MSD VISION & MISSION

VISION

TO BE THE PREFERRED SOLUTION PROVIDER FOR ACHIEVING COMMERCIAL EXCELLENCE ACROSS THE ADITYA BIRLA GROUP
MISSION

CREATE VALUE BY INSTITUTIONALISING SYSTEMS, INTRODUCING BEST PRACTICES AND REALISING GROUP SYNERGY

CTC VISION & MISSION
CTC ACTS AS A CATALYST, BY PROVIDING GROUP WIDE TECHNOLOGICAL SERVICES IN SUPPORT OF UNIT’S EFFORTS FOR : • TECHNICAL PROBLEM SOLVING • COST REDUCTION • SHARING KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE

GROUP VALUES
SOP Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative (Part-II) has been developed on the foundation of following group values – INTEGRITY We define Integrity as honesty in every action. Each one of the Coal Management team should act and take decisions in a manner that are fair, honest and following the highest standards of professionalism. ‘Integrity’ should be the cornerstone for all the dealings, be it with customers, employees, suppliers, partners, shareholders, the communities or the government. COMMITMENT On the foundation of Integrity, Commitment should be seen as “Doing whatever it takes to deliver as promised”. Each one of the Coal Management team should take ownership for their work, teams and the part of the organization they are responsible for. Through this value they shall build an even sharper results oriented culture that is high on reliability and accountability. Their commitment is likely to make them a formidable leader and competitor in every market that they are in. PASSION Passion is defined as a missionary zeal arising out of an emotional engagement with work, which inspires each one to give his or her best. Each one of the Coal Management team are expected to be energetic and enthusiastic in the pursuit of their goals and objectives. They should recruit and actively encourage employees with a ‘Fire in the belly’. With this Value, they would build a culture of innovation and break-through thinking leading to superior customer satisfaction and Value creation. SEAMLESSNESS Seamlessness is understood as thinking and working together across functional silos, hierarchy levels, across business lines and geographies. Each one of the Coal Management team shall demonstrate high level of teamwork through sharing and collaborative efforts and garner the synergy benefits from working together. Before they can truly benefit from a borderless world, they need to build a borderless organization. They should visualize free flow of knowledge and information across the Group. SPEED Speed is looked upon as responding to internal and external customers with a sense of urgency. They should continuously seek to crash timelines and ensure expeditious completion of their tasks. Each one of the Coal Management team should aim on time service to the present and future needs of their customers.

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Integrity

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Commitment

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Passion

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Seamlessness

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Speed

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We would like to put on record our deep appreciation for the valuable inputs received during visit to the following units:

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Hindalco – Renusagar Power Division Awarpur Cement Works Rajashree Cement SFD Nagda

We would like to give special thanks to our group members, who have given their continued support and proactive suggestions/ discussions which has gone a long way in making and finalizing this SOP.

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Shri NK Sharma – Renusagar Power Division Shri R K Gupta – Renusagar Power Division Shri V N Srivastava – Awarpur Cement Works Shri Dinesh Randad – Awarpur Cement Works Shri R S Lawrence – Awarpur Cement Works
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Shri Sunil Kothari – Rajashree Cement
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N K Dwivedi – Rajashree Cement

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Shri B N Agarwal – Harihar Polyfirbres
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Shri Rajendra Jain – SFD Nagda Shri SK Dhanuka - SFD Nagda

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE ON COAL LOSS ACCOUNTING QUALITATIVE (Part II)

MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION & CENTRAL TECHNICAL CENTRE March 2007

SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

SOP-COAL LOSS ACCOUNTING : QUALITATIVE, (PART-II) TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Coal Quality Overview ....................................................................................................................... 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Grades of Coal ................................................................................................................ Coal Contents ................................................................................................................. Coal Quality Control Parameters ................................................................................... Proximate Analysis ........................................................................................................ 3 5 6 7 8

Ultimate Analysis ........................................................................................................... 10 Grindabilty ..................................................................................................................... 12 Use of Coal in Power Generation .................................................................................. 12

Use of Coal in Cement Industries ................................................................................. 13 Effect of Coal Quality on Power Plant Performance .................................................... 13

1.9.1 Common problems due to poor and inconsistent quality of coal ................................... 13 1.9.2 Benefits of washed coals ................................................................................................ 14 1.0 A Coal quality analysis flow diagram .......................................................................................... 15 1.0 B Testing standards for coal and coke ......................................................................................... 15

1.0 C Coal sampling flow diagram – Hindalco, Renusagar ............................................................... 16 1.0 D Coal sampling flow diagram – Grasim, Rajashree Cement ...................................................... 17 1.0 E Coal sampling flow diagram – Awarpur Cement Works ........................................................... 18 2. Coal Sampling .................................................................................................................................... 19

2.1 General Principles of Sampling .................................................................................................... 19 2.2 General Procedures for Establishing a Sampling Scheme ............................................................ 20 2.3 Design of Sampling Scheme .......................................................................................................... 21 2.4 Joint Sampling ............................................................................................................................... 21 2.5 Auto Sampling .............................................................................................................................. 22 2.6 Dust Suppression System ............................................................................................................. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 23

Procedure for Determination of Moisture ............................................................................................ 24 Procedure for Determination of Fixed Carbon Percentage in Coal ..................................................... 25 Procedure for Determination of Volatile Matter in Coal ..................................................................... 26 Procedure for Determination of Ash Content in Coal .......................................................................... 28 Procedure for Determination of Calorific Value .................................................................................. 30
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8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Procedure for Determination Hardgrove Grindabilty Index of Coal ................................................... 36 Procedure for Sampling and Fineness Test of Pulverized Coal .......................................................... 38 Procedure of Sampling Coal from Trucks During Unloading ............................................................. 45 Procedure for Collection, Preparation and Analysis of Samples from Railway Wagons Outside Plant ..................................................................................................................................................... 47 Coal Quality Testing Equipments ....................................................................................................... 52 Procedure for Determination of Boiler Efficiency .............................................................................. 60 Glossary -Coal ..................................................................................................................................... 68 Annexure -1 Technological Development in Coal Testing equipments ............................................... 73 Annexure – 2: Daily Coal Quality Reporting Format ......................................................................... 87 Annexure – 3 : Monthly Coal Analysis Report ................................................................................... 88

SOP-COAL LOSS ACCOUNTING : QUANTITATIVE
MINE TO FACTORY

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Overview of Coal Mining ................................................................................................................ 89 Handling of Coal at Mines .............................................................................................................. 91 Loading of Coal on Truck or Rake At Mines .............................................................................. 96 Loading or Discharge of Coal from Vessel ................................................................................... 102 Transit of Coal .................................................................................................................................. 108 Stock Verification .............................................................................................................................. 110 Annexure – 1: Risk Assessment Procedure .................................................................................. 113

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

1.

COAL QUALITY - OVERVIEW Coal becomes greater in value and rank as it ages and therefore loses its undesirable components as time passes. The amount of carbon increases from about 65 percent to 96 percent with time, between the stages of Peat to Lignite as shown in fig.1 Hydrogen decreases from five percent to two percent. Oxygen can decrease from amounts of up to 30 percent to traces as low as one percent. Sulphur’s component changes from a low trace to as much as four percent in the sub-bituminous and bituminous stages back to small traces again. Moisture decreases as well through the stages of formation from 70 percent to five percent.

Fig.1 VARIOUS STAGES OF COAL FORMATION

Coal quality is evaluated by composition of carbon, moisture, volatile matter and ash etc. This composition ultimately determine the value of coal. • Moisture is a component that costs money to transport as well as it consumes energy. It is therefore seen as a negative quality. Moisture should be as minimum as possible. • Ash is viewed negatively as it is the product of inflammable materials. It not only lowers the quality of coal but also increase the transportation and handling cost. • Carbon is main component of coal .It acts as a main heat generator during burning. It should be as maximum as possible.

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

• Volatile matter is the component that will generate the heat when coal is burnt and therefore is the positive component. High volatile matter content indicates easy ignition of fuel. Based on fixed carbon and moisture contents, coal can be broadly classified into two catagories as shown in Fig. 2

Fig. 2 A Typical Proximate analysis of various coals is shown in graph.
T y p i c a l proximate a n a l y s i s o f v a r i o u s c o a l s ( I n p e r c e n t a g e )
6 0 51.3 50 38.6 29.8 20.7 20 10 9.4 6 8.5 14 17 23.3 46.8

P e r c e n t a g e

40

34.7

30

Indian Coal Indonesian Coal South African Coal

0
M o i s t u r e A s h Vo l a t i l e matter F i x e d c a r b o n

contents
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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

Elements which are found in coal include carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, nitrogen, and oxygen. 1.1 Grades of Coal The common coal used in Indian industry is bituminous and sub-bituminous coal. The gradation of Indian coal is based on its calorific value. The quality of coal is specified by notified agencies by useful heat value (UHV) is as follows: Grade A B C D E F G Calorific Value range- (KCal / Kg) Exceeding 6200 Exceeding 5600 but not exceeding 6200 Exceeding 4940 but not exceeding 5600 Exceeding 4200 but not exceeding 4940 Exceeding 3360 but not exceeding 4200 Exceeding 2400 but not exceeding 3360 Exceeding 1300 but not exceeding 2400

Normally D, E and F coal grades are available to Power Sector. The formula for calculation of UHV is as follows UHV = 8900 - 138(A + M) kcal/kg Where UHV = Useful heat value A M = % Ash = % Moisture in coal determined under standard conditions of 60% RH & 40°C basis

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

1.2

Coal Contents : The typical raw coal components, presently being used by the power stations is given below:

Sulphur

0.2 4 18

1.0

Moisture

21

Ash

30

55

Volatile Matter Fixed carbon

25 20 38

0

20

40

60

80

100

Minimum

Maximum

1.

Ash Content: 30% to 55%, generally around 45%.

2. Moisture content: 4% to 21% except in rainy season when it goes higher in some cases. 3. Sulphur content: 0.2% to 1.0% 4. Gross Calorific Value: 3000 K Cal/kg. to 5000 K Cal/kg. (3500 K Cal/kg.) 5. Volatile matter: 18% to 25 % 6. Fixed Carbon 20% to 38% Elemental analysis, moisture content, and grades of typical Indian coals
Coal Grade D E F1 F2
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C% 30-33 37.9 41.87 44.47

H% 2.1-2.4 2.4 3.33 3.37

S% 0.4-.6 0.53 0.56 0.35

N2% 0.7-.8 0.8 0.94 0.99

O2% NA 6% 6% 6%

Ash% 25-27 30.4 34.07 36.3

Moisture % 7-8 7.5 7.8 8.4

GCV (Kcal/Kg) 4999-5555 4529.0 4137.0 3833.0

UHV (cal/gm) 4332-4760 3670.0 3122.0 2731.0

Management Services Division & Central Technical Centre

SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

1.3

Coal quality control parameters : The quality of coal is primarily measured by how well it burns, how much heat it gives out in the process, and how much ash it leaves behind afterwards. These characteristics depend on how much of the coal is fuel (i.e. carbon and hydrogen) and how much of it is non-combustible components like water and mineral impurities. As a first step following components are analyzed by measuring the change in weight of a sample heated and ultimately burnt to yield. Moisture : The water given off by heating to 105ºC in nitrogen (to prevent any burning).

Volatile Matter : Gases and vapours formed by decomposition of the coal by heating in nitrogen to 900ºC. These gases contain virtually all of the coal’s hydrogen and the carbon which combines with it (e.g. as methane, CH4). Fixed carbon : Fixed carbon is the carbon left over after the volatiles have been driven off, determined from the change in weight when the devolatised sample is burnt in air. : Ash is the incombustible residue; mostly from mineral impurities in the coal. The ash content is the most important measure of coal quality.

Ash

Calorific Value : The Calorific Value (energy content) of the coal is measured by burning a small sample in a calorimeter. The energy released is usually measured in mega joules per kilogram (MJ/kg), or giga joules per tone (GJ/t), which are the same. The fuel energy of any coal is about 32 MJ/kg; this is reduced according to the content of water and mineral impurities. The Calorific Value is the most important measure of coal value. Calorific Value is a complex function of the elemental composition of the coal. Calorific value is mostly determined by experimental measurements. A close estimate can be made with the Dulong formula GCV = (144.4 * %[C]) + (610.2 * % [H])-(65.9 * % [O]) +(0.39 * %[O]2) Where C = Carbon, H = Hydrogen O = Oxygen Calorific value (CV) is given in Kcal/kg or Btu/lb. Values of the elements C, H, and O, are calculated on a dry ash-free coal
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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

1.4

Proximate analysis Proximate analysis is the simpler of the tests and is used to determine the moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon content. Determines (on an as-received basis) Fixed carbon (solid fuel left after the volatile matter is driven off). Moisture content Volatile matter (gases released when coal is heated). Ash (impurities consisting of silica, iron, alumina and other incombustible matter) Significance of various parameters in proximate analysis a. Fixed carbon
Moisture Ash

Fixed carbon

Volatile Matter Fixed carbon Volatile Matter Ash Moisture

Fixed carbon is the solid fuel left in the furnace after volatile matter is distilled off. It consists mostly of carbon but also contains some hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur and nitrogen not driven off with the gases. Fixed carbon gives a rough estimate of heat value of coal. b. Volatile Matter Volatile matters are the methane, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and carbon monoxide, and incombustible gases like carbon dioxide and nitrogen found in coal. Thus the volatile matter is an index of the gaseous fuel present. Typical range of volatile matter is 20 to 35% Volatile matter Proportionately increases flame length and helps in easier ignition of coal Sets minimum limit on the furnace height and volume. Influences secondary air requirement and distribution aspects. Influences secondary oil support
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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

c. Ash content Ash is an impurity that will not burn. Typical range is 15 to 40% Ash Reduces handling and burning capacity Increases handling cost Affects combustion efficiency and boiler efficiency Causes clinkering and slagging d. Moisture content Moisture in coal decreases the heat content per kg of coal. Typical range is 6 to 14%. Moisture Increases heat loss, due to evaporation and superheating of vapour Helps, to a limit, in binding process Aids radiation heat transfer e. Sulphur content Typical range is 0.5 to 0.7 % Sulphur Affects clinkering and slagging tendencies Corrodes chimney and other equipment such as air heaters and economizers Limits exit flue gas temperature

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

Fixed Carbon

Moisture

Proximate Analysis

Volatile matter

Ash

1.5

Ultimate analysis Ultimate analysis is used to determine the elemental composition in terms of Carbon, Hydrogen, Sulphur, Nitrogen and Oxygen by difference. Determines the amount of : Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulphur
Ash Sulphur Nitrogen Oxygen Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen Hydrogen Sulphur Oxygen Ash Carbon

The ultimate analysis includes the various elemental chemical constituents such as Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen and Sulphur. It is useful in determining the quantity of air required for combustion and the volume and composition of combustion gases. This information is required for the calculation of flame temperature and the flue gas duct design.

