Bacula Bacula Main Reference

R

The Leading Open Source Backup Solution.

Kern Sibbald

August 30, 2010 This manual documents Bacula version 5.0.3 (04 August 2010) Copyright c 1999-2010, Free Software Foundation Europe e.V. Bacula R is a registered trademark of Kern Sibbald. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ”GNU Free Documentation License”.

Contents
1 What is Bacula? 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Who Needs Bacula? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bacula Components or Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bacula Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conventions Used in this Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Bacula is Not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interactions Between the Bacula Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 4 4 5 5 7 7 9 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 15 15 16 16 16

2 Release Version 5.0.2 3 New Features in 5.0.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 Truncate Volume after Purge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Allow Higher Duplicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cancel Lower Level Duplicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 New Features in 5.0.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Maximum Concurent Jobs for Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Restore from Multiple Storage Daemons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . File Deduplication using Base Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AllowCompression = <yes|no> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accurate Fileset Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tab-completion for Bconsole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pool File and Job retention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Read-only File Daemon using capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bvfs API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i

ii

CONTENTS 4.10 Testing your Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11 New Block Checksum Device Directive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.12 New Bat Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 17 18 18 18 18 18 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 23 25 25 26 26 26 29 29 29 29 32 33 34 34 34 36

4.12.1 Media List View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.12.2 Media Information View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.12.3 Job Information View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.12.4 Autochanger Content View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.13 Bat on Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.14 New Win32 Installer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.15 Win64 Installer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.16 Linux Bare Metal Recovery USB Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.17 bconsole Timeout Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.18 Important Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.18.1 Custom Catalog queries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.18.2 Deprecated parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.19 Misc Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Released Version 3.0.3 and 3.0.3a 6 New Features in Released Version 3.0.2 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Full Restore from a Given JobId . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Source Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Show volume availability when doing restore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accurate estimate command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7 New Features in 3.0.0 7.1 Accurate Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 Accurate = <yes|no> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Copy Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACL Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extended Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shared objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building Static versions of Bacula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Virtual Backup (Vbackup) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Catalog Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CONTENTS 7.9 64 bit Windows Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

iii 36 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 40 41 42 42 42 42 43 43 44 44 44 45 46 46 46

7.10 Duplicate Job Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.10.1 Allow Duplicate Jobs = <yes|no> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.10.2 Allow Higher Duplicates = <yes|no> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.10.3 Cancel Running Duplicates = <yes|no> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.10.4 Cancel Queued Duplicates = <yes|no> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.11 TLS Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.11.1 TLS Authenticate = yes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.12 bextract non-portable Win32 data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.13 State File updated at Job Termination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.14 MaxFullInterval = <time-interval> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.15 MaxDiffInterval = <time-interval> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.16 Honor No Dump Flag = <yes|no> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.17 Exclude Dir Containing = <filename-string> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.18 Bacula Plugins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.18.1 Plugin Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.18.2 Plugin Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.18.3 Plugin Options ACL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.18.4 Plugin = <plugin-command-string> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.19 The bpipe Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.20 Microsoft Exchange Server 2003/2007 Plugin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.20.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.20.2 Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.20.3 Installing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.20.4 Backing Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.20.5 Restoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.20.6 Restoring to the Recovery Storage Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.20.7 Restoring on Microsoft Server 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.20.8 Caveats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.21 libdbi Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.22 Console Command Additions and Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.22.1 Display Autochanger Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.22.2 list joblog job=xxx or jobid=nnn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS 7.22.3 Use separator for multiple commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.22.4 Deleting Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.23 Bare Metal Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24 Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.1 Allow Mixed Priority = <yes|no> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.2 Bootstrap File Directive – FileRegex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.3 Bootstrap File Optimization Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.4 Solaris ZFS/NFSv4 ACLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.5 Virtual Tape Emulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.6 Bat Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.7 RunScript Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.8 Status Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.9 Connect Timeout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.10 ftruncate for NFS Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.11 Support for Ubuntu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.12 Recycle Pool = <pool-name> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.13 FD Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.14 Max Run Sched Time = <time-period-in-seconds> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.15 Max Wait Time = <time-period-in-seconds> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.16 Incremental—Differential Max Wait Time = <time-period-in-seconds> . . . . . . . . 7.24.17 Max Run Time directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.18 Statistics Enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.19 ScratchPool = <pool-resource-name> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.20 Enhanced Attribute Despooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.21 SpoolSize = <size-specification-in-bytes> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.22 MaximumConsoleConnections = <number> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 46 47 47 47 48 48 48 48 49 49 49 49 49 49 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 51 52 52 52 52 52 52 53 53 55

7.24.23 VerId = <string> . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.24 dbcheck enhancements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.25 --docdir configure option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.26 --htmldir configure option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.24.27 --with-plugindir configure option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 The Current State of Bacula

CONTENTS 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 What is Implemented . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Advantages Over Other Backup Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Implementation Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Design Limitations or Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Items to Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v 55 57 57 58 58 59 61 63 64 64 64 64 67 67 67 68 68 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 71 72 72 72 73 73 74

9 System Requirements 10 Supported Operating Systems 11 Supported Tape Drives 11.1 Unsupported Tape Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 FreeBSD Users Be Aware!!! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.3 Supported Autochangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4 Tape Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Getting Started with Bacula 12.1 Understanding Jobs and Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Understanding Pools, Volumes and Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3 Setting Up Bacula Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3.1 Configuring the Console Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3.2 Configuring the Monitor Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3.3 Configuring the File daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3.4 Configuring the Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3.5 Configuring the Storage daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4 Testing your Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.5 Testing Compatibility with Your Tape Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.6 Get Rid of the /lib/tls Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.7 Running Bacula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.8 Log Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.9 Log Watch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12.10Disaster Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Installing Bacula 13.1 Source Release Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.2 Upgrading Bacula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS 13.3 Releases Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.4 Dependency Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.5 Supported Operating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.6 Building Bacula from Source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7 What Database to Use? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.8 Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.9 Configure Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.10Recommended Options for Most Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.11Red Hat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.12Solaris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.13FreeBSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.14Win32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.15One File Configure Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.16Installing Bacula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.17Building a File Daemon or Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.18Auto Starting the Daemons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.19Other Make Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.20Installing Tray Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.20.1 GNOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 76 77 77 80 80 81 86 86 87 88 88 88 89 89 89 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 93 94 95 95 96 96 96 98

13.20.2 KDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.20.3 Other window managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.21Modifying the Bacula Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Critical Items to Implement Before Production 14.1 Critical Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.2 Recommended Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 A Brief Tutorial 15.1 Before Running Bacula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.2 Starting the Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.3 Starting the Daemons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.4 Using the Director to Query and Start Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.5 Running a Job . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15.6 Restoring Your Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102

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15.7 Quitting the Console Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 15.8 Adding a Second Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 15.9 When The Tape Fills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 15.10Other Useful Console Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 15.11Debug Daemon Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 15.12Patience When Starting Daemons or Mounting Blank Tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 15.13Difficulties Connecting from the FD to the SD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 15.14Daemon Command Line Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 15.15Creating a Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 15.16Labeling Your Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

15.17Labeling Volumes with the Console Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 16 Customizing the Configuration Files 113

16.1 Character Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 16.2 Resource Directive Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 16.2.1 Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 16.2.2 Upper and Lower Case and Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 16.2.3 Including other Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 16.2.4 Recognized Primitive Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 16.3 Resource Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 16.4 Names, Passwords and Authorization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 16.5 Detailed Information for each Daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 17 Configuring the Director 119

17.1 Director Resource Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 17.2 The Director Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 17.3 The Job Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

17.4 The JobDefs Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 17.5 The Schedule Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 17.6 Technical Notes on Schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 17.7 The FileSet Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 17.8 FileSet Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 17.9 Backing up Raw Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 17.10Excluding Files and Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

. . . . . . .15The Pool Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 21 Messages Resource 22 Console Configuration 195 199 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Sample Storage Daemon Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19The Counter Resource . . . . . . 192 20. . . . . . . . . . . . 175 18. . . . . 199 22. . . 192 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 18. . . . . . . . . . . . .14The Storage Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Scratch Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 20 Autochanger Resource 191 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 17. . .2 Messages Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . .2 Director Resource . . . . . . .4 Example Client Configuration File . . . . . .17The Messages Resource . . . . . . . . . . .4 Edit Codes for Mount and Unmount Directives . . . . . 172 18 Client/File daemon Configuration 175 18. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Message Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13The Client Resource . . . . . . .15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16The Catalog Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 18. 199 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Devices that require a mount (DVD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The ConsoleFont Resource . . . . .2 The Director Resource . . . . . . 178 19 Storage Daemon Configuration 179 19. . . . 181 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Director Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . .18The Console Resource . . . . . 162 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii CONTENTS 17. . . . . . . .20Example Director Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Client Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Windows FileSets . . . . . . . . .3 Device Resource . . . . . . 156 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Storage Resource . . . . . . . 170 17. . . . . . . . . . . . 158 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Testing Your FileSet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Capabilities . . . . .

. . 207 24. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Sample File daemon’s Director record. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 23. . 207 24. . . . . .6 Sample Tray Monitor configuration . . . . . . . . .6 Using File Relocation . . . . . . . . . . .7 Restoring Directory Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . 214 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Replace Options . . . . . . . .CONTENTS ix 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Restore a pruned job using a pattern . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Example Restore Job Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 24. . . . . .2 RegexWhere Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 23. . . . . . . . . 212 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 23. . .2 The Director Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Problems Restoring Files . . 202 22. .3 The Client Resource . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Monitor Resource . . . . .14Restoring When Things Go Wrong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 24. . . . 206 24 The Restore Command 207 24. . . . . . . . . .6. .3 Selecting Files by Filename . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 25 Automatic Volume Recycling 225 .6 Sample Console Configuration File .9 Restoring Files Can Be Slow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Sample Storage daemon’s Director record. . . . . 217 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Tray Monitor Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Console Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Console Resource . . . . . . . 213 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 24. . . . . . . . . . 205 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Command Line Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 23. . . . . .11Restore Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 23. . . . . . . . . 215 24. . 205 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Sample Director’s Console record. 218 24. . .2. 216 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Restoring on Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . 215 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 23 Monitor Configuration 203 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 23. . . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . .4 The Storage Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Restore Command . . . . . . . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . .13File Selection Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 24. .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 27. . . . . . . .1 Full Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . 249 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Actual Conf Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 28.1 Automatic Pruning . 226 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 26. . . . . . . . . . . 256 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Pool Options to Limit the Volume Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x CONTENTS 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Automatic Volume Labeling . . . . . . . . . . . 241 26. . . . . .3 Important Migration Considerations . . . 232 25. . . .3 Restricting the Number of Volumes and Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 25. . . . .1 Key Concepts and Resource Records .5 Making Bacula Use a Single Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Migration Pool Resource Directives . . . . . . . . . 248 27. . . . . . 233 26 Basic Volume Management 235 26. . . . . . . . . 242 27 Automated Disk Backup 247 27. . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Manually Recycling Volumes . .5 Considerations for Multiple Clients . . . . . 248 27. .3 Incremental Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Backing up to Multiple Disks . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Automatic Pruning and Recycling Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Recycle Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 26. . . . . . . . Weekly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Example Migration Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 28 Migration and Copy 253 28. . . . . 230 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 25. . . . . . . . 257 29 Backup Strategies 259 . . . . . . .6 Daily. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 25. . . . . . . . . . . 237 26. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Differential Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Recycling Algorithm . 247 27. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Problem . . . . . . . .2 Pruning Directives . . . . 237 26. .3 Overall Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monthly Tape Usage Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Concurrent Disk Jobs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Migration and Copy Job Resource Directives . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 31. . . . .10Using the Autochanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 29. .3 Slots . . . . . . . . 259 29. . . . . . . . . . . . 277 31. . . 273 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Changing Cartridges . . . . . . . .6 Simulating Barcodes in your Autochanger . . . . . . . . . .1 Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 29. .3 Practical Details . . . . . . . 267 30. . . . . . . 274 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 30. . . . . .1. . . .13Bacula Autochanger Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Dealing with Multiple Magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 31. . .3 Practical Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . 279 32 Supported Autochangers 33 Data Spooling 281 285 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 A Multi-drive Example Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 31. . . . 279 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Testing Autochanger and Adapting mtx-changer script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . .2 Example Scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 An Example Configuration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Manually Changing Tapes . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Simple One Tape Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 31 Autochanger Resource 271 31. .5 Device Configuration Records . . . . . . . . . . .2 Disadvantages . . .1 Knowing What SCSI Devices You Have . . . . . 261 30 Autochanger Support 265 30. . . . . . . . . .11Barcode Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 30. . . . . . . . . . 266 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Specifying Slots When Labeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 29. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . 278 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Daily Tape Rotation . . . . . . . . . . .8 FreeBSD Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 31.CONTENTS xi 29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 29. . . . . .7 The Full Form of the Update Slots Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Multiple Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Use bconsole to display Autochanger content . . . . . . 259 29.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 37 Disaster Recovery Using Bacula 307 37. . . . . . 300 36. . . . . . . . . 304 36. . . . .17Shutting down Windows Systems . . . . . . .14Backing Up the WinNT/XP/2K System State . . . . . . . . . .2 Important Considerations . 289 36 The Windows Version of Bacula 291 36. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 !!! MAJOR WARNING !!! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Win32 Specific File daemon Command Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Volume Shadow Copy Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Considerations for Filename Specifications . . . .1 General . . . . . . . . . 298 36. . . . . . . . . . . .5 Windows Compatibility Considerations . . . . . .3 Steps to Take Before Disaster Strikes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Dealing with Win32 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 35. . . . . . . . . . . . 307 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Director Pool Directive . . 287 35 ANSI and IBM Tape Labels 289 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Windows Disaster Recovery . . . . . . . .4 Bare Metal Recovery on Linux with a Rescue CD . . . . .3 Other Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 37. . . . . . .12Windows Ownership and Permissions Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 34 Using Bacula catalog to grab information 287 34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 36. . . . . . . . .7 VSS Problems . . . . . . .13Manually resetting the Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Windows Firewalls . . .xii CONTENTS 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 36. . . . 300 36. . . . . . . . . .2 Storage Daemon Device Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 36. . . . 295 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Windows Restore Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Post Win32 Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 36. . . . . . . .1 Data Spooling Directives . . . . . . . 307 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Uninstalling Bacula on Win32 . .9 Windows Port Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Win32 Installation . . . 285 33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Job statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 326 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 40. . . . . . . 315 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Bare Metal Recovery using a LiveCD . .2 Running the Verify . . . . . . . .12Solaris Bare Metal Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 40.9 Linux Problems or Bugs . .5 Requirements . . .8 Restoring a Server . . . . . . . . . 321 39 Data Encryption 325 39. . . . . . . . 312 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Ownership and Permissions on Win32 Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Disaster Recovery of Win32 Systems . . . . . . .7 Boot with your Rescue CDROM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 37. . . . . . . .CONTENTS xiii 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Building Bacula with Encryption Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18Restoring to a Running System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Restoring a Client System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Bugs and Other Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 37. .5 Example Data Encryption Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Getting a CA Signed Certificate . . . 326 39. . . . 316 37. . . . 312 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 37. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Encryption Technical Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19Additional Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Generating Private/Public Encryption Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Alternate Disaster Recovery Suggestion for Win32 Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Creating a Self-signed Certificate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11FreeBSD Bare Metal Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Example TLS Configuration Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 A Verify Configuration Example . . . 326 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 37. 314 37. 320 38. . . . . .3 What To Do When Differences Are Found . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 38 Bacula TLS – Communications Encryption 319 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 40 Using Bacula to Improve Computer Security 329 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 TLS Configuration Directives . . . . . 332 . . . 321 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Preparing Solaris Before a Disaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Decrypting with a Master Key . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Linking Bacula with MySQL . . .1 Installing and Configuring SQLite – Phase I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Re-initializing the Catalog Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 44. . . . . . . . . . . . 338 41. . .6 Upgrading MySQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 41. . . . 351 44. . . 355 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 44 Catalog Maintenance 351 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Re-initializing the Catalog Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 42. . . . . . . . . . . . 345 43 Installing and Configuring SQLite 347 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 42. . . . . . . 342 42.xiv 41 Installing and Configuring MySQL CONTENTS 335 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Repairing Your MySQL Database . .1 Installing PostgreSQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Tuning PostgreSQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Repairing Your PostgreSQL Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 MySQL Server Has Gone Away . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Linking Bacula with SQLite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 44. . . . . . . . . . 352 44. . . . . . . .2 Installing and Configuring MySQL – Phase II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Testing SQLite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Re-initializing the Catalog Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 42 Installing and Configuring PostgreSQL 339 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Installing MySQL from RPMs . .1 Setting Retention Periods . . . . .1 Installing and Configuring MySQL – Phase I . . . 343 42. . . . . . . . .9 Performance Issues Indexes . . . .6 MySQL Temporary Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Installing and Configuring SQLite – Phase II . . . . . .5 Converting from MySQL to PostgreSQL . . . . . . . 348 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Configuring PostgreSQL . . . 348 43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Database Performance Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 41. . . . . . . . . . . . 335 41. . . . . . . . .2 Compacting Your MySQL Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 42. . . . . .6 Upgrading PostgreSQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 42. . . . .4 Installing PostgreSQL from RPMs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 44. . . . . . 347 43. . . . 337 41. . . .4 MySQL Table is Full . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 43. . . . . . . . . . 354 44.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE . 379 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Disclaimer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 48 GNU Free Documentation License 373 48. .9. . . . . . . . 362 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 47 Bacula Copyright. . . . . .11Compacting Your SQLite Database . . 359 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Compacting Your PostgreSQL Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Table of Contents . . . . . 355 44.3 LGPL . . . . .3 SQLite Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 PostgreSQL Indexes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 A Final Bootstrap Example . . . . . . . . . . . 368 46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Public Domain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 44. . . . . . . . . . 357 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . .13Backing Up Your Bacula Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 47. . . . . . . . 371 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Licenses 371 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 FDL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Backward Compatibility . . . . . . . . 356 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 47. . . 358 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 47. . . .CONTENTS xv 44. .1 Bootstrap File Format .2 MySQL Indexes . . . . . . . . .2 Configuring and Testing TCP Wrappers . .3 Bootstrap for bscan .5 Trademark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Database Size . . . . . . . . . 369 46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Backing Up Third Party Databases . . . . . . . . 364 46 The Bootstrap File 365 46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 GPL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Migrating from SQLite to MySQL or PostgreSQL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 46. . . . 359 45 Bacula Security Issues 361 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trademark. 371 47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 47. .3 Preamble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Automatic Generation of Bootstrap Files . . .14Security considerations . .3 Running as non-root . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Fiduciary License Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Preamble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 . . . 384 48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 49 Thanks 391 49.10How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Bacula Bugs . . . . . .7 GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE . . . . . . . 384 48. . 385 48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 TERMS AND CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 TERMS AND CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xvi CONTENTS 48. . . . . . . . 384 48.5 How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs . . 383 48. . . . . . . .6 Table of Contents . . . . . . .

In addition.1 Who Needs Bacula? If you are currently using a program such as tar. If you are currently using a sophisticated commercial package such as Legato Networker. the Bacula project does not recommend using Bacula as it is much more difficult to setup and use than tar or dump. 1. dump. if you are new to Unix systems or do not have offsetting experience with a sophisticated backup package. then you will find working with Bacula difficult. is not limited by your tape drive capacity). or bru to backup your computer data. but it is easier and more efficient to use a simpler program for that kind of operation. Console. However. Bacula will most likely provide the additional features you want. Bacula is scalable from small single computer systems to systems consisting of hundreds of computers located over a large network. or catalog services. In technical terms. If you want Bacula to behave like the above mentioned simple programs and write over any tape that you put in the drive. Storage. quite a number of Bacula users report that Bacula is simpler to setup and use than other equivalent programs.Chapter 1 What is Bacula? Bacula is a set of computer programs that permits the system administrator to manage backup.e. Bacula can also run entirely upon a single computer and can backup to various types of media. and you would like a network solution. including tape and disk. recovery. Bacula can most likely fill your needs. more flexibility. Arkeia. ARCserveIT. Bacula is relatively easy to use and efficient. and Monitor services. It is possible to ”force” Bacula to write over any tape in the drive. while offering many advanced storage management features that make it easy to find and recover lost or damaged files. which provides many of the same features and is free software available under the GNU Version 2 software license. and verification of computer data across a network of computers of different kinds. you may be interested in Bacula. Due to its modular design.2 Bacula Components or Services Bacula is made up of the following five major components or services: Director. it is a network Client/Server based backup program. 1 . or PerfectBackup+. 1. File. Bacula is designed to protect your data following the rules you specify. and this means reusing a tape only as the last resort. If you would like a backup program that can write to multiple volumes (i.

and a wxWidgets graphical interface.3 (thanks to Aristedes Maniatis for this graphic and the one below) Bacula Director The Bacula Director service is the program that supervises all the backup. and gives you instant help about the command you are typing. but quite functional as it has most the capabilities of the shell Console. Most system administrators will find this completely adequate. QTbased interface. For more details see the Bacula Console Design Document. TTY interface). verify and archive operations. The third version is a wxWidgets GUI with an interactive file restore. restore. . The second version is a GNOME GUI interface that is far from complete. The system administrator uses the Bacula Director to schedule backups and to recover files. The Director runs as a daemon (or service) in the background.e. For more details see the Director Services Daemon Design Document in the Bacula Developer’s Guide. It also has most of the capabilities of the shell console. The first and simplest is to run the Console program in a shell window (i. allows command completion with tabulation.0. Bacula Console The Bacula Console service is the program that allows the administrator or user to communicate with the Bacula Director Currently. the Bacula Console is available in three versions: text-based console interface.2 Bacula Version 5.

The Storage services runs as a daemon on the machine that has the backup device (usually a tape drive).Bacula Version 5. and security. XP. The packages for MySQL and PostgreSQL are available for several operating systems.org. . Bacula File Daemons and Bacula Storage Daemons. To perform a successful save or restore. all Jobs run. The three SQL databases currently supported (MySQL. arbitrary queries. the current Bacula implementation interfaces only to MySQL. Alternatively. For more information on PostgreSQL.postgresql. e. only a GTK+ version is available. The Windows File daemon runs on current Windows versions (NT. and SQLite. including rapid indexing. the Storage daemon. Although the Bacula project plans to support other major SQL databases. please see the Installing and Configuring SQLite chapter of this document. PostgreSQL or SQLite). 2000. It is specific to the operating system on which it runs and is responsible for providing the file attributes and data when requested by the Director. files). Currently. which works with GNOME. see the Installing and Configuring MySQL chapter of this document for the details. the Storage daemon is responsible for reading and writing your tapes (or other storage media. For the technical and porting details see the Catalog Services Design Document in the developer’s documented. 2003. because the catalog maintains a record of all Volumes used. please see: www. permitting efficient restoration and Volume management. In other words. In addition to Unix/Linux File daemons. The Catalog services sets Bacula apart from simple backup programs like tar and bru. PostgreSQL or SQLite) provide quite a number of features. please see: www. For the details of configuring SQLite.0. KDE. Bacula currently supports three different databases. one of which must be chosen when building Bacula. installing from the source is quite easy.g. This program runs as a daemon on the machine to be backed up.com.org system tray standard. For more information on MySQL. and possibly Me and 98). and all Files saved. Bacula Storage The Bacula Storage services consist of the software programs that perform the storage and recovery of the file attributes and data to the physical backup media or volumes. For more details see the Storage Services Daemon Design Document in the Bacula Developer’s Guide. there is a Windows File daemon (normally distributed in binary format). MySQL. PostgreSQL and SQLite. PostgreSQL.mysql. the File daemon. Or see the Installing and Configuring PostgreSQL chapter of this document for the details. For more details see the File Services Daemon Design Document in the Bacula Developer’s Guide. the following four daemons must be configured and running: the Director daemon. or any window manager that supports the FreeDesktop. Configuring and building SQLite is even easier.3 3 Bacula File The Bacula File service (also known as the Client program) is the software program that is installed on the machine to be backed up. The File services are also responsible for the file system dependent part of restoring the file attributes and data during a recovery operation. Bacula Monitor A Bacula Monitor service is the program that allows the administrator or user to watch current status of Bacula Directors. The Catalog services permit the system administrator or user to quickly locate and restore any desired file. and the Catalog service (MySQL. Catalog The Catalog services are comprised of the software programs responsible for maintaining the file indexes and volume databases for all files backed up.

4 Bacula Version 5. .3 Bacula Configuration In order for Bacula to understand your system. you must create a number of configuration files containing resources (or objects).4 Conventions Used in this Document Bacula is in a state of evolution. Just the same. If you are reading this manual as supplied in a released version of the software. the above paragraph holds true. and as a consequence. The following presents an overall picture of this: 1. what clients you want backed up and how.3 1.org. it indicates that the particular feature is not implemented. www.bacula.0. this manual will not always agree with the code. it generally lags behind the code a bit. If an item in this manual is preceded by an asterisk (*). please bear in mind that this version describes the current version in development (in the CVS) that may contain features not in the released version. it indicates that the feature may be partially implemented. If you are reading the online version of the manual. If it is preceded by a plus sign (+).

which will give you a quick overview of getting Bacula running. 1. then the Getting Started with Bacula. the author recommends that you first scan the Terminology section below. and how the file is to be stored (compression. a list of excluded files. and quite often. and most importantly. FileSet A FileSet is a Resource contained in a configuration file that defines the files to be backed up. File Daemon The daemon running on the client computer to be backed up. but does not contain the data for the files backed up. The Catalog is an online resource. Clients. creation date. The attributes do not include the file’s data. then quickly review the next chapter entitled The Current State of Bacula. Normally.Bacula Version 5. On Windows systems. the current state of a system just backed up. permissions. For example. the tapes will also have a copy of the file data in addition to the File Attributes (see below). The information saved in the Catalog permits the administrator or user to determine what jobs were run. Of course. it is referred to it as the FD. see the FileSet Resource definition in the Director chapter of this document. The catalog feature is one part of Bacula that distinguishes it from simple backup and archive programs such as dump and tar. it permits you to choose what files to restore. encryption. for example. Director The main Bacula server daemon that schedules and directs all Bacula operations.3 5 1.5 Quick Start To get Bacula up and running quickly. For more details. Directive The term directive is used to refer to a statement or a record within a Resource in a configuration file that defines one specific setting. the Name directive defines the name of the Resource. Occasionally. the word Client refers to the machine being backed up. Bootstrap File The bootstrap file is an ASCII file containing a compact form of commands that allow Bacula or the stand-alone file extraction utility (bextract) to restore the contents of one or more Volumes. and it is synonymous with the File services or File daemon. as well as some Unix systems. then How to Configure Bacula. Most of the information stored in the catalog is also stored on the backup volumes (i. and sometimes as the Client services or the FD. and Files that were backed up and on what Volume or Volumes.0. Console The program that interfaces to the Director allowing the user or system administrator to control Bacula. You can create a bootstrap file from a Catalog to extract any file or files you wish. daemons are called Services. It consists of a list of included files or directories. tapes). File Attributes The File Attributes are all the information necessary about a file to identify it and all its properties such as size. With a bootstrap file. After which. Catalog The Catalog is used to store summary information about the Jobs. This is also referred to as the File services. Note. Bacula can restore your system without a Catalog. Backup The term Backup refers to a Bacula Job that saves files. . Client In Bacula’s terminology. the project refers to the Director as DIR. Daemon Unix terminology for a program that is always present in the background to carry out a designated task. and finally the chapter on Running Bacula.e. signatures). the attributes are handled entirely by Bacula so that the user never needs to be concerned about them.6 Terminology Administrator The person or persons responsible for administrating the Bacula system. etc. you should proceed to the chapter on Installing Bacula. other backup programs may define this differently. Differential A backup that includes all files changed since the last Full save started. their status as well as the important characteristics of each file that was backed up. A Client is defined in a configuration file resource. modification date.

Normally. restore. verify. Of course. and it consists of removing the Volumes on which data is saved from active use. it compares the file attributes). Verify A verify is a job that compares the current file attributes to the attributes that have previously been stored in the Bacula Catalog. Storage Daemon The Storage daemon. Retention Period There are various kinds of retention periods that Bacula recognizes. a restore will normally have a small set of files to restore. Differential. All the files contained on an Archived Volume are removed from the Catalog. Bacula can be called upon to do a full Restore of all files that were on the system. Volume pool. the Job resource defines all the properties of a specific Job: name. The most important are the File Retention Period. Schedule A Schedule is a configuration resource that defines when the Bacula Job will be scheduled for execution. Job Retention Period. the Job resource will refer to the name of the Schedule. Storage Coordinates The information returned from the Storage Services that uniquely locates a file on a backup medium. For more details. *Archive An Archive operation is done after a Save. and the Volume Retention Period. Each of these retention periods applies to the time that specific records will be kept in the Catalog database. Service This is a program that remains permanently in memory awaiting instructions. sometimes referred to as the SD. schedule. Verify can also be used to check that the most recent Job data written to a Volume agrees with what is stored in the Catalog (i. see the Job Resource definition in the Director chapter of this document. To use the Schedule.. As a consequence. incremental. For example.. *or it can check the Volume contents against the original files on disk. Job A Bacula Job is a configuration resource that defines the work that Bacula must perform to backup or restore a particular Client.. The File daemon opens a session with the Storage daemon to save a FileSet or to restore it. In Unix environments. It is the inverse of a save.3 Incremental A backup that includes all files changed since the last Full. Restore A restore is a configuration resource that describes the operation of recovering a file from backup media. It consists of several directives (individual configuration statements). except that in most cases. backup level. It is normally specified on the Level directive within the Job resource definition. and the other part pertains to the whole Job. after a disk crash. or Incremental backup started. A session has a one-to-one correspondence to a Bacula Job (see above). etc).. the FileSet. Storage daemon. The File Retention Period determines the time that File records are kept in the catalog database. One of the major advantages of using Bacula to do this is that on the machine you want protected such as a server. is the code that writes the attributes and data to a storage Volume (usually a tape or disk).e. if your server is ever compromised. This feature can be used for detecting changes to critical system files similar to what a file integrity checker like Tripwire does. and may no longer be used to save files. and Catalog reside on a different machine. or in a Schedule resource. It consists of the Type (backup.. This should not be confused with the time that the data saved to a Volume is valid. For more details. and Storage the files are to be backed up (Storage device. The Storage Coordinates include the File Attributes (see above) plus the unique location of the information on the backup Volume. backup type. while normally a Save backs up all the files on the system. and the Director. Monitor The program that interfaces to all the daemons allowing the user or system administrator to monitor Bacula status. . This period is important for two reasons: the first is that as long as File records remain in the database. the Level (full. you can ”browse” the database with a console program and restore any individual file. this information is saved in the Catalog so that the user doesn’t need specific knowledge of the Storage Coordinates.). It consists of two parts: one part pertains to each file saved. Session Normally refers to the internal conversation between the File daemon and the Storage daemon. services are also known as daemons. it is unlikely that your verification database will be tampered with. These Volumes are marked as Archived.6 Bacula Version 5. Media Pool). see the Schedule Resource definition in the Director chapter of this document.0. NOT YET IMPLEMENTED. Once the File . Resource A resource is a part of a configuration file that defines a specific unit of information that is available to Bacula. you can run just the File daemon.

Normally. (See the Console prune command for more details on this subject). As a consequence. but it can be a key part of one if you plan carefully and follow the instructions included in the Disaster Recovery Chapter of this manual. Bacula will normally never overwrite a Volume that contains the only backup copy of a file. it is possible to completely recover your system from ”bare metal” that is starting from an empty disk. Under ideal conditions. However. but with tapes. The Job Retention Period is the length of time that Job records will be kept in the database. all its File records will also be purged. Bacula provides the mechanisms for the catalog to be automatically pruned according to the retention periods defined. Scan A Scan operation causes the contents of a Volume or a series of Volumes to be scanned. normally a tape or a named disk file where Bacula stores the data from one or more backup jobs.8 Interactions Between the Bacula Services The following block diagram shows the typical interactions between the Bacula Services for a backup job. Bacula can be a central component of your disaster recovery system. To keep the Catalog to a manageable size. all the File records are tied to the Job that saved those files. See the bscan section of the Bacula Utilities Chapter of this manual for more details. The File records can be purged leaving the Job records. . Volume A Volume is an archive unit. the individual files of a backup job can no longer be ”browsed”. you must ensure that regular ”pruning” of the database file records is done to keep your database from growing too large. the Catalog would retain entries for all files backed up for all current Volumes. 1. Once a Volume is overwritten. you will be able to use it to extract the necessary files (without using the catalog or manually searching for the files to restore). when a Job record is purged. restore and verification program and is not a complete disaster recovery system in itself.) 1. Once the information is restored to the Catalog. Note. it is easy to mount the wrong one. (Normally there should be no confusion with disk files. This function is particularly useful if certain Volumes or Jobs have exceeded their retention period and have been pruned or purged from the Catalog.0. The Volume Retention Period is the minimum of time that a Volume will be kept before it is reused. the files contained on those Volumes may be easily restored. In this case. if there is a very large pool of Volumes or a Volume is never overwritten. With proper planning. and maintain a complete Bacula backup. and/or a Bacula Rescue disk to save the current partitioning information of your hard disk. if you have created an emergency boot disk. It also maintains the Catalog. the Director oversees the flow of information. Scanning data from Volumes into the Catalog is done by using the bscan program. All Bacula Volumes have a software label written to the Volume by Bacula so that it identifies what Volume it is really reading.7 What Bacula is Not Bacula is a backup. If you have used the WriteBootstrap record in your job or some other means to save a valid bootstrap file. For example.Bacula Version 5. the backup information should be removed from the Catalog after the defined File Retention Period.3 7 records are removed or pruned from the database. Each block represents in general a separate process (normally a daemon). as mentioned in the Disaster Recovery chapter. the Catalog database may become enormous. the files that were backed up on that Volume are automatically removed from the Catalog. The second reason for carefully choosing the File Retention Period is because the volume of the database File records use the most storage space in the database. but not the details of the files that were backed up. information will be available about the jobs that ran. In general. These Volumes with the information on which files they contain are restored to the Bacula Catalog.

8 Bacula Version 5.3 .0.

This version simply fixes a number of bugs found in version 5.0.0. 9 .1 during the onging development process.0.Chapter 2 Release Version 5.2 There are no new features in version 5.2.

10 Bacula Version 5.3 .0.

RunScript { RunsWhen=After RunsOnClient=No Console = "purge volume action=all allpools storage=File" } } 11 ..0. the media type. etc. It is useful to prevent disk based volumes from consuming too much space.0 during the onging development process. . This version mainly fixes a number of bugs found in version 5. . Job { Name = CatalogBackup .1 Truncate Volume after Purge The Pool directive ActionOnPurge=Truncate instructs Bacula to truncate the volume when it is purged with the new command purge volume action. action=all *purge volume action storage=File pool=Default This is possible to specify the volume name.1 This chapter presents the new features that are in the released Bacula version 5... } As usual you can also set this property with the update volume command *update volume=xxx ActionOnPurge=Truncate *update volume=xxx actiononpurge=None To ask Bacula to truncate your Purged volumes. Pool { Name = Default Action On Purge = Truncate ..0. (see help purge) Be sure that your storage device is idle when you decide to run this command.0. the storage. the pool. 3.Chapter 3 New Features in 5. you need to use the following command in interactive mode or in a RunScript as shown after: *purge volume action=truncate storage=File allpools # or by default.1.

.conf file as it will be removed in a future rlease.1.12 Bacula Version 5.1.e. and will kill the job which has a lower level than the other one. both are Full backups).0. It compares the level of a new backup job to old jobs of the same name.2 Allow Higher Duplicates This directive did not work correctly and has been depreciated (disabled) in version 5.3 Important note: This feature doesn’t work as expected in version 5.3 Cancel Lower Level Duplicates This directive was added in Bacula version 5.0. if any. Please remove it from your bacula-dir. If the levels are the same (i. 3. 3.0.0.0. then nothing is done and the other Cancel XXX Duplicate directives will be examined. Please do not use it before version 5.1.0.

which is a Perl program that saves to disk only). and your incremental jobs use another Storage Daemon with lots of disks. no problem. as far as we know (except perhaps BackupPC. you were able to restore from multiple devices in a single Storage Daemon. a Base job will be backed up once. This is something none of the competition does. because when the Maximum Concurrent Jobs limit is reached.1 Maximum Concurent Jobs for Devices Maximum Concurrent Jobs is a new Device directive in the Storage Daemon configuration permits setting the maximum number of Jobs that can run concurrently on a specified Device.e.3 or greater to use this feature. it is possible to have different Jobs using multiple drives.. permits to specify the list of files that will be used during Full backup as base. Using this directive. This project was funded by Bacula Systems with the help of Equiinet. You must upgrade your File Daemon to version 3. there will be only one. If one or more of the systems have some files updated. For example. you specify one or more Base jobs to be used. All files that have been backed up in the Base job/jobs but not modified will then be excluded from the backup.0. A new Job directive Base=Jobx. During a restore. This project was funded by Bacula Systems.2 Restore from Multiple Storage Daemons Previously. Now. It is big win for the user.. the Base jobs will be automatically pulled in where necessary. when you are doing a Full save.0 4. This facilitates writing to multiple drives with multiple Jobs that all use the same Pool. Now for the OS part. and rather than making 100 copies of the OS. 4. it makes Bacula stand out as offering a unique optimization that immediately saves time and money. they will be automatically restored.1. imagine that you have 100 nearly identical Windows or Linux machine containing the OS and user files. Joby. 4. After the base job has been run. Bacula is able to restore from multiple Storage Daemons.Chapter 4 New Features in 5. if your full backup runs on a Storage Daemon with an autochanger.3 File Deduplication using Base Jobs A base job is sort of like a Full save except that you will want the FileSet to contain only files that are unlikely to change in the future (i. Bacula will switch automatically from one Storage Daemon to an other within the same Restore job. Basically. a snapshot of most of your system after installing it). 13 . the Storage Daemon will start new Jobs on any other available compatible drive.

size and the checksum of the file to choose between the current backup and the BaseJob file list. For example: Storage { Name = UltriumTape Address = ultrium-tape Password = storage_password # Password for Storage Daemon Device = Ultrium Media Type = LTO 3 AllowCompression = No # Tape drive has hardware compression } The above example would cause any jobs running with the UltriumTape storage resource to run without compression from the client file daemons.14 Job { Name = BackupLinux Level= Base . This effectively overrides any compression settings defined at the FileSet level. By default. that is described in the FileSet chapter. Base jobs should have run with level=Base to be used. the job BackupZog4 will use the most recent version of all files contained in BackupZog4 and BackupLinux jobs. You can change this behavior with the BaseJob FileSet option..3 In this example.4 AllowCompression = <yes|no> This new directive may be added to Storage resource within the Director’s configuration to allow users to selectively disable the client compression for any job which writes to this storage resource.. . FileSet { Name = Full Include = { Options { BaseJob = pmugcs5 Accurate = mcs5 Verify = pin5 } File = / } } Important note: The current implementation doesn’t permit to scan volume with bscan. } Bacula Version 5. This project was funded by Bacula Systems. modification time. BackupLinux Accurate = yes . 4... Bacula will compare permissions bits.0. This option works like the verify= one. user and group fields. The result wouldn’t permit to restore files easily. } Job { Name = BackupZog4 Base = BackupZog4.

). 4. This mode supports all commands.5 Accurate Fileset Options In previous versions. Now you can specify which attributes to use (time. Inc. similar to the Verify options. 4. By setting the AllowCompression = No directive for your tape drive storage resource. and lists resources when required. . size.3 15 This feature is probably most useful if you have a tape drive which supports hardware compression. It works also in the restore mode. the accurate code used the file creation and modification times to determine if a file was modified or not. owner. group. FileSet { Name = Full Include = { Options { Accurate = mcs5 Verify = pin5 } File = / } } i compare the inodes p compare the permission bits n compare the number of links u compare the user id g compare the group id s compare the size a compare the access time m compare the modification time (st mtime) c compare the change time (st ctime) d report file size decreases 5 compare the MD5 signature 1 compare the SHA1 signature Important note: If you decide to use checksum in Accurate jobs. permission. . By default. . Bacula will check modification/creation time and size. you can avoid additional load on the file daemon and possibly speed up tape backups. This project was funded by Bacula Systems. checksum.0. This increases the I/O load.Bacula Version 5. the File Daemon will have to read all files even if they normally would not be saved.6 Tab-completion for Bconsole If you build bconsole with readline support. but also the accuracy of the deduplication. This project was funded by Collaborative Fusion. gives help inside command. you will be able to use the new auto-completion mode. .

/configure --with-readline=/usr/include/readline --disable-conio .bvfs_update jobid=1. * . For example.16 Bacula Version 5.8 Read-only File Daemon using capabilities This feature implements support of keeping ReadAll capabilities after UID/GID switch.7 Pool File and Job retention We added two new Pool directives. root@localhost:~# bacula-fd -k -u nobody -g nobody The code for this feature was contributed by our friends at AltLinux.9 Bvfs API To help developers of restore GUI interfaces.bvfs_lsdir path=/ jobid=1.z path=/path | pathid=101 This command will list all directories in the specified path or pathid. 4. Using pathid avoids problems with character encoding. You can use limit=xxx and offset=yyy to limit the amount of data that will be displayed. we have added new dot commands that permit browsing the catalog in a very simple way..bvfs lsdirs jobid=x. 4. that take precedence over Client directives of the same name. The new bconsole won’t be able to tab-complete with older directors.y. • .3 To use this feature. • . you can decide to increase Retention times for Archive or OffSite Pool.2 * .2 This project was funded by Bacula Systems. .z] This command is required to update the Bvfs cache in the catalog. FileRetention and JobRetention. It allows you to control the Catalog pruning algorithm Pool by Pool. 4. It introduces new bacula-fd option (-k) specifying that ReadAll capabilities should be kept after UID/GID switch.y.0.. and use the following option in configure. you should have readline development package loaded on your system. . Using pathid avoids problems with character encoding of path/filenames. This project was funded by Bacula Systems. • .y.z path=/path | pathid=101 This command will list all files in the specified path or pathid.bvfs_update * .bvfs lsfiles jobid=x. this allows FD to keep root read but drop write permission.bvfs update [jobid=x. You need to run it before any access to the Bvfs layer.

. The amount of data should be greater than your memory (f ile size ∗ nb f ile). skip zero This flag permits to skip tests with constant data.531 MB/s btape. We do not recommend to turn this off particularly on older tape drives or for disk Volumes where doing so may allow corrupted data to go undetected.365 MB/s When using compression. drive. skip raw This flag permits to skip tests with raw access. btape.c:406 Volume bytes=3. *speed file_size=3 skip_raw btape. Total Write rate = 43.128 MB/s .c:956 Begin writing 3 files of 3.3 17 4. cable. This is done by adding: Block Checksum = no doing so can reduce the Storage daemon CPU usage slightly. skip random This flag permits to skip tests with random data. This counter is in GB. nb file=n Specify the number of file to be written. btape. Write rate = 44.c:1078 Test with zero data and bacula block structure. tape).e. 4.c:383 Total Volume bytes=9. +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ btape. btape.c:604 Wrote 1 EOF to "Drive-0" (/dev/nst0) btape.c:604 Wrote 1 EOF to "Drive-0" (/dev/nst0) btape. should give the minimum throughput. This command can have the following arguments: file size=n Specify the Maximum File Size for this test (between 1 and 5GB)... memory. you can run the new speed command available in the btape program.10 Testing your Tape Drive To determine the best configuration of your tape drive. the random test will give your the minimum throughput of your drive .c:1090 Test with random data. . You can change the block size in the Storage Daemon configuration file. skip block This flag permits to skip tests with Bacula block access. The test using constant string will give you the maximum speed of your hardware chain.c:956 Begin writing 3 files of 3.221 GB with blocks of 129024 bytes.. scsi card.271 MB/s +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ .0. Total Write rate = 7.664 GB.c:406 Volume bytes=3.11 New Block Checksum Device Directive You may now turn off the Block Checksum (CRC32) code that Bacula uses when writing blocks to a Volume. btape.Bacula Version 5. Write rate = 7. (cpu.221 GB with blocks of 129024 bytes.664 GB. It will also permit Bacula to read a Volume that has corrupted data. The default is yes – i.221 GB.221 GB. the checksum is computed on write and checked on read. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ btape.c:383 Total Volume bytes=9.

2.2 Media Information View By double-clicking on a volume (on the Media list. you can access a detailed overview of your Volume.3 4.12. .12. (cf 4.12. in the Autochanger content or in the Job information panel).3 Job Information View By double-clicking on a Job record (on the Job run list or in the Media information panel). Media Type..0.12. you can access a detailed overview of your Autochanger. And sort the result directly in the table. 4. Location. you can access a detailed overview of your Job.18 Bacula Version 5. 4.) .) 4.) 4.1.12 New Bat Features Those new features were funded by Bacula Systems. . (cf 4.2.1 Media List View By clicking on “Media”.4 Autochanger Content View By double-clicking on a Storage record (on the Storage list panel). The old “Media” view is now known as “Pool”. You will be able to filter by Pool. (cf 4. you can see the list of all your volumes.

Bacula Version 5.3 19 Figure 4.2: Job information .1: Media information Figure 4.0.

the new installation will fail. Unfortunately. If you want to do so. you will either need to build them yourself (note they have not been ported to 64 bits).13 Bat on Windows We have ported bat to Windows and it is now installed by default when the installer is run. it does not yet work on 64 bit Windows operating systems. you must manually shutdown and deinstall the old File daemon. • All files (other than menu links) are installed in c:/Program Files/Bacula. eventhough it is installed by default. It works quite well on Win32. If you forget to do so.0. (With new listall and transfer commands) 4.14 New Win32 Installer The Win32 installer has been modified in several very important ways. . • You must deinstall any current version of the Win32 File daemon before upgrading to the new one. For example: cacls "C:\Program Files\Bacula" /T /G SYSTEM:F Administrators:F • The server daemons (Director and Storage daemon) are no longer included in the Windows installer. If you want the Windows servers. or you can contact Bacula Systems about this.3: Autochanger content To use this feature.3 Figure 4. To correct this failure. 4. you need to use the latest mtx-changer script version. • The installer no longer sets this file to require administrator privileges by default. but has not had a lot of testing there.20 Bacula Version 5. please do it manually using the cacls program. so your feedback would be welcome.

