) and A – B = (a – c) + j(b – d) Example B. and an imaginary component equal to the sum of the imaginary components. and also their imaginary parts are equal. By definition. are equal if and only if their real parts are equal. say r . by the operator j . Thus.2 Addition and Subtraction of Complex Numbers The sum of two complex numbers has a real component equal to the sum of the real components. the imaginary axis is just as important as the real axis. B. Thus.1 It is given that A = 3 + j 4 . Then. a = Re { A } and b = Im { A } where Re { A } denotes real part of A. In other words. Find A + B and A – B Solution: A + B = (3 + j4) + (4 – j2) = (3 + 4) + j(4 – 2) = 7 + j2 and A – B = (3 + j4) – (4 – j2) = (3 – 4) + j(4 + 2) = – 1 + j6 * We may think the real axis as the cosine axis and the imaginary axis as the sine axis. For subtraction. A = B if and only if a = c and b = d . A complex number is the sum (or difference) of a real number and an imaginary number. is a complex number. r is a real number and jr is an imaginary number.Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers Note: In our subsequent discussion. and B = 4 – j 2 . and b = Im { A } the imaginary part of A. we will designate the x-axis (abscissa) as the real axis. B-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

1) The conjugate of a complex number. denoted as A∗ . then A ⋅ A∗ = ( a + jb ) ( a – jb ) = a 2 – jab + jab – j 2 b 2 = a + b 2 2 Example B. if A = a + jb . and with an imaginary component of opposite sign. Thus. the result is a real number.Multiplication of Complex Numbers B. Find A ⋅ B Solution: A ⋅ B = ( 3 + j 4 ) ⋅ ( 4 – j 2 ) = 12 – j 6 + j 16 – j 2 8 = 20 + j 10 (B. Thus.4 It is given that A = 3 + j 5 . then A∗ = a – j b . Find A∗ Solution: The conjugate of the complex number A has the same real component. is another complex number with the same real component. A∗ = 3 – j 5 If a complex number A is multiplied by its conjugate. Thus.2 It is given that A = 3 + j 4 and B = 4 – j 2 . and making use of the fact that j 2 = – 1 . but the imaginary component has opposite sign. if A = a + jb and B = c + jd then A ⋅ B = ( a + jb ) ⋅ ( c + jd ) = ac + jad + jbc + j 2 bd and since j 2 = – 1 .3 It is given that A = 3 + j 5 . Find A ⋅ A∗ Solution: A ⋅ A∗ = ( 3 + j 5 ) ( 3 – j 5 ) = 3 + 5 = 9 + 25 = 34 2 2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-3 . Example B. if A = a + jb . Then.3 Multiplication of Complex Numbers Complex numbers are multiplied using the rules of elementary algebra. it follows that A ⋅ B = ac + jad + jbc – b d = ( ac – bd ) + j ( ad + bc ) Example B.

5) B-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .2) In (B.3) by the real positive constant C we get: Ce jθ – jθ jθ = cos θ + j sin θ (B.Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers B. we get 73 + j4 (3 + j4)(4 – j3) 24 + j 7 A = ------------.= -. and B = 4 + j 3 . Thus.= 24 + j ----.= 0.= 12 – j 9 + j 16 + 12 = ---------------. we see that the quotient is easily separated into a real and an imaginary part. if A = a + jb and B = c + jd .96 + j 0.= -----------------------------------------------------2 2 B B∗ B c + jd ( c + jd ) ( c – jd ) c +d ( ac + bd . and it is done by multiplying the denominator by its conjugate.= ------------.2). Find A ⁄ B Solution: Using the procedure of (B. Multiplying (B.2).= -------------------------------------.5 Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers The relations e and e are known as the Euler’s identities.⋅ ----.28 . then.3) = cos θ – j sin θ (B.5 It is given that A = 3 + j 4 .= ------------------------------------.( bc – ad ) ) = ---------------------.4 Division of Complex Numbers When performing division of complex numbers.-----------------------------------------------2 2 25 B 25 25 4 + j3 (4 + j3)(4 – j3) 4 +3 B. Using this procedure.+ j ---------------------2 2 2 2 c +d c +d (B. This procedure is called rationalization of the quotient. we multiplied both the numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator to eliminate the j operator from the denominator of the quotient. Example B. it is desirable to obtain the quotient separated into a real part and an imaginary part.4) = C cos θ + j C sin θ (B. A B∗ a + jb ( a + jb ) ( c – jd ) ( ac + bd ) + j ( bc – ad ) A -.

8) Also. we use the expression 2 2 a + jb = a +b e j ⎛ tan ⎝ –1 b⎞ -a⎠ (B.6) where the left side of (B.6).11) The polar form is essentially the same as the exponential form but the notation is different.6) is the exponential form.5) and (B.12) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-5 .= tan θ C cos θ a or –1 b θ = tan ⎛ -. and thus Ce jθ = a + jb (B.⎞ ⎝a⎠ (B.7). from (B. C 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (B. we get a + b = ( C cos θ ) + ( C sin θ ) = C ( cos θ + sin θ ) = C Then.7) b C sin θ -.7) = a +b 2 2 or C = a +b 2 2 (B. say a + jb . Ce jθ = C ∠θ (B.= --------------. we get a = C cos θ and b = C sin θ Squaring and adding the expressions in (B. we use the expressions Ce Ce jθ – jθ = C cos θ + j C sin θ = C cos θ – j C sin θ (B.Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers This expression represents a complex number. and the right side is the rectangular form.10) To convert a complex number from exponential to rectangular form.9) To convert a complex number from rectangular to exponential form. Equating real and imaginary parts in (B. that is.

3 + j 4 b.6 ° = 5 ∠116. and rotates in the counterclockwise direction. Example B. The components of 3 + j 4 Then. thetax=angle(x)*180/pi. – 1 + j2 = 2 j ⎛ tan ----.Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers where the left side of (B.6° B-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . – 1 + j 2 c. and the right side is the polar form. disp(magx). The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B. The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B.⎞ ⎝ –1 ⎠ = 1 +2 e 2 2 –1 5e j116.⎠ ⎝ 3 = 5e j53. magx=abs(x).1 ° = 5 ∠53. 4 – j 3 Solution: a. disp(thetax) 5 53. 3 + j4 = –1 j ⎛ tan 4 ⎞ -. 4 Im 5 53.1301 b. Then.1° 3 +4 e 2 2 Check with MATLAB: x=3+j*4. We must remember that the phase angle θ is always measured with respect to the positive real axis.2.12) is the exponential form.3.2.6 Convert the following complex numbers to exponential and polar forms: a.1° 3 Re Figure B. – 2 – j d.

4. The components of – 2 – j Then.6° 5 Re −153.4° −1 116.6° −2 26.1 ° = 5 ∠323. disp(thetay) 2. The components of – 1 + j 2 Check with MATLAB: y=−1+j*2.4°(Measured Clockwise) −1 Figure B.6° = 5e j ( – 153.2361 -153.9 ° 4 +3 e ⎝ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-7 . disp(magy).9 ° = 5 ∠– 36. 4 –j 3 = –1 j ⎛tan – 3⎞ ----.5. disp(magv).6° = 5 ∠206.3.1° = 5e –j36.4 ° Check with MATLAB: v=−2−j*1.4349 d.Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers Im 5 63. thetav=angle(v)*180/pi.⎠ 2 2 4 = 5e j323. thetay=angle(y)*180/pi.4 )° = 5 ∠– 153.4. Im 206. Then.5651 c. disp(thetav) 2.6° Re 2 Figure B. The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B.2361 116. The real and imaginary components of this complex number are shown in Figure B. –2 –j 1 = –1 j ⎛ tan – 1 ⎞ ----⎝ –2 ⎠ 2 2 2 +1 e = 5e j206. magy=abs(y). magv=abs(v).

