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2007-09-01

**Review of Basic Laws of Turbomachinery
**

Damian Vogt Course MJ2429

Nomenclature

Symbol A E F I M Q W c g h p r t u w z Denotation Surface area Internal energy Force Rothalpy Moment Heat energy Mechanical energy Absolute velocity Gravitational constant Enthalpy Mass flow rate Pressure Radius Time Tangential velocity Relative velocity Height coordinate Density Rotational speed Unit m2 J N J/kg Nm J J m/s m/s2 J/kg kg/s Pa m s m/s m/s m kg/m3 rad/s

& m

ρ ω

Subscripts

0 1 2 3 c n R w X

θ

Total Inlet stator Outlet stator (inlet rotor) Outlet rotor Total in absolute frame of reference Normal Radial component Total in relative frame of reference Axial component Tangential component

KTH/EKV/DV

Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 2 2007-09-01 Turbomachine System Discretization Turbine shown & Q 1 Schematic representation 1 2 inlet outlet & W A turbomachine consists of one or several stages stator 2 rotor 1 Stage denotations 1 2 3 stator inlet rotor inlet rotor outlet 2 3 ω The thermodynamic and kinetic properties in a stage are defined by velocities 20 10 stator rotor w3 u 30 u c3 Stage velocity triangles c1 0 −10 −20 20 w2 −30 10 0 10 u c2 20 30 KTH/EKV/DV .

2 A2 Eq.and one outflow Eq.g. 4 Note: The indexes “1” and “2” refer to inlet and outlet of the control volume respectively as depicted below 1 2 Control volume e. 2 Mass flow rate through boundary & m = ρ ⋅ cn ⋅ A Conservation of mass for control volume featuring one in. 3 ρ1c n .Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 3 2007-09-01 Conservation of Mass Sum of mass flow rates over all system boundaries equals to change in mass in control volume & ∑m = i ∂m ∂t ∂m = 0 thus ∂t Eq. 1 For steady process mass in control volume constant over time & ∑m = 0 i Eq.1 A1 = ρ 2 c n .: stage KTH/EKV/DV .

6 For a steady flow process the conservation of energy per unit time is regarded. pumps) Eq. 7 Where dh0 denotes the change in total enthalpy and the term g ⋅ dz change in specific potential energy.e.e.Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 4 2007-09-01 Conservation of Energy First law of thermodynamics applied to closed process. Apart from hydraulic machines the latter can be neglected. Furthermore the process can be assumed as adiabatic leading to the conservation of energy for a steady turbomachine process being written as & & W = m ⋅ ( h01 − h02 ) Note: • • work producing machines (turbines) work absorbing machines (compressors. conservation of power & & & & dE = m ⋅ ( dh0 + g ⋅ dz ) = Q − W Eq. i. 5 dE = dQ − dW Eq. system taken through a complete cycle ∫ (dQ − dW ) = 0 Change in internal energy during change in state from one point to another in the cycle Eq. i. 8 & h01 > h02 ⇒ W > 0 & h01 < h02 ⇒ W < 0 KTH/EKV/DV .

12 KTH/EKV/DV . 9 For a steady flow process the change in momentum is exclusively due to the change in flow velocity ∑F Note: • • x & = m ⋅ (c x1 − c x 2 ) Eq. 10 From the perspective of the fluid the forces are acting as pressure forces ( F = p ⋅ A ). 11 For a steady flow process the change in moment of momentum is due to the change in tangential flow velocity ∑M z & = m ⋅ (r1cθ 1 −r2 cθ 2 ) Eq. In a turbomachine the moment of momentum rather than the momentum itself is of interest ∑M z = ∑ r ⋅ Fθ = ∂ (rmcθ ) ∂t Eq. A change in velocity indicates a change in pressure remember Bernoulli’s equation for incompressible fluids: p 0 = p + 1 ρ ⋅ c 2 = const . 2 • From the perspective of the turbomachine the pressure forces on the fluid are yielding a resultant reaction force (actio=reactio).Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 5 2007-09-01 Conservation of Momentum According to Newton’s second law of motion the sum of all forces acing on a body equals the change in momentum ∑F x = ∂ (mc x ) ∂t Eq.

g. The mechanical work per unit time ( power) equals the product of moment and rotational speed & W = M z ⋅ω Eq. He joined the St. much of this output dates from the the last two decades of his life. 14 & r ⋅ ω by the tangential speed u and eliminating m yields h01 − h02 = u1cθ 1 − u 2 cθ 2 Eq. Switzerland.Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 6 2007-09-01 Euler’s Turbine Equation At this point the conservation of energy and the conservation of moment of momentum shall be combined. axial compressors. Note: • • A change in total enthalpy is equivalent to a change in tangential flow speed and/or tangential engine speed For engines with little change in mean radius u1 ≈ u 2 (e. Though born and educated in Basel. where he remained until his death. radial engines) the change in enthalpy is to a large degree due to the change in radius Δh0 ≈ Δu ⋅ cθ centrifugal effect. axial turbines. but he and Frederick never got on well and in 1766 he returned to St. his publication list of 886 papers and books fill about 90 volumes. fans) the change in total enthalpy is entirely due to change in tangential flow speed Δh0 ≈ u ⋅ Δcθ blades are bowed For engines with large change in mean radius (e. Euler's prolific output caused a tremendous problem of backlog: the St. Petersburg Academy continued publishing his work posthumously for more than 30 years. Euler married twice and had 13 children. though all but five of them died young. Petersburg Academy of Sciences in 1727. In 1741 he went to Berlin at the invitation of Frederick the Great. 13 Thus the conservation of energy can be related to the conservation of momentum as follows & & m ⋅ (h01 − h02 ) = m ⋅ (r1cθ 1 − r2 cθ 2 ) ⋅ ω Substituting Eq. Remarkably.g. possibility for larger change in enthalpy • Leonhard Euler Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) was arguably the greatest mathematician of the eighteenth century and one of the most prolific of all time. 15 The above equation is referred to as Euler’s turbine equation. Petersburg. KTH/EKV/DV . Petersburg and Berlin. Euler spent most of his career in St. when he was totally blind.

20 With c x = w x and w 2 = wx + wθ the reformulated expression of the rothalpy yields 1 1 I = h + w2 − u 2 2 2 2 2 Eq. 21 KTH/EKV/DV . 17 This expression can be reformulated by expressing the velocities in the relative frame of reference as follows c w u Cθ cx cθ − u = wθ → cθ = wθ + u Eq. 16 u = 0 in the above I =h+ 1 2 c − u ⋅ cθ 2 Eq. 19 c 2 = c x + cθ = c x + wθ + 2wθ u + u 2 2 2 2 2 Substituting c 2 and cθ in the expression of rothalpy I =h+ 1 2 1 2 u2 2 2 c x + wθ + 2 wθ u + u 2 − wθ u − u 2 = h + c x + wθ − 2 2 2 [ ] ( ) Eq. 18 Eq.Turbomachinery Lecture Notes 7 2007-09-01 Rothalpy Reformulating Euler’s turbine equation leads to a fundamental aspect of turbomachine thermodynamics referred to as rothalpy h01 − u1cθ 1 = h02 − u 2 cθ 2 = I The rothalpy is a function that remains constant throughout a rotating machine. Note: in a non-rotating machine the total enthalpy is constant (non-rotating equation) The general notation of rothalpy is Eq.

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