4.18 Important Changes • You are now allowed to Migrate. bat is by default installed in c:/Program Files/Bacula/bin32 rather than c:/Program Files/Bacula as is the case with the 32 bit Windows installer. we provide a new script (make catalog backup.conf so that all configuration will be done by changing only mtxchanger. This configuration file will not be overwritten during upgrades. In most cases. which if provided produces information on that command (ex: help run).15 Win64 Installer We have corrected a number of problems that required manual editing of the conf files. The file examples/sample-query.conf.sql file is now empty by default. • The Device Poll Interval is now 5 minutes. This query. listall and transfer. We encourage you to submit any changes that are made to mtx-changer and to parameterize it all in mtx-changer. and Virtual Full to read and write to the same Pool.1.conf that contains variables that you can set to configure mtx-changer. it should now install and work.17 bconsole Timeout Option You can now use the -u option of bconsole to set a timeout in seconds for commands. There is a new configuration file mtx-changer.3 21 4.pl) that does not expose your catalog password. Please.0. 4. Please see the README files it the rescue release for more details. • To enhance security of the BackupCatalog job. Copy. which allows you to configure mtx-changer without changing it.0.0. • The new mtx-changer script has two new options.18. you can do so by adding them to the query.0 version.Bacula Version 5. • The bconsole help command now accepts an argument. • Virtually all the features of mtx-changer have now been parameterized.sql file.1 Custom Catalog queries If you wish to add specialized commands that list the contents of the catalog. Please configure them as appropriate in mtx-changer. .conf. Truncate volume after purge Note that the Truncate Volume after purge feature doesn’t work as expected in 5. We are working on an equivalent USB key for Windows bare metal recovery. This is useful with GUI programs that use bconsole to interface to the Director. If you want to use the new script.sql has an a number of sample commands you might find useful. 4. The Storage daemon ensures that you do not read and write to the same Volume. but it will take some time to develop it (best estimate 3Q2010 or 4Q2010) 4.16 Linux Bare Metal Recovery USB Key We have made a number of significant improvements in the Bare Metal Recovery USB key. don’t use it before version 5. you will need to manually change the BackupCatalog Job definition. (previously did not poll by default).

18.2 Deprecated parts The following items have been deprecated for a long time. bat.0. and docs • Reorganized the manuals (fewer separate manuals) • Added lock/unlock order protection in lock manager • Allow 64 bit sizes for a number of variables • Fixed several deadlocks or potential race conditions in the SD . mtx. • Gnome console • Support for SQLite 2 4.19 Misc Changes • Updated Nagios check bacula • Updated man files • Added OSX package generation script in platforms/darwin • Added Spanish and Ukrainian Bacula translations • Enable/disable command shows only Jobs that can change • Added show disabled command to show disabled Jobs • Many ACL improvements • Added Level to FD status Job output • Begin Ingres DB driver (not yet working) • Split RedHat spec files into bacula.22 Bacula Version 5. and are now removed from the code.3 4.

23 .0.0. This version simply fixes a number of bugs found in version 3.0.3 and 3.3a There are no new features in version 3.0.Chapter 5 Released Version 3.2 during the onging development process.3.

24 Bacula Version 5.0.3 .

5 Building directory tree for JobId(s) 1.. 12: Select full restore to a specified Job date 13: Cancel Select item: (1-13): 12 Enter JobId to get the state to restore: 5 Selecting jobs to build the Full state at 2009-07-15 11:45:45 You have selected the following JobIds: 1. 6.. Assume we start with the following jobs: +-------+--------------+---------------------+-------+----------+------------+ | jobid | client | starttime | level | jobfiles | jobbytes | +-------+--------------+---------------------+-------+----------+-----------| 6 | localhost-fd | 2009-07-15 11:45:49 | I | 2 | 0 | | 5 | localhost-fd | 2009-07-15 11:45:45 | I | 15 | 44143 | | 3 | localhost-fd | 2009-07-15 11:45:38 | I | 1 | 10 | | 1 | localhost-fd | 2009-07-15 11:45:30 | F | 1527 | 44143073 | +-------+--------------+---------------------+-------+----------+------------+ Below is an example of this new feature (which is number 12 in the menu).3. This project was funded by Bacula Systems. 25 +++++++++++++++++++ .0.2. you have the following choices: 1: List last 20 Jobs run 2: List Jobs where a given File is saved .5 . * restore To select the JobIds. 1.0.2 This chapter presents the new features added to the Released Bacula Version 3..444 files inserted into the tree.3.Chapter 6 New Features in Released Version 3.1 Full Restore from a Given JobId This feature allows selecting a single JobId and having Bacula automatically select all the other jobs that comprise a full backup up to and including the selected date (through JobId)..

Instead of adding host routes for each client connected to a multi-homed backup server (for example where there are management and backup VLANs).0.3 6.0.3 Show volume availability when doing restore When doing a restore the selection dialog ends by displaying this screen: The job will require the following Volume(s) Storage(s) SD Device(s) =========================================================================== *000741L3 LTO-4 LTO3 *000866L3 LTO-4 LTO3 *000765L3 LTO-4 LTO3 *000764L3 LTO-4 LTO3 *000756L3 LTO-4 LTO3 *001759L3 LTO-4 LTO3 *001763L3 LTO-4 LTO3 001762L3 LTO-4 LTO3 001767L3 LTO-4 LTO3 Volumes marked with ‘‘*’’ are online (in the autochanger). To accomplish this.20 } Director { DirSourceAddress=10. . Inc.2 Source Address A feature has been added which allows the administrator to specify the address from which the Director and File daemons will establish connections. while system services listen and act from the unique interface addresses. two new configuration directives have been implemented: FileDaemon { FDSourceAddress=10. which connections must be sourced from.26 Bacula Version 5.0. this allows the simplification and abstraction of firewall rules when dealing with a Hot-Standby director or storage daemon configuration. 6.1. Additionally.10 } # Always initiate connections from this address # Always initiate connections from this address Simply adding specific host routes on the OS would have an undesirable side-effect: any application trying to contact the destination host would be forced to use the more specific route possibly diverting management traffic onto a backup VLAN. This project was funded by Bacula Systems. The Hot-standby pair may share a CARP address. This may be used to simplify system configuration overhead when working in complex networks utilizing multi-homing and policy-routing. one can use the new directives to specify a specific source address at the application level.1. This project was funded by Collaborative Fusion.4 Accurate estimate command The estimate command can now use the accurate code to detect changes and give a better estimation. This should help speed up large restores by minimizing the time spent waiting for the operator to discover that he must change tapes in the library. 6.

0. * estimate listing accurate=yes level=incremental job=BackupJob This project was funded by Bacula Systems.Bacula Version 5.3 27 You can set the accurate behavior on the command line by using accurate=yes|no or use the Job setting as default value. .

3 .28 Bacula Version 5.0.

5. This project was funded by Bacula Systems.0 sometime in April 2009. for the File daemon to keep the list (possibly very big) in memory.Chapter 7 New Features in 3. If you enable it. by default Bacula decides what files to backup for Incremental and Differental backup by comparing the change (st ctime) and modification (st mtime) times of the file to the time the last backup completed.1 Accurate = <yes|no> If the Accurate = <yes|no> directive is enabled (default no) in the Job resource. For a Full backup. the copy is treated as a copy rather than a backup job. If one of those two times is later than the last backup time.x versions to be released as Bacula version 3. permit tracking what files have been deleted and will miss any file with an old time that may have been restored to or moved onto the client filesystem. if your client has lots of files (more than a few million). your restores will probably not work correctly. This does not. 7.1 Accurate Backup As with most other backup programs. there is no difference. however.2 Copy Jobs A new Copy job type ’C’ has been implemented. However. This allows Bacula to make an accurate backup of your system to that point in time so that if you do a restore. but for Differential and Incremental backups. 7. This essentially creates two identical copies of the same backup. it will restore your system exactly. and hence is not directly available for restore. to send that list to the File daemon. One note of caution about using Accurate backup is that it requires more resources (CPU and memory) on both the Director and the Client machines to create the list of previous files backed up. and the File daemon will use that list to determine if any new files have been added or or moved and if any files have been deleted. The restore command lists copy jobs and allows selection of copies by using jobid= 29 . In particular. then the file will be backed up. the Director will send a list of all previous files backed up.0. and for the File daemon to do comparisons between every file in the FileSet and the list. It is similar to the existing Migration feature with the exception that the Job that is copied is left unchanged.0 This chapter presents the new features added to the development 2. Accurate must not be enabled when backing up with a plugin that is not specially designed to work with Accurate.1. you will need lots of memory on the client machine. the job will be run as an Accurate Job. 7.0.

31.3 option..611 files inserted into the tree. For copy Jobs there is a new selection directive named PoolUncopiedJobs which selects all Jobs that were not already copied to another Pool. are other possible ways of selecting the Jobs to be copied. PoolOccupancy and PoolTime also work. it will promote the copy with the smallest JobId. the Client.0.11 | 7 | DiskChangerMedia | +-------+------------------------------------+-----------+------------------+ +-------+-------+----------+----------+---------------------+------------------+ | JobId | Level | JobFiles | JobBytes | StartTime | VolumeName | +-------+-------+----------+----------+---------------------+------------------+ | 19 | F | 6274 | 76565018 | 2009-02-17 16:30:45 | ChangerVolume002 | | 2 | I | 1 | 5 | 2009-02-17 16:30:51 | FileVolume001 | +-------+-------+----------+----------+---------------------+------------------+ You have selected the following JobIds: 19.2 .. If the keyword copies is present on the command line. ..2 Building directory tree for JobId(s) 19. it will promote the Copy to a real backup job and will make it available for automatic restore. 5.. OldestVolume.] These JobIds have copies as follows: +-------+------------------------------------+-----------+------------------+ | JobId | Job | CopyJobId | MediaType | +-------+------------------------------------+-----------+------------------+ | 2 | CopyJobSave.00. Volume. See the Migration documentation for additional details. A nice solution which can be built with the new Copy feature is often called disk-to-disk-to-tape backup (DTDTT). * restore copies [. but are probably more suited for Migration Jobs.2009-02-17_16. If Bacula finds a Copy of a job record that is purged (deleted) from the catalog.. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ The Copy Job runs without using the File daemon by copying the data from the old backup Volume to a different Volume in a different Pool. A sample config could look something like the one below: Pool { Name = FullBackupsVirtualPool Pool Type = Backup Purge Oldest Volume = Yes Storage = vtl NextPool = FullBackupsTapePool } Pool { Name = FullBackupsTapePool Pool Type = Backup Recycle = Yes AutoPrune = Yes Volume Retention = 365 days Storage = superloader } # # Fake fileset for copy jobs # . Selection types like SmallestVolume. Job.30 Bacula Version 5. Bacula will display the list of all copies for selected jobs. If more than one Copy is available. or SQL query.. As with Migration.

3 Fileset { Name = None Include { Options { signature = MD5 } } } # # Fake client for copy jobs # Client { Name = None Address = localhost Password = "NoNe" Catalog = MyCatalog } # # Default template for a CopyDiskToTape Job # JobDefs { Name = CopyDiskToTape Type = Copy Messages = StandardCopy Client = None FileSet = None Selection Type = PoolUncopiedJobs Maximum Concurrent Jobs = 10 SpoolData = No Allow Duplicate Jobs = Yes Cancel Queued Duplicates = No Cancel Running Duplicates = No Priority = 13 } Schedule { Name = DaySchedule7:00 Run = Level=Full daily at 7:00 } Job { Name = CopyDiskToTapeFullBackups Enabled = Yes Schedule = DaySchedule7:00 Pool = FullBackupsVirtualPool JobDefs = CopyDiskToTape } 31 The example above had 2 pool which are copied using the PoolUncopiedJobs selection criteria.y.Bacula Version 5. Normal Full backups go to the Virtual pool and are copied to the Tape pool the next morning.0. The command list copies [jobid=x.z] lists copies for a given jobid. *list copies +-------+------------------------------------+-----------+------------------+ | JobId | Job | CopyJobId | MediaType | +-------+------------------------------------+-----------+------------------+ .

Currently the following platforms support ACLs: • AIX • Darwin/OSX • FreeBSD • HPUX • IRIX • Linux • Tru64 • Solaris Currently we support the following ACL types (these ACL streams use a reserved part of the stream numbers): • STREAM ACL AIX TEXT 1000 AIX specific string representation from acl get • STREAM ACL DARWIN ACCESS ACL 1001 Darwin (OSX) specific acl t string representation from acl to text (POSIX acl) • STREAM ACL FREEBSD DEFAULT ACL 1002 FreeBSD specific acl t string representation from acl to text (POSIX acl) for default acls.3 ACL Updates The whole ACL code had been overhauled and in this version each platforms has different streams for each type of acl available on such an platform.49. But for all new backups it will save the ACLs using the new streams. The old code allowed to restore ACL cross platform but the comments already mention that not being to wise. • STREAM ACL LINUX DEFAULT ACL 1007 Linux specific acl t string representation from acl to text (POSIX acl) for default acls.26.32 Bacula Version 5. As ACLs between platforms tend to be not that portable (most implement POSIX acls but some use an other draft or a completely different format) we currently only allow certain platform specific ACL streams to be decoded and restored on the same platform that they were created on. • STREAM ACL HPUX ACL ENTRY 1004 HPUX specific acl entry string representation from acltostr (POSIX acl) • STREAM ACL IRIX DEFAULT ACL 1005 IRIX specific acl t string representation from acl to text (POSIX acl) for default acls. • STREAM ACL IRIX ACCESS ACL 1006 IRIX specific acl t string representation from acl to text (POSIX acl) for access acls. • STREAM ACL FREEBSD ACCESS ACL 1003 FreeBSD specific acl t string representation from acl to text (POSIX acl) for access acls.3 | 9 | CopyJobSave.05 | 11 | DiskChangerMedia | +-------+------------------------------------+-----------+------------------+ 7. .0.2008-12-20_22. For backward compatability the new code will accept the two old ACL streams and handle those with the platform specific handler. • STREAM ACL LINUX ACCESS ACL 1008 Linux specific acl t string representation from acl to text (POSIX acl) for access acls.

but restoring from one type of filesystem onto an other type of filesystem on the same platform may lead to supprises. Restores of the extended attributes can only be performed on the same platform the backup was done. • STREAM ACL TRU64 DEFAULT DIR ACL 1010 Tru64 specific acl t string representation from acl to text (POSIX acl) for default acls. As extended attributes are so platform specific these attributes are saved in seperate streams for each platform. } } . it will save the ACLs and not the same exteneded attribute.g. As security labels from selinux are also extended attributes this option also stores those labels and no specific code is enabled for handling selinux security labels.0. As extended attributes can contain any type of data they are stored as a series of so called value-pairs. FileSet { Name = "MyFileSet" Include { Options { signature = MD5 xattrsupport = yes } File = .3 33 • STREAM ACL TRU64 DEFAULT ACL 1009 Tru64 specific acl t string representation from acl to text (POSIX acl) for default acls. Currently the following platforms support extended attributes: • Darwin/OSX • FreeBSD • Linux • NetBSD On linux acls are also extended attributes.Bacula Version 5. There is support for all types of extended attributes. For now the streams are seperate and restoring them on a platform that doesn’t recognize them will give you a warning. 7. To enable the backup of extended attributes please add the following to your fileset definition. • STREAM ACL SOLARIS ACLENT 1012 Solaris specific aclent t string representation from acltotext or acl totext (POSIX acl) • STREAM ACL SOLARIS ACE 1013 Solaris specific ace t string representation from from acl totext (NFSv4 or ZFS acl) In future versions we might support conversion functions from one type of acl into an other for types that are either the same or easily convertable. This data must be seen as mostly binary and is stored as such. as such when you enable ACLs on a Linux platform it will NOT save the same data twice e. Its the support for backup and restore of so called extended attributes... • STREAM ACL TRU64 ACCESS ACL 1011 Tru64 specific acl t string representation from acl to text (POSIX acl) for access acls.4 Extended Attributes Something that was on the project list for some time is now implemented for platforms that support a similar kind of interface.

If you have problems with libtool or you wish to use the old way of building static libraries. which has a version number to permit running multiple versions of the libraries if desired (not normally the case). you will have only one copy of the code in memory rather than four copies.so libbacpy.so libbacfind./configure --enable-static-client-only --disable-libtool 7.0. in addition to configuration options that were needed you now must also add –disable-libtool. in that Bacula normally reads the data from the pool specified in the Job resource. In some respects the Vbackup feature works similar to a Migration job.so) rather than static libraries as was previously the case.34 Bacula Version 5. In order for the system loader to find the shared objects when loading the Bacula binaries. or you want to build a static version of Bacula you may disable libtool on the configure command line with: . The VirtualFull backup is accomplished without contacting the client by reading the previous backup data and writing it to a volume in a different pool.3 7./configure --libdir=/full-path/dir the default is /usr/lib. Also the total size of the binary release is smaller since the library code appears only once rather than once for every program that uses it. and writes it to the Next Pool specified in the Job . there should be no need to modify your loader configuration provided that the shared objects are installed in that directory (Bacula does this with the make install command). Example .6 Building Static versions of Bacula In order to build static versions of Bacula.so libbac. The shared objects that Bacula references are: libbaccfg. This new Full backup will then be considered as the most recent Full for any future Incremental or Differential backups. If --libdir is specified./configure --disable-libtool 7.so These files are symbolically linked to the real shared object file. and a console. An important advantage of using shared objects is that on a machine with the Directory. The shared libraries are built using libtool so it should be quite portable. File daemon. It permits you to consolidate the previous Full backup plus the most recent Differential backup and any subsequent Incremental backups into a new Full backup. this results in significant reduction in the size of the binaries particularly for the utility tools. the Storage daemon.5 Shared objects A default build of Bacula will now create the libraries as shared objects (. the Bacula shared objects must either be in a shared object directory known to the loader (typically /usr/lib) or they must be in the directory that may be specified on the ./configure line using the --libdir option as: .7 Virtual Backup (Vbackup) Bacula’s virtual backup feature is often called Synthetic Backup or Consolidation in other backup products.

In any case. If you then want to do subsequent backups.0. you may need to move the Virtual Full Volume back to your normal backup pool. once a VirtualFull has been created. this means that usually the output from the Virtual Backup is written into a different pool from where your prior backups are saved. this will work. This will cause Bacula to read and write to Volumes in the current pool.B.Bacula Version 5. and a restore is done involving the most current Full. Doing it this way guarantees that you will not get a deadlock situation attempting to read and write to the same volume in the Storage daemon. you can set your Next Pool to point to the current pool. it will read the Volume or Volumes by the VirtualFull regardless of in which Pool the Volume is found.3 35 resource. The Vbackup is enabled on a Job by Job in the Job resource by specifying a level of VirtualFull. Alternatively. Use a fully qualified name here Password = "yyy" . Note. In general. A typical Job resource definition might look like the following: Job { Name = "MyBackup" Type = Backup Client=localhost-fd FileSet = "Full Set" Storage = File Messages = Standard Pool = Default SpoolData = yes } # Default pool definition Pool { Name = Default Pool Type = Backup Recycle = yes AutoPrune = yes Volume Retention = 365d NextPool = Full Storage = File } Pool { Name = Full Pool Type = Backup Recycle = yes AutoPrune = yes Volume Retention = 365d Storage = DiskChanger } # Automatically recycle Volumes # Prune expired volumes # one year # Automatically recycle Volumes # Prune expired volumes # one year # Definition of file storage device Storage { Name = File Address = localhost Password = "xxx" Device = FileStorage Media Type = File Maximum Concurrent Jobs = 5 } # Definition of DDS Virtual tape disk storage device Storage { Name = DiskChanger Address = localhost # N. because Bacula will not allow reading and writing on the same Volume.

Microsoft’s implementation of Volume Shadown Copy (VSS) on their 64 bit OS versions is not compatible with a 32 bit Bacula Client. For example. These binaries should only be installed on 64 bit Windows operating systems. which includes the first Incremental backup.9 64 bit Windows Client Unfortunately. . Please don’t forget to make a valid backup of your database before executing the upgrade script. the 64 bit release contains a few differences: 1. Note. Also you won’t be able to run jobs during this conversion period.0. which will be based on the Virtual Full. To consolidate those backups into a new Full backup. you would run the following: run job=MyBackup level=VirtualFull And it would produce a new Full backup without using the client. 7.8 Catalog Format Bacula 3. Before installing the Win64 Bacula Client.3 So providing there were changes between each of those jobs. and there are no prior Jobs. If the Virtual Full is run. All the above jobs would be written to the Default pool. we are also releasing a 64 bit version of the Bacula Windows Client (win64bacula-3. you must totally deinstall any prior 2.36 Device = DiskChanger Media Type = DiskChangerMedia Maximum Concurrent Jobs = 4 Autochanger = yes } Then in bconsole or via a Run schedule. The upgrade operation will convert the FileId field of the File table from 32 bits (max 4 billion table entries) to 64 bits (very large number of items). it is an Increment). you would end up with a Full backup. Compared to the Win32 Bacula Client. and the output would be written to the Full Pool which uses the Diskchanger Storage.x Client installation using the Bacula deinstallation (see the menu item). You may want to save your .exe) that does work with VSS. the Start and End time of the Virtual Full backup is set to the values for the last job included in the Virtual Full (in the above example. it will backup all files from the last Job included in the Virtual Full rather than from the time the Virtual Full was actually run.4. the Virtual Full will fail with an error. As a consequence. See the ReleaseNotes for additional details.conf files first.0. The conversion process can take a bit of time and will likely DOUBLE THE SIZE of your catalog during the conversion. a Differential. 7. you would run the job as: run run run run run job=MyBackup job=MyBackup job=MyBackup job=MyBackup job=MyBackup level=Full level=Incremental level=Differential level=Incremental level=Incremental Bacula Version 5. This is so that if another incremental is done. then two Incremental backups.0.0 comes with some changes to the catalog format. What is important is not your hardware but whether or not you have a 64 bit version of the Windows OS. a 3 million file catalog will take 2 minutes to upgrade on a normal machine.

If Allow Duplicate Jobs is set to no and two jobs are present and none of the three directives given below permit cancelling a job. A duplicate job in the sense we use it here means a second or subsequent job with the same name starts. which are installed as before. the Director and the Storage daemon are not in the 64 bit Windows installer. For the next version we will convert it to use the same installation conventions as the Win64 version. 3.3 Cancel Running Duplicates = <yes|no> If Allow Duplicate Jobs is set to no and if this directive is set to yes any job that is already running will be canceled. The 3. Generally double clicking on the appropriate . bwx-console is not yet ported.0. 10. The default is no. 7.conf file will work providing you have sufficient permissions. If used.0. Only the Client (File daemon) is ported to Win64. In later versions of Bacula the directive is disabled (disregarded). They are: 7. most likely C:/Program Files does not exist.3 37 2. but does not work as expected.Bacula Version 5. . The four directives each take as an argument a yes or no value and are specified in the Job resource. bconsole is ported but it has not been tested. 6.10. 8. before upgrading the Client. so you should use the Custom installation and enter an appropriate location to install the files. All Bacula files are now installed in C:/Program Files/Bacula except the main menu items. This happens most frequently when the first job runs longer than expected because no tapes are available. duplicate jobs will be run. This project was funded by Bacula Systems.10. 7. Due to Vista security restrictions imposed on a default installation of Vista. 9.0. If the directive is set to no (default) then only one job of a given name may run at one time. The documentation is not included in the installer. 7. Due to Vista security restrictions imposed on a default installation of Vista.0.10 Duplicate Job Control The new version of Bacula provides four new directives that give additional control over what Bacula does if duplicate jobs are started. and the action that Bacula takes to ensure only one job runs is determined by the other directives (see below). 7. otherwise the install will fail. it should always be set to no. If you are running on a foreign language version of Windows. This vastly simplifies the installation.1 Allow Duplicate Jobs = <yes|no> If this directive is set to yes.0 Win32 Client continues to install files in the locations used by prior versions. you must manually stop any prior version of Bacula from running.2 Allow Higher Duplicates = <yes|no> This directive was in version 5.10. attempting to edit the conf files via the menu items will fail. You must directly edit the files with appropriate permissions. then the current job (the second one started) will be cancelled. 4. 5.

38 Bacula Version 5. When a job starts. in addition to the normal Bacula CRAM-MD5 authentication that is used to authenticate each Bacula connection. TLS Verify Peer. the state file might not contain all the run data.5. . use the normal TLS directives but do not turn on TLS Authenticate. Client for the File daemon.10.0.) and a new directive: 7. 7. . and Storage for the Storage daemon). the state file. This new feature uses Bacula’s existing TLS code (normally used for communications encryption) to do authentication. TLS Certificate.. which provides a summary of previous jobs run in the status command output was updated only when Bacula terminated.11 TLS Authentication In Bacula version 2.. Bacula will also do TLS authentication. When TLS Authenticate is enabled.12 bextract non-portable Win32 data bextract has been enhanced to be able to restore non-portable Win32 data to any OS. thus if the daemon crashed. The default is no.13 State File updated at Job Termination In previous versions of Bacula. 7. if the time since the last Full backup is greater than the specified interval. and the rest of the communication between the two Bacula daemons will be done without encryption. 7.x and later. then TLS encryption will be turned off. you can specify that you want TLS Authentication as well. 7. after doing the CRAM-MD5 authentication.1 TLS Authenticate = yes TLS Authenticate = yes in the main daemon configuration resource (Director for the Director. you must specify all the TLS directives normally used to enable communications encryption (TLS Enable. This version of the Bacula daemons updates the state file on each job termination. and the job would normally be an Incremental or Differential. which will provide more secure authentication. it will be automatically upgraded to a Full backup. If you want to encrypt communications data. To use it. Previous versions were unable to restore non-portable Win32 data to machines that did not have the Win32 BackupRead and BackupWrite API calls.11.4 Cancel Queued Duplicates = <yes|no> If Allow Duplicate Jobs is set to no and if this directive is set to yes any job that is already queued to run but not yet running will be canceled.3 7.14 MaxFullInterval = <time-interval> The new Job resource directive Max Full Interval = <time-interval> can be used to specify the maximum time interval between Full backup jobs.

When a job starts.17 Exclude Dir Containing = <filename-string> The ExcludeDirContaining = <filename> is a new directive that can be added to the Include section of the FileSet resource. etc). which instructs Bacula to obey this flag. the whole directory will be ignored (not backed up).16 Honor No Dump Flag = <yes|no> On FreeBSD systems. If the specified filename (filename-string) is found on the Client in any directory to be backed up. there may be hundreds of directories of users and some people want to indicate that they don’t want to have certain directories backed up. For example: # List of files to be backed up FileSet { Name = "MyFileSet" Include { Options { signature = MD5 } File = /home Exclude Dir Containing = .excludeme in specific directories. if the user or sysadmin creates a file named . if the time since the last Differential backup is greater than the specified interval. and the job would normally be an Incremental.Bacula Version 5.0.excludeme then Bacula will not backup the two directories named: /home/user/www/cache /home/user/temp NOTE: subdirectories will not be backed up.15 MaxDiffInterval = <time-interval> The new Job resource directive Max Diff Interval = <time-interval> can be used to specify the maximum time interval between Differential backup jobs. This version of Bacula contains a new Options directive within a FileSet resource. the directive applies to the two directories in question and any children (be they files.excludeme } } But in /home. it will be automatically upgraded to a Differential backup. each file has a no dump flag that can be set by the user.3 39 7. with the above FileSet. 7. and when it is set it is an indication to backup programs to not backup that particular file. That is. such as /home/user/www/cache/.excludeme /home/user/temp/. The new directive is: Honor No Dump Flag = yes\vb{}no The default value is no. . For example. 7. directories.

Everything after the first colon is ignored by the File daemon . The value defined in the Job resource can be modified by the user when he runs a Job via the bconsole command line prompts. Bacula will not load any plugins.18. there is a single plugin named bpipe that allows an external program to get control to backup and restore a file. all the daemons can share the same plugin directory.1 Plugin Directory Each daemon (DIR.. If this directive is not specified. The syntax and semantics of the Plugin directive require the first part of the string up to the colon (:) to be the name of the plugin. 7. when the File daemon is processing the directives in the Include section. For example: FileSet { Name = "MyFileSet" Include { Options { signature = MD5 } File = /home Plugin = "bpipe:. Without this directive restricted consoles may not modify the Plugin Options. Since each plugin has a distinctive name.18.18. The directory takes a quoted string argument. The options specified will be passed to all plugins when they are run. FD. Unix and Win32 File daemons.18.3 7.e. It functions as all the other ACL commands do by permitting users running restricted consoles to specify a Plugin Options that overrides the one specified in the Job definition. The API will be documented separately in the Developer’s Guide or in a new document.3 Plugin Options ACL The Plugin Options ACL directive may be specified in the Director’s Console resource. SD) has a new Plugin Directory directive that may be added to the daemon definition resource.. and there is code to modify the string in the run command.4 Plugin = <plugin-command-string> The Plugin directive is specified in the Include section of a FileSet resource where you put your File = xxx directives.40 Bacula Version 5." } } In the above example. This each plugin must know what it is looking for. 7.18 Bacula Plugins Support for shared object plugins has been implemented in the Linux. Note: this directive may be specified. Plugins are also planned (partially implemented) in the Director and the Storage daemon. 7.2 Plugin Options The Plugin Options directive takes a quoted string arguement (after the equal sign) and may be specified in the Job resource.so) from the Plugin Directory. not fully implemented). it will first backup all the files in /home then it will load the plugin named bpipe (actually bpipe-dir.0. but the plugin options are not yet passed to the plugin (i. 7. For the moment. which is the name of the directory in which the daemon can find the Bacula plugins.

Please note that for two items above describing the ”reader” and ”writer” fields. Thus the plugin writer may define the meaning of the rest of the string as he wishes. For example.sql:mysqldump -f --opt --databases bacula:mysql" The directive has been split into two lines.Bacula Version 5. As specified above the bpipe plugin is specified in the Include section of your Job’s FileSet resource. if the value is /MYSQL/regress.sql by calling the program mysqldump -f –opt –database bacula to read the data during backup.). but that was never really intended. The full syntax of the plugin directive as interpreted by the bpipe plugin (each plugin is free to specify the sytax as it wishes) is: Plugin = "<field1>:<field2>:<field3>:<field4>" where field1 is the name of the plugin with the trailing -fd. It is and can be used in production.3 41 but is passed to the plugin. or you must explicitly do so with your command or in a shell script. these programs are ”executed” by Bacula. it will have the name bpipe-fd. In addition if you backup a file with the reader program. You must be careful to choose a naming convention that is unique to avoid a conflict with a path and filename that actually exists on your system. field2 specifies the namespace. This causes the File daemon to call the bpipe plugin. when running the writer program during the restore. The purpose of the plugin is to provide an interface to any system program for backup and restore. During restore. 7. then we recommend that you put your command or commands in a shell script and execute the script.so. the data backed up by the plugin will be put under that ”pseudo” path and filename..so stripped off. .c of the Bacula source distribution.. The mysqldump command outputs all the data for the database named bacula.sql. field4 for the bpipe plugin specifies the ”writer” program that is called by the plugin during restore to write the data back to the filesystem.19 The bpipe Plugin The bpipe plugin is provided in the directory src/plugins/fd/bpipe-fd.0. Please note that this is a very simple plugin that was written for demonstration and test purposes. Either the path must exist.conf file would be written on a single line. the data that was backed up will be sent . we would put bpipe in this field. If you want to use shell characters (redirection of input or output. Bacula will not automatically create the path to the file. bpipe will call this program by doing a popen on it. When the plugin is compiled and linking into the resulting dynamic shared object (DSO). which will be read by the plugin and stored in the backup. the full plugin directive line might look like the following: Plugin = "bpipe:/MYSQL/regress. field3 for the bpipe plugin specifies the ”reader” program that is called by the plugin during backup to read the data. which means there is no shell interpretation of any command line arguments you might use. Please see the next section for information about the bpipe Bacula plugin. so in this case. but within the bacula-dir. which for bpipe is the pseudo path and filename under which the backup will be saved. which will write its data into the ”pseudo” file /MYSQL/regress. Putting it all together. This pseudo path and filename will be seen by the user in the restore file tree.

equiinet.dll. 7.com (many thanks) and Bacula Systems.3 to the program specified in the last field. By using different command lines to bpipe. Backing up and restoring at the individual mailbox or email item is not supported but can be simulated by use of the ”Recovery” Storage Group (see below). When mysql is called. Microsoft Exchange organises its storage into Storage Groups with Databases inside them. and then from Bacula to a specified program for restore. In the default configuration. A default installation of Exchange will have a single Storage Group called ’First Storage Group’. The plugin allows backing up of entire storage groups.1 Microsoft Exchange Server 2003/2007 Plugin Background The Exchange plugin was made possible by a funded development project between Equiinet Ltd – www. because while Bacula VSS completes a full backup (snapshot) of Exchange. At this time the Exchange plugin will not function if this option is enabled. restoring is more complicated.20. Thanks to everyone who made it happen.20. If the DLL can not be found automatically it will need to be copied into the Bacula installation directory (eg C:\Program Files\Bacula\bin).dll and is found in C:\Program Files\Exchsrvr\bin on a default Exchange installation. Assuming Exchange is installed correctly the Exchange plugin should find this automatically and run without any additional installation. and a single database restore is not possible. that simply transmits the data from a specified program to Bacula for backup. you can backup any kind of data (ASCII or binary) depending on the program called. it will read the data sent to it by the plugn then write it back to the same database from which it came (bacula in this case). The Exchange API DLL is named esebcli2.0. 7. and all the log files since. such that if you have a backup. and the restoring of entire storage groups or individual databases.2 Concepts Although it is possible to backup Exchange using Bacula VSS the Exchange plugin adds a good deal of functionality. with two Databases inside it. ”Mailbox Store (SERVER NAME)” and ”Public Folder Store (SERVER NAME)”. All the code for this funded development has become part of the Bacula project.42 Bacula Version 5. you can restore to the present time.20. which hold user email and public folders respectively. which in this case is mysql. Each Storage Group has its own set of log files and operates independently of any other Storage Groups. The code for the plugin was written by James Harper. .20 7. the logging can be turned off by enabling a function called ”Enable circular logging”. and the Bacula core code by Kern Sibbald.3 Installing The Exchange plugin requires a DLL that is shipped with Microsoft Exchanger Server called esebcli2. The bpipe plugin is a generic pipe program. 7. Exchange logs everything that happens to log files. At the Storage Group level. it does not support Incremental or Differential backups.

you can suffix the ’Plugin =’ directive with ”:notrunconfull” which will tell the plugin not to truncate the Exchange database at the end of a full backup.0. • It is possible to restore only a subset of the available log files. a normal VSS fileset containing all the drive letters will also back up the Exchange databases using VSS. but they must be contiguous... although the folders the files are in should be included. You cannot just select (say) the . The ’exchange:’ bit tells Bacula to look for the exchange plugin. Additionally.3 43 7.edb file and not the others. By default. and the ’Microsoft Information Store’ bit is required also. eg Plugin = ”exchange:/@EXCHANGE/Microsoft Information Store/First Storage Group” if you want only a single storage group backed up. • If a Storage Group is restored. therefore.20. with the following provisos: • The Where restore option must not be specified • Each Database directory must be marked as a whole.Bacula Version 5.edb The advantage of excluding the above files is that you can significantly reduce the size of your backup since all the important Exchange files will be properly saved by the Plugin. An Incremental or Differential backup will backup only the database logs for each Storage Group by inspecting the ”modified date” on each physical log file." C:/Program C:/Program C:/Program C:/Program C:/Program C:/Program C:/Program Files/Exchsrvr/mdbdata/E00. 7. the directory of the Storage Group must be marked too.log Files/Exchsrvr/mdbdata/E0000010.log Files/Exchsrvr/mdbdata/priv1. the ’@EXCHANGE’ bit makes sure all the backed up files are prefixed with something that isn’t going to share a name with something outside the plugin.log Files/Exchsrvr/mdbdata/E00tmp. Because of the way the Exchange API works. It is also possible to add the name of a storage group to the ”Plugin =” line. Exchange will fail to restore correctly if a log file is missing from the sequence of log files • Each database to be restored must be dismounted and marked as ”Can be overwritten by restore” . This will interfere with the plugin and Exchange’s shared ideas of when the last full backup was done. that the Exchange database files be excluded from the backup.chk Files/Exchsrvr/mdbdata/E00. FileSet { Include { File = Plugin } Exclude { File = File = File = File = File = File = File = } } C:/Program Files/Exchsrvr/mdbdata = "exchange:.5 Restoring The restore operation is much the same as a normal Bacula restore. This adds 5MB to each Incremental or Differential backup size but otherwise does not cause any problems.4 Backing Up To back up an Exchange server the Fileset definition must contain at least Plugin = ”exchange:/@EXCHANGE/Microsoft Information Store” for the backup to work correctly.20. It is important. the last logfile backed up on each backup will always be backed up by the next Incremental or Differential backup too.log Files/Exchsrvr/mdbdata/E000000F. and may also truncate log files incorrectly. or they will have to be recreated manually if a baremetal restore is done.log Files/Exchsrvr/mdbdata/E0000011.

0. drill down to the Server in Exchange System Manager. and thus use in a production environment should be done only after very careful testing. Exchange will require that a Full backup be done before an Incremental or Differential backup is done. A solution to this is being worked on.3 • If an entire Storage Group is to be restored (eg all databases and logs in the Storage Group).20. so you should consider it currently in BETA test. Accept or change the file locations and click OK. This is required as the Standard and Small Business Server versions of Exchange can not ordinarily have more than one Storage Group. but they will also not have been backed up.. Then run the restore. .”. so we recommend either carefully testing or that you avoid this option for the current time.. which is used to restore an older copy of a database (e. right click and select ”Add Database to Recover. before a mailbox was deleted) into without messing with the current live data. Exchange insists that a successful Full backup must have taken place if an Incremental or Differential backup is desired. If a restore is done.8 Caveats This plugin is still being developed.. and so anything that would be backed up by the plugin will not be added to the estimate total that is displayed.aspx. The Exchange plugin is not called during processing the bconsole estimate command.6 Restoring to the Recovery Storage Group documented by Microsoft The concept of the Recovery Storage Group is well http://support. then it is best to manually delete the database files from the server (eg C:\Program Files\Exchsrvr\mdbdata\*) as Exchange can get confused by stray log files lying around.44 Bacula Version 5. and the plugin will fail if this is not the case. If the data never makes it to the backup medium (eg because of spooling) then the logs will still be truncated. the Exchange database logs are truncated by Exchange as soon as the plugin has completed the backup..com/en-us/library/aa997694. and involves using the Restore-Mailbox and Get-MailboxStatistics shell commands. Exchange will redirect the restore to the Recovery Storage Group automatically. When doing a full backup. The Exchange plugin has not been tested with the Accurate option.7 Restoring on Microsoft Server 2007 Apparently the Exmerge program no longer exists in Microsoft Server 2007..com/kb/824126.microsoft. To create the Recovery Storage Group. The plugin will most likely not work well if another backup application (eg NTBACKUP) is backing up the Exchange database. right click. 7. and select ”New -¿ Recovery Storage Group. and henc you use a new proceedure for recovering a single mail box. This procedure is ducomented by Microsoft at: http://technet. You will have to schedule a new Full backup to ensure that your next backups will be usable. but to briefly summarize. The ”Enable Circular Logging” option cannot be enabled or the plugin will fail. Microsoft Exchange allows the creation of an additional Storage Group called the Recovery Storage Group.” and select the database you will be restoring. On the Recovery Storage Group.g. Restore only the single database nominated as the database in the Recovery Storage Group. 7.microsoft. especially if the other backup application is truncating the log files. 7.20.20..

net/) project: libdbi implements a database-independent abstraction layer in C.3 45 7. programmers can leverage the power of multiple databases and multiple simultaneous database connections by using this framework. Writing one generic set of code. user = regress.sourceforge. example: Catalog { Name = MyCatalog dbdriver = dbi:mysql. The according to libdbi (http://libdbi. we will test and approve to use others databases engines (proprietary or not) like DB2. The next phase is checking (or configuring) the bacula-dir. • The possibility to use the drivers written for the libdbi project.21 libdbi Framework As a general guideline. similar to the DBI/DBD layer in Perl. The following drivers have been tested: • PostgreSQL.net/.conf. mysql. however.sourceforge.0. we have an open field to use many different kinds database engines following the needs of users. Currently the libdbi driver in Bacula project only supports the same drivers natively coded in Bacula. In the future all those drivers can be supported by Bacula. We must configure the access port of the database engine with the option –with-db-port. unique point to code and profiling catalog database access. sqlite3. this is. see below).0. these are the names that may be added to string ”dbi:”. Some of benefits of using libdbi are: • The possibility to use proprietary databases engines in which your proprietary licenses prevent the Bacula team from developing the driver. To compile Bacula to support libdbi we need to configure the code with the –with-dbi and –with-dbidriver=[database] .0. they must be tested properly by the Bacula team.conf • Abstract Database access. dbaddress = 127. sqlite. However the libdbi project has support for many others database engines.1./configure options. PostgreSQL.conf. Oracle. with and without batch insert • SQLite • SQLite3 In the future. dbport = 3306 dbname = regress. Currently the drivers supported by Bacula are: postgresql. with and without batch insert • Mysql. Bacula has support for a few catalog database drivers (MySQL. With the libdbi implementation. SQLite) coded natively by the Bacula team. where [database] is the database engine to be used with Bacula (of course we can change the driver in file bacula-dir. because the libdbi framework doesn’t know the default access port of each database. Just change one line in bacula-dir. . which is a Bacula driver that uses libdbi to access the catalog. Microsoft SQL. You can view the list at http://libdbidrivers.Bacula Version 5. password = "" } The parameter dbdriver indicates that we will use the driver dbi with a mysql database. • The possibility to use other database engines without recompiling Bacula to use them.

22. when compiling Bacula with libdbi.22 7. The reason is bound with the database driver provided by libdbi and the simple fact that one more layer of code was added.0. you must run an update slots command to synchronize autochanger content with your catalog. This is so that users may delete numeric .0. you must have a directive such as: catalog = all In your Director’s Messages resource.0. The llist command will include a line with the time and date of the entry.3 The following limitations apply when Bacula is set to use the libdbi framework: .22.2 list joblog job=xxx or jobid=nnn A new list command has been added that allows you to list the contents of the Job Log stored in the catalog for either a Job Name (fully qualified) or for a particular JobId. you can set the command separator with @separator command to one of those characters to write commands who require multiple input in one line. the following packages are needed: • libdbi version 1.22. 7.-/:.Not tested on the Win32 platform .net/ You can download them and compile them on your system or install the packages from your OS distribution.46 Bacula Version 5. http://libdbi.3 Use separator for multiple commands When using bconsole with readline.<>?[]^‘{|}~ 7. !$%&’()*+. It is important to remember. 7.1 Console Command Additions and Enhancements Display Autochanger Content The status slots storage=<storage-name> command displays autochanger content.sourceforge. Slot | Volume Name | Status | Media Type | Pool | ------+---------------+----------+-------------------+------------| 1 | 00001 | Append | DiskChangerMedia | Default | 2 | 00002 | Append | DiskChangerMedia | Default | 3*| 00003 | Append | DiskChangerMedia | Scratch | 4 | | | | | If you an asterisk (*) appears after the slot number. http://libdbi-drivers.net/ • libdbi-drivers 1.22.A little performance is lost if comparing with native database driver.0. Note for the catalog to have Job Log entries.sourceforge.4 Deleting Volumes The delete volume bconsole command has been modified to require an asterisk (*) in front of a MediaId otherwise the value you enter is a taken to be a Volume name. 7.0.

