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ROPES, KNOTS. HITCHES & SPLICES
Explanations of Rope fibERs and constructions How to tie Knots and Hitches How to splice Braided and Twisted Ropes How to make things with Ropes
Beginners - What are KNOTS and SPLICES?
What are KNOTS and SPLICES?
As a general term, 'knot' includes all configurations made in a cord or line (or other material). However, when naming knots, the term knot is used in a more specific way. The knotting 'family' is best explained by the following diagrams: INTERNATIONAL GUILD OF KNOT TYERS (IGKT) KNOTS The rope is tied to itself STOPPER KNOTS Making a bulky part in a rope to stop it passing through an object or to stop the strands unlaying BINDING KNOTS Joining the ends of a single rope around an object or objects. The knot 'bears upon' the object LOOP KNOTS FIXED LOOPS A single loop or more than one loop that does not close under strain. SLIP LOOPS Knots that slide, closing the loop under strain or allowing it to be opened.
Whippings, lashings and seizing are special types of binding knot. Thumb knot Figure of eight knot Oysterman's knot Reef knot Surgeon's knot Packer's knot Constrictor knot Bowline Artillery loop Figure of 8 loop Fireman's chair knot Alpine Butterfly knot Running Bowline Honda knot Handcuff knot Jar sling Hangman's knot
Whippings for binding Heaving line knots also make rope ends: Admiralty whipping weight at the end West Country of a rope: whipping Barrel knot Palm & needle Monkey's fist whipping Loaded Turk's Head Lashings for binding spars: Square/Japanese Diagonal/Filipino Sheer lashing Tripod l Seizing for binding ropes:
Beginners - What are KNOTS and SPLICES? Flat seizing Round seizing
BENDS...join ends Joining the ends of two ropes. The knot must hold, even when jerked in mid-air. Unlike a binding knot, a bend does not have to bear upon an object
HITCHES...tie to something else MIDDLE HITCHES Attaching the middle of a rope to an object when there is strain on both sides of the knot.
SPLICES Working with the constituent parts of the rope disturbing the structure and intertwining the strands.
END HITCHES Taking up the Attaching the end of slack in a rope. a rope to an object - a ring, a post, a bollard, a peg or even another rope.
Sheet bend Clove hitch Cat's paw Carrick Marlinspike Lark's Head bend hitch Timber hitch Fishermans Becket hitch Various other 'knot' Round turn and hitches are two half hitches Hunter's adapted as bend Anchor hitch 'crossing (Fisherman's hitches'Blackwall For different 'bend') from other knots: thicknesses: Buntline hitch Mooring Racking hitch bend To a hook: Constrictor Bowline Blackwall knot bend hitch Quick-release:
Sheepshank Chain shortening Bellringer's knot
Eye splice Short splice Long splice Cut splice Back splice Chain splice Tucked splice
Beginners - What are KNOTS and SPLICES? Highwayman's hitch Lengthwise pull: Rolling hitch Increase tension: Waggoner's hitch (Harvester's hitch)
Polyethylene and Kevelar etc. An RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 2 of 40 . in most instances.M buoy uses this particular type of nylon rope. This guide contains those that are most used and most useful to everyday and in some cases industrial use. Our 15 inch (381 mm) diameter Hawser system for the C. in the case of nylon. Polypropylene. Through trial and error over the centuries a great number of knots. This rope is constructed of 8. 12 or 16 strands with a hollow center. Polyester ropes provide great strength with an absolute minimum amount of stretch. is stronger than twisted rope of the same material and diameter. splices. and those which have become accepted as best suited for a particular purpose. easy handling rope. grease or gasoline. lashings and other fastenings have evolved. are rot-proof and. It is available in various synthetic fibers.ROPE. Polypropylene and polyethylene ropes have the ability to float on the surface of water. hitches. Man. It combines great strength with light-weight flexibility to provide greater versatility and ease of handling than any of the natural fiber ropes. Modern rope is a product of science and technology.A. hitches and splices. The best known synthetic fiber ropes are constructed of Nylon. Special floats are used to keep them floating. Actually two braided ropes combined into one rope. are able to take greater shock loads due to its elasticity. ROPE CONSTRUCTIONS BRAID-ON-BRAID: Also known as Twin Braid and Double Braid. DIAMOND BRAID: Also known as Hollow Braid and Maypole Braid. creepers and other flexible materials to make rope. handsome. The advantages of these ropes are that they are strong.A. from his most primitive beginning. This rope is spliceable and.L. has joined vines. not damaged by oil.L. A braided core is covered with a braided jacket to produce a strong.M Buoy operators and others who is interested with ropework a general knowledge of ropes. knots. C. Polyester.KNOTS. Those which are essential.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 INTRODUCTION This reference guide is designed to give the riggers.