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

Typical comparison of various coals is shown in graph.
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 6 9.4 2.8 Carbon 4.2 1.2 1 0.4 0.56 Oxygen 9.9 58.9

41.1

Indian coal% Indonesian coal%

11.9

Moisture

Hydrogen

Nitrogen

Sulphur

Relation between Ultimate analysis and proximate analysis %C %H %N C Where A VM M = = = = = = = 0.97C+ 0.7( VM-0.1A)-M (0.6-0.01M) 0.036C + 0.086 ( VM-0.1 x A)-0.035M2 (1-0.02M) 2.10-0.020VM % of fixed carbon % of ash % of Volatile matter % of Moisture

Note: The above equation is valid for coal containing greater than 15% moisture content The percentages can be reported by weight in a variety of different ways: As sampled (as received) - exactly as the sample came to the lab Dry - based on the air dried sample (not completely dried) Dry, Ash free - based on the air dried sample with ash removed Dry, Mineral Matter Free (DMMF) - based on the air dried sample with all mineral (inorganic) matter removed Mineral matter is not directly measured but may be obtained by one of a number of empirical formulae based on the ultimate and proximate analysis. Further empirical relationships are also possible between carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and CV.
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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

1.6

Grindability This is particularly important if a coal is to be burnt in the pulverized state. In this case, significant work must be done in order to reduce the coal down to particles of sufficient size for combustion. The Hard grove grindability index is calculated by applying a standard amount of work on a sample of coal and determining the increase in surface area. The value, G is based on the fraction of coal of initially sieved with a size 16 mesh, passing through mesh size 30 after a standard mill. The value ranges between 20 and 100 for most coals. The easiest to grind being the bright, bituminous coals. Hard grove grindability Index measurement (HGI) With this technique the hardness of coal can be determined. The sample is first ground and sieved to a specific size, and ground in the HGI equipment under special conditions. The grindability value obtained is compared with a calibration curve based on international standard tests. The hardness gives information about the energy consumption when grinding coal. A low HGI value indicates a hard coal, which will require more energy for grinding, than a coal of high HGI value.

1.7

Use of coal in Power Generation In our group units like Hindalco, Renusagar power division, Grasim Nagda, coal is mainly used for power generation.

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

1.8

Use of coal in Cement Industries In Rajashree Cement, Awarpur Cement, Aditya Cement and Vikram Cement coal is used for cement making along with power generation. Typical Flow Diagram of Clinker Production

1.9

Effect of coal quality on power plant performance Coal quality is a vital factor in determining plant efficiency. It not only affects the overall profit margin but also contributes to other significant problems, if quality of coal is poor. 1.9.1 Common problems of power plants due to poor and inconsistent raw coal quality are listed below: Damage to conveyor belts and crusher elements Frequent choking of chutes and feeders Reduced pulverizing capacity of the mills Higher erosion of grinding elements Reduced availability of mills due to higher outages Reduced flame stability requiring additional oil support

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

Slagging and fouling of the water walls Faster erosion at the coal burners and flue gas path Increased requirement of land for dumping of ash and ash handling equipment Reduced Plant Load Factor (PLF) as well as reduced station thermal efficiency Higher emissions and related environmental impacts. Several other operational problems may also arise due to poor and inconsistent quality of coal. 1.9.2 Benefits of washed coals: Some of the well recognized benefits arising from combustion of washed coal in thermal power stations are : Reduction in: Emissions into the atmosphere Ash handling and disposal costs Requirement of oil support Load on transportation system Operating and maintenance costs in existing plants Capital cost of new plants Increase in: Thermal efficiency Plant availability Plant output

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

1.0 A

COAL QUALITY ANALYSIS FLOW DIAGRAM
Coal Quality Analysis

Proximate Analysis

Ultimate Analysis

Moisture

Volatile Matter

Carbon

Hydrogen

Fixed carbon

Ash

Oxygen

Nitrogen

Sulphur

Calorific Value

Hard grove grindability index

Particle size Analysis

Abrasion index

1.0 B

TESTING STANDARDS FOR COAL AND COKE

Testing standards :
Sl. No 1.0 Description Proximate analysis IS : 1350 Part I 1984 Testing Standards Contents Moisture Volatile Matter Fixed Carbon Ash 2.0 Ultimate analysis IS : 1350 Part IV IS : 1350 Part IV IS : 1350 Part III 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 Calorific Value Hardgrove Grindabilty Index Sieve analysis Abrasion Index IS : 1350 Part II IS : 4433 1979 ASTM D 197 IS : 9949 1986 Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Sulphur Calorific Value Hard grove Grindability Index Determination of fineness of coal Determination of abrasiveness of coal
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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

HINDALCO - RENUSAGAR POWER DIVISION :
1.0 C FLOW DIAGRAM OF COAL SAMPLING, QUALITY CHECK POINTS

NCL, JHINGURDA Loading Station ARW-1 ARW-2 Road Transport CCL, OTHERS

Unloading

Unloading Wagon railway siding Morwa

C. H. P-1

C. H. P-2 & 3

Coal Yard

As Received Coal Sample

As Received Coal Sample

As Received Coal Sample

As Received Coal Sampling

Crusher

Composite Sample

Coal Sample

Crushed CoalYard Jaw Crusher Indirect feeding Direct feeding

Coal bunker

Coal scale / coal feeder

Fired Coal Sample

Testing for Moisture, Ash, Volatile Matter, Fixed Carbon and CV

Boiler

Coal Mill

Fineness Sample

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Management Services Division & Central Technical Centre

SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

1.0 D

RAJASHREE CEMENT - COAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS FLOW DIAGRAM

Coal Rake Pyro Stream Residue Ash IM Check Point Coal Mill Residue Ash IM Check Point Kiln Stream Residue Ash Check IM Point

Pyro Silo

Kiln Silo

Bunker

Coal Hopper-2

Coal Hopper-1

Computer

Crusher For Blending

Reclaimer

2BC 32 Ash Moisture Analyser Check Point

Coal Stock Pile Stacker

Total Moisture Ash

Management Services Division & Central Technical Centre

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

1.0E

AWARPUR CEMENT WORKS: FLOW DIAGRAM OF COAL SAMPLING, QUALITY CHECK POINTS

Trucks Weighment at weigh bridge

Coal trucks receive at Main gate

Unloading in open yard

Heap formation with dozer Water spray

Transportation with tipper for crushing

Sampling for Moisture, Ash and SO3

Water spray Sieve analysis

Crushing

Yard

Reclamation Evaporation

Stacking

Raw Coal hoppers

Coal Mills

Fine coal bins

Measuring devices

Sieve analysis

Sampling for Moisture, Ash, CV, SO3

Kiln Firing Equipments

Coal Mills

Calciner

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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

2.

COAL SAMPLING Coal is a highly heterogeneous substance in terms of the inorganic and organic constituents and exhibits wide variability with respect to size and chemical composition of the particles. An estimation of the true value of the desired parameters of a bulk material, to a certain degree of confidence, through analysis on a few grams of test sample is definitely a daunting problem. The basic purpose of collecting and preparing a sample of coal is to obtain a test sample which when analyzed will give the test results representative of the lot sampled. In order that the sample represents the lot from which it is taken, it is collected by taking a definite number of increments distributed throughout the whole volume of coal. The procedure for sampling will, however, differ with the purpose and method of sampling. Samples may be required for technical evaluation, process control, and quality control or for commercial transactions. For quality assessment of coals from new sources, samples are to be drawn from in-situ coal seams, either as rectangular blocks or pillars cut from full seam height, or from seam channels or from borehole cores. To check the quality of coal consignments, it is desirable to get the sample from conveyor belts. The reference method of ‘stopped belt’ sampling is often implemented to standardize the mechanical automatic sampling system. Quality monitoring of coal is an important activity for any commercial transactions between the consumers and the producers. The sampling procedure will depend mainly on the nature of sample collection i.e. by mechanical or manual means, from moving belt or from stationary lots like wagons, stockpiles, etc. Normally any sampling scheme is supposed to confirm to relevant national or international standards. However, due to cost and time constraints, very often some changes are made in the method of sampling jointly by the seller and the purchaser. It is a known fact that about 80% of the total variances involved at the different stages of sample collection, preparation and analysis comes from errors during its collection only. 2.1 General principles of Sampling The main requirements for coal sampling are, All particles of coal in the lot to be sampled are accessible to the sampling equipment and each individual particle shall have an equal probability of being selected and included in the sample.
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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

The dimension of the sampling device used should be sufficient to allow the largest particle to pass freely into it. The first stage of sampling known as primary increments is the collection of an adequate number of coal portions from positions distributed over the entire lot to take care of the variability of the coal. The primary increments are then combined into a sample, as taken or after reducing the mass of the sample to a manageable size. From this gross sample, the required number and types of test samples are prepared by a series of processes jointly known as sample preparation. The minimum mass of the gross sample should be sufficient to enable particles to be present in the same proportions as in the lot of coal from which it is taken. To ensure that the result obtained has the required precision, the following issues are to be considered. Variability of coal Number of samples from a lot Number of increments comprising each sample Mass of sample relative to the nominal top size The ideal method of sampling is the stopped belt method, which is considered free of bias. As implementation of such method will affect the continuity of plant operations, it is not always practicable for routine sampling. However, any mechanical sampling device needs to be checked for bias by comparing with the results from stopped belt reference method 2.2 General procedure for establishing a sampling scheme 1 Decide the purpose for which the samples are taken e.g. plant performance evaluation, process control, commercial transactions etc. Identify the quality parameters to be determined, i.e. general analysis, total moisture, size analysis, washability, etc. Catagorize the size of coal in three parts i) small [0-2”] ii) large coal [2 - 6”] iii) Run of mine coal [0-9”] Define the lot .

2

3

4

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4 5 6

Define the precision required Decide whether continuous or intermittent sampling is required Determine the number of sub-lots and the number of increments per sub lot to achieve the required precision. Determine or estimate the nominal top size of the coal Determine the minimum mass per increment and the minimum mass of the total sample Decide on the method of combining the different increments to produce the gross sample

7 8 9

10 Decide on drawing common or separate samples, for general analysis and moisture 2.3 Design of sampling scheme Sampling scheme has to be designed based on the purpose of sampling and after ascertaining at what stage of coal handling operation the sample is required. Division of lots: A lot may be sampled as a whole or a series of sub lots. Each sub lot will constitute one sample. Basis of sampling: It can be either time basis or mass basis. In time basis the sampling interval is defined in minutes/seconds and mass is proportional to the flow rate, whereas in mass basis the interval is defined in tonne and the mass of increments is uniform. Accuracy: In all methods of sampling, sample preparation and analysis, errors may be introduced at every stage and the measured value may differ from the true value of the parameter. As the true value is not exactly known it is difficult to assess the accuracy of the results, but an estimation of accuracy of the results can always be made. Decide required accuracy precision for each parameter of a lot and then the number of sub-lots, number and mass of increment are to be estimated. 2.4 Joint sampling Normally, joint sampling is carried out at the loading end by the representatives of the producer and the customer, following a methodology mutually agreed upon by both parties. Depending on the agreement, the loading point results can be taken exclusively for commercial transactions. In some cases the mean value of the results of joint sampling at both the loading and unloading
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SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

ends is considered. The variance values in the quality parameters are often defined, beyond which several bonus/penalty clauses are imposed. What needs to be stressed is whether the variance value identified is compatible with the sampling scheme. More clearly, whether the variation in the value lies within the precision limit that can be achieved through the implementation of a particular sampling scheme. This requires periodic testing, which unfortunately is rarely practiced in India. It is a common experience that in spite of joint sampling, there often exist wide discrepancies in the results at the two different ends. There may be multiple reasons for this:Procedures agreed for sampling and sample preparation are not followed at the two ends. In case of manual sampling human discretion becomes a significant factor Deviation from the procedures identified in the agreement The level of accuracy required / agreed upon remained undefined, while designing the sampling scheme. 2.5 Auto Sampling: To get a correct assessment of the quality parameters, it is recommended that sampling should be done through auto mechanical sampling systems. Immediate steps need to be taken to bring the existing Auto mechanical sampling system in working conditions, followed by testing of bias. The system should be studied for a prolonged period to identify its limitations and constraints. PRIMARY SAMPLER SAMPLING SYSTEMS FOR CRUSHED COAL (-) 20mm

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2.6

Dust Suppression system: The Dust Suppression System is meant to suppress the coal dust generated during transfer of coal at feed/ discharge points of conveyors in various transfer points. There are several existing methods of controlling dust but many are ineffective, costly and have detrimental effects on plant and machinery. An effective system for the control of fugitive dust in industry should meet the following objectives. 1. Must be efficient to meet Health and Safety requirements. 2. It should be practical and simple in operation. 3. Have low initial cost. 4. Have low operating costs. 5. No adverse effects on product quality or plant and machinery should be created. At Rajashree Cement Works, dust suppression system is installed at Wagon tippler area. This system is designed in-house by plant team and effectively working as a means to suppress the coal dust at the time of unloading as well as feeding to the respective units. Water spray is being done on the reclaimer belt having material sensors to prevent escaping the fine dust of coal. System consists of high pressure water pump, water storage tanks to store sufficient amount of water for a day operation and high pressure jet nozzles to spray water in mist form. Salient features of the system installed at Rajashree Cement : 1. System prevents to escape the fine coal particles in the atmosphere, mixes coal particles with water mist and collect in coal bunker. Thus substantial amount of fine coal is recovered. 2. System uses recycled water of treatment plant. There is no additional requirement of fresh water. 3. Clean and Environment friendly atmosphere.