Solution: We recall that – 1 = j 2 .6.8699 Example B. 2 ∠– 150 ° = 2e – j 150 ° = 2 ( cos 150° – j sin 150° ) = 2 ( – 0. Im 210° −1.7 Express the complex number – 2 ∠30° in exponential and in rectangular forms. magw=abs(w). if A = M ∠θ and B = N ∠φ B-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .1° −36.73 30° 2 Re −150°(Measured Clockwise) −1 Figure B.9° −3 5 4 Re Figure B. – 2 ∠30° = 2 ∠( 30° + 180° ) = 2 ∠210° = 2 ∠– 150° The components of this complex number are shown in Figure B. Therefore. Since each j rotates a vector by 90 ° counterclockwise. To multiply two complex numbers in exponential (or polar) form. however.Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers Im 323. we multiply the magnitudes and we add the phase angles. the exponential and polar forms are most convenient when we multiply or divide complex numbers.73 – j Note: The rectangular form is most useful when we add or subtract complex numbers. that is. disp(magw).5 ) = – 1. thetaw=angle(w)*180/pi.866 – j0. The components of 2 ∠– 150° Then. then – 2 ∠30° is the same as 2 ∠30° rotated counterclockwise by 180 ° .6.5. disp(thetaw) 5 -36. The components of 4 – j 3 Check with MATLAB: w=4−j*3.

∠( θ – φ ) = -----------.9 Divide A = 10 ∠53.9° B 5e j53. that is.9° ) = 50 e j16.1° by B = 5 ∠– 36.2° and multiplication in exponential form yields AB = ( 10 e j53.9° Solution: Division in polar form yields A 10 ∠53.= 2 ∠[ 53.9° Solution: Multiplication in polar form yields AB = ( 10 × 5 ) ∠[ 53.1° – 36.Exponential and Polar Forms of Complex Numbers then.= 2e e = 2e – j36. we divide the magnitude of the dividend by the magnitude of the divisor.9° ) ] = 2 ∠90° B 5 ∠– 36.1° j36.9° ) ] = 50 ∠16. AB = MN ∠( θ + φ ) = M e jθ Ne jφ = MN e j(θ + φ) (B. and we subtract the phase angle of the divisor from the phase angle of the dividend. if A = M ∠θ and B = N ∠φ then.9° j90° 10 e A -.1° by B = 5 ∠– 36.8 Multiply A = 10 ∠53.= ----------------------.9° ) = 50 e j ( 53.1° – ( – 36.= ---.e N N jφ B Ne jθ (B.1° -.= -------------------.1° + ( – 36.2° To divide one complex number by another when both are expressed in exponential or polar form.1° ) ( 5e – j 36.14) Example B. M j(θ – φ ) M Me A -.13) Example B.1° Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications B-9 .= --.9° Division in exponential form yields j53.

Appendix B A Review of Complex Numbers NOTES B-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .

Cramer’s rule. a 33. Thus. are located on the main diagonal. Alternately. C. Thus. a matrix A is denoted as a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n a 21 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n A = a 31 a 32 a 33 … a 3 n … … … … … a m 1 a m 2 a m 3 … a mn (C. if a matrix has five rows and five columns. a nn are called the main diagonal elements. A matrix of m rows and n columns is said to be of m × n order matrix. a nn .1) The numbers a ij are the elements of the matrix where the index i indicates the row. a 22. we say that the matrix elements a 11.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants T his chapter is an introduction to matrices and matrix operations. it is said to be a square matrix of order 5. a 43 indicates the element positioned in the fourth row and third column. If m = n . Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-1 . 2 3 7 1 –1 5 1 3 1 –2 1 –5 4 –7 6 or In general form. …. but are included for subject continuity. and j indicates the column in which each element is positioned. In a square matrix. …. the matrix is said to be a square matrix of order m (or n). and reference to more advance topics in matrix theory. Some definitions and examples are not applicable to subsequent material presented in this text. the elements a 11. Determinants. and Gauss’s elimination method are reviewed. a 22. a 33. These are denoted with a dagger (†) and may be skipped.1 Matrix Definition A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers such as those shown below.

where each element of C is the sum (difference) of the corresponding elements of A and B . their sum (difference) will be another matrix C with the same order as A and B . …. is called a zero matrix. 2 . A = B . if they are of the same order m × n. all paragraphs and topics preceded by a dagger ( † ) may be skipped.1 Compute A + B and A – B given that A = 1 2 3 and B = 2 3 0 0 1 4 –1 2 5 Solution: A+B = 1+2 0–1 2+3 1+2 3+0 = 3 5 4+5 –1 3 3 9 and A–B = 1–2 0+1 2 – 3 3 – 0 = –1 –1 3 1–2 4–5 1 –1 –1 % Define matrices A and B % Add A and B Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 3. C-2 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . C = A ± B = [ a ij ± b ij ] (C. These are discussed in matrix theory textbooks. that is. 0 1 4]. If A = a ij and B = b ij are conformable for addition (subtraction). 3 . 2. B=[2 3 0. −1 2 5]. ….2 Matrix Operations Two matrices A = a ij and B = b ij are equal. that is.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants † The sum of the diagonal elements of a square matrix A is called the trace* of A . † A matrix in which every element is zero.3) Example C. m j = 1. 3.2) Two matrices are said to be conformable for addition (subtraction). A+B * Henceforth. n (C. if and only if a ij = b ij i = 1 . C.

k2=(−3 + 2*j). 2 3]. k1*A % Define scalars k1 and k2 % Define matrix A % Multiply matrix A by constant k1 ans = 5 -10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-3 . k 2 ⋅ A = ( – 3 + j2 ) × 1 – 2 = ( – 3 + j2 ) × 1 ( – 3 + j2 ) × ( – 2 ) = – 3 + j2 2 3 ( – 3 + j2 ) × 2 ( – 3 + j2 ) × 3 – 6 + j4 6 – j4 – 9 + j6 Check with MATLAB: k1=5.Matrix Operations ans = 3 -1 A−B 5 3 3 9 % Subtract B from A ans = -1 1 -1 -1 3 -1 If k is any scalar (a positive or negative number). then multiplication of a matrix A by the scalar k is the multiplication of every element of A by k . k 2 = – 3 + j2 Solution: a. k 1 = 5 b. k 1 ⋅ A = 5 × 1 – 2 = 5 × 1 5 × ( – 2 ) = 5 – 10 2 3 5×2 5×3 10 15 b.2 Multiply the matrix A = 1 –2 2 3 by a. A=[1 −2. Example C. and not [k] which is a 1 × 1 matrix.

Thus. B and A are not conformable for multiplication B p×n A m×p For matrix multiplication. the product A ⋅ B (but not B ⋅ A ) is conformable for multiplication only if A is an m × p matrix and matrix B is an p × n matrix. The product A ⋅ B will then be an m × n matrix.0000i 6.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 10 k2*A 15 %Multiply matrix A by constant k2 ans = -3. Shows that A and B are conformable for multiplication A m×p B p×n Indicates the dimension of the product A ⋅ B For the product B ⋅ A we have: Here.0000i -6. Example C. we add these products.0000.0000+ 2. That is. A convenient way to determine if two matrices are conformable for multiplication is to write the dimensions of the two matrices sideby-side as shown below.0000+ 6.0000i -9.4. then.0000+ 4. to obtain the product A ⋅ B .0000i Two matrices A and B are said to be conformable for multiplication A ⋅ B in that order. we multiply each element of a row of A by the corresponding element of a column of B . only when the number of columns of matrix A is equal to the number of rows of matrix B .3 Matrices C and D are defined as 1 C = 2 3 4 and D = – 1 2 Compute the products C ⋅ D and D ⋅ C C-4 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the operation is row by column.

