THE PPTSB MARINER’S GUIDE

ROPES, KNOTS. HITCHES & SPLICES
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Explanations of Rope fibERs and constructions How to tie Knots and Hitches How to splice Braided and Twisted Ropes How to make things with Ropes

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Beginners - What are KNOTS and SPLICES?

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What are KNOTS and SPLICES?

As a general term, 'knot' includes all configurations made in a cord or line (or other material). However, when naming knots, the term knot is used in a more specific way. The knotting 'family' is best explained by the following diagrams: INTERNATIONAL GUILD OF KNOT TYERS (IGKT) KNOTS The rope is tied to itself STOPPER KNOTS Making a bulky part in a rope to stop it passing through an object or to stop the strands unlaying BINDING KNOTS Joining the ends of a single rope around an object or objects. The knot 'bears upon' the object LOOP KNOTS FIXED LOOPS A single loop or more than one loop that does not close under strain. SLIP LOOPS Knots that slide, closing the loop under strain or allowing it to be opened.

Whippings, lashings and seizing are special types of binding knot. Thumb knot Figure of eight knot Oysterman's knot Reef knot Surgeon's knot Packer's knot Constrictor knot Bowline Artillery loop Figure of 8 loop Fireman's chair knot Alpine Butterfly knot Running Bowline Honda knot Handcuff knot Jar sling Hangman's knot

Whippings for binding Heaving line knots also make rope ends: Admiralty whipping weight at the end West Country of a rope: whipping Barrel knot Palm & needle Monkey's fist whipping Loaded Turk's Head Lashings for binding spars: Square/Japanese Diagonal/Filipino Sheer lashing Tripod l Seizing for binding ropes:

Beginners - What are KNOTS and SPLICES? Flat seizing Round seizing

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BENDS...join ends Joining the ends of two ropes. The knot must hold, even when jerked in mid-air. Unlike a binding knot, a bend does not have to bear upon an object

HITCHES...tie to something else MIDDLE HITCHES Attaching the middle of a rope to an object when there is strain on both sides of the knot.

SHORTENINGS

SPLICES Working with the constituent parts of the rope disturbing the structure and intertwining the strands.

END HITCHES Taking up the Attaching the end of slack in a rope. a rope to an object - a ring, a post, a bollard, a peg or even another rope.

Sheet bend Clove hitch Cat's paw Carrick Marlinspike Lark's Head bend hitch Timber hitch Fishermans Becket hitch Various other 'knot' Round turn and hitches are two half hitches Hunter's adapted as bend Anchor hitch 'crossing (Fisherman's hitches'Blackwall For different 'bend') from other knots: thicknesses: Buntline hitch Mooring Racking hitch bend To a hook: Constrictor Bowline Blackwall knot bend hitch Quick-release:

Sheepshank Chain shortening Bellringer's knot

Eye splice Short splice Long splice Cut splice Back splice Chain splice Tucked splice

Beginners - What are KNOTS and SPLICES? Highwayman's hitch Lengthwise pull: Rolling hitch Increase tension: Waggoner's hitch (Harvester's hitch)

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Polypropylene.M Buoy operators and others who is interested with ropework a general knowledge of ropes. grease or gasoline. Our 15 inch (381 mm) diameter Hawser system for the C. Polyester.A. ROPE CONSTRUCTIONS BRAID-ON-BRAID: Also known as Twin Braid and Double Braid. C. It combines great strength with light-weight flexibility to provide greater versatility and ease of handling than any of the natural fiber ropes. easy handling rope. Polyester ropes provide great strength with an absolute minimum amount of stretch. knots. Those which are essential. creepers and other flexible materials to make rope. is stronger than twisted rope of the same material and diameter. are rot-proof and. Through trial and error over the centuries a great number of knots. in the case of nylon.L.ROPE. Man.L. are able to take greater shock loads due to its elasticity. handsome. 12 or 16 strands with a hollow center. hitches and splices. Actually two braided ropes combined into one rope. An RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 2 of 40 . It is available in various synthetic fibers. Polypropylene and polyethylene ropes have the ability to float on the surface of water. Polyethylene and Kevelar etc. in most instances. This rope is spliceable and.KNOTS. This guide contains those that are most used and most useful to everyday and in some cases industrial use. has joined vines. DIAMOND BRAID: Also known as Hollow Braid and Maypole Braid.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 INTRODUCTION This reference guide is designed to give the riggers. The best known synthetic fiber ropes are constructed of Nylon. This rope is constructed of 8. splices. Special floats are used to keep them floating. The advantages of these ropes are that they are strong. hitches. Modern rope is a product of science and technology.A. A braided core is covered with a braided jacket to produce a strong. from his most primitive beginning.M buoy uses this particular type of nylon rope. and those which have become accepted as best suited for a particular purpose. lashings and other fastenings have evolved. not damaged by oil.