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3.

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE 3.1 Purpose To know the moisture content of coal, crushed to pass through 212 micron IS sieve. 3.2 Scope This method is applicable to all types of coals. 3.3 Reference IS -1350 (Part -1) 1984 3.4 Definition It is the moisture in coal which has been air dried under the laboratory atmosphere condition prior to analysis and determined as a part of proximate analysis of coal. 3.5 Procedure For detailed Procedure please refer to SOP- Coal Loss Accounting

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4.

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINATION OF FIXED CARBON PERCENTAGE IN COAL 4.1 Purpose To know the carbon content of coal chemically bounded in coal besides the carbon which is associated with volatile matter. 4.2 Scope This method is applicable to all types of coals. 4.3 Reference IS -1350 (Part -1) 1984 4.4 Definition Fixed carbon (percent) is the figure obtained by subtracting from 100 the sum of the percentage moisture, volatile matter and ash of the coal. 4.5 Procedure 4.5.1 The coal sample shall be ground to pass through 212 micron sieve for laboratory analysis. 4.5.2 The percentage of moisture in coal sample shall be determined. 4.5.3 The percentage of ash in coal sample shall be determined. 4.5.4 The percentage of volatile matter in coal sample shall be determined. 4.5.5 The percentage of fixed carbon shall be calculated as follows: % Fixed Carbon = 100 - (Moisture %+Ash %+Volatile matter %)

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5.

PROCEDURE OF DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE MATTER IN COAL 5.1 Purpose For assessment the use for which coal is suitable and for classification also. 5.2 Scope This method is applicable to all types of coals. 5.3 Reference IS -1350 (Part -1) 1984 5.4 Definition The Volatile matter is the loss in mass less than due to moisture, when heated under standard conditions. 5.0 Procedure 5.5.1 5.5.2 The volatile matter determination crucible shall be put (with lid and plunger) in stand The crucible with stand shall be placed in furnace at a temperature of 900 ± 10º C for 7 minutes. The crucible with stand shall be removed from the furnace and cooled first on a metal and then in desicator for 20 minutes. The crucible (with lid and plunger ) shall be weighed and 1 gm of coal sample (ground to pass 212 micron IS sieve) shall be weighed in crucible. The coal sample shall be pressed with plunger and the crucible shall be covered with lid. The crucible shall be put in stand.

5.5.3

5.5.4

5.5.5

5.5.6

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5.5.7

The crucible with stand shall be placed in furnace at a temperature of 900 ± 10º C for 7 minutes. The crucible shall be removed, cooled and weighed as mentioned in clause 5.5.4 The volatile matter of the coal sample shall be calculated as given below :

5.5.8 5.5.9 Calculation

% Volatile matter V=

100 ( M 2 -M 3 )

( M 2 -M1 )

-M 0

Where M0= % moisture content in the sample M1 = Mass in gm of empty crucible with lid and plunger M2 = Mass in gm of crucible with lid and plunger plus mass of coal sample before heating M3 = Mass in gm of crucible with lid and plunger plus mass of coal sample after heating

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6.

PROCEDURE OF DETERMINATION OF ASH CONTENT IN COAL 6.1 Purpose To check the quality of coal and to calculate useful heat value (UHV) of coal for grade specification 6.2 Scope This method is applicable to all types of coal. 6.3 Reference IS -1350 (Part -1) 1984 6.4 Definition Ash is the organic residue left when the powdered sample of coal has been incinerated in air in open dish until it no longer change in weight at 815 ± 10º C. 6.5 Procedure 6.5.1 The air dried laboratory coal sample shall be thoroughly mixed and ground to pass 212 micron IS sieve A clean dry empty ash determination silica crucible shall be weighed. Approximately 1 gm of coal shall be weighed. The coal shall be spread on the crucible so that it does not exceed 0.15 gm/cm2 The uncovered dish shall be inserted into the muffle furnace at room temperature. The temperature shall be raised to 500º C in 30 minutes and to 815 ± 10º C in 30 to 60 minutes and shall be maintained at this temperature for 60 minutes. The crucible shall be removed from furnace and shall be allowed to cool first on a cold metal plate for 10 minutes and finally in a desicator.

6.5.2 6.5.3 6.5.4 6.5.5 6.5.6

6.5.7

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6.5.8 6.5.9

It shall be weighed after 20 minutes. It shall be reignited at the same temperature until the change in mass of ash shall be less than 0.001 gm.

6.5.10 The ash shall be brushed and the empty crucible shall be reweighed. 6.5.11 The mass of ash shall be obtained by difference. 6.5.12 The percentage of ash content shall be calculated as given herein under : Calculation Ash % by mass = 100X (M3 – M4)/ (M2 – M1) Where, M1 M2 M3 M4 is the mass in gm of crucible is the mass in gm of crucible +mass in gm of coal sample is the mass in gm of crucible and ash is the mass in gm of crucible after brushing out the ash and on reweighing

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7.

PROCEDURE OF DETERMINATION OF CALORIFIC VALUE 7.1 Purpose To check the quality of coal and to calculate calorific value of coal. 7.2 Scope This standard prescribes the methods of test for coal and coke relating to the determination of calorific value 7.3 Terminology a. Gross calorific value – Number of heat units liberated when a unit mass of fuel is burnt at constant volume in oxygen saturated with water vapour, the original material and final products being at approximately 25 0C. The residual products are taken as carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen and water; the residual water other than that originally present at vapour, being in the liquid state To convert gross calorific value to net calorific value. NCV = GCV -53 * H Where NCV = Net calorific value in Kcal/kg GCV = Gross calorific value in Kcal/kg H = Percentage of hydrogen present in the coal sample, including hydrogen of moisture and of water constitution b. Net Calorific value Number of heat units liberated when a unit mass of the fuel is burnt at constant volume in oxygen saturated with water vapour, the original and final materials being at approximately 250 C. The residual products are taken as carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen and water vapour.

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7.4

Sampling – 7.4.1 Methods of sampling -As per IS: 436(Part 1)-1964 for coal and IS: 436(Part II)-1965 for Coke Preparation of samples for test 7.4.2.0 General: It is expected that methods of sampling prescribed in IS: 436(Part 1)-1964 for coal and IS: 436(Part II)-1965 shall have been followed in the preparation of samples sent to laboratory. The samples prepared in accordance with IS: 436(Part 1)-1964 for coal and IS: 436(Part II)-1965 shall be in sealed containers and shall consist of the following: A) Analysis sample of about 300 g of air dried coal or coke, ground to pass 212 micron IS sieve (see IS -460-1962) B) Special moisture sample of 1 kg of coal or 2.5 kg of coke, crushed to pass 12.5 mm square- mesh screen (see IS: 460- 1992) to be sent in duplicate. 7.4.2.2 Where air –drying has been adopted in the preparation of the samples, the percentage loss of moisture in this operation shall be required to be recorded on the label together with the method of sampling used. Samples received in the laboratory, if already ground to pass 212 micron IS sieve, shall be re- sieved to verify that all the material passes the sieve, and then air – dried for 24 hours and mixed and bottled as above.

7.4.2

7.4.2.1

7.4.2.3

7.5

Calorific value of coal and coke 7.5.0 General – Two methods have been described to determine the calorific value of coal and coke. They are: (a) making use of calorimetric bomb immersed in a static or isothermal water jacket. (b) Making use of calorimeter bomb immersed in an adiabatic jacket. 7.5.0.1 The calorific value as determined in these methods is the gross calorific value of coal and coke at constant volume expressed in calories per gram.

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7.5.0.2 Temperature dependence of calorific value –the calorific value of coal and coke decreases with increase of temperature. The magnitude of dependence varies between 0.1 and 0.3 cal/g0C, the lower value being for anthracites; correction for variation in temperature of determination is, therefore, usually negligible. 7.5.1 Principle – The coal or coke is burned in a bomb calorimeter of known heat capacity. The principal observation is that of a temperature rise which, when corrected for the errors of the thermometer and multiplied by the effective heat capacity at the mean temperature of the chief period, gives the heat release. Further, allowance is necessary for a) b) c) Cooling loss Heat gain due to heat released by the ignition system Heat of formation of sulphuric and nitric acids from sulphur dioxide and nitrogen.

7.5.2

Apparatus: Details are as per IS 1350(Part II) -1970 7.5.2.1 7.5.2.2 7.5.2.3 7.5.2.4 7.5.2.5 7.5.2.6 7.5.2.7 7.5.2.8 7.5.2.9 Combustion bomb Calorimeter vessel Water jacket Stirring arrangement Thermometer Thermometer viewer Crucible Ignition circuit5.2.9 Timer Pressure regulator and pressure gauge

7.5.3
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Reagents : Details are as per IS 1350(Part II) -1970
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7.5.4

Isothermal calorimeter Method 7.5.4.1.0 Coal used for the determination of calorific value is the analysis sample ground to pass through 212 micron IS sieve. The sample is exposed in a thin layer for the minimum time necessary for the moisture content to reach equilibrium with the laboratory atmosphere. Weigh the crucible to the nearest 0.1 mg and introduce into it in sufficient quantity of the samples to cause a temperature rise of 2 0 to 3 0 C. Weigh the crucible and contents to determine the weight of sample taken. Also determine the moisture of the sample at the same time. 7.5.4.1.2 Connect a piece of firing wire rigidly across the terminals of the bomb. Tie a known weight of cotton to the firing wire and arrange the ends of the cotton so that they touch the sample. Put 1 ml of distilled water in the bomb. Assemble the bomb and charge it slowly with oxygen to a pressure of (30 atm) without displacing the original air. Put sufficient water in the calorimeter vessel to cover the flat upper surface of the bomb cap. This quantity of water should be the same, within 1 g, as that used in determining the mean effective heat capacity. The temperature of the water shall be about 2.50C lower than that of water jacket. Transfer the calorimeter vessel to the water jacket; lower the bomb into the calorimeter vessel and check that the bomb is gas tight. If gas escapes from the bomb, discard the test. Assemble, start up the apparatus and keep the stirrer and the circulation arrangements in continuous operation throughout the determination. Use a constant rate of stirring. After an interval of not less than ten minutes, read the temperature to .0010C and continue the readings for five minutes, that is, the preliminary period, at equal intervals of not more than one minute, tapping the thermometer lightly during 10 seconds prior to each reading. If, over a period of five minutes, the average deviation is less than 0.000 72 0C per minute, close the battery circuit momentarily to fire the charge and continue to those of the preliminary period. If the rate of

7.5.4.1.1

7.5.4.1.3

7.5.4.1.4

7.5.4.1.5

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change of temperature is not constant within this limit, extend the preliminary period until it is constant. 7.5.4.1.6 In the chief period, which extends from the instant of firing until the time after which the rate of change of temperature again becomes constant, take the earlier readings to the nearest 0.010C. Resume the readings to this precision as soon as possible. Determine the rate of change in the after period (which follows the chief period) by taking readings at 1 minute intervals for at least five, preferably ten minutes. 7.5.4.1.7 Remove the bomb from the calorimeter vessel, release the pressure and dismantle the bomb. Examine the bomb interior and discard the test if unburnt sample or sooty deposits are found. Wash the contents of the bomb into a beaker with distilled water. Wash the underside of the bomb cap and the outside of the crucible with the distilled water; add the washings to the beaker. Dilute to approximately 100 ml and boil to expel carbon dioxide. While still hot, titrate with standard barium oxide solution using phenopthalein solution as indicator. Add 20 ml of sodium carbonate, warm, filter and wash the precipitate with distilled water. When cold, titrate the filtrate with the hydrochloric acid solution, using the methyl orange solution as indicator, ignoring the phenopthalein color change.

7.5.4.1.8

7.5.4.2 Corrections –The followings corrections are made to the experimental observations. 7.5.4.2.1 Thermometer corrections 7.5.4.2.2 Cooling correction a) The Regnault- Pfaundler( R-P) correction b) Whitaker correction 7.5.4.2.3 Heat of ignition – the heat release from the cotton and firing wire is restricted from the total heat release. The heat release from the cotton is calculated from the weight, after drying at 1050C, of a known length of cotton thread, and using the calorific value of a cellulose (4180 cal/g). Determine the weight of a piece of wire equal in length to the distance between the poles of the
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bomb, and calculate the heat release by allowing 335cal/g for nickelchromium wire, or 100 cal/g for platinum wire. 7.5.4.2.4 Heat of formation of acids – The heat gain due to the formation of sulphuric acid and nitric acid is subtracted from the total heat released. These corrections amount to 3.6cal/ml of 0.1 N sulphuric acid and 1.43 cal/ml of 0.1 N nitric acid present in the bomb washing and calculated as follows: Sulphuric acid correction = 3.6 (a + b – 20) cal; and Nitric acid correction =1.43 (20-a) cal; Where a = vol in ml of 0.1 N hydrochloric acid used b = vol in ml of 0.1 N barium hydroxide used 7.5.4.2.5 Correction for unburnt carbon If unburnt carbon is suspected, its heat equivalent, on the basis of 1 mg of carbon equals 8 calories shall be added to the determined heat release. Unburned carbon is determined as the loss in weight on ignition of the residue from the crucible. 7.5.4.3 Calculation – as per IS 1350(Part II) -1970

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8.

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINATION OF HARDGROVE GRINDABILITY INDEX OF COAL

8.1

Purpose To know the properties like hardness, strength and to estimate the coal behavior with respect to coalmill/pulverizer.

8.2

Scope This method is applicable to all types of coals except brown coal and lignite..

8.3

Reference IS – 4433 -1979

8.4

Definition A prepared sample of coal is ground in a standard laboratory mill under defined conditions. Hardgrove grindability index is calculated by the standard formula as per IS standards.