−1. D=[1. 1 C ⋅ D = 2 3 4 –1 = ( 2 ) ⋅ ( 1 ) + ( 3 ) ⋅ ( –1 ) + ( 4 ) ⋅ ( 2 ) = 7 2 The dimensions for D and C are respectively 3 × 1 1 × 3 and therefore. the product D ⋅ C is also feasible. is not defined.3 Special Forms of Matrices † A square matrix is said to be upper triangular when all the elements below the diagonal are zero. and will result in a 1 × 1 . However. C*D % Define matrices C and D % Multiply C by D ans = 7 D*C % Multiply D by C ans = 2 -2 4 3 -3 6 4 -4 8 Division of one matrix by another. when we discuss the inverse of a matrix. C.Special Forms of Matrices Solution: The dimensions of matrices C and D are respectively 1 × 3 3 × 1 . 2]. therefore the product C ⋅ D is feasible. In an upper triangular matrix. not all elements above the diagonal need to be non-zero. an equivalent operation exists. that is. and it will become apparent later in this chapter. Multiplication of these will produce a 3 × 3 matrix as follows: 1 (1) ⋅ (2) (1) ⋅ (3) (1) ⋅ (4) 2 3 4 D ⋅ C = –1 2 3 4 = ( –1 ) ⋅ ( 2 ) ( –1 ) ⋅ ( 3 ) ( –1 ) ⋅ ( 4 ) = –2 –3 –4 2 (2) ⋅ (2) (2) ⋅ (3) (2) ⋅ (4) 4 6 8 Check with MATLAB: C=[2 3 4]. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-5 .4) is an upper triangular matrix. The matrix A of (C.

7) is a scalar matrix with k = 4. if all elements are zero.6) is a diagonal matrix. 3 × 3 . The matrix C of (C. if a 11 = a 22 = a 33 = … = a nn = k where k is a scalar. The matrix B of (C.7) A scalar matrix with k = 1 . a 11 0 C = 0 0 0 0 … 0 0 a 22 0 … 0 0 … 0 0 0 0 … 0 0 0 … a mn (C.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n 0 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n 0 0 … … … … … 0 … … 0 0 0 … a mn A = (C. when all the elements above the diagonal are zero. C-6 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 4 D = 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 (C.5) In a lower triangular matrix.6) † A diagonal matrix is called a scalar matrix.5) is a lower triangular matrix. not all elements below the diagonal need to be non-zero. is called an identity matrix I . a 11 B = … … am1 0 … … am 2 0 … 0 0 … 0 … 0 0 … … 0 a m 3 … a mn a 21 a 22 (C. except those in the diagonal. The matrix D of (C.4) † A square matrix is said to be lower triangular. † A square matrix is said to be diagonal. Shown below are 2 × 2 . and 4 × 4 identity matrices.

if 1 1 2 3 then A T = 2 4 5 6 3 4 5 6 A= (C. is the matrix that is obtained when the rows and columns of matrix A are interchanged. eye(size(A)) 3 1 -7 1 -5 6 displays ans = 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 † The transpose of a matrix A . −2 1 −5. For example. For example. let matrix A be defined as A=[1 3 1.9) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-7 . 4 −7 6] % Define matrix A A = 1 -2 4 then. denoted as A T .Special Forms of Matrices 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 (C. For example. produces an identity matrix whose size is the same as matrix A . the eye(size(A)) function. eye(4) % Display a 4 by 4 identity matrix ans = 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 Likewise.8) The MATLAB eye(n) function displays an n × n identity matrix.

the transpose of a matrix A is the same as A . for the above example. Thus.0000i % Compute and display the conjugate of A conj_A = C-8 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . 4 5 6] % Define matrix A A = 1 4 A' 2 5 3 6 % Display the transpose of A ans = 1 2 3 4 5 6 † A symmetric matrix A is a matrix such that A T = A . that is. 3 2−3j] % Define and display matrix A A = 1. An example of a symmetric matrix is shown below.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants In MATLAB we use the apostrophe (′) symbol to denote and obtain the transpose of a matrix.0000i 3.3. A=[1 2 3. the matrix obtained from A by replacing each element by its conjugate. The first. 1 2 3 A = 2 4 –5 3 –5 6 1 2 3 A = 2 4 –5 = A 3 –5 6 T (C.0000 conj_A=conj(A) 0+ 1. computes the conjugate of a matrix A .0000i 2. A = 1 + j2 3 j 2 – j3 A∗ = 1 – j 2 3 –j 2 + j3 MATLAB has two built-in functions which compute the complex conjugate of a number.0000+ 2.0000. conj(A).10) † If a matrix A has complex numbers as elements. we get A = [1+2j j. and the second. is called the conjugate of A . Using MATLAB with the matrix A defined as above. computes the complex conjugate of any complex number. conj(x). and it is denoted as A∗ An example is shown below.

0000i † A square matrix A such that A T = – A is called skew-symmetric. For example. matrix A above is skew symmetric.11) then.2. For example. denoted as detA . † A square matrix A such that A T∗ = – A is called skew−Hermitian. 0 2 –3 A = –2 0 –4 3 4 0 0 –2 A = 2 0 –3 –4 T 3 4 = –A 0 Therefore.0000+ 3.Determinants 1.1. C. For example. j A = –1–j –2 1–j 3j j 2 j T A = 1–j j 0 2 –1–j 3j j –2 –j T* A = 1+j j 0 2 –1+j – 3j –j –2 –j = –A 0 Therefore. matrix A above is skew-Hermitian. is defined as Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-9 . matrix A above is Hermitian.0000i 2. † A square matrix A such that A T∗ = A is called Hermitian. the determinant of A .0000. 1 A = 1+j 2 1–j 3 –j 2 1 T A = 1–j j 0 2 1+j 3 j 2 1 T* A = 1–j –j 0 2 1+j 3 j 2 –j = A 0 Therefore.4 Determinants Let matrix A be defined as the square matrix a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n a 21 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n A = a a a … a 31 32 33 3n … … … … … a n 1 a n 2 a n 3 … a nn (C.0000 0.0000i 3.

4 Matrices A and B are defined as A = 1 2 and B = 2 – 1 2 0 3 4 Compute detA and detB . B=[2 −1. a 11 a 12 a 13 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 (C. A = a 11 a 12 a 21 a 22 (C.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants detA = a 11 a 22 a 33 …a nn + a 12 a 23 a 34 …a n 1 + a 13 a 24 a 35 …a n 2 + … – a n 1 …a 22 a 13 … – a n 2 …a 23 a 14 – a n 3 …a 24 a 15 – … The determinant of a square matrix of order n is referred to as determinant of order n.14) Example C. det(A) % Define matrices A and B % Compute the determinant of A ans = -2 det(B) % Compute the determinant of B ans = 2 Let A be a matrix of order 3. 2 0]. 3 4].12) (C. that is. that is.15) C-10 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .13) Then. Let A be a determinant of order 2. Solution: detA = 1 ⋅ 4 – 3 ⋅ 2 = 4 – 6 = – 2 detB = 2 ⋅ 0 – 2 ⋅ ( – 1 ) = 0 – ( – 2 ) = 2 Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2. detA = a 11 a 22 – a 21 a 12 (C.