Inc. Manufactured by Puritan Mills. It is available in various synthetic fibers. It is available in either polyester or cotton. but not quite as strong as nylon rope. Manufactured by Puritan Mills. GOLD BRAID: A gold colored Braid-On-Braid nylon rope. Polyester PIMM Sheet is far superior to cotton due to its great strength. POLYESTER: Polyester is very strong. Manufactured by Puritan Mills. gasoline.ropes is that polyester does not have the stretch and elasticity of nylon. Its name refers to the special lock-stitch construction of the rope. Inc. British ropes. Wellington Ropes. OLIVERA etc. PIMM SHEET: A specially constructed rope designed specifically for sailing. Wellington Ropes.KNOTS. Nylon rope is rot proof and not damaged by oils. Other than this.L. It is spliceable and is available in virtually every type of rope fiber. SOLID BRAID: A very firm. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 3 of 40 . consisting of a braided jacket over a braided core. It has very good resistance to abrasion and will last four to five times longer than natural fiber ropes. the characteristics of the two fibers are practicallythe same.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 outstanding characteristic of this construction is its ability to be spliced in just seconds. It is available in various synthetic and cotton fibers. Due to its elasticity. Solid Braid rope will not unravel when cut or accidentally broken. British ropes OLIVERA etc. Wellington Ropes.M buoy is normally of this construction.ROPE. OLIVERA etc. ROPE FIBERS NYLON: The strongest fiber rope manufactured. Our polypropylene Pick-up rope for the C. The difference between the two. minimum stretch.A. marine growth or most chemicals. Combines excellent performance. Just about all laid rope is 3-strand construction. round rope that works extremely well and blocks and pulleys. Inc. grease. LAID: Also known as Twisted rope. British ropes. spliceability and handsome appearance. nylon can absorb sudden shock loads that would break ropes of other fibers.

OLIVERA etc. Inc. It is a floating rope and is rot proof and unaffected by water. TENSTRON: Combines tradition with progress. it is Manufactured by Puritan Mills. Inc. Wellington Ropes.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 abrasion resistance and durability. golden tan color of manila rope. registered trade name for multifilament polypropylene rope. plus the rope color that many people like. it does not have the strength or durability of synthetic fiber ropes. or multifilament fiber. venetian blind cord and other uses. At one time it was the best available but it is steadily losing ground to the synthetic fiber ropes. British ropes OLIVERA etc.ROPE. For handling quality. Inc. PRO. It is not quite as strong. as polypropylene. size for size. Manufactured by Puritan Mills.KNOTS. Being a natural fiber. OLIVERA etc. strong rope that is extensively used in many different ways. British ropes OLIVERA etc. In addition.LINE: Puritan Mills. Also. It is soft and pliable. oil. British ropes. POLYPROPYLENE: A lightweight. Most of it in the form of sash cord. MANILA: The best known natural fiber rope. Manufactured by Puritan Mills.Wellington Ropes. Inc. Polypropylene rope is available in monofilament fiber. cotton is hard to beat. polyethylene’s handling characteristics are a little different than polypropylene. POLYETHYLENE: One of the best known synthetic fiber ropes. It has all the advantages of the modern synthetics. Manufactured by Puritan Mills.Wellington Ropes. British ropes. water proof and not damaged by oil. and easy on the hands. gasoline or most chemicals. Inc. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 4 of 40 . Inc. clothesline. Available in either solid braid or laid (twisted) construction. Wellington Ropes. Tenstron is constructed from olefin fiber with the rich. gasoline or most chemicals. Tenstron floats on the surface of water. which is smooth surfaced. which has a somewhat velvety appearance and feel. British ropes. Manufactured by Puritan Mills. It is rot proof. A floating rope somewhat like polypropylene except that it is just a little lighter. OLIVERA etc.Wellington Ropes. COTTON: Much cotton rope and cord is used today.