8.5

Sampling Sample collection and preparation shall be in accordance with IS 436 (Part 1/ Sec 1) 1964 Except initial crushing shall be to 4.75 mm instead of 10 mm. Final coal sample of about 1kg may be obtained by sample divider of suitable size and capacity.

8.6

Procedure 8.6.1 Before test grindability machine should be thoroughly cleaned and space the balls as evenly as possible around the grinding bowl. Sample of about 50± 0.01 gm prepared as per IS 436 (Part 1/ Sec 1) 1964 shall be distributed evenly in grinding bowl surface is smoothened. Fasten the bowl and assemble the top grinding ring and preset the counter and automatic stopping device so that machine can operate for 60±0.25 revolutions.

8.6.2

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8.6.3 8.6.4 8.6.5

Now switch on the apparatus When rotation is stopped switch off machine and dismantle the bowl. Empty the grinding balls and ground coal on protective sieve. Also brush any coal from the bowl and the balls into the protective sieve setting them aside. Brush any coal and dust from the inside and underside of the protective sieve into 75 micron sieve and set it aside. Replace the cover on the 75 micron sieve. Shake the assembled pan, 75 micron sieve and cover for 10 minutes. Carefully brush any coal dust from the underside of 75 micron sieve into the pan. Repeat this application for two more times for a period of 5 minutes each. Clean the underside of 75 micron sieve after each repetition.

8.6.6

8.6.7

8.6.8 Weigh separately to the nearest 0.01 gm of the coal retained on the 75 micron sieve and the coal passing the 75 micron sieve. If the sum of these masses differs by more than 0.3 gm from the initial mass of 50± 0.01 gm, the test shall be rejected. 8.6.9 Calculations 8.6.9.1 Hard Grove grindability index can be calculated using the formula HGI = 13 + 6.93 M Where M = mass of the test sample passing through 75 micron sieve after grinding. In practice M is obtained by deducting from 50 gm of mass of ground sample retained on 75 micron sieve. In IS 4433 -1979 a standard table to ascertain the value of HGI from the experimental values of mass of the coal particles over 75 microns is also provided

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9.

PROCEDURE OF SAMPLING AND FINENESS TEST OF PULVERIZED COAL 9.1 Purpose This Test method covers the determination of the fineness by sieve analysis of coal sampled from a dry pulverizing operation. 9.2 Scope This method is applicable to dry pulverized coal and not applicable to products of wet milling or to fines that have clustered into an agglomerated mass. 9.3 Reference ASTM D 197 -87 9.4 Definition This test provides a means for assisting in the evaluation of pulverizers and Pulverizers system in terms of fineness specifications. 9.5 Sampling, storage system 9.5.1 In the pulverized coal storage system, the coal after pulverized is conveyed into bins. 9.5.1.1 Collection of gross sample – Collect not less than ten increments of representative pulverized coal preferably as it is being discharged from the collector. This is best accomplished by collecting increments of not less than 50 g at regular intervals by means of scoop, dipper or a device capable of removing increment from a specific location within the stream of pulverized coal. 9.5.1.2 Preparation of the laboratory sample – A small riffle (sample divider) can be used for mixing and dividing the sample by splitting. Mix the gross sample by splitting and recombining the halves a minimum of two times. Divide the sample amount by successive riffle splitting operations on one half of the sample until the sample is divided to approximately 500 g for the laboratory sample.

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9.5.1.3 As an alternative to riffle mixing and splitting, the sample can be prepared as follows: Place the gross sample on a sheet of rubber, plastic, or paper and mix it by raising first one corner of the cloth and then the other so as to roll the coal over and over at least 20 times. After mixing, divide the sample; continue the operations of mixing and dividing until the sample is divided sufficiently so that all of one of the divisions weighs approximately 500 g. This shall constitute the laboratory sample. 9.6 Sampling, Direct feed system 9.6.1 In the direct feed system, the coal is pulverized and delivered to the furnace in an air stream. It is difficult to obtain representative samples, as it is necessary to sample the coal from a moving stream of coal –air mixture inside the pipe between the pulverizer and furnace. It is preferable to collect such samples from vertical pipes, as horizontal pipes a greater amount of segregation may take place. Apparatus for sample collection : It is very difficult to collect a representative sample of solids from a moving coal air system, it is essential that an equipment and sampling procedures are uniformly consistent to assure valid and reproducible results. Recommended equipment and sampling arrangement are shown in fig 1, 2 and 3

9.6.2

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9.6.2.1

In figure recommended arrangement for sampling pulverized coal in a direct fired system using a dustless sampling connection with an aspirator and a cyclone collector. In collecting the sample, turn on the compressed air to the dustless connection and adjust to give a balanced pressure at the connection. Insert the sampling tip into the dustless connection with the tip facing directly into the coal – air stream. Readjust the compressed air to give a balanced pressure with the nozzle inserted. Traverse the fuel transport line across the entire diameter of the pipe by moving at a uniform rate with the tip facing directly into the coal – air stream. The aspirating air on the cyclone collector may or may not be used, depending on the static pressure in the fuel transport line. Fig. 3 shows detailed dimension of a recommended sampling tip. The area of the tip shown in is 12.7 mm by 24.1 mm or 306 mm2). which is the projected area of the tip facing the coal –air stream.

9.6.2.2

9.6.3 9.7

Collection of gross sample as per ASTM D 197

Fineness Test 9. 7.1 Drying sample - Air dry the entire laboratory sample in a drying oven at 10 to 15º above the room temperature. Continue the drying until the loss in weight is not more than 0.1% /hour

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9. 7.2 Dividing the sample – After air drying, divide the sample amount to 50 to 100 gm. 9.7.3 Sieve Test 9.7.3.1 Select the proper sieve sizes for the test and thoroughly clean each by carefully brushing and tapping to assure that no solid particles from previous tests are trapped in the meshes. Nest the sieves together with the coarsest mesh at the top and in descending order with the finest mesh in the bottom of the nest to receive the undersize. Place 45 to 55 g of coal weighed to 0.05 g on the top sieve and cover with a fitted cover to prevent loss. 9.7.3.2 Place the assembled set into the sieving machine and make the necessary adjustments for the sieving operation. Adjust the timer for a 10 minute period and start the machine 9.7.3.3 At the end of sieving period, remove the stack, slip off the receiver pan, and carefully brush into the pan receiver any particles that have adhered to the bottom surface of the bottom sieve. Carefully transfer all of the pan contents into another receptacle and return the clean pan receiver to the bottom of stacker sieves. Retain the transferred fines for weighing 9.7.3.4 Return the stacked sieves to the sieving machine, set the timer for a 5 minute period and start the machine. At the end of this interval, remove the stack and repeat the procedure. However, this time collect the fines from the pan receiver and those brushed from the under- surface of the sieve and weigh. When the collected fines from the 5 minute sieving weigh less than 0.5 g, consider the sieving operation complete. If the fine weigh in excess of 0.5g, reassemble the stack and repeat the sieving operation at 2 minute intervals until less than 0.2 g of fines are collected for a 2 minute interval. 9.7.3.5 Combine the fines collected in all of the operations and weigh on a balance sensitive to 0.01 g. Disassemble the sieves beginning with the largest. Material that can be brushed from the bottom of a sieve shall be considered to be part of the sample that has passed through that sieve. This material can be brushed directly onto the next finer sieve. Material that is lodged in the sieve shall be considered a portion of the sample that was retained on the sieve.

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9.7.3.6 Weigh and record the amount of material collected from each sieve surface, including the undersize material. 9.8 Calculations: 9.8.1 Calculate the fineness from the weights of the residues on the sieves, including the undersize from the finest sieve, and express as percentage of weight of the original sample. A difference between the original sample portion and cumulative sieve weight is considered to be due to loss (or gain) of the undersize material and is so calculated. If the loss is greater than 1% for coals having 75% or less undersize or is greater than 2% for coals having more than 75% undersize, discard the results and repeat the determination.

9.9

Report: The fineness test shall be reported as follows: Retained on USA Standard No 8 (2.36 mm) No 16 (2.36 mm) No 30 (2.36 mm) No 50 (2.36 mm) No 100 (2.36 mm) No 200 (2.36 mm) No 325 (2.36 mm) ——Passing USA Standard ———No 8 (2.36 mm) No 16 (2.36 mm) No 30 (2.36 mm) No 50 (2.36 mm) No 100 (2.36 mm) No 200 (2.36 mm) No 325 (2.36 mm) Percentage %

9.10 Fineness test by hand sieving 9.10.1 For field testing or similar operations where a sieving machine is not available. The test can be performed by a hand –sieving operation. The object of hand sieving operation is to duplicate as nearly as possible the details of test as performed by mechanical sieving.
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This can be accomplished as below. 9.10.2 Prepare the sieves and the sample amount with the exception of placing the nest of sieves into a sieving machine. Instead, hold the nest of sieves with both hands and move back and forth in a slightly circular orbit while resting on a ¼ inch (6.4 mm) plate (suggested dimensions 4 by 12 inch (100 X 300 mm)). With each movement, the stack is permitted to move over the plate edge and tap the table surface. The above described manual movement is designed to stimulate the rotation and tapping of machine sieving.

9.10.3

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10. PROCEDURE OF SAMPLING OF COAL FROM TRUCKS DURING UNLOADING 10.1 Purpose To know the quality parameters of coal transported by trucks. 10.2 Scope This method is applicable for sampling of coal from trucks during unloading. Head of the department shall ensure that the specified jobs are being carried out and corrective actions are taken wherever required. 10.3 Reference IS -436 (Part -1/ Sec 1) 1964 10.4 Definition It is a sampling of coal to check the quality of coal during unloading in yard by trucks. 10.5 Environment and safety measures 10.5.1 Ensure use of nose mask and goggles during collection and preparation of coal samples. Ensure proper ventilation by switching on exhaust fan. Clean the work area, sampling plate, pastel and Mortar. Mix the coal sample after several coning and quartering to make it homogenous. After crushing the coal sample, make powder and pass through 212 micron sieve.

10.5.2 10.5.3 10.5.4 10.6

Procedure 10.6.1 For the purpose of sampling a lot shall be divided into sub-lots in conformity with IS -436 (Part -1/ Sec 1) 1964 The gross sample from sub-lots shall be collected by suitable hand shovel in conformity with IS – 436 (Part -1/ Sec 1) 1964
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10.6.3

The total gross sample for a day shall be mixed together and shall be broken manually to less than 5 cm and then reduced to 1/4th of original gross sample by coning and quartering. The reduced sample obtained shall be crushed to pass through 12.5 mm by jaw crusher. About 1 kg of coal sample shall be collected for determination of moisture and shall be kept in sealed container. The crushed gross sample shall be again crushed to 3.35 mm by mill and reduced to 2 kg by coning and quartering. About 300 gm of so reduced coal shall be ground to pass through 212 microns IS sieve for laboratory analysis. The analysis shall be carried out for the determination of the following: Moisture % Ash % Volatile Matter % Fixed Carbon % Gross Calorific value K Cal /kg

10.6.4

10.6.5

10.6.6

10.6.7

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11.

PROCEDURE FOR COLLECTION, PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM RAILWAY WAGONS OUTSIDE PLANT 11.1 Purpose To know the quality (Moisture, ash, GCV) for fixation of prices. 11.2 Scope This method is applicable for sampling of coal from railway wagon. It is also applicable to imported coal transported through wagons. 11.3 Reference IS – 436 Part -1/ Sec -1 of 1964 and as upgraded in Nov 1996 11.4 Definition Since it is not possible to check every piece of coal in a consignment, laboratory tests are carried out on a sample which represents the bulk of coal from which it was drawn. 11.5 Responsibility : Concerned Quality Department person 11.6 Procedure A Collection of sample (IS – 436 Part -1/ Sec -1 of 1964 and as upgraded in Nov 1996) Making Sub- Lots 11.6.1.1 11.6.1.2 11.6.1.3 Average number of wagons in one rack ( lot) Average weight (MT) per rake (lot) No. of sub- lot shall be made as per IS standard (Clause 0.3.4.1 and 3.1) : 58 : > 3000 : 6

11.6.1

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11.6.1.4

No. of wagon in each lot Sub-lot one (01) : Sub-lot two (02) : Sub-lot three (03) : Sub-lot four (04) : Sub-lot five (05) : Sub-lot six (06) : 10 wagons (1 to 10 from power) 10 wagons (11 to 20 from power) 9 wagons (21 to 29 from power) 10 wagons (30 to 39 from power) 10 wagons (40 to 49 from power) 9 wagons (50 to 58 from power)

Note: If the wagons are more than 58 in nos. those will be added in sub – lot no.6 11.6.1.5 From each sub –lot 25% of wagon shall be selected i.e. 3 wagons from each sub-lot.(As per clause 4.2.1 A)

11.6.2

Methods of Random Selection of Wagons 11.6.2.1 Random selection of wagons as per Appendix –A (clause 4.2.1 and 7.2) shall be done. Table no. 5 “Random Sample table” (as per clause A.2.1) shall be used. Since no. of wagons are less than 100, 1st set of random nos. shall be used. (Random sample nos. for this purpose are reproduced and enclosed for reference) Random selection of wagons shall be done as follows : i) For Sub-lot 1 Any no. between 1 and 10 shall be selected Selected no. shall be located in the table. Another two nos. shall be selected by moving left or right or moving upwards /downwards and selecting nos. less than 10 All these selected nos. shall be arranged in a sequence. This nos. shall become the wagon nos. from which the samples shall be collected.

11.6.2.2 11.6.2.3

11.6.2.4

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ii)

For Sub- lot 2 Any no. between 11 and 20 shall be selected Selected no. shall be located in the table. Another two nos. shall be selected by moving left or right or moving upwards/downwards and selecting nos.between 11 and 20. All these selected nos. shall be arranged in a sequence. This nos. shall become the wagon nos. from which the samples shall be collected.

iii) For Sub- lot 3 Any no. between 21 and 29 shall be selected Selected no. shall be located in the table. Another two nos. shall be selected by moving left or right or moving upwards /downwards and selecting nos. between 21 and 29. All these selected nos. shall be arranged in a sequence. This nos. shall become the wagon nos. from which the samples shall be collected. iv) For Sub- lot 4 Any no. between 30 and 39 shall be selected Selected no. shall be located in the table. Another two nos. shall be selected by moving left or right or moving upwards /downwards and selecting nos. between 30 and 39. All these selected nos. shall be arranged in a sequence.

