CHINESE LANGUAGE some uf ~~lcm sn iar removed from each other th:ll language.

All of them are related, but many sound so different that a speaker one cannot understand the other, in order to overcome this problem. for most the China has been encouraging its people to make usc one standard, universal Chinese language. In the west usually this language refer as 'MANDARIN': Chinese name for it arc Kuoyu (National langungcj.and Putonghua (Universal Language _. by which name it is now officially Known in mainland China ), this is the language, base on the speech Beijing itself. We shall refer to it quite simply Chinese. This simple course is to heip teach YOLl the Chinese language which will enable you to communicate in real life. The vocabulary used here is as 'everyday' as we can make it which are common and natural in China today.
they may he thought or as separate

There

arc score

01 C;lillcse

dialect.

or

or

or

or

For your part. :",~l! an start your learning of Chinese by throwing away quite a lot nf c the ideas '>vhIe" : "'" .,," ..~ acquired about other language: dont look for tensi.'<.;-th"rf~ aren't any: don't a:-,;":hew verbs conjugate they don't: don't worry about gender: Uy;~'t think about rase - nominative. genitive. accusative and all the rest of their friends don't exist in modern C:,inese: sav g'"~odh:/{' to irregular vern'>, strong and weak 11I)UnS .uzreements, subjunctives. ~'ngular~; ar.d plurals, declensions. Having emptied your mind by this tum out. you should be able to find it easy to learn. There arc 'measures' 'particles words', and a series of 'word orders' which are really like mathematical formulae into which you fit your vocabulary. Sentences do not necessarily have a subject, conditions are always set out before the main business. and in matters time and place the larger always comes before the smaller ( year before month before day; country he fixe city he fore street before house number). in fact, Ch inese is simple enough not to need a lot of grammatical jargon. Sometimes what seems to be grammatical problem is actually a matter of cultural difference, and you will find that some or the grammar notes seem more like explanations of Chinese culture.

or

Chinese sing its sound in lour different 'tones, and tones arc important because Ch incsc has a very restricted sound range ( on ly about 400 di fferent sounds) so the limited number or sound means that many words have to share a sound .. English, with much larger sound range, does not escape the problem entirely- think of to, roo. {H'() .or
pare.

pair. pear.

To learn Chinese charactersis time consum in~ and arduous business because they arc not directly connected with the speech. It uses symbols to represent the sound of language. While English only need 26 letters to be able to write, Chinese needs a different symbol lor every idea it has to convey. There are 50J)OO characters in existence: no one knows them all and aboul4000 of them arc enough for literacy. We shall be using the official Beijing system, culled Hanyn pinyin. HanYLI pinyin spells the sound and adds a mark ova the main vowel to represent the tone, so giving ull the information needed to pronounce the word correctly.

.V . cha de mu di ji tc bu au UO IA AI EI 1l.s a tonal lanquaqe and has 4 tones in Chinese: Tone 1 Tone 2 Tone 3 Tone 4 I A high level tone . given below some Pronunciation A as in car E as in her as in saw U as in too I as in bee u guide.. voice fall to iaw then rise in drawn way A high rising tone voice end up as high as 1s1 tone u 15ttone 2nd tone Li 4th tone li Li u Ma There are very few sounds in Chinese which are difficult for the English speaker to make... voice falls from high to low A low dipping and rising tone ...0 GO'iSQIl~llt as in chat as in g.Mandarin. you can use them as a rough model while you read and pronounce. The Hanyu pinyin system is used for writing Mandarin alphabet. voice neither rise nor falls A high falling tone .ive J asinjean R as in run Sh as in shoe eh as in church Zh asinjane H as in huk Q as in cheek 5 asin sat X as in sheep Z as in beds C G cha (chha) ga ji ri IOU lAO IAN IN lANG ING UANG UAN asinl as in say as in now as in owe as in war as in yah as inmiaow as in yen as in yeo as insin as in young as in England as in wang as in one yin pal shei zao gou duo jia jiao mian you nin xiang ming huang yuan lai fei mao zou suo xia xioa yan jiu yang ting cha zhe he qi (ehhi) sa xi (shi) zi . rna re It.

