P. 1
Tropical Fish Secrets

Tropical Fish Secrets

|Views: 211|Likes:
Published by Damieu

More info:

Published by: Damieu on Oct 06, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less






  • What your aquarium should be made of and the format
  • Water
  • Aquarium Equipment and Accessories
  • Lighting
  • Setting Up and Decorating the Aquarium
  • Types of fish
  • Characins
  • Cichlids-African
  • Cyprinids
  • Platy
  • Salt water fish
  • Saltwater invertebrates
  • Goldfish and Koi
  • Things to look for when buying your fish
  • Understanding your fish

Tropical Fish Secrets

The Aquarium
It is important that you get the correct aquarium. This is the base of everything. This is the home of your tropical friends. So, it is very important that you take the time and effort necessary to ensure your success. There are many questions that you need to think about before purchasing your aquarium. It is important that you think about what kind of tropical fish you would like, how big they will get when they are full grown, what types of plants you want to put in the aquarium. First, let’s start with what kind of tanks there are out there. There are two kinds of tanks- frame tanks which are made with frames made of anodized aluminum, plastic, or stainless steel and then there are frameless tanks. Both are caulked with silicone rubber. They do not rust even with sea water. Aquariums come in different shapes and sizes and all are suitable for keeping fish. Plastic tanks are just as durable but they do scratch easier than glass. If you are looking for an aquarium without sharp edges and corners, then you are looking for a plastic tank. Some plastic tanks are too thin and therefore the water pressure might cause the walls to belly out. Then all of your efforts will be lost. If you are looking to photograph your fish, then you will want to get a glass aquarium. Plastic tanks will distort the look of your fish. The handling of the tank is also important with plastic tanks to ensure that the surface doesn’t scratch. The main advantage to a plastic tank over a glass one is how it looks. A plastic tank with rounded edges and corners looks amazing in your living room. There are a few different styles of glass aquariums. Molded one-piece tanks are great for breeding and small fish species and also as isolation tanks. I will speak about isolation tanks later and why it is necessary to have one on hand. One – piece tanks are also easy to clean and will hold 5 gallons (20 liters) safely. One issue with molded tanks is the internal stress may cause larger tanks to crack or break. For this reason, it is important to protect your tank for temperature changes. It is also common that the glass walls are not even which makes your fish look distorted. Some people choose to use transparent plastic tanks because they are lighter and less fragile than the glass versions. They are also easier to repair. If a plastic tank should crack for any reason, you can repair it using plastic glue. The price is also another reason why people choose it over the glass tank. IF you are

Tropical Fish Secrets
a fish enthusiast, you should have a plastic tank that can be used as isolation tank or that can be used as quarantine. An isolation tank should be 3- 4 gallons (10-15 liters) in capacity. It is also important that it be fully equipped with a heater and a filter. I would recommend that you purchase your isolation tank when you purchase your aquarium. The reason for this is that you can use the isolation tank when you first get your fish and while you are setting up your aquarium. Plastic tanks have there place but due to the fact that they are not scratch resistant, it is better to use them only as a temporary solution to your permanent aquarium. Plastic tanks are great economically and they are narrower at the bottom and can be stacked for better storage. You will see as you expand your love for your aquarium that you will run out of space quickly. Therefore, plastic tanks are definitely an advantage.

What if a relative gives you a tank, how can I fix it so that I can use it??
I am sure everyone knows someone who has tried to build an aquarium and they were unsuccessful and gave up. It could be a neighbour or relative or friend. It is possible that this person will give you there aquarium in hopes that you can be more successful than they were. Okay, so, how do we not make the same mistakes? How do we use what they gave up to start us out for the time being? Most often these aquariums are the old-fashioned frame tank with glass panes cemented to the metal frame. You will need to seal the joints with a silicone rubber. Use only a silicone rubber with an acetic base. Ensure that you seal all joints. Don’t forget to seal the lower edge of the frame that runs along the top of the tank. Remove all the grease with an alcohol or acetone solvent. Okay, you have the silicone rubber, now what do you do with it. You squeeze some of it out and put it in the seams. Smooth it out by using your finger. (Tip: add dishwashing detergent to your finger before you put silicone rubber on it so that it doesn’t stick to your finger.) This will make that tank useable for several years. It will be able to give you some time to figure out what kind of fish you would like, what kinds of plants you would like and how big of an aquarium you will need to have the aquarium of your dreams. The aquarium that your friends will be running over to see.

What your aquarium should be made of and the format
Most aquariums, as I am sure that you are aware of, are taller than they are wider. The reason for this is so that they fit in with modern furniture. Another reason is because a taller tank offers a larger viewing surface which will be beneficial when your aquarium is full of beautiful tropical fish. The problem with is this that the larger the floor area, the healthier the inhabitants, both fish and plants. Remember any living organism in the aquarium is an inhabitant. You goal is the build the best aquarium possible that will create a healthy environment for your organisms to thrive in. The larger the floor area the more possibilities that you have to arrange plants, decorate the aquarium. It also allows bottom fish

Tropical Fish Secrets
more territory to stake out and the lighting to be more effective than in a tall, narrow aquarium. Remember that once you fill you aquarium with water, it will look shorter and narrower. Until recently, if you wanted an aquarium with a larger floor area you would have to have it custom-built or construct it yourself. Thankfully, manufacturers have realized some of the benefits of a large floor aquarium that they are starting to produce them. This is obviously a cheaper option than you building it yourself or having it custom made. As I mentioned before, it is important when you are setting up your aquarium that you think about what kind of fish you want to put in the tank, what kind of plants, the behavioral patterns of the fish. Be sure not to start with a tank that is too small. A common mistake is that you purchase a tank that is too small for the fish that you want to put in it. IF your tank is too small, it will quickly become overpopulated. Another advantage to a larger tank is the stability of the environment that a larger tank creates. The bigger the tank, the more stable the environment, the more immune the environment will be to mistake that might be made in tank maintenance. The less chances you will have to unexpected surprises. No one wants to come home and find their tropical friend on the top of the tank. I stated before how important it is to think about what kinds of fish you want to put in your aquarium. It is important to remember that large fish tend to be territorial and require more space. Small fish swim in schools of fish in there natural environment. A school of fish is at least seven to ten fish usually of their own kind. They need and want the company. You will need adequate amount of space for the school of fish to swim freely. If you have ever been snorkeling or scuba diving, you will know what a beautiful sight it is to see a school of fish swimming by. Now, imagine that sight being in your own living room. It is only a beautiful sight if they have enough room to swim freely. Now imagine that same school of fish in a crowded tank, it would like a mall at Christmas time. I know what you are thinking, how do I figure out how much space my fish need. A good rule of thumb is estimate the length of the full-grown fish, and multiply each by half an inch ( 1cm) by 1 1/2 to 2 quarts (1 ½- 2 liters). Remember that this only represents the water in the aquarium. It doesn’t include the materials at the bottom of the tank, the plants, or anything that takes up space for that matter. Don’t worry. This is just an estimate. The best advice that I can give you would be to start out with the biggest aquarium that you can afford. Another issue that you are going to have to consider with the aquarium is the weight of the tank once it is filled with water. The weight can be calculated by Capacity in gallons= length X Width X height (in inches) 231

The organic matter is from decaying leaves and wood and from plants and creatures in the water. it will be a pain to take off a cover the size of the tank.) Place the aquarium in a place that allows you to look at it comfortably from where you are sitting. then it will be soft. The balance will need to be naturally maintained or the excess needs to be removed. So. Whether you plants and fish live or die will depend on the water in the tank. If you are thinking of putting a larger aquarium in your house. These are essential for all living organisms to survive. (Tip: you might want to put Styrofoam or felt under your aquarium because some tanks do develop leaks.Tropical Fish Secrets One gallon of water weighs 9 pounds. This does not include the stand of the table that the tank is on. The purpose of the cover is to keep the dust out to the tank and to keep the fish from jumping out. You will need to find out what the mineral content of your tap water. So if your aquarium is 48 X 13 X 21 inches. then the water will be hard. once you have all of the pieces that you want in the tank. the tank will probably weigh around 625 pounds. You can use indicator strips or a test kit that you can . You can move the panels back and forth. Not all water is the same. How do you find this information??? You can call your local water department or you can measure it yourself. It is also important that the stand or table that you put the aquarium on is strong enough to handle the weight and not bend. now we have to think about where we are going to put it. If the mineral content is low. The quality of the water will determine whether they live or die. You should also be sure that the floor is level. You will want an opening for the heater or filter tubing and for feeding the fish. If you have a large aquarium. it holds 55 gallons and weighs about 500 pounds. Another thing that will prove to be helpful is a cover. IF the mineral content is high. The water will be hard or soft depending on the minerals that are in it. Now. Add one quarter of the results for the weight of the decorations and plants and anything else that you have at the bottom of the tank. You want to put the aquarium in a place that has a lot of electrical outlets. Fish and plants will absorb oxygen and release carbon dioxide. minerals and organic matter. The cover panel might not be air tight but they should never be big enough for a fish to squeeze through. Water is made up of gases. you will have to even it out. that you have thought about the size of the aquarium and the cover. It is important to access whether the flooring in your house will be able to hold a tank this weight. The number of fish and plants in the aquarium will have an effect on the balance of the water. you should consult with an architect or a builder to determine how much weight your floors can take especially if you are thinking of putting your aquarium on the second floor of you house or apartment. There are two gases in water. If it is slanted. You can buy plastic panels that fit your tank exactly and plastic runners for the panels. Water The next thing that is critical to your success is water. The cover should have one or more opening.oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Well. The soil in their natural environments have little or no calcium. Plants are able to absorb minerals and trace element . You can also buy plastic gypsum at the pet store. Each degree of dH is 30 milligrams of calcium carbonate per quart (1 litre) of water. If you need to harden the water. East African Cichlids are the only tropical fish that live in medium or hard water. For our purposes. I have a solution for you. 0-4 degree dH = very soft 5-8 degree dH= soft 9-12 degree dH = medium hard 13 degree dH and up = hard water Tropical fish adapt very well to soft water. In highly populated areas. It is necessary to test your tank for the pH level periodically. your fish will show signs of illness. For this reason. Going forward. Natural water contains certain substances that react in either an alkaline or acidic fashion. Water from different areas will have a different hardness and chemical composition. you can get some live-bearing Toothed Carps or large Cichlids from Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. Okay. Tropical fish come from an environment which consists of carbonic acid. If the water is soft. Water hardness varies on the parts of the country. You can buy an ion-exchanger. Water below 7 tells you that the water is acidic. Rain water is not an option because it is often too polluted.Tropical Fish Secrets purchase from your pet shop. (East African Cichlids need a pH of 7. If you water is below 5. You can change the hardness of the water by mixing distilled water with the tap water to get the proper degree of hardness. most tropical fish need an pH of 5. I know what you are thinking. the hardness of the water will be expresses as dH. you water will come from a variety of different areas. how do you know whether it is hard or soft. That is the reason that they adapt so well to soft water..5 pH or above 9 pH. your tap water will change composition.5 to 8. it would be wise to check your water hardness and choose fish that will thrive in that environment. There are several fish that you can add to the water depending on what the dH is. You are thinking what I do if the water hardness is too hard or I don’t want to have to add distilled water all the time. you will need some gypsum. Due to this. Neutral water has a pH of 7. carbon dioxide and humic acid. It might be expensive to do it this way. It is necessary to check your water periodically. Another way to change the dH in the water is to add fish. This is used to remove minerals from the water and will soften the water even purify the water.5 pH). The acidity of the water is just as important as the minerals. The type of ion-exchanger that you will need will depend on the hardness of your water. you have check the water using the indicator strips or test kits.8 to 7. You can do this with a test kit or indicator strips.. Water above 7 is alkaline. I will express the acidity in terms of pH..

fish food. Here is a chart that demonstrates the ammonia and ammonium concentrations at different pH levels. Ammonia is poisonous even in low amounts. They are used to alkaline the water. An aquarium that is not cleaned for some time will have a high amount of debris food and the levels of nitrogen will be high. Now. One kind of fish that is in constant danger of ammonia poisoning is an East African Cichlids. feces and urine all create ammonia in the water. how do we get this in our aquariums? Easy. you fish will be safe from ammonia poisoning. they are devices available to eliminating cloudily debris without the removing water. it will convert to ammonium and your fish will be fine.8 to 7. humic acid comes from dead leaves. you might be the main reason for high levels of ammonia.. It is important to use powerful filters and change their water more frequently. wood and other plant matter in the water. So. It is important to know that aged water means the aquarium has plants but no fish for several weeks. Decomposing animal proteins. some of your fish die. If you circulate is water through an acid-enhancing filter material such as peat. They are heavy feeders and plants do not usually survive in their tanks. The unused food will fall to the bottom of the tank and create ammonia. Ammonia can be found in the water from a variety of different sources. Humic acid maintains the acidity better than carbonic acid because carbonic acid fluctuates more with the metabolic action of the plants that are into eh tanks.Tropical Fish Secrets better in combination with humic acid. If you over feed your fish. Some other factors that affect the water are of course our fish. It is because you have changed the environment and the pH in the aquarium has risen from the tap water. Fresh water is tap water that has sat for a while. there is a change in the ammonia and the fish die from ammonia poisoning. When the ammonium rises. dead fish. Fish excrete ammonia. Slightly acidic water will change the water to a less toxic ammonium. pH 6 7 8 9 % Ammonia 0 1 4 25 % Ammonium 100 99 96 75 As long as the pH stays around 5. Long gone are the days where people believe that fish can’t handle the water change. In their natural habitats. This is the reason why when you decide to change the water in your tank after a long while. How do you know if you fish is suffering from ammonia poisoning? . you can circulate it through the peat filters or by adding liquid peat extract. dead snails.

3 pH with no ammonium or nitrate.5 to 6. . You should check your nitrite levels every two weeks with a kit. Fish from South America which are Neon Tetras. and black water. Water from the South American region consists of three different types of water. Because our tap water is really only for human consumption. It has hardly any ammonium or nitrate. The transformation of ammonia into nitrate uses up a lot of oxygen. This gives the plants a chance to take root and the bacteria can develop which will create a “ good” aquarium environment.Tropical Fish Secrets You fish will exhibit symptoms of oxygen deficiency or excessively high levels of carbon dioxide. I asked you before to think about what kind of fish that you want to put in your tank to determine the size of the tank that you will need. It is 0 to 0.2 dH. check your water first before turning up the air pump. clean your filter and change your water immediately. White water is cloudy. yellow and clayey.8 to 5. Set up the tank for two to three weeks.9. and Dwarf Cichlids. They will remove the poisons in the water before you put the fish in it. The filter changes the ammonia first into nitrite and then into nitrate. as we discussed before is 0. Set up the tank. Our tap water is devoid of these minerals. It does have minimum amounts of ammonium and nitrate. fill it with water.6 to 6. An easy way to determine whether this is necessary is to smell the water. Angelfish ( Scalares). clear water. There is no distinct division between the three types of water and many fish come from a combination of these waters. Nitrite will smell bad.6 pH. air pump. Plants provide phosphate. It is soft. and filter etc without the fish in it. The most common fish that are found in this area is Cyprinodonts and livebearing Toothed Carps.6 to 1. And it is slightly acidic pH 6. Armored Corydoreas. iron and manganese to survive. Nitrite is highly poisonous and needs to be changed quickly. It ensures the greatest success in your aquarium is to do a dry run with the tank. Pure black water is not viable for fish to survive in. Black water is transparent and dark brown.1 dH and 3.8 dH and the acid level 4. The less this occurs the more oxygen that is available to our fish. It is extremely soft 0. Central America This water tends to be medium hard to hard and is neutral and slightly alkaloid. It is for this reason that it is important to put plants in the tank. If it is too high. IF you see your fish coming to the surface often.3 to 0.white water. Clear water is transparent and yellow to dark olive green in colour. Discus Fish. it is devoid of carbonic acid. It is also important to think about the natural environment of the fish that you want in terms of the water. One thing to remember is that our tap water contains more nitrate than the tropical waters. Too much nitrate will harm the plants in the tank and therefore will affect the oxygen and carbon dioxide in the tank.

6 dH and a pH of 6. This information provides us with some guidelines that will help us set up our aquariums. Characins and Cichlids are found from this area. They can survive in water as hard as 25dH. The water should be about 73 to 79 degrees (23 -26 degrees Celsius).2. They are usually slightly acid water with low mineral content. Danios are common in this area. The hardness is usually 2 dH.Tropical Fish Secrets Africa This water is rich in minerals and for that reason egg-laying fish such as Cyprinodonts. Remember that these figures will be very important if you are thinking about breeding your tropical friends. what is the first thing that comes to your mind? Temperature of the water. The most common heaters are electric rod-type heaters without thermostats and automatic heaters with built in thermostats. All of these figures are estimates and are taken at different times and different rivers in theses areas. In order to have any results with tropical fish. This does not take into account the natural effects of such things as floods in these areas. If you buy your heater separately. The most common is 17 dH and a pH of 8. Aquarium Equipment and Accessories When you hear the word tropical fish. you will need a heater. It is regulated using a thermostat.5.5 to 9. they will be able to handle harder and more alkaline waters. . and a pH level of 6. with no ammonium or nitrate.7 dH and it is practically neutral. 0. it is important to create an environment that is close to their natural inhabitant. East African waters are a little harder with 10 dH and pH of 7.2. Southeast Asia Water in this area is very soft 0. An aquarium heater consists of a heating coil inside a glass tube filed with sand. If that is not your desire.2 to 0. If you want to breed you new addition to your living room. There are several types of heaters and several ways to heat the tank. The most common fish from this area is mouth breeding Cichlids. The average is 0.

there are some advantages to the cheaper one. therefore making the aquarium more stable. A dual-circuit thermostat will regulate the bottom as well as regulating the tank on the cold days. During the warm days it might be necessary for you to turn off the thermometer. Okay so. Another option is to use a heating pad that is placed directly underneath the aquarium separated by the proper insulation. You have more time to intervene. making it impossible to control the temperature. Tropical plants require a warm environment as well. It should always stay within 2degree F or (1degree C) of the temperature on the thermostat. you will need to put waterproof heating cables on the bottom of the tank. it will damage the bottom of the glass. We have talked about heating the tank for the fish but there are other living organisms in the tank. This prevents organic matter from rotting at the bottom of the tank. The tank only needs to be heated a few degrees above the room temperature. If you don’t want to see the cords and electrical wires of the heater. it is important to remember that you will have to change the gravel every year or two. you go to the pet store to buy a thermometer but which one do you buy. I will tell you why.Tropical Fish Secrets you will learn that some are made to be placed inside the tank and others need to mounted on the outside of the tank. It is important to keep it on degree centigrade above the water. It is for this reason that you need to heat the bottom of the tank. In this case. your heating capacity of 0. If the heating pad is too strong. Another advantage of using the bottom heating method is that the fresh water will constantly be flowing through the bottom. The smaller heater will heat the aquarium slower which will allow the fish to adapt better and if there is a problem with it or goes on the blink. That is the reason for the gravel change. Tropical fish don’t really tolerate changes in their water temperature. you might want to build the heater into the outside filtering equipment. It also helps bring minerals to the plants in the tank. It is for this reason that this is the best thermometer to get. I recommend that you use an automatic temperature heater. It is important that you check the temperature of the tank. you should have one watt for 10 quarts or litres of water.3 to 0. Although gravel will act as a filter. IF you are going to use a bottom heat. To do this. filters do get clogged and dirty. For best results. The best way to distribute the heat is in an S shape and should be mounted on tracks or feet so that there is no contact with the glass or you can also incorporate it with the gravel. The larger thermometers are usually equipped with a heat sensor with a bimetal contact. In a room that is 68 to 73 degrees.5 is sufficient. It will turn off and on constantly and the contact will get stuck. This will ensure proper circulation and it will pass through the gravel one or twice a day. Plants also require some care. The expense one or the cheaper one. Remember that the lighting will increase the temperature into the tank. . It is possible that it will refuse to open after some time. Heating pads or cables may be able to heat the aquarium without the aid of another heater inside the tank.

Larger plants are closer to the light source. Smaller plants are more affected by the source of light than the larger plants. Fish that are naturally from areas close to the equator are used to 12 hours of sunlight. One thing that is common in the tropics is algae. The intensity is also important to keep in mind with regards to your tank. your lamp should be about 80 to 140 watts. . To ensure that this does not happen. Water will also act as a light filter. and some kind of Bristle.Nose or Chinese Algae.4 to 0. This heater has the least amount of problems associated with it. The length of the day is usually determined by the amount of daylight that they receive. It is not unlikely that you will experience some green algae and turn the water opaque and the plants may wither because it is too dark for them in the winter. The most common algae eating fish are Siamese Flying Fox. It is also possible that if you place the aquarium by the window. Animals and plants are living organisms and they have their own internal clock that determines their daily behavior as well as their seasonal behavior. You might need to clip a plant and clean the glass. To create an environment that is close to their natural inhabit. You want the lighting to resemble natural daylight. You have to remember that you are trying to create an environment that is closest to their natural inhabitant. Some possible problems are an electric shock. Some will suggest that you place your aquarium by the window to get as much daylight as you can. How do you know how much light you need? A good rule of thumb is 0. You usually will not be able to tell if the fish got a shock. They are used between the outlet and the unit and automatically shut off if there is a malfunction. Your fish will need less light than your plants. An example is if you aquarium is 48X 12 X 21.7 watts per quart (litre) of water. It is for this reason that you should add algae eating fish immediately. I advise that you have the aquarium lit for 12.14 hours a day. The growth of the plants and fish is based on the length of the day. I would also advise that you purchase a timer that will turn the lights on automatically. The problem is that you can’t control the sunlight. The tank needs the lighting to be supplied for the plants and the fish in the tank. The other area where the element of lighting is important is when you are thinking about breeding. Lighting Whether you fish and plants like constant sunlight or thrive in a cycled environment it is important to get proper lighting.Eater.Tropical Fish Secrets It is important to get a thermostat that is UL approved for safety. it will follow the seasons. it is recommended that you invest in an electronic safety device. the Sphnenops Molly. It is important to create an environment that fosters the most growth. Some species will spawn after sunrise and some will be after dusk.

Tropical Fish Secrets It is hard to determine what the exact lighting for the fish is. IF you have to move the lights to do anything in the tank. A good distance between the lights and the cover is 4 inches or 10 cm. they can find shade among the plants. The color of the light varies depending on the time of day. They will then not heat the aquarium and they are out of splashing range. The light will be more efficient if you clean the cover every week. They are also at full intensity after about 5 minutes. then you can line your cover with foil. Most tanks use fluorescent tubes because light bulbs are too expensive and generally give off too much heat. If this is not the case. you might not be able to see what you need to do in the tank. Red light which occurs in the morning or the evening encourages vertical growth. catch fish and empty the tank if there are no lights attached to it. you can raise them. It is not uncommon that plants under this form of lighting will grow quite quickly and will require you to cut them back. Fish hardly ever jump where there are dense plants. . It is also easier to clean. They are usually suspended over the aquarium and they have been quite successful. It is important to note that fluorescent lights will lose half their power within six months. Another type of lighting that has become popular recently is mercury vapor lights. White lights will give you a range of the spectrum. They tend to last longer than fluorescent lights and they are still 80% of their original capacity after 2 years of use. Warm tones tend to use the red end of the spectrum and cold tones tend to use the blue end. The variations will provide different coloured lights that will give your aquarium a good mixture for both the fish and the plants. (Tip: Grow lights tend to change the look of your fish). Most lights have reflectors that will increase the light intensity. How does that affect your aquarium? Well. Fluorescent tubes are also used because you can vary the types of tubes that you use. For these reasons. they should not be used in the first three to six months because they cause algae to form. the different colours of light encourage different things. If you are going to use grow lights. Mineral deposit and algae will build up on the cover making your fluorescent lights ineffective. This mimicks the natural sunrise and may be easier on the occupants of the aquarium. I recommend that you plant the back and the side with dense plants and leave the top open. The advantage to having a well planted aquarium is that if it is too bright for you fish. Then if you need to do work in the tank. Ask your retailer for fluorescent tubes with reflective coating. In this case. You should replace your lights every 6 months. It is ideal if you can hang the fluorescent lighting above the tank. An aquarium should have a combination of warm and cold tone lights. The more natural the lighting is to sunlight the more natural the fish and plants will appear. This will give you the same effect. you may not need to cover the dense area of plants. it is important that you supply your aquarium with both sources of light. Blue light which occurs in the midday fosters the sturdiness of the plants. This type of lighting should only be used in tanks that are 20 inches or higher.

Remember that water with some debris is far less harmful than crystal clear water over loaded with waste products. There are three types of filters. It is a good . One is to alter the water and the other is to remove harmful substances from the water. It is best to use a filter that passes through 2 inches thick with a large surface. The filter does require some maintenance. Remember that the efficiency can drop by 50 %. A filter will improve the quality of the water and make it look cleaner. Bottom heating causes the water to flow up through the gravel. Most filters are placed inside the tank and can be used for small aquariums or your breeding or quarantine tank. Gravel is a house for bacteria. Under-gravel filters are also good. Mechanical fast filters are water pumps with small filter that will remove large particles or debris in floating water. This defeats the purpose of the filter. under gravel and mechanical fast filters. The water is pumped underneath and grated on the bottom of the aquarium.biological slow filters. There are two reasons for the filter. bacteria will form on the filter and it will slow down the filtering system. Charcoal draws toxic substances from the water. One drawback of an inside filter is that cleaning the filter may disrupt the inhabitants of the tank. You filter should be large enough that the water flows through it every hour. It is the filer that will remove leftover food. Outside filter are used when you don’t want to clutter the inside to of the tank. If you do not do the general upkeep. They are no substitute for slow filters or for regular tank upkeep. They work best for tanks that are 30 inches or 80 cm.Tropical Fish Secrets In addition to the lighting. It is good to keep charcoal on hand. Due to this charcoal filters need to be changed more frequently. Inside filters can be hidden by the plants without any damage to their functioning. Some new model come equipped with cassettes of filter material so that you don’t have to take the entire filter out of the water. This is important to remember when you are purchasing a filter. Outside filters are also better for aquariums that are highly populated. Biological slow filters break down the bacteria and algae in the tank after two weeks. Many filters will only filter the first 2-4 inches. The organisms will break down the waste products. There are also larger filters can be used if you do not want to use an outside filter. You will need to change them every 3-4 days. They can be mounded behind the tank or put lower in a cabinet out of sight. Small outside pumps are run by air pumps and large ones are usually run with water pumps. Polyester fiber takes small particles out of the water. It is for this reason that outside filters are generally bigger. Remember that bacteria needs oxygen to survive. These types of filters create a strong current and clean the water. the filter is an important aspect of your aquarium. They are good for heavily populated tanks. fish feces and decaying plant material. Substances will soon break down in a charcoal filter. It needs to be washed and replaced frequently. Most inside filters come with an air pump.

so. All healthy aquariums have plants in them. Okay.. This will tell you the changes that you need to make in the tank. In a tank with no filters or aeration. Bacteria will die in oxygen. Most people do the opposite. you will need a few more things before you can set up the tank. What happens in that case is that the tank is overcrowded with fish and the plants because covered with algae and barely survive. This will allow the water to have contact with the air which gives off carbon dioxide and the oxygen is then carried into the aquarium. If you are using a biological filter. For this reason. .Tropical Fish Secrets idea when you first set up your tank to filter the water through the charcoal which will help to remove harmful substances. and the type of food that you feed them. It is important to that if you do not clean your filter in the tank.4 months because they will clog and start to discharge large bubbles. How often you need to clean the filter will depend of a lot of factors. Don’t underestimate the contribution of plants in your tank. I know what you are thinking. it is quite important to get rid of the carbon dioxide. it could be due to the filter. your filter will need to be cleaned frequently. so we have talked about the kinds of filter and but how do we take care of filters. It depends on the filter itself. It is important to note that filters are not a substitute for cleaning the tank. The best way to determine how the water moves in your tank is to sprinkle a bit of peat on the water. One way that is quite effective is to install the filter so that the outlets are at water surface. take out the filter and clean it thoroughly. (Tip: wash your filter in cold or lukewarm water. Okay. It is still important to clean the tank regularly. The air will run through the stones in the filter. Is that it? Is that all I need? NO. I would recommend that your tank resemble a botanical underwater garden with the fish being used to highlight the garden. If the pump stops. Charcoal should be cleaned every 3-4 days. If your tank is overcrowded or your fish are overfed. Hot water kills bacteria). the quality of your water. Mechanical filters need to be changed as soon as the water gets slimy or the flow of the water is reduced. In the case. you fish may die within a short time after cleaning. Larger bubbles will cause the pump to work harder. the bacteria forms quickly which creates more carbon dioxide and can suffocate the fish. Arrange the air stone and the filter outlets so that there are no warm or cool spots. You also need to have a strong aeration then in the tank to support the fish and the plants and to get rid of the excess carbon dioxide that is produced. This will create a larger exchange for gases between the water and the air. the size and number of fish in the tank. Air stones should be changed every 3. Remember that the purposes for filters are not just to keep the water clean but to keep the water moving. we have discussed the equipment that you will need. it will take 2-3 months before they are 100% effective. You filter can also be run on an air pump. Tip: the more plants that you have in the tank the more carbon dioxide they will take on.

The air is moved through plastic tubes. this will not be in your best interest.Tropical Fish Secrets You will need a thermometer. The rougher side of the wiper will remove the calcium and the tougher algae. It is a pain in the butt to carry large buckets throughout the house to fill up the tank… You will also need 2 buckets. The smaller nets will require you to chase your fish more and will cause more disruptions to the rest of the tank. It is important to note if you are going to use household utensils to clean the tank. Plant tongs are also useful. Depending on the size of your tank. It is important that they are not used for anything else. You can ones that have suction cups so. This creates less disturbance and the fish are not able to see you coming behind them. You can make a backdrop behind it and mount it behind the aquarium. I would also recommend that you invest in tubiflex strainers and feeding rings. You install them in the corner of the aquarium and they are used to prevent dry food from spreading throughout the tank. Setting Up and Decorating the Aquarium The back wall It is not necessary to decorate the back wall but some fish might feel safer if it is protected. You will also need a hose about 5 feet by ½ inch in diameter. you will want a hose that is long enough to reach from your tank to the sink. Remember that the back wall will get covered with algae and the decorations may vanish out of sight after . They will know something is behind them but they will not be able to determine what that is. you can put them on the wall or you can put them at the bottom of the tank in the gravel. Preferably with felt or razor edge. You will also need attachments for your filter and aeration system. IF they still smell of plastic after that. The choice is yours. You will need a fish net to catch your fish coming cleaning time. you are ready to decorate the tank. The aquarium will also appear more peaceful and deeper if the back it covered. The magnet is placed inside the tank and will clean as it moves. they are not acceptable for aquarium use. They will come in handy when you need to thin out the plants or remove dead debris from them. You can also use a glass trap. The easiest thing to do is to paint it back or grey. It is necessary to attach clamps and valves to regulate the flow. Most algae will be able to be wiped off with the foam rubber side. the easier it is to fill using the tap. Other option is a wiper with a magnet. If you have tested your tap water and it is suitable for your tank. Be sure to mark them for tank use only. the larger the tank. Brass with scratch the surface. A bucket with a spout is your best bet. Plastic utensils give off a toxic substance which will be harmful to your fish. Even the smallest amount of soap or detergent will be harmful to your fish. IF you are planning to photograph your fish. Get a big net. The items should be made of plastic not metal. The front panel of the tank should be cleaned using a window wiper. Remember to place them in hot water for a few hours. Once you have installed all the equipment. The metal could be poisonous to the fish.

Tropical Fish Secrets a while. The wood should be boiled in water until it becomes . Most fish like dim light. granite. This is good because no fish can get caught between them. Another option is to buy back walls. You can remove the back wall all together and build a natural backdrop out of rocks and sand. you will have to go to a builder’s supply. Other decorative Materials You can buy tree roots and driftwood at the pet store. This is the time to do it. such as marble. The bottom should be 2 or 3 inches thick. Do not use cement if you are going to do this. Terraces on the bottom make the tank look better but remember that if you do this with a variety of colours. You want to keep in mind that some surfaces will increase the amount of algae and will provide a hiding place for the less aggressive fish and newly hatched fish. Cement is poisonous to the fish. Red and brown lava are great to decorate the bottom of the tank. They are sold in thick sheets so you can shape them the way you want and there is no space between the glass and the sheets. you will have to add fertilizer to the bottom gravel. Finer sand is good for circulation. Be sure to rinse the gravel until the water is clear in the bucket. Be sure to check before you introduce it to the aquarium. You can pour the sand over the rocks to make them look more natural. You will want wood that has nothing left on it to rot. How do you know?? IF you drop a bit of hydrochloric acid on the rock and bubbles form. Most slate is usually safe. gabbro or basalt. you will want calcium free rocks such as igneous rocks. Remember to scrub the rocks thoroughly before you put them in your tank. Floor covering and rocks The bottom of the tank should no have any calcium. Be sure to rise off the gravel before you put it in the tank. If you want strong and healthy plants. This is the cheapest way to get 100 pounds or more of quartz gavel. be sure to test whether they are calcium free or not. For smaller tanks. Coarser gravel allows for more debris and is harder to siphone off. Calcium makes the water harder. If you want to put in rocks that you have collected. You could mix darker gravel with the quartz gavel. then there is calcium. Sediment rocks may or not be calcium free. They are made of polyurethane and they are quite light. The look of the aquarium will amaze you if your tank has a black back drop with reddish sand and lava rocks set of with plants and colourful fish. The disadvantage with quartz gavel is that it is light in colour and it reflects the light. It will look natural and assembled. For larger tanks. The shallowness will allow people to see into the tank easier. You can use epoxy which will stick eth rocks together. You will want to arrange the tank with shallowness at the front and deepness at the back. You can buy gravel of different coarseness. IF you are thinking of adding rocks to your tank. Limestone. They are glued or taped to the tank until they have soaked up enough water. you can buy gravel at the pet store. Flagstones work better if you are looking to create this effect. they will not stay in place long due to the motion of the water. is never good for your tank or aquarium.

