Power Transformer

INTRODUCTION Transformer is a vital link in a power system which has made possible the power generated at low voltages (6600 to 22000 volts) to be stepped up to extra high voltages for transmission over long distances and then transformed to low voltages for utilization at proper load centers. With this tool in hands it has become possible to harness the energy resources at far off places from the load centers and connect the same through long extra high voltage transmission lines working on high efficiencies. At that, it may be said to be the simplest equipment with no motive parts. Nevertheless it has its own problems associated with insulation, dimensions and weights because of demands for ever rising voltages and capacities. In its simplest form a Transformer consists of a laminated iron core about which are wound two or more sets of windings. Voltage is applied to one set of windings, called the primary, which builds up a magnetic flux through the iron. This flux induces a counter electromotive force in the primary winding thereby limiting the current drawn from the supply. This is called the no load current and consists of two componentsone in phase with the voltage which accounts for the iron losses due to eddy currents and hysteresis, and the other 90° behind the voltage which magnetizes the core. This flux induces an electro-motive force in the secondary winding too. When load is connected across this winding, current flows in the secondary circuit. This produces a demagnetising effect, to counter balance this the primary winding draws more current from the supply so that IP.NP = IS.NS Where Ip and Np are the current and number of turns in the primary while IS and NS are the current and number of turns in the secondary respectively. The ratio of turns in the primary and secondary windings depends on the ratio of voltages on the Primary and secondary sides. The magnetic core is built up of laminations of high grade silicon or other sheet steel which are insulated from each other by varnish or through a coating of iron oxide. The core can be constructed in different ways relative to the windings.


CONSTRUCTION 1- Transformer Core Construction in which the iron circuit is surrounded by windings and forms a low reluctance path for the magnetic flux set up by the voltage impressed on the primary. Fig (1), Fig. (6) and Fig. (7) Shows the core type

Fig (1) core type The core of shell type is sh own Fig.(2), Fig.(3), Fig.(4), and Fig.(5), in which The winding is surrounded by the iron Circuit Consisting of two or more paths through which the flux divides. This arrangement affords somewhat Better protection to coils under short circuit conditions.


In actual construction there are Variations from This simple construction but these can be designed With such proportions as to give similar electrical characteristics.

Fig (2) shell type

Fig.(3) Single phase Transformer Fig. (4) Single phase Transformer .


Fig. (5) 3- phase Transformer Shell type

Fig. (6) 3- phase Transformer core type

Fig. (7) Cross section of a three-phase Distribution Transformer (Core Type) Three-phase Transformers usually employ three-leg core. Where Transformers to be transported by rail are large capacity, five-leg core is used to curtail them to within the height limitation for transport. Even among thermal/nuclear power station Transformers, which are usually transported by ship and freed from restrictions on in-land transport, gigantic


Transformers of the 1000 MVA class employ five-leg core to prevent leakage flux, minimize vibration, increase tank strength, and effectively use space inside the tank. Regarding single-phase Transformers, two-leg core is well known. Practically, however, three leg cores is used, four-leg core and five-leg core are used in large capacity Transformers. The sectional areas of the yoke and side leg are 50 % of that of the main leg; thus, the core height can be reduced to a large extent compared with the two leg core. For core material, high-grade, grain oriented silicon steel strip is used. Connected by a core leg tie plate fore and hind clamps by connecting bars. As a result, the core is so constructed that the actual silicon strip is held in a sturdy frame consisting of clamps and tie plates, which resists both mechanical force during hoisting the core-and-coil assembly and short circuits, keeping the silicon steel strip protected from such force. In large-capacity Transformers, which are likely to invite increased leakage flux, nonmagnetic steel is used or slits are provided in steel members to reduce the width for preventing stray loss from increasing on metal parts used to clamp the core and for preventing local overheat. The core interior is provided with many cooling oil ducts parallel to the lamination to which a part of the oil flow forced by an oil pump is introduced to achieve forced cooling. When erecting a core after assembling, a special device shown in Fig. (8) Is used so that no strain due to bending or slip is produced on the silicon steel plate.

Fig (8)

Fig (9) The steel strip surface is subjected to inorganic insulation treatment. All cores employ miter-joint core construction. Yokes are jointed at an angle of 45° to utilize the magnetic flux directional characteristic of steel strip. A computer-controlled automatic machine cuts grain-oriented silicon steel strip with high accuracy and free of burrs, so that magnetic characteristics of the grain-oriented silicon steel remains unimpaired. Silicon steel strips are stacked in a circle-section. Each core leg is fitted with tie plates


keeping the silicon steel strip protected from such force. which are likely to invite increased leakage flux. general EHV or UHV substation Transformers employ Helical disk winding to utilize its features mentioned above. When voltage is relatively low. this type is applied to windings ranging from BI L of 350kV to BI L of 1550kV. nonmagnetic steel is used or slits are provided in steel members to reduce the width for preventing stray loss from increasing on metal parts used to clamp the core and for preventing local overheat. In large-capacity Transformers. it is known that these conductors have very large capacitance. 1 . (8) Is used so that no strain due to bending or slip is produced on the silicon steel plate. with resin-impregnated glass tape wound around the outer circumference. fore and hind clamps by connecting bars.Helical Disk Winding (Interleaved disk winding) In Helical disk winding. (12) is applied to large current. Helical disk winding requires no shield on the winding outermost side. resulting in smaller coil outside diameter and thus reducing Transformer dimension. the optimum winding is selected so as to utilize their individual features. electrically isolated turns are brought in contact with each other as shown in Fig. Unlike cylindrical windings. As a result.Winding Various windings are used as shown below.12 assume a shape similar to a wound capacitor. which resists both mechanical force during hoisting the core-and-coil assembly and short circuits. When erecting a core after assembling. this type of winding is also termed "interleaved disk winding. Also. (11). 2 . 2 . This capacitance acts as series capacitance of the winding to highly improve the voltage distribution for surge. a special device shown in Fig. while transposed cable Fig. (10) Thus. And then. Thus. The core interior is provided with many cooling oil ducts parallel to the lamination to which a part of the oil flow forced by an oil pump is introduced to achieve forced cooling. (9).4 and conductors 9 . upper and lower clamps are connected by a core leg tie plate. Rectangular wire is used where current is relatively small.Continuous Disk Winding This is the most general type applicable to windings of a wide range of voltage and current Fig. Sturdy clamps applied to front and rear side of the upper and lower yokes are bound together with glass tape. According to the purpose of use.on its front and rear side." Since conductors 1 . the construction of this type of winding is appropriate for the winding. a Transformer of 100MVA 160 . Comparatively small in winding width and large in space between windings. which faces to an inner winding of relatively high voltage. the core is so constructed that the actual silicon strip is held in a sturdy frame consisting of clamps and tie plates. the resin undergoes heating for hardening to tighten the band so that the core is evenly clamped Fig.

the advantage of transposed cable may be fully utilized. (11). (10) Fig. a helical coil is used which consists of a large number of parallel conductors piled in the radial Direction and wound. Fig.Helical windings For windings of low voltage (20kV or below) and large current. since the number of turns is reduced. (12) Transposed conductor construction Diagram Further. Fig (12) illustrates the transposing procedure for double helical coil. In this case. even conventional continuous disk construction is satisfactory in voltage distribution. whenever necessary. 3 . potential distribution is improved by inserting a shield between turns. Continuous Disk Winding Fig. Also. and as a result the location of each conductor opposed to the high 161 . Each conductor is transposed at intervals of a fixed number of turns in the order shown in the figure. thereby ensuring adequate dielectric characteristics. Adequate transposition is necessary to equalize the share of current among these parallel conductors.or more capacity handles a large current exceeding 1000A.

The other openings are sealed with oil-resistant synthetic rubber joints. Fig (14) Power Transformer 30 MVA 132 / 11 KV 162 . Sealing between the base and shroud is provided by weld beads. (13) double helical coil 3 . the tank is designed to withstand a total vacuum during the treatment process. Fig. Finally the tank is designed to withstand the application of the internal overpressure specified. without permanent deformation. The tank is provided internally with devices usually made of wood for fixing the magnetic circuit and the windings. These parts are manufactured in steel plates assembled together via weld beads. over which a cover is sometimes bolted. The base and the shroud. In addition.Tank. whose compression is limited by steel stops.voltage winding is equalized from the view point of magnetic field between the start and the end of winding turn. The tank has two main parts: a –The tank is manufactured by forming and welding steel plate to be used as a container for holding the core and coil assembly together with insulating oil.

The magnetic circuit is earthed via a special external terminal.Valves: The Transformers are provided with sealed valves. . (16) 4 .Conservator The tank is equipped with an expansion reservoir (conservator) which allows for the expansion of the oil during operation. Fig.Four locations (under the base) intended to accommodate bidirectional roller boxes for displacement on rails. The Transformers usually include: 163 . (15) Fig. The conservator is designed to hold a total vacuum and may be equipped with a rubber membrane preventing direct contact between the oil and the air.Tank Earthing terminals: The tank is provided with Earthing terminals for Earthing the various metal parts of the Transformer at one point. 5 .Four pull rings (on two sides of the base) .Handling devices: Various parts of the tank are provided with the following arrangements for handling the Transformer. .Four jacking pads (under the base) .b . locking devices and position indicators. sealing joints.

(17&18) Available for either HV or LV side. .) Cable installation through split cable glands and removable plates facing diagonally downwards. 6 . (Totally enclosed and fully protected against contact's With live parts.One drain plug for the tap-changer compartment. Fully enclosed terminal box for cables Fig. . . with or without stress cones. Horizontally split design in degree of protection IP 44 or IP 54.Two isolating valves for the "Buchholz" relay.One conservator drainage and filtering valve. Besides the open bushing arrangement for direct Connection of bare or insulated wires.One drainage and filtering valve located below the tank.One isolating valve per radiator or per cooler. or spray water. Fig. Optional conduit hubs suitable for single-core or three-phase cables with solid dielectric insulation. plus protection against drip. (17) 164 . And when there is an on-load adjuster: . or for both. splash..Connection Systems Mostly Transformers have top-mounted HV and LV bushings according to DIN or IEC in their standard version. three basic insulated termination systems is available. Multiple cables per phase are terminated on auxiliary bus structures attached to the bushings removal of Transformer by simply bending back the cables. . .One refilling valve for the on-load tap-changer.Two isolating valves for the protection relay.

The dehydrating breather The dehydrating breather is provided at the entrance of the conservator of oil immersed equipment such as Transformers and reactors. 165 . The specifications of the dehydrating breather are shown in Table (1) and the operation of the component parts in Table (2).Fig. (18) HV Side 300 KV Fig. (20) The dehydrating breather uses silica . and the dehydrating breather removes the moisture and dust in the air inhaled and prevents the deterioration of the Transformer oil due to moisture absorption. The conservator governs the breathing action of the oil system on forming to the temperature change of the equipment.gel as the desiccating Agent and is provided with an oil pot at the bottom to filtrate the inhaled air. (19) LV Side (11KV) connection terminal 3-cable for each phase 7 . Construction and Operation See Fig.

(20) Dehydrating breather 166 .Fig.

Oil pot 5. Ø4 – Ø5 Mixed ratio --. Peep window 3. Set screw 15.Absorbent 10. it seals the desiccating agent from the outer air to prevent unnecessary moisture Absorption of the desiccating agent. Case 2.Filter 8.5A Material --.1 Type Weight of desiccating agent 4.spherical. Wing nut 12.5 kg Desiccating agent FP4. Suppression screw 14. Oil level line (Red Table . indicates the Extent of moisture absorption by discoloration. while it is not performing breathing action. Oil pot Oil and filter absorbent 167 . In addition to the removal of moisture. Breathing pipe 7. (Dry condition) (Wet condition ) Blue -----.Light pink Removes moisture and dust in the air inhaled by: the Transformer or reactor. In addition.1.Silica-gel (Main component SiO2) Shape. Size --. silica-gel 9. approx.Cover 13. Oil pot holder 6. Absorbs dust and deteriorated matter in the oil pot. to Maintain the oil pot in a good operating condition.Light purple ----. Oil (Transformer oil) 11. Flange 4.2 Item Silicagel Blue silica -gel Action Removes moisture in the air inhaled by the Transformer Or reactor.white silica-gel 75% blue silica-gel 25% Table .

this type of bushing is available in a standard series up to 25. (21). (21) 24 KV Bushing Oil-impregnated. This bushing. of enclosed construction.000A rated current. this bushing is of simplified construction and small mounting dimensions. Paper-insulated Condenser Bushing Fig. offers the Following features: • High reliability and easy maintenance. this type proves to be advantageous when used as an opening of equipment to be placed in a bus duct Fig. mainly consisting of a condenser cone of oil-impregnated insulating paper. 22&23). Fig.Bushing Having manufactured various types of bushings ranging from 6kV-class to 800kVclass. especially. is used For high-voltage application (Fig. (22) 800 KV bushing The oil-impregnated. 168 . Plain-type Bushing Applicable to 24 kV-classes or below. Consisting of a single porcelain tube through which passes a central conductor. Toshiba has accumulated many years of splendid actual results in their operation. paper insulated condenser bushing.

Construction of the connection chamber can be divided into sections. (23) Bushing type GOEK 1425 for direct connection of 420 KV Power Transformer to gas insulated Switchgear or high voltage cable Fig. Indirect connection system in which. with a cable connecting chamber attached to the Transformer tank. 169 . Cable connections and oil filling can be separately performed upon completion of the tank assembling. • Provided with voltage tapping for connecting an instrument Transformer if required.• Partial discharge free at test voltage. Fig. (24) Cut away view of Transformer bushing type GOE Construction of Cable Connection and GIS Connection Cable Connection In urban-district substations connected with power cables and thermal power stations suffered from salt-pollution. a coil terminal is connected to the cable head through an oil-oil bushing in the cable connection chamber. cable direct-coupled construction is used in which a Transformer is direct-coupled with the power cable in an oil chamber. • Provided with test tapping for measuring electrostatic capacity and tan δ.

Fig. Oil-gas bushing support is composed of a Transformer-side flange and an SF6 gas bus-side flange. The SF6 gas bus is connected directly with the Transformer coil terminal through an oil-gas bushing. In keeping with this tendency. (27) Direct GIS Connection 170 . (26) Indirect Cable Connection GIS (Gas Insulated Switchgear) Connection There is an increasing demand for GIS in substations from the standpoint of site-acquisition difficulties and environmental harmony. permitting the oil side and the gas side to be completely separated from each other.Fig. GIS connection-type Transformers are ever-increasing in their applications.

thereby actuating the alarm device. oil or insulations decomposes by heat. In the event of a major fault. In the event of a fault. the float lowers and closes the contact. There are a 1st stage contact and a 2nd stage contact as shown in Fig. Fig. (28).3Q-0.35Q) or above.Buchholz Relays The following protective devices are used so that. an alarm is set off or the Transformer is disconnected from the circuit. In 171 . a Buchholz relay is installed. abrupt gas production causes pressure in the tank to flow oil into the conservator. the 1st stage contact is used to detect minor faults. To detect these phenomena. producing gas or developing an impulse oil flow. When gas produced in the tank due to a minor fault surfaces to accumulate in the relay chamber within a certain amount (0. Buchholz Relay The 2nd stage contact is used to detect major faults. Buchholz Relay The Buchholz relay is installed at the middle of the connection pipe between the Transformer tank and the conservator. upon a fault development inside a Transformer. (28).

(30&31). The indicating part.this case. The relay measures the temperature of the hottest part of the Transformer winding. thereby causing the Circuit Breaker to trip or actuating the alarm device. the dial temperature detector is used to measure maximum oil temperature. the relay can be fitted with a precision potentiometer with the same characteristics as the search coil for remote indication. Temperature Measuring Device Liquid Temperature Indicator (like BM SERIES Type) is used to measure oil temperature as a standard practice. thus. provided with an alarm contact and a maximum temperature pointer. is of airtight construction with moisture absorbent contained therein. If specified. With its temperature detector installed on the tank cover and with its indicating part installed at any position easy to observe on the front of the Transformer. during remote measurement and recording of the oil temperatures. Further. on request a search coil can be installed which is fine copper wire wound on a bobbin used to measure temperature through changes in its resistance. Fig. the float is lowered to close the contact. (29) Construction of Winding Temperature Indicator Relay 172 . there is no possibility of the glass interior collecting moisture whereby it would be difficult to observe the indicator Fig. Winding Temperature Indicator Relay (BM SERIES) The winding temperature indicator relay is a conventional oil temperature indicator supplemented with an electrical heating element.

Therefore. The heating elements with a matching resistance is fed with current from the Transformer associated with the loaded winding of the Transformer and compensate the indicator so that a temperature increase of the heating element is thereby proportional to a temperature increase of the winding-over-the maximum. which changes in volume with varying temperature. 173 . (31) Winding Temperature Indicator The temperature sensing system is filled with a liquid.Fig (30) Oil Temperature Indicator Fig. The sensing bulb placed in a thermometer well in the Transformer tank cover senses the maximum oil temperature. the measuring bellows react to both the temperature increase of the winding-over-the-maximum-oil temperature and maximum oil temperature. The matching resistance of the heating element is preset at the factory.oil temperature. In this way the instrument indicates the temperature in the hottest part of the Transformer winding.

sq. 2026 (Part 11)-1977 are: (a) Mineral oil or equivalent flammable insulating liquid O (b) Non flammable synthetic insulating liquid L (c) Gas G (d) Water W 174 . (32) Pressure Relief Device Cooling System METHODS OF COOLING The kinds of cooling medium and their symbols adopted by I. When the pressure in the tank has dropped beyond the limit through discharging. Fig. the device is automatically reset to prevent more oil than required from being discharged.35-0.7 kg/cm. The pressure relief device starts automatically to discharge the oil.Pressure Relief Device When the gauge pressure in the tank reaches abnormally To 0.S.

2. Additional surface is obtained with the provision of radiators. (33 & 34) In this case the core and winding assembly is immersed in oil.Type ONAF Fig. Oil Immersed Air Blast .(e) Air A The kids of circulation for the cooling medium and their symbols are: (a) Natural N (b) Forced (Oil not directed) F (c) Forced (Oil directed) D Each cooling method of Transformer is identified by four symbols. It becomes possible to reduce the size of the Transformer for the same rating and consequently save in cost. 175 . the second letter represents the kind of circulation for the cooling medium. the third letter represents the cooling medium that is in contact with the external cooling system and fourth symbol represents the kind of circulation for the external medium. For oil immersed Transformers the cooling systems normally adopted are: 1. Fig. In large Transformers the surface area of the tank alone is not adequate for dissipation of the heat produced by the losses.Oil Immersed Natural cooled – Type ONAN. Cooling is obtained by the circulation of oil under natural thermal head only. Thus oil immersed Transformer with natural oil circulation and forced air external cooling is designated ONAF. (35 & 36) In this case circulation of air is obtained by fans. The first letter represents the kind of cooling medium in contact with winding.

(34) Oil Immersed Natural cooled ONAN 176 .Fig. (33) Oil Immersed Natural cooled ONAN Fig.

Type OFAN Fig.Type ONAF Fig.Type ONWN In this case internal cooling coil is employed through which the water is allowed to flow. Oil Immersed Water Cooled . Forced Oil Air Blast Cooled . This type of cooling was employed in older designs but has been almost abandoned in favor of the Type OFWF discussed later. 177 . Apparently this system of cooling assumes free supply of water.Type OFAF Fig. pump is employed in the oil circuit for better circulation of oil. The circulation of oil is only by convection currents. 4. (37) In this system of cooling also circulation of oil is forced by a pump. (35) Oil Immersed Air Blast . 5. Forced Oil Natural Air Cooled . (38) In this method of cooling.Type ONAF 3. In addition fans are added to radiators for forced blast of air.Fig. Except at hydropower stations this would off-set the saving in cost when special means have to be provided for adequate supply of water. (36) Oil Immersed Air Blast .

Forced Oil Water Cooled . through a separate heat exchanger in which water is allowed to flow. 178 . Forced Directed Oil and Forced Air Cooling -ODAF. (37) Forced-oil.Type OFWF In this type of cooling a pump is added in the oil circuit for forced circulation of oil.Type OFAN 6. (38) Forced Oil Natural Air Cooled .Type OFAF Fig.Fig. 7. Forced-air-cooled .

Where special arrangements have to be made for water supply and disposal of the water. Type of cooling has a bearing on the cost of the Transformer. (e) Have low pour point. (d) Have a low viscosity.. (c) Have low specific gravity-In oil of low specific gravity particles which have become suspended in the oil will settle down on the bottom of the tank more readily and at a faster rate. ONAN/ONAF or ONAN/OFAF or sometimes three systems e. ONAN/ONAF/ OFAF. The lower the flash point 179 . The insulating oil used for Transformers should generally meet the following requirements: (a) Provide a high electric strength.g. (f) Have a high flash point. will cool Transformers at a much better rate. the fans will not be working.Oil with low pour point will cease to flow only at low temperatures.It should be remembered that Transformers cooling type OFAF and OFWF will not carry any load if air and water supply respectively is removed.e. the insulating oil provides an insulation medium as well as a heat transferring medium that carries away heat produced in the windings and iron core. with other systems of cooling of Transformers. saving in price in changing from ONAN cooling to other forms of cooling is negligible. This means that so long as the load is below 45 MVA. Site conditions sometimes influence the preferred cooling arrangement.. Since the electric strength and the life of a Transformer depend chiefly upon the quality of the insulating oil. say. render the transport easy and decrease the cost of Foundations etc. The rating of a Transformer with ONAN/ONAF cooling may be written. it is very important to use a high quality insulating oil. These are Switched on automatically when the load on the Transformer exceeds 45 MVA. These determine the type of cooling upto certain loading. (b) Permit good transfer of heat.Oil with low viscosity. On bigger units not only there is a saving in price but also the reduced weights and dimensions. dimensions and weight in case of type OFWF can be fully realised only where water supply is readily available. For example the advantage of reduced price. The flash point characterizes its tendency to evaporate. having greater fluidity. It is quite common to select Transformers with two systems of Cooling e. i.g. the fans/pumps are Switched on. INSULATING OIL (SPECIFICATIONS AND DEHYDRATION AT SITE) In Transformers. as 45/60 MVA.. the installation costs for OFWF Transformers may increase. As soon as the load exceeds a preset value. On smaller units say up to 10 MVA. fans or pumps and hence no auxiliary motors. It shall be appreciated that the ONAN cooling has the advantage of being the simplest with no. a property aiding the oil in retaining its homogeneity.

Max. Flash point Min. Corrosive Sulphur (in terms of classification of copper strip). Specific resistance (resistivity): (a) At 9 0 °C Min. (a) Neutralization value. Max Interfacial tension at 270°C. normal operating 180 . 15 ppm Gases analysis The analysis of gases dissolved in oil has proved to be a highly practical method for the field monitoring of power Transformers. 1 2 3 4 5 6 characteristic Appearance Density at 29.. Electric strength (breakdown voltage) Min. after oxidation Max.89 g/cm3 0. Different stress modes. (a) New unfiltered oil (b) After filtration Dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ) at 90 °C Max.002 35 X 1012 8 9 Ω / cm 1012 1500 X Ω / cm 10 0. (g) Not attack insulating materials and structural materials. This method is very sensitive and gives an early warning of incipient faults.. (b) at 2 7 0 °C Min. a gas volume corresponding to about 1 millionth of the volume of the liquid (ppm).the greater the oil will tend to vaporize. Presence of oxidation inhibitor Water content.5°C. 0.9 °C Non-corrosive. Max. The specifications for insulating oil stipulated in Indian Standard 335: 1983 are given below. Pour Point Max. Requirement The oil shall be clear and transparent and free from suspended matter or sediments.g. e.10 percent by weight 11 12 The oil shall not contain antioxidant additives. The gases (with the exception of N2 and O2) dissolved in the oil are derived from the degradation of oil and cellulose molecules that takes place under the influence of thermal and electrical stresses. its viscosity rises. 7 30 kV (rms) 60 kV (rms). It is indeed possible to determine from an oil sample of about one litre the presence of certain gases down to a quantity of a few mm3 . Various national and international specifications have been issued on insulating oils for Transformers to meet the above requirements.04 N/m. When oil vaporizes. it loses in volume. after oxidation. (h) Have chemical stability to ensure life long service. Oxidation stability. and an explosive mixture may be formed with the air above the oil.e. (b) Total sludge. Min.4 mg KOH/g 0. 104 °C . i. 0.

the oil is allowed to run slowly over a series of rings which enlarge its surfaces. 2 . The routine that has been used over a long period of time of checking the state of the oil every other year by measuring the breakdown strength. the content (in ppm) of the individual gases in the oil is obtained.g. The accumulated gas is injected by means of a syringe into the gas chromatograph. APPLICATION. the tan value. The volumes of the gas and the oil sample are determined to permit calculation of the total gas content in the oil. One sampling per year appears to be customary for large power Transformers (Rated >= 300 MVA >= 220 kV). 3 . followed by a further test some months later. partial discharges and flashovers. The gas extracted by the vacuum pump is accumulated in a vessel. Extraction and analysis To be able to carry out a gas analysis. Both these kinds of information together provide the necessary basis for the evaluation of any fault and the necessary remedial action.When a defect is suspected (e.In connection with the commissioning of Transformers that are of significant importance to the network. To assure effective degassing (> 99 per cent). Recalculation of the height of a peak to the content of this gas is done by comparison with chromatogram deflections from calibration gases.temperatures.CARBON MONOXIDE CO 181 . The result is plotted on a recorder in the form of a chromatogram. With the composition of the gas mixture and the total gas content in the oil sample known. abnormal noise).Directly after and within a few weeks after a heavy short circuit 4 . This method of monitoring power Transformers has been studied intensively and work is going on in international and national organizations such as CIGRE. the gases dissolved in the oil must be extracted and accumulated. hot spots with different high temperatures. An oil pump provides the necessary circulation. The following gases are analyzed: 1 . Using calibration gases it is possible to identify the different peaks on a chromatogram. Different routines for sampling intervals have been developed by different utilities and in different countries. Some typical cases where gas analysis is particularly desirable are listed in the following: 1 . The oil sample to be degassed is sucked into a pre-evacuated degassing column. Any water that may have been present in the oil is removed by freezing in a cooling trap to ensure that the water will not disturb the vacuum pumping.When a Buchholz (gas-collecting) relay or pressure monitor gives a signal. the neutralization coefficient and other physical quantities is not replaced by the gas analysis. The relative distribution of the gases is therefore used to evaluate the origin of the gas production and the rate at which the gases are formed to assess the intensity and propagation of the gassing. A low pressure is maintained by a vacuum pump. which analyses the gas sample. produce different compositions of the gases dissolved in the oil. The frequency with which oil samples are taken depends primarily on the size of the Transformer and the impact of any Transformer failure on the network.. IEC and IEEE.

PROPANE CO2 H2 C2H6 C2H4 C2H2 CH4 C3H6 The detection limits depend partly on the total gas content. C2H4 PROPANE. It is possible to obtain an idea of the type of fault by using a diagnosis scheme.ETHENE 6 ..ETHANE 5 .CARBON DIOXIDE 3 . excessively hot metal surfaces and fast degradation of cellulose. one frequently uses quotients between different gases. until all factors influencing the gassing rate are known. AGEING CO CARBON DIOXIDE. The fault types that can and should be identified are corona. H2 CORONA METHANE.2 . methane and carbon monoxide about 5 ppm and for carbon dioxide about 2 ppm. Identification of faults. This high sensitivity is necessary in those cases where it is desired to determine a trend in the gas evolution at short sampling intervals. Some schemes give an appearance of great precision.METHANE 8 .g. LOCAL C2H6 OVERHEATING ETHENE.ACETYLENE 7 .5 ppm. CO2 HYDROGEN. C2H2 ETHANE. during a heat run test or when oil samples are taken at intervals of only a few days. for hydrogen. To avoid having to deal with the contents of the individual gases. GAS ANALYSIS OF TRANSFORMER Type Of Gas Caused By CARBON MONOXIDE. CH4 Gas concentration limits used in the Interpretation of DGA data A statistical survey concerning gas concentrations in Transformer Oil using the results of that survey the following limits have been set: 182 . electrical discharges.HYDROGEN 4 . A number of different schemes of this type have been prepared. for hydrocarbons (except methane) the limit lies below 0. ELECTRIC ARCS H2 ACETYLENE. C3H6 HYDROGEN. e. but certain care should be observed when making assessments.

Specifications. and guide for electrical insulating oils Of petroleum origin ASTM D923-97 Standard practices for sampling electrical insulating liquids ASTM D3613-98 Standard test methods of sampling electrical Insulting oils for gas analysis and determination of Water content ASTM D36 12-98 Standard test method for analysis of gases dissolved In electrical insulating oil by gas chromatography ASTM D3487-88(1993) Standard specification for mineral insulating oil Used in electrical apparatus PARALLEL OPERATION OF THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMERS 183 . test methods. If the Transformer tank and the OLTC have a common conservator the warning and fault limits are 30 ppm and 100 ppm respectively for C2H2 Standard IEC 60475 Method of sampling liquid dielectrics IEC 60422 Supervision and maintenance guide for mineral Insulating oils in electrical equipment IEC 60567 Guide for the sampling of gases and of oil from oil filled electrical equipment and for the analysis of free and dissolved gases IEC 60599 Mineral oil-impregnated electrical equipment in Service -Guide to the interpretation of dissolved and Free gases analysis IEC 60296 Specification for unused mineral insulating oils for Transformers and Switchgear ASTM Dl 17-96 Standard guide for sampling.H2 CH4 C2H6 C2H4 C2H2 CO CO2 Threshold Limit 20 10 10 20 1 300 5000 Warning Limit 200 50 50 200 3 1000 20000 Fault Limit 400 100 100 400 10 Unit ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm The limits above are for a Transformer which are open with a breather and have no OLTC or has a separate conservator for the OLTC.

Displacement of the low voltage winding vector varies from zero to -330° in steps of -30°. Connections of Phase Windings The star. Hardly any power system adopts such a large variants of connections. d or z for the intermediate and low voltage windings. zigzag-delta. is represented by the use of clock hour figure. Phase Displacement between Windings The vector for the high voltage winding is taken as the reference vector. delta-zigzag.Yd11. 6) The same inherent phase-angle displacement between primary and secondary terminals. the indications are Y N or Z N and y n and z n respectively.two or more three phase Transformers. however. delta-delta. If the neutral point of a star or zigzag connected winding is brought out. 4) The same polarity. Some of the commonly used connections with phase displacement of 0. followed by the symbols of windings in diminishing sequence of voltage. delta star. should possess: 1) The same no load ratio of transformation. with anticlockwise rotation. delta or zigzag connection of a set of windings of a three phase Transformer or of windings of the same voltage of single phase Transformers. With three winding Transformers. D or Z for the high voltage winding and y. 3) The same resistance to reactance ratio. sixth and seventh conditions in detail.e. 184 . For example a 220/66/11 kV Transformer connected star. depending on the method of connections. and (2) the load division between the Transformers is proportional to their kVA ratings. the following additional requirement must also be satisfied before the Transformers can be designed suitable for parallel operation. 6 and 11) are shown in Table ( below) Symbol for the high voltage winding comes first. IS: 2026 (Part 1V)-1977 gives 26 sets of connections star-star. -300. These requirements necessitate that any . The above conditions are characteristic of all three phase Transformers whether two winding or three winding. In case of any difference in the phase rotation it can be set right by simply interchanging two leads either on primary or secondary. which are desired to be operated in parallel. forming a three phase bank are indicated by letters Y. The first four conditions need no explanation being the same as in single phase Transformers. The fifth condition of phase rotation is also a simple requirement. Displacement of the vectors of other windings from the reference vector. 7) The same power ratio between the corresponding windings. 5) The same phase rotation. It is the intention here to discuss the last two i.Ideal parallel operation between Transformers occurs when (1) there are no circulating currents on open circuit. and star zigzag. star-delta.. It assumes that the standard direction of phase rotation is anti-clockwise. star and delta and vectors of 66 and 11 kV windings having phase displacement of 0° and -330° with the reference (220 kV) vector will be represented As Yy0 . 1. 2) The same percentage impedance. zigzag star. -180" and -330° (clock-hour setting 0.

low voltage terminals U1V1 and of one Transformer should be connected to U1.If a pair of three phase Transformers have the same phase displacement between high voltage and low voltage windings and possess similar characteristics (Such as no load ratio of transformation phase rotation. let us consider a three-phase Transformer with vector symbol Dy1 and see how this can be operated in parallel with a three-phase Transformer of similar characteristics but having vector symbol Yd11. W of the two being RYB in the anti-clockwise direction are as shown in Figs. Similarly. For example.V. Thus taking the case of two three phase Transformers having vector symbols Dd0 and Yy0. percentage impedance) these can be paralleled with each other by connecting together terminals which correspond physically and alphabetically.V terminals U1. This is possible with suitable changes in external connections. V1 and W1 of the other Transformer. V1 and W1 terminals of the second Transformer. Referring to Table (below) the phasor diagrams of the induced voltages in the h-v and l-v windings of the two Transformers. (39a) and (39b) respectively. Sometimes it may be required to operate a three-phase Transformer belonging to one group with another three-phase Transformer belonging to a different group. these can be put into parallel operation by connecting H. Fig. with the phase sequence of the supply connected to terminals U. (39) Example of parallel operation of Transformers of groups 3 and 4 (Transformers having symbols Dy 1 and Yd 11 operating in parallel 185 . V1 and W1 of one Transformer to HV terminals U1.

for the successful parallel operation of these Transformers. 186 .e. Vector Group This results in the reversal from anticlockwise direction to clockwise direction of the phase rotation of the induced voltages as shown by arrows in Fig.It may be seen from these diagrams that the phase displacement between the induced voltages in the h-v and l-v windings is -30° in the first Transformer and it is -330° in the second Transformer. (39c) by full lines instead of Connecting 1V to bus Y and 1W to bus B as shown in Fig (39b) by dotted lines. by connecting 1V to bus B and 1W to bus Y as shown in Fig. the phase displacement must be the same in the two. (39c) and therefore results in a phase displacement of -30° between the induced voltages in the h-v and lv windings [see Fig.. (39c)]. i. However. This can be achieved by interchanging externally two of the h-v connections of the incoming Transformer to the supply.

cannot be operated in parallel with one another without altering the internal connections of one of them as change of external connections only brings about change in phase rotation. The currents flowing in the various circuits and windings are shown in the figure. however. have a phase rotation reversed with respect to that of the secondary voltages of the first Transformer. Transformers connected in accordance with clock hour No. Fig. (40) Shows two 3 winding Transformers (represented by their equivalent circuits) connected in parallel. to obtain the same percentage impedance. The secondary voltages of this Transformer.. This can be set right by changing again the two corresponding l-v external connections. (39c) instead of connecting 2V to busy and 2W to bus b as shown in Fig. (39b).e.The change in two of external it-v connections of the second Transformer thus brings it -30°. Between the three pairs of windings of the two (or more) Transformers (being paralleled) it is imperative that the power ratio of the corresponding windings of the Transformers should be the same. Fig (40) Shows two 3 winding Transformers (represented) ( ZH )1 ( ZM )1 ( ZL )1 = = ( ZH ) 2 ( ZM ) 2 ( ZL ) 2 187 . This is proved below. Thus Transformers connected in accordance with clock hour No. (PM)1 and (PM)2 represent the powers of the medium voltage windings (say secondary) and (PL)1 and (PL)2 represent the powers of the low voltage windings (say tertiary) of the two Transformers labeled 1 and 2.e. by connecting 2V to bus b and 2W to busy as shown in Fig. i. 0 and 6 however. 1 and 11 can be operated in parallel with one another by interchanging two of the external h-v and also the corresponding l-v connections of one Transformer. i. However. ( PH )1 ( PM )1 ( PL)1 = = ( PH ) 2 ( PM ) 2 ( PL) 2 Where (PH)1 and (PH)2 represent the powers of the h-v windings (say primary). The general principle applying to the parallel operation of a three winding Transformer with another three winding Transformer are the same as those for the paralleling of two winding Transformers.

From a very early stage. since this is the simplest method to control the voltage level as well as the reactive and active power in electrical networks. This as is evident also fulfils the second condition of same percentage impedance. when new three-phase 3 winding Transformers are to be purchased for parallel operation with existing three-phase 3-winding Transformers the purchase order must specify the power ratings of the various windings of the existing Transformers along with other specifications and indicate that the power ratios of the corresponding windings of the various Transformers must be identical failing which it will be impossible to design Transformers with same percentage impedances for the corresponding windings. Tap Changer The method to change the ratio of Transformers by means of taps on the winding is as old as the Transformer itself. When Transformers which do not fulfilling this condition are paralleled the operation may be satisfactory without fulfilling the ideal conditions so long as the loads to be carried do not overload either Transformer.Thus the power ratios of the corresponding windings are similar. Transformers with a turn ratio changeable within certain limits have been used for electrical power transmission. Tap-changer with single phase transformer 188 . Therefore.

which were connected according to the necessity of the network. even on such applications experience shows that with proper maintenance several million operations can be obtained. then power consumption took a sharp upward trend.At the beginning of the development it was sufficient to have tappings connected to bushings outside the Transformer tank. which required the interconnection and expansion of the electrical networks. Today's state of the art OLTC has reached such a high level of reliability that it is safe to state that its mechanical life expectancy is equivalent to that of the Transformer. Table below shows a survey of the typical number of operations for various applications.525 50 .500 3000 10000 -1300 765 2000 Interconnection 200 110 300 . A more comfortable way was to connect the tappings to tap Switches today called "off-circuit" or "no-load tap changers" . It was not possible to control voltage drops caused by load changes in the network. The demand for (OLTCs) came an urgent necessity in the 1920ies. The very rapid development brought.e. In other industrialized countries the situation is comparable. However. within a few years. Switching devices were needed which permitted the change of the turn ratio of Transformers under load condition. Exceptions may be applications in industrial process Transformers. At that stage these parameters could only be controlled at the generating plant. These range from some hundred to around 300. OLTCs applied in industrial process Transformers as regulating units in the chemical and metallurgical industry is another important field of application.300 5000 25000 -1500 765 3000 Distribution 15 . The introduction of OLTCs improved the operating efficiency of electrical systems considerably and this technique found acceptance worldwide. Without interrupting the load current such Switching devices . Obviously.400 60 . The development of (OLTCs) was accelerated over the years due to the steady increase of the transmission voltage and power. In addition. solutions which were quite satisfactory in regards to operating safety and efficiency.000 operations per year while the rated currents range from approximately 50 to 3000 Amps. this simple device only permitted occasional corrections of the Transformer ratio. Transformer No of operation data Power Power Voltage Current OLTC Per Transformer ring ring ring Year MVA KV A Min Mean Max Generator 100 110 100 .which could only be actuated when the Transformer was de-energized. In general the percentage of Transformers equipped with OLTCs is increasing with the increase of the load density and interconnection of electrical networks. To solve this problem. i.1600 2000 7000 20000 189 .today called "on-load taps changers" (OLTC) – were introduced to Transformers more than 70 years ago.

1000 1000 20000 70000 2.Electrolysis Chemistry Arc furnace 10 . Because of the fact that the reactor Switching principle causes a 90 degree phase shift between the Switched current and the recovery voltage arising at the Switching distance.the slow motion reactor Switching principle and the high speed resistor Switching principle. In addition to this the costs of transition reactors increase considerably with higher step voltages.300 20 . transport size and profile and overall economic considerations compared to the resistance principle OLTC. whereas the resistor principle dominates in the high voltage field or in special applications like HVDC . the reactor type OLTC is less suitable for large step voltages.20 . The high-speed resistor type OLTC has its origin in the invention of Dr.230 50 .110 50 .5 . However. which can be reactors or resistors? Are inserted. 190 . This lightens the quenching of the arc in the current zero. Jansen of a diverter Switch and a tap selector.80 20 . In the late 1940 is many OLTC manufacturers abandoned the production of OLTCs with this Switching principle. Thus the reactor Switching principle over the years has lost the remarkable importance it had in the beginning of the OLTC development.3000 1000 30000 150000 0 1. its application is limited to loner voltages. Which were patented in 1926. The transition impedance is been carried out with ohmic resistor with this principle the current Switched and the recovery voltage are in phase.Transformers.1000 2000 50000 300000 150 0 The problem to be solved when changing taps under load is how to connect the tappings of the Transformer winding successively to the same output terminal without interrupting the load current. hut also in Germany inventions were applied for a patent in 1905 and 1906. The reactor type OLTC has its development origin in the USA. The tap-changer provides two basic functions. both taps must be temporarily connected to the output terminal. The transition resistors hake to be dimensioned only for a short-time loading which enables an economic use of OLTCs in case of higher step voltages and power. Though the reactor principle has also proven itself. Phase-Shifting Transformers or EHVTransformers. The reactor principle OLTC in these fields can only be applied by mean of booster Transformers.110 50 .5 . Two basic principles have been invented and are still used today . Which make its application more difficult in regards to transport weight. For this purpose a Transformer is furnished with a tapped winding and these taps are connected to terminals on the tap-changer. During the load transfer operation between to adjacent taps. in the USA the reactor principle is still used in a large scale and reactor type OLTCs are still under production. To avoid a short circuit of the winding transition impedances. DESIGN CONCEPTS OF ON-LOAD TAP-CHANGERS With an on-load tap-changer the Transformer voltage ratio can be varied in steps by adding or subtracting turns. Today both principles have been developed into reliable OLTCs.

The selection function can be without change-over selector (linear).Fig (2) Basic connection of a star-point linear regulation The first is to “select” a Transformer tapping connection in an open-circuit condition. change-over selector and the diverter or transfer Switch. Whereas separate selectors and diverter or transfer Switches are used for higher power requirements. combines these two functions into one device. A basic connection of a star-point linear regulation is given in Fig (2). the selector Switch. The simplest type OLTC. The transfer of the load current from the connected to the preselected trip is either achieved by means of resistor transition or the alternative method. Or with change-over selector (reversing or coarse / fine). The mechanical configuration of the tap selector can be designed as a single or double multiway selector. Selector Switches are designed for operation within an enclosure inside the Transformer tank (in-tank type) or externally in a separate oil-tilled housing bolted to the outside of the main Transformer tank (compartment type). The action of the diverter or transfer Switch can be rotary or oscillatory. the diverter or transfer Switch is required to make and break current at a recovery voltage whose value is in the same order as the voltage between two taps. All designs of tap-changers maintain direct mechanical synchronism between the tap selector. HIGH-SPEED RESISTOR TYPE OLTC 191 . Therefore. the second is to “divert” or “transfer” power to that selected tapping without interrupting the through-current. The power transfer function can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. To fulfill this requirement several designs have been developed. The transfer of electrical power involves arcing in the oil and therefore contamination of the insulating oil (the exception are OLTCs that use vacuum interrupters as Switching devices). In service. Various tapping winding configurations are possible. the Switching devices are located in their own Switching compartment to separate the contaminated oil from the oil in the transformer main tank. Mainly used in the USA. reactor transition. The former providing similar Switching conditions for advanced or retard power flow from the Transformer.

Fig (4) Principle scheme of a-tap selector and diverter Switch type OLTC This type can only be built in one enclosure as mentioned above and. but also with insulation subject to high voltages. Figure (4) shows an OLTC comprising a tap selector and diverter Switch. With the tap selector-diverter Switch concept the tap-change is affected in two steps. Fig (3) Principle scheme of a selector Switch type OLTC The latter is economical to manufacture. or as a selector Switch combining the functions of the tap selector and diverter Switch into one device. but certain inherent limitations reduce the possible applications to small and medium size Transformers with highest voltages of equipment of 132 kV and rated-through currents in the range of 500 A to 600 A. The tap adjacent to the one in 192 . therefore. The selector Switch principle is represented in Fig. (3) The OLTC comprising a tap selector and a diverter Switch lends itself for any application up to the highest Transformer rating.The high-speed resistor type OLTC is designed either as a tap selector and a diverter Switch. Line-end applications with highest voltages for equipment of 362 kV and rated through-currents of 4500 A have been realized. the arc products are in contact not only with wearing mechanical parts.

resistor Ru. c) The main contact X has opened. Selector contact V lies on tap 6 and selector contact H on tap 7. Thereafter the Fig (4) Switching sequence for tap-changer on Switching from position 6 to position 5. The load current passes through the resistor Ry and the resistor contact y. Has been short-circuited and the load current passes through the main contact V. 193 . b) Selector contact H has moved in the no-current state from tap 7 to tap 5. d) The resistor contact u has closed. The main contact x carries the load current. The tap-changer is now in position 5. The load current is shared between Ry and Ru The circulating current is limited by the resistance of Ry + Ru.service is pre-selected load free by the tap selector. a) Position 6. e) The resistor contact y has opened. The load current passes through Ru and contact u f) The main contact V has closed.

neutral point design for 21 position with plus/minus Switching 194 .Fig (45) Three-phase tap-changer type UCBRN 380/600.