these will be defined shortly. 2 –3 –4 2 –3 detB = 1 0 – 2 1 – 2 0 –5 –6 2 –6 or detB = [ 2 × 0 × ( – 6 ) ] + [ ( – 3 ) × ( – 2 ) × 0 ] + [ ( – 4 ) × 1 × ( – 5 ) ] – [ 0 × 0 × ( – 4 ) ] – [ ( – 5 ) × ( – 2 ) × 2 ] – [ ( – 6 ) × 1 × ( – 3 ) ] = 20 – 38 = – 18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-11 . To evaluate higher order determinants. we must first compute the cofactors. and add the products formed by the diagonals from upper left to lower right.Determinants then. then subtract the products formed by the diagonals from lower left to upper right as shown on the diagram of the next page. detA is found from detA = a 11 a 22 a 33 + a 12 a 23 a 31 + a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 – a 11 a 22 a 33 (C. we obtain (C.16) A convenient method to evaluate the determinant of order 3. a 11 a 12 a 13 a 11 a 12 a 21 a 22 a 23 a 21 a 22 a 31 a 32 a 33 a 31 a 32 − + This method works only with second and third order determinants.5 Compute detA and detB if matrices A and B are defined as 2 A = 1 2 3 5 0 1 1 0 2 –3 –4 0 –2 0 –5 –6 and B = 1 Solution: 2 detA = 1 2 3 5 2 3 0 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 or detA = ( 2 × 0 × 0 ) + ( 3 × 1 × 1 ) + ( 5 × 1 × 1 ) – ( 2 × 0 × 5 ) – ( 1 × 1 × 2 ) – ( 0 × 1 × 3 ) = 11 – 2 = 9 Likewise. When this is done properly. is to write the first two columns to the right of the 3 × 3 matrix. Example C.16) above.

det(A) % Define matrix A and compute detA ans = 9 B=[2 −3 −4. and it is denoted as M ij . 0 −5 −6].18) Compute the minors M 11 . 2 1 0].det(B) % Define matrix B and compute detB ans = -18 C. The signed minor ( – 1 ) Example C. M 13 and the cofactors α 11 . C-12 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . (C. M 12 . the remaining n – 1 square matrix is called the minor of A .5 Minors and Cofactors Let matrix A be defined as the square matrix of order n as shown below.6 Matrix A is defined as a 11 a 12 a 13 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 i+j M ij is called the cofactor of a ij and it is denoted as α ij .17) If we remove the elements of its ith row.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Check with MATLAB: A=[2 3 5. 1 0 −2. and jth column. a 11 a 12 a 13 … a 1 n a 21 a 22 a 23 … a 2 n A = a a a … a 31 32 33 3n … … … … … a n 1 a n 2 a n 3 … a nn (C. 1 0 1. α 12 and α 13 .

19) Solution: α 11 = ( – 1 ) 1+1 – 4 2 = 20 2 –6 2 –4 = 0 –1 2 1 –3 = –9 –1 –6 2 – 3 = – 8.24) Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-13 . M 32 . M 22 .22) α 31 = ( – 1 ) 3+1 α 32 = ( – 1 ) 3+2 (C. α 22.21) α 22 = ( – 1 ) 2+2 α 23 = ( – 1 ) 2+3 (C. M 33 and cofactors α 21. M 31 . α 32. α 23.20) α 13 = ( – 1 ) 1+3 α 21 = ( – 1 ) 2+1 (C.23) α 33 = ( – 1 ) 3+3 (C. M 23 . and α 33 are defined similarly.Minors and Cofactors Solution: M 11 = a 22 a 23 a 32 a 33 M 12 = a 21 a 23 a 31 a 33 M 11 = a 21 a 22 a 31 a 32 and α 11 = ( – 1 ) 1+1 M 11 = M 11 α 12 = ( – 1 ) 1+2 M 12 = – M 12 α 13 = M 13 = ( – 1 ) 1+3 M 13 The remaining minors M 21 . Example C. –4 2 1 2 = –8 2 –4 α 12 = ( – 1 ) 1+2 2 2 = 10 –1 –6 2 –3 = 6 2 –6 1 2 = –4 –1 2 1 –3 = –8 2 2 (C. α 31.7 Compute the cofactors of matrix A defined as 1 2 –3 A = 2 –4 2 –1 2 –6 (C.

Thus. Example C. Let A be a square matrix of any size.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants It is useful to remember that the signs of the cofactors follow the pattern + − − + + − − + + − + − − + + − − + + − + − + − + that is. the cofactors on the diagonals have the same sign as their minors. C-14 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . the value of the determinant of A is the sum of the products obtained by multiplying each element of any row or any column by its cofactor. 2 −4 2.det(A) % Define matrix A and compute detA ans = 40 We must use the above procedure to find the determinant of a matrix A of order 4 or higher.25) Compute the determinant of A using the elements of the first row.8 Matrix A is defined as A = 1 2 –3 2 –4 2 –1 2 –6 (C. −1 2 −6]. a fourth-order determinant can first be expressed as the sum of the products of the elements of its first row by its cofactor as shown below. Solution: detA = 1 – 4 2 – 2 2 2 – 3 2 – 4 = 1 × 20 – 2 × ( – 10 ) – 3 × 0 = 40 2 –6 –1 –6 –1 2 Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 −3.

we will multiply each element of the first column by its cofactor. Example C. −1 1 0 −1. we find [ a ] = 6 . delta = det(A) delta = -33 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ C-15 .9 Compute the value of the determinant of the matrix A defined as 2 –1 0 A = –1 1 0 4 0 3 –3 0 0 –3 –1 –2 1 (C. using the procedure of Example C.5 or Example C. [ c ] = 0 . 1 0 –1 A=2 0 3 – 2 0 0 1 [a] –1 0 –3 –( –1 ) 0 3 –2 0 0 1 [b] –1 0 –3 +4 1 0 – 1 0 0 1 [c] –1 0 –3 –( –3 ) 1 0 –1 0 3 –2 [d] ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ Next. [ d ] = – 36 and thus detA = [ a ] + [ b ] + [ c ] + [ d ] = 6 – 3 + 0 – 36 = – 33 We can verify our answer with MATLAB as follows: A=[ 2 −1 0 −3. Then. −3 0 0 1].Minors and Cofactors a 11 a 12 a 13 a 14 A = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 24 a 31 a 32 a 33 a 34 a 41 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 22 a 23 a 24 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 12 a 13 a 14 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 12 a 13 a 14 = a 11 a 32 a 33 a 34 – a 21 a 32 a 33 a 34 a 42 a 43 a 44 a 12 a 13 a 14 a 32 a 33 a 34 (C. 4 0 3 −2. [ b ] = – 3 .8.26) +a 31 a 22 a 23 a 24 – a 41 a 22 a 23 a 24 Determinants of order five or higher can be evaluated similarly.27) Solution: Using the above procedure.

For example. the determinant is zero.28) then.det(A) ans = 0 Property 3: If two rows or two columns of a matrix are identical. 3 6 1. Property 2: If all the elements of one row or column are m times the corresponding elements of another row or column. detA = 2 3 1 4 6 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 4 6 = 12 + 4 + 6 – 6 – 4 – 12 = 0 2 (C.29) Here. Property 1: If all elements of one row or one column are zero. An example of this is the determinant of the cofactor [ c ] above. if 2 A = 3 1 4 6 2 1 1 1 (C. C. 1 2 1]. This follows from Property 2 with m = 1 .6 Cramer’s Rule Let us consider the systems of the three equations below a 11 x + a 12 y + a 13 z = A a 21 x + a 22 y + a 23 z = B a 31 x + a 32 y + a 33 z = C (C. the determinant is zero. the determinant is zero. Check with MATLAB: A=[2 4 1.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Some useful properties of determinants are given below.30) and let ∆ a 11 a 12 a 13 = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 31 a 32 a 33 D1 = A a 11 a 13 B a 21 a 23 C a 31 a 33 D2 = a 11 A a 13 a 21 B a 23 a 31 C a 33 D3 = a 11 a 12 A a 21 a 22 B a 31 a 32 C C-16 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . detA is zero because the second column in A is 2 times the first column.