Be Careful! AVOID WRONG REEVING . Care when working with rope is extremely important. If your rope is old or worn. Outer and inner rope fibers contribute equally to the strength of your rope. materially damage its effectiveness... REVERSE ENDS .. Prolonged use. AVOID KINKS .ROPE. or wear.. Where it is necessary for a rope to rub over an object protect it with chafing gear. AVOID SHARP ANGLES. AVOID SUDDEN STRAIN . make allowances for safety. Safe working strength for any rope is 1/5th it’s breaking strength... When worn. your rope is naturally weakened.. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 5 of 40 .. of one part of a rope will naturally.KNOTS.. or out of rope... Too small sheaves cause added friction and rope wear.. When rope is repeatedly turned or twisted in one direction. Rope that is strong enough under a steady strain can be broken with a sudden jerk. Always use the right size rope for the sheaves in the block or pulley. it is certain that kinks will develop. Ignoring this safety factor is dangerous. decrease it’s effectiveness at that point. Sharp bends greatly affect the strenth of a rope.. SISAL: A rope that’s used primarily where strength and durability are not important. AVOID ABRASION . and even then. Pad it for safety. Occasionally reverse your rope. of course. HOW TO MAKE YOUR ROPE LAST LONGER AVOID OVERLOADING . such as canvas wrapped and tied around the rope.. unless twists are repeatedly thrown in. Pulling a kink through a restricted space such as a tackle block will seriously damage the rope fibers.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 Manila must be handled and stored with care as any dampness will cause it to rot and. Any sharp angle is a weak spot. Sisal is a natural fiber that deteriorates rapidly when exposed to weather.

HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 end-for-end. Used to give mechanical advantage when lifting or pulling heavy objects. paint and most chemicals. A good example is an anchor line aboard a boat.8288 meter) FALL: The standing part of the rope coming from the fixed block on a block-and-tackle. be kept dry or they will rot in a very short time.KNOTS. AVOID IMPROPER STORAGE. BLOCK: Similar to a pulley. ROPE TERMINOLOGY BIGHT: A loop made in any part of a rope. of course. (Opposite the bitter end).. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 6 of 40 . 1 fathom = 6 feet (1. Synthetic fiber ropes require no special storing conditions other than keeping them out of sunlight and out of extremely hot rooms. Natural fiber ropes must of course. keep your rope free of any type chemical. END: The end of a rope in use. Lay is either right-hand (Z-lay) or left-hand (S-lay). To be on the safe side. BITTER END: The end of a rope opposite the end in use. however. severely damaged by exposure to chemicals. on which strain is applied. AVOID CHEMICALS . When rope becomes dirty wash it thoroughly with clean water.. KEEP ROPE CLEAN . gasoline.. Dirt on the surface and imbedded in rope acts as an abrasive on fibers. FATHOM: A unit of measurement. to distribute the wear more evenly. The ultra-violet rays of sunlight has a weakening effect on rope that is exposed for prolonged periods of time. LAY: The way a twisted rope is constructed.. Virtually all synthetic fiber ropes are immune to damage from oil. Be sure to dry natural fiber ropes before storing.ROPE. LINE: Rope used aboard boats and ships is called line. Natural fiber ropes are...

KNOTS OVERHAND KNOT A knot made in a rope to prevent it from pulling through your hand or a hole. It is tied by making an overhand loop. The grooved wheel in a block or pulley upon which the rope rides when in use.ROPE. Then passing the end under and up through the loop. or at any point between the ends. STANDING PART: The main part of the rope. used as a hand-hold at the end of a rope. The simplest of these knots has many names.. then bringing RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 7 of 40 . TURN: One turn of a rope around the object to which it is being fastened.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 PULLEY: A device consisting of a sheave mounted in a block or wall. ROUND TURN: Two turns of rope around the object to which it is being fastened. This knot is tied by making an overhand loop... Tighten. FIGURE of 8 KNOT The Figure 8 is an ideal basic knot form. but is best known as the Overhand knot. SHEAVE: Pronounced “shiv”. used at the end of a line to prevent a sheet or line from slipping through a block or pulley.KNOTS.. is called a stopper knot. which is used to achieve mechanical advantage when lifting or pulling heavy objects.

forfasteningtwo ropes together. SQUARE ( REEF) KNOT Originally used by seamen in reefing and furling sails aboard the old sailing ships. as illustrated.KNOTS. With one end in hand.as it unties easily when either of the protruding ends is jerked.ROPE. SURGEON’S KNOT Frequently used when tying packages with twine. To tie RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 8 of 40 . The square knot is used in first-aid for bandage tying. To tie.. the Stevedore’s knot is made with two turns around the rope... Draw up tight and the knot is complete. take three turns around the other end.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 the free end over the standing part and back under and through the loop. however. It is unsafe. Inserting a stick in the loop before tightening permits this knot to be easily untied. to keep the first tie from slipping before the knot is completed.. Pass one end over and under the other end. Pull tight. STEVEDORE’S KNOT Somewhat similar to the Figure 8 knot.

when sailors lived out of sea bags. Curve what is now the left end to the right. It may not. SHEET BEND RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 9 of 40 .ROPE. THIEF KNOT The Thief knot is not entirely trustworthy. pass the left end over and under the right end. If a man suspected that a shipmate was rummaging through his seabag when he wasn’t around. at first glance. It gets its name from the days of the old sailing ships. look like the square knot but they are to be avoided. This knot is not too reliable.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 this knot. Study the illustrations closely to see the difference. Pull tight. BEWARE OF THE THIEF AND GRANNY KNOTS! TheThief and Granny knots.. It may hold . knowing that a sailor would invariably tie a square knot when tying the bag after searching through it.KNOTS. . under and over the right end. he would tie it closed with a thief knot. GRANNY KNOT The Granny knot is usually the result of an improperly tied square knot.