This will enhance your tank. Remember that the look of the tank will depend on how you decorate it. you may want to build some partitions. Coconuts shells are enjoyable for cave-dwelling fish but remember to boil them in hot water as well. leaves and blossoms with the expectation of ferns and moss. You can then control the rate that the water comes in. IF you were thinking of flower pots. you will need to soak them for a day in 2 gallons of water and peat. This will prevent leaves and stems from drying out. they will produce more oxygen than they need. be sure that you don’t do anything else. If you fish swim in schools. stems. they need oxygen continuously. They turn them into sugar which is converted to starches and cellulose. the plants will compete with the fish for oxygen. You will want to fill the tank slowly. This is another reason why at the beginning I suggested that you know what kind of fish you want to put in your tank. It is not uncommon that they dispense their roots and just float in the water. Filling the tank with water once you have decorated. IF you are going to use the faucet. to the needs of the fish. If they are territorial. So you want to put plants in the aquarium.Tropical Fish Secrets saturated and does not float. You don’t want a big mess on the floor that could have been prevented. you can fill the tank with water. It is best if you fill it with a bucket or a watering can. they absorb water and minerals and carbon dioxide. Plants from still waters are more delicate. The best advice I can give you is to fit the decorations of the tank. Labyrinth fish like floating plants to build their nests in. If plants have enough sunlight and carbon dioxide. In an open aquarium. fill the tank one third full before you plant. Tree roots are good for fish that want to hide. Old clay pots do not need to soak. They are extremely thin and the nutrients can be absorbed from the water directly by the leaves. they need a phonsynthetic nutrition which consists of energy from sunlight and chlorophyll. Be sure to add fertilizer for your plants and not to pour in the water that it stirs up the gravel. the big fish will soon terrorize the small fish. . If it is dark and insufficient lighting. Plants from moving water are more robust. Remember that the slightest dehydration will cause them to wither. A dramatic contrast will not only catch the eye of anyone passing by the tank but will also provide an environment for a variety of different fish. If you want plants. Just a quick reminder from your Grade 9 Science class. Tanks can fill quickly. The roots serve more for holding onto the ground than to absorb nutrients. Fish with suction mouths will hang off the driftwood pieces. They will produce carbon dioxide. Where do you start????? Most plants are flowering plants with roots. Water plants such as Egeria Densa can really only live underwater. you will want a large area for them to swim and the decorations should be at the back of the aquarium. The behaviour of your fish will dictcate how you arrange your tank. In order for them to live. Scarlares need driftwood to hide behind whereas bottom fish like to dwell among the rocks.

In a large tank. You will want to disinfect your plants. Plants should be arranged in the same kind rather than mixing different types of plants. they also improve the water quality and absorb harmful nitrogen compounds. Top rooting plants should be spaced wider than deep rooting plants. Microsorium pteropus and other ferns need to be planted deep enough to show the green root top. They should also be planted in clusters or groups. Plants provide food. Remove all the injured. You can do this by putting them light purple solution of potassium permanganate or water with 1 teaspoon of alum per quart of water. Acorus genus have creeping roots and should be planted on a slant. Be careful not to bruise them. The newspaper will soak up the water and keep the leaves out of the wet water. Now pull up the plant so that the crown of the plant is barely visible. The distance between them will depend on their size. Hold them down with stones or glass clamps until they have grown roots. You need to take the same things into consideration for your plants that you would take for your fish. territorial borders and spawning grounds. refuges. Leave the plants in the solution for 10 minutes. When you are selecting your plants. This will hold the plant in place as it grows. The most common plant is Nomaphila stricta. This will help you in your planning stages. they will be in wet paper so that they don’t dry out. They also keep the bottom of the tank from rotting because they give off oxygen. You can also tie you these plants to rocks or clay where they will set their roots. it is important to know what kinds of plants will foster in the environment that you have created. For example. Cryptocoryne plants and Valisneria spiralis roots grow straight down and need to be planted in a deep. In addition to these. These plants will nourish themselves mostly through roots and the leaves. Water is the most important. Poke a hole in the bottom of the material and place the roots as deep as you can facing downwards. Healthy leaves are light in colour and snap off when bent. The largest plants belong in the back and the front should have low ground cover plants. They might be a bit of work but the benefits that you will receive will far out weigh the effort that they require. Red and brown plants show up . The leaves above the water will be tougher than the leaves under the water. Dead ones are brown and limp. This will stimulate growth.Tropical Fish Secrets Swamp plants will adapt to change much easier. wilted or damaged leaves. When you bring your plants home. Take a pair of scissors and trim the roots by one-third to one-half. You should know what plants do well in hard or soft water and what temperature they will thrive best in. Now you are ready to plant them. Egeria and Cabombia and Nomaphila sprout roots at the stem nodes. Fill the hole in and place the sand gently around the plant. You will need to know how your plant will grow to have the best results. They are able to grow beyond the water surface. It is important not to crowd the plants. it would be helpful to make a diagram of the tank as you see it. narrow hole. You will want to place them in a bowl and cover them with newspaper.

your plants will not survive. the water becomes acidic and the fish may die from alkaline toxicity. If there is not enough carbon dioxide in the water. The most important nutrient is carbon dioxide. For plants like Crypotocryne. This is due to long overdue change in the water. You will also need to change the water when you are fertilizing or your plants will refuse to grow. and infrequent addition of fertilizer. It is causes by excess nitrates. If you have done this. Add a well-balanced fertilizer after the . A safe way to add carbon dioxide is to use pressurized bottles that are electronically controlled and give off steady amounts of carbon dioxide. This could be due to overfeeding. Fine-leafed plants require a lot of light. New shoots or bud mean that there is growth. If the plants turn yellow and then glassy. the plants will collapse and rot. Keep the environment constant. That is why you can not have both types of plants in the same tank. If you plants lose colour or fray and become transparent that is entirely different. The excess nitrate cause toxic compounds and the plants die. It looks like the leaves have holes from nibbling but within a few days. These can be easily prevented. Brown and black discoloration is caused by overfeeding with iron. Some plants are able to draw carbon dioxide out of the water and some can’t. you can use a time-released fertilizer in the bottom of the gravel. the nutrients might be too highly concentrated and will end up dieing. the replacement of an old. you will have to add iron. This is because the fertilizer has different nutrients that are used up at different rates. You should put the larger growing plants at the end that receives more light. You should check your plants from time to time. that is an iron deficiency. How often you need to fertilize will depend on what product you use. Hole and dents are usually from fish nibbling on them. The nitrate can be kept low by regular water changes. Problems with Plants There are some problems that can arise. You should also put heating cables so that the water flows steadily. you will only need to add a liquid fertilizer periodically. The most common disease that plants get is called Cryptocoryne rot.Tropical Fish Secrets nicely against green ones and light green against dark green.liquid and tablets. Yellow leaves with green veins indicate a deficiency in trace elements especially manganese. The tablets are pressed into the bottom material near the plants. Just add iron or a complete fertilizer. You will need to provide you plants with some type of fertilizer. worn-out fluorescent tube. If you thought about your plants when you set up the aquarium. If the pH of the water rises above 9 or 10. Some just add a paper clip to the filter. Iron is definitely necessary when you are dealing with tropical plants. You will be able to remove leaves that are infected with algae without is showing up in the overall look of the tank. If you use the same water. There are a few types of fertilizers.

Green algae only exists in tanks that are clean and well fertilized so. The South American will grow almost the size of escargots. Just add more light and they will go away. Malayan snails live in the bottom of the tank. The plants will produce enough nutrients once the light is introduced. You can strip them off with your hand or siphon them off. They are just as persistent as blue-green algae. Green algae will be light green and will float in the aquarium and make it opaque. In a sparsely planted tank. they will not harm the plants tin the tank. etc. Algae There are always some algae present in your tank. Red algae look like dirty-green threads or beards from plants. algae will thrive. It will vanish in a few days or you can introduce water fleas. rocks. They form a dense blue-green. Ramshorn snails are found in most tanks. Brown algae and gravel algae grow into a thin brown layer.Tropical Fish Secrets water is changed. Cabombia aquatica are sometimes subject to their attacks. The algae can be removed by hand or you can siphon it off. They will not damage plants unless they are in large numbers. algae will grow. They eat fish food and plants. Snails Snails will eat the leftover food that t the fish refuse to eat. In warm water tanks. Follow the directions when you are using these products. You may need a chemical killer. As soon as the environment in the tank changes. It is important to get it all off the surface because they will continue to thrive as long as there is a trace of it present. Replace the fluorescent lights regularly so that they are not subjected to changes in the lighting. They only emerge at night. They are rare to be found in pet stores. Some fish do like to eat the algae but it will grow faster than the fish can eat. They will also be on the plants. The easiest way to prevent algae is to ensure enough plants in the tank in the beginning. you might add mud snails. During the day. there are three kinds of snails. They do not eat plants but they will dig in the bottom of the gravel and can cause some rotting at the bottom of the aquarium. be sure not to pull out the plants. You will rarely have to purchase these because you will find snail eggs usually on the leaves of your plants or they will get in with live food. Blue-green algae is the oldest form of algae. In rare cases. they will hide in the gravel. If there is enough food. If you are going to remove them by hand. It will sometimes appear in newly set up aquariums when the fish are overfed. This will ensure that you don’t have an algae problem. Start out with a lot of inexpensive plants and replace them as you go a long. The drawback of them is they create webs around the plants which will decrease the amount of light the plants get. violet or brownish-black layer on the bottom. Mud snails or Limnaea stagnalis will feed on plants and may carry some . This is usually caused by not enough light and oxygen. The good news is that Simese Flyng Fox enjoy eating this kind of algae. they are a good sign. wood and rocks.

If they lie there. it means that the bottom is rotting. Types of fish Catfish: . If they move around actively on the bottom and eat clear through the algae. If you do this once a week or once a month. The snails will collect on it. put a scalded lettuce leaf in the tank. it is time to do a chemical analysis of the aquarium water. then there are some toxic substances in the water. you will be able to hold them in check. The positive thing that snails bring is that they are a good indicator of the water quality in the tank.Tropical Fish Secrets diseases. You can then remove it from the tank. Tip: Puffer Fish and large Cichlids like to eat snails that you collect. If snails die off in a short period of time. If you find that your tank is being taken over by snails. you have nothing wrong with the water in the tank. If Malyayan snails remain above the surface during the day.

algae wafers. Peaceful with all tank mates.8cm pH: 6-8 Temperature: 68-75 F or 18-24 C Diet: Bloodworms (prefers live. so they prefer to be in groups. sinking catfish pellets. Guitarrita (meaning ‘little guitar’) Scientific Name: Bunocephalus coracoideus Family: Bunocephalinae Origin: Peru (also found in Brazil and Bolivia) Max Size: 15cm / 6” Care: Very easy to look after fish.0 & 8. eats most foods Breeding: Egg layer Care: Easy to Intermediate Temperature: 72-79 F(22-26 C) Common Names: Banjo Catfish. Asian Moth Catfish Scientific Name: Hara jerdoni Origin: Asia (specifically India and Bangladesh) Natural Environment: Slow moving streams with sandy bottoms.. seeing as they hide throughout the day by burrowing themselves underneath the sand. hides during the day and comes out at night to search for food. of 15G though very inactive. a 10g is a good minimum size for these catfish. Not too fussed about water parameters. Temperament: Extremely reclusive and shy. Sand bottom is preferred in their aquarium. but will take frozen). Tank Requirements: Although it is very small. Size: under 1/2in or 3. Sand is best for substrate. Recommended would be pH between 6. though will eat fry. IMO.Tropical Fish Secrets Common Name/s: Asian Stone Catfish. Driftwood is a big plus for these catfish because they love clinging on to the underside during the day.. They are also very social animals. Anostomus Anostomus Striped Anostomus or Striped Headstander Common Name: Bandit Cory Other Common Name: Masked corydoras Scientific Name: Corydoras metae Family: Callichthyidae Adult Size: 2 inches (5 cm) Origin: Colombia Adult Size: 2 inches (5 cm) Social: Peaceful Lifespan: 5 years Tank Level: Bottom dweller Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallon Diet: Omnivore. but other small grained substrates will work just as well. the Hara jerdoni requires extremely stable water parameters.0 with a temperature of around 26C. Not too . needs a min.

These algae eaters establish territories around caves. but the fry will . will only feed after lights go off. until the eggs hatch. fry can be fed on usual fry foods like baby brine shrimp and grindal worms. In the 6 months I’ve had mine now. Once the eggs have hatched the male will try keep them together in a group. These eggs will be placed in a place where they feel comfortable. Breeding: It is said that banjo cats breed in groups and will lay between 3000 and 5000 eggs overnight.Tropical Fish Secrets densely planted. These fish can become territorial and aggressive towards other members of the ancistrus family and rarely towards bottom dwelling fish such as corydoras catfish. but said that female banjo cats have a slightly rounder stomach. Sexing: No real difference. males have a lot of bristles whereas the females have small amount.5" (12cm) Care: Bristelnose catfish are not a strictly nocturnal fish. Feeding: Easy feeders usually. so having a piece or two of bogwood or driftwood would be ideal. pieces of wood and other hiding places found in tanks. Feeding should also occur after the lights go off. Being nocturnal fish. They mature at around 3" . These fish breed in the males cave. Eggs should hatch after approximately 3 days. Banjo cats themselves are very ‘slow’ feeders and are not likely to catch enough food when all is eaten within minutes. Variety of bloodworms. Common Name/s: Bristlenose Catfish Scientific Name: Ancistrus dolichopterus Origin: Amazon River. it’s not recommended to put them in with aggressive feeders. It is thought that these fish rasp on wood. acidic water which matches the conditions they are suited to in the wild. they hide in the sand all day long (you’re lucky to spot their gills) and will come out for food at night. Though these fish do well in community tanks. who may not be seen for days. often under flat surfaced rocks (like slate) or underneath plant leaves. For anyone who considers getting banjo catfish. decorations and gravel. I’ve actually caught mine eat flakes once in a while.4" these fish can be easily sexed by the amount of bristles on their nose. vegetables such as zucchini and cucumber and sinking pallets. inside his cave. are larger and tend to be darker in colouration. orange eggs are laid by the female and protected by the male. krill and other types of meaty food is recommended. though catfish pellets are often accepted as well. as they can and will uproot plants. but their diet must be supplemented with meaty foods such as frozen bloodworms. just peoples opinions based on their experience. South America Maximum Size: 4. None of this is fact. Feeding: These fish eat algae which form on the tank glass. Sexing and Breeding: An easy fish to breed. I advice you check up on their stomach once every 3 or 4 days (at least for the first weeks) to make sure they get enough food and don’t starve to death. even with moonlight on only I’ve only ever seen them swim once. Comments: If you want a fish that is out and about and easy to see this is not the fish for you. They can tolerate a wide range conditions but generally prefer soft.

2. The Clown is a wood eater. Basically1. or even monthly basis the clown pleco probably is not for you. Feeding: As with most cories. Do a 20 ish percent water change on the tank with cooler water. and other cories. cucumber. and are a fairly hardy beginners fish. The cories *should* go into spawning behaviour. and grow larger as they become full of eggs. Where. so bogwood is a must. Common Name: Bronze Cory.Females are larger than the males. Condition the cories for about a week with live food until the females are laden with eggs. Anywhere really. It is territorial and will stake a claim to areas at the base of its favorite driftwood or a near by cave. bloodworm. anything. Comments: A lovely catfish which is kept by both new and experienced fish keepers. 3. The eggs are laid on the sides of the tank.Tropical Fish Secrets slowly become escape and enter the tank. check the profile on other cories. Breeding. Suggested foods include. which involves the T position. it is difficult to find. It is a common fish and is almost always available. Rio Las Marinas (Venezuela) and Colombian Llanos.. but they do prefer to be kept in groups so a tank large enough for them to have their own territories is best.flakes. courgette. the floor. Bronze cories also come in albino. Maximum Size: 5" (8cm) Care: If you want to see your fish on a daily. Feed the fry small foods. Sexing and Breeding: Sexing. as they like to be in groups of 6+. Just make sure the food actually reaches the bottom. feed on MW. After the fry hatch. somewhere to hide and food. At feeding times the Clown pleco will defend its . and are one of the few readily available albinos on the market. algae pellets/wafers. providing they are properly acclimatized (as most you find are kept in tropical conditions). There is also a difference in the fins. Oh yes. For a detailed account. Not to fussy about water prams. Viola! Your own baby cories. Variants of the species have also been found in Amazon Basin of Brazil. They can also be kept in cooler water. and will never nip any other fish. until big enough to take flake. or whatever. Leave them.. They are very peaceful fish. All they really need is good water (as with any fish). due to its coloration. Albino Cory (for the albino variety) Scientific Name: Corydoras Aeneus Origin: Trinidad (from Planet Catfish) Average size: 3 inches Care: These cute critters couldn't be easier to look after. weekly. Liquifry. BBS. Common Name/s: Clown Pleco Scientific name: Panaque maccus Origin: Orinoco Basin (Venezuela). but this is less reliable as you cannot always see the fins.Generally easy to breed. The Clown Pleco is found in root structures on the banks and river beds of its habitat.

however.6 .Tropical Fish Secrets food and territory like mad. playing 'catch the cory'. Scientific Name: Corydoras Undulatus Origin: South America Average size: About 2 inches. They like to hide. easy to care for fish. Comments: The clown pleco has become popular with hobbyists over the last few years. this will allow each specimen a separate territory.. It is a hardy. Well suited for a community tank. as with all cories.) are needed. cucumbers. Feeding: Wood is required and. but do NOT buy it as an algae eater. because of low prices and its small size. corydoras elegans. They can be kept with anything that won't eat them. They are quick little things. I’ve found Bloodworms. even when you're . vegetables (zucchini. chasing away any intruders. Sexing and Breeding: Unknown. These are a fairly rare type. (To be updated as soon as I have more info) Breeding: The same as with most cory's. Care: Need to be kept in groups of 3+. full of caricature. so check you don't have a similar species e. As they are not quarrelsome they may be kept with most fish species. cutoff lake at right bank of Rio Pacaya. and most Live/Frozen.7 Feeding: Flake food. Six or over is optimum.g. Sinking pellets as well as algae wafers should also be fed to this fish. sinking wafers. This fish is peaceful. Loreto. The sexes are virtually impossible to distinguish.30 C PH: 5. Also keep an eye on the nitrate levels in the tank and keep them low. Sexing: As with most cory's the female of a species grows a little fuller and longer in the body than males. Brine Shrimp to be some of their favorites and. Common Name: None. Mine like to hide behind the row of plants at the back of the tank. Peru (From planet catfish) Maximum Size: 2” Temperature: 25 . I would suggest a minimum tank size of 25 gallons which can house 2-3 specimens. The clown pleco will NOT clean your tank of algae for you so do not get this fish if you want an algae eater. what fish wouldn't turn their nose away from them. so provide plenty of cover. Care is the same as all cories. so avoid moving them (believe me. in addition. (To be updated as soon as I have more info) Comments: From what I have noticed from mine they are very peaceful fish and. etc. Unfortunately many people confuse the needs and behavior of this fish with that of many other members of the pleco family. beware that some individual fish have been known to show aggression towards smaller species. Common Name/s: None Scientific Name: Corydoras leucomelas Origin: Yarinacocha.

a minimum tank size of 120 gallons (5x2x2') is recommended with two external canister filters or a sump style filter. They need to be provided with plenty of hiding places such as logs/bogwood. but don't use this as an excuse to overfeed. I have only found a few breeding accounts. Sexing and breeding: Unknown Common name: Electric catfish Scientific name: Malapterurus electricus Family: Malapteruridae Origin: throughout Central Africa Maximum size: up to 39" but usually no larger than 12" Care: This is not a very active cat so doesn’t need as much space as some of the other cats such as pims. As I said. However.). Feeding: They will eat anything really. anything. Mine will also eat cucumber. At the moment mine are eating betta flake (I forgot to buy anything else). dim lighting is preferred. once over 12" the fish should only be fed one large meal once a week. When maintaining the tank. A fish for the species tank only. so will hopefully update in a few weeks when I've tried it myself.The females are usually larger than the males. tubes etc. Sexing and Breeding: Sexing.The males have about 3 horizontal stripes with the top two joined together with vertical bars. peas. I had one at 3" which I got 2 shocks off. The fish isn’t fussy of water conditions provided extremes of hardness and pH are avoided.Tropical Fish Secrets only trying to get two isn't fun. see the profile on the spotted cory. . If you want a more detailed account. It is not really dangerous apart from people with heart problems and young children. do a cool water change and allow spawning. They keep the bottom fairly clean. A large rock or piece of bogwood should be used as a place for the fish to hide behind. a great deal of care is needed not to stress the fish as these can deliver a nasty shock. temperature should be kept between 22 and 25 centigrade (72-76f). although due to the size of this fish I would not keep them in anything less than a 48"x30"x24"deep tank. Just make sure any flake you feed them is soaked. Feeding: Large meaty frozen foods and pellets for carnivorous fish will all be accepted as will large live foods. the females look a lot like bronze cories.. bloodworms. the fish becomes increasingly aggressive with age and will attack and kill any living creature it shares a tank with. as far as I know. black devil catfish Scientific name: Hemibagrus wyckii Family:Bagridae Origin: SE Asia Maximum size: 28" Care: A large tank and equally large filtration are a must for keeping this large growing catfish. Common name/s: Crystal eyed catfish. this will let it sink to the bottom.condition the fish with live food.. Spawning is. the same as other cories. Also the colouring is different.

The juvenile of this species has occasionally been confused with the upside down catfish. they prefer meaty foods such as lance fish/smelt. It has been reported. especially towards bichirs. means that a much higher voltage can be produced. however. Common name/s: Featherfin Catfish. Although the electrical potential of each electroplate is very small. The juvenile has a brown splotchy pattern while adults have black spots. Maximum size: 5" Care: The flagtailed catfish is a peacful community cat that doesn’t grow too big. Quite a tough fish. Comments: Juveniles and adults have very different colourations. that they may attack slower moving fish and are slimesuckers. and the columns in parallel. and most fish are safe with it. Large pieces of wood with many holes or caves are perfect for this purpose. I have not personally had this problem with them. but in my experience. Breeding unknown. You can put several of this species in a tank that is large enough and has sufficient hiding spots. Feeding: Sinking pellets and bloodworms are taken with relish. and many blood vessels supply the jelly-like material. Nerve fibrils connect to one surface of each electroplate. embedded in a jelly like substance and held together by connective tissue to form a tube. will come out at anytime of the day to feed. however. Comments: So how is the electricity produced? When observed through a microscope. You will find they can go with almost any other fish which makes them a perfect . the electric organ is seen to be composed of a series of disc-like modified muscle cells called electroplates. but this should not be used as its staple diet. It is quite peaceful.Tropical Fish Secrets Feeding: Blood worm and chopped mussel are fine whilst young but as they grow. May also eat algae tablets. sexing and breeding: Sexing requires taking the fish out of the water and viewing its anal region. Water parameters are irrelevant as long as extremes of pH and hardness are avoided. Nocturnal. stacked in piles like coins. Breeding: I have never heard of this fish being bred in captivity but there are reports that it is a cave spawner in the wild. due to its similar patterning. Featherfin Syno Scientific name: Synodontis eupterus Family: Mochokidae Origin: Africa Maximum size: 8" Care: The minimum tank size for this fish would be a 30 gallon. the “wiring” of the plates in series. Common name: Flagtailed Catfish Scientific name: Dianema urostriatum Family: Callichthyidae Origin: Brazil & other northern regions in South America in rivers and pools.

Comments: I Have 2 of these and they seem very good friends. . Sumatra. As with all predatory catfish frogmouths only need to be fed one good meal a week. and a temperature of 22 to 24 centigrade is preferred (71-75f). easily distinguishable (unless yours are very greedy and are all fat!). It is usually recommended in groups of 5+ if you have the space. They are bottom and middle water swimmers that you will find basking on a rock a lot. as the fish is an out and out piscavor species tank is recommended and its only requirements are a large flat rock and a sand substrate. For this reason regular pH testing is recommended so corrective water changes can be carried out. Breeding and sexing: Unknown Comments: Frogmouths have the strange ability to lower the pH of the water they live in. Frogmouths can swallow prey nearly their own size and so are recommended for a species tank only. regular tank maintenance will keep the fish in good condition. Feeding: FISH! This is one of the very few predators I was unable to convert to frozen foods. Feeding: Seem to take very kindly to feeding on catfish pellets and anything else they can forage for on the bottom of the tank. Common name/s: Glass Catfish. Sexing: Females are much fatter than the males. an ideal community cat.Minimum Tank size would be 20G for a pair or 30G for 3+. unless you are happy to feed live fish then this fish is not for you. Borneo Maximum size: 8" Care: Caring for this fish couldn’t be easier. keeping with larger fish will affect the fishes ability to hunt effectively. The fish is unfussy of water parameters as long as extremes of hardness and pH are avoided.They like rocks or large plants to sit on / in. . so its safe to say keep them in groups. often to levels below 6. Breeding: Similar to that of a cory.Can be quite fussy with water conditions so check your LFS parameters against your own and acclimatize them carefully. along with some caved areas. Common name/s: Frogmouth catfish Scientific name: Chaca chaca Family: Chacidae Origin: India. Ghost Catfish. A bit of vegetables is always appreciated and keeps their colours bright. Requires Wet/Dry season simulation and feeding on live food or possibly frozen bloodworm throughout. Asian Glass Catfish Scientific name: Kryptopterus minor Family: Siluridae . . Never caused or been the subject of any problems. whilst swimming about together in the middle regions of the water.Tropical Fish Secrets "larger" cat to keep.

with other Golden Nuggets they are highly territorial. Nitrate levels must be kept below 40ppm. Kryptopterus minor has a translucent spine. as it is easily stressed. It died the next day. while parailia pellucida's spine is an opaque black. and the difference lies in the spine. When I first bought mine. Care: Excellent water conditions are required with a soft and slightly acidic PH preferred. Comments: A highly attractive fish that makes a shy but wonderful addition to a tank. Be careful that there are no fish disturbing it. however. and thus a matured tank is required. L081 and L177. they simply pick another spot and stay there all day. When stocking this fish. Try to feed before lights out with newly introduced fish to give them a chance to feed as they are nocturnal. Sexing and breeding: Unknown Comments: The glass catfish can turn a milky colour when stressed. put it in last. L018. as keeping too few of this species will make it feel very insecure and stressed. Brazil. but only do so when the food is moved by water current. Soft and acidic water is needed. they must be kept in groups of at least 3-4. Scientific name: Baryancistrus sp. Rio Xingu. Also. and when I redecorate the tank. or they may be extremely skittish. They may take prepared food. Family: Loricariidae. There are actually three species. or sinking. Plants are important to make this fish feel secure. They can be put with pretty much any other community fish. hoplo catfish Scientific name: Hoplosternum thoracatum Family: Callichthyidae . Mine never go to the top to feed. They can be a territorial bottom dweller that will occupy a hiding place and keep it to itself. one of them turned white. slow growing. The others.Tropical Fish Secrets Origin: Southeast Asia Maximum size: 4" Care: These fish can be rather sensitive to water conditions. L018 believed to smaller than others reaching a maximum length of 6". Mine hang out at a single spot in the tank all day. Provide caves and bogwood as a retreat for the fish during daylight hours. Feeding: These fish require a varied diet including meaty foods like Bloodworms. Feeding: Live foods such as bloodworms are preferred. Maximum size: 14" has been recorded but 8" is more likely in captivity. Origin: Amazon. An important point to note is that there is another species of glass catfish which is similar. Parailia pellucida is the other species. who remained translucent. Common name/s: Golden Nugget Pleco. since it is very peaceful. difficult to sex even in mature adults. they will also except more vegetable based foods like cucumber and algae wafers. Common names/s: Brown hoplo. Sexing and Breeding: Not detailed breeding reports. but not the same. and it will eventually perish. survived till today.

Tropical Fish Secrets Origin: Widespread throughout the Amazon basin Maximum size: 7" Care: A very easy fish to care for. Feeding: All manor of prepared and frozen and fresh meaty foods will snapped up greedily. needs the temperature to be between 24 and 25 Celsius (75-77f). Breeding and sexing: Unknown Comments: A must have for any pimeloid catfish enthusiast. Amazon basin Max size: 12" Care: Not fussy of water parameters as long as extremes of hardness and pH are avoided. tolerates temperatures from 18 to 28 Celsius. Does best in a group but is quite happy kept as a single specimen. ideally the fish should be kept in groups of 3 or more but can be kept singularly as well. after spawning takes place both parents should be removed to separate tanks as the males become aggressive and both will eat eggs and fry. H.lima. Comments: Hoplosternum make good clean up tank mates for medium sized and non aggressive predators like S. Osteoglossum and Astronotus.platyrynchos. The main thing to remember is to keep the diet varied. their reasonable size and armor plating makes them unappetizing and protects them from the occasional nip. A sand or smooth small grained gravel substrate should be used to protect the fish’s barbels. the fish may even take flake from the surface. Feeding: All small foods will be taken. a good regular tank maintenance schedule will keep the fish in top condition. Common name/s: Ornate pim Scientific name: Pimelodus ornatus Family: Pimelodidae Origin: South america. tank mates or food. The fish build a bubble nest using leaves and twigs in its construction. when in breeding condition the male displays a blue/purple sheen on the under belly. as with all pimeloids the fish is a predator and fish less than half its size will be eaten. A constantly active fast moving catfish the minimum sized tank to keep this fish when adult would be 5x2x2' (120 gallon) though this size could easily handle a small group of them (3-5 fish). The fish will not harm even the smallest fish and is the perfect addition to any community tank over 30" in length. bloodworms and small catfish pellets are especially enjoyed. the species is neither fussy of water conditions. the fish will eat enough in one feeding to last a week! Smaller specimens can be fed on bloodworms until they are large enough to accept larger foods. Breeding: Spawning can be initiated by large water changes using cool water. this is the fish that all other pims wish they were! Common name: Oto / Otocinclus Scientific name: Otocinclus Affinis Origin: South America Family: Loricariidae Maximum size: 2 inches .

Breeding: You need quite a few otos to get them "in the mood". Common Name/s: Panda Cory Scientific Name: Corydoras panda Origin: Peru. and picking up bits of food. A nice feature about this catfish is that it is not as shy as most species. They will lay eggs on rocks and leaves.7. with Panda Cories. I do water changes 2 times a week. The p. and they are very peaceful. They are one of the more delicate types of Cories. Keep the water slightly softer to encourage breeding. but I’ve always found them to do best in water that’s about 7375.5 . Feeding: Flake food. Brine Shrimp and Tubifex Worms to be some of their favorites. An ideal algae eater for small aquariums. If you happen to catch them breeding. as they can go about sifting through it. Sexing: Females are more robust. where they can hide. Comments: Panda Cories are great little fish. A peaceful community fish. A dark colored substrate makes this cat feel more comfortable. Loves brown algae and driftwood. but then some uneaten food can fall through. the female will be the one carrying the eggs around. It’s easier to see this. The temperature should be between 68-78. Males have slightly longer fins which aren't really noticeable at first glance. Keep at temperatures of 75-79f. I’ve found you need to do water changes pretty often with Panda Cories. sinking wafers. clean water. or pots. Fine gravel is also okay.Tropical Fish Secrets Care: Needs a tank of 10 gallons minimum. Sand is best for them. Comment: Be very careful when acclimating this fish and carefully monitor its care the first 2-3 weeks. Many people have a hard time acclimating the otos and getting them to eat.H should be around 6. On my tank that has Pandas in it. Sexing: Females are larger and rounder then males. They also will enjoy caves. which can cause infections in the Cories. and most Live/Frozen/Freeze-dried foods. more often then you need to for other Cories. Do provide a few hiding places just in case this fish feels like a little privacy. They cannot tolerate very high temperatures for long periods of time. Common Name: Peppered Corydoras Scientific Name: Corydoras paleatus Origin: South America Average size: In captivity they can grow to be 3" Care: Peppered cories do well in large groups because they are a schooling fish . I’ve found Bloodworms. The male should look more streamlined. when you view them from the top. It can often be found stuck to the sides of the tank or grazing rocks and leaves during the day. Feeding: Algae wafers as well as some vegetables. and cause bad bacteria.4. They do well in community tanks. This catfish likes to be in groups of three or more. South America Maximum Size: 2” Care: Panda Cories do the best in nice.

they are best kept at temperatures from 22 to 25 Celsius. Feeding: Peppered cories are bottom feeders. In nature they breed when the rivers and streams flood with fresh water. Shrimp pellets. They are strictly freshwater. The mating pair will get into the "T" position. Pimelodus pictus is best kept in a group of 3 or more. they search the bottom for leftover food. The female will then lay the eggs throughout the tank. water changes of at least 25% weekly are recommended. underneath plant leaves and under rocks. A group of five or six is good. They will eat flake food that sinks to the bottom. most sinking aquarium foods will be taken. This type of fish is also known as an armored catfish and is compatible with many other species of freshwater tropical fish. Feeding: The fish is not fussy about food. pim pictus. Common name/s: Pictus catfish. They swim to the top and swallow bubbles of air to absorb oxygen internally. One thing to keep in mind is that every Corydoras catfish occasionally needs oxygen at the surface. When breeding. the female groups off with two males. in the Rio Maderia and its tributaries. To breed in captivity do large and frequent water changes and decrease the water temperature slightly. 12" in the wild Care: The fish is reasonably easy to care for. A good water temperature can range from 70 to 78 degrees Fahrenheit. adding salt water to a tank of cories will stress the fish. As with all pimeloid catfish the fish can be sensitive to nitrate so regular maintenance should be done. Maximum size: 1 inch . Sexing and Breeding: The female Peppered Cory Cats are usually larger and more round than the males. and bloodworms and catfish pellets for carnivorous fish are recommended. Pygmy Catfish Scientific Name: Corydoras Pygmaeus Origin: Brazil. this fish is a predator and will consume any tank mates under 3". has been the most popular food but they will eat most bottom feeder pellets. Decorate the tank with many pieces of bogwood and rocks to form caves and structures for the fish to rest under. Breeding: Unknown Comments: There are two subspecies of Piteous pictus in the hobby. it tolerate a wide range of water conditions and will thrive in all but the most alkaline and hard water. angelicus pim Scientific name: Pimelodus pictus Family: Pimelodidae Origin: Amazon and its tributaries in Columbia and Peru Maximum size: 6". if kept alone they become shy and will hide but if kept in just pairs they will fight. where the female faces the males on a 90 degree angle to extract the male's sperm. the Peruvian pictus which has large black spots and is the more commonly seen fish and the Columbian which has many smaller spots and is generally smaller. she chooses which one she will mate with. in my own experience.Tropical Fish Secrets and can live up to several years. Common Names: Pygmy Cory.

and catfish pellets or wafers. Some have a very low subdued metallic shine on their body while some have a very bright shine. Amazonian red-tailed catfish.5' . sunglasses and mobile phobes not to mention tank mates. Brine shrimp. and add some bog or driftwood into the tank. Prefers soft waters. a lot of public aquaria have them to 3. Common name: Rubbernose Pleco / Bulldog Pleco / Rubberlip Pleco Scientific name: Chaetostoma Milesi . Comments: This is not a good aquarium fish unless you have a fish house or are can build a huge tank in your home with an equally large filter to match. they have eaten cameras. Once they hit 12" bits of trout are best and fed once a week. Feeding: Usually not to picky about foods. To keep nitrates down twice weekly water changes may be required. Be sure not to house with larger or more aggressive fish.4 but closer to neutral. Common name(s): Red-tailed catfish. This is most likely done using hormones. Maximum size: Difficult to say the max size of these fish as it changes so much. And will appreciate a fine gravel or sand substrate. Feeding: While they're small (2"-6") they are fine on bloodworm.5-7. They should be left to public aquaria IMO. Eventually they will require a tank/pond of 10'x4'x4' min but larger the better for these fish. flakes. Will swim to low mid levels of the tank and very active. 4' is a god size with a lot staying at 3’. shrimp pellets. Care: As far as tropical fish go. In the past. As for water chemistry. Once they get to 8"12" they should take whole lance fish/smelt twice a week. pH of 6. As they grow they are best started in small 36" tanks when 2" long and moved up to 4' then 6' tanks and then up to a pond. Comments: Very peaceful (like all cory's). they are actually quite a hardy fish and will adapt to captive conditions well as long as a large well filtered aquarium is provided. and a shoal of at least 7 in my opinion.5 and a temperature of 25-30C is fine. This is a beautiful fish if kept properly. Wonderful community fish to have (in my opinion they're better and more fun to have than normal cory's). blood/tubifex worms.Tropical Fish Secrets Care: Pretty hardy and undemanding.4' some may have larger. Breeding: Never bred in captivity although we are starting to see red-tail/tiger shovelnose hybrids coming into the shops which IMHO are wrong.5-7. Temperature of 72-78. chopped cockle and small pieces of lance fish/smelt daily or every other day. Sexing and breeding: Females tend to be a tad wider. I also add vitamins with this as mine won't touch any green foods. anything between Ph6. eggs are laid on plants. In captivity however. Never leave objects near the aquarium as anything they can swallow will be eaten. In the wild there are reports that 6-8' cats have been caught but 5' is more common. Scientific name: Phractocephalus hemiliopterus Family: Pimelodidae Origin: Parts of the amazon including deeper waters through to the flooded forest in the rainy season. Breeding occurs in shoals.