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This nos. shall become the wagon nos. from which the samples shall be collected. v) For Sub- lot 5 Any no. between 40 and 49 shall be selected Selected no. shall be located in the table. Another two nos. shall be selected by moving left or right or moving upwards /downwards and selecting nos. between 40 and 49. All these selected nos. shall be arranged in a sequence. This nos. shall become the wagon nos. from which the samples shall be collected. vi) For Sub- lot 6 Any no. between 50 and 58 shall be selected Selected no. shall be located in the table. Another two nos. shall be selected by moving left or right or moving upwards /downwards and selecting nos. between 50 and 58. All these selected nos. shall be arranged in a sequence. This nos. shall become the wagon nos. from which the samples shall be collected. 11.6.3 Methods of Sample collection 11.6.3.1 Samples shall be collected all through the process of unloading of coal. 11.6.3.2 Weight of each increment (kg) Approx. : 07 kg. 11.6.3.3 No. of increments (about 7 kg each) from each wagon : 16

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11.6.3.4

Quantity of coal samples shall be collected from each wagon : (16 x 7) kg = 112 (approx.) These collections shall be filled in two bags of about 50 kg each (approx.) Each bag shall be selected with proper sealing arrangement. Sealing shall be done in presence of authorized person from chemical Lab., Coal quality, Technical services department (whenever deputed) and representative of Supplier /Clearing agent (If available on site) Each bag shall be tagged for identification indicating the sub-lot no. and wagon number from which the sample has been collected. Quantity of coal sample shall be collected from each sub-lot (16x 7x3): 336 kg (approx.)

11.6.3.5 11.6.3.6 11.6.3.7

11.6.3.8

11.6.3.9

11.6.3.10 Quantity of coal sample shall be collected from each lot and rake (16x 7x3x6) kg comprising between (35 to 40 bags) : < 2000(approx) 11.6.3.11 All collected sample bags (35 to 40 nos.) shall be shifted to Coal Testing Laboratory at plant. B Sample preparation (IS 436 part I Sec -1 1964) 1.0 All the bags (35 to 40 nos.) shall be unsealed and opened at Coal Testing Laboratory under the supervision of authorized persons (Whenever deputed) and the representative of supplier / clearing agent (If available) All the collected samples shall be poured in one heap. Sample preparation shall be done as per (IS 436 part I Sec -1 1964)

2.0 3.0

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12.

COAL QUALITY TESTING EQUIPMENTS

BOMB CALORIMETER

With Digital Beckman thermometer for finding out the Calorific value of Coal, coke, etc. Complete with 25 essential accessories with factory test certificate for Bomb. Also available With Printer Models. Also available additional accessories like Oxygen empty Gas cylinder with factory and Ministry of Explosive certificates, Two stage pressure regulator for inlet and out going pressure.
JUNKER’S GAS CALORIMETER

The Calorimeter, pressure governor, non-recording Gas Flow meter in which calorific value is ascertained from the rise of temperature imparted to a measured quantity of gas. Range 1000-26000 Kcal/m2, 120 – 300 BThu/C.ft. Consists of calorimeter, pressure governor, and non-recording 1-litre flow meter and is supplied with 2 litres and 50 ml measuring jars, 3 Thermometers and flexible tubing.
JAW CRUSHER – LAB MODEL

For speeding up crushing of aggregates, ores, minerals, coal, coke, ceramic and other similar materials. Jaw size: 100 * 150 mm, max. size of feed : 50 mm (approx.), Product discharge size : 5 mm to 15 mm, capacity 100 to 200 kg (Based upon material). Complete with 3 HP motor, starter, V-belt, pulley drive and mounting for 440V, 50 Hz AC mains.
HARDGROOVE GRINDABILITY TESTER

As per IS: 4433/1967. It is a miniature pulveriser employing the ball bearing principles of grinding. Supplied with automatic revolution counter, weights and built-in reduction gear. Wired for 240V, single phase, 50 Hz. AC mains.
ROLL CRUSHER – LABORATORY MODEL

For crushing different ore samples and minerals. Roll size: dia 200 mm and length of rolls 100 mm. Feed size 8 mm, product size 1 to 2 mm. For 440 V, 50 Hz, 3 phase AC.
MINERAL JIG – LABORATORY MODEL

Stroke length is variable between 0” to ¾” at 400 rpm approx. size of screen compartment 4” * 6”,
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complete with a mild steel stand structure driven by ½” HP 200 V AC motor and one 8 mesh screen and one trash screen for the screen box along with starter.
BALL MILL – LABORATORY MODEL

Internal dia. 18 * 18 long, opening of 150 mm width and 350 mm long (approx.) speed of rotation is 56 ± 2 RPM. 12 Nos. of 1 ¼” dia. Steel balls are supplied with the unit. For 440 V, 50 Hz AC, 3 phase operation.
PULVERISER – LABORATORY MODEL (6” MINI MILL)

Designed for powdering lab model Rotor with beaters mounted on shaft direct coupled with 1 HP 3 phase, 440V, 50 Hz AC. With screen and cotton bag. Designed for powdering lab coal samples to 72/100 mesh.
PROXIMATE ANALYSER

For coal and coke as per IS: 1350. Consists of carbon & Hydrogen Analyzer, Volatile matter determining furnace, Ash determination furnace, Moisture determination Oven.
MUFFLE FURNACE – HIGH TEMPERATURE – ELECTRIC

With Digital temperature indicating-cum-controller, thermocouple, air break magnetic contactor, fuses. Maximum temperature up to 1400°C and regular recommended temp. not to exceed 1300°C. Available in various sizes. Vibrating Screen Shaker Screens Rota Screen Electromagnetic Screens Vibratory Feeder (Electromagnetic type) Magnetic separators (Electromagnetic type) Magnetic separators (Permanent magnet type) Magnetic Drum Magnetic pulley

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6200 Automatic Isoperibol Calorimeter To determine the calorific value of coal

Model 6200 is a microprocessor controlled isoperibol oxygen bomb calorimeter which is widely used for both routine and occasional calorific tests. It uses the time-tested Parr 1108 oxygen bomb and oval bucket in a compact calorimeter, producing reliable results with good repeatability, but differing from the 1271 and 6300 Models in that the bomb and bucket both must be removed from the calorimeter and refilled manually for each test, thereby requiring more of the operator’s time than the automatic and semi-automatic models. All sensors, controls and jacketing in the 6200 Calorimeter are built into a single, compact cabinet to provide a self-contained operating unit consisting of: A temperature-controlled water jacket with a built-in circulating system and an electric heater. An 1108 oxygen bomb with an oval bucket which fits into the insulating water jacket. A built-in semi-automatic system for charging the bomb with oxygen. A high precision electronic thermometer.

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A bright, color, touch screen display for data entry and operation control. Special communication ports for printer, computer and network (LAN) connections. Removable compact flash memory card slot for simple program updates and test report archiving.

Touch Screen Precise Electronic Thermometry Temperatures are measured with a high precision electronic thermometer using a specially designed thermistor sensor sealed in a stainless steel probe which is fixed in the calorimeter cover. Measurements are taken with 0.0001° resolution over a 20° to 40°C working range, with all readings shown in Celsius. Effective Thermal Jacketing Outstanding thermal jacketing is provided by a circulating water system driven by a built-in, high capacity pump which maintains a continuous forced flow around the sides and bottom of the bucket chamber and through the cover as well. The jacket temperature is held constant for isoperibol operation and no water additions or waiting periods are required at the end of a run. A sealed immersion heater and a built-in heat exchanger, both operated by the calorimeter controller, provide precise jacket temperature control. A Reliable Oxygen Bomb The Parr 1108 Oxygen Bomb furnished with the calorimeter will safely burn samples liberating up to 8000 calories per charge, using oxygen charging pressures up to 40 atm. An alternate 1108CL bomb with superior resistance to chlorine and halogen acids is recommended for tests involving waste material and chlorinated samples.

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A Built-In Oxygen Filling System To speed and simplify the bomb filling operation, the 6200 Calorimeter has a semi-automatic system for charging the bomb with oxygen. Oxygen from a 1A commercial cylinder is connected to a microprocessor controlled solenoid installed in the calorimeter. To fill the bomb, the operator simply slips the filling hose connector onto the bomb inlet valve and pushes the touch screen to start the filling sequence. Filling then proceeds automatically at a controlled rate to a pre-set pressure. Built- in safety provisions will prevent an accidental overcharge. Automatic Standardization The 6200 Calorimeter will automatically generate its energy equivalent (EE) value from a series of standardization tests, calculating a mean value from either (a) all standardization tests, or (b) from the last 10 operator designated tests for each bomb/bucket combination. The user can enter the maximum standard deviation he will accept and the calorimeter will advise him if his tests fail to meet this criteria. Energy equivalent values for up to four bomb/bucket combinations can be stored in the computer. Many User Options Although specific procedures are recommended, various options are available to the user: Program parameters can be adjusted to accommodate unusual sample sizes and precision requirements. The calorimeter can be programmed to accommodate any titrant concentrations selected by the user. Calorific values can be reported in any of several measurement units. The calorimeter program can be adjusted to compensate for the subtle differences in the way acid correction values are handled in ASTM, BS, DIN and ISO methods. Program controls can be protected from inadvertent changes. A bomb usage tally can be maintained to notify the user when each bomb should be serviced. Multiple Language Options Parr Model 6200 can be set to provide the programming options, operating menus, reports and error messages in the following choice of languages: English, French, and German.

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Automatic Data Transfer The calorimeter is equipped with RS232C communication ports for reporting to a printer and receiving sample weights from an analytical balance. Transferring results to a laboratory computer is accomplished using an Ethernet connection using standard network protocols. Compatible Modular Design The 6200 Calorimeter is fully compatible with existing 1108 Parr Bombs and closed-circuit water handling systems making it easy to fit the instrument into an existing laboratory set-up. A modular design, with the controller electronics assembled in a removable chassis, simplifies maintenance. Accessories for the 6200 Calorimeter

1757 Printer 1757 Printer Operating results and operator messages are displayed clearly on the touch screen for review and action. Many users who connect their calorimeter to a computer will choose to print their results from their computer and will not need a dedicated printer for their calorimeter. For users who prefer to have a dedicated printer at the calorimeter, Parr offers the compact model 1757 Printer. The printer port can be configured to work with many other printers with serial communications that the user may choose. The 1757 printer is a compact, dot matrix printer setup for 40- character/line reports. It is the default printer for the 6200 calorimeter. It is housed in a separate 5.5 inches wide, 9 inches deep and 7 inches high. It operates from its own power supply. 6510 Water Handling System For users who wish to operate their 6200 Calorimeter on a closed loop system, the 6510 Water Handling System incorporates a precision pipette for measuring and delivering the water for the calorimeter bucket at the same fixed temperature for each test. This water handling system incorporates a built-in, compact,
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solid-state water chiller. As a result, no external water chiller is required. It also provides cooling water to the jacket of the 6200 calorimeter, if required. 1563 Water Handling System The 1563 Water Handling System is designed to work with a separate water cooler. The Parr 1552 Cooler is recommended for this purpose. The 1563 Water Handling System incorporates a precision pipette for measuring and delivering the water for the calorimeter bucket at the same fixed temperature for each test. This unit is capable of supporting and supplying temperature controlled water for up to two calorimeters. Extra Bomb and Bucket An extra A391DD Calorimetric Bucket and 1108 Oxygen Bomb will greatly improve the throughput of the 6200 Calorimeter as they permit the next test to be prepared in advance. Coal Abrasion Index tester Coal handling material suffers abrasive wear losses due to abrasion characteristic of coal. Resistance to coal abrasive wear at ambient and elevated temperature can be found with the help of this equipment Application This tester can be used to assess the relative abrasive wear resistance characteristic of material to help selection of right type of material of construction for mixing, crushing, grinding and burning equipment. Standard BIS 9949-1986 Features Auto shut off after preset revolutions. Easy to clean chamber. Dust confinement. Optional heating of chamber for high temperature tests.
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Specifications Parameter Test Speed Revolution Counter Temperature Power
o

Unit RPM

Min 0 1

Max 1500 9999 400oC

Remarks Variable Presetable in steps of one Optional Other voltages on request

C

Ambient

V/HZ/PH/KVA

415/50/3/3

Contact Details: Ducom Instruments Pvt. Ltd. 477/A, 4th Phase, Peenya Industrial Area, Bangalore-560058., India. Phone: +91 80 4152 5162 Fax: +91 80 4152 5162 Email: ducom@vsnl.com or ducom@vsnl.net

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13. PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINATION OF BOILER EFFICIENCY 13.1 Overview The performance of boiler, like efficiency and evaporation ratio reduces with time due to poor combustion, heat transfer, surface fouling and poor operation and maintenance practices. Even for a new boiler, reasons such as deteriorating fuel (like coal) quality, water quality etc. can result in poor boiler performance. A boiler efficiency test helps us to find out the deviation of boiler efficiency from the design efficiency. Any observed abnormal deviations could therefore be investigated to pinpoint the problem area for necessary corrective action. 13.2 Purpose: The main purpose of evaluation of boiler efficiency is to determine the current efficiency level and to compare it with design efficiency. It is an indicator of day to day variation in boiler efficiency with respect to design value. 13.3 Reference standards: IS 8753, Indian standards for boiler efficiency testing. 13.4 Boiler Efficiency Thermal efficiency of boiler is defined as the percentage of heat input that is effectively utilized to generate steam. There are two methods of assessing the boiler efficiency by using coal as fuel. 13.4.1 Direct Method In this method energy gain of the working fluid (water and steam) is compared with the energy content of the boiler fuel (coal, oil etc) 13.4.2 Indirect Method In this method efficiency calculation is based on the difference between the losses and the energy input of boiler fuel.
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13.5 Direct Method This is also known as “Input-output method”. This is due to the fact that it requires only the useful output (steam) and the heat input (i.e. coal) for evaluating the efficiency.