PIMM SHEET: A specially constructed rope designed specifically for sailing. Solid Braid rope will not unravel when cut or accidentally broken.M buoy is normally of this construction. It is spliceable and is available in virtually every type of rope fiber. marine growth or most chemicals. Manufactured by Puritan Mills. Combines excellent performance. Wellington Ropes. Its name refers to the special lock-stitch construction of the rope. Just about all laid rope is 3-strand construction.A. It has very good resistance to abrasion and will last four to five times longer than natural fiber ropes. Wellington Ropes. SOLID BRAID: A very firm. British ropes. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 3 of 40 . British ropes OLIVERA etc. grease.ropes is that polyester does not have the stretch and elasticity of nylon. Due to its elasticity. GOLD BRAID: A gold colored Braid-On-Braid nylon rope. Other than this. Inc. It is available in either polyester or cotton. Our polypropylene Pick-up rope for the C.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 outstanding characteristic of this construction is its ability to be spliced in just seconds. Wellington Ropes. Polyester PIMM Sheet is far superior to cotton due to its great strength. Inc. POLYESTER: Polyester is very strong. minimum stretch. gasoline.L. It is available in various synthetic fibers. LAID: Also known as Twisted rope. OLIVERA etc. spliceability and handsome appearance. Nylon rope is rot proof and not damaged by oils.ROPE. OLIVERA etc. British ropes. but not quite as strong as nylon rope.KNOTS. Manufactured by Puritan Mills. It is available in various synthetic and cotton fibers. nylon can absorb sudden shock loads that would break ropes of other fibers. the characteristics of the two fibers are practicallythe same. consisting of a braided jacket over a braided core. round rope that works extremely well and blocks and pulleys. ROPE FIBERS NYLON: The strongest fiber rope manufactured. Inc. The difference between the two. Manufactured by Puritan Mills.
and easy on the hands. it is Manufactured by Puritan Mills. registered trade name for multifilament polypropylene rope. Manufactured by Puritan Mills. In addition. Inc. POLYPROPYLENE: A lightweight. British ropes. British ropes. Polypropylene rope is available in monofilament fiber. OLIVERA etc. Manufactured by Puritan Mills. plus the rope color that many people like. COTTON: Much cotton rope and cord is used today. Wellington Ropes. Manufactured by Puritan Mills. cotton is hard to beat. British ropes. MANILA: The best known natural fiber rope. Inc. clothesline. Inc. strong rope that is extensively used in many different ways. which has a somewhat velvety appearance and feel.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 abrasion resistance and durability. water proof and not damaged by oil.Wellington Ropes.ROPE. Inc. size for size. Wellington Ropes. which is smooth surfaced. OLIVERA etc. A floating rope somewhat like polypropylene except that it is just a little lighter. It is not quite as strong. For handling quality. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 4 of 40 .Wellington Ropes. Also. Inc. TENSTRON: Combines tradition with progress.KNOTS. as polypropylene. It is soft and pliable. At one time it was the best available but it is steadily losing ground to the synthetic fiber ropes. gasoline or most chemicals. POLYETHYLENE: One of the best known synthetic fiber ropes. or multifilament fiber. golden tan color of manila rope. Most of it in the form of sash cord. oil. Manufactured by Puritan Mills. Tenstron floats on the surface of water. British ropes OLIVERA etc.LINE: Puritan Mills. It has all the advantages of the modern synthetics. Available in either solid braid or laid (twisted) construction.Wellington Ropes. British ropes OLIVERA etc. OLIVERA etc. PRO. Tenstron is constructed from olefin fiber with the rich. It is a floating rope and is rot proof and unaffected by water. it does not have the strength or durability of synthetic fiber ropes. Being a natural fiber. polyethylene’s handling characteristics are a little different than polypropylene. venetian blind cord and other uses. It is rot proof. gasoline or most chemicals. Inc.