Tropical Fish Secrets FamilyLoricariidae Origin: Columbia Maximum size: 3 inches Care: Needs a minimum tank size of 10 gallons. preferably bigger. saddle catfish. Sexing: Males have a longer dorcal fin then females and the striped pattern is more noticeable. As with all large predatory catfish once the fish has grown to 12" it should only be fed one very large meal once a week. Prefers smooth stones and large rounded gravel. painted catfish. Breeding and sexing: Unknown Comments: The width of the tank is more important than the length for this fish. if the tank is not wide enough the fish’s barbels will touch both sides of the tank at once and cause the fish to try to forcibly leave the tank! Common name/s: Shovelnose catfish. juveniles will hover up catfish pellets and bloodworm like its going out of fashion. sailfin marbled catfish Scientific name: Leiarius pictus Family: Pimelodidae Origin: Amazon basin Maximum size: 24" to 30" Care: Rightfully known as a true tank buster this fish requires a large tank with massive filtration. Feeding: This fish isn’t fussy and will accept all manor of large meaty foods. Very timid and only comes out at night or when no one is in the room. lettuce. unless you have plans for a tropical pond or a tank of at least 8x3x3 feet then this is not the fish for you. hockey stick catfish. duck bill catfish Scientific name: Sorubim lima Family: Pimelodidae Origin: Found in north western and south western parts of the Amazon and its tributaries. Venezeula to Paraguay Maximum size: 12" is common in aquaria but some fish can grow to 20" Care: Due to the fishes large adult size the minimum sized tank for a single . Keep the temperature from 75 to 80f. and squash. Likes to hide in caves and under rocks. As with all pimeloids the fish is a predator and any tank mates need to be equally large. The fish is not fussy of water parameters but due to the fishes massive appetite water changes of at least 50% weekly are recommended. Very nice fish but you'll only see them like once every week or so. Feeding: Algae wafers and veggies like cucumber. some live or frozen foods. Breeding: Unknown Common name/s: Sailfin pim. other large catfish arownas and cichlids such as oscars are suitable. Keep with peaceful community fish. Tank furniture needs to be large and robust and any plants should be of the floating variety as the fishes large bulk will easily move objects around the tank and uproot even the most well rooted plants.

. cockles. Can be kept in a wide range of water parameters providing you avoid the extremes of hardness and pH. earthworms and pellets for carnivorous fish should all be accepted. this behaviour only seems to last a short while in captivity and once it adapts the fish takes on a more natural at rest position. Tend to be a little more delicate than other types of cory so be sure to keep up with tank maintenance. it is none the less nothing to worry about and the mucus will quickly be eaten either by the fish its self or by hungry tank mates. Notes: A healthy skunk cory will have shine over its golden brown body. fish. The second is that this catfish will periodically shed the mucus coat from its body. Breeding: Unknown Sexing: Unknown Comments: The fish has a couple of peculiar habits which may alarm those new to keeping this fish. temperatures can be between 23 and 30 centigrade (74-86f). for groups of this fish allow a additional 20 gallons per fish.limas always seem to do this shortly before a growth spurt. I personally go with the second theory as my S. Feeding: The fish is a predator and so should be fed a diet of meaty foods. The first is its preferred hunting position of lining its self up vertical to tall structures within the tank while it waits for prey. Regular large water changes (30 to 40% weekly) are recommended to keep this fish in good condition. Although you see them from time to time. mussels. there are several theories as to why the fish does this ranging from poor water quality to being connected with the fishes growth and even that the fish uses this as a defense mechanism when startled. They are not as readily as available as bronze or the more common types of cories.Tropical Fish Secrets specimen would be a 75g (48x18x18"). eats most foods Breeding: Egglayer Care: Easy to Intermediate Temperature: 25 Degrees Sexing: Easiest when viewed from above as with most cories. smaller specimens can be fed bloodworms until they are big enough to take larger food. Due to the similar marking to the bandit cory i've found them to shoal together readily. This fish is a predator and so tank mates should be at least 4" to avoid being eaten. The female has a more fuller wider body behind the pectoral fins. Common Name: Skunk Cory Other Common Name: Arched Cory Scientific Name: Corydoras Arcuatus Family: Callichthyidae Adult Size: 2 inches (5 cm) Origin: South America Social: Peaceful Lifespan: 5-8 years Tank Level: Bottom dweller Minimum Tank Size: 15 gallon (IMO) Diet: Omnivore.

This catfish should have a completely dark cave. they prefer wood to stone. This fish would do well in a community tank. Feeding: This catfish is an omnivore. Sterbai Cory. spotted talking catfish Scientific name: Agamyxis pectinifrons Family: Doradidae Origin: Amazon basin Maximum size: 6" Care: The fish is very easy to care for and places no demands on water. but even a long black piece of PVC pipe would work well. it is a great addition to 15 gallon or larger aquarium. South America Family: Callichthyidae Maximum size: 3 inches Minimum tank size: 15 Gallons . Like all Doradids the fish is nocturnal and will refuse to be active by day. a cave or rocks/bogwood should be supplied for the fish to rest in/under during daylight. The PH should be anywhere from 6 . I find that my bumblebee catfish loves dried Blood Worms and will even come out of his cave and dart to the top to grab a mouthful! He is quite an amazing catfish. The fish are sociable and should be kept in a group of at least 3. Common name: Sterba. tank mates or furnishings. Lots of hiding places or narrow cracks or holes should also be provided. they are not predatory but very small fish (neon tetras etc) may be accidentally eaten. Lots of vegetation like large Amazon swords should be provided. tolerates temperatures from 20 to 26 Celsius. Sexing and Breeding: Sexing is unknown.5 . Common name/s: Spotted raphaael catfish.Tropical Fish Secrets Common Name/s: South American Bumblebee Catfish Specific Name: Microglanis iheringi Origin: South America Maximum Size: 3" Care: This catfish should be kept in a temperature between 22-26 degrees C (7277 degrees F). Breeding is difficult and reported successful only with experts. the fish will also eat snails. Comments: Although this catfish hides during most of the day. not fussy the fish will accept all sinking aquarium foods. Sterba's Cory Scientific name: Corydoras Sterbai Origin: Brazil. Breeding: Unknown Comments: The fish makes a good addition to the clean up crews of tanks containing large messy fish. Feeding: The fish should be fed after lights out. They are not aggressive and peaceful with its own and other species. It is not a fussy eater and will probably eat any type of prepared food. although brine shrimp and blood worms appear to be a special favorite.7.

The female attaches the eggs to a leaf or smooth surface.Tropical Fish Secrets Care: Sterbais enjoy heavily planted tanks with a fine. algae wafers. Provide a few hiding places with rocks or groups of plants. Features: The synodontis alberti is distinguished by its rather silver-like skin. On the fins. These cories prefer a ph of around 6. plants may not be needed but will give cover for them during the day. flake food and algae wafers. They are generally solitary. and various other vegetables. This is a great catfish and worth the few extra bucks. near Brazzavile. will take other frozen food. smooth substrate. Therefore a good size tank to home one of these beautiful fish would be about 3' x 2' x 2' (36" x 24" x 24"). flakes. Place Of Origin: Can be found in Zaire. danios. Stanley Pool. bits of algae scraped off rocks with their teeth on the bottom jaw. with 'syn' meaning together and 'odontis' meaning tooth. bloodworms. This catfish especially when young is most attractive by its rather large eyes and its long barbels. (From my experience peas and cucumber go down a good treat! ) Compatibility: Make sure the lower level of the tank is not too crowded because these catfish . Rounded gravel or sand is a preferred substrate due to spending most of their life on the bottom of the tank. Kinshasa and the Upper Congo. House with any other peaceful community fish. with large brown leopard spots (usually starting from just behind the eyes to the base of the tail.5" in the home aquarium. otos. It refers to the closely set teeth on the lower jaw. Comment: This fish can be a bit pricey but as breeding is becoming more common the price is slowly going down. They prefer a Ph of between 6-8. Diet: Their diet consists of bloodworms. Water Conditions: These syno's prefer a cooler temperature of 21 . gourami. These will not eat healthy fish and anything over 1" will be safe. female bettas. Make sure they have plenty of caves as they tend to take cover during the day in dark crevasses. The price of this cory has gone down by almost 50% in the last year. Sexing: Unknown Breeding: The male will clamp the barbells of the female during the fertilization of eggs.8. Feeding: Cucumber. but in larger tanks may be likely to create a small group. Synodontis is a Greek word. Tank layout: These catfish prefer bogwood/driftwood rather than rocks.25 degrees C. Size: This catfish gets to a size of 6. The eggs will hatch in 3-5 days and the fry can be fed micro worms. tetras. much smaller leopard spots are seen a on a light brown canvas. These fish are very active and can often be seen wandering the bottom areas of the tank during the day.

Good Luck. Ideal tank mates would be mostly medium sized community fish (about 4" or so). (Make sure the head is towards your palm and the tail is in the direction of your fingers.. Next. they will be fine with a neutral pH and a temperature of 25-28C. Males on the other hand have quite ridged genital papillae on which the spermatoduct is on the back end facing towards the tail fin.. in great care of its sharp dorsal and side fins. The female will show an extended papillea but the oviduct is on the ventral side of this papillea. Comments: In the wild. These fish can be housed with peaceful fish such as other large cats. Put in with tank mates over 1" in length. common in the fast flowing rapids.Tropical Fish Secrets will squabble for cover during daylight hours. they need plenty of surface water movement and plenty of oxygen in the water. if the female is mature a slight redness might be apparent. To you that is) Next pull the tail down gently. these are the native equivalent to cod and chips. I would recommend these to anyone with a big enough tank.while they're small 2"-6" they are fine on bloodworm. larger in the wild. to hold the fish on its back. just make sure that they or of an equal size as these fish have largemouths and have no trouble eating fish half there own size. Sexing: When trying to sex your synodontis. Care: Provide this fish with a large 10'x4'x3' tank and a large filter such as a sump tank. Females may appear more 'plump' also.. Maximum size: Usually about 3' in captivity. These catfish may bother more timid species at night with its long barbels when in search for food. as some characins. Once they hit 12" bits of trout are best and fed once a week. Feeding: They have similar feeding habits to the red-tailed catfish . The furrow will open to display the anus of the fish and the genital pore. Breeding: These fish are not bred in captivity. oviduct and anus. doing this should straighten the pelvic fins to reveal a furrow tissue underneath. place the catfish's dorsal in between your index finger and your middle finger. you’re less likely to get some damage done. that way if the catfish wriggles. A small or thin female may have 2 pink pores.. do not put in with anything too aggressive. chopped cockle and small pieces of lance fish/smelt daily every or every other day.. It's a great joy to watch them scamper across the aquarium floor at night (when the lights are dimmed). As far as water quality goes.. arowanas. local . Common name: Tiger shovelnose catfish Scientific name: Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum Family: Pimelodidae Origin: Amazon.. once they get to 8"-12" they should take whole lance fish/smelt twice a week. Breeding: None yet stated Overall these catfish are beautiful and a great community fish to have. first you'll need to catch it.

good basic aquarium husbandry will keep the fish in good condition. Feeding: Unfussy of foods the fish will gorge itself on most frozen and prepared foods offered. temperatures from 22-26 C (72-79F) and a hardness of 5-15 dH. and have rounder plump bodies.Tropical Fish Secrets fishermen catch hundreds of these a week and they are very common on fish markets in the Amazon and Peru. . the optimum sized tank would be a 55g. In 2 months the fry will begin swimming in the characteristics of the parents! Comments: the upside down catfish is a fun and exciting creature to watch! They make a great addition to any aquarium! Common name/s: White line piteous Scientific name: Pimelodus albofasciatus Family: Pimelodidae Origin: Amazon basin Max size: 6" in captivity to 10" in nature Care: The fish’s restless nature means that it should be housed in a tank of at least 36" in length. common name:Upside Down Catfish scientific name: Synodontis nigriventris family: mochokidae origin: Zaire and niger river basins maximum size: 10 cm (4 inches) life span: 5 or more years! Care: easy! the upside down catfish can tolerate a pH of 6 to 7. as with all pimeloid species it is a predator and tank mates should be at least 4" to avoid being eaten. paler. the fish should be fed enough to make its belly swell like it has swallowed a marble twice a week. can be kept in temperatures from 22 to 26 centigrade (70-76f). The fish is territorial towards its own species and similar fish and can be aggressive when kept in smaller tanks.5. It can be kept in a wide range of water parameters though extremes of hardness and pH should be avoided. Breeding and sexing: Has not yet been bred in captivity and sexual differences are unknown. this is another fish that is better left to public aquaria unless you can provide huge tanks and filters. Then you must feed them freshly hatched BBS. When readying them to spawn supply them with live foods and soften the water to mimic there natural habitat! After the spawn the parents may be left in the tank! Eggs hatch in about 2 days and will feed from the yolk from the sac for 4 days. Temperature is not a critical! Diet: the will eat some forms of algae but sometimes need live food as well as frozen! To provide them with wonderful health you must slip some insect larvae when ever possible! Breeding: the upside down catfish is an egg layer! Supply them with an over turned pot or PVC pipe! Females are larger. The upside down catfish is a very peaceful fish and should be kept in small schools! Driftwood caves and plants are a must! The enjoy hanging out on the underside of leaves and driftwood.

Amazon basin Maximum size 12" Care: As expected due to its adult size the fish requires a fairly large tank. 20cm Diet: This fish will accept dry and frozen foods (brine shrimp I found is preferred) as well as things like cockell and mussell occasionally. Compatibility: This fish is fairly peaceful.5" Distichodus affinis. The fish places no special demands on water parameters as long as the extremes of hardness and .size 8" Tank conditions: Temperature -between 22-26degrees C PH-around neutral Layout: A good environment for the anostomus would be that of a tank of around 3'. Characins Family: Anostomidae Size: 7inches.Tropical Fish Secrets Comments: A nice change from the more commonly seen pimeloids at a size that can easily be housed by the average fish keeper. one of at least 75 gallons with a high volume filter is recomended. community fish. Common name/s: Black banded leporinus Scientific name: Leporinus fasciatus fasciatus Family: Anostomidae Origin: South America. gravel substrate with pieces of bogwood and lots of plants so this fish can swim around securely. which is better off in a larger tank with fish of roughly the same size. Fish I’d recommend to keep with the Anostomus are: Leporinus fasciatus fasciatus -Black banded leporinus size:12" Abramites hypselonotus -High-backed Headstander size 5.

Water quality: Accepts a wide variety of water conditions.8-8. peaceful. The fish are herbivores and will make short work of most aquarium plants although java fern may be left alone. These fish are notorious fin nippers and so tank mates should be short finned and fast moving. enjoys plenty of plants to hide and swim through. pellets. Common name/s: Black Neon Tetra Scientific name: Hyphessobrycon herbertaxelrodi Family: Characidae Origin: South America Maximum size: 1. not a picky fish when it comes to food at all. Sexing: Female white skirts are generally larger than the males and have a rounder body (all my girls have bellies). I find my females have short. Good for the novice fish breeder. females are fuller/plumper in the body. The tank should have many hiding places between rocks and bogwood and a good current. Rio Guapore. Sexing and breeding: Although they have the same colouration as the males. Sexing and breeding: Unknown Comments: The fish are aggressive and have no fear of attacking even larger fish in the aquarium.5cm) Care: Keep in groups of at least 6-8. Common name: Black/White Skirt or Black Widow Tetra Scientific name: Gymnocorymbus ternetzi Origin: Rio Paraguay. Feeding: Omnivore. I haven't had one of mine catch a disease yet and one is over 2 years old! Not a messy fish creates little waste. great community fish. rounded . Bolivia Maximum size: 2 inches (5. very hardy (I cycled my tank with them).5 cm) Care: Easy to care for. Swims mid level. a schooling fish that should be placed with at least 4 or more of its kind. Feeding: Should be fed mainly vegetable foods such as lettuce. Minimum tank of 10 gallons or more.5. will accept slightly soft to hard water. tubifex worms. Will accept flakes. very robust when it comes to diseases. a temperature between 23 and 27 centigrade will be fine (7381f). as they grow the front teeth become more prominent and they become capable of inflicting quite serious damage on other fish so tank mates should be semi aggressive and able to defend themselves. They should be kept at 72-79f (22-26c). spinach. courgette (zuchinni) and watercress though the fish will also eat meaty frozen foods and snails. and frozen foods like blood worms and brine shrimp being a favorite of course. when older the fish may predate on smaller fish so tank mates should be the same size or larger.75" (4. pH 5. Temperature 68-79F. and are very easy to breed. These fish are egg scatterers.Tropical Fish Secrets pH are avoided. but relish live meaty foods. They prefer slightly acidic water. and should live a life of up to 5 years. such as tubifex or bloodworm. Feeding: They will accept most available flake foods.

Efficient filtration is a must. well covered aquarium. Feeding: Will accept most foods including flake. They need to be in schools. or fruit loop tetra. Blueberry/Strawberry/Fruit Loop Tetras etc. as the male has a hook on the end of its anal fin. you must separate the adults or they will eat the eggs. In either case. Subdued lighting is preferred. Crickets or feeders can be used as a treat. small pellets. therefore giving it a variety of names like blueberry. Comments: This species is a color variation of the Black skirt Tetra. Will lay eggs scattered among vegetation. If no plants are provided. After a few days the eggs will hatch. with ample swimming space. deep frozen. more pointed fins. Although they are egg scatters they prefer to spawn among fine-leaved plants.Tropical Fish Secrets fins and the males have slightly longer.0. and pH of 6. Hatching takes one and a half days. freeze dried. as they will lay their adhesive eggs on the leaves. and live foods all excepted. or finely ground flake foods. frozen and live. Many dyed examples exist. Tetras which will accept a wide range of conditions. the bigger the better. these fish have been known to live over 10 years. and easily affordable. Breeding: Males will claim a territory that they will guard during spawning periods. Broad leaved plants are a must though. Females are also plumper and duller in color than males. whereas the female's is more rounded. egg yolk. Is known as a Black Skirt/White Skirt in the US as a Black Widow in most of the rest of the world. . Temperature range: 77-84d F (22-29d C) Feeding: Meat based commercial formulations. Kept in a clean tank with a good diet. A number of long-finned and dyed colours have been produced. strawberry. great for beginners. Sexing is relatively easy. and will do so under nearly any condition. extremely peaceful. because they will eat their eggs. Common name/s: Buck-toothed Tetra. These fish are very tight schoolers so 6 or more is a must.0-8. Comments: A great beginner fish that will give you many years of enjoyment. Saw-toothed Tetra Scientific name: Exodon paradoxus Family: Characidae Origin: Amazon Basin Maximum size: 6" (15cm) Care: Large. Sexing and Breeding: This Tetra is extremely easy to breed. The parents should be removed after a successful spawn. they will lay their eggs near the top of the aquarium. including temperatures between 65 and 82 degrees F. Sexing and breeding: Sexing unknown. Eggs will hatch after approximately one day. Common Name: Bloodfin Tetra Scientific Name: Aphyocharax anisitsi Family: Characidae Origin: Argentina and Rio Parana Maximum Size: Up to 3" Care: These are extremely hardy. A wonderful fish for a community or species tank. The fry may be fed freshly hatched brine shrimp.

the more the merrier. They have informally been called the "Lawnmowers of the Aquatic World" by many fish keepers. Young that survive grow at a steady rate and do best on a diet of small live foods. 3. and following spawning the parents should be removed from the tank. they should be in schools of. This is a fast moving. especially Red Bellied Piranhas. but do so at own risk. As with most tetras. Following the 3rd day. robust fish. and should be given a large enough tank to grow in (29g for juveniles. Common Name/s: Buenos Aires Tetra Scientific Name: Hemmigrammus Caudovittatus Family: Characidae Origin: Argentina. . Paraguay and Southeast Brazil Maximum Size: 3" (7cm) Care: Keep these fish in as larger group as possible. In small groups. For the first few days. with a wider body. Feeding: They will eat pretty much anything including flakes.8 is a must. pellets. 55g for adults). they are an active shoaling fish. and live foods. then small live foods such as micro worms and vinegar eels. they will be feeding off their yolk sacs. There fish breed readily in the aquarium.Tropical Fish Secrets Comments: Aggressive predator should be kept in school of at least 5 and preferably larger groups. The Female has a rounder and fatter stomach whereas the males tend to have bright red fins and a slimmer stomach. Keeping a large number against a dark background with a bright light makes them an absolutely stunning sight. Comments: An extremely hardy fish recommended for the beginner. These fish eat most plants found in an aquarium and for this reason they are not as popular today as they used to be many years ago. the fish will attack and kill weaker members until there is only one of the species left. Common name/s: Cardinal Tetra Scientific name: Paracheirodon Axelrodi Family: Characidae Origin: South America Maximum size: 2" (5cm) Care: A soft. you must imitate the natural conditions in the wild. This fish has been kept successfully with Piranhas. active fish. Sexing and breeding: Females are slightly larger. With these guys. acidic water is preferred by these guys as most of them in the are wild caught from the amazon. To breed. They scatter their eggs among plants or in the substrate where the eggs tend to be eaten before they can hatch. Soft water and a pH of around 5. They are an extremely hardy fish and can tolerate a large range of conditions Feeding: They accept most commercial flake foods but relish live and frozen foods Sexing and Breeding: Easy fish to breed. you may begin infusoria. at the very least. They will usually spawn in the evening. Only kept with larger.

Common name/s: Congo Tetra. fully grown males are a truly magnificent sight with their elaborate finnage and delicate hues. Comments: A stunning fish. Not known to breed in the aquarium. Ephippicharax orbicularis. pH range 5. but may be difficult to find in some areas.5 cm). Looks very similar to silver dollars Common Name(s): Dwarf Pencilfish Scientific Name: Nannostomus Marginatus . These fish go beyond schooling to the point of acting as one fish.6 temp range 18-25c Feeding: Omnivourous. Also note that their red colouration will fade when they are stressed. Disc tetra. or without light for long periods. Family: Characidae Origin: Guyana and Suriname. pink and violet hues on its otherwise silver body. so if they spawn in a community tank most of the eggs will be eaten. Sexing and Breeding: Males are easily distinguished by their extended finnage and bright colours in comparison to the shorter finned dull females. Lighting the tank from the side will bring out the green. Salmon tetra & Disk characin Scientific name: Brachychalcinus orbicularis Other scientific names: Brachychalcinus guianensis. they will look great with the contrasting red and glimmering blue streak. maybe with an African theme. Congo Tetras are egg scatterers. Feeding: They will accept most commercial foods but relish live and frozen foods. or expensive. Care: Keep in as larger group as possible as they are an active shoaling fish. For the latter. Know to eat the odd plant or two. Looks very similar to the neon. will accept any foods offered.Tropical Fish Secrets Comments: One of the most beautiful fish out there. but in neons. They prefer slightly soft. this is totally reversible and the red stripe will return when the light comes back on. Maximum size: 3" (8. Poptella orbicularis & Tetragonopterus orbicularis. the red stripe only extends to the abdomen region.5-7.5" Care: Groups of 6 at the very least. Comments: A rare and beautiful mid level fish. The young are slow growers and should be feed live insect larve. Common Name/s: Discus Tetra. Kept in a large school. Scientific name: Phenacogrammus interruptus Family: Alestidae Origin: Zaire. They are an active fast swimming and peaceful fish that does well in a peaceful community tank. Sexing and Breeding: impossible to tell from external viewing. Maximum Size: 9cm/3. acidic water and a well planted tank. while with cardinal it goes all the way to the mouth.

Tropical Fish Secrets
Family: Lebiasinidae Origin: Amazon Basin Maximum size: Up to 1.75 inches, although rarely exceeds 1.25 inches. Care: Does best in planted aquariums, although can do well in unplanted. Likes tempatures between 73-80. Keep pH between 5-7. Prefers blackwater extract and/or peat filtration. Subdued to moderate lighting. Not really a "schooling fish" but likes small groups of at least 3. Feels more comfortable with a couple of taller of floating plants. Don’t house with large fish. Feeding: Omnivorius and micro predators is what I call them. Will take crushed spurinula flakes or very fine spurinula pellets. Will occasionally eat tropical fish micro pellets. Most frozen and freeze-dried foods small enough to fit in their mouths. Is a must to add small live foods such as baby brine shrimp, fruit flies, mosquito larvae, daphina, white worms, and things of that extent. Sexing and Breeding: Males are usually slimmer and have brighter red colors. Breeding occurs at higher temps around 85 degrees on fine leaved plants. Parents may eat the eggs if they get a chance. It's very difficult to feed the fry as they are too small for most foods. Comments: Wonderful, active, colorful fish to keep. May be shy sometimes though. Can be expensive, but worth the investment IMHO. Common name: Flame Tetra / Von Rio Tetra Scientific name: Hyphessobrycon Flammeus Family: Characidae Origin: South America Maximum size: 2 inches Minimum Tank Size: 15 gallons Temperature: 75-79 degrees Care: A schooling fish that needs at least six fish of the same species to live happily. Prefers planted tanks with lots of hiding places and a tank with low light. These are middle dwellers but seem to venture to the top area of the tank quite a bit. These fish are usually drab and dull in stores but color up very nicely in the right conditions. This is an undemanding fish with not many special requirements. Feeding: Accepts flake foods and frozen foods such as bloodworms. Sexing: Females are noticeably fatter and duller in color. Most females are silver in color and males turn a deep reddish orange color and shimmer in the light. Keep in mind that you may not be able to sex the flame tetra in stores because most are usually silver from stress. Breeding: Productive, up to 250 eggs. Eggs will hatch in 24-50 hours. After the fish are done breeding, they should be removed immediately since afterwards they will start to eat the eggs. Fry should be fed a live culture of some kind as soon as they are free swimming. Eggs will not hatch if exposed to light. Common name/s: Freshwater baracuda, Dog characin, Amazon Cachorro Scientific name: Acestrorhynchus falcirostris Family: Characidae Origin: Amazon basin

Tropical Fish Secrets
Maximum size: 16" though 12" more likely in captivity Care: A large aquarium with massive filtration is a must, minimum tank size should be 5x2x2' (150 gallon). The fish is unfussy of water parameters providing extremes of hardness and pH are avoided, temperatures from 24 to28 Celsius are tolerated (75-82f). It is advised to heavily plant the sides of the tank to prevent the fish from smashing its self against the glass. The fish is a predator and should only be kept with equal sized and larger fish. Feeding: FISH! This fish is a pure piscavor, smaller specimens can be converted to frozen meaty foods but adults demand living fish. Sexing and breeding: Unknown Comments: Despite its predatory life style and aggressive looks the fish is shy and easily frightened, do not keep with overly aggressive fish or the barracuda will attempt to escape the tank often damaging themselves against the hood of the tank. Common name: Glowlight Tetra Scientific name: Hemigrammus erythrozonus Family: Characidae Origin: Guyana Maximum size: 2 inches Minimum Tank Size: 15 gallons Temperature: 75-79 degrees Care: A schooling fish that needs to be in groups of six or more. Very undemanding. This tetra makes a good community fish for beginners. They like low light and plants to hide in. Feeding: Accepts flake food and live foods such as bloodworms and brine shrimp. Sexing: Females are considerably fatter than the males. Breeding: Fry hatch after 24 hours. Start feeding micro worms and newly hatched brine shrimp after 3-4 days of hatching. Common Name/s: Green Neon Tetra, False Neon Tetra Scientific name: Paracheirodon simulans Family: Characidae Origin: South America: Upper Negro and Orinoco River basins Maximum Size: 2cm Care: larger the group the better for this small fish. A school of 10 or more will give you their best activeness. Prefers soft, acidic water with a pH of 5.5 to 6. They can be acclimated to a wide range of pH although they do not do so well in the higher bands. Temp range of 23 to 27°C (73.4 to 80.6°F) they do best at 26°C (78.8°F). Feeding: Crushed flakes and live/frozen foods. Avoid bloodworm as they are often too big for them. Daphnia seems to be a favourite of my green neon tetras. Sexing and Breeding: Very hard to tell; however females appear, slightly, plumper than males. No reported instances of breeding in the aquarium. Comments: As with most characins they are susceptible to Neon tetra disease.

Tropical Fish Secrets
You should avoid keeping them with any fish that can fit them into their mouths. Peat filtration is a must to have to reach their full potential. emigrammus ocellifer - Head and Tail Light Tetra Family - Characin Size - 4cm (1.5inches) Origin - Amazon Basin, South America Care - These fish are very easy to keep and are good for beginners providing water quality is good. Diet - I feed my head and tail tetras flake food. This is the staple diet however; they are scavengers and eat anything. They also eat Freeze Dried Bloodworms and Brine Shrimp Compatibility - Corydoras Catfish, Large Tetras, Mollies, Platies, Plecostomus, Swordtails, Zebra Danio Tank Conditions - 22-26 Degrees C (72-79 Degrees F), PH should be 6.0-8.0 Breeding - They are egg layers and are extremely easy to breed. Life Span - Anything up to 5 years Tank Layout - It is best to keep head and tail tetras in groups of 6 or more. They like a fairly strong current and also place to hide. They prefer a floating plant layer and dimmed lighting is a good idea. Common name/s: Marbled Hatchet Scientific name: Carnegiella strigata strigata Family: Gasteropelecidae Origin: Mostly found in small forest streams in Guyana and the Amazon River basin. Maximum size: 1-2" Feeding: Flakes foods are not enough for Hatchets and it is necessary to take a little time and effort to provide them with live or frozen alternatives. In my experience they love fruit flies and mosquitoes and their larve, mine have a particular favourite; freeze dried bloodworms which float on the surface for them. Care: This fish is particularly prone to white spot. If at all possible quarantine the fishes for a minimum of two weeks before putting them in the community tank. They like a peaceful tank with tall or floating plants to deter them from jumping, a tight fitting hood is also necessary. Sexing: Males more slender when viewed from above, females rounder and wider. Breeding: This fish has been breed in captivity. This requires very soft acidic water. The eggs are deposited on floating plants but some will fall to the bottom of the tank. They hatch in 24-36 hours and the fry require very small live foods. Just keeping the parents is a challenge so raising the offspring is even more so. Comments: A lovely little surface dweller, however, it is prone to disease so quarantining is a good idea, once settled in they are a great community fish.

5 inches Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Temperature: 75-79 degrees Care: Very undemanding. since they are very shy and will feel much more secure in greater numbers. Sexing: Males are slimmer than females Breeding: These fish are hard to breed.Tropical Fish Secrets Common name: Penguin Tetra or Penguinfish Scientific name: Thayeria boehlkei Family: Characidae Origin: Amazon Basin. which has a crooked finger shape. The tank should be at least 10 gallons to give them enough room to swim. Maximum Size: 5cm/ 2” Care: Peat filtration is a must to keep this species thriving. the more the better. Feeding: Accepts flake food and live foods such as bloodworms and brine shrimp. Sexing and Breeding: Males tend to have a more pronounced dorsal fin. They will eat flakes. Not known to breed in the aquarium Comments: These tetras are truly stunning and a great peaceful addition to any community aquarium Common name/s: Rummy Nose Tetra Scientific name: Hemigrammus rhodostomus Family: Characidae Origin: Amazon basin Maximum size: 2" Feeding: They are omnivores and will take different types of food.5 to 7. Roberts Tetra Scientific name: Moenkhausia robertsi Other scientific names: None. Breeding: Can be bred. They should be kept in shoals. The females will scatter the eggs and fry will hatch in a couple of days Comments: Very peaceful and beautiful fish. South America. Remove eggs or change water after spawning and the males produce a large amount of sperm. with a pH of 6. Feeding: Like most tetras will eat most anything offered. The Penguin Tetra swims in a zig-zag motion with its head higher than its tail. Common Name/s: Roberti Tetra. Upper Black Amazon. Water has to be soft and acidic acidic. Loves live foods like bloodworm. Sexing: Hard to determine. This tetra makes a good community fish for beginners. as well as frozen and live foods. They should be kept with non-aggressive tank mates. Maximum size: 1. daphnia etc. They do best in the 25-27C temp range. Care: These fish are very delicate so the water has to be perfect before adding them to the tank. Origin: South America: Lower Orinoco. Family: Characidae. You should never add them to a cycling tank. Their noses are good indicators of .