STREAM OUTPUT

Input Fuel (coal) + air

BOILER

Flue Gas

WATER

Fig.1 Heat balance diagram by direct method The efficiency can be evaluated by using the formula Boiler efficiency = (Heat output / Heat input) ×100 Following are the parameters to be monitored to evaluate the boiler efficiency by Direct method. Sl.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Parameters to be monitored Quantity of steam generated per hour Quantity of fuel used per hour ( for coal) Working pressure superheat temperature ,if any Temperature of feed water Type of fuel and gross calorific value of the fuel (coal) Unit Kg/hr Kg/hr kg/cm2(g)
O O

C C

kCal/kg of fuel
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Boiler efficiency (η) = Qx (hg -hf) /q x GCV η Where, Q= Quantity of steam generated per hour in Kg/hr hg =Enthalpy of saturated steam in kCal/kg of steam hf= Enthalpy of feed water in kCal/kg of water q = Quantity of fuel used per hour (for coal) in Kg/hr GCV = Gross calorific value of coal (kCal/kg of coal) Note: Boiler may not generate 100% saturated dry steam and there may be some amount of wetness in the steam. It is very important to measure accurate flow of coal or any solid fuel. The measurement must be based on mass, which means that bulky apparatus must be set up on the boiler house floor. Samples must be taken and bagged throughout the test, the bags sealed and sent to laboratory for analysis and calorific value determination. In latest practices problem of weighment is alleviated by direct mounting the hoppers over the boilers on calibrated load cells. Advantages and disadvantages of direct method Advantages: It is very simple and quick method for boiler efficiency evaluation and plant person can easily evaluate the efficiency on daily basis. It requires very few parameters to find out boiler efficiency and calculation is also very simple. It requires only few instruments for monitoring. It gives a fair idea of boiler efficiency Disadvantages: It does not shows the reason for low efficiency It does not calculate various losses which are accountable for various efficiency levels.

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13.6 Indirect method Indirect method is also called as “heat loss” method. The efficiency of boiler can be arrived at by subtracting various heat loss fractions from 100. The standard do not include blow down loss in the efficiency determination process.
1. Dry flue gas
STREAM OUTPUT

2. H2 loss 3. Moisture in fuel 4. Moisture in air 7. Surface losses 5. Fly ash loss

Input fuel

BOILER
Air

Flue Gas Sample

Water 6. Bottom ash loss Blow down

Fig. 2 Heat balance diagram by indirect method Main losses which occurs in the boiler are tabulated below Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Types of losses Loss of heat due to dry flue gas Loss of heat due to moisture in fuel Loss of heat due to moisture in combustion air Loss of heat due to combustion of hydrogen Loss of heat due to radiation Loss of heat due to unburnt Table No 1
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In the above, loss due to moisture (Sl.no 2) in fuel and loss due to combustion of hydrogen (Sl.no 4) are dependent on the fuel Losses (Sl.no 2 and 4) can not be controlled by the boiler design. Data required for evaluation of boiler efficiency using direct method as tabulated below Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Description Ultimate analysis of coal Percentage of oxygen or CO2 in the flue gas Flue gas temperature in OC ( Tf) Ambient temperature in OC (Ta) Humidity of air in kg/kg of dry air Gross calorific value of fuel( coal) in kCal/kg Percentage combustible in ash ( in case of solid fuel like coal) Gross calorific value of ash in kCal/kg (in case of solid fuel like coal)

Procedure for boiler efficiency evaluation: First of all we have to calculate the amount of theoretical air requirement for the combustion of fuel This may be calculated by following equation: Theoretical air requirement = [(11.6 x C) + {34.8 X ( H2 - O2/8)} + ( 4.35 x S )] /100 kg/kg of fuel Where, C = carbon % H = Hydrogen % 0 = Oxygen % S = Sulphur % Excess Air supplied (EA) can be calculated as:
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EA = 02 %/( 21-O2 %) x 100 Actual mass of air supplied/ kg of fuel (AAS) = {1+ EA/100} x Theoretical air Calculation of various losses as shown in table no 2 1. Percentage heat loss due to dry flue gas = {m x Cp x ( Tf-Ta) x 100 } / GCV of fuel Where, m = mass of dry flue gas in kg/kg of fuel m = combustion products from fuel: CO2 + SO2 + nitrogen in fuel + Nitrogen in the actual mass of air supplied + O2 in flue gas. ( H2O / water vapour in the flue gas should not be considered. Cp = Specific heat of flue gas ( 0.23 kCal/kg OC) Tf = Flue gas temperature in OC Ta = Ambient temperature in OC GCV = Gross calorific value of fuel 2. Percentage heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H2 in Fuel = [9 x H2 x {584 + Cp ( Tf-Ta)} / GCV of fuel] x 100 Where, H2 = kg of hydrogen in 1 kg of fuel Cp = Specific heat of superheated steam ( 0.45 kCal/kg OC) 3. Percentage heat loss due to evaporation of moisture present in fuel = Where, M = kg of moisture in 1 kg of fuel Cp = Specific heat of superheated steam ( 0.45 kCal/kg OC) 584 is the latent heat corresponding to the partial pressure of water vapour 4. Percentage heat loss due to moisture present in air = {AAS x humidity factor x Cp ( Tf-Ta) / GCV of fuel} x 100
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Where, Cp = Specific heat of superheated steam ( 0.45 kCal/kg OC) 5. Percentage heat loss due to unburnt in fly ash = {(Total ash collected per kg of fuel burnt x GCV of fly ash) / GCV of fuel} x 100 6. Percentage heat loss due to unburnt in bottom ash = {(Total ash collected per kg of fuel burnt x GCV of bottom ash)/ GCV of fuel} x 100 7. Percentage heat loss due to radiation and unaccounted loss The other heat losses from a boiler consist of the loss of heat by radiation and convection from the boiler into the surrounding boiler house. Normally surface loss and other unaccounted losses are assumed based on the type and size of the boiler as given below: For Industrial fire tube boiler/ packaged boiler = 1.5 to 2 % For Industrial water tube boiler For power plant boilers = 2 to 3 % = 0.4 to 1%

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Heat Balance : After calculation of various losses mentioned above, a simple heat balance would give the efficiency of boiler. The efficiency is the difference between the energy input to the boiler and the heat losses calculated. Boiler heat balance: Input/output parameter Heat input in fuel Various heat losses in boiler 1. Loss of heat in dry flue gas 2. Loss due to hydrogen in fuel 3. Loss due to moisture in fuel 4. Loss due to moisture in air 5. Loss due to unburnt in fly ash 6. Loss due to unburnt in bottom ash 7. heat loss due to radiation and unaccounted loss Total losses Efficiency of Boiler (ç) = 100-(1+2+3+4+5+6+7) = = = = = = = = = kCal/ kg of fuel % 100

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14. GLOSSARY- COAL Anthracite A hard, compact coal characterized by high luster and low sulphur content. Anthracite is comprised of less volatile matter than bituminous coal, which provides for its nearly non-luminous flame, with highest carbon content (86% to 98%) and thus highest heat value (nearly 15,000 BTUs-per-pound); Bituminous Type of coal with carbon content from 45% to 86% and heat value of 10,500 to 15,500 BTUs-perpound; used primarily to generate electricity and make coke for steel. Bitumen A hard, black, combustible substance formed from decomposed vegetable matter subjected to pressure, temperature, and moisture for millions of years. Varying conditions of formation result in diverse coal chemistries and heat contents. Bituminous coal is one of several phases in an evolutionary development process which includes (from least developed to most developed): peat, lignite (sometimes called brown coal), sub bituminous, bituminous, anthracite (sometimes called hard coal) and graphite. A mixture containing hydrocarbons — often produced by the processing of coal or oil — used in asphalt or tar for road surfacing or waterproofing. Coke A hard, dry substance containing carbon that’s produced by heating bituminous coal to a very high temperature in the absence of air Lignite Type of coal with lowest carbon content (25% to 35%) and a heat value of only 4,000 to 8,300 BTUs-per-pound; called “brown coal;” used mainly for electric power generation. Peat partially carbonized vegetable material.

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Sub bituminous Type of coal with 35% to 45% carbon content and heat value of 8,300 to 13,000 BTUs-per-pound; generally has lower sulfur content than other types, and so is cleaner-burning. Ash The non-combustible and inorganic component of coal remaining after complete burning. Ash yields no heating value. Ash Fusion Temperatures a. Initial Deformation Temperature Temperature at which the top of the ash cone begins to round. b. Softening Temperature Temperature at which the ash cone fuses into a spherical lump. c. Fluid Temperature Temperature at which the ash cone spreads out over the base as a flat layer. 2,600 degrees F – A high ash fusion temperature. 2,100 degrees F – The lowest approximate ash fusion temperature of coals. 1,950 degrees F – The ash fusion temperature of several coals. 1,850 degrees F – The approximate ash fusion temperature of coals. ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials. The ASTM provides a system for classifying coal as well as other testing parameters.. BTU British thermal unit the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit under normal conditions.

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BTU (as received) indicates the heating value of coal at the location of consumption. BTU (dry basis) The method of fuel analysis where the moisture is eliminated and the other constituents are recalculated to total 100 percent. Clean Coal Technology Because of environmental pollution concerns from the burning of coal, increased efforts are being made to develop better emission control or reduction technologies. These technologies apply to cleaning impurities from the coal itself, improving the effectiveness of the burning process, and/or improving the pollutant recovery systems for the escaping products of combustion. Coke (coal) In general, coke is made from bituminous coal (or blends of bituminous coal) from which the volatile constituents are driven off by baking in an oven at temperatures as high as 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit, so that the fixed carbon and ash are fused together. Coke is hard and porous and has a gray, submetallic luster. It is used both as a fuel and for chemical reactions in smelting iron ore in a blast furnace in making pig iron and steel. Coke has a heating value of 13,000 to 14,000 BTU/pound. Dried Coal Moisture, an inherent component of coal, requires heat for its evaporation and release in the products of combustion. Surface moisture in cold climates increases handling problems. Normal atmospheric drying of coal is accelerated by passing hot combustion gases over or through beds of coal to be dried (usually metallurgical coal). Grindability Index Indicates the ease of pulverizing a coal in comparison to a reference coal. This index is helpful in estimating mill capacity. The two most common methods for determining this index are the Hard grove Grindability Method and Ball Mill Grindability Method. Coals with a low index are more difficult to pulverize. On a one to 100 scale, the lower the value the harder the coal.
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Megawatt (MW) A watt is a unit of electric power; the output capability of electric generating plants, companies and systems is usually expressed in terms of megawatts (millions of watts). One watt = 3.4 BTU/hr. One kilowatt = 1.3 horsepower.. Proximate Analysis A percentage measurement of the physical properties of coal including moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash. Proximate analysis is usually accompanied by a statement of sulphur content, BTUs per pound, ash fusion temperature and grindability, expressed in percentages by weight. Sulphur A non-metallic chemical element comprising varying degrees of coal’s composition. Sulphur burns off when coal is heated but promotes clinkering, slagging and corrosion. Coals with high sulphur contents are susceptible to spontaneous combustion in storage piles. Sulphur present in stack emissions is regulated by clean air standards. Sulphur Classifications Pyritic The only inherent form of sulphur in coal which can be removed by washing. Organic Inherent and generally cannot be removed from coal. Sulphates Oxidation products, present on the surface of fresh coal in small amounts. Sulphates can be removed conveniently through standard cleaning processes. Ultimate Analysis Chemical properties of coal represented in percentage of weight. Included are carbon, hydrogen, sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen.

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Volatile Matter Portion of coal which is driven off in a gaseous form when the coal is heated. Volatility is classified as follows: Composition by Weight high volatile medium volatile low volatile over 31% 22% to 31% under 22%

Fixed carbon — The solid combustible residue left after the moisture and volatile matter have been driven off by heating. In the proximate analysis, it is calculated by subtracting the sum of moisture, ash and volatile matter from 100 percent. Fly ash — The fine particles of ash that are carried through the various passes in the furnace by the products of combustion and are usually collected in the last pass of boiler by a precipitator or dust collector. Moisture — Free moisture (or surface moisture) — The portion of total moisture that comes from external sources such as rain or snow. Inherent moisture (or bed moisture) — Moisture that exists as an integral part of the coal seam prior to mining. Total moisture — Moisture that is determined as the loss in weight of a coal sample in an air atmosphere under rigidly controlled conditions of time, temperature and air flow. . . . Rank — A classification of coal that indicates the degree of coalification or alteration from lignite to anthracite. Spontaneous combustion — An ignition caused by the accumulation of heat generated by the slow oxidation of coal in an air supply sufficient to support oxidation but insufficient to dissipate the heat. An example of where this can occur is a storage pile. The tendency of a coal to spontaneously combust or self-heat increases with increasing amounts of sulfur and moisture.
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ANNEXURE -1 TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN COAL TESTING EQUIPMENTS

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ANNEXURE - 2 DAILY COAL QUALITY REPORTING FORMAT

Coal Receipt Imported Coal / Pet Coke
Fixed Carbon GCV Qty MT Moist % Ash % Volatile Matter Fixed Carbon GCV Qty MT Moist % Ash %

Indian Coal

Total Coal Receipt
GCV

Month

Qty MT

Moist %

Ash %

Volatile Matter

April

SOP-Coal Loss Accounting : Qualitative, (Part-II)

May

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June

July

August

September

October

November

December

January

February

March

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88
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

ANNEXURE- 3 MONTHLY COAL ANALYSIS REPORT

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Moisture %

Volatile Matter %

Fixed Carbon %

Ash %

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Calorific Value %

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE ON COAL LOSS ACCOUNTING QUANTITATIVE (Mine To Factory)

MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION March 2007

SOP-COAL LOSS ACCOUNTING : QUANTITATIVE MINE TO FACTORY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Overview of Coal Mining ......................................................................................................... Handling of Coal at Mines ........................................................................................................ Loading of Coal on Truck or Rake At Mines ........................................................................ Loading or Discharge of Coal from Vessel ............................................................................. Transit of Coal ............................................................................................................................ Stock Verification ........................................................................................................................ Annexure – 1: Risk Assessment Procedure ............................................................................