Fig. (46) Motor-drive mechanism type BUE for UC tap-changer Testing Tap-changers undergo type tests according to the international standards for on-load tap-changers, IEC 214 the first edition of which was published in 1966 and the most recent one in 1976. The tests on the tap-changer itself comprise: 1- Temperature rise of contacts at 1.2 times the maximum rated through-current. 2- Switching tests. 3- Short-circuit current tests. 4- Temperature rise of transition resistors. 5- Mechanical tests. 6- Dielectric tests. And for the motor-drive mechanism: 1- Mechanical load test. 2- Overrun test. 3- Degree of protection of motor-drive cubicle. SF6 Transformer Introduction Demand for effective space utilization is becoming increasingly stronger as a result of grade advancement of commercial/industrial activities and urban life styles. Concurrently, city construction facilities including buildings, underground shopping areas, traffic systems, and public structures are becoming larger in size and gaining in the degree of complications. Since such facilities immensely contribute to improving the efficiency of urban activities, the current trend indicates the possibility of further expansion in the future. On the other hand, accidents involving outbreaks of extensive fire and other troubles are occasionally occurring in these large-sized urban facilities, resulting in the creation of public voices demanding improved fire or accident


preventive measures.

These construction facilities of cities represent high-valued social assets. However, since a great number of citizens utilize such .facilities day after day, it is quite essential to provide effective means to eliminate outbreaks of fire. To achieve this purpose, it is important to install modern fire-fighting systems capable of coping with various causes of fire. At the same time, Basically it is most important to eliminate the possible causes of fire. The SF6 gas-insulated Transformers are designed to ideally satisfy Non flammability-ensuring plans of power reception and transformation systems installed in these urban facilities. Since no oil for insulation is used, these Transformers can completely free structures or adjacent rivers from oil contamination during new installation work or system operation. In other words, the SF6 gas-insulated Transformers qualify themselves as truly "non flammability-ensuring equipment" usable for power systems required to prevent fires or accidents and eliminate pollution.


Features The SF6 gas-insulated Transformers offer excellent insulation and cooling characteristics and thermal stability. Additionally, these Transformers possess the following features resulting from containing the active parts in a tank sealed with nonflammable, harmless, and odorless SF6 gas. 1. High-level stability Even should the actual Transformer develop an accident, or should a fire break out on the installation environment, combustion or an explosion will not occur. Since all live parts are housed in grounded metal cases, maintenance and inspection can be achieved easily and safely. 2. Outstanding accident preventive characteristics Nonflammable structure employing no insulation oil contributes to minimizing the scope of associated accident-preventive facilities such as fireproof walls, fire-fighting equipment, or oil tanks. 3. Compactness of substation By directly coupling with gas-insulated Switchgear, substation space can be minimized as the result of compact facilities. 4. Simplified maintenance and long service life Because the Transformers are completely sealed in housing cases, no contact exists with exterior atmospheric air, thereby eliminating problems of degradation or contamination triggered by moisture or dust accumulation. Constant enveloping of components with inactive, dry SF6 gas results in minimizing aging deterioration of insulating materials and prolonging Transformer service life. 5. Easy, clean installation SF6 gas can be quickly sealed into the Transformer tank from a cylinder. Installation work never contaminates surrounding areas, and ensures maintenance of a clean environment. 6. Ideal for high voltage systems By increasing the seal pressure, SF6 gas Transformers offer insulation performance comparable to that of oil-insulated types, being ideal for high voltages of 22 kV to 154 kV. Applications The SF6 gas-insulated Transformers are suitable for the following applications: 197

Locations where safety against fire is essential Buildings such as hotels, department stores, schools, and hospitals Underground shopping areas, underground substations Sites close to residential areas, factories, chemical plants Locations where prevention of environment pollution is specifically demanded Water supply source zones, residential quarters, seaside areas Water treatment stations Locations where exposure exists to high-level moisture or dust accumulation Inside tunnels, industrial zones

Specifications and Ratings The SF6 gas-insulated Transformers are manufactured under the following standard specifications. Table 1 Standard specifications

NOTES: 1. Mounting of on-load tap-changer is possible. The voltage adjusting range in this case is ±10 % of the rated voltage. 2. As for codes affixed to the primary tap voltage, F indicates full-capacity taps and R indicates rated taps. 3. Consultation regarding ratings other than the above is accepted. Quality specifications The following specifications are provided to ensure safe operation of gas-insulated Transformers. • Withstand voltage during zero gas gauge pressure No problem is caused by operation under normal operating voltage. • Permissible load under zero gas gauge pressure No problem is caused by 50 % load continuous operation. • Permissible load under 1-series operation when 2-series coolers are provided No problem is caused by 75 % load continuous operation.


External Dimensions and Weight Figures below show external dimensions and weight. Since external dimensions are subject to change without notice, please obtain final confirmation from approval drawings. Also,


Natural-cooled type 200 .

" 201 .Natural-cooled type NOTE: In case of 72. GIS direct-coupling type.5 kV. X size (up to bushing Terminal end) becomes "the value in the above Table + 600 mm.

Forced-gas-circulated. forced-air-cooled type 202 . natural-air-cooled type SF6 gas-insulated Transformer Forced-gas-circulated.

The temperature indicator is provided with alarm contacts and a pointer for indicating maximum temperature. the temperature indicator itself can be removed. only the positive pressure is indicated during operation. the graduations for negative pressure are provided for use during this gas sealing. Since this protective cylinder maintains air tightness of the gas.Accessories SF6 gas temperature indicator (dial thermometer) Measures temperature of SF6 gas sealed in Transformer tanks.0 kg / and the negative pressure up to 760 mmHg. cm 2 203 . capable of measuring the positive pressure up to 3. The pressure gauge is provided with alarm contacts that actuate at the upper limit of normal pressure during operation. Generally. The gauge is a compound type that measures both positive and negative pressure. Since vacuum suction is conducted when sealing SF6 into the tank. Dial thermometer SF6 gas pressure gauge (compound gauge) This gauge is used to measure the pressure of SF6 gas sealed in the Transformer tank. Gas temperature is measured by the heat sensing probe of a thermometer inserted into the protective cylinder provided in the tank or on the cover.

Pressure in the Transformer tank is compared with pressure in the reference pressure chamber inserted into the protective cylinder provided in the tank or on the cover. 204 . Therefore. the Americans discovered its properties for extinguishing the electric arc. It was used for the first time as insulating material. In 1953. regardless of temperatures in the Transformer. In the United States about 1935. Temperature compensating pressure switch SF6 Gas Properties Introduction SF6 is a combination of sulfur and fluorine its first synthesis was realized in 1900 by French researchers of the Pharmaceutical Faculty of Paris.Pressure gauge (compound gauge) Temperature compensating pressure Switch Leakage is detected of SF6 gas sealed in the Transformer tank. SF6 gas leakage is accurately detected and the alarm contacts are actuated. This aptitude is quite remarkable.

it becomes liquid at 63. Tests have been carried out replacing the nitrogen content of air by SF6 (the gaseous mixture consisted of 79 % SF6 and 24 % oxygen): five mice were then immersed in this atmosphere for 24 hours. SF6 has the same strength as fresh oil. contains impurities (within limits imposed by IEC standards No. at atmospheric pressure. without feeling any ill effects.03 % Water 15 ppm C02 traces HF 0. and has a density of 6.55°C Critical pressure 37.5 bar of relative pressure. odorless and non-toxic. The dielectric strength of SF6 in on average 2. by increasing pressure.078 Critical temperature 45.3 ppm SF6 is therefore 99. It is a gas which the speed of sound propagation is about three times less than in air. This approximately similar to coal combustion.59 bars In short. Chemical properties SF6 is a synthetic gas which is obtained as we have just explained by combination of six atoms of fluorine with one atom of sulfur: S 2 + 6 F 2 → 2SF 6 + 524 Kcal You can see therefore that this reaction is accompanied by an important release of heat. SF6 at atmospheric pressure is a heavier gas than air.2°C and in which noise propagates badly. SF6 on the market SF6 which is delivered in cylinders in liquid phase. Given that the energy released during synthesis is the same as is needed in order to dissociate the final element. It is colorless. and.1 4kg / m3.SF6 is a stable gas 205 . 376) Carbon tetra fluoride (CF4) 0.03 % Oxygen + nitrogen (air) 0. The interruption of the arc will therefore be less loud in SF6 than in air.99 % pur. it can immediately be seen that: . it can be seen that the dielectric strength also increases and than around 3.5 times that of air.Physical properties It is about five times heavier than air. The principal characteristics of the gas are as follows: Molar mass 146.

it gives silicon tetra fluoride SF4. air. it gives carbon tetra fluoride CF4. 206 . calories are necessary for molecular breakdown. the gas is heated to temperatures of around four hundred degrees SF6 gives the following decomposition products: Thionyl fluoride SOF2 Sulfur fluoride SO2F2 Sulfur tetra fluoride SF4 Sulfur deca fluoride S2F10 Thionyl tetra fluoride SOF4 SF6 also reacts with the materials that are found in its environment: With water (impurity in the gas). it gives sulfur dioxide SO2. under certain conditions is poisonous. since the International electro technical Commission (IEC) has shown that five mice left for 24 hours in an atmosphere of 79 % SF6 and 21 % oxygen will not only remain alive but will show no signs of abnormal behavior. With carbon dioxide (impurity in the gas). All these gases are heavier than air. . SF6 is perfectly safe in normal conditions: . Initial state In its initial state.. . and dioxide). With air dioxide (impurity in the gas). there only remain: Sulfur fluoride SO2F2 Carbon tetra fluoride CF4 Silicon tetra fluoride SIF4 Sulfurous anhydride SO2. In contact with the parts where electric currents circulate. SF6 Safety precautions: Today there is no known dielectric and breaking agent combined better than SF6 gas. You can therefore see that a large number of products have been dissociated by the electric arc. It is thus that. before it has undergone thermal stress (usually the electric arc). An electric are develops high temperatures which can reach 15000 °C. it gives hydrofluoric acid HF. many dissociation products that we have previously studied disappear. However. this gas will not support life. carbon. The dissociation products after interruption of an arc. With the araldite casings which are high in silicon dioxide. and does not react with its environment. the gas is stable. At these temperatures. besides the impurities of the gas (water. the concentration of SF6 would have to be high. and May.524 k. The importance of the remaining products may be lessened by adding a powder (alumina silicate).It is non-toxic.It will not explode. This does not mean that no precautions need to be taken: because of its lack of oxygen. we can there fore already expect that it will be a powerful cooling agent: 6 F 2 → S 2 + 2 SF 6 + 524 Kcal The dissociation products before interruption of the arc At normal temperature.It is uninflammable.

noticeable through its sickening smell. Once the polluted gas has disappeared (when the smell becomes bearable) you are still in contact with solid decomposition products. In extreme cases. gloves and appropriate clothing. In normal operation.together with the powders themselves . Remember that SF6 is a very heavy gas. The abnormal situation is the risk of an appliance exploding. the putrid smell would make us aware of it immediately. Probability. you must leave your post and ensure that the gas is eliminated by means of powerful ventilation. the heat from the arc modifies the SF6. Quantity. And if by chance such an incident accrued. have ventilation and / or a system for detecting this halogen placed at the lowest points of the installations.shall be sent to a factory for dealing with dangerous products. but depends on the number of ampere being broken.This creates gaseous and solid decomposition products. This sieve is present in all extinguishing chambers. makes an excellent alarm signal. This is fortunately extremely infrequent. 207 . The smell detection threshold is ten times lower than the toxic threshold (1 ppm is detected by smell). Precaution and hygiene.Man dies when the oxygen level of the gas he is breathing falls below 12 %. they may cause pulmonary edema. Precautions and hygiene The first recommendation is not to smoke when SF6 gas is around. Following this rather unpleasant description of the SF6 after breaking we may reassure ourselves on two counts: . The presence of hydrogen sulphide. This device will warn you any gas leaks.For reasons of probability. The solid decomposition products (whitish powder) an aggressive when the react with the humidity of the mucous membranes and of the hands. electric Switchgear using SF6 has a leak rate guaranteed to be less than 1 % of the mass per year. Your cigarette would then take on a very strange taste also avoid operating combustion engines in this gas. The volume of decomposed is microscopic. Regeneration time is short. When the work positions are indoors. The heat given off by the cigarette may decompose the gas. This makes any danger impossible in normal operation. All this . thanks in part to the molecular sieve which regenerates the decomposition products to form pure SF6. This means that dangerous thresholds are rarely reached. Operations on the equipment must be carried out with a gas mask. If you were to find yourself in contact with decomposed SF6 gas. Certain of these gases are medically defined as being violent irritants of the mucous membranes and of the lungs. It is these products that need to be spoken about.For reasons of quantity . Post-breaking state As we seen at the beginning of this Chapter.

Such a field of a very great intensity will draw electrons at the hot points of contacts. creation of electrons. for it is this that displaces the electrons in the conductors. end up by reaching their threshold of ionic dissociation. One can well understand that the arc increasing to temperatures of 1500°C. one feels a force which attracts. When the contacts separate. The value of the thermal power can be 10MW. In order to eliminate these electrons. All bodies. At this moment. the arc will extinguish rapidly itself. under the influence of temperature. etc. will create others. The electric arc has been born.use a process to reduce the temperature of the element (decompression. These electrons are going to circulate in surroundings which are not conductive. if the electrons have not been eliminated because in this case. This lack of specific danger is furthermore confirmed by the fact that we have not had to record any accident since 1960. if they are in sufficient number. at regular intervals. one could: .. Under the effect of current passing through it. it parts with electrons. when placing one’s hand near to a television screen. it is crossed by a strong current. Conclusion It is important to point out that sulfur hexafluoride does not bring about an increase in the risks entailed in the work stations. blowout. the arc will disappear and reappear immediately. the year in which SF6 was first used as a breaking agent. The electric arc is thus going to follow the variations of alternating current. If. like blow-out for example.Rid oneself of them by some physical means. in fact. If its own energy is not sufficient. which one calls dielectric. An electric field appears at the separation of the live contacts. that is to say. and thus. the electric field draws electrons to the hot points. will see a temperature decrease as soon as the alternating current starts its descent towards 0. One can reach temperature of 15000 °C. As a matter of interest SF6 does not harm the ozone layer. on the other hand.). and becomes conductive. The latter is the source of an electric current. in this apparatus. mechanical or thermodynamic blow-out. This is partly due to its weight.) Out-off a current If we perfect a system which allows cooling the arc (turning arc.use dielectric with a very high speed of recuperation (the case of SF6) . magnetic blow-out. what one calls an electric field. The electric arc The creation of an arc Everyone has noticed that. which will accelerate. . which ensures the survival of the arc. and will cause the temperature of the surroundings to increase.Any damage to the hands caused by these powders can be neutralized by limewater. The electric arc: We have seen that the electric field was at the origin of the displacement of electrons. We have an avalanche.. These electrons themselves. the surroundings remain conductive. There exists. it draws throughout its own energy. and for the same reasons. The temperature will decrease all the more rapidly as: 208 . etc .

is a gas which Absorbs large quantities of energy when it dissociates. and thus its temperature. .. The blow out of the arc will thus (mean) evacuate a large quantity of energy. This lowering of temperature will make the ionic recombination of the bodies and the dielectric will recover its insulating properties which thus ensure interruption of the current. and appearance of the resistive arc will bring about a fall in the intensity. Lastly the hydrofluoric acids attack all metals giving metallic fluorides which are all very hydroscopic insulating powders. Fig (1) Disruptive voltage versus pressure Fig (2) SF6 absolute pressure versus temperature with constant volume mass (density) 209 . as we have seen in its physical properties.SF6.SF6 has two states of conduction.

Load Points. www.Supply of electrical power within specified voltage limits. power line communication. 2. such as short circuits and overloads.Optimum efficiency of plants and the network. data collection. clearances.Distribution Systems. 10. main protection.5 Hz). Freedom from total shutdown and permissible period of shutdown.sayedsaad. 8 . space requirement.Generating Stations.Office building. Switching requirements during abnormal operations.Bus-Bar schemes. 3 . www. 12. Safety of personnel.com Essential Features for substation 1 .com Substation Layouts 1. 6 . 3. 5. 3 . availability. www.Maximum possible coverage of the supply network. 2 .Maximum security of supply. foreign exchange involvement. Quality. Medium voltage Switchgear. audible noise. radio interference. 5 . cost of the equipment. and Aesthetics. 4 . 7 . Requirements of network monitoring. etc.Electrical Substations Electrical Network comprises the following regions: 1 . 13.Supply of electrical energy to the consumers at the lowest cost. Earthing lightning protection.Supply of electrical power within targeted frequency limits. Reliability. Maintenance requirements.High voltage Switchgear. Economic considerations. 2 . Long service life. Switching requirements for normal operation.Supply of required electrical power. Provision for extensions. simplicity. Compatibility with ambient conditions. 2 . 14. Noise. 9. space for approaching various 6.sayedsaad. Low voltage Switchgear and control room. Protective zones. Data transmission etc. 4. 4 . 4 . 11. Technical requirements such as ratings. TI etc. (49.sayedsaad. 7. Environmental aspects. Bypass facilities.com Functions of a Substation 1 . 3 . back-up protection 8.Outdoor Switchyard having any one of the above. 210 . Degree of flexibility in operations.5 Hz and 50. RI. 15.Shortest possible fault-duration.Transmission Systems.

Introduction SF6 Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) are preferred for voltage ratings of 72. However outdoor GIS have also been installed earlier.Drainage system. 9 .sayedsaad.Lighting protection system.5 .Store. 7 . Load Break Switches. As a rule GIS are installed indoor. 10 .5 kV. Security system etc. the overall size of each equipment and the complete substation is reduced to about 10 % of conventional Air-insulated substations.Incoming line towers and outgoing line towers/cables. As the dielectric strength of SF6 gas is higher than air. 300 kV and 420 kV and above. etc.Roads and rail track for transporting equipment. As the dielectric strength of SF6 gas provides the phase to ground insulation. Isolators. drinking water system. 12 . Hence. the clearances required are smaller.Substation lighting system etc.Auxiliary power supply Low voltage AC. 11 .com SF6 Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) 1.Cooling water system.Station Earthing system. etc. 211 . Bus-Bars. The SF6 gas provides the phase to ground insulation. Supply system. 8 . are housed in metal enclosed modules filled with SF6 gas. In such a substation. overhead shielding. the various equipments like Circuit Breakers.Fire fighting system.Maintenance workshop (if required). 145 kV. www.Fence and gates. 15 . 13 . 16 . Voltage Transformers Earthing Switches. 6 . Current Transformers.Battery room and low voltage DC. 14 . 17 .

com 212 .High voltage Gas Insulated Switch gear Type B95 Double Bus-Bar (make Alostom) www.sayedsaad.

the installation time is substantially reduced. chemical fumes and salt layers can cause frequent flashovers in conventional outdoor air-insulated substations 213 . 3 – Disconnected .sayedsaad. As the units are factory assembled.com 4 – Slow Earthing Switch 5 – Make Proof Earthing Switch. etc. 2 – Spring Mechanism . industrial townships. Such substations are compact and can be installed conveniently on any floor of a multistoried building or in an underground substation.Single line diagram High voltage Gas Insulated Switch gear Type B95 Double Bus-Bar (make Alostom) 1 – Circuit Breaker . 8 – HV cable connection. Such installations are preferred in cosmopolitan cities. they a taken to site for final assembly. They are also preferred in heavily polluted areas where dust. 7 – Voltage Transformer. www. www.. Thereafter.com The various modules of GIS are factory assembled and are filled with SF6 gas at a pressure of about 3 kg/cm2. 6 – Current Transformer.sayedsaad. where cost of land is very high and higher cost of SF6 insulated Switchgear (GIs) is justified by saving due to reduction in floor area requirement.

Bus-Bar. The O-rings are placed in the grooves' such that after assembly.GIS bay single Bus-Bar Make Mitsubishi 1.Base. Quality of material and dimension of grooves and O-seals are important to ensure gas-tight performance.Current Transformer. If pressure drops slightly. A typical 214 . The space occupied by SF6 installation is only about 8 to 10 % of that a conventional outdoor substation. www. 6. The SF6 Gas Insulated Substations (GIs) contains the same Components as in the conventional outdoor substations. the low-pressure alarm is sounded or automatic tripping or lock-out occurs www.Voltage Transformer. Static O-seals placed between machined flanges provide the gas tightness. The gas density in each compartment is monitored. Thereby the gas monitoring system of each compartment can be independent and simpler.Compactness.3-ph. 7.Circuit Breaker 2. High cost is partly compensated by saving in cost of space.Earthing Switch (GRE-Type) 5. All the live parts are enclosed in metal housings filled with SF6 gas.Disconnector Switch (GR-Type) 4.sayedsaad.sayedsaad. The enclosures are of non-magnetic material such as aluminum or stainless steel and are earthed. the gas is automatically tapped up with further gas leakage. The GIs has gas-monitoring system. www. Some of the insulators are designed as barriers between neighboring modules such that the gas does not pass through them.Disconnector Switch (GL-Type) 3.com 8. the O-rings are squeezed by about 20 %. The live parts and supported on at resin insulators.com The entire installation is sub-divided into compartments which are gas tight with respect to each other.com Advantages of GIs and Application Aspects: 1.sayedsaad.

sayedsaad. Heavy foundations for galvanized steel structures. to facilitate installation and maintenance. High flexibility and application versatility provide novel. and economic overall concepts. have little influence on SF6 insulated substation.Increased Safety. Each conventional substation requires several months for installation. However.com Equipment support structures etc are eliminated.420/525 kV SF6 GIs requires only 920 m2 site area against 30. snow dust etc. 6 .sayedsaad. 5.com As the enclosures are at earth potential there is no possibility of accidental contact by service personnel to live parts. The external moisture. SF6 Switchgear installations take up only 1/10 of the space Required for conventional installations. An extremely careful selection of materials. www.. tested and dispatched with nominal SF6 gas. Oil Circuit Breakers and oil filled equipment are prone to explosion. SF6 GIS can be suitably mounted indoor on any floor or basement and SF6 Insulated Cables (GIC) can be taken through walls and terminated through SF6 bushing or power cables. In SF6 substations. an expedient design and a high standard of manufacturing quality assure Long service life with practically no maintenance requirement.com Summary of Merits of SF6 GIS Safe Reliable Space saving Economical Maintenance free Operating personnel are protected by the earthed metal enclosures The complete enclosure of all live parts guards against any Impairment of the insulation system. Modules are factory assembled. Site erection time is reduced to final assembly of modules. www.sayedsaad. 3 .Choice of Mounting Site. Modular SF6 GIS can be tailor made to Suit the particular site requirements. This results is saving of otherwise Expensive civil-foundation work. Atmospheric Pollution.sayedsaad.Protection from pollution. This results in economy and reduced project execution time. www.Reduced Installation Time. The principle of building block construction (modular construction) reduces the installation time to a few weeks. www. the substations are generally housed inside a small building.Explosion-proof and Fire-proof installation. 2 .com 4 . SF6 breakers and SF6 filled equipment are explosion proof and fire-proof. 215 . the time-consuming high cost galvanized steel structures are eliminated.000 m2 for a conventional air insulated substation.

5 . Long outage periods as Repair of damaged part at site may be difficult. 3 .Conductors need insulation above grounded enclosures. correspondingly Low cost foundations and buildings. VTs. 5 . Enclosures are of aluminum alloy or stainless steel.sayedsaad. The two-breaker.com The essential parts of a GIS are: 1 .Conductors which conduct the main circuit current and transfer power these are of copper or aluminum tubes. Configuration of GIS: www. protection and Monitoring system. www. Installations with single or multiple Bus-Bar-also alternatively with a bypass bus-can be made with the standard modules. Dust or moisture can cause internal flashovers. 6 . Any maintenance and overhaul work on Switch contacts can be done without removing the enclosure. all basic substation Bus-Bar schemes used. 216 .com 6 . Quick site assembly ensured by extensive Shop assembled preassembly and Testing of complete feeders or large units in the factory.com The GIS installations are assembled from a variety of standard modules. 2 . They need a separate building. 3 .Such substations are generally in door.Gas filling. With GIS installations. One and-a-half circuit breaker and ring-bus systems can also be realized economically.Requirement of cleanliness is very stringent. So as to easily permit subsequent disassembly of individual components. Adequate stock of gas must be maintained.com 1. Bushing-ends and Bus-Bars.High cost compared to conventional outdoor substation. Conductors also need phase to phase insulation. control.Various circuit components in main circuit are: CB.sayedsaad. In SF6 GIS these insulation requirements are met by cast resin insulators and SF6 gas insulation. www. www. cable-ends. CTs.Procurement of gas and supply of gas to site is problematic. in conventional plant constructions can be realized.Auxiliary LV DC and LV AC supply system. Adjacent modules are joined by means of multi-bolts tightened on flanges.Project needs almost total imports including SF6 Gas. www.Gas filled modules have nonmagnetic enclosures. and Bus-Bar coupling. monitoring system. This is air-insulated like in conventional sub-station.sayedsaad.Low weight Low weight due to aluminum enclosure.sayedsaad.com 4 . Suitable neoprene rubber “O” ring gaskets are provided for ensuring Gas-tight sealing joints. Gas-tight barrier insulators in the Switchgear sections prevent neighboring Switchgear parts from being affected by overhauls.Excessive damage in case of internal fault. Isolator. Which are joined together by flange connections and plug contacts on the Conductors.sayedsaad. This is generally not required for conventional outdoor substations.com 2 .sayedsaad. Earthing Switches for conductors. Spares conventional substation is totally indigenous up to 400 kV. Each of these main components has its own gas -filled metal enclosed module. including Bus-Bar sectionalizing with disconnects and Breakers.com 4 .sayedsaad. Disadvantages of GIS: www. www.

The GIS above 420 kV are generally with separate enclosure for each phase.sayedsaad. www. www.com Design Aspects The SF6 insulated Switchgear contains the same components as a conventional outdoor substation. Now it is used only for EHV and UHV. Separate enclosure for components and a common single enclosure For three phase enclosure for Bus-Bars. In SF6 GIS the Bus-Bars are laid l longitudinally in GIS hall. This alternative was used for Components and Bus-Bars in early GIs.com This alternative is more widely used now for all GIS 3. Common single enclosure for all three phases for components and For Bus-Bars. GIS. Bus-Bars are either with a three-phase enclosure or single phase enclosure. Single three phase and three single enclosures Three phase Single Enclosures Three phase and three single enclosures The following alternatives are available to the designers for configuration of GIs. www.sayedsaad.com The bays are connected to Bus-Bars cross-wise. Separate enclosure for each phase. The GIS developed during 1980’s are with this philosophy. 2.sayedsaad. 217 . Fig (1) illustrates the construction of typical bay. The per cent trend is to use single three phase modules for components and Bus-Bars for all GIS. 1.The Bus-Bars are conducting bars to which various incoming and outgoing bays are connected. Alternatives of Enclosures.

2 – Isolator. Some of the insulators are designed as barriers between neighboring modules such that the gas does not pass through them. 10 – Operating mechanism (cabinet). the O-rings get squeezed by about 20 %.phase Bus enclosure.com 8 – High Speed Earthing Switch.Fig (1) Section of a 145 KV SF6 GIS with duplicate bus-bar 1 – 3. www. 11 – Conductor tube. Fig (2) below. High grade insulators of Epoxy partition resin give support to active parts inside the enclosures and are also used as barriers between adjacent gas filled compartments. The gas tightness is provided by static O-seals placed between machined flanges. Live parts are supported on cast resin insulators. Aluminum or stainless steel enclosures surround all live parts. 218 .com 6 – Line Isolator. 7 – VT. 3 – Earthing Switch.sayedsaad. 9 – Cable sealing End. 5 – CT's www. All the live parts are enclosed in metal housing filled with SF6 gas. Quality of material and dimension of groove are important. which are gas tight with respect to each other. The entire installation is sub-divided into compartments. Thereby the gas monitoring system of each compartment can be independent and simple The enclosures are of nonmagnetic material such as aluminum or stainless steel and are earthed. 12 – Epoxy partition fig. The O-rings are placed in the grooves such that after assembly. 4 – C.B puffer type. Enclosures are earthed.sayedsaad. (2). Pressurized SF6 gas provides internal insulation between conductors and metallic enclosures.

relays. alarm etc. Flanges of enclosures are bolted. auxiliary Switches. Expansion bellows (Bellows compensators) Expansion Bellows 219 . for local control. www. Control cabinet installed near the bay contains instruments.Fig(2) Epoxy partition resin Individual compartments (modules) are connected by silver plated Plug contacts for current conduction.sayedsaad.com GIS is installed on self supporting steel structures fixed on t he floor. control wiring etc. indication.

Inside the enclosures. reactors. The conductor tends to remain along the central axis of enclosure.sayedsaad. www. .sayedsaad.sayedsaad.Outside the enclosures the magnetic field of enclosures opposes the magnetic field of conductor currents. Transformers. which take up axial or lateral tolerances.com .com 220 . Metallic connections between adjacent enclosures are ensured to permit circulation of full return current. the magnetic field of enclosure currents adds to that of conductor current resulting in centralizing force on conductor. www. The conductors are plugged to silver plated finger contact assembly mounted on support insulators.com The enclosures are of welded aluminum or stainless steel plates to which cast aluminum or stainless steel flanges are welded.Expansion Bellows Variations in length due to temperature changes and dimensional differences due to assembly tolerances are resolved by making use of the wide range of bellows. www. Conductors are usually of aluminum alloy tubes. The induced currents circulate in enclosures and provide magnetic field of [heir own such that. These bellows are self compensated or compensated in compression by tie-rods Bellow compensators permit absorption of manufacturing tolerances in Bellow Compensators also permit absorption of vibrations caused by length of enclosures Bus-Bars. These sliding contacts permit tubular conductors to expand axially with temperature rise without any additional stress on support insulators.

irrespective of their type of insulation (oil impregnated paper or XLPE) and section.Safety is fully ensured by earthing of the cable Side through access (3). in parallel with closing of the cable earth Switch. Isolation of the Switchgear from the high voltage cables during dielectric testing is achieved by removing the contact (1) and the conductor (2). 221 . in accordance with the IEC 859 standard commonly used. The cable sealing end is fixed inside the SF6 gas Filled compartment. can be connected.Cable connection All cables.

3 . 5 . Cable connection box 1 – Removable contact's 2 – Removabl conductor.Removable conductor. Bulk Oil Circuit Breaker Small Oil Volume Breaker Vacuum Circuit Breaker SF6 Circuit Breaker Air Blast Circuit Breaker Current Transformer. Circuit Breaker.Removable contact's 2 . 3 – Expansion bellows 4 – Bushing.Connection to Transformer 1 .Access for Earthing rod.High voltage. 4 .Gas tight bushing. Voltage Transformer. Compartments of SF6 Gas Insulated Switchgear Bus-Bar . ‫قضبان التوزيع الرئيسية‬ ‫قاطع الدائرة‬ ‫محول تيار‬ ‫محول جهد‬ 222 .

Threephase enclosures are compact and have lesser eddy current losses. The contact areas are silver plated. Cable End ‫طرف توصيل الكابل‬ ‫سكينة تأريض‬ ‫سكينة عزل‬ Bus-Bar Modules The Bus-Bar modules are either with single phase or three phase enclosure. Single phase BusBars are necessary to suit other components having single phase enclosures. The main conductors are aluminum or copper tubes. 223 . The diameter of enclosure depends on rated voltage and internal clearance requirements. There is a provision of expansion joints which permits axial elongation at higher temperatures. The tubular conductors are supported on epoxy resin cast insulators Fig (13) the shape of insulators is such that the field distribution is uniform. Isolator (Disconnector Switch). The dimensions of conductor tubing depend upon the mechanical strength corresponding to short circuits forces. The size so obtained is generally adequate for carrying normal current without excessive temperature rise. The three Bus-Bars are conveniently staggered by a distance equal to centre spacing.Earth Switch.

(b) Axial length compensator (for Bus-Bars of straight length) (c) Parallel compensator (for joint between Bus-Bars at an angle) (d) Bellow compensator 224 . (a) Lateral mounting unit.Bus-Bar conductor Modular components fitted in Bus-Bar lengths and bays.Removable contact 3 .Bus-Bar Disconnector 2 . below. the following standard elements are included in the assembly Fig.Bus-Bar dismantling principle 1 . Depending upon particular local requirements.Bellows 4 .

Axial length compensator (for Bus-Bars of straight length) 1.Four-way junction unit 3.unit (9o° junction) 2 .L .T-unit with flange for Earthing switch 225 .

www. www. A Circuit Breaker suitable for three phase system is called a ‘triple-pole Circuit Breaker. The interrupter encloses a set of fixed and moving contact's The moving contacts can be drawn apart by means of the operating links of the operating mechanism. The Circuit Breaker has two working positions.com The arc produced by the separation of current carrying contacts is interrupted by a suitable medium and by adopting suitable techniques for arc extinction.com The Fault Clearing Process During the normal operating condition the Circuit Breaker can be opened or closed by a station operator for the purpose of Switching and maintenance. Thereafter the Circuit Breaker opens.4 . The part of the Circuit Breakers connected in one phase is called the pole. These correspond to open Circuit Breaker contacts and closed Circuit Breaker contacts respectively.Angle unit (120° to 180° jaunaion ) Circuit Breaker The Circuit Breakers are automatic Switches which can interrupt fault currents. The operating mechanism of the Circuit Breaker gives the necessary energy for opening and closing of contacts of the Circuit Breakers. During the abnormal or faulty conditions the relays sense the fault and close the trip circuit of the Circuit Breaker.sayedsaad.com The interrupters are mounted on support insulators. www.sayedsaad. open and closed. The operation of automatic opening and closing the contacts is achieved by means of the operating mechanism of the Circuit Breaker. Each pole of the Circuit Breaker comprises one or more interrupter or arc-extinguishing chambers. As the relay contacts close. 226 . the trip circuit is closed and the operating mechanism of the Circuit Breaker starts the opening operation. The Circuit Breaker can be classified on the basis of the arc extinction medium.sayedsaad.

The process of current interruption is completed when the arc is extinguished and the current reaches final zero value. As the fault occurs. 2 . 3 . Rated short Circuit Breaking current. The arc is extinguished in the Circuit Breaker by suitable techniques. 2. The current reaches final zero as the arc is extinguished and does not restrict again. Rated transient recovery voltage for terminal faults.sayedsaad. the fault impedance being low.Fault Occurs. The fault is said to be cleared. 3. www. The Circuit Breaker contacts separate. 4. 227 . 6. rated current. the currents increase and the relay gets actuated.Relay contacts close the trip circuit of the Circuit Breaker closes and trip coil is energized. 5. The moving part of the relay move because of the increase in the operating torque. 1. Rated frequency. Rated insulation level.c.com The Trip-Circuit Fig (1) below illustrates the basic connections of the Circuit Breaker control for the opening operation STANDARD RATINGS OF CIRCUIT BREAKERS AND THEIR SELECTION The characteristics of a Circuit Breaker including its operating devices and auxiliary equipment that are used to determine the rating are: (a) Rated characteristics to be given for all Circuit Breakers.Arc is drawn between the breaker contacts. www. 4 .sayedsaad.com The process of fault clearing has the following sequence: 1.The contacts of the Circuit Breaker open and an arc is draw between them. Rated voltage.The operating mechanism starts operating for the opening operation. wave. The arc is extinguished at some natural current zero of a. The relay takes some time to close its contacts.

5 kV and above.sayedsaad. Rated small inductive breaking current.5 kV and above and intended for Switching over.6 – 12) KV (3. 4.5 kA rated short circuit breaking current and designed for direct connection to overhead transmission lines.Rated characteristics for short line faults for three pole Circuit Breakers rated at 72. 5 – Air Blast CB. Rated supply frequency of auxiliary circuits The type of the Circuit Breaker The type of the Circuit Breaker is usually identified according to the medium of arc extinction.5 kV and for single pole Circuit Breakers. Rated supply voltage of auxiliary circuits. where applicable. Type 1 – Air break Circuit Breaker 2 – Miniature CB. Rated operating sequence.Rated pressure of compressed gas supply for operation and Interruption.sayedsaad. 7. 4 – Minimum Oil CB. 3 . (c) Optional rated characteristics: 1.7. 5. 2 . 6. more than 12. 3 – Tank Type oil CB. www.com (b) Rated characteristics to be given in the Specific cases given below: 1 .head transmission lines.com (1) Air break' Circuit Breaker. Breaking Capacity (430 – 600) V– (5-15)MVA (3. 4 . (4) Air blast Circuit Breaker. Rated cable charging breaking current. 2.500 MVA (430-600 ) V (3. for three pole Circuit Breakers rated at less than 72. 8.Rated line charging breaking current. for three pole Circuit Breakers rated at 72. (Single pressure or Double Pressure).145 )KV 245 KV.6 . 35000 MVA up to 1100 KV. (2) Oil Circuit Breaker (tank type of bulk oil) (3) Minimum oil Circuit Breaker. where applicable. where applicable.Rated supply voltage of closing and opening devices. The classification of the Circuit Breakers based on the medium of arc extinction is as follows: www. Rated single capacitor bank breaking current. Medium Air at atmospheric pressure Air at atmospheric pressure Dielectric oil Dielectric oil Compressed Air (20 – 40 ) bar 228 Voltage. Rated short time current. 3. (Miniature Circuit Breaker).Rated supply frequency of closing and opening devices.6-12) KV . (6) Sulphur hexafluoride Circuit Breaker. Rated line charging breaking current. (5) Vacuum Circuit Breaker. 9. 50000 MVA . Rated short circuit making current. 5 . Rated out of phase breaking current.

10000 MVA 36 KV. 8 – H. The beam lever assembly is pivoted on a shaft H fixed in bearings in the top-plate and is operated by a tie rod G connected by an adjustable coupling J to the vertical pullrod K from the Circuit Breaker operating mechanism. plain break type breaker could no longer keep pace with the requirements. type OKM. 7500 MVA 245 KV . i.sayedsaad. SF6 Gas 7 – Vacuum CB. The lifting bridge N which carries the lift rods Q and moving contacts R moves vertically on guide I.V. An oil seal F is fitted to prevent leakage from top-plate and an indicator arm is operated by a pin E on the driven end of the beam lever. a view of the contact actuating mechanism of 33 kV.com In its simplest form the process of separating the current carrying contacts was carried out under oil with no special control over the resulting arc other than the increase in length caused by the moving contact's As the power systems began to develop resulting in higher voltages and higher fault levels. as against the plain break oil Circuit Breaker. Various methods of controlling the breaking process were investigated and developed. bulk oil breaker manufactured by M/s English Electric Co. www.. www. as means of extinguishing the arc and also for providing insulation between the live parts and the metallic tank. www. Various designs exist according to the preferences and requirements of individual manufacturers and designations such as ‘Cross Jet Type’. 1000 MVA 36 KV . This employed pressure chamber and is still widely used because it is relatively cheap to make and gives greatly improved performance in terms of final extinction. 2000 MVA 145 KV.sayedsaad. etc.sayedsaad.sayedsaad.6 – SF6 CB. SF6 Gas 12 KV.com For general illustration.DC CB. ‘Explosion Pot’ and ‘Baffle pot’.e. This is the oldest amongst the three types having been developed towards close of the nineteenth century. 750 MVA 500 KV DC Bulk Oil Type Breaker In Bulk Oil Circuit Breaker oil serves a two-fold purpose.com Many oil Circuit Breakers feature special arc control devices most of which are based on the simple pressure chamber principle but incorporate certain modifications aimed at improving the breaking capacity. Depending on the working principle of these special pressure chambers the breakers are designated as: impulse oil Circuit Breakers deign grid breakers.com This led to the development of controlled break oil Circuit Breaker. gap length and arcing time. breakers with double arc pressure chambers and axial jet pressure chamber oil Circuit Breakers. www. is shown in Fig (1) The contacts are actuated by a lever assembly L housed within the top-plate and connected to the lifting bridge N by links M. rods 229 . Vacuum Vacuum .

At the top end of each guide rod and fastened to the top plate by clips A is an accelerating spring C. and a pressure is set up which depends upon the rate of gas production and its rate of flow through the vents.sayedsaad. The interior of the chamber is fitted with insulating dividing plates which form labyrinths and oil flow passages. Alternate cluster fingers are extended to form arcing contacts. The view of the interrupter is shown in Fig (2) the interrupter pot is screwed and locked on to an interrupter top block. The separation of the contacts and drawing out of the arc take place in the interrupter pot which almost completely restricts the movement of the oil within it. www.sayedsaad. www.com These oil buffers arrest the downward or contact opening movement. These parts carry the arc current and protect the normal current carrying parts from burning. the fingers of which are arranged in a circular formation to engage with the moving contact which is of the solid rod of candle type. The mechanism is prevented from over traveling the closed position by adjustable stops B in the topplate. 230 .com The pressure rise and the condition resulting there from are believed to play a large part in giving this type of oil Circuit Breaker a very much higher breaking capacity than the plain break type. www. The working part of the breaker is cylindrical chamber known as an interrupter pot. Assembled in the top of the chamber is the fixed spring loaded cluster type contact.D fixed in the top-plate.sayedsaad.com These springs are compressed by the lifting bridge during the closing stroke and provide a throw off force when the breaker is tripped open. www.sayedsaad. The moving contacts are clamped by pinch bolts at each end of a cross bar which is bolted to the lift rod. At the lower end of each guide rod is an oil dashpot assembly P.com The internal space available for gas is thus little more than that swept out by the moving contact.

com Small Oil Volume Breaker 231 .com Fig (2)www.sayedsaad.Fig (1)www.sayedsaad.