I was only able to keep my pair alive for 4 months before they both died from unknown causes Common name: Serpae Tetra Scientific name: Hyphessobrycon Serpae Family: Characidae Origin: Amazon basin Maximum size: 1. They prefer a planted tank with places to hide and low light. A mid dwelling tetra. Keep with community fish like danios and gourami. Common name/s: Sabretooth tetra. Noses will be bright red when the water conditions are good. Payara Scientific name: Hydrolycus scomberoides Family: Characidae Origin: Amazon basin Maximum size: 30" though 12" more likely in captivity Care: A large tank with massive filtration and a strong current is a must. However. Eggs hatch within 24-28 hours. tolerates temperatures from 24 to 28 Celsius (7582f). with time some fish can be converted to frozen meaty foods. The fish is unfussy of water parameters provided extremes of hardness and pH are avoided. they will lose color if there are nitrites/ammonia in the water or if the fish are stressed.Tropical Fish Secrets the quality of the water. Condition the pair on live foods and keep eggs away from direct sunlight. Needs to be in groups of at least six. The fish is a predator so tank mates must be large and robust. Common name: Silver dollar Scientific name: Metynnis argenteus Family: Serrasalmidae Origin: Amazon basin Maximum size: 5" Care: Silver dollars are a schooling fish and should be kept in groups of 5 or . Feeding: flake food. Breeding: Remove parents after breeding. Feeding: FISH! The species are out and out piscavors. Sexing and breeding: Unknown Comments: Not really suited to aquarium life. Males are redder with longer anal fins. As with all large predatory fish regular water changes of 30 to 40% a week are recommended. live foods. the fish often die for no apparent reason. Eggs are transparent and hard to see. Sexing: Females are pinker in color with bigger stomachs.75 inches Minimum Tank Size: 15 gallons Temperature: 75-80 degrees Care: A schooling fish. This fish is a known fin nipper so be careful what tank mates you put in with them.

hardy plants like Java fern and Anubias may be left alone.Tropical Fish Secrets more. Common names: Bentosi White Tip Tetra/ Bentos Tetra/ Ornate Tetra/ False Rosy Tetra Family: Characidae Sub-family: Incertae sedis Order: Characin Class: Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) Origin: South America/Amazon River Basin Maximum size: 5cm (2 inches) Minimum Tank Size: from 60l (13 Imp gallon. but rarely have the nerve to compete with Danio. The fish can be extremely shy and nervous if placed in a tank with overly aggressive fish or the tank is placed in a high traffic area. They are herbivores that will make short work of most aquarium plants. Breeding: Breeding is rare but possible. mosquito larva and bloodworm. spinach. especially daphnia. The fish prefers soft slightly acidic water but can be kept in water with a pH of up to 7. 16 US gallon) PH range: 6 – 7. A small current also mimics the natural environment of this fish. GH 10. courgette (zuchini) and watercress though small live and frozen foods such as bloodworms and daphnia will also be taken.5 and a hardness of 20 GH without problems.5 dH range: 5-19 Temperature: 24-28 C (75-82 F) Care: I have found the Bentosi white tip a hardy and easy to care for schooling fish. but understand that a mating pair should be separated and introduced into a breeding tank (approx 10 gallons) and the water temperature should be 75-79F (24-26 C). As a schooling Tetra. with the PH slightly . the Rosy Tetra (Hyphessobrycon bentosi rosaceous). Feeding The fish should be fed mainly vegetable foods such as lettuce. Breeding: I haven’t personally bred this fish yet. and free swimming space in the centre. KH -4). Females have a rounder dorsal fin and are plumper and deeper in body. Feeding: My Bentosi become quite excitable at feeding time. or other fast swimming surface feeders. Sufficient planted areas should be provided around the sides and rear of tank for hiding when resting. The fish are egg scatterers. but love live foods as an occasional treat. they need to be kept in groups of at least five or six to fully appreciate their impressive social displays. They prefer to snatch and run with anything that drops to mid-water. for this reason a tank of at least 55 gallons is recomended. with similar needs to their close relation. the key is very soft acidic water (pH 6. the temperature should be kept between 24 and 28 Celsius (75-82f). even if it is too big for their mouth! They happily take flake food. Sexing: The male has a longer anal fin with a reddish tinge to the front. I have also observed them sneaking up and picking at the seeded part of a cucumber slice (when my female Ram is not guarding it!) Sexing: Males have a flag like extension to their dorsal fin and an elongated pelvic and anal fin.

usually ending up with a trip to the emergency room for stitches. Comments: Wimple piranhas are not true piranhas because of the teeth alignment (spelling?) but certainly look like them and act like them. Care: Minimum tank size of 25 gallons. and Colombia. Leave some open places for free swimming. Likes softer flow rates. but eventually they must be moved to their own tank as the wimples will tear each other to death.Tropical Fish Secrets acidic and water hardness of 4dH or less. and ocean plankton. so don’t expect this to be a cheap fish. ever! The only exception to this rule is when they are juveniles they can be housed in a small shoal in a large tank. Common Names: Wimple Piranhas Scientific Name: Catoprion mento Family: Characidae Origin: Select streams and river basins in Brazil. but more comfortable in tanks of 45 gallons or more. Though they are not constant swimmers . Weekly partial water changes are beneficial to the fry. Maximum Size: Up to 5 inches in aquariums. Does require some live foods in its diet. be sure to gut load the feeder fish with spirulina or duckweed. or when feeding. Luckily I’ve never been bitten. The parent fish should be removed before the eggs hatch. Temperature of 74-81 degrees. Start feeding micro-organisms once the egg sacs have been consumed. Insects. Orange and red gill patch and bright red anal fin. Comments: I have personally never found the White Tip to be fin nippers (as their close cousins are often renowned to be) neither do they truly "shoal" except during times of unease.often preferring to hang around a favourite rock or piece of driftwood when relaxed . literally. blood worms. Never house this fish with any other fish. tubifex. Primarily a fin eater. They can give out some nasty bites. Bolivia. and prepared carnivore foods. (Unlike most piranhas who like fast flowing waters). Requires high oxygen levels and extra heavy filtration. up to 7 inches in wild. there should be no additives). It has beautiful colorations with the body being mostly silver with hints of a blue/green. pH levels of 5. worms. Venezuela. Fine leafed plants should be provided. Feed a steady diet of live or frozen lance fish. so an addition of power heads is not necessary. but will also live comfortably with artificial plants. on which the eggs will be laid. mysis shrimp. and crushed flake can be fed after 10 days. Caution: Without proper precautions wimples may bite if felt nervous. frozen shrimp with shell (Check for ingredients label. All wimples are wild caught. Breeding: Never been bred in captivity. or intimidated.these little fish are rarely still. Feeding: Being a predator all live foods are accepted. A calm current and low lighting will mirror their natural environment. prawns or silversides.5 through 7. they seem to constantly flicker and shiver. Does better in planted aquariums. and some resting places. But other than that wimples are straight . The fry hatch usually after 24 hours and are free swimming within a few days. krill. Will also eat most freeze dried foods such as brine shrimp. defensive.

Sand substrate is appreciated by these fish. These cichlids make excellent tank mates for most mildly and moderately aggressive mbuna. Supplements of spirulina flake are recommended. females will incubate and hatch the eggs in her buchal pouch. at a temperature between 75° and 80°. Lemon Yellow Scientific name:Labidochromis Caeruleus Family:Cichlidae Origin: Lake Malawi. aulonocara. Yellow Lab's are best kept in water with a PH of 7. and a personality. The minimum recommended tank size for these fish is 30 gallons. These fish are unselective breeders. males will typically display more aggressive behavior then females. Africa Maximum size: 5" Care: This is a hardy and easily kept cichlid from the mbuna family. active. and an excellent choice for beginners and experienced aquarists alike. Yellow Lab.5 or higher. Sexing and breeding: As young fish Yellow Labs are nearly impossible to sex. A typical holding period for this cichlid is 4 weeks. As they get older the males will grow faster and larger then the females. and haplichromines from Lake Malawi. and then continue to hold the fry until the yolk sacs have been consumed. The aquarium should be decorated with a number of hiding spots including caves of various sizes.Tropical Fish Secrets up one of the best fish to have with everything you want: nice colorations. and dominant males will mate with any present females. and will often be seen digging a nest in a favourite cave. Nothing further then keeping conditions clean is necessary to promote breeding. In the wild these fish are insectivores and micro-predators. and the female will not eat during . As mouth brooders. Feeding: Daily feedings of high quality cichlid pellets or flakes. but is not necessary. Live or frozen invertebrates including brine shrimp and mysis may also be fed as a supplement. They are a very social fish that do well in groups of 3 or more. Cichlids-African Common name/s: Electric Yellow. As they mature.

Even if a frontosa can be successfully kept in a 48" long tank (such as a 90 gallon) however a larger tank is definitely going to be more comfortable for them. The females usually do not need places to hide. frontosa are very powerful and can dig under the rocks causing them to topple…. When a frontosa loses a battle. Kasanga. This means they can be kept in a smaller tank than say an oscar even though they reach a similar size. but they will definitely dig them up. Just like in nature frontosa are gentle to other tank mates. but the male may need and it is recommended for him to have a large cave to hide in when he needs a retreat. Once spit. Fry can be fed powdered cichlid food along with baby brine shrimp. or eat plants. The most effective way is to study genitals. Sexing frontosa is known to be quite difficult and confusing…. however. most of the time neither of the two will suffer from any harm. although two males of the same size can often threaten each other. he is expected to move on and never be seen again by the victorious one. frontosa can be kept in groups of 10 or more. that is pretty impossible and they will probably fight again and again. If kept in a smaller tank.8-9. mysis. one male and 3-4 females. Kipili. such as fish. I am constantly having to replace mine!!! In tanks larger than 200 gallons. Such a group can even contain more than one male. Feeding Frontosa like to eat fish. The rocks in the aquarium should be well stabilized in your aquarium.we don’t need a broken tank now do we?!!! Although frontosa do not tear up.5: 10-20dH: prefers hard alkaline water. The problem is the defeated frontosa has nowhere to go. in an aquarium. (sometimes other cichlid fry) brine shrimp. and removed once the fry have been spit. no matter how well you anchored them. for example. I give them frozen food. Burundi. or take in either one to the lfs for a trade. or cyclops as supplements. and blood worms. Cypho means “hump” tilapia means “fish” (African). fry are left to fend for themselves. You may need to separate them. Hikari is tops in my frontosa’s books!!! Sexing and breeding: Mouth brooders generally are not very particular about . the battles are usually over territory. smaller groups should also be kept. but also can be quite large on females as well. if you know what you are looking for!!! Frontosa is and can be peaceful in aquarium. Their tank should be decorated with a lot of rocks that form caves. They will also happily consume packaged foods in great quantities. Common name: Frontosa Cichlid Scientific name:Cyphotilapia frontosa. In order to raise fry the female should be separated into a holding tank. Kigoma. (sneaky) They need nutritious food. species: Blue Mpimbwe. attacking sleeping fish in the night. Family: Cichlidae Origin: Lake Tanganyika (Africa) Maximum size: male 16” female 10” Care: Temperature of 72-83F: water parameters should be pH-7. Blue Zaire. which is normally larger on males. Often the smaller one gives up and swims away instead of fighting. In the wild.Tropical Fish Secrets this time. Zaire and Zambia.the most obvious is the hump.

the pair will immediately proceed with spawning. However." (aka mouth-fight). "lock jaws.as I have learned from personal experience. and in a typical cichlid manner. Unfortunately they are very widely distributed and sold to unsuspecting fish keepers all too often. After a number of deposits of this sort the female will pick up the eggs in her mouth and then the mouth brooding process begins…. at a temperature between 75° and 80°. The minimum recommended tank size for these fish is a four foot 75 gallon. After a few weeks they are able to take fine dry foods and larger crustaceans like Daphnia. and their hostile nature must be taken into consideration before buying them. then. This is why stripping the female and artificial incubation is sometimes a must… Common name/s: Kenyi Scientific name:Maylandia Lombardoi Family:Cichlidae Origin: Lake Malawi. Feeding: This species is omnivorous. Sand substrate is appreciated by these fish. also to protect them from being eaten by anonymous passer-bys!!! Even though frontosa are supposed to raise their young ones until they are old enough and large enough to fend for themselves. they should be given their own tank to grow out in. and overcrowding is very important to keep sub-dominant fish from getting overly harassed. Frontosa are sometimes very nervous about the reproduction cycle and may either spit the eggs or eat them if spooked…. The fry grow very quickly and as soon as the fry have been left alone by their parents. These cichlids should only be kept with mbuna of similarly high aggression levels.Tropical Fish Secrets spawning sites. As soon as a strong grip is made they will twist and turn each other for as long as a minute. the male will follow and fertilize them. I have had a failed example and need to decide what to do for next time. The aquarium should be decorated with a number of hiding spots including caves of various sizes.5 or higher.. testing each other's strength. others abandon their spawn under week after they have lost their yolk-sacs and reached the free-swimming stage. Lombardoi are best kept in water with a PH of 7. Africa Maximum size: 6" Care: This is an extremely aggressive species from the mbuna family. but this has not been proven. Spirulina flake should make up the . The locking of jaws may continue for a week or so until the next step is taken. but frontosa clearly like flat sandy areas best where they can dig small pits. Proper diet and clean conditions are very important for the long term health of this fish. If all goes well naturally. the female will release the fry and they will more than enjoy having a first meal of newly hatched brine shrimp. the two fish will suddenly face each other.but may not last. It is a good idea to locate such spawning sites in the protective area of rock structures or plants. after a while it is suggested that the fry be sorted by size to give them more tank room and keep the larger fry from being too competitive for food. The actual spawning is very interesting: the female will deposit a few eggs in a depression in the substrate. They will also eat large infusoria and protozoans. After circling each other. they will also spawn on a gravelly bottom. but is not necessary. Some people say that if they are able to maintain the grip for a substantial period of time.

as larger females may injure the smaller male. One way is the by the fins. Feeding: You should give your kribs a mixed diet. The females will also have a red round stomach. As mouth brooders. They will be in a cave. and then continue to hold the fry until the yolk sacs have been consumed. Sexing and breeding: All Lombardoi are born blue with dark striping. though they can have a higher Ph up to 8. and one down to 5.Tropical Fish Secrets majority of the diet. Fry can be fed powdered spirulina and cichlid foods as well as baby brine shrimp. After a while of the male and female being together they should pair up. Fresh vegetables and live or frozen invertebrates may be supplemented. Females become extremely territorial when holding. They will also eat live bearer fry. It hails from West Africa. The females have "eye" spots on their dorsal fin. This is to lessen the aggression of the female. as they are omnivores. They are relatively peaceful. and is found in rivers. Cameroon. and removed once the fry have been spit. At this time she will be fanning eggs that she laid. Sexing and breeding: There are a few ways to distinguish the genders of the fish. though they have been found in Brackish water. they should not be kept with Mbuna. A typical holding period for this cichlid is under 4 weeks. and the female will not eat during this time. Despite being African cichlids. and their Ph should be around neutral. As they mature. A good tank mate would be the black skirt tetra. usually as a method of avoiding aggression. Once the wiggler stage is over the fish will be free swimming. The males usually have a pointed dorsal fin as well as tail fin. Males are also bigger than the females. They also have a rounded dorsal and tail fin. Common name/s: Kribensis. schooling with the parents. while females retain the original blue coloring. Once spit. and small ghost shrimp. West African. males take on a very nice orange. Note that it is not unusual. and other mildly aggressive fish as such. or other rift lake vally cichlids. fry are left to fend for themselves. The minimum tank size for a pair is 20 gallons. but will also eat live worms. After the 5 days are up the eggs should hatch. The fish are usually found in fresh water. but a high quality cichlid pellet or flake is also recommended. Riverine species Maximum size: 4" Care: The Krib is a popular cichlid for beginer breeders. They will be in the wiggler stage for about 3-5 days after. The female will disappear for about five days. under certain conditions. The male will be guarding the cave entrance. Once paired up the pair will breed about every few weeks. They will nibble at live plants. females will incubate and hatch the eggs in her buchal pouch. It works best to have the largest male and the smallest female together to make it happen faster. They like soft water. At night the parents will pick up the fry in their mouth and return . In order to raise fry the female should be separated into a holding tank. Purple Cichlid Scientific name:Pelvicachromis pulcher Family:Cichlidae Origin: Nigeria. for these fish to take on the coloring of the opposite sex. though they should not be kept with some peaceful fish such as the guppies.

Even if it is a very small cichlid they can be kept with a lot of other species of tanganyikan fish as long as the tank is big enough and the other fish aren’t so big they think of the small shell dwellers as food. When you are finished with your rocks THEN add sand. and plenty of them.2 in. The fry have slow growth after a while.Tropical Fish Secrets them to the cave that they were born in. Similis is a shell dweller. Otherwise this fish really proves that size doesn’t matter and will chase away fish several times their size if they . The last things to add are the shells. if you put them in between the rock piles they might stay in place. But in my opinion it’s quite easy to keep as long as you provide the correct environment. Then we have that (in) famous digging. There are a few that can work though. However do not attempt to keep more than one male in such a small tank. besides why keep a cichlid that loves to dig if you can’t stand it? However you decide to decorate your tank it is a good idea to put some single rocks scattered across the tank. Personally I think it’s a bit un-ethical. I wouldn’t recommend anything under 10 gallon though. Like any tanganyikan cichlid the tank setup is rocks & sand.8 in. Water should be hard. The aquarium: Being one of the smallest cichlids in the world similis can be kept in a relatively small tank.) females 3 cm (1. Do several foundations like this for your big rocks to put smaller rocks on. Care & Company: Since they require a special tank you might be put of thinking this fish is very hard to keep. I’ve seen internet sites advocating not using sand to prevent the cichlids from digging. For me it is the anubias species and java fern.). Feed them spirulina flakes and brine shrimps (frozen food). Common name: ”multifasciatus big eye” Scientific name: Lamprologus similis Family: Cichlidae Origin: Lake Tanganyika (Africa) Maximum size: One of the world’s smallest cichlids males about 4. Plants: Keeping plants in a Tanganyikan tank is a challenge since the water is (supposed to be at least) hard.8 or higher if possible (up to 9). after a few days a lot of the plants would most likely bee floating around. As with all aquarium fish regular water changes are required. Temp: 23 – 26 Celsius. Since they can be attached to rocks the fish will leave them alone. I’ve also heard the vallisneria species will do fine. 7. this will help to divide up territories. You will need 2-3 shells per shell dweller but you can never have too many. unless you renovate the cave. This way your fish won’t knock over the piles of rocks when they dig.5 cm (1. Always cushion the rocks on polystyrene or risk breaking your tank. they use their shells for protection and to lay their eggs in. These fish are territorial but these territories are quite small and the fish is best kept in small groups (6-8 fish or more).

and can take a little bit of a beginners' mistakes. The couple will dig a “nest” (big pit with a shell in). Sexing and breeding: Easy to breed. Of course this is almost as dumb as selling them as “some kind of African fish”. The fry will eat the same food as grown fish. One of the more popular of African cichlids. Prefers a temp of around 78-82 degrees F. If they are kept in hard water with plenty of shells they will most likely breed. even if they live in separate shells the breeding take place in the female's shell were she lays her eggs. As said before these fish will dig a LOT. Interesting behaviors: This is (in my opinion) best thing about these little fish. If they are kept in a larger community tank it might be hard to make sure the fry get their share of the food. Breeding: They are quite easy to breed. Final note: Lamprologus similis are often mixed up with Lamprologus multifasciatus (the common name suggests they are the same species). Eats pellets. The shells play a very important part in this fish’s lives since they practically spend their whole life in and around their shells. I’ve only kept the similis but they are supposed to be very similar as far as care and breeding are concerned. People who love aquascaping might be disappointed since these fish will do this for them! I tried to make a nice smooth layer of sand about 3 inches thick and after a week the fish had moved the sand into huge piles in some places and deeper pits in others. attempting to “correct” the way they build their sand piles is useless since they will move the sand back again over night. If you want to make sure as many as possible of the fry survive keep the couple in a separate tank. Some shops sell these fish simply as “shelldwellers”. or lower levels of the tank.Tropical Fish Secrets come to close to its shell. They are decently Hardy. and prefer other cichlids of the mbuna family. blood worms and baby shrimp. Since I don’t have a digital camera I can’t post a picture but the similis have a few extra stripes on their head. There are several kinds of shell dwellers make sure you get the kind you wanted! Common name/s:Electric Blue Johanni* Scientific name:Melanochromis Johannii Family: Cichlidae Origin: Lake Malawi (Africa) Maximum size: 6" Care: These fish require a tank of at least 30 gallons. These fish are very good parents and the fry will stay in or very close to their mothers shell and will be guarded by their parents. this fish will produce about a dozen or . sticks. they can have new fry every third week if you are lucky (or unlucky depending on if you want them or not). you will probably be able to find this fish in one of your LFS. Prefers a PH of about 8. These fish usually swim around the middle. Feeding: Feed daily. They usually dig a small pit so that the shell is below the sand surface (less obvious to predators). flakes. Usually they have between 5-20 fry.

Ideally shells should be of freshwater origin and around six cm across. Ideally they should be kept with other Tanganyikan Cichlids in a community tank.Cichlidae Origin .Neolamprologus brichardi Family . In healthy specimens there males are more colourful.they are one of the smallest rift lake cichlids) It is easier to sex animals that you can view together as differences are subtle and difficult to detect unless observed in conjunction with behaviour. caudal and tail fins.Lake Tanganyika. dried and live foods all readily accepted. Males will display in front of the females shell usually by shivering at the mouth of . You can put her back in your main tank. These fish are extremely easy to breed. Water Parameters . Being shell dwellers it is less likely to have any success without shells available for the fish to live in.Tropical Fish Secrets more with each batch of fry. readily accept most prepared and live foods. Feeding . pH 7. After 14 days or so. Eggs are laid on the underside of caves or in shells and are of a pale blue colour. temperature 24 . temperature 24 28 degrees Feeding . and when she stops feeding and her brood pouch (Buchal Pouch)is full.Hard water with a high range pH 7.Males are usually of a slightly larger and stocky nature (although still quite small . Since these fish are mouth brooders the female is best removed to another tank.Brichardi Scientific name . and quickly lose interest in them. Mature males have elongated fin rays on the anal.8. Sexing and breeding . Sexing .5 .5.8.Very hardy. Breeding . even outside their preferred water parameters (given above).Juvenille males and females of similar appearance.5cm Difficulty .5 .Cichlidae Origin .Will happily accept frozen. Each fish will require its own shell. Common name/s . Males tend to dominate female fish. Common name/s .Multifasciatus or Multies Scientific name . Africa Maximum size .Neolamprologus multifasciatus Family . Africa Maximum size .These fish are extremely easy to keep.Lake Tanganyika.5 . Omnivorous.28 degrees Care . the female will spit out her fully formed fry. These fish can successfully rear the fry of their own accord in a community tank with no special treatment from the aquarist. particularly if there are young from previous clutches to assist in the protection and rearing of the fry.Frozen. It is not uncommon for fish to produce another clutch of eggs directly after the first has hatched. dried and live foods.12cm Water Parameters . often taking over a community aquarium due to their rapid increase in numbers.Hard water.These fish are not difficult to breed. so you can just feed them broken up flakes. The fry are pretty big already.

along with a high quality cichlid pellet or flake is best.These fish are extremely good candidates for a tanganyikan cichlid community. In order to raise fry the female should be separated into a holding tank. The territory during this period will be ferociously guarded by the male who will not hesitate to take on much larger and aggressive cichlids (if housed in a community tank) When the eggs hatch it is not uncommon not to see any of the juvs for a period of a week as they will seek shelter in / around the shells of the parents. Whilst (as with most African cichilds) it will aggressively defend its territory it is a small fish and unlikely to actually cause any damage to other cichlids. and a good choice for a less aggressive mbuna aquarium. but their fairly passive nature allows for multiple males to co-exist in the same tank with minimal aggression. As mouth brooders. a diet of spirulina flake. Feeding: As an omnivorous species. and the female will not eat during this time.5 or higher. Do not keep with larger piscivorous cichlids as it may be eaten without a shell to shelter in. though they seem to be adept at sneaking in the occasional flake. Sprengarae is typically a dark brown when young. Often once these cichlids start breeding they will continue developing a large family group of cichlids with older siblings assisting in the care of new hatched fish. These fish are extremely difficult to sex. but is not necessary. and should not be housed with anything overly aggressive. Sexing and breeding: Iodo. Africa Maximum size: 5" Care: This is a mildly aggressive species from the mbuna family. . fry are left to fend for themselves. General Comments . They are a uniquely colored species. unlike any other mbuna. Proper diet and clean conditions are very important for the long term health of this fish. After a few days of this courtship eggs will be laid. at a temperature between 75° and 80°. and then continue to hold the fry until the yolk sacs have been consumed. Fresh vegetables and live or frozen invertebrates may be supplemented. The minimum recommended tank size for these fish is 30 gallons. Once spit. These cichlids can be housed with mbuna of a milder temperament. especially when young. Rusty’s are best kept in water with a PH of 7. females will incubate and hatch the eggs in her buchal pouch.Tropical Fish Secrets the shell. As they mature they turn to a rusty orange color. often with a violet tint. Sand substrate is appreciated by these fish. and removed once the fry have been spit. The aquarium should be decorated with a number of hiding spots including caves of various sizes. A typical holding period for this cichlid is 4 weeks. Fry can be fed powdered spirulina and cichlid foods as well as baby brine shrimp. The female will return dancing if she considers him a suitable mate. Common name/s: Rusty Scientific name:Iodotropheus Sprengerae Family:Cichlidae Origin: Lake Malawi.

Proper diet and clean conditions are very important for the long term health of this fish. A typical holding period for this cichlid is 3-3. Sexing and breeding: All Saulosi are born a deep yellow. Fresh vegetables may be supplemented. Saulosi are best kept in water with a PH of 7. The minimum recommended tank size for these fish is 30 gallons. and hyper-aggressive species should be avoided. These cichlids can be housed with mbuna of similar aggression and different markings. When males are kept in close quarters the subdominants will display fainter blue coloring. and removed once the fry have been spit. Africa Maximum size: 4" Care: This is a small and moderately aggressive species from the mbuna family.5 weeks.Central and South America . As males mature they morph into a bold blue with black stripes.Tropical Fish Secrets Common name/s: Saulosi Scientific name:Pseudotropheus Saulosi Family:Cichlidae Origin: Lake Malawi.5 or higher. at least two females for each are recommended. Fry can be fed powdered spirulina food. the primary diet of Saulosi should be a high quality spirulina flake. but is not necessary. As mouth brooders. females will incubate and hatch the eggs in her buchal pouch. Cichlids. and the female will not eat during this time. Feeding: As a mostly herbivorous species. To much meaty food will cause a fatal digestive condition known as 'bloat'. The aquarium should be decorated with a number of hiding spots including caves of various sizes. and a good choice for a typical mbuna aquarium. In order to raise fry the female should be separated into a holding tank. Once spit. Only one male is recommended for tanks less under 50 gallons. fry are left to fend for themselves. Because of the aggressive nature of the males. Sand substrate is appreciated by these fish. at a temperature between 75° and 80°. or may even take on the orange coloring of females in order to avoid the aggression of the dominant male. and then continue to hold the fry until the yolk sacs have been consumed.

Panda Apisto Scientific name: Apistogramma Panduro Family: Cichlidae Origin: South America. mostly Amazons. once a pair is formed they will be strongly bonded to each other. Rio Tahuayo (Lower Rio Ucayali. caves and wood to swim about. They will spawn in caves and are very good parents. Sexing: Females are bright yellow with black markings on its chest areas. Breeding: This fish is a cichlid. Albino . they also take flakes and pellets. The parents will protect there eggs and fry from the other fish. but they do prefer live or frozen foods.5 inches Care:These Apistos prefer soft water and a PH level of 6. like all cichlids do. rocks.Tropical Fish Secrets Common Name: Angelfish Scientific Name: Pterophyllum Scalare Family: Cichlidae Origin: South America Maximum Size: 5-8 Inches in captivity Care: This fish is generally peaceful. Feeding: This fish will be alright with flakes. Breeding: PH should be left at 6. namly females but are not aggressive towards other non Apisto tank mates. . Once the eggs are hatched and the fry are free swimming (usually after 6 days). My angels LOVE bloodworms and earthworms. Comments: Often confused with the Apistogramma nijsseni. They like lots of plants (their natural substrate in leaf litter. A good tank size is 20 gallons as a minimum and like to be kept in pairs of trios (1male:2females). and black. These fish come in many variables including Gold. With there beautiful triangle shape and long lace ventrals.5 and water hardness should be at 50ppm and feed frozen live and add freeze dried food to the mix. A good tank temperature is 80°F. Peru) Maximum size: 3.Although beware. but will get aggressive in spawning. the males look very much alike and both species are called Panda Apistos. They shouldn't be kept with large and aggressive fish and make great community additions. and like many of them. these Apistos are aggressive towards other Apisto species. Sexing: Sexing this fish is impossible. Males are blue and brown colours. vinegar eels and micro worms. Common name/s: Apisto Panduro. they should be fed freshly hatched brine shrimp. They're a peaceful fish but can get territorial at times. but they will mostly put them on the corner of the tank. Lower the temperature and add cold water to the tank. except when breeding. They come out a lot when there are other fish such as tetras like the Neon that are also swimming about which tells them everything is safe. This fish are starting to be one of the most popular fish in the world. They are some cases were the parents will even kill fishes 4 times there sizes just to protect their babies. but is not needed). They will lay eggs on a leaf. These fish are one of the most popular tropical fish out there. Feeding: Frozen foods such as brine shrimp and bloodworm. no one can resist bringing these guys home.5.

Sexing: Females usually have yellow on their chest and head while the males have the blue (mentioned above).5 and feed frozen live and add freeze dried food to the mix.Blue Acara Scientific name . Sexing .5.Central American areas . Lower Rio Mamoré (Brazil/Bolivia) Maximum Size: 2.0.The Blue Acara is an open-breeder and will accept a range of water conditions. including freeze-dried bloodworms. they live among roots and wood. often resulting in death. they only show some signs of aggression when breeding. Origin . Venezuela Max size .When sexing the Blue Acara the anal and dorsal fins are longer. To promote breeding.8" in captivity Care . Lower the temperature and add cold water to the tank.5-8. They will not get along with community fish such as livebearers.Cichlidae. They will spawn in caves and are very good parents. They prefer 7280°F and a ph of 6.This beautiful fish will be peaceful with other New World Cichlids of similar size or bigger. and ocean plankton. Their natural habitat has little to no current so that should be tried to be kept to a minimum. One of the peaceful Apistogramma and barely aggressive. The . they should be fed freshly hatched brine shrimp. Comments: They are fairly new to the trade and haven’t been for sale long. Tobago. Trinidad. Plants should be kept in pots as the roots will get eaten Feeding . often extending beyond the caudal fin. Feeding: Frozen foods such as brine shrimp and bloodworm. tubifex.Aequidens pulcher Family . as well as flake food and Cichlid pellets. vinegar eels and micro worms. so in the aquaria a lot of wood should be used along with floating plants and caves. The tank temperature should be set at 80°F and any colder will cause problems with fish. they also take flakes and pellets. Breeding: PH topped at 7. Once the eggs are hatched.Colombia. The will need a 50 gallon or higher tank as they do grow big and need their space. raise aquarium temperature to 78-82°F. but they will get aggressive during breeding time. Panama. and will have these fish as their lunch.5" Care:"Blue Heads" (so called because their body is mainly a dull grey in colour and then a shiny metallic blue on its head) like their water soft and a PH no less then 7 and no more then 7. Breeding .The Blue Acara is omnivorous and will eat most prepared and frozen foods.Tropical Fish Secrets Common name/s: Apisto Blue Head Scientific name: Apistogramma Resticulosa Family: Cichlidae Origin: South America. Also in the wild. Common name . on the male. They like sandy bottoms and lots of rocks and caves.

Feeding: Flake. beef heart. Red. Sexing . Males are sometimes larger then females and display more color. bloodworms.Tropical Fish Secrets Blue Acara readily pairs and forms a patriarch/matriarch family and both the male and female will care for the young.The female deposits up to 120 eggs on flat stones or leaves.These little fish are a very peaceful species that will go with most community fish like Blue Rams.Dicrossus filamentosus Family .3" in captivity Care . Brazil Maximum size: 3.When sexing the Checkerd Board. The female will lay the eggs on a cleaned rock. A female can lay up to 200 eggs but 50-75 eggs are average. They like sandy bottoms (gravel is okay) and some caves and plants for them to take cover in. They will be most comfortable in a temp of 7280°F and a ph of 5-6. A good temperature to raise the temp is 80-84F and a P. and danios.The will need a 20 gallon or higher tank.A good quality tropical flake or granule plus frozen shrimp & worm foods. Males have a longer dorsal and caudual fin. Both Male and female will be aggressive when caring for young Common name: Bolivan. also with more pointed fins.Checkerboard cichlid Scientific name . They are a peaceful cichlid that do well in community tanks with fish such as. Origin -South America.H of 5. Breeding: Spawn on smooth stones and leaves. They will spawn about every two weeks if the young are removed from the aquarium. Parents will clean and fan the eggs. Rio Negro & Rio Orinoco river Max size . Butterfly Ram Scientific name: Microgeophagus altispinosa Family: Cichlidae Origin: South America. They have an average life span of 4 years and occupy the bottom and middle areas of the tank. Eggs hatch within 72 hours and fry should be fed vinegar eels as a first food. A slight change in ph or temperature will not harm this fish. catfish. cichlid pellets Sexing: Males and females are very similar in color and size. brine shrimp. Feeding . gourami. the eggs are yellowish. . you should feed the fry brine shrimp.5 will do fine.Cichlidae. The incubation period is about 72 hours (three days). They enjoy tanks with plenty of hiding places and rocks and leaves to spawn on.5" Temperature: 74-79 F Minimum Tank Size: 20 gallons Care: Bolivian Rams are easier to care for and hardier then other rams. Common name . larger tetras. daphnia. You should remove the male after spawning is over. Breeding . Males are larger and more colourful.

Comments: Many colour variants are available. including medications and nitrates/phosphates etc. The males’ normally dark bars will become metallic silver.6". All rockwork and decorations should be well seated. double and triple reds and orange sunburst are quite common. Common name . Ideally a species tank dedicated to just them will be the ideal situation. The pair become very aggressive at this time and will not hesitate to attack any other fish which is "to close". they usually do not do damage. after a further two days the fry should be ready to accept newly hatched brine shrimp.Convict Cichlid. Panama.One of the easiest cichlid to determine sex. Family . Feeding .Convicts will eat most forms of prepared food as well as frozen and live foods. Vegetables should also be added to keep them in prime condition. Max size . Most are tank bred and wild fish can be rare. Both parents may care for the young although the female may drive the male away violently. Fry can be fed almost any form of "fry" food. Scientific name . prefer soft acidic water but are more tolerant of higher pH and hardness than most Apistogramma. They enjoy plenty of hiding places. The female leads the fry through the tank foraging for food and protects them for up to four weeks. soft acidic water will increase chance of successful hatching. During the breeding period females will have gold/red spots on her sides and belly. Sexing: Highly dimorphic. Salvador. as well as . and also have very long extensions to the dorsal fin. Amazon/tributaries Maximum size: Males 3 1/2" Females 2" Care: Moderate. Do not like toxins or pollutants in the water. Females are pale to high yellow depending on breeding condition and stay quite small. with a temperature of 74-79 F. Eggs hatch after 4-5 days of constant care and fanning by the female. Sexing . may need a lot of persuasion to accept flakes and pellets.Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum.Convicts are notoriously easy to breed. Although they may act aggressively towards other fish. separate the male. Feeding: Frozen foods such as brine shrimp and bloodworm are readily accepted. Females will lay between 40-100 eggs and it takes about 2-3 days before free-swimming fry are seen. Care .True to its name this is a very aggressive fish which is not ideal for a community tank.Tropical Fish Secrets Common name/s: Cockatoo Dwarf Cichlid Scientific name: Apistogramma cacatuoides Family: Cichlidae Origin: South America. Costa Rica. with each female having at least one cave.Cichlidae.Guatemala. male will guard territory. The male will defend a 'super territory' around the smaller female territories. as they will dig and displace them. Breeding: Quite easy to spawn for this genus. If this happens. the tank should be at least 30 US gallons. Does best with two or more females per male. Origin . Female will lay 50-100 eggs in a cave or structure that can be defended. males are much larger and more colourful than females. Breeding .