Adjectives & Verbs There is no definite article (The).g:ish oneS. mean Book. For example: Subject Wo I Verb he drink Object eha tea Verbs Chinese verb forms are even m~re invcricble than E!. Example: Wo hen gao-xing I am very happy . Thus the word 'shu' me.Nouns.ilar or plural in Chinese. For Example Plural Singular Wo xue I learn Ni xue You learn Tha xue He/Sbe/Tt learns Wo men xue Ni men xue Tha men xue We learn You learn They learn Past Tense The suffix (Le) is placed after the verb to show that the action has been completed Examples: Wohecha I drink tea Wo he Ie eha I drank (have drunk) tea. with no differences between the singular & plural verb forms at all. depending on the context. Books or The Books. Sing. Adjectives are generally preceded by the adverb {hen+-very} in its positive form. Examples: Wo yeo shu Wo yeo hen too shu I go t books (Singular) I got many books (Plural) Word Order The word order in Chinese sentences Subject---verb---obJect is always: Which is also the usual order in English sentences.

g Tea? Ni he bu he cha ? Negatives The word 'bu' is placed in front of the verb to indicate negation. For Example: Wo mel you xue zhong-wen Yes and No I have not learn Chinese. yes or not usmg same verb negation verb III. You simply repeat the verb which waS used in the question. For Example: Ni xue zhong-wen ma ? Woxue Wobuxue Do you learn Chinese? Yes (.i. shui= who).interrogative sentences is The Same as in '>latements. 'T learn ") No (i. Mei is also used before the verb to indicate negation in the past tense. Word order i:-. to have) is 'rnei you'.:e. but the word 'rnc' is added at the end of the sentence. Examples: Ni xue zhong wen Ni xue zhong wen ma? You learn Chinese Do you learn Chinese? II. Shi bu shi Exp. the particle 'me' is not added at the end of the sentence.e.Questio"s I. for example: Ni he cha hci-shi he ka He Do you drink tea OR coffee? IV. There are no specific words in Chinese for YES and NO. You are drinking or not drinkir. For Example: Wo bu xue zhong-wen The negative form of (you := I do not study Chinese.q. In a question involving a choice between two possibilities the words 'hnr-shi' are placed between the two alternatives. ''I don't learn') .shen-me = what. In this ccse. A question may feature an interrogative pronoun (e.

hl \j" Tlli Btl Xie lilanks . If J Wi f: Kc Chi Wo Men Thirsty ! .VI'_ I..~ NIMcn.0 IHll Iii 't ..NEW ~VORDS I: LMc You f\. Hi )Jc ) ..eng .' ao Btl Y.r~ ...are.\.iuo lie COllie 4'- I.ate M .: wan iill Don't \1.:.is.l Xifln Theirs I am You arc jl~/lllll. wo oe Nf De..~ Wo Stand Sit Hungry ~'Ili Ii Zh{in f-110 zhu !\I.~_!t~ (T a([ zai Jian xie xie Have/Got DOIl't liave You \!JiY(w -I I1m's all rig.IO . k iI.' . N~ n. W()Slti Re l. ~(I TiiMen hot Cnkl 13ig ::imull! Little M1: !./1Int Good Byl.: . ..~ Sili (lui Ren (. Mr Mrs_ Miss Illeasc '. Ta De.li Qing nT hao rna? Eat Drink 7<16 1ft Chil IlL' howare you? Good Morning uN . (I(J m ~t': ri.-~& il!!M QuiCK! List KWI! Mim Bl! / Pt! NT Slli Slow Tii Shi l% T I le IShe is No Yes.~ i. NT ~l~ I Ie/She/It We You <III /(They Mine/my Yours H!u~1!! -fl:: 11' J i. J ItI!/~l!!lr :J~rIJ~ f ~~.i.IIi Shcn Want u.

n-y .Important basic 8 words with pronouns V·lo Ni Ta Women Ni men 'fa men 1/ me gu lai chi ( fan) go come eat ( food / rice) want you she / he we you'll . expo wo gu nt qu 2 words sentence basic . yao bu yao you 1\1:11 you . ta qu . don't want have don't have / have not make sentences with the above words. ...