To prevent the arc restricting after a natural Passage Through zero. Only a small quantity of oil was used to perform its functions as arc quenching medium. The function of oil as insulating medium in the Bulk Oil Breakers was transferred to the porcelain containers.As the system voltages and fault levels increased the Bulk Oil Breakers required huge quantities of insulating oil and became unwieldy in size and weight. The increase in internal pressure due to the Splitting up and vaporization of oil by the arc creates a rapid movement of the extinguishing medium round the arc This self-quenching effect causes a rapid cooling of the ionized column along its whole Length due to partition of the explosion pot and the dielectric recovery is sufficiently rapid. Today the small oil volume breakers are available for voltages up to 36 kV and the fault levels associated therewith. such as air blast Circuit Breaker. Breakers of 232 . During the tripping operation an arc strikes in oil between the moving contact and the fixed contact's This arc is elongated vertically in the explosion pot until the distance traveled is sufficient to withstand the voltage between contacts. therefore. There are now numerous manufacturers of small oil volume breakers However. to illustrate the principles of working.dynamic origin. Like the Bulk Oil Breakers these have also since then passed through many stages of development with varying designs of the arcing chambers. in which arc extinction and dielectric recovery are affected by means of an external quenching medium. the process of arc extinction in the small oil volume Circuit Breaker is of internal thermo. Simultaneously improvements were made in the technique of ceramics. This added enormously to the cost of a power system. The electric arc itself has. This led to the development of small oil volume or low oil content breakers in the continent of Europe. the sectional view of working portion of 170 kV 3500 MVA. Supplied the necessary energy for its own extinction. Contrary to the operation of the impulse type Circuit Breaker.

in the axis of which moves the contact rod and within which breaking occurs. starts a high speed opening motion. Wards by the tripping springs. it moves the arc downwards and forces it to enter the explosion pot (5) where it is maintained rectilinear and is elongated in a direction opposite to the release of gases towards fresh oil. (4) the most important part of the breaker is its extinguishing chamber. In the on position. the current flows from the Upper current terminal (1) to the contact fingers. (2) Follows the movable contact rod (7) and reaches the current terminal (10) across the lower contact fingers (8). the contact rod strongly pulled down. The contact rod rapidly reaches a very high linear speed. At the beginning of the stroke and before breaking.Fig (4) M/s Delle France have been shown in Fig. The arcing chamber is supported at its base by a casing enclosing a mechanism whose function is to move the contact rod According to the impulses given by the control mechanism. At this moment gases escape without hindrance towards top of the apparatus. an arc strikes between the contact rod tips (6) and the stationary Arcing ring (3) protecting the upper contact fingers. This takes the form of an insulating cylinder containing oil. Then. Since the arc is as short as possible the arc voltage is minimized and the 233 .

www. Disconnection of Transformers on load. and at the following current zero. depending on the arc extinguishing principles employed. for this reason alone. The optimum distance is thus obtained.com (III) Out of phase disconnection. It is partitioned into several components by means of discs whose function is to retain a certain quantity of fresh oil while the first break is proceeding.sayedsaad.energy dissipated is reduced. they generate a considerable pressure in the explosion pot (5). The explosion pot (5) is intended to withstand high pressures.sayedsaad. thus producing a violent upward axial blast of oil vapor. The situations where the small oil volume breakers are. 234 . www. Interruptions on lines carried on pin insulators are rather too many on account of poor workmanship. on circuits susceptible to frequent trappings because of too many faults. the arc is impeded from restricting and the breaking is thus achieved. presently. (iii) Quick and simple maintenance. since the gases can no longer develop freely. Still. www. it may not be worthwhile to reject these breakers unless the difference in cost with Bulk Oil Breakers is meager. difficulties are sometimes encountered in performing certain specific duties. In addition there are certain other advantages which may be summed up as under: (I) Light and reduced size rendering transport (ii) Simple construction making erection easy. inadequate and improper maintenance. owing to reduced quantity of oil and consequent liability to quick carbonization. Still at all voltages from 33 kV and above the costs of these breakers inclusive of current Transformers compete favorably with that of the Bulk Oil Breakers. The low oil content Circuit Breakers require separate current Transformers of wound type. Rated breaking capacities in general are covered securely by a circuit breaking of any design but.com One of the limitations put forward against this class of breakers is frequent maintenance. 2. However. (II) Evolving faults.sayedsaad.www.com However.com The small oil volume breakers have distinct advantage over the air blast breakers under the following conditions: 1 . low oil content breakers have been designed and constructed for rapid reclosing duties by established makers of this class of breakers. exhausting the highly ionized gaseous mass.Kilometric faults.sayedsaad. the jet of oil causes the dielectric strength to be rapidly increased. For this very reason doubt was expressed about the ability of these breakers for rapid reclosing duty. considered at disadvantage are: (I) Switch unloaded lines. This is because the oil Circuit Breakers are much less sensitive to the natural frequency of the restricting voltage. this allows a second break to occur with complete safety at the full short circuit current.

button 88 – on push – button 235 . before natural zero. Restricting voltage 1 – Circuit Breaker pole 2 – Mechanism housing 2a – cover of mechanism housing 3 – Pole head 4 – Pole cylinder 5 – Crank housing 6 – Upper main terminal 13 – Bottom main terminal 22 – Vent housing 23 – 0il level indicator 39a – square on charging shaft 47 – Spring condition indicator 82 – off push . is not serious in this class of breakers as the arc extinguishing Energy is always proportional to the broken current.The current chopping phenomenon which causes over voltages.

causing unduly high voltages. Performance is claimed to be immune to pollution because of interrupters being hermetically sealed. 236 . (7) When the contacts separate. Certain minimum current is necessary to maintain the metal vapor arc discharge. Further the arc voltage developed in vacuum interrupter is low (say between 20 to 200 V) due to high conductivity of metal vapor plasma. The rapid build up of the dielectric strength in the break enables the arc to be safely extinguished even if contact separation occurs immediately prior to current zero the maximum arcing time for the last pole to clear is stated to be 15 ms. marketed by M/s Driescher Picnicker Madras is shown is Fig.sayedsaad. For there reasons the arc energy developed in the break is very small. www.com The arc is then extinguished and the conductive metal vapor condenses on the metal surfaces within a matter of microseconds. as may happen during interruption of no load magnetizing currents of unloaded Transformers. the dielectric strength in the break builds up very rapidly. The self generated field causes the arc root to travel. blown up view of which is given in Fig.com Current of a lesser value is chopped prior to current zero. www.com Fig (5) Small Oil Volume Breaker type OD4 makes BBC Vacuum Circuit Breaker Sectional view of a Vacuum Circuit Breaker. thereby preventing local overheating when large currents are being interrupted.98 – Circuit Breaker indicator 99 – Operation counter 119 – Lifting hole for transport www. As a result.sayedsaad. the current to be interrupted initiates a metal vapor arc discharge and flows through this plasma until the next current zero. (6) the most important part is the vacuum interrupter. High Switching life is claimed on this account.sayedsaad.

The manufacturing range of M/s Driescher Panicker covers Vacuum Circuit Breakers up to rated voltage of 36 kV.Operating rod.com 7 .com Fig (6) 1 .Locking cam. 10 .Vacuum Interrupter 2 .sayedsaad. www. 12 . 8 . where the Switching frequency is high combined with high degree of pollution.operating corn . 9 .Loading spring. Vacuum Circuit Breakers are specially suited in industrial applications. 237 .Making spring . 13 .Main link.Terminal 3 .Common operating shifts . 6 .Tie bar.Flexible connection .sayedsaad.Breaking spring. www. 5 .Support insulators. 11 . 4 .

fastening nuts 6.2 burn-off indicator 10.Front pull strap 8.upper contact support 4.1 transmission lever 10.upper connection 3.3 actuation crank 238 .contact Switch with toroidal contact Lower contact support Consisting of :10.cast resin post insulator 2.Fig (7) 1.5.vacuum Switching chamber 9.Rear pull strap 7.

Gas tight enclosure 2 .sayedsaad.Terminal box 3 .com The number and ratings of the cores are adapted according to customer requirements. Current Transformer (Make ABB) 1 .4 actuation lever 10.5 telescope rod with contact spring 11 hook stick Fig (8) Construction of the Switch pole type VA. The central main conductor forms the primary winding a second cylindrical enclosure. Between the cores and the conductor.Secondary winding www. www.com 239 . separates the cores from the SF6 thus preventing any risk of leakage from the LV terminals.sayedsaad. VXC Current Transformer Current Transformers comprise air insulated cores mounted inside a cylindrical enclosure.10. Current Transformers can be installed on either or both sides of the circuit-breakers and at the ends of outgoing circuits.

1) can be mounted either vertical or horizontal. Voltage Transformer Voltage Transformers are induction type and are contained in their own SF6 compartment. 3. Capacitor Voltage Transformers are also employed. Capacitor Voltage Transformer In Switchgear for voltage above 300 kV.Current Transformer (Make Alostom) 1.Secondary winding. Provision is made for up to two secondary windings for measurement and an additional open delta winding for earth fault detection. For 300 kV and above. The Transformers are equipped with two metering windings and one tertiary winding for earth-fault protection. The primary winding (2) surround the core on which the secondary windings (1) are also wound. The Transformers can be installed Any where on the substation. The active portion consists of a rectangular core. Two systems are available: . They are connected to the Switchgear with the standardized connecting flange via a barrier insulator.Transformers with high capacitance connected to an intermediate Transformer.Main conductor.Shunt Insulating . The high-voltage connection to the GIS is made through a barrier insulator. The low-voltage choke and the intermediate Voltage Transformer are housed separately in a cabinet on the earth potential side. 240 . 2. The connection between the secondary winding and the terminals in the external terminal box is made through a gas tight multiple bushing. The single-pole inductive type Voltage Transformers (Fig. Capacitive Voltage Transformers are preferred Inductive type Voltage Transformer. The oil-insulated capacitor of conventional design is accommodated in an enclosure filled with SF6 gas. Voltage Transformer Module For rated voltage up to 145 kV inductive Transformer with cast resin coil For rated voltage of 245 kV inductive VT with SF6 gas as main insulation. upon which are placed the secondary windings and the high voltage winding. separated from the other parts of the installation. The primary winding is insulated with SF6 gas and connected to the HV. A synthetic film separates the different wraps of the windings. by a flexible connection.

There can be three types of Earthing witches in metal-clad Switches manually operated automatic high speed Earthing Switch.High Speed Earthing Switches.Support insulator 5 .Primary winding 3 .. protective Earthing Switch for Earthing the installation. These are single pole or three pole units. 2 .Terminal box 4 . 1) Voltage Transformer (Make ABB) Earthing Switch Earthing Switch is necessary to earth the conducting parts before maintenance and also to provide deliberate short-current while testing.Density Switch (Fig.Safety diaphragm 7 . connected to an electronic 1 . manually operating mechanism with a provision of filling motor mechanism. These are operated by spring energy.Secondary winding 2 .Maintenance Earthing Switches. Spring is charged by motor-mechanism 241 . There are several versions of Earthing Switches for following applications 1 .Filling valve 6 .Transformers with a low capacitance accommodated in the current Transformer or in a separate housing.

Moving contact 2.Position indicator 242 .Operating lever 3.Fig (1) Fig (2) the one pole Earthing Switch Closed position Earthing Switch: 1.

During normal operation the insulation is bypassed by a short-circuit-proof link. 243 .) high speed Earthing Switch are employed. This additional safety device reduces the risk of closing onto a live conductor. For Earthing isolated sections of Switchgear for protection of personal during maintenance and over-hauls or erection. without having to open the enclosure. the Earthing Switch can be equipped with a capacitive tap for connecting a voltage test unit. These are suitable for interrupting capacitive and inductive currents from parallel overhead lines. Depending on the substation scheme. the maintenance Earthing Switches are employed. Disconnector switch Isolating Switches are normally Switched only when not on load but they may also interrupt the no load current of small Transformers as well as disconnect short pieces of overhead lines or cables. To check whether a point to be earthed really is dead. such as testing the current Transformer of measuring the operating time of breakers. (1) Earthing Switch has to satisfy various requirements. overhead line etc. Earthing Switches are fitted to the enclosure with interposed insulation. In certain cases. This enables various tests to be performed on the Switchgear or item of equipment.Open position The earth Switch is mounted direct on the enclosure Fig. For Earthing higher capacitances (cables. the Bus-Bars may be earthed either by maintenance or high-speed Earthing Switches. Special high speed Earthing Switches with interrupting capability are also available.

Drive insulator 7 . and very short lengths of cable.Disconnector Switch.Coupling contact 5 .Moving earthing contact 6 .On Load Isolator is an isolator which is operated in a circuit where there is a parallel path of low impedance so that no significant change in the voltage across the terminals of each pole occurs when it is operated.Support insulator 2 .Moving contact 4 .Off Load Isolator is an isolator which is operated in a circuit either when the isolator is already disconnected from all sources of supply or when the isolator is already disconnected from the supply and the current may be due to capacitance currents of bushings. 2 . 244 . 1 .Arcing contact The BS: 3078-1959 on isolators distinguishes between “off load” and “on load” isolator as under: 1 .Fixed contact 3 . Bus-Bar connections.

Normal current (for Disconnector only) The rated normal current of an isolator or an earthing Switch should have one of the following Standard values: 200 A. 1600 A. 2000 A. given below: 3.moving contact 4.Frequency Rated frequency should be 50 Hz in Kuwait. 4 . 245. 6.5. 145. 24. The rated voltage of an isolator or an earthing Switch shall be one of the highest system voltages. 2 .fixed contact 3. 123.driving insulator To ensure that the off load isolators are not operated inadvertently under load it is necessary that the isolators are suitably interlocked with the connected breakers. 7. RATINGS AND THEIR SELECTION An isolator may be constructed single pole or three poles and shall be rated in terms of: 1 . 5 . 2500 A. c) Transformer isolating. The rated insulation level should be selected from standard Tables according To IS: 9921 3 . 300 and 420 kV. 5000 A and 4000 A.2. Isolating Switches can broadly be divided into the three categories given ahead. b) Line isolator.earthing Switch 5. 400 A.Voltage.Short time withstand current 245 . 36. 630 A (alternatively 800 Amps).supporting insulator 2. 72. 1250 A. a) Bus isolator.Insulation level. 12. 3150 A.Disconnector: 1.

8 . the reader may refer to IS: 9921 (Part II)-1982. unless directly associated with and protected by a fuse or by a Circuit Breaker fitted with series releases or current Transformer operated releases when it need not be assigned a short time rating. 10 .The rated short-time withstands current of a Disconnector or earthing Switch should have one of the following values: 8.Supply frequency of closing and opening devices and of auxiliary circuits. any current upto and including their short circuit making current. 11 .Supply voltage closing and opening devices (where these operating devices are supplied separately) of auxiliary circuits. 50. 25. should not be less than the short circuit current at the point of installation or the corresponding ratings of the associated Circuit Breaker. upto and including that corresponding to their rated voltage. The rated supply frequency of an operating device or an auxiliary circuit is the frequency at which the conditions of operation and heating are determined. unless otherwise specified. peak power And total duration of operations.Pressure of compressed gas supply for operation. 20.Contact zone Divided frame Disconnector and earthing Switches shall be able to operate within the limits of their rated contact zone. 9 . plus wind loads acting on the equipment itself. 31. 10. shall be assumed to be in accordance with the formula: t = constant 7 . 13 . 16.5. I2X 246 . 63. volts 24 110 Single phase 48 240 Single phase 110 240 /415 three phases 220 The operating device shall be capable of closing and opening the isolator at any value of the supply voltage between 85 percent and 110 percent of the rated voltage. where assigned.5 times the rated short time withstand current. 80 or 100 KA. 6 .Duration of short circuit The short time current rating of an isolator. 12.Mechanical terminal load Disconnector and Earthing Switches should be able to close and open whilst subject to their rated mechanical terminal loads. For short circuit duration greater than one second. Volts AC. The rated supply voltage shall preferably be one of the standard values given below: DC. the relation between current (I) and time (t).Peak withstand current The rated peak withstand current of a Disconnector or earthing Switch is that peak current which it shall be able to carry in the closed position without material deterioration. For examples of rated contact zones. The rated maximum duration of short circuit is one second. It shall have a value 2. 40.Short circuit making current (for earthing Switches only) The earthing Switches to which a rated short circuit making current has been assigned shall be capable of making at any applied voltage.5. 12 .

Operation test 4.Lightning Impulse Voltage Tests 2 . 3.Artificial Pollution Tests.Partial Discharge Tests. 1600. B) Routine Tests The following shall comprise routine tests: 1. can be connected. 2000 or 3900 kPa. The pneumatic operating device shall be capable of closing and opening the isolator when the air pressure is between 85 percent and 105 percent of the rated supply pressure. if installed and preferably have one of the following standard values: 500.Switching Impulse Voltage Tests for rated 3 .Dielectric Tests Comprising Of. Cable connection All cables. 6. 2-Voltage Test on Auxiliary Equipment. in parallel with closing of the cable earth Switch. Type Tests laid down in IS: 9921(part 4)-1985 A) Normal Type Tests . 1000.Tests on Auxiliary and Control Circuits. in accordance with the IEC 859 standard commonly used.Power Frequency Voltage Tests.Safety is fully ensured by earthing of the cable Side through access (3).The rated pressure should correspond to the operating pressure of the associated air blast Circuit Breakers.Power Frequency Voltage Test. 247 . 1 . TESTS 1. Isolation of the Switchgear from the high voltage cables during dielectric testing is achieved by removing the contact (1) and the conductor (2).Measurement of the Resistance of the Main Circuit. 4 . The cable sealing end is fixed inside the SF6 gas Filled compartment. 5 . irrespective of their type of insulation (oil impregnated paper or XLPE) and section.

sayedsaad.Removable conductor. ‫ محول جهد‬www.com Drawing Component of SF6 Gas Insulated Feeder bay 1 – High Speed Earth Switche (Line Earth Switch).com 8 – CT's For Line protection and metering. ‫خلية مغذى‬ 2 – Transformer Bay.Removable contact's 2 . ‫سكينة تأريض‬ 248 . ‫سكينة تأريض‬ 6 – CT's For Bus-Bar protection. 4 .com 4 – Line Isolator. ‫خلية رابط قضبان طولى‬ 4 – Bus coupler Bay.High voltage Types of Bays SF6 Gas Insulated Switchgear.com 3 – Bus section Bay.Connection to Transformer 1 – Removable contact's 2 – Removable conductor. 3 . (Disconnector Switch) ‫سكينة عزل المغذى‬ 5 – Maintenance Earth Switches. 4 – Bushing. 3 – Expansion bellows.sayedsaad.Gas tight bushing. ‫سكينة تأريض مغذى‬ 2 – Isolator for Voltage Transformer. ‫سكينة محول جهد‬ 3 – Voltage Transformer. ‫محول تيار المغذى و أجهزة القياس‬ 9 – Maintenance Earth Switches. 1 – Feeder Bay. ‫خلية رابط قضبان عرضى‬ www. SF6 Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIs) Cable connection box 1 . ‫ خلية محول‬www.sayedsaad.sayedsaad. ‫ قاطع الدائرة‬www. ‫محول تيار لحماية البسبار‬ 7 – Circuit Breaker. 5 .Access for Earthing rod.

‫سكينة عزل المحول‬ 249 . ‫سكينة تأريض‬ 3 – CT's For Transformer protection.sayedsaad.10 – Bus-Bar Isolator ‫سكينة عزل البسبار‬ www. ‫ قاطع الدائرة‬www. ‫سكينة تأريض‬ 7 – Transformer Isolator.com Drawing ‫ خلية مغذى‬Feeder Bay Component of SF6 Gas Insulated Transformer bay 1 – Bus-Bar Isolator.com 5 – CT's for Bus-Bar protection and metering. ‫محول تيار لحماية البسبار و أجهزة القياس‬ 6 – Maintenance Earth Switches. ‫محول تيار لجهزة وقاية المحول‬ 4 – Circuit Breaker. (Disconnector Switch) ‫سكينة عزل البسبار‬ 2 – Maintenance Earth Switches.sayedsaad.

(Transformer E.8 – Maintenance Earth Switches.S) ‫سكينة تأريض المحول‬ Drawing ‫ خلية محول‬Transformer Bay 250 .

Component of SF6 Gas Insulated Bus section bay 1 – Bus-Bar Isolator.com Drawing ‫ خلية رابط قضبان طولى‬Bus Section bay Component of SF6 Gas Insulated Bus coupler bay 1 – Bus-Bar Isolator. ‫سكينة عزل البسبار‬ Drawing ‫ خلية رابط قضبان‬Bus coupler bay 251 . ‫محول تيار لحماية البسبار و أجهزة القياس‬ 4 – Circuit Breaker. ‫سكينة تأريض‬ 3 – CT's For Bus-Bar protection and metering. ‫سكينة تأريض‬ www. ‫قاطع الدائرة‬ 5 – Maintenance Earth Switches. ‫قاطع الدائرة‬ 6 – Maintenance Earth Switches.sayedsaad. (Disconnector Switch) ‫سكينة عزل البسبار‬ 2 – Maintenance Earth Switches. ‫سكينة تأريض‬ 3 – CT's For Bus-Bar protection and metering. (Disconnector Switch) ‫سكينة عزل البسبار‬ 2 – Maintenance Earth Switches. ‫سكينة تأريض‬ 7 – Bus-Bar Isolator. ‫محول تيار لحماية البسبار و أجهزة القياس‬ 4 – Circuit Breaker.

Distribution Feeders and Transformers. Quantities available for measurement 3. Restricted E/F 4. Non-Directional 2. Bus-bars. Types of fault and abnormal Conditions to be protected against 2. VT’s.DIFFERENTIAL For feeders. Types of protection available 4.Important considerations when design protection system Important considerations when design protection system 1.Fuses For LV Systems. Biased 252 . Low Impedance 3. Generators etc 1. Speed 5. High Impedance 2. Fault position discrimination 6. Auxiliary supplies 12. Overlap of protections 9. Dependability / reliability 7.Over current and earth fault Widely used in All Power Systems 1. Duplication of protection Types of protection A . CT’s and VT’s ratio required 11. Cost 14. Phase discrimination / selectivity 10. Security / stability 8. Transformers. Auxiliary Supplies B . Directional C . Back-up protection 13.

motors etc. 5.Distance For transmission and sub-transmission lines and distribution feeders. Load Switching 2. Faults on other parts of the system 3. 8. Recoverable Power Swings 253 .g. Under and over frequency 3. 2.Miscellaneous: 1. differential protection with digital signaling 3.5. also used as back-up protection for transformers and generators without signaling with signaling to provide unit protection e. differential protection 2. 4. Examples: 1. Protection must operate even after years of inactivity Improved by use of: 1. tap change control. Back-up Protection and 2. transformers. Pilot Wire D . distance protection with signaling 4.g. Time-stepped distance protection Permissive underreach protection (PUP) Permissive overreach protection (POP) Unblocking overreach protection (UOP) Blocking overreach protection (BOP) Power swing blocking Phase comparison for transmission lines Directional comparison for transmission lines E . 5. directional comparison with signaling Fault position discrimination Power system divided into protected zones must isolate only the faulty equipment or section Dependability / reliability Protection must operate when required to Failure to operate can be extremely damaging and disruptive Faults are rare.: 1. 6. 7. tripping and auxiliary relays Speed Fast operation: minimizes damage and danger Very fast operation: minimizes system instability discrimination and security can be costly to achieve. etc. Control relays: auto-reclose. due to: 1. duplicate Protection Security / Stability Protection must not operate when not required to e. 4. A special relay for generators. Under and over voltage 2. 3.

250. Refer to relay documentation for details of operative range. Current Transformer Standards/Classes: British Standards: 10P. phase comparison and differential protections. This is a function of the system X/R ratio. provide for overlap of protections. 24. Busbar VT’s: Special consideration needed when used for Line Protection. • Separately fused supplies used for each protection. 1A and 5A secondary current ratings. In particular for directional. TPZ American: C. Auxiliary supplies Required for: 1. Location of CTs should. the rated value is marked on the relay. X IEC: 10P. Relays are given a rated auxiliary voltage and an operative auxiliary voltage range. TPY. Current transformers for fast operating protections must allow for any offset in the current waveform. Tripping circuit breakers 2. No blind spots 2. Protection and trip relays • AC. it is important to make sure that the range of voltages which can appear at the relay auxiliary supply terminals is within the operative range. auxiliary supplies are more secure than ac supplies. auxiliary supplies are only used on LV and MV systems. • DC. component ripple in the dc supply: <10% of voltage rated 254 . Correct connection of CTs to the protection is important. SP. if possible. T. Saturation of current transformers during heavy fault conditions should not exceed the limits laid down by the relay manufacturer. • During operation. Where possible use overlapping CTs Phase discrimination / selectivity Correct indication of phases involved in the fault Important for Single Phase Tripping and auto-Reclosing applications Current and voltage transformers These are an essential part of the Protection Scheme. IEC recommended values (IEC 255-6): Rated battery voltages: 12. 5P.Overlap of protections 1. VT’s may be Electromagnetic or Capacitor types. they draw a large current which increases due to operation of output elements. distance. Closing circuit breakers 3. TPX. 125. • Duplicate batteries are occasionally provided for extra security. Output rating under fault conditions must allow for maximum transient offset. They must be suitably specified to meet the requirements of the protective relays. 60. • Modern protection relays need a continuous auxiliary supply. 220. 48. 440 Preferred operative range of relays: 80 to 10% of voltage rated AC. 11 0.

4. Sensitivity: Degree of risk in allowing a low level fault to develop into a more severe fault 4. schemes and associated panels and panel wiring 2. Emphasis is on technical considerations rather than economics 2. Reliability Total cost should take account of: 1. the consequences of maloperation or failure to operate are less serious than for transmission systems. CT’s and VT’s 5. and loss of supply and customer goodwill. transformers and feeders. Duplicate protections used to improve reliability 7.statutory safety regulations 4. Single phase tripping and auto-reclose may be required to maintain system stability 255 . Security/Stability 3.COST The cost of protection is equivalent to insurance policy against damage to plant. fully discriminative high speed protection 3. High speed protection requires unit protection 6. Protection may be the minimum consistent with . 2. Commissioning 4. Higher protection costs justifiable by high capital cost of power system elements protected. Damage repair if protection fails to operate 7. Minimum cost: Must ensure that all faulty equipment is isolated by protection Other factors: 1. Transmission systems 1. Lost revenue if protection operates unnecessarily Distribution systems 1. Cost of protection should be balanced against the cost of potential hazards there is an economic limit on what can be spent. Setting studies 3. Economics cannot be ignored but is of secondary importance compared with the need for highly reliable. Acceptable cost is based on a balance of economics and technical factors. Risk of security of supply should be reduced to the lowest practical levels 5. Relays. Maintenance and repairs to relays 6. Large number of switching and distribution points. Economics often overrides technical issues 3. Back-up protection can be simple and is often inherent in the main protection. Speed 2. Although important. 6. Speed less important than on transmission systems 5.

which is shown in Figure 1. regardless of cost. 256 . and the necessity of achieving sufficient reliability. high reliability should not be pursued as an end in itself. it is instructive to look at the relationship between the reliability of a system and its cost and value to the consumer. It is important to realize that the system is viable only between the cross-over points A and B. increasing the spare capacity margin and arranging alternative circuits to supply loads. its cost and value to the consumer. taking all factors into account. but should rather be balanced against economy. each controlled by switchgear in association with protective gear. provides flexibility during normal operation and ensures a minimum of dislocation following a breakdown. The diagram illustrates the significance of reliability in system design. Subdivision of the system into zones. Figure 1 Relationship between reliability of supply. On the other hand. Security of supply can be bettered by improving plant design. As these two requirements are largely opposed.Basic of protection system Introduction The purpose of an electrical power generation system is to distribute energy to a multiplicity of points for diverse applications. The system should be designed and managed to deliver this energy to the utilization points with both reliability and economy.

C. particularly to machine and transformer windings. the chance of a fault occurring and the disturbance that a fault would bring are both so great that without equipment to remove faults the system will become. can cause fire at the fault location. The risk of a fault occurring. designed according to the characteristics and requirements of the power system. Relays are extensively used for major protective functions. as any fault produces repercussions throughout the net-work. however slight for each item. The object of the system will be defeated if adequate provision for fault clearance is not made. For this reason it is necessary not only to provide a supply of energy which is attractive to prospective users by operating the system within the range AB (Figure 1. Fundamentals of protection practice This is a collective term which covers all the equipment used for detecting. In general.C. and A. the system must be loaded as much as possible. shunts. as are also common services. and mechanical damage throughout the system. inoperable. and earn the most. Nor is the installation of switchgear alone sufficient.The greatest threat to a secure supply is the shunt fault or short circuit. the main switchgear. although fundamentally protective in its function. When the system is large. Rapid isolation of the fault by the nearest switch-gear will minimize the damage and disruption caused to the system. A system is not properly designed and managed if it is not adequately protected. Absolute freedom from failure of the plant and system network cannot be guaranteed. wiring and any other devices relating to the protective relays. D. 257 . but also to keep the system in full operation as far as possible continuously. is multiplied by the number of such items which are closely associated in an extensive system. so that it may give the best service to the consumer. To maximize the return on this outlay.C. In addition to relays the term includes all accessories such as current and voltage transformers. discriminative protective gear. must be provided to control the switchgear. accompanied by the localized release of a considerable quantity of energy. The large current which then flows.1). This is the measure of the importance of protective systems in modern practice and of the responsibility vested in the protection engineer. in practical terms. trips and fuses. is excluded from the term 'protective gear'. Revenue for the supply authority. But the term also covers directacting A. A power system represents a very large capital investment. locating and initiating the removal of a fault from the power system. which imposes a sudden and sometimes violent change on system operation.

Comprehensive testing is just as important. it is necessary to test the complete assembly of relays. which are only readily expressible by mathematical or graphical means. Testing is therefore necessary. Each individual protective arrangement is known as a 'protection system'. Design This is of the highest importance.such as the station battery and any other equipment required to secure operation of the circuit breaker. it has been necessary to develop many types of relay which respond to various functions of the power system quantities. Protection performance 1. Reliability The need for a high degree of reliability is discussed in Section 1. and this testing should cover all aspects of the protection. The nature of the power system condition which is being guarded against must be thoroughly understood in order to make an adequate design. observation simply of the magnitude of the fault current suffices in some cases but measurement of power or impedance may be necessary in others. Use is then made of a combination of different types of relay which individually protect against different risks. operating conditions and construction features of power systems. Incorrect design. Incorrect installation. and the tests must simulate fault conditions realistically. these tests must be directed to proving the installation. which should be limited to such simple and direct tests as will prove the correctness of the connections and freedom from damage of the equipment. b. c. Incorrect operation can be attributed to one of the following classifications: a. For example. Installation. Relays frequently measure complex functions of the system quantities. In order to fulfil the requirements of discriminative protection with the optimum speed for the many different configurations. current transformers and other ancillary items. Difficult the checking of such correctness. The need for correct installation of protective equipment is obvious. For many protective systems. but the complexity of the interconnections of many systems and their relation-ship to the remainder of the station may make. No attempt should be made to 'type test' the equipment or to establish complex aspects of its technical performance. d. Deterioration. while the whole coordinated combination of relays is called a 'protection scheme'. since it will be difficult to reproduce all fault conditions correctly. . This is the function of site testing. as well as reproducing operational and environmental conditions as closely as possible. 258 2. In many cases it is not feasible to protect against all hazards with any one relay.

a test plug can be inserted between the relay and case contacts giving access to all relay input circuits for injection. contacts may become rough or burnt owing to frequent operation. A very big step. auxiliary components may fail. coils and other circuits may be open-circuited. mistakes in correct restoration of connections can be avoided by using identity tags on leads and terminals. One of the particular difficulties of protective relays is that the time between operations may be measured in years. If the risk of 259 . This principle of assessment gives an accurate evaluation of the protection of the system as a whole. Testing should be carried out without disturbing permanent connections. clip-on leads for injection supplies. Deterioration in service. in that many relays are called into operation for each system fault. a performance of 94 % is obtainable by standard techniques. can be taken by providing duplication of equipment or 'redundancy'. The percentage of correct clearances can then be determined.3. On this basis. such arrangements are commonly applied to circuit breaker trip circuits and to pilot circuits. relays should be given simple basic tests at suitable intervals in order to check that their ability to operate has not deteriorated. and all must behave correctly for a correct clearance to be recorded. Complete reliability is unlikely ever to be achieved by further improvements in construction. The quality of testing personnel is an essential feature when assessing reliability and considering means for improvement. or tarnished owing to atmospheric contamination. in time. Important circuits which are especially vulnerable can be provided with continuous electrical super-vision. When temporary disconnection of panel wiring is necessary. Draw-out relays inherently provide this facility. 4. Protection performance The performance of the protection applied to large power systems is frequently assessed numerically. and easily visible double-ended clip-on leads where 'jumper connections' are required. however. and mechanical parts may become clogged with dirt or corroded to an extent that may interfere with movement. This can be achieved by the provision of test blocks or switches. For this reason. For this purpose each system fault is classed as an incident and those which are cleared by the tripping of the correct circuit breakers and only those are classed as 'correct'. Staff must be technically competent and adequately trained. during which period defects may have developed unnoticed until revealed by the failure of the protection to respond to a power system fault. deterioration may take place which. but it is severe in its judgment of relay performance. as well as self-disciplined to proceed in a deliberate manner. For example. in which each step taken and quantity measured is checked before final acceptance. Two complete sets of equipment are provided. After a piece of equipment has been installed in perfect condition. and arranged so that either by itself can carry out the required function. could interfere with correct functioning.

which should cover the power system completely. Unit systems. will reduce the overall performance to a certain extent. a 'one-out-of-two' arrangement. 260 . Such schemes have already been used to a limited extent and application of the principle will undoubtedly increase. The former arrangement guards against unwanted operation. a protection performance of 99. It has long been the practice to apply duplicate protective systems to busbars. is x2. In other cases. leaving no part unprotected.98 % should be attainable. When a fault occurs the protection is required to select and trip only the nearest circuit breakers. can be relatively fast in operation. Time graded systems. the latter against failure to operate. either being able to trip independently. allowing for redundancy. Probability theory suggests that if a power network were protected throughout on this basis. that is. for instance. Protection is arranged in zones. the resultant risk. such as. The others make incomplete operations and then reset. Certain protective systems derive their 'restricted' property from the configuration of the power system and may also be classed as unit protection. Unit protection is usually achieved by means of a comparison of quantities at the boundaries of the zone. 2. Selectivity. a 'two-out-of-two' arrangement. Protective systems in successive zones are arranged to operate in times which are graded through the sequence of equipments so that upon the occurrence of a fault. both being required to operate to complete a tripping operation. common current transformers or tripping batteries. This performance figure requires that the separate protection systems be completely independent. This 'unit protection' or 'restricted Protection' can be applied throughout a power system and. It is possible to design protective systems which respond only to fault conditions lying within a clearly defined zone. only those relevant to the faulty zone complete the tripping function. any common factors. Whichever method is used. since it does not involve time grading. Where x is small the resultant risk (x2) may be negligible. although a number of protective equipments respond. important circuits have been provided with duplicate main protection schemes. that is. This property of selective tripping is also called 'discrimination' and is achieved by two general methods: 1.an equipment failing is x/unit. These two features can be obtained together by adopting a 'two-out-ofthree' arrangement in which three basic systems are used and are interconnected so that the operation of any two will complete the tripping function. it must be kept in mind that selectivity is not merely a matter of relay design.

maximum load current. For practical physical reasons. accommodation for current trans-formers being in some cases available only on one side of the circuit breakers. system impedances and so on. Location of current transformers on both sides of the circuit breaker. Zones of protection Ideally. the zones of protection should overlap across the circuit breaker as shown in Figure 2. this ideal is not always achieved. taking into account the possible range of such variables as fault currents. This leaves a section between the current transformers and the circuit breaker A within which a fault is not cleared by the operation of the protection that responds. where appropriate. 261 . Figure 2. In Figure 3 a fault at F would cause the bus-bar protection to operate and open the circuit breaker but the fault would continue to be fed through the feeder.It is a function of the correct co-ordination of current transformers and relays with a suitable choice of relay settings. as in Figure 3. the circuit breaker being included in both zones.

The feeder protection. The point of connection of the protection with the power system usually defines the zone and corresponds to the location of the current transformers. in which case the boundary will be a clearly 262 . although by restricting this operation to occasions when the bus-bar protection is operated the time delay can be reduced. A time delay is incurred in fault clearance. if of the unit type. to operate when opening the circuit breaker does not fully interrupt the flow of fault current. With by some form of zone extension. since the fault is outside its zone. The protection may be of the unit type. This problem is dealt. would not operate.Figure 3 Location of current transformers on circuit side of the circuit breaker. Figure 4 Overlapping zones of protection systems.

the zone may be unrestricted. Loading the system produces phase displacements between the voltages at different points and therefore increases the probability that synchronism will be lost when the system is disturbed by a fault.5 shows typical relations between system loading and fault clearance times for various types of fault. the greater can be the loading of the system. The function of automatic protection is to isolate faults from the power system in a very much shorter time than could be achieved manually. refers to the ability of the system to remain inert to all load conditions and faults external to the relevant zone. The shorter the time a fault is allowed to remain in the system. This term. The object is to safeguard continuity of supply by removing each disturbance before it leads to widespread loss of synchronism.defined and closed loop. The destructive power of a fault arc carrying a high current is very great. It will be noted that phase faults have a more marked effect on the stability of the system than does a simple earth fault and therefore require faster clearance. Alternatively. Speed. applied to protection as distinct from power networks. Figure 1. owing to changes in system conditions and measurement errors. Figure 4 illustrates a typical arrangement of overlapping zones. even with a great deal of personal supervision. the term 'discrimination' is the equivalent expression applicable to non-unit systems. which would necessitate the shutting down of plant. unnecessary consequential damage must also be avoided. the start will be defined but the extent will depend on measurement of the system quantities and will therefore be subject to variation. heavy fault currents can cause damage to plant if they continue for more than a few seconds 263 . It is essentially a term which is applicable to unit systems. Even away from the fault arc itself. It is not enough to maintain stability. Stability. it can burn through copper conductors or weld together core laminations in a transformer or machine in a very short time.

it does not refer to a current or voltage setting but to the volt-ampere consumption at the minimum operating current. A protective system is said to be sensitive if the primary operating current is low. For D. relays the VA input also represents power consumption. Primary and back-up protection The reliability of a power system has been discussed in earlier sections. Many factors may cause protection failure and there is always some possibility of a circuit breaker failure. but generating plant and EHV systems require protective gear of the highest attainable speed. speed. For this reason. and so also of the sensitivity. When the term is applied to an individual relay. Relay power factor has some significance in the matter of transient performance. This is the true measure of the input requirements of the relay. the only limiting factor will be the necessity for correct operation. For this reason. distribution circuits for which the requirements for fast operation are not very severe are usually protected by time-graded systems. A given type of relay element can usually be wound for a wide range of setting currents.Figure 5 Typical values of power that can be transmitted as a function of fault clearance time. so that the volt-ampere product at any setting is constant. it is usual to supplement primary protection with other systems to 'back-up' the operation of the main system and 264 .C. the coil will have an impedance which is inversely proportional to the square of the setting current value. however. It will be seen that protective gear must operate as quickly as possible. and the burden is therefore frequently quoted in watts. must be weighed against economy. Sensitivity Sensitivity is a term frequently used when referring to the minimum operating current of a complete protective system.

even as a backup protection. not even possible. one more section is isolated than is desirable but this is inevitable in the event of the failure of a circuit breaker. the next relay in the grading sequence will complete its operation and trip the associated circuit breaker. automatic back-up protection is not obtained. supplies would be duplicated. at best. all other connections to the bus bar section are interrupted. local back-up. For the most important circuits the performance may not be good enough. and confines the tripping operation to the one station. For distribution systems where fault clearance Times are not critical. Ideal back-up protection would be completely independent of the main protection. Such back-up protection is inherently slower than the main protection and. or separately by means of additional equipment. time delayed cover. trip coils and D. This provides the required back-up protection with the minimum of time delay. as described above. Back-up protection may be obtained automatically as an inherent feature of the main protection scheme. Breaker fail protection can be obtained by checking that fault current ceases within a brief time interval from the operation of the main protection. where system stability is at risk unless a fault is cleared quickly. as compared with the alternative of tripping the remote ends of all the relevant circuits. Current trans-formers. The extent and type of back-up protection which is applied will naturally be related to the failure risks and relative economic importance of the system. The following compromises are typical: 265 . may be less discriminative. the condition being necessarily treated as a bus bar fault. In these cases duplicate high speed protective systems may be installed. This ideal is rarely attained in practice. should be chosen. owing to the effect of multiple infeeds. or.C. voltage transformers. which will provide local back-up cover if the main protective relays have failed. If the power system is protected mainly by unit schemes. These provide excellent mutual back-up cover against failure of the protective equipment. the above operation will be repeated so that all parallel infeeds are tripped. the faulty section is normally isolated discriminatively by the time grading. depending on the power system configuration. Where the system interconnection is more complex. but either no remote back-up protection against circuit breaker failure or. If this does not occur.ensure that nothing can prevent the clearance of a fault from the system. time delayed remote back-up protection is adequate but for EHV systems. and will trip further back in the event of circuit breaker failure. thereby interrupting the fault circuit one section further back. but if the appropriate relay fails or the circuit breaker fails to trip. and it is then normal to supplement the main protection with time graded over current protection. auxiliary tripping relays. In this way complete back-up cover is obtained. in some cases. Time graded schemes such as over current or distance protection schemes are examples of those providing inherent back-up protection.

as this involves little extra cost or accommodation compared with the use of common current transformers which would have to be larger because of the combined burden. or by introducing time delays. Duplication of tripping batteries and of tripping coils on circuit breakers is sometimes provided. A relay in which the characteristics are modified by the introduction of some quantity other than the actuating quantity. or to deal with faults in those parts of the power system that are not readily included in the operating zones of the main protection. and which is usually in opposition to the actuating quantity. 2. d. by modifying contact performance for example. c. Auxiliary relay. Trip supplies to the two protections should be separately fused. 5. so that unusual events that may cause failure of the one will be less likely to affect the other. It is desirable that the main and back-up protections (or duplicate main protections) should operate on different principles.C) for a given condition.a. which may be either at 'setting' or at rated current or voltage. Definitions and Terminology 1. expressed as the product of voltage and current (volt-amperes. Burden. it is desirable that the supply to each protection should be separately fused and also continuously supervised by a relay which will give an alarm on failure of the supply and. Since security of the VT output is vital. All-or-nothing relay A relay which is not designed to have any specified accuracy as to its operating value. b. 4. 3. 266 . Biased relay. because of the voltage transformers them-selves. Separate current transformers (cores and secondary windings only) are used for each protective system. A protective system intended to supplement the main protection in case the latter should be in-effective. Back-up protection. or watts if D. where appropriate. Common voltage transformers are used because duplication would involve a considerable increase in cost. Trip circuits should be continuously supervised. The loading imposed by the circuits of the relay on the energizing power source or sources. prevent an unwanted operation of the protection. An all-or-nothing relay used to supplement the performance of another relay. and also because of the increased accommodation which would have to be provided.

A quantity. Characteristic curve. is always at rated current or voltage and it is important. current for an over current relay. Conjunctive test. Characteristic quantity. A time delay relay in which the time delay varies with the value of the energizing quantity. 11. 13. The phase angle at which the performance of the relay is declared. time for an independent time delay relay. A relay drops out when it moves from the energized position to the un-energized position. A test on a protective system including all relevant components and ancillary equipment appropriately interconnected. 267 . for which definite values are assigned to each of the parameters. 7. 8. R. The quality whereby a protective system distinguishes between those conditions for which it is intended to operate and those for which it shall not operate. Specific conjunctive test.) The maximum value of the System Impedance Ratio up to which the relay performance remains within the prescribed limits of accuracy. 6.I. 10. e. 12. It is usually the angle at which maximum sensitivity occurs. Characteristic impedance ratio (C. b. 9. Drop-out. Check protective system. expressed in VA. A test to ascertain the range of values that may be assigned to each parameter when considered in combination with other parameters. a. voltage for a voltage relay. Parametric conjunctive test. impedance for an impedance relay. Dependent time delay relay. An auxiliary protective system intended to prevent tripping due to inadvertent operation of the main protective system. A test to prove the performance for a particular application. in assessing the burden imposed by a relay. Discrimination. phase angle for a directional relay. the value of which characterizes the operation of the relay. to ensure that the value of burden at rated current is used. 14.g.The rated output of measuring transformers. Characteristic angle. The curve showing the operating value of the characteristic quantity corresponding to various values or combinations of the energizing quantities. The test may be parametric or specific. while still complying with the relevant performance requirements.

to discuss the operating time characteristics of an instantaneous relay. Inverse time delay relay with definite minimum (I. M . A dependent time delay relay having an operating time which is an inverse function of the electrical characteristic quantity. which alone or in combination with other energizing quantities. Earthing transformer. 17. Drop-out / pick ratio.) A relay in which the time delay varies inversely with the characteristic quantity up to a certain value.15. in particular those concerning precision. The effective setting can be expressed in terms of primary current or secondary current from the current transformers and is so designated as appropriate. 21. NOTE: The term 'relay' includes all the ancillary equipment calibrated with the device. 18. either current or voltage. within the above definition. 22. it is possible. 20. Effective range The range of values of the characteristic quantity or quantities. 16. The electrical quantity. 23. 268 . A time delay relay in which the time delay is independent of the energizing quantity. The ratio of the limiting values of the characteristic quantity at which the relay resets and operates. A relay which operates and resets with no intentional time delay. Instantaneous relay. Electrical relay A device designed to produce sudden predetermined changes in one or more electrical circuits after the appearance of certain conditions in the electrical circuit or circuits controlling it. T. This value is sometimes called the differential of the relay. Effective setting The 'setting' of a protective system including the effects of current transformers. Independent time delay relay. must be applied to the relay to cause it to function.D. A three-phase transformer intended essentially to provide a neutral point to a power system for the purpose of Earthing. 22. A protective system which is designed to respond only to faults to earth. NOTE: All relays require some time to operate. Energizing quantity. 21. or of the energizing quantities to which the relay will respond and satisfy the requirements concerning it. 19. Inverse time delay relay. after which the time delay becomes substantially independent. Earth fault protective system.