We observe that the numerators of (C. B .10 Use Cramer’s rule to find v 1 . and z can be found from the relations D1 x = ----- ∆ D2 y = ----- ∆ D3 z = ----- ∆ (C. and D 3 are all zero as we found in Property 1 above. D 1. and transferring known values to the right side. If (C.33) Now. if A = B = C = 0 . Then.32) and verify your answers with MATLAB. then.30) is a homogeneous set of equations. for the coefficients of the desired unknown. v 2 . Example C.31) are determinants that are formed from ∆ by the substitution of the known values A . and v 3 if 2v 1 – 5 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 0 – 2v 3 – 3v 2 – 4v 1 = 8 v 2 + 3v 1 – 4 – v 3 = 0 (C. ∆ = 2 –1 3 –4 –3 –2 3 1 –1 5 –1 3 8 –3 –2 4 1 –1 2 –1 – 4 – 3 = 6 + 6 – 12 + 27 + 4 + 4 = 35 3 1 5 –1 8 – 3 = 15 + 8 + 24 + 36 + 10 – 8 = 85 4 1 D1 = Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-17 . D 2. by Cramer’s rule. Cramer’s rule applies to systems of two or more equations. and C . y. x = y = z = 0 also.31) provided that the determinant ∆ (delta) is not zero. Solution: Rearranging the unknowns v.Cramer’s Rule Cramer’s rule states that the unknowns x. we get 2v 1 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 5 – 4v 1 – 3v 2 – 2v 3 = 8 3v 1 + v 2 – v 3 = 4 (C. that is.

-4 8 -2. % Compute the determinant of D2 d3=[2 -1 5. % Compute the determinant D of matrix B d1=[5 -1 3. % Display the value of v2 disp('v3=').34) C-18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . v2 and v3. 8 -3 -2. % The elements of the determinant D of matrix B delta=det(B). 3 1 4]. format rat % Express answers in ratio form B=[2 −1 3. % Compute he determinant of D3 v1=detd1/delta. % Compute the value of v2 v3=detd3/delta.= 85 = 17 ∆ 35 7 D2 x 2 = ----. % The elements of D3 detd3=det(d3). 3 4 -1].34) We will verify with MATLAB as follows. % The following code will compute and display the values of v1. % Compute the determinant of D1 d2=[2 5 3. % Compute the value of v1 v2=detd2/delta. % The elements of D1 detd1=det(d1).disp(v2).disp(v1). % Display the value of v3 v1= 17/7 v2= -34/7 v3= -11/7 These are the same values as in (C.31) we get D1 --------x 1 = ----. −4 −3 −2. % Compute the value of v3 % disp('v1='). 4 1 -1]. % Display the value of v1 disp('v2='). % The elements of D2 detd2=det(d2).= – 170 = – 34 -----------7 35 ∆ D3 x 3 = ----. 3 1 −1]. using (C.disp(v3). -4 -3 8.= – 55 = – 11 --------7 35 ∆ (C.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 2 –4 3 5 3 8 –2 4 –1 5 8 4 2 –4 3 5 8 = – 16 – 30 – 48 – 72 + 16 – 20 = – 170 4 D2 = D3 = 2 –1 –4 –3 3 1 2 –1 – 4 – 3 = – 24 – 24 – 20 + 45 – 16 – 16 = – 55 3 1 Then.

we multiply the third equation of (C. we can find the last unknown v 2 from any of the three equations of (C.36) or (C. 5v 1 – 5v 3 = 20 (C.11 Use the Gaussian elimination method to find v 1 .36) we get 17 11 5v 1 + 2 ⋅ ⎛ – -----⎞ = 9 or v 1 = ----⎝ 7⎠ 7 (C.35) with the third to eliminate the unknown v2 and we obtain the following equation. we add the first equation of (C. Example C.35) Solution: As a first step.37) Subtraction of (C. by substitution to another equation with two unknowns.35) by 3.36) yields ----7v 3 = – 11 or v 3 = – 11 7 (C. Then.36) Next. By substitution into the first equation we get Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-19 .37). we obtain the following equation. This method is best illustrated with the following example which consists of the same equations as the previous example. we can find the second unknown. This procedure is repeated until all unknowns are found.35). we can find the unknown v 1 from either (C. and we add it with the second to eliminate v 2 .37) from (C.Gaussian Elimination Method C. This can be done by multiplying the terms of any of the equations of the system by a number such that we can add (or subtract) this equation to another equation in the system so that one of the unknowns will be eliminated. 5v 1 + 2v 3 = 9 (C. substitution of the two values found can be made into an equation with three unknowns from which we can find the value of the third unknown. With this method.39) Finally.38) Now. v 2 .38) into (C.7 Gaussian Elimination Method We can find the unknowns in a system of two or more equations also by the Gaussian elimination method. Then. Subsequently. the objective is to eliminate one unknown at a time. and v 3 of the system of equations 2v 1 – v 2 + 3v 3 = 5 – 4v 1 – 3v 2 – 2v 3 = 8 3v 1 + v 2 – v 3 = 4 (C. By substitution of (C.

The Gaussian elimination method works well if the coefficients of the unknowns are small integers. However. it becomes impractical if the coefficients are large or fractional numbers.8 The Adjoint of a Matrix Let us assume that A is an n square matrix and α ij is the cofactor of a ij . Then the adjoint of A .10.12 Compute adjA if Matrix A is defined as 1 2 3 A = 1 3 4 1 4 3 (C.11. α 11 α 21 α 31 … α n 1 α 12 α 22 α 32 … α n 2 adjA = α α α … α 13 23 33 n3 … … … … … α 1 n α 2 n α 3 n … α nn (C. is defined as the n square matrix below.40) These are the same values as those we found in Example C.= – ----7 7 7 7 (C.– ----. C.41) We observe that the cofactors of the elements of the ith row (column) of A are the elements of the ith column (row) of adjA .42) Solution: 3 4 adjA = – 1 1 1 1 4 3 4 3 3 4 – 2 4 1 1 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 – 2 3 3 4 = –7 6 –1 1 0 –1 1 –2 1 – 1 2 1 4 1 2 1 3 C-20 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .– ----. denoted as adjA . Example C.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 34 33 35 34 v 2 = 2v 1 + 3v 3 – 5 = ----. as in Example C.

A is called the inverse of B . that is. and likewise. if detA ≠ 0 .13 Matrix A is defined as 1 A = 2 3 2 3 3 4 5 7 (C.14 Matrix A is defined as 1 2 3 A = 1 3 4 1 4 3 (C. A is called non-singular. find A –1 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-21 .adjA detA (C.44) Example C. B is called the inverse of A . matrix A is singular. A = B –1 If a matrix A is non-singular. where I is the identity matrix. C. Example C. that is.10 The Inverse of a Matrix If A and B are n square matrices such that AB = BA = I .45) Compute its inverse.Singular and Non-Singular Matrices C. we can compute its inverse A –1 from the relation A –1 1 = ----------. Solution: detA = 1 2 3 2 3 3 4 5 7 1 2 2 3 = 21 + 24 + 30 – 27 – 20 – 28 = 0 3 5 Therefore.9 Singular and Non-Singular Matrices An n square matrix A is called singular if detA = 0 .43) Determine whether this matrix is singular or non-singular. denoted as B = A –1 .

5000 -0.adjA = ----. that is. –7 6 –1 adjA = 1 0 – 1 1 –2 1 Then.47) for the Matrix A defined as A = 4 2 3 2 2 –3 –2 4 Proof: detA = 8 – 6 = 2 and adjA = C-22 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications .5 0 0.5000 -0.15 Prove the validity of (C.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants Solution: Here.5000 -0.5 1 – 0.5000 0. A –1 –7 6 –1 3.44).47) Example C. 1 4 3].1 0 – 1 = – 0.5 –2 detA 1 –2 1 – 0. 1 3 4. it is possible to compute the inverse of A using (C.5 (C. AA –1 = I or A A = I –1 (C.5 – 3 0.5 1 1 = ----------. From Example C. invA=inv(A) % Define matrix A and compute its inverse A = 1 1 1 invA = 3.0000 0. detA = 9 + 8 + 12 – 9 – 16 – 6 = – 2 .12.5000 Multiplication of a matrix A by its inverse A –1 produces the identity matrix I .46) Check with MATLAB: A=[1 2 3. and since this is a non-zero value.0000 0 1.5000 2 3 4 3 4 3 -3.