AVOID KINKS . such as canvas wrapped and tied around the rope. Prolonged use. Sisal is a natural fiber that deteriorates rapidly when exposed to weather. Too small sheaves cause added friction and rope wear.ROPE.. Pad it for safety... AVOID ABRASION . of one part of a rope will naturally.... your rope is naturally weakened.. it is certain that kinks will develop. REVERSE ENDS . Be Careful! AVOID WRONG REEVING .. AVOID SUDDEN STRAIN . HOW TO MAKE YOUR ROPE LAST LONGER AVOID OVERLOADING . materially damage its effectiveness. Any sharp angle is a weak spot... or wear.KNOTS. Outer and inner rope fibers contribute equally to the strength of your rope. unless twists are repeatedly thrown in.. Ignoring this safety factor is dangerous. AVOID SHARP ANGLES. make allowances for safety. Sharp bends greatly affect the strenth of a rope. Safe working strength for any rope is 1/5th it’s breaking strength. Care when working with rope is extremely important. Pulling a kink through a restricted space such as a tackle block will seriously damage the rope fibers.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 Manila must be handled and stored with care as any dampness will cause it to rot and. Where it is necessary for a rope to rub over an object protect it with chafing gear.. and even then. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 5 of 40 . Rope that is strong enough under a steady strain can be broken with a sudden jerk. of course. Always use the right size rope for the sheaves in the block or pulley. or out of rope.. SISAL: A rope that’s used primarily where strength and durability are not important. When worn.. When rope is repeatedly turned or twisted in one direction. If your rope is old or worn. Occasionally reverse your rope. decrease it’s effectiveness at that point.
END: The end of a rope in use. of course. Synthetic fiber ropes require no special storing conditions other than keeping them out of sunlight and out of extremely hot rooms. gasoline. Used to give mechanical advantage when lifting or pulling heavy objects. BITTER END: The end of a rope opposite the end in use.. however. 1 fathom = 6 feet (1. Natural fiber ropes must of course.. AVOID CHEMICALS .. on which strain is applied. keep your rope free of any type chemical. AVOID IMPROPER STORAGE. to distribute the wear more evenly. KEEP ROPE CLEAN . be kept dry or they will rot in a very short time. A good example is an anchor line aboard a boat. LINE: Rope used aboard boats and ships is called line.. Be sure to dry natural fiber ropes before storing.ROPE. LAY: The way a twisted rope is constructed.8288 meter) FALL: The standing part of the rope coming from the fixed block on a block-and-tackle. paint and most chemicals. ROPE TERMINOLOGY BIGHT: A loop made in any part of a rope. (Opposite the bitter end). Virtually all synthetic fiber ropes are immune to damage from oil.KNOTS. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 6 of 40 . BLOCK: Similar to a pulley. The ultra-violet rays of sunlight has a weakening effect on rope that is exposed for prolonged periods of time. When rope becomes dirty wash it thoroughly with clean water..HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 end-for-end. Dirt on the surface and imbedded in rope acts as an abrasive on fibers. Lay is either right-hand (Z-lay) or left-hand (S-lay). FATHOM: A unit of measurement.. Natural fiber ropes are. severely damaged by exposure to chemicals. To be on the safe side.
. FIGURE of 8 KNOT The Figure 8 is an ideal basic knot form. The simplest of these knots has many names. then bringing RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 7 of 40 . It is tied by making an overhand loop. SHEAVE: Pronounced “shiv”.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 PULLEY: A device consisting of a sheave mounted in a block or wall. Tighten. but is best known as the Overhand knot. This knot is tied by making an overhand loop. or at any point between the ends. STANDING PART: The main part of the rope.KNOTS.ROPE. used at the end of a line to prevent a sheet or line from slipping through a block or pulley. KNOTS OVERHAND KNOT A knot made in a rope to prevent it from pulling through your hand or a hole. Then passing the end under and up through the loop. TURN: One turn of a rope around the object to which it is being fastened.. ROUND TURN: Two turns of rope around the object to which it is being fastened. is called a stopper knot.. used as a hand-hold at the end of a rope. which is used to achieve mechanical advantage when lifting or pulling heavy objects.. The grooved wheel in a block or pulley upon which the rope rides when in use.
to keep the first tie from slipping before the knot is completed.. With one end in hand. however. Pull tight. SURGEON’S KNOT Frequently used when tying packages with twine. SQUARE ( REEF) KNOT Originally used by seamen in reefing and furling sails aboard the old sailing ships. as illustrated.as it unties easily when either of the protruding ends is jerked. STEVEDORE’S KNOT Somewhat similar to the Figure 8 knot..HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 the free end over the standing part and back under and through the loop. forfasteningtwo ropes together. take three turns around the other end..ROPE. Pass one end over and under the other end.KNOTS. Inserting a stick in the loop before tightening permits this knot to be easily untied. It is unsafe. The square knot is used in first-aid for bandage tying. Draw up tight and the knot is complete. the Stevedore’s knot is made with two turns around the rope. To tie RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 8 of 40 . To tie..