The curve depicting the relationship between different values of the characteristic quantity applied to a relay and the corresponding values of operating time. 28. The portion of a power system protected by a given protective system or a part of that protective system. applied to the secondary terminals of a current transformer. 27. the time which elapses between the application of a characteristic quantity and the instant when the relay operates. which. 32. including protective relays. 26. Operating value.m.f. The limiting value of the characteristic quantity at which the relay actually operates. for use in a protective system. The protective system which is normally expected to operate in response to a fault in the protected zone. 269 . Measuring relay. With a relay de-energized and in its initial condition. Notching relay.24. Pick-up. causes the exciting current to increase by 50%. Protected zone. 29. The extent to which the condition that leads to final operation is advanced after the removal of the energizing quantity. 34. Protective gear. 31. A relay intended to operate with a specified accuracy at one or more values of its characteristic quantity. 30. That sinusoidal e. A means of interconnection between relaying points for the purpose of protection. Overshoot time. Operating time.m. 35. The apparatus.f. A relay is said to 'pick-up' when it changes from the un-energized position to the energized position. 25. when increased by 10 %. 33. Operating time characteristic. Pilot channel. expressed as time at the rate of progress of the said condition appropriate to the value of the energizing quantity that was initially applied. Knee-point e. trans-formers and ancillary equipment. A relay which switches in response to a specific number of applied impulses. Main protection.

41. Setting. the disconnection of an element of a power system. A combination of protective gear designed to secure. Starting relay./. percentages of rated values. Protective scheme. in a multi-phase system. A protective relay may include more than one unit electrical relay and accessories. in a multi-phase system. Residua/ current.). The nominal value of an energizing quantity which appears in the designation of a relay. 46. in the case of a fault or other abnormal condition in the installation. Stability. 270 . The limiting value of the characteristic quantity at which the relay returns to its initial position. Protective relay. usually abnormal. Rating. A protective scheme may comprise several protective systems.R. 40. A relay designed to initiate disconnection of a part of an electrical installation or to operate a warning signal.M. The R. value of the symmetrical component of the through fault current up to which the protective system remains stable. under predetermined conditions. The algebraic sum. or multiples. of all the line-to-earth voltages. The quality whereby a protective system remains inoperative under all conditions other than those for which it is specifically designed to operate. Residua/ voltage. 47. or both. Such values are usually marked on the relay and may be expressed as direct values.36. Protective system. 39. The nominal value usually corresponds to the CT and VT secondary ratings. 37. 45. Stability limits. 38. of all the line currents. Resetting value. The limiting value of a 'characteristic' or 'energizing' quantity at which the relay is designed to operate under specified conditions. System impedance ratio (S.S. 43. A unit relay which responds to abnormal conditions and initiates the operation of other elements of the protective system. 44. The algebraic sum. or to give an alarm signal. The coordinated arrangements for the protection of one or more elements of a power system. 42.

48. modified] 271 . A protection system which has no clearly defined zone of operation and which achieves selective operation only by time grading.The ratio of the power system source impedance to the impedance of the protected zone. Time delay relay. Time delay. Through fault current. [IEC 604-02-091 3. A relay having an intentional delaying device. The current flowing through a protected zone to a fault beyond that zone. 2. A delay intentionally introduced into the operation of a relay system. Unrestricted protection. the following definitions. A protection system which is designed to operate only for abnormal conditions within a clearly defined zone of the power system. 53. Unit protection.Damage fault A fault which involves repair or replacement action at the point of the fault [IEC 604-02-08. 49.Incident An event related to an internal fault which temporarily or permanently disturbs the normal operation of an equipment [IEV 604-02-03. 50. a fault may or may not result in damage to the insulation and failure of the equipment. 51. modified] 4. IEC 60050(212) and IEC 60050(604) apply: 1.Typical examples are self-extinguishing arcs in switching equipment or general overheating without paper carbonization. 52.Fault An unplanned occurrence or defect in an item which may result in one or more failures of the item itself or of other associated equipment [IEC 604-02-011 NOTE . Unit electrical relay. A single relay which can be used alone or in combinations with others. Fault Definitions and: For the purpose of this International Standard.In electrical equipment.Non-damage fault A fault which does not involve repair or replacement action at the point of the fault NOTE . some of them based on IEC 60050(191).

for example because of metals or floating potentials. modified]. are local Dielectric breakdowns of high ionization density or small arcs. 8. It may occur inside the insulation or adjacent to a conductor [IEC 212-01-34.Failure The termination of the ability of an item to perform a required function [IEC 191-04-01] NOTE . The more specific following terms are also used: . . rupture of tank. in the conventions of physics. 272 .Partial discharge A discharge which only partially bridges the insulation between conductors. . NOTE 2 .spark over (discharge through the oil).NOTE . modified] NOTE 1 .Electrical fault a partial or disruptive discharge through the insulation. repair or replacement of the equipment. 5.puncture (discharge through the solid insulation).sparking discharges which. This term is not to be used as a general term for all forms of partial discharges. failure will result from a damage fault or incident necessitating outage. modified] NOTE 1 . is sometimes described as Partial discharge but should rather be considered as a discharge of low energy. fire or explosion.Discharges are often described as arcing.Typical examples are gas alarms. NOTE 3 .X-wax is a solid material which is formed from mineral insulating oil as a result of electrical discharges and which consists of polymerized fragments of the molecules of the original liquid [IEV 212-07-24. Comparable products may be formed from other liquids under similar conditions. 6.Discharge (disruptive) .Sparking of low energy. . breakdown or short circuits.Flashover (discharge at the surface of the solid insulation). such as internal breakdown.tracking (the progressive degradation of the surface of solid insulation by local Discharges to form conducting or partially conducting paths).In the electrical equipment. The passage of an arc following the breakdown of the insulation [IEC 604-03-38. . 7. equipment tripping or equipment leakage.Corona is a form of partial discharge that occurs in gaseous media around conductors which are remote from solid or liquid insulation.

Excessive currents circulating through the insulation (as a result of high Dielectric losses). but this term has not been used here to avoid possible misinterpretations.overheating of internal winding or bushing connection lead. depending on operating practices (load levels. eddy currents.Typical values. 10.Typical values will differ in different types of equipment and in different networks.Typical causes are . in many countries and by many users. gas concentrations normally found in the equipment in service which have no symptoms of failure. .). LIST OF DEVICE NUMBERS 2 Time delay starting or closing relay. NOTE 1 . it will be described as a discharge of low or high energy. 3 Checking or interlocking relay 21 Distance relay 25 Synchronizing or synchronism check relay 27 Under voltage relay 30 Annunciator relay 32 Directional power relay 273 . for example 10 % . . etc. and which are over passed by only an arbitrary percentage of higher gas contents.Thermal fault Excessive temperature rise in the insulation NOTE . NOTE 2 .Typical values of gas concentrations. leading to a thermal runaway. climate.Depending on the amount of energy contained in the discharge. are quoted as "normal values".NOTE 2 .Excessive currents circulating in adjacent metal parts (as a result of bad Contacts. stray losses or leakage flux). .Insufficient cooling. 9. based on the extent of damage observed on the equipment .

Contacts are shown on diagrams in the position corresponding to the un-operated or de-energized condition regardless of the continuous service condition of the equipment. directional over current relay 68 Blocking relay 74 Alarm relay 76 D. These contacts remain in the operated position after the controlling quantity is removed. a voltage b.c.37 Undercurrent or under power relay 40 Field failure relay 46 Reverse phase or phase balance current relay 49 Machine or transformer thermal relay 50 Instantaneous over current or rate-of-rise relay 51 A. returning to their original condition when it is removed. can be made to give hand reset output contacts by the use of auxiliary elements. a. The majority of protective relay elements have self-reset contact systems. 274 . circuit breaker 52a Circuit breaker auxiliary switch—normally open 52b Circuit breaker auxiliary switch—normally closed 55 Power factor relay 56 Field_application relay 59 Over voltage relay 60 Voltage or current balance relay 64 Earth fault protective relay 67 A. They can be reset either by hand or by an auxiliary electromagnetic element. Hand or electrically reset relays are used when it is necessary to maintain a signal or a lock-out condition. which. over current relay 78 Phase angle measuring or out-of-step protective relay 79 A. reclosing relay 81 Frequency relay 83 Automatic selective control or transfer relay 85 Carrier or pilot wire receive relay 86 Locking-out relay 87 Differential protective relay 94 auxiliary tripping relay For Detail about LIST OF DEVICE NUMBERS Click Here Relay contact systems Relay contact systems Self-reset. Hand or electrical reset.c.c. For example. time over current relay 52 A. The contacts remain operated only while the controlling quantity is applied.c.c. if it is so desired.

an electrically operated valve. according to the coil rating. Figure 6 indications of contacts on diagrams. or. This auxiliary switch is needed to open the trip circuit when the circuit breaker opens. which is continually picked-up. Examples of these conventions and variations are shown in Figure 6.supervising relay. the tripping mechanism of which may be a solenoid with a plunger acting directly on the mechanism latch or. 275 . The relay may energize the tripping coil directly. which combine many of the characteristics of measuring devices and contactors. The power required by the trip coil of the circuit breaker may range from up to 50 watts. The auxiliary switch will be adjusted to close as early as possible in the closing stroke. A protective relay is usually required to trip a circuit breaker. to make the protection effective in case the breaker is being closed on to a fault. for a small 'distribution' circuit breaker. Occupy an intermediate position and according to their design and consequent closeness to one or other category. being made up of a hand-trip control switch and the contacts of the protective relays in parallel to energize the trip coil from a battery. to 3000 watts for a large extra-high-voltage circuit breaker. would still be shown in the deenergized condition. and the number of circuits to be energized. the contacts of which should not be expected to perform large making and breaking duties. through a normally open auxiliary switch operated by the circuit breaker. A 'make' contact is one that closes when the relay picks up. Protective relays are precise measuring devices. whereas a 'break' contact is one that is closed when the relay is un-energized and opens when the relay picks up. Most other types of relay develop an effort which is independent of the position of the moving system. The basic trip circuit is simple. may have an appreciable contact capacity. may do so through the agency of another multi-channel auxiliary relay. since the protective relay contacts will usually be quite incapable of performing the interrupting duty. Attracted armature relays. in the case of air-blast or pneumatically operated breakers.

The functioning of the measuring modules will not react on the tripping modules. the margin for operating the contacts being negligibly small. two or more breakers may have to be tripped by one protective system. Operation indicators. For this reason. These various operations are carried out by multi-contact tripping relays. with very few exceptions. the electromechanical effort is absorbed by the controlling force. The edge of the magnet is colored to give the indication. on GEC Measurements relays. Not only does this limit the 'making' capacity of the contacts. and. which is free to rotate. are bi-stable devices. Although two contacts can be fitted. there being insufficient force to compress the spring of the first contact to make. so that the number or rating of outputs has no more significance than the fact that they have been provided. and lying between the poles of an electromagnet. and may be either mechanically or electrically operated. as indicators are arranged to operate only if a trip operation is initiated. the provision of multiple contacts on such elements is undesirable. protective systems are invariably provided with indicating devices.At setting. These may be small attracted armature type elements fitted in the same case as the measuring relay. by the small amount required to permit closure of the second. interlocking with other functions (for example auto-reclosing arrangements). and a small tolerance in the closing value of operating current may have to be allowed between them. These effects can be reduced by providing a small amount of 'run-in' to contact make in the relay behavior. Such a relay is equivalent to a sensitive electromechanical relay with a tripping contactor. The magnet. care must be taken in their alignment. 276 . A mechanical indicator consists of a small shutter which is Released by the protective relay movement to expose the indicator pattern. which are energized by the protection relays and provide the necessary number of adequately rated output contacts. which. In British practice these are called 'flags'. As a guide for power system operation staff. For the above reasons it is often better to use inter-posing contactor type elements which do not have the same limitations. Electrical indicators may be simple attracted armature elements either with or without contacts. Indicators. lines up its magnetic axis with the electromagnet poles. Not every component relay will have one. consists of a red diagonal stripe on a white background. or modules. although some measuring relay elements are capable of tripping the smaller types of circuit breaker directly. In general. but if more than one contact pair is fitted any slight misalignment may result in only one contact being closed at the minimum operating value. For larger switchgear installations the tripping power requirement of each circuit breaker is considerable. whereas in America they are known as 'targets'. by special shaping of the active parts. and other control functions to be performed. but can be made to reverse its orientation by the application of a field. static relays have discrete measuring and tripping circuits. further. There may also be remote signaling requirements. Operation of the armature releases a shutter to expose an indicator as above. An alternative type consists of a small cylindrical permanent magnet magnetized across a diameter.

Electrically operated indicators avoid imposing an additional friction load on the measuring element. The coil of the series contactor carries the trip current initiated by the protective relay. c. This closure relieves the protective relay contact of further duty and keeps the tripping circuit securely closed. even if chatter occurs at the main contact. Auxiliary contactors can be used to supplement protective relays in a number of ways: a. Series sealing. With indicators operated directly by the measuring elements. avoiding the need for indicators on the measuring elements. Series sealing. they can conveniently carry the operation indicator. Ta. Figure 7 Typical relay tripping circuits. but must not have done so more than marginally earlier. Shunt reinforcement with sealing. This is to stop indication occurring when the tripping operation has not been completed. The indicator must have operated by the time the contacts make. b. Another advantage is that the indicator can operate only after the main contacts have closed. and the contactor closes a contact in parallel with the protective relay contact. 277 . which would be a serious handicap for certain types. Shunt reinforcing. care must be taken to line up their operation with the closure of the main contacts.Relay tripping circuits. When such auxiliary elements are fitted. These are illustrated in Figure 7.

since it is not permissible to energize the trip coil and the reinforcing contactor in parallel. all the auxiliary relays would be energized in parallel for each relay operation and the indication would be confused. b. This may pose a problem in design if a variable number of auxiliary elements (for different phases and so on) may be required to operate in parallel to energize a common tripping relay. The duplicate main contacts are frequently provided As a three point arrangement to reduce the number of contact fingers. the auxiliary elements must be fast enough to operate and release the flag before their coil current is cut off. Here the sensitive contacts are arranged to trip the circuit breaker and simultaneously to energize the auxiliary unit. It should be noted that two contacts are required on the protective relay. and more than one protective relay were connected to trip the same circuit breaker.Nothing is added to the total tripping time. which usually interrupt their own coil current. which then reinforces the contact which is energizing the trip coil. The main disadvantage of this method is that such series elements must have their coils matched with the trip circuit with which they are associated. and the indicator does not operate until current is actually flowing through the trip coil. 278 . with about 5 % of the trip supply voltage being dropped across them. If this were done. Shunt reinforcing. The coils of these contactors must be of low impedance. When used in association with high speed trip relays.

It will be seen that the effect of bounce is countered by means of a further contact on the auxiliary unit connected as a retaining contact. c. Shunt reinforcement with sealing. and in some cases through a considerable amount of circuit wiring with intermediate terminal boards. The chattering would only end when the circuit breaker had finally tripped. Using the shunt reinforcing system under these circumstances would result in chattering on the auxiliary unit. such as fuses. and the possible burning out of the contacts not only of the sensitive element but also of the auxiliary unit. The trip circuit extends beyond the relay enclosure and passes through more components. 279 . Supervision of trip circuits. This is a development of the shunt reinforcing circuit to make it applicable to relays with low torque movements or where there is a possibility of contact bounce for any other reason. links. because it is sometimes inconvenient to find a suitable contact to use for this purpose. auxiliary switch contacts and so on. This means that provision must be made for releasing the sealing circuit when tripping is complete. this is a disadvantage. relay contacts.Figure 8 Examples of trip circuit supervision.

Figure 1.2 Construction: Electromagnetic. Control. Protection.1 General function: Auxiliary. for example the tripping of a circuit breaker.1. 3. 280 .1.These complications. a simple extension gives pre-closing supervision. usually from a current and/or voltage source. Classification and function of relays A protection relay is a device that senses any change in the signal which it is receiving.1 Classification: Protection relays can be classified in accordance with the function which they carry out. The resistance in series with the lamp prevents the breaker being tripped by an internal short circuit caused by failure of the lamp. have directed attention to its supervision. Schemes using a lamp to indicate continuity are suitable for locally controlled installations. coupled with the importance of the circuit. Computerized. Relays A and C are timedelayed by copper slugs to prevent spurious alarms during tripping or closing operations. 3. their construction. generally to close or open electrical contacts to initiate some further operation. supervision can be obtained while the breaker is both open and closed. I n either case. Both A and B must reset to allow C to drop-off. This provides supervision while the circuit breaker is closed. Solid state. which is applicable wherever a remote signal is required. 3. Microprocessor. Figure 8(c) illustrates such a scheme. The resistors are mounted separately from the relays and their values are chosen such that if any one component is inadvertently short-circuited. the relay will operate. the incoming signal and the type of functioning. by the addition of a normally closed auxiliary switch and a resistance unit. The simplest arrangement contains a healthy trip lamp.8(b) shows how. a tripping operation will not take place. The alarm supply should be independent of the tripping supply so that indication will be obtained in the event of the failure of the tripping battery. With the circuit healthy either or both of relays A and B are operated and energize relay C. but when control is exercised from a distance it is necessary to use a relay system. Monitoring. as shown in Figure 8(a). the addition of a normally open push-button contact in series with the lamp will make the supervision indication available only when required. If the magnitude of the incoming signal is outside a preset range.

Temperature. as detailed below. Reverse power. magnetic and mechanical components. have an operating coil and various contacts and are very robust and reliable.). Velocity.. The construction characteristics can be classified in three groups.1. for example G for generator. 3. 3 .1. Figure 1 Armature-type relay In some cases a letter is added to the number associated with the protection in order to specify its place of location. Pressure. Directional over current.2 Electromagnetic relays Electromagnetic relays are constructed with electrical. Over voltage.. Others.etc.3 Incoming signal: Current. 3. Distance. pressure . Voltage. 3. Τ for transformer etc. Frequency. 2 .4 Type of protection Over current. Other.. Nonelectric relays are outside the scope of this book and therefore are not referred to.Nonelectric (thermal... 1 Attraction relays 281 . Differential.

l. the piston also carries the operating contacts. In order to control the value at which the relay starts to operate.K2. which is shown in figure 1. are widely used when instantaneous operations are required. The torque produced in the coil is given by: T = B. Attraction relays effectively have no time delay and. illustrated in Figure 2. the air gap. In this case. K2 is the restraining force. The armature carries the moving part of the contact. 2 . The attracted armature relay. usually produced by a spring. the effective area and the reluctance of the magnetic circuit.N. and operate by the movement of a piece of metal when it is attracted by the magnetic field produced by a coil. So that I = K 2 / K1 = constant.i Where: T= torque B = flux density L =length of the coil a = diameter of the coil N = number of turns on the coil i = current flowing through the coil 282 . 2 Relays with moveable coils This type of relay consists of a rotating movement with a small coil suspended or pivoted with the freedom to rotate between the poles of a permanent magnet. where Κ1 depends upon the number of turns on the operating solenoid. The other type is the piston or solenoid relay. consists of a bar or plate of metal which pivots when it is attr acted towards the coil. thus modifying the restricting force. When the relay is balanced. in which α bar or piston is attracted axially within the field of the solenoid.Attraction relays can be supplied by AC or DC. There are two main types of relay in this class. 3 .a. among other factors. The coil is restrained by two springs which also serve as connections to carry the current to the coil. which is closed or opened according to the design when the armature is attracted to the coil. the resultant force is zero and therefore Κ112 = K2. for that reason. It can be shown that the force of attraction is equal to K1I2 . the restraining tension of the spring or the resistance of the solenoid circuit can be varied.

Figure 2 Solenoid-type relay

Figure 3 Inverse time characteristic From the above equation it will be noted that the torque developed is proportional to the current. The speed of movement is controlled by the damping action, which is proportional to the torque. It thus follows that the relay has an inverse time characteristic similar to that illustrated in Figure 3. The relay can be designed so that the coil makes a large angular movement, for example 80º. 3 . 2 . 3 Induction relays An induction relay works only with alternating current. It consists of an electromagnetic system which operates on a moving conductor, generally in the form of a disc or cup, and functions through the interaction of electromagnetic fluxes with the parasitic Fault currents which are induced in the rotor by these fluxes. These two fluxes, which are mutually displaced both in angle and in position, produce a torque that can be expressed by T= Κ1.Φ1.Φ2 .sin θ,


Where Φ1 and Φ2 are the interacting fluxes and θ is the phase angle between Φ1 and Φ2. It should be noted that the torque is a maximum when the fluxes are out of phase by 90º, and zero when they are in phase.

Figure 4 Electromagnetic forces in induction relays It can be shown that Φ1= Φ1sin ωt, and Φ2= Φ2 sin (ωt+ θ ) , where θ is the angle by which Φ2 leads Φ1. Then:

iΦ 1 α

dΦ 1 α Φ 1 cos ω t dt
dΦ1 α Φ1 cos ( ωt + θ ) dt

iΦ1 α

Figure 4 shows the interrelationship between the currents and the opposing forces. Thus: F = ( F 1 - F 2 ) α (Φ2 iΦ1+ Φ1 iΦ2 )

F α Φ2 Φ1 sin θ α T

Induction relays can be grouped into three classes as set out below. Shaded-pole relay In this case a portion of the electromagnetic section is short-circuited by means of a copper ring or coil. This creates a flux in the area influenced by the short circuited section (the so-called shaded section) which lags the flux in the nonshaded section, see Figure 5.


Figure 5 Shaded-pole relay

Figure 6 Wattmetric-type relay In its more common form, this type of relay uses an arrangement of coils above and below the disc with the upper and lower coils fed by different values or, in some cases, with just one supply for the top coil, which induces an out-of-phase flux in the lower coil because of the air gap. Figure 6 illust r ates a typical arrangement. Cup-type relay This type of relay has a cylinder similar to a cu which can rotate in the annular air gap between the poles of the coils, and has a fixed central core, see Figure 7. The operation of this relay is very similar to that


Figure 7Cup-type relay Of an induction motor with salient poles for the windings of the stator. Configurations with four or eight poles spaced symmetrically around the circumference of the cup are often used. The movement of the cylinder is limited to a small amount by the contact and the stops. Α special spring provides the restraining torque. The torque is a function of the product of the two currents through the coils and the cosine of the angle between them. The torque equation is T= ( KI1I2 cos (θ12 – Φ) – Ks ), Where K, .Κs and Φ are design constants, Ι1 and I2 are the currents through the two coils and θ12 is the angle between I1 and I2. In the first two types of relay mentioned above, which are provided with a disc, the inertia of the disc provides the time-delay characteristic. The time delay can be increased by the addition of a permanent magnet. The cup-type relay has a small inertia and is therefore principally used when high speed operation is required, for example in instantaneous units.

Calculation of short circuit current The current that flows through an element of a power system is a parameter which can be used to detect faults, given the large increase in current flow when a short circuit occurs. For this reason a review of the concepts and procedures for calculating fault currents will be made in this chapter, together with some calculations illustrating the methods used. Although the use of these short-circuit calculations in relation to protection settings will be-considered in detail, it is important to bear in mind that these calculations are also required for other applications, for example calculating the substation Earthing 286

grid, the selection of conductor sizes and for the specifications of equipment such as power-circuit breakers. 1 Mathematical derivation of fault currents The treatment of electrical faults should be carried out as a function of time, from the start of the event at time until stable conditions are reached, and therefore it is necessary to use differential equations when calculating these currents. In order to illustrate the transient nature of the current, consider an RL circuit as a simplified equivalent of the circuits in electricitydistribution networks. This simplification is important because all the system equipment must be modeled in some way in order to quantify the transient values which can occur during the fault condition. For the circuit shown in Figure 1, the mathematical expression which defines the behaviour of the current is: e(t) = L di + Ri(t) 2.1
t = 0+

Vmax Sin( ωt + α )

Figure 1 RL, circuit for transient analysis study This is a differential equation with constant coefficients, of which the solution is in two parts:

ia ( t ) : ih ( t ) + i p ( t )
Where: ih(t) Is the solution of the homogeneous equation corresponding to the transient period and ip(t) is the solution to the particular equation corresponding to the steady-state period. By the use of differential equation theory, which will not be discussed in detail here, the complete solution can be determined and expressed iii the following form:

i (t ) =

Vmax ( Sin (ω t + α ) − Sin(α − Φ).e −( R / L ) ) Z



If the tripping of the circuit. see Figure 2. and zero value when Φ=α.2. 2. owing to a fault.Where: Z = R 2 + ω2 L2 α = the closing angle which defines the point on the source sinusoidal voltage when the fault occurs and Φ= tan −1 (ω / R ) L It can be seen that. takes place when the sinusoidal component is at its negative peak. the first term varies sinusoidally. and has an initial maximum π value when α . in eqn. It is impossible to predict at what point the fault will be applied on the sinusoidal cycle and therefore what magnitude the DC component will reach. while the second term decreases exponentially with a time constant of L/R. − = Φ ± /2 Figure 2 Variation of fault current with time a (α–Φ) =0 b (α–Φ)=π/2 288 . The latter term can be recognised as the DC component of the current. the DC component reaches its theoretical maximum value half a cycle later.

m. the subtransient. owing to the gradual decrease in the magnetic flux caused by the reduction of the e. 1 ' and I. can be interpreted as a reactance which varies with time.Xd and Xd. The corresponding values of direct axis reactance are denoted by " ' Xd.e. applied to an RL circuit. of the induction current. I". including the AC and DC components.An approximate formula for calculating the effective value of the total asymmetric current. can be seen in Figure 3. 1(t).asym = 2 2 I rms + I DC 2. i. Notwithstanding this. respectively. in the majority of practical applications it is possible to take account of the variation of reactance in only three stages without producing significant errors. This effect is known as armature reaction. In Figure 4 it will be noted that the variation of current with time. comes close to the three discrete levels of current.3 The fault current which results when an alternator is short circuited can easily be analysed since this is similar to the case which has already been analysed. transient and steady-state currents. with acceptable accuracy can be obtained from the following expression: I rms.f. and which makes the calculations quite difficult. when voltage is. The reduction in current from its value at the onset. The physical situation that is presented to a generator. Figure 3 Transient short-circuit currents in a synchronous generator 289 .

the behaviour of the generator under short circuit conditions. ANSI Standards C37. Transient reactance values are generally used in stability studies. To sum up. 290 . and the fact that extinction of an electrical arc is never achieved instantaneously.010 and C37.5 recommend using different values of subtransient reactance when calculating the so-called momentary and interrupting duties of switchgear. switchgear specifications require reliable calculations of the short-circuit levels which can be present on the electrical network.Figure 4 Variation of current with time during a fault Figure 5 Variation of generator reactance with time during a fault And the typical variation with. Taking into account the rapid drop of the short-circuit current due to the armature reaction of the synchronous machines. short-circuit values based on the transient reactance are used. Of necessity. In studies of electrical protection some adjustment has to be made to the values of instantaneous short circuit current calculated using subtransient reactance's which result in higher values of current. in some cases. Time delay units can be set using the same values but. time for each of these is illustrated in Figure 5. depending on the operating speed of the protection relays. when calculating short-circuit currents it is necessary to take into account two factors which could result in the currents varying with time: the presence of the DC component.

The peak value is obtained by arithmetically adding together the AC and DC components. i.clo sin g = 2 I DC + I AC .9 " 2V / Xd ) = 2.4 The momentary current is used when specifying the closing current of switchgear.asym. current would then be: 2 I rms.5 Usually.sym 2. The asymmetrical values are calculated as the square root of the sum of the squares of the DC component and the r. in this case. again. a factor of 1. the AC and DC components decay to 90% of their initial values after the first half cycle.m.9 2V / X d ) 2 + (0.s.56V / X d =1. value of interrupting current is used in which.M.s.Asymmetrical or symmetrical r.: " " = (0. the AC and DC components are taken into account. sys " " = (0. and therefore: Replacing the DC component by its exponential expression gives: 291 .9 2V / X d ) 2 + (0. the value of the r. values by 2 .m.6 is used by manufacturers and in international standards so that. The peak values are obtained by multiplying the R.s. Typically.9V / X d ) 2 I rms = 2 2 I DC + I AC 2.9 " 2 V / X d ) + ( 0 .6 When considering the specification for the switchgear-opening cur-rent.56 I rms. From this.e.sym 2. in general.m. values can be defined depending on whether or not the DC component is included.s. the so-called r.55 I rms.9V / X d ) 2 " =1. the AC component is multiplied by a factor of 2 Thus: I peak = I Dc + I AC = (0. It should be noted that.m.S. value of the AC current. this value should be used when carrying out similar calculations.rms .

int e −( R / L ) ) 2 + I rms .sym. sym.7 The expression ( ) has been drawn for different Values of X/R.sym.2 2 I rms. sys .asym.int = ( 2 I rms. and for different switchgear contact-separation times. int 2.5 times generator subtransient reactance 292 . int / I rms .int 2e −2 ( r / l ) t +1 I rms . asym. int = I DC + I Ac.int = I rms . reproduced by permission of the IEEE) NOTE: Fed predominantly through two or more transformations or with external reactance in series equal to or above 1. int 2 I rms .5-1979. The multiplying factor graphs are reproduced in Figure 6 Figure 6 Multiplying factors for three-p hase and line-to-earth faults (total current rating basis) (from.rms .5–1979.sym. IEEE Standard C37. in ANSI Standard C37.

a 2=1 Therefore.e.e. Consider a circuit breaker with a total contact-separation time of two c yc l e s o n e cycle due to the relay and one related to the operation of the breaker mechanism. the following matrix relationship can be established: ∠ 120 ∠ 240° Va  1 1 1  Va 0  V  = 1 a a 2  × V    a1   b  Vc  1 a 2 a  Va 2        Inverting the matrix of coefficients: 1 1 1  V a  Va 0  V  = 1 1 a a 2  × V    b  a1  3  1 a 2 a  Vc  Va 2        From the above matrix it can be deduced that: 293 . Va Vb and Vc can be represented thus: Va =Vao + Va1 + Va2 Vb =Vbo + Vb1 + Vb2 Vc =Vco + Vc1 + Vc2 It can be demonstrated that: V b= V ao+a 2V a1+aV a2 V c= V ao+aV a1+ a 2V a2 where a is a so called operator which gives a phase shift of 120° clockwise and a multiplication of unit magnitude. f is 60 Hz and the ratio X/R With this arrangement. If the frequency.As an illust r ation of the validity of the curves for any situation. 2 and a similarly gives a phase shift of 240°. a=1 °. voltage values of any three-phase system. i. i.

and gives: I a = I a 0 + I a1 + I a 2 I b = I a 0 + a 2 I a1 + aI a 2 I b = I a 0 + a I a1 + a 2 I a 2 Therefore: 1 I a0 = (I a + Ib + Ic ) 3 1 I a1 = ( I a + aI b + a 2 I c ) 3 1 I a 2 = ( I a + a 2 I b + aI c ) 3 In three-phase systems.1 Va 0 = (Va + Vb + Vc ) 3 1 Va1 = (Va + aVb + a 2Vc ) 3 1 Va 2 = (Va + a 2Vb + aVc ) 3 The foregoing procedure can also be applied directly to currents. a three-phase unbalanced system is shown in Figure 8 together with the associated symmetrical components. therefore. 294 . the neutral current is equal to In = (Ia + Ib + Ic) and. l n= 3 I 0 By way of illustration.

295 .

14 0. Since generators are designed to supply balanced voltages. similarly.2. or infinite. In fault studies the subtransient and transient reactance of generators grid motors must be included as appropriate. provided that the applied voltages are balanced. respectively. Xd' and Xd.m. the positive and negative-sequence impedances are equal because in static circuits these impedances are independent of the phase order.30 0.15 0. denoted by X".1 Importance and construction of sequence networks The impedance of a circuit in which only positive-sequence currents are circulating is called the positive-sequence impedance and.09 0. the generated voltages are of positive sequence only. These sequence impedances are designated Z1. Zo/Z1 = 2 when no earth wire is present and 3.f but only include impedances to the flow of negative and zerosequence currents.09 0.28 296 0. Z2 and Z0. The negative and zero-sequence net-works do not contain e.20 0. However.12 Salient with pole dampers generator without . For a single-circuit line. those in which only negative and zero-sequence currents flow are called the negative and zero-sequence impedances. as are those of cables.20 1.m.18 0. being independent of the phase if the applied voltages are balanced. and are used in calculations involving symmetrical components. Therefore. The positive.30 1. for most studies only the reactance's of synchronous machines are used. respectively. Table 1 Typical per-unit reactance for three -phase synchronous machines Type of machine Turbine generator 2 pole 4 pole X d" X d' Xd X2 X0 0.35 0. The zero-sequence impedance is either the same as the other two impedances.f source in series with the positive-sequence impedance. transient and synchronous reactance. The zero-sequence impedances of lines different from the positive and negative-sequence impedances since the magnetic field creating the positive and negative-sequence currents is different from that for the zero-sequence currents. For a double-circuit line Zo/Z1 = 5. The following ratios may be used in the absence of detailed information.22 0. and 3 to 5 for three-core cables: For transformers. When modelling small generators and motors it may be necessary to take resistance into account. Three values of positive reactance are normally quoted-subt r ansient.5. For underground cables Zo/Z1 can be taken as 1 to 1.70 1.25 for single core.07 0.5 with an earth wire.and negative-sequence impedances of overhead-line circuits are identical.20 0. depending on the transformer connections.14 0.25 1. the positive-sequence network is composed of an e. The resistance of the windings is much smaller and can generally be neglected in short-circuit calculations.03 0. depending on the machine characteristics and fault clearance time.20 0.

is at earth potential so that only zero-sequence currents flow through the impedances between neutral and earth. The reference busbar for zero-sequence networks is the earth point of the generator. Xd=synchronous reactance X. In connecting sequence networks together. The zero sequence networks carries only zero-sequence current in one phase which has an impedance of Zo = 3Ζn + Zeo The voltage and current components for each phase are obtained from the equations given for the sequence networks. Typical per-unit reactance's for three phase synchronous machines are given in Table 1. The equations for the components of voltage. The same approach can be used with equivalent power systems or applied to loaded 297 . corresponding to the phase of the system. the fault level falls to a value determined by the transient reactance and then decays exponentially to a steady-state value determined by the synchronous reactance.dampers X"= subtransient reactance. The current which flows in the impedance between the neutral and earth are three times the zero-sequence current. Within 0. X'd =transient reactance. in these networks.1 sec.9 illustrates the sequence networks for a generator.2=negative sequence reactance. X0=zero sequence reactance The subtransient reactance is the reactance applicable at the onset of the fault occurrence. are obtained from the point an on phase a relative to the reference bus bar. and can be deduced from Figure 2. Figure 2.9 as follows: Va1 = E a − I a1 Z 1 Va 2 = − I a 2 Z 2 Va 0 = − I a 0 Z 0 Where Εa = no load voltage to earth of the positive-sequence network Z1 = positive-sequence impedance of the generator Z2 = negative-sequence impedance of the generator Zo= zero-sequence impedance of the generator (Zeo) plus three times the impedance to earth The above equations can be applied to any generator which carries unbalanced currents and are the starting point for calculations for any type of fault. the reference busbar for the positiveand negative-sequence networks is the generator neutral which.

in order to calculate fault 1 levels using the method of symmetrical components. negative and zero-sequence network.2 Calculation of asymmetrical faults using symmetrical components The positive.generators. Phase-to-earth fault The conditions for a solid fault from line a to earth are represented by the equations Ib=0. Ic =0 and V a =0. carrying currents I1.type of fault. Ea then being the voltage behind the reactance before the fault occurs. for each . Then. 298 . 2. are connected together in a particular arrangement to represent a given unbalanced fault condition. Consequently. it is essential to determine the individual sequence impedances and combine these to make up the correct sequence networks.2. the appropriate combination of sequence networks is formed in order to obtain the relationships between fault currents and voltages. I2 and Io respectively.

For this case. The current and voltage conditions are the same when considering an open-circuit fault in phases b and c. Equally. the zero-sequence network is not involved and the overall sequence network is composed of the positive. Phase-to-Phase fault The conditions for a solid fault between lines h and c are represented by the equations I a = 0. the sequence networks will be connected in series. as indicated in Figure 2. I b = –I c and V b = V c . with no zero-sequence current.10a. it can be shown that I ao = 0 and I a1 = E a /(Z 1 +Z 2 ) = Ia2 .and negative-sequence networks in parallel as indicated in Figure 2.Single phase fault connected to earth As in the previous equations. From these equations it can be proved that: 299 . it can easily be deduced that I a1 = Ia2 = I ao = E a / (Z 1 +Z 2 + Z o ). Therefore. Phase-to-Phase-to-earth fault The conditions for a fault between lines b and c and earth are represented by the equations 1a = 0 and Vb=Vc =0. and thus the treatment and connection of the sequence networks will be similar.10b.

10c. on the basis that the generator ímpedances are not significant in most distribution-network fault studies. When it is necessary to study the effect of any change on the power system. i. Where VLN = line-to-neutral voltage and Zo= (3VLN / Ia) . Thus. For lines and cables the positive and negative ímpedances are equal. it may be assumed that overall Ζ2 = Z1 which simplifies the calculations. 300 .3 Equivalent impedances for a power system. the above formula reduces to Ia = 3I0 = 3 VLN / (2Z1 + Zo). The equivalent positive. 2. the system must first of all be represented by its corresponding sequence impedances.I a1 = Ea ZoZ2 Z1 + Zo + Z2 The three sequence networks are connected in parallel as shown in Figure 2.e. Thus.2Z1 3 Supplying the current and voltage signals to protection systems In the presence of a fault the current transformers (CTs) circulate current proportional to the fault current to the protection equipment without distinguishing between the vectorial magnitudes of the Sequence components.and negative-sequence impedances can be calculated directly from: Z= V2/P Where: Z = Equivalent positive and negative-sequence impedances V =nominal phase-to-phase voltage P = three-phase short circuit power The equivalent zero-sequence of a system can be derived from the expressions of sequence components referred to for a single-phase fault. Ia1=Ia2=Ia3 = VLN/ (Z1 + Z2 + Z0) Where: VLN = the line-to-neutral voltage.

Figure 10 Connection of sequence networks for a3ymmetrical faults a Phase-to-earth fault b Phase-to-phase fault c Double phase-to-earth fault Therefore. the relays operate on the basis of the corresponding values of fault current and / or voltages. in the majority of cases. regardless of the values of the sequence components. 301 . given this. the advantage of using symmetrical components is that they facilitate the calculation of fault levels even though the relays in the majority of cases do not distinguish between the various values of the symmetrical components. It is very important to emphasise that.

Figure 11a Currents and voltages for various types of faults


Figure 11b Currents and voltages for various types of faults a Sequence currents for different types of fault b Sequence voltages for different types of fault In Figure 11a & b the positive and negative sequence values of current and voltage for different faults are shown together with the summated values of current and voltage. Relays usually only operate using the summated values in the right-hand columns. However, relays are available which can operate with specific values of some of the sequence components.


In these cases there must be methods for obtaining these components, and this is achieved by using filters which produce the mathematical operations of the resultant equations to resolve the matrix for voltages and for currents. Although these filters can be constructed for electromagnetic elements, the growth of electronics has led to their being used increasingly in logic circuits. Among the relays which require this type of filter in order to operate are those used ιn negative-sequence and earth-fault protection. Current and voltage transformers Current or voltage instrument transformers are necessary for isolating the protection, control and measurement equipment from the high voltages of a power system, and for supplying the equipment with the appropriate values of current and voltage - generally these are 1A or 5Α for the current coils, and 120 V for the voltage coils. The behaviour of current and voltage transformers during and after the occurrence of a fault is critical in electrical protection since errors in the signal from a transformer can cause maloperation of the relays. In addition, factors such as the transient period and saturation must be taken into account when selecting the appropriate transformer. When only voltage or current magnitudes are required to operate a relay then the relative direction of the current flow in the transformer windings is not important. However, the polarity must be kept in mind when the relays compare the sum or difference of the currents. 1- Voltage transformers: With voltage transformers (VTs) it is essential that the voltage from the secondary winding should be as near as possible proportional to the primary voltage. In order to achieve this, VTs are designed in such a way that the voltage drops in the windings are small and the flux density in the core is well below the saturation value so that the magnetization current is small; in this way magnetization impedance is obtained which is practically constant over the required voltage range. The secondary voltage of a VT is usually 110 or 120 V with corresponding line-to-neutral values. The majority of protection relays have nominal voltages of 110 or 63.5 V, depending on whether their connection is lineto-line or line-to-neutral.


Figure 1 Voltage transformer equivalent circuits

Figure 2 Vector diagram for voltage transformer 1.1 Equivalent circuits VTs can be considered as small power transformers so that their equivalent circuit is the same as that for power transformers, as shown in Figure 1a. The magnetization branch can be ignored and the equivalent circuit then reduces to that shown in Fig 1b. The vector diagram for a VT is given in Figure.2, with the length of the voltage drops increased for clarity. The secondary voltage Vs lags the voltage Vp/n and is smaller in magnitude. In spite of this, the nominal maximum errors are relatively small. VTs have an excellent transient behaviour and accurately reproduce abrupt changes in. the primary voltage. 1.2 Errors When used for measurement instr uments, for example for billing and control purposes, the accuracy of a VT is important, especially for those values close to the nominal system voltage.