.dc' 1':.uli! All II.-~ sa'.':'1 jill xUi sheng (1[\1 «r ill I 1 iI I':asy zhong gUll ell ina ( 'hincsc Book Pen / pencil Pa[l<'r '1'11.JI jl""1 n 1{.lIIJI kW:111 down/ 11<:10'11' Will k 11.I.j ddu [11 '~ .: I <II'I Jr X ..1 'I' \(_ Di flicult Old L V' lau t~ I'i ben shilu Young Old (thing) .-111 . >1 .- "e.'lilil. 1111IC [(I..1\. (JIH'Jl.:1 COllie buck return hack l'nfi.llIV II.I i/e~ II Ahovr-. j.i dp 1.):.' in (l\ll '.-:I~ ~. l:p 1. '!.(':~s.:C::q "Cft i~idlt .: \''' .~ . hui qu WnHq.'l":." . 1:1((f Shllflg .jS~ .- ~. ('I"+j"['r tui rc t urr..11 I" 1'1 'F_ 1.j 1 !-~ i.' dOli lIow itll\\.i "I' ('J.: :. New -iH xin hui t\t.' Ulls La i rs ..~IJilj e\1! '. gao pi / qian pi III j ii) 'jK~I\..v Out sid.- fO it) ~}~-liI i I'l"' exit I~ (hu nan H ic:hl ~..1ll'1I1~~ m i an xi...NEW WORD2 Teacher Student CI.

. J_ This is That is This one m: What do you II .~ r. Z.. nq na jiao shenmc That one .il JL na ge/nei gc fE PfJrflV. zhe shi shcnme na shi shenrne m~Q11'i.:9.t} What(da!e) jI hao jidian zhong j'i (ian How much/ duo shao I ge shi bush! inany What time l Iow many day How many Is it or not Yes or not JLX What is this jT ge (ke) What is that zhe shi ~ll2: FI 'x ) L'I~ iL Ii: 11. m'i cr I nali That one fli51'JJ1~1"i~ 1'.New words 3 Where Where is Who What Why How II}]))! L!IIJJIHW. .?ltf have How much/ money h0'H 1. Rth~ ) L \.} J L}.1Ji: /f~ . zhe yi gc(zei gel zhc er shcn me Here 1 11' z. zai na er / na IT Which one na yl ge (nei gc ) HE Hl~l/ =- shui I shei This one Z. z. '~llqil·/.. zhe j iao shenrne nn shi zhe gc na ge Call this What do you Ca!1 that i~1Hill .J. m~ iI-~.fill :~)Lff IIU$ )LJff na er Ili zhe er Iii y6u na er I !i you duo shso qian zen me Here is/have ji shi There are I Shen me shi hou When Time after JUH 1!'7. /.:.'g~~ wei shen me There Iii m~)LI . .

{ pill1 gCH1g shi dong jiao ~~ -..1 Chair To know Ho: ise/horn .£~ Illl i ZllO I )crlw ps Can not !If 1m :1~ fm ./ / . . J.1 di Hurry up tVl ust Know Pay payment \Vork • atR 1. ll.\1 ' 1\1. /).+~ lH'Ji lai nc:ng wo khc )'1 iA_ -iJ~ Ill:. fl-_ ~i)F 1~1 Il shuo/] iang shu6 huii g<'10 SU Jl<10 Table f'-' A-. ri] I)..t .' . V.. iJ f.~~! v.....'.ippy f kan gao x !l1g First No\\ fll] x i~<\ll {tX I.] il91 fill ..j-.:-J::. 1'_'f1~ fl: ~: 1'lJ fll kuan3 gong zuo -- Can / will .. ~-'" WC. .. III /.~ ian V... ...)(_ ~J- Wj{4~ F': in ilL! ) 11: -~Pl Y.1 Teach Tcaching Understand Call/summon Jo..{~~ J. )\< JIAI.. "J \'1 /.._ "'_" ~ back hlJi qu h'!. j iao shu Office Company Expensive Cheap Broblern Return..J 1.come Can Can/may 1 back lill L.~ .: ((- ZhCl() 1.1..:: .!Ii{( ~:/ .~..1• gong shi ~(Ji . ~'j kilt: l1Cll~~. zhidao ]1.1 . - .._ .l~ ying gai ren shi Return..J'I.go JJ' -L~ '2.. New words 3 Speak Speak/talk Tell ~QIi)F '~'r ~ili i . l)l" 11LIlg To do SLoe/look l l.. . \..I 9-t 1n iportaut Urgent zhong yao lin j i gan kuai f~'j'{ 1'1-. .--- .