The previous Bacula versions assumed that all input that started with a number was a MediaId. Advantages: 1. See below . This means a high priority job will not have to wait for other jobs to finish before starting. 3. . You can add new files/directories to the USB key very easily. This technology involves remastering a Ubuntu LiveCD to boot from a USB key. The problem was that every distribution has a different boot procedure and different scripts. 4. The USB key has writable partitions for modifications to the OS and for modification to your home directory. 5. 9. 2. The USB key can easily be upgraded to newer Ubuntu versions. The process of updating the system and adding new packages is not too difficult. The documentation and the code can be found in the rescue package in the directory linux/usb. 7.5 and later. You can save the environment from multiple machines on one USB key.1 Miscellaneous Allow Mixed Priority = <yes|no> This directive is only implemented in version 2. Recovery can be done in a shell. 7..Bacula Version 5. This new behavior is indicated in the prompt if you read it carefully. this job may run even if lower priority jobs are already running.. Recovery can be done from within graphical environment. The USB key is usable but currently under development.24. The scheduler will only mix priorities when all running jobs have this set to true. When set to yes (default no). This meant that maintaining (keeping up with the changes) the rescue CD was too much work. and worse yet. To replace it. the boot procedures and scripts change from one distribution to another. 2.24 7. Bacula Systems is funding its ongoing development. Not everyone may be familiar with Ubuntu (no worse than using Knoppix) 3. 7. The disadvantages are: 1. Some older OSes cannot be booted from USB. 6. Ubuntu boots on a large number of Linux systems.23 Bare Metal Recovery The old bare metal recovery project is essentially dead. Currently the documentation is sketchy and not yet added to the main manual.0. 8. One of the main features of it was that it would build a recovery CD based on the kernel on your system. a new bare metal recovery USB boot stick has been developed by Bacula Systems. 4.3 47 Volume names. This can be resolved by first booting a Ubuntu LiveCD then plugging in the USB key.

with two more in the queue.3 . only matching filenames will be restored. 7. VolEndFile. When specified. With the new format (automatically generated by the new Director). That is there is no way using the catalog to select individual files. Used with the disk-changer script. If a job with priority 5 is added to the queue.24.9% of the tape code but actually reading and writing to a disk file. The new code can also restore POSIX(UFS) ACLs to a ZFS filesystem (it will translate the POSIX(UFS)) ACL into a ZFS/NFSv4 one) it can also be used to transfer from UFS to ZFS filesystems. Suppose the director will allow two concurrent jobs.e.bsr) file. VolStartBlock and VolEndBlock directives. new priority 10 jobs will not be run until the priority 5 job has finished. Each takes a 64 bit unsigned integer range (i. restores will seek properly and stop reading the volume when all the files have been restored.2 Bootstrap File Directive – FileRegex FileRegex is a new command that can be added to the bootstrap (.1.24.restore.Most likely your retention policy pruned the files Do you want to restore all the files? (yes\vb{}no): no Regexp matching files to restore? (empty to abort): /tmp/regress/(bin|tests)/ Bootstrap records written to /tmp/regress/working/zog4-dir. which will backup both the old POSIX(UFS) ACLs as well as the ZFS ACLs. if all File records are pruned from the catalog for a Job. nnn-mmm) which defines the start address range and end address range respectively. During a restore.0. . With this new feature.24.. Bacula will ask if you want to specify a Regex expression for extracting only a part of the full backup. It is enabled by using Device Type = vtape in the Storage daemon’s Device directive. it will be run as soon as one of the running jobs finishes.48 Bacula Version 5. so file selection is not possible. This feature is only implemented on Linux machines and should not be used for production. 7. but will not properly take advantage of proper disk seeking.3 Bootstrap File Optimization Changes In order to permit proper seeking on disk files. However. and may read completely to the end of a disk volume during a restore.4 Solaris ZFS/NFSv4 ACLs This is an upgrade of the previous Solaris ACL backup code to the new library format. normally Bacula can restore only all files saved. you can now emulate an autochanger with 10 drives and 700 slots.3 Note that only higher priority jobs will start early. The value is a regular expression. 7.bsr 7.. Building directory tree for JobId(s) 1. Bootstrap files containing the old directives will still work. There were no files inserted into the tree. These two directives replace the VolStartFile.24. This feature is most useful in testing. we have extended the bootstrap file format to include a VolStartAddr and VolEndAddr records.5 Virtual Tape Emulation We now have a Virtual Tape emulator that allows us to run though 99. and that two jobs with priority 10 are running.

7. when the Volume was recycled. thus accomplishing the same thing as a truncate. Note.11 Support for Ubuntu The new version of Bacula now recognizes the Ubuntu (and Kubuntu) version of Linux. Since Ubuntu officially supports Bacula.6 Bat Enhancements Bat (the Bacula Administration Tool) GUI program has been significantly enhanced and stabilized. 7.24. We would appreciate feedback. however. 7. 7. it can now be easily localized using Qt4 Linguist. Simply specify multiple Command directives in your RunScript. This is now corrected in the new version because we have written code (actually a kind user) that deletes and recreates the Volume. Job { Name = aJob RunScript { Command = "/bin/echo test" Command = "/bin/echo an other test" Command = "/bin/echo 3 commands in the same runscript" RunsWhen = Before } . which runs the command after the Volume Shadow Copy has been made. The Bat communications protocol has been significantly enhanced to improve GUI handling.0.Bacula Version 5. this command has not been carefully tested and debugged and is known to easily crash the Director. it was not properly truncated because NFS does not implement ftruncate (file truncate).24.24.10 ftruncate for NFS Volumes If you write to a Volume mounted by NFS (say on a local file server).9 Connect Timeout The default connect timeout to the File daemon has been set to 3 minutes. 7.24. you can also obtain any recent . } A new Client RunScript RunsWhen keyword of AfterVSS has been implemented.24. Due to the recursive nature of this command. we may remove it before the final release. in previous Bacula versions.. In particular. there are new table based status commands. Console commands can be specified within a RunScript by using: Console = <command>.24. you must use a the bat that is distributed with the Director you are using otherwise the communications protocol will not work.3 49 7.7 RunScript Enhancements The RunScript resource has been enhanced to permit multiple commands per RunScript.. Previously it was 30 minutes.8 Status Enhancements The bconsole status dir output has been enhanced to indicate Storage daemon job spooling and despooling activity. and thus now provides correct autostart routines.

which although there is no visible change for users.24..24. With this directive. you could use a few SQL queries on the Job table to report how many: • jobs have run • jobs have been successful • files have been backed up • .15 Max Wait Time = <time-period-in-seconds> Previous MaxWaitTime directives aren’t working as expected. . it’s now possible to specify the maximum allowed time that a job can run depending on the level. counted from when the job was scheduled.14 Max Run Sched Time = <time-period-in-seconds> The time specifies the maximum allowed time that a job may run.24. This directive is probably most useful when defined in the Scratch pool. 7. 7.24. Some users are reporting to use Incr/Diff/Full Max Wait Time to control the maximum run time of their job depending on the level.0. those directives worked like MaxRunTime. they have to use Incr/Diff/Full Max Run Time.13 FD Version The File daemon to Director protocol now includes a version number. 7.24. 7. it can be moved automatically to any existing pool during a recycle. We can see it like Max Start Delay + Max Run Time. a Volume will remain in the same pool when it is recycled. Now. Bacula Version 5. instead of checking the maximum allowed time that a job may block for a resource. Incr/Diff/Full Max Wait Time directives are now deprecated.50 release of Bacula from the Ubuntu repositories. This can be useful to prevent jobs from running during working hours..16 Incremental—Differential Max Wait Time = <time-period-in-seconds> These directives have been deprecated in favor of Incremental|Differential Max Run Time.24.3 7. 7. 7. Without this directive. so that volumes will be recycled back into the Scratch pool.24.12 Recycle Pool = <pool-name> The new RecyclePool directive defines to which pool the Volume will be placed (moved) when it is recycled.18 Statistics Enhancements If you (or probably your boss) want to have statistics on your backups to provide some Service Level Agreement indicators.17 Max Run Time directives Using Full/Diff/Incr Max Run Time. will help us in future versions automatically determine if a File daemon is not compatible.

The Statistics Retention = <time> director directive defines the length of time that Bacula will keep statistics job records in the Catalog database after the Job End time. (In JobHistory table) When this time period expires. This is useful when using multiple storage sharing the same mediatype or when you want to dedicate volumes to a particular set of pool. you probably want to delete the first bad job record and keep only the successful one..Bacula Version 5. if jobs are purged from the catalog.19 ScratchPool = <pool-resource-name> This directive permits to specify a specific Scratch pool for the current pool. Bacula will prune (remove) Job records that are older than the specified period. you can use the update stats [days=num] console command to fill the JobHistory table with new Job records. these statistics are accurate only if your job retention is greater than your statistics period.. ie if one of your important job has failed but you have fixed the problem and restarted it on time. billings. and update JobHistory table after two or three days depending on your organization using the [days=num] option. Ie. RunScript { Console = "update stats days=3" Console = "prune stats yes" RunsWhen = After RunsOnClient = no } } 7. For that simply let your staff do the job. and if user runs prune stats command.24.0. you won’t be able to use them. You can use the following Job resource in your nightly BackupCatalog job to maintain statistics. The Bweb interface provides a statistics module that can use this feature. Job { Name = BackupCatalog . You can also use tools like Talend or extract information by yourself. If you want to be sure to take in account only good jobs. These statistics records aren’t used for restoring. Now. but mainly for capacity planning. .3 51 Figure 7.1: Job time control directives However. etc.

dbcheck will now ask you if you want to create temporary indexes to speed up orphaned Path and Filename elimination. 7.3 7. but you may set it to a larger number. .. the spool file that contains attributes is read directly by the Director instead of being transmitted across the network. The default is set to 20. ReleaseNotes. ChangeLog. The default is /usr/share/doc/bacula.24.. $ dbcheck -B catalog=MyCatalog db_type=SQLite db_name=regress db_driver= db_user=regress db_password= db_address= db_port=0 db_socket= You can now specify the database connection port in the command line.24.25 --docdir configure option You can use --docdir= on the . 7. This is useful to backup it in a secure way.24.24 dbcheck enhancements If you are using Mysql.20 Enhanced Attribute Despooling If the storage daemon and the Director are on the same machine.0. 7. SpoolSize=bytes 7./configure command to specify the directory where you want Bacula to install the LICENSE.52 Bacula Version 5.24.21 SpoolSize = <size-specification-in-bytes> A new Job directive permits to specify the spool size per job. files.22 MaximumConsoleConnections = <number> A new director directive permits to specify the maximum number of Console Connections that could run concurrently. That should reduce load and speedup insertion. .24. 7.24. A new -B option allows you to print catalog information in a simple text based format.23 VerId = <string> A new director directive permits to specify a personnal identifier that will be displayed in the version command. This is used in advanced job tunning.

26 --htmldir configure option You can use --htmldir= on the .24.Bacula Version 5./configure command to specify the directory where you want Bacula to install the bat html help files.0.24. .27 --with-plugindir configure option You can use --plugindir= on the .3 53 7. The default is /usr/lib. The default is /usr/share/doc/bacula/html 7./configure command to specify the directory where you want Bacula to install the plugins (currently only bpipe-fd).

54 Bacula Version 5.0.3 .

offers many additional features over the shell program. – Ability to recreate the catalog database by scanning backup Volumes using the bscan program. – Internal scheduler for automatic Job execution. the recommended way to restore files is using the restore command in the Console.Chapter 8 The Current State of Bacula In other words. Qt4 GUI. – Restore of a complete system starting from bare metal. Among other things. Note. – Scheduling of multiple Jobs at the same time. – Job sequencing using priorities. wxWidgets GUI and Web versions of the Console program are available. These programs are designed for use as a last resort. This is mostly automated for Linux systems and partially automated for Solaris. 8. – CRAM-MD5 password authentication between each component (daemon). • SQL Catalog 55 . – You may run one Job at a time or multiple simultaneous Jobs (sometimes called multiplexing). – Computation of MD5 or SHA1 signatures of the file data if requested. permitting a Tripwire like capability (system break-in detection). – Listing and Restoration of files using stand-alone bls and bextract tool programs. the Qt4 GUI program called the Bacula Administration tool or bat. – Configurable TLS (SSL) communications encryption between each component. This is also reported to work on Win2K/XP systems. this permits extraction of files when Bacula and/or the catalog are not available. See Disaster Recovery Using Bacula. • Security – Verification of files previously cataloged. – Configurable Data (on Volume) encryption on a Client by Client basis. Note. – Ability to restore the catalog database rapidly by using bootstrap files (previously saved). • Restore Features – Restore of one or more files selected interactively either for the current backup or a backup prior to a specified time and date. – Console interface to the Director allowing complete control.1 What is Implemented • Job Control – Network backup/restore with centralized Director. what is and what is not currently implemented and functional. A shell.

– Pool and Volume library management providing Volume flexibility (e. Bacula automatically requests the next Volume and continues the backup. – Automatic support for multiple autochanger magazines either using barcodes or by reading the tapes. Volume sets segregated by Client.3 – Catalog database facility for remembering Volumes.g. weekly. – Machine independent Volume data format. – Multi-volume saves. – Migration support – move data from one Pool to another or one Volume to another.0. – Saves and restores POSIX ACLs and Extended Attributes on most OSes if enabled. – The Volume data format is upwards compatible so that old Volumes can always be read. – Support for 64 bit machines. – Support for Unicode filenames (e. e. – Data spooling to disk during backup with subsequent write to tape from the spooled disk files. When a Volume is full. – Supports writing to DVD.). and Vista) but not Win2000. Sun. Solaris. Win2003. This prevents tape ”shoe shine” during Incremental/Differential backups.. – Raw device backup/restore.g. – Support for save/restore of files larger than 2GB. Restore must be to the same device. PostgreSQL. monthly. – Support for autochanger barcodes – automatic tape labeling from barcodes. Pools. Unix. and Windows machines to the same Volume. A script for mtx is provided. – Support for multiple drive autochangers. • Advanced Support for most Storage Devices – Autochanger support using a simple shell interface that can interface to virtually any autoloader program. That is. and SQLite Catalog databases. and Files backed up.. Linux. – Support for path/filename lengths of up to 64K on Win32 machines (unlimited on Unix/Linux machines). daily Volume sets. preventing accidental overwriting (at least by Bacula). – Support for MySQL. PostgreSQL and SQLite databases. and Windows clients can all be backed up to the same Volume if desired. – Support ANSI and IBM tape labels. Sparc. – User extensible queries to the MySQL. Chinese) on Win32 machines – Consistent backup of open files on Win32 systems (WinXP. • Miscellaneous – Multi-threaded implementation. – A comprehensive and extensible configuration file for each daemon. – GZIP compression on a file by file basis done by the Client program if requested before network transit.56 Bacula Version 5. you can backup and restore Linux. Jobs. using Volume Shadow Copy (VSS). – Access control lists for Consoles that permit restricting user access to only their data. . amd64. • Multi-Operating System Support – Programmed to handle arbitrarily long filenames and messages. . – A flexible message handler including routing of messages from any daemon back to the Director and automatic email reporting. • Advanced Volume and Pool Management – Labeled Volumes. – Any number of Jobs and Clients can be backed up to a single Volume. – All Volume blocks (approximately 64K bytes) contain a data checksum.g.

– It has a full Bacula FD statically linked – You can easily add additional data/programs.3 Current Implementation Restrictions • It is very unusual to attempt to restore two Jobs that ran simultaneously in a single restore. • Bacula handles multi-volume backups. • Bacula has a built-in Job scheduler. • Any SQL database engine can be used making Bacula very flexible. PostgreSQL. backed up. then make burn. which allows the administrator to use tools such as ssh to administrate any part of Bacula from anywhere (even from home).. • The modular but integrated design makes Bacula very scalable. the restore will not work correctly. • Aside from several GUI administrative interfaces. any database or other application can be properly shutdown by Bacula using the native tools of the system. . no shared memory. 8. • According to one user Bacula is as fast as the big major commercial applications. • Bacula installation and configuration is relatively simple compared to other comparable products. This permits online viewing of files saved on any particular Volume. However. • A full comprehensive SQL standard database of all files backed up.Bacula Version 5. • Since Bacula uses client file servers. then restarted (all within a Bacula Job). if possible. . you can backup and restore clients of any type ensuring that all attributes of files are properly saved and restored. • The Volume format is documented and there are simple C programs to read/write it.2 Advantages Over Other Backup Programs • Since there is a client for each machine. but if you do. Bacula cannot restore two jobs in the same restore if the Jobs’ data blocks were intermixed on the backup medium. • According to another user Bacula is four times as fast as another commercial application. one for each Job. The problem is resolved by simply doing two restores. Bacula has a comprehensive shell administrative interface. – It uses your kernel – It captures your current disk parameters and builds scripts that allow you to automatically repartition a disk and format it to put it back to what you had before. • Automatic pruning of the database (removal of old records) thus simplifying database administration. please be aware that unless you had data spooling turned on and the spool file held the full contents of both Jobs during the backup. Drivers currently exist for MySQL.3 57 8. and SQLite. In other terms. • Bacula uses well defined (IANA registered) TCP/IP ports – no rpcs. – It has a script that will restart your networking (with the right IP address) – It has a script to automatically mount your hard disks. to the disk.. • Bacula has a Rescue CD for Linux systems with the following features: – You build it on your own system from scratch with one simple command: make – well. probably because that application stores its catalog information in a large number of individual files rather than an SQL database as Bacula does. we recommend running a Client File daemon on each machine to be backed up. • It is also possible to backup clients without any client software by using NFS or Samba.0.

This is typical for most similar backup programs. some restrictions may apply (e. Consequently. which may be arbitrarily long. Currently the limit is defined as 127 characters.5 Items to Note • Bacula’s Differential and Incremental normal backups are based on time stamps. . if the architecture is significantly different (i. 8. the database FileId is likely to overflow.0.e.4 Design Limitations or Restrictions • Names (resource names. if you move files into an existing directory or move a whole directory into the backup fileset after a Full backup. This problem is corrected by using Accurate mode backups or by explicitly updating the date/time stamp on all moved files. btape.g. Volume names. • In older versions of Bacula (<= 3. However. • Command line input to some of the stand alone tools – e.x). 32 bit architecture to 64 bit or Win32 to Unix). 8. those files will probably not be backed up by an Incremental save because they will have old dates. files deleted after a Full save will be included in a restoration. Note. Solaris door files do not exist on other Unix/Linux machines.3 • Bacula can generally restore any backup made from one client to any other client. and such) defined in Bacula configuration files are limited to a fixed number of characters. • In non Accurate mode.g. bconsole is restricted to several hundred characters maximum.58 Bacula Version 5. there are reports that Zlib compression written with 64 bit machines does not always read correctly on a 32 bit machine). this does not apply to filenames.0. if you have over 4 billion file entries stored in your database.

1. RPM) from GNU C. unless you are sure it contains the patch. You can try with other compilers and older versions.1 or any window manager supporting the FreeDesktop system tray standard. • It requires GNU C++ version 2. but you are on your own. • The minimum versions for each of the databases supported by Bacula are: – MySQL 4. Note. in general GNU C++ is a separate package (e. We have successfully compiled and used Bacula using GNU C++ version 4. This is not the case on some of the BSD systems. There is also a patch for dvd+rw-tools version 6.8. and Solaris systems. • If you want to use DVD as backup medium. • The wxWidgets Console program is developed and tested with the latest stable ANSI or Unicode version of wxWidgets (2. • There are certain third party packages that Bacula may need. • The Tray Monitor program is developed for GTK+-2. so you need them both loaded.g. you are pretty much on your own if you want to build it yourself.Chapter 9 System Requirements • Bacula has been compiled and run on OpenSuSE Linux. • The source code has been written with portability in mind and is mostly POSIX compatible.2.21. We provide documentation on building the Win32 version. you will need to have /usr/include/termcap. It needs GNOME less or equal to 2. • If you want to enable command line editing and history. dvd+rw-tools without the patch will not work with Bacula. apply the patch that is in the patches directory of the main source tree to make these tools compatible with Bacula.95 or higher to compile. Thus porting to any POSIX compatible operating system should be relatively easy.3. DVD media is not recommended for serious or important backups because of its low reliability. and we hope that the patch is integrated into a later version. please see the README.1 – PostgreSQL 7. Except for MySQL and PostgreSQL.mingw32 file in the src/win32 directory. KDE greater or equal to 3.1). FreeBSD. However. 59 .x.x version of wxWidgets.1. GNOME 1.h and either the termcap or the ncurses library loaded (libtermcap-devel or ncurses-devel).4 is no longer supported. but due to the complexity. We cross-compile the Win32 release on Linux. they can all be found in the depkgs and depkgs1 releases. Do not use the dvd+rw-tools provided by your distribution. most current Linux and FreeBSD systems provide these as system packages.10. you will need to download the dvd+rw-tools 5.4. • The GNOME Console program is developed and tested under GNOME 2.4 – SQLite 3 • If you want to build the Win32 binaries.6. It works fine with the Windows and GTK+-2. • Bacula requires a good implementation of pthreads to work.x. the C++ compiler is part of the gcc-c++ rpm package. and should also work on other platforms supported by wxWidgets. On Red Hat systems. then compile and install them.

60 Bacula Version 5.3 .0.

• For FreeBSD older than version 5. Operating Systems GNU/Linux FreeBSD Solaris OpenSolaris MS Windows 32bit Version All ≥ 5. Ubuntu. Debian.Chapter 10 Supported Operating Systems X Fully supported ⋆ The are reported to work in many cases and the Community has committed code for them.4.0.sourceforge. or you can simply change 61 . • MS Windows Director and Storage daemon are available in the binary Client installer • For MacOSX see http://fink.x kernel and you have the directory /lib/tls installed on your system (normally by default). . This is the new pthreads library and it is defective.0 ≥8 Win98/Me WinNT/2K XP 2008/Vista 2008/Vista Client Daemon X X X X X X X X X X X X ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ Director Daemon X X X X ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ Storage Daemon X X X X ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ ⋆ MS Windows 64bit MacOS X/Darwin OpenBSD NetBSD Irix True64 AIX BSDI HPUX ≥ 4.3 Important notes • By GNU/Linux. OpenSuSE. . please see some important considerations in the Tape Modes on FreeBSD section of the Tape Testing chapter of this manual. If you have a older Red Hat Linux system running the 2. Mandriva. bacula will NOT run. Red Hat. . Fedora.net/ for obtaining the packages See the Porting chapter of the Bacula Developer’s Guide for information on porting to other systems. we mean 32/64bit Gentoo. You must remove this directory prior to running Bacula. as we don’t have the hardware. However they are not directly supported by the Bacula project. Kubuntu.

and all programs other than Bacula will continue to use /lib/tls. an alternative is to set the environment variable ”LD ASSUME KERNEL=2.6 kernels. . you do not need to reboot.62 Bacula Version 5. For this option.4. The above mentioned /lib/tls problem does not occur with Linux 2. If you are not able to remove/rename /lib/tls.3 the name to /lib/tls-broken) then you must reboot your machine (one of the few times Linux must be rebooted).19” prior to executing Bacula.0.

If you have purchased a non-SCSI tape drive for use with Bacula on Linux. Bacula is known to work perfectly well with SCSI tape drivers on FreeBSD. non-SCSI tape drives (other than the OnStream) that use ide-scis. As a consequence. the following drives are known to work with Bacula. OS drivers) seem to work on Windows systems.1 Pro FreeBSD 4. If your drive is in fixed block mode. We are working with the kernel developers to rectify this situation. Recently there are many new drives that use IDE. 3490E. In addition a number of such tape drives (i. Based on user feedback. or drives that are known to work with Bacula because of limited feedback (so if you use Bacula on a different drive. However.3.4-RELEASE-p1 amd64 SuSE 8. it may appear to work with Bacula until you attempt to do a restore and Bacula wants to position the tape. please check the Tape Testing Chapter of this manual for procedures that you can use to verify if your tape drive will work with Bacula.10 RELEASE FreeBSD 4.Chapter 11 Supported Tape Drives Bacula uses standard operating system calls (read. ioctl) to interface to tape drives. 3480XL. there is a good chance that it will not work. Even if your drive is on the list below. 3490. but it will not be resolved in the near future. and it may work on other *nix machines. On Linux the OnStream drive.4 Compaq AIT 35 LVD Exabyte drives less than 10 years old Exabyte VXA drives Colorado T4000S HP DLT drives HP LTO Ultrium drives 3480. or other non-scsi drivers do not function correctly with Bacula (or any other demanding tape application) as of today (April 2007). which uses the OSST driver is one such example. A dash in a column means unknown: OS FreeBSD 5.11-Release Linux Man. but we have not tested it. Solaris. Linux. and Windows machines. ide-tape. it relies on having a correctly written OS tape driver. please let us know). It is very difficult to supply a list of supported tape drives.e. and it is known to work with Bacula. You can be sure only by following the procedures suggested above and testing. ADIC ADIC Certance Compaq Exabyte Exabyte HP HP HP IBM HP Overland Overland OnStream Quantum Quantum Seagate Media DLT DLT LTO DDS AIT Travan 4 DLT LTO ?? DAT LTO SDLT DLT DDS-4 Model Adic Scalar 100 DLT Adic Fastor 22 DLT AdicCertance CL400 LTO Ultrium 2 Compaq DDS 2. or SATA interfaces rather than SCSI. 3580 and 3590 drives HP StorageWorks DAT72i LoaderXpress LTO Neo2000 OnStream drives (see below) SDLT320 DLT-8000 Scorpio 40 Capacity 100GB 200GB 35/70GB - 160/320GB 40/80GB 20/40GB 63 . write. ATAPI.

and one EOF rather than two to terminate the tape). multiply the value shown in the table by 1.5 to get a rough average of what you will probably see). you will find a table of DLT and LTO tape specifications that will give you some idea of the capacity and speed of modern tapes.11 systems.3 FreeBSD 4.3.14 or later. Please see the testing chapter as you must set a fixed block size. The transfer rates are rounded to the nearest GB/hr.4 Tape Specifications If you want to know what tape drive to buy that will work with Bacula. DLT drives are generally much better (newer technology) and do not need frequent cleaning. you will lose data when Bacula spans tapes. where you will find other tape drives that work with Bacula. 11. However. and manufacturers often list compressed capacity using a compression ration of 2:1.5:1 is a much more reasonable number (i. . you should try to avoid DDS drives.33 and the osst kernel driver version 0. This problem is fixed in FreeBSD systems released after 4.4 - STA2401LW STA1701W Tandbert MLR3 Tandberg SLR6 Tandberg SLR75 20/40GB 35/70GB 4-40GB - There is a list of supported autochangers in the Supported Autochangers chapter of this document.9 STABLE FreeBSD 5. The technology is rather old and DDS tape drives need frequent cleaning. we really cannot tell you. please see the Autochangers Known to Work with Bacula section of the Supported Autochangers chapter of this manual.0. you will need to take a lot of care in configuring them to make them work correctly with Bacula. 11. As a consequence.1 Unsupported Tape Drives Previously OnStream IDE-SCSI tape drives did not work with Bacula. Below.1 pthreads patched RELEASE Linux Linux FreeBSD Solaris Seagate Seagate Sony Tandberg Tandberg Tandberg DDS-4 AIT-1 DDS-2. This is because the unpatched pthreads library fails to return a warning status to Bacula that the end of the tape is near. The actual compression ratio will depend mostly on the data you have to backup.64 Bacula Version 5. 11. they now work.11.3 Supported Autochangers For information on supported autochangers.9. 11.2. we can say that if you are going to buy a drive.2 FreeBSD Users Be Aware!!! Unless you have patched the pthreads library on FreeBSD 4. The capacities that are listed are the native tape capacity without compression. but I find that 1. QIC tapes are known to have a number of particularities (fixed block size. As of Bacula version 1. All modern drives have hardware compression. All values are provided by various manufacturers.e. Please see the Tape Testing Chapter of this manual for important information on how to configure your tape drive for compatibility with Bacula.

0.4 GB/hr ?? GB/hr 11 GB/hr 11 GB/hr 13 GB/hr 22 GB/hr 22 GB/hr 27 GB/hr 54 GB/hr 40 GB/hr 43 GB/hr 58 GB/hr 108 GB/hr 127 GB/hr 86 GB/hr 216 GB/hr .3 65 The Media Type is what is designated by the manufacturers and you are not required to use (but you may) the same name in your Bacula conf resources.Bacula Version 5. Media Type DDS-1 DDS-2 DDS-3 Travan 40 DDS-4 VXA-1 DAT-72 DLT IV VXA-2 Half-high Ultrium 1 Ultrium 1 Super DLT 1 VXA-3 Super DLT I Ultrium 2 Super DLT II VXA-4 Ultrium 3 Drive Type DAT DAT DAT Travan DAT Exabyte DAT DLT8000 Exabyte LTO 1 LTO 1 SDLT 220 Exabyte SDLT 320 LTO 2 SDLT 600 Exabyte LTO 3 Media Capacity 2 GB 4 GB 12 GB 20 GB 20 GB 33 GB 36 GB 40 GB 80 GB 100 GB 100 GB 110 GB 160 GB 160 GB 200 GB 300 GB 320 GB 400 GB Transfer Rate ?? GB/hr ?? GB/hr 5.

3 .66 Bacula Version 5.0.

and the Pool defines where (i. The main instruction is the job resource. and labeling may be a bit confusing at first. the Schedule defines when. Another way of looking at it is the FileSet is what to backup. the job priority determines which actually runs first. We assume that you have managed to build and install Bacula. but please read to the end of this chapter. which defines a job. So you might have two different Job definitions (resources) backing up different servers using the same Schedule. the directions given to Bacula are specified in several pieces. you should also have a job that backs up your catalog. the Client is who to backup. A Volume is a single physical tape (or possibly a single file) on which Bacula will write your backup data. be aware that in addition to the backup jobs there are restore. The Schedule will define what type of backup will run when (e. you might want to use JobDefs. if not. then later you want to go back and read about all the details. Consequently.g. rather than explicitly naming Volumes in your Job. Full on Monday. Schedules. Pools. Pools. If you have a lot of jobs. A backup job generally consists of a FileSet. such as FileSets. Most of the directives. and Bacula will select the next appendable Volume from the Pool and request you to mount it. and admin jobs.2 Understanding Pools. Volumes and Labels If you have been using a program such as tar to backup your system. In addition to the FileSets you want to back up. you might want to first look at the System Requirements then at the Compiling and Installing Bacula chapter of this manual. Volumes and Labels. and when more than one job uses the same schedule. Finally. the same Fileset (backing up the same directories on two machines) and maybe even the same Pools. Typically one FileSet/Client combination will have one corresponding job. a Pool. but this saves rewriting the identical parameters for each job. verify. 12.Chapter 12 Getting Started with Bacula If you are like me. a Schedule for one or several levels or times of backups. where you can set defaults for the jobs. you specify a Pool. Volumes. which have different requirements. the real Pool is maintained 67 . what Volume). and in particular follow the instructions for testing your tape drive. 12.1 Understanding Jobs and Schedules In order to make Bacula as flexible as possible. can be mixed and matched among the jobs. you can always come back to it. you want to get Bacula running immediately to get a feel for it. incremental the rest of the week). If you want to skip the section on Pools. a Client. Pools group together Volumes so that a backup is not restricted to the length of a single Volume (tape).e. Although the basic Pool options are specified in the Director’s Pool resource. as well as additional instructions. This chapter attempts to accomplish just that: get you going quickly without all the details. which can then be changed in the job resource.

If you have followed our recommendations. For more on Pools. the number of files on the Volume. and the Console programs. Please do not despair./configure command and doing a make.conf. This may entail starting and stopping Bacula a number of times until you get everything right.conf) as well as information on all the Volumes that have been added to the Pool.conf. etc. you thereby insure that no daily Job ever writes to a Volume in the Weekly Pool and vice versa. the number of Mounts. and the name of the default configuration file is. you must create valid configuration files for the Director. and Bacula will tell you what tape is needed and when.3 Setting Up Bacula Configuration Files After running the appropriate . By specifying the appropriate Pool in the daily and weekly backup Jobs. and the configuration files are found in the directory you specified on the --sysconfdir option. and a make install./configure command and by default is named bconsole.0. in this case. the binaries are found in the directory you specified on the --sbindir option to the .68 Bacula Version 5./configure command. Pools also give you significant flexibility in your backup process. 12. or simply read on. .3 in the Bacula Catalog. but in fact. The Console configuration file is found in the directory specified on the --sysconfdir option that you specified on the . Bacula maintains a fair amount of catalog information such as the first write date/time. the physical Volume must have a Bacula software label so that Bacula can be sure the correct Volume is mounted. Further details are in the Console configuration chapter. In any case. adding Volumes to it. For example. Reasonable defaults are set. The same applies to the wxWidgets console. and we will come back to this subject later. Before Bacula will read or write a Volume. and they allow you to use multiple Volumes (rather than being limited to the size of a single tape). the number of bytes on the Volume. for first time users. if this is the first time you are running Bacula. the Storage daemon. When initially setting up Bacula you will need to invest a bit of time in modifying the default configuration files to suit your environment. bwx-console. no change is needed to these files.1 Configuring the Console Program The Console program is used by the administrator to interact with the Director and to manually start/stop Jobs or to obtain Job status information. Most of the work will simply be in changing the tape when it is full. Once you have created your configuration files. they are quite simple to do. and writing software labels to the Volumes. see the Pool Resource section of the Director Configuration chapter. may seem tedious at first. 12. Adding Volumes to a Pool is usually done manually with the Console program using the label command. Normally. the File daemon. For each Volume. The steps for creating a Pool. the last write date/time. which is build with the --enable-bwx-console option. default configuration files as well as the daemon binaries will be located in your installation directory.3. you will rarely need to change them nor will you stop and start Bacula very often. This is usually done using the label command in the Console program. It contains information taken from the Pool resource (bacula-dir. you can have a ”Daily” Pool of Volumes for Incremental backups and a ”Weekly” Pool of Volumes for Full backups.

3 Configuring the File daemon The File daemon is a program that runs on each (Client) machine. More information is in the Monitor configuration chapter.conf. once the icon is expanded into a full window. you just need to change the permission of this file to allow non-root users to run the Monitor.2 Configuring the Monitor Program The Monitor program is typically an icon in the system tray. finds the files to be backed up and sends them (their data) to the Storage daemon. you can see the status for each of the daemons. 12. This is not a security problem as long as you use the default settings.Bacula Version 5. At the request of the Director./configure command and by default is named tray-monitor.0. The image shows the status for the Storage daemon (MainSD) that is currently selected. the administrator or user can obtain status information about the Director or the backup status on the local workstation or any other Bacula daemon that is configured. However.3. as this application must run as the same user as the graphical environment (don’t forget to allow non-root users to execute bacula-tray-monitor).3. The Monitor configuration file is found in the directory specified on the --sysconfdir option that you specified on the .3 69 12. for first time users. . The image shows a tray-monitor configured for three daemons. By clicking on the radio buttons in the upper left corner of the image. Normally.

and for the storage daemon. they will already be correctly set.5 Configuring the Storage daemon The Storage daemon is responsible. Normally the Director’s configuration file is named bacula-dir. if you have multiple systems to be backed up.70 Bacula Version 5. the daemons temporary file names will not be unique. address.conf. but they must agree with the corresponding names in the Storage daemon’s configuration file. 12.conf. More information is in the Director configuration chapter. to find the data and send it to the File daemon. By default. Edit this file to contain the correct Archive device names for any tape devices that you have. 12. at the Director’s request. If you want to backup to a file instead of a tape. you will need to install the File daemon with a unique configuration file on each machine to be backed up. These Storage resource name and Media Type must be the same as the corresponding ones in the Director’s configuration file bacula-dir. you might use foobaz-sd. you will probably want to edit the Storage resource to contain names that are more representative of your actual storage device. for first time users.0. if they share the same working directory. Further details are in the File daemon configuration chapter. you should use foobaz-dir.conf. That is. if you are going to back up more than one machine. The Director configuration file is found in the directory specified on the --sysconfdir option that you specified on the . The Storage daemon’s configuration file is found in the directory specified on the --sysconfdir option that you specified on the . no change is needed to this file.3. The information about each File daemon must appear in the Director’s configuration file. the File daemon’s configuration file is named baculafd. Further information is in the Storage daemon configuration chapter. the only change you must make is modify the FileSet resource so that the Include configuration directive contains at least one line with a valid name of a directory (or file) to be saved.conf. or in the case of a restore request./configure command. We have found that giving your daemons the same name as your system but post fixed with -fd helps a lot in debugging./configure command. If you make them all the same. aside from the fact that you will not know what daemon is sending what message. you will need a separate File daemon or Client specification for each system. and you will get many strange failures. Each of your Bacula components must have a unique name.4 Configuring the Director The Director is the central control program for all the other daemons. Finally. You may also want to change the email address for notification from the default root to your email address. if your system name is foobaz.3. In general. the Archive device must point to a directory in which the Volumes will be created as files when you label the Volume. If you do not have a DLT tape drive. specifying its name. It schedules and monitors all jobs to be backed up. However. the Storage daemon’s file is named baculasd. and password. Reasonable defaults are set. for accepting data from a File daemon and placing it on Storage media. ./configure command.3 The File daemon configuration file is found in the directory specified on the --sysconfdir option that you specified on the . If the configuration process properly detected your system. You can always use the existing names as you are free to arbitrarily assign them. By default. you would give the File daemon the name foobaz-fd. For the Director. Normally.

and prone to make errors. 12. For FreeBSD (and probably other xBSD flavors). The daemon will process the configuration file and print any error messages then terminate.Bacula Version 5. assuming you have installed your binaries and configuration files in the same directory. If you have a modern standard SCSI tape drive on a Linux or Solaris. To get a good idea how to use Bacula in a short time.6 Get Rid of the /lib/tls Directory The new pthreads library /lib/tls installed by default on recent Red Hat systems running Linux kernel 2.3 71 12. of the three last commands will not be available on your system.conf" will test the configuration files of each of the main programs.x is defective.4. cd <installation-directory> ./bacula-dir -t -c bacula-dir. please see the file platforms/freebsd/pthreads-fix. most likely it will work. you will need to modify the above commands appropriately (no .conf ./bacula-fd -t -c bacula-fd. In addition.0. users of FreeBSD prior to 4. then reboot your system before running Bacula otherwise after a week or so of running. Please note that.x kernels.conf su <normal user> -c ".5 Testing Compatibility with Your Tape Drive Before spending a lot of time on Bacula only to find that it doesn’t work with your tape drive./bacula-tray-monitor -t -c tray-monitor. the program will terminate without printing anything.9-STABLE dated Mon Dec 29 15:18:01 2003 UTC who plan to use tape devices.conf . If you have installed the binaries in traditional Unix locations rather than a single file.conf . If you haven’t tried recovering files at least once. and a path in front of the conf file name)./bacula-sd -t -c bacula-sd. You may want to use the loader environment variable override rather than removing /lib/tls. Also. If the configuration file is OK. Bacula will either block for long periods or deadlock entirely. Please see Supported Operating Systems for more information on this problem.conf .6./bwx-console -t -c bwx-console./ in front of the command name.7 Running Bacula Probably the most important part of running Bacula is being able to restore files.txt in the main Bacula directory concerning important information concerning compatibility of Bacula and your system. 12. you will be under a lot more pressure. .4 Testing your Configuration Files You can test if your configuration file is syntactically correct by running the appropriate daemon with the -t option./bconsole -t -c bconsole. or even all.conf . when you actually have to do it. reading the above mentioned tape testing chapter is a must. than if you had already tried it once. 12. For example. You must remove it or rename it. but better test than be sorry. we strongly recommend that you follow the example in the Running Bacula Chapter of this manual where you will get detailed instructions on how to run Bacula. please read the Testing Your Tape Drive chapter of this manual. This problem does not occur on systems running Linux 2. please see The FreeBSD Diary for a detailed description on how to make Bacula work on your system. for FreeBSD. some. depending on the configure options you choose./bat -t -c bat.

you will note that it logs all the Bacula output to a file. If you wish to include the output from your Bacula jobs in that report. please look in the scripts/logwatch directory.72 Bacula Version 5. This will cause the log file to be rotated once a month and kept for a maximum of five months. we recommend that you copy the file logrotate from the scripts/logrotate to /etc/logrotate.3 12. . The README file in that directory gives a brief explanation on how to install it and what kind of output to expect. 12.9 Log Watch Some systems such as Red Hat and Fedora run the logwatch program every night. you will be prepared.0. 12. which does an analysis of your log file and sends an email report.10 Disaster Recovery If you intend to use Bacula as a disaster recovery tool rather than simply a program to restore lost or damaged files.conf or some variation of it. you are strongly urged to carefully test restoring some files that you have saved rather than wait until disaster strikes. You may want to edit this file to change the default log rotation preferences.d/bacula. you will want to read the Disaster Recovery Using Bacula Chapter of this manual.8 Log Rotation If you use the default bacula-dir. In any case. To avoid that this file grows without limit. This way.

you can create a USB key with your system configuration and containing a statically linked version of the File daemon.tar. The French. MySQL and PostgreSQL are packages that can be installed on your distribution. to simplify your task. The win64bacula release is necessary for Volume Shadow Copy (VSS) to work on Win64 OSes.38.exe This file is the 32 bit Windows installer for installing the Windows client (File daemon) on a Windows machine. bacula-gui-5.0.0.0. the Director and Storage daemon are not included.0.0) will be updated. bacula-rescue-5. but VSS support is not available if you are running a 64 bit version of Windows. win64bacula-5. It will not run on 32 bit machines or 32 bit Windows OSes. but are not built. Bacula needs certain third party packages (such as MySQL. This client will only run on 64 bit Windows OS machines. load them. you will need the Bacula source release.gz This is the primary source code release for Bacula. PostgreSQL. the Director and Storage daemon are not included. a PHP program for producing management viewing of your Bacula job status in a browser. the source code has been broken into four separate tar files each corresponding to a different module in the Bacula SVN. On each release the version number (5.0. This can vastly simplify your life by providing you with all the necessary packages rather than requiring you to find them on the Web. Note.tar.tar. bacula-docs-5.tar. However. This client will also run on 64 bit Windows machines. if you do not have them.Chapter 13 Installing Bacula In general.gz This file contains the non-core GUI programs. Normally.0. so it may be different. the version number of this package is not always tied to the Bacula release version. we have combined a number of these packages into three depkgs releases (Dependency Packages). it contains bacula-web. win32bacula-5.bz2 This file contains a copy of the docs directory with the documents prebuild. and pdf file.gz This is the Bacula Rescue USB key code.0.0. 73 . 13. The released files are: bacula-5. and if you want to run a Windows client.0.0.0.0.1 Source Release Files Beginning with Bacula 1.0. Currently. This installer installs only the FD. Using this code.0. This installer installs only the FD.exe This file is the 64 bit Windows installer for installing the Windows client (File daemon) on a Windows machine. German. This can permit you to easily repartition and reformat your hard disks and reload your system with Bacula in the case of a hard disk failure. English HTML directory. and bimagemgr a browser program for burning CDROM images with Bacula Volumes. Spanish translations are in progress. single HTML file. However. or SQLite to build and run properly depending on the options you specify. and install them. you will need the Bacula Windows binary release.

please see the Upgrading Bacula Versions in the Tips chapter of this manual. You will need to edit the scripts to correspond to your system configuration. If there are several database upgrades between your version and the version to which you are upgrading. Upgrading the catalog is normally done after Bacula is build and installed by: cd <installed-scripts-dir> (default /etc/bacula) . between 3. it was possible to run a lower level FD with a newer Director and SD. please note that in general it is not necessary or desirable to do a make uninstall before doing an upgrade providing you are careful not to change the installation directories. or save an ASCII copy of your database. then proceed to upgrade it.36 to 2.0 and 3.2 Upgrading Bacula If you are upgrading from one Bacula version to another./configure (your options) make make install In general none of your existing .0. This avoids the need to do a simultaneous upgrade of many machines. With version 3. Prior to version 3. However./update_bacula_tables This update script can also be find in the Bacula source src/cats directory. we attempt to support older File daemons. simply read the ReleaseNotes very carefully as they will note if all daemons must be upgraded at the same time. you can find all the old upgrade scripts in the upgradedb directory of the source code.1) there will be no database upgrade. and you must also upgrade any File daemon that is running on the same machine as a Director or a Storage daemon (see the prior paragraph). a make install without the preceding make will not work. In many upgrades. you should first carefully read the ReleaseNotes of all major versions between your current version and the version to which you are upgrading.0. please see the ReleaseNotes for the new version. The final upgrade script. For additional information on upgrading.sql files will be overwritten. can be applied as noted above.0. 1.0 and later. if any. you must always upgrade both the Director and the Storage daemon at the same time.g. The normal procedure during an upgrade is simply: .32. If you are upgrading two major versions (e.74 Bacula Version 5. . within any particular release (e. As always. For your convenience.0.g. In fact. the daemon protocol will not change. you must ensure that on any one machine that all components of Bacula are running on exactly the same version. which could be disastrous. If this is confusing. version 1.g. If you are upgrading from one major version to another.0) then life will be more complicated because you must do two database upgrades. Finally. For exactly what older versions of the FD are supported. See below for more on this.0. This is no longer the case. and you must do both the make and make install commands. you will need to replace all your components at the same time as generally the inter-daemon protocol will change. especially for minor patch upgrades (e. if you do so.3 13. If the Bacula catalog database has been upgraded (as it is almost every major release). and hence the process is rather simple.x) unless there is an oversight or bug. In any case.0. you will most likely delete all your conf files. you will need to apply each database upgrade script.conf or . you will either need to reinitialize your database starting from scratch (not normally a good idea).

it indicates that the package is under development and thus may not be stable. In general when the minor number increases from one production release to the next (i. 1.38.22. • The code will have been run in production in at least one small site (mine).e.39. The numbering system follows traditional Open Source conventions in that it is of the form.37. That means that you can safely run a 1.38.38.0. the catalog database must be upgraded.x but not mixed). and often (not always).38. which typically runs one year from a major release to another.38. the Director and Storage daemon must always be on the same minor release number. Linux.1. Beta releases are made with the following considerations: • The code passes the regression testing on FreeBSD. The patch number is increased each time a bug fix (or fixes) is released to production. and the patch number is starts at zero each time the minor number changes.0. When the minor number is odd. . patch) is a number. 1. it is always an even number for a production release). while the current production release of Bacula is currently 1..11.x to 1.3 75 13. If there are bug fixes. Beta Releases Towards the end of the development cycle. not all patch versions of the development code (odd minor version) are officially released.38. All patch versions of the development code are available in the SVN (source repository). Generally. there will be several beta releases of the development code prior to a production release. In general. as of this date (10 September 2006). but this is not always possible.39. the Clients must also be on the same minor release.minor. in this case.e.e. the Director may have bugs that are not fixed. the current production Bacula release is version 1. and Solaris machines. the database and all the daemons will be compatible. all patch numbers are officially released to production.Bacula Version 5.12 (i.x or 1. For all patch releases where the minor version number does not change. The major number is currently 1 and normally does not change very frequently. • Bugs are expected to be found.11 Client. beta versions always have odd minor version numbers (e. especially in the new code before the final production release.release For example: 1.x or 1. major. This means that while the current Bacula version is 1.38. . You must check the release notes. they will be documented or already in the bugs database. So.11. The minor number starts at 0 and increases each for each production release by 2 (i.11 where each component (major. all either 1. they are released as beta versions (see below for a definition of what beta means for Bacula releases).40. As often as possible..10 have all been previously released. the current development version is 1.38. The purpose of the beta releases is to allow early adopter users to test the new code. • There are no known major bugs. minor. the patch number has increased by one).0 Director with a 1.11.3 Releases Numbering Every Bacula release whether beta or production has a different number as well as the date of the release build. As noted above. However.e. For example.40. or on the rare occasion that there are. Of course. 1.x). within a minor release (some minor releases are not so minor). the next release will be 1.0). When they are released. we attempt to make new releases that are downwards compatible with prior clients. you will have fewer problems if you always run all the components on the same minor version number (i.g 1.38.38.38. versions 1. • Some of the new code/features may not yet be tested.38.

cd bacula/depkgs 4.tar. • Beta code is not generally recommended for everyone. • The documentation in the manual is unlikely to be complete especially for the new features. cd bacula/depkgs make sqlite will configure and build only the SQLite package. For example. 13. the depkgs-qt package is required for building bat. Typically.3 • The Win32 client will have been run in production at least one night at that small site.4 Dependency Packages As discussed above.tar.gz. because bat is currently built with Qt version 4. some of these packages are quite large.g. However. and yy is the year. so that building them can be a bit time consuming. The above instructions will build all the packages contained in the directory. Jan). The locations of where we obtained the packages are in the README file in each package. Alternatively. since Bacula will need them during the build process. you can make just the packages that are needed. You can build the depkgs-qt with the following: cd bacula tar xfvz depkgs-qt-28Jul09. but rather for early adopters.gz where dd is the day we release it. You should build the packages that you will require in depkgs a prior to configuring and building Bacula. and the Release Notes may not be fully organized. be aware that the packages in the depkgs files have been tested by us for compatibility with Bacula. Detar the depkgs into the bacula directory. MMM is the abbreviated month (e. a dependency package will be named depkgs-ddMMMyy. the current makeup is the following: 3rd Party Package SQLite3 mtx qt4 depkgs X X depkgs-qt X Note.tar. Create a bacula directory. Note. However. it will take only those pieces that it actually needs.76 Bacula Version 5. you do the following: 1. An actual example is: depkgs18Dec. It can be built with other Qt versions. get the latest packages from the original authors or from your operating system supplier. of course. but that almost always creates problems or introduces instabilities. into which you will place both the Bacula source as well as the dependency package. make Although the exact composition of the dependency packages may change from time to time. 2. You can.4. 3. when building Bacula.gz . we have combined a number of third party packages that Bacula might need into the depkgs release. To install and build this package (if needed).0.3.