The fish sifts through the substrate continuously so a sand substrate should be used to prevent them from damaging their mouths. Tank mates should be non-aggressive.while breeding pairs of convicts are usually good partners.Tropical Fish Secrets crushed flake food and cucumber. Provide plenty of cover with bogwood. and Hole in the Head disease (Hexamatia). hybrid Discus). there can be aggression among the pair. easy when acclimatized and Discus specific basic care is strictly observed. Brown. Symphysodon aequifasciatus aequifasciatus. the species is a mouth brooder. Caution . Comments: Unlike African mouth brooders the fish only begin mouth brooding after the fry have hatched. keep the temperature between 24 and 26 centigrade (74-79f). roots and carefully chosen plants that can tolerate heat. with gentle water flow. Most tanks bred Discus will accept a pH up to 7. extra special care to eliminate/prevent ammonia is crucial. Symphysodon discus willischwartzi Family: Cichlidae Origin: South America. Mature fish prefer soft acidic water (wild fish will thrive in pH down to 4. Common name/s: Discus (Blue. often wrongly named Geophagus jurapari Family: Cichlidae Origin: South America. Water must be warm. Although not an aggressive fish they can be territorial especially against other earth eaters. Satans perch Scientific name: Satanoperca leucosticta. Sexing: Females are plumper. Amazon basin Maximim size: 10" Care: The fish is best kept in small groups and so a large tank of at least 75 gallons is recommended. Breeding: Rare but can be done. Avoid very active fish. At any pH above 7. therefore not beginner’s fish. Prone to bacterial build up in water. black water Amazon/tributaries Maximim size: 8-10" Care: Moderate. A method to separate the pair if this happens is very advisable. males have a longer and more pointed anal fin. Demon earth eater. Small fish should be kept in groups (the larger the better) older fish can be kept singly or in pairs. Pompadour Fish Scientific name: Symphysodon discus. Both can be avoided largely through attentive care of the water. . 86F/30C is ideal.5 with hardness under 15 GH. The fish does not tolerate temperature drops well so care should be taken when doing water changes. Common name/s: Demon fish.5) while young fish need slightly hard water for proper growth. Feeding: Live and frozen foods of all kinds are accepted. for this reason they are also not recommended for planted tanks where they can damage root systems. Green. Not forgiving of mistakes with water parameters. unimposing fish. Symphysodon aequifasciatus haraldi.6 after careful acclimatization. groups in large tanks. The fish does not do well in hard alkaline water so the pH should be kept below 7.

recommended for bare bottom tanks only. All other methods of sexing are unreliable. Rows of eggs will be laid on flat surfaces such as vertical bogwood and large leaf plants. flakes. Both parents care for the eggs and fry. frozen or live.Mesonauta Festiva. Newly hatched brine shrimp will be taken as they develop. smaller changes being preferred (i. Sexing: Very difficult except at breeding times. between 72-77 degrees. females breeding tube is longer and thicker. Tetra Prima granules highly recommended.South American.Cichlasoma festivae Family . Discus will look at you as much as you look at them! Some form of tap water filtration method is highly recommended (Reverse Osmosis being ideal) to remove metals that can affect nervous system and other pollutants. Comments: Beautiful fish that requires dedication. Breeding: May spawn if conditions are favourable.Cichlidae.5-8. Sexing . raising young fish can be difficult. rocks/stones or bog wood.0. West Guyana Max size . check protein content around 50%. They also like a pH of 6.Tropical Fish Secrets for first time keepers.e. Beef heart or turkey heart are readily accepted but are messy. species tank is preferred. parents will darken in colour as a mucous is excreted from the skin. carefully guarding them in pits. (No smaller then 25 gals. despite its size. but beginners should make the inevitable mistakes with hardier (and less expensive!) fish before moving on to Discus. Origin .Festivum Cichlid Scientific name . Breeding -Festivum Cichlids are open breeders and the female will drop from 600-1. Meeki Scientific name: Thorichthys meeki Family: Cichlidae Origin: Guatemala Maximum size: 6 inches (15cm) Temperature: 75-79 . widely spread through the Amazon. Common name . 20% every second day). the young fish will eat this mucous as a first food. Variety and balance is the key.8" female and 6" male. Water changes of 50% tank volume per week is recommended. Common name: Firemouth. Care . The female who will circulate water over the eggs by fanning them with her fins. but do not contain enough protein for vital energy. Not quite as difficult as its reputation. Calm and observant demeanor. Feeding: Frozen foods such as brine shrimp and bloodworm are readily accepted. I.) Feeding . rounded.Most foods will be accepted by these fish.The males are green with out with out bars and females are red orange with heavy dark barring. They like to have a temp. A recommended tank size for beginners is 50 gallons but can live in smaller tanks while they are young. males will develop protruding breeding tube which is short and pointed. Most accept quality flake and pellet food.e.000 eggs on rocks and roots. They like to hide out in sheltered areas such as caves. with more frequent.The Festivum is. a very peaceful fish and also very timid.

5 and 7. Eggs hatch in 24-48 hours after spawning and mother and father continue to care for the fry until they are able to eat on their own. Males and females will clean and prepare the surface before spawning. Common name:Jack dempsy Scientific name: Nandopsis Family: Cichlidae Origin: Central America Max Size: 9" Temp:72-78 F. You can observe them "fanning" their eggs with their fins. They are very impressive parents. females usually do not. They like bloodworms and other live foods. The dorsal rays are also shorter. and increases largely . gourami. Males are sometimes larger than females. Common name: German Blue Ram Scientific name: Microgeophagus ramirezi Family: Cichlidae Origin: Venezuela Maximum size: 3 inches Temperature: 80 degrees Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care: This fish is very sensitive to water quality. While they may be kept with other fish of similar size. Make sure all rocks are secure because the fish will dig around them. Firemouths like to dig. Feeder guppies for larger Firemouths. Care: The Dempsey is definitely not for the community tank. danios. Spawns usually yeilds between 25-50 eggs. Males have a red throat and chest. Their aggressiveness should never be underestimated. Keep a fairly neutral ph between 6.0 is recommended. Feeding: Doesn't readily accept flakes but with a little coaxing you can get them to accept them. bloodworms. Breeding: Spawn on rocks and leaves.Tropical Fish Secrets Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care: Provide plenty of hiding places with rocks. the Dempsey is best kept in a species tank. Recommended in a species only tank or with similar sized cichlids of the same temperament. A "community" cichlid that does well with fish such as tetras. ghost shrimp. Males have longer black dorsal rays and a more of a yellow tint to their bodies. Very caring parents that do not eat their fry. Use a fine sand substrate. As long as you keep the water soft and the temperature stable. and catfish.5 but 7. Sexing: Females noticeably duller and silver in color. Larger catfish are also compatible. Fry hatch at about 72 hours and can be fed finely crushed flakes and newly hatched brine shrimp as first foods. Feeding: Cichlid flakes. Sexing: Females have a pink belly and are fatter. these are an easy fish to care for. Males have pointed anal and dorsal fin Breeding: Female cleans smooth rocks and lays 100-300 eggs on a rock.

Feeding: Omnivorous This fish is not usually very picky about what it eats. Breeding . Pre-soaked clay flower pots make for wonderful hiding places. Sexing . earthworms. lettuce. Origin . The body of the female is squatter than that of the male. It is best to vary their diet. Although water conditions are not as strict as with other fish.Cleithracara maronii Family . snails. the female laying her eggs on carefully cleaned rocks usually a smooth slate or clay pot. and good for communitys. The Dempsey tank should have a thick layer of gravel. a minimum tank size of 45g is needed for a single fish. shrimp. They prefer a temp of 80°F and a ph of 7.This dwarf acara is generally peaceful with all fish. Mature females are plumper than males. no less then that. . The absolute minimum tank size for this fish is 20 gals. and the dorsal and anal fins are shorter as well. guppies. colorful adults. Orinoco delta in Venezuela Max size . Common name -Keyhole Cichlid Scientific name . and less blue-green coloration on the gill plate. although it may take some time for them to adjust to a different food they are changing from a consistent diet. with rocks of various sizes and caves for hiding places.Despite their generally peaceful nature.South American areas. This will provide them with the nutrients they need to become healthy. Breeding: Jack Dempseys spawn in the usual Cichlid fashion. The adults are model parents and both guard and care for the young. Due to the digging nature of this fish.Tropical Fish Secrets during spawning. and do not be surprised if they are torn up every once in a while. any plants which you might have in the tank should be well rooted. with a neutral to slightly acidic pH. They're very shy so should have lots of cover. a longer body. Eggs are laid on pre-cleaned stones (flat and rounded). they will be happier and healthier with the right water chemistry.5. as well as a good place for them to lay their eggs. rocks and plants.5" in captivity Care . These fish are from the area of Central America.as these fish are omnivores and will eat almost all frozen food and will also eat pellets and tropical fish flakes. Keyholes can become quite territorial breeding time. 4-5". they should have mildly hard water.Males are larger and their dorsal fin is more pointed. and most other crustaceans. The parents will guard the fry and the eggs.Cichlidae. As I said before they are peaceful with other fish and adding a school of tetras is known to make the fish less shy towards tank mates. Sexing the Jack Dempsey becomes increasingly difficult the younger the fish is. in the tank. The most obvious ways to tell are with the male having longer and more pointed dorsal and anal fins. alternating between pellets. Feeding .

jaguars. and will kill and /or eat any fish small enough to fit in their mouth. frozen and freeze-dried.0 and dH range between 5.0 . or convicts and severums. Sexing .e. Bala Sharks. of 72-79° F. A good filter and regular water changes are required as Oscars are messy fish.0 . Convicts (one or more of the same sex. They like a tank temp. Feed the fry at this time with small live foods.12 inches (30 cm). and African Brown Knife. The male will defend the territory while the female will guard the eggs. Max size . but you should exercise caution when doing this as aggression issues can occur.Central America.8. Origin . red devils. Possible tank mates include Jack Dempsey. Common Name: Oscar Scientific Name: Astronotus ocellatus Family: Cichlidae Origin: South America.Tropical Fish Secrets Common name . Do understand that some of these possible tank mates are schooling fish or the fish can get quite large so do your research on size and minimum tank requirements before you add them with an Oscar.Male midas will kill the female if she isn't ready. Spotted Silver Dollars. Common Plecostomus.35 cm) Care: Oscars are truly a magnificent fish.S. Remember. as a breeding pair will become VERY aggressive). bigger is always better. Eggs hatch in 3 days and are free swimming in 5. even though these two fish are inbred and sometimes sold as one or the other. they will use a vertical structure most of the time. Orinoco to Rio Paraguay. as it is natural. and pH range between 6. new surroundings.This large aggressive fish is not for peaceful tanks. too much food.0. If they do breed.14 inches (30 . Silver Dollars. southern Mexico. Amazon Max Size: 12 . Recommended tank mates are larger cichlids i.Amphilophus citrinellus/Amphilophus citrinellum Family . Pictus Catfish. but it is always a good idea to check things like incorrect water temperature. Water temperature between 72-79F. Costa Rica. Clown Loaches. Care . Oscars. Usually there is no need to worry about this. They are also destructive . etc.Midas Cichlid Scientific name . Tinfoil Barbs. Honduras. It can only be housed in tanks that are 75 gallons or more. and vegetables.19. It also has longer fins than the female. insects.Live earthworms. Nicaragua. Oscars require a minimum tank size of 75 U. They spit out as much food as they eat and they produce a great deal of waste. Feeding . Given the best care Oscar's will be your companion for up to and sometimes over ten years! Oscars should be kept in a species tank as they can be quite aggressive. The female will grow a hump but the males one will be larger Breeding . A simple change in environment can set up a sulking phase. Oscars are clumsy fish so you should stay away from sharp decor. The Midas Cichlid is also often confused with the red devil. gallons or bigger for ONE Oscar.Cichlidae.Males are larger with a larger hump on their fore head. poor water conditions. They can be kept with fish of like size. Oscars can and do sulk for any reason.

Some sort of cichlid pellets (such as Hakari Cichlid Staple) is great as the main part of their diet. Do not have any other fish in the tank with a breeding pair as they will most likely seriously hurt or kill other fish to protect their young. and other really lean meats. and sometimes feeder fish. How to breed oscars: Getting Ready: You will need at least three tanks. cucumbers. Oscars are very diligent parents. The rest of the Oscars in the tank can be returned. 1) A 180 U. messy fish that can be aggressive so a large tank is necessary for this.S. Under gravel filters are not a good choice with Oscars as they are diggers. gallon as mentioned above) When the Oscars have paired up you can remove the pair to the 100 U. insects. It is best to raise your own feeders as store bought feeders can introduce disease into you tank. protecting their eggs/fry aggressively. Peas are great for helping with constipation or just keeping the them regular. it is very hard to tell the sex of an Oscar. worms. Breeding Oscars is not for everyone and especially not for people new to the fish keeping hobby. Feeding: Oscars need a varied and interesting diet to promote good health. but when they do spawn they can have anywhere from 200 . The do no show external features that would normally help determine sex. In my opinion they are hard to breed. zucchini. gallon tank for the parents-to-be.S. and pointed at the end. It is good to also have frozen shelled peas on hand. Other good foods for your Oscar are beef heart (although it can be quite messy it is really good for them) turkey heart.S.2000 fry every month. but they also need live foods to promote good digestion. This keeps them from getting diseases like HITH (Hole in the Head). gallon tank for the fry to grow out in.2000 eggs at once and do this about every month. shrimp. 2) A 100 U. The only certain way is to catch a pair when they are breeding and the breeding tubes are exposed. (a minimum 180 U.Tropical Fish Secrets so live plants are not advised. Before you take up breeding Oscars. and rounded at the end. The male's tube is smaller. gallon tank to establish your mating pair if you don’t have them already.S. They will usually lay their eggs on a large flat rock such as slate. Oscars have also been known to eat other vegetables such as lettuce. Good choices are crickets. Sexing: Unfortunately. Breeding: Oscars will pick one mate and have batch after batch of fry once they get started. The best way to go about getting a mating pair (although this method is still not guaranteed) is to buy about six (6) juvenile Oscars and keep them in a tank together and let them pair up naturally. keep in mind that it can be quite hard to sell or find homes for 200 . etc. 3) At least a 55 U. Oscars are unlike most other cichlids.S. gallon parentsto-be tank (also mentioned above). I also suggest soaking their pellets in some kind of liquid vitamins (like liquid Centrum) from time to time. . If you do decide to keep them. As you know Oscars are large. krill. The female's tube is bigger.2000 fry at a time and they repeat this process every month or so! You need to have some way to get rid of all these Oscar fry and even as popular as they are this can prove to be a daunting task. sold or kept if you are up to the task. They are egg layers and have anywhere from 200 . Getting the Mating Pair: Chances are that you will not get a mating pair by going in to the pet store and picking out two Oscars.

You can decorate with driftwood and such but I don’t see this as necessary. When they are ready to lay and fertilize the eggs they will start spending a lot of time around the area they plan on having the eggs. Sexing: The male has a pointed anal and dorsal fin. These can be kept together but once a male and female pair off (chances are they will) those two will become aggressive to all other fish. The parents will attack and can seriously hurt or kill anything they see as a threat to their eggs/fry. second. they become timid fish (Further info later in article). Breeding: When you start to see the above mentioned signs of mating it is suggested that you do a rather large water change of about 75% and raise the temperature to the middle 80’s not to exceeding 85° F and subdue the lighting. cleaning the slate and rubbing against the rocks or slate. near/in Nicaragua Max size: 5" Care: The minimum tank size should be a 20g long (30"L x 10"H x 12"W). It also needs to be mentioned that it may take several times for them to get it right. but try to keep their diet varied. The way you do this is by the color of the eggs. They are notgenerally aggressive. Feeding: Not picky. but when kept with other cichlids they can get territorial (they wouldn't be a cichlid if they didn't). This helps encourage the mating process. if the eggs are white they are not fertile. Don’t get discouraged if they don’t have fry the first. they eat vegetable material. Just be careful of attacking parents. After about 24 hours.Tropical Fish Secrets remember Oscars require lot of care and attention. Getting the Pair Ready to Breed: Now that you hopefully have your mating pair you will need to get their home ready for breeding. Common name: Rainbow cichlid Scientific name: Herotilapia mulltispinosa Family: Cichlidae Origin: Central America. When you do have eggs make sure they are fertile. the females don't and have . and lip-locking. All you have to do now is watch for the mating ritual signs listed below. I also need to mention that there should be no other fish in the tank with a breeding pair. because without enough attention. (usually the flat rock/slate) Two females have been known to go through all the motions and even lay eggs. will eat cichlid sticks. Oscars are very diligent parents. All unfertilized eggs need to be removed.S. They will guard the eggs/fry very aggressively. You will also need a large flat rock such as slate and a cave or pot. Keep up with your water parameters (as you always should) and change the water regularly. shimmying their bodies and fins against each other.0. You need at least a 100 U. Mating Rituals: Mating rituals include moving the substrate around in the tank. gallon tank with good filtration and pea sized or smaller gravel or sand as a substrate. at a temperature of 75-80 degrees Fahrenheit (24-27 degrees centigrade) My rainbows thrive in a neutral pH of 7. They will be a yellowish or tan color if they are fertile. The tank should be well furnished with plenty of rocks and gravel for them to hide in. or even third time. so you could still not have a male/female pair.

and their dH to be 4-5. It is best to offer a short. Sexing: Differentiating between the male and female is very difficult. Both the male and female guard their eggs very closely and will even attack you if you try to stick your hand near them. and mine have never eaten their babies. set the temperature and you have eggs. Northern South America Maximum Size: 8" Care: Severums like their temperature to be around 73-77°F. plankton.5. They will la eggs on a flat surface (Rocks. these are a great fish and will add plenty of personality to a tank. flat. temp should be around 80F (27C). but until breeding occurs there is no guarantee on what their sex is. Be sure not to put them with aggressive fish. slate. tubifex worms. They need a softer substrate with natural decor (plants and rocks).06.000 eggs. I prefer to feed them pellets instead of flakes because of how they come at it (they hunt it). The female can lay as many as 1. and they come out to interact with me (as much as a fish possibly can). but also need enough room to swim freely. They also like the frozen herbivore cubes that you can usually find at your lfs. Feeding: Severums are heavily omnivores.0). Surinam Geo Scientific name: Geophagus surinamensis Family: Cichlidae Max size: Around 10" Origin: South America (Surinam and surrounding areas) Care: Neutral pH (7. Common Name/s: Severum/banded cichlid Scientific Name: Heros severus Family: Cichlidae Origin: Amazon. Breeding: Severums do not pair off as easily as most fish do. lone female. but the pair is in a separate room.Tropical Fish Secrets larger stomachs. Usually the male is has much more color and longer fins. They need a tank with at least 30 gallons. They will eat smaller fish and will possibly attack peaceful fish. bloodworms. This fish needs a very . and 6 juveniles from a previous spawn) I have the juvies and the single female in my room. They are also can be picky. It is best to feed them freeze-dried or live foods daily along with some vegetation and their staple or cichlid food. get a female. large rock to the breeding pair to lay their eggs on. Eggs laid on the aquarium glass usually do not survive. It is best to let the fry grow up with their parents. and flower pots have all been my rainbows choices) these guys are awesome parents. Some good foods for them are krill. Breeding: They will breed almost as readily as convicts. try to keep them near where people are so they don't hide and or freak out when you try to clean the tank or move things around or in the tank. Comments: I currently have nine of these (Breeding pair. Common names: Mother of pearl eartheater. So when you get them as active little juvies. get a male. and crickets. The eggs are usually placed on slate or other forms of rocks. and is quite skittish. their pH to be 6. but if desperate they will be laid on the aquarium glass.

looking for food. triangle cichlid and occasionally. and they served as his fellow Uarus for a few months. and rear bottom fin) they are very active in nature.Tropical Fish Secrets line substrate in order to thrive in aquarium life. These geos can be kept in a small group or singly. They will eat just about any fish food you give them. they never will. dorsal. Common names: Uaru (Wah-roo). Sinking foods are best for these fish. they get more beautiful as they age. they definitely make a good addition to the right tank. they can be the key to keeping yours healthy. poor man's discus. the fish may become malnourished from a lack of food. Diet: Sinking pellets/wafers or sinking frozen foods are good. Found in same areas as angelfish and Discus Max size: 12" (4' tank minimum) Care: It is recommended that Uarus are kept in groups because they are a cichlid that prefers to be in a group and will most likely become skittish when kept alone. what it lacks in color is made up for by its dog- . and have a great personality. and won't do well when kept with overly aggressive fish. top fin. While Surinam geos are bland in color while young. and ventral fins (Tail. so don't expect to see eggs. Temp should be from 80-90 degrees Fahrenheit (27-32 degrees Celsius) they do well at a neutral pH. Scientific name: Uaru amphiacanthoides Family: Cichlidae Origin: South America. Sexing: Females may have less finnage. Breeding: They should breed once you have a pair. If you can not house more than one or two Uarus due to their size. as their mouth isn't adapted to eating from the surface. although mine ignores pellets. Other info: A very interesting fish. black water environments. Severums make great companions for Uarus. Keeping them in a group while in juvenile stage is critical. Comments: This is a great fish for a dedicated and patient fish keeper. and have now been replaced with a severum and Surinam geophagus. although mine is kept with other fairly large growing cichlids. other fish can work as a foster family IME. although they may chase new tank mates relentlessly. it is said that they breed in the same manner as discus. Feeding: Uarus aren't very picky at all once they have settled into their environment. Attitude: Semi-aggressive. Geophagus species are called eartheaters because they constantly sift through whatever their substrate might be. as Uarus love plants and actually need them in their diet. Sexing: Near impossible Breeding: Very difficult. and they will grow fin extensions on their claudal. Be sure that your Uaru gets enough vegetables though. I kept my single Uaru with several rainbow cichlids. Uarus aren't aggressive. An appropriate Uaru tank will have plenty of driftwood or FAKE plants for shelter. because they both have very similar needs. if they don't feel secure when young. and if forced to do so. they are mouth brooders.

but can be combined with other large. All members of this group are predators and have many of the same needs and requirements. a pH above 7. Breeding: Difficult but possible. get one Common name/s: White spotted pike cichlid. and a large tank with plenty of hiding places and robust tank mates is a basic. Cyprinids Scientific name: Balantiocheilus melanoptrus Common names: Bala shark. Comments: The fish is one of a large group of species of the saxatilis group (spangled pikes). silver shark Family: Cyprinidae Origin: Southeast Asia Maximum size:13" Care: The large adult size means that this fish should be kept in nothing less . Feeding: Large meaty frozen and live foods. temperatures of 25 to 30 centigrade (77-86f) are preferred. Females have eye spots on the dorsal and caudal fins. Sexing: Males are larger and more brightly coloured. the hardest part is finding a suitable pair without them killing each other. with extensions on the dorsal and caudal fins. spangled pike cichlid Scientific name Crenicichla saxatilis Family: Cichlidae Origin: South america Maximum size:10" Care: Care is similar to that of members of the Central American Cichlasoma group of fishes. semi aggressive species. The fish is aggressive to members of its own species and other pikes.5 should be avoided. The fry hatch within 4-6 days and can be fed with newly born live bearer fry.Tropical Fish Secrets like personality and eagerness to eat. The fish is a predator and tank mates should be at least 4" to avoid becoming food. If you have the space for an Uaru. The fish does not do well in hard and alkaline water. The species is a cave spawner and after a brief courtship the eggs are stuck to the ceiling of a cave. the fish rarely accepts pellets.

A tight well fitting lid is essential as the fish is a jumper and will attempt to leave the aquarium. Maximum size: 3. A sand or small gravel substrate is preferred as the fish will spend a lot of time searching the substrate for food. provide plenty of hiding places so it can feel comfortable and venture out on its own accord. Danio devario.2. Turquoise danio Scientific name(s): Devario devario. During hot weather the use of a large air stone connected to a powerful air pump is recommended. Egg-scattering like other danios. Breeding: Easy. When nervous or stressed the fish can change from a light brown to a very deep black. Nepal & Pakistan. Bala sharks are not fussy of water parameters providing the water is clean and not overly hard or high in pH. Feeding: Small live and frozen foods like bloodworm and daphnia are best though flakes and pellets will also be taken. Feeding: Accepts most foods but frozen and live foods are far preferred. These are often sold as Giants. the temperature should be kept between 22 and 28 Celsius. Feeding: Will accept flake floods.9-7. Common name(s): Bengal danio. however. It prefers a fine soft substrate to burrow in. some soft leaved plants may be nibbled on. Notes: Large specimens have a high oxygen requirement so special care must be taken during the summer months to prevent the tank from over heating. Loves live foods such as bloodworms and daphnia.Tropical Fish Secrets than a 75 gallon tank though larger is preferable as the fish is a schooling species that needs to be kept in groups of at least 3. Bangladesh. Easiest using breeding tank . Sexing: Females are larger and fuller bellied Breeding: This fish has not been bred in captivity without the aid of hormone injections. Sexing and Breeding: Unknown Comments: A shy Loach that often takes time to adapt to its new surroundings. it is still and peaceful Loach and makes a strange and wonderful addition to any peaceful community. pellets. India. tall plants along the back and sides of the tank will help to keep the fish calm. Common name/s: Batik Loach Scientific name: Neomacheilus triangularis Family: Cobitidae Origin: India Maximum size:3-5" Care: They prefer warm water 80-81F and a PH of 6. Another Loach that prefers to live singly. Family: Cyprinidae Origin: Afghanistan. avoid sharp decor as the fish is skittish and will often damage its self if frightened.9"/10cm Ideal Temperature: 75-86 F (15-26 C) Description: Very similar to the Giant danio only more arrowhead shaped & a lot more yellow on the tailfins. Sind danio.

Their PH preference is around Neutral (7). Feeding: Omnivorous. Scietific Name: Pimephales Vigilax Family: Pimephales Origin: Iowa. sinking pellets. will cohabitate nicely with yo-yo loaches and clown loaches. Common Name(s): Bull Heads. only easily sexed when a female becomes egg bound. Will occasionally do strange things like sleep on their side or leap into a HOB filter. remove adults after eggs are laid. Mix with semi-aggressive species that have similar requirements. Lifespan: Possibly 10 years or greater. Recommended tank conditions: At least 55g.Will accept most foods but be sure to provide a varied diet including frozen foods and live if possible. Origins: Malaysia. Common name: Black Khuli Loach Scientific name:Pangio javanicusi] Family:[i]Cobitidae Maximum Size:3-4" Care: Almost identical to the normal Khuli. Suppliment with frozen shrimp. Vietnam. Common name: Blue loach. Like other Botia species. Maximum size: 10-12" though usually smaller in captivity. toxicity testing. Note: Like all danios Bengals are a community fish & should be kept in a school of at least 5. Scientific name: Botia modesta. This can inflict quite bad cuts to the unwary and get tangled in nets. lots of caves/driftwood hiding places. United States Maximum Size: 10cm / 4 inches Care: These fish are very hardy. Mine likes cucumber Sexing and Breeding .Tropical Fish Secrets with feathery plants and marble substrate. Bull Head Minnows are used mostly for bait. When all ideal conditions are met. so beware trying to handle these fish. there is a sharp spine located below the eye which the fish will errect when handled or netted. and can get very aggressive alone. Rosy Reds. vegetables. This loach will do best in groups of 4 or more. Bengal danios are one of the best coloured danios. Tuffies. Family: Cobitidae. with a soft or small-grained substrate. In larger groups. Has three sets of barbels. Thailand. They also appreciate hiding places and plants to root around in. They require simple care and can survive in temperatures above freezing (33) to . then the bright yellow colouration of tailfin is shown at its most splendid. Feeding .they are out more often in daytime. Orange finned loach. however I've found this loach far more friendly and outgoing than the normal khuli. Will dig a lot so live planted tanks are probably not an option. Also ensure some food reaches the bottom for them. and mosquito control.Not often accomplished in home tanks.

Feeding: Bull Head Minnows will eat just about anything you place in the tank. Female fatheads are an olive-brown color with a horizontal stripe down the length of their bodies. Females lack tubercles. they require rocks or ledges such as slate or any flat hard rocks. He has an anti fungal pore on the top of his head to spread on the eggs and keeps them will oxygenated. When breeding occurs. this fish is very easy fish to breed. When spawning. preferably a 5 gallon or so. the male presses the female up onto the cave ceiling or ledge and she releases her eggs while he releases his sperm. They live from 1 to 3 years in tanks but less in ponds with predators. They do not seem to prefer pellets as they are hard to bite of pieces. Fatheads and rosy reds breed from late April into early September in Zone 6/7 of the USA. Female rosy reds are a washed out orangewhite. The fry are raised just as any other fry and in about 9 months the fry will be sexually mature. Comments: If proper steps are taken. fat tube near the vent from where eggs are deposited. Preferably around 70 degrees Fahrenheit (21 degrees Celsius). Then. They live for about 1. The male first prepares the breeding site and guards it by chasing off any curious fish. Sexing and Breeding: Sexing these minnows are some-what difficult. you can remove the rock or leave it to the male to take care of. They also grow white breeding tubercles like goldfish and fleshy black growths on top of their heads. Maximum size is usually achieved at two years of age for both sexes. and plumper. The male will use his fleshy spot on his head to rub and tend for the eggs. First. and it is recommended to have a separate tank for the fry. most . Requires basic fish care. and females are at their prime at about 1 year old. Fatheads and rosy reds begin to breed at about 6 months old. The exact age of maturity depends on temperature. they require a tank of about 20 gallons or more and need a nice clean tank. Breeding these minnows is very easy. If he finds and fungus-infected eggs he will remove the egg and place it outside of the nest. depending on the living condition they are in. crowding level. The ovipositor is a short. Males mature a little later. fleshy growths. After spawning the female(s) may come back several times until they are empty.Tropical Fish Secrets 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Using flate slate rocks at the local fish store and setting them up in a cave-like structure works fine. and water conditions as with most animals. in fact. and vertical stripes.5 years or more. They are much smaller. shorter. After the spawning has finished. Once hatched the male will ignore them unless he is properly fed. Due to their living conditions under the "Feeder Fish" tanks in pet stores. It is recommended to take the fry out of the tank and place them in either a fry net or a separate fry tank. eventually the male will let her in. They also have a very visible ovipositor once sexually mature. they are the easiest egg-laying fish in the United States. Mature males stake out territories when the temperature is between about 65 to 85 degrees F. Second. The males have black heads and vertical stripes down their bodies and on their fins. peaking often in their second year. About 4 days are required for the eggs to hatch. The breeding tubercles occur in three rows on the snout. if a persistent female continues to come to the cave or ledge.

Scientific name: Botia sidthimunki. Females are fuller figured that males.Tropical Fish Secrets are usually infected with fungus and various diseases. Feeding: Most foods will be accepted but Frozen and Live foods are favoured. You can also order them online or can actually be found in cricks. Scientific name: Danio Sp. Will accept most flake foods. they tend to shy away if more boisterous and larger fish are around. and trenches throughout the U. streams. provide good planting and plenty of hiding places as these fish will often dart around before resting in a favoured retreat. little or nothing known. Feeding: Omnivorous. Feeding: Omnivorous. Maximum Size: 2" Care: They should be kept in a group of at least 4 individuals. Sexing and Breeding: Easy. They are good jumpers like most danios and a good fitting lid is a must. I have observed no fin nipping from this species. Comments: A nice danio that schools tightly. however. A small peaceful little Loach will live happily in most community tanks. brine shrimp and bloodworms (live if possible. however you may need to crush . Family: Cobitidae Origin: Northern India and Thailand. Family: Cyprinidae Origin: Myanmar Maximum Size: 3. Often spawn at dusk. Another lovely little shoaling fish that will suit any peaceful community tank. Provide plenty of foliage for hiding in. Family: Cyprinidae. Comments: A great little fish that will constantly dart around the tank in groups before settling on a leaf.) Will eat pellets. They will make a good addition to any community tank. daphnia etc. Common name: Dwarf red rasbora Scientific name: Microrasbora rubescens. will accept all commercial flake foods.S. daphnia. Sexing and Breeding: Not captive breeding reports. still water ponds. especially bloodworms.25” / 8cm Care: Similar conditions as for Zebra danios. A great addition to any tank. Common name/s: Chain/Dwarf Loach. Loves brine shrimp. Common Name/s: Burma danio. Maximum Size: 5cm/ 2” Care: A semi-hardy fish that likes a good open space at the top of the tank for fast swimming. Burma Other scientific names: None. Origin: Myanmar.

Care: They are not specific about water conditions providing extremes of pH and hardness as well as the other parameters are avoided. Scientific name: Danio aequipinnatus. One of the larger species. Males are slimmer and more intense in colouration than females. Common name/s: Giant Danio.Tropical Fish Secrets them as they are often too large for their mouths.5cm (1-2") Sociability: Mid level water dweller. Lamb chop rasbora. Set-up your breeding tank with Java moss or other suitable substances on the bottom so the fishes can scatter their eggs. Common Name: Harliquin. however unlike most egg scatterers they do not try to eat the eggs immediately. Sexing and Breeding: Males have a slender body when compared to the female. Minimum Tank size: Small community tanks are ideal for a small group. starting with infusoria and newly hatched brine shrimp. Comments: One of the larger species but by no means less attractive with its lovely markings. Thailand. also an active shoaling fish that needs to be in groups. ph: 6. Myanmar. They make a great addition to any medium sized community in a fast swimming shoal. Sexing and Breeding: Danios are prolific and very easy to breed. . Male is generally much smaller than females. but will if left in the tank after spawning. As with barbs ensure they have a good supply of small live foods. schooling fish which prefers a minimum group of 6-8.5 Temperature: 24-28 degrees C (76-80 degrees F) Sexing: Female is much larger and rounder than the male. To breed you need a good tallish plant as the males constantly drive the females and try to lure it into the plants to spawn. I have had mine spawn but at this time no production of fry. Family: Cyprinidae Origin: India. A 30 gallon would be suitable for 12 to 24 harlequins. Fortunately for us. formely known as Danio malabaricus. They will spawn at dawn. Pairs can often be used but most prefer them to shoal spawn. they are not fussy about food and will take mainly flake and frozen foods without hesitation. it is an insectivore and with an upturned mouth is ideally suited to taking insects from the waters surface. Myanmar. Scientific Name: Harliquin Rasbora Maximum Size: 4. Make sure the breeding tank is covered as the fishes can be so active that they leap from the water. but cannot eat them as no parental care is practiced. Care Level: Great for Beginners. Feeding: As with other Danios.5-7. Bangladesh and Nepal. Comments These are a very nice community fish and they make a change from keeping neon tetras as a small fish. Maximum size: 4" (10cm).