) WORDS 4 6 -'--.er shi yi 22 --. lA.-1.{}. ::? ling 1\ liu 12 +_ .. san fen zhiyi yi dui/ shuan -H MlilJ IJ. Also pronounce Liana only when counting number of thing not Er (2 pen = liang ge pi zi not er ge pi zi ) Dt.tL shi jili 20 . 20 is expressed as (2 time 10 :--:0 w. ...si ban .IJ\ fl'] -~~ Ij\ :l•I j i dian zhong minute second PbNI wt gc xiao shi ban ge xiao shi san shi fen g rniao zhong 30 minute I\.cr shi er . shi er yTl er 7 9 .. di shi ci so on alone half 1/4.shi yi 1. 19 E.~ t111 1'..x>j pq ~J-f . When counting 2 is pronounced ER. 'II: half 1/3 a pair l -_:>jYf---...: *}-]- q~ .~..i'· -. l''k di cr yi ban fen zhf yi ~1.g. to shi ci so on (when combine di yi + ci first lime second time ~---rx di yi ci means first time) third time ten time di yi ci ~1 ..: twice =. yicl lianz c i b san ci .-multiplication E.f jj-'r111 yi da rlf Time Time hour shi jian21 xiao shi feng zhong what time an hour halfan hour J Ll..YY) When counting: is based on the decimal system from 11...WI liang L qT ba )1 jiu 13 19 shi san S J\ 4 S san pq 51 10 II IT. L . lJ .rllt ~<.~. I .-I..: ~:2is 2 time ten + 2 = 22 means 2-10-2 = er sbi er ) 1000 100 to ten shi to..:.ooo ten thousand Wan thousand qian first hundred bai 1\':"\- 1000 thousand qian iOO hundred bai 10 ten shi 1-9 one ke ~-j-- di yl di er di san '" to di shi = second third tenth A~- 5r~~__.::::{X ~1 +iX disanci to .er shi -21 -.-. tries ten time +-1J.g. 11 is 10 + 1 (10 is shi and 1 is yi = sh i yi ) 10 + 2 is 12 ( sh i + e r ::: shi er ) & so (\~i 20 to 90 arc ..NEW NUMBERS 0 I 2 -.. a dozen . wu + shi(shir) +--.DD..(MM..: once -lX .u..

: .. + JJ qian yi ge yue hou yi ge yue jin nian hO. !?:-*.~t H<11!.}I hi )( hou dian 1"-"Y []fj/ry )LA jT diiin next year mfng (niiin) ncn if.Jf:.10 zuo ri Llf- sharig wei shi di~n zhong wushi er dian working birthday day (lOam) noon :::- '" 111'r II: H shang ri (12 am) evening (2 pm) night (8 p. u Tit' ping chang dian/ri "0. ) day/sky Week Month Year -r'/F xiii wii liang dian U%l7ji wan shang ba dian/yei Ilff\:.i!1'.y. ri / dian xIng ql yue nian next week last week this week week end next month -F A J~'i.Jt{j I 1·_" L-l'. TIH A: .1'"" jJ Q today tomorrow yesterday day after tomorrow few day holiday Jay 011' s: jin ji{ir: -I· J-J ze .c y(.NEW WORDS 5 rnormng (6 a. -·--i'. ge yue shang ge yue if /j last month this month month before month after this year r.m.m. ~tJJ IT: )j :.'" ItJj Fui* T' -1'.]1 shang ge xIng qT LC xlng 4T .c HJJf( ming dian 111-: i: zuo dian nlj _.) rnorrung -~IJ-J:.)-j zhou rna x. zao shang liu dian week day 'r '.i:'i.J ~u xif xi rJ/ vacation U x iu j ia ri/dian 11ll JtI1 jia qr age y sui season new words north ..It Dei ji-I south nan !j~ dong cast -f··· spring summer autumn winter monsoon ~1~ X Q_)( chun tian xia tian qiu tian dong tian xha vii ti5n west iJ1i _xi H:F:.~fml xii! ge xing <.