Notwithstanding this, although the precision requirements of a VT for protection applications are not so high at nominal voltages, owing to the problems of having to cope with a variety of different relays, secondary wiring burdens and the uncertainty of system parameters, errors should he contained within narrow limits over a wide range of possible voltages under fault conditions. This range should be between 5 and 173% of the nominal primary voltage for VTs connected between line and earth. Referring to the circuit in Figure 1a, errors in a VT are clue to differences in magnitude and phase between Vp/n, and Vs. These consist of the errors under open-circuit conditions when the load impedance Ζ B is infinite, caused by the drop in voltage from the circulation of the magnetization current through the primary winding, and errors due to voltage drops as a result of the load current IL flowing through both windings. Errors in magnitude can be calculated from Error V T = {(n Vs - Vp) / Vp} x 100%. If the error is positive, then the secondary voltage exceeds the nominal value. 1.3 Burden The standard burden for voltage transformer is usually expressed in voltamperes (VΑ) at a specified power factor. Table 1 gives standard burdens based on ANSI Standard C57.1 3. Voltage transformers are specified in IEC publication 1 8 6 Α by the precision class, and the value of volt-amperes (VΑ). The allowable error limits corresponding to different class values are shown in Table 2, where Vn is the nominal voltage. The phase error is considered positive when the secondary voltage leads the primary voltage. The voltage error is the percentage difference between the voltage at the secondary terminals, V2, multiplied by the nominal transformation ratio, and the primary voltages V1. 1.4 Selection of VTs Voltage transformers are connected between phases, or between phase and earth. The connection between phase and earth is normally used with groups of three single-phase units connected in star at substations operating with voltages at about 34.5 kV or higher, or when it is necessary to measure the voltage and power factor of each phase separately. The nominal primary voltage of a VT is generally chosen with the higher nominal insulation voltage (kV) and the nearest service voltage in mind. The nominal secondary voltages are generally standardized at 110 and 120 V. In order to select the nominal power of a VT, it is usual to acid together all the nominal VΑ loadings of the apparatus connected to Table 1 Standard burdens for voltage Transformer
Standard burden Characteristics for 120 V and 60 Hz resistance( Ω ) inductance (H) impedance (Ω) Characteristics for 69.3 V and 60 Hz resistance (Ω) inductance (H) impedance (Ω)



power factor


4 134.364 0. is to use a capacitor voltage transformer. the size of an inductive VT is proportional to its nominal voltage and.0 35.0 0.5 25.5 10.0 0.2 82.268 0.070 1152 575 192 72 36 411 38.0 2.4 10.5 1.85 0.1 0.W 12.0 40.1 0.70 0.089 0.0 40. 307 .2 61.101 0.2 163.0 0.0 120.0 Vn and 1.4 1. it is important to take account of the voltage drops in the secondary wiring.0 0.0 0.0 80.0 0.5 1.090 0.2 31.2 0. 1 .0403 1.2 0.in fact the two parts of the divider taken together can be considered as the source impedance which produces a drop in voltage when the load is connected.85 0.0 3.0 40.1 0.5 C a p a c i t o r v o l t a g e t r a n s f o rm e r s In general.5 1.0 0.034 0. 1.3 3.2 Vn 0.356 384 192 64 24 12 137 Χ Υ Ζ ΖΖ Μ Table 2 Voltage transformers error limits Class Primary voltage Voltage error (±%) Phase error (±min) 0.4 54.0 80.2 2. the cost increases in a similar manner to that of a high voltage transformer.0 200.1 0.20 115.0 Vn Vn = nominal voltage The VT secondary winding.0 80.0 40.0 80. One alternative.2 0.0 1. for this reason.5 Vn 1.10 0.0 400. In addition.5 1.0 75.4 20.0168 0.0 2.2 403.0 20.040 1.85 0. This device is effectively a capacitance voltage divider.0 1.010 0. and is similar to a resistive divider in that the output voltage at the point of connection is affected by the load . especially if the distance between the transformers and the relays is large.2 0. and a more economic solution.8 Vn .2 27.

while Vs' and Is' represent the secondary 308 .fact that this impedance can be compensated for by connecting a reactance in series at the point of connection. in an actual situation on a network. The divider can reduce the voltage to a value which enables errors to be kept within normally acceptable limits. Α simplified equivalent circuit of a capacitor VT is shown in Figure 4 in which Vi is equal to the nominal primary voltage. Referred to the inter-mediate voltage. and Ze is the magnetization impedance of transformer Τ. For improved accuracy a high voltage capacitor is used in order to obtain a bigger voltage at the point of connection. L is the resonance inductance.Figure 4 Capacitor VT equivalent circuit The capacitor divider differs from the inductive divider in that the equivalent impedance of the source is capacitive and the .however. Ri represents the resistance of the primary winding of transformer Τ plus the losses in C and L. With an ideal reactance there are no regulation problems . the resistance of the secondary circuit and the load impedance are represented by and voltage and current. which can be reduced to a standard voltage using a relatively inexpensive trans-former as shown in Figure 3. C is the numerically equivalent impedance equal to ( C1 + C2 ). some resistance is always present. Rs' Z B' respectively.

so that the vector difference between Vi and V's which constitutes the error in the capacitor VT.Figure 5 Capacitor VT vector diagram It can be seen that. Good quality CTs are more reliable and result in less application problems and. From the diagram it can be seen that. Therefore. causing serious errors in magnitude and phase. high grade CTs must always be used.4 is the same as the equivalent circuit of a power transformer. 309 . is very small. the circuit in Figure 4. and thus. at the system frequency when C and L are resonating and canceling out each other. 2 Current transformers Although the performance required from a current transformer (CT) varies with the type of protection. whereas the phase error is indicated by the angle θ. with the exception of C. The voltage error is the difference in magnitude between Vi and V's. Ie is small compared to I' s . when the primary voltage collapses. C and the transformer T. the values of EL and EC predominate.5 which is drawn for a power factor close to unity. provide better protection. for frequencies different from the resonant frequency. the secondary voltage is maintained for some milliseconds because of the combination of the series and parallel resonant circuits represented by L. Ri and R's are not large and. under stable system conditions the capacitor VT acts like a conventional transformer. in addition. in general. This is illustrated in the vector diagram shown in Figure 4. Capacitor VTs display better transient behaviour than electro-magnetic VTs as the inductive and capacitive reactance in series are large in relation to the load impedance referred to the secondary voltage.

In all these cases the CT should be a ble to supply sufficient current so that the relay operates satisfactorily. care should be taken to ensure that under the most critical faults the CT operates on the linear portion of the magnetization curve. The current flowing through Xm is the excitation current Ιe. Note that the net effect of Ie is to make I lag and be much smaller than ΙH /n. with the voltage drops exaggerated for clarity. to avoid this. 2. 310 . CTs can become saturated at high current values caused by nearby faults. Where n2ZH represents the primary impedance ZH referred to the secondary side.6a can be reduced to the arrangement shown in figure 4. The circuit in Figure 4. is resistive and Ιe lags Vs by 90°. and the secondary impedance is.Figure 6 Current transformer equivalent circuits The quality of CTs is very important for differential protection schemes where the operation of the relays is directly related to the accuracy of the CTs under fault conditions as well as under normal load conditions. ZL.1 Equivalent circuit An approximate equivalent circuit for a CT is given in Figure 4. the primary current referred to the secondary side. The vector diagram. is shown in Figure 4.7. so that Ie is the principal source of error. In general. Rm and Xm represent the losses and the excitation of the core.6a. ZL.6b where ZH can be ignored. since it does not influence either the current IH/n or the voltage across Xm.

the number of turns in the windings. with Ie and IL approximately in phase. From this it can be concluded that. which can be ignored. but neither of them can exceed the vectorial error it should be noted that a moderate inductive load. Figure 4. in order to check if a CT is functioning correctly. Thus. has a small phase error and the excitation component results almost entirely in an error in the magnitude. In European standards the point Κp on the curve is called the saturation or knee point and is defined as the point at which an increase in the excitation voltage of ten per cent produces an increase of 50 % in the excitation current. The magnetization current of a CT depends on the cross section and length of the magnetic circuit. Es. is directly proportional to the secondary current. represented by θ. The values of the magnitude and phase errors depend on the relative displacement between Ie and IL. When investigating the behaviour of a CT. leaving the primary winding open-circuited. when the primary current and therefore the secondary current is increased. the excitation current should he measured at various values of voltage the so-called secondary injection test. The phase error. The magnitude error is the difference in magnitude between ΙH / n and IL and is equal to Ir the component of Ie in line with k (see Figure 7). so much so that. The errors are principally due to the current which circulates through the magnetizing branch.2 Errors The causes of errors in a CT are quite different to those associated with VTs. for a given CT.Figure 7 Vector diagram for the CT equivalent circuit 2. it is more convenient to apply a variable voltage to the secondary winding. the primary impedance of a CT does not have the same influence On the accuracy of the equipment it only adds an impedance in series with the line.8a shows the typical relationship between the secondary voltage and the excitation current determined in this way. 2.3 AC saturation CΤ errors result from excitation current. Usually. In effect. and referring to the equivalent circuit of Figure 4. it is essential to measure or calculate the excitation curve.6b. these currents reach a point where the core commences to saturate and the magnetization current becomes sufficiently high to produce an excessive error. it can be seen that the voltage across the magnetization impedance. and the magnetic characteristics of the material. is related to Iq the component of Ie which is in quadrature with IL. This point is referred to in the ANSI / IEEE standards as the intersection of the excitation curves with a 45° 311 .

it is important to ensure that the fault level and normal load conditions do not result in saturation of the core and that CT magnetization curves Figure 8a CT magnetization curves 312 . {(CTR x Ι2) – I1} ÷ I1 (%).tangent line. 2. from the primary current.13. By way of example. the standard burdens for CTs with a nominal secondary current of 5 A are shown in Table 3. The current error is the percentage deviation of the secondary current. I2 = secondary current (A) and CTR = current transformer transformation ratio. Those CT classes marked with `ext' denote wide range (extended) current transformers with a rated continuous current of 1. The European knee point is at a higher voltage than the ANSI/IEEE Knee point. IEC Standard Publication 185(1987) specifies CTs by the class of accuracy followed by the letter Μ or P. 2. i.e.8b. respectively. which denotes whether the transformer is suitable for measurement or protection purposes.4 Burden The burden of a CT is the value in ohms-of the impedance on the secondary side of the CT due to the relays and the connections between the CT and the relays. based on ANSI Standard C57. The current and phase-error limits for measurement and protection CTs are given in Tables 4a and 4. where I1 = primary current (A).2 or 2 times the nameplate current rating.4b.5 Selection of CTs When selecting a CT. as indicated in Figure 4. multiplied by the nominal transformation ratio. The phase error is considered positive when the secondary current leads the primary current.

Figure 8b CT magnetization curves a Defining the knee point in a CT excitation curve according to European standards b Typical excitation curves for a multi ratio class C CT (From IEEE Standard C57.2 (Ω) (at 5 A) 1.5 0. reproduced by permission of the IEEE).5 0.3 4.0 2.5 Voltamps Power factor 313 .13-1978.0 2.0 4.0 25 50 100 0.5 1. Table 4.6 9.3 Standard burdens for protection CTs with 5 Α secondary current Designation Resista nce Inductance Impedance (Ω) B-1 B-2 B-4 0.0 (mH) 2.

2 8 1 5 4 5 0.2 1 0.1 0.B-8 4. CT magnetization curves.4 8.44.6U has to be determined for all three methods.0* 1.0 3.35 0. this can be determined by dividing the maximum Fault current on the system by the transformer turns ratio selected ZB = e x t e r n a l impedance connected ZL = impedance of the secondary winding ZC =impedance of the connecting wiring Use of the formula This method utilizes the fundamental transformer equation: Vs = 4.05 5 10 30 60 - 10 20 60 12 0 - 0. Xm is high.10 0.0* . this can be removed from the equivalent circuit with little error' giving Es=Vs and thus: Vs=IL (ZL+ZC+ZB) (1) IL Where Vs = r.5 1.5 1.2 0.5 0. Α =cross-sectional area of core (cm 2) Ν =number of turns Bmax =flux density (lines/cm2) Table 4α Error limits for measurement current transformers Class % current error at the given proportion  of rated current shown below % phase error at the given proportion of the  rated  current shown below 2 1.m. The third only provides a qualitative estimation. 0 5 1 0 3 0 6 0 - 0.50 0.25 2. CT classes of accuracy.05 0.0 3.0 3. These factors can be assessed from: formulae.2 0.1 0. Α.00 2.1 0 -8 V (2) Where f =frequency in Hz.5 The errors do not exceed acceptable limits.75 1.5 0.0 0. voltage induced in the secondary winding =maximum secondary current in amperes.0 1. The secondary voltage Ε in Figure 4. The first two meth ods provide precise facts for the selection of the CT.5 - 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.0 200 0.00 0.20 .00 12 9 0 - _ 12 314 .50 1.1 0.s.0 18.f. If the impedance of the magnetic circuit.2 1. N.1 0. Bmax.

is 2 Ω. this relatively low value of flux density should not result in saturation.00 - 0. which is a typical value for modern transformers. is then calculated using eqn.2 0.0 15 30 90 180 8 5 5 15 10 10 45 30 30 90 60 60 Total error for nominal error limit current and nominal load is five per cent for 5P and 5Ρ ext CTs and ten per cent for 10P and 10P ext CTs.0 - 0.5x (0. IL.1 0.2 0.0 0.31 Ω.0 +/.1 and Bmax.1X108/4.0 3.2.4 0. Determine whether the CT would be saturated by a fault of 35 000 A at 50 Hz. The cross-sectional area of metal and the saturation flux density are sometimes difficult to obtain.31+2) =202.35 0.1 V. is 35 000x 5/2000=87. The latter can be taken as equal to 100 000 lines/Cm2.0 ext Table 4b Error limits for protection current transformers Accuracy Class % Current 0.1 0.5 1.1 0.5 3 20 100 120 5 20 100 120 0.25 In cm2 and a secondary winding with a resistance of 0. The impedance of the relays.5 1.percentage Current ratio error +/.5 1. Example 1.1 0.2 0. can now be calculated: Bmax = 202.4 5 5 1 0 3 0 0 8 1 5 4 5 10 20 60 15 30 90 0.25X400=70 030 lines/ cm2 Since the transformer in this example has a steel core of high permeability.Phase error (minutes) 5 0.44X50X3.5 1.75 1.5 A. V is determined from eqn.75 10 1.0 0.75 1. Assume that a CT with a ratio of 2000/5 is available.00 2. a cross-sectional area of 3. N= 2000/5 = 400 turns And Vs=87.0 0. there could be appreciable errors in the secondary current and the CT selected would not be appropriate.0 3. To use the formula. Solution If the CT is not saturated.1 0.5 30 60 120 0.2 ext 0.50 1.5 1.25 0.1 0. Using the magnetization curve 315 .2 0.5 - 0. Exceeds the saturation density.2 0.5 0.75 1. 2. then the secondary current.0 ext - 60 - 120 90 - 120 - - 3. 4. having a steel core of high permeability.35 0. Using eqn.2 0. If Bmax. Bmax. 4.5 ext 1. including connections.2 0.

The curves give the magnitude of the excitation current required order to obtain a specific secondary voltage.s.Typical CT excitation curves which are supplied by manufacturers state the r. voltage to the secondary winding. such as shown in Figure 4.assume a value for IL. The method consists of producing a curve which shows the relationship between the primary and secondary currents for one tap and specified load conditions.find I e from the curve d .+ I e ) e .m. and the process is then repeated to obtain other values of IL and the resultant values of IH.1.9 using the magnetization curve a . the value of the corresponding primary current can be determined. and with the help of the magnetisation curves.Vs = I L ( Z L + Z C + Z B ) c . and find the associated value of the magnetization current. Starting with any value of secondary current. with the primary winding open-circuited. (b) Calculate Vs in accordance with eqn. By joining the points together the curve of IL against IH is obtained.9. b . (e) This provides one point on the curve of IL against IH. 4. (c) Locate the value of Vs on the curve for the tap selected. Ie.IH=n(I1.s. The process is summarized in the following steps: (a) Assume a value for IL. (d) Calculate I H / n (=IL + Ie) and multiply this value by n to refer it to the primary side of the CT. Figure 4.draw the point on the curve 316 . current obtained on applying an r.m.

If the tap is found to be suitable after finishing the calculations. C indicates that the transformation ratio can be calculated. with a CT of class C—100 the ratio can be calculated. in the case of external faults. In practice it is not necessary to draw the complete curve because it is sufficient to take the known fault current and refer to the secondary winding. this error is not great and the simplification snakes it easier to carry out the calculations. which implies not taking account of the load angle and the magnetizations branch of the equivalent circuit. and T indicates that the transformation ratio can be determined by means of tests. is the permissible load for a given tap of the CT. When considering a winding provided with taps. then a value of IH can be obtained which is closer to the fault current. opening the secondary circuit of a CT could result in 317 . these define the capability of the CT. Accuracy classes established by the ANSI standards The ANSI accuracy class of a CT (Standard C57.13) is described by two symbols — a letter and a nominal voltage. without considering the DC transient component of the DC saturation is particularly significant in complex protection schemes since.7 Precautions when working with CTs Working with CTs associated with energized network circuits can be extremely hazardous.6 DC saturation Up to now. NP. where ZB. the behavior of a CT has been discussed in terms of a steady state. For example. assuming that there is no saturation for the tap selected. and in consequence it can only feed a portion of the load without exceeding the ten per cent error limit. 2. each tap will have a voltage capacity proportionally smaller. within defined limits. 2. This converted value can be taken as IL initially for the process described earlier. If saturation occurs in different CTs associated with a particular relay arrangement. The classification T includes those CTs with a dispersion flux which considerably affects the transformation ratio.5. high fault currents circulate through the CTs. However.This method incurs an error in calculating I H /n by adding I e and IL together arithmetically and not vectorially. The permissible load is defined as ZB= (NP Vc) / 100. this could result in the circulation of unbalanced secondary currents which would cause the system to malfunction. If not. In particular. then it will be necessary to repeat the process. changing the tap until the fault current is within the linear part of the characteristic. is the fraction of the total number of turns being used and Vc is the ANSI voltage capacity for the complete CT. and the error should not exceed ten per cent if the secondary current does not go outside the range of 1 to 20 times the nominal current and if the load does not exceed 1Ω (1Ω x 5 Ax 20=100 V) at a minimum power factor of 0. the curve should be checked to confirm that the maximum primary fault current is within the transformer saturation zone. After construction. The classification C includes those CTs with uniformly distributed windings and other CTs with a dispersion flux which has a negligible effect on the ratio. These accuracy classes are only applicable for complete windings.

It is standard practice in such applications to use a cascade arrangement of say 5. This is due to (I) limitation of size of CT’s and more importantly (II) the fact that the open circuit volts would be dangerously high for large CT’s Primary ratings. A secondary accuracy limit current greatly in excess of the value t o cause relay operation serves no useful purpose and a rated accuracy limit of 5 will usually be adequate. 5. and/or of unduly large dimensions.g.000 amperes. however. t. the accuracy limit factor must be at least as high as the value of the setting current used in order to ensure fast relay operation. to combine a higher rated accuracy limit factor with a lower rated output and vice versa. When such relays are set to operate at high values of over current. Class 10P current transformers are generally recommended in which the product of rated output and rated accuracy limit fact or approaches 150 provided that the earth fault 318 .000/20A together with 20/1A interposing auxiliary CT’s Instantaneous over current relays Class P method of specification will a suffice.S.dangerous over voltages which might harm operational staff or lead to equipment being damaged.2 kV feeder. an example is given next using typical data for a CT and a 13. Standard primary ratings are given in B. the equivalent primarycircuit impedance is almost unaffected but a high voltage will be developed by the primary current passing through the magnetizing impedance Thus. because the current transformers are designed to be used in power circuits which have impedance much greater than their own. 3938:1973. such as those encountered on large turbo alternators. primary rating is usually chosen to be equal to or greater than the normal full load current o f the protected circuit. e. for both directional and non-directional relays class 10P current transformers should be used Earth fault relays with inverse time characteristic (1) Schemes in which phase fault current stability and accurate time grading are not required. Over current relays with Inverse and Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) lag characteristic In general. But when the product of these two exceeds 150 the resulting current transformer may be uneconomical. To illustrate this. It is possible. when secondary circuits are left open. Choice of CT’s Primary rating The c. Rated outputs higher than 15VA and rated accuracy limit factors higher than 10 are not recommended for general purposes. As a consequence. say from 5 to 15 times the rated current o f the transformer. secondary circuits associated with CTs must always he kept in a closed condition or shortcircuited in order to prevent these adverse situations occurring. Generally speaking. the maximum ratio of CT’s is usually limited to about 3000/1.

(2) Schemes in which phase fault stability and/or where time grading is critical.Generators Protection Schemes. T. is essentially of a transient nature and thus the extent of the unsaturated (or linear) zone is of paramount importance. 2 .T. 4 . T Line 319 .Feeders Protection Schemes. from heavy current test results.relay is not set below 20% of the rated current of the associated current transformer and that the burden of the relay at its setting current does not exceed 4VA. They are in general suitable for ensuring phase fault stability up to 10 times the rated primary current and for maintaining time grading of the earth f a u l t relays. H.secondary winding resistance of the line current transformers RL .lead burden (route length) in ohms Ro . Hence a statement of knee point voltage is the parameter of prime importance and it is normal to derive. This balance. T Line • 400 KV O. e. a formula stating the lowest permissible value of VK if stable operation is to be guaranteed.g.rated current of C.any other resistance (or impedance) in circuit Protection Scheme 1 . H. Lines • 500 KV O. up to current values of the order of 10 times the earth fault setting provided t h a t the phase burden effectively imposed on each current transformer does not exceed 50% of it s rated burden. or stability during through fault conditions. H. The rated accuracy limit factor is not less than 10 the earth fault relay is not set below 30 % The burden of the relay at its setting does not exceed 4VA The use of a higher relay setting the use of an earth fault relay having a burden of less than 4VA at its setting The use of current transformers having a product of rated output and rated accuracy factor in excess of 150. 3 . Class 5P current transformers in which the product of rated output and accuracy limit factor approaches 150 should be used.Bus Bar Protection Schemes. Types and voltage level of Feeders A – O.Transformers Protection Schemes. Class “X” Current Transformer Protection current transformers specified in terms of complying with Class ' X I Specification is generally applicable to unit systems where balancing of outputs from each end of the protected plant is vital. and relay RCT .Is a constant found by realistic heavy current tests? In . Vk = K In (RCT + 2RL + R0) Where K .

3. G. Lines Protection Schemes • I.T Non Direction O/C & EF Relay 11 KV O. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip (For Cable Tail) Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here 33 and 22 KV O. Cable • 220 KV U. T Line • 33 KV O. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5. Cable • 33 KV U.D.H. T Line • 22 KV O. 275 and 220 KV O. Cable • 11 KV U. H. H.M. Inter Trip. Cable 500.D. Inter Trip. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5.T. T Line • 66 KV O. G. 4. Lines Protection Schemes • I. 4. T Line B – U. I. I. H.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. G.M.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. 2.H. 2. T Line • 220 KV O.T. G.T.• 275 KV O.D. G. Lines Protection Schemes • Main Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Under Reach Scheme.H. H. (PUTT) • Backup Protection: 1.D.H.M. H. Cable • 132 KV U.D. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip (For Cable Tail ) Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here 132 and 66 KV O. H. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe. H. T Line • 132 KV O.M. 400. G. (POTT) • Main (B) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Under Reach Scheme. Cable • 66 KV U.T.T Direction O/C & EF Relay 320 . G. T Line • 11 KV O. 3. (PUTT) • Back up Protection: 1.T Direction O/C & EF Relay • I.M. Cables • 275 KV U. Lines Protection Schemes • Main (A) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Over Reach Scheme. Circuit Breaker Fail To Tripe.

D. Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Back up Protection: • I. (POTT) With Carrier Signal through Pilot Cable • Back up Protection: 1.G. and 66 KV U.C.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. 3. Example for 300 KV feeder protection scheme 321 . Line Protection Scheme • Main (A) Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Main (B) Protection: Distance Protection Permissive Over Reach Scheme. Inter Trip. 4.M.G. 220 U. Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Back up Protection: • I.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe. 4.M.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip 132. I.M. 2. 2. Line Protection Scheme • Main Protection: Differential Protection (Solkor – R) • Back up Protection: 1. Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip 33.G. Inter Trip (Through Pilot Cable).D.M.G.D. I.275.M.C. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay.D. • I. SF6 Pressure Low Trip 5. 11 KV U. • Cable Oil Pressure Low Trip.C.C.D.T Directional O/C & E/F Relay. 22 KV U. Circuit Breaker Fail to Tripe 3.

Example for 132 KV feeder protection scheme 322 .

20 MVA & 15 MVA 2 Winding Power Transformer 33 KV / 11 KV. (Y.• • • • Transformers Protection Schemes Some types of power transformers 300 MVA. 323 . 75 MVA.Y. 3 Winding Power Transformer 275 KV / 132 KV / 33 KV.Δ). 30 MVA 2 Winding Power Transformer 132 KV / 11 KV. 2 Winding Power Transformer 1 32 KV / 33 KV. & 45 MVA.

C. Inter Trip (through pilot cable). • Main (A&B) Protection: 1.T Direction O/C & E/F relay on 132 KV side 4. • Main (A) Protection: 1. (for cable tails ) 10.M. 2. Restricted Earth Fault Protection. (At the neutral of the LV. • Backup Protection: 1. Winding). I. (both at 275 kv and 132 kv) side neutral of the star winding. 2. • Backup Protection: 1. • Main (A) Protection: 1. Differential Protection. Restricted Earth Fault Protection.2 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme. Cable oil pressure Low Trip. 2 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme. 6. I.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 132 KV side 4. C. 6.M.M. 8.M. Cable oil pressure Low Trip. Winding Temperature Trip.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 33 KV side 3. (At the neutral of the LV. Tap Changer Buchhols Trip. Winding Temperature Trip. 2. 9. Buchhols Trip.D. Inter Trip (through pilot cable). SF6 pressure Low Trip. Differential Protection. Winding. (For 132 KV. 2. 2. C. 4. (For cable tails) 20 & 15 MVA. 45 And 30 MVA. Winding. Differential Protection.B only) 3.B Fail to trip. 324 . 5.B Fail to trip. Stand-By Earth Fault relay at the neutral of LV. 75. Stand-By Earth Fault relay at the neutral of LV. Winding).33 / 11 KV.Drawing : single Line diagram for protection scheme Click Here 300 MVA 3 Winding Power Transformer Protection Scheme. Buchhols Trip. 8.D. 2. 7. Buchhols Trip. 7.D. I.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay on 300 KV side 3. Oil Temperature Trip.D. I. Restricted Earth Fault Protection. Inter Trip (through pilot cable). Tap Changer Buchhols Trip. 5. • BackupProtection: 1.

Differential Protection For each section of bus-bar. . 275. Bus-Bar Protection Scheme. 400. 325 . • 500.Example for 132 KV Transformer protection scheme Bus-Bar Protection Schemes Bus-Bar Protection Schemes. 220 and 132 KV.

. • • • • I. . • • • Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme.Inter Trip (through pilot cable).D. 132 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme. Buchhols Trip. (For cable tails) • SF6 pressure Low Trip.Arc protection or Micro switches protection. . 275 &132 KV.SF6 Pressure low Trip.C. Winding Temperature Trip. 11 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme. • Oil Temperature Trip. • Buchhols Trip. 275. . C.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay. Bus-Bar Protection Scheme. Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme for both connected to 33 KV Bus-Bar or to tertiary of 300 MVA Transformer.B only). • • 22 and 11 KV BUS-Bar Protection Scheme.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. SF6 Pressure low Trip.M.C. . 33 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme..M. “for 132 kV only”).I. • I.M. • Winding Temperature Trip. . .M.I.B.B Fail to trip. .SF6 Pressure Trip.D.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay.D. and 220 KV BB section & BB couplers protection scheme. • Cable oil pressure Low Trip. . • 66 and 33 KV. 400. (For 132 KV.M.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay. 33 KV.I. 500.D.D.M. Shunt Reactor Protection Scheme.T Non Directional O/C & E/F Relay.B Fail to Trip. • Inter Trip (through pilot cable – SHR connected through cable C.Differential Protection For each section of bus-bar or Arc protection or Micro switch protection. 326 . • C.D.I. .B Fail to Trip. Oil Temperature Trip.T Non Direction O/C & E/F relay.

327 . Overloading of a machine or equipment generally) means the machine is taking more current than its rated current. Hence with overloading. The Over-current relays are connected to the system. normally by means of CT's. the time delay is provided (in case of inverse relays). Circuit-breakers fitted with overloaded coils or tripped by overcurrent relays. there is an associated temperature rise. The basic element in Over-current protection is an Over-current relay. Over-current protection includes short-circuit protection. High speed Over-current protection. Fuses 2. Series connected trip coils operating switching devices. Over-current relays in conjunction with current transformers. Over-current protection includes the protection from overloads. Several protective devices are used for over-current protection these include: 1. the fault current is more than load current. When a machine is protected by differential protection. permissible over-current. Short circuits a be phase faults. This is most widely used protection. 4.Over-current and Earth Fault Protection Introduction As the fault impedance is less than load impedance. • The protection should be coordinated with neighboring overcurrent protections so as to discriminate. Inverse minimum time Over-current protection. Over-current relaying has following types: 1. high-set instantaneous relaying is used. Hence fast fault clearance is always desirable on short-circuits. 4. Definite time Over-current protection. Over-current protection is that protection in which the relay picks up when the magnitude of current exceeds the pickup level. Over-current protection of overloads is generally provided by thermal relays. If time delay cannot be permitted. the over-current is provided in addition as a back-up and in some cases to protect the machine from sustained through fault. 3. earth faults or winding faults. and current surges. Short-circuit currents are generally several times (5 to 20) full load current. The permissible temperature rise has a limit based on insulation class and material problems. 2. 3. To achieve this. If a short circuit occurs the circuit impedance is reduced to a low value and therefore a fault is accompanied by large current. The primary requirements of over-current protection are: • The protection should not operate for starting currents. Directional Over-current protection (of above types).

The over-current protection is provided for the following: Motor Protection Over-current protection is the basic type of protection used against overloads and short-circuits in stator windings of motors. The lines (feeders) can be protected by (1) Instantaneous over-current relays. thermal relays used for overload protection and HRC fuses for short-circuit protection. The following relays are used. (3) Directional over-current relay. industrial and domestic equipment are all provided with over-current protection. Lines can be protected by impedance or carrier current protection also. thermal relays and HRC fuses are employed.Applications of Over-current Protection Over-current protection has a wide range of applications. Attracted armature type. Electromagnetic induction type. 4. For inverse time characteristic. generally up to 11 kV. 328 . as the cost of relays plus circuit-breakers is not generally justified Line Protection. Static over-current relays. are used in low voltage medium voltage and high voltage distribution systems. (2) Inverse time over-current relays. For small/medium size motors where cost of CT's and protective relays is not economically justified. etc. 3. For instantaneous over-current protection. over-current relays are provided in addition to differential relays to take care of through faults. Transformer Protection Transformers are provided with over-current protection against faults. HRC fuses. industrial installations commercial. Small transformers below 500 kVA installed in distribution system are generally protected by drop-out fuses. Directional over-current protection. It can be applied where there is an abrupt difference between fault current within the protected section and that outside the protected section and these magnitudes are almost constant. drop out fuses. moving iron type.P. 5. permanent magnet moving coil type and static. when the cost of differential relaying cannot be justified. 2. Relays used in Over-current Protection The choice of relay for over-current protection depends upon the Time / current characteristic and other features desired. 1. Double actuating quantity induction relay with directional feature. Protection of Utility Equipment The furnaces. permanent magnet moving coil type and static. only. However. Inverse time and instantaneous phase and ground over-current relays can be employed for motors above 1200 H. Temperature indicators and alarms are always provided for large transformers.

back-stop arrangement. time is inversely proportional to current i. Definite time curve is one in which operating time is little affected by magnitude of actuating current. However for higher magnitudes of actuating quantity the time is constant. escape mechanisms. becomes less as the magnitude of the actuating quantity is increased.e. the time of operation is almost definite i. usually less than 0.e. I1 * T = K In more inverse characteristic In * T = K Where n can be between 2 to 8 the choice depends on discrimination desired. Definite characteristic 2. The typical characteristics are shown in (Fig.6.1). bellows. 1) An inverse curve is one in which the operating time. Very Inverse In definite characteristic. 329 . etc. I0 * T = K Where: I = Current in relay coil T = Relay lime K = Constant. dash poss. As suck they are not instantaneous in real sense. Not: Now Digital Numerical Relay you can used for all types Characteristics of relay units for over current protection There is a wide variety of relay-units. The major characteristic includes: 1. Such relays are provided with delaying means such as drag magnet. In inverse characteristic. Inverse characteristic 3.1 second. However even definite time relay has a characteristic which is slightly inverse The characteristic with definite minimum time and of inverse type is also called Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) characteristics (Fig. Thermal relays are used widely for over-current protection. Extremely Inverse 4. The relays which are not instantaneous are called Time Delay Relay'. These are classified according to their type and characteristics.08 second. Instantaneous relays are those which have no intentional time lag sod which operate in less than 0. The operating time of a relay for a particular setting and magnitude actuating quantity can be known from the characteristics supplied by the manufacturer.

1) Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) characteristics Principle of trip circuit Referring to (Fig.(Fig. These current flows through relay coils and the relay picks-up. Therefore such schemes are used with solidly earthed systems where phase to phase and phase to earth faults are likely to occur. 330 . 2) responds to phase faults and earth faults including single-phase to earth fault. thereby the trip circuit is closed and the circuit breaker-operates The over-current protection scheme with three over-current relays (Fig. For proper functioning of over-current and earth fault protection. the relay contacts close. When short circuit occurs in the protected zone the secondary current of CT's increases. the choice of CT's and polarity connections should be correct. 2) the three current transformers and relay coils connected in star and the star point is earthed.

Fig. protection.2) Over Current protection with three phase OC relays Methods of CT Connections in Over-current Protection of 3-Phase Circuits Connection Scheme with Three Over-current Relays Over-current protection can be achieved by means of three over-current relays or by two over-current relays (See Table 1). 331 . 2 Two OC relays with two CT's for phase to phase fault protection. Table 1 Fig 1 Description Note One OC with one For balanced CT for over load load only.

Hence flows through the earth-fault relay. When separate earth fault protection is not economical. Since earth faults are relatively frequent. However such protection lacks sensitivity. in the absence of earth-fault. Hence separate earth fault protection is generally provided. Following are the method of earth fault protection. IR+I Y +I B =0 The sum (IR+I Y +I B ) is called residual current The earth-fault relay is connected such that the residual current flows through it (Figs.3 Three OC relays with three CT's for phase to phase fault protection. Two OC and one EF relays for phase to phase and phase to earth fault protection Earth-Fault Protection When the fault current flows through earth return path. 4). 3 In absence of earth-fault the vector sum of three line currents is zero.3 and Fig. Connections of CT's for Earth-fault Protection 1. However. EF current > two time pickup phase current 4 5 Three OC relays EF setting less with three CT's than phase for phase to fault setting phase fault protection and phase to earth fault. Hence the vector sum of three secondary currents is also zero. Earth fault protection senses earth fault current. Therefore. the fault is called Earth Fault. the phase relays sense the earth fault currents. If 332 . Residually connected Earth-fault Relay Referring to Fig. the residually connected earth-fault relay does not operate. in presence of earth fault the conditions is disturbed and (IR+I Y +I B ) is no more zero. earth fault protection is necessary in most cases. Other faults which do not involve earth are called phase faults.

(Fig. the earth-fault relay operates. Such protection is called unrestricted earth-fault protection (Fig. In the scheme discussed here the earth-fault at any location near or away from the location of CT's can cause the residual current flow.the residual current is above the pick-up value.4) Earth fault protection combined with phase fault protection 333 .3) Earth-fault Relay connected in Residual Circuit. Hence the protected zone is not definite.

reactance or solid) and location of fault. Another method of connecting an earth-fault relay is illustrated in Fig 5. The earth-fault protection by relay in neutral to earth circuit depends upon the type of neutral Earthing. Combined Earth-fault and Phase-fault Protection It is convenient to incorporate phase-fault relays and earth-fault relay in a combined phase-fault and earth-fault protection. 5) Earth-fault protection by earth-fault-relay connected in neutral-to-earth circuit. because in case of phase faults current in any at least two phases must increase. The relay senses the earth faults beyond the transformer/generator winding hence such protection is called unrestricted earth-fault protection. 4) The increase in current of phase causes corresponding increase in respective secondary currents. (Fig. Hence two relay-units are enough. voltage transformer is connected between neutral and earth (Fig.2. The protected area is not restricted to the transformer/generator winding alone. In case of large generators. The relay is connected to secondary of a CT whose primary is connected in neutral to earth connection. The fault current finds the return path through the earth and then flows through the neutralto-earth connected. 5). Earth-fault Protection with Core Balance Current Transformers. Such protection can be provided at various voltage levels by connecting earth-fault relay in the neutral-to-earth connection of that voltage level. The magnitude of earth fault current is dependent on type of earthing (resistance. (Zero Sequence CT) 334 . In this type of protection. Earth-fault Relay connected in Neutral to Earth Circuit (Fig. The secondary current flows through respective relay-units Very often only two-phase relays are provided instead of three. The zone of protection cannot be accurately defined.

Core-balance protection can be conveniently used for protection of low-voltage and medium voltage systems. (Ia + Ib + Ic) = 0 Hence Φr = 0 and relay does not operate During earth fault the earth fault current flows through return neutral path. the components of fluxes due to the fields of three conductors are balanced and the secondary current is negligible. This form of protection is likely to be more popular with static relays due to the fewer burdens of the latter. Φ=k (Ia + Ib + I c ) where k is a constant Φ = K * Ia. encircles the conductors of all the three phases.In this type of protection (Fig. Referring to theory of symmetrical components (Ia + Ib + I c )= 3 I c= I n Where. Instantaneous relay unit is generally used with core balance schemes. During earth faults. Ib and I c . such a balance is disturbed and current is induced in the secondary. During normal condition. Very large crosssection of core is necessary for sensitivity less than 10 A. Φb and Φc be corresponding components of magnetic flux in the core. is current in neutral to ground circuit. so that saturation is not a problem. Let Ia. The burden of relays and exciting current are deciding factors. we get resultant flux Φ as. Assuming linearity. During no-earth-fault condition. 6) a single ring shaped core of magnetic material. when earth fault is absent. If = 3Iao = In 335 . A secondary coil is connected to a relay unit. be the three line currents and Φa. Io is zero sequence current and In. Theory of Core Balance CT . The cross-section of ring-core is (Fig. For example for single line ground fault.6) Principle of core-balance CT for earth fault protection Ample.

7). the Core Balance Protection is used along with the cable box and should be installed before making the cable joint. Earthing connection passing through 5 5. Thereby the error due to sheath currents is eliminated. Insulator support for 1 4. Application for Core Balance CT's with Cable Termination Joints The termination of a three core cable into three separate lines or bus-bars is through cable terminal box. Ref.Hence the zero-sequence component of I o produces the resultant flux Φr in the core. The sheath currents (Ish) flow through the sheath to the cover of cable-box and then to earth through the earthing connection between cable-box. The switchgear is lightly y insulated from the earth. Cable terminal box 2. For eliminating the error due to sheath current (Ish) the earthing lead between the cable-box and the earth should be taken through the core of the core balance protection. Sheath of 3 core cable connection to (1) 3. The metal-frame-work or enclosure of the switchgear is earthed with a primary of a CT in between (Fig. 8). The induced current flowing through cable sheath of normal healthy cable needs particular attention with respect to the core balance protection. 1. (Fig. Hence core balance current transformer is also called as zero sequence current transformers (ZSCT). The cable box should be insulated from earth. 336 . Core balance CT Fig (7) Mounting of Core Balance CT with Cable Terminal Box Frame-leakage Protection The metal-clad switchgear can be provided with frame leakage protection.

Frame leakage method. 5. The power directional relay does not measure the power but is arranged to respond to the direction of power flow.in a single relay casing. Directional Over-current Protection The over-current protection can be given directional feature by adding directional element in the protection system. Consider a feeder AC (Fig. 6. 3. the resistance to earth being about 12 ohms. 9) passing through sub-section B. Circulating current differential protection. It is set such that it actuates for faults occurring in one direction only. Relay connected in neutral-to-ground circuit. In the event of an earth fault within the switchgear. 2. If power flow is in the opposite direction. Residually connected relay. Directional over-current protection responds to over-currents for a particular direction flow. relative to the location of the relay. the directional over-current protection remains un-operative. Metal clad switchgear Earthing bus Earth fault current EF Relay Earth (Fig. the earth-fault current finds the' path through the neutral connection. it is sensed by the earth fault relay. 8) Principle of frame-leakage protection of metal-clad-switchgear Circulating current differential protection also responds to earth-faults within its protected zone. It does not act for faults occurring in the other direction. Earth-fault protection can be achieved by following methods: 1. The directional relay recognizes the direction in which fault occurs. 4. Distance relays arranged for detecting earth faults on lines. While doing so.The concrete foundation of the switchgear and the cable-boxes and other conduits are slightly insulated from earth. Directional operation of relay is used where the selectivity can be achieved by directional relaying. The circuit breaker CB3 is provided with a directional 337 . Core-balance-scheme. Directional over-current protection comprises over-current relay and power directional relay.

10) Reverse powers protection against motoring action of a generator Directional power protection operates in accordance with the direction of power flow. 9) Principle of directional protection Relay `R' which will trip the breaker CB3 if fault power flow in direction C alone. However. Directional of flow For tripping CB R (Fig. In directional over-current relay. in Reverse Power Relays. Therefore for faults in feeder AB. 10). 338 . the directional element measures magnitude and direction of power flow. the directional element does not measure the magnitude of power. Reverse power protection operates when the power direction is reversed in relation to the normal working direction. If the prime mover fails. There are four common methods of connecting the relay depending upon phase angle between current in the current coil and voltage applied to the voltage coil. Relay connections of Single Phase Directional Over-current Relay : The current coils in the directional over-current relay are normally connected to a secondary of line CT.A B C CB1 CB2 CB3 CB4 R R R R (Fig. the circuit breaker CB3 does not trip unnecessarily. It senses only direction of power flow. the generator continues to run as a motor and takes power from bus-bars. having phase to phase output (of 110 V). Reverse power relay is different in construction than directional over-current relay. However for faults in feeder BC the circuit-breaker CB3 trips Because it's protective relaying is set with a directional feature to act in direction AC Another interesting example of directional protection is that of reverse power protection of generator (Fig. The voltage coil of directional element is connected to a line VT.

339 .

Vb and Vc.Fig. it is necessary to make the response of the relay directional by the introduction of directional control elements. These are basically power measuring devices in which the system voltage is used as a reference for establishing the relative direction or phase of the fault current. At other points in the system the vector displacement will be less.12 Phase voltages for a B-C fault Responding purely to the active component would not develop a high torque and might be much slower and less decisive than it could be. is reactive so that the fault power factor is usually low. Although power measuring devices in principle. but relays located at such points will receive voltages which are unbalanced in their value and phase position. 340 . the locus of their ends being the original line be for a homogeneous system. When the fault is single-phase. Normal system voltages Vb 1 and V c 1 Voltages at fault location on faulted phases Vb 2 and V c 2 Voltages remote from fault location Fig. The system voltage must collapse at the point of short circuit.11 Numerical Over current. The power system. A relay V a . apart from loads. they are not arranged to respond to the actual system power for a number of reasons: 1. So a B—C phase fault will cause the B and C phase voltage vectors to move together.12) At the point of fault the vectors will coincide. as shown in (Fig. and Overload Protection Relay 3-Phase Directional over current relays When fault current can flow in both directions through the relay location. 1. it is the particular voltage across the shortcircuited points which are reduced. but the fault voltage to earth will be half the initial phase to neutral voltage. leaving zero voltage across the fault.

The various connections are dependent on the phase angle. To this end. Also. In this case. and it is satisfactory under all conditions for plain feeders provided that three phase elements are employed. is 0°. each phase of the relay is polarized with a voltage which will not be reduced excessively except by close three-phase faults. This connection has been used widely in the past. When only two phase elements and an earth fault element are 341 . there is a danger that at least one of the three phase relays will operate for faults in the reverse direction. Although the relay element may be inherently wattmetric. the potential coil voltage lags the current in the current coil by 30° and gives a tripping zone from 60° leading to 120° lagging currents. for all fault conditions. For unity power factor and 0. 30° relay connection (0° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage V ac.866 of maximum. taking into account the possible range of source and line impedances. and which will remain in a satisfactory relationship to the current under all conditions. however. its characteristic can be varied by the addition of phase shifting components to give maximum torque at the required phase angle. when applied to plain feeders If applied to transformer feeders. the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied Vac voltage by 90°. by which the current and voltage applied to the relay are displaced. The most satisfactory maximum torque angle for this connection. and it can be shown that a directional element having this connection and 0° MTA will provide correct discrimination for all types of faults. as shown in (Fig.The effect of the large unbalance in currents and voltages is to make the torques developed by the different phase elements vary widely and even differ in sign if the quantities applied to the relay are not chosen carefully. at unity system power factor. A number of different connections have been used and these are discussed below. that ensures correct operation when used for the protection of plain feeders. for this reason a directional element having this connection should never be used to protect transformer feeders. Examination of the suitability of each arrangement involves determining the limiting conditions of the voltage and current applied to each phase element of the relay. so the maximum torque occurs when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 30°. Relay maximum torque The maximum torque angle (MTA) is defined as the angle by which the current applied to the relay must be displaced from the voltage applied to the relay to produce maximum torque.5 lagging power factor the maximum torque available is 0. 13a). Relay connections This is the arrangement whereby suitable current and voltage quantities are applied to the relay.

which quantities have a large relative phase displacement. but in the case of a two phase and one earth fault element relay. will produce only a poor torque. A phase element connected l a Va c B phase element connected l b Vb a C phase element connected Ic Vcb (a) Characteristic and inputs for phase A element (b) B-C Fault with voltage distortion (Fig.used there is a probability of failure to operate for one condition. operation will depend upon the C element. which may fail to operate if the fault is close to the relaying point. An interphase short circuit causes two elements to be energized but for low power factors one will receive inputs which. as shown in (Fig. This is satisfactory provided that three phase elements are used. 13b). with the B phase element omitted. although correct. 13) Vector diagrams for the 30° connection 342 . but the C element will receive Ic and the collapsed Vcb voltage. In particular a B—C fault will strongly energize the B element with lb current and Vba voltage.