Run the end of the other rope through the loop. behind its standing part. make a loop in the end of one rope as illustrated. . (the larger diameter rope if they are of different sizes). To tie this knot.. even when wet. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 10 of 40 . and the ends finish on opposite sides as illustrated.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 An efficient knot for joining two ropes. CARRICK BEND The Carrick Bend is an extremely strong knot suitable for all thicknesses of line.then down through the loop again. it is generally used for larger ropes. ake a loop in the end of one rope. It will not jam.Tighten. Make sure the ends of both ropes are on the same side of the knot. The Double Sheet Bend—made by running the rope end twice behind the standing part. At no point does the rope pass through a loop.KNOTS. Then thread the other rope end around the loop. and that’s all there is to it. especially hen they are of different diameters. However. using an over-an-under sequence.ROPE. then through the loop—is recommended for tying synthetic fiber lines together.

To tie. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 11 of 40 . joining two ropes. It is used for mooring... Form a small loop in the rope.ROPE. then back down through the loop. hoisting. behind the standing part. RUNNING BOWLINE Used when a noose is needed to tighten a rope aro’jnd something.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 BOWLINE The most useful knot you can know. Run the end up through the loop.KNOTS. Pull tight. A regular Bowline is tied. The Bowline forms a loop that will not slip or jam and is easily untied. with its loop around the standing part of the rope. and for fastening a rope to a ring or post.

KNOTS. The end is then passed behind the standing part and down through the first loop again. as in the ordinary Bowline. making two lower loops.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 DOUBLE BOWLINE Can be used as a seat sling. The difference being that you pass the end through the loop twice. The right-hand loop goes under the arms. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 12 of 40 . Tighten as illustrated. and is tied exactly in the same manner as the ordinary Bowline. and the left-hand loop forms the seat.ROPE.

The tying of this knot is accomplished by taking a long bight (loop) of rope.KNOTS. making an overhand loop. place one leg through each large loop and the loop-end under the arms and around the back. Flip the loop-end forward and around the large ioops. Pull right side of loop to tighten.ROPE. then up behind the standing part as shown. For holding a person . or injured person... as illustrated. then running the large loop up through the small loop.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 BOWLINE ON BIGHT A knot used to accommodate special loads or for holding an unconcious. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 13 of 40 .

ROPE. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 14 of 40 . The Spanish Bowline is tied by forming three loops in any central section of your rope. grasp each side of the large loop.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 SPANISH BOWLINE Commonly used in slinging a ladder. Flip the large center loop up.KNOTS. as illustrated. to encircle the smaller loops. Reach down through the small loops. and pull it through the small loops simultaneously.

When this knot has been pulled tight and is wet. between the turn and the ring. it must be attached securely because you cannot inspect it in use.ROPE. it is very difficult to untie.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 FISHERMAN’S (ANCHOR) BEND When a rope is to be used as an anchor rode. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 15 of 40 .KNOTS. Two half hitches complete the knot. Taking a turn around a ring (or post) then running the rope end through the turn.

Take two turns around the neck of the bag.ROPE.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 MILLER’S KNOT For tying bags and sacks. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 16 of 40 . the second turn under the standing part. the first turn over the standing part. Draw up tight. as shown.KNOTS.

twine and fishing line. sometimes referred to as the Crown knot. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 17 of 40 .ROPE.KNOTS. Draw up tight and trim ends. Pull knots tightly together to complete knot. Then begin tying off as illustrated. then knotted around it. unlay the strands at the end of your rope for a short distance. MATHEW WALKER KNOT To tie the Mathew Walker knot. One end is passed through an overhand knot in the other line.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 FISHERMAN’S KNOT A good knot for joining small rope.

the Half Hitch can be used to secure an object for a right angle pull. “It will hold the devil. Old time seamen said.ROPE. When strain is constant this hitch is fairly reliable. ROUND TURN and 2 HALF HITCHES Used for making fast the end of a rope to post or ring. then take two half hitches on the standing part as shown. Tie as Illustrated.KNOTS.” Take two complete turns around the post or ring. Used primarily in the formation of other knots. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 18 of 40 .HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 HITCHES HALF HITCH The most basic of knot forms.