The depkgs1 package is depreciated and previously contained readline. In addition. On Debian systems.39. min/max block sizes. The depkgs-win32 package is deprecated and no longer used in Bacula version 1. so that the MySQL header files are available while compiling Bacula.g. 13. Bacula will attempt to build with any Qt4 package installed on your system rather than the one you just built. See src/win32/README. please make sure that qmake-qt4 is not on your path. It was previously used to build the native Win32 client program. 13. you will need to load the zlib1g-dev package. This ensures that the bat build will use your Qt 4.. If you logoff and log back in. if you already have a running MySQL or PostgreSQL on your system. And you have already installed the additional rpms noted above. these libraries are in the libz-devel package. If you are not using rpms or debs. most distros provide mtx as part of their release. 2. you might find it worthwhile to build mtx because the tapeinfo program that comes with it can often provide you with valuable information about your SCSI tape drive (e.x and later.so.a or libz. Note. . compression. you must re-source the depkgs-qt/qt4-patch file before attempting to rebuild the bat part of Bacula. Even if you do not use SQLite. For more information on the depkgs-qt package. please read the INSTALL file in the main directory of that package.3. . Installing and Configuring MySQL Phase I or Installing and Configuring PostgreSQL Phase I. you will need to find the appropriate package for your system.3 cd depkgs-qt make qt4 source qt4-path 77 Doing the source qt4-path defines the following environment variables: QTDIR QTLIB QTINC Each one should point to a specific location in the depkgs-qt package that you loaded. If you are going to build Qt4 using depkgs-qt. Install and build any depkgs as noted above. All the tools and third party libraries are automatically downloaded by executing the appropriate scripts.mingw32 for more details. Please read the INSTALL file for more details. If you are installing from rpms. This should be unnecessary on most modern Operating Systems. you must source the qt4-paths file included in the package prior to building Bacula.6 Building Bacula from Source The basic installation is rather simple.). If you are using rpm packages.4 library rather than any that might be on your system. the MySQL client library mysqlclient requires the gzip compression library libz. It also puts the depkgs-qt/qt4/bin directory on your path before all other directories. If you don’t do this. please be sure to install mysql-devel.0. and are using MySQL. but this program is now built on Linux systems using cross-compiling.Bacula Version 5. Configure and install MySQL or PostgreSQL (if desired). you can skip this phase provided that you have built the thread safe libraries. which should be available on all operating systems.5 Supported Operating Systems Please see the Supported Operating Systems section of the QuickStart chapter of this manual. Before running your Bacula build. 1. Note.. If it is please rename it.

make If you get errors while linking in the Storage daemon directory (src/stored). 9. 6.0. 13./configure caches much of the information. cd to the directory containing the source code. Any path names you specify as options on the . If the make distclean fails. 8. 16./bacula start) Note. make sure that you have not added . Interface with Bacula using the Console program 15. especially the Install binaries and Install config directories. please follow the instructions in the Running Bacula chapter of this manual. 3. If you skip this step (make) and proceed immediately to the make install you are making two serious errors: 1. This is because it frequently fails with bus errors./configure command. you are depriving yourself of the chance to make sure there are no errors before beginning to write files to your system directories. . then come back and modify your configuration files to suit your particular needs. just ignore it and continue on. then run the example program in the next chapter. To correct it. and the Names as the passwords and names must agree between the configuration files for security reasons. and that everything has properly compiled and linked without errors. Do this before you make heavy modifications to the configuration files so that you are sure that Bacula works and are familiar with it. If after installing Bacula. File. However SQLite3 may work. you decide to change options and re-run it. 14. Customize the configuration files for each of the three daemons (Directory.out. that is to install it in a different set of directories. We recommend that you start by modifying the default configuration files supplied. but before re-running it. Please take care when modifying passwords. that is perfectly fine. 10. making the minimum changes necessary. This is because . please rerun . Start Bacula (. 2./configure (with appropriate options as described below). If you are new to Bacula. For the details of how to do this. please see Setting Up Bacula Configuration Files in the Configuration chapter of this manual. you decide to ”move it”. If they are not correct. If after running . I noticed this problem on a Solaris system. Check the output of . For the previous two items. 7. 11. we strongly recommend that you skip the next step and use the default configuration files./configure is stored in config. your install will fail because Bacula requires a make before a make install. Detar the Bacula source code preferably into the bacula directory discussed above.3 SQLite is not supported on Solaris. make install Please be sure you have done a make before entering this command./configure until they are. Storage) and for the Console program./configure once. 4. The make distclean is also critical if you move the source directory from one machine to another. Create the Bacula MySQL database and tables (if using MySQL) Installing and Configuring MySQL Phase II or create the Bacula PostgreSQL database and tables Configuring PostgreSQL II or alternatively if you are using SQLite Installing and Configuring SQLite Phase II. Complete customization can be done after you have Bacula up and running. where you will run a simple backup and do a restore.78 Bacula Version 5. which were randomly generated.-enable-static-tools to the ./configure command line must be absolute paths and not relative. 12. the next chapter shows you how to do this in detail. proceed as follows: . you should run: make distclean so that you are sure to start from scratch and not have a mixture of the two options.out and can be re-displayed at any time without rerunning the ./configure by doing cat config. After that changing the conf files will be easier./configure very carefully. The output from . 5. it is probably because you have not loaded the static libraries on your system.

and they are identical. the termcap library is not in the standard library directory. For example. To avoid this./ld: cannot find -ltermcap collect2: ld returned 1 exit status while building the Bacula Console.. FreeBSD. you MUST do: make distclean prior to doing your new ./configure \ --sbindir=$HOME/bacula/bin \ --sysconfdir=$HOME/bacula/bin \ --with-pid-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \ --with-subsys-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \ --with-mysql \ --with-working-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \ --with-dump-email=$USER The advantage of using the above configuration to start is that everything will be put into a single directory. and you have previously done a .3. This script contains the statements that you would normally use. Currently. and Solaris are supported.3 is if readline support is not enabled (default) when building the client. For the developer’s convenience. and if you re-use a configuration for a Linux machine on a Solaris. if there are differences in the libraries or OS versions. In that case. editing capability for the Console program and tab completion on various option.0. or you wish to install on a different OS. the option may be disabled or you may get an error message such as: /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i586-suse-linux/3./configure will correctly determine which operating system you are running and configure the source code appropriately. If you do transfer the source tree. on Fedora. you will need to set the LDFLAGS environment variable prior to building. The Bacula client (File daemon) is reported to work with MacOS X 10. In general. . the . On most systems.Bacula Version 5. I have added a defaultconfig script to the examples directory. Red Hat.3 make uninstall make distclean . the above can be installed and run as non-root. and each developer/user may modify them to suit his needs. either start from the tar file.. In addition. Linux (Red Hat)./configure (your-new-options) make make install 79 If all goes well. You should find additional useful examples in this directory as well. However. you can be sure your build will fail. it will use those rather than the termcap library. The --enable-conio or --enable-readline options are useful because they provide a command line history. or do a ”make distclean”. you can simply transfer the source tree to that other system and do a ”make install”. which you can later delete once you have run the examples in the next chapter and learned how Bacula works. If you have included either option in the build. This is because the GNU autoconf tools cache the configuration.1/. If you install Bacula on more than one system. On some systems. you will probably want to supply a more complicated configure statement to ensure that the modules you want are built and that everything is placed into the correct directories. as mentioned above. As a consequence. such as SuSE./configure./configure command. you should include the ncurses package. either the termcap or the ncurses package will be needed to link. including Red Hat and SuSE. If Bacula’s configure process finds the ncurses libraries. or SuSE one could use the following: CFLAGS="-g -Wall" \ . you should start from the original compress tar file.

if the package is installed in a non-standard location (as far as Bacula is concerned). In other cases.-help” that will permit you to specify the directory that should be searched. .3 The same library requirements apply if you wish to use the readline subroutines for command line editing. you should ensure that the appropriate package is installed on your system.7 What Database to Use? Before building Bacula you need to decide if you want to use SQLite. due to the fact that each version of readline seems to be incompatible with previous versions. For that reason. You will need to install PostgreSQL prior to continuing with the configuration of Bacula. If this happens to you. we will be happy to apply them. please see Installing and Configuring SQLite chapter of this manual. If the . If you wish to use MySQL as the Bacula catalog. It requires a certain knowledge to install and maintain. PostgreSQL is very similar to MySQL. is truly professional and can manage a database of any size.-disable-nls). and the such.g. MySQL. but it is unlikely that the conio package will gobble up prompts. MySQL is a high quality database that is very efficient and is suitable for any sized installation. you can either export the appropriate additional library options as shown above or.0. there are options that will permit you to disable to feature (e. This will greatly simplify the setup for you because SQLite is compiled into Bacula an requires no administration. we should note that a number of users have had unexplained database corruption with SQLite. Alternatively. history and tab completion or if you are using a MySQL library that requires encryption. we can no longer afford to support it.33 and above try using --enableconio to use a built-in readline replacement. However. we recommend that you install either MySQL or PostgreSQL for production work. However. SQLite is not supported on Solaris.80 export LDFLAGS="-L/usr/lib/termcap" Bacula Version 5. 13. 13./configure process is unable to find specific libraries (e. If you are not already running MySQL or PostgreSQL. you can include them directly on the . It runs as a separate process. If you wish to use PostgreSQL as the Bacula catalog. If you need encryption./configure <your-options> On some systems such as Mandriva. you might want to start by testing with SQLite (not supported on Solaris). alternatively. stored procedures. and if users submit patches for it. It is slightly more complicated than SQLite to setup and administer because it has a number of sophisticated features such as userids and passwords. please see the Installing and Configuring MySQL chapter of this manual. ./configure line as in: LDFLAGS="-lssl -lcyrpto" \ . readline tends to gobble up prompts. please see the Installing and Configuring PostgreSQL chapter of this manual.34. The code within Bacula remains. which makes it totally useless. use the disable option. or PostgreSQL. and that there are significant differences between systems. You will need to install MySQL prior to continuing with the configuration of Bacula. libintl.g. readline is no longer supported after version 1. or if you are using version 1. If you wish to use SQLite as the Bacula catalog. then there is generally an option listed below (or listed with ”. You will still need either the termcap or the ncurses library.8 Quick Start There are a number of options and important considerations given below that you can skip for the moment if you have not had any problems building Bacula with a simplified configuration as shown above. though it tends to be slightly more SQL92 compliant and has many more advanced features such as transactions. It performs well and is suitable for small to medium sized installations (maximum 10-20 machines)./configure . so it should be usable.

However. Note. For the install to succeed you must have gzip installed on your system.14.0. We strongly recommend keeping this option enabled as it helps detect memory leaks./configure does by default. If you have any problems or when you want to do a real installation. and so we have not implemented this option other than what . simply re-enable the option. See the INSTALL file in that package for more details. It now specifies the top level man directory.Bacula Version 5. -sysconfdir=<config-path> Defines where the Bacula configuration files should be placed during a make install command.e. -sbindir=<binary-path> Defines where the Bacula binary (executable) files will be placed during a make install command. and Debian. By default. SQLite2 is not thread safe. In this case. -prefix=<patch> This option is meant to allow you to direct where the architecture independent files should be placed. which is much faster (10 times or more) than without this option for large numbers of files. We have provided options that allow you to explicitly specify the directories for each of the major categories of installation files. This option is highly recommended. This configuration parameter is used while building Bacula -enable-bat If you have Qt4 ¿= 4. -mandir=<path> Note. As a consequence. If it is not available on your system. Doing so will build everything in the src/qt-console directory. we suggest that you avoid it. 13. In particular to use the Qt4 built by depkgs-qt you must source the file qt4-paths. Fedora. If you find that batch mode is not enabled on your Bacula installation. The build with enable-bat will work only with a full Bacula build (i. use this option to specify the path. we find this a somewhat vague concept.4 installed on your computer including the libqt4 and libqt4-devel (libqt4-dev on Debian) libraries. -datadir=<path> If you translate Bacula or parts of Bacula into a different language you may specify the location of the po files using the -datadir option. Batch insert cannot be enabled when using SQLite2 . You must manually install any po files as Bacula does not (yet) automatically do so. However.2. Bacula will install the Unix man pages in /usr/share/man/man1 and /usr/share/man/man8. -disable-ipv6 -enable-smartalloc This enables the inclusion of the Smartalloc orphaned buffer detection code. Qt4 is available on OpenSUSE 10. If you wish the man page to be installed in a different location. as of Bacula version 1. come back to this chapter and read the details presented below. this option will automatically be disabled if your SQL libraries are not thread safe. CentOS 5. and you want to use the Bacula Administration Tool (bat) GUI Console interface to Bacula.3 81 If you want to dive right into it. we recommend you skip to the next chapter. Previously the mandir specified the full path to where you wanted the man files installed. you can download the depkgs-qt package from the Bacula Source Forge download area and build it. Because we never build without this option. then your database most likely does not support threads. and run the example program. the main HTML and PDF Bacula documents are in a separate tar file that is not part of the source distribution.9 Configure Options The following command line options are available for configure to customize your installation. you must specify this option. It will teach you a lot about Bacula and as an example can be installed into a single directory (for easy removal) and run as non-root.3. it will not work with a client-only build). the meaning of any path specified on this option is change from prior versions. you may experience problems if it is not enabled. -enable-batch-insert This option enables batch inserts of the attribute records (default) in the catalog database. The man files will be installed in gzip’ed format under mandir/man1 and mandir/man8 as appropriate.39.

If you have problems linking in the src/stored directory.2): $ nm /usr/local/lib/libpq. -enable-tray-monitor If you have GTK installed on your computer. these commands were issued on FreeBSD 6. the location is set in my. so frequently users will experience linking errors when this option is used. When linking a static binary. Running with Batch Insert turned on is recommended because it can significantly improve attribute insertion times. bextract. When linking a static binary.a | grep PQputCopyData 00001b08 T PQputCopyData $ nm /usr/local/lib/libpq. The second thing to do is the make sure you do not specify -openssl or -with-python on your . but you will need to load additional static libraries. then thread support has not been enabled. you must specify this option. and unfortunately. Bacula Version 5. and consequently. the --enable-client-only option described below is useful for just building a client so that all the other parts of the program are not compiled. Doing so will build everything in the src/wx-console directory. -enable-static-sd This option causes the make process to build a static-bacula-sd in addition to the standard Storage daemon.3 To verify that your PostgreSQL is thread safe. Our tests indicate you usually need to change the configuration options and recompile/reinstall the PostgreSQL client software to get thread support. You may also want to increase the memory available to your SQL engine to further improve performance during Batch Inserts. -enable-bwx-console If you have wxWidgets installed on your computer and you want to use the wxWidgets GUI Console interface to Bacula.10 or later. If you do not see the mutex entries. Motif or even X11 libraries. Doing so will build everything in the src/tray-monitor directory. or explicitly disable static linking by adding --disable-static-tools. the linker needs the static versions of all the libraries that are used. Also. This could also be useful to users who want a GUI Console and don’t want to install QT. you can try this (change the path to point to your particular installed libpq./configure statement as these options require additional libraries.e. This option is largely superseded by using make static-bacula-fd from with in the src/filed directory. you must specify this option.a. make sure you have not enabled this option. This permits using them without having the shared libraries loaded. it does put a significantly larger part of the work on your SQL engine. In particular. The first thing to do is to make .0. Batch Insert can require large temporary table space. -enable-static-fd This option causes the make process to build a static-bacula-fd in addition to the standard File daemon. you run a graphical environment or a window manager compatible with the FreeDesktop system tray standard (like KDE and GNOME) and you want to use a GUI to monitor Bacula daemons. -enable-static-tools This option causes the linker to link the Storage daemon utility tools (bls. PostgreSQL and SQLite3 are thread safe. MySQL.a | grep mutex U pthread_mutex_lock U pthread_mutex_unlock U pthread_mutex_init U pthread_mutex_lock U pthread_mutex_unlock The above example shows a libpq that contains the required function PQputCopyData and is thread enabled (i. the linker needs the static versions of all the libraries that are used. For MySQL. so frequently users will experience linking errors when this option is used. we were forced to remove the egg code that dealt with the tray icons and replace it by calls to the GTK+ API. If you do not see PQputCopyData. However.conf with ”tmpdir”. so you may need to pay more attention to tuning it. and bscan) statically. due to restrictions on what can be linked with GPLed code. This static version will include statically linked libraries and could be useful during a Bare Metal recovery. as wxWidgets can work with GTK+. Bacula always links to the thread safe MySQL libraries. the pthread mutex* entries). your version of PostgreSQL is too old to allow batch insert. This static version will include statically linked libraries and is required for the Bare Metal recovery. The first thing to do is to make sure you have the static glibc library installed on your system. the tray icon API necessary was not implemented until GTK version 2.82 On most systems. You may be able to enable those options. Note. the default location (often /tmp) may run out of space causing errors.

but you will need to load additional static libraries. -enable-static-cons This option causes the make process to build a static-console in addition to the standard console. To cause all daemons to be built. the files for IPv6 may exist. these libraries may not be present or may not function correctly (especially on non-Linux implementations). so frequently users will experience linking errors when this option is used. SQLite3 is not supported on Solaris. None of the other daemons. Bacula uses the GNU Native Language Support (NLS) libraries. but the functionality could be turned off in the kernel. the linker needs the static versions of all the libraries that are used.x database. The second thing to do is the make sure you do not specify -openssl or -with-python on your . -enable-build-dird This option causes the make process to build the Director and the Director’s tools. You may be able to enable those options. -enable-largefile This option (default) causes Bacula to be built with 64 bit file address support if it is available on your system. The first thing to do is to make sure you have the static glibc library installed on your system. but you will need to load additional static libraries. You may be able to enable those options. On some machines. this option is on. You may be able to enable those options. When linking a static binary. This static version will include statically linked libraries and could be useful during a Bare Metal recovery. The sqlite3-path is not normally specified as Bacula looks for the necessary components in a standard location (depkgs/sqlite3). so frequently users will experience linking errors when this option is used./configure statement as these options require additional libraries. this option is on. you may specify -disable-nls to disable use of those libraries. In that case. -with-sqlite3=<sqlite3-path> This enables use of the SQLite version 3. Bacula will revert to using English. -disable-nls By default. When linking a static binary. This static version will include statically linked libraries and could be useful during a Bare Metal recovery. but you will need to load additional static libraries. By default. so frequently users will experience linking errors when this option is used.3 83 sure you have the static glibc library installed on your system. you will explicitly need to use this option so that Bacula does not attempt to reference OS function calls that do not exist. See Installing and Configuring SQLite chapter of this manual for more details. but you may turn it off by using -disable-build-stored to prevent the Storage daemon from being built. On some systems. The second thing to do is the make sure you do not specify -openssl or -with-python on your .Bacula Version 5./configure statement as these options require additional libraries. -enable-build-stored This option causes the make process to build the Storage daemon.0. You may disable this feature and revert to 32 bit file addresses by using --disable-largefile. The second thing to do is the make sure you do not specify -openssl or -with-python on your . in order to correctly build Bacula. In such a case. . storage tools./configure statement as these options require additional libraries. you will need to do a configuration without this option. -enable-static-dir This option causes the make process to build a static-bacula-dir in addition to the standard Director. but you may turn it off by using -disable-build-dird to prevent the Director from being built. the linker needs the static versions of all the libraries that are used. but you will need to load additional static libraries. the linker needs the static versions of all the libraries that are used. Likewise a make install will then only install the File daemon. -disable-ipv6 By default. This permits Bacula to read and write files greater than 2 GBytes in size. When linking a static binary. -enable-client-only This option causes the make process to build only the File daemon and the libraries that it needs. You may be able to enable those options. nor the console will be built. The first thing to do is to make sure you have the static glibc library installed on your system. The second thing to do is the make sure you do not specify -openssl or -with-python on your . By default. Bacula enables IPv6 protocol. This option greatly facilitates building a Client on a client only machine./configure statement as these options require additional libraries. In such cases. The first thing to do is to make sure you have the static glibc library installed on your system.

when setting up your /etc/hosts.deny files. you must specify one of the four database options supported. configure will search the standard library locations for Python 2. it needs either the termcap or ncurses library. See the note below under the -with-postgresql item. -with-tcp-wrappers=<path> This specifies that you want TCP wrappers (man hosts access(5)) compiled in. or 2.3 -with-mysql=<mysql-path> This enables building of the Catalog services for Bacula. -with-readline=<readline-path> Tells Bacula where readline is installed. please see the Bacula TLS – Communications Encryption chapter of this manual. and expects it to be installed in the mysql-path that you specify. please see the On SuSE. if MySQL is installed in a standard system location. Enabling OpenSSL in Bacula permits secure communications between the daemons and/or data encryption in the File daemon. do not use the twist option (hosts options(5)) or the Bacula process will be terminated. -with-libintl-prefix=<DIR> This option may be used to tell Bacula to search DIR/include and DIR/lib for the libintl headers and libraries needed for Native Language Support (NLS). readline will be disabled. However. or you need to disable SSL by setting without-openssl. -with-python=<path> This option enables Bacula support for Python. It is generally much easier to configure than readline. -with-postgresql=<path> This provides an explicit path to the PostgreSQL libraries if Bacula cannot find it by default. otherwise the . If it cannot find the library. For more information on configuring and testing TCP wrappers. like readline. you can simply use -with-mysql with no path specification.3.allow or /etc/hosts.conf and bacula-sd. For example. For more information on using TLS. Normally to build with PostgreSQL. you will need to supply a path to your Python library directory.0. It assumes that MySQL is running on your system. -with-openssl=<path> This configuration option is necessary if you want to enable TLS (ssl).conf configuration files. It is normally disabled due to the large number of configuration problems and the fact that the package seems to change in incompatible ways from version to version. you must ensure that all the libraries are loaded including libssl-dev or the equivalent on your system. Most users can safely ignore this option. -enable-conio Tells Bacula to enable building the small. for Bacula to be configured properly. Normally. Please see the Python chapter for the details of using Python scripting. For more information on using PKI data encryption. -with-mysql. the libwrappers libraries needed to link Bacula are contained in the tcpd-devel package./configure will fail. In specifying your restrictions in the /etc/hosts. If it is not found and no -with-readline is specified.2. That is: -with-sqlite. This option is designed primarily for use in regression testing. you would simply use -with-postgresql.5. Bacula will find readline if it is in a standard library. the path specification is not necessary since the configuration searches for the OpenSSL libraries in standard system locations.84 Bacula Version 5. Configuring and Testing TCP Wrappers section in the Security Chapter. Normally. Normally. Note. so you are on your own if you have problems. or -with-postgresql.deny. please see the Bacula PKI – Data Encryption chapter of this manual. it sets the Where directive for the default restore job and the Archive Device directive for the FileStorage device. which encrypts the communications within Bacula or if you want to use File Daemon PKI data encryption. If no path is supplied. This option affects the Bacula build. Default value is /tmp.4. -with-archivedir=<path> The directory used for disk-based backups. On Red Hat. . please proceed to installing MySQL in the Installing and Configuring MySQL chapter before proceeding with the configuration. -enable-readline Tells Bacula to enable readline support. you need to load the development libraries. although. If you get errors linking. If you do use this option. 2. the package is named tcp wrappers. This option affects the Bacula build.allow or /etc/hosts. -with-sqlite3. 2. This parameter sets the default values in the bacula-dir. Readline provides the Console program with a command line history and editing capability and is no longer supported. The path is optional since Bacula will normally find the libraries in the standard locations. Note. light weight readline replacement routine. you must identify the Bacula daemon in question with the name you give it in your conf file rather than the name of the executable.

and after doing preliminary initializations. This option is normally only used by developers. -with-sd-group=<Group> This option allows you to specify the GroupId used to run the Storage daemon. You may also change the port number in the resulting configuration files. -with-sd-user=<User> This option allows you to specify the Userid used to run the Storage daemon. if the internal database is used. The default is: /var/run. configure will automatically create a random password. You may also accomplish the same thing by directly editing them later. If you use this option. but doesn’t need to run as root. so you must ensure that it exists before using Bacula the first time. For example. The Director must be started as root. and after doing preliminary initializations. you will need to take care that the Storage daemon has access to all the devices (tape drives. but doesn’t need to run as root. If you specify this option. it can ”drop” to the GroupId specified on this option. and after doing preliminary initializations. The Director must be started as root. The --with-baseport option will automatically assign three ports beginning at the base port address specified. -with-pid-dir=<PATH> This specifies where Bacula should place the process id file during execution. one for the Storage daemon. The working directory is not automatically created by the install process.Bacula Version 5. This option is only used to modify the daemon configuration files.) that it needs. Please make sure that you do not specify the same directory for this directory and for the sbindir directory. because the working directory group will be set to Group.3 85 -with-working-dir=<working-directory-path> This option is mandatory and specifies a directory into which Bacula may safely place files that will remain between Bacula executions. because the working directory owner will be set to User.. Bacula will keep those files in this directory. -with-dir-group=<Group> This option allows you to specify the GroupId used to run the Director. If it is not specified. The Storage daemon must be started as root. This option is only used to modify the daemon configuration files. If you specify this option. you must create the User prior to running make install. If it is not specified. 9102. so you must be sure to create it before using Bacula. configure will automatically create a random password. -with-subsys-dir=<PATH> This specifies where Bacula should place the subsystem lock file during execution. it can ”drop” to the UserId specified on this option. but doesn’t need to run as root. which assigns ports 9101 through 9103. it can ”drop” to the GroupId specified on this option.. Bacula needs three TCP/IP ports (one for the Bacula Console. -with-dir-password=<Password> This option allows you to specify the password used to access the Director (normally from the Console program). . However. You may also accomplish the same thing by directly editing them later. -with-dir-user=<User> This option allows you to specify the Userid used to run the Director. The default base port is 9101. If it is not specified. -with-base-port=<port=number> In order to run. The subsys directory is not created by the Bacula install. The Storage daemon must be started as root. . These ports (9101.0. -with-sd-password=<Password> This option allows you to specify the password used to access the Storage daemon (normally called from the Director). This directory is used only within the autostart scripts. so you must ensure that it exists before using Bacula for the first time. -with-dump-email=<email-address> This option specifies the email address where any core dumps should be set. -with-fd-password=<Password> This option allows you to specify the password used to access the File daemon (normally called from the Director). you must create the Group prior to running make install. and after doing preliminary initializations. and one for the File daemon). it can ”drop” to the UserId specified on this option. The default is /var/run/subsys. and 9103) have been officially assigned to Bacula by IANA. configure will automatically create a random password. but doesn’t need to run as root. This directory is not created by the install process. you need to take care that the numbers correspond correctly in each of the three daemon configuration files.

/configure \ --sbindir=$HOME/bacula/bin \ --sysconfdir=$HOME/bacula/bin \ --enable-smartalloc \ . Note.0. The default is bacula. configure will automatically create a random password. we recommend starting with the following options: . -with-mon-fd-password=<Password> This option allows you to specify the password used to access the File daemon from the Monitor. If it is not specified. configure will automatically create a random password. 13. If it is not specified./configure \ --enable-smartalloc \ --sbindir=$HOME/bacula/bin \ --sysconfdir=$HOME/bacula/bin \ --with-pid-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \ --with-subsys-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \ --with-mysql=$HOME/mysql \ --with-working-dir=$HOME/bacula/working If you want to install Bacula in an installation directory rather than run it out of the build directory (as developers will do most of the time)./configure --help. so this option is used only in very special cases. The File daemon must be started as root. it must be run as root. after doing preliminary initializations. -with-fd-group=<Group> This option allows you to specify the GroupId used to run the File daemon. Neither are necessary if you do not use ”make install” as is the case for most development work. and in most cases. and in most cases. -with-mon-dir-password=<Password> This option allows you to specify the password used to access the Directory from the monitor. it needs to run as root. subsys-dir. -with-db-user=<database-user> This option allows you to specify the database user name to be used in the conf files. The default is bacula. after doing preliminary initializations.3 -with-fd-user=<User> This option allows you to specify the Userid used to run the File daemon. or working-dir. it can ”drop” to the UserId specified on this option. however. configure will automatically create a random password. so you must ensure that they exist before running Bacula for the first time.11 Red Hat Using SQLite: CFLAGS="-g -Wall" .86 Bacula Version 5. but they are not implemented.10 Recommended Options for Most Systems For most systems. -with-mon-sd-password=<Password> This option allows you to specify the password used to access the Storage daemon from the Monitor. but it will not automatically create the pid-dir. If it is not specified. The install process will create the sbindir and sysconfdir if they do not exist. The File daemon must be started as root. -with-db-name=<database-name> This option allows you to specify the database name to be used in the conf files. it can ”drop” to the GroupId specified on this option. many other options are presented when you do a . you should also include the --sbindir and --sysconfdir options with appropriate paths. 13.

but we recommend using GNU C++ if possible.3. gcc 3. Bacula assumes that /var/bacula. subsys-dir.Bacula Version 5. a completely traditional Red Hat Linux install: CFLAGS="-g -Wall" . stdc++. but it will not automatically create the pid-dir. so you must ensure that they exist before running Bacula for the first time. 13. A typical configuration command might look like: #!/bin/sh CFLAGS="-g" . or working-dir. you may need to install the following packages to build Bacula from source: ./configure \ --sbindir=$HOME/bacula/bin \ --sysconfdir=$HOME/bacula/bin \ --enable-smartalloc \ --with-mysql=$HOME/mysql \ --with-working-dir=$HOME/bacula/working --with-pid-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \ --with-subsys-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working --enable-conio or finally. you will need the following installed on your system (they are not by default): libiconv. Note./configure \ --sbindir=/usr/sbin \ --sysconfdir=/etc/bacula \ --with-scriptdir=/etc/bacula \ --enable-smartalloc \ --enable-bat \ --with-mysql \ --with-working-dir=/var/bacula \ --with-pid-dir=/var/run \ --enable-conio Note. You will probably also need to: Add /usr/local/bin to PATH and Add /usr/ccs/bin to PATH for ar.12 Solaris To build Bacula from source. the install process will create the sbindir and sysconfdir if they do not exist.0.3 --with-sqlite=$HOME/bacula/depkgs/sqlite \ --with-working-dir=$HOME/bacula/working \ --with-pid-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \ --with-subsys-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \ --enable-bat \ --enable-conio 87 or CFLAGS="-g -Wall" . libgcc (for stdc++ and gcc s libraries). /var/run. make 3.2. It is possible to build Bacula on Solaris with the Solaris compiler.8 or later./configure \ --sbindir=$HOME/bacula/bin \ --sysconfdir=$HOME/bacula/bin \ --with-mysql=$HOME/mysql \ --enable-smartalloc \ --with-pid-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \ --with-subsys-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \ --with-working-dir=$HOME/bacula/working As mentioned above. and /var/lock/subsys exist so it will not automatically create them during the install process.

However. you can set the LD LIBARY PATH and/or the LD RUN PATH environment variables appropriately. SUNWhea. 13. If you are using Bacula with MySQL.15 One File Configure Script The following script could be used if you want to put everything in a single file: #!/bin/sh CFLAGS="-g -Wall" \ .0.14 Win32 To install the binary Win32 version of the File daemon please see the Win32 Installation Chapter in this document. users of FreeBSD prior to 4. such as OpenSSL. you should take care to compile MySQL with FreeBSD native threads rather than LinuxThreads. Probably the simplest way to do so is to run: setenv LDFLAGS "-L/usr/sfw/lib -R/usr/sfw/lib" Prior to running the .3 export PATH=/usr/bin::/usr/ccs/bin:/etc:/usr/openwin/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sfw/bin:/opt/sfw/bin:/usr/ucb:/usr/sbin If you have installed special software not normally in the Solaris libraries./configure \ --sbindir=$HOME/bacula/bin \ . please see the Tape Testing Chapter of this manual for important information on how to configure your tape drive for compatibility with Bacula. then you may need to add /usr/sfw/lib to the library search path. since Bacula is normally built with FreeBSD native threads rather than LinuxTreads.88 SUNWbinutils.9-STABLE dated Mon Dec 29 15:18:01 2003 UTC who plan to use tape devices. SUNWarc. Mixing the two will probably not work. In addition. 13. 13. SUNWGcc./configure command. SUNWGnutls SUNWGnutls-devel SUNWGmake SUNWgccruntime SUNWlibgcrypt SUNWzlib SUNWzlibs SUNWbinutilsS SUNWGmakeS SUNWlibm Bacula Version 5. or the packages shown above. Alternatively. It is also possible to use the crle program to set the library search path.13 FreeBSD Please see: The FreeBSD Diary for a detailed description on how to make Bacula work on your system. this should be used with caution.

3 --sysconfdir=$HOME/bacula/bin \ --mandir=$HOME/bacula/bin \ --enable-smartalloc \ --enable-bat \ --enable-bwx-console \ --enable-tray-monitor \ --with-pid-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \ --with-subsys-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \ --with-mysql \ --with-working-dir=$HOME/bacula/bin/working \ --with-dump-email=$USER@your-site.com exit 0 89 You may also want to put the following entries in your /etc/services file as it will make viewing the connections made by Bacula easier to recognize (i. If the architecture or the OS level are different. you simply enter make and just the client will be built. Simply enter: make install If you have previously installed Bacula. With the above option.com \ --with-job-email=$USER@your-site. 13. you can use the same . you will need to build a File daemon on the Client machine./configure. you can simply copy the Bacula File daemon binary file bacula-fd as well as its configuration file bacula-fd. 13. and the ”new” configuration files will be appended with a ./configure process must recognize your system – that is it must be a supported platform and not unknown. or using make distclean before the ./configure command as you did for your main program. To do so. Generally if you have previously installed and run Bacula you will want to discard or ignore the configuration files with the appended . you must have a copy of the File daemon for that machine. Be sure to make corresponding additions to the Director’s configuration file (bacula-dir.Bacula Version 5.conf then modify the name and password in the conf file to be unique. This will compile only the necessary libraries and the client programs and thus avoids the necessity of installing one or another of those database programs to build the File daemon.e.com \ --with-smtp-host=mail.new. then add --enable-client-only. If the machine and the Operating System are identical.16 Installing Bacula Before setting up your configuration files. one more step is necessary. Since the File daemon does not access the Catalog database. you will want to install Bacula in its final location. First.0. you can remove the --with-mysql or --withsqlite options.17 Building a File Daemon or Client If you run the Director and the Storage daemon on one machine and you wish to back up another machine. the old binaries will be overwritten.conf).18 Auto Starting the Daemons If you wish the daemons to be automatically started and stopped when your system is booted (a good idea). but the old configuration files will remain unchanged. the .new. then you must install the platform dependent files by doing: . netstat -a): bacula-dir bacula-fd bacula-sd 9101/tcp 9102/tcp 9103/tcp 13. starting either from a fresh copy of the source tree.your-site.

90
(become root) make install-autostart

Bacula Version 5.0.3

Please note, that the auto-start feature is implemented only on systems that we officially support (currently, FreeBSD, Red Hat/Fedora Linux, and Solaris), and has only been fully tested on Fedora Linux. The make install-autostart will cause the appropriate startup scripts to be installed with the necessary symbolic links. On Red Hat/Fedora Linux systems, these scripts reside in /etc/rc.d/init.d/bacula-dir /etc/rc.d/init.d/bacula-fd, and /etc/rc.d/init.d/bacula-sd. However the exact location depends on what operating system you are using. If you only wish to install the File daemon, you may do so with:
make install-autostart-fd

13.19

Other Make Notes

To simply build a new executable in any directory, enter:
make

To clean out all the objects and binaries (including the files named 1, 2, or 3, which are development temporary files), enter:
make clean

To really clean out everything for distribution, enter:
make distclean

note, this cleans out the Makefiles and is normally done from the top level directory to prepare for distribution of the source. To recover from this state, you must redo the ./configure in the top level directory, since all the Makefiles will be deleted. To add a new file in a subdirectory, edit the Makefile.in in that directory, then simply do a make. In most cases, the make will rebuild the Makefile from the new Makefile.in. In some case, you may need to issue the make a second time. In extreme cases, cd to the top level directory and enter: make Makefiles. To add dependencies:
make depend

The make depend appends the header file dependencies for each of the object files to Makefile and Makefile.in. This command should be done in each directory where you change the dependencies. Normally, it only needs to be run when you add or delete source or header files. make depend is normally automatically invoked during the configuration process. To install:
make install

This not normally done if you are developing Bacula, but is used if you are going to run it to backup your system.

Bacula Version 5.0.3

91

After doing a make install the following files will be installed on your system (more or less). The exact files and location (directory) for each file depends on your ./configure command (e.g. if you are using SQLite instead of MySQL, some of the files will be different). NOTE: it is quite probable that this list is out of date. But it is a starting point.

bacula bacula-dir bacula-dir.conf bacula-fd bacula-fd.conf bacula-sd bacula-sd.conf bacula-tray-monitor tray-monitor.conf bextract bls bscan btape btraceback btraceback.gdb bconsole bconsole.conf create_mysql_database dbcheck delete_catalog_backup drop_bacula_tables drop_mysql_tables make_bacula_tables make_catalog_backup make_mysql_tables mtx-changer query.sql bsmtp startmysql stopmysql bwx-console bwx-console.conf 9 man pages

13.20

Installing Tray Monitor

The Tray Monitor is already installed if you used the --enable-tray-monitor configure option and ran make install. As you don’t run your graphical environment as root (if you do, you should change that bad habit), don’t forget to allow your user to read tray-monitor.conf, and to execute bacula-tray-monitor (this is not a security issue). Then log into your graphical environment (KDE, GNOME or something else), run bacula-tray-monitor as your user, and see if a cassette icon appears somewhere on the screen, usually on the task bar. If it doesn’t, follow the instructions below related to your environment or window manager.

13.20.1

GNOME

System tray, or notification area if you use the GNOME terminology, has been supported in GNOME since version 2.2. To activate it, right-click on one of your panels, open the menu Add to this Panel, then Utility and finally click on Notification Area.

92

Bacula Version 5.0.3

13.20.2

KDE

System tray has been supported in KDE since version 3.1. To activate it, right-click on one of your panels, open the menu Add, then Applet and finally click on System Tray.

13.20.3

Other window managers

Read the documentation to know if the Freedesktop system tray standard is supported by your window manager, and if applicable, how to activate it.

13.21

Modifying the Bacula Configuration Files

See the chapter Configuring Bacula in this manual for instructions on how to set Bacula configuration files.

Chapter 14

Critical Items to Implement Before Production
We recommend you take your time before implementing a production a Bacula backup system since Bacula is a rather complex program, and if you make a mistake, you may suddenly find that you cannot restore your files in case of a disaster. This is especially true if you have not previously used a major backup product. If you follow the instructions in this chapter, you will have covered most of the major problems that can occur. It goes without saying that if you ever find that we have left out an important point, please inform us, so that we can document it to the benefit of everyone.

14.1

Critical Items

The following assumes that you have installed Bacula, you more or less understand it, you have at least worked through the tutorial or have equivalent experience, and that you have set up a basic production configuration. If you haven’t done the above, please do so and then come back here. The following is a sort of checklist that points with perhaps a brief explanation of why you should do it. In most cases, you will find the details elsewhere in the manual. The order is more or less the order you would use in setting up a production system (if you already are in production, use the checklist anyway). • Test your tape drive for compatibility with Bacula by using the test command in the btape program. • Better than doing the above is to walk through the nine steps in the Tape Testing chapter of the manual. It may take you a bit of time, but it will eliminate surprises. • Test the end of tape handling of your tape drive by using the fill command in the btape program. • If you are using a Linux 2.4 kernel, make sure that /lib/tls is disabled. Bacula does not work with this library. See the second point under Supported Operating Systems. • Do at least one restore of files. If you backup multiple OS types (Linux, Solaris, HP, MacOS, FreeBSD, Win32, ...), restore files from each system type. The Restoring Files chapter shows you how. • Write a bootstrap file to a separate system for each backup job. The Write Bootstrap directive is described in the Director Configuration chapter of the manual, and more details are available in the Bootstrap File chapter. Also, the default bacula-dir.conf comes with a Write Bootstrap directive defined. This allows you to recover the state of your system as of the last backup. • Backup your catalog. An example of this is found in the default bacula-dir.conf file. The backup script is installed by default and should handle any database, though you may want to make your own local modifications. See also Backing Up Your Bacula Database - Security Considerations for more information. 93

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Bacula Version 5.0.3 • Write a bootstrap file for the catalog. An example of this is found in the default bacula-dir.conf file. This will allow you to quickly restore your catalog in the event it is wiped out – otherwise it is many excruciating hours of work. • Make a copy of the bacula-dir.conf, bacula-sd.conf, and bacula-fd.conf files that you are using on your server. Put it in a safe place (on another machine) as these files can be difficult to reconstruct if your server dies. • Make a Bacula Rescue CDROM! See the Disaster Recovery Using a Bacula Rescue CDROM chapter. It is trivial to make such a CDROM, and it can make system recovery in the event of a lost hard disk infinitely easier. • Bacula assumes all filenames are in UTF-8 format. This is important when saving the filenames to the catalog. For Win32 machine, Bacula will automatically convert from Unicode to UTF-8, but on Unix, Linux, *BSD, and MacOS X machines, you must explicitly ensure that your locale is set properly. Typically this means that the bf LANG environment variable must end in .UTF-8. An full example is en US.UTF-8. The exact syntax may vary a bit from OS to OS, and exactly how you define it will also vary. On most modern Win32 machines, you can edit the conf files with notepad and choose output encoding UTF-8.

14.2

Recommended Items

Although these items may not be critical, they are recommended and will help you avoid problems. • Read the Quick Start Guide to Bacula • After installing and experimenting with Bacula, read and work carefully through the examples in the Tutorial chapter of this manual. • Learn what each of the Bacula Utility Programs does. • Set up reasonable retention periods so that your catalog does not grow to be too big. See the following three chapters: Recycling your Volumes, Basic Volume Management, Using Pools to Manage Volumes. • Perform a bare metal recovery using the Bacula Disaster Recovery Using a Bacula Rescue CDROM chapter. Rescue CDROM. See the

If you absolutely must implement a system where you write a different tape each night and take it offsite in the morning. We recommend that you do several things: • Write a bootstrap file of your backed up data and a bootstrap file of your catalog backup to a floppy disk or a CDROM, and take that with the tape. If this is not possible, try to write those files to another computer or offsite computer, or send them as email to a friend. If none of that is possible, at least print the bootstrap files and take that offsite with the tape. Having the bootstrap files will make recovery much easier. • It is better not to force Bacula to load a particular tape each day. Instead, let Bacula choose the tape. If you need to know what tape to mount, you can print a list of recycled and appendable tapes daily, and select any tape from that list. Bacula may propose a particular tape for use that it considers optimal, but it will accept any valid tape from the correct pool.