In this case. When used for the protection of plain feeders there is a slight possibility of the element associated with the A phase mal-operating for a reversed B—C fault. the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied voltage to the relay by 90°.14). so maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60°. is 0°. although the directional element may mal-operation.866. see (Fig. it is unlikely that the over current element which the directional element controls will receive sufficient current to cause it to operate. When applied to transformer feeders there is a possibility of one of the directional elements mal-operation for an earth fault on the star side of a 343 . that is. It has been proved that the most suitable maximum torque angle for this relay connection. For this reason the connection may be safely recommended for the protection of plain feeders. one which ensures correct directional discrimination with the minimum risk of mal-operation when applied to either plain or transformer feeders. The torque at unity power factor is 0. 1 connection (0° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with lab current and Vac voltage.60° No. which uses Vac voltage with delta current produced by adding phase A and phase B currents at unity power factor. and provides a correct directional tripping zone over a current range of 30° leading to 150° lagging. This connection.14) Vector diagram for the 60° No.5 of maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0. gives a current leading the voltage Vac by 60°. 1 connection (phase A element) However. A phase element connected lab Vac B phase element connected I b c V b a C phase element connected Ica Vcb (Fig.

This connection gives A phase element connected Ia —Vc B phase element connected Ib — Va C phase element connected Ic —Vb (Fig. for two reasons: first. The possibility of mal-operation with this connection is very remote. The relay torque at unity power factor is 0. the source impedance would have to be relatively small and have a very low angle at the same time that the arc resistance of the fault was high. 344 . however. For this reason. For mal-operation to occur. The connection. see (Fig. it is rarely used. remote from the relay end. 60° No. the flux of the voltage coil lags the applied voltage by 90° so the maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60°. 2 connection (phase A element).15).15) Vector diagram for the 60° No. a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 30° leading to 150° lagging. in most systems the source impedance may be safely assumed to be largely reactive.5 of the relay maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0. and also because it offers no advantage over the 90° connection. if the arc resistance is high enough to cause mal-operation of the directional element it is unlikely that the over current element associated with the mal-operation directional element will see sufficient current to operate.866. does suffer from the disadvantage that it is necessary to connect the current transformers in delta.delta/star transformer. and secondly. 2 connection (0° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage In this case. which usually precludes their being used for any other protective function.

For this reason.16).16) Vector diagram for the 90°. 90°.45° characteristic (45° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with current la and voltage Vbc displaced by 45° in an anti-clockwise direction.The most suitable maximum torque angle for a directional element using this connection is 0°.866. the 60° No. In this case. 90°.5 of the relay maximum torque and at zero power factor lagging 0. In this case. A relay designed .for quadrature connection and having a maximum torque angle of 30° is recommended when the relay is used for the protection of plain feeders with the zero sequence source behind the relaying point.30° characteristic (30° MTA) The A phase relay is supplied with la current and Vbc voltage displaced by 30° in an anti-clockwise direction. and the relay maximum torque is 345 . This connection gives a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 30° leading to 150° lagging. there is a risk of incorrect operation for all types of faults with the exception of three-phase faults. 2 connection is now never recommended. However. the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied voltage Vbc by 45°.30° connection (Phase A element) 90° relay quadrature connection This is the standard connection for the type CDD relay. A phase element connected Ia Vbc B phase element connected Ib Vca C phase element connected Ic Vab (Fig. depending on the angle by which the applied voltage is shifted to produce the relay maximum torque angle. see (Fig. the flux due to the voltage coil lags the applied voltage Vbc by 60°. The relay torque at unity power factor is 0. and the relay maximum torque is produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 60°. even if this maximum torque angle is used. two types are available.

The 90°.707 of the maximum torque and the same at zero power factor lagging. The relay torque at unity power factor is 0. It can be shown analytically that the possibility of maloperation with the 90°.17). the magnitude of the current input to the relay would be insufficient to cause the over current element to operate. however.17) Vector diagram for the 90°-45° connection (Phase A element) This connection is recommended for the protection of transformer feeders or feeders which have a zero sequence source in front of the relay. It should be remembered. are such that. see (Fig. for all practical purposes.produced when the current lags the system phase to neutral voltage by 45°. This connection gives a correct directional tripping zone over the current range of 45° leading to 135° lagging. 346 .Vbc B phase element connected Ih Vca C phase element connected Ic Vab (Fig. This connection should also be used whenever single-phase directional relays are applied to a circuit Theoretically.45° connection is essential in the case of parallel trans-formers or transformer feeders. A phase element connected Ia . in practice. a phaseground fault on a transformer feeder with the zero sequence source in front of the relay and a phase-phase fault on a power transformer with the relay looking into the delta winding of the transformer. that the conditions assumed above to establish the maximum angular displacement between the current and voltage quantities at the relay.45° connection is. nonexistent. in order to ensure correct relay operation for faults beyond the star/ delta transformer. three fault conditions can cause mal-operation of the directional element: a phase-phase ground fault on a plain feeder.

whenever the operating times of the relays at each substation are different. isolate both lines and completely disconnect the power supply.(Fig. the two relays with the same operating time are at the same substation and will have to be directional. regardless of the relay settings used. so the relay with the longer operating time can be non-directional. This is done by setting the directional relays R'1 and R'2 as shown in (Fig. The usual practice is to set relays R'1 and R'2 to 50% of the normal full load of the protected circuit and 0. the difference between their operating times is never less than the grading margin. faults. any faults that might occur on any one line will. Grading of ring mains 347 .18) with their directional elements looking into the protected line.1 TMS. Parallel feeders If non-directional relays are applied to parallel feeders.18) Directional relays applied to parallel feeders. With this type of system configuration it is necessary to apply directional relays at the receiving end and to grade them with the non-directional relays at the sending end. that is. can be made non-directional. the two relays with the same operating time are at different substations and therefore do not need to be directional. where the setting of both relays are identical. at inter-mediate substations. and giving them lower time and current settings than relays R1 and R2. Ring mains Directional relays are more commonly applied to ring mains. but care must be taken to ensure that their continuous thermal rating of twice rated current is not exceeded. whereas when the number of feeders is an odd number. provided that in the latter case the relays are located on the same feeder. to ensure correct discriminative operation of the relays during line. In the case of a ring main fed at one point only. one at each end of the feeder. It is interesting to note that when the number of feeders round the ring is an even number. the relays at the supply end and at the midpoint substation. It may also be noted that.

Disconnection of the faulty line is carried out according to time and fault current direction.19) Grading of ring mains The arrows associated with the relaying points indicate the direction of current flow that will cause the relays to operate. It will also be found that the operating times of the relays that are inoperative are 348 . that is. such as those at intermediate substations around the ring where the power can flow in either direction. as shown in (Fig.19) (Fig. As in any parallel system.The usual procedure for grading relays in an inter-connected system is to open the ring at the supply point and to grade the relays first clockwise and then anti-clockwise. A double-headed arrow is used to indicate a non-directional relay. the fault current has two parallel paths and divides itself in the inverse ratio of their impedances. Thus. The directional relays are set in accordance with the invariable rule. applicable to all forms of directional protection that the current in the system must flow from the substation bus-bars into the protected line in order that the relays may operate. the relays looking in a clock-wise direction round the ring are arranged to operate in the sequence 1—2—3—4—5—6 and the relays looking in the anti-clockwise direction are arranged to operate in the sequence 1'—2'—3'—4'—5'—6'. and the other set operative. and a single-headed arrow a directional relay. one set of relays will be made inoperative because of the direction of current flow. such as those at the supply point where the power can flow only in one direction. at each substation in the ring.

With two sources of supply. with the exception of the mid-point substation. the faulty line is the only one to be disconnected from the ring and the power supply is maintained to all the substations. V RS= V a + V b + V c Where V a . V b and Vc are phase voltages. Directional Earth-Fault Protection In the directional over-current protection the current coil of relay is actuated from secondary current of line CT. The first is to open the ring at one of the supply points. One to the coils is connected in residual current circuits (Ref. the voltage coil is actuated by secondary of line VT. V b a n d V c are secondary voltages of the potential transformer 349 . whichever is more convenient. two solutions are possible. where the operating times of relays 3 and 3' happen to be the same. This applies to both paths to the fault. such as pilot wire relays. When two or more power sources feed into a ring main.faster than those of the operative relays. In directional earth fault relay. by means of a suitable high set instantaneous over-current relay and then to proceed to grade the ring as in the case of a single infeed. The relays which are operative are graded downwards towards the fault and the last to be affected by the fault operates first. the voltage coil is actuated by the residual voltage. The directional earth fault relay (single phase unit) has two coils. whereas the current coil of directional earth fault relay is actuated by residual current. Consequently. This coil gets current during earth-faults. In directional over-current relay. time graded over current protection is difficult to apply and full discrimination may not be possible. the second to treat the section of the ring between the two supply points as a continuous bus separate from the ring and to protect it with a unit system of protection. Referring to (Fig. The polarizing quantity is obtained either from residual current I RS = (Ia + Ib + Ic) or residual voltage VRs = V a + V b + V c Where V a . 11) the directional earth-fault relay has two coils. Fig. and then proceed to grade the ring as in the case of a single infeed. The other coil gets residual voltage. Directional earth fault relays sense the direction in which earth fault occurs with respect to the relay location and it operates for fault in a particular direction. 5).

A one-line diagram of the power system involved. 3. per cent or per unit. of all power transformers. the out of balance current is given to the current coil and the residual voltage VRs is given to the voltage coil of the relay. The coil connected in potential-transformer secondary circuit gives a polarizing field. (Fig. system analysis must be used. The current coil of earth-fault relay is connected either in neutral to ground circuit or in residually connected secondary CT circuit. The over-current relays are connected the secondary of current transformer. The impedances in ohms.α) Φ = angle between I RS and VRs α = angle of maximum torque. The residual current I RS i. rotating machines and feeder circuits. Frame leakage protection can be used for metal clad switchgear. Since large scale tests are normally impracticable. 20) Connections of a directional earth-fault relay. Directional over-current relay and Directional Earth fault relay responds to fault in which power flow is in the set direction from the CT and PT locations. Such directional relays are used when power can flow from both directions to the fault point. Summary Over-current protection responds to increase in current above the pick-up value over-currents are caused by overloads and short-circuits.('Three phase five limb potential transformer or three separate single phase potential transformers connected as shown in Fig. Core balance CTs are used for earth-fault protection. 350 . 2. 20). The torque is proportional to T = I RS * V RS * cos (Φ . definite time characteristic. Earth fault protection responds to single line to ground faults and double line to ground faults. It is generally sufficient to use machine transient reactance X'd and to work on the instantaneous symmetrical currents. Co-ordination Correct current relay application requires knowledge of the fault current that can flow in each part of the network. The characteristic of over-current relays include inverse time characteristic. The data required for a relay setting study are: 1. The maximum and minimum values of short circuit currents that are expected to flow through each protective device.e. showing the type and rating of the protective devices and their associated current transformers.

1. at the infeed end of each section of the power system. D and E. that are to operate in series. 9. 5. 21) to illustrate the principle. Make sure that the relay farthest from the source has current settings equal to or less than the relays behind it. It is usually more convenient to use a scale corresponding to the current expected at the lowest voltage base or to use the predominant voltage base. A simple radial distribution system is shown in (Fig. 21) Radial systems with time discrimination Circuit breaker protection is provided at B. each one must select and isolate only the faulty section of the power system network. that is. Whenever possible. The alternatives are a common MVA base or a separate current scale for each system voltage. Performance curves of the current transformers. Each protection unit comprises a definite time delay over current relay in which the operation of the current 351 . Decrement curves showing the rate of decay of the fault current supplied by the generators. 8. 11. 6. The basic rules for correct relay co-ordination can generally be stated as follows: 10. The maximum peak load current through protective devices. such as fuses. 7. Discrimination by time In this method an appropriate time interval is given by each of the relays controlling the circuit breakers in a power system to ensure that the breaker nearest to the fault opens first. The common aim of all three methods is to give correct discrimination. PRINCIPLES OF TIME/CURRENT GRADING Among the various possible methods used to achieve correct relay coordination are those using either time or over current or a combination of both time and over-current. The relay settings are first determined so as to give the shortest operating times at maximum fault levels and then checked to see if operation will also be satisfactory at the minimum fault current expected. that the primary current required operating the relay in front is always equal to or less than the primary current required operating the relay behind it. leaving the rest of the system undisturbed. That is to say. use relays with the same operating characteristic in series with each other. (Fig. The starting current requirements of motors and the starting and stalling times of induction motors. C.4. It is always advisable to plot the curves of relays and other protective devices. that is. on a common scale.

therefore. However. (Fig. Typically. 1. the system short circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1) A Where Zs = source impedance = 11 2 / 250 = 0. The relay at B is set at the shortest time delay permissible to allow a fuse to blow for a fault on the secondary side of trans-former A. where the fault level (MVA) is highest. which provides the means of discrimination.725 = 8800 A So a relay controlling the circuit breaker at C and set to operate at a fault current of 8800 A would in simple theory protect the whole of the cable section between C and B. It is the time delay element. and the subsequent operation of the circuit breaker at B will clear the fault before the relays at C. there are two important practical points which affect this method of co-ordination. because of the difference in impedance values between the source and the fault. 352 . typically. If a fault occurs at F.25s. D and E have time to operate. 22) Radial system with current discrimination For a fault at F1.24 ohms Hence I=6350/0. Discrimination by current Discrimination by current relies on the fact that the fault current varies with the position of the fault. (Fig. a time delay of 0.485 ohms ZL1= cable impedance between C and B = 0. the relays controlling the various circuit breakers are set to operate at suitably tapered values such that only the relay nearest to the fault trips its breaker. the relay at B will operate in 0. For this reason. the relay is sometimes described as an 'independent definite time delay relay' since its operating time is for practical purposes independent of the level of over current. 22) illustrates the method.25s is adequate. Hence. The main disadvantage of this method of discrimination is that the longest fault clearance time occurs for faults in the section closest to the power source. Provided the setting of the current element is below the fault current value this element plays no part in the achievement of discrimination.sensitive element simply initiates the time delay element.

a relay controlling the circuit breaker at B and set to operate at a current of 2200 A plus a safety margin would not operate for a fault at F 4 and would thus discriminate with the relay at A. for either value of source level. that is.12 ohms Hence I = 6350/ 2. so a relay set at 8800 A would not protect any of the cable section concerned. at the end of the 11 kV cable feeding the 4 MVA transformers. At this lower fault level the fault current would not exceed 6800 A even for a cable fault close to C.1%. It is not practical to distinguish between a fault at Fl and a fault at F 2. the short-circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1 + ZL2 +ZT) Where ZS = source impedance =112 / 250 = 0.04 ohms ZT = transformer impedance =0. Alternatively. the problem changes appreciably when there is significant impedance between the two circuit breakers concerned. assuming a source fault level of 130 MVA: I = 6350 /(0. typically from 250 MVA to 130 MVA.24 + 0.485 ohms ZL1 = cable impedance between C and B 0. 2. Discrimination by current is therefore not a practical proposition for correct grading between the circuit breakers at C and B. Assuming a fault at F 4. assuming a fault at F3.93 + 0. In practice.24 ohms ZL2 = cable impedance between B and 4 MVA transformer 0. there would be variations in the source fault level.004)=5250 Amp. However.885 = 2200 A For this reason. Now. the relay at B would operate correctly for faults anywhere on the 11 kV cable feeding the transformer.3 x 2200. that is. it is reasonable to choose a relay setting of 1.07(112/4) =2. corresponding to a change in fault current of approximately 0.1. In other words. A 353 . 22). the short-circuit current is given by: I = 6350 /(Zs + ZL1 + ZL2 +ZT) I = 6350 /(0. This can be seen by considering the grading required between the circuit breakers at B and A in (Fig. Assuming a safety margin of 20% to allow for relay errors and a further 10% for variations in the system impedance values.04)=8300 Amp. 2860 A for the relay at B.485 + 0. since the distance between these points can be only a few meters.24 + 0.

ELECTRIC FIELD STRESSES ELECTRIC FIELD STRESSES Like In mechanical . φ is the applied voltage. temperature. of the materials and the stresses that are generated during their operation. such as pressure. Gas/vacuum as Insulator Air at atmospheric pressure is the most common gaseous insulation. And (read Del) operator is defined as ∇ →1 ∇ = ax ∂ ∂ ∂ + ay + az ∂X ∂Y ∂Y Where ax. etc. The breakdown of air is of considerable practical importance to the design engineers of power 354 . Then. It can also be defined as the voltage at which the current starts increasing to very high values unless controlled by the external impedance of the circuit. failure can occur as a result of thermal or electrochemical deterioration of the insulation. r = a . As already mentioned. nature of applied voltage.designs where the criterion for design depends on the mechanical strength. and is equal to the electric field intensity E = −∇ϕ Where E is the electric field intensity. stress to which an insulating material is subjected to is numerically equal to the voltage gradient.Z The electric breakdown strength of insulating materials depends on a variety of parameters. ay. The probability of failure will be greatly reduced if such discharges could be eliminated at the normal working voltage. humidity. and surface conditions of electrodes. X +a . material of electrodes. While the conductors carry current the insulators prevent the flow of currents undesired paths the electric. the dielectric strength of insulating materials and the electric field stresses developed in them when subjected to high voltages are. in high voltage applications. The dielectric strength of an insulating material can be defined as the maximum dielectric stress which the material can Withstand. An understanding of the failure of the insulation will be possible by the study of the possible mechanisms by which the failure can occur. the most important material used in a high voltage apparatus is the insulation. The important factors in high voltage systems in a high voltage apparatus the important materials used are conductors and insulators. and aZ are components of position vector x y z . field configurations.Y + a . imperfections in dielectric materials. The most common cause of insulation failure is the presence of discharges either within the voids in the insulation or over the surface of the insulation.

air and SF6/N2 mixtures show good potential to replace SF6 gas in high voltage apparatus. the breakdown strength reduces considerably due to the presence of impurities. In some gases. However. but its dielectric strength is the same as that of air. and Circuit Breakers. However. Highly purified liquids have dielectric strengths as high as 1 MV/cm. capacitors. High pressure gas. Temporary failures due to over voltage are reinsulated quickly by liquid flow to the attacked area. x-ray and field emission tubes. The breakdown voltage at higher pressures in gases shows an increasing dependence on the nature and smoothness of the electrode material. This decreases to less than 105 V/cm for gaps of several centimeters. In the next few years. and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Under high vacuum conditions. the products of the discharges may deposit on solid insulation supports and may lead to surface breakdown over these solid supports. of the gases examined to-date. free electrons are removed by attachment to neutral gas molecules. the breakdown mechanisms are significantly altered by the presence of the solid impurities and dissolved gases. They have the advantage that a puncture path is self-healing. field gradients up to 25 MV/m have been realized. breakdown occurs. It is relevant to point out that. is sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). Ideally. vacuum is the best insulator with field strengths up to 107 V/cm. and hence the breakdown strength is quite high. provides a flexible and reliable medium for high voltage insulation using gases at high pressures. dichlorodifluor9methane (CC12F2) (popularly known as Freon). Other important practical insulating gases are carbon dioxide (CO2). Vacuum insulation is used in particle accelerators. Nitrogen (N2) was the gas first used at high pressures because of its inertness and chemical stability. the breakdown strength of such gases is substantially large. SF6/N2. Pure nitrogen. electron microscopes. where the pressures are below 10-4 ton. the breakdown cannot occur due to collisional processes like in gases. The breakdown mechanism in the case of very pure liquids is the same as the gas breakdown. LIQUID DIELECTRICS Liquids are used in high voltage equipment to serve the dual purpose of insulation and heat condition. Electrons get multiplied in an exponential manner. SF6 gas has to be replaced by a new gas and lot of research is being done to find such a gas.transmission lines and power apparatus. limited only by emissions from the electrode surfaces. in recent years pure SF6 gas has been found to be a green house gas causing environmental hazards and therefore research efforts are presently focussed on finding a replacement gas or gas mixture which is environmentally friendly. but in commercial liquids. SF6 has probably the most attractive overall dielectric and arc quenching properties for gas insulated high voltage systems. An example of such a gas. with larger dielectric strength. and if the applied voltage is sufficiently large. 355 . Under actual service conditions. Breakdown occurs in gases due to the process of collisional ionization.

natural rubber. silicones. where the liquid only fills up the voids in the solid dielectric. Kraft paper. However. in 1970s it was found that Askarels which more extensively used. A number of considerations enter into the selection of any dielectric liquid. in applications like high voltage bushings. Widely used inorganic materials are ceramics and glass. gas content. If the solid insulating material is truly homogeneous and is free from imperfections. the breakdown occurs over the surface than in the solid itself. viscosity. it can be used at stresses as high as 100–200 kV/cm. flash point. the breakdown fields obtained are very much lower than this value. This is the `intrinsic breakdown strength'. The important electrical properties of the liquid include the dielectric strength. solid/vacuum insulation and solid/liquid composite insulation systems (trans356 . and the surface insulation failure is the most frequent cause of trouble in practice. exhibit health hazards and therefore most countries have legally banned their production and use. Composites In many engineering applications.Petroleum oils are the commonest insulating liquids. in practice. However. and organic esters including castor oil are used in significant quantities. 2. and can be obtained only under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. Because of their low dissipation factor and other excellent characteristics. fluorocarbons. dielectric constant. These include silicone oils. Many new liquids have since been developed which have no adverse environmental hazards. Examples of such systems are solid/gas insulation (transmission line insulators). However. mainly in parallel. polybutanes are being increasingly used in the electrical industry. On the other hand. Solid Dielectrics A good solid dielectric should have some of the properties mentioned earlier for gases and liquids and it should also possess good mechanical and bonding strengths. The breakdown occurs due to many mechanisms. In general. giving rise to composite insulation systems. its breakdown stress will be as high as 10 MV/cm. stability. polyethylene (PE) or cross linked polyethylene (XLPE). Many organic and inorganic materials are used for high voltage insulation purposes. synthetic and fluorinated hydrocarbons. · SOLIDS AND COMPOSITES 1. etc. dissipation factor. In practical applications liquids are normally used at voltage stresses of about 50–60 kV/cm when the equipment is continuously operated. conductivity. The most widely used organic materials are thermosetting epoxy resins such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC). silicon rubber and polypropylene rubber are some of the other materials widely used as insulates in electrical equipment. more than one types of insulation are used together.

it is important to make sure that both the components of the composite should be chemically stable and will not react with each other under the application of combined thermal. oil impregnated paper and oil impregnated metallised plastic film etc). mechanical and electrical stresses over the expected life of the equipment. They should also have nearly equal dielectric constants. in most of the high voltage apparatus. the liquid insulate should not absorb any impurities from the solid. space charges are not normally present. Therefore. it is very essential that the electric stress should be properly estimated and its distribution known-in a high voltage apparatus. · Estimation and control of electrical The electric field distribution is usually governed by the Poisson's equation: 2 ∇ ϕ =− ρ ε0 → 2 Where φ is the potential at a given point. which may adversely affect its resistivity. In the application of composites. dielectric strength. It is the intensity of the electric field that determines the onset of breakdown and the rate of increase of current before breakdown.former winding insulation. ρ Is the space charge density in the region Is the electric permittivity of free space (vacuum) However. loss factor and other properties of the liquid dielectric. and hence the potential distribution is governed by the Laplace's equation: ε0 ∇ 2ϕ = 0 →3 357 . such as in the presence of sharp points. Further. Special care should be exercised in eliminating the stress in the regions where it is expected to be maximum.

the stress in the gas becomes times that in the solid dielectric. The equipotentials cut the field lines at right angles. The important rules are 4. 1 εr εr 358 . The potential distribution can also be calculated directly. Once the voltage distribution of a given geometry is established. and in any region. etc. Considering a solid insulation in a gas medium. standard capacitors. dx apart. the maximum electric field is given by dv/dx. However. 2. When two dielectrics of widely different permittivity are in series. In many practical cases. this is very difficult except for simple geometries. the electric stress is very much higher in the medium of lower permittivity. This is a case normally encountered in high voltage electrodes of the bushings. This enhanced stress occurs at the electrode edges and one method of overcoming this is to increase the electrode diameter. 5. Other methods of stress control are shown in Fig. (2) and (3) the operator properties ∇2 is called the Laplacian and is a vector with ∇2 = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 ∂X 2 ∂y ∂Z There are many methods available for determining the potential distribution.In Eqs. where dv is the voltage difference between two successive equipotentials. The most commonly used methods are 1. and The numerical methods 3. The electrolytic tank method. it is easy to refashion or redesign the electrodes to minimize the stresses so that the onset of corona is prevented. where is the relative permittivity of the solid dielectric. When the equipotentials and field lines are drawn to form curvilinear squares. Considerable amount of labour and time can be saved by properly 'choosing the planes of symmetry and shaping the electrodes accordingly. a good understanding of the problem is possible by using some simple rules to plot the field lines and equipotentials. the density of the field lines is an indication of the electric stress in a given region.

Special care should be exercised in eliminating the 359 . and the surface insulation failure is the most frequent cause of trouble in practice. it is very essential that the electric stress should be properly estimated and its distribution known in a high voltage apparatus. It is the intensity of the electric field that determines the onset of breakdown and the rate of increase of current before breakdown. Composites In many engineering applications. 2. If the solid insulating material is truly homogeneous and is free from imperfections. mainly in parallel. loss factor and other properties of the liquid dielectric. Solid Dielectrics A good solid dielectric should have some of the properties mentioned earlier for gases and liquids and it should also possess good mechanical and bonding strengths. Many organic and inorganic' materials are used for high voltage insulation purposes. This is the `intrinsic breakdown strength'. polyethylene (PE) or cross linked polyethylene (XLPE). the breakdown fields obtained are very much lower than this value. in practice. The breakdown occurs due to many mechanisms. dielectric strength. 1 Control of stress at an electrode edge SOLIDS AND COMPOSITES 1. oil impregnated paper and oil impregnated metallised plastic film etc). Therefore. it is important to make sure that both the components of the composite should be chemically stable and will not react with each other under the application of combined thermal. the liquid insulate should not absorb any impurities from the solid. In the application of composites. However. mechanical and electrical stresses over the expected life of the equipment. solid/vacuum insulation and solid/liquid composite insulation systems (trans-former winding insulation. Kraft paper. silicon rubber and polypropylene rubber are some of the other materials widely used as insulate in electrical equipment. Widely used inorganic materials are ceramics and glass. its breakdown stress will be as high as 10 MV/cm. more than one types of insulation are used together. which may adversely affect its resistivity. The most widely used organic materials are thermosetting epoxy resins such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC).Fig. In general. They should also have nearly equal dielectric constants. and can be obtained only under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. giving rise to composite insulation systems. the breakdown occurs over the surface than in the solid itself. Examples of such systems are solid/gas insulation (transmission line insulators). Further. natural rubber.

and S is the closed surface containing charge q. The work done on a charge when moved in an electric field is defined as the potential. Over the years. The force F on any charge q at that point in the field is given by F = q*E 4 The electric flux density D associated with the field intensity E is D = ε*E 5 Where E is the permittivity of the medium in which the electric field exists. Electric field control methods form an important component of the overall design of equipment. the electric field intensities have to be controlled. In the design of high voltage apparatus. many methods for controlling and optimizing electric fields to get the most economical designs have been developed. 360 . Electric Field A brief review of the concepts of electric fields is presented. Several relationships between the various quantities in the electric field can be summarized as follows: Where F is the force exerted on a charge q in the electric field E . otherwise higher stresses will trigger or accelerate the aging of the insulation leading to its failure.stress in the regions where it is expected to be maximum such as in the presence of sharp points. The potential φ is equal to Where l is the path through which the charge is moved. It also helps in choosing proper electrode configurations and economical dimensioning of the insulation. such that highly stressed regions are not formed and reliable operation of the equipment results in its anticipated life. as it is essential for high voltage engineers to have knowledge of the field intensities in various media under electric stresses. The field intensity E at any location in an electrostatic field is the ratio of the force on an infinitely small charge at that location to the charge itself as the charge decreases to zero.

Sometimes.Uniform and Non-Uniform Electric Fields In general. the maximum electric field Em is always higher than the average value. the maximum value of Em and the field enhancement factor f given by Em/Eav. E is different at different points of the field region. when gap separation is much smaller than plate size. Estimation of Electric Field in Some Geometric Boundaries It has been shown that the maximum electric field Em in a given electric field configuration is of importance. The mean electric field over a distanced between two conductors with a potential difference of V12 is Ε av = V12 d In field configurations of non-uniform fields. In a uniform field gap. the field is not only non-uniform but also asymmetrical. In the absence of space charges. In this case. the electric fields between any two electrodes can be both uniform and non-uniform. parallel plates of finite size are used to simulate uniform electric fields. the average field E is the same throughout the field rigion. whereas in a non-uniform field gap. For some common field configurations. f = Em / Eav 1-Parallel plates Em = r V r f =1 Parallel plate 361 . It has the minimum field E at the conductor having the large radius of curvature. Spherical electrodes are frequently used for high voltage measurements and for triggering in impulse voltage generation circuits. are presented Below. the average field E in a non-uniform field gap is maximum at the surface of the conductor which has the smallest radius of curvature. Uniform or approximately uniform field distributions exist between two infinite parallel plates or two spheres of equal diameters when the gap distance is less than diameter of the sphere. Most of the practical high voltage components used in electric power systems normally have non-uniform and asymmetrical field distribution.

it is. The transient voltage distribution in. in each region. The effect of the surge voltages is severe in all power apparatuses. THEIR DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL The design of power apparatus particularly at high voltages is governed by their transient behavior. In the actual design of an apparatus. An experimental assessment of the dielectric strength of insulation against the power frequency voltages and surge voltages. The transient high voltages or surge voltages originate in power systems due to lightning and Switching operations. on samples of basic materials.Concentric cylinders 3.Parallel cylinders of equal diameter SURGE VOLTAGES. at any instant of time after the application of an impulse. The response of a power apparatus to the impulse or surge voltage depends on the capacitances between the coils of windings and between the different phase windings of the multi-phase machines. necessary to consider the maximum voltage differences occurring. on less complex 362 . the windings as a whole are generally very nonuniform and are complicated by traveling wave voltage oscillations set up within the windings.2. of course. and to take into account their durations especially when they are less than one microsecond.

CCl3F. The halogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants are also a popular insulator. However. Now. The traditional Freons (R-12. R-22) are not being produced any more. or on complete equipment must involve high voltage testing. it is about $100/lb. considerable quantities of insulation must be used. Such an ideal condition is impossible to achieve in practice. due to the practical limitations of construction.assemblies. Nevertheless it provides information on stress concentration factors the ratios of maximum local voltage gradients to the mean value in the adjacent regions of relatively uniform stress. Since the regulatory thrust eliminated chlorinated alkanes. Unfortunately. they tend to be corrosive. Insulating gases Electronegative gases make good insulators since the ions rapidly combine with the ions produced in the spark.HC-134a) . However. CCl2F2. Generally. halogens such as chlorine) make good insulators. Some gases though. it is possible to build up a considerable stock of design information. 363 . by shaping the conductors to reduce stress concentrations. CCl4. In the mid 1980's SF6 was about $3-4/lb. which is not only dense (breakdown voltage is roughly proportional to density) but is mostly Fluorine. although expensive. for dielectrics of different electrical strengths. plant capacity is limited. when this factor is high. hence the popularity of SF6. the cost of insulating gases has greatly increased in the last few years largely due to the various treaties regulating halocarbon refrigerants. and complete full-scale prototype apparatus (called development testing). making them particularly good insulators. a highly electronegative element. dissociate only where the discharge is (or wants to be).g. and by selection of materials of appropriate permittivity to obtain more uniform voltage gradients. in the mid 90's. modern refrigerants are relying more on fluorinated or per-fluoro hydrocarbons (e. elaborate insulation assemblies. filling up a large insulating tank with SF6 has become a very expensive proposition. 2. High voltage testing is done by generating the voltages and measuring them in a laboratory. such data can never really be complete to cover all future designs and necessitates use of large factors of safety. Improvements can be effected in the following ways: 1. and plants that used to make SF6 are now making fluorinated hydrocarbons resulting in much higher prices for SF6.e. In an ideal design each part of the dielectric would be uniformly stressed at the maximum value which it will safely withstand. the design cannot be completely relied upon. Since a pound is only about 10 liters. and C2Cl2F4 Unfortunately. unless experimentally tested. A survey of typical power apparatus designs suggests that factors ranging from 2 to 5 can occur in practice. Gases with electronegative species (i. by insertion of higher dielectric strength insulation at high stress points. and are quite expensive. A different approach to the problem is the exact calculation of dielectric strength of any insulation arrangement. such data can be very useful. Since the design of an electrical apparatus is based on the dielectric strength. When high voltage testing is done on component parts.

e. The breakdown of air is very well researched. There isn't an explosion hazard. Air . to the point where the breakdown voltage of a calibrated gap is used to measure high voltages. The saturated vapor pressure of C2Cl2F4 at 23C is 2 atm abs. Most of the electrical apparatus use air as the Insulating medium. Hydrogen .85 0.approximate breakdown is 30 kV/cm at 1 atm. Pure Nitrogen seems to not have these disadvantages.9 Conduction and breakdown in Gases 1 – Gases as insulating Media The . although its cost has risen dramatically recently. so it is important that operating voltages remain well below corona starting voltages. provided that the oxygen content in the hydrogen tank is kept below the flammable limit (around 5%).simplest and the most commonly found dielectrics are gases. although its breakdown is only about 15 % better than air. where the breakdown is some 17 times that of air at 1 atm. On the other hand. One disadvantage of the halogenated compounds is that the dissociation products are highly corrosive.Sulfur Hexafluoride is probably the most popular insulating gas.6 times N2 at 1 atm Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) . An even higher insulating strength can be obtained by adding nitrogen to the saturated CCl2F2 to bring the total pressuire to the desired value. it leaks through very tiny holes (even the pores in the metal tanks). Of course. but very hot.15 1 1 0. if the applied voltages 364 .85 0.The breakdown voltage of most gases can be increased by increasing the absolute pressure. at which condition it has a relative dielectric strength of 5. Its very low viscosity and high thermal capacity make it an insulating gas of choice for high speed.9 0.53d where d in cm. When the applied voltage is low.Hydrogen gas is not a particularly good insulator (65% of air) from a breakdown voltage standpoint. and in a few cases other gases such nitrogen (N2). hydrogen has lots of other handling problems. In the case of some gases. Relative spark breakdown strength of gases Gas N2 Air NH3 CO2 H2S O2 Cl2 H2 SO2 C2Cl2F4 V/Vair 1. and perfectly colorless. including hydrogen embrittlement. freon (CC12F2) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) are also used. Freon 12 liquifies at 5 atmospheres). carbon dioxide (CO2). it's electrical properties. Mixtures of gases can overcome some of these issues and a mixture of Freon 12 and Nitrogen was popular.2 CCl2F2 2.The vapor pressure of CCl2F2 (R-12) is 90 psi at 23C.95 0. small currents flow between the electrodes and they insulation retains. high voltage machinery such as turbo generators. = 30 + 1.65 0. there is a limit imposed by the liquefaction point at normal operating temperatures (i. Even air forms highly reactive nitrogen oxides and other corrosive compounds. Freons. flames. High pressure air can also support combustion due to the oxygen content. Various phenomena occur in gaseous dielectrics when a voltage is applied.30 3. particularly if there is any water vapor present.

order to understand the breakdown phenomenon in gases. These results in very little loss of energy by the electrons and therefore electrons gain very high energies and travel at a much higher speed than the ions.are large. The electrical discharges in gases are of two types:(i) Non-sustaining discharge. These processes are mainly gas processes which occur due to the collision between the charged particles and gas atoms or molecules. The collision often results in a change in the 365 . called spark is the transition of non-sustaining discharge into a self-sustaining discharge. The build-up of high currents in a breakdown is due to the process known as ionization in which electrons and ions are created from neutral atoms or molecules' and their migration to the anode and cathode respectively leads to high current. no change takes place in the internal energy of the particles but only their kinetic energy gets redistributed. Elastic collisions: Elastic collisions are collisions which when occur. they transfer only a part of their kinetic energy to the much heavier ions or gas molecules with which they collide. When electrons collide with gas molecules. The breakdown in a gas. viz. But in between the collisions it is accelerated by the electric field. electrode field configuration nature of electrode surfaces and the availability of initial conducting particles are known to govern the ionization processes. Inelastic collisions: Inelastic collisions. (i) Townsend theory (ii) Streamer theory are known 'Which explain the mechanism of breakdown under different condition? The various physical condition of gases namely' pressure.sustaining. a single electron traces' a zig-zag path during its travel. the current flowing through the insulation increases very sharply an electrical breakdown occurs. A strongly conducting spark formed during breakdown practically produces a short circuit between the electrodes. These collisions do not occur in practice. At present two types of theories. on the other hand. Since electrons are very light in weight. COLLISION PROCESSES 1. temperature. Types of Collision An electrical discharge is normally created from unionized gas by collision processes. are those in which internal changes in energy take place within an atom or a molecule at the expense of the total kinetic energy of the colliding particle. These are of the following two types. Therefore in all electrical discharges electrons play a leading role. a study of the electrical properties of gases and the processes by which high current are produced in gases is essential. (ii) self. The maximum voltage applied to the insulation at the moment of breakdown is called the breakdown voltage In .

recombination are inelastic collisions. rate at which this occurrence is governed by the diffusion passing through unit area in unit time perpendicular to the concentration gradient and for unit concentration gradient. Electric force on an electron/ion of charge e is eE. with which the centre of mass of the electron swarm moves in the direction of the field. When the energy gained by the ions from the electric field is small compared with the thermal energy. which has been defined as the average velocity. but is determined from the energy distribution function. is not a simple function of E/p.structure of the atom. with the resulting acceleration being eE/m. 2. So the electron drift velocity. From the kinetic theory the electron drift velocity We is given in microscopic terms as follows: We = Ee / 3ma2 d/dc (l c2) (2) Where l is an equivalent mean free path of an electron with speed c 3. At normal temperatures and pressures the mobility µ is of the order of several cm2/volt-sec. Mobility of Ions and Electrons When an ion moves through a gas under the influence of a static uniform electric field. the concept of ionic mobility cannot be directly applied to electrons because of their extremely low mass. then they tend to redistribute themselves uniformly throughout the space. it gains energy from the field between collisions and loses energy during collisions. In three dimensions this may be written as δn = −D∇2 n δt →3 366 . Thus all collisions that occur in practice are inelastic collisions. For example ionization. are distributed unevenly throughout a space. excitation. Diffusion Coefficient When particles possessing energy. Any externally applied electric field will cause the electrons to gain energies much higher than their mean thermal energy. This process is known as diffusion and the. which is exhibited as a random motion. However. attachment. the drift velocity in the field direction Wi is proportional to the electrical field intensity E and may be expressed as follows: Wi = µi * E (1) Where µi is called the mobility of ions the mobility is mainly a characteristic of the gas through which the ion moves.

4. Both diffusion and mobility result in mass motion described by a drift velocity caused either by unbalanced collision forces (concentration gradient) or by the electric field itself. a knowledge of the electron energy distribution functions is essential. The most widely used distribution functions are the Maxwellian and Druyesteynian distributions which apply specifically to elastic conditions. The distribution takes the form ( −1. Kinetic theory gives D in microscopic terms as follows D = 1/3 (lc) 4 Where l is the mean free path and c the random velocity. This process is called diffusion and this causes a deionising effect in the regions of lower concentration.Where n is the concentration of particles. This distribution takes the form ( −1.e ε ) ε− →5 Where Cl is the constant and is the mean energy.5 . The Maxwellian distribution has been found to apply where there is thermal equilibrium between the electrons and molecules.5 .5 F (ε ) = C 2ε Where C2 is another constant ε2 ε −2 0.5 F (ε ) = C1ε 0. and the experimentally obtained average properties of discharges. Electron Energy Distributions For the development of a complete theory giving the relationship between the data concerning single collisions of electrons with gas molecules. Druyesteynian distribution applies when the electron or ion energy is much greater than the thermal energy and is therefore expected to be more of application in transcends discharges.e ) →6 367 . whenever there is a non-uniform concentration of charges there will be migration of these charges from regions of higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. the average being taken over c In electrical discharges. The presence of walls confining a given volume increases the de-ionisation effect since charged particles lose their charge on hitting the wall.

etc. qe.. the distance between the two collisions vary The average of this is the mean free path. the gas becomes a conductor and an electrical breakdown occurs. respectively.. the total area of impaCT'sThis area of contact is different for each type of collision. In other words.. The mean free path can be expressed as λ =k / p (8) (7) Where k is a constant and p is the gas pressure in microns. then qt= qi +qe + qc + ……. For example. excitation. If q. The collision cross section is also expressed in terms of the probability of a collision to take place. then λ = 5 x 10+3 cm. Depending on the initial energy of the colliding electron. IONIZATION PROCESSES A gas in its normal state is almost a perfect insulator. From this equation it is seen that at a pressure of 1 torr. From this it is seen that mean free path is very large at very low pressures and is very small at high pressures. are the cross sections for ionization. 6 The Mean Free Path (λ) The mean free path is defined as the average distance between collisions.. charge transfer. the area of impact is more for ionisation while for an excitation it is less. etc. If the pressure is 10-6 ton. i. excitation.e. is the total cross section. the effective cross section is obtained by simple a addition of all the cross sections.5. λ is 5 x 10-3 cm. occurring processes such as ionization. Collision Cross Section Collision cross section is defined as the area of contact between two particles during a collision. etc. Thus the use of collision cross sections instead of mean free paths has often proved to be advantageous. The free path is a random quantity and its mean value depends upon the concentration of particles or the density of the gas. 368 . P = nq which is the reciprocal of the mean free path. and if qi. For simultaneously. When a discharge occurs large number of collisions occurs between the electrons and the gas molecules. when a high voltage is applied between the two electrodes immersed in a gaseous medium. chemical reactions. qc . The value of k for nitrogen is 5. charge transfer. However..

themselves make `ionizing collisions' and thus the process repeats itself. Vi. a free electron collides with a neutral gas molecule and gives rise to a new electron and a positive ion. A is the atom. This represents an increase in the electron current. any electron starting at the cathode will be accelerated more and more between collisions with other gas molecules during its travel towards the anode. which is the energy required to dislodge an electron from its atomic shell. This process can be represented as e − + A → e − + A+ + e − Where. Ultraviolet Light Cathode Anode d + Current limiting resistor R HV source A Fig 1 Arrangment for study of a townsend discharge A few of the electrons produced at the cathode by some external means. In insulating gases (also called electron-attaching gases) the process of attachment also plays an important role. say by ultraviolet light falling on the cathode. then ionization takes place.The processes that are primarily responsible for the breakdown of a gas are ionization by collision. 1. In the process of ionization by collision. The additional electrons. A + is the positive ion and a is the electron. ionize neutral gas particles producing positive ions and additional electrons. then. photo-ionization. Ionization by Collision The process of liberating an electron from a gas molecule with the simultaneous production of a positive ion is called ionization. If he energy (ε) gained during this travel between collisions exceeds the ionization potential. 1 then. If we consider a low pressure gas column in which an electric field E is applied across two plane parallel electrodes. and the secondary ionization processes. as shown in Fig. since the number of electrons reaching the anode 369 .

to Positive Ion Impact Positive ions are formed due to ionization by collision or by photo-ionization. the sum of its kinetic energy and the ionization energy. The frequency (v) is given by the relationship v= ϕ h (10) Is known as the threshold frequency For a clean nickel surface With φ = 4. Electron emission from a metal surface occurs at the critical condition h . which is called the Townsend's secondary ionization coefficient due to positive ions and is defined as the net yield of electrons per incident positive ion. (i) Electron Emission due. then one electron will be ejected and a second electron will neutralize the ion. A positive ion approaching a metallic cathode can cause emission of electrons from the cathode by giving up its kinetic energy on impaCT's If the total energy of the positive ion. the threshold frequency will be that corresponding to a wavelength λ = 2755 Aº. They are briefly described below. The energy can also be supplied in the form of a photon of ultraviolet light of suitable frequency. and being positively charged. 2. it should be given enough energy to overcome the surface potential barrier. The probability of this process is measured as .per unit time is greater than those liberated at the cathode. In addition.v ≥ ϕ where cp is the work function of the metallic electrode. If the incident radiation has a greater frequency than the threshold 370 . the positive ions also reach the cathode and on bombardment on the cathode give rise to secondary electrons. increases with ion velocity and depends on the kind of gas and electrode material used. namely. Secondary Ionization Processes Secondary ionization processes by which secondary electrons are produced are the one which sustain a discharge after it is established due to ionization by collision and photo-ionization. is greater than twice the work function of the metal. (ii) Electron Emission due to Photons γi γi To cause an electron to escape from a metal. they travel towards the cathode. .5 eV.