50) to solve any set of simultaneous equations that have solutions.2 – 3 = 2 –2 4 detA –1 2 3 1 –3 ⁄ 2 = 4 – 3 2 –1 2 2–2 –6+6 = 1 –3+4 0 0 = I 1 and AA –1 = 4 2 C. We will refer to this method as the inverse matrix method of solution of simultaneous equations.11 Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices Consider the relation AX = B (C.51) compute the unknowns x 1. x 2. the given set of equations is AX = B where Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-23 . We assume that A and X are conformable for multiplication.48) where A and B are matrices whose elements are known. Solution: In matrix form.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices Then. and X is a matrix (a column vector) whose elements are the unknowns. and x 3 using the inverse matrix method. Multiplication of both sides of (C.49) or X=A B –1 (C.48) by A –1 yields: A AX = A B = IX = A B –1 –1 –1 (C. Example C.16 For the system of the equations ⎧ 2x 1 + 3x 2 + x 3 = 9 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ x 1 + 2x 2 + 3x 3 = 6 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ 3x 1 + x 2 + 2x 3 = 8 ⎭ (C. we can use (C.50) Therefore. A –1 1 1 1 –3 ⁄ 2 = ----------.adjA = -.

A –1 1 –5 7 1 1 = ----------.28 –5 7 1 8 (C. A=[2 3 1. where matrix X is the same size as matrix B.adjA = ----.54) Next. For this exam–1 ple. X=A \ B C-24 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and the adjoint adjA detA = 18 and adjA = 1 –5 7 7 1 –5 –5 7 1 Therefore.29 = 29 ⁄ 18 = 1.7 1 – 5 6 = ----.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 2 A= 1 3 x1 9 3 1 . we find the determinant detA . 3 1 2]. x1 X = x2 x3 35 35 ⁄ 18 1. it is easier to use the matrix left division operation X = A \ B . and then multiply A –1 by B.61 = 18 18 5 5 ⁄ 18 0. we could use the MATLAB’s inv(A) function.52) Then. this is MATLAB’s solution of A B for the matrix equation A ⋅ X = B .94 1 –5 7 9 11----. 1 2 3.7 1 – 5 detA 18 –5 7 1 and by (C. B=[9 6 8]'. X = A B –1 (C. However.53) we obtain the solution as follows.53) or x1 x2 x3 2 = 1 3 3 1 2 3 1 2 –1 9 6 8 (C. X = x2 .55) To verify our results. B = 6 2 3 8 1 2 x3 (C.

1. Circuit for Example C. This is found from the relation R –1 1 = ----------. where 10 – 9 0 100 R = – 9 20 – 9 . and I 3 Solution: For this example. we find that Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-25 . For this example. the matrix equation is RI = V or I = R –1 V . V = 0 0 – 9 15 0 I1 and I = I 2 I3 The next step is to find R – 1 .9444 1. I 2 .2778 Example C.1.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices X = 1.17 the loop equations are 10I 1 – 9I 2 = 100 0 0 – 9I 1 + 20I 2 – 9I 3 = – 9I 2 + 15I 3 = (C.adjR detR (C.17 For the electric circuit of Figure C. 1Ω V = 100 v 2Ω 2Ω − + I1 9Ω 9Ω 4Ω I2 I3 Figure C.6111 0.57) Therefore.56) Use the inverse matrix method to compute the values of the currents I 1 . we find the determinant and the adjoint of R .

R(2.135 150 90 = -------.17.1)=10.3077 Spreadsheets also have the capability of solving simultaneous equations using the inverse matrix method.2)=-9. We start with a blank spreadsheet and in a block of cells.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants 219 135 81 detR = 975. −9 20 −9.135 150 90 975 detR 81 90 119 and 219 135 81 100 219 22.8462 8.58) Then. we can use Microsoft Excel’s MINVERSE (Matrix Inversion) and MMULT (Matrix Multiplication) functions. V=[100 0 0]'. R(1.1)=-9.85 0 975 975 81 90 119 0 81 8.46 1 100 I = I 2 = -------.3)=-9. we enter the elements of matrix V in G3:G5. Then.2)=20.3)=15. 0 −9 15].3) since it is zero. say B3:D5. The procedure is as follows: 1.2)=-9. V=[100 0 0]'. % No need to make entry for A(1.3077 We can also use subscripts to address the individual elements of the matrix.135 = 13. R(2.31 I3 I1 Check with MATLAB: R=[10 −9 0.8462 8.2. we enter the elements of matrix R as shown in Figure C. adjR = 135 150 90 81 90 119 (C. C-26 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . R –1 219 135 81 1 1 = ----------. For instance. R(2. R(3. R(3. Accordingly.4615 13. to obtain the values of the three currents in Example C.4615 13. the above code could also have been written as: R(1. I=R\V I = 22.adjR = -------. I=R\V I = 22.

We format this block for number display with three decimal places. Circuit for Example C.083 22.G3:G5) and we press the Crtl-Shift-Enter keys simultaneously. R – 1 . Next.18 For the phasor circuit of Figure C. we compute and display the inverse of R. that is.3077 10 Figure C. 3. we highlight them.2. we type the formula =MININVERSE(B3:D5) and we press the Crtl-Shift-Enter keys simultaneously. Solution of Example C.154 0.225 0.138 0.18 85 Ω 170∠0° + V1 R1 C IX −j100 Ω V2 50 Ω VS − j200 Ω R3 = 100 Ω L R2 Figure C.092 0.122 8. As before.138 0. A B C D E F G H 1 Spreadsheet for Matrix Inversion and Matrix Multiplication 2 10 -9 0 100 3 R= -9 20 -9 V= 0 4 0 -9 15 0 5 6 0.3.18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-27 . With this range highlighted and making sure that the cell marker is in B7. The values of I then appear in G7:G9.083 0.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices 2. and with the cell marker positioned in G7. we choose the block of cells G7:G9 for the values of the current I.462 7 -1 R = 0.846 9 0. we type the formula =MMULT(B7:D9.092 8 I= 13. We observe that R – 1 appears in these cells.17 with a spreadsheet Example C. Now. We choose B7:D9 for the elements of this inverted matrix.

01 V 1 + ( 0.005 – 0. and to do all other computations. we write (C. 1. I=[2. and I are as indicated. disp(V(2)).01 )V 2 = j1.+ -------------. and express the current I x in both rectangular and polar forms by first simplifying like terms. % Insert a line disp('V1 = ').005j −0. V=Y\I. where Y = Admit tan ce .005 )V 1 – 0.= 0 – j100 100 50 (C.01 – 0. and then writing the above relations in matrix form as YV = I .60) and V 2 – 170 ∠0° V 2 – V 1 V 2 – 0 ------------------------------.59) and the voltages V1 and V2 can be computed from the nodal equations V 1 – 170 ∠0° V 1 – V 2 V 1 – 0 ------------------------------.% Define Y.60) and (C. Simplifying and rearranging the nodal equations of (C. V . The code is shown below.01 0.0218 – j0.63) where the matrices Y . disp('V2 = '). % Display values of V1 and V2 C-28 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . I.61) Compute.+ -------------. and I = Current Solution: The Y matrix elements are the coefficients of V 1 and V 2 .Appendix C Matrices and Determinants the current I X can be found from the relation V1 – V2 I X = ----------------R3 (C.01j].01V 2 = 2 – 0.61). −0.01 0. V = Voltage . We will use MATLAB to compute the voltages V 1 and V 2 .+ ----------------.03+0.7 ⎧ ⎨ ⎩ I (C.0218−0.7j].+ ----------------. disp(V(1)).01. and find V fprintf('\n').= 0 85 100 j200 (C.62) in matrix form as 0.03 + j0.01 Y V1 V2 V = 2 j1.03 + j0.0218 – j0.7 (C. Y=[0.62) Next. collecting. we get ( 0.