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1.

OVERVIEW OF COAL MINING The choice of mining method is largely determined by the geology of the coal deposit. Underground mining currently accounts for about 60% of world coal production, although in several important coal producing countries surface mining is more common. 1.1 UNDERGROUND MINING There are two main methods of underground mining: ‘room & pillar’ and longwall mining. In room-&-pillar mining, coal deposits are mined by cutting a network of ‘rooms’ into the coal seam and leaving behind ‘pillars’ of coal to support the roof of the mine. These pillars can be up to 40% of the total coal in the seam – although this coal can sometimes be recovered at a later stage. This can be achieved in what is known as ‘retreat mining’, where coal is mined from the pillars as workers retreat. The roof is then allowed to collapse and the mine is abandoned. Longwall mining involves the full extraction of coal from a section of the seam or face’ using mechanical shearers. A longwall face requires careful planning to ensure favourable geology exists throughout the section before development work begins. The coal ‘face’ can vary in length from 100-350m. Self advancing, hydraulically-powered supports temporarily hold up the roof while coal is extracted. When coal has been extracted from the area, the roof is allowed to collapse. Over 75% of the coal in the deposit can be extracted from panels of coal that can extend 3km through the coal seam. The main advantage of room–&-pillar mining over longwall mining is that it allows coal production to start much more quickly, using mobile machinery that costs under $5 million (longwall mining machinery can cost $50 million). The choice of mining technique is site specific but always-based on economic considerations; differences even within a single mine can lead to both methods being used. 1.2 SURFACE MINING Surface mining – also known as opencast or open-cut mining – is only economic when the coal seam is near the surface. This method recovers a higher proportion of the coal deposit than underground mining as all coal seams are exploited – 90% or more of the coal can be recovered.

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The productivity per man-shift in open cast mining is more than 5 times that in underground mining. Large opencast mines can cover an area of many square kilometers and use very large pieces of equipment, including: draglines, which remove the overburden; power shovels; large trucks, which transport overburden and coal; bucket wheel excavators, and conveyors. Explosives first break up the overburden of soil and rock; it is then removed by draglines or by shovel and truck. Once the coal seam is exposed, it is drilled, fractured and systematically mined in strips. The coal is then loaded on to large trucks or conveyors for transport to either the coal preparation plant or direct to where it will be used.

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2.

HANDLING OF COAL AT MINES 2.1 COAL PREPARATION The raw coal produced from the mine (run-of-mine or ROM) hardly suits the need of the consumers. It is necessary to exercise control over one or more of its properties like size (mainly) depending upon the nature of its use. Coal straight from the ground, known as run-of-mine (ROM) coal, often contains unwanted impurities such as rock and dirt and comes in a mixture of different-sized fragments. However, coal users need coal of a consistent quality. Coal preparation – also known as coal beneficiation or coal washing – refers to the treatment of ROM coal to ensure a consistent quality and to enhance its suitability for particular end-uses. The treatment depends on the properties of the coal and its intended use. It may require only simple crushing or it may need to go through a complex treatment process to reduce impurities. To remove impurities, the raw run-of-mine coal is crushed and then separated into various size fractions. ROM coal usually has a size of 0-500mm. The sized coals may be available in various ranges, such as steam sized coal : 250-25mm, rubble: 50-25mm, smithy: 25-13mm, and slacks: 500mm, 25-0mm, and 13-0 mm. The screening of coal is done on various types of screens, revolving, vibrating and shaking. Larger material is usually treated using ‘dense medium separation’. In this process, the coal is separated from other impurities by being floated in a tank containing a liquid of specific gravity, usually a suspension of finely ground magnetite. As the coal is lighter, it floats and can be separated off, while heavier rock and other impurities sink and are removed as waste. The smaller size fractions are treated in a number of ways, usually based on differences in mass, such as in centrifuges. A centrifuge is a machine, which turns a container around very quickly, causing solids and liquids inside it to separate. Alternative methods use the different surface properties of coal and waste. In ‘froth flotation’, coal particles are removed in a froth produced by blowing air into a water bath containing chemical reagents. The bubbles attract the coal but not the waste and are skimmed off to recover the coal fines. Recent technological developments have helped increase the recovery of ultra fine coal material. 2.2 COAL HANDLING The loading and unloading of trucks and railroad cars can generate large amounts of dust. Basically dust percentage depends on the size of coal also. This is major coal loss point at mines sector also. During transportation, fine dust is lost to relative (head) wind.

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2.3

COAL TRANSPORTATION The way that coal is transported to where it will be used depends on the distance to be covered. Coal is generally transported by conveyor, ropeway or truck over short distances. Trains and barges are used for longer distances usually within domestic markets. Ships are commonly used for international transportation, in sizes ranging from Handymax (4060,000 DWT), Panamax (about 60-80,000 DWT) to large Capesize vessels (about 80,000+ DWT). (DWT – Deadweight Tonnes which refers to the deadweight capacity of a ship, including its cargo, bunker fuel, fresh water, stores etc). Around 725 million tonnes (Mt) of coal was traded internationally in 2005 and around 90% of this was sea-borne trade. Coal transportation can be very expensive – in some instances it accounts for up to 70% of the delivered cost of coal. So measures are taken at every stage of coal transportation and storage. Technological Characteristic of Rolling stock and Railway Transport The cars used in pits have an open body to permit excavator loading and mechanical or manual emptying. They must withstand large impact loads, ensure rapid emptying and possess a higher stability. Self-emptying dumpers have found the widest application in this loading process and most of the dumpers with hinged sides of a capacity 180 MT approximately. The body capacity of a wagon “q” is the maximum amount of load (in MT) admissible by the design strength of the wagon. Wagon volume ‘Vc’ corresponds to the geometrical volume of the body. The summary body capacity of the wagon of a rake is referred to as the useful mass of the rake. Strength and loading conditions require that the volume of a dumper should be 4-6 times greater than the volume of excavator bucket. The mass of individual lumps must not exceed 3-3.5 MT at a dumping height (emptying) height, measured from the car bottom, hdm = 2-2.5 m and 5-6MT at hdm£0.5 m. When the material is loaded with rail-mounted bucket-chain excavators, the specific volume of wagon (per meter length) must be in line with the output and moving speed of the excavators. In this regards railway track layout and design of division points is also very important The track layout of a quarry depends on its production and surface dimensions of the pit, the intensity of freight traffic, the kind of wagon/ rake, opening diagram, mining methods etc. The track layout of a quarry includes:

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a)

Temporary tracks laid at faces and waste disposal areas; these tracks are shifted periodically as the mining, stripping and waste dump benches advance; Connecting tracks linking the face and waste-dump ways with the tracks laid in the main trenches and on the surface, with the stations and other departments of the enterprise; Track laid the main trenches and access track (ramps) connecting the operating levels of a pit with surface tracks; Division points ensuring safe and efficient train movement in a pit and on the surface.

b)

c)

d)

Technological Characteristic of Rolling stock and Haulage Vehicle Quarries and pits mostly favour rear-dump trucks over other existing kinds of motor vehicles. The type of engine, transmission, running gear, steering and the truck body tipping gear are chosen based on the capacity of the motor vehicles. Normally dump trucks powered by carburetor engines of up to 5 –t capacity are used for hauling soft rocks (when they are loaded by excavators with a bucket capacity up to 1 m3), dimension stone, and also for hauling supplies, materials, equipment, etc. Similar excavators are also served by diesel-powered dump trucks of 5-7 MT capacities. Medium (10-20 MT) and heavy-duty (over 20 MT) diesel-powered dump trucks find wide application in quarry haulge. Truck Positioning in Faces and at Waste Dumps The various types of face and cut, the different width of the cuts, the nature of truck movement on benches (one-way or opposing movement), the relationship between the directions of motion of the trucks and excavator, and the high mobility of trucks make it possible to position them for loading in a great number of ways. Trucks may move on the bench in the direction of the excavator, which carries a cut, or in the opposite direction. The manner in which the trucks approach the excavator subdivides the way in which trucks are positioned for loading into 3 groups: straight past, with a loop turn, with a dead-end turn. The mine rock must be loaded into the truck body from the side or rear; the bucket must not be carried on top of the cab. Empty (idle) trucks must be positioned outside the radius of action of the bucket.

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With an end face in through cut and one-way truck movement (two transport exist on a bench), trucks are positioned as shown in Figure below. For positioning movement straight past (1,3,9) pattern is utilized, for one-way traffic loop turn (2,10) or dead-end (12,14) patterns are applied (with face grading or large yield of oversize lumps). With opposing truck movement they are positioned for loading as illustrated in Fig. (loop turn patterns 19,20 (wide operating beams) and deadend patterns 23,24 (narrow beam)). With one-way movement turning around of empty dump trucks is preferable (20, 24). With wide through cuts similar loop turn patterns 27, 28 and also the deadend pattern 30 are followed. In dead-end production cuts, trucks are usually positioned for loading according to pattern 24, and sometimes 26; in wide dead-end trench cuts, trucks are positioned according to patterns 33 and 34. With frontal faces, selective mining usually requires that trucks be positioned for loading according to dead-end patterns 17, 18, 38, and loop turn 36.

Type of Face

Type of cut

Cut with

Special mining conditions Wide working bems Minimum Width of working bems Without face grading

Truck movement on bench and schematics of truck positioning for loading Opposing One-way dead-end Through and loop loop dead-end Direction of excavator and empty truck movement Opposing One-way Opposing One-way Opposing One-way Opposing One-way

Through dead-end End Face

Through

Normal A n ≈ (1.5 – 1.7) Rdn
Normal and narrow An ≈ 0.5R dn

Ch, 16. Truck Haulage

Through

Wide A w> 2R dn

With face grading
Sufficient for loop turning A ≥ 2 (Rmn+ m) Insufficient for loop turning A < 2 (Rmn+ m)

Through

Longitudinal

Dead-end trench

Narrow

Figure: Spotting dump trucks for loading Rmin — minimum truck turning radius; m — clearance between truck and trench slope

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FLOW CHART
Flow Activity Mining of coal Responsibility Coal India Unit Control Nil Remarks

Coal Handling plant

Coal India

Liaison with respective person

Storage at Bunker

Coal India

Liaison with respective person to know the stock quantity

Loading through Auto Loader

Coal India

Liaison with respective person for good loading

Loading Supervision

Co –ordinate with Coal India’s Staff

Mainly Mine manager, Field In-charges are important

Triming, Marking and Leveling

Maintain the good level with more than 1 ft height from wagon in Trapezoid profile.

Weighment Supervision

Coal India

Check the process and liaison with respective person

Check point: Calibration

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3.

LOADING OF COAL ON TRUCK OR RAKE AT MINES

3.1

Administration 3.1.1 Check job instructions like a) Loading commenced b) Exact Location c) Number of Dumpers present d) Quantity e) Customer f) 3.1.2 Total Time of Loading

In case of Coal India, submit the requisition in head office of Coal India on 1st date of every month and care should be taken to forward the same into the respective regional office of Coal India. Confirm receipt of instructions with Authorised person. Authorised person should take care and liaison with Coal India and Railways regarding the placement of rake so that the material can be loaded within 20th of every month. Always check the stock at the bunker and try to load the material when production rate is high. What is the nature of the material and what facilities are available - size of coal, sampling lot size, handling conditions, and preparation facilities? Is a ‘Permit to Work’ required and/or local induction? For local permit contact with the colliery manager. Are sufficient inspectors available to cover all eventualities of the operation? No – immediately contact with Authorised Person. It is the responsibility of the inspector to ensure that the office is fully aware of the situation so that adequate infrastructure can be provided.

3.1.3

3.1.4

3.1.5

3.1.6

3.1.7

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3.2

Health & Safety 3.2.1 Is there a risk assessment for the nominated location and material? Yes – Ensure required personal protective equipment (PPE) and risk management practices in place before starting work. No - carry out risk assessment with Field Services Technical Coordinator and document risk management procedures.

3.3

Pre-Loading Planning 3..3.1 Establish the loading plan with material handling agent or transporter. Material in one or more stockpile? Multi stockpile discharge? Online discharge? Anticipated hours of working. Availability of the enough space for truck movement. 3..3.2 Is volumetric assessment required? Yes – Ensure that the two volumetric assessments furnished. One completed from stockpile prior to loading and another completed after loading.

3.4

Rake or Truck Inspection 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 Collect and record the relevant dates/times of rake placement or truck position. Depute the adequate inspectors. The following parameters of all the trucks/ wagons shall be checked properly. Fitness. Condition.

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Rust free. Dust free. Visual identification. Crack free and good condition. 3.4.4 Foreign Matter: The wagon/ truck should be free from any types of foreign material. The following shall be considered as the foreign materials: Any chemicals other than loading materials. Rust. Lumpy dust (stone etc.). Grease. Oil. Welding residuals. 3.5 Coal Inspection 3.5.1 3.6 Confirm stockpile/ running of material and loading with the authorized person of mines.

Loading 3.6.1 Inspect the wagon from a safe location regularly during loading. The number of visits required will depend on the nature of the coal and the loading conditions. As a minimum the wagon should be checked 2 or 3 times per shift and at any time when the coal visibly changes. Describe weather conditions during discharge and possible effects on moisture content of coal. Note the times and any changes in material appearance, water ingress, especially when loading start.
Management Services Division

3.6.2

3.6.3

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3.6.4 3.6.5 3.6.6 3.6.7

Report on loading procedure, Crane, grab type and approximately lifting capacity. Were wagon or truck loading simultaneously or individually? Was coal placed into integrated or independent hoppers? Did hopper feed for road transport or a conveyer belt system

3.6.8

Or was coal placed directly on to the quay? How was it picked up and delivered to storage?

3.6.9

Was the equipment and quay clean prior to loading?