It gets its name from the days of the old sailing ships. BEWARE OF THE THIEF AND GRANNY KNOTS! TheThief and Granny knots. . Curve what is now the left end to the right. under and over the right end. SHEET BEND RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 9 of 40 . pass the left end over and under the right end. at first glance. This knot is not too reliable. It may hold . Study the illustrations closely to see the difference.KNOTS.. If a man suspected that a shipmate was rummaging through his seabag when he wasn’t around.ROPE. knowing that a sailor would invariably tie a square knot when tying the bag after searching through it.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 this knot. Pull tight. when sailors lived out of sea bags. It may not. he would tie it closed with a thief knot. GRANNY KNOT The Granny knot is usually the result of an improperly tied square knot. THIEF KNOT The Thief knot is not entirely trustworthy. look like the square knot but they are to be avoided.
using an over-an-under sequence. The Double Sheet Bend—made by running the rope end twice behind the standing part. especially hen they are of different diameters. then through the loop—is recommended for tying synthetic fiber lines together. and the ends finish on opposite sides as illustrated. Run the end of the other rope through the loop.. it is generally used for larger ropes. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 10 of 40 .HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 An efficient knot for joining two ropes. However. . (the larger diameter rope if they are of different sizes). make a loop in the end of one rope as illustrated. It will not jam. CARRICK BEND The Carrick Bend is an extremely strong knot suitable for all thicknesses of line.Tighten.KNOTS. At no point does the rope pass through a loop.then down through the loop again. and that’s all there is to it. Then thread the other rope end around the loop. To tie this knot. even when wet.ROPE. ake a loop in the end of one rope. Make sure the ends of both ropes are on the same side of the knot. behind its standing part.
Pull tight. hoisting.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 BOWLINE The most useful knot you can know. then back down through the loop.ROPE. RUNNING BOWLINE Used when a noose is needed to tighten a rope aro’jnd something. It is used for mooring. behind the standing part. and for fastening a rope to a ring or post.KNOTS. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 11 of 40 . To tie. Run the end up through the loop. joining two ropes. Form a small loop in the rope. with its loop around the standing part of the rope. The Bowline forms a loop that will not slip or jam and is easily untied.. A regular Bowline is tied..
HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 DOUBLE BOWLINE Can be used as a seat sling. and is tied exactly in the same manner as the ordinary Bowline. The end is then passed behind the standing part and down through the first loop again. The right-hand loop goes under the arms. making two lower loops. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 12 of 40 .ROPE. The difference being that you pass the end through the loop twice. Tighten as illustrated.KNOTS. as in the ordinary Bowline. and the left-hand loop forms the seat.
. Flip the loop-end forward and around the large ioops. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 13 of 40 . as illustrated.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 BOWLINE ON BIGHT A knot used to accommodate special loads or for holding an unconcious. place one leg through each large loop and the loop-end under the arms and around the back. The tying of this knot is accomplished by taking a long bight (loop) of rope.ROPE..KNOTS. or injured person. Pull right side of loop to tighten. then running the large loop up through the small loop. making an overhand loop. then up behind the standing part as shown. For holding a person .
Flip the large center loop up. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 14 of 40 . as illustrated. The Spanish Bowline is tied by forming three loops in any central section of your rope. Reach down through the small loops.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 SPANISH BOWLINE Commonly used in slinging a ladder. to encircle the smaller loops. and pull it through the small loops simultaneously.KNOTS. grasp each side of the large loop.ROPE.
When this knot has been pulled tight and is wet. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 15 of 40 . between the turn and the ring.ROPE.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 FISHERMAN’S (ANCHOR) BEND When a rope is to be used as an anchor rode. it is very difficult to untie. it must be attached securely because you cannot inspect it in use.KNOTS. Two half hitches complete the knot. Taking a turn around a ring (or post) then running the rope end through the turn.
the second turn under the standing part. Draw up tight. Take two turns around the neck of the bag.ROPE.KNOTS. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 16 of 40 .HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 MILLER’S KNOT For tying bags and sacks. the first turn over the standing part. as shown.
Draw up tight and trim ends. twine and fishing line. MATHEW WALKER KNOT To tie the Mathew Walker knot. then knotted around it.KNOTS.ROPE. unlay the strands at the end of your rope for a short distance.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 FISHERMAN’S KNOT A good knot for joining small rope. One end is passed through an overhand knot in the other line. sometimes referred to as the Crown knot. Pull knots tightly together to complete knot. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 17 of 40 . Then begin tying off as illustrated.
HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 HITCHES HALF HITCH The most basic of knot forms. Old time seamen said. Used primarily in the formation of other knots. “It will hold the devil. Tie as Illustrated. the Half Hitch can be used to secure an object for a right angle pull.ROPE.KNOTS. When strain is constant this hitch is fairly reliable. then take two half hitches on the standing part as shown. ROUND TURN and 2 HALF HITCHES Used for making fast the end of a rope to post or ring. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 18 of 40 .” Take two complete turns around the post or ring.
but will free itself if the load is slackened. It is used to fasten a rope to a stake or post. may be virtually impossible to free quickly. with caution. The Blackwall Hitch holds under constant strain. Make it by taking two turns around the post. the second. in the case of a wet rope. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 19 of 40 . BLACKWALL HITCH Used only for light loads and. also under the standing part but in the opposite direction. It simply consists of looping a rope around a hook with the end under the standing part.ROPE.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 CLOVE HITCH One of the fastest and easiest hitches to make. even then. under the standing part. the first.KNOTS. This hitch binds extremely tight and. WARNING: Never use the Clove Hitch where it needs to be released in a hurry.
SHEEPSHANK You may find it necessary sometime to shorten.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 TIMBER HITCH A fast.ROPE. The Timber Hitch is tied by taking a turn around the log. but remember. it’s for temporary use only.KNOTS. When there is no time to do it right. A half hitch around the log is desirable when dragging. as illustrated. convenient method of attaching a rope to a log for dragging or hoisting. Then twist the end around itself at least three times. The Sheepshank holds pretty well under a steady strain. the Sheepshank is the answer. Lay out two side-by-side loops as shown. then a half hitch on the standing part.. then take a half hitch around each loop with the standing part. or take the load off a weak spot in the rope.. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 20 of 40 .
Pass the end through the loop.ROPE. It will hold under strain. This knot is tied by first taking a half hitch around the standing part. The loop can be made larger or smaller by sliding the hitch along the standing part. then a turn around the standing part. outside the loop.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 MIDSHIPMAN’S HITCH Used generally for mooring and life-saving. within the loop. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 21 of 40 . then take a half hitch around the standing part. in any position.KNOTS.
Reach through the loop and pull both the end and the standing part back through the loop. Drop the double ioop over a post and tighten. Double the end of your rope to form an open loop.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 COW HITCH A simple and quick way to hitch a rope to a post.ROPE.KNOTS. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 22 of 40 .
Tie exactly as illustrated. to a ring or post. Then insert end or rope through small loop to prevent knot failure. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 23 of 40 .ROPE.KNOTS. Draw loop tight against post or ring when knot is as shown in Step 2. or anything.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 HALTER HITCH The Halter Hitch is used for securing an animal.
ROPE. Bring together the two loops and drop over the hook. poles or bars that cross and touch each other. well apart.KNOTS. It is jam-proof and efficient.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 CATSPAW Used for hoisting heavy loads. Twist the end and standing part of the rope tightly together and pass the rope up over the horizontal pole and behind RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 24 of 40 . Begin with a Clove Hitch around the upright pole just below the horizontal pole. LASHINGS SQUARE LASHING Used to secure two posts. Turn your hands away from you. Tie it by holding the rope with both hands.
Two over-and-under passes are made a round the lashing as illustrated in Step 2. Begin by making a Timber Hitch diagonally around both poles where they cross and tighten. laying it just above the Clove Hitch.ROPE. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 25 of 40 . then back behind the upright pole.KNOTS. Follow this with three or four turns at right angle to the first turns. pulled tight next to the lashing.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 the upright pole. Now bring it forward and down around the horizontal pole. poles or bars that cross but do not touch each other. laying each turn outside the previous turn on the horizontal pole. DIAGONAL LASHING Used to pull together and secure two posts. and inside each turn on the upright pole. Repeat this procedure four times. Finish with three or four over-and-under passes around the lashing as illustrated and complete with a Clove Hitch on the horizontal pole. Finish by making a Clove Hitch around the nearest post.
KNOTS. then spreading the poles apart at the base. Now take three or four turns around the first turns. First make a Clove Hitch around one pole. Finish with a Clove Hitch around the other pole. etc. between the poles.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 SHEAR LASHING Used to secure two parallel poles. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 26 of 40 . and also for rigging “shear legs” to support rope bridges. not too tight.ROPE. “Shear legs” are formed by making a Shear Lashing at the pivot point of two crossing poles. Twist the end and standing part of the rope tightly together then take seven or eight turns around both poles. laying each turn next to the previous one. cables. These last turns must be verytight to pull the lashing firmly around the poles.
First make a Clove Hitch around the end of one pole. then take seven or eight loose turns around all three poles. between the poles. Raise tripod to standing position and adjust legs so they are spaced an equal distance apart.KNOTS. parallel to each other and with the end of one between the ends of the other two. Next take two or three loose turns around the first turns. Finish with a Clove Hitch around the center pole. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 27 of 40 .HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 TRIPOD LASHING Place three poles on the ground.ROPE.