4162 + 55.518 ∠– 6.5149.Solution of Simultaneous Equations with Matrices V1 = 1.5183 thetaIX=angle(IX)*180/pi % Compute angle theta in degrees thetaIX = -6.0.5326 Therefore. IX=(V(1)−V(2))/R3 % Compute the value of IX IX = 0.0490e+002 + 4.3439i Next. we find I X from R3=100.18 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications C-29 . For the polar form we use magIX=abs(IX) % Compute the magnitude of IX magIX = 0.9448e+001i V2 = 53.53° Spreadsheets have limited capabilities with complex numbers.0590i This is the rectangular form of I X . and thus we cannot use them to compute matrices that include complex numbers in their elements as in Example C. in polar form I X = 0.

Repeat Exercise 4 using the Gaussian elimination method. x1 –3 1 3 4 a. B ⋅ A b. C + D h. Verify your answers with MATLAB. B – D d. a. A + B e. Solve the following systems of equations using Cramer’s rule. a. Perform the following computations. 6. x 1 – 2x 2 + x 3 = – 4 – x 1 + 2x 2 – 3x 3 + 5x 4 = 14 x 1 + 3x 2 + 2x 3 – x 4 = 9 3x 1 – 3 x 2 + 2x 3 + 4x 4 = 19 4x 1 + 2x 2 + 5x 3 + x 4 = 27 a. D ⋅ A 3. A ⋅ B e. B + D g. Perform the following computations. b. Solve the following systems of equations using the inverse matrix method. D ⋅ C 2.Appendix C Matrices and Determinants C. Verify your answers with MATLAB. 3 1 – 2 ⋅ x 2 = – 2 0 2 3 5 x3 2 4 3 b. if possible. if possible. – 2x 1 + 3x 2 + x 3 = 9 3x 1 + 4x 2 – 5x 3 = 0 b. det ( A ⋅ B ) b. Perform the following computations. det ( A ⋅ C ) c. detB f. B . Verify your answers with MATLAB. A ⋅ C f. the matrices A . C – D d. A – C c. Verify your answers with MATLAB. C ⋅ A c. 2 – 4 1 –1 3 –4 2 –2 2 x1 –2 1 3 ⋅ x 2 = 10 x3 2 – 14 1 7 x4 C-30 Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications Orchard Publications . and D are defined as: 1 –1 –4 A = 5 7 –2 3 –5 6 5 9 –3 B = –2 8 2 7 –4 6 4 6 C= – 3 8 5 –2 D = 1 –2 3 –3 6 –4 1. B ⋅ D g. C . 5. detC d. if possible. A – B a. detA e. C ⋅ D · h. detD 4.12 Exercises For Problems 1 through 3 below. A + C f. Verify your answers with MATLAB.

3-41 voltage 1-10. C-16. A-7 default color in MATLAB A-16 default in MATLAB A-13 default line in MATLAB A-16 default marker in MATLAB A-16 delta function defined 10-8 sampling property 10-8 sifting property 10-9 demos in MATLAB A-2 dependent source(s) current 1-10. 1-20 passive 1-12. 8-32 angle(z) in MATLAB A-25 attenuation 4-13. A-2 effective (RMS) value of sinusoids 8-5 effective values 8-3 efficiency 3-47 eight-to-three line encoder 8-28 electric field 5-17. A-28 Euler’s identities B-4 excitations 6-1 exit in MATLAB A-2 exponential form of complex numbers B-5 exponentiation in MATLAB A-22 eye(n) in MATLAB C-7 eye(size(A)) in MATLAB C-7 F Farad 5-18. 1-19 ampere capacity of wires 2-30 amplifier 4-1. 4-20 analog-to-digital converter 8-28. 1-18 Cramer’s rule 3-2. 6-21 complex number(s) addition B-2 conjugate A-4. 3-41 determinant C-9 device(s) active 1-12. 4-32 buffer 4-20 unity gain 4-12. 5-30 electric filters . B-3 defined A-3. A-13 deconv(c. B-3 complex excitation function 6-3. 2-18 ideal 1-11 independent 1-11 practical 3-21 cutoff frequency band-elimination filter 4-15 band-pass filter 4-15 high-pass filter 4-14 low-pass filter 4-13 lower 4-4 upper 4-4 D data points in MATLAB A-15 DC (Direct Current) 1-4 decibel 4-2. A-18.Index Symbols and Numerics % (percent) symbol in MATLAB A-2 3-dB down 4-4 A abs(z) in MATLAB A-25 admittance 6-17 ampere 1-1. 5-30 Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction 5-2 .d) in MATLAB A-6. 8-17 conductance 2-2 conj(A).b) in MATLAB A-6 conversion factors 1-16 conductor sizes for interior wiring 2-33 coulomb 1-1. 5-17 in parallel 5-27 in series 5-26 chemical processes 1-17. conj(x) in MATLAB C-8 conjugate of a complex number B-3 conv(a. A-23 B bandwidth 4-4 box in MATLAB A-13 branch 2-5 C capacitance 5-17 capacitance combinations 5-25 capacitor(s) 1-12. 1-20 circuit(s) defined 1-12. 4-33 attenuator 4-1 average value 8-2. 6-24 E editor window in MATLAB A-1 editor/debugger in MATLAB A-1. 1-20 dielectric 5-17. A-32 display formats in MATLAB A-31 division in MATLAB A-22 dot multiplication operator in MATLAB A-22 driving functions 6-1 duality 6-19. 5-18. 1-20 analysis with loop equations 3-8 analysis with mesh equations 3-8 analysis with nodal equations 3-1 with non-linear devices 3-45 clc in MATLAB A-2 clear in MATLAB A-2 combined mesh 3-18 combined node 3-6 command screen in MATLAB A-1 command window in MATLAB A-1 commas in MATLAB A-8 comment line in MATLAB A-2 comparators 8-28 complementary function 9-1 complete response 10-16 complex conjugate A-4. B-2 division B-4 exponential form B-5 multiplication B-3 polar form B-5 rectangular form B-5 subtraction B-2 complex power 8-16.see filters energy dissipated in a resistor 2-4 energy stored in a capacitor 5-22 energy stored in an inductor 5-12 eps in MATLAB A-23. 5-30 differential input amplifier 4-5 digital filter 7-21 diode(s) 1-10 Dirac function 10-9 direct current 1-4 discontinuous function 10-1 disp(A) in MATLAB 7-19. 1-20. C-17 critical frequency 4-13. 4-33 current 1-1 current division expressions 2-25 current flow conventional 1-2 electron 1-2 current gain 4-2 current limiting devices 2-2 current ratings for electronic equipment 2-30 current source combinations 2-17. 8-30 axis in MATLAB A-17.