3.6.10 Was “Grabbing” within the wagon or rake aided by pay-loader at any time? 3.6.11 Describe the condition of the quay at completion of loading. 3.6.12 Were quay and plot sweepings recovered? Yes - into a separate lot or during loading? If sweepings were not recovered estimate the amount of material lost and immediately inform to the authorized person and request recovery of sweepings.

3.7

Weighing 3.7.1 3.7.2 3.7.3 Was coal weighed by weighbridge, belt weigher or hopper load cell? Describe scales, weighing capacity and weighing divisions Prior to loading was the weighing equipment calibrated and tested by an independent certification authority and valid certificates sighted? No – Request alternative, certified weighing equipment be made available immediately.

3.7.4

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3.7.5 3.7.6 3.7.7 3.7.8

Test equipment with calibrated, stamped or known weights? If weighing equipment fails calibration check request adjustment and re-test until scales OK. Was the coal transported prior to weighing? By road? Was coal covered, tailgates securely closed, and any spillages? When and how often were the vehicles tare weighed?

3.7.9

By conveyor belt - any spillages or losses at belt cross-over points or elsewhere?

3.7.10 By hopper - can the pit and the hopper tops be sighted for signs of leakage or seepage of coal? 3.7.11 Was the loading quantity assessed by only weighment or volumetric assessment? 3.7.12 By volumetric assessment? Was the bulk density of coal determined at for 10 readings? Was the surface of the coal loaded plain or symmetric? Was the dimensional measurement done by instrument or manual? Has the quantity surveyor adequate training and experience of handling the instruments or manual measurement. 3.7.13 By conveyor belt - any spillages or losses at belt cross-over points or elsewhere? 3.7.14 By hopper - can the pit and the hopper tops be sighted for signs of leakage or seepage of coal? 3.7.15 If significant spillage or losses are observed bring them to the attention of responsible person on site to recover lost material. If no satisfactory response, estimate amount of material lost, inform authorised person and follow instructions.

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3.8

Transport & Storage 3.8.1 Was coal transported to storage or silos by conveyor belt? Covered? Open? 3.8.2 Coal transported by covered/open by rake or by road? Distance. Condition of storage facility covered or open, floor area. Other material stored nearby [contamination] Security

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4.

LOADING OR DISCHARGE OF COAL FROM VESSEL

4.1

Administration 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 Check job instructions Confirm receipt of instructions with Authorised person. What is the nature of coal and what facilities are available:- size of coal, sampling lot size, handling conditions, preparation facilities? Is a ‘Permit to Work’ required and/or local induction? Are sufficient inspectors available to cover all eventualities of the operation? No – immediately contact Field Services Coordination Team Leader. It is the responsibility of the inspector to ensure that the office is fully aware of the situation so that adequate cover is provided.

4.1.4 4.1.5

4.2

Health & Safety 4.2.1 Is there a risk assessment for the nominated location and material? Yes – Ensure required personal protective equipment (PPE) and risk management practices in place before starting work. No - carry out risk assessment with Field Services Technical Coordinator and document risk management procedures.

4.3

Pre-Discharge/ Loading Planning 4.3.1 Establish the discharge/loading plan with stevedore and/or ship’s agent. Material in one or more holds? Multi hold discharge? Sequence of discharge from holds

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Anticipated hours of working Availability of unloading labour / Gang Discharge using ship’s crane or shore crane? Grab type and lifting capacity? 4.3.2 Is draft survey required? Yes – Ensure survey completed prior to discharge. 4.4 Vessel Inspection 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 Present yourself to Chief Officer and/or Captain. Record relevant ships dates/times. Record “comments made by vessel” – e.g. load port dates, loading and weather conditions, weather on voyage, bilges pumped (ensure reports states “comments made by vessel”)

4.5

Coal Inspection 4.5.1 4.5.2 Confirm stowage of material and discharge plan with Chief Officer. Report type of hatch covers and apparent condition, particularly on underside (i.e. obvious rust?) Report condition of hatch/hold:- any damage or significant rust? Report coal condition when hatches opened. Was the coal steaming? Any condensation on underside of hatch covers? Any visible water inside hatches? 4.5.5 Observe coal in the hold (from the deck) and record relevant observations.

4.5.3 4.5.4

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Are lighting conditions adequate to view cargo? Was the cargo in a peaked or a trimmed condition? Any indications of travel cracks, oxidation, water staining, free water, visible contamination? 4.5.6 Was the material uniform in colour, fines or fines with agglomerates? (If so to what approximate percent and size?).

4.6

Discharge 4.6.1 Inspect the hold from a safe location regularly during discharge. The number of visits required will depend on the nature of the coal condition and the discharge conditions. As a minimum the hold should be checked 2 or 3 times per shift and at any time when the coal visibly changes. Describe weather conditions during discharge and possible effects on moisture content of coal. Note times and any changes in material appearance, water ingress, especially when discharge is reaching bottom of the hold. Report on discharge procedure, Crane, grab type and approximately lifting capacity. Were holds discharging simultaneously or individually? 4.6.5 4.6.6 Discharge rate per hour, measure cycle time – does it meet assured levels? Was coal placed into integrated or independent hoppers? Did hopper feed road transport or a conveyer belt system 4.6.7 Or was coal placed directly on to the quay? How was it picked up and delivered to storage?

4.6.2

4.6.3

4.6.4

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4.6.8 4.6.9

Were “Save-alls” fitted between vessel and quay or deflector plates fitted to cranes? Was the equipment and quay clean prior to discharge?

4.6.10 Was “Grabbing” within the hold aided by pay-loader at any time? 4.6.11 Was the hold cleaned at completion of discharge? 4.6.12 Describe the condition of the quay at completion of discharge. 4.6.13 Were quay and hold sweepings recovered? Yes - into a separate lot or during discharge? If sweepings were not recovered estimate the amount of material lost and immediately inform stevedore, ship’s agent and request recovery of sweepings. If no action immediately inform authorised person. 4.7 Weighing 4.7.1 Was shipment weighed by draft survey? Yes – obtain surveyor’s initial, interim and final reports. 4.7.2 4.7.3 Assess the conditions of the port for draft surveys, i.e. calm water, good visibility? Was coal weighed by weighbridge, belt weigher or hopper load cell? Describe scales, weighing capacity and weighing divisions 4.7.4 Prior to discharge was the weighing equipment calibrated and tested by an independent certification authority and valid certificates sighted? No – Request alternative, certified weighing equipment be made available immediately. If request refused immediately advise Client Account Coordinator and follow instructions. 4.7.5 Test equipment with calibrated, stamped or known weights?

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If weighing equipment fails calibration check request adjustment and re-test until scales ok. 4.7.6 Was coal transported prior to weighing? By road? Was coal covered, tailgates securely closed, any spillages? When and how often were the vehicles tare weighed? 4.7.7 4.7.8 By conveyor belt - any spillages or losses at belt cross-over points or elsewhere? By hopper - can the pit and the hopper tops be sighted for signs of leakage or seepage of material? If significant spillage or losses are observed bring them to the attention of responsible person on site to recover lost material. If no satisfactory response, estimate amount of material lost, inform Client Account Coordinator and follow instructions. Weights given to Client Account Coordinator as instructed 4.8 Transport & Storage 4.8.1 Was coal transported to storage or silos by conveyor belt? Covered? Open? Was any water sprayed during transportation? 4.8.2 Coal transported to storage by covered/open conveyor belt or by road? Distance from vessel to storage area. Condition of storage facility covered or open, floor area. Other material stored nearby [contamination] Security
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4.9

Other 4.9.1 4.9.2 4.9.3 4.9.4 Record weather conditions during discharge and sampling. Record any stoppages and reasons for stoppage. Record any other relevant information. Complete report and forward to authorised person.

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5.

TRANSIT OF COAL 5.1 Security Procedure in Transit 5.1.1 Was coal transported by rake with security guard? Number of security? - Generally minimum 6 numbers securities are required in which 3 will be armed (gun). Gunman or simple person? - At least 3 gunman are required. 5.1.2 Was critical theft zone during transportation identified? Place with probability of theft. Appointment of local security guard. Surface marking of the cargo on wagon or truck. 5.1.3 Was coal transported by rake or truck sealed ? Integrity of the sealing agency. Checking arrangement of seal at different location. 5.2 Other 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 Record weather conditions during discharge and sampling. Record any stoppages and reasons for stoppage. Record any other relevant information. Complete report and forward to authorised person/agency.

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5.3

Assessment

The assessment shall include: 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 Identification and evaluation of critical infrastructures. Identification of threats to those infrastructures including material Identification of security weakness in coal movement, transportation infrastructure, protection systems, communication system. Identification of proper trapezoid loading profile, trimming and marking Identification of suitable cover by using tarpolins or similar material.

5.3.4 5.3.5 5.4

Recommendation to reduce transit losses 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 5.4.4 5.4.5 5.4.6 5.4.7 Deploy the security guard with gun man Improve the security in theft prone zone and implement the local security. Conduct public campaigns at theft prone zone Load the material in a systematic manner and trim the upper part to identify the theft mark Cover the wagon and seal it, if possible Check the online weighment system to avoid loss. Deploy private agency for security purpose, if losses are significantly high.

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6.

STOCK VERIFICATION 6.1 Introduction 6.1.1 Coal stock can be determined by measuring the volume of the coal yard and height of the stack pile. The following procedure specifies a method for the quantitative assessment of coal stock in a stack pile. Team Building is required for stock assessment. The team consists atleast one from purchase or commercial side, one from user side i.e. from plant side and another from administrative side. Depending on situation independent third party can also be deputed. Stock verification should be carried out atleast once in every quarter.

6.1.2

6.2

Procedure 6.2.1 Normally stack of coal are in irregular shapes, i.e. they are not in proper geometrical shapes. In order to get better assessment of the stacks, the stacks are subdivided longitudinally into several subdivisions. Divide the whole plot into 20 or more imaginary subdivisions. Measure the length and breadth of the each subdivision. Measure the common height of the stack. Then take the adequate measurements of uneven height of each subdivision. Calculate the average height of each subdivision by using steel tape or theodolite. Calculate the volume of each subdivision by multiplying area with average height. Collect the coal from each subdivision and measure the bulk density and moisture as per procedure given below. 6.2.2 Procedure of Measuring the Bulk Density Principle A weighed container of known volume is filled with coal and the increase in mass is determined.

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Apparatus a) Cubical Container of capacity 0.200m3 and internal dimension 585mm, with a smooth inner surface, rigidly constructed and fitted with handle. b) Weighing machine, Spring Balance or Platform balance with accuracy 50 gms. Procedure Place the container on the weighing machine and record its mass. Charge the coal slowly into the container until pieces of coal project above the top of the container across the whole surface. The height of drop of the coal shall not exceed 250 mm. Slide a straight edge across the top of the container and remove any pieces of coal, which obstruct its passage. Weigh the charged container. Calculation The bulk density in a small container (rs) of the coal, in Kg per m3, on dry basis is given by the equation:

ρs = ( m 2 -m1 ) × (100-M ) / (100V )
Where, m1 is the mass in kg, of the empty container; m2 is the mass in kg, of the container plus coal; V is the inner volume in m3, of the container; M is the total moisture content of the coal determined in accordance with ISO 589. 6.2.3 Calculation for Quantity Assessment Measure the Height of the subdivision by using steel tape or theodolite and take the average of these height of each subdivision.

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Average Height of Each Subdivision, h1 n is the depth in m, of the 1st hole; is the number of holes.

The Volume of each Subdivision, where, L1 B1 H1 is the length in m, of the 1st subdivision; is the breadth in m, of the 1st subdivision; is the depth in m, of the 1st subdivision;

The Quantity of Coal of 1st Subdivision, W1 = V1 X B.D1 where, B.D is the Bulk Density in MT/m, of the coal Total Quantity of the stock

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ANNEXURE – 1
Procedure for Risk Assessment The aim of risk assessment is to reduce the risks caused by work and to eliminate, or minimize, injuries and damage to people and property. The principals of risk assessment are fourfold and really only embody common sense principles. They are: a) b) Identify the hazards Evaluate the risks posed by that hazard What could happen? Could it happen? What is the impact? Eliminate the hazard or create a safe system of work? Review and record

c)

Control those risks

d)

Monitor the controls and measures taken

A management decision must be made on how to control the risks which have been assessed and evaluated. The priority of the work done to control them and the level of this control will reflect the level of effect and likelihood of it happening as determined in the evaluation. It is important to remember that a review of the assessments will be as required if there is a change in the risk or process.

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Two components will be considered once a hazard has been identified. These will be the severity of the hazards i.e. how bad could it be and the likelihood of occurrence i.e. how likely is it to happen. The grades of severity and likelihood of occurrence are as follows:
Severity Health 1 Insignificant Normal work can resume after basic first aid Lost time injury not reportable to Regulatory body Injury/Disease reportable to Regulatory body Fatality/Terminal Disease/major injury Multiple/Fatality Descriptions Safety Negligible damage Environment Negligible environmental impact

2 Minor

Minor damage not reportable to Regulatory body Dangerous/significant damage reportable to regulatory body Substantial property damage Catastrophic damage i.e. process or property shutdown

Minor environmental e.g. localised spillage Moderate pollution incident (e.g. Contamination of water course) with some restitution costs Severe pollution incident with short term implications with significant costs Catastrophic pollution incident with long term implications and very high costs

3 Moderate

4 Serious

5 Very Serious

Likelihood 1. Very Unlikely 2. Unlikely 3. Possible 4. Likely 5. Very Likely

Description The Risk may occur in exceptional circumstances The Risk is unlikely to occur The Risk will possibly occur The Risk has a significant chance of occurring The Risk is almost certain to occur than not

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Multiplying the two components together to give a risk factor can then assess the magnitude of the risk.
LIKELIHOOD 1 Very Unlikely S E V E R I T Y 5 Very Serious 4 Serious 3 Moderate 2 Minor 1 Insignificant 2 Unlikely 3 Possible 4 Likely 5 Very Likely

Low = 1 - 6, Medium = 7 - 14, High = 15 – 25

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NOTES

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