Chapter 15

A Brief Tutorial
This chapter will guide you through running Bacula. To do so, we assume you have installed Bacula, possibly in a single file as shown in the previous chapter, in which case, you can run Bacula as non-root for these tests. However, we assume that you have not changed the .conf files. If you have modified the .conf files, please go back and uninstall Bacula, then reinstall it, but do not make any changes. The examples in this chapter use the default configuration files, and will write the volumes to disk in your /tmp directory, in addition, the data backed up will be the source directory where you built Bacula. As a consequence, you can run all the Bacula daemons for these tests as non-root. Please note, in production, your File daemon(s) must run as root. See the Security chapter for more information on this subject. The general flow of running Bacula is: 1. cd <install-directory> 2. Start the Database (if using MySQL or PostgreSQL) 3. Start the Daemons with ./bacula start 4. Start the Console program to interact with the Director 5. Run a job 6. When the Volume fills, unmount the Volume, if it is a tape, label a new one, and continue running. In this chapter, we will write only to disk files so you won’t need to worry about tapes for the moment. 7. Test recovering some files from the Volume just written to ensure the backup is good and that you know how to recover. Better test before disaster strikes 8. Add a second client. Each of these steps is described in more detail below.

15.1

Before Running Bacula

Before running Bacula for the first time in production, we recommend that you run the test command in the btape program as described in the Utility Program Chapter of this manual. This will help ensure that Bacula functions correctly with your tape drive. If you have a modern HP, Sony, or Quantum DDS or DLT tape drive running on Linux or Solaris, you can probably skip this test as Bacula is well tested with these drives and systems. For all other cases, you are strongly encouraged to run the test before continuing. btape also has a fill command that attempts to duplicate what Bacula does when filling a tape and writing on the next tape. You should consider trying this command as well, but be forewarned, it can take hours (about four hours on my drive) to fill a large capacity tape. 95

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Bacula Version 5.0.3

15.2

Starting the Database

If you are using MySQL or PostgreSQL as the Bacula database, you should start it before you attempt to run a job to avoid getting error messages from Bacula when it starts. The scripts startmysql and stopmysql are what I (Kern) use to start and stop my local MySQL. Note, if you are using SQLite, you will not want to use startmysql or stopmysql. If you are running this in production, you will probably want to find some way to automatically start MySQL or PostgreSQL after each system reboot. If you are using SQLite (i.e. you specified the --with-sqlite=xxx option on the ./configure command, you need do nothing. SQLite is automatically started by Bacula.

15.3

Starting the Daemons

Assuming you have built from source or have installed the rpms, to start the three daemons, from your installation directory, simply enter: ./bacula start The bacula script starts the Storage daemon, the File daemon, and the Director daemon, which all normally run as daemons in the background. If you are using the autostart feature of Bacula, your daemons will either be automatically started on reboot, or you can control them individually with the files bacula-dir, baculafd, and bacula-sd, which are usually located in /etc/init.d, though the actual location is system dependent. Some distributions may do this differently. Note, on Windows, currently only the File daemon is ported, and it must be started differently. Please see the Windows Version of Bacula Chapter of this manual. The rpm packages configure the daemons to run as user=root and group=bacula. The rpm installation also creates the group bacula if it does not exist on the system. Any users that you add to the group bacula will have access to files created by the daemons. To disable or alter this behavior edit the daemon startup scripts: • /etc/bacula/bacula • /etc/init.d/bacula-dir • /etc/init.d/bacula-sd • /etc/init.d/bacula-fd and then restart as noted above. The installation chapter of this manual explains how you can install scripts that will automatically restart the daemons when the system starts.

15.4

Using the Director to Query and Start Jobs

To communicate with the director and to query the state of Bacula or run jobs, from the top level directory, simply enter: ./bconsole Alternatively to running the command line console, if you have Qt4 installed and used the --enable-bat on the configure command, you may use the Bacula Administration Tool (bat): ./bat

Bacula Version 5.0.3 Which has a graphical interface, and many more features than bconsole.

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Two other possibilities are to run the GNOME console bgnome-console or the wxWidgets program bwxconsole. For simplicity, here we will describe only the ./bconsole program. Most of what is described here applies equally well to ./bat, ./bgnome-console, and to bwx-console. The ./bconsole runs the Bacula Console program, which connects to the Director daemon. Since Bacula is a network program, you can run the Console program anywhere on your network. Most frequently, however, one runs it on the same machine as the Director. Normally, the Console program will print something similar to the following:
[kern@polymatou bin]$ ./bconsole Connecting to Director lpmatou:9101 1000 OK: HeadMan Version: 2.1.8 (14 May 2007) *

the asterisk is the console command prompt. Type help to see a list of available commands:
*help Command Description ======= =========== add add media to a pool autodisplay autodisplay [on|off] -- console messages automount automount [on|off] -- after label cancel cancel [<jobid=nnn> | <job=name>] -- cancel a job create create DB Pool from resource delete delete [pool=<pool-name> | media volume=<volume-name>] disable disable <job=name> -- disable a job enable enable <job=name> -- enable a job estimate performs FileSet estimate, listing gives full listing exit exit = quit gui gui [on|off] -- non-interactive gui mode help print this command list list [pools | jobs | jobtotals | media <pool=pool-name> | files <jobid=nn>]; from catalog label label a tape llist full or long list like list command memory print current memory usage messages messages mount mount <storage-name> prune prune expired records from catalog purge purge records from catalog python python control commands quit quit query query catalog restore restore files relabel relabel a tape release release <storage-name> reload reload conf file run run <job-name> status status [[slots] storage | dir | client]=<name> setdebug sets debug level setip sets new client address -- if authorized show show (resource records) [jobs | pools | ... | all] sqlquery use SQL to query catalog time print current time trace turn on/off trace to file unmount unmount <storage-name> umount umount <storage-name> for old-time Unix guys update update Volume, Pool or slots use use catalog xxx var does variable expansion version print Director version wait wait until no jobs are running [<jobname=name> | <jobid=nnn> | <ujobid=complete_name>] *

The FileSet Catalog is used for backing up Bacula’s catalog and is not of interest to us for the moment. At this point.journal E /. We are going to backup your Bacula source directory to a File Volume in your /tmp directory just to show you how easy it is. you will need to make similar modifications in the other .fsck N FileSet: name=Catalog O M N I /home/kern/bacula/regress/working/bacula.5 Running a Job At this point.conf file to personalize it a bit./bacula start • You have invoked the Console program with . for example.98 Bacula Version 5. For testing purposes./make bacula tables • Have possibly edited your bacula-dir. we assume you have done the following: • Configured Bacula with . You can change what is backed up by editing bacula-dir.0./bconsole Furthermore. . . 15. we assume for the moment you are using the default configuration files. Now is the time to run your first backup job. enter the following command: show filesets and you should get something similar to: FileSet: name=Full Set O M N I /home/kern/bacula/regress/build N E /proc E /tmp E /. For the moment it is probably better to make no changes. The I entries are the files or directories that will be included in the backup and the E are those that will be excluded. BE CAREFUL! if you change the Director’s name or password.3 Details of the console program’s commands are explained in the Console Chapter of this manual. we have chosen a directory of moderate size (about 40 Megabytes) and complexity without being too big. • You have started Bacula with .sql N This is a pre-defined FileSet that will backup the Bacula source directory.conf and changing the File = line in the FileSet resource. and the O entries are the options specified for the FileSet./configure --your-options • Built Bacula using make • Installed Bacula using make install • Have created your database with. Now enter: status dir . The actual directory names printed should correspond to your system configuration./create sqlite database • Have created the Bacula database tables with.conf files.

This shows that an Incremental job is scheduled to run for the Job Client1 at 1:05am and that at 1:10. 0 Jobs run. Device /tmp is not open. you should probably change the name Client1 to be the name of your machine. when you add additional clients.30 (28 April 2003) Daemon started 28-Apr-2003 14:03. it will be very confusing. ==== In this case. 0 Jobs run. 0 Jobs run. let’s actually run a job with: run . ==== You will notice that the default Storage daemon device is named File and that it will use device /tmp. Now enter: status client and you should get something like: The defined Client resources are: 1: rufus-fd Item 1 selected automatically. For my real machine. Console connected at 28-Apr-2003 14:03 No jobs are running. the client is named rufus-fd your name will be different.0. Level Type Scheduled Name ================================================================= Incremental Backup 29-Apr-2003 01:05 Client1 Full Backup 29-Apr-2003 01:10 BackupCatalog ==== 99 where the times and the Director’s name will be different according to your setup. Finally do the same for your Storage daemon with: status storage and you should get: The defined Storage resources are: 1: File Item 1 selected automatically. Note.30 (28 April 2003) Daemon started 28-Apr-2003 14:03.Bacula Version 5. Director connected at: 28-Apr-2003 14:14 No jobs running. which is not currently open. No jobs running. so we are now sure it is up and running. I use Rufus rather than Client1 as in this example.. is printed by your File daemon.. Connecting to Client rufus-fd at rufus:8102 rufus-fd Version: 1.3 and you should get the following output: rufus-dir Version: 1.30 (28 April 2003) Daemon started 28-Apr-2003 14:03. but the line beginning with rufus-fd Version . Connecting to Storage daemon File at rufus:8103 rufus-sd Version: 1. if not. a BackupCatalog is scheduled to run. Now.

33 waiting. the job is BLOCKED waiting for a Volume. at which point you should immediately get the command prompt (an asterisk). we must create a Volume that Bacula can write on. indicates that no previous Full backup was done. Bacula indicates to you all the details of the volume it needs. The second message indicates that the job started with JobId 1.3 Here. and you should choose number 1 and type enter. so Bacula is upgrading our Incremental job to a Full backup (this is normal).22. Enter new Volume name: . If you wait a few seconds. then enter the command messages you will get back something like: 28-Apr-2003 14:22 rufus-dir: Last FULL backup time not found. Please use the "label" command to create a new Volume for: Storage: FileStorage Media type: File Pool: Default The first message.2003-04-28_14. At this point. You can check this if you want by doing a status dir. Doing FULL backup. The defined Job resources are: 1: Client1 2: BackupCatalog 3: RestoreFiles Select Job resource (1-3): Bacula Version 5.22.33 28-Apr-2003 14:22 rufus-sd: Job Client1. and finally.2003-04-28_14. Please enter yes.100 you should get the following output: Using default Catalog name=MyCatalog DB=bacula A job name must be specified. take some time to look carefully at what is printed and understand it. at which point you will get: Run Backup job JobName: Client1 FileSet: Full Set Level: Incremental Client: rufus-fd Storage: File Pool: Default When: 2003-04-28 14:18:57 OK to run? (yes/mod/no): At this point. This is normal because we have not yet created (labeled) any Volumes. We do so with: label and Bacula will print: The defined Storage resources are: 1: File Item 1 selected automatically. Bacula has listed the three different Jobs that you can run.. In order to continue.0. Here we have the choice to run (yes). to modify one or more of the above parameters (mod). It is asking you if it is OK to run a job named Client1 with FileSet Full Set (we listed above) as an Incremental job on your Client (your client name will be different). or to not run the job (no). it wants to run it now (the current time should be displayed by your console). Job=Client1. and to use Storage File and Pool Default. 28-Apr-2003 14:22 rufus-dir: Start Backup JobId 1. Cannot find any appendable volumes. and the third message tells us that Bacula cannot find any Volumes in the Pool for writing the output.

444 Bytes Written: 38. enter messages and you should get something like: 28-Apr-2003 14:30 rufus-sd: Wrote label to prelabeled Volume "TestVolume001" on device /tmp 28-Apr-2003 14:30 rufus-dir: Bacula 1. enter TestVolume001. and underscore) are also permitted. If you do an ls -l of your /tmp directory. For example.072.988. 28-Apr-2003 14:30 rufus-dir: No Files found to prune..33 FileSet: Full Set Backup Level: Full Client: rufus-fd Start time: 28-Apr-2003 14:22 End time: 28-Apr-2003 14:30 Files Written: 1.0.. you should enter some name beginning with a letter and containing only letters and numbers (period. and you should get back: Defined Pools: 1: Default Item 1 selected automatically. Device=/tmp Finally. 3001 OK mount. You might ask yourself if you have to label all the Volumes that Bacula is going to use.2 KB/s Software Compression: None Volume names(s): TestVolume001 Volume Session Id: 1 Volume Session Time: 1051531381 Last Volume Bytes: 39./drop_bacula_tables .. Volume=TestVolume001 Device=/tmp Catalog record for Volume "TestVolume002"./make_bacula_tables .. The answer for disk Volumes. Slot 0 successfully created. you can simply enter quit in the Console program. For tape Volumes. simply delete the file /tmp/TestVolume001.Bacula Version 5. you will see that you have the following item: -rw-r----1 kern kern 39072153 Apr 28 14:30 TestVolume001 This is the file Volume that you just wrote and it contains all the data of the job just run. 28-Apr-2003 14:30 rufus-dir: End auto prune. If you would like to stop here.3 101 at which point.359 FD termination status: OK SD termination status: OK Termination: Backup OK 28-Apr-2003 14:30 rufus-dir: Begin pruning Jobs.22. autodisplay on and your messages will automatically be displayed as soon as they are ready. Sending label command for Volume "TestVolume001" Slot 0 . It is possible to have Bacula automatically label volumes. and you should also re-initialize your database using: .877 Rate: 81. they will be appended to this Volume unless you specify otherwise. you will most likely have to label each of the Volumes you want to use.. To clean up. 28-Apr-2003 14:30 rufus-dir: No Jobs found to prune. or you can enter.30 (28Apr03): 28-Apr-2003 14:30 JobId: 1 Job: Client1. like the one we used. is no. 3000 OK label. you can keep entering messages until the job terminates. Requesting mount FileStorage ./bacula stop.2003-04-28_14. 28-Apr-2003 14:30 rufus-dir: Begin pruning Files. If you don’t see the output immediately. Connecting to Storage daemon File at rufus:8103 . If you run additional jobs. hyphen.. and you can stop Bacula with .

Bacula knows what client you have. Then you will be allowed to select which files from those JobIds are to be restored. 1 Job inserted into the tree and marked for extraction. there are a number of options.0. please enter 5 to do a restore of the last backup you did.. The defined FileSet resources are: 1: 1 Full Set 2003-04-28 14:22:33 Item 1 selected automatically. and you will get the following output: Defined Clients: 1: rufus-fd Item 1 selected automatically. likewise for the FileSet. You are now entering file selection mode where you add and remove files to be restored. To select the JobIds.. You will be presented several methods of specifying the JobIds. +-------+-------+----------+---------------------+---------------+ | JobId | Level | JobFiles | StartTime | VolumeName | +-------+-------+----------+---------------------+---------------+ | 1 | F | 1444 | 2003-04-28 14:22:33 | TestVolume002 | +-------+-------+----------+---------------------+---------------+ You have selected the following JobId: 1 Building directory tree for JobId 1 . but for the current demonstration.102 Bacula Version 5. and since there was only one. 15. Then Bacula produced a listing containing all the jobs that form . and that you might want to do it now while testing but that normally you will not want to re-initialize your database.3 Please note that this will erase all information about the previous jobs that have run. If you would like to try restoring the files that you just backed up. you can restore the backed up files in the Console program by entering: restore all where you will get: First you select one or more JobIds that contain files to be restored. read the following section. Enter "done" to leave this mode.6 Restoring Your Files If you have run the default configuration and the save of the Bacula source code as demonstrated above. As you can see by starting at the top of the listing. All files are initially added. cwd is: / $ where I have truncated the listing on the right side to make it more readable. it selected it automatically. you have the following choices: 1: List last 20 Jobs run 2: List Jobs where a given File is saved 3: Enter list of comma separated JobIds to select 4: Enter SQL list command 5: Select the most recent backup for a client 6: Select backup for a client before a specified time 7: Enter a list of files to restore 8: Enter a list of files to restore before a specified time 9: Find the JobIds of the most recent backup for a client 10: Find the JobIds for a backup for a client before a specified time 11: Enter a list of directories to restore for found JobIds 12: Cancel Select item: (1-12): As you can see. The defined Storage resources are: 1: File Item 1 selected automatically.

For example. At this point.06 Restore Client: rufus-fd Start time: 08-May-2007 14:56 End time: 08-May-2007 14:56 Files Restored: 1. After exiting the Console program.bsr Where: /tmp/bacula-restores Replace: always FileSet: Full Set Backup Client: rufus-fd Restore Client: rufus-fd Storage: File JobId: *None* When: 2005-04-28 14:53:54 OK to run? (yes/mod/no): If you answer yes your files will be restored to /tmp/bacula-restores. If you want to restore the files to their original locations. For more information on this. which will contain a small directory tree with all the files.1 KB/s FD Errors: 0 FD termination status: OK SD termination status: OK Termination: Restore OK 08-May-2007 14:56 rufus-dir: Begin pruning Jobs.2 JobId: 2 Job: RestoreFiles. you must use the mod option and explicitly set Where: to nothing (or to /). there is only one.1. simply enter: done and you will get the following output: Bootstrap records written to /home/kern/bacula/testbin/working/restore. in this case. you can examine the files in /tmp/bacula-restores. Run Restore job JobName: RestoreFiles Bootstrap: /home/kern/bacula/testbin/working/restore. 08-May-2007 14:56 rufus-dir: Begin pruning Files. and the Storage daemon was also automatically chosen. Bacula then took all the files that were in Job number 1 and entered them into a directory tree (a sort of in memory representation of your filesystem).816.3 103 the current backup. at which point you should get a listing of all the files that were restored as well as a summary of the job that looks similar to this: 28-Apr-2005 14:56 rufus-dir: Bacula 2.56. To exit this mode.bsr The restore job will require the following Volumes: TestVolume001 1444 files selected to restore. enter messages.30 and then enter dir I will get a listing of all the files in the Bacula source directory. On your system.2007-05-08_14. if I enter cd /home/kern/bacula/bacula-1.8 (08May07): 08-May-2007 14:56:06 Build OS: i686-pc-linux-gnu suse 10. 08-May-2007 14:56 rufus-dir: End auto prune. 08-May-2007 14:56 rufus-dir: No Files found to prune.381 Rate: 9704. Be sure to clean up at the end with: rm -rf /tmp/bacula-restore . please refer to the Restore Command Chapter of this manual for more details. 08-May-2007 14:56 rufus-dir: No Jobs found to prune.0. you can use the cd and ls ro dir commands to walk up and down the directory tree and view what files will be restored. the path will be somewhat different.Bacula Version 5. We recommend you go ahead and answer yes and after a brief moment.444 Bytes Restored: 38.

rufus-fd in the example above.7 Quitting the Console Program Simply enter the command quit. You can start with the same bacula-fd. That is you have a second machine that you would like backed up. The names you use are your choice.0.3 15.. Later. The best is to change it to the name of your second machine. you should add the following lines (essentially copies of the existing data but with the names changed) to your Director’s configuration file bacula-dir.. Starting from our original example which should be installed on your system.conf... 15.. Change the File daemon name from whatever was configured. Now you should install that change on your second machine.104 Bacula Version 5.bsr" .conf file that you are currently using and make one minor modification to it to create the conf file for your second client. you will want to change the password. For the moment.exe for Windows) and its configuration file bacula-fd...conf. # # "Global" File daemon configuration specifications # FileDaemon { # this is me Name = rufus-fd FDport = 9102 # where we listen for the director WorkingDirectory = /home/kern/bacula/working Pid Directory = /var/run } . this job will back up to disk in /tmp Job { Name = "Matou" Type = Backup Client = matou-fd FileSet = "Full Set" Schedule = "WeeklyCycle" Storage = File Messages = Standard Pool = Default Write Bootstrap = "/home/kern/bacula/working/matou. For example: .. The only part you need installed on the other machine is the binary bacula-fd (or bacula-fd. # # Define the main nightly save backup job # By default. where I show just a portion of the file and have changed rufus-fd to matou-fd. but your system will have a different name.8 Adding a Second Client If you have gotten the example shown above to work on your system. you may be ready to add a second Client (File daemon). would become: . # # "Global" File daemon configuration specifications # FileDaemon { # this is me Name = matou-fd FDport = 9102 # where we listen for the director WorkingDirectory = /home/kern/bacula/working Pid Directory = /var/run } . Then you need to make some additions to your Director’s configuration file to define the new File daemon or Client. I recommend you change nothing else.

0. To make this a real production installation. If like me. If you pass something like ”localhost” it will not resolve correctly and will result in a time out when the File daemon fails to connect to the Storage daemon. there will come a time when the tape fills up and Bacula cannot continue.3 } # Client (File Services) to backup Client { Name = matou-fd Address = matou FDPort = 9102 Catalog = MyCatalog Password = "xxxxx" File Retention = 30d Job Retention = 180d AutoPrune = yes } 105 # # # # password for 30 days six months Prune expired Jobs/Files Then make sure that the Address parameter in the Storage resource is set to the fully qualified domain name and not to something like ”localhost”. You may want to change that later. At this point. please see Authorization Errors in the FAQ chapter of this manual. 15. or you have not set up your Retention periods. The address specified is sent to the File daemon (client) and it must be a fully qualified domain name. If you find that your Volumes were not properly recycled (usually because of a configuration error). the Client is named matou-fd. In this case. Bacula will not find a tape in the pool. but everything else is the same. For more information on recycling. you have a very large set of Volumes and you label them with the date the Volume was first writing. let’s keep it simple. It is up to you to customize. you will have properly set your Retention Periods and you will have all your tapes marked to be Recycled. everything will be ready. if you stop Bacula and restart it. or a different schedule. please see the Recycling chapter of this manual. Cannot find any appendable volumes. I also kept the password the same (shown as xxxxx for the example).9 When The Tape Fills If you have scheduled your job. typically nightly. and a diagram of what names and passwords must match. and start the Client on the other machine. but in real life.c:337 === Write error errno=28: ERR=No space left on device This indicates that Bacula got a write error because the tape is full. The second change was to add a new Client resource that defines matou-fd and has the correct address matou. In any case. I copied the existing resource to create a second Job (Matou) to backup the second client (matou-fd). Bacula will send you a message similar to the following: rufus-sd: block. you may need a fully qualified domain name or an IP address. and the bootstrap file name is changed. you will possibly want to use different Pool.10:50:48 waiting. For some important tips on changing names and passwords. and Bacula will automatically recycle the tapes in your pool requesting and overwriting old Volumes. It has the name Matou. Please use the "label" command to create a new Volume for: . That is all that is necessary. This means that Matou will be backed up on the same schedule using the same set of tapes. and the prompts that you saw above will now include the second machine. and it will send you a message similar to the following: rufus-sd: Job kernsave. Bacula will then search the Pool specified for your Job looking for an appendable volume. but for now. you should change the password in both the Director’s file and the Client’s file for additional security. In the best of all cases.Bacula Version 5. please see the Manually Recycling Volumes section of the Recycling chapter.2002-09-19.

you should attempt to do just that. Bacula may ask you to mount a specific volume. this message will be repeated an hour later. • Use the unmount command in the Console to unmount the old tape. • Insert the old Volume in the tape drive. you use the label command in the Console to write a label to the new Volume. and so on doubling the interval each time up to a maximum interval of one day. • Physically relabel the old Volume that you deleted so that it can be reused. it will add the new Volume to the Pool. See the previous sections of this chapter for more details on labeling tapes. you will be prompted for the Pool then enter the VolumeName (or MediaId) when requested. the Volume should have VolStatus Purged. providing it is appendable.106 Storage: Media type: Pool: SDT-10000 DDS-4 Default Bacula Version 5. then two hours later. you can relabel and reuse a Volume as follows: • Do a list volumes in the Console and select the oldest Volume for relabeling.”. so that Bacula starts using your newly labeled tape. The result is that Bacula will continue the previous Job writing the backup to the new Volume. and Bacula will use it. it will be automatically selected. then issue a mount command to the Storage daemon. The obvious question at this point is: What do I do now? The answer is simple: first. Finally. If you have a Pool of volumes and Bacula is cycling through them. • If you have setup your Retention periods correctly. you remove the tape from the drive and insert a new blank tape. • From a command line do: mt -f /dev/st0 rewind and mt -f /dev/st0 weof. If you have multiple Pools. if it is successful. but you have no more free Volumes. • Use the mount command in the Console if it is not automatically done. If you only have a single drive. Note. The label command will contact the Storage daemon to write the software label. where you need to use the proper tape drive name for your system in place of /dev/st0. otherwise. instead of the above message ”Cannot find any appendable volumes. Do so by using the command purge jobs volume in the Console. Next. • Then simply use the relabel command to relabel the Volume. • If the VolStatus is not set to Purged. you have your Volume retention periods set correctly. In that case. on some older tape drives. you may need to write an end of file mark (mt -f /dev/nst0 weof) to prevent the drive from running away when Bacula attempts to read the label. To manually relabel the Volume use the following additional steps: • To delete the Volume from the catalog use the delete volume command in the Console and select the VolumeName (or MediaId) to be deleted.3 Until you create a new Volume. close the tape drive using the unmount command. • Use the label command in the Console to write a new Bacula label on your tape. You can use the list volumes command in the console program to determine which volumes are appendable and which are not. you will need to purge the database of Jobs that are written on that Volume. using the Console program. .0. If like me. make sure you release the one specified on the message (in this case STD-10000). If you do not have the volume any more (for any of a number of reasons). you can simply mount another volume from the same Pool.

On many systems. list jobtotals Lists totals for all jobs in the Catalog. messages Prints any messages that have been directed to the console. mount storage=storage-name Causes the drive associated with the storage device to be mounted again. 15. it is the signal needed by Bacula to know to start reading or writing the new volume. start the daemons from the install directory as follows: . status jobid=nn Print a status of JobId nn if it is running. list jobid=nn Lists JobId nn from the Catalog. The Storage daemon is contacted and requested to print a current status of the job as well. list jobs Lists all jobs in the Catalog that have run. However. enter the following from the install directory: . In effect. list files jobid=nn List the files that were saved for JobId nn. then will request the daemon’s status. . each File daemon must be running as root so that it will have permission to access all the files. Either run the Storage daemon as root./bacula start -d100 This can be particularly helpful if your daemons do not start correctly. quit Exit or quit the console program.10 Other Useful Console Commands status dir Print a status of all running jobs and jobs scheduled in the next 24 hours. because direct daemon output to the console is normally directed to the NULL device. status The console program will prompt you to select a daemon type. To stop the three daemons. list jobmedia List the media information for each Job run. or change the permissions on the tape devices to permit non-root access. list pools List the pools defined in the Catalog (normally only Default is used). When Bacula reaches the end of a volume and requests you to mount a new volume. especially if one of the daemons has died. list media Lists all the media defined in the Catalog. which is very rare. unmount storage=storage-name Unmounts the drive associated with the storage device with the name storage-name if the drive is not currently being used. with the exception of list. but with the debug level greater than zero.11 Debug Daemon Output If you want debug output from the daemons as they are running. root privilege is not necessary. only root can access the tape drives. This command is used if you wish Bacula to free the drive so that you can use it to label a tape. MySQL and PostgreSQL can be installed and run with any userid.3 107 15. the output will be sent to the starting terminal. you must issue this command after you have placed the new volume in the drive./bacula stop The execution of bacula stop may complain about pids not found. will prompt you for the necessary arguments if you simply enter the command name. Most of the commands given above. None of the other daemons require root privileges. To do a full system save. This is OK. the Storage daemon must be able to open the tape drives.0.Bacula Version 5.

each of the daemons as well as the Console program accepts the following options: -c <file> Define the file to use as a configuration file. The same considerations apply if you have just mounted a blank tape in a drive such as an HP DLT.e. and should not be used by other programs. The default is the daemon name followed by .13 Difficulties Connecting from the FD to the SD If you are having difficulties getting one or more of your File daemons to connect to the Storage daemon. 15. then make sure that no other program is using the port 9103 on the Storage daemon’s machine. That is the resolver on the File daemon’s machine (not on the Director’s) must be able to resolve the name you supply into an IP address. the Storage daemon will not accept connections from the Console program. you may need to have a bit of patience when first contacting the Storage daemon after starting the daemons.conf i. Higher levels of debug cause more information to be displayed on STDOUT concerning what the daemon is doing. the drive will be ready to be used. Recommended. This must be a group name.14 Daemon Command Line Options Each of the three daemons (Director. it will be rewound. and on some devices this can take several minutes. An example of an address that is guaranteed not to work: localhost. This must be a user name. -g ¡group¿ Run the daemon under this group. An example that is more likely to work: magalon. -f Run the daemon in the foreground. then immediately exit. not a GID. File. you might try using an IP address in place of a name. An example that may work: megalon. and bacula-sd for the Storage daemon. The Bacula port numbers are authorized by IANA. If you can see your tape drive. not a UID. If your address is correct. It can take a minute or two before the drive properly recognizes that the tape is blank. the Storage daemon attempts to open all defined storage devices and verify the currently mounted Volume (if configured).12 Patience When Starting Daemons or Mounting Blank Tapes When you start the Bacula daemons.108 Bacula Version 5. As a consequence.mydomain. -u ¡user¿ Run the daemon as this user. -? Print the version and list of options. Storage) accepts a small set of options on the command line. On Win32 if you don’t have a good resolver (often true on older Win98 systems).conf for the File daemon. This option is needed to run the daemon under the debugger. Let the device settle down before attempting to access it. bacula-fd.0. once the lights stop flashing.com. it is quite possible that you will hang your SCSI driver (at least on my Red Hat Linux system). If a tape was previously used. bacula-dir. As a consequence. A netstat -a on the Storage daemon’s machine can determine who is using the 9103 port (used for FD to SD communications in Bacula). If you attempt to mount the tape with the Console program during this recognition period.3 15. This option is needed to run the daemon under the debugger. it is most likely because you have not used a fully qualified domain name on the Address directive in the Director’s Storage resource. you are again urged to have patience when inserting blank tapes. -t Read the configuration file and print any error messages.conf for the Director. Useful for syntax testing of new configuration files. 15. -s Do not trap signals. . Until all the storage devices are verified. -v Be more verbose or more complete in printing error and informational messages. In general. -d nn Set the debug level to nn. but apparently some HP printers do use these port numbers.

Bacula will send a message requesting the operator to create an appropriate Volume. The one I use is to label them as they are needed by Bacula using the console program.15 Creating a Pool Creating the Pool is automatically done when Bacula starts. for example: DLT-18April02. Bacula keeps track of the Pool name. In my case. There are several strategies for labeling volumes. If you run a Bacula job. I can use the Console relabel command to relabel a Volume that is no longer used providing it has VolStatus Purged. you can skip to the next section. and a number of attributes of each of those Volumes. it will send me an email message requesting that I add Volumes to the Pool. For more details on recycling. Alternatively. and then Bacula will use the next volume and so on. See below for the details of using the label command. Bacula will print: Error: Pool Default already exists. When a volume has filled up with data. That is when Bacula needs a new Volume. you specify which Pool of Volumes you want Bacula to consult when it wants a tape for writing backups. Bacula will inform you. for example using an autochanger. which should print something like the following: *list pools Using default Catalog name=MySQL DB=bacula +--------+---------+---------+---------+----------+-------------+ | PoolId | Name | NumVols | MaxVols | PoolType | LabelFormat | +--------+---------+---------+---------+----------+-------------+ | 1 | Default | 3 | 0 | Backup | * | | 2 | File | 12 | 12 | Backup | File | +--------+---------+---------+---------+----------+-------------+ * If you attempt to create the same Pool name a second time. the volumes contained in the Pool.3 109 15. and you can create them ”on-the-fly” so to speak. 15. the Director will attempt to recycle an old Volume. and you have no labeled tapes in the Pool. When Bacula starts. When you run a job. after which Bacula will begin writing on the new Volume. Once created. Bacula will select the first available Volume from the Pool that is appropriate for the Storage device you have specified for the Job being run.Bacula Version 5. please see the Automatic Volume Recycling chapter of this manual.16 Labeling Your Volumes Bacula requires that each Volume contains a software label. . then use them as Bacula requests them. I then use the label command in the Console program to label a new Volume and to define it in the Pool database. This is most often done if you are cycling through a set of tapes. if there are still no appendable Volumes available. I label my tapes with the date. so if you understand Pools.0. If no appendable Volume exists in the Pool. you may use the {\bf update} command to modify many of the values in the Pool record. it ensures that all Pool resource definitions have been recorded in the catalog. Bacula will change its VolStatus from Append to Full. and it does not find one in the catalog. one of the things that Bacula must know is what Volumes to use to backup the FileSet. Instead of specifying a Volume (tape) directly. Another strategy is to label a set of volumes at the start. You can verify this by entering: list pools to the console program.

536.162.3 15.185 | 2002-05 | 31.486.536. In addition.507.000 | 0 | | DLT-01Dec2001 | DLT8000 | Full | 55.592. a Volume record will also be created in the Pool.536. the LastWritten column has been truncated for proper printing.866 | 2001-12 | 31.691. That is the Volume name and all its other attributes will appear when you list the Pool.320.172.536. simply unmount the tape using the unmount command in the console.110 Bacula Version 5. . Since the physical storage media is different for each device.772.824 | 2002-03 | 31.536. If there is only one Pool (Default).000 | 0 | | DLT-15Apr2002 | DLT8000 | Full | 57.000 | 0 | | DLT-26May02 | DLT8000 | Append | 1.000 | 0 | | DLT-20Jan2002 | DLT8000 | Full | 57.003.000 | 0 | | DLT-04May2002 | DLT8000 | Full | 60.000 | 0 | | DLT-27Mar2002 | DLT8000 | Full | 57.336.309 | 2002-04 | 31.215.536. If the tape is successfully labeled. the label command will provide you with a list of the defined Storage resources such as the following: The defined Storage resources are: 1: File 2: 8mmDrive 3: DLTDrive 4: SDT-10000 Select Storage resource (1-4): At this point.128.000 | 1 | +---------------+---------+--------+----------------+-----/~/-+------------+-----+ Once Bacula has verified that the volume does not already exist.677. that Volume will be available for backup if the MediaType matches what is requested by the Storage daemon.699.536. You can list all the defined Media (Volumes) with the list media command.308 | 2002-02 | 31.684. it will be automatically selected.000 | 0 | | DLT-16Feb2002 | DLT8000 | Full | 55.536.007.536.724 | 2002-05 | 31. Enter new Volume name: If Bacula complains: Media record for Volume xxxx already exists.000 | 0 | | DLT-28Dec2001 | DLT8000 | Full | 57.042.0.666. It will then ask you for the Volume name.000 | 0 | | DLT-12Mar2002 | DLT8000 | Full | 50. 1.217 | 2001-10 | 31.030.000 | 0 | | DLT-07Oct2001 | DLT8000 | Full | 56.888. then physically mount a blank tape and re-issue the label command./bconsole 2.536. you should have a blank tape in the drive corresponding to the Storage resource that you select.536.216 | 2001-12 | 31.190. it will prompt you for the name of the Pool in which the Volume (tape) is to be created.042 | 2002-01 | 31. +---------------+---------+--------+----------------+-----/~/-+------------+-----+ | VolumeName | MediaTyp| VolStat| VolBytes | LastWri | VolReten | Recy| +---------------+---------+--------+----------------+---------+------------+-----+ | DLTVol0002 | DLT8000 | Purged | 56.586 | 2001-11 | 31.000 | 0 | | DLT-08Nov2001 | DLT8000 | Full | 55.864.17 Labeling Volumes with the Console Program Labeling volumes is normally done by using the console program.620 | 2002-05 | 31. Note. . label If Bacula complains that you cannot label the tape because it is already labeled.630.536. It means that the volume name xxxx that you entered already exists in the Media database.453 | 1970-01 | 31.952.

It is also possible to add media to the pool without physically labeling the Volumes. . However.0. the Pool holds most of the default attributes used when creating a Volume). a Volume record in the catalog database (internally known as a Media record) contains quite a few attributes.Bacula Version 5. For more information.e. Most of these attributes will be filled in from the default values that were defined in the Pool (i. and perhaps the Slot. please see the Console Chapter of this manual. This can be done with the add command. you answered very few questions about it – principally the Volume name.3 111 When you labeled the tape.

112 Bacula Version 5.0.3 .

a number of global Director parameters and his password.conf. In the File daemon configuration file. These resources are very similar from one service to another. the File daemon. the Storage daemon.Chapter 16 Customizing the Configuration Files When each of the Bacula programs starts. Before running Bacula for the first time. or console.conf. but you will need to modify them to correspond to your system. and the Console program respectively. bacula-fd. the Director resource defines the name of the Director. Default configuration files will have been created by the installation process. you must customize the configuration files for each daemon. in the Director’s resource file.conf.conf for the Director daemon. An overall view of the resources can be seen in the following: 113 . Client. but may contain different directives (records) depending on the service. the Director resource specifies which Directors are permitted to use the File daemon. Each service (Director. it reads a configuration file specified on the command line or the default bacula-dir. bacula-sd. Console) has its own configuration file containing a set of Resource definitions. For example. Storage.

. Bacula assumes that all filenames are in UTF-8 format on Linux and Unix machines. then choose output encoding UTF-8. Chinese. French.0. To ensure that Bacula configuration files can be correctly read including foreign characters the bf LANG environment variable must end in . . and will be automatically converted to UTF-8 format.UTF-8. and exactly how you define it will also vary.114 Bacula Version 5. On Win32 they are in Unicode (UTF-16). but not on all Unix machines. UTF-8 is typically the default on Linux machines. .1 Character Sets Bacula is designed to handle most character sets of the world. On most newer Win32 machines. so you must take some care to ensure that your locale is set properly before starting Bacula. and it expects all configuration files (including those read on Win32 machines) to be in UTF-8 format. you can use notepad to edit the conf files. nor on Windows. The exact syntax may vary a bit from OS to OS..3 16.UTF-8. However. US ASCII. it does this by encoding everything in UTF-8. German. An full example is en US.

so generally in the examples in this manual.) is a logical end of line.2. All other characters and punctuation are invalid. If a statement appears on a line by itself. and a few special characters (space. you must enclose the name in double quotes for the spaces to be accepted. spaces are not significant. In general. any character following a backslash (\) is taken as itself (handy for inserting backslashes and double quotes (”)). and may optionally contain a Description directive. . if you want spaces in a name to the right of the first equal sign (=). The Name directive is used to uniquely identify the resource. Currently.e. For example: Director { Name = "MyDir" Description = "Main Bacula Director" WorkingDirectory = "$HOME/bacula/bin/working" } Defines the Director resource with the name ”MyDir” and a working directory $HOME/bacula/bin/working. 16. a semicolon is not necessary to terminate it.). you can use the following: .2. Spaces after the equal sign and before the first character of the value are ignored.3 115 16.3 Including other Configuration Files If you wish to break your configuration file into smaller pieces.. Please note. 16.0. and it may be composed of upper or lower case characters and spaces. before the equal sign).g. Within a quoted string. The @filename specification can be given anywhere a primitive token would appear. however. blank lines are ignored and everything after a hash sign (#) until the end of the line is taken to be a comment. that Bacula resource names as well as certain other names (e.2 Upper and Lower Case and Spaces Case (upper/lower) and spaces are totally ignored in the resource directive keywords (the part before the equal sign). If you wish include all files in a specific directory. numbers. Thus the keywords: name. you can do so by including other files using the syntax @filename where filename is the full path and filename of another file. quoted strings and unquoted strings are all equal.Bacula Version 5. The keywords must be one of the known Bacula resource record keywords. and anything after the semicolon is considered as the next statement. Within the keyword (i. The Description directive is (will be) used during display of the Resource to provide easier human recognition. In general. you will not see many semicolons. Names may contain up to 127 characters. Each resource definition MUST contain a Name directive. 16. you won’t need to know the details of all the directives a basic knowledge of Bacula resource directives is essential. a name may contain any ASCII character. A semicolon (. and N a m e are all identical. Each directive contained within the resource (within the braces) is composed of a keyword followed by an equal sign (=) followed by one or more values. spaces within a value are significant (not ignored). underscore.2 Resource Directive Format Although.2.. Volume names) must contain only letters (including ISO accented letters). Name. you must enclose that name within double quotes. and if the value is a name. Otherwise quotes are not generally necessary because once defined.1 Comments When reading the configuration file.

so to include a double quote in a string.000 (kilobytes) m 1. and dollar characters. do echo @${f} .576 (megabytes) mb 1.024 (kilobytes) kb 1. name-string A name-string is similar to a name. The modifier is mandatory and follows the number part. If a modifier is present. you precede the double quote with a backslash.741. either with or without intervening spaces. Typically.073. Bacula classifies the data according to the types listed below.e. except that the name may be quoted and can thus contain additional characters including spaces.conf of clients. they are values to be associated with a keyword). Name strings are limited to 127 characters in length. The floating point input is stored as a 64 bit integer value. they are Bacula keywords – i.000 (gigabytes) time A time or duration specified in seconds. directory A directory is either a quoted or non-quoted string.e. Thus constructs such as $HOME are interpreted to be their correct values.048. A string may be of any length.2. Typically these are values such as bytes that can exceed 4 billion and thus require a 64 bit value. The time is stored internally as a 64 bit integer value. it will be rounded to the nearest integer. it may appear a bit overwhelming.000. underscore. a client file. Bacula Version 5. A backslash (\) turns the next character into itself. this is a floating point scientific input format followed by an optional modifier. Resource names or directive names). directories. but in reality. The following modifiers are permitted: k 1.000. The first character of a name must be a letter. it must immediately follow the value with no intervening spaces. The following modifiers are permitted: seconds seconds . or system command names.0. Keywords may not be quoted. A name has a maximum length currently set to 127 bytes. The number can be an integer or a floating point number. done’" 16.000. string A quoted string containing virtually any character including spaces. Jobs.116 # Include subfiles associated with configuration # They define the bulk of the Clients.000 (megabytes) g 1. but it is specified in two parts: a number part and a modifier part. name A keyword or name consisting of alphanumeric characters.824 (gigabytes) gb 1.e. Name strings are typically used on the right side of an equal (i. A directory will be passed to your standard shell for expansion when it is scanned. The first time you read this. password This is a Bacula password and it is stored internally in MD5 hashed format. FileSets. Typically keywords appear on the left side of an equal (i.3 . positive integer A 32 bit positive integer value. If it is entered in floating point notation. including the hyphen. integer A 32 bit integer value. It may be positive or negative. long integer A 64 bit integer value. size A size specified as bytes. it is all pretty logical and straightforward. or a non-quoted string. Likewise to include a backslash. Strings are typically values that correspond to filenames.4 Recognized Primitive Data Types When parsing the resource directives. yes|no Either a yes or a no. and # Remember to "reload" the Director after adding # @|"sh -c ’for f in /etc/bacula/clientdefs/*.