KNOTS. unlay both ropes for a short distance and bring them together so that the main bodies of the ropes fit snugly and the unlaid strands mesh.and tuck it over and under the next strand in the opposite rope. Do the same thing with the remaining unlaid strand.ROPE. Now. alternating a strand of one with a strand of the other.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 SPLICING SHORT SPLICE 1. Sealing the strand-ends of synthetic fiber ropes with a flame or hot knife will prevent their unravelling. next to the strand just tucked. take one more tuck with each strand. It is helpful to temporarily tie the strands of one rope to the body of the other rope. tuck one of the unlaid strands over and under a strand of the opposite rope. You now have the strands of each rope tucked two times through the strands of the other rope. 2. 3. First. Now. Remove the temporary tie and make two tucks with the other three strands. For end-to-end splicing of two ropes. Now go back and make RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 28 of 40 . working against the twist. Take the unlaid strand.
or a board and clip off ends of protruding strands. . CAUTION: Do not clip ends too close to splice.. Do the same thing with another pair of strands. RoIl the splice under your foot. To make a Long splice. You now have two long opposing strands in the center. but it permits a rope to run freely through a block or pulley. unlay the end of each rope about 14 turns and bring them together so that the main bodies of the ropes fit snugly and the unlaid strands mesh. at the original meeting RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 29 of 40 . Sealing strand-ends of synthetic fiber ropes with a flame or hot knife will prevent their unravelling.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 at least two more tucks with each of the six strands. 4.KNOTS. 1. alternating a strand of one with a strand of the other. unlay one strand and replace it with it’s opposite strand from the other rope.ROPE. LONG SPLICE The Long splice is not quite as strong as the Short splice. Starting with any opposite pair. going in the opposite direction. four additional tucks are recommended for synthetic ropes. 2.
3. Roll the splice under your foot or a board. Unlay the end of your rope.KNOTS. 3. and clip protruding ends. Now tie each pair of opposing strands tightly with an overhand knot. 1.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 point of the two ropes. Then tuck the left-hand strand over the first strand. clip protruding strand-ends and your splice is complete. CROWN SPLICE When you want a rope end to be a little larger in diameter than the rope. Pull all strands snug. as in a short splice. over and under the strands in the main body of the rope. and have a finished appearance. Roll the splice under your foot or with a board. going against the twist. then tuck them in sequence.ROPE. 2. then back over the right-hand strand. and a pair of long and short opposing strands on each side of center. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 30 of 40 . tuck each strand twice back into the rope. not too close to the rope. (sealing the strand ends of synthetic fiber rope will prevent them from unravelling) and lay the right-hand strand across the other two as illustrated. the Crown Splice is the answer.
KNOTS. 1. making sure the tuck is against the twist. or it can be made tight around a metal thimble to prevent chafing of the rope fibers. Tuck the last unlaid strand under the remaining strand in the rope. Tuck the center unlaid strand under any one of the strands in the main body of the rope. going against the twist. The next unlaid strand goes over the strand under which the center unlaid strand is tucked. 3. and is tucked under the next strand in the rope. Sealing strand-ends of synthetic fiber rope will prevent them from unravelling. 2.ROPE. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 31 of 40 . To begin your Eye Splice unlay the strands for a short distance and double back to form a loop of the desired size. with the unlaid strands laying across the twist of the rope.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 EYE SPLICE The Eye Splice may be made as a loop of any size.
lay a loop of twine along side the rope. and trim protruding strand ends. While it is traditional to use 4 tucks. in sequence. wind the twine tightly around both the rope and the twine loop. with open end of the loop toward the end of the rope.ROPE. not too closely to rope.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 4. Pull each strand snugly up to the main body of the rope then tuck them. Roll the splice under your foot or a board. over and under the strands in the rope. HOW TO WHIP A ROPE END Whipping is used primarily to prevent the end of twisted rope from unravelling. The last turn of the winding is inserted through the RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 32 of 40 . First. It is done with twine. Your splice is complete. Then.KNOTS. at least 6 tucks are recommended for synthetic fiber ropes. preferrably nylon twine because it is rot-proof. beginning a short distance from the rope end.
The whipping should be at least as long as the rope diameter. 2). (Fig. HOW TO MAKE ROPE TO A CLEAT In “Belaying” or making fast to a cleat. take the standing part of the rope and make a turn around the stem of the cleat (away from the direction of strain). pull the twine end at the end of the rope until the loop-end is about mid-way in the whipping. Under heavy strain. under the cleat horn. make one or two turns figure eight fashion over cleat horns before taking the half hitch.ROPE. (Fig. Next. 3). RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 33 of 40 . Clip both twine ends and the job is complete. 1). then up over it’s center (Fig.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 loop-end.KNOTS. holding the rope in one hand. Take a half-hitch over the opposite cleat horn if rope strain is under light strain.
HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 HOW TO RIG SLINGS RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 34 of 40 .KNOTS.ROPE.
All are tied with knots and hitches explained in this guide. Wide angles of pull increase the strain on the rope. the strain on the rope is double that of the object being lifted. At a 150-degree angle the strain is almost four times as great as the weight of the object being lifted. At a 120-degree angle of pull. hauling and pulling operations. only when the object is being lifted with a straight pull.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 A method used for centuries. When working with a sling be aware that the strain on the rope is equal to the weight of the object being hoisted. It is important to remember that the angle of pull on a sling has a great deal to do with its safety and efficiency.KNOTS.ROPE. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 35 of 40 . and still the most satisfactory solution to many varied hoisting. Illustrated above are several types of the most commonly used slings.
The mechanical advantage is one less than the number or ropes between the blocks. Terminology: Sheaves (pronounced “shivs”) . RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 36 of 40 .KNOTS.The grooved wheels upon which the rope rides in a block.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 HOW TO RIG A BLOCK AND TACKLE A block and tackle takes much of the work out of moving heavy objects.ROPE.
2. 1.. Fall block .HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 Becket . Reeve . ending up with the end eye-spliced to the becket. opposite it’s hook end..A bracket on a block.The fixed block.ROPE. Double & Single: The becket is always on the single block. then No. Start with the rope end that is to be fastened to the becket. in a simplified manner. HOW TO MAKE A CLIMBING and SAFETY LINE RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 37 of 40 . This eliminates the necessity of pulling the entire rope length through the blocks. and so on . The double block is always the fall block. the easiest way to reeve a block and tackle. Reeve the rope end first over sheave No. The diagrams show. Double & Double: The becket is always on the fall block. for fastening the rope end to the block. The single block is always the movable block.KNOTS.The procedure of rigging a block and tackle.
and flip it forward and slightly to the right. and when it is a floating rope.Black twine.Black twine..Black twine.Red rag.KNOTS. 3 fathoms (Mark 3) . RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 38 of 40 . a seizing of black twine around the line. 6 fathoms (Deep 6) . Measurements are made in fathoms (1 fathom is 6 feet or 1.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 A rope with a series of hand-holds is perfect for climbing. British Ropes etc.2 strips of leather. . . as shown.8288 meter). mark as follows: 1 fathom (Deep 1) . 10 fathoms (Mark 10) . with an anchor bend if you’re using PIMM Sheet Lash the end of the line securely to the standing part when using an anchor bend. “Deeps” are indicated by a mark of black paint or. for trailing from an anchored boat to provide a safety line for swimmers. 8 fathoms (Deep 8) . Measuring from the base of the lead. manufactured by Wellington Ropes. 7 fathoms (Mark 7) . It’s easy to make one.. Complete the knot by pulling the loop sharply to the left. 4 fathoms (Deep 4) . preferably.Strip of leather with a hole in it. 9 fathoms (Deep 9) . 2 fathoms (Mark 2) . 5 fathoms (Mark 5) .ROPE. Attach the line to the sounding lead with an eye-splice if you’re using twisted or Braid-on-Braid line. Select the length and diameter best suited to the “feel” you like and the depth of the water where most of your cruising is done.White rag. Pull the lower ioop under the rope and up through the top ioop. First.3 strips of leather. Like polypropylene or polyethylene.Black twine. “Marks” are indicated by attaching the markers listed below. The best to use is twisted polyester or 100% polyester braided line such as PIMM Sheet or Braid-on-Braid.Black twine. HOW TO MAKE A LEAD LINE You will want a line that does not stretch so that measurements will be accurate. make a loop in the rope as illustrated.
This prevents the rope end from unravelling and from slipping through the Honda knot used to make the noose.Black twine.Black twine. Your Lariat is now finished.KNOTS. 19 fathoms (Deep 19) .ROPE.Black twine.Red rag. 12 fathoms (Deep 12) . Pass the end through the opposite side of the overhand knot from which it protrudes. To make the Honda knot. 15 fathoms (Mark 15) . HOW TO MAKE A LARIAT (LASSO) The first step in making your Lariat is to put a Crown knot or Mathew Walker knot in both ends of the rope. tie a simple overhand knot in your Lariat. 20 fathoms (Mark 20) .3 strips of leather. 18 fathoms (Deep 18) . RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 39 of 40 .White rag. 17 fathoms (Mark 17) .Black twine. as illustrated. 16 fathoms (Deep 16) . Pull overhand knot tight. Run the other end of your rope through the honda knot to form the noose.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 11 fathoms (Deep 11) . 13 fathoms (Mark 13) .Black twine.A line with 2 knots in it. leaving a small loop. 14 fathoms (Deep 14) .Black twine.
heavy object. Any self-respecting wharfie will take out his knife and cut off any such knot.Beginners . a ball first set of turns and outside the second of ropeyarn. Splice or whip the end to the set.g. the middle of the first three turns. NOTE 2: The British Admiralty Manual of Seamanship illustrates a slightly different method whereby the working end comes out alongside the standing part . e. standing part NOTE 1: Avoid the temptation to weight the core with a hard. Make three more turns passing inside the Tighten up the knot round a soft core. This can convert a useful knot into a potentially lethal missile.Monkey's Fist Page 1 Monkey's Fist Make three turns round the Start making turns passing outside hand. Complete the three second turns.