(iii) Electron Emission due to Metastable and Neutral Atoms A metastable atom or molecule is an excited particle whose lifetime is very large (103 s) compared to the lifetime of an ordinary particle (10-8 s). such as O2. because the lifetime of other excited states is too short for them to reach the cathode and cause electron emission. the atoms or molecules have vacancies in their outermost shells and. have an affinity for electrons. When one electron collides with a neutral particle. Electron Attachment Process The types of collisions in which electrons may become attached to atoms or molecules to form negative ions are called attachment collision. At low energies the yield is considerably less. nx=n0 e αx Then. for the interactions of excited He atom with a clean surface of molybdenum. CO2. C3F8. and SF6 exhibit this property. Neutral atoms in the ground state also give rise to secondary electron emission if their kinetic energy is high (= 1000 eV). then the excess energy goes partly as the kinetic energy of the emitted electron and partly to heat the surface of the electrode. C4F10. F2. let the number of electrons be nx. Since φ is typically a few electrons volts. Electron attachment process depends on the energy of the electron arid-the nature of the gas and is a very important process from the engineering point of view. CC12F2. This process is most easily observed with metastable atoms. This is called an ionizing collision. At any distance x from the cathode. C12. Let α be the average number of ionizing collisions made by an electron per centimeter travel in the direction of the field (α depends on gas pressure p and E/p. Therefore. the threshold frequency lies in the far ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum. 1 let us assume that no electrons are emitted from the cathode. the yields can also be large nearly 100%. a positive ion and an electron are formed. and is called the Townsend's first ionization coefficient). therefore. Electrons can be ejected from the metal surface by the impact of excited (metastable) atoms.C2F6. An electron attachment process can be represented as: Atom + e. When these nx electrons travel a further distance of dx they give X=0 nx=n0 d nx/dx = α nx . In the attaching or insulating gases.→ negative atomic ion + (Ea + K) 11 The energy liberated as a result of this process is the kinetic energy K plus the electron affinity Ea.frequency '. unless they originate very near to the cathode surface. nickel or magnesium. The attachment process plays a very important role in the removal of free electrons from an ionized gas when arc interruption occurs in gas-insulated Switchgear. The number of electrons reaching the anode (x=d) 371 . . All electrically insulating gases. TOWNSEND'S CURRENT GROWTH EQUATION Referring to Fig. provided that their total energy is sufficient to overcome the work function.

d) The number of new electrons created. 2 shows the electric field around the avalanche as it progresses along the gap and the resulting modification to the applied field. which is equal to the number of electrons traveling per second will be I =Io. on the average. Raether and Meek and Loeb independently proposed the Streamer theory.no) / no 12 Therefore. breakdown voltages were found to depend on the gas pressure and the geometry of the gap. On the other hand.d) -1 = (nd . according to the Townsend theory. discharges were found to be filamentary and irregular. But in practice. discharges were found to be filamentary and irregular. meek and. the average current in the gap. Loeb independently proposed the Streamer theory. Secondly. by each electron is e(α. around 1940. This is valid only as long as the influence of the space charge due to ions is very small compared to the applied field. while in actual practice breakdown was observed to occur at very short times of the order of 10-8 s. BREAKDOWN IN GASES Townsend mechanism when applied to breakdown at atmospheric pressure was found to have certain drawbacks. in actual practice.nd=no e(α. Both the slow growth at low charge concentrations and fast growth at high charge concentrations have been attributed to the modification of the originally applied uniform field (E) by the space charge P. Streamer Theory In practice. While the Townsend mechanism predicts a very diffused form of discharge. The growth of charge carriers in an avalanche in a uniform field is described by eαd. The Townsend Mechanism failed to explain all the above phenomena and therefore around 1940. e(α. the mechanism predicts time lags of the order of 10-5 s. current growth occurs as a result of ionization processes. the growth of the avalanche became weak.d) 13 where 10 is the initial current at the cathode. Rather and. 372 . the avalanche current was followed by a steep rise in the current between the electrodes leading to the breakdown of the gap. Fig. The Townsend mechanism failed to explain all these observed phenomena and as a result. Also. when the charge concentration was higher than 108. Raether observed that when charge concentration was between 106 and 108. only. In his studies on the effect of space charge on avalanche growth. Firstly.

Under these conditions. the field gets enhanced at the top of the avalanche with field lines from the anodes terminating on its head. In the theories proposed by Raether and Meek it has been shown that when the avalanche in the gap reaches a critical size.For simplicity. if a charge density in the avalanche approaches n = 108 the space charge filled field and the applied field will have the same magnitude and this leads to the initiation of a streamer. the field distortion occurs and it becomes noticeable with a charge carrier number n < 106. cloud chamber photographs of the avalanche development have shown that. Fig. Since photons travel with the velocity of light. Ole space charge developed in an avalanche can transform the avalanche into streamers which lead to very rapid development of breakdown. Thus. Thus. the space charge at the head of the avalanche is assumed to have a spherical volume containing negative charge at its top because of the higher electron mobility. under certain conditions. in nitrogen at p = 760 ton and with a gap distance of 2 cm. These secondary electrons under the influence of the field in the gap develop into secondary avalanches as shown in Fig. This 1% field distortion over the entire gap will lead to a doubling of the avalanche size.( 2) Field distortion in a gap due to space charge Further. charge within the avalanche head reaches A critical value of no e(αxe) = 108 or αxc lies between 18 and 20. Still further down the field between cathode and the positive ions gets enhanced. For example. It has been shown that transformation from an avalanche to a streamer generally occurs when the. Further. 3. the filled field distortion will be about 1%. the photo-ionization process gives rise to rapid development of conduction channels across the gap. but as the distortion is significant only in the vicinity of the top of the avalanche its effect is still negligible. However. 373 . Instantaneous recombination between positive ions and electrons releases photons which in turn produce secondary electrons by photo-ionization. the combined applied field and the space charge field cause intense ionization and excitation of the gas particles in front of the avalanche. the space charge fields play an important role in the growth of avalanches in corona and spark discharges in non-uniform field gaps. at the bottom of the avalanche. the field between electrons and ions reduces the applied field (E). Where xc is the length of the avalanche in which the secondary electrons are produced by photo-ionization of gas molecules in the inter-electrode gap.

The breakdown voltage is given by the corresponding product of E and d.27 * 10-7(α e(αxe))/(X/P)1/2 V/cm (16) Where α is Townsend's first ionization coefficient. The field Er produced by the space charge. E. Meek proposed a simple quantitative criterion to estimate the electric field that transforms an avalanche into a streamer. According to Meek. (3) Formation of secondary avalanches due to photo-ionization On the basis of experimental observations Raether proposed an empirical expression for the streamer spark criterion of the form αxc = 17. α d+ln(α/P)= 14. at the radius r. 374 . and x is the distance to which the streamer has extended in the gap. approaches the externally applied field (E = Er) and hence the breakdown criterion (Eq. Thus. the minimum breakdown voltage is obtained when Er = E and x = d in the above equation.Fig. a minimum breakdown voltage by streamer mechanism occurs only when a critical length xc = d.7+ln xc (15) The minimum breakdown value for a uniform field gap by streamer mechanism is then obtained on the assumption that the transition from an avalanche to a streamer occurs when the avalanche has just crossed a gap. The conditions for the transition from the avalanche to streamer assumes that the space charged field. is given by Er = 5. The equation simplifies into. crooked channels and the branching of the spark channels. This theory also neatly fits in with the observed filamentary. d.7 + In xc + In (Er/E) (14) Where Er is the space charged field directed radially at the head of the avalanche and E is the applied field. p is the gas pressure in ton. and cleared up many ambiguities of the Townsend mechanism when applied to breakdown in a high pressure gas across a long gap.5+ln(E/P)+1/2 ln(d/p) (17) This equation is solved between α/P and E/P at which a given p and d satisfy the equation. The above simple criterion enabled an agreement between the calculated and the measured breakdown voltages. (14)) becomes αxc = 17.

The glow discharge covers the cathode partly and the space between the cathode and the anode will have intermediate dark and bright regions. High temperature plasmas are used for generation of electricity through magneto-hydro dynamic (MHD) or nuclear fusion processes. Arc Discharge If the current in the gap is increased to about 1 A or more. Further increase in current results in a very small reduction in voltage across the gap (CD) corresponding to the normal glow region. while at higher pressures and pd values the Streamer mechanism plays the dominant role in explaining the breakdown phenomena. The colour of the glow discharge depends on the cathode material and the gas used. POST-BREAKDOWN PHENOMENA AND APPLICATIONS This is the phenomenon which occurs after the actual breakdown has taken place and is of technical importance. ranging from 75 to 300 V over a current range of 1 mA to 100 mA depending on the type of the gas. It is generally assumed that for pd values below 1000 torr-cm and gas pressures varying from 0. This is called normal glow. It is the light source in lamps such as carbon arc lamp. It is used for welding and cutting of metals. The study of arcs is important in circuit breakers and other switch contacts. when the current is increased more. (1) The current increases gradually as a function of the applied voltage. the Townsend mechanism operates. the voltage drop between the electrodes is substantially constant. If the current in the normal glow is increased such that the discharge covers the entire cathode surface.It is still controversial as to which mechanism operates in uniform field conditions over a given range of pd values. The phenomena that occur in the region CG are the post-breakdown phenomena consisting of glow discharge (CE) and the arc discharge (EG). The discharge becomes very luminous and noisy (region EG in Fig. called the arc plasma. Further to this point (B) only the current increases and the discharge changes from the Townsend type to Glow type (BC).01 to 300 torr. as a relaxation oscillator. Glow Discharge A glow discharge is characterized by a diffused luminous glow. and there are many devices that operate over these regions. then it becomes abnormal glow. This is the region of the arc discharge (EG). In a glow discharge. ranging from 1000°C to several thousand degrees Celsius. the voltage across the gap suddenly reduces to a few volts (20—50 V). Arcing is associated with high temperatures. 375 . 1 This phase is called the arc discharge and the current density over the cathode region increases to very high values of 103 to 107A/cm2. The discharge will contain a very high density of electrons and positive ions. The gap voltage again increases (DE). and as an amplifier. Glow and arc discharges are the post-breakdown phenomena. The properties of the glow discharge are used in many practical applications. such as cold cathode gaseous voltage stabilized tubes (voltage regulation tubes or VR tubes). for rectification. It is a convenient high temperature high intensity light source. but eventually leads to a considerable drop in the applied voltage. In a Townsend discharge see Fig.

). SF6 was also found to have excellent arc-quenching properties. and what the factors is that influence its performance.c. Before adopting a particular gas or gas mixture for a practical purpose. The dielectric strength of gases is comparable with those of solid and liquid dielectrics see Fig. it is useful to gain knowledge of what the gas does. (e) good heat transfer. the more rigorous would he the requirements which it should meet. (2. Of the above properties. what its composition is. and (f) ready availability at moderate cost. (b) thermal stability and chemical inactivity towards materials of construction. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) which has received much study over the years has been found to possess most of the above requirements. These requirements needed by a good dielectric do not exist in a majority of the gases. dielectric strength is the most important property of a gaseous dielectric for practical use. Generally. (1) d. (c) non-flammability and physiological inertness. (d). low temperature of condensation. voltage-current characteristic of an electrical discharge with electrodes having no sharp points or edges PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN USING GASES AND GAS MIXTURES FOR INSULATION PURPOSES Over the years. considerable amount of work has been done to adopt a specific gas for practical use. and it can be used over a wide range of operating conditions.Fig. and environmentally nonhazardous. Therefore. it is widely used as an insulating as well as arc-quenching medium in high voltage apparatus 376 . the preferred properties of a gaseous dielectric for high voltage applications are: (a) high dielectric strength. The greater the versatility of the operating performance demanded from an insulating gas or gas mixture. It is clear that SF6 has high dielectric strength and low liquefaction temperature.

The release of SF6 into the atmosphere leads to concentration of large volumes of SF6 gas in the upper atmosphere. The production and use of SF6 gas has increased steadily and today it is about 10.0 Nitrogen 377 . Ideally the gas mixture should be suitable for use in the existing equipment as well as in the equipment that will be designed and manufactured in future. gas and vacuum insulations in uniform. There has been a large concern for these environmental effects and therefore the electrical industry has been looking for an alternate gas or gas mixture to be used in electrical equipment which presently use SF6 gas. SF6 gas has been found to be a green house gas that causes environmental problems. The concentration of SF6 in the environment has been steadily increasing.Fig (2) d. fields SF6 and Other Gas Mixtures SF6 is widely used for applications in power system due to its high dielectric strength and good arc interruption properties. The large amount of experimental data that is presently available suggest that 40% SF6/60% N2 mixtures have all the dielectric characteristics that make it suitable for use as insulation in high voltage equipment. liquid. breakdown strength of typical solid. However.0 SF6 gas 100% 1% SF6/99% 80. Extensive research work done in SF6 and its mixtures with N2.c.000 metric tons due to leakages into the atmosphere from the electrical equipment. as an insulating and arc interruption medium. SF6 molecules absorb energy from the sun and radiate it into the atmosphere for long duration of time. air and CO2 has given breakdown values which are 80—90% of the pure SF6 values as shown in Table Lightning Impulse Breakdown Strength of SF6/Other Gas Mixtures (Breakdown Strength (kV/cm Breakdown Strength Mixture Ratio ((kV/cm 89.

6 The industry is looking for a gas mixture that can replace the pure SF6 gas in the existing SF6 insulated apparatus. In summary.6 76.0 76. It has also been shown that it is possible to further improve the arc interruption properties of SF6 by using SF6/N2 or SF6/He mixtures. Insulating Liquids Property Transformer Cable Capacitor Silicone Askarels Oil Oil Oil Oils 378 . the industry is trying to find out the optimum mixture ratio and the total pressure of the SF6/N2 mixture that would be required for a variety of applications.10% SF6/90% Nitrogen 20% SF6/80% Nitrogen 40% SF6/60% Nitrogen 10% SF6/90% CO2 20% SF6/80% CO2 40% SF6/60% CO2 10% SF6/90% Air 20% SF6/80% Air 40% SF6/60% Air 78. current transformers and voltage transformers. In view of the above. cables.0 76.5 75.5 75. SF6/N2 mixtures have been used in Gas Insulated Transmission System and were found to perform well. test procedures or ratings. requiring no change in hardware. but it has to be ensured that there is no loss in the performance of the equipment. SF6/N2 mixture is the one that has been found to be a good replacement for SF6. further research has to be carried out to identify a suitable gas mixture. the work done so far has shown that the ability of SF6/N2 mixtures to quench high current arcs is promising.5 76. The cost of such mixtures is low and is less sensitive to field non-uniformities present inside the equipment. such as Gas Insulated Transmission Systems.5 77.5 75. Wherefore. It has been found that a mixture containing 69% SF6/31 % N2 gave higher recovery rate than pure SF6 at the same partial pressure. For many applications. SF6/N2 mixtures show promise as a medium in circuit breakers. its pressure and its arc interruption capability to be used in the existing apparatus and the apparatus that will be designed and manufactured in future. it may be said that there is an urgent need to significantly reduce the use of SF6 gas and its leakage from power apparatus. Use of gas mixtures appears to be feasible. capacitors. Also. mixtures with different SF6 concentrations varying from 5% to 40%.

002 0. it is almost 8 times that. Solid Dielectrics A good solid dielectric should have some of the properties mentioned earlier for gases and liquids and it should also possess good mechanical and bonding strengths.4740 0. For instance.0-1.3 .89 30 1.25E-3 0.001 0.50E-3 1e121e13-1e14 2e12 1e13 0.6000 <0.4 100-150 10-1000 1.2 2.89 30 1. but when highly purified.42 Liquid Hexane Benzene Transformer Oil Silicone Liquid Oxygen Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Hydrogen Liquid Helium Liquid Argon SOLIDS AND COMPOSITES 1.001 .6-1.1 .7 1.01 7e-4 5e-4 <30 <30 negligble negligible 1. for example.6000 Pure Liquids Pure liquids often have much higher breakdown strengths than commercial liquids. the breakdown for Transformer Oil is usually taken as 150 kV/cm (see above table).10-1.0 0.6 200 2. 2.8 2-73 .9 1.2-2.5mm sphere gap) Relative Permittivity (50Hz) Loss Tangent (50Hz) Loss Tangent (1 kHz) Resistivity (Ohm -cm) Specific Gravity at 20 C Viscosity at 20 C (cStokes) Refractive Index Saponification Thermal Expansion Max permissible Water content (ppm) 150 2.01 7e-4 50 1.50001.3 1.88-0.4700 0. Many organic and inorganic' materials are used for high 379 .1 1.1E-3 3e14 1.0005 1e12-1e13 0.4 1.93 30 1.01 <0.60E-3 .10E-3 0.4820 0.1-1.0-1.01 7e-4 50 0.01% water to insulating oil reduces its breakdown strength to 20% of the "dry" value.Breakdown strength (20 C.3-2.0001 0. Max Breakdown Strength MV/cm 1. or 1000 kV/cm. the addition of 0. Compare.0 1.01 7e-4/deg 50 300 2.1 200-250 300-400 4.

the liquid insulate should not absorb any impurities from the solid. in practice. more than one types of insulation are used together. Composites In many engineering applications. However. 2. It is the intensity of the electric field that determines the onset of breakdown and the rate of increase of current before breakdown. The force F on any charge q at that point in the field is given by F = q*E 4 380 . the electric field intensities have to be controlled.voltage insulation purposes. such that highly stressed regions are not formed and reliable operation of the equipment results in its anticipated life. oil impregnated paper and oil impregnated metallised plastic film etc). loss factor and other properties of the liquid dielectric. Therefore. Special care should be exercised in eliminating the stress in the regions where it is expected to be maximum such as in the presence of sharp points. many methods for controlling and optimizing electric fields to get the most economical designs have been developed. giving rise to composite insulation systems. In general. It also helps in choosing proper electrode configurations and economical dimensioning of the insulation. otherwise higher stresses will trigger or accelerate the aging of the insulation leading to its failure. and the surface insulation failure is the most frequent cause of trouble in practice. This is the `intrinsic breakdown strength'. Widely used inorganic materials are ceramics and glass. In the application of composites. which may adversely affect its resistivity. The most widely used organic materials are thermosetting epoxy resins such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC). it is important to make sure that both the components of the composite should be chemically stable and will not react with each other under the application of combined thermal. dielectric strength. mainly in parallel. If the solid insulating material is truly homogeneous and is free from imperfections. the breakdown occurs over the surface than in the solid itself. the breakdown fields obtained are very much lower than this value. Examples of such systems are solid/gas insulation (transmission line insulators). as it is essential for high voltage engineers to have knowledge of the field intensities in various media under electric stresses. polyethylene (PE) or cross linked polyethylene (XLPE). The field intensity E at any location in an electrostatic field is the ratio of the force on an infinitely small charge at that location to the charge itself as the charge decreases to zero. In the design of high voltage apparatus. its breakdown stress will be as high as 10 MV/cm. The breakdown occurs due to many mechanisms. Kraft paper. Over the years. They should also have nearly equal dielectric constants. silicon rubber and polypropylene rubber are some of the other materials widely used as insulate in electrical equipment. Further. it is very essential that the electric stress should be properly estimated and its distribution known in a high voltage apparatus. Electric field control methods form an important component of the overall design of equipment. Electric Field A brief review of the concepts of electric fields is presented. mechanical and electrical stresses over the expected life of the equipment. natural rubber. and can be obtained only under carefully controlled laboratory conditions. solid/vacuum insulation and solid/liquid composite insulation systems (trans-former winding insulation.

the average field E is the same throughout the field rigion. Estimation of Electric Field in Some Geometric Boundaries 381 . the electric fields between any two electrodes can be both uniform and non-uniform. The work done on a charge when moved in an electric field is defined as the potential. Most of the practical high voltage components used in electric power systems normally have non-uniform and asymmetrical field distribution. when gap separation is much smaller than plate size. Several relationships between the various quantities in the electric field can be summarized as follows: Where F is the force exerted on a charge q in the electric field E . Sometimes. In the absence of space charges. Spherical electrodes are frequently used for high voltage measurements and for triggering in impulse voltage generation circuits.The electric flux density D associated with the field intensity E is D = ε*E 5 Where E is the permittivity of the medium in which the electric field exists. E is different at different points of the field region. The potential φ is equal to Where l is the path through which the charge is moved. and S is the closed surface containing charge q. the average field E in a non-uniform field gap is maximum at the surface of the conductor which has the smallest radius of curvature. Uniform and Non-Uniform Electric Fields In general. In a uniform field gap. whereas in a non-uniform field gap. In this case. It has the minimum field E at the conductor having the large radius of curvature. parallel plates of finite size are used to simulate uniform electric fields. Uniform or approximately uniform field distributions exist between two infinite parallel plates or two spheres of equal diameters when the gap distance is less than diameter of the sphere. the field is not only non-uniform but also asymmetrical.

the maximum value of Em and the field enhancement factor f given by Em/Eav. are presented Below. the maximum electric field Em is always higher than the average value. For some common field configurations.Parallel cylinders of equal diameter 382 .It has been shown that the maximum electric field Em in a given electric field configuration is of importance. The mean electric field over a distanced between two conductors with a potential difference of V12 is Ε av = V12 d In field configurations of non-uniform fields. f = Em / Eav 1-Parallel plates Em = r V r f =1 Parallel plate 2.Concentric cylinders 3.

due to the practical limitations of construction. Such an ideal condition is impossible to achieve in practice. considerable quantities of insulation must be used. or on complete equipment must involve high voltage testing. and complete full-scale prototype apparatus (called development testing). it is. in each region. In the actual design of an apparatus. when this factor is high. Generally. on samples of basic materials. 383 . for dielectrics of different electrical strengths. In an ideal design each part of the dielectric would be uniformly stressed at the maximum value which it will safely withstand. the design cannot be completely relied upon. necessary to consider the maximum voltage differences occurring. Since the design of an electrical apparatus is based on the dielectric strength. THEIR DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL The design of power apparatus particularly at high voltages is governed by their transient behavior. A survey of typical power apparatus designs suggests that factors ranging from 2 to 5 can occur in practice. elaborate insulation assemblies. on less complex assemblies. However. although expensive. and to take into account their durations especially when they are less than one microsecond. High voltage testing is done by generating the voltages and measuring them in a laboratory. Nevertheless it provides information on stress concentration factors the ratios of maximum local voltage gradients to the mean value in the adjacent regions of relatively uniform stress. the windings as a whole are generally very nonuniform and are complicated by traveling wave voltage oscillations set up within the windings. The effect of the surge voltages is severe in all power apparatuses. The transient voltage distribution in. such data can be very useful. at any instant of time after the application of an impulse. it is possible to build up a considerable stock of design information. An experimental assessment of the dielectric strength of insulation against the power frequency voltages and surge voltages. unless experimentally tested. When high voltage testing is done on component parts.SURGE VOLTAGES. Improvements can be effected in the following ways: 1. A different approach to the problem is the exact calculation of dielectric strength of any insulation arrangement. The response of a power apparatus to the impulse or surge voltage depends on the capacitances between the coils of windings and between the different phase windings of the multi-phase machines. by shaping the conductors to reduce stress concentrations. The transient high voltages or surge voltages originate in power systems due to lightning and Switching operations. such data can never really be complete to cover all future designs and necessitates use of large factors of safety. of course.

384 . where the load voltage reaches its peak in 2 microseconds. Cs .Load capacitance Waveforms and the effect of resistances and inductances Assuming the parasitic inductances are small (often. Capacitor Discharge Impulse Generators This is the simplest means of generating a high voltage impulse in a load. Impulse Transformers. S . etc. either a current limited HV power supply and a Switch to connect it to the capacitor. and by selection of materials of appropriate permittivity to obtain more uniform voltage gradients.A Switch to apply the energy to the load R1 and L Series resistance and/or inductance. Practical considerations usually dictate that more sophisticated means be used (like Marx generators.Load resistance Cload . The circuit above has all the essential components: Echg . and the decay to half the peak voltage takes 50 microseconds. either parasitic or added for pulse shape control R2 .2. Often. but the basic capacitor discharge circuit is a good place to start.A capacitor to store the energy.). by insertion of higher dielectric strength insulation at high stress points. this is not a valid assumption).A means of charging the capacitor. or a HV power supply and a large series resistor to limit the charging current. A standard waveform for lightning impulse testing would be a 2/50. Transmission line pulse formers. The most common way to describe the waveform is by it's rise and fall times. the discharge of the storage and load capacitance. reflecting the charging of the load capacitance and then. the output of a capacitive impulse generator can be represented by a pair of exponentials.

Commercial energy storage capacitors are designed to a specific capacitance. but are more susceptible to unwanted resonance effects. reducing the power lost compared to a series resistor RC scheme. Switches The Switches for an impulse generator fall into two general categories. Fruengel recommends the use of a voltage multiplier (Cockroft-Walton type). with the triggered spark gap being very popular. and the stored energy. a logical outgrowth of this trend is the use of Switching power supplies. although in some applications. In fact. Switchers as capacitor chargers In recent years. consisting of contacts that are closed by some means such as a spring. The first is those that are primarily mechanical in nature. The generally high (tens of kHz) Switching frequency reduces the stored energy in the supply. the capacitor is used to store the energy to be used for the impulse. The disadvantage is that there is significant stored energy in the capacitor stack of the multiplier. air cylinder. but the energy dissipated in the resistor is signficant.Energy Discharge Capacitors In these systems. Some form of current limiting is necessary because the capacitor looks like a dead short when fully discharged. They can provide a constant charging current. The second is those that have no moving parts. particularly with parasitic reactance's. the capacitor should have low parasitic inductance. Switching power supplies have become popular for capacitor charging. which enhances safety and reduces the chances of a flashover arc developing. or other actuator. solenoid. The current limiting is often in the form of a series impedance. A resistive current limiter is simple. The manufacturer then tests them. although raising the input frequency reduces the size of capacitor required. A resonant charging scheme using a diode and an inductor is very popular for capacitor discharge circuits that are fired repeatedly. Capacitor Charging considerations The rectified output of a high voltage Transformer is probably the simplest system used for charging the capacitor. They can also detect faults and shut down the supply if an arc develops or a capacitor fails (shorted) during charging. Inductive current limiters don't have the power dissipation problem of a resistor. and their actual characteristics (capacitance. stored energy) are marked on the label. in the form of leakage inductance in the Transformer). because it has a hyperbolic voltage/current characteristic that lends itself to capacitor charging. being equal to the stored energy in the capacitor. Resistive losses also result in lower efficiency and slower rise times. HV power supply manufacturers such as Maxwell have power supplies designed specifically for charging capacitors. Since fast rise times are usually desired. 385 . devices such as SCR's are used. The impedance be either inductive or resistive and can either be in the primary side of the Transformer or the secondary (or be in sort of both.

the charging resistors should be about 20-40 kohms (corresponding to an arc current of 5 to 10 Amps). which then puts the bottom three capacitors in series. <figure here> Marx Generators A Marx Generator is a clever way of charging a number of capacitors in parallel. Originally described by E. and so. equal to the stage capacitance divided by the number of stages. When fully charged. a currrent limited HV Transformer feeding a bridge rectifier is a convenient way to charge a capacitor. The resistors are sometimes called "feed forward" resistors for this reason. If the capacitors were 1 uF. For instance. However. 10 stages).Watch out for voltage reversals during discharge The system for charging should take into account the voltage reversal on the storage capacitor if any. the impulse fall time is set by external resistors in parallel with the load (or integrated into the generator. the discharge capacitor becomes very expensive and bulky. The discharge through the charging resistors sets an upper bound on the impulse fall time. For example. The Fitch circuit is becoming popular where very good control over impulse voltage is required. either the lowest gap is allowed to breakdown from over voltage or it is triggered by an external source (if the gap spacing is set greater than the charging voltage breakdown spacing). although usually. which overvoltages the next gap.e. This process is referred to as "erecting". above about 200 kV. with a stage voltage of 100 kV. A common specification is the erected capacitance of the bank. The stage capacitors charge through the charging resistors (Rc). should be chosen to provide a current of 5-10 amps through the gap. a desired output voltage of 1 MV (i. and the resulting high peak currents will most likely destroy the diodes. if the capacitor discharge waveform has any voltage reversal. over voltage the next gap up. How it works The charging voltage is applied to the system. then the discharge time constant 386 . Marx generators are probably the most common way of generating high voltage impulses for testing when the voltage level required is higher than available charging supply voltages. The charging resistors are chosen to provide a typical charging time constant of several seconds. and so forth. then discharging them in series. This effectively puts the bottom two capacitors in series. The charging resistors also provide a current path to keep the arc in the spark gaps alive. the diodes in the bridge will be forward biased in parallel with the capacitor. Furthermore. Marx in 1924. A typical charging current would be in the 50-100 mA range. as described below).

much. If a constant voltage charging source is used. much longer than the 50 microsecond time constant of the standard test impulse. or using enclosed spark gaps. 387 . Craggs and Meek also report the use of radioactive sources included within the gap electrodes to reduce the jitter. the shape of the pulse is controlled by external impedances (usually resistors) at the "output" of the pulse generator. This example generator would have a stored energy of 5 kJ/stage or 50 kJ for the total system. The usual remedy for this is to include the wave-shaping resistors in the Marx bank itself. Laser irradiation or triggering of the gaps could also be used. The traditional Marx generator operating in air has all the gaps in a line with the electrodes operating horizontally opposed. Design enhancements and considerations Charging with a constant current source If the Marx generator is charged from a constant voltage source. it gets harder to build practical resistors with low parasitic inductance that will also withstand the full impulse voltage. At a charging current of 50 mA. equal to the stored energy in the capacitors. rather than relying on the over voltage of the upper gaps to fire them. the leading edge of the impulse will have steps and glitches as the gaps fire. this energy loss can be substantially reduced. which they attribute to the lack of UV irradiation on the upper gaps. Reducing the jitter If the gaps in the Marx generator don't all fire at exactly the same time. reducing their jitter. A design from Maxwell labs uses a series of resistors to apply the trigger impulse to all the gaps. as illustrated in the following figure. the energy dissipated in the charging resistors will be equal to that stored in the Marx capacitors.. For a Marx generator which is immersed in oil. These delays also result in an overall longer rise time for the impulse. resistor or capacitor networks can be used to propagate the trigger pulse to all the gaps. Tests reported in Craggs and Meek showed that obstructing the UV led to greatly increased jitter in the bank output. it would take at least 20 seconds to charge the entire stack. significant energy is dissipated in the charging resistors. This allows the UV from bottom gap to irradiate the upper gaps. the overall performance is improved. If the jitter in the gaps is reduced. Integrating the wave shaping resistors into the generator In the classic capacitor discharge impulse generator.would be 20 milliseconds. As voltages get higher. If the bank is charged with a constant current source.

the resistors need to be chosen to keep the transistor turned on.Other Switching devices The Marx technique has been used to generate impulses of several kilovolts from a relatively low charging source using avalanche transistors as the Switching device instead of a spark gap. 388 . Inductors as the charging impedances The charging resistors can be replaced by inductors. this isn't as much of a problem as it would be for a megavolt range lightning impulse simulator. For the solid state Marx generator running at a few kV described above. Alternate charging schemes Particularly for lower output voltages. The charging impedance has to withstand the full output voltage for the top stage. In this case. the capacitors can be charged in parallel from a common source through a series resistor or inductor. eliminating the power loss in the resistors. The Fitch circuit Fitch Impulse Generators The Fitch circuit is used when better control of the impulse voltage is required than can be provided by the Marx circuit.

High Voltage Safety Contents 1. Electrical Hazards, Fuses and Safety Switches 2. Burns 3. Induction Field Effects 4. Ozone, Nitrites, and Vapors 5. Ultraviolet Light and X-ray Production 6. Radio Frequency Interference 7. Fire Hazards 8. Chemical Hazards 9. Explosion Hazards 10. Noise Hazards 11. Neighbors, The Spouse, and Children 12. Other 1.0) Electrical Hazards, Fuses and Safety Switches The risk of death or injury is significant in many high voltage, and particularly high energy systems. The following general guidelines are suggested: 1. Turn off the power before touching part of high voltage system, or even getting close. A key Switch or lockout device 2. High voltage capacitors may hold a charge long after power is turned off. Always discharge capacitors and keep them shorted in storage or when working on them.. Even after being shorted, a capacitor can regain significant voltage when open circuited. Ideally, the system should be designed so that the capacitor shorting is failsafe. 3. Make sure the metal cases of Transformers, motors, control panels and other items should be properly grounded. 4. Keep a safe distance from energized, or potentially energized components. OSHA guidelines provide for the following distances. Don't move conductive objects too close to energized components 5. Use adequate fusing of the power and/or Circuit Breakers to limit the maximum current 6. Spend some time laying out your circuits. Hot glue, electrical tape and exposed wiring are quick and easy, but could be lethal. Information about electricity and humans Lightning kills about 300 people each year in the United States, and injures an additional three to four times this number. (Sorry, I have no data for the rest of the planet.) More than one thousand people are killed each year in the U.S. due to generated electric current, and several thousand more are injured. (This would include potential tesla coilers.) In the case of lightning, the voltage and current are extremely high, but the duration is short. The current tends to flow on the outside of the body and may cause burns, respiratory arrest and/or cardiac arrest. Many die from lightning due to respiratory arrest rather than cardiac arrest. (The portion of the brain controlling breathing is often severely affected in a lightning strike.) Power line 389

deaths usually involve lower voltages and currents, but the duration may be significant. Often the current flows inside the body, causing deep burns and cardiac arrest. Frequently, the individual cannot let go of the power source due to involuntary muscle contraction. The brain and heart are the most sensitive organs. The dose response for animal and human data suggest the following: for less than 10 mA hand to foot of 50-60 cycle line current, the person merely feels a "funny" sensation; for currents above 10 mA, the person freezes to the circuit and is unable to let go; For currents of 100 mA to one ampere, the likelihood of sudden death is greatest. Above one ampere, the heart is thrown into a single contraction, and internal heating becomes significant. The individual may be thrown free of the power source, but may go into respiratory and/or cardiac arrest. Six factors determine the outcome of human contact with electrical current: voltage, amperage, resistance, frequency, duration and pathway. I will discuss each individually. Voltage Low voltages generally do not cause sudden death unless the external resistance is low (so don't fire up your coil in wet areas). As the voltage is increased, more and more current passes through the body, possibly causing damage to the brain, heart, or causing involuntary muscle contractions. Perhaps 100-250 volts A. C. is the most lethal voltage, because it is high enough to cause significant current flow through the body, and may cause muscles to contract tightly, rendering the victim incapable of letting go. Lower voltages often are insufficient to cause enough current flow, and higher voltages may cause the victim to be thrown clear of the hazard due to the particularly fierce involuntary muscle contractions. Arcing may occur with high voltages, however. Naturally, burns become more severe as the voltage is increased. Amperage Greater amperage means greater damage, especially due to heating within tissues. As little as 10 micro amps of current passing directly through the heart can cause ventricular fibrillation (heart muscle fibers beat out of sync, so no blood is pumped) and cardiac arrest. Because of the air filled lungs, much of the current passing through the chest may potentially pass through the heart. The spinal cord may also be affected, altering respiration control. 100-1000 milliamperes is sufficient to induce respiratory arrest and/or cardiac arrest. Thermal heating of tissues increases with the square of the current (I2R), so high current levels can cause severe burns, which may be internal. Resistance A heavily callused dry palm may have a resistance of 1 megohm. A thin, wet palm may register 100 ohms of resistance. Resistance is lower in children. Different body tissues exhibit a range of resistances. Nerves, arteries and muscle are low in resistance. Bone, fat and tendon are relatively high in resistance. Across the chest of an average adult, the resistance is about 70-100 ohms. Thermal burns due to I2R losses in the body can be significant, resulting in the loss of life or limb long after the initial incident. A limb diameter determines the approximate "cross section" which the 390

current will flow through, (for moderate voltages and low frequencies). As a result, a current passing through the arm generates more temperature rise and causes more thermal damage than when passing through the abdomen. Frequency The "skin effect" also applies to a human conductor, and as the frequency gets above about 500 kHz or so, little energy passes through the internal organs. (I unfortunately have little data in the 50-250 kHz range, where we operate most tesla coils. I'll check another reference I have at home.) At a given voltage, 50-60 A.C. current has a much greater ability to cause ventricular fibrillation than D.C. current. In addition, at 50-60 Hz, involuntary muscle contractions may be so severe that the individual cannot let go of the power source. Higher frequencies are less able to cause these involuntary contractions. Duration Obviously, the longer the duration, the more severe the internal heating of tissues. Duration is particularly a problem when working with 110-240 volts A.C., which can render the individual incapable of letting go. Pathway If the current passes through the brain or heart, the likelihood of a lethal dose increases significantly. For example, hand to hand current flow carries a 60% mortality, whereas hand to foot current flow results in 20% overall mortality. Be aware that foot to foot conduction can also occur, if a high voltage lead is inadvertently stepped on or if grounding is inadequate. Electrical Precautions Obviously, the A.C. line voltage, the high voltage Transformer and the high voltage R.F. generated by a tesla coil are each potentially lethal in their own unique ways. One must always respect this extreme danger and use high voltage shielding, contactors, safety interlocks, careful R.F. and A.C. grounding, and safe operating procedures when working with coils. A safety key to prevent inexperienced operators from energizing a coil is essential. High voltage capacitors can also retain lethal energies (especially in the "equidrive" configuration) and should always be grounded before adjusting a primary. Whenever possible, have a buddy around to assist you. Place one hand in your pocket when near electrical components so the current won't pass through your chest, and use the back of your hand to touch any electrical components so you can let go if it happens to bite you. Remember that most deaths are caused by regular 110 A.C. power! Never perform coiling when overtired or under the influence of mind altering drugs. Watch a tesla video instead!


More Tesla coils electrical danger information The previous article mentioned some of them in a general electrical hazard context, while this article will attempt to discuss the dangers from a tesla coil point of view. Electrical Dangers Exposed wiring on Transformers. Most Transformers have exposed high voltage lugs. Most neon sign Transformers that I have seen used for tesla coil usage have exposed lugs. A 15000 volt Transformer has a turn ratio of 125:1 (assuming 120 volts in). If you haven't disconnected your input power from the source (unplugged your variac), you may be in for a surprise. A variac that is putting out two volts will give you a 250 volt shock if you touch the high voltage outputs of the neon sign Transformer! Pole pigs (also known as distribution Transformers, such as the one that is probably hanging on a utility pole near your home) have the same dangers as mentioned above, as well as having much more current available. At the output voltage of a pole pig, the current that can go through you is not really limited by anything other than the current regulation that you attached to the pig. Once I shocked myself with one end (7500 volts) of a 60 mA. neon sign Transformer. I just brushed against an exposed end, so I wasn't gripping anything. It was quite painful, much more so than touching a sparkplug wire. I felt the path of the current follow my arm, and go down my leg. Keep one hand in your pocket when working near or with charged items. (Capacitors, secondary coils, etc.) Richard Hull's "Tesla Coil Primer" tape has some excellent safety suggestions in it, is entertaining, informative, and well worth the money. One of his best suggestions is the one of holding the power plug to the power Transformer in your hand whenever you are putting your hands around the circuit. The transmission line between your high voltage Transformer and your tesla coil is another potential source of electrocution. This should be constructed using neon sign wiring (rated to 40 kV) or thick coaxial cable like RG-8A/U or RG-11A/U. If using coaxial cable, use the inner conductor for the high voltage, and strip back the outer braid about 6-12 inches from each end. Connect one end of the braid to your RF ground. Leave the other end unconnected so it does not form a current loop. Some coilers also place their high voltage cables inside a plastic conduit, which is laid on the floor. This also protects the cable somewhat from strikes. Charged capacitors. "Equidrive" systems will almost always have a residual charge remaining on the capacitor when the system is turned off. The "equidrive" system uses two capacitors in the primary coil circuit. The gap is across the Transformer, and the capacitors extend from the gap to each side of the primary coil. Even with the gap shorted, the capacitors can hold a lethal voltage. If you use this configuration, make yourself a shorting rod using a piece of copper tubing or wire with an insulating handle attached, and always short out each capacitor at the end of each run, and again each time you plan to touch the primary system.


Capacitors can also build up a residual charge from electrostatic sources. Capacitors have been known to accumulate a charge from various sources such as static electricity and electric fields. IF YOU STORE A CAPACITOR, STORE IT WITH A WIRE ACROSS THE TERMINALS. (MAKE SURE YOU DISCHARGE THE CAPACITOR BEFORE PUTTING THE WIRE ON!!!) Capacitors can "regain" charge from dielectric "memory". The dielectric in a capacitor is put under electrical stress during use. During operation, this stress may cause the molecules in the dielectric to orient themselves in such a manner that they store this charge in their structure. The charge remains after the capacitor has been discharged. Later the molecules return to their original states and the charge that they "captured" ends up on the plates of the capacitor. This charge is then available to shock you. Other sources of danger You are literally playing Russian Roulette when you stick a hand held metal rod into the output streamer of your coil running at 3kvA, while standing on a concrete floor!!! When you start running these kind of power levels (or even less) some coils have a tendency to form a corona or even send a streamer down to their own primaries every once in a while. A grounded strike ring is often added around the primary to try to prevent this self striking streamer from hitting the primary coil and thus introducing a high voltage pulse into the 'bottom end electronics' where it could do damage to components. These strike rails are not 100% effective. The streamer can still, and sometimes does strike a point downstairs that is part of the LETHAL high voltage 60 Hz circuitry. When such a contact is made, any person also connected to a corona/streamer link to the secondary at the same time will, via the ionized air path, become connected to lethal 60 Hz mains current. You could try the trick you described standing on the cement floor in your tennis shoes half a dozen times and live, or be killed the very next time you try it. The fact that the bottom of your secondary is tied to ground will not save you! If you isolate your own body well away from the floor and any other potentially conductive objects in the vicinity, such as sitting or standing on an elevated insulated platform (I would NOT consider a plastic milk crate adequate!), then you will probably survive if 60 Hz is introduced into the streamer you are in contact with by the mechanism described above. However, in setting up this insulated platform you must consider the path that may be taken from streamers that will re-emerge from your body and head off looking for other targets, which could result in direct contact with earth ground again. In a safety warning I have about the potential hazards of Tesla coils mention is made of a stage lecturer while demonstrating how he could cause long sparks to come out of his fingers (by standing on a specially constructed coil), was electrocuted when the discharge created an ionized path to grounded overhead pipes supporting stage back drops, and the lower voltage but far more deadly 60 cycle current passed through his body along that path. The name of this lecturer is believed to be Transtrom.


3. and voltage standing waves along the wiring may destroy electronics far from the coil location. That could be deadly. 10 megohm metal film porcelain resistor about a foot long while standing on a carpeted. nearby computers and electronics. I think the danger of electrocution is just as real by making contact with a hand held florescent lamp tube. especially due to RF discharges from the secondary. use grounds and cages as appropriate.I was dinking around once with a vacuum tube coil drawing 15 inch streamers to a hand-held. for example) there is the possibility of high-current 60 cycle conduction along the ionized path.0) Burns Tesla coils can cause burns. you are asking for trouble. Construct a dedicated RF ground. Remember. If you foolishly choose to use your house electrical ground as your RF ground.0) Induction Field Effects Tesla coils operate in a pulsed mode. Back to contents 2. the heating effects may be mostly internal. significant amounts of RF may be produced if the grounding is poor. Be EXTREMELY careful! Another viewpoint The 60 cycle side of things is where electrocution can happen. Stay out of the immediate vicinity of a tesla coil.. Had that resistor been a solid metal rod I would have experienced a very painful jolt or worse. I'd probably be 'worm food'.. and had I been standing on a cement floor. Bear in mind that if a radio frequency arc starts from a place which also has 60 cycles on it (one side of a primary circuit. Turn off computers and sensitive test equipment. if you do get zapped by a large coil system. Keep well away from any 60 cycle leads. The end result is generally bad.. as any solid conducting metal objeCT's I cringe when I hear of some body contact stunts proposed by people on this list! The potential (no pun intended) for death is very real. causing lasting damage! Also remember that spark gaps and rotaries get hot and are a potential source of burns. elevated wooden floor in composition rubber soled dry shoes. I inadvertently got the resistor too close to the primary tank coil (the top end directly connected to the 3 kilovolt output of the plate supply Transformer) and the high voltage RF closed a path to the primary. In addition. Currents may be induced anywhere in the building. and metal structures in the facility. 394 . and make sure it is properly connected before firing any coil of substantial size. or before spark breakout. and strong electric and magnetic fields are locally produced. like test equipment. This can result in induced currents in other conductors. and move it away from the vicinity of your coils. Fire from other induced currents.. I felt an uncomfortable 60 Hz shock through my entire body.