3 Resource Types The following table lists all current Bacula resource types. any text.e. so both the name and the password must match to be authorized. Passwords are plain text.Bacula Version 5. Passwords and Authorization In order for one daemon to contact another daemon. A specification of m will be taken as months.0. 16. For example: 1 week 2 days 3 hours 10 mins 1 month 2 days 30 sec are valid date specifications. If you add to or modify these files. The default configuration files are automatically defined for correct authorization with random passwords. Here is sort of a picture of what names/passwords in which files/Resources must match up: . The specification of a time may have as many number/modifier parts as you wish. It shows what resources must be defined for each service (daemon). seconds may be specified as sec or s). The default configuration files will already contain at least one example of each permitted resource. They are not generated by any special process. so you need not worry about creating all these kinds of resources from scratch. the password corresponds to a particular name. In most cases. just use random text.3 minutes minutes (60 seconds) hours hours (3600 seconds) days days (3600*24 seconds) weeks weeks (3600*24*7 seconds) months months (3600*24*30 seconds) quarters quarters (3600*24*91 seconds) years years (3600*24*365 seconds) 117 Any abbreviation of these modifiers is also permitted (i. you will need to take care to keep them consistent. it must authorize itself with a password. Resource Autochanger Catalog Client Console Device Director FileSet Job JobDefs Message Pool Schedule Storage Director No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Client No No Yes No No Yes No No No Yes No No No Storage Yes No No No Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes Console No No No Yes No Yes No No No No No No No 16.4 Names.

if you have tape drives on several machines. Storage. In the right column are where the corresponding values should be found in the Console. You define all the Clients and Storage daemons that you use in this configuration file. you will have a single Storage daemon that controls your tape drive or tape drives.118 Bacula Version 5. not being a fully qualified name. The password used for the File daemon to authorize with the Storage daemon is a temporary password unique to each Job created by the daemons and is not specified in any . and Client resources. with their names and passwords – these are all in bacula-dir. preceded with and asterisk in the above example.conf.0. you will have a separate Client resource file on each machine that runs a File daemon. and File daemon (FD) configuration files. That is. • Director – to define the resources necessary for the Director. is passed to the File daemon in symbolic form. A name such as localhost. The File daemon then resolves it to an IP address. It defines which Directors are available so that you may interact with them. . Normally. The following configuration files must be defined: • Console – to define the resources for the Console program (user interface to the Director). • Client – to define the resources for each client to be backed up. Please note that the Address. you will find the Director. Storage daemon (SD). • Storage – to define the resources to be used by each Storage daemon. However. you must use either an IP address or a fully qualified name.3 In the left column.5 Detailed Information for each Daemon The details of each Resource and the directives permitted therein are described in the following chapters. you will have at least one Storage daemon per machine. For this reason. that appears in the Storage resource of the Director. 16. will resolve in the File daemon to the localhost of the File daemon. which is most likely not what is desired. fd-sd.conf file.

you will Jobs of different names corresponding to each client (i. but each job will reference only one.e. Schedule. Normally. Catalog. • Director – to define the Director’s name and its access password used for authenticating the Console program. Pools allow you to restrict a Job (or a Client) to use only a particular set of Volumes. otherwise it will be left blank. Only a single Director resource definition may appear in the Director’s configuration file. • Client – to define what Client is to be backed up. • Storage – to define on what physical device the Volumes should be mounted. but a different one with a different name for each client). Bacula will generate a random password during the configuration process. • Pool – to define the pool of Volumes that can be used for a particular Job. you may want to have multiple Pools.1 Director Resource Types Director resource type may be one of the following: Job.Chapter 17 Configuring the Director Of all the configuration files needed to run Bacula. and the one that you will need to modify the most often as you add clients or modify the FileSets. • JobDefs – optional resource for providing defaults for Job resources. Each Job will reference only a single client. Storage. Client. 119 . You may have any number of Schedules. If you have either /dev/random or bc on your machine. However. one Job per client. if you have a large number of clients or volumes. 17. or Messages. For a general discussion of configuration files and resources including the data types recognized by Bacula. everything revolves around a job and is tied to a job in one way or another. • FileSet – to define the set of files to be backed up for each Client. You will generally have multiple Client definitions. • Schedule – to define when a Job is to be automatically run by Bacula’s internal scheduler. JobDefs. the Director’s is the most complicated. You may have any number of FileSets but each Job will reference only one. FileSet and Schedule resources to be used for each Job. We present them here in the most logical order for defining them: Note. You may have one or more Storage definitions. Pool. FileSet. • Job – to define the backup/restore Jobs and to tie together the Client. Please see the Configuration chapter of this manual. Most people use a single default Pool. Director.

multiple catalogs can be helpful. Working Directory = <Directory> This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory in which the Director may put its status files.3 • Catalog – to define in what database to keep the list of files and the Volume names where they are backed up. Name = <name> The director name used by the system administrator. the password is never passed across the network but instead a challenge response hash code created with the password. please note. If you have either /dev/random or bc on your machine. Messages = <Messages-resource-name> The messages resource specifies where to deliver Director messages that are not associated with a specific Job. and -sd. This directive is required. • Messages – to define where error and information messages are to be sent or logged. you can use the Working Directory as defined above. 17. It is not generated through any special process but as noted above. -fd. This directive is required. However. By default the Bacula configure process creates unique daemon names by postfixing them with -dir.2 The Director Resource The Director resource defines the attributes of the Directors running on the network. Description = <text> The text field contains a description of the Director that will be displayed in the graphical user interface.. You may define multiple different message resources and hence direct particular classes of messages to different users or locations (files. . Pid Directory = <Directory> This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory in which the Director may put its process Id file. Multiple catalogs require a bit more management because in general you must know what catalog contains what data. This directive is required. This restriction will be removed in a later release. This directive is required. all Pools are defined in each catalog. However. it is better to use random text for security reasons.120 Bacula Version 5. Currently. Most messages are specific to a job and will be directed to the Messages resource specified by the job. Standard shell expansion of the Directory is done when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be properly expanded. if this directory is shared with other Bacula daemons (the File daemon and Storage daemon). One and only one director resource must be supplied.. Most people only use a single catalog. If you have specified a Director user and/or a Director group on your . This directive is optional. The working directory specified must already exist and be readable and writable by the Bacula daemon referencing it. if you want to scale the Director to many clients. there is only a single Director resource. If you are not installing Bacula in the system directories. The password is plain text. Standard shell expansion of the Directory is done when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be properly expanded./configure line with --with-diruser and/or --with-dir-group the Working Directory owner and group will be set to those values. you must ensure that the Name given to each daemon is unique so that the temporary filenames used do not collide. but the final design will contain multiple Directors to maintain index and media database redundancy. However. you will set this to: /var/run. In the current implementation. This directory should be used only by Bacula but may be shared by other Bacula daemons.). The PID directory specified must already exist and be readable and writable by the Bacula daemon referencing it Typically on Linux systems. . Bacula will generate a random password during the configuration process. The process Id file is used to shutdown Bacula and to prevent multiple copies of Bacula from running simultaneously. The same password must appear in the Director resource of the Console configuration file. there are a few messages that can occur when no job is running.0. This directive is required. For added security. Password = <UA-password> Specifies the password that must be supplied for the default Bacula Console to be authorized. Director Start of the Director resource. otherwise it will be left blank and you must manually supply it.

The default value is zero. It is implemented only on systems (Linux.Bacula Version 5. The default is 9101.0.2. If ip4 is specified. The default is 30 minutes. Note. Probably the simplest way to explain this is to show an example: DirAddresses = { ip = { addr = 1. The default is 30 minutes. Heartbeat Interval = <time-interval> This directive is optional and if specified will cause the Director to set a keepalive interval (heartbeat) in seconds on each of the sockets it opens for the Client resource. then only IPv4 resolutions will be permitted.4. that the address can be specified as either a dotted quadruple. The default is set to 1.4 } ip = { addr = 201:220:222::2 } ip = { addr = bluedot.3. specifies a directory in which the Director will look for the Python startup script DirStartup. ip4.net } } where ip. QueryFile = <Path> This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory and file in which the Director can find the canned SQL statements for the Query command of the Console. and likewise with ip6.2.3. consequently. SD Connect Timeout = <time> where time is the time that the Director should continue attempting to contact the Storage daemon to start a job. This directive is required.B plural) directive. This same port number must be specified in the Director resource of the Console configuration file.2.2.thun. ip6. port can be specified as a number or as the mnemonic value from the /etc/services file. and after which the Director will cancel the job. but you may set it to a larger number. you must not use either a DirPort or a DirAddress directive in the same resource. restores may take longer if Bacula must sort through interleaved volume blocks from multiple simultaneous jobs.3.} ipv6 = { addr = 1. This directory may be shared by other Bacula daemons.3 121 Scripts Directory = <Directory> This directive is optional and. This can be avoided by having each simultaneous job write to a different volume or by using data spooling. FD Connect Timeout = <time> where time is the time that the Director should continue attempting to contact the File daemon to start a job. } ip = { addr = 1.2.4. DirAddresses = <IP-address-specification> Specify the ports and addresses on which the Director daemon will listen for Bacula Console connections.4 port = 1205 } ip = { addr = 1. port = 1205. Standard shell expansion of the Path is done when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be properly expanded. port = http. This directive should not be used if you specify DirAddresses (N. if defined. Also.3. This value will override any specified at the Director level. or as a symbolic name (only in the ip specification). The Volume format becomes more complicated with multiple simultaneous jobs. port = 1205. the default will be used. Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of total Director Jobs that should run concurrently.. so normally this directive need not be specified. addr. If an ip section is specified. the resolution can be made either by IPv4 or IPv6.3. and after which the Director will cancel the job. . then write one spool file at a time to the volume thus avoiding excessive interleaving of the different job blocks.} ipv4 = { addr = 1. Please note that if you use the DirAddresses directive.py. Standard shell expansion of the directory is done when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be properly expanded.. If a port is not specified.) that provide the setsockopt TCP KEEPIDLE function. which means no change is made to the socket. .4. which will first spool the data to disk simultaneously. DirPort = <port-number> Specify the port (a positive integer) on which the Director daemon will listen for Bacula Console connections. or IPv6 colon notation. and port are all keywords.

but you may set it to a larger number. Bacula will prune (remove) Job records that are older than the specified period. How. The default is set to 20. Only a single IP address may be specified. it will cause the Director server (when initiating connections to a storage or file daemon) to source its connections from the specified address. you define only a single Job to do the Full.. Where. and what media Pool can be used. Only a single type (Backup.0. See Statistics chapteror additional information. you must define a Job for each one. which is either a domain name or an IP address specified as a dotted quadruple in string or quoted string format. Storage. This string is displayed using the version command. so if there are multiple Jobs with the same Client and FileSet or multiple Storage daemons that are used. the Director will bind to any available address (the default). The following is an example of a valid Director resource definition: Director { Name = HeadMan WorkingDirectory = "$HOME/bacula/bin/working" Password = UA_password PidDirectory = "$HOME/bacula/bin/working" QueryFile = "$HOME/bacula/bin/query. Note.. billings.3 DirAddress = <IP-Address> This directive is optional. Theses statistics records aren’t use for restore purpose. Differential. but if a client has a really huge number of files (more than several million). The default is 5 years. This directive should not be used if you specify a DirAddresses (N.122 Bacula Version 5. and Incremental backups since the different backup levels are tied together by a unique Job name. and Schedule respectively. but it is no longer used. the Director server will source its outgoing connections according to the system routing table (the default). etc. Normally. If this record is not specified. . and if it is specified. VerId = <string> where <string> is an identifier which can be used for support purpose. Multiple Storage daemons are not currently supported for Jobs. unlike the DirAddresses specification noted above. this directive only permits a single address to be specified. In effect.3 The Job Resource The Job resource defines a Job (Backup.. and if user runs prune stats command. The Client and FileSet are what Bacula uses to restore a client. If this directive is not specified. plural) directive. Statistics Retention = <time> The Statistics Retention directive defines the length of time that Bacula will keep statistics job records in the Catalog database after the Job End time.sql" Messages = Standard } 17. but mainly for capacity planning..B. DirSourceAddress = <IP-Address> This record is optional. (In JobHistory table) When this time period expires. you might want to split it into to Jobs each with a different FileSet covering only part of the total files. See the Configuration chapter of this manual for additional details of time specification.) can be specified for any job. the restore will . Note. each Job resource must specify What. Backup/Restore/Level. the FileSet must be specified for a restore job for historical reasons. you will have only one Job per Client. Each Job resource definition contains the name of a Client and a FileSet to backup. so if you do want to use multiple storage daemons. Restore. where the data are to be stored. you will need to create a different Job and ensure that for each Job that the combination of Client and FileSet are unique. but if it is specified. If you want to backup multiple FileSets on the same Client or multiple Clients. Note. . Restore.) that Bacula must perform. and When or FileSet. the Schedule for the Job. MaximumConsoleConnections = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of Console Connections that could run concurrently. it will cause the Director server (for the Console program) to bind to the specified IP-Address.

you will specify only one Restore job which acts as a sort of prototype that you will modify using the console program in order to perform restores. Enabled = <yes|no> This directive allows you to enable or disable automatic execution via the scheduler of a Job. Backup Run a backup Job. it must be specified between quotes. In general. or to what was backed up. . Each different Job Type (Backup. At least one Job resource is required. This directive is not required. there are also Levels as discussed in the next item. This directive is required. It is generally a good idea to give your job the same name as the Client that it will backup. which may be one of the following: Backup.. the unique Job Name will consist of the name you specify here followed by the date and time the job was scheduled for execution. When the Director looks for a valid backup record in the catalog database.e. the Level may be one of the following: Full When the Level is set to Full all files in the FileSet whether or not they have changed will be backed up. or Incremental backup. Normally. For a Backup Job. you can also use verify as a sort of tripwire intrusion detection. but the contents of the FileSets may be the same). • The Job started no longer ago than Max Full Interval. To restore files. The Level is normally overridden by a different value that is specified in the Schedule resource. Level = <job-level> The Level directive specifies the default Job level to be run. Restore. Verify Run a verify Job. but must be specified either by a Level directive or as an override specified in the Schedule resource. This name can be specified on the Run command in the console program to start a job. Restore. If the name contains spaces.) has a different set of Levels that can be specified. • The Job was a Full. unless you turn off cataloging.0. Normally you will have at least one Backup job for each client you want to save. Restore jobs cannot be automatically started by the scheduler as is the case for Backup. Verify. verify jobs permit you to compare the contents of the catalog to the file system. or Admin. This permits easy identification of jobs. This problem can be resolved by defining multiple FileSet definitions (the names must be different. to verifying that a tape that was written can be read. you must use the restore command in the console. Normally. no File database entries are generated since no Files are saved. Type = <job-type> The Type directive specifies the Job type. very little data is saved. . it looks for a previous Job with: • The same Job name.Bacula Version 5. it is very minimal compared to the information stored for a Backup job – for example. Verify and Admin jobs.. will be backed up. • The Job terminated normally (i. Although certain basic information from a Restore job is saved in the catalog. This directive is required. In addition. Restore Run a restore Job. did not fail or was not canceled). if you do not want to do it at the end of each Backup Job. • The same Client name. When the job actually runs. Differential. most all the important statistics and data concerning files backed up will be placed in the catalog. Incremental When the Level is set to Incremental all files specified in the FileSet that have changed since the last successful backup of the the same Job using the same FileSet and Client. Admin Run an admin Job. Within a particular Job Type.3 123 not work. Job Start of the Job resource. An Admin job can be used to periodically run catalog pruning. • The same FileSet (any change to the definition of the FileSet such as adding or deleting a file in the Include or Exclude sections constitutes a different FileSet. If the Director cannot find a previous valid Full backup then the job will be upgraded into a Full backup. Although an Admin job is recorded in the catalog. Name = <name> The Job name.

it is generally preferable to copy it. • The same FileSet (any change to the definition of the FileSet such as adding or deleting a file in the Include or Exclude sections constitutes a different FileSet. However. those deleted files will also be restored. the files in it do not have their modification time (st mtime) or their attribute change time (st ctime) changed. all modified files that are still on the system are backed up. In rare cases. which means that if between a Full save and the time you do a restore. The deleted files will no longer appear in the catalog after doing another Full save.e. Differential When the Level is set to Differential all files specified in the FileSet that have changed since the last successful Full backup of the same Job will be backed up. For example. any file that has been deleted since the last Full backup remains in the Bacula catalog. to remove deleted files from the catalog during a Differential backup is quite a time consuming process and not currently implemented in Bacula. it will cause st ctime to change and hence Bacula will backup the file during an Incremental or Differential backup. If the file was modified or its attributes were changed on or after this start time. did not fail or was not canceled). those deleted files will also be restored. If the Director cannot find a valid previous Full backup for the same Job. If the file was modified or its attributes changed on or after this start time. As a consequence. The File daemon (Client) decides which files to backup for a differential backup by comparing the start time of the prior Full backup Job against the time each file was last ”modified” (st mtime) and the time its attributes were last ”changed” (st ctime). some files are deleted. please see their manual. • The Job terminated normally (i. any file that has been deleted since the last Full backup remains in the Bacula catalog. if you move a directory rather than copy it. it will then be backed up.124 Bacula Version 5. which Bacula does not use. See Accurate mode for more details. however. However. all modified files that are still on the system are backed up. • The same Client name. FileSet. the Director will upgrade the Differential to a Full save. Otherwise. When Bacula does a Differential backup. • The Job was a FULL backup. and wish it to be properly backed up. you should ensure that the clocks on your server and client are synchronized or as close as possible to avoid the possibility of a file being skipped. backup. those files will probably not be backed up by an Incremental or Differential backup which depend solely on these time stamps.0. . It is. When Bacula does an Incremental backup. This is quite memory consuming process. using the start time of the prior backup may cause some files to be backed up twice. some files are deleted. the Director will upgrade the Incremental to a Full save. In the case of Sophos virus scanning. on versions 1. As with the Incremental option. • The Job started no longer ago than Max Full Interval. then the Differential job will be upgraded into a Full backup. Note. However. The File daemon (Client) decides which files to backup for an Incremental backup by comparing start time of the prior Job (Full. However. Otherwise. a planned future feature. The start time used is displayed after the Since on the Job report. As noted above. Some virus scanning software may change st ctime while doing the scan. but it ensures that no change is missed. If all the above conditions do not hold. When the Director looks for a valid Full backup record in the catalog database. and Client. if you move a directory rather than copy it. if the virus scanning program attempts to reset the access time (st atime). The deleted files will no longer appear in the catalog after doing another Full save. it looks for a previous Job with: • The same Job name. it will then be backed up. the Incremental backup will be performed as requested. then delete the original. Differential. to manage deleted files or directories changes in the catalog during an Incremental backup you can use accurate mode. In addition. or Incremental) against the time each file was last ”modified” (st mtime) and the time its attributes were last ”changed”(st ctime). the Differential backup will be performed as requested. which means that if between a Full save and the time you do a restore. If you move a directory. the files in it do not have their modification time (st mtime) or their attribute change time (st ctime) changed. For other software. you can prevent it from resetting the access time (st atime) and hence changing st ctime by using the --no-reset-atime option. As a consequence.33 or greater Bacula automatically makes the necessary adjustments to the time between the server and the client so that the times Bacula uses are synchronized.3 If all the above conditions do not hold.

VolumeToCatalog This level causes Bacula to read the file attribute data written to the Volume from the last Job. Please note! If you run two Verify Catalog jobs on the same client at the same time. For a Verify Job. you use a Verify level = Catalog. Alternatively. This command can be very useful if you have disk problems because it will compare the current state of your disk against the last successful backup. Typically this command will be run once a day (or night) to check for any changes to your system files. Those options determine what attribute fields are compared. it allows you to save the state of a set of files defined by the FileSet and later check to see if those files have been modified or deleted and if any new files have been added. the Level may be one of the following: InitCatalog does a scan of the specified FileSet and stores the file attributes in the Catalog database. no level needs to be specified.Bacula Version 5. /lib. When you run this level.0. This is because the Verify VolumeToCatalog modifies the Catalog database while running. DiskToCatalog This level causes Bacula to read the files as they currently are on disk.g. then use the touch program to update the timestamps. it reduces the number of Volumes that are needed to do a restore effectively eliminating the need to read all the volumes on which the preceding Incremental and Differential backups since the last Full are done. . someone asks why we need Differential backups as long as Incremental backups pickup all changed files. /bin. . Please note! If you run two Verify VolumeToCatalog jobs on the same client at the same time. and to compare the current file attributes with the attributes saved in the catalog from the last backup for the job specified on the VerifyJob directive. /boot. This is because Verify Catalog modifies the Catalog database while running in order to track new files. This can be used to detect system intrusion. you run the InitCatalog level verify one time when your system is first setup. it is generally preferable to copy it. Typically you would specify a FileSet that contains the set of system files that should not change (e. This has two effects: 1.. So it is able to handle deleted or renamed files. the results will certainly be incorrect.32c) does not identify files that have been deleted. and wish it to be properly backed up. the results will certainly be incorrect. 2. Since no file data is saved. and then once again after each modification (upgrade) to your system. This is similar to the Catalog level except that instead of comparing the disk file attributes to the catalog database. then delete the original. you might ask why you would want to do this. Note.). In other words. This compares the results of your InitCatalog with the current state of the files. This is quite memory consuming process. the attribute data written to the Volume is read and compared to the catalog database. you can move the directory. More importantly. you must supply the verify options on your Include statements. For a Restore Job. the File daemon knowns exactly which files were present after the last backup. Catalog Compares the current state of the files against the state previously saved during an InitCatalog. Thereafter..3 125 those files will probably not be backed up by an Incremental or Differential backup which depend solely on these time stamps. to manage deleted files or directories changes in the catalog during an Differential backup you can use accurate mode. There are possibly many answers to this question. See Accurate mode for more details. It gives some redundancy since the old backups could be used if the merged backup cannot be read. which may be several jobs. the current implementation (1. Any discrepancies are reported. but the one that is the most important for me is that a Differential backup effectively merges all the Incremental and Differential backups since the last Full backup into a single Differential backup. when your want to check the state of your system files. Accurate = <yes|no> In accurate mode. the actual file data is not compared (it is not in the catalog). If you move a directory. The items reported are determined by the verify options specified on the Include directive in the specified FileSet (see the FileSet resource below for more details). Although the attribute data including the signatures (MD5 or SHA1) are compared. Normally. However. This level differs from the Catalog level described above by the fact that it doesn’t compare against a previous Verify job but against a previous backup. It turns out to be a very simple and easy way to have a Tripwire like feature using Bacula. The file attribute data are compared to the values saved in the Catalog database and any differences are reported. Every once and a while. /sbin.

. } For more details on using this file. permits you to constantly have a bootstrap file that can recover the current state of your system.bsr" . then run Verify jobs on those that you wish to be verified (most often a VolumeToCatalog) so that the tape just written is re-read. If the bootstrap-file-specification begins with a vertical bar (|). This permits you to run all your backups.126 Bacula Version 5. If the Backup job is a Full save. will be used during Restore Jobs and is ignored in other Job types. Only a single Client may be specified in any one Job.0. if provided. This directive is required. So you do not have sufficient memory. If the Job is an Incremental or Differential save.conf file. Note. Bacula will append the current bootstrap record to the end of the file. the File daemon must keep data concerning all files in memory. before opening the file or executing the specified command. Bootstrap = <bootstrap-file> The Bootstrap directive specifies a bootstrap file that. please see Restoring Files with the Bootstrap File chapter of this manual. you should copy the bootstrap file to another machine after it is updated. Verify Job = <Job-Resource-Name> If you run a verify job without this directive.3 When restoring a FileSet for a specified date (including ”most recent”). the restore may either be terribly slow or fail. you can use this in your JobDefs resources: JobDefs { Write Bootstrap = "%c_%n. Alternatively. If you use the Restore command in the Console program. A simple example of the use of JobDefs is provided in the default bacula-dir. please see the chapter entitled The Bootstrap File of this manual. and sends the requested files to the Storage daemon for backup.22 or greater. it is used only for a restore job. The bootstrap file contains the list of tapes to be used in a restore Job as well as which files are to be restored. It could for example be a shell script that emails you the bootstrap record. To automatically manage your bootstrap files. Bacula is able to restore exactly the files and directories that existed at the time of the last backup prior to that date including ensuring that deleted files are actually deleted. For additional details. to start a restore job. Specification of this directive is optional. Bacula performs character substitution like in RunScript directive. Bacula will erase any current contents of the specified file before writing the bootstrap records. and renamed directories are restored properly. Normally. the file specified should be a mounted drive on another machine. see the Client Resource section of this chapter. will override any defaults specified in the JobDefs resource. when running a Restore job from the console. The Client runs on the machine to be backed up. and if specified. all the values contained in the named JobDefs resource will be used as the defaults for the current Job. this value can be changed. The use of this directive permits writing much more compact Job resources where the bulk of the directives are defined in one or more JobDefs. Using this feature. For 500. or receives them when restoring. the bootstrap file will be created automatically from the files you select to be restored. Any value that you explicitly define in the current Job resource. Write Bootstrap = <bootstrap-file-specification> The writebootstrap directive specifies a file name where Bacula will write a bootstrap file for each Backup job run. On versions 1.. JobDefs = <JobDefs-Resource-Name> If a JobDefs-Resource-Name is specified. it is a good idea to write a separate bootstrap file for each Job backed up including the job that backs up your catalog database.39.. This is particularly useful if you have many similar Jobs but with minor variations such as different Clients. which means that you must immediately follow a backup by a verify command. you will immediately have a bootstrap record available. In this mode. the last job run will be compared with the catalog. For additional details of the bootstrap file. it will require approximately 64 Megabytes of RAM on your File daemon to hold the required information.000 files (a typical desktop linux system). In addition. If you specify a Verify Job Bacula will find the last job with that name that ran. Client = <client-resource-name> The Client directive specifies the Client (File daemon) that will be used in the current Job. Bacula will use the specification as the name of a program to which it will pipe the bootstrap record. so that if your hard disk is lost. This directive applies only to Backup Jobs.

see the Pool Resource section of this chapter. Pool = <pool-resource-name> The Pool directive defines the pool of Volumes where your data can be backed up. Storage.0. and what options to use (e. For example. you can direct some messages to a log file. if you want to specify a different set of Volumes for different Clients or different Jobs. the job will be canceled.). Incremental Backup Pool = <pool-resource-name> The Incremental Backup Pool specifies a Pool to be used for Incremental backups.18. It will override any Pool specification during a Full backup. which allow you to run the Job at many different times. This directive is optional. For additional details. Only a single FileSet resource may be specified in any one Job. For additional details. but it must be specified in one or the other. a job can be scheduled to run at 1:00am. but because other jobs are running. Max Run Sched Time = <time> The time specifies the maximum allowed time that a job may run. see the Messages Resource Chapter of this manual. This directive is required. Incremental—Differential Max Wait Time = <time> Theses directives have been deprecated in favor of Incremental|Differential Max Run Time since bacula 2. see the FileSet Resource section of this chapter. (not necessarily the same as when the job was scheduled). Messages = <messages-resource-name> The Messages directive defines what Messages resource should be used for this job. Full Backup Pool = <pool-resource-name> The Full Backup Pool specifies a Pool to be used for Full backups. (not necessarily the same as when the job was scheduled). This can be useful to prevent jobs from running during working hours. . in which case the value in the Pool resource overrides any value in the Job. It will override any Pool specification during an Incremental backup. Differential Max Wait Time = <time> The time specifies the maximum allowed time that a Differential backup job may run.3. Although you may specify only a single Schedule resource for any one job. see the Schedule Resource Chapter of this manual. .) is to be run. (not necessarily the same as when the job was scheduled). For additional details. counted from when the job was scheduled.. Differential Backup Pool = <pool-resource-name> The Differential Backup Pool specifies a Pool to be used for Differential backups. This directive is optional. This Storage resource definition is not required by either the Job resource or in the Pool. Max Start Delay = <time> The time specifies the maximum delay between the scheduled time and the actual start time for the Job.. Many Bacula installations will use only the Default pool. Incremental. and thus how and where the various messages are to be delivered. compression. Storage = <storage-resource-name> The Storage directive defines the name of the storage services where you want to backup the FileSet data.Bacula Version 5. counted from when the job starts. counted from when the job starts. Incremental Max Run Time = <time> The time specifies the maximum allowed time that an Incremental backup job may run. and each run directive permits overriding the default Job Level Pool. to prevent jobs from running during day time hours. counted from when the job starts. see the Storage Resource Chapter of this manual. We can see it like Max Start Delay + Max Run Time. For additional details.e. Max Run Time = <time> The time specifies the maximum allowed time that a job may run.g. . This directive is optional. and others can be sent by email. This gives considerable flexibility in what can be done with a single Job. the Job can only be started manually using the Console program. The FileSet specifies which directories (or files) are to be backed up. and if left out. Schedule = <schedule-name> The Schedule directive defines what schedule is to be used for the Job. The Storage resource may also be specified in the Job’s Pool resource.3 127 FileSet = <FileSet-resource-name> The FileSet directive specifies the FileSet that will be used in the current Job.. it may wait to run. for example. The default is 0 which indicates no limit. For additional details. if not an error will result. and Messages resources.. This can be useful. you will probably want to use Pools. Full. This directive is required. This directive is required. If the delay is set to 3600 (one hour) and the job has not begun to run by 2:00am. This directive is optional. For example. However. The schedule in turn determines when the Job will be automatically started and what Job level (i. the Schedule resource may contain multiple Run directives. It will override any Pool specification during a Differential backup.

for that job). This if multiple jobs start at the same time and they all prefer mounted volumes. Despite the above. The default is no. The default is no. If this directive is not present. If this directive is specified (not normally) and the value is yes. A better alternative for using multiple drives is to use multiple pools so that Bacula will be forced to mount Volumes from those Pools on different drives. it will select the first available drive. but we cannot guarantee that we will be able to fix the problem in a reasonable time.18. each job started will append to the same Volume (assuming the Pool is the same for all jobs). Setting Prefer Mounted Volumes to no can be useful for those sites with multiple drive autochangers that prefer to maximize backup throughput at the expense of using additional drives and Volumes.. then the age of the previous Full backup is not considered. Figure 17. unless you are using multiple pools. or waiting for the storage or file daemons to perform their duties). it will override the value specified in the Pool resource.. Prune Volumes = <yes|no> Normally. any Volume that has been requested to be mounted. This means that the job will prefer to use an unused drive rather than use a drive that is already in use. Prune Files = <yes|no> Normally. we recommend against setting this directive to no since it tends to add a lot of swapping of Volumes between the different drives and can easily lead to deadlock situations in the Storage daemon. If no drive with a suitable Volume is available.3 Max Wait Time = <time> The time specifies the maximum allowed time that a job may block waiting for a resource (such as waiting for a tape to be mounted. Prune Jobs = <yes|no> Normally.128 Bacula Version 5. If the most recent Full backup is older than this interval. it will override the value specified in the Pool resource. If this directive is specified (not . This directive works as expected since bacula 2. the first job will request the mount. or specified as 0. will be considered valid as a mounted volume by another job. If the directive is set to no. otherwise.1: Job time control directives Max Full Interval = <time> The time specifies the maximum allowed age (counting from start time) of the most recent successful Full backup that is required in order to run Incremental or Differential backup jobs.0. Incremental and Differential backups will be upgraded to Full backups automatically. pruning of Jobs from the Catalog is specified on a Pool by Pool basis in the Pool resource with the AutoPrune directive. This means that all jobs will attempt to append to the same Volume (providing the Volume is appropriate – right Pool. the Storage daemon is requested to select either an Autochanger or a drive with a valid Volume already mounted in preference to a drive that is not ready. . pruning of Volumes from the Catalog is specified on a Pool by Pool basis in the Pool resource with the AutoPrune directive. We will accept bug reports against it.3. the Storage daemon will prefer finding an unused drive. Note. (not necessarily the same as when the job was scheduled). If this directive is specified (not normally) and the value is yes. and the other jobs will use the same volume. Prefer Mounted Volumes = <yes|no> If the Prefer Mounted Volumes directive is set to yes (default yes). pruning of Files from the Catalog is specified on a Pool by Pool basis in the Pool resource with the AutoPrune directive. counted from the when the job starts.

show. You can use following options may be specified in the body of the runscript: Options Runs On Success Runs On Failure Runs On Client Runs When Fail Job On Error Command Console Value Yes/No Yes/No Yes/No Before—After—Always—AfterVSS Yes/No Default Yes No Yes Never Yes Information Run command if JobStatus is successful Run command if JobStatus isn’t successful Run command on client When run commands Fail job if script returns something different Path to your script Console command Any output sent by the command to standard output will be included in the Bacula job report. In addition.) Volume name (Only on director side) The Job Exit Status code %e edits the following values: • OK • Error • Fatal Error • Canceled • Differences • Unknown term code .jobs. the program is executed on the Client side like in ClientRunXXXJob. llist. . memory. The specified Command (see below for details) is run as an external program prior or after the current Job.0. You need to specify needed information on command line. At this time. RunScript {<body-of-runscript>} The RunScript directive behaves like a resource in that it requires opening and closing braces around a number of directives that make up the body of the runscript. reload. version. but there is no shell interpretation. nothing will be prompted. Before submitting the specified command to the operating system. console command ouputs are redirected to log with the jobid 0.storage. list. Bacula performs character substitution of the following characters: %% %c %d %e %i %j %l %n %s %t %v = = = = = = = = = = = % Client’s name Director’s name Job Exit Status JobId Unique Job id Job Level Job name Since time Job type (Backup. Console options are special commands that are sent to the director instead of the OS. update. as a consequence. prune.3 129 normally) and the value is yes.. . enable. if you invoke complicated commands or want any shell features such as redirection or piping. Example : Console = "prune files client=%c" Console = "update stats age=3" You can specify more than one Command/Console option per RunScript. disable. purge. which means that the path will be searched to execute your specified command. the command string is parsed then fed to the OS. time. The default is no. . You can use following console command : delete. setdebug. you must call a shell script and do it inside that script. status.. estimate. . The command string must be a valid program name or name of a shell script.pool. See console chapter for more information. . it will override the value specified in the Pool resource. trace.Bacula Version 5. By default.client. This is optional.

exe or command. if it is running as a service. You need to escape the inner quotes so that they are there when the code that parses the command line for execution runs so it can tell what the program name is. and PATH). (under the environment variable dialog you have have both System Environment and User Environment.com will recognize as an executable file.d/apache start" } Notes about ClientRunBeforeJob For compatibility reasons.d/apache stop" } RunScript { RunsWhen = After RunsOnFailure = yes Command = "/etc/init. It will even try the different extensions in the same order as cmd.3 Thus if you edit it on a command line. . If you just put the program name in then Bacula will search using the same rules that cmd.bat file.33 and above. So if you have a script in the Bacula bin directory then the following lines should work fine: Client Run Before Job = systemstate or Client Run Before Job = systemstate. you have to use RunScript syntax. Special Windows Considerations You can run scripts just after snapshots initializations with AfterVSS keyword. However. . The System %Path% will be searched for the command. with this shortcut. so you must also explicitly add the three character extension.bat or Client Run Before Job = "systemstate" or Client Run Before Job = "systemstate.exe or a . if you have slashes in the program name then Bacula figures you are fully specifying the name. You can use these following shortcuts: Keyword Run Before Job Run After Job Run After Failed Job Client Run Before Job Client Run After Job Examples: RunScript { RunsWhen = Before FailJobOnError = No Command = "/etc/init.) System environment variables can be referenced with %var% and used as either part of the command name or arguments. The command can be anything that cmd. other remote runscripts will be discarded. the command is executed directly when the client recieve it.exe. In addition. we believe that only the System environment will be available to bacula-fd.bat" or ClientRunBeforeJob = "\"C:/Program Files/Bacula/systemstate. for a Windows client on version 1. The command is run in a Win32 environment. Bacula bin directory. The script or program can be a . please take note that you must ensure a correct path to your script.130 Bacula Version 5.bat\"" RunsOnSuccess Yes No Yes RunsOnFailure No Yes FailJobOnError Yes Yes No Runs On Client No No No Yes Yes RunsWhen Before After After Before After The outer set of quotes is removed when the configuration file is parsed.exe uses (current directory. you will need to enclose it within some sort of quotes. And if the command is in error.com. To be sure that all commands will be sent and executed.0. so Unix like commands will not work unless you have installed and properly configured Cygwin in addition to and separately from Bacula.

• exactly two quote characters. Otherwise.exe” at a cmd prompt and see what happens.3 ClientRunBeforeJob = "\"C:/Program Files/Software Vendor/Executable\" /arg1 /arg2 \"foo bar\"" 131 The special characters &<>()@^| will need to be quoted.exe /c . • no special characters between the two quote characters. The following example of the use of the Client Run Before Job directive was submitted by a user: You could write a shell script to back up a DB2 database to a FIFO. You either need to have only one set of quotes or else use the short name and don’t put quotes around the command path. where special is one of: &<>()@^| • there are one or more whitespace characters between the the two quote characters. and then put quotes around the whole thing when putting it in the director’s . preserving any text after the last quote character.conf file: . The path to the batch file should be specified in Unix form: ClientRunBeforeJob = ”c:/bacula/bin/systemstate. If all of the following conditions are met.exe that is used to execute the command. old behavior is to see if the first character is a quote character and if so. If /C or /K is specified.bat” Lines like the above do not work because there are limitations of cmd.0. You might want the ClientRunBeforeJob directive to specify a . then quote characters on the command line are preserved: • no /S switch. The shell script is: #!/bin/sh # ===== backupdb. if they are part of a filename or argument. • the string between the two quote characters is the name of an executable file.bat file which runs the actual client-side commands.bat” rather than DOS/Windows form: ClientRunBeforeJob = ”c:\bacula\bin\systemstate. Bacula prefixes the string you supply with cmd.Bacula Version 5. 3. where the following logic is used to process quote (”) characters: 1. then the remainder of the command line after the switch is processed as a command line. Below is the output from cmd’s help as it relates to the command line passed to the /c option. The batch file should explicitly ’exit 0’ on successful completion. please note that there are certain limitations: ClientRunBeforeJob = ”C:/Program Files/Bacula/bin/pre-exec. If someone is logged in. 2.bat” INCORRECT For Win32. Once the command is correct insert a backslash (\) before each double quote (”). rather than trying to run (for example) regedit /e directly. To test that your command works you should type cmd /c ”C:/Program Files/test. a blank ”command” window running the commands will be present during the execution of the command. Some Suggestions from Phil Stracchino for running on Win32 machines with the native Win32 File daemon: 1.conf file. 2.sh DIR=/u01/mercuryd mkfifo $DIR/dbpipe db2 BACKUP DATABASE mercuryd TO $DIR/dbpipe WITHOUT PROMPTING & sleep 1 The following line in the Job resource in the bacula-dir. strip the leading character and remove the last quote character on the command line.

the Thursday job will not run. Run After Failed Job = <command> The specified command is run as an external program after the current job terminates with any error status.log 2>&1 < /dev/null & It is important to redirect the input and outputs of a backgrounded command to /dev/null to prevent the script from blocking. This directive is not required. Before submitting the specified command to the operating system. Bacula will print a warning message. For example. the current Bacula job will be canceled. but Thursday and Friday are holidays. Bacula will print a warning message. the ”db2 BACKUP DATABASE” line should be changed to the following: db2 BACKUP DATABASE mercuryd TO $DIR/dbpipe WITHOUT PROMPTING > $DIR/backup. Run Before Job = <command> The specified command is run as an external program prior to running the current Job. Even though the command being run is backgrounded with &. but if it is defined. To remedy this situation. the job will block until the ”db2 BACKUP DATABASE” command. The command string must be a valid program name or name of a shell script. thus the backup stalls. you can use this : RunScript { Command = "echo test" RunsWhen = After RunsOnFailure = yes RunsOnClient = no RunsOnSuccess = yes } # default. Run After Job = <command> The specified command is run as an external program if the current job terminates normally (without error or without being canceled). Bacula performs character substitution as described above for the RunScript directive. That way. you can create a RunBeforeJob that returns a non-zero status on Thursday and zero on all other days. Note. If the exit code of the program run is non-zero.3 When the job is run. suppose that you normally do Full backups on Fridays. Before submitting the specified command to the operating system. Run Before Job = "echo test" it’s equivalent to : RunScript { Command = "echo test" RunsOnClient = No RunsWhen = Before } Lutz Kittler has pointed out that using the RunBeforeJob directive can be a simple way to modify your schedules during a holiday. you can drop this line An example of the use of this directive is given in the Tips Chapter of this manual. This directive is not required.0. and on Friday the tape you inserted on Wednesday before leaving will be used. An example of the use of this directive is given in the Tips Chapter of this manual. and if the exit code of the program run is non-zero. Bacula performs character substitution as described above for the RunScript directive.132 Client Run Before Job = "su . If the exit code of the program run is nonzero. See the Run After Failed Job if you want to run a script after the job has terminated with any non-normal status. .mercuryd -c \"/u01/mercuryd/backupdb. if you wish that your script will run regardless of the exit status of the Job.sh ’%t’ ’%l’\"" Bacula Version 5. To avoid having to change tapes between Thursday and Friday when no one is in the office. This directive is not required. you will get messages from the output of the script stating that the backup has started.

the current job level will be upgraded to the higher level. . However. a failed job is defined as one that has not terminated normally. Once all the data arrives or the spool files’ maximum sizes are reached. Spool Data = <yes|no> If this directive is set to yes (default no).old Strip Prefix = <directory> This directive applies only to a Restore job and specifies a prefix to remove from the directory name of all files being restored. Spool Attributes is also automatically set to yes. This permits files to be restored in a different location from which they were saved. if you want to restore c:/files to d:/files. you wish the very next backup to be a Full save rather than whatever level it is started as. For more informations about how use this option. we have set Where in the example configuration files to be /tmp/bacularestores. This will use File Relocation feature implemented in Bacula 2. NOTE: When Spool Data is set to yes.8 or later.1.3 133 Client Run Before Job = <command> This directive is the same as Run Before Job except that the program is run on the client machine. Add Suffix = <extention> This directive applies only to a Restore job and specifies a suffix to all files being restored. the data will be despooled and written to tape. Spool Attributes = <yes|no> The default is set to no. secondly.1.1. see this. The same restrictions apply to Unix systems as noted above for the RunScript. By default. This will use File Relocation feature implemented in Bacula 2. Spooling data prevents tape shoe-shine (start and stop) during Incremental saves. /etc/passwd will be restored to /passwd Under Windows. This will use File Relocation feature implemented in Bacula 2. . which includes any running job of the same name (you need to ensure that two jobs of the same name do not run simultaneously). If you are writing to a disk file using this option will probably just slow down the backup jobs. This is particularly useful for Laptops where they may often be unreachable. please see the notes above in RunScript concerning Windows clients.0. the Ignore FileSet Changes directive is not considered when checking for failed levels. This is to prevent accidental overwriting of your files. which means that the File attributes are sent by the Storage daemon to the Director as they are stored on tape. and if a prior Full save has failed. which means that any FileSet change will trigger a rerun. then when writing the Job data to the tape is completed. Using Add Suffix=. Using Strip Prefix=/etc. the Storage daemon will be requested to spool the data for this Job to disk rather than write it directly to tape. you can use : Strip Prefix = c: Add Prefix = d: RegexWhere = <expressions> This directive applies only to a Restore job and specifies a regex filename manipulation of all files being restored.e. in which case the Storage daemon will buffer the File attributes and Storage coordinates to a temporary file in the Working Directory.Bacula Version 5.8 or later. you may want to set the value to yes. /etc/passwd will be restored to /etc/passwsd. Client Run After Job = <command> The specified command is run on the client machine as soon as data spooling is complete in order to allow restarting applications on the client as soon as possible. Rerun Failed Levels = <yes|no> If this directive is set to yes (default no).8 or later.1. Spool Attributes is also automatically set to yes. Where = <directory> This directive applies only to a Restore job and specifies a prefix to the directory name of all files being restored. There are several points that must be taken into account when using this directive: first. if you want to avoid the possibility that database updates will slow down writing to the tape. and Bacula detects that a previous job at a higher level (i. Add Prefix = <directory> This directive applies only to a Restore job and specifies a prefix to the directory name of all files being restored. the attributes and storage coordinates will be sent to the Director. If Where is not specified or is set to backslash (/).old. NOTE: When this directive is set to yes. Note. the files will be restored to their original location. This will use the File Relocation feature implemented in Bacula 2.8 or later. Full or Differential) has failed.

0. Bacula skips restoring this file. never if the backed up file already exists. In later versions of Bacula the directive is disabled (disregarded). Reschedule On Error = <yes|no> If this directive is enabled. it will cancel a previous Incremental to run a Full backup. Prefix Links=<yes|no> If a Where path prefix is specified for a recovery job. this directive limits only Jobs with the same name as the resource in which it appears. The default is no. or Storage resources will also apply in addition to the limit specified here. it will not be rescheduled. If Allow Duplicate Jobs is set to no and two jobs are present and none of the three directives given below permit cancelling a job. It works only for Backup jobs. or other machines that are not always connected to the network or switched on.e. Client.3 Replace = <replace-option> This directive applies only to a Restore job and specifies what happens when Bacula wants to restore a file or directory that already exists. Bacula will choose between duplicated jobs the one with the highest level.e. The default is No. The default is no (i. If the directive is set to no (default) then only one job of a given name may run at one time. Allow Duplicate Jobs = <yes|no> A duplicate job in the sense we use it here means a second or subsequent job with the same name starts. ifolder if the backed up file (on tape) is older than the existing file. nothing is done and the other Cancel XXX Duplicate directives will be examined. Cancel Lower Level Duplicates = <yes|no> If Allow Duplicates Jobs is set to no and this directive is set to yes. For example. This is the default value. all files linked with absolute names will be broken. Reschedule Times = <count> This directive specifies the maximum number of times to reschedule the job. The default is set to 1. Cancel Queued Duplicates = <yes|no> If Allow Duplicate Jobs is set to no and if this directive is set to yes any job that is already queued to run but not yet running will be canceled. and the action that Bacula takes to ensure only one job runs is determined by the other directives (see below). Reschedule Interval = <time-specification> If you have specified Reschedule On Error = yes and the job terminates in error. See the time specification formats in the Configure chapter for details of time specifications. it is deleted and then replaced by the copy that was backed up. and the job terminates in error.0. If it is set to zero (the default) the job will be rescheduled an indefinite number of times. Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs from the current Job resource that can run concurrently. the job will be rescheduled as determined by the Reschedule Interval and Reschedule Times directives. This happens most frequently when the first job runs longer than expected because no tapes are available. everything is self consistent. if you wish to later move the files to their original locations.134 Bacula Version 5. Normally this is what is desired – i. the job will not be rescheduled on error. If you cancel the job. . If the levels of the duplicated jobs are the same. laptops. the existing file is deleted and replaced by the back up. This specification can be useful for portables. but you may set it to a larger number. Note. the existing file is deleted and replaced by the back up. Allow Higher Duplicates = <yes|no> This directive was implemented in version 5. We strongly recommend that you read the WARNING documented under Maximum Concurrent Jobs in the Director’s resource. apply it to absolute links as well. You have the following options for replace-option: always when the file to be restored already exists. it will be rescheduled after the interval of time specified by timespecification. When set to Yes then while restoring files to an alternate directory. the job will not be rescheduled). but does not work as expected. However. any absolute soft links will also be modified to point to the new alternate directory. The default is no.0. If this directive is enabled duplicate jobs will be run. If used. ifnewer if the backed up file (on tape) is newer than the existing file. then the current job (the second one started) will be cancelled. Any other restrictions on the maximum concurrent jobs such as in the Director. If no interval is specified. it should always be set to no.