Securing the head rope of a ship's boat to the ring of a buoy. To secure furled canvas (because of the ease with which it may be spilled). A cadet pursuing a Seamanship Specialisation needs to know more.K.Beginners . Sea Cadet Corps requires that all candidates for promotion must have a basic grounding in seamanship. Overhand Knot Used to start the racking of a hawser Figure of Eight Knot For stopping a rope unreeving through a block or to temporarily stop a rope from fraying. Reef Knot Comprises two successive overhand knots. Round Turn and two Half Hitches A round turn made round the spar and two half hitches made round the standing part of the line. These knots are the basic requirement (Seamanship Third Class).Sea Cadet Knots Page 1 Sea Cadet Knots The U. Also used for finishing off the racking on a turned up hawser. The table shows each knot and gives a brief note on the way the knot is made and its application on ships. A very useful general purpose hitch to a spar or ring. The diagrams show the knots tied loosely so that their construction is clear. . WARNING: The reef knot should never be used as a bend to join two ropes that will be under load.
Securing the boat's painter to the Jacob's Ladder on a boom. Securing ropes that have lateral pull e.Beginners . fastening a rope to a spar.g. . around both parts of the bight. Securing items that hang vertically.Sea Cadet Knots Page 2 Rolling Hitch Two round turns and one half hitch made round the spar. in bending flags to halyards where snap hooks are not fitted. e. for joining two ropes the same or similar sizes. fastening a line to a spar. gun line on the messenger when returning gear after a refuelling at sea (RAS). securing ratlines to the shrouds. heaving line to the picking up rope. in bending small sheets to the clews of sails. Sheet Bend Pass the end of one rope through the bight of a second rope. Clove Hitch Two similar half hitches put round the object to which it is to make fast. and under its own standing part.g. paint kettles/ fenders attached to guardrail stanchions.
Add an additional half turn round the spar when the pull on the spar is lateral. and then several around its own part. A quick way of securing a rope temporarily around a spar or timber.Beginners . around the standing part. for tying around a person's waist whilst using a lifeline . joining ropes together when they are not too large. especially when they are of different sizes.g. e. giving added security. Much used in handling cargo. Bowline Pass the end through a loop on the standing part.Sea Cadet Knots Page 3 Double Sheet Bend Pass the end of the bending line through the bight of the standing line. It does not slip or jam and can be cast loose instantly. twice around it and through its own part. when aloft. or when making a temporary eye in a rope. Timber Hitch Make a turn around a spar. Securing the heaving line to the eye of the hawser. For securing the boat's painter to the lizard on a boom. round the standing part and back through the loop. as the tension is released .
The greater the pull on the rope. Heaving Line Knot Provides a temporary weight to the end of a heaving line.Sea Cadet Knots Page 4 Fisherman's Bend Take a round turn with the end coming under the standing part under both turns. Securing a boat's anchor cable to the anchor. For security the end should be seized. as a quick alternative to the Monkey's Fist. the more tightly the parts of the bend are jammed against the anchor ring. with two half hitches on the standing part. making a buoyrope fast to a buoy .IGKT: Beginners . .
set by Clinton Bailey Sr. The world record.Six Knot Challenge Page 1 Six Knot Challenge The Six Knot Challenge is to tie six elementary knots against the clock. It proves popular with all ages.under 15 is very good indeed . is an astonishing 8.1 seconds.. and provides an opportunity for hands-on learning for children as young as seven. Reef Knot Sheet Bend Round Turn and two Half Hitches Sheepshank Clove Hitch Bowline .Beginners . Guild members often hold this as a fun event at shows. Under 20 seconds is pretty good .
2. Pass one end of the strip under the centre strip and over the two edge strips from right to left. 5. Untwist the strips as necessary to flatten out the sennit.Trick Sennit Page 1 Trick Sennit 1. 3. Pass the same end under the two edge strips and over the centre strip from right to left. 4.Beginners . Make two cuts in a leather strap to form three equal width strips joined at each end. Repeat to form a longer sennit .
HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 40 of 40 .ROPE.KNOTS.