day before fli[--k fA'('.k/alright r. ~~ --F deng yi xia zou ba lai ba zou ba hao ba dan shi *u~ !tn~ '.it1 forget it I no matter itt r from today duringth .i1:t~ ~·OX '_'.fl» ..f: ~rl {H.i I'd like I like of course ..... )\:_ qian yi tian cong jin tian zai pai {ian zai xia wu 1I1.NEW WORDS '6 every day lew day next day &* IL X "-1'1~J __ mei tian ji tian friend girl [riend boy friend I am happy flIL&: I[ wo de peng you nui3 peng you min peng yOll wo gao xmg suan le bu quan xi rna tall Iii hou mian 111 /i.. 1:i - j:':' di cr tian liang tian hou I)j }!I! -~\\I alter 2 day the f-Hkfi I~.:!{ dang ran but .1 wo xiangJ wn xi huang yao walk on o. day during the evening trout side middle at side HU/f'::* ~ tt: (1 _k tfT~f I!tI j(ri trouble you back side deng a moment let's go come on I~~P! JRITii rnian 'I-'Iill JiiJIi zhong jian 1ang rnian itne! '..

hong san ~~. shi INU fen zhong yi '.: WII sh i d j un Sl I V!'I" 1'1 ~H 11-. jfn V~I so' 10 1 ') i_T 'i' ''j'I. II'· Ilot 1 :.) n ~. Ian se llal r a:. hnJIl7. ru.'_V Mt!. III. ) Iuu color green while blue ~(ii ... j '. Xi110 shi brown '.. "'_'.lwlI!~ r): nk purp l e Nt r_ (~I.III light hun Yl: shie r d i an gold SI ${>fu Iqiang sc . he sf:> OIlC hour i'/J'IH yi ge xiao shi red yellow tr. ~I~{ ~!: 1'1 iiI-! I vcr hai yin ." III.._ III '-''''' I ill rI i all I{" I dell "..l~ (~~ y:::l.o'l•• Ii.{ .M. se length period scccolld (l r time Ilci(se._1~~ f'l'J . !.(. i I.0- hong se huang 51' '15 minutsl{ (qaartcr) in short 10 minute 45 I~. 12.liallg (:r~ll.1i1. ~~~J :d nat St" _ii (i d i un 1(: ~.i)m iV)0. (I.I{ k~' san shi feng ~Y:B urange gf".'\. se iI. f"enhrlln: II ~i.hi short W\I fen I.iin ru i rl ni1f.{l~ ju hOng hui 5(' in ill ~. hou r "r'Ij.\'ljl :ld'j' t»IH Shi jian shi2 hou miao zhong Color black ~. I i II d i au dark/deep Itfu /)'f i ..I' X I it WI.New time & color words 7 Timetperiod ) II'J IiI) fH~J: f'J..A-)' ban go. . hi. 0 1'1 fu se se minute A hom' rCllg zhong bai 1:·:. [H_ Irl- 1- . ~'(' (J q"<lrICl' \ ke Ii i<lll 1.11"".'I{.- .I tOng sheng se q f ng huang ·1 II 1'1.

' )'S 'li"'1 ouough 'In to 1 illH' gOU 1(' '....!. di .' j i c me i gp\." me i II i r.] .uul !I.w·.I-'..1 ji-ating "1."_" _j: rallg _LI _11.] l'ar'·lrll mO q IIW short I'll 1110 wire rai (iii dl !Ii "Id"r (.·. di X_IOllg rllei s.-l[. .'_": 5i 11) If. . i mpl v .[e j gc I I (' [vc'rYO[lC I}JI!J.' III q 1~Ig 1-': mant..._I I tHlt I {' r: jllst (I nr- I.IdeI' hrot hvr x i st er ):.NEW WORDS • • II aha.h _1' II \1: i.1 hall I i r.j 1'. Ill! sb. i <lrri cc :.IVl' '/.(·I_I' :._-JL -_off yl yarlg IL ([lui ZI '11 lai II all hoi i'/.: urt lv !l.ve ry body mei il tl) 1 11.lt1 you .lllg d~ln chu ie l.111 ".

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