3 135 JobA 1st A duplicate job in the sense we use it here means a second or subsequent job with the same name starts.Bacula Version 5.0. JobA 2nd Allow Duplicate Jobs Yes Run no Cancel Level Lower Duplicates Yes level(2nd) > level(1st) ex: Full > Incremental yes no no Cancel Queued Duplicates no level(1st) > level(2nd) ex: Full > Incremental Cancel 1st Run 2nd yes Cancel 2nd is 1st queued (not yet running) yes yes no yes No Cancel Running Duplicates Cancel 1st Run 2nd No Cancel 2nd Figure 17.2: Allow Duplicate Jobs usage .

Priority = <number> This directive permits you to control the order in which your jobs will be run by specifying a positive non-zero number. because Bacula must examine them one at a time. • If Bacula is running a priority 2 job and a new priority 1 job is scheduled. and a new job is scheduled with priority 1. it will wait until the running priority 2 job terminates even if the Maximum Concurrent Jobs settings would otherwise allow two jobs to run simultaneously. all queued jobs of priority 1 will run before queued jobs of priority 2 and so on. you may avoid it by starting any higher priority jobs a few seconds before lower priority ones. you can backup the same data (or almost the same data) to two or more drives at the same time. there are two special keywords that permit you to clone the current job. If you experience this problem. If by Bacula starts a lower priority job first. However. the %s must be enclosed in double quotes. not jobs that are already running. the currently running priority 2 jobs must complete before the priority 1 job is run. then it will run before your high priority jobs. so it is not possible to recurse. you will find it much easier to do using a RunScript resource. if no other jobs are running. The job-name is normally the same name as the current Job resource (thus creating a clone). Run = <job-name> The Run directive (not to be confused with the Run option in a Schedule) allows you to start other jobs or to clone jobs. The default is no. Assuming you are not running concurrent jobs. Note. If one or more jobs of priority 2 are already running. They are level=%l and since=%s. no new lower priority jobs will start even if the Maximum Concurrent Jobs settings would normally allow them to run. it may be any Job name. the lower the job priority.136 Bacula Version 5. In addition. Please note that all cloned jobs. so one job may start other related jobs. Even if you set a lower priority on the clone job. and can contain any string or set of options (overrides) that you can specify when entering the Run command from the console. This ensures that higher priority jobs will be run as soon as possible. The default priority is 10. If you have several jobs of different priority. The higher the number. and thus they must be preceded by a backslash since they are already inside quotes. and that your priority scheme will be respected. For example storage=DDS-4 . This means that any clone job will actually start before the original job. By using the cloning keywords (see below). regardless of the original scheduling order. unless Allow Mixed Priority is set. That is: as long as there is a higher priority job waiting to run.. • Suppose that bacula is running a priority 2 job and a new priority 1 job is scheduled and queued waiting for the running priority 2 job to terminate. or a RunBeforeJob directive..3 Cancel Running Duplicates = <yes|no> If Allow Duplicate Jobs is set to no and if this directive is set to yes any job that is already running will be canceled. If you are trying to prioritize jobs by using the clone feature (Run directive). If you then start a second priority 2 job. The priority only affects waiting jobs that are queued to run.0. This insures that Bacula will examine the jobs in the correct order. it may not best to start them at exactly the same time. The part after the equal sign must be enclosed in double quotes. the waiting priority 1 job will prevent the new priority 2 job from running concurrently with the running priority 2 job. If you want to run concurrent jobs you should keep these points in mind: • See Running Concurrent Jobs on how to setup concurrent jobs. The %l in the level keyword permits entering the actual level of the current job and the %s in the since keyword permits putting the same time for comparison as used on the current job. it will start before the original job. • Bacula concurrently runs jobs of only one priority at a time. . and may even block the original job from starting until the original job finishes unless you allow multiple simultaneous jobs. For example: run = "Nightly-backup level=%l since=\"%s\" storage=DDS-4" A cloned job will not start additional clones. It will not simultaneously run a priority 1 and a priority 2 job. in the case of the since keyword.. as specified in the Run directives are submitted for running before the original job is run (while it is being initialized).

So. The Name directive is required. Pool. you could set this directive to no for all jobs. Storage and Messages resources.5 The Schedule Resource The Schedule resource provides a means of automatically scheduling a Job as well as the ability to override the default Level. Note that only higher priority jobs will start early. No Schedule resource is required.0.3 137 Allow Mixed Priority = <yes|no> This directive is only implemented in version 2. Write Part After Job = <yes|no> This directive is only implemented in version 1. However. on some media. . If you have two Run directives that start at the same time. Only the changes from the defaults need to be mentioned in each Job. the Job can only be run manually. If a job with priority 5 is added to the queue. each one referencing a JobDefs resource which contains the defaults. within one second of each other). The scheduler will only mix priorities when all running jobs have this set to true. multiple schedules). Name = <name> The name of the schedule being defined. a JobDefs resource does not create a Job. However. is written to the device. new priority 10 jobs will not be run until the priority 5 job has finished. two Jobs will start at the same time (well. a lot of space (about 10Mb) is lost every time a part is written. but you will need at least one if you want Jobs to be automatically started.Bacula Version 5. this job may run even if lower priority jobs are already running. However. It should be set to yes when writing to devices that require mount (for example DVD). Suppose the director will allow two concurrent jobs. and what overrides if any to apply. if you run several jobs each after another. Run = <Job-overrides> <Date-time-specification> The Run directive defines when a Job is to be run.5 and later. containing this job’s data. it will be run as soon as one of the running jobs finishes. If a Schedule resource is not referenced in a Job. The following is an example of a valid Job resource definition: Job { Name = "Minou" Type = Backup Level = Incremental Client = Minou FileSet="Minou Full Set" Storage = DLTDrive Pool = Default Schedule = "MinouWeeklyCycle" Messages = Standard } # default 17. This means a high priority job will not have to wait for other jobs to finish before starting. but to ensure that the data is written to the medium when all jobs are finished. like DVD+R and DVD-R. to avoid wasting too much space. This directive is ignored with tape and FIFO devices. rather it can be referenced within a Job to provide defaults for that Job. and that two jobs with priority 10 are running. You may specify multiple run directives within a Schedule resource.e. and that no data is left in the temporary file on the hard disk. If this directive is set to yes (default no). If you do. you specify an action to be taken and when. Schedule Start of the Schedule directives. they will all be applied (i.4 The JobDefs Resource The JobDefs resource permits all the same directives that can appear in a Job resource. 17. In general. When set to yes (default no). a new part file will be created after the job is finished. This permits you to concisely define several nearly identical Jobs. with two more in the queue.37 and later. except the last one. so you are sure that the current part.

FullPool=Full specifies to use the Pool named Full if the job is a full backup. That is the month and hour remain set to the defaults of every month and all hours.0. third. second. day is special in that you may either specify a day of the month such as 1. DifferentialPool=Differential specifies to use the Pool named Differential if the job is a differential backup. Note. and the Pool specifications provided in the Job resource..37 and later.. Please note. day. 2. and the value is as defined on the respective directive formats for the Job resource. The specification is a repetition. SpoolData=yes|no tells Bacula to request the Storage daemon to spool data to a disk file before writing it to the Volume (normally a tape). and minute the Job is to be run. or fifth week of the month. The default is yes. Finally. but for your weekly or monthly Full backups. SpoolSize=bytes where the bytes specify the maximum spool size for this job. such as Tuesday the Job will be run every hour of every Tuesday of every Month. or you may specify a day of the week such as Monday. hour. and the DifferentialPool specifications permit overriding the Pool specification according to what backup Job Level is in effect. Messages. day of the week. Storage=DLT Drive specifies to use DLT Drive for the storage device. For example.. Basically. By the use of overrides. Pool=Weekly specifies to use the Pool named Weekly. By specifying one or more of the above. this directive is implemented only in version 1. week of the month. and month when you want the job to run. Tuesday. Messages=Verbose specifies to use the Verbose message resource for the Job. by default with no other specification. DifferentialPool. or is upgraded from another type to a full backup. so you must specify or limit when you want the job to run. fourth. you will need to specify multiple run specifications each with a different minute. Date-time-specification determines when the Job is to be run. If you wish your job to run more than once in any given hour. Storage. or IncrementalPool. when the last job has finished one part will remain in the spool file and restore may or may not work. Any specification given is assumed to be repetitive in nature and will serve to override or limit the default repetition. .3.3 The Job-overrides permit overriding the Level. the Storage. the Messages. This directive is particularly useful when running multiple simultaneous backups to tape. The default is take from Device Maximum Spool Size limit. Level=Incremental is all files that have changed since the last backup. you may customize a particular Job.138 Bacula Version 5. Thus the data is written in large blocks to the Volume rather than small blocks. Sunday. 31. the IncrementalPool.. . We strongly recommend that you keep this set to yes otherwise. It prevents interleaving of the job data and reduces or eliminates tape drive stop and start commonly known as ”shoe-shine”. This directive is available only in Bacula version 2. This is not normally what you want. IncrementalPool=Incremental specifies to use the Pool named Incremental if the job is an incremental backup. In addition. day of the month. you may specify a Messages override for your Incremental backups that outputs messages to a log file. you may send the output by email by using a different Messages override. if you specify only a day of the week. FullPool. you can define a schedule to repeat at almost any frequency you want. This is done by specifying masks or times for the hour. Of these four items to be specified. week of the year. WritePartAfterJob=yes|no tells Bacula to request the Storage daemon to write the current part file to the device when the job is finished (see Write Part After Job directive in the Job resource). you must supply a month. your job will run at the beginning of every hour. For example. you may also specify a week qualifier to restrict the schedule to the first. Pool.5 or later. For example: Level=Full is all files in the FileSet whether or not they have changed. The date/time to run the Job can be specified in the following way in pseudo-BNF: . You may specify multiple Job-overrides on one Run directive by separating them with one or more spaces or by separating them with a trailing comma. the FullPool. and as a default Bacula is set to run a job at the beginning of the hour of every hour of every day of every week of every month of every year. Job-overrides are specified as: keyword=value where the keyword is Level.

has the first few days of the year if any occur before Thursday).. 12am and 12pm are ambiguous and can be defined to anything.. A week starts with Monday and ends with Sunday...3 and later.0. so Bacula defines 12am as 00:00 (midnight) and 12pm as 12:00 (noon).Bacula Version 5. An example schedule resource that is named WeeklyCycle and runs a job with level full each Sunday at 2:05am and an incremental job Monday through Saturday at 2:05am is: Schedule { Name = "WeeklyCycle" Run = Level=Full sun at 2:05 Run = Level=Incremental mon-sat at 2:05 } An example of a possible monthly cycle is as follows: Schedule { Name = "MonthlyCycle" Run = Level=Full Pool=Monthly 1st sun at 2:05 . 12:01am is the same as 00:01 and 12:01pm is the same as 12:01. 31 <time> = <hour>:<minute> | <12hour>:<minute>am | <12hour>:<minute>pm <time-spec> = <at-keyword> <time> | <hourly-keyword> <date-keyword> = <void-keyword> <weekly-keyword> <day-range> = <day>-<day> <month-range> = <month-keyword>-<month-keyword> <wday-range> = <wday-keyword>-<wday-keyword> <range> = <day-range> | <month-range> | <wday-range> <date> = <date-keyword> | <day> | <range> <date-spec> = <date> | <date-spec> <day-spec> = <day> | <wday-keyword> | <day> | <wday-range> | <week-keyword> <wday-keyword> | <week-keyword> <wday-range> | <daily-keyword> <month-spec> = <month-keyword> | <month-range> | <monthly-keyword> <date-time-spec> = <month-spec> <day-spec> <time-spec> 139 Note. or alternatively. w00 is not defined by the ISO specification.e.. the Week of Year specification wnn follows the ISO standard definition of the week of the year. This is the definition in Bacula version 2. You can avoid this abiguity (confusion) by using 24 hour time specifications (i.. Weeks are numbered w01 to w53. 59 <day> = 1 | 2 | .0... w52 | w53 <month-keyword> = jan | feb | mar | apr | may | jun | jul | aug | sep | oct | nov | dec | january | february | ... the week which contains the 4th of January. 23 <minute> = 0 | 1 | 2 | . However. w00 for Bacula is the week that precedes the first ISO week (i. where Week 1 is the week in which the first Thursday of the year occurs.3 <void-keyword> <at-keyword> <week-keyword> = on = at = 1st | 2nd | 3rd | 4th | 5th | first | second | third | fourth | fifth <wday-keyword> = sun | mon | tue | wed | thu | fri | sat | sunday | monday | tuesday | wednesday | thursday | friday | saturday <week-of-year-keyword> = w00 | w01 | .e.. 12 <hour> = 0 | 1 | 2 | . | december <daily-keyword> = daily <weekly-keyword> = weekly <monthly-keyword> = monthly <hourly-keyword> = hourly <digit> = 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 0 <number> = <digit> | <digit><number> <12hour> = 0 | 1 | 2 | . no am/pm). According to the NIST (US National Institute of Standards and Technology)..

The masks are hour. if you set a time (hour).7 The FileSet Resource The FileSet resource defines what files are to be included or excluded in a backup job. .. a list of files or directories to be excluded and the various backup options such as compression. and week of the year (woy). If you specify a second month. day of the week (wday).3 The first of every month: Schedule { Name = "First" Run = Level=Full on 1 at 2:05 Run = Level=Incremental on 2-31 at 2:05 } Every 10 minutes: Schedule { Name = "TenMinutes" Run = Level=Full hourly Run = Level=Full hourly Run = Level=Full hourly Run = Level=Full hourly Run = Level=Full hourly Run = Level=Full hourly } at at at at at at 0:05 0:15 0:25 0:35 0:45 0:55 17. A FileSet resource is required for each backup Job. and Sunday is the first day of the week (bit zero). UTF-8 is typically the default on Linux machines. the job will run. the mask will be cleared and the bit corresponding to your selected month will be selected. There are six masks and a minute field to each schedule. French. but not on all Unix machines.6 Technical Notes on Schedules Internally Bacula keeps a schedule as a bit mask. which means that at the beginning of every hour. However. Each time a new FileSet is created. and the hour you specify will be set in the bit mask and the minutes will be stored in the minute field. For any schedule you have defined. Likewise. your job will run only in the two months you have set. Please note that the bit mask is zero based. and signatures that are to be applied to each file. week of the month (wom).. nor on Windows. month. day of the month (mday). Bacula is designed to handle most character sets of the world.140 Run = Level=Differential 2nd-5th sun at 2:05 Run = Level=Incremental Pool=Daily mon-sat at 2:05 } Bacula Version 5. US ASCII.0. When you specify a month for the first time. German. It consists of a list of files or directories to be included. Chinese. and it expects all configuration files (including those read on Win32 machines) to be in UTF-8 format. Any change to the list of the included files will cause Bacula to automatically create a new FileSet (defined by the name and an MD5 checksum of the Include/Exclude contents). it does this by encoding everything in UTF-8. encryption. - 17. the hour mask will be cleared. Bacula will ensure that the next backup is always a Full save. The schedule is initialized to have the bits of each of these masks set. you can see how these bits are set by doing a show schedules command in the Console program. so you must take some care to ensure that your locale is set properly . Thus when Bacula checks the masks to see if the bits are set corresponding to the current time. the bit corresponding to it will also be added to the mask.

if you change the Include or Exclude. You should always specify a full path for every directory and file that you list in the FileSet.. Note. and Bacula adheres to that convention (i.) is explicitly mentioned in a File directive.. The default is yes. Bacula assumes that all filenames are in UTF-8 format on Linux and Unix machines. Bacula can at least copy open files.. For more information. Include { Options {<file-options>} . you should always prefix the directory or filename with the drive specification (e.g. if you modify the FileSet Include or Exclude lists. On most modern Win32 machines.UTF-8. <file-list> } Options { <file-options> } Exclude { <file-list> } The Include resource must contain a list of directories and/or files to be processed in the backup job. you will most likely not be able to restore your files due to the fact that the Windows path separator was defined as an escape character long before Windows existed. One FileSet resource must be defined for each Backup job.. Enable VSS = <yes|no> If this directive is set to yes the File daemon will be notified that the user wants to use a Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) backup for this job. The default is no. This means . and exactly how you define it will also vary. c:/xxx) using Unix directory name separators (forward slash). Normally.g. and for applications that are not VSS away. any changes you make to the FileSet Include or Exclude lists. Please see below for more details concerning Options resources. To ensure that Bacula configuration files can be correctly read including foreign characters the bf LANG environment variable must end in . Directory names should be specified without a trailing slash with Unix path notation. C:.3 141 before starting Bacula. in which case. The drive letter itself can be upper or lower case (e. The exact syntax may vary a bit from OS to OS. The file-list consists of one file or directory name per line. This directive is required. In addition. D:. please take note to specify directories (even c:/.g. and will be automatically converted to UTF-8 format. Ignore FileSet Changes = <yes|no> Normally. Bacula will not by default cross filesystems (or mount points in Unix parlance). c:/xxx or C:/xxx). This directive is effective only for VSS enabled Win32 File daemons.e. On Win32 they are in Unicode (UTF-16). Bacula will force a Full backup to ensure that everything is properly backed up.0.Bacula Version 5.. It permits a consistent copy of open files to be made for cooperating writer applications. We strongly recommend against setting this directive to yes. The Include resource may also contain one or more Options resources that specify options such as compression to be applied to all or any subset of the files found when processing the file-list for backup. all files found in all subdirectories of any directory in the Include File list will be backed up. There can be any number of Include resources within the FileSet. Bacula’s default for processing directories is to recursively descend in the directory saving all files and subdirectories. . you can edit the conf files with notebook and choose output encoding UTF-8.) in Unix path notation.. If you use Windows conventions. Name = <name> The name of the FileSet resource.UTF-8. the next backup will be forced to a Full so that Bacula can guarantee that any additions or deletions are properly saved. see below for the definition of <file-list>. Windows users. will not force a Full during subsequent backups. FileSet Start of the FileSet resource. since doing so may cause you to have an incomplete set of backups. If this directive is set to yes.. The Volume Shadow Copy will only be done on Windows drives where the drive (e. on Windows machines. An full example is en US. please see the Windows chapter of this manual. each having its own list of directories or files to be backed up and the backup options defined by one or more Options resources. means the next character appears as itself).

For example: Include { File = / File = /usr Options { compression=GZIP } } on a Unix system where /usr is a subdirectory (rather than a mounted filesystem) will cause /usr to be backed up twice. Please take note of the following items in the FileSet syntax: 1. Including a directory twice is very easy to do. 4. See below for the definition of file-list. In addition. If for some reason. Once one matches. It is a good idea to put all your wild-card and regex expressions inside double quotes to prevent conf file scanning problems. The Options resource is optional.. but when specified. This means that any wild cards must appear before an Options resource without wild cards. that file will be saved without looking at any other Options resources that may be present. you must explicitly specify each of the drives you want saved (e. Previously they were simply listed on separate lines. See below for an example. Bacula will save only the root partition and not any of the other mounted filesystems. Bacula as a default will then backup the file. However. 5. Similarly on Windows systems. where you want everything to be backed up. Take special care not to include a directory twice or Bacula will backup the same files two times wasting a lot of space on your archive device.142 Bacula Version 5. one additional point is that in the case that no match was found. Bacula will use the options found in the last Options resource.). The options that previously appeared on the Include line now must be specified within their own Options resource.3 that if you specify the root partition (e. This is quite logical if you consider the case of no Options clause is specified. you must explicitly specify an Option with an exclude = yes and some pattern matching.0. at least for Windows systems. you will most likely want to enclose each specification within double quotes particularly if the directory (or file) name contains spaces. Each directory (or filename) to be included or excluded is preceded by a File =. The wildcard and regular expression pattern matching parts of the Options resources are checked in the order they are specified in the FileSet until the first one that matches. The same is true for the Exclude. the compression and other flags within the Options specification will apply to the pattern matched.. 2. and it is important to keep in mind when excluding as mentioned above. As the files are found in the specified directories. The Exclude resource does not accept Options. Once Bacula determines that the Options resource matches the file under consideration. /). if you want a particular set of ”default” options. directory names are always terminated with a slash (/) and filenames have no trailing slash. it will contain a list of keyword=value options to be applied to the file-list.g. the Options will applied to the filenames to determine if and how the file should be backed up. you should put them in an Options resource after any other Options.g. As a consequence. The df command on Unix systems will show you which mount points you must specify to save everything. Multiple Options resources may be specified one after another. There is no equal sign (=) after the Include and before the opening brace ({). A key point is that in the absence of an Option or no other Option is matched. This means that if you want to exclude something. but there are no matches (generally because of wild cards that don’t match). c:/ and d:/ . 3. Bacula checks all the Options resources to a file under consideration for backup. When using wild-cards or regular expressions. every file is accepted for backing up. .

verify=<options> The options letters specified are used when running a Verify Level=Catalog as well as the DiskToCatalog level job. much lower probability of being hacked. and it can also be helpful if you have a fast computer but a slow network. The compression is done on a file by file basis by the File daemon. signature=SHA1 An SHA1 signature will be computed for all The SHA1 algorithm is purported to be some what slower than the MD5 algorithm. We strongly recommend that this option or the SHA1 option be specified as a default for all files. only one of the two options MD5 or SHA1 can be computed for any file. but at the same time is significantly better from a cryptographic point of view (i.3 143 This is perhaps a bit overwhelming. Software compression is very important if you are writing your Volumes to a file. you can specify it by appending the level number with no intervening spaces to GZIP. You can overwrite this option per Storage resource with AllowCompression option. If you want a different compression level (1 through 9). and compression=GZIP9 would give the highest level of compression. it will at most affect that file and none of the other files on the tape. Specifying GZIP uses the default compression level 6 (i. or better yet convert them to Wild statements which are much more efficient. which will cost quite a lot of CPU time. We strongly recommend that either this option or MD5 be specified as a default for all files. signature=MD5 An MD5 signature will be computed for all files saved. so there are a number of examples included below to illustrate how this works. In fact. The directives within an Options resource may be one of the following: compression=GZIP All files saved will be software compressed using the GNU ZIP compression format. your files may actually take more space on the volume. it is not generally a good idea to do both software and hardware compression. Note. but requires more computation. As noted above. the MD5 signature adds 16 more bytes per file to your catalog.e. The options letters are the same than in the verify= option below. otherwise it is generally better to rely your tape drive’s hardware compression. compression levels greater than six generally give very little extra compression and are rather CPU intensive. The options letters may be any combination of the following: i compare the inodes p compare the permission bits n compare the number of links u compare the user id g compare the group id s compare the size a compare the access time m compare the modification time (st mtime) c compare the change time (st ctime) d report file size decreases 5 compare the MD5 signature . If there is a problem reading the tape in a single record of a file. we recommend you simplify them if you can. much fewer collisions.0. In addition to the additional CPU time.) It adds four more bytes than the MD5 signature. Thus compression=GZIP1 would give minimum compression but the fastest algorithm. accurate=<options> The options letters specified are used when running a Backup Level=Incremental/Differential in Accurate mode. According to the GZIP documentation. GZIP is identical to GZIP6). The options letters are the same than in the verify= option below. basejob=<options> The options letters specified are used when running a Backup Level=Full with BaseJobs.e. Adding this option generates about 5% extra overhead for each file saved. You find yourself using a lot of Regex statements. Normally this option is not needed if you have a modern tape drive as the drive will do its own compression.Bacula Version 5. if you specify software compression at the same time you have hardware compression turned on.

000000000 +0100 2005-09-27 17:52:32. /sys. Will not descend from / into /sys /dev is a different filesystem. Otherwise. /proc.e. Will not descend into /misc If you wish to backup multiple filesystems. inodes. . Bacula will backup all mounted file systems (i.. If the Device: number is different for / and for your filesystem. and MD5 changes. traverse mount points) that are found within the FileSet. then they are on different filesystems. If you think that Bacula should be backing up a particular directory and it is not. Will not descend from / into /dev /home is a different filesystem.000000000 +0100 directory 0/ root) Also be aware that even if you include /home in your list of files to backup.... Will not descend from / into /selinux /sys is a different filesystem.g.3 A useful set of general options on the Level=Catalog or Level=DiskToCatalog verify is pins5 i. it will inform you when it decides not to traverse into another filesystem. Will not descend from / into /home Note: in previous versions of Bacula. /dev. If you are using a *nix system.e. Will not descend from /var/lib/nfs into /var/lib/nfs/rpc_ /selinux is a different filesystem. For example.). you may not even be aware that there are several different filesystems as they are often automatically mounted by the OS (e. stat / File: Size: Device: Access: Access: Modify: Change: ‘/’ 4096 Blocks: 16 IO Block: 4096 302h/770d Inode: 2 Links: 26 (0755/drwxr-xr-x) Uid: ( 0/ root) Gid: ( 2005-11-10 12:28:01. if you set the onefs option to no. before you complain.000000000 +0200 directory 0/ root) stat /net File: ‘/home’ Size: 4096 Blocks: 16 IO Block: 4096 Device: 308h/776d Inode: 2 Links: 7 Access: (0755/drwxr-xr-x) Uid: ( 0/ root) Gid: ( Access: 2005-11-10 12:28:02. Another possibility is to use onefs=no and to set fstype=ext2. Explicitly naming the filesystems you want backed up avoids the possibility of getting into a infinite loop recursing filesystems.000000000 +0200 2005-09-27 17:52:32.144 1 compare the SHA1 signature Bacula Version 5. E. However. they will also be backed up.g. it is preferable to set onefs=yes and to explicitly name each filesystem you want backed up.. as you most likely should. Bacula will remain on a single file system. number of links.000000000 +0100 Modify: 2005-11-06 12:36:48. With Bacula 1. Will not descend from / into /net /var/lib/nfs/rpc_pipefs is a different filesystem. please do: stat / stat <filesystem> where you replace filesystem with the one in question. Will not descend from / into /misc /net is a different filesystem. it is possible that the separate filesystem will be backed up despite the message. you will get the informational message that ”/home is a different filesystem” when Bacula is processing the / directory.0. This message does not indicate an error. the above message was of the form: Filesystem change prohibited.0 or later. Normally. you can explicitly list each filesystem you want saved. compare permission bits. /net. This can be very useful if you forgot to backup a particular partition. size. and you have onefs=no set. .38. This message means that while examining the File = referred to in the second part of the message. onefs=yes|no If set to yes (the default). Bacula will not descend into the directory mentioned in the first part of the message. An example of the informational message in the job report is: rufus-fd: rufus-fd: rufus-fd: rufus-fd: rufus-fd: rufus-fd: rufus-fd: /misc is a different filesystem. See the example below for more details. That is it will not backup file systems that are mounted on a subdirectory.000000000 +0100 Change: 2005-11-06 12:36:48. Thus if you have NFS or Samba file systems mounted on a directory listed in your FileSet. consider the following FileSet: .

g. but not descend into the subdirectories. and thus will not save the files or directories contained in the subdirectories. recurse=yes|no If set to yes (the default). However this format is not portable to other systems – e. but there will be a small additional overhead to check for buffers of all zero. most BSD-derived systems) Bacula will honor the setting of the flag when this option is set to yes. this option is set to no. then 512 bytes at address 1 million. The operating system will allocate only two blocks. tells the Client to read the data on a backup and write the data on a restore to any FIFO (pipe) that is explicitly mentioned in the FileSet. all the previously empty space will now be allocated using much more disk space. As a consequence. you will want the default (yes). readfifo=yes|no If enabled. sparse=yes|no Enable special code that checks for sparse files such as created by ndbm. the data will be backed up using Windows API calls and on WinNT/2K/XP. Vladimir Stavrinov as supplied tip that allows this feature to work correctly. the Bacula File daemon will backup Win32 files in a portable format. then /var will not be backed up. Worse yet. Bacula will hang indefinitely on reading/writing the FIFO. the warning is bogus. If you changed the FileSet such that it did not specify /var. On a slow system. an example is say a file where you wrote 512 bytes at address zero. the Bacula job will block and everything will stall. If you suspect you have sparse files. it waits until that script terminates. Win95/98/Me. it will be treated as a sparse block and not written to tape. If the whole buffer is zero. Files having this flag set will not be included in the backup and will not show up in the catalog. you must have a program already running that writes into the FIFO for a backup or reads from the FIFO on a restore. If this is not the case. In this example. You may specify sparse=yes even on files that are not sparse file. the OS will return all zeros as if the space were allocated. He simply adds the following to the beginning of the RunBeforeJob script: . /var will be backed up. and a small additional amount of space on the output archive will be used to save the seek address of each non-zero record read. However. No harm will be done. Restrictions: Bacula reads files in 32K buffers. By default. a lot of space will be used to write zeros to the volume. when Bacula runs a RunBeforeJob. and if the script accesses the FIFO to write into the it. Unfortunately.0. When backing up Unix systems. If the honor nodump flag option is not defined or set to no every file and directory will be eligible for backup. the Client simply saves the directory entry for the FIFO. we recommend accept the default (no) so that the maximum information concerning your files is saved. this may be important.3 File = / File = /var 145 where /var is a separate filesystem. Bacula will recurse (or descend) into all subdirectories found unless the directory is explicitly excluded using an exclude definition. If you are not familiar with sparse files. In this example. The default is no. when you read the sparse file and read the addresses where nothing was written. and if you backup such a file. g. In this case. If you set recurse=no. all the security and ownership attributes will be properly backed up (and restored). if any part of the buffer is non-zero. However. portable=yes|no If set to yes (default is no). Bacula will specifically look for empty space in the file. However. and the empty space or hole will have nothing allocated. The price to pay for this is that Bacula must search each block it reads before writing it. By turning on the sparse option. honor nodump flag=<yes|no> If your file system supports the nodump flag (e. when you restore the file. This can be accomplished with the RunBeforeJob directive. When this is not enabled (default). But it is important to realise that Bacula will descend into /var from the second File directive shown above. so no checks are made for sparse files. which means that on Win32 systems. you should benchmark the difference or set sparse for only those files that are really sparse. Bacula’s detection of sparse blocks is in 32K increments rather than the system block size. Unix.Bacula Version 5. this option is ignored. please send in a request for change with the reason. possibly including some disk sectors (generally 4098 bytes) that are all zero. but it is supplied to alert you to possible omissions from your FileSet. but not all Win32 file attributes will be saved and restored. the whole buffer will be written to tape. Normally. and unless you have a specific need to have portable backups. you will get a message saying that Bacula will not decend from / into /var. Bacula will save the subdirectory entries. If anyone considers this to be a real problem. nor will it be restored. In effect. and any empty space will not be written to the Volume. For directories with the nodump flag set recursion is turned off and the directory will be listed in the catalog.

4 or greater. This doesn’t occur on normal Unix systems. zog-fd: Client1. no files or directories below it will be matched. Note. If your Operating System does not support this option. It also prevents a race condition when two programs are reading the same file. (I’m not sure this works on Win32). set hardlinks=no and hard links will not be backed up. wilddir=<string> Specifies a wild-card string to be applied to directory names only. using this option will most likely backup more data and on a restore the file system will not be restored identically to the original.0. if enabled. You can also test your full FileSet definition by using the estimate command in the Console chapter of this manual. In such a case. Please see the Utilities chapter of this manual for more. no files or directories below it will be matched. or even millions of hard links.21 Error: /tmp/test mtime changed during backup. you will probably also want to use mtimeonly = yes as well as keepatime (thanks to Rudolf Cejka for this tip). It makes it possible to read a file without updating the inode atime (and also without the inode ctime update which happens if you try to set the atime back to its previous value). if you exclude a directory. and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches. the wild-card will select directories to be included. the wild-card will select which files are to be included. it is recommended to use this option. Backups become very long and the File daemon will consume a lot of CPU power checking hard links. Bacula will open all files to be backed up with this option. If Exclude=yes is specified. tells the Client that the selection of files during Incremental and Differential backups should based only on the st mtime value in the stat() packet. When enabled. Bacula will reset the st atime (access time) field of files that it backs up to their value prior to the backup. Note. and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches. If time or size mismatch.2007-03-31_09. the File daemon keeps track of hard linked files and will backup the data only once. . However. such as mailboxes. Note. hardlinks=yes|no When enabled (default). when Bacula backs up the file. it will be silently ignored by Bacula. for some files. and the backup overhead is increased because of the additional system call necessary to reset the times. the change time (st ctime) will automatically be modified by the system. As a consequence. The default is no which means that the selection of files to be backed up will be based on both the st mtime and the st ctime values. an error will raise. if Exclude is not enabled. if Exclude is not enabled. Note.3 noatime=yes|no If enabled. However. In this. No filenames will be matched by this directive. mtimeonly=yes|no If enabled. and if your Operating System supports the O NOATIME file open flag. the wild-card will select which directories are to be excluded. if you exclude a directory. It replaces both the keepatime option without the inconveniences of that option (see below). In general. This option is not generally recommended as there are very few programs that use st atime. Note.0. It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes. checkfilechanges=yes|no On versions 2. it is not recommended to use this option. age of each file after their backup to see if they have changed during backup. the Client will check size. Note. it can create hundreds of thousands. the file will be backed up even if it has not changed. The process of keeping track of the hard links can be quite expensive if you have lots of them (tens of thousands or more). the user will notice that someone (Bacula) has accessed the file. If Exclude=yes is specified. the wild-card will select which files are to be excluded. Multiple wild-card directives may be specified. keepatime=yes|no The default is no. You may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bwild program. this directive will cause hard links to be backed up. case keepatime can be useful. This option is particularly useful for sites where users are sensitive to their MailBox file access time. wild=<string> Specifies a wild-card string to be applied to the filenames and directory names. but if you use a program like BackupPC. It’s most useful for backup programs and file integrity checkers (and bacula can fit on both categories). so on the next incremental job.146 exec > /dev/null Bacula Version 5. but only one does not want to change the atime. when Bacula resets the access time. In general.46. Multiple wild-card directives may be specified. if you use this feature.

the regex will select which files are to be included. or better yet convert them to Wild statements which are much more efficient. and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches. the regex will select which files are to be excluded. regular expressions are complicated. It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes. Multiple wild-card directives may be specified. which include the full path. and in addition. so you may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bregex program. Multiple regex directives may be specified within an Options resource. so your regex string must take into account that filenames are preceded by the full path. note that the match is done against the full path and filename. note that the match is done against the full path and filename. regexdir=<string> Specifies a POSIX extended regular expression to be applied to directory names only. Please see the Utilities chapter of this manual for more. If Exclude=yes is specified. which will cost quite a lot of CPU time. It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes. It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes. we recommend you simplify them if you can. exclude=yes|no The default is no. The regex libraries differ from one operating system to another. the regex will select which files are to be excluded. if you exclude a directory. Please see the Utilities chapter of this manual for more. The regex libraries differ from one operating system to another. That is no directory entries will be matched by this directive. regexfile=<string> Specifies a POSIX extended regular expression to be applied to non-directories. You can also test your full FileSet definition by using the estimate command in the Console chapter of this manual. Bacula will backup the file and directory UNIX Access Control Lists (ACL) as defined . 147 You may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bwild program. Please see the Utilities chapter of this manual for more. Please see the Utilities chapter of this manual for more. The regex libraries differ from one operating system to another. An example of excluding with the WildDir option on Win32 machines is presented below. Note. Note. You may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bwild program. if you exclude a directory. If Exclude is not enabled. regular expressions are complicated. Multiple regex directives may be specified. no files or directories below it will be matched. and in addition. and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches. no files or directories below it will be matched. the regex will select directories files are to be included. and you have the POSIX libacl installed on your system. If Exclude is not enabled. and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches. the wild-card will select which files are to be included. regular expressions are complicated. It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes. the wild-card will select which files are to be excluded. If Exclude=yes is specified. wildfile=<string> Specifies a wild-card string to be applied to non-directories. the regex will select which files are to be excluded. any files matched within the Options will be excluded from the backup. You find yourself using a lot of Regex statements. aclsupport=yes|no The default is no. the regex will select which files are to be included. If Exclude=yes is specified.Bacula Version 5. When enabled. if Exclude is not enabled. If this option is set to yes. and they will be applied in turn until the first one that matches. so your wild-card string must take into account that filenames are preceded by the full path. No filenames will be matched by this directive.0. However. You can also test your full FileSet definition by using the estimate command in the Console chapter of this manual. so you may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bregex program. No directories will be matched by this directive.3 It is recommended to enclose the string in double quotes. You can also test your full FileSet definition by using the estimate command in the Console chapter of this manual. Please see the Utilities chapter of this manual for more. An example of excluding with the WildFile option on Win32 machines is presented below. If Exclude is not enabled. However. and in addition. so you may want to test your expressions prior to running your backup by using the bregex program. Multiple regex directives may be specified. Note. regex=<string> Specifies a POSIX extended regular expression to be applied to the filenames and directory names. If Exclude=yes is specified.

smbfs. reiserfs. What must be in the file depends on the location the @filename is specified in the conf file.out).1e” (abandoned). Normally. To include names containing spaces. This option is not implemented in Win32 systems. when you use this directive. This can be useful if you are migrating data from another vendor or if you have taken a snapshot into some subdirectory. This directive can be used to prevent backing up non-local filesystems. This directive can cause your filenames to be overlayed with regular backup data. fixed. sysfs. When this directive is set to yes all the case of character will be ignored in wild-card and regex comparisons. strippath=<integer> This option will cause integer paths to be stripped from the front of the full path/filename being backed up. you will almost surely want to set this to yes. For example: Include { Options { compression=GZIP } @/home/files/my-files } . This feature is available on UNIX only and depends on the ACL library. Normally. If the type specified on the drivetype directive does not match the filesystem for a particular directive.3 in IEEE Std 1003.1e draft 17 and ”POSIX. fstype=filesystem-type This option allows you to select files and directories by the filesystem type. ntfs. that the file is read on the Director’s machine and not on the Client’s. ramdisk You may have multiple Driveype directives. There are a number of special cases when specifying directories and files in a file-list. Please note. This option is not implemented in Unix/Linux systems. usbdevfs. that directory will not be backed up. They can only be specified in Options resources. and thus permit matching of multiple filesystem types within a single Options resource. For ext3 systems. cdrom. The permitted filesystem-type names are: ext2. <file-list> is a list of directory and/or filename names specified with a File = directive. the @filename can appear anywhere within the conf file where a token would be read. DriveType=Windows-drive-type This option is effective only on Windows machines and is somewhat similar to the Unix/Linux fstype described above. In fact. While restoring the files Bacula will try to restore the ACLs. if there is no ACL support available on the system. ignore case=yes|no The default is no. Bacula is automatically compiled with ACL support if the libacl library is installed on your system (shown in config. jfs. if you backup an EXT3 or XFS filesystem with ACLs. If the type specified on the fstype directive does not match the filesystem for a particular directive. proc. On Windows systems. that directory will not be backed up. iso9660. remote.148 Bacula Version 5. Wild-cards are not interpreted in file-lists. then you restore them to a different filesystem (perhaps reiserfs) that does not have ACLs. and thus permit matching of multiple drive types within a single Options resource. This directive can be used to prevent backing up non-local filesystems. use ext2. That is an uppercase A will match a lowercase a. They are: • Any name preceded by an at-sign (@) is assumed to be the name of a file.0. you would also set onefs=no so that Bacula will traverse filesystems. except that it allows you to select what Windows drive types you want to allow. The permitted drivetype names are: removable. xfs. enclose the name between double-quotes. you would also set onefs=no so that Bacula will traverse filesystems. the ACLs will be ignored. By default all drive types are accepted. Note. Bacula restores the files and directories but not the ACL information. and the contents of the named file will be logically inserted in the place of the @filename. You may have multiple Fstype directives. hfsplussupport=yes|no This option allows you to turn on support for Mac OSX HFS plus finder information. so should be used only by experts and with great care. The named file is read once when the configuration file is parsed during the Director startup. which contains a list of files each preceded by a ”File =”. when you use this directive.

for example.3 and set onefs=no. that backs up all the local UFS partitions on a remote system is: FileSet { Name = "All local partitions" Include { Options { signature=SHA1. However. Quoting is a real problem because you must quote for Bacula which consists of preceding every \ and every ” with a \. please note two things: 1.*/tmp\" \ | awk \"{print \\$6}\"’" } will produce a list of all the local partitions on a Red Hat Linux system. Bacula will treat everything between the single quotes as one field so it will not be necessary to escape the spaces.*/tmp" \ | awk "{print \$6}" If the vertical bar (|) in front of my partitions is preceded by a backslash as in \|.3 149 • Any name beginning with a vertical bar (|) is assumed to be the name of a program. includes all the local partitions even if you change the partitioning by adding a disk. shell character. In that case the sh -c will not be necessary providing the first line of the file is #!/bin/sh. and any output from that program will be assumed to be a list of files or directories. on recent Linux systems. one per line. For example. and you must also quote for the shell command. you will need to use two slashes. In general. the options will be different as well. This program will be executed on the Director’s machine at the time the Job starts (not when the Director reads the configuration file). the exact syntax of the command needed in the examples below is very system dependent. the program will be executed on the Client’s machine instead of on the Director’s machine. In the end. you probably should be using the new fstype directive. } File = "\\|bash -c \"df -klF ufs | tail +2 | awk ’{print \$6}’\"" } } . if you want the local filesystems. In general.0. you may need to add the -P option. it is often easier to put everything in a file and simply use the file name within Bacula. you must take care to escape (precede with a \) wild-cards. As a consequence. Also. onefs=yes. which was added in version 1. to be included. you will need to prefix your command or commands with a sh -c so that they are invoked by a shell. Note. If you use a single quotes (’) within a double quote (”). getting all the quotes and escapes correct is a real pain as you can see by the next example. it is probably easier just to execute a small file with: Include { Options { signature=MD5 } File = "|my_partitions" } where my partitions has: #!/bin/sh df -l | grep "^/dev/hd[ab]" | grep -v ".Bacula Version 5. This allows you to have a job that.36. provided by John Donagher. the above line was split. An example. and to ensure that any spaces in your command are escaped as well. This will not be the case if you are invoking a script as in the second example below. but should normally be written on one line. Please note that if the filename is given within quotes. on FreeBSD systems. As an example: Include { Options { signature = SHA1 } File = "|sh -c ’df -l | grep \"^/dev/hd[ab]\" | grep -v \". Before submitting the specified command bacula will performe character substitution. 2. The examples below show you how to do this.

This file will be read on the Director’s machine (see below for doing it on the Client machine) at the time the Job starts. then Bacula (starting with version 1. you will save the whole partition rather than just the actual data that the partition contains. In the case of a disaster. Please note that if the filename is given within quotes. sparse=yes } File = /dev/hd6 } will backup the data in device /dev/hd6.0. e. and you will be in business. the file-list will be read on the Client machine instead of on the Director’s machine. If you know what filesystems you have mounted on your system. one per line. This feature allows you to modify the external file and change what will be saved without stopping and restarting Bacula as would be necessary if using the @ modifier noted above. fstype=ext2 } File = / } • Any file-list item preceded by a less-than sign (<) will be taken to be a file. to be included. Note.3 The above requires two backslash characters after the double quote (one preserves the next one). If you are a Linux user. For example: Include { Options { signature = SHA1 } File = "</home/files/local-filelist" } If you precede the less-than sign (<) with a backslash as in \<. Simply boot into the system using a Linux Rescue disk. otherwise. the bf /dev/hd6 must be the raw partition itself. In this case. Bacula will read the FIFO and back its data up to the Volume. Bacula will not back it up as a raw device if you specify a symbolic link to a raw device such as my be created by the LVM Snapshot utilities. onfs=no. and the data will be assumed to be a list of directories or files.g. Include { Options { signature = SHA1 } File = "\\</home/xxx/filelist-on-client" } • If you explicitly specify a block device such as /dev/hda1. For example: Include { Options { signature=MD5. just change the ufs to ext3 (or your preferred filesystem type). • If you explicitly specify a FIFO device name (created with mkfifo). for Red Hat Linux normally only ext2 and ext3. then load a statically linked Bacula as described in the Disaster Recovery Using Bacula chapter of this manual. and you add the option readfifo=yes as an option. you are strongly urged to specify a sparse=yes include option.150 Bacula Version 5. you will need to use two slashes. Then save the whole disk partition. For example: Include { Options { signature=SHA1 readfifo=yes } File = /home/abc/fifo } . you can backup all local filesystems using something like: Include { Options { signature = SHA1. Ludovic Strappazon has pointed out that this feature can be used to backup a full Microsoft Windows disk.28) will assume that this is a raw partition to be backed up. The names should start in column 1 and should not be quoted even if they contain spaces. you can then restore the desired partition by again booting with the rescue disk and doing a restore of the partition.

etc). • The ExcludeDirContaining = <filename> is a directive that can be added to the Include section of the FileSet resource. Use directives in the Options resource if you wish to specify wild-cards or regular expression matching. Be sure to read the readfifo section that gives a tip to ensure that the RunBeforeJob does not block Bacula. you must have a process on the system that is writing into the fifo. there may be hundreds of directories of users and some people want to indicate that they don’t want to have certain directories backed up. That is. if any such FIFOs exist in the fileset to be restored. You can use the RunBeforeJob to create the fifo and to start a program that dynamically reads your database and writes it to the fifo. For example: # List of files to be backed up FileSet { Name = "MyFileSet" Include { Options { signature = MD5 } File = /home Exclude Dir Containing = . the whole directory will be ignored (not backed up).excludeme in specific directories. Note. read it. the @).excludeme then Bacula will not backup the two directories named: /home/user/www/cache /home/user/temp NOTE: subdirectories will not be backed up. the directive applies to the two directories in question and any children (be they files. Bacula will give up and go on to the next file. if the user or sysadmin creates a file named . 17. and after one minute of waiting.list when Bacula is started (i. and after one minute. For example.8 FileSet Examples The following is an example of a valid FileSet resource definition. such as /home/user/www/cache/. Bacula will then write it to the Volume.excludeme /home/user/temp/. Please note.e. If the specified filename (filename-string) is found on the Client in any directory to be backed up.excludeme } } But in /home. Bacula will time out the write to the fifo and move on to the next file. and that file must have each filename to be backed up preceded by a File = and on a separate line. Bacula will open the fifo. • A file-list may not contain wild-cards. with the above FileSet.Bacula Version 5. that data will be written back to the fifo. after Bacula creates the fifo if there was any data stored with it (no need to explicitly list it or add any options). FileSet { Name = "Full Set" Include { . or Bacula will hang. the first Include pulls in the contents of the file /etc/backup. you must ensure that there is a reader program or Bacula will block. the inverse is true. and store all data thus obtained on the Volume.0. directories. This feature can be an excellent way to do a ”hot” backup of a very large database. During the restore operation. As a consequence. The data read can be anything since Bacula treats it as a stream.3 151 if /home/abc/fifo is a fifo device.

o" wildfile = "*.3 In the above example. all the files contained in /etc/backup.exe will be excluded. it and all files and directories below it will also be excluded. The simplest way to do so is to add an exclude directive that lists /tmp. Doing a df command. Let’s say that you now want to exclude the directory /tmp. The problem that comes up is that Bacula will not normally cross from one filesystem to another.list } Include { Options { wildfile = "*.exe" Exclude = yes } File = /root/myfile File = /usr/lib/another_file } } Bacula Version 5.o" wildfile = "*.0. Now lets take a slight variation on the above and suppose you want to save all your whole filesystem except /tmp. The two directories /root/myfile and /usr/lib/another file will also be saved without any options.o and . but all files in those directories with the extensions . and sparse file handling will apply.list } Include { Options { wildfile = "*.list will be compressed with GZIP compression. an SHA1 signature will be computed on the file’s contents (its data).exe" Exclude = yes } File = /root/myfile File = /usr/lib/another_file } Exclude { File = /tmp } } You can add wild-cards to the File directives listed in the Exclude directory.152 Options { Compression=GZIP signature=SHA1 Sparse = yes } @/etc/backup. The example above would then become: FileSet { Name = "Full Set" Include { Options { Compression=GZIP signature=SHA1 Sparse = yes } @/etc/backup. you get the following output: [kern@rufus k]$ df Filesystem 1k-blocks /dev/hda5 5044156 /dev/hda1 62193 /dev/hda9 20161172 /dev/hda2 62217 /dev/hda8 5044156 /dev/hda6 5044156 none 127708 //minimatou/c$ 14099200 lmatou:/ 1554264 Used Available Use% Mounted on 439232 4348692 10% / 4935 54047 9% /boot 5524660 13612372 29% /home 6843 52161 12% /rescue 42548 4745376 1% /tmp 2613132 2174792 55% /usr 0 127708 0% /dev/shm 9895424 4203776 71% /mnt/mmatou 215884 1258056 15% /mnt/matou . but you need to take care because if you exclude a directory.