KNOTS. in the case of a wet rope. the first. with caution. WARNING: Never use the Clove Hitch where it needs to be released in a hurry. It is used to fasten a rope to a stake or post. Make it by taking two turns around the post. under the standing part. even then. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 19 of 40 . It simply consists of looping a rope around a hook with the end under the standing part. This hitch binds extremely tight and.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 CLOVE HITCH One of the fastest and easiest hitches to make. the second. The Blackwall Hitch holds under constant strain.ROPE. may be virtually impossible to free quickly. but will free itself if the load is slackened. BLACKWALL HITCH Used only for light loads and. also under the standing part but in the opposite direction.

SHEEPSHANK You may find it necessary sometime to shorten. When there is no time to do it right. as illustrated.ROPE.. the Sheepshank is the answer. The Timber Hitch is tied by taking a turn around the log. Then twist the end around itself at least three times. convenient method of attaching a rope to a log for dragging or hoisting. it’s for temporary use only. Lay out two side-by-side loops as shown.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 TIMBER HITCH A fast. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 20 of 40 . The Sheepshank holds pretty well under a steady strain. A half hitch around the log is desirable when dragging.. then take a half hitch around each loop with the standing part. or take the load off a weak spot in the rope. but remember. then a half hitch on the standing part.KNOTS.

then take a half hitch around the standing part. then a turn around the standing part.ROPE.KNOTS. This knot is tied by first taking a half hitch around the standing part. outside the loop. in any position.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 MIDSHIPMAN’S HITCH Used generally for mooring and life-saving. Pass the end through the loop. within the loop. It will hold under strain. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 21 of 40 . The loop can be made larger or smaller by sliding the hitch along the standing part.

HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 COW HITCH A simple and quick way to hitch a rope to a post. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 22 of 40 . Reach through the loop and pull both the end and the standing part back through the loop. Drop the double ioop over a post and tighten.ROPE. Double the end of your rope to form an open loop.KNOTS.

RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 23 of 40 .KNOTS. Then insert end or rope through small loop to prevent knot failure. or anything.ROPE. Tie exactly as illustrated. Draw loop tight against post or ring when knot is as shown in Step 2. to a ring or post.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 HALTER HITCH The Halter Hitch is used for securing an animal.

HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 CATSPAW Used for hoisting heavy loads. Begin with a Clove Hitch around the upright pole just below the horizontal pole. LASHINGS SQUARE LASHING Used to secure two posts. Tie it by holding the rope with both hands. poles or bars that cross and touch each other.ROPE. It is jam-proof and efficient. well apart. Turn your hands away from you. Bring together the two loops and drop over the hook. Twist the end and standing part of the rope tightly together and pass the rope up over the horizontal pole and behind RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 24 of 40 .KNOTS.

laying it just above the Clove Hitch. Follow this with three or four turns at right angle to the first turns. laying each turn outside the previous turn on the horizontal pole. then back behind the upright pole.KNOTS. poles or bars that cross but do not touch each other. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 25 of 40 . Begin by making a Timber Hitch diagonally around both poles where they cross and tighten. Now bring it forward and down around the horizontal pole.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 the upright pole. Finish with three or four over-and-under passes around the lashing as illustrated and complete with a Clove Hitch on the horizontal pole. Repeat this procedure four times.ROPE. and inside each turn on the upright pole. DIAGONAL LASHING Used to pull together and secure two posts. pulled tight next to the lashing. Finish by making a Clove Hitch around the nearest post. Two over-and-under passes are made a round the lashing as illustrated in Step 2.

Finish with a Clove Hitch around the other pole.KNOTS. laying each turn next to the previous one. First make a Clove Hitch around one pole. Now take three or four turns around the first turns. cables. etc. “Shear legs” are formed by making a Shear Lashing at the pivot point of two crossing poles. not too tight.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 SHEAR LASHING Used to secure two parallel poles. These last turns must be verytight to pull the lashing firmly around the poles. Twist the end and standing part of the rope tightly together then take seven or eight turns around both poles. then spreading the poles apart at the base. between the poles. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 26 of 40 . and also for rigging “shear legs” to support rope bridges.ROPE.

parallel to each other and with the end of one between the ends of the other two. between the poles. Next take two or three loose turns around the first turns. First make a Clove Hitch around the end of one pole. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 27 of 40 .HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 TRIPOD LASHING Place three poles on the ground. Finish with a Clove Hitch around the center pole.ROPE. then take seven or eight loose turns around all three poles. Raise tripod to standing position and adjust legs so they are spaced an equal distance apart.KNOTS.

and tuck it over and under the next strand in the opposite rope. You now have the strands of each rope tucked two times through the strands of the other rope. Take the unlaid strand. 2. unlay both ropes for a short distance and bring them together so that the main bodies of the ropes fit snugly and the unlaid strands mesh. Sealing the strand-ends of synthetic fiber ropes with a flame or hot knife will prevent their unravelling. take one more tuck with each strand. Now go back and make RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 28 of 40 . working against the twist. For end-to-end splicing of two ropes. 3. Now.KNOTS. Remove the temporary tie and make two tucks with the other three strands.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 SPLICING SHORT SPLICE 1. It is helpful to temporarily tie the strands of one rope to the body of the other rope.ROPE. tuck one of the unlaid strands over and under a strand of the opposite rope. Now. next to the strand just tucked. alternating a strand of one with a strand of the other. First. Do the same thing with the remaining unlaid strand.