9-11 instantaneous values 2-1 int(f. 6-23 susceptance 6-18.b) in MATLAB 1-7 International System of Units 1-13 J j operator B-1 K KCL 2-6 Kirchhoff’s Current Law 2-6 Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law 2-7 KVL 2-7 L left-hand rule 5-1 lims = in MATLAB A-28 linear circuit 3-40 devices 1-10 factor A-9 inductor 5-2 passive element 3-39 linearity 3-39 lines of magnetic flux 5-1. 7-20 high-pass 4-14. 7-21 passive 4-13. C-6 Hermitian C-9 identity C-6 inverse of C-21 left division in MATLAB C-24 lower triangular C-6 minor of C-12 multiplication using MATLAB A-20 non-singular C-21 singular C-21 scalar C-6 skew-Hermitian C-9 skew-symmetric C-9 square C-1 symmetric C-8 theory 3-2 trace of C-2 transpose C-7 upper triangular C-5 zero C-2 maximum power transfer theorem 3-38. 1-20. 7-20. 7-35 mechanical forms of energy 1-17. 10-23 format command in MATLAB A-31 format in MATLAB A-31 fplot in MATLAB A-28 fplot(fcn. 4-33. 5-28.a. matrices adjoint C-20 cofactor of C-12 conformable for addition C-2 conformable for multiplication C-4 congugate of C-8 defined C-1 diagonal of C-1. 8-31 lighting 2-34 resistive 8-10 log (common log) A-13 log(x) in MATLAB A-13 log10(x) in MATLAB A-13 log2(x) in MATLAB A-13 loglog(x. 5-29 linspace(values) in MATLAB A-14 ln (natural log) A-13 load capacitive 8-15. 6-22 full-wave rectification function file in MATLAB A-26. 4-33.array) in MATLAB 7-19. 2-15 virtual 4-17 gtext(‘string’) in MATLAB A-14 H half-power points 4-4 half-wave rectification 8-3 Heavyside function 10-9 Henry 5-3. A-29 fprintf(format.x2) in MATLAB A-28 fmin(f. A-32 frequency response A-13 frequency-domain to time-domain transformation 6-6. 3-13 circuits with single 2-10 M magnetic field 5-1. 5-29 matrix. 7-20 flash converter 8-28 flux linkage 5-2. 7-20 band-rejection 4-15. A-26 mho 2-2 Military Standards 2-27 MINVERSE in Excel C-26 MMULT in Excel C-26.x1.x) in MATLAB A-28. 7-5 generalized 3-18 mesh(x. 7-20 band-pass 4-14. 10-16. 4-33.z) in MATLAB A-18 meshgrid(x. 1-20 mesh combined 3-18 defined 2-6 equations 2-10. 7-20. 4-33. 10-16. A-30 G Gaussian elimination method C-19 grid in MATLAB A-13 ground defined 2-1. 7-20 band-stop 4-15. 5-2 in parallel 5-16 in series 5-15 initial condition 5-3 initial rate of decay 9-3. 5-29 I imag(z) in MATLAB A-25 imaginary axis B-2 number B-2 impedance 6-14 inductance 5-2 inductive reactance 6-15.y) in MATLAB A-13 loop defined 2-5 equations 3-1.y) in MATLAB A-18 metric system 1-13. 6-23 inductor(s) defined 1-12.y. C-27 multiplication of complex numbers B-3 multiplication in MATLAB A-20. 7-23 low-pass 4-13. 1-20 m-file in MATLAB A-1. 4-33. 7-21 phase shift 7-21 RC high-pass 7-23 RC low-pass 7-21 stop-band 4-15.lims) in MATLAB A-28. 10-23 . A-28 fzero(f. A-30 forced response 6-4. 5-29 fmax(f. 5-17. 9-10. 4-33.feedback 4-4 negative 4-5 positive 4-5 figure window in MATLAB A-14 filter active 4-13 all-pass 7-20 analog 7-21 band-elimination 4-15. 3-1. 5-29 magnetic flux 5-2. 4-33. 8-31 inductive 8-15.x1.x2) in MATLAB A-28. A-21 multirange ammeter/milliammeter 8-24 N NaN in MATLAB A-28 National Electric Code (NEC) 2-30 natural response 9-1.

8-14 script file in MATLAB A-26 in capacitive loads 8-11 semicolons in MATLAB A-8 semilogx(x. 10-24 time-domain to frequency-domain transformation 6-6.b.NEC 2-30 negative charge 5-18 network active 1-12. 2-4. 1-20 O Ohm 2-1 Ohm’s law 2-1 Ohm’s law for AC circuits 6-15 Ohmmeter 8-26 parallel type 8-26 series type 8-26 shunt type 8-26 op amp 4-5 inverting mode 4-6 non-inverting mode 4-9 open circuit 2-2 operational amplifier . A-5 RMS value of sinusoids 8-5 polyder(p) in MATLAB A-6. 1-19 U unit impulse function 10-8. 5-28. 10-32 unit ramp function 10-6. 6-21 polar(theta. 9-11. 6-23 inductive 6-18.a.z) in MATLAB A-16 tolerance 2-27 polar plot in MATLAB A-25 response 6-1. 6-23 real axis B-2 number B-2 real(z) in MATLAB A-25 regulation 3-49 P resistance defined 2-1 parallel connection 2-8. 1-7 quad(‘f’. 7-1 non-reference 3-1 reference 3-1 non-linear devices 1-10 Norton’s theorem 3-35. 2-17 short circuit 2-2 SI Derived Units 1-17 siemens 2-2 signal 4-1.r) in MATLAB A-25 right-hand rule 5-1 poly(r) in MATLAB A-4.’string’) in MATLAB A-14 text(x. 6-23 inductive 6-15. 6-23 T temperature scales equivalents 1-16 text(x. 10-32 unit step function 10-1. 1-20 sources of energy 1-17.n. A-8. A-8 RMS values of sinusoids with polynomial construction from different frequencies 8-7 roots(p) in MATLAB A-3.y.see op amp complex 8-16. 2-28 instantaneous 8-3 power factor 8-10 defined 8-10 lagging 8-15 leading 8-15 power factor correction 8-18 power triangle 8-16 prefixes 1-14. 7-8 time constant 9-3. 1-19 resistive network 8-28 periodic functions of time 8-1 resistors 1-12. 2-18 input 4-28 particular solution 6-4 output 4-28 passive sign convention 1-8. 2-2 phasor analysis in amplifier circuits 7-12 color code 2-27 phasor diagram 7-15 failure rate 2-27 plot(x. 1-19 voltage defined 1-4 dividers 2-2 division expressions 2-23 drop 1-5 rational polynomials A-8 reactance capacitive 6-15. 6-23 capacitive 6-18.’string’) in MATLAB A-18 Thevenin’s theorem 3-24. 1-19 average 8-9. 1-20 topology 3-1 newton 1-1. 6-21 time-window converter 8-28 title(‘string’) in MATLAB A-13 total response 10-16 tracking converter 8-28 transient response 9-1 transistors 1-10 trivial solution 9-2 two-terminal device 1-4. A-12.y.y) in MATLAB A-13 in a resistive loads 8-10 .y) in MATLAB A-13 in inductive loads 8-11 semilogy(x. 1-15 principle of superposition 3-41 Q quad in MATLAB 1-6. A-9 known roots in MATLAB A-4 polyval(p. 7-8 nuclear energy 1-17. 1-20 passive 1-12. 1-20 standard prefixes 1-14 Standards for Electrical and Electronic Devices 2-26 steady-state conditions 5-12 string in MATLAB A-18 subplot(m.y) in MATLAB A-10.y. 3-1. 10-31 V virtual ground 4-17 volt 1-5. 7-7 susceptance 6-18. 4-32 single ended output amplifier 4-5 single node-pair parallel circuit 2-14 slope converter 8-28 solar energy 1-17. 2-16.tol) in MATLAB 1-7 quad8 in MATLAB 1-7 quadratic factors A-9 quit in MATLAB A-2 R series connection 2-8. 1-18 nodal analysis 2-14. 2-17. 3-1. 10-18.z. A-16 shunt 8-21 plot3(x. 7-1 node combined 3-6 defined 2-5 generalized 3-6 equations 2-14.p) in MATLAB A-19 substitution method of solving a system of simultaneous equations 3-2 supermesh 3-18 supernode 3-6 superposition principle 3-41.x) in MATLAB A-6 round(n) in MATLAB A-25 potential difference 1-4 S power absorbed 1-8. 8-17 gain 4-2 in a capacitor 5-22 in an inductor 5-11 in a resistor 2-3.

2-17 ideal 1-11 independent 1-11 practical 3-20 voltmeter 8-24 W watt 1-8 watt-hour meter 8-28 wattmeter 8-28 weber 5-1. 8-32 X xlabel(‘string’) in MATLAB A-13 Y ylabel(‘string’) in MATLAB A-13 Z zero potential 2-15 . 5-29 Wheatstone bridge 8-27.follower 4-20 gain 4-2 instantaneous 1-5 rise 1-5 voltage source combinations 2-16.

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