Fortunately for us. Family: Cyprinidae Origin: India. dimly lit aquarium provides this fish with the best environment. A peacefully Loach that can live peacefully in most community tanks with peaceful occupants. Maximum size: 2" (6cm). frankei. it is an insectivore and with an upturned mouth is ideally suited to taking insects from the waters surface. Family: Cobitidae Origin: Southeastern Asia. Scientific name: Danio rerio var. frankei and thought to be a species in its own right but is now considered a variety of D. A heavily planted. Java. Feeding: Omnivorous. Care: They are not specific about water conditions providing extremes of pH and hardness as well as the other parameters are avoided. Provide plenty of hiding places if you want to see it above ground. rerio. they are not fussy about food and will take mainly flake and frozen foods without hesitation. Provide ample swimming space. frozen or flake foods. Pairs can often be used but most prefer them to shoal spawn. Comments: A wonderful Loach with an inquisitive nature. Maximum Size: 8" Care: A large Loach that requires a fine. As with barbs ensure they have a good supply of small live foods. Make sure the breeding tank is covered as the fishes can be so . Aquarium: Good for small community type aquariums. Common name/s: Spotted or Leopard Danio. God quality water with frequent maintenance will help this fish live a long life and show beautiful colours.Tropical Fish Secrets Care: Very easy. Scientific name: Acantopsis dialuzona. Will take live. Sexing and Breeding: Danios are prolific and very easy to breed. A quite hardy little fish which will not harm others. Feeding: Accepts most foods preferring frozen and live foods. soft substrate to bury in. prefers groups larger than 6. occurs in fresh water only. Males are slimmer and more intense in colouration than females. Sexing and Breeding: Little is known about breeding. Common Names: Horsefaced Loaches. As with most Danios an active shoaling fish that needs to be in groups. Borneo. but cannot eat them as no parental care is practiced. starting with infusoria and newly hatched brine shrimp. Inhabiting the more upper levels of the aquarium as with most other Danio species. they are rarely seen but you can consider it more of an 'event' when you see the fish poking out above the substrate. Another social fish that does best in groups. Feeding: As with other Danios. requires no special attention. Can and will jump so be sure to provide a good lid with no gaps. Set-up your breeding tank with Java moss or other suitable substances on the bottom so the fishes can scatter their eggs. However. Sumatra. was formerly known as D.

Family: Cyprinidae Origin: Most of Asia Maximum size: 8 cm. Feeding: Will accept flake floods. Danio kyathit are the not so common as Zebras and are often mislabelled as Zebras. Feeding: Omnivoures. Orange Finned Zebra Danio. Maximum size: 15cm (6") Care: Easy.Tropical Fish Secrets active that they leap from the water. but like them they are egg-scatters. Common name/s: Pearl Danio. Bhutan. Nepal & Myanmar. Maximum size: 2" (6cm). Common name/s: Orange Finned Danio. India. but need a large tank. then the colouration is shown at its most splendid. Family: Cyprinidae Origin: Bangladesh. pellets and live foods such as bloodworms and daphnia. Slightly larger than the normal Zebra Danios. Common name/s: Moustached Danio. kyathits are a community fish and should be kept in a school of at least 5. Comments: Another wonderful Danio species which has a long-finned form. Thailand. There are two colour variations of Kyathit the stripped and the spotted.25") Care: They are fused about water conditions providing extremes of pH and hardness and gH are avoided. Family: Cyprinidae. The best method is using a breeding tank with feathery plants or breeding mop and marble substrate. due to adult size. but would only use as a treat. Sexing and Breeding: These are not as easy to breed as Danio rerio. Scientific name: Danio kyathit. Can be distinguished from all other danios by the large dark spot on the gill coverings. Comments: The second largest species of danio. Danglia Danio. Scientific name: Danio danglia. only more pink than brown. remove adults after eggs are laid. Looks like a very large pale leopard. Comments: Like all Danios. Scientific name: Danio albolineatus. An active shoaling . Sexing and Breeding: Very hard to tell male from females as they only show the differences when the female is egglaiden. Origin: Burma. Sumatra. I have also seen them eat apple and bananas. Care: They are not specific about water conditions providing extremes of pH and hardness as well as the other parameters are avoided. When all ideal conditions are met. (3. Breeding is the same as with other danios and adults should be separated from the spawning tank. with plenty of open space at the top for swimming. Olive Danio. will eat anything from flaked food to shrimp and smaller fish.

Feeding: They are insectivores and their upturned mouth is ideally suited to taking insects from the waters surface. Make sure the breeding tank is covered as the fishes can be so active that they leap from the water. There is very little information about this Asian fish.Not captive breeding reports. A subspecies. Sexing and Breeding . The water should be cool and well oxygenated. Garra pingi pingi grows to about five inches in its native quick-flowing waters of Eastern Asia. Family: Cobitidae. especially bloodworms. Origin: Asia. Comments: Breed by the thousands in commercial fish farms. previously Botia angelicus and often seen for sale under the name Botia angelicus. they are not fussy about food and will take mainly flake and frozen foods without hesitation.4" Care . Provide plenty of hiding and resting places. Feed a wide variety of foods including sinking vegetable matter. From what I have gathered.A medium sized Loach which suits any peaceful community .As with most Botias they are best of in a group of at least four individuals.Most foods will be accepted but Frozen and Live foods are favoured. starting with infusoria and newly hatched brine shrimp. Garra pingi yiliangensis was discovered in 1977. A subspecies. albino and long finned strains are now available. Compatibility . Sexing and Breeding: Danios are prolific and very easy to breed. but cannot eat them as no parental care is practiced. Scientific name: Botia kubotai. Fortunately for us. Sexing and Breeding: Unknown Comments: Garra pingi pingi has been showing up in a few aquarium stores. little or nothing known. commercial foods and frozen foods. Set-up your breeding tank with Java moss or other suitable substances on the bottom so the fishes can scatter their eggs.Tropical Fish Secrets species that should be kept in groups." It is reported to eat algae but probably is opportunistic and from my experience this is true. Common name/s: Pingi Logsucker Scientific name: Garra pingi pingi Family:Cyprinidae Origin: E. Garra pingi yiliangensis was discovered in 1977. Feeding . Common Name: Polka-dot Loaches.Asia Maximum size: 4-5" Care: A rare bottom-dwelling fish. Males are slimmer and more intense in colouration than females. Maximum Size: . being sold as a pond fish. they aren't as hardy as others and need good water conditions. As with barbs ensure they have a good supply of small live foods. Pairs can often be used but most prefer them to shoal spawn. In my experience they prefer algae wafers and bloodworm. it is similar in behavior and appearance to various loaches and "algae eaters.

Breeding: No captive breeding reports and little or nothing is known about breeding. Attractive and peaceful this fish is perfect for a nice peaceful community tank. preferable four or more. Origin: S. Comments . Common Name/s: Queen Loach Scientific name: Botia dario Family: Cobitidae Origin: Mountain streams of Bangladesh. some vegetable matter is required in their diet as well as more meatier foods like bloodworms. Size: 2-3" Care: Slightly more delicate then other Botias so be sure to provide good water conditions. Sexing and Breeding: Males can sometimes be distinguished by a slimmer body and black lines/markings on the anal fin.bicolor they can still show aggression towards fish of a similar shape and size so they do not make good community fish in all cases. Scientific name: Epalzeorhynchus frenatus. Thailand and Myanmar. wood and caves. Sometimes they will also graze on algae.Relatively new on the scene. Common names/s: Red-finned Shark. Again they prefer to be in groups like most Botia. Ruby Shark.E. But if you can find them they are a nice attractive fish that is generally active. this Loach may be harder to find than others. Comments: This is a relatively small and attractive fish. Feeding: Will eat most commercial foods but prefers live and frozen foods and in my experience bloodworms is a particular favourite. Comments: A lovely little Loach that will busy itself in the open in groups for most of the time. Another small and peaceful Botia that will suit most peaceful community tanks. Plenty of hiding and resting places. Rainbow Shark. However. Common name(s): None however expect to be known as Rose Danio Scientific name: Danio roseus. although less of a nuisance than E. Do not keep more than one of this genus to a tank. Feeding: Omnivorous. Origin: Laos. well filtrated and aerated. Breeding has occasionally happened in the aquaria but it is rare and hard due to their aggression towards their own species. They will accept most foods ranging from commercially prepared flakes to live foods. Asia (Thailand) Maximum size: 6" (15cm) Care: Planted tank with plenty of rocks. .Tropical Fish Secrets tank. Family: Cyprinidae. Captive breeding has now produced an albino form but it is still equally aggressive. At least 36" in length. Keep the water clean.

Thailand (formerly Siam.6-7. They are easy to breed and spawn at dusk or dawn.0 & Hardness: 5. newly hatched brine shrimp and other small live foods are best. Sexing & Breeding: Females are typically fatter than the males. . Maximum size: 3½ in (8 cm). Sexually mature adults have intense red to the underside. 23-25c / 73-77f. Care: Provide this Rasbora with plenty of open swimming space and a tight cover or it may jump.8. Scientific name: Rasbora trilineata. Their underside is silver/white. Comments: Very similar in appearance to Pearl danios but slimmer and have red underside. The easiest method is using breeding tank with feathery plants and marble substrate. The parents should then be removed otherwise the eggs will be eaten.19.0.0 . then the colouration is shown at its most splendid. Danio Roseus are the newest found Danios and are hard to come by at the moment. When all ideal conditions are met. Roseus' are a community fish and should be kept in a school of at least 5. These fish should also be kept in a group. ideally as large as possible. The fry will hatch after 28-30 hours but will not be free swimming until 3-5 days at which point feeding should begin.Tropical Fish Secrets Maximum size: 6.0 . Like all danios they are egg-scatters. Other than that the same as for Zebra danio (Danio rerio). Pairs of fish make spawning runs through thickets of plants and the eggs that are scattered attach themselves to leaves. Their fins are transparent to milky with no color to them. They make a good addition to any peaceful community aquarium.75") Care: Will only tolerate pH: 6.8 cm (2. Sexing and Breeding: Females are slightly rounder when viewed from above. Feeding: Will accept flake floods. Family: Cyprinidae. hence the name Siamese Algae Eater) Maximum Size: 6" Description: SAEs are slender grayish green/brown fish with a black stripe that extends from the tip of the nose/mouth all the way through the fork of the tail. Feeding: Excepts most foods but frozen and live foods are far preferred. common name/s: Scissortail. They are not particular about the pH of the water and will happily live between 6. I would recommend a tank of at least 25 gallons. Scientific Name: Crossocheilus Saimensis Common Name: True Siamese Algae Eater Family: Cyprinids Origins: Southeast Asia. Comments: A shy fish by nature but very interesting to observe. pellets and live foods such as bloodworms and daphnia. The black stripe may fade if the fish is stressed or fighting.0 anything more or less will have serious consequences.E Asia. Like all Danios. remove adults after eggs are laid. Origin: S.

5 to 8. Common name: Silver Khulie Scientific name: Pangio muraeniformis Family: Cobitidae .0 but ideal is 6. Older fish prefer to lie on the bottom or low plants. The edges of the stripe also zigzagged. False Siamese Algae Eater: Extremely similar except the stripe starts at the eye and stops at the base of the tail. extremely similar. Their active nature can stress some slow moving and sensitive fish. Flying Fox: Once again. not extending through the fork. They will not bother other tank mates. They also have a much darker back and their fins have black markings too. Here is a brief description of them and how to tell them apart. They will occasionally chase each other but they don't get hurt. Sexing: The females are said to often be fatter than males but no other differences are known. Mine love shrimp pellets. They also are aggressive toward their own type and so only one adult per tank is best. broader and not transparent. True Siamese Algae Eater: This is the fish I have. Minimum tank size for an adult pair is 25 gallon. Breeding: SAEs have not been bred in captivity yet and are all wild caught. The stripe runs from the nose through the fork of the tail just like the True SAE except the stripe through the tail is much darker. These fish will eat some algae but not much.5 to 7. peaceful fish that do best in schools but they may be kept in pairs. They can live up to 10 years. The edges of the stripe are also much smoother. Comments: Their swim bladder isn't very developed so they can't stay in midwater. CAUTION: There are two other fish often sold as SAEs that you want to be aware of. They must either stay in motion or sink. The black stripe runs from nose through the fork of the tail but is transparent in the tail. pelvic and pectoral fins. They love broad leaf plants which younger fish will lay on to rest. Tank should also have a good cover as they are said to be good jumpers although I have never seen mine try to jump. Mine seem to grow very fast in the first 6 months. They can also be aggressive toward their own kind so there shouldn't be more than one adult False SAE in a tank. In optimal conditions. They don't lie on their bellies but instead keep themselves propped on their tail.Tropical Fish Secrets Care: SAEs are very active. Feeding: They eat most types of algae but will also accept flakes or other foods. Compatibility: SAEs are not aggressive and make great additions to any community tank that is large enough. going from about 3/4" to 1" up to about 3 or 4". They are very adaptable and can handle pH of 5. Mine also love to lie on the slate I have in my tank. They also have a peculiar way of resting.0. They need a tank with lots of swimming room and plenty of plants. it is said they can reach their full adult size in about 2 years but usually don't grow that fast or ever reach full size. Water temperature should be 75-79F (24-26C). It is said that they should not be kept with Red-tailed Sharks as that species is very aggressive towards its own species.

Feeding: Will accept most commercial foods but love a varied diet which should include frozen and live foods. soft sand substrate. Sexing and Breeding: There have been no records of this fish breeding in captivity. . They have very attractive colours and markings. they may turn that aggression onto the other fish in the aquarium. They are hardy fish who do not cope well with high nitrite levels. especially as they grow older. but if bought singly. It is also unknown as to the sexing of these Loaches. Scientific name: Barbus tetrazona Common name: Tiger barb Family: Cyprinids Origin: Sumatra Max size: 2. Maximum Size:12cm 4¾" Care: A hardy Loach that likes to bury in a fine. Keep this in mind when buying them. this Loach needs a tight fitting cover on the aquarium as it can and will jump. They also require hiding places as they are nocturnal. they can get quite aggressive. Comments: A shy nocturnal Loach for the most part.0-7. Singapore and Sumatra. Will usually feed after lights out. Provide plenty of hiding places as they like to stay hidden until evening/night time. they will make a great and interesting addition to any community tank. They would appreciate sand or rounded gravel substrate to dig in. Comments: The silver Khulie loach is a very interesting fish.Tropical Fish Secrets Origin: Borneo. The body color is basically a golden yellow. When kept in small numbers tiger barbs will stress and nip other tank inhabitants. They require a tank temperature anywhere between 79 and 86 degrees F. with four distinct black bars. Tank size: 30 us/gallon Description: Tiger barbs are probably the most popular of of all the barbs. They are 'eel-like'.3" Min.5. Sexing and Breeding: Silver Khulies have not been breed in the home aquarium. Tiger barbs will usually show warning of climbing nitrite levels by hanging still in the water with their head pointed down. and are hardier than most other Loaches. Another Loach that will suit any peaceful community. Snails are also a favorite. frozen and live foods. sinking pellets. Common name: Skunk Loach. with a pH of 7. and they seem to impress many keepers. Hora's Loach Scientific name: Botia morleti Family: Cobitidae Origin: Thailand Maximum size: Up to 4" Care: Skunk Loaches are relatively easy to care for Loaches.5 . If you buy a small group the aggression tends to stay within that group. Another thing of note. Feeding: Will accept most foods including algae wafers. Care: Tiger barbs should be kept in groups of at least six to ease aggression.

Common Name/s: Weather/Dojo Loach Scientific name: Misgurnus angullicaudatus Family: Cobitidae Origin . A varied diet of flaked. they do prefer softer water and low alkaline conditions. There is also a green and albino form of the tiger barb which should be cared for in the same manner. Tiger barbs are egg scatterers and will drop between 50-100 eggs which will then fall between the substrate preventing the parents from eating them. Care should be taken not to over feed them.5-7. Although tiger barbs are very fussy about water spawning conditions. Korea. but remember its size and temperament. But be sure to always include live and frozen foods in their diet. convex body shape. Vegetables such as peas and cucumber should be used occasionally to keep them in good condition. Sexing: Males have deep orange-red fins and a bright red snout. though there are "Golden" Dojos (xanthistic varieties. so each fish can stake out a territory. Maximum Size . Breeding: Two tanks are ideal in order to breed tiger barbs. Burma. Japan. They are not specific of water conditions just needing low nitrate and ammonia levels and a PH of 6. Incubation will last about 48 hours before fry start to hatch. not albinos) that are human-produced. . The substrate should be medium sized stones (marbles work good) and large leafed plants. Comments: Tiger barbs when kept in the right circumstances are bright active community fish. Feeding: Prefer live and frozen foods and will often only accept this at first but they can soon be trained on to sinking pellets and flakes. Common name/s: Tiger Loach Scientific name: Botia berdmorei Family: Cobitidae Origin: Thailand. Sexing and Breeding: Unknown Comments: A nice rare and attractive Botia. China. The parents should be removed from the tank once eggs are spotted. One tank should be stocked with at least 10 different specimens.Tropical Fish Secrets Feeding: Tiger barbs are hardy eaters who will accept a wide range of food. This species attains a maximum length of about twelve inches. frozen and live foods is a good choice. An easy way to spot over feeing is their head pointed down motion.Asia. The females are easily spotted by their comparative lack of colour and their deep. A healthy pair should be chosen and placed in a tank which is no smaller than 30 us/gallons. Microworm and brine shrimp should be fed as well as finely crushed flake food. Maximum size: 6-8" Care: This is one of the few aggressive Botias and should only be kept one specimen per tank or more if space and caves are provided.5.The Common Dojo/Weatherfish is drab to light brown naturally.

Scientific name: Tanichthys albonubes Family: Cyprinidae Origin: White Cloud Mountains in China. Sexing and Breeding: Males are slimmer and have more intense colouration than females. It can also be kept at the lower end of the tropical scale. Often you can separate a pair to spawn. Nepal and Pakistan.Tropical Fish Secrets The Spotted Dojo or Weatherfish only reaches a natural length of six inches. A great little community fish kept with other small peaceful fish. Care .Breeding is pretty difficult. and fertilized eggs will hatch after 3 days. mainly because hobbyists know little about their breeding habits etc. Care: It can be kept in cool conditions. Scientific name: Danio rerio Origin: India. It is believed that a slight rise in temperature after several months will trigger spawning.Most common are the Common. Feeding . after which they may be fed on newly hatched brine shrimp.5" or smaller. Pectoral fins are used in sexing mature fish.They should kept in a group preferable in cool. Striped Danio. Zebra Fish. well oxygenated water although they can withstand tropical temperatures. Common name: Zebra Danio. They are egg scatterers that will readily breed and left to their own devices in a well-planted tank they will quickly multiply. Spawning takes place in the spring to the beginning of summer. Cobitis taenia (Linnaeus) Dojos or Weatherfishes. Myanmar. For the first week the fry feed on infusoria. as low as 16C/60F. Comments . they are larger in males than in females. some prefer the fish to shoal spawn so the females aren't stressed as much. this may last for some time. and some people keep them outside during summer months. they show no brood care. Maximum size: 1. swimming about more if it’s about to rain for instance. Both are excellent scavengers. They should be kept with their own species. Feeding: They will accept most commercial foods but relish live and frozen foods. When kept in groups you can often see them flaring there fins and showing off those magnificent colours. Fishes that have been kept in outdoor pools over summer have more colour than the indoor fish due to the abundance of natural foods.Omnivorous. Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Cantor) and Spotted. Sexing and Breeding . Bangladesh. Spawning follows a courtship ritual between a breeding pair. from insect larve to algae. however. before water temperatures are too warm. Family: Cyprinidae . Comments: A wonderfully colourful little fish. However. Common name/s: White Cloud Mountain Minnow. These fishes are pressure-sensitive. accepts most foods. They are often called "living barometers" of their increased activity at the approach of changing weather.

catfish. small cichlids. Like most Botias they will make considerable indents on any snail population and can therefore come in very handy. Eggs will fall in between the marbles so parents can't eat them. be sure to provide a varied diet of frozen and commercially prepared foods. they can be semi-aggressive sometimes. more aggressive fish. Maximum Size: 3". Keep with tetras. Females have more of a silver tint in between stripes and males have a gold tint. They sometimes look like they are going to explode. Family: Cobitidae. Scientific name: Botia Striata.Little or nothing is known about the breeding of this fish. puffers (dither fish). These guys make a great community fish and fish for beginners. Common Name/s: Zebra Loaches. Sexing and Breeding . Labyrinth . They become free swimming in 3 days. They are often used as "dither fish" to distract bigger. No reports of captive breeding. A tank size of 36 inches with a fine substrate like sand is preferred as they are continually searching for food using their barbels. Sexing: Females are MUCH fatter then males. Origin: Southern India. Generally suited to most community tanks but be warned there are reports of some semi-aggressive behavior towards other bottom dwellers but it is unlikely. Feeding: Accept flake floods and live foods such as bloodworms and brineshrimp. Provide plenty of hiding places as you would with most Loaches. Breeding: Move male and female into a separate tank with a layer of round marbles at the bottom. barbs. These fish like to be in groups of 6 or more. Zebra are best kept in a group. Feeding: Will readily except most foods. Care: Zebra Loaches have no special requirements. Fry hatch within 36 hours and look like little white tadpoles against the glass. and other minnows. livebearers. This fish has a long finned and short finned variety as well as many color morphs although basic care is same for most morphs. They require a tank of at least 10 gallons preferable more and a temperature of 65-75 degrees Fahrenheit. They are top dwellers. Tunga river system.Tropical Fish Secrets Maximum size: 2 inches Care: A super hyper fish. Females usually bully males which is weird because in most fish it's the other way around. gourami. When you have settled a group into your tank they will endlessly roam the tank providing constant action. Very tough and often used to cycle tanks. Comments .A nice little fish with a great character.

Malaysia. The organ is a maze of folded skin that filters the air for oxygen. and parts of China. Its beautiful flowing fins and graceful movement make it a wonderful fish to own. Because of their natural habitats being fairly enclosed areas Betta keepers can often get away with using tanks as small as a gallon but it is advisable to keep them in at least 2 gallons to keep them happy and give them plenty of space to swim. Sexing: The general rule of sexing is that the Males have long flowing fins whilst the females have much shorter fins. Breeding: The Betta is a bubble nest builder and the male will build his nest for the female to lay her eggs in. hence their name). especially in a smaller tank were heat loss is quick. As she expels . shallow ponds. Indonesia. hence the name labyrinth. They generally like more meaty foods and so will turn their nose up at most flakes. When they are ready to spawn.3. However. They proliferate rice paddies. Being Tropical fish they love a humid climate and so having a heater in a betta tank is much more important than a filter. Having the "Labyrinth" organ means that they can also breathe air from the surface of the water as well as through their gills.2G Temperature: 23 . the pair will display intense coloration and begin circling each other under the bubble nest.Tropical Fish Secrets Common name: Siamese Fighting Fish / Betta Scientific name: Betta Splendens Family: Belontiidae Origin: Thailand & Various other asian countries Maximum size: 3 . Care: Bettas originate in the shallow waters in Thailand (formerly called 'Siam'. The male will wrap himself around the female who has turned on her back.30C (74-86 F) The Betta is a beautiful fish that exists in all manor of colour variants from whites and silvers through yellows and blues to reds and blacks. and even slow moving streams.5 . watch out for Plakats and other short finned bettas as well as longer finned females .5" Minimum Tank size: 1. Bettas also love live food and will happily eat live brine shrimp. Feeding: Bettas will feed fine on dried foods and betta pellets as well as treats of frozen bloodworm or brine shrimp on occasion. Vietnam.

Housing requirements are quite simple for this species. as I have found. the male's anal and caudal fins will color up a nice red-brown. Feeding: Wild-caught varieties may be pickier initially but many keepers have found they DO adjust to most foods. they are fertilized and begin to sink. the stripes will become even more prominent. I even use clean shot glasses covered with gravel). a simple sponge filter (it is fry-friendly). The water usually has a pH of 4. Temperatures should be around 7279 degrees F (22-26 degrees C). frozen daphnia for the youngin's. they will charge out and gobble it up. Tank decor should include "caves" (usually the inexpensive terra cotta pots you can find at local craft shops will do the trick. where they are found in quiet. horizontal stripes down the length of the body. Some foods of choice would be frozen brineshrimp. They hail from Indonesia. Betta falx. and they have even spawned at this level). in general. It is advisable to remove the female. Breeding: . until food falls in front of them. plenty of plants (live or fake. A basic 10 gallon US tank is sufficient for a pair. Though. rather than waiting down below for the food to fall. At that point. giving them an interesting look). from the Picta Group or Complex. and the blue and black bands on the anal fin also become more prominent (refer to male photo below). From this point on the male will tend the brood. a tight fitting lid (falx. are jumpers). stagnant waters with submerged vegetation. a larger tank will be needed. they are not above coming to the surface as well to eat. its up to you). The male will scoop up the eggs and spit them into the nest. are your typical mouth brooding betta in that they spend much of their time hiding or holding fairly still. Along with that. For larger groups. like all bettas.Tropical Fish Secrets the eggs. They are a small. Sexing: Betta falx can be difficult to sex. Both males and females have a light brownish body with three black. When courting and spawning. mouth brooding fish. as well as a variety of live foods.8. Common name/s: Betta falx Scientific name: Betta falx Family: Osphronemidae Origin: Indonesia Maximum size: 1. hardy. though in the home aquaria they easily acclimate to higher pH levels (I keep mine at pH 7.5cm) Care: Betta falx are one of the more commonly available wild-type Betta species in the aquarium hobby.7-6. frozen bloodworms. I have even gotten mine to take flake food readily. especially when juveniles. and can be kept and bred quite easily and successfully. But tank-raised falx will pretty much eat anything. as the male may become aggressive towards her as he tends his young.6. and of course.5in (3. The central stripe starts at the snout and crosses over the eye (the eye often almost blends into the line.

the tail also features a blue stripe as it almost looks as if the anal fin connects to the tail with the stripes during breeding displays. rather than being shy and skittish like so many wild-type species. When they are finally ready to spawn. The most common type locality of betta simplex is the krabi province of thaland. it is best to remove the female. If she is allowed to stay. resulting in the loss of the spawn. she is likely to try to get him to spawn again and he may spit/swallow the eggs before it is time for release. until the fry reach maturity. The female will do her own dancing about. I have found my two pairs to be bold and quite the attention pigs. blue/green. They line up their vents. Comments: I have found B. Betta simplex is a small sized mouthbrooder in the picta group. The male's gill and throat covers are an iridescent green while the females are white or yellow. and as the female releases eggs. falx to be a great starter fish for folks interested in keeping mouth brooding wild-type bettas. stop eating. During this "holding" time the male will become less active. nudging." The male will display his fins and his color will deepen (see the male photo below. The female will then pick up the fallen eggs and spit them at the male. basically wrapping himself around her. taking during courtship). He will stop taking them in when his mouth is full. pecking. falx will usually attempt to spawn about every two weeks) The male will now "hold" the eggs in his mouth anywhere from 7-14 days. The female also does not feature the tail and anal fin stripes that the male does. The anal fin of the male features horizontal yellow. At this point. quite a sight. and white stripes (see photo). (B. black. the male will "embrace" the female. and their whole courting and spawning ritual is something you don't want to miss. and rubbing past each other. The female is usually the one who gets the party started by choosing a male and chasing off any other males or females. You will notice him turning the eggs from time to time in his mouth. and each will "present" themselves. Many find they actually have to separate the sexes when not planning on a spawn. The male displays wonderful coloration during courting. breeding constantly. You will see some courting behaviors which I like to call "falxy-flirting. Both male and female have distinctive chin markings extending to the eyes. They are very active little fish and a joy to watch and own. who will catch them and hold them in his mouth.Tropical Fish Secrets Most falx keepers/breeders will tell you that falx are like rabbits. . Sexing: The male simplex is generally more colorful then the female. The males’ body color is generally light brown to yellow-ish while the females is a yellow-tan color generally marked by fear or breeding stripes. unless you have them in a large or divided tank. but there are many other lesser known localities which create a bit of a variety meaning the krabi species is possibly smaller or larger then those from other localities. Features: The most distinguishing feature of betta simplex is its very large head. and hide out more than usual. Then the male will release the free-swimming fry. the male fertilizes them.

Is also known to eat algae from leaves of plants and rocks. Breeding: A typical bubblenest breeder. After spawning you will see the males’ lower jaw extend and he will not eat during incubation. Spawning may last up to 24 hours. and live brine shrimp. My fish eat frozen bloodworms.Tropical Fish Secrets Breeding and Keeping: Betta simplex prefers alkaline water between the Ph of 7. Males can be kept in pairs since this gourami is not aggressive towards other members of the same sex. or sometimes no reason at all. Young males that have spawned for the first time will most likely not carry the eggs for all 10 days and swallow them. A pair can happily be kept in a 2. Also excepts live and frozen foods such as bloodworms and brineshrimp. During conditioning a variety of foods may be fed. This gourami makes a nest in between floating plants and can lay up to . diseased eggs. Also look for rounded fins in females and pointed fins in males. They must also be kept in a low traffic area if not you will have a lot of difficulty in getting the male to keep a spawn. it likes to hide a lot so you might not see this fish as much as other species of gourami.5. After spawning the female picks up most of the eggs and the "tosses" them to the male one by one and if he is too slow to catch them she snaps them up and tries again.5 gallon tank minimum to 5 gallons is preferred. Betta Simplex is very sensitive to water temperature. mysis shrimp. brine shrimp. Sexing: Males are very colorful with vertical orange bars and orange dots on the end of the dorcal fin. Nothing special must be done to get them to breed if you keep a pair together. Does not compete well for food and will quickly starve if bullied by other fish. Feeding: Accepts a variety of tropical flake foods. Being that it is timid. live grindal worms. Betta simplex holds eggs for around 10 days and the female ovulates about every seven so if the female is not removed at least 3 days after spawning she will pester the male to spawn again in seven days and you will lose the first batch. are also more drab in color and more grey then the males. peaceful schooling fish such as neon tetras. They can immediately take a variety of live foods. Other reasons for swallowing eggs include infertile eggs.0 and 7. Females are noticeably fatter when looked at from above. This fish does well in planted tanks with plenty of places to hide. After 10 days the male will release guppy fry sized babies in groups of 20 or less. as they are from limestone pools some mainly the krabi locality prefers a bit of limestone. Condition both male and female on live foods. Does well with smaller. Common name: Banded Gourami Scientific name: Colisa fasciata Family: Anabantidae Origin: North India Maximum size: 4-5 inches Minimum Tank size: 20 gallons Temperature: 76-82 degrees Care: A timid gourami that will not do well with aggressive tank mates. During spawning the female initiates the embrace but no eggs will fall if the male is not ready. The temperature must be between 75 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit or they will become stressed.

5 is necessary for eggs to develop and hatch properly. of about 5. but because of the attention it demands it is not common on the commercial market. has been noted as being both a mouthbrooder. it is very fussy about water quality and food.H. Scientific name: Sphaerichthys osphromenoides. Origin: Malaysia. Sphaerichthys osphromenoides osphromenoides. Sphaerichthys osphromenoides selatanensis is a mouth brooder in which the male carries the eggs. Care: One of the most delicate species of fish to keep. Breeding: The male builds a loose bubblenest either in an enclosed. Comments: A lovely little fish. Maximum size: 2. and enjoy small live food to supplement their diet. Clean water is a must! Feeding: They will accept all types of flake food. They are shy.5 inches. in which the female carries the eggs and a bubblenest builder. Common Name/s: Chocolate Gourami. Keep a group of 10-12 individuals. It should be kept in a densely planted aquarium with subdued lighting. along with the absence of a strong current. He wraps around . Common name/s: Croaking Gourami or Talking Gourami Scientific name: Trichopsis vittata Family: Osphronemidae Origin: Asian jungle streams Maximum size: 2" .5-7.Tropical Fish Secrets 900 eggs in one spawn but this is not common. etc). If you can get a group of these fish settled in they are great to watch and maybe even breed. Family: Belontiidae. so pick tankmates accordingly (no aggressive or overall active species). perhaps under a blanket of floating plants. Sexing: Gender differences are fairly unknown or obscure.they will be fine in 72-82F. though it is said that males have more red in their anal fin and tail. Sumatra and Borneo. Then. or at the surface of the water (anchored by plants. The male may also have a more pointed dorsal fin. the male courts the female. Of the two forms which have been observed.5 pH. Water detoriation will leave the fish open to bacterial and fungal infections. This may have something to do with the fact that there are possibly four different types of Chocolate Gourami. while the other. and from 6. Newly hatched Brine Shrimp is the best food for the fry. Soft water with a P. wellplanted if possible. They are middle-range tank dwellers. submerged area such as a pot.2 1/2" Care: These fish are not difficult as far as water requirements . along with having extensions on the same fins. A species aquarium dedicated to these fish is best. Croaking Gouramis prefer well shaded tanks with plenty of hiding areas. A small peaceful species of loach may be added for example as long as they do not unsettle the Gouramis. Breeding: Some controversy surrounds just how Sphaerichthys osphromenoides (Chocolate Gourami) breeds. until she follows him to the nest.

lightly stocked 5 gallon. Comments: Male fish of this species come in several color varieties. and Sunset/Fire Red (shown in picture).0 and 7. and a temperature of 72-82F.either during spawning or when two males are displaying for each other. Males can be quite aggressive to each other. Powder Blue. or a long. Their blue and green coloring shows up. but become extremely beautiful when healthy and happy. Common Names: Honey Gourami.Tropical Fish Secrets the female while she expels the eggs. Care: Requires peaceful companions as it is a shy fish. Only requires a small tank of 10-20 gallons. After courting the female by intensifying his colors and flaring his fins. and have a more pointed dorsal fin. Sexing: Males are brightly colored. where he tends them until they hatch. along with plenty of space. Provide planting and hiding places. so if 2 are kept. Bengal and Assam Maximum size: Males . They also will appreciate some vegetable matter in their diet and may eat rotting plants or algae in a planted aquarium. they must be fed the tiniest of foods (such as infusoria). There. suitable for community tanks. The normal male Dwarf Gourami is blue with red vertical stripes. but also enjoy frozen and live foods. and he fertilizes them. larger. Family: Belontiidae. Peaceful. They prefer to have their quiet. along with fin nippers. They prefer to have some floating plants. Females . Overly active tank mates. Feeding: Dwarf Gouramis will accept flake food. Scientific name: Colisa chuna. doesn’t do well with boisterous . Comments: These fish actually do make a "croaking" noise .2 1/2".5.2" Care: They can live in most tropical aquariums with a pH between 6. Breeding: The male will build a bubble nest at the surface of the water among floating plants. Also. The fry are very small and need infusoria and small live foods such as microworms for the first weeks of life. PH 6 to 7. soft and nitrates and ammonia levels kept low. and where there is not a strong current. including Neon Blue. should be avoided. After the fry hatch. Croaking Gouramis often look very boring and dull in pet stores. or several. and the male picks them up and blows them into the nest. Common name/s: Dwarf Gourami Scientific name: Colisa lalia Family: Belontiidae Origin: India. she will follow him to the nest. along with adorable blue eyes. It is best to keep either 1 Dwarf Gourami per tank. Females are mostly silver. he picks up the eggs and blows them into the bubble nest. Then. Origin: Bangladesh. because they are extremely small. they must have a large tank with plenty of hiding spaces.5. Maximum Size: 2 inches (5 cm). occasionally with a hint of other colors. They are smaller and also chubbier in the midsection. the eggs are expelled and fertilized.