Sealing strand-ends of synthetic fiber ropes with a flame or hot knife will prevent their unravelling. going in the opposite direction. unlay the end of each rope about 14 turns and bring them together so that the main bodies of the ropes fit snugly and the unlaid strands mesh. at the original meeting RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 29 of 40 . You now have two long opposing strands in the center.. LONG SPLICE The Long splice is not quite as strong as the Short splice.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 at least two more tucks with each of the six strands.KNOTS. RoIl the splice under your foot. CAUTION: Do not clip ends too close to splice. unlay one strand and replace it with it’s opposite strand from the other rope. or a board and clip off ends of protruding strands. 1. To make a Long splice. alternating a strand of one with a strand of the other. 2. . Do the same thing with another pair of strands. but it permits a rope to run freely through a block or pulley. 4. four additional tucks are recommended for synthetic ropes.ROPE. Starting with any opposite pair.

Then tuck the left-hand strand over the first strand. 1. and have a finished appearance. 2. 3. and a pair of long and short opposing strands on each side of center. Roll the splice under your foot or with a board. then tuck them in sequence. over and under the strands in the main body of the rope. Now tie each pair of opposing strands tightly with an overhand knot. Unlay the end of your rope. as in a short splice. Roll the splice under your foot or a board. clip protruding strand-ends and your splice is complete.KNOTS. (sealing the strand ends of synthetic fiber rope will prevent them from unravelling) and lay the right-hand strand across the other two as illustrated.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 point of the two ropes. going against the twist. and clip protruding ends. then back over the right-hand strand. Pull all strands snug. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 30 of 40 . not too close to the rope. tuck each strand twice back into the rope. CROWN SPLICE When you want a rope end to be a little larger in diameter than the rope. 3.ROPE. the Crown Splice is the answer.

Tuck the center unlaid strand under any one of the strands in the main body of the rope. going against the twist. To begin your Eye Splice unlay the strands for a short distance and double back to form a loop of the desired size.KNOTS. Sealing strand-ends of synthetic fiber rope will prevent them from unravelling. 1. Tuck the last unlaid strand under the remaining strand in the rope.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 EYE SPLICE The Eye Splice may be made as a loop of any size. with the unlaid strands laying across the twist of the rope. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 31 of 40 . making sure the tuck is against the twist. The next unlaid strand goes over the strand under which the center unlaid strand is tucked. and is tucked under the next strand in the rope. or it can be made tight around a metal thimble to prevent chafing of the rope fibers.ROPE. 3. 2.

not too closely to rope. Then. lay a loop of twine along side the rope. and trim protruding strand ends. preferrably nylon twine because it is rot-proof. in sequence.ROPE. over and under the strands in the rope. While it is traditional to use 4 tucks. with open end of the loop toward the end of the rope. First. Your splice is complete. HOW TO WHIP A ROPE END Whipping is used primarily to prevent the end of twisted rope from unravelling. wind the twine tightly around both the rope and the twine loop. Pull each strand snugly up to the main body of the rope then tuck them. Roll the splice under your foot or a board. It is done with twine.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 4.KNOTS. at least 6 tucks are recommended for synthetic fiber ropes. The last turn of the winding is inserted through the RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 32 of 40 . beginning a short distance from the rope end.

holding the rope in one hand. pull the twine end at the end of the rope until the loop-end is about mid-way in the whipping. Under heavy strain. take the standing part of the rope and make a turn around the stem of the cleat (away from the direction of strain). under the cleat horn.KNOTS. (Fig. 3).HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 loop-end. Take a half-hitch over the opposite cleat horn if rope strain is under light strain. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 33 of 40 . The whipping should be at least as long as the rope diameter.ROPE. make one or two turns figure eight fashion over cleat horns before taking the half hitch. HOW TO MAKE ROPE TO A CLEAT In “Belaying” or making fast to a cleat. Clip both twine ends and the job is complete. 1). then up over it’s center (Fig. Next. 2). (Fig.

HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 HOW TO RIG SLINGS RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 34 of 40 .ROPE.KNOTS.

the strain on the rope is double that of the object being lifted.KNOTS. At a 120-degree angle of pull. hauling and pulling operations. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 35 of 40 . and still the most satisfactory solution to many varied hoisting. All are tied with knots and hitches explained in this guide. Illustrated above are several types of the most commonly used slings. At a 150-degree angle the strain is almost four times as great as the weight of the object being lifted. only when the object is being lifted with a straight pull. It is important to remember that the angle of pull on a sling has a great deal to do with its safety and efficiency.ROPE. Wide angles of pull increase the strain on the rope.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 A method used for centuries. When working with a sling be aware that the strain on the rope is equal to the weight of the object being hoisted.

The grooved wheels upon which the rope rides in a block. Terminology: Sheaves (pronounced “shivs”) .ROPE. The mechanical advantage is one less than the number or ropes between the blocks.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 HOW TO RIG A BLOCK AND TACKLE A block and tackle takes much of the work out of moving heavy objects.KNOTS. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 36 of 40 .

Start with the rope end that is to be fastened to the becket. The double block is always the fall block.. 1.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 Becket .. HOW TO MAKE A CLIMBING and SAFETY LINE RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 37 of 40 . Double & Single: The becket is always on the single block. This eliminates the necessity of pulling the entire rope length through the blocks.The fixed block. Reeve the rope end first over sheave No. and so on . the easiest way to reeve a block and tackle. Reeve .A bracket on a block. opposite it’s hook end. The diagrams show. The single block is always the movable block. for fastening the rope end to the block.The procedure of rigging a block and tackle.KNOTS. then No. 2. ending up with the end eye-spliced to the becket. Double & Double: The becket is always on the fall block.ROPE. Fall block . in a simplified manner.

Select the length and diameter best suited to the “feel” you like and the depth of the water where most of your cruising is done. 5 fathoms (Mark 5) . 4 fathoms (Deep 4) .Black twine. HOW TO MAKE A LEAD LINE You will want a line that does not stretch so that measurements will be accurate. “Deeps” are indicated by a mark of black paint or. Like polypropylene or polyethylene. . manufactured by Wellington Ropes. make a loop in the rope as illustrated.Black twine.ROPE. British Ropes etc. First.Red rag.3 strips of leather. 3 fathoms (Mark 3) .Black twine. Complete the knot by pulling the loop sharply to the left.Strip of leather with a hole in it. It’s easy to make one.Black twine. Measuring from the base of the lead.KNOTS. “Marks” are indicated by attaching the markers listed below. 6 fathoms (Deep 6) .. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 38 of 40 .. 10 fathoms (Mark 10) .Black twine. as shown.HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 A rope with a series of hand-holds is perfect for climbing. Attach the line to the sounding lead with an eye-splice if you’re using twisted or Braid-on-Braid line. for trailing from an anchored boat to provide a safety line for swimmers. 9 fathoms (Deep 9) . and flip it forward and slightly to the right. . Measurements are made in fathoms (1 fathom is 6 feet or 1. preferably. Pull the lower ioop under the rope and up through the top ioop.2 strips of leather.8288 meter). with an anchor bend if you’re using PIMM Sheet Lash the end of the line securely to the standing part when using an anchor bend. 7 fathoms (Mark 7) . a seizing of black twine around the line.White rag. 8 fathoms (Deep 8) . 2 fathoms (Mark 2) . mark as follows: 1 fathom (Deep 1) . and when it is a floating rope. The best to use is twisted polyester or 100% polyester braided line such as PIMM Sheet or Braid-on-Braid.

18 fathoms (Deep 18) . Pull overhand knot tight. HOW TO MAKE A LARIAT (LASSO) The first step in making your Lariat is to put a Crown knot or Mathew Walker knot in both ends of the rope. as illustrated. To make the Honda knot. leaving a small loop.KNOTS.ROPE.Black twine. This prevents the rope end from unravelling and from slipping through the Honda knot used to make the noose.Red rag. tie a simple overhand knot in your Lariat. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 39 of 40 .HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 11 fathoms (Deep 11) .Black twine. 17 fathoms (Mark 17) .3 strips of leather. Your Lariat is now finished.Black twine. 19 fathoms (Deep 19) . 14 fathoms (Deep 14) .White rag.Black twine. 12 fathoms (Deep 12) . 15 fathoms (Mark 15) .A line with 2 knots in it. 16 fathoms (Deep 16) .Black twine. 13 fathoms (Mark 13) . Pass the end through the opposite side of the overhand knot from which it protrudes. Run the other end of your rope through the honda knot to form the noose. 20 fathoms (Mark 20) .Black twine.