Strikes to garage door opener rails. Connecting your coil to either of these grounds is a recipe for disaster. VCR. etc. For example. Since many people do their coiling in the garage. If you need to move the secondary (say you are adjusting the coupling). Consider what happens when your coil strikes the grounded strike rail. Before you touch the secondary. Oddly enough sensitive meters and measuring equipment are just that -. Also. That enormous voltage at high frequency will now be connected to the grounds of all your electronic goodies or your telephone. The door is connected to the opener track so the opener got zapped too. Beware of metal things that are connected to the same ground as a tesla coil.sensitive. Notice that your stereo.. that allows you to disconnect the opener from the house power. significant static charges can build up on the secondary. If you have a garage door opener. You can sometimes hear the crackling as you do so. which has a wooden door on metal tracks. and near the strap that serves as a ground for my coil. or an unexpectedly long spark that hits an electrical receptacle. wipe it lightly with a grounded wire. note where your telephone box is grounded. By creating this path. there is the physical hazard caused by the shock. you open your electrical system up to connections among the 120/220v house system and ground. Consider purchasing a cheap volt-ohmeter (VOM) with an analog meter movement. computer. My garage door got zapped by my coil. a spark is a conducting path in the atmosphere. have three prong plugs. Be warned of the dangers to the equipment.also goes to power(?) A tesla coil must be connected to a ground that is separate from the house ground or water pipes. The strike caused the opener to attempt to open the already open door. I run my coil in my garage. such as a Switch or plug and socket. I was able to unplug the opener and keep the thing from smoking. You will likely drop the secondary or jump onto something that isn't soft. When the coil operates. the opener started binding.Tesla coils are good at inducing currents. A used vacuum tube 395 . If will survive in places many digital units will not. it causes sparks to jump between the running hardware of the door and the tracks. Besides the shock hazard. or are installing one. The tracks are against the concrete floor. It is likely grounded to the water pipes. you may get a nasty zap right across your chest when you pick it up with both hands. you should put in a mechanism. Since the door couldn't go any further. An untested suggestion is to put a grounded wire underneath the rail and opener to draw the sparks to the wire. Furthermore. More than one person on the list has replaced their opener as a result of their coiling activity. Solid state instruments are much more susceptible to damage from being near tesla coils than are vacuum tube items. Electric fields inducing currents and killing sensitive meters. this topic deserves individual consideration. Static charges During the operation of the tesla coil. Hazards to electronics Strikes to house electrical ground -.

396 . light bulbs. and sensitive electrical equipment.0) Ultraviolet Light and X-ray Production Ultraviolet light may be produced by the spark gap during operation of a tesla coil. The visible light is extremely bright. and other evacuated vessels are placed near a coil. and the risk increases with increasing voltages. 5. (Ever look at the sun for a while. use adequate ventilation when coating coils with varnish. so why bother? If you must study your spark gap. so the bioeffects are felt later. there is a significant risk of X-ray production. There have been anecdotal references to people becoming ill due to ozone toxicity. when it is too late. use welder's glasses. Good electrical practice Place your coil in a location that will prevent the strikes from hitting electrical outlets. it is not too difficult to rig up a piece of plastic. it does help out the ozone layer!) When constructing secondaries. Here is a little information about Xrays. and can cause skin cancer. (On the other hand. nitrites. especially if vacuum tubes. X-rays X-rays can be produced whenever there is a high voltage present. The human eye has no pain sensors within it. The flux from solder is also potentially hazardous. and the ultraviolet light will damage your eyes. Some of these materials are also quite toxic. The source electrons are usually boiled off a heated filament (cathode). X-ray Production A number of vacuum tubes work pretty well as X-ray tubes. typically 25-150 kV in the medical world. animals. The arc is so bright that you couldn't make out any detail anyway. that will shield yourself and others. 4. and Vapors A sparking tesla coil produces ozone. and accelerated toward an anode via some large potential difference. people. Although a number of coilers have tested their coils for x-ray radiation and found none present that is not to say that x-rays cannot be produced. and several articles have appeared in Scientific American magazine in the distant past. Nitrites. etc. Do not operate a large coil in an enclosed area for long periods of time. etc. Generally. As any professional arc welder will tell you "Don't Look At The Arc!" Spark gaps produce a large amount of UV and visible light. Basically. X-rays are typically produced by slamming electrons into either the nuclei or inner shell electrons of atoms. or watch a welder at work?) The light produced in a spark gap is essentially identical to that produced by an arc welder. and probably a host of other potentially toxic substances. The long term bioeffects are unknown.0) Ozone.oscilloscope is also more likely to survive the tesla coil environment and can be obtained cheaply at hamfests. any time the voltage gets above 10 kV. Turn off and unplug computers in your house. Make sure ventilation is adequate at all times. cardboard. containing substantial amounts of hard ultraviolet light.

so most of the energy is wasted as heat (typically about 99% with good X-ray tubes). Low energy X-rays (015 keV) are totally absorbed in human skin near the skin surface. If the potential difference between the anode and cathode is +100 kV D.. which lets the high energy X-rays pass through with little attenuation (except possibly to give you enough contrast to see what you want). Hence. For the remainder of this discussion I will limit my comments to conventional X-ray tubes. a spectrum of X-rays will be produced with energies from zero to 100 keV. Some of these low energy photons are absorbed by the tube housing. That is why we use 50-150 keV for many clinical procedures. Compare this with 1 mm of lead (about 0. In conventional equipment. The human body absorbs X-rays pretty readily (similar to water). the tube is placed in a leaded shield with a window (hole) in it for the X-rays to escape through.5 mm of aluminum equivalent material in the exit port. using a filament and anode. Most of the x-rays are absorbed in the patient. but becomes more transparent as the energy of the X-ray increases. This is to be avoided in general! Shielding The best materials are lead or depleted (nonradioactive) uranium. usually through the use of an aluminum filter. In a clinical X-ray machine. The target or anode is normally a high atomic number material like tungsten. the tube.02% at 50 keV and 0. 397 . which would be absorbed in the patient and could not contribute to producing an image anyway. as high energy X-rays are more penetrating than low energy x-rays. This was probably the type of emission obtained by an amateur described recently on the list. For example.C.You can also get some X-ray production via field emission. X-ray Absorption High atomic number materials readily absorb x-ray radiation. Concrete and steel also work pretty well. There is an energy dependence here. whereby electrons escape a cold metal due to very high local electric fields (the Schottky effect). with 1-5% exiting the patient typically. 10% at 50 keV and 18% at 100 keV. and would contribute substantially to patient dose if allowed to reach the patient. which transmits 0. This window has a piece of aluminum over it to further attenuate the low energy X-rays. This effectively knocks out most of the low energy (<10 keV) radiation.04% at 20 keV. The low energy X-rays are filtered out of the spectrum before they enter the patient. although most of it applies to both forms.5 .14% at 100 keV. housing and aluminum filter accounts for about 2. the percentage of radiation which will pass through 10 cm (about 4 inches) of water is 0. unless the radiation is very low in energy. Tungsten works well because of its high melting point (to absorb all that wasted heat energy). Aluminum is a poor absorber of radiation.04 inches). many more low energy X-rays are produced than high energy X-rays. The graph of the number of X-rays produced (y-axis) versus X-ray energy (x-axis) has a negative slope with a Y=0 point at x = 100 keV.3. Most plastics are similar to water in attenuating properties (quite poor). X-ray production is relatively inefficient.

film is quite insensitive to radiation. There are several ways to tell.2 . Occupational radiation workers can get 5 rem per year above background.Hazards X-rays are capable of producing ionizations. causing cancer. don't stand close to a possible radiation source. The radiation from a well designed X-ray tube can be as high as 10-50 rem per minute of exposure.5 rem per year above background radiation levels for the general public. Regulations In the U. leukemia cataracts. The standard method for monitoring radiation dose is via film badge and/or thermoluminescent dosimetry monitors. nonetheless. First. Natural background radiation levels typically contribute 0. at a distance of 1/2 meter. Skin reddening occurs with doses of around 300 rem or so. However. etc. The radiation source acts like a light bulb. but these are not all that useful to the experimenter since they must be mailed back to the dosimetry lab for reading. If you don't expect any radiation but still want to check. Cloud chambers are great fun and can detect a variety of radiation particles. go look for a surplus Geiger-Mueller counter at your local hamfest or make friends with someone in your local fire department. Bio-effects are not generally observed for doses of less than 25 rem. This results in the production of chemically reactive free radicals. etc. the individual states regulate X-ray machines. If you happen across an old Xray tube. but should be avoided. keeping the tube wrapped in a large quantity of towels for implosion protection during the process. Monitoring At this point I presume you are wondering how to tell if that great apparatus in your basement or garage is producing X-rays. In general. a cloud chamber can 398 . you might consider releasing the high vacuum inside (very carefully. please) so that it is inoperable. which means that the electrons can be stripped off of atoms when an x-ray is absorbed in a material. use adequate shielding and minimize the exposure time. This is generally bad in humans. This can be done by making a small hole in the glass envelope with a file. but get easily overwhelmed by devices that put out even low radiation levels.). (It goes without saying that you should always have your favorite towel handy anyway [for you Doug Adams fans]). Most regulatory agencies recommend no more than 0. and a little safer to handle for show and tell (and much more acceptable to the regulators).5 rem per year. nearly every hospital has a radiation safety officer who is likely to be more than willing to take a look at your toys. decreasing in intensity via the square law with distance. They generally keep close tabs on clinical and industrial X-ray machines and aren't too impressed to see them in the hands of people without the appropriate licenses. Incidentally produced radiation from metal objects other than X-ray tubes will generally be at much lower production levels.0. since many fire departments have radiation survey meters at their stations (in case we have a nearby nuclear explosion. due to natural background radiation levels. and the direct disruption of chemical bonds. and is of limited value in the experimenters setting unless you can leave the equipment on for a long time to get adequate exposure. and will bring a radiation survey meter along. humans have built in radiation repair mechanisms and can handle low doses of radiation quite well. Hence.S. (Don't bother with the fire department if your apparatus is likely to upset them!) In addition.

If you note interference. dating back to the early days of radio. An electroscope measures the amount of charge using two thin metal foils which are charged up to a high potential. especially if operated with a large top capacitance. Finally. Buy a thorium doped lantern mantle at your local camping store to use as a radiation check source to make sure your chamber is working okay before you power up your equipment. Make sure you operate your coil with a good RF ground. My coils produce 3 to 5 foot sparks in magnifier and conventional forms using up to 15 kV input. While the man that I talked to wasn't too sure about the potential interference. These are relatively inexpensive and are very effective in keeping RF out of the house wiring. Another possibility is to construct an electroscope and place it near your apparatus. you don't want to get a survey meter too close to an operating tesla coil. Of course. use an appropriate instrument to find out for sure.5 kVA. Humans are not able to sense X-ray and ultraviolet radiation. Legal dangers In the United States. 6. causing a loss of charge on the foils. Obviously. this type of equipment has limited utility in the direct vicinity of high voltage equipment if electric fields are significant. causing them to swing apart due to repulsion of like charges. try to improve your ground first.be used. which should eliminate the interference.0) Radio Frequency Interference Tesla coils are generally inefficient as antennas go. X-rays and Tesla Coils I have monitored my various tesla coils using a number of different radiation instruments and have not seen measurable radiation levels. if you shield your coil from emitting RF to the outside world. If you think you are producing some. Other Comments When I first got interested in tesla coils. construct a Faraday cage from chicken wire or similar material. you can do anything you like. They have specific rules which prohibit the operation of spark gap type damped oscillators. and other electronics. always keep safety in mind with all of this equipment. radios. I called the FCC to ask about the legal aspects of coiling. he did say that modulation of the output is definitely illegal. every tesla coil should be wired with a power line conditioner in series with the primary circuit. but can still produce a fair amount of RF. with power levels of no more than 1. and they generally aren't keen on any type of RF interference. If interference still exists. 399 . Naturally. Significant quantities of RF can also be produced if the RF grounding is inadequate. In addition. since that is likely where your problem is. RF transmitters are regulated by the Federal Communications Commission ( FCC). Radiation ionizes the air in the electroscope chamber. This can cause interference with TV's. before spark breakout.

Fire starting from sparks to flammable points. take care to eliminate them if possible before they figure out who caused it.0) Chemical Hazards Old capacitors and Transformers often used PCB oils for insulation. In addition. A 5 gram (0.Try to be aware that your coil may cause various interference problems.g. The sparks from a tesla coil are hot. Not a good combination for fighting a fire in your garage. shorted Transformer). etc. rotary gaps spin at high speeds. 9.) Some forms of solder contain lead. and other equipment. Depending on where they strike. induced currents. when operating your coil. fireworks. etc.. etc. Fires can be caused by an overheated spark gap. These plastics ignite at relatively low temperatures. Similarly. what's a tesla coil? What's it take to ignite gasoline? Consider the location of gas cans. varnish) may contain hazardous chemicals. The spinning rotor or disk is subjected to tremendous force. 7.011 lb) 1/4-20 brass acorn nut used as an 400 . Rotary gaps During operation. gas cans (e. sawdust.g. (Many of these are available via Internet. corona discharge.0) Fire Hazards The danger of fires is substantial with tesla coils! Make sure you have a functional fire extinguisher designed for fighting electrical fires handy. the periphery of a 10" disk is subjected to a force of 1835 G's. and produce large quantities of toxic smoke. these sparks can cause a fire. it's usually in the dark with plenty of exposed high voltage wires. For example..) Without a spark. that there are no flammable substances around. to name a few causes. (This was due to a failed power line conditioner. Walls and ceilings can also be ignited.) Be sure that when you run your coil. most coilers use polyethylene and other plastics in constructing their coils. Richard Hull has captured fires caused by sparks from his coils on video tape. for a lawnmower). At a modest 3600 RPM. capacitors. but nearby flammables are also at risk.g. This oil is a known carcinogen.0) Explosion Hazards Explosions can and do occur with tesla coils! The rotary gap and capacitors are the most frequent culprits. Consult a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for any materials you have questions about. Remember that when you operate your coil. If you know about any. so keep the fire extinguisher handy. equipment failure (e. ammunition. the materials used to coat coils (e.. 8. Gasoline on premises (mowers. Use your favorite Web search engine with the key word MSDS'. which is also generally bad for humans. lawnmowers.

Capacitors Capacitors are great at releasing energy very quickly. One recommended method of shielding capacitors is in an HDPE (High Density PolyEthylene) pipe. often your neighbors will not see it that way. Buy and use a set of ear muffs or ear plugs. Attitudes are a lot different if a little common sense is used first. you can wash the foam ear plugs. These pipes are used in the pyrotechnics industry as mortars because of their strength and the fact that they don't create shrapnel as steel or PVC pipes do. When a coil is in tune. Go to your local gun shop and buy ear protection if you operate large coils. or invite them over and explain things before you start. The shielding must be nearly bullet proof (literally). The peripheral speed of the 10" disk is 107 MPH. The explosion danger in a capacitor occurs when it shorts out and suddenly produces a large volume of hot vaporized gas. Consult with your plastics dealer to determine what thickness you need. 401 . and Children While the beauty of a tesla coil firing outside is something to behold. Be cognizant of your possibly unreasonable neighbors. you will notice a dramatic increase in the noise level as it sparks. If you are on a tight budget (blew all the $$$'s on the pig). strong. and tough. At 10000 RPM. The best way to guard against this danger is to shield the rotor and build the entire system carefully and take pains to balance it. and large coils can damage one's hearing. and do your work inside if possible. sending pieces of solid cap guts and oil all over.0) Neighbors. There are a wide variety of types of ear plugs and muffs.electrode will exert a force of over 20 pounds. This noise is loud enough that it can damage hearing. Hearing is important -. The Spouse. and your local police will make a personal house call. I prefer the roll up foam type myself. the volume of gas will cause the container to explode. produces a loud noise. Lexan (polycarbonate) is an excellent plastic for shielding. Works great.0) Noise Hazards Tesla coils produce a lot of noise. One type of spark gap. avoid storing gasoline or other flammables near a tesla coil! 10. the air blast gap. Since capacitors are usually in an airtight container.how will you tell if your teenager is mocking you behind your 11. It is nonconductive. the edge of the disk is running at about 300 MPH! All these numbers translate into one thing: Danger. See the warnings in the previous paragraph. Just put them in a pants pocket (one that closes is best) and run the pants through the wash. Also. so you will likely find one that works well and is comfortable.

be it yours or neighbors. innocent. install some sort of key lock on your power cabinet. which is inherently dangerous. This situation can be improved by having an assistant around to operate the lights and/or power Switch. hot glue. Killing or injuring a child or pet. and ignorant. Spend a little time to construct yourself a nice power cabinet with a safety Switch. Most coilers prefer to operate their coils with the lights off. not when you are actually working. Remember the following: ¨ For new parents. If things move around a bit during firing. Also. variac. The Spouse Another potential hazard is if the spouse thinks one is spending too much time on his or her hobby. have a buddy assist you. A potential secondary hazard would be from enraged neighbors if radio or TV interference was generated often enough to be a nuisance. (Note the similarity!) Their judgment isn't the greatest either. small pets Kids and small pets are quite curious. sleep is the most precious commodity that they have. Drinking and coiling can be lethal! If you feel the need to consume some mind altering drugs. and post your local emergency telephone numbers. the risk of something bad occurring is increased significantly. have your buddy learn CPR. If you have children and they have access to your coil. ANY HOBBY!!!! Expect the wife to not understand! 11) Other Whenever possible. and said neighbors could trace it to its source. Good citizenship will solve this problem (or a large building with a good RF ground and a batch of power line filters). just to be safe. will most likely be the worst thing that will happen to you in your life. Kids. Many coilers throw their systems together using electrical tape. ¨ Not everyone works 8am to 5pm. ¨ Not everyone is tolerant or nice. and assorted bits of plastic. or whatever.Coils are noisy Please consider your neighbor's sleep habits. watch a tesla video instead! Never operate a tesla coil while under the influence! Quaff the ales later during bragging hour. The layout of your apparatus is also a safety consideration. 402 . and construct a safe high voltage transmission line to your coil.

Since the magnitude of the field is inversely proportional to the radius of curvature. These factors are multiplied by the corona starting voltage (or field) to determine the corrected voltage.87 0. and the corona voltage will be pretty much the same. unwashed Washed with grease solvent Scratch-brushed Buffed Dragged and dusty Weathered (5 months) Weathered at low humidity For general design 7 strand concentric lay cable 19.83-0.93 0. Put the sharp corner in something with a higher breakdown strength than air.74 0. as the charge will redistribute itself towards an adjacent conductor. the field is no longer uniform. The corona starting voltage is typically 30 kV/cm radius. and hence higher field stress. sharper edges break down sooner. The easiest case to analyze is that of a sphere. The magnitude of the electric field at the surface of a sphere in free space is simply the voltage/radius. corona can be reduced.75 0. probably by providing local areas of tighter curvature.90 0.95 0.00 0. Condition of Conductor New. and 61 strand concentric lay cable m0 0.91-0.67-0. 403 .Corona Corona is caused by the electric field next to an object exceeding the breakdown value for air (or whatever it is immersed in). Note that if the sphere is near another conductor. Since corona is fundamentally a breakdown phenomenon. Double all the dimensions and halve the gas pressure.72-0. 37. increasing the field. it follows Paschen's law: the voltage is a function of pd.85 Eliminating or reducing corona Smoothly radiusing the corners of objects at high voltages relative to nearby objects will reduce the local field strength. Dust or water particles on the surface of the object reduce the corona starting voltage.87-0. The trick here is to make sure that you have really got the replacement substance in contact with the conductor.92 0.80-0.88 1. Corona Surface Factor The following table gives empirically determined correction factors for various surface conditions. By making the high field occur within a substance with a higher breakdown than the surrounding air.

Rowe-Talley. Experimenters building polyethylene and aluminum foil capacitors for tesla coils run them at low powers using the electrostatic forces between the plates to vibrate and pump the air bubbles out. to pre-determined standards. a series of other conductors are interposed at intermediate voltages.com The format of the commissioning teams will vary of course from contract to contract as the work content and demands change. Potting the entire assembly in an insulator (traditionally paraffin or sulfur were used. will increase the corona starting voltage. A capacitive divider may be a simple as the inter electrode capacitances of the grading rings themselves.sayedsaad. this is an enamel or polystyrene paints or gels that you can apply.Covering sharp corners with an insulating film increases the corona starting voltage at the points with high E-field stress. A popular approach to reducing corona on wires is to surrounding the conductor by a semiconducting film or layer of greater radius. www. Field grading rings are often used on high voltage equipment to control the electric field distribution. Generically known as "corona dope". supervision and direction of the commissioning teams and clients approval / acceptance. and hence lowers the field strength. This effectively increases the radius of the object. Normally the PCE will be 404 . liaison with the client. The 'Commissioning Procedures' as detailed in this document will be carried out by 'Commissioning Teams' under the direction of the Principal Commissioning Engineer (PCE). Glyptal is one example. All of the potting and immersion techniques depend on removing the air or gas bubbles to work. that all the equipment erection is correct and that all the equipment connections / cables have been installed in accordance with the approved erection drawings and diagrams. but you want the diameter of the conductor large enough to reduce the corona. Clear acrylic spray paint is another alternative. commissioning lists/methods. You may not need a huge amount of copper to carry the required current (often micro or milliamps). silicone RTV is a more popular modern alternative) achieves the same result. The PCE will take overall responsibility for the documentation. Commissioning The purpose of commissioning is to satisfy. among others. Wire of this type is manufactured by Belden. drawings. although the coating is quite thin. Commercial manufacturers pull a vacuum on the container while the assembly is being potted to facilitate the removal of the air bubbles. Rather than rely the field that would exist in free space between two charged conductors. Running the system in a tank at high pressure. Furthermore to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the client that the foregoing work has been done and that the equipment functions as designed. and Caton. The intermediate voltages are derived from a capacitive or resistive divider. and clear nail polish has also been used. Immersing the assembly in oil or other insulating fluids will also work. or in an insulating gas.

Inspection of different compartments for every Switchgear bay including Bus-Bar compartment. 4. www. 5. To ensure that the commissioning procedures are carried out as effectively and efficiently as possible it is vital that co-operation and flexibility is paramount between the various personnel involved. 3. Inspection of the control and relay boards. Isolators & earthing Switches compartment and cable box compartment. factory test engineers.sayedsaad. Check all valves of the Transformer are in the service position.com The 'Commissioning Procedures' document covers the normal operational and electrical pre-commissioning and commissioning test / checks.com To avoid any confusion in this respect this document covers all of the tests and checks that are genuinely considered part of the commissioning procedures to be carried out by the commissioning team and therefore under the direction of the PCE. The appropriate Factory Test Engineers (FTE) and any Subcontractor Commissioning Engineers (CE) will also form an essential part of the team. www.com 3. Check for the Transformer protection functions. Commissioning High voltage equipment 1. Inspection of isolators & earthing Switches parts and its functions.sayedsaad. Inspection of the Circuit Breaker parts and its function. Inspection of Circuit Breakers operating mechanism and its function particularly the ones operated by hydraulic or pneumatic system.supported by one or more Senior Commissioning Engineers (SCE) who are authorized to deputies for the PCE in his absence. All Power Transformer kinds. Inspection of the operation & control circuits for the Circuit Breakers isolators and earthing Switches. www.com 2. www. 5.sayedsaad. also SF6 gas pressure and other related works.sayedsaad. Circuit Breakers of the same rating shall be fully Interchangeable.com 6. Check the automatic tap changer operation. 1. 7. www.sayedsaad. Circuit Breaker compartment. 4. Check the Transformer oil level. viz erection engineers (factory and sub-contractor). It is not intended to cover the post-erection 'mechanical' checks that the (FTE's) carry out as part of their installation responsibility. 2. commissioning engineers and clients' representatives. 405 . Check the cooling fans operation.

sayedsaad. 7. 5. Inspection of the LT board and ensure the function of Circuit Breakers and isolators. 6Inspection of the power cables tails (for feeders and Transformers) and its related oil gauges and to confirm its function. All wires should be provided with ferrules and coloring code. Confirm the receipt of complete copies from test result sheets. 2. Confirm the availability of nameplates & labels (for all panels & Transformers at different location of control & relay boards and equipment). 3.com • Protection equipment. 4. 6. settings and related alarms & signals. single line diagram. 6. 3. Check that each bay is provided with main and back up protection relays. either individual or parallel. Check that the test / service Switches function and all the Switches are in the service position. Check that the service settings are adopted for oil temperature & winding temperature instruments. Check that the equipment healthiness & nothing abnormal to block its function and the relay service settings are adopted. Auxiliaries and other equipment. Inspection of substation main earthing system and connection of all equipment to the earth. settings.sayedsaad. operation instruction (if necessary). . Check the function of the Synchronizing equipment (if applicable) for closing or blocking the closing in case of not Synchronized system. Inspection of the pilot cable marshalling cabinets and confirm all wires connection with clear identifications 4. 406 1. Inspection of the local Transformers and ensure the related parts healthiness. Inspection of the fire fighting equipment and confirm 'its function. Check that all alarms and signals of the substation are received and connected to control center. General note. Inspection of the air compressors and its function. fire resistant coating and all other related works. instruction manuals and as built marked up drawings. 7. also service tap position adjustment for manual tap changer. General inspection of all Transformers parts to ensure its healthy condition. Inspection of control center communication and telemetry equipment. and GIS sectional drawing. Check the function of the tap changer automatic voltage regulator. 1. www. Inspection of the batteries and its chargers function. tank pits. www. 7.com 5.6. also to confirm its service settings. Checks the function of the auto reclosure equipment (if applicable) and the intertrip equipment. 8. alarms. 2.

and to be located at suitable places. a copy of the results obtained must be submitted to the PCE for his approval and retention. Check the availability of the keys for control & relay panels and different equipment padlocks. 5. Switchgear and electrical devices will be internally checked for compliance with the approved drawings and approved connection wiring diagrams. Internal Panel Wiring Compliance Visual Check Internal Panel Wiring/Devices Insulation Check D. Supply Checks Scheme Checks (Positive and Negative Rail Principle) All relays will be visually checked to see that there is no packing. These tests will be repeated during the acceptance testing stage by the erection staff in liaison with a commissioning team member. On completion of these tests. 3.C.C. All devices shall be checked to see that they are clearly numbered/identified in accordance with the general arrangement drawings and that the phases are marked where appropriate. www. dirt. All control and relay panels. metal swarf.com PRE-COMMISSIONING TESTS AND CHECKS 1.sayedsaad. The tests carried out in order to satisfy the above will be: 1. This should be witnessed and signed by Owner.com 407 . to determine that no transit/erection damage has occurred (or where this has happened that satisfactory rectification work has been done). etc. Supply Checks A. 2.Earthing An earth survey is carried out for each substation at the beginning of the contract in order to obtain a value for the site earth resistivity which is required as part of the Earthing design brief. These are to be provided in keyboards with proper identification labels & Nos.. www. 4. when they will be witnessed by the client. All connections will be checked for tightness on the relays and at all other wiring terminations including the terminal blocks. internally and externally.Check the availability of special operating tools. 2. local control panels. present in the magnet gaps or on the contacts.sayedsaad.Visual Check and Inspection of all Electrical Equipment A visual check will be carried out on all electrical equipment. Standard earthing tests are carried out during the erection stage by the erection staff. which should be supplied with the equipment and are necessary for the equipment operation and testing.

sayedsaad. are carried out towards the end of the commissioning programme. The responsibility for carrying out the above will be taken by a SCE.Bus Wiring All inter-panel bus wiring will be tested and checked in accordance with the appropriate termination diagrams. www. links. Air and Gas Leakage Tests 6. (These tests on the multi-core cables although done at the pre-commissioning stage to sort out any obvious problems will be repeated during the acceptance testing stage). within the recommended tolerances.Batteries and Chargers The batteries and chargers will be checked to see that they have been erected / assembled correctly in accordance with the manufacturers recommended procedures. Compressed Air System Sequence Checks 408 . so that their performance can be relied upon during the commissioning of the rest of the substation equipment. The tests conducted are: 1.sayedsaad.Contact Resistance Checks 3.Conductivity Tests 2.. to be witnessed by the client. www.132kV GIS Site Tests These tests are carried out in accordance with the format of the Works Site Test Report. SF6 Gas Pressure Switch Setting Check 7. including the time-consuming discharge tests. Circuit Breaker .com 6. Insulation checks will be made using a 500V Megger on each bus wire to earth and from each bus wire to all others.Contact Timing Tests 4. These checks should be carried out with all individual fuses. The tests that are carried out at this stage will be to determine that the batteries and chargers are functioning correctly. Circuit Breaker . The insulation resistance will be measured using a 1000V megger after all the multi-core cables have been connected to the erected equipment. Bus-Bar and Connections . etc. The actual acceptance tests. miniature Circuit Breakers. 5 .com 4.3. Mechanical and Local Electrical Operational Checks 5. open or removed at a) the source of supply and b) all incoming and outgoing circuit panels and Switchgear.Multi-Core Cables All multi-core cables will be tested and checked in accordance with the appropriate termination diagrams.

sayedsaad. The flick test results should be compared with those expected from the schematic diagrams.2 2. Insulation test 2.5kV 30 MVA Transformer Site Tests The Transformers are inspected and tested in accordance with the factory check sheets for Transformer installation. Oil Tests. 8. Flick Test The polarity of the VT will be checked by carrying out the flick test. 2.7.com COMMISSIONING AND ACCEPTANCE TESTS 1. 220.sayedsaad.275.275. Flick tests will be done on all CT's in a group to prove that they are connected to the protection in the same polarity. www. As well as detailed inspection this also includes oil testing. The saturation tests will be carried out to prove there are no shorted turns associated with the CT and to establish the knee point voltage of the CT's The magnetization curve will be plotted for each CT or superimposed on the factory curves in order to determine that the correct CT is installed. Insulation Test 2.132 and 66kV CT Tests The tests carried out will be: 1. tests where practical will be carried out to prove the CT's are positioned correctly so that arranged overlap of zones of protection is correct This may be carried out by a) a visual inspection b) a continuity test.sayedsaad.Shunt Reactor These tests are carried out in accordance with the format of the Works Site Test Report. 409 . These tests will also be done on CT's mounted in Transformer bushings.132 and 66kV VT Tests The tests carried out will be: 1. Resistance Test 4. Flick Test 3. The tests conducted are:(1) (2) (3) (4) Visual Checks.com Winding Insulation Level.com Oil / Winding Temperature Gauge Calibration Fan Control Sequence Test. Saturation Test Where more than one CT is in each phase of a circuit. www. All CT's will have the dc secondary loop resistance and individual secondary winding resistances measured. www. 220.132/11.

6.3.c. Bus zone protection. The secondary current injection shall take place from the point at which the primary injection checks were made on the CT's. Secondary injection tests will consist of 'a. on load tests will be used to prove stability.132 and 66kV Primary Injection Tests these tests carried out will be: 1. 4.275. 4 .Secondary Injection Tests The secondary injection tests will be made to prove the relays. serial number. Each group of CT's should then be checked against the bus section/coupler CT's of the same zone of protection for out of zone stability by measuring spill currents. CT Ratio and Polarity Test Busbar Inter-Group CT Ratio and Polarity TestsRelay Operation Tests Busbar Protection Operation and Stability Tests Unit Protection Operation and Stability Tests Directional Over current Operation and Stability Tests Primary current shall be passed through each CT to prove its ratio and polarity with reference to other CTs in its group. CT shorting Switches will be proved and any withdrawable relays should have their shorting contacts checked. When the Transformer is energies. Reversal of the current polarity proves the stability of the protection. Transformer biased differential protection. Directional Over current Protection Operation of the protection will be tested by primary injection of current and voltage simulating the fault direction. and phaseearth fault injection on each side of the Transformer. 3. 5. and its setting range shall be recorded. Earth fault relays shall be checked for spill Current when injecting phase to phase and minimum operation.' injection into the relay coils to prove that the relay calibration is correct A record of the relay type. transducers and meters are operating and measuring correctly. 410 . and the differential relay proved to operate for phase-phase. 220. The group of CT's of each circuit shall be checked for correct ratio and polarity. All current "test terminals" will be checked for correct phasing. 2. The two groups of CTs. All relays and instruments will be proved to be wired in the correct phases. (one on the 132 kV side and one on the 11kV side of the Transformer) should each be proved for ratio and polarity. Inverse time relays shall be made to "creep' on minimum setting.

220. Also the time setting multiplier characteristics will be checked at 2 points (setting point + 1 other point). Directional elements of inverse time O / C and E / F relays will require secondary injection of current and voltage of varying phase angle between them to determine the operation and stability zone. Earth Switches and Circuit Breakers 2. the minimum starting current for which the relay will close its contacts with a maximum time dial setting shall be recorded. Local and Remote Operations of all Isolators. The resetting time of the disc shall be recorded. For instantaneous relays the operating current or voltage and the drop off value shall be recorded. The control circuits will be tested by the manual operation of all close-trip Switches from all positions. 411 . Differential Relays (e. Distance protection relays will require current and voltage of varying magnitude injected into them to simulate different values of fault impedance and "on-load" checks will be required to. disconnecting Switches (line Switches). 5. the flag should operate just before the contacts make and the flag mechanism should not interfere with the operation of the relay.132 and 66kV GIS Operational Tests The tests carried out will be: 1. and the time of operation for a current injection of twice. Local and Remote Indications of above 3. For all relays fitted with a mechanical flag. prove the directional feature of the relay. The calibration of all instruments and transducers will be checked at i scale and full scale by current and/or voltage injection with varying phase angle as required. five times and ten times setting current. for all Circuit Breakers.g. The results should be compared with the relay curve supplied by the manufacturer. Synchronizing Sequence Tests (including secondary injection of voltage selection scheme) 5.275. Gas Monitoring Sequence Tests 6. Alarm Sequence Tests 7.For inverse time relays. Tripping Tests Sequence tests will be carried out to prove all electrical circuits are operating correctly as shown in the schematic diagrams. Electrical Interlocks of above 4. These results should be carried out on the relays service setting (or nominal setting if service not known). Transformer biased differential or pilot wire relays will require "on-load" checks to prove their stability) in addition to secondary injection tests.

where possible. The operation of all protection circuits will be proved to be in accordance with the protective gear schematic diagrams. Tripping initiated by each relay in a protection scheme will be tested with the appropriate trip link in and out to prove that the link is connected and labeled correctly. and Elec. The tests will be conducted by manually making every main relay contact or initiating device at source and observing Circuit Breaker tripping.5kV 30 MVA Operational Tests and Measurement of Audible Noise Level The following checks will be carried out. each alarm initiating relay. Care must be taken to ensure that the VT secondary are isolated from the VT voltage circuits so that no high Voltage is developed at the VT primary circuits. Operation of each Circuit Breaker. or by shorting the appropriate terminals at the relay. 2. earthing Switch or other piece of equipment will be proved to be free or locked according to the interlock condition shown on the schematic diagrams. Synchronizing Sequence Tests will be made by secondary injection of voltage at the " VT test terminals" on the. or otherwise by simulation.C. The annunciator circuits will be proved to be in accordance with the schematic diagrams including alarm buzzer and/or bell. 4. if provided. isolator. 6. lock-out relay operation and any others. Operation tests of the alarm circuit will be by operating. auxiliary relay operation. 132/11. and other devices in accordance with the schematic diagrams.) Operation of Protective Devices Load drop compensation and winding temperature CTs mounted in the trans-former should be proved to be in the correct phase and have the correct ratio where practicable. 6. 5. lights and any other means of alerting staff.ground Switches (earth Switches). Winding temperature tripping and alarms shall be proved by operating the appropriate initiating Switches. Buchholz relays: the alarm and trip initiation shall be proved by means of the test button. at source.' supplies are available by operating the ON/OFF Switch and the appropriate temperature indicating initiating 412 . 1. 3. The cooler control ON and OFF shall be proved when three phase 'A. Winding Insulation Level Ratio Test Vector Group Test Cooling System Control Sequence Test Local/Remote Tap Change Operations (Mech. appropriate panels.

Measurement of audible noise level on site will be carried out under the following conditions using a sound level meter (IEC Pub 551 type 1 or equivalent): The background noise level at all measuring points shall not exceed 45dBA in accordance with ANSI standard. 3.Supervisory Interface Test The tests carried out will be: a) Initiation of the appropriate alarms or indications at source and checking that the correct logic signals are received at the telemetry terminal (TTB) cabinet. 2.com c) Vector Group 8. The direction of the fan rotation must be checked in accordance with the mark. The tests shall be carried out at rated voltage with all normal fans running at no load conditions. Tap-changing shall be tested for every step ensuring stepping relay functions correctly. The audible sound level of each Transformer in turn will be measured at a number of points 30 meters from the substation. The average value of the noise measurements for each Transformer shall be taken and this value checked to ensure it does not exceed 50dBA. Tap-changer position indicator should be proved to indicate the correct tap position. The tests conducted are:a) Winding Insulation Level b) Ratio Test www. 4. 1. An opportunity to check VT calibration will be taken during these tests.HV Pressure Tests (132kV Equipment) These tests will be carried out in accordance with the Works Site Test Reports. 11 KV 24 1 min 9. 413 .433kV 250kVA Transformer Tests These tests are carried out in accordance with the format of the Works Site Test Report. 7.11/0. Only the Transformer under test shall be energized and shall have been on soak for at least 24 hours prior to measurement.sayedsaad. The limit Switch must function properly to prevent the tap-changer from further movement beyond the two extreme tap positions. The magnitude and duration of the test voltage is given in Table below. Test Voltage Test Equipment KV Duration 132 GIS 115 10 min.Switches.

tests where practical will be carried out to prove the CT's are positioned correctly so that arranged overlap of zones of protection is correct This may be carried out by a) a visual inspection b) a continuity test.sayedsaad.11kV CT Tests The tests carried out will be: a) Insulation Test. All CT's will have the dc secondary loop resistance and individual secondary winding resistances measured.11kV Primary Injection Tests the tests carried out will be: a) CT Ratio and Polarity Test b) Relay Operation Tests c) Unit Protection Operation and Stability Tests Primary current shall be passed through each CT to prove its ratio and polarity with reference to other CTs in its group. www. The flick test results should be compared with those expected from the schematic diagrams.sayedsaad.com b) Flick Test.com The saturation tests will be carried out to prove there are no shorted turns associated with the CT and to establish the knee point voltage of the CT's The magnetization curve will be plotted for each CT or superimposed on the factory curves in order to determine that the correct CT is installed.com The polarity of the VT will be checked by carrying out the flick test. www. 11 .com The tests carried out will be: a) Insulation Test. 12.com b) Flick Test.sayedsaad. www. www.sayedsaad. www.sayedsaad. All relays and instruments will be proved to be wired in the correct phases.11kV VT Tests. 10 . CT shorting Switches will be proved and any withdrawable relays should have their shorting contacts checked.sayedsaad. Inverse time relays shall be made to "creep' on minimum setting.sayedsaad.www. 414 . These tests will also be done on CT's mounted in Transformer bushings.com All current "test terminals" will be checked for correct phasing. Flick tests will be done on all CT's in a group to prove that they are connected to the protection in the same polarity. www.com c) Resistance Test d) Saturation Test Where more than one CT is in each phase of a circuit.b) Apply a 50V DC voltage to the (TTB) cabinet terminals and check that the correct Circuit Breaker or tap changer command is received and executed.

the minimum starting current for which the relay will close its contacts with a maximum time dial setting shall be recorded. The groups of CTs shall be proved for ratio and p o l a r i t y and stability by measuring spill currents. and its setting range shall be recorded.sayedsaad.11kV Secondary Injection Tests The secondary injection tests will be made to prove the relays. the flag should operate just before the contacts make and the flag mechanism should not interfere with the operation of the relay. Secondary injection tests will consist of 'a. For inverse time relays. 15.com Sequence tests will be carried out to prove all electrical circuits are operating correctly as shown in the schematic diagrams. and phase-earth fault injection. and the differential relay proved to operate for phase-phase. The secondary current injection shall take place from the point at which the primary injection checks were made on the CTs. 13. 11kV Switchgear Operational Tests The tests carried out will be: a) Local and Remote Operations of all Circuit Breakers b) Local and Remote Indications of above c) Electrical Interlocks of above d) Gas Monitoring Sequence Tests e) Alarm Sequence Tests f) Tripping Tests including Arc Fault Tripping scheme www. 14. The resetting time of the disc shall b_ recorded. These results should be carried out on the relays service setting (or nominal setting if service not known).Transformer biased differential protection. The group of CTs should be proved for ratio and polarity. serial number.c. Also the time setting multiplier characteristics will be checked at 2 points (setting point +1 other point). and the time of operation for a current injection of twice. For all relays fitted with a mechanical flag. The results should be compared with the relay curve supplied by the manufacturer. Transformer Restricted Earth F a u l t Protections. 11kV Switchgear Contact Resistance Checks The contact resistance of all primary contacts will be checked by current injection and voltage drop measurement. The calibration of all instruments and transducers will be checked at scale and full scale by current and/or voltage injection as appropriate.' injection into the relay coils to prove that the relay calibration is correct A record of the relay type. five times and ten times setting current. 415 . transducers and meters are operating a n d measuring correctly.

where possible. lock-out relay operation and any others.com 16.com The annunciator circuits will be proved to be in accordance with the schematic diagrams including alarm buzzer and/or bell.sayedsaad. www. The operation of all protection circuits will be proved to be in accordance with the protective gear schematic diagrams.e.sayedsaad.HV Pressure Tests (11kV Equipment) These tests will be carried out in accordance with the Marugame Works Test Sheets.com 19. Multi-Core Cable Tests All the multi-core cables will have already been checked to be in accordance with the appropriate termination diagrams during the pre-commissioning stage. The commissioning tests for water spray system will be:www.sayedsaad. www. mechanical checks including a pressure test on the main tank and air leakage tests on the air receiver. at source. www. www. checked and put into service during the pre-commissioning stage by members of the commissioning team.sayedsaad. The magnitude and duration of the test voltages are given in Table 1 www. However certain further tests are now done and others repeated during the acceptance testing stage to be witnessed by the client. lights and any other means of alerting staff.com a) Compressor Sequence Tests b) Alarm Sequence Tests 416 .sayedsaad. each alarm initiating relay contact. www. Tripping initiated by each relay in a protection scheme will be tested with the appropriate trip link in and out to prove that the link is connected and labeled correctly. Operation of each Circuit Breaker disconnect Switch and earthing Switch will be proved to be free or locked according to the interlock condition shown on the schematic diagrams. The insulation resistance tests will be repeated during the acceptance testing stage when they will be witnessed by the client.-or otherwise by simulation. The tests will be conducted by manually making every main relay contact and observing Circuit Breaker tripping.The control circuits will be tested by the manual operation of all close-trip Switches from all positions. for all Circuit Breakers and other devices in accordance with the schematic diagrams.com 20. Fire Fighting Equipment Tests The Subcontractor will have already carried out limited post erection checks. Operation tests of the alarm circuit will be by operating. Battery and Charger Tests The batteries and chargers will have already been assembled.sayedsaad.com 17. Earthing Tests The erection staff will have originally conducted earthing tests but these will be repeated during the acceptance testing stage when they will be witnessed by the client.sayedsaad. i.com 18. auxiliary relay operation. These tests will be carried out in accordance with the manufacturers recommended testing procedures and will include the battery discharge tests.

sayedsaad.c) Indication Sequence Tests d) Deluge Valve Sequence Tests e) Discharge and Water Spray Tests f) Inter-tripping Tests www.sayedsaad.com a) Detector Operation Tests b) Detector Line Supervision Tests c) Pushbutton Function Tests d) Tripping Tests e) Halon Discharge Test f) Dry Powder Discharge Test 417 .com The commissioning for the other systems will be: www.

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