000 eggs! The sexes are virtually impossible to distinguish. so be prepared to give them space. the green and the pink. pellets and frozen or freeze dried foods. His colours are heightened even more at this time. Aquarium layout & size: Because of the fish’s eventual size they need to be housed in a fairly large aquarium. and he spreads all his fins to the out most and wags his body to and fro. peaceful little fish that does well in the common community and shows great colours when mature. The fry are tiny so feed small fry foods regularly through out the day in small portions.a pair will produce up to 10. will accept most commercial foods. a sign of affection between male and female. Courtship is also a little different. Scientific name: Helostoma temminckii. but they do like to be warm. in the 26-28C (79-82F). and forms part of a courtship ritual as they try to impress a suitable female. These fish are very useful in the aquarium because they will pick away at algae. do this only if you have plenty of space . the later being the most commonly available to the aquarist. Sexing and Breeding: Although they can be breed in the aquarium. Common Name/s: Moonlight Gourami. but relishes frozen foods like Bloodworm and Brineshrimp. as we may suppose. in captivity. Family: Helostomatidae. Care: They are very adaptable. but youngsters show little colour so buy a group. Family: Helostomatidae Origin: S. taking it plant leaves without damaging them. tolerating most water conditions. with his nose pointing towards the surface. As they are not quarrelsome they may be kept with most fish species. Comments: There are two colour forms of this fish. beware that some individual fish have been known to show aggression towards smaller species. Common Name/s: Kissing gourami. with the male standing on his tail. 25-30 gallons is suitable. Males are usually more colourful than females. . Origin: Java. Thin-lipped Gourami. Thailand Maximum Size: They grow quite large. Keep the aquarium clean as any uneaten food will quickly cause a detoriation in water quality. the eggs are kept in a single very tight clump at the centre of the construction. Sexing and Breeding: A rather messy bubble nest is built compared to other species. Feeding: Omnivore.E. Scientific name: Trichogaster microlepis. This fish is usually kept for their novel way of testing each other's strength. The green fish is considered the wild form and the pink the aquarium form. Moonbeam Gourami. Comments: A lovely.Tropical Fish Secrets companions. Asia. however. some 6-12 inches (15-30 cm). such as flakes. but a trail of strength between two males. Feeding: Most aquarium foods are accepted. The kissing action is not.

KH 4-18. Common Name/s: Opaline Gourami or Three-spot Gourami Scientific Name: Trichogaster trichopterus Family: Belontiidae Origin: Malaysia. The male will tend to the eggs until they hatch. tubifex. After hatching. Pelvic fins of males may show orange-red colour to. The males have the classic. During spawning. the dorsal fin is long and pointed. more pointed dorsal fin. the male builds a bubblenest and begins to entice the female by swimming back and forth. In the male. 25-29C (77-84F).Planted tank with gentle circulation and some floating plants to make them feel secure. The tank should be heavily planted so the female may hide if the male shows any aggression until ready to spawn. pH 6. the female should be removed to a separate tank as the male may become aggressive toward her. larger. but may become territorial with other gouramis or similar fish. they become timid around other.0-8. more aggressive fish. Once the mating is over. while the female's is shorter and rounded. Sexing and Breeding: The male will build a large bubblenest. The fry should be fed infusoria and nauplii. the water level should be reduced to 6 inches. The ideal tank set-up would be a minimum of 20 gallons and have plenty of live plants as well as rocks and driftwood for use as hiding places. there should be frequent water changes. Sexing and Breeding: The best way to differentiate between the male and female Opaline Gourami is by the dorsal fin. It's best to keep them in tanks with other active fish that can out-swim . Feeding: The Opaline Gourami is an omnivore and prefers both algae-based foods as well as meaty foods. flaring his fins and raising his tail. and brine shrimp will provide these fish with the proper nutrition. Care: Water conditions are not critical. While males can be territorial (and this can't be stressed enough from my experiences with this fish) with each other and other tank mates. Ideal water temperature is 72-82 degrees F. remove the female as the male will guard the nest. After spawning.0. Feeding: Omnivorous. the colour of the threadlike ventral fins becomes intense and will change from orange to red. along with freeze-dried bloodworms. Comments: Although not as colourful as other members of the genus. soft to medium hard. most foods accepted. such as Angelfish. this fish is not one to be over looked. Normally quite peaceful. When this behavior is noticed. An algae-based flake food. as this is when the labyrinth organ is developing.8.2-7. When ready to breed. Its striking silver colouration stands out in a well planted tank. Additional Comments: Male Opaline gouramis can definitely be quite aggressive and may brutalize and nip the fins of slower-moving fish. South China Sea Maximum Size: Up to 6 inches Care: The Opaline Gourami is compatible with a variety of tank mates that are of similar size and temperament. pH 6. especially during the third week.Tropical Fish Secrets Maximum Size: 6" (15cm).

Their method of feeding is to drift close to the prey and then lunge at it. it is easily found. slightly acidic water which should be warm. and makes a fine addition to any community tank. reduces the water level. I have noticed that some fish like to nip at their ventral fins. At around two weeks. while the female does not. Comments: One of the hardiest and most beautiful gouramies. Origin: Africa. A very peaceful fish. the trouble starts if you are trying . If this takes place when the fishes are sparring with each other there are no problems. well washed. Maximum size: 8". If your male opaline gourami becomes too much of an aggressor. as the males have a very bright red throat. Following that. Sexing and Breeding: There is a very clear difference between the two. However. but do not demand it. If they can't get any food try feeding at both ends of the aquarium at the same time so that the more voracious don't know which way to turn and the Ctenopoma get a chance to feed. remove the female. put them in a smaller tank. Feeding: Will eat almost anything. The male will then build a bubble nest. freshly hatched brine shrimp may be fed. Family: Anabantidae. in keeping them with some fish. Origin: Southeast Asia Maximum Size: 4" Care: One of the hardiest gouramis around. This is stressful for them. Scientific name: Ctenopoma acutirostre. Will tolerate pretty much any aquarium water as long as extremes are avoided. Common names/s: Spotted Climbing Perch.if your tank can handle more fish. as it is an omnivore. you may begin feeding them crushed pellets or flakes. condition a male and a female with live foods. add floating plants -.Tropical Fish Secrets the male in a chase. Congo Basin. They like to be in well planted tanks. the adding of 2 or 3 female opalines can keep the male away from other tank mates. or "feelers". Common Name/s: Pearl Gourami. The male may be removed after the fry are free-swimming. and they will breed. Leeri Gourami Scientific name: Trichogaster leeri Family: Belontiidae. may be used to supplement its diet. 20cm. To breed it. and has many floating plants. Leopard Ctenopoma and Bushfish. this is the ideal tankmates for many fish as they are not too small and make a beautiful addition to most tanks. Once the eggs are laid. Infusoria or liquid fry foods should be fed at this time. After approximately a month. they have serrated edges to their gill covers and when intimidated may flare. Fresh vegetables. anything less than 24C (75F) is too cold. Care: They like a well planted tank with soft. They prefer an acidic pH. so if you are keeping them with other fishes it is important to make sure they are getting a chance to feed. Take care when handling these fish. Prepared foods such as flakes and pellets are taken without hesitation. and should be avoided.

The parents show little brood care. Ctenopoma ansorgii. put the net and fish in the tank and the fish will usually release itself. as with all Channa species they are intolerant of salt and even small amounts can kill them. 8" is a good size in captivity Care: Can be kept alone or in a small group. earth worms and crickets are favourites. Ctenopoma oxyrhynchus and Ctenopoma kingsleyae. the fry can be fed on new born live bearer fry and small live foods. Feeding: Live and frozen meaty foods of all kinds. There are other species available in the hobby including. keep the temperature between 22 and 26 centigrade (71-79f). Livebearers . Comments: The species is identical to Channa orientalis in all ways apart from C. Breeding: Ctenopoma are a bubble-nest builder. The fish are predators and so tank mates should be equal sized or larger. If this happens. Ctenopoma fasciolatum. Decorate the tank with dense plants and bogwood caves. Very soft and acidic water is required and an increase in water temperature may trigger spawning. Comments: A very nice and attractive fish.orientalis has no ventral fins. minimum tank size for one would be 20g or 40g for a group though larger tanks would be better. do not try to pull the fish from the net. Feeding: A carnivore that may require live as well as frozen foods but can be trained to take commercial foods and frozen foods. the fish are mouth brooders and brood care is similar to that of cichlids. if keeping more than one make sure there are two caves for each fish.Tropical Fish Secrets to catch them. They are not fussy of water parameters as long as the extremes of pH and hardness are avoided. All snakeheads are powerful jumpers so the tank needs a tight fitting heavy hood. Sexing: Females are larger than males Breeding: Once a pair has formed breeding is easy. as the serrations easily entangle in the net. Common name/s:Ceylonese green snakehead Scientific name:Channa gachua Family:Channidae Origin:Asia Maximum size:12".

Tropical Fish Secrets

Common Name: Guppy Scientific Name: Poecilia reticulata Origin: Central North America to Brazil Maximum Size: 2 inch Care: This fish is very easy to care for, they are a pretty hardy species and can tolerate a variety of water conditions, but prefer slightly alkaline water. Temperature should be 68-79° (degrees) Fahrenheit. The minimum tank size is 5 gallons. Feeding: Be sure to provide a variety of foods, preferably live ones, because a nutritious, complete diet will enhance their colors and ensure good health. Keep in mind that they will eat their young if they are small enough. Breeding: These fish are very easy to breed and they are able to have a batch of fry every 28 days. A pregnant female can be identified by the gravid spot (darkened area) behind her anal fin. An average brood is average is 40 to 50 babies. Sexing: The females are bigger than the males, the males are much more intensely coloured than the females. Males have a gonopodium. - See the article for explanation of gonopodium. Comments: Guppies live only about two years. There are many different colour and fin combinations available. It is advised to keep two or three females to every one male to prevent the males fighting it out between each other. Scientific name: Dermogenys spp. Family: Hemirhamphidae Origin: South and South East Asia; most imported fish are from Thailand and Indonesia Maximum size: Typically around 5 cm, rarely up to 7 cm Minimum Tank Size: Length at least 60 cm, depth relatively unimportant Care: Wrestling halfbeaks of the genus Dermogenys inhabit a variety of waters

Tropical Fish Secrets
from soft and acidic through to slightly brackish. While Dermogenys pusilla apparently does best in slightly brackish water as far as captive care goes, a variety of species are sold under the wrestling halfbeak name, others prefer somewhat soft, acidic to neutral water conditions, as with Dermogenys montanus and Dermogenys sumatrana. Importers and retailers make no attempt to separate these species before selling them, and they are in fact very difficult to tell apart. The safest approach is therefore to keep these fish in neutral, slightly soft to moderately hard water and only add salt if it is obvious that the fish are unhealthy. As with other halfbeaks, they do not tolerate large changes in water chemistry, so small but frequent water changes are best (I do around 5% once or twice a week). These fish also appreciate plenty of floating plants amongst which to hide, particularly if they are kept in a community tank with other, more boisterous, species. Social Behaviour: Females are fairly tolerant of one another and will sometimes swim in pairs or small groups, but males are very aggressive towards one another. Their fights can lead to injuries, so it is best to keep only a single male per tank except in large tanks with plenty of places for weaker males to hide. Be prepared to remove these fish if they a being constantly harassed. These halfbeaks are otherwise peaceful, and should not be combined with aggressive or substantially larger fish. Feeding: Readily takes live, frozen, and flake foods. Small insects and insect larvae are the best foods, and excellent for conditioning the females and keeping them healthy during pregnancy. Sexing: The anal fins of the males are modified and appear "folded", producing a structure analogous to the gonopodium of poecilid livebearers like guppies and mollies. Males of some varieties of wrestling halfbeak have red or red-and-yellow dorsal, anal, and caudal fins, but not all. Breeding: Similar to the red fin halfbeak. Pregnancy length very variable, from three to eight weeks depending on the species of halfbeak. Broods typically around a dozen fry, which are able to eat small live foods and frozen lobster eggs immediately after birth. Comments: Wrestling halfbeaks are much smaller and more slender than Celebes and red fin halfbeaks of the genus Nomorhamphus. They also tend to stay close to the surface of the aquarium whereas Celebes halfbeaks spend a lot of time swimming in the middle of the tank. Small Nomorhamphus spp. could be mistaken for Dermogenys spp.; the best way to distinguish them is by looking at them from above. Whereas the beaks of Dermogenys are bordered by transparent 'flanges' creating a scoop-like structure, those of Nomorhamphus lack these flanges and appear more needle-like. Common name: Red fin halfbeak / Sulawesi halfbeak Scientific name: Nomorhamphus ebrardtii Family: Hemirhamphidae Origin: Indonesia, fresh and slightly brackish water Water chemistry: Ideally pH 6.5 to 7.5 and moderately hard Maximum size: Females up to 10 cm, males somewhat smaller

Tropical Fish Secrets
Minimum Tank Size: Length at least 60 cm, depth relatively unimportant Care: Red fin halfbeaks (and halfbeaks in general) have a reputation for being delicate and difficult to keep. This is not entirely justified. Once settled in and feeding, they are hardy and tolerant of a wide range of water conditions, from slightly soft and acidic through to slightly brackish. However, they are very intolerant of sudden changes in water chemistry, to the point where large water changes can end up killing some or all of the fish. Small weekly water changes (of around 5% the tank's volume) are recommended. Floating plants are very useful as they stop these fish from jumping, and you should always keep the tank covered. In small aquaria theses fish can swim into the glass when shocked and damage themselves; putting plants along the edges of the tank will help to prevent this. Social Behaviour: Highly aggressive towards one another regardless of sex, these fish must not be overcrowded. They do not fight to the death, but males will damage their beaks and fins, and sometimes lose some scales as well. This opens them up to possible infections such as fin rot and mouth fungus. Commercially available treatments for these diseases are safe and effective. A single male kept with multiple females is the best strategy in small aquaria. In larger tanks (100 litres or more) you may be able to keep more males if you use plants, especially floating plants, to create safe areas that allow males to avoid one another. Red fin halfbeaks are completely harmless towards other fish, though they will eat very small livebearer fry (though not usually their own). On the other hand, these fish may be bullied by aggressive species such as cichlids. Feeding: Prefers live foods, but readily accepts frozen substitutes such as bloodworms, lobster eggs, and mysids. May take flake and free-dried foods, but if this is all you are prepared to feed them, check with your retailer that their fish are accepting them. Red fin halfbeaks prefer to eat food from the surface but will feed at other levels, sometimes even taking food from off the substrate. Sexing: Females larger and much more stocky, and usually have shorter beaks and less colour on the fins. Males have longer, but never curved beaks; compare this with typical Celebes halfbeaks, Nomorhamphus liemi liemi, which have short, curved beaks. Some, but not all, males have red anal, dorsal, and caudal fins. The anal fins of the males are also modified and appear "folded", producing a structure analogous to the gonopodium of poecilid livebearers like guppies and mollies. Breeding: Although considered moderately difficult to breed, these fish mate readily if they are looked after well and conditioned on a variety of live and frozen foods. Water chemistry is of secondary importance, though ideally it should be soft and slightly acidic. Females produce about a dozen fry after 6-8 weeks, but during gestation are very prone to stillbirths. Avoid shocking them by making sudden changes in water quality, and ensure that the fish are regularly fed on a mixed diet including live or frozen foods rather than only flake. Low temperatures (below 24 degrees-C) must also be avoided. Once the fry are born, they stay close to the surface and will hide among floating plants. The fry are around 13 mm long and will accept small live foods such as Daphnia straight away. Liquifry and powdered dry foods are not taken, at least not until the fish are at least 7 to

Feeding: Tropical flake. In contrast to that species. live. though over observation by me. dalmation. males are sterile Other Additional Information: This is one of the rarest Mollies out there. all female tribe. Sexing: Just like all other live bearers. gourami. and marble. and freezedried foods are accepted. sunset. no blue patches on its fins. black.000 of these fish are male. Tank should have many hiding places but these spaces are more for fry then the adults. Females have a square stomach while males are more rounded. and is sometimes included in batches of Nomorhamphus liemi liemi.5) Temperament: Placid and generally social. Very big eaters! Sexing: Since these are big bellied fish it is sometimes hard to tell males from females. will eat flakes though. They are hardy and grow rapidly. Keep 1 male for every 2 females. Colors include but are not limited to pearl. hard (100/150 mg/l) and alkaline (pH 7. though not recommended for beginners Feeding: Prefers Live foods and Veggies. Common Name: Amzaon Molly Scientific Name: Poecilia formosa Family: Poeciliidae Origins: Believed to be the wild hybrid of Pacific Mexican Molly (Poecilia butleri) and Sailfin Molly (Poecilia velifera) Maxiumum Size: 7 inches (18 cm) Minimum Tank Size: 20 US Gallons Water Conditions: Termpature: 73-82 degrees Fahrenheit. bronze. House with other peaceful community fish such as tetras. or the gravid spot in the female Breeding: Impossible. may chase weaker fish Care: Fairly Easy. There are also lyretail balloon molly and sailfin balloon molly varieties. Common name: Balloon Molly / Potbelly Molly Scientific name: Poecilia latipinna Family: Poeciliidae Origin: Gulf of Mexico Maximum size: 2. frozen. and other livebearers. this fish has a straight beak. Only one out of every 10. Comments: This is one of several species sold as the Celebes halfbeak. These fish come in a variety of colors and are very attractive in large numbers. Also . for the females are the only ones who can reproduce. and less colour on its beak. Leave open space at the top of the tank since these fish seem to be more top dwelling then anything else.5 inches Minimum Tank Size: 10 gallons Care: An easy fish for beginners.Tropical Fish Secrets 10 days old. The fry are best cared for in a separate tank filtered with an airpowered filter and containing water taken from the main aquarium. It was named after the all fabled. look for the gonopodium in the male.

Comments: Since these fish are highly inbred the life expectancy is only a year to a year and a half. Sagittaria. Gestation period for these fish is 50-60 days. a teaspoon of aquarium salt per gallon is recommended for optimum health. and is compatible with other peaceful. Provide these fish with an algae-based flake food. These fish give birth to live young.0-7. and is sometimes referred to as the Marbled Molly or Marbled Sailfin Molly. Fry are easily raised on crushed flake food. Female’s anal fins are rounded and resemble a fan. Breeding: Just add water . They may pursue their young and the young of the other fish. In the freshwater aquarium. The Dalmatian Molly prefers a tank of at least 30 gallons.Poecilia latipinna Minimum Tank Size: 30 gallons Care Level: Moderate Tank Conditions: 68-82°F.Tropical Fish Secrets look for a pointed anal fin in males called a gonopodium. Approximate Purchase Size: 1-1/2" to 2-1/2" . as well as freeze-dried bloodworms. Vallisneria and Anubias. The Dalmatian Molly is well suited for the community tank because of its peaceful nature. The Dalmatian Molly is a livebearer that requires a spawning box in a large 25 gallon. KH 10-25 Max. tubifex. the Sailfin Molly. Every 60-70 days the female will give birth to 10-60 young that are already approximately one-half inch long. and the rounded anal fin and pregnancy spot on the female differentiate the two. large fish that can withstand hard water.8. Having a group of floating plants in the corner of the aquarium will promote rearing outside of the breeding tank. Gulf of Mexico. and brine shrimp. The Dalmatian is omnivorous and requires algae. The pointed anal fin and much larger dorsal fin on the male. Females can store sperm for long periods of time so even if you have no males in your tank your females still might continue to give birth every 2 months or so. pH 7. Fry also grow slower and are not of a sellable size until 6-8 months of age. Dalmatian Molly . these fish may be maintained in either a freshwater aquarium or a saltwater aquarium. Mottled Temperament: Peaceful Diet: Omnivore Origin: east coast of Florida. Mollies have the ability to adapt to a variety of salt levels in the aquarium. They require a good filtration system because of their hearty appetites. The Dalmatian Molly has a black and white body. With a gradual acclimation. North Carolina Family: Poeciliidae The Dalmatian Molly is a hybrid color variation of Poecilia latipinna. The aquarium should be planted as densely as possible or have a thick algae mat. Size in Aquarium: Up to 4¾" Color Form: Black and White. densely planted with plenty of strong plants such as Java fern. or larger breeding tank.

Swordtail's.2). but there are two that are more widely used than others. like all other livebearers (Molly's.25 cm. and help them show better colors. and live food is all accepted by the Platy. like sexing. and with a male. and can adapt too many types of water. Although flake can be their staple diet. and usually can do nothing to prevent it. frozen. The first method is to observe the shape of the Platy. freeze dried. and all should be fed to them on a rotating basis. the fish is actually pregnant. Platy's are very hardy. so for a period of time. Guppy's. Fry (baby fish) will also be consumed by the Platy and company.6. and also have wider stomachs (even when not pregnant) than males. sometimes variatus or southern platy. Platy's. 1. Sexing: There are many ways to sex a Platy (these sexing methods. and Mosquito Fish) give birth to live young.5) to basic (8. Platy's have even been reported to live in brackish water (lightly salted water) and experience no negative effects of it. and pointed. Platy's prefer water temperature at 76-79F ( 24. Females will be longer. by the way. Determining whether a Platy is pregnant. and do not lay eggs. If she exhibits one or all of the following signs. Breeding: Breeding Platy's is said to be exceptionally easy. is not hard to do.) Scientific Name: Xiphophorus maculatus and Xiphophorus variatus Family:Poeciliidae Care: Platys are very easy to care for. two a little further up the belly (closer to the front) than the rear. can be applied to all livebearers).2½ in. Origin: North Eastern Central America Size: 2 . the two frontal fins will be the same. but the aft fin will be much smaller.4-26.1C).Tropical Fish Secrets Platy Common name: Platy. The second method (and most accurate) involves observing the three fins on the underbelly of the fish. it will keep them healthier to feed varying food. and seems about ready to explode . and usually shortly thereafter are eaten by the mother and other platys. She is much fatter than you remember her. at which point the fry are released from the mother. and are great beginner fish. Gestation usually lasts about a month. she is most likely pregnant. Female Platy's will have three almost identical fins. PH can rage from acidic (6. because the caretaker of the fish has to do nothing to start it. (5 . Diet: Flake.

If you would like a large brood (batch. and therefore flake food crushed into tiny pieces will do. but with new varieties. The young can take fine powdered food immediately. black.) of fry. and are one of the cheapest fish available. or she will abort the babies and reabsorb them. These fish come in a variety of colors as many other livebearers do. of 72-73*F (22-23* C. They have a very inquisitive personality.Tropical Fish Secrets 2. live.) the adults should be placed in a breeding trap though which the fry can escape. etc. Usually as long as the body. The Females can store sperm for long periods of time so even if you have no males in your tank your females still might continue to give birth every 2 months or so. including red. frozen. and are good beginner fish. like everything else about the Platy. Sexing: Most likely the easiest fish to sex. and feed small amounts. yellow. and should be fed small amounts about 3 X a day after that. but are in no way limited to those who have just started keeping fish. among many others. and will explore all levels of the tank. and freeze-dried foods. with many different combinations of the colors. Feed in the morning and at night. The parents tend to eat their young. Male swordtails have the lower caudal fins extended into a "sword. They live in loosely grouped schools. plecostomus. There are many liquid foods and such out there and to feed baby fish. yellow belly. Some varieties include the original wild-type which has olive-green backs. Usually Keep 1 male for every 2 females." hence the name. There are also lyre tail swords and Hi-fin swordtail varieties. They should be housed with other peaceful community fish such as other livebearers. (These fish seem like they are always pregnant!) . tetra.) Enjoy well-planted aquariums with plenty of room for swimming. litter. Common name: Swordtail Scientific name: Xiphophorus helleri Family: Poeciliidae Origin: Southern Mexico and Guatemala Maximum size: 4" or about 10cm (including tail) Minimum Tank Size: Around 10-15 US gallons Care: An easy fish for beginners. but Platy's are not demanding. She has a black spot that was not there before forming above the three fins used to determine the sex (this spot is called a gravid spot. Comments: Platy's are a very hardy fish. Needs a temp. orange. Platys have a wide range of colors. is also exceptionally easy. white. it is best to isolate the mother in a breeding net (purchasable at almost any Local Fish Store (LFS)) or even a separate tank. greenish-yellow sides. She is a Platy Caring for fry. At least a day or so birth takes place. (There is usually interval of little over 30 days between broods. but make sure to do so before she is giving birth or close to it. Feeding: Takes Tropical flake. and is said to be the eyes of developing fry) 3. and a red band. and blue. They can be found at almost any LFS. some may be 3-4 times as long! The females are more rounded and do not have a "sword" Breeding: These fish give birth to live young.

varied vegetation and plenty of free swimming space. The tail spot blenny is reef safe and is generally a hardy fish and fine for beginners. You can try crushed seaweed or even put a piece of nori on a clip. The only possible compatibility issue is with cardinalfish. good lighting. although they have a short life span as being inbreed over years. This blenny has a long thin body with a black spot on the caudal peduncle and a yellow/orangish stripe over both eyes.Tropical Fish Secrets Comments: Very interesting and easy to breed fish. . This can be avoided by getting a trio or more of wild swordtails and house them in a highly planted tank with medium to hard water. However. Feeding: Initially. Phillipines Maximum Size: Up to 2 1/2" Minimum tank size: 10 gallons Care: The tail spot blenny is a peaceful and easy to care for addition to the marine aquarium. It will graze on algae in the tank. Crushed marine flake works well. the tail spot blenny may be difficult to feed after acclimation. You'll find that this blenny loves to perch on ledges or corals and stare at you. it prefers algae since it is an herbivore. Salt water fish Common name: Tailspot blenny Scientific name: Ecsenius stigmatura Family: Blennidae Origin: Cebu.

Tropical Fish Secrets
Sexing/Breeding: There is very little information available on blenny sexing and breeding. Common name/s: Banggai Cardinalfish, Kaudern's Cardinalfish, Longfin Cardinalfish Scientific name: Pterapogon kauderni Family: Apogonidae Origin: Indo-Pacific Maximum Size: Up to 3" Care: The Banggai cardinalfish is one of the few marine tank fishes that can be kept in small groups. It can be aggressive, however, towards other similar fishes within the species. In general, it is safe in a tank of similar sized friendly fish. This cardinalfish likes to hang in midwater and, for some, not the most exciting with regards to swimming. However, the fish is striking in appearance with long whitespotted fins and contrasting black stripes on a silver body. The Banggai is reef compatible and recommended minimal tank size is 30 gallons. Feeding: Banggai's are carnivores and can be picky eaters. Some may only take mysid shrimp and refuse pellet, flake or even brine shrimp. You'll have to try an assortment to find out which is preferred. Including shrimp or squid or even live. Many will accept frozen mysid. Sexing/Breeding: These cardinal fish are one of the few marine fish that are not hard to breed in captivity. The male will carry the eggs in his mouth until hatching. The only described 100% sure way to sex the fish is to put a known male in with another Banggai and observe the behavior. COMMON NAME: Blue Devil Damsel OTHERS: Blue Damsel SCIENTIFIC: Chrysiptera Cyrea ADULT SIZE: 2.4 or (6cm) RANGE: Indo-pacific region, Northern part of the Great Barrier Reef MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE: 10g (l) (If this is the only fish in the aquarium) SOCIAL: CAUTION - A very aggressive species. They will become a threat to each other and other fish that are less aggressive or similar in size. Their presence will make life difficult or impossible for a mild mannered community. As the fish gets older they live up to their name, devil. If they are kept in groups, keep one male to several females. They become territorial when kept in these groups. DISTICTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: Males: Males are a shiny bright blue with a yellowish-orange tail. Example below. Females: Females are also a shiny bright blue with one black dot on the hindmost of the body. (Under where the dorsal fin ends) Example below. If these fish are stressed, they will turn either a dark purple or black. At night they might turn a clearish blue. DIET: Varied diet, meaty food, as well as mysid, brine shrimp, and bloodworms. Feed 2-3 times daily and, ideally, this fish will also nibble on algae. REEF AQUARIUM BEHAVIOR: No issues with reef living. An excellent and

Tropical Fish Secrets
compatible fish. CARE IN CAPTIVITY: An easy fish for beginners and is a very hardy fish. This fish will nibble on algae and zooplankton and is an ideal Reef aquarium choice. It will ignore invertebrates. It also needs plenty of small hiding places throughout the aquarium. The water quality needs to be high with a specific gravitation of 1.020-1.025 range, and a pH of 8.1-8.4. The temperature needs to be between 70 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit. PERSONAL NOTE: This fish is gorgeous when it is young and is tempting to the new marine aquarist. Plus they are pushed at times in the hobby. But if tempted, be prepared to deal with a pugnacious and obnoxious fish later on that will live on and on and on. Please use caution selecting this guy. It’s not fair to him to be displaced later because the keeper made a bad choice. (Information provided from my experience plus a wide range of fish manuals and guides, including web sources) (Thanks to TBLightingFan for outline and some information) Males :( Yellow belly results of light) Females:

Common Name/s - Short fin Lionfish, Fuzzy Dwarf Lionfish Scientific Name - Dendochirus Brachypterus Family - Scorpaenidae Origin - Indo- Pacific Maximum Size- 7" Care- These fish should be housed in a tank of at least 30 gallons. They like to perch and hide sometimes. They really are not picky about temperature or water params. A UV sterilizer should be used because these fish will eat cleanup crews. They need good filtration and water movement. Probably somewhere around 600 gph in a 30 gallon. Feeding Feed silversides, cocktail shrimp, scallops, squid and other fresh seafood. Can also be fed live ghost shrimp or Damsels as a treat. Never feed few feeders. They will cause fatty liver disease. Look for directions on weaning them in the other lionfish posts. Sexing - none breeding - will breed regularly by themselves. The fry cannot be raised as they are too small. Notes. These fish are poisonous. If symptoms persist after a few hours seek medical attention. These fish will eat small fish and crustaceans. Best kept with lionfish and scorpion fish. Common Name/s- Antennata lionfish, Ragged fin Firefish, Spotfin lionfish Scientific NamePterois Antennata Family- Scorpaenidae Origin- Africa , Indo-Pacific, Tahiti Maximum Size- 8" Care- This fish should be kept in at least a 30 gallon tank. They like a cave or crevice to hide out in. This species can tolerate a variety of substrates ranging

Tropical Fish Secrets
from a Deep Sand Bed to a bare bottom tank. They don’t like bright lights so this would not be a species to keep in a reef. These fish are best kept with fish that are around the same size such as other lionfish, scorpion fish, large wrasses, and anthias. Should not be kept with puffers or triggers as they will nip at its fins a lot. Feeding- Should be fed frozen silversides, cocktail shrimp, scallops, crab and any other fresh seafood. It can also be fed live ghost shrimp or damsels as a treat. NEVER feed freshwater feeders to any Saltwater fish. They cause fatty liver disease. When you first get your lionfish the first thing you have to do is to get it to eat frozen food. To do this you must first set up a feeding schedule so the lion knows who is feeding it and when. Then you can start to substitute frozen in a little bit at a time. Try soaking it in garlic and then wiggling it around on a clear acrylic feeding stick. Sexing- none Breeding- Will breed if you have a pair but the fry are too small to feed. Comments if trying to keep with other scorpion fish do not get a stonefish. They are very poisonous and if you are stung you will be dead in minutes. Do not house with small fish as they will be eaten. An Antennata lionfish would also eat shrimp, and possibly hermts and snails so the best Clean up crew is a UV sterilizer. Common name/s- Russells lion, lunulata lion, Red Volitans, Spotless lionfish, soldier lionfish, Largetail turkeyfish, Military turkeyfish, Plaintail firefish Scientific name- Pterois Lunulata Family- Sorpinaedae Origin- Indo-Pacific Maximum Size- 12" Care- Should be kept in a tank of at least 55 gallons. Needs a few hiding places like lace rock and other decorations. Cannot be kept with small fish as it will most likely eat them. Should have very good filtration as they are messy eaters. In sump skimmers are best as they are more powerful generally. Should have a UV sterilizer as it will eat cleanup crews. Feeding- should be fed frozen silversides, cocktail shrimp, scallops and other fresh seafood. Can also be fed squid and live ghost shrimp as a treat. Soaking the food in a multivitamin is also good. NEVER feed freshwater feeders as they cause fatty liver disease and will kill your fish. When you first acclimate your lionfish you should establish a regular feeding schedule so that it recognizes you as the feeder. When it starts to know when it is getting fed you should start substituting live food for frozen food. Soaking the food in garlic makes it more appealing to the fish. Start substituting more and more frozen food until it is eating full frozen food. If you have a clean up crew including hermits, other crabs, shrimp, and snails they will be an expensive meal. Sexing cannot be sexed. Breeding if a pair is obtained they will spawn readily but the fry haven’t been raised past 9 days. The fry are tiny and will die of lack of food. Notes THESE FISH ARE POISONOUS!! If stung by one soak the hand in VERY

REEF AQUARIUM BEHAVIOR: Noted to nip at large-polyped stony corals. they do well in captivity if given peaceful tank mates and plenty of time to adjust. SOCIAL: Like Fisher's Angelfish it like lost of places to hide and will dash from one place to the other. CARE IN CAPTIVITY: A beautiful species. May also attack soft corals. as well as mysid shrimp and other high-quality meaty foods. provide live rock for constant grazing.1 in (13cm) NATURAL LOCATIONS: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE: 20 gal.5 in (14cm) NATURAL LOCATIONS: Indo-Pacific MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE: 20 gal. ideally. Will pick at diatoms. zoanthids. containing Spirulina and marine algae. These are best kept with Lionfish and Scorpion fish except a stonefish (if u get stung by one u will die). ideally. and tridacnid calm mantles. director of the Waikiki Aquarium from its founding in 1903 until 1940.) DIET: Spirulina and marine algae. . zoanthids. after it gets established. This is the most active lionfish in my opinion. (76L). (76L). Feed 2-3 times daily and. with many irregular vertical grayish to deep blue lines. They like to swim and show off their fins. (Males have more blue. REEF AQUARIUM BEHAVIOR: May nip at large-polyped stony corals. as well as mysid shrimp and other high-quality meaty foods. COMMON NAME: Potter's Angelfish OTHERS: None SCIENTIFIC: Centropyge potteri (Jordan & Metz. provide live rock for constant grazing. It likely will not eat in the first 3 days or longer. DIET: Varied diet. Like many angelfishes they are slow to begin feeding. 1912) ADULT SIZE: 5.Tropical Fish Secrets hot water. and tridacnid calm mantles. Do not keep with triggers or puffers as they will most likely nip its fins. It may starve in new or tanks without Live Rock and Sand. (Information provided from a wide range of fish manuals and guides. DISTICTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: Rusty orange on the front and back. Any small fish will be eaten. May also eat soft coral polyps. shading to blackish below. including web sources) COMMON NAME: Lemonpeel Angelfish OTHERS: None SCIENTIFIC: Centropyge flavissima (Cuvier. 1831) ADULT SIZE: 5. Potter. SOCIAL: Can be aggressive to members of its own genus (Centropyge). Feed 2-3 times daily and. DISTICTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: All bright yellow with light blue rings around the eyes and light blue on gill cover and tipped fins. OTHER NOTES: Named for Frederick A.

including web sources) . REEF AQUARIUM BEHAVIOR: Will often nip the following: large-polyped stony corals.. as well as mysid shrimp and other high-quality meaty foods. including web sources) COMMON NAME: Fisher's Angelfish OTHERS: None SCIENTIFIC: Centropyge fisheri (Snyder. DIET: Spirulina and marine algae. SOCIAL: Not too aggressive with other fish. containing Spirulina and marine algae. Feed 2-3 times daily if there is no microalgae growth. and tridacnid calm mantles. Yellow on the front half and tail. You can have more than one if you add them at the same time. DISTICTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: Two Colors. Purple-Blue on the rear half and on patch above eye. Two (M-F) or Three (M-F-F) can be kept in a large tank. provide live rock for constant grazing. It likes lots of hiding places to hide (playing peek-a-boo) and it will dash from one to the other. DIET: Varied diet. (76L). (208L).Tropical Fish Secrets CARE IN CAPTIVITY: Needs lots of Live Rock to graze on and likes lots micro algae growth. May also eat soft coral polyps. tridacnid calm mantles. 1787) ADULT SIZE: 5. CARE IN CAPTIVITY: Likes areas with coral rubble and lots of hiding places in the Live Rock. REEF AQUARIUM BEHAVIOR: Although less likely than its cousins. 1904) ADULT SIZE: 2. as well as mysid shrimp and other high-quality meaty foods. Will only be aggressive in smaller aquariums with docile tank mates.9 in (15cm) NATURAL LOCATIONS: Indo-Western Pacific MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE: 55 gal. CARE IN CAPTIVITY: Can be kept with others. Feed 2-3 times daily and. and soft corals. (Information provided from a wide range of fish manuals and guides. (Information provided from a wide range of fish manuals and guides.4 in (6cm) NATURAL LOCATIONS: Johnston Atoll and Hawaiian Islands MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE: 20 gal. it may nip at large-polyped stony corals. SOCIAL: Less aggressive than many of its relatives. DISTICTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: Much smaller than most Centropyge and is colored in a golden-orangeish gradient. including web sources) COMMON NAME: Bicolor Angelfish OTHERS: Oriole Angelfish SCIENTIFIC: Centropyge bicolor (Bloch. The fish will feed on diatoms on glass and rock. zoanthids. ideally. zoanthids. Information provided from a wide range of fish manuals and guides.