This can convert a useful knot into a potentially lethal missile.Beginners . e. Splice or whip the end to the set. Make three more turns passing inside the Tighten up the knot round a soft core.Monkey's Fist Page 1 Monkey's Fist Make three turns round the Start making turns passing outside hand. a ball first set of turns and outside the second of ropeyarn. heavy object. standing part NOTE 1: Avoid the temptation to weight the core with a hard. the middle of the first three turns. Complete the three second turns. Any self-respecting wharfie will take out his knife and cut off any such knot. NOTE 2: The British Admiralty Manual of Seamanship illustrates a slightly different method whereby the working end comes out alongside the standing part .g.

Reef Knot Comprises two successive overhand knots. . The diagrams show the knots tied loosely so that their construction is clear. A very useful general purpose hitch to a spar or ring. Securing the head rope of a ship's boat to the ring of a buoy. These knots are the basic requirement (Seamanship Third Class). WARNING: The reef knot should never be used as a bend to join two ropes that will be under load.K. The table shows each knot and gives a brief note on the way the knot is made and its application on ships. To secure furled canvas (because of the ease with which it may be spilled). Also used for finishing off the racking on a turned up hawser.Beginners . Round Turn and two Half Hitches A round turn made round the spar and two half hitches made round the standing part of the line. A cadet pursuing a Seamanship Specialisation needs to know more. Overhand Knot Used to start the racking of a hawser Figure of Eight Knot For stopping a rope unreeving through a block or to temporarily stop a rope from fraying.Sea Cadet Knots Page 1 Sea Cadet Knots The U. Sea Cadet Corps requires that all candidates for promotion must have a basic grounding in seamanship.

Securing the boat's painter to the Jacob's Ladder on a boom. Sheet Bend Pass the end of one rope through the bight of a second rope. heaving line to the picking up rope. fastening a line to a spar. Securing items that hang vertically. in bending flags to halyards where snap hooks are not fitted. around both parts of the bight. e. for joining two ropes the same or similar sizes. Clove Hitch Two similar half hitches put round the object to which it is to make fast. Securing ropes that have lateral pull e.Sea Cadet Knots Page 2 Rolling Hitch Two round turns and one half hitch made round the spar.g.g.Beginners . gun line on the messenger when returning gear after a refuelling at sea (RAS). fastening a rope to a spar. paint kettles/ fenders attached to guardrail stanchions. and under its own standing part. in bending small sheets to the clews of sails. securing ratlines to the shrouds. .

Add an additional half turn round the spar when the pull on the spar is lateral. when aloft. A quick way of securing a rope temporarily around a spar or timber. e. especially when they are of different sizes. giving added security. twice around it and through its own part. or when making a temporary eye in a rope. For securing the boat's painter to the lizard on a boom. Timber Hitch Make a turn around a spar. joining ropes together when they are not too large. around the standing part.g. for tying around a person's waist whilst using a lifeline . as the tension is released . Much used in handling cargo. Bowline Pass the end through a loop on the standing part.Sea Cadet Knots Page 3 Double Sheet Bend Pass the end of the bending line through the bight of the standing line. round the standing part and back through the loop.Beginners . Securing the heaving line to the eye of the hawser. and then several around its own part. It does not slip or jam and can be cast loose instantly.

. as a quick alternative to the Monkey's Fist. making a buoyrope fast to a buoy . the more tightly the parts of the bend are jammed against the anchor ring. with two half hitches on the standing part.Sea Cadet Knots Page 4 Fisherman's Bend Take a round turn with the end coming under the standing part under both turns. Heaving Line Knot Provides a temporary weight to the end of a heaving line.IGKT: Beginners . For security the end should be seized. Securing a boat's anchor cable to the anchor.The greater the pull on the rope.

is an astonishing 8.under 15 is very good indeed . Guild members often hold this as a fun event at shows.1 seconds. It proves popular with all ages.. set by Clinton Bailey Sr. and provides an opportunity for hands-on learning for children as young as seven. Reef Knot Sheet Bend Round Turn and two Half Hitches Sheepshank Clove Hitch Bowline .Six Knot Challenge Page 1 Six Knot Challenge The Six Knot Challenge is to tie six elementary knots against the clock.Beginners . Under 20 seconds is pretty good . The world record.

Make two cuts in a leather strap to form three equal width strips joined at each end. 3. 4. Repeat to form a longer sennit .Beginners . 5. Pass one end of the strip under the centre strip and over the two edge strips from right to left.Trick Sennit Page 1 Trick Sennit 1. Pass the same end under the two edge strips and over the centre strip from right to left. 2. Untwist the strips as necessary to flatten out the sennit.

HITCHES & SPLICES MYGAZEE ‘99 RESTRICTED CIRCULATION Page 40 of 40 .ROPE.KNOTS.

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