Bacula Version 5.0.3
lmatou:/home lmatou:/usr lpmatou:/ lpmatou:/home lpmatou:/usr deuter:/ deuter:/home deuter:/files 2478140 1981000 995116 19222656 2478140 4806936 4806904 44133352 1589952 1199960 484112 2787880 2038764 97684 280100 27652876 760072 678628 459596 15458228 311260 4465064 4282620 14238608 68% 64% 52% 16% 87% 3% 7% 67% /mnt/matou/home /mnt/matou/usr /mnt/pmatou /mnt/pmatou/home /mnt/pmatou/usr /mnt/deuter /mnt/deuter/home /mnt/deuter/files

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And we see that there are a number of separate filesystems (/ /boot /home /rescue /tmp and /usr not to mention mounted systems). If you specify only / in your Include list, Bacula will only save the Filesystem /dev/hda5. To save all filesystems except /tmp with out including any of the Samba or NFS mounted systems, and explicitly excluding a /tmp, /proc, .journal, and .autofsck, which you will not want to be saved and restored, you can use the following:
FileSet { Name = Include_example Include { Options { wilddir = /proc wilddir = /tmp wildfile = "/.journal" wildfile = "/.autofsck" exclude = yes } File = / File = /boot File = /home File = /rescue File = /usr } }

Since /tmp is on its own filesystem and it was not explicitly named in the Include list, it is not really needed in the exclude list. It is better to list it in the Exclude list for clarity, and in case the disks are changed so that it is no longer in its own partition. Now, lets assume you only want to backup .Z and .gz files and nothing else. This is a bit trickier because Bacula by default will select everything to backup, so we must exclude everything but .Z and .gz files. If we take the first example above and make the obvious modifications to it, we might come up with a FileSet that looks like this:
FileSet { Name = "Full Set" Include { Options { wildfile = "*.Z" wildfile = "*.gz" } File = /myfile } }

!!!!!!!!!!!! This example doesn’t work !!!!!!!!!!!!

The *.Z and *.gz files will indeed be backed up, but all other files that are not matched by the Options directives will automatically be backed up too (i.e. that is the default rule). To accomplish what we want, we must explicitly exclude all other files. We do this with the following:
FileSet { Name = "Full Set" Include { Options { wildfile = "*.Z" wildfile = "*.gz" }

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Options { Exclude = yes RegexFile = ".*" } File = /myfile } }

Bacula Version 5.0.3

The ”trick” here was to add a RegexFile expression that matches all files. It does not match directory names, so all directories in /myfile will be backed up (the directory entry) and any *.Z and *.gz files contained in them. If you know that certain directories do not contain any *.Z or *.gz files and you do not want the directory entries backed up, you will need to explicitly exclude those directories. Backing up a directory entries is not very expensive. Bacula uses the system regex library and some of them are different on different OSes. The above has been reported not to work on FreeBSD. This can be tested by using the estimate job=job-name listing command in the console and adapting the RegexFile expression appropriately. In a future version of Bacula, we will supply our own Regex code to avoid such system dependencies. Please be aware that allowing Bacula to traverse or change file systems can be very dangerous. For example, with the following:
FileSet { Name = "Bad example" Include { Options { onefs=no } File = /mnt/matou } }

you will be backing up an NFS mounted partition (/mnt/matou), and since onefs is set to no, Bacula will traverse file systems. Now if /mnt/matou has the current machine’s file systems mounted, as is often the case, you will get yourself into a recursive loop and the backup will never end. As a final example, let’s say that you have only one or two subdirectories of /home that you want to backup. For example, you want to backup only subdirectories beginning with the letter a and the letter b – i.e. /home/a* and /home/b*. Now, you might first try:
FileSet { Name = "Full Set" Include { Options { wilddir = "/home/a*" wilddir = "/home/b*" } File = /home } }

The problem is that the above will include everything in /home. To get things to work correctly, you need to start with the idea of exclusion instead of inclusion. So, you could simply exclude all directories except the two you want to use:
FileSet { Name = "Full Set" Include { Options { RegexDir = "^/home/[c-z]" exclude = yes } File = /home } }

And assuming that all subdirectories start with a lowercase letter, this would work. An alternative would be to include the two subdirectories desired and exclude everything else:

Bacula Version 5.0.3
FileSet { Name = "Full Set" Include { Options { wilddir = "/home/a*" wilddir = "/home/b*" } Options { RegexDir = ".*" exclude = yes } File = /home } }

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The following example shows how to back up only the My Pictures directory inside the My Documents directory for all users in C:/Documents and Settings, i.e. everything matching the pattern: C:/Documents and Settings/*/My Documents/My Pictures/* To understand how this can be achieved, there are two important points to remember: Firstly, Bacula walks over the filesystem depth-first starting from the File = lines. It stops descending when a directory is excluded, so you must include all ancestor directories of each directory containing files to be included. Secondly, each directory and file is compared to the Options clauses in the order they appear in the FileSet. When a match is found, no further clauses are compared and the directory or file is either included or excluded. The FileSet resource definition below implements this by including specifc directories and files and excluding everything else.
FileSet { Name = "AllPictures" Include { File = "C:/Documents and Settings"

Options { signature = SHA1 verify = s1 IgnoreCase = yes # Include all users’ directories so we reach the inner ones. Unlike a # WildDir pattern ending in *, this RegExDir only matches the top-level # directories and not any inner ones. RegExDir = "^C:/Documents and Settings/[^/]+$" # Ditto all users’ My Documents directories. WildDir = "C:/Documents and Settings/*/My Documents" # Ditto all users’ My Documents/My Pictures directories. WildDir = "C:/Documents and Settings/*/My Documents/My Pictures" # Include the contents of the My Documents/My Pictures directories and # any subdirectories. Wild = "C:/Documents and Settings/*/My Documents/My Pictures/*" } Options { Exclude = yes IgnoreCase = yes # Exclude everything else, in particular any files at the top level and # any other directories or files in the users’ directories. Wild = "C:/Documents and Settings/*" } } }

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Bacula Version 5.0.3

17.9

Backing up Raw Partitions

The following FileSet definition will backup a raw partition:
FileSet { Name = "RawPartition" Include { Options { sparse=yes } File = /dev/hda2 } }

While backing up and restoring a raw partition, you should ensure that no other process including the system is writing to that partition. As a precaution, you are strongly urged to ensure that the raw partition is not mounted or is mounted read-only. If necessary, this can be done using the RunBeforeJob directive.

17.10

Excluding Files and Directories

You may also include full filenames or directory names in addition to using wild-cards and Exclude=yes in the Options resource as specified above by simply including the files to be excluded in an Exclude resource within the FileSet. For example:
FileSet { Name = Exclusion_example Include { Options { Signature = SHA1 } File = / File = /boot File = /home File = /rescue File = /usr } Exclude { File = /proc File = /tmp File = .journal File = .autofsck } }

17.11

Windows FileSets

If you are entering Windows file names, the directory path may be preceded by the drive and a colon (as in c:). However, the path separators must be specified in Unix convention (i.e. forward slash (/)). If you wish to include a quote in a file name, precede the quote with a backslash (\). For example you might use the following for a Windows machine to backup the ”My Documents” directory:
FileSet { Name = "Windows Set" Include { Options { WildFile = "*.obj" WildFile = "*.exe" exclude = yes } File = "c:/My Documents" } }

Bacula Version 5.0.3 For exclude lists to work correctly on Windows, you must observe the following rules: • Filenames are case sensitive, so you must use the correct case. • To exclude a directory, you must not have a trailing slash on the directory name.

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• If you have spaces in your filename, you must enclose the entire name in double-quote characters (”). Trying to use a backslash before the space will not work. • If you are using the old Exclude syntax (noted below), you may not specify a drive letter in the exclude. The new syntax noted above should work fine including driver letters. Thanks to Thiago Lima for summarizing the above items for us. If you are having difficulties getting includes or excludes to work, you might want to try using the estimate job=xxx listing command documented in the Console chapter of this manual. On Win32 systems, if you move a directory or file or rename a file into the set of files being backed up, and a Full backup has already been made, Bacula will not know there are new files to be saved during an Incremental or Differential backup (blame Microsoft, not me). To avoid this problem, please copy any new directory or files into the backup area. If you do not have enough disk to copy the directory or files, move them, but then initiate a Full backup.

A Windows Example FileSet The following example was contributed by Russell Howe. Please note that for presentation purposes, the lines beginning with Data and Internet have been wrapped and should included on the previous line with one space.
This is my Windows 2000 fileset: FileSet { Name = "Windows 2000" Include { Options { signature = MD5 Exclude = yes IgnoreCase = yes # Exclude Mozilla-based programs’ file caches WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Application Data/*/Profiles/*/*/Cache" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Application Data/*/Profiles/*/*/Cache.Trash" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Application Data/*/Profiles/*/*/ImapMail" # Exclude user’s registry files - they’re always in use anyway. WildFile = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Local Settings/Application Data/Microsoft/Windows/usrclass.*" WildFile = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/ntuser.*" # Exclude directories full of lots and lots of useless little files WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Cookies" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Recent" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Local Settings/History" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Local Settings/Temp" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/*/Local Settings/Temporary Internet Files" # These are always open and unable to be backed up WildFile = "[A-Z]:/Documents and Settings/All Users/Application Data/Microsoft/Network/Downloader/qmgr[01].dat" # Some random bits of Windows we want to ignore WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/security/logs/scepol.log" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/config" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/msdownld.tmp" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/Internet Logs" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/$Nt*Uninstall*" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/sysvol" WildFile = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/cluster/CLUSDB"

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WildFile WildFile WildFile WildFile WildFile WildFile WildFile WildFile WildFile WildFile WildFile WildFile WildFile WildFile WildFile WildFile WildFile = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/cluster/CLUSDB.LOG" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/NTDS/edb.log" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/NTDS/ntds.dit" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/NTDS/temp.edb" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/ntfrs/jet/log/edb.log" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/ntfrs/jet/ntfrs.jdb" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/ntfrs/jet/temp/tmp.edb" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/CPL.CFG" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/dhcp/dhcp.mdb" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/dhcp/j50.log" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/dhcp/tmp.edb" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/LServer/edb.log" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/LServer/TLSLic.edb" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/LServer/tmp.edb" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/wins/j50.log" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/wins/wins.mdb" "[A-Z]:/WINNT/system32/wins/winstmp.mdb"

Bacula Version 5.0.3

# Temporary directories & files WildDir = "[A-Z]:/WINNT/Temp" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/temp" WildFile = "*.tmp" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/tmp" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/var/tmp" # Recycle bins WildDir = "[A-Z]:/RECYCLER" # Swap files WildFile = "[A-Z]:/pagefile.sys" # These are programs and are easier to reinstall than restore from # backup WildDir = "[A-Z]:/cygwin" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Grisoft" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Java" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Java Web Start" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/JavaSoft" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Microsoft Office" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Mozilla Firefox" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/Mozilla Thunderbird" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/mozilla.org" WildDir = "[A-Z]:/Program Files/OpenOffice*" } # Our Win2k boxen all have C: and D: as the main hard drives. File = "C:/" File = "D:/" } }

Note, the three line of the above Exclude were split to fit on the document page, they should be written on a single line in real use.

Windows NTFS Naming Considerations be supported as of version 1.37.30 or later.

NTFS filenames containing Unicode characters should now

17.12

Testing Your FileSet

If you wish to get an idea of what your FileSet will really backup or if your exclusion rules will work correctly, you can test it by using the estimate command in the Console program. See the estimate in the Console chapter of this manual. As an example, suppose you add the following test FileSet:
FileSet {

Bacula Version 5.0.3
Name = Test Include { File = /home/xxx/test Options { regex = ".*\.c$" } } }

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You could then add some test files to the directory /home/xxx/test and use the following command in the console:
estimate job=<any-job-name> listing client=<desired-client> fileset=Test

to give you a listing of all files that match.

17.13

The Client Resource

The Client resource defines the attributes of the Clients that are served by this Director; that is the machines that are to be backed up. You will need one Client resource definition for each machine to be backed up. Client (or FileDaemon) Start of the Client directives. Name = <name> The client name which will be used in the Job resource directive or in the console run command. This directive is required. Address = <address> Where the address is a host name, a fully qualified domain name, or a network address in dotted quad notation for a Bacula File server daemon. This directive is required. FD Port = <port-number> Where the port is a port number at which the Bacula File server daemon can be contacted. The default is 9102. Catalog = <Catalog-resource-name> This specifies the name of the catalog resource to be used for this Client. This directive is required. Password = <password> This is the password to be used when establishing a connection with the File services, so the Client configuration file on the machine to be backed up must have the same password defined for this Director. This directive is required. If you have either /dev/random bc on your machine, Bacula will generate a random password during the configuration process, otherwise it will be left blank. The password is plain text. It is not generated through any special process, but it is preferable for security reasons to make the text random. File Retention = <time-period-specification> The File Retention directive defines the length of time that Bacula will keep File records in the Catalog database after the End time of the Job corresponding to the File records. When this time period expires, and if AutoPrune is set to yes Bacula will prune (remove) File records that are older than the specified File Retention period. Note, this affects only records in the catalog database. It does not affect your archive backups. File records may actually be retained for a shorter period than you specify on this directive if you specify either a shorter Job Retention or a shorter Volume Retention period. The shortest retention period of the three takes precedence. The time may be expressed in seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, quarters, or years. See the Configuration chapter of this manual for additional details of time specification. The default is 60 days. Job Retention = <time-period-specification> The Job Retention directive defines the length of time that Bacula will keep Job records in the Catalog database after the Job End time. When this time period expires, and if AutoPrune is set to yes Bacula will prune (remove) Job records that are older

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Bacula Version 5.0.3 than the specified File Retention period. As with the other retention periods, this affects only records in the catalog and not data in your archive backup. If a Job record is selected for pruning, all associated File and JobMedia records will also be pruned regardless of the File Retention period set. As a consequence, you normally will set the File retention period to be less than the Job retention period. The Job retention period can actually be less than the value you specify here if you set the Volume Retention directive in the Pool resource to a smaller duration. This is because the Job retention period and the Volume retention period are independently applied, so the smaller of the two takes precedence. The Job retention period is specified as seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, quarters, or years. See the Configuration chapter of this manual for additional details of time specification. The default is 180 days.

AutoPrune = <yes|no> If AutoPrune is set to yes (default), Bacula (version 1.20 or greater) will automatically apply the File retention period and the Job retention period for the Client at the end of the Job. If you set AutoPrune = no, pruning will not be done, and your Catalog will grow in size each time you run a Job. Pruning affects only information in the catalog and not data stored in the backup archives (on Volumes). Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs with the current Client that can run concurrently. Note, this directive limits only Jobs for Clients with the same name as the resource in which it appears. Any other restrictions on the maximum concurrent jobs such as in the Director, Job, or Storage resources will also apply in addition to any limit specified here. The default is set to 1, but you may set it to a larger number. Priority = <number> The number specifies the priority of this client relative to other clients that the Director is processing simultaneously. The priority can range from 1 to 1000. The clients are ordered such that the smaller number priorities are performed first (not currently implemented). The following is an example of a valid Client resource definition:
Client { Name = Minimatou FDAddress = minimatou Catalog = MySQL Password = very_good }

17.14

The Storage Resource

The Storage resource defines which Storage daemons are available for use by the Director. Storage Start of the Storage resources. At least one storage resource must be specified. Name = <name> The name of the storage resource. This name appears on the Storage directive specified in the Job resource and is required. Address = <address> Where the address is a host name, a fully qualified domain name, or an IP address. Please note that the <address> as specified here will be transmitted to the File daemon who will then use it to contact the Storage daemon. Hence, it is not, a good idea to use localhost as the name but rather a fully qualified machine name or an IP address. This directive is required. SD Port = <port> Where port is the port to use to contact the storage daemon for information and to start jobs. This same port number must appear in the Storage resource of the Storage daemon’s configuration file. The default is 9103. Password = <password> This is the password to be used when establishing a connection with the Storage services. This same password also must appear in the Director resource of the Storage daemon’s configuration file. This directive is required. If you have either /dev/random bc on your machine,

Doing so may cause the Storage daemon to block (or hang) attempting to open the same device that is already open. it is essential that you make the Media Type specification unique for each storage media type. You can specify any name you would like (even the device name if you prefer) up to a maximum of 127 characters in length. Media Type = <MediaType> This directive specifies the Media Type to be used to store the data. This directive is required. or if you have a DDS-4 drive and a DDS-4 autochanger. Note. If a Storage daemon handles multiple devices (e.38 and older. In addition. The password is plain text. Otherwise for Bacula versions 1. you probably should use two different Media Types for your two disk Devices (even though you might think of them as both being File types). your restores may not work because Bacula will assume that you can mount any Media Type with the same name on any Device associated with that Media Type. If you define more than one disk Device resource in your Storage daemon’s conf file. you must make doubly sure that each Device resource defined in the Storage daemon (and hence in the Director’s conf file) has a unique media type.. This is an important point that should be carefully understood. As mentioned above. this directive allows you to specify exactly which device. Currently Bacula permits only a single Media Type per Storage and Device definition. but it is preferable for security reasons to use random text. Consequently. This directive is required. It is not generated through any special process. 8mm. If you are using an Autochanger. This simplifies creating database entries for Volumes in an autochanger. this applies equally to Disk Volumes. The physical device name associated with this device is specified in the Storage daemon configuration file (as Archive Device). will write to various file Volumes on different partitions). when you use the label command or the add command to create a new Volume. When autochanger is enabled. You can find more on this subject in the Basic Volume Management chapter of this manual. If you forget to specify the Slot. If you have two DDS-4 drives that have incompatible formats. you may modify the Slot associated with a Volume at any time by using the update volume or update slots command in the console program. it is best to make it descriptive of the storage media (e. This is an arbitrary string of characters up to 127 maximum that you define. the value specified in the Director’s Storage resource must agree with the value specified in the Device resource in the Storage daemon’s configuration file. if you have a drive that supports more than one Media Type. Autochanger = <yes|no> If you specify yes for this command (the default is no). During a restore.g. This is possible with tape drives. the name specified here should be the name of the Storage daemon’s Autochanger resource rather than the name of an individual device. Device = <device-name> This directive specifies the Storage daemon’s name of the device resource to be used for the storage. but the logical device name as defined on the Name directive contained in the Device or the Autochanger resource definition of the Storage daemon configuration file. assuming a DDS-4 Media Type is associated with the Job. If you want to tie Bacula to using a single Storage daemon or drive.g. the algorithm used by Bacula to search for available volumes . the Volumes on those two devices are in fact incompatible because one can not be mounted on the other device since they are found in different directories. ”HP DLT8000”. the autochanger will not be used.. Please take care not to define two different Storage resource directives in the Director that point to the same Device in the Storage daemon. unless you are very clever you cannot mount a Volume in any directory – this can be done by creating an appropriate soft link. you almost certainly should specify different Media Types. However. If you are writing to disk Volumes. . but then those volumes will only be mounted on drives indicated with the dual type (DDS-3-4).3 161 Bacula will generate a random password during the configuration process. The MediaType specified in the Director’s Storage resource. and it is used by the Director and the Storage daemon to ensure that a Volume automatically selected from the Pool corresponds to the physical device. you can give a unique string to Volumes with different intrinsic Media Type (Media Type = DDS-3-4 for DDS-3 and DDS-4 types). DAT. you must specify a unique Media Type for that drive.0. File. This name is not the physical device name.Bacula Version 5. Bacula can decide to use any Storage daemon that supports Media Type DDS-4 and on any drive that supports it. For this reason. otherwise it will be left blank.). must correspond to the Media Type specified in the Device resource of the Storage daemon configuration file. It can be anything you want. However. Bacula will also request the Autochanger Slot number. but with disk drives. It is also an additional check so that you don’t try to write data for a DLT onto an 8mm device.

and if still no volume is found. The default is set to 1. but you may set it to a larger number. If your backup strategy calls for you to mount a different tape each day. if you set the Storage daemon’s number of concurrent jobs greater than one. Bacula will not automatically search for the correct Pool.. you will probably want to define a separate Pool for each day. Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs with the current Storage resource that can run concurrently. Note. this procedure minimizes operator intervention. Alternatively.. we recommend that you read the waring documented under Maximum Concurrent Jobs in the Director’s resource or simply turn data spooling on as documented in the Data Spooling chapter of this manual. By configuring different Pools. Heartbeat Interval = <time-interval> This directive is optional and if specified will cause the Director to set a keepalive interval (heartbeat) in seconds on each of the sockets it opens for the Storage resource.. to store all full backup data on one set of Volumes and all incremental backups on another set of Volumes. . Bacula will search for any volume whether or not in the magazine. you can determine which set of Volumes (media) receives the backup data. AllowCompression = <yes|no> This directive is optional. The default value is zero.. This effectively overrides compression options in FileSets used by jobs which use this storage resource. you must also specify Autochanger = yes in the Device Resource in the Storage daemon’s configuration file as well as other important Storage daemon configuration information. The default is no. For the autochanger to be used. If no in changer volume is found.. This is most easily done by defining multiple Pools. Any other restrictions on the maximum concurrent jobs such as in the Director. pruning.) that will be given to a Volume when it is created. . . you will probably only use the Default Pool. Each of these attributes can later be changed on a Volume by Volume basis using the update command in the console program. Please consult the Using Autochangers manual of this chapter for the details of using autochangers. By privileging in changer volumes.3 will be modified to consider only Volumes that are known to be in the autochanger’s magazine. this directive limits only Jobs for Jobs using this Storage daemon. you could assign a different set of Volumes to each machine that you backup. please see the Backup Strategies chapter of this manual. Most often in Bacula installations all backups for all machines (Clients) go to a single set of Volumes. This avoids the need for you to answer a large number of questions when labeling a new Volume. Retention Period.) that provide the setsockopt TCP KEEPIDLE function. Job.15 The Pool Resource The Pool resource defines the set of storage Volumes (tapes or files) to be used by Bacula to write the data. Recycle flag. and if you specify No (the default is Yes).162 Bacula Version 5. Bacula will attempt recycling.. It is implemented only on systems (Linux. For more information on this subject. which means no change is made to the socket. or Client resources will also apply in addition to any limit specified here. The following is an example of a valid Storage resource definition: # Definition of tape storage device Storage { Name = DLTDrive Address = lpmatou Password = storage_password # password for Storage daemon Device = "HP DLT 80" # same as Device in Storage daemon Media Type = DLT8000 # same as MediaType in Storage daemon } 17. it will cause backups jobs running on this storage resource to run without client File Daemon compression. Another important aspect of a Pool is that it contains the default attributes (Maximum Jobs. In this case. for example. This permits. . This value will override any specified at the Director level..0. However. Note that you must explicitly specify which Pool Bacula is to use with each Job.

Finally. see the Storage Resource Chapter of this manual. For additional details. Storage = <storage-resource-name> The Storage directive defines the name of the storage services where you want to backup the FileSet data. but it will ensure that the Media Type of any Volume selected from the Pool is identical to that required by the Storage resource you have specified for the Job. In general. This directive is optional. if omitted or set to zero. if you are going to back up to a DLT device.e. Bacula will then automatically select the next Volume to use from the Pool. and if the database record does not already exist. There must be at least one Pool resource defined. the Pool must have DLT volumes defined since 8mm volumes cannot be mounted on a DLT drive). in the Pool resource overrides any value in the Job. Next the physical media must be labeled. This directive is required. it must be explicitly referenced by a Job resource.Bacula Version 5. Then the Pool must be written to the Catalog database. The Pool Resource defined in the Director’s configuration file (bacula-dir. The Storage resource may also be specified in the Job resource. Bacula probably should do an update pool if you change the Pool definition. which corresponds to the type of Job being run. it scans all the Pools associated with each Catalog. Name = <name> The name of the pool. Finally. the pool will be updated alternatively you can use the update pool console command to refresh the database image. you will use the default pool name Default. It is this database image rather than the Director’s resource image that is used for the default Volume attributes. Pool Type = <type> This directive defines the pool type. if any. Maximum Volumes = <number> This directive specifies the maximum number of volumes (tapes or files) contained in the pool. it will be created from the Pool Resource definition. It is required and may be one of the following: Backup *Archive *Cloned *Migration *Copy *Save Note. each time Bacula starts. you must add Volume names (and their attributes) to the Pool. any number of volumes will be permitted. Note. or alternatively can be done using the create command in the console program. This is done automatically by the Director each time that it starts. When running a Job. First the Pool must be defined in the Director’s configuration file. but the value. for the pool to be automatically created or updated. For Volumes to be used by Bacula they must be of the same Media Type as the archive device specified for the job (i. only Backup is current implemented. The Media Type has particular importance if you are backing up to files. they will automatically be added to the Pool. you must explicitly specify which Pool to use. It is also possible to add Volumes to the database without explicitly labeling the physical volume. if you change the Pool definition in the Director’s configuration file and restart Bacula. This Storage resource definition is not required by . you must do this manually using the update pool command in the Console program. The labeling can either be done with the label command in the console program or using the btape program. so this last step is not normally required. this directive is useful for Autochangers where there is a fixed number of Volumes. For most applications.0. As previously mentioned. or for File storage where you wish to ensure that the backups made to disk files do not become too numerous or consume too much space. If you use the label command in the console program to label the Volumes.conf) may contain the following directives: Pool Start of the Pool resource. there are three distinct steps. This is done with the add console command.3 163 To use a Pool. but currently. The preferred method is to use the label command in the console program.

which means that no more Jobs can be appended to the Volume. so you are recommended to use Maximum Volume Jobs = 1 instead. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update command in the Console. Maximum Volume Bytes = <size> This directive specifies the maximum number of bytes that can be written to the Volume.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume. when the Media record is updated. when the number of bytes written to the Volume equals size the Volume will be marked Used.e.164 Bacula Version 5. This is most useful when the Media is a file and you want a new file for each backup that is done.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume. the next time a job runs that wants to access this Volume. Please see the notes below under Maximum Volume Jobs concerning using this directive with multiple simultaneous jobs. and thus used again. there is no limit. If not configuration error will result. If the time-period specified is zero (the default). When the Volume is marked Used it can no longer be used for appending Jobs. The value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir. there is no limit. changing the value in the bacula-dir. you get the same effect as setting UseVolumeOnce = yes. use volume any number of times). If you specify zero (the default). To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update command in the Console. The value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir. much like the Full status but it can be recycled if recycling is enabled. this directive may not work correctly because when a drive is reserved for a job. when the number of Jobs backed up to the Volume equals positive-integer the Volume will be marked Used. This value is checked and the Used status set while the job is writing to the particular volume. Maximum Volume Jobs = <positive-integer> This directive specifies the maximum number of Jobs that can be written to the Volume. Once the volume is created. changing the value in the bacula-dir. The value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created. If you are running multiple simultaneous jobs.conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created. If you specify zero (the default).3 either the Job resource or in the Pool. Once the volume is created.conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created. When the Volume is marked Used it can no longer be used for appending Jobs. Otherwise.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume. and the time period from the first write to the volume (the first Job written) exceeds the time-period-specification. changing the value in the bacula-dir. At some point. The value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir. so multiple jobs may try to start writing to the Volume. and will work correctly even in the case of multiple simultaneous jobs writing to the volume. the Volume can be written indefinitely. much like the Full status but it can be recycled if recycling is enabled. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update command in the Console. much like the Full status but it can be recycled if recycling is enabled and thus used again. there is no limit except the physical size of the Volume. and thus the Volume can be re-used after recycling.0. multiple simultaneous jobs may fail since the Volume can no longer be written. Otherwise. but it may be recycled . The default is no (i. This value is checked and the Used status is set only at the end of a job that writes to the particular volume. Volume Use Duration = <time-period-specification> The Volume Use Duration directive defines the time period that the Volume can be written beginning from the time of first data write to the Volume.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume. when the number of files written to the Volume equals positive-integer the Volume will be marked Used. By setting MaximumVolumeJobs to one. When the Volume is marked Used it can no longer be used for appending Jobs. Use Volume Once = <yes|no> This directive if set to yes specifies that each volume is to be used only once. If you specify zero (the default).conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created. but it must be specified in one or the other. This directive will most likely be phased out (deprecated). Otherwise. Once the volume is created. the Volume will be marked Used. This directive is particularly useful for restricting the size of disk volumes. this directive is not taken into account. Once the volume is created. Maximum Volume Files = <positive-integer> This directive specifies the maximum number of files that can be written to the Volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update command in the Console. changing the value in the bacula-dir. Otherwise.

or you might experience problems of Bacula waiting for a tape over the weekend only to complete the backups Monday morning when an operator mounts a new tape. Using the command status dir applies algorithms similar to running jobs. Once the Full backup is done. changing the value in the bacula-dir.conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created. As a consequence. You might use this directive. This can be accomplished by setting the Volume Use Duration for the Incremental Volume to six days. Once the volume is created. AutoPrune = <yes|no> If AutoPrune is set to yes (default). if you have a Volume used for Incremental backups.20 or greater) will automatically apply the Volume Retention period when new Volume is needed and no appendable Volumes exist in the Pool. Bacula does not automatically recycle a Volume. it will be used for the 6 days following a Full save. The disadvantage is that you will not be able to produce a Catalog listing of the files backed up for each Job (this is often called Browsing). This means that if you do a Full backup once a month. The default Volume retention period is 365 days. All File records associated with pruned Jobs are also pruned. By defining multiple Pools with different Volume Retention periods. quarters. or years. and if AutoPrune is set to yes Bacula may prune (remove) Job records that are older than the specified Volume Retention period if it is necessary to free up a Volume. Volume Retention = <time-period-specification> The Volume Retention directive defines the length of time that Bacula will keep records associated with the Volume in the Catalog database after the End time of each Job written to the Volume. It is important to know that when the Volume Retention period expires. The Volume Retention is applied independently of the Job Retention and the File Retention periods defined in the Client resource.3 165 if recycling is enabled. you may effectively have a set of tapes that is recycled weekly. so during such a command. This pruning could also occur during a status dir command because it uses similar algorithms for finding the next available Volume.e. the minimum Volume retention period should be two months. weeks. which means that even though the use duration may have expired. then a different Incremental volume will be used. and in addition. It attempts to keep the Volume data intact as long as possible before over writing the Volume. Volume pruning causes expired Jobs (older than the Volume Retention period) to be deleted from the Catalog and permits possible recycling of the Volume.Bacula Version 5. minutes. When this time period expires. the next Incremental or Differential backup will be promoted to a Full backup. it will be available for use again. and either the default or the value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir.e. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update volume command in the Console. you will want to use a different Incremental Volume. the catalog entry will not be updated until the next job that uses this volume is run. Be careful about setting the duration to short periods such as 23 hours. Please note that the value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir. you will not have a complete backup of your system. for example.e.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume. without the File entries in the catalog. one must keep in mind that if your Volume Retention period is too short. changing the value in the bacula-dir. Recycling will not occur until it is absolutely necessary to free up a volume (i. months. it may prune the last valid Full backup. you will not be able to use the Console restore command nor any other command that references File entries. However. Bacula will prune both the Job and the File records. Once the volume is created. Catalog Files = <yes|no> This directive defines whether or not you want the names of the files that were saved to be put into the catalog. that when the Volume Retention period has been reached. . the Volume status may also be changed. will fail jobs) if the use duration expires while multiple simultaneous jobs are writing to the volume. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update command in the Console. and it is necessary to obtain a new volume. another Pool of tapes that is recycled monthly and so on. I. hours.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume. The time may be specified as seconds. Once the Volume is recycled.conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created. Also. The default is yes. This directive is not intended to be used to limit volume sizes and will not work correctly (i. and hence until the next Full backup is done. The use duration is checked and the Used status is set only at the end of a job that writes to the particular volume. Bacula (version 1. no other writable volume exists). The advantage of specifying Catalog Files = No is that you will have a significantly smaller Catalog database. Note.0. the minimum Volume Retention period should be at twice the interval of your Full backups. days. This means that all the retentions periods are applied in turn and that the shorter period is the one that effectively takes precedence. and Volumes used for Weekly Full backups.

3 Action On Purge = <Truncate This directive ActionOnPurge=Truncate instructs Bacula to truncate the volume when it is purged with the purge volume action=truncate command.. Recycle = <yes|no> This directive specifies whether or not Purged Volumes may be recycled.e. Recycle Oldest Volume = <yes|no> This directive instructs the Director to search for the oldest used Volume in the Pool when another Volume is requested by the Storage daemon and none are available. This directive is probably most useful when defined in the Scratch pool. For more on the see the Scratch Pool section of this manual. Although this directive is called RecyclePool. This is useful when using multiple storage sharing the same mediatype or when you want to dedicate volumes to a particular set of pool. If the Volume is recycled. It is useful to prevent disk based volumes from consuming too much space. To change the value for an existing Volume you must use the update command in the Console. This directive respects any Job. The catalog is then pruned respecting the retention periods of all Files and Jobs written to this Volume. the Volume will not be recycled. it will then be marked as Purged.e. you may manually set the recycle flag (update command) for a Volume to be reused. volumes with all the Jobs and Files expired and thus deleted from the Catalog). all previous data written to that Volume will be overwritten. Once the volume is created. and hence. } You can schedule the truncate operation at the end of your CatalogBackup job like in this example: Job { Name = CatalogBackup . the data will remain valid. and the recycle flag is no (0 in the catalog). When all Job and File records have been pruned or purged from the catalog for a particular Volume. the volume is Purged). If all Jobs are pruned (i. and as such it is much better to use this directive than the Purge Oldest Volume.0. Used. File. it will search for and recycle (reuse) Purged Volumes (i.conf file will not change what is stored for the Volume. if that Volume is marked as Append. If it is set to yes (default) and Bacula needs a volume but finds none that are appendable. it can be moved automatically to any existing pool during a recycle. RunScript { RunsWhen=After RunsOnClient=No Console = "purge volume action=all allpools storage=File" } } ScratchPool = <pool-resource-name> This directive permits to specify a dedicate Scratch for the current pool. If Recycle is set to no. changing the value in the bacula-dir. Without this directive. or Error. Only Volumes marked as Purged will be considered to be converted to the Recycled state if the Recycle directive is set to yes. This pool will replace the special pool named Scrach for volume selection. then the Volume is recycled and will be used as the next Volume to be written.. Pool { Name = Default Action On Purge = Truncate . so that volumes will be recycled back into the Scratch pool. . the Volume in question is actually moved from its current pool to the one you specify on this directive when Bacula prunes the Volume and discovers that there are no records left in the catalog and hence marks it as Purged.166 Bacula Version 5. If you want to reuse (re-write) the Volume. or Volume retention periods that you may have specified. Full. With this directive. a Volume will remain in the same pool when it is recycled. RecyclePool = <pool-resource-name> This directive defines to which pool the Volume will be placed (moved) when it is recycled..conf file is the default value used when a Volume is created.. Please note that the value defined by this directive in the bacula-dir. For more information about Scratch see Scratch Pool section of this manual.

because it is sure that some day. Label Format = <format> This directive specifies the format of the labels contained in this pool. If all Jobs are pruned (i. Note. ensure that you have a decent number of Volumes in your Pool before running any jobs. and you have specified retention periods that prune Volumes before you have cycled through the Volume in the Pool. which if it matches the beginning of a Volume name during labeling of a Volume. This directive takes precedence over Client directives of the same name. The format directive is used as a sort of template to create new Volume names during automatic Volume labeling. this affects only records in the catalog and not data in your archive backup. that Volume will always be immediately overwritten when it fills! So at a minimum. For more information see Client documentation about FileRetention Job Retention = <time-period-specification> The Job Retention directive defines the length of time that Bacula will keep Job records in the Catalog database after the Job End time. Purge Oldest Volume = <yes|no> This directive instructs the Director to search for the oldest used Volume in the Pool when another Volume is requested by the Storage daemon and none are available. . The catalog is then purged irrespective of retention periods of all Files and Jobs written to this Volume. this affects only records in the catalog database. File. As with the other retention periods. or Volume retention periods that you may have specified. For example. For example. Please use this directive with care. This directive takes precedence over Client directives of the same name. If you want retention periods to apply do not use this directive. Please use this directive with care. The Volume is then recycled and will be used as the next Volume to be written. To specify a retention period. This directive can be useful if you have a fixed number of Volumes in the Pool and you want to cycle through them and reusing the oldest one when all Volumes are full. and thus it is much better to use it rather than the Purge Oldest Volume directive. Bacula will recycle a Volume that contains current data. This directive respects any Job. However. File Retention = <time-period-specification> The File Retention directive defines the length of time that Bacula will keep File records in the Catalog database after the End time of the Job corresponding to the File records. The default is no. Recycle Current Volume = <yes|no> If Bacula needs a new Volume. We highly recommend against using this directive. Thus your backup will be totally invalid. you will immediately recycle your Volume if you fill it and Bacula needs another one. It does not affect your archive backups. but you don’t want to worry about setting proper retention periods. or Volume retention periods that you may have specified.3 167 This directive can be useful if you have a fixed number of Volumes in the Pool and you want to cycle through them and you have specified the correct retention periods. This directive can be useful if you have: a fixed number of Volumes in the Pool. by using this option you risk losing valuable data.0. However.e. Please be aware that Purge Oldest Volume disregards all retention periods. this directive instructs Bacula to Prune the volume respecting the Job and File retention periods. the Volume will be defined with the VolStatus set to Cleaning and thus Bacula will never attempt to use this tape. the volume is Purged). However. If you have only a single Volume defined and you turn this variable on. then the Volume is recycled and will be used as the next Volume to be written. Thus your backup will be totally invalid. if you use this directive and have only one Volume in the Pool. you will immediately recycle your Volume if you fill it and Bacula needs another one. This is primarily for use with autochangers that accept barcodes where the convention is that barcodes beginning with CLN are treated as cleaning tapes. you can decide to increase Retention times for Archive or OffSite Pool. File. This directive overrides any Job. The default is no.Bacula Version 5. you can decide to increase Retention times for Archive or OffSite Pool. The default is no. For more information see Client side documentation JobRetention Cleaning Prefix = <string> This directive defines a prefix string. use the Volume Retention directive (see above). you want to cycle through them. if you use this directive and have only one Volume in the Pool.

the format may contain a number of variable expansion characters which will be expanded by a complex algorithm allowing you to create Volume names of many different formats. . For more details on variable expansion.16 The Catalog Resource The Catalog Resource defines what catalog to use for the current job. For example. Volumes are created for a Pool using the label or the add commands in the Bacula Console.). there may be as many Catalogs (databases) defined as you wish. the Volume name will be formed from the format string appended with the a unique number that increases.. If you specify variable expansion characters. the Pool must have at least one Volume associated with it. File-0002. the first volumes will be named File-0001. and consists of letters. For example. you may want each Client to have its own Catalog database.. This will be automatically done if you use the label command. Bacula can automatically label Volumes if instructed to do so.15. Please note that this directive is deprecated and is replaced in version 1. but this feature is not yet fully implemented.168 Bacula Version 5. these variable expansion characters begin with a dollar sign ($) or a left bracket ([).3 The format should be specified in double quotes. If you do not remove volumes from the pool. and period (. it will move it out of the Scratch pool into the Pool currently being used by the job. The unique number will be edited as four digits with leading zeros. you can test your LabelFormat by using the var command the Console Chapter of this manual. In all cases. it will look in the Scratch pool. However. numbers and the special characters hyphen (-). If no variable expansion characters are found in the string. In almost all cases. With the exception of Job specific variables. colon (:). In addition. you should always enclose the format with double quote characters (”). In addition to adding Volumes to the Pool (i. The format should be enclosed in double quotes (”). Bacula can only handle a single database server (SQLite. Currently. or you may want backup jobs to use one database and verify or restore jobs to use another database. MySQL. but this is not guaranteed. and if it finds an available Volume. since both MySQL and PostgreSQL are networked databases.e. PostgreSQL) that is defined when configuring Bacula. the physical Volume must be labeled with a valid Bacula software volume label before Bacula will accept the Volume.37 and greater with a Python script for creating volume names. Since SQLite is compiled in. this number should be the number of volumes plus one. 17. it always runs on the same machine as the Director and the database must be directly accessible (mounted) from the Director. program.1 The Scratch Pool In general. you can give your Pools any name you wish. Generally. The following is an example of a valid Pool resource definition: Pool { Name = Default Pool Type = Backup } 17. you should enclose the format specification (part after the equal sign) in double quotes. if it exists behaves like a scratch pool of Volumes in that when Bacula needs a new Volume for writing and it cannot find one. In order for a Pool to be used during a Backup Job. but there is one important restriction: the Pool named Scratch.0. the expansion process must resolve to the set of characters noted above that are legal Volume names. underscore ( ). please see the Variable Expansion Chapter of this manual. with a Label Format = ”File-”. putting the Volume names in the Catalog database). However. See below for more details. . they may reside either on the same machine as the Director or on a different machine on the network. which are the legal characters for a Volume name.

This directive is required. This directive is required. If you use multiple catalogs (databases).acme. user = bacula. password = <password> This specifies the password to use when logging into the database. This directive is used only by MySQL and PostgreSQL and is ignored by SQLite if provided. This directive is used only by MySQL and is ignored by SQLite. the different The following is an example of a valid Catalog resource definition: Catalog { Name = SQLite dbname = bacula. DB Socket = <socket-name> This is the name of a socket to use on the local host to connect to the database. DB Name = <name> This specifies the name of the database. This directive is required. you must specify a name that is known to the server (i.e.0.com DB Port = 1234 } 17. This directive is optional. Normally. you explicitly created the Bacula tables using this name. If the DB Socket is specified. . you will also specify DB Port. At least one Catalog resource must be defined. MySQL will use the default socket. you would specify this instead of DB Socket if the database server is on another machine. Normally. password = "" } # no password = no security or for a Catalog on another machine: Catalog { Name = MySQL dbname = bacula user = bacula password = "" DB Address = remote. if neither DB Socket or DB Address are specified. the MySQL server must reside on the same machine as the Director. 169 Name = <name> The name of the Catalog. please see the Messages Resource Chapter of this manual. This directive is used only by MySQL and PostgreSQL and is ignored by SQLite if provided. If you are using an external database server rather than the internal one. In that case. you specify which one here. This directive is required. This directive is optional. DB Address = <address> This is the host address of the database server.Bacula Version 5. No necessary relation to the database server name.3 Catalog Start of the Catalog resource. user = <user> This specifies what user name to use to log into the database. This name will be specified in the Client resource directive indicating that all catalog data for that Client is maintained in this Catalog. DB Port = <port> This defines the port to be used in conjunction with DB Address to access the database if it is on another machine.17 The Messages Resource For the details of the Messages Resource.

but for no others. that console is permitted to use