DIET: Omnivores diet. guppies. Sri Lanka.these fish can be difficult to wean to frozen food. That dot. A very important feeding rule is NEVER feed freshwater feeders such as goldfish. squid (not too often). May also eat soft corals.Indian Ocean. as well as mysid shrimp and other high-quality meat fare. SOCIAL: Very Fiesty and Pugnacious. The stingers are the dorsal and pelvic fins. When you first get it feed it live ghost shrimp at first. When you get it on a regular schedule you can stop feeding ghost shrimp except as a treat. Feed 2-3 times daily. A good diet would include silversides and krill soaked in a multivitamin. Sexing/Breeding. They like to perch and sometimes hide in caves but will gladly come out for food in most cases. They are born about as big as. more so in smaller aquariums. Unfortunately the fry have never been raised past 9 days as they need fresh seawater every day to survive. Feeding. and calm mantles. (114L). Notes. If you are stung stick your hand in water as hot as you can stand. DISTICTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: All dark purple with a yellow-orangeish face. It will kill off other Centropyge and all other docile fishes. These fish cause fatty liver disease down the road and will kill your fish. rosy reds. Africa Maximum Size. These fish are not very active. scallops. CAPTIVE CARE: This fish is fairly hardy and will spawn in captivity.1 in (8cm) NATURAL LOCATION: Western Tropical Atlantic MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE: 30 gal.Should be housed in a tank of at least 75 gallons but preferably more. containing Spirulina and marine algae. When it recognizes you as a feeder and will eat ghost shrimp readily you can start to try silversides soaked in garlic. Can be kept with other members of the same family including most lionfish and scorpion fish*(see notes). 1951) MAXIMUM LENGTH:3. You can also supplement this diet with cocktail shrimp.Tropical Fish Secrets COMMON NAME: Cherub Angelfish OTHERS: Atlantic Pygmy Angelfish SCIENTIFIC: Centropyge argi (Woods & Kanazawa.Volitan Lion Scientific name. etc.It should be noted that THIS FISH IS POISONOUS and can sting you. and any other fresh seafood you can find. Males will fight until one is killed. This fish is a good fish for a beginner providing you don’t need to stick your hand in the tank too often (see notes). If you do get a pair they will breed often.there is no sure way to tell if a lionfish is a male or female to my knowledge.15" Care. REEF COMPATIBILITY: May nip at large-polyped stony corals. If you think you may be allergic than seek medical . This fish will become very aggressive once settled in.Pterois volitans Family-scorpaenidae Origin. You should have all the symptoms of a bee sting but it will hurt much worse. Common name/s. This fish can and will eat any small fish. zoanthids. M-F pairs can be kept if introduced at the same time.

And so on and so forth. cocktail shrimp. COMMON NAME: Eibl's Angelfish OTHERS: Orangelined Angelfish SCIENTIFIC: Centropyge eibli (Klausewitz.These are pretty easy fish to keep but can be a nuisance to train to frozen food. Like to perch and swim through the rocks. Establish a feeding schedule and make sure he knows who the food is coming from. Dwarf lion . Also will not like the high light that is needed on a reef tank. then twice. Get along great with scorpion fish also. can be aggressive to smaller fish in tight quarters.30 gallons SEXING. Also get along with other dwarves and all pterois species. If you are stung than you will die in a matter of minutes.This fish is commonly classified as Agressive but this isnt true in the traditional sense.no way to tell BREEDING.Dendrochirus zebra ADULT SIZE . SOCIAL: Shy.will spawn readily but cannot be raised past 9 days as the fry are almost microscopic. DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERISTICS. Feed every other day until the stomach bulges slightly or everyday until the belly looks full.Dwarf Zebra lionfish OTHERS. 1963) MAXIMUM LENGTH:5. Paler than the Volitan lionfish. and other fresh sea foods. Needs good filtration as it is a very messy eater. They are the size of a. Get along with other fish of its kind.when u first get your lion have a good supply of ghost shrimp.9 in (15cm) NATURAL LOCATION: Western and Indo-Pacific MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE: 30 gal.Indo-pacific MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE . It will hurt for a few days.will not nibble on corals but will eat clean up crews. then three times.too many too name but may include dwarf turkey fish. SOCIAL.7" RANGE . COMMON NAME . When he starts to notice u as the feeder start to feed him frozen food once a week. DISTICTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: One of the larger Centropyge. CARE IN CAPTIVITY. Blended . REEF AQURIUM BEHAVIOR. * If you would like a scorpion fish then do NOT get a stonefish. TRAINING TO EAT FROZEN FOODS. Soaking the food in garlic is a good way to entice the lion to eat food.large pectoral and dorsal fins. SUGGESTED DIET. (114L).Tropical Fish Secrets help right away. Dwarf zebra SCIENTIFC NAME . THESE FISH ARE POISONOUS so u do not want to get stung. If there are any symptoms or swelling persists receive medical attention. If stung soak the sting in very hot water. live ghost shrimp. It won’t go around attacking other fishes but it will eat anything that can fit in its mouth as it will see it as food.Silversides supplemented with squid.

zoanthids. Feed 2-3 times daily and. containing Spirulina and marine algae. as well as mysid shrimp and other high-quality meat diet. . can be aggressive to other Centropyge Angels DISTICTIVE CHARACTERISTICS:Has the same shape as other Centropyge but this fish is 100% black. DIET: Varied diet. as well as mysid shrimp and other high-quality meat fare. A male-female can be housed together in a medium sized aquarium. Feed 2-3 times daily and provide live rock for constant grazing. provide live rock for constant grazing. with the exception of other dwarf angelfish species. 1860) ADULT SIZE: 3. Amount of each color varies from fish to fish. zoanthids. (114L). containing Spirulina and marine algae. but it will fight if ample space is not provided. CAPTIVE CARE: It will do best if housed in a tank with live rock and/or profuse microalgae growth. DIET: Varied diet. provide live rock for constant grazing. COMMON NAME: Coral Beauty OTHERS: Twospined Angelfish.Tropical Fish Secrets shades of green with vertical. SOCIAL: This fish is one of the least aggressive of the Centropyge genus. The Tail fin is tipped in a light blue. REEF COMPATIBILITY: May nip at large-polyped stony corals.5 in (9cm) NATURAL LOCATION: Western and Indo-Pacific MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE: 20 gal. thin orange stripes. REEF AQUARIUM BEHAVIOR: Will nip at large-polyped stony corals. BREEDING NOTES: This fish will also breed with a Pearl scale angel (Centropyge vroliki) COMMON NAME: Midnight Angelfish OTHERS: Midnight Angel SCIENTIFIC: Centropyge nox (Bleeker. as well as mysid shrimp and other high-quality meaty foods. SOCIAL: Somewhat shy. CAPTIVE CARE: Prefers ample opportunities for constant picking and grazing. DISTICTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: Golden color surrounded by shades of purple. REEF COMPATIBILITY: May nip at large-polyped stony corals. It will do best if housed in a tank with live rock and/or profuse micro algae growth. Usually not toward fish tank mates. zoanthids. containing Spirulina and marine algae. ideally. and tridacnid calm mantles. May also eat soft coral polyps. It will get along well with almost anything. (76L).9 in (10cm) NATURAL LOCATIONS: Indo-Pacific MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE: 30 gal. Dusky Angelfish SCIENTIFIC: Centropyge bispinosa (Gunther. May also eat soft coral polyps. 1853) MAXIMUM LENGTH:3. DIET: Varied diet. Feed 2-3 times daily and. and tridacnid calm mantles. thus making the fish look completely round. ideally. A unique feature is the fin pattern in the rear has all the fins meeting uniformly. The tail fin and hind end are black.

SOCIAL: Will be aggressive to members of its own genus (Centropyge). (208L). including web sources) COMMON NAME: Golden Angelfish OTHERS: None SCIENTIFIC: Centropyge aurantia (Randall & Wass. May also eat soft coral polyps. likely due to cyanide exposure. They will also populate an anemone if one is present. COMMON NAME: Domino Damselfish OTHERS: Threespot Dascyllus. It is highly prized. ideally. 1974) ADULT SIZE: 3. Their presence will make life difficult or impossible for a mild mannered community. but will leave most soft corals alone. 1828) ADULT SIZE: 5. Because of its rare status. REEF AQUARIUM BEHAVIOR: Will nip at all stony corals. They will become a threat to each other and other fish that are less aggressive or similar in size. Fins and edges are clear with thin black stripes. (recently some individuals have failed to survive more than a month.A very aggressive species. CARE IN CAPTIVITY: The Coral Beauty is a very popular species of the Centropyge. Because it is readily available and popular. (Information provided from a wide range of fish manuals and guides. highly compatible. DISTICTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: One of the medium to larger Damsels.9 in (10cm) NATURAL LOCATIONS: Western and South Pacific MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE: 55 gal. The possible exception being Xenia. containing Spirulina and marine algae. DISTICTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: A dark golden color with lighter gold striping. SOCIAL: CAUTION . Feed 2-3 times daily and. provide live rock for constant grazing. CARE IN CAPTIVITY: The Golden Angel is one of the most prized of the Centropyge. This fish will also desire lots of places to hide in the live rock. hardy.) PERSONAL NOTE: This is one of the most gorgeous of the Centropyge. It is widely available. as well as toward fishes with similar shape or behavior. . A Black rounded fish with a small white spot on both sides with a third white spot on the "forehead". and has a unique gorgeous color scheme. DIET: Varied diet. It is also rare to see in Aquaria trade because it is extremely difficult to capture.5 in (14cm) RANGE: Indo-Pacific MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE: 55 gal. one can expect to spend at least $150USD for a small to moderate sized fish. This fish will also benefit from micro algae growth. it is fairly inexpensive. (208L).Tropical Fish Secrets and calm mantles. Threespot Damsel SCIENTIFIC: Dascyllus trimaculatus (Ruppell. A larger one can cost lots more. as well as mysid shrimp and other high-quality meaty foods.

Please use caution selecting this guy. meaty food. COMMON NAME: Flame Angelfish OTHERS: None SCIENTIFIC: Centropyge loricula (Gunther. will not harm invertebrates and this fish will eat some algae. The ideal tank environment is one of a moderately aggressive community. It will ignore invertebrates. CARE IN CAPTIVITY: An easy fish for beginners and is a very hardy fish. DIET: Varied diet. Feed at least 3 times daily and. An excellent and compatible fish. as well as mysid and brine shrimp. REEF AQUARIUM BEHAVIOR: No issues with reef living. DISTICTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: Fish is all blue with a bright Yellow-tail. This fish when kept alone likes a lot of small hiding places especially to sleep. ideally. 1918) ADULT SIZE: 2.9 in (10cm) NATURAL LOCATIONS: Western. (Information provided from my experience plus a wide range of fish manuals and guides. this fish will also nibble on algae. (76L). which it does very quickly. REEF AQUARIUM BEHAVIOR: Ideal reef inhabitant. CARE IN CAPTIVITY: This fish will tolerate a tank environment that will kill nearly every other fish. South. Adults can be kept in male-female pairs or singly. Feed 2-3 times daily and. PERSONAL NOTE: This fish is gorgeous when it is young and is tempting to the new marine aquarist. 1874) ADULT SIZE: 3. as well as toward fishes with similar shape or behavior if they are introduced after it has . ideally. A medium tank can handle a small group of these fish. SOCIAL: One of the least aggressive of the Damselfishes. However they can become territorial when in groups. and Central Pacific MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE: 30 gal. It’s not fair to him to be displaced later because the keeper made a bad choice. meaty food. Good co-inhabitants include larger dotty backs. But if tempted. some herbivore flakes and frozen preparations. it will become increasingly aggressive. Yellowtail Demoiselle SCIENTIFIC: Chrysiptera parasema (Fowler. However as this fish matures. This fish will nibble on algae and zooplankton and is an ideal Reef aquarium choice.Tropical Fish Secrets DIET: Varied diet. SOCIAL: Can be aggressive to members of its own genus (Centropyge). Its yellow tail will fade when the fish is stressed and almost fade to white when very stressed. Plus they are pushed at times in the hobby. (114L). and puffers. Blue Damsel. Because this fish is so hardy it is a popular fish used to seed a new aquarium. including web sources) COMMON NAME: Yellowtail Blue Damselfish OTHERS: Yellow-tailed Damsel. be prepared to deal with a pugnacious and obnoxious fish later on that will live on and on and on. angelfish.8 in (7cm) RANGE: Western Pacific MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE: 20 gal. as well as mysid and brine shrimp.

likely due to drug capturing. 1953) MAXIMUM LENGTH:3. as well as mysid shrimp and other high-quality meat fare. Blackbar Triggerfish Hawaiian Name: Hu-mu hu-mu nu-ku nu-ku a pu-a-'a. can be aggressive to other Centropyge Angels DISTICTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: Looks much like a Lemonpeel angel without the blue markings on the face or fins. this species can be difficult to feed and will slowly waste away in aquariums that fail to provide ample opportunities for constant picking and grazing. DISTICTIVE CHARACTERISTICS: Completely a bright orange with 4-5 vertical stripes down the center. It will do best if housed in a tank with live rock and/or profuse microalgae growth. provide live rock for constant grazing. May also eat soft coral polyps. (Recently some individuals have failed to survive more than a month. containing Spirulina and marine algae. and across the Indian Ocean to the coast of Africa and the Red Sea .Tropical Fish Secrets become established. Usually not toward fish tank mates. Plus its bright sharp looks make it a popular choice. ideally. ideally. as well as mysid shrimp and other high-quality meaty foods. The tail ends are a bright neon purple color. zoanthids. Once this fish finds the goby you will see them together for long time. zoanthids. PERSONAL NOTES: This fish really likes to be cleaned by a neon goby. SOCIAL: Shy. Plus you will have one very happy Angel. containing Spirulina and marine algae. To fit nicely into a relatively peaceful community setting. REEF COMPATIBILITY: May nip at large-polyped stony corals. Common Name: Picasso Triggerfish Other Names: Lagoon Triggerfish. (114L).) COMMON NAME: Heralds Angelfish OTHERS: False Lemonpeel Angelfish SCIENTIFIC: Centropyge heraldi (Woods & Schultz. Micronesia.9 in (10cm) NATURAL LOCATION: Western and South Pacific MINIMUM AQUARIUM SIZE: 30 gal. May also eat soft coral polyps. CAPTIVE CARE: Like C. Feed 2-3 times daily and. DIET: Varied diet. through the East Indies. Feed 2-3 times daily and. flavissima. REEF AQUARIUM BEHAVIOR: May nip at large-polyped stony corals. Scientific Name: Rhinecanthus aculeatus Distribution: This species extends from Hawaii and the Marquesas Islands westward through central Polynesia. Provide live rock for constant grazing. Melanasia. A male-female can be housed together in a medium sized aquarium. it should be the last fish introduced. and tridacnid calm mantles. and tridacnid calm mantles. CARE IN CAPTIVITY: The flame angel is one of the more hardy of the Centropyge. and the Philippines to the coast of China. with the exception of other dwarf angelfish species. DIET: Varied diet.

wrasses. Keep the ammonia and nitrite levels low.10 days at water temperatures of 76-81 F. Pellets. If not done it may become permanetly scared of you when you are anywhere around it. Incubation 7 . These triggers are also very inquisitive! Picassos are very territorial. Common Name: Firefish Goby Other Name: Dartfish Scientific Name: Nemateleotris magnifica Family: Gobiidae Origin: Indian Ocean or Coral Sea Maximum Size: 2-3" Care: Temperature needs to stay around 72-78°F preferably 76°F. so make sure that you only put fish in with them that are as big as or bigger than them.) Suggested Feedings: 2-3 small meals per day Characteristics and Compatibility: The picasso has the most character of all of the triggerfish (IMO). or chooped small crustaceans.4. Mysid Shrimp. It lays a whitish egg mass approx 2 mm in diameter. and other fish which are able to defend themselves from the triggerfish's sharp little teeth! Comments: This fish is one of my favorites. Sexing: Unknown Breeding: It is an egg-layer.1-8.020-1.022.1. and "Trigger Formula". Should not be kept with Anglers or Frogs and caution when putting it with Boxfish. this may be to .025. Diet: Firefish gobies are carnivores and will eat Brine Shrimp. Reef Safe?: No Average Size: 10 inches Minimum Tank Size: 80 gallons Diet: Picasso's definitely aren't picky about their diet! They can and will eat everything from Marine Carnivore Pellets to brine shrimp (live or frozen) to frozen shrimp.Tropical Fish Secrets Natural Habitat: Shallow lagoons and reefs with plenty of rocky hiding places. Salinity 1.8. (I recommend soaking live brine shrimp and any other un-enriched foods in a vitamin/trace element formula before feeding it to your trigger. Provide plenty of hiding places for it to dart into when scared cause this fish is very timid. You can not really tell when they will spawn. You should have at least 2-3 different kinds of food for it to keep variety in its diet.2 . pH needs to stay at 8.28 days. Specific gravity 1. also try not to touch with siphons or algae brushes for this will also make it very timid of you. puffers.021 . Ideal tank-mates are triggerfish. pH 8. Keep a lid on the tank cause the goby may try to jump out if stressed. but they can stand pretty high ones for a little while.4. clams. Minimum Tank Size is 30 gallons. and has the most amazing personality of any fish I have ever owned! Make sure to provide many hiding places for the trigger to "wedge himself into" when he goes to sleep at night. Flakes. Behavior: When the fish stops moving it flicks its long dorsal fin. They are almost like little dogs. squid. and will "beg" for food when you come in the room. dH needs to be 8-12. Spawning frequency ranged from 8 . if kept in groups they will show aggression to one another.

Tropical Fish Secrets steady it or slow it down. It usually spends most of its time slow swimming around caves. but usually occurs when at least 2 are present and after molting. and Scarlet Cleaner Shrimp Scientific name: Lysmata amboinensis Family: Hippolytidae Origin: Indonesia. Sexing: Hermaphroditic Breeding: Difficult. It is also reef compatible. Sri Lanka Maximum size: Up to 2" Care: The skunk cleaner shrimp is a very easy to care for addition to the marine aquarium. Do not make sudden movements around it as this makes the filefish goby go into hiding. They will clean off their gills.1-8. their bodies and even inside their mouths. It is not aggressive to other fish species. they will also eat parasites off of fish. Overall. shrimp pellets. frozen food including mysis and enriched brine and leftovers in the tank. Comments: A great fish for a beginner or even an expert. As above. It is considered a member of 'the cleanup' crew and as such. Average lifespan is 4 years. will eat detritus and left over food in the aquarium. The skunk cleaner has a yellow body with two red stripes running down its back and one white spot at the end of each. Saltwater invertebrates Common name/s: Scarlet Skunk Cleaner Shrimp. not usually more than 10" away. Best ranges are pH 8. Feeding: The skunk cleaner is considered a carnivore but will eat just about anything in your tank and will survive on flake. . Needs good levels of iodine to molt. One interesting characteristic is that that cleaner shrimp will setup a 'cleaning station' where they will perch on live rock and clean fish of parasites. EXTREMELY sensitive to copper.4. It is very active in the aquarium and adds color. It is easy to take care of and does not require very much room to roam. Indo-Pacific White-Striped Cleaner Shrimp. this animal is very friendly and extremely peaceful. Indo-Pacific White-Banded Cleaner Shrimp. which is toxic. It will live peacefully with fish its size.

Emerald Mythrax crab Scientific name: Mithrax sculptus Family: Majidae Origin: Carribbean Maximum size: Up to 2 1/2" Reef compatible: Yes Care: Emerald crabs make up a member of what we call 'the cleanup crew'. One of their claims to fame is that they will eat bubble algae (valonia) which is a nuisance hitchhiker on live rock. If food becomes scarce. frozen foods and seaweed. They scavenge the aquarium for leftover food or algae and help to keep a marine aquarium clean. emerald crabs can pick on fish or corals when they get larger. mithrax crab.Tropical Fish Secrets Common name(s): Emerald crab. pellet. They will eat virtually anything including flake. .

They also require a large filtration system that can cope with their waste.Tropical Fish Secrets The emerald crab is green in color and has hairy rear legs. Scientific Name: Cyprinus carpio. some Koi like Ghost Koi will max out at 15-20" will other breeds can reach 30-35" and sometimes a bit more. Sexing: Difficult Breeding: There are reports of Emerald crabs releasing larvae. Feeding: Koi can be feed a wide variety of commercial foods including high protein foods for growth and wheat germ through the winter months. As it grows. Family: Cyprinidae. Goldfish and Koi Common Name/s: Koi Carp. Maximum Size: The size of Koi can vary. afterwards releasing them in a planktonic state. Care: Koi need a large pond of at least 1000 gallons. Mithrax crabs will hold the eggs inside of the flap on their bottom side until they hatch. Offspring are so sensitive that they rarely survive. . it will molt and leave its chitinous layer behind looking as if it had died. They need good water conditions to thrive and grow.

It does not however need to be filtered.D. Don't use blanket weed it is too difficult to collect the eggs without damaging them.Japanese for "brocaded" carp . but many suspect Koi gradually spread through the orient. Prepare your growing on pond/s. I find the only sure way to sex fish is to watch the fish. Having worked so hard to achieve the spawning in the first place. black and blue. Don't feed the parent fish for a few days before you expect the fish to spawn either. Carp fossils have been discovered in South China dating back about 20 million years. Move eggs on ropes to a separate tank for hatching. Koi will spawn when the water temperature reaches around 18+. red. females. typically spawning seems to happen around two in the morning. Or use a spawning net in your main pond. It can take place at any time of day or night. you need to ensure prime water conditions with zero ammonia and nitrates. change in water conditions. The pectoral fins of male fish tend to be larger and more pointed than the females. To achieve and maintain the necessary water temperatures earlyish in the season (late May) it is a good idea to provide heated conditions so that you can achieve a spawning as early as possible to maximize the length of the growing season. possibly by way of trade to and from the Middle East. . in the Black. Eggs introduced straight into growing on ponds are vulnerable to predators such as snails. don't use them as a food source for the local pond wild life! Comments: Contrary to belief. ideally 2 x 3 x 1 meter deep. Some varieties are known for their hardiness. which records claim can live for 266 years.were first described in writing from a Chinese book written during the Western Chin Dynasty. What happened to Koi between the 2nd to the 17th century is still a mystery. Remove eggs as soon as they are laid to prevent parents eating them. Caspian. At that time they were described as white. or Nishikigoi. introducing new fish or barometric pressure changes. Provide a reasonably small pond. unfortunately. Spawning usually takes place 1-3 days after introducing male to the female. Koi are not indigenous to Japan.Tropical Fish Secrets Sexing and Breeding: First you need to sex the fish. These are soft and easy to handle. As always. especially in season are far more rounded than male fish which tend to be slim at all times. Koi were believed to be introduced to Japan with the invading Chinese and a first account of them being kept by an emperor in Japan. Separate males and females for at least one month before you intend to spawn the fish. Aral Seas and China. This is obviously easy to do if you have used spawning ropes. tadpoles and dragon fly larvae etc. 265-316 A. Spawning can be triggered by temperature changes. The earliest written records of Koi were found in China. Koi. A good quantity of media is required to collect all the eggs and encourage spawning IME. This should contain water of approximately the same temperature as the spawning pond and should be well oxygenated. . the ones that chase are the males. but this is by no means always the case. They are believed to originate from eastern Asia. The ones that lay eggs are female. apparently dates Back to AD 200. I recommend using purpose made spawning ropes.

I would suggest that you keep the new fish in your quarantine tank for a few days so that you can watch them closely and see if they have any diseases. 24 hours or more. Transportation: Your fish will come in a plastic bag which is good for short trips. This is one of the reasons that I don’t advise that you buy new fish before a vacation or a long period away from your home. I would advise that you wrapped them in newspaper or in a Styrofoam box. Sanke. It wasn't until 1914 that some of the most beautiful varieties were shown at a show in Tokyo. If you don’t want the water from the pet store in your aquarium. you will need to pump pure oxygen in the bag. If the water in the tank looks yellowish. And they should be moving and not remaining motionless in the corner. It is ideal to double bag the fish for transport. This indicates that there is medication in the water and the fish in the tank are sick. Now many keepers often show their Koi in Koi shows or at their local club. They raised these carp in the ponds they used to flood their rice paddies. they are not healthy fish and you should not buy them. they could have an outbreak. Okay. Spiny fish may puncture the plastic with their fins. It is possible that they looked healthy at the store but with the trip home. fluorescent green or blue. The interest in this pastime grew and more color variations were developed. Tancho. Nowadays some Koi can raise very high prices on the market. you can turn the bag upside down and release the fish into the tank. and breeding them together. you can remove the fish with your net. Open the bag and hang it in the tank.Tropical Fish Secrets The farmers in the rice-growing region of the Niigata Prefecture started raising magoi (carp) to supplement their winter diet. About 200 years ago one of the farmers noticed a carp with some red color. Add some of the aquarium water to the bag until the water in the bag is the same as the tank. You can do this either with the cover or a clothespin so that it doesn’t tip over. The person that you have watching your fish might not be aware of what they need to look for. Some Koi breeds: Kohaku. Their fins should not be fringed and their skin should not be cloudy. Once you have added as much aquarium water to the bag that was in it originally. now you are home. They should swim actively but not darting nervously. They should be well fed but not bloated. If you are transporting in the colder months. Some of the farmers started separating the fish that had different coloration's. For long trips. Goshiki Things to look for when buying your fish What do you look for when you are buying your fish? Your fish should not have any small white spots or fuzzy white deposits on their body. Feeding your fish: .

Water fleas are also available in the summer. If there is still food in the tank. the water quality of where you catch your live food. Half-grown and fully grown fish will be able to go a couple of days without food. I have included a checklist of duties that you should do to create an optimal environment for your friends. I will make it easy for you. Caring for Plants: You should pick off the dead leaves once a week. This kind of food keeps fish busy. chickweed. Some types of live food are red mosquito larvae. You can start feeding them live food collected in the wild. Black mosquito larvae are available in the summer months. You can not put fish flakes in the tank to be eaten later. If you don’t do this. Feed the fish once or twice a day and only as much as they will eat. They are also quite hard to catch in the icy waters.you are looking for are they coming to the front of the tank or staying in the back? Are they eating? What colour are they? Do they have any discolourations? Do they swim upright? Are they swimming nervously? Are they breathing rapidly? Look at the plants. I will break it down for you. They are good nutrients but they do lack roughage. AS you fish get older their tolerance increases. White mosquito larvae are also available in the winter months. be sure to collect them far from the edge of the highway.are there new shoots? Have the leaves dropped off or are there brown spots? . I have given you a lot of information that you might be thinking how I am going to remember all this. Remember that food will swell up in the water. This causes other problems that we discussed earlier. It will provide them with the necessary nutrients and roughage. Young fish will need to be fed regularly. Some live fish you can catch yourself or you can buy in the pet store. They will also use up a lot of oxygen which could be used for your fish and plants. and other wild plants. You will be exposing your fish to this environment. Tubifex worms are probably the cheapest live food. Keep in mind if you are going to catch your own. Give your fish 5 minutes and come back. Well. You can also feed your fish lettuce. you have fed them too much. This will keep the aquarium clean and free of debris. The best food is clean live food. The highway is exposed to chemicals that you do not want to feed your fish. dandelion greens. They are available in the winter months. You will want to clip the leaves from time to time. Daily Feed the fish Observe the fish. If you are going to feed them these sources. IF it is kept alive in storage. This is especially good for fine-leafed plants. it has no more nutrients than dry food. they will shade the other plants too much. An overfed fish will led to a number of different problems. The food should also not cause the water to cloud.Tropical Fish Secrets The basic rule of thumb is less is more. This is only true if the live fish are fresh.

you should dismantel the aquarium and start over again. If it is black. If an odor persists. then you will need to clean it. As long as the filter is working.Tropical Fish Secrets Check the water. A fish that swims far and fast and has no need for quick turns will be slim and shaped like a submarine. your return date. Have them watch you do what you are asking them to do. Remember that when you clean the filter. Do them considerately as you can. All cleaning disrupts the aquarium. This is a good time to install heating cables in the bottom gravel. What looks like dirt might not be dirt. If you see dusty air. But if it clogs. That way they know how you expect things to be done. Understanding your fish The shape of the fish tells you a lot about how the fish moves. Write down all the information that they need to know. and where you can be reached when you are gone). (Address and phone number of dealers. there is no reason to clean the filter. this will tell you how much bacteria is in the tank. mucky and stinks. You can see the floating algae by looking at the tank from the side. Siphon off debris. Acquaint them with the fish and their likes and dislikes. Inform them what you do daily and why. Fish that live among plants will swim with great agility as if they are . Be sure to wash the gravel thoroughly. Give them this book in case they have any questions. It could be bacteria. If foam is forming at the filter outlet.Is everything working? Weekly Duties Groom the plants Siphon off debris Clean the filters so that the water flows freely Clean the front panel of the aquarium Frequent Duties Change the water Helpful Hints If you flash your flashlight in the aquarium. They will be able to look them up themselves. Your aquarium and your vacation It is important that the person taking care of your tank understands the routine that is involved with taking care of your fish.is it clear? Does it smell good? Are the snails crawling around or are they lying motionless? Is there foam on the water? Check the equipment. Tell them anything that might go wrong and how to fix them. Replace one third of the water at least once a month. change one third of the water right away and then again over the next couple of days. then there is too much bacteria. check the bottom material.

The lengths of the intestines are largely dependent on their diet. Fishes mouths can be described in three ways. A fish’s pectoral fins are similar to our arms and the pelvic fin is similar to our legs. They sleep with their eyes open. Short distances are covered by moving the pectoral fins. The intake and release of gases are regulated by the glands. Fins serve as a propeller to move the fish forward. The scales. the inner ear and the eye will send different messages. The mouth is the only tool that they have. Bottom dwellers usually have an overshot mouth which helps them collect food from the bottom. From the outside. including epidermis. The lateral line can we described as the sixth sense. and digging. They breathe in oxygen from the air. If you shine a light in the aquarium from the side. Fish with a straight back like to be right under the water surface.Tropical Fish Secrets deep-bodied and flat. there are now two “aboves” and will try and align with the approximate midpoint. Very fast and steady swimmers have forked tail fins. Fish have taste buds not only in their mouths but on their lips and in the barbells.normal. fighting. The intestines end in the front of the anal fin which is not always the rear section of the body. Carnivores have smaller intestines and are slimmer. They are constantly open and shut. The swim bladder is what the fish use to lie in the water without expending energy. This tells the fish where other fish are swimming and the echoes of its own fin movements. The heart of the fish is located in their throats below their gills. Fish respond to sudden vibrations with panic and flight. Gravity will pull them downward. . These fins are always in motion even if the fish is not moving. Those with flat bellies will tend to hover close to the bottom. the atrium and the ventricle. The canal is located underneath the scales and communicates with the exterior through a series of pores. The skin of the fish is made up of live cells. This sense organ consists of the canal with sensory cells. Some fish have taste buds scattered over their body’s surface. These grow with the fish. are embedded in the skin and are renewed only if they have been torn in fights. chewing. The gills are how the fish breathe. Fish will orient themselves by sight. It also contains the right amount of gases. It is used for catching. To them. resemble our hair. Plant eaters have long intestines and round bellies. Their sense of smell is located in their noses. It runs along the side of the body from the head to the rear and is divided into several branches. and sometimes carrying and protecting fry. It consists of three miniscule cavities lined with highly sensitive tissue containing otoliths. Their inner ear is what is responsible for their equilibrium. The heart consists of two chambers. Their nose is not used for breathing because it is not connected to the oral cavity. This lies inside the skull behind the eyes and is invisible from the outside. This is why you are asked to never knock on the glass of the aquarium. The lateral line registers the minutest movement of water. only the gills show. The difference being that the air has been dissolved in the water. The fast swimming and sudden motions forward are provided by the caudal fin (tail fin) and the muscular tail stalk. The pectoral fins are located behind the pelvic fins. Fish are lidless. overshot and undershot.

Two things will happen in regard. They are generally smaller fish. They will swim toward each other with extended fins. I hope that you find this information helpful and I encourage you to contact me with your successes. Some fish are extremely territorial. The markings on their bodies resemble their mood and look. you might have to rearrange the whole tank to make it look and feel different so they don’t feel so at home. In the water. Cichlids and Labyrinths are the most violent defenders of territory. With time and patience you will get to know the markings on your fish. you can trick him using a pocket mirror and taping it to the outside of the glass. you will have to remove the larger ones and then when the newcomer have gotten used to the tank. When one realizes that they can’t win. If you want to introduce new fish to the tank. I have outlined many aspects that will be helpful to you. the predator will not know where to start because there are so many of them. Their night appearance sometimes looks different than their daytime appearance. The spreading of the fins. The victor will leave him alone and return to his brood mate.two fish will challenge each other for territory. Remember that the goal is to provide your fish with a healthy environment that they can grown in. the broadside stance and lowering of the bottom of the mouth are gestures of warning. you can add them again. Males consider the entire tank his territory and will defend it against every other fish. the male will position himself broadside in front of the female and spread out his fins as far as possible until the female trembles. If you have one pair of Scalares. This is usually because they are weaker and they are safer in numbers. The last thing that you need to know is territory. but they will stop short and stake themselves. If you have a male and you add a female. they look like one large creature from far away. Most fish have silvery bellies.Tropical Fish Secrets Coloring and markings are extremely varied. they will hang motionless in the water as to say “you are stronger”. There are many tips in this book to ensure that you are successful. In terms of territorial fish. You may think the male is showing his beauty but he is not. Some fish will travel in schools. Good Luck! . If they are attacked.

Tropical Fish Secrets .

Tropical Fish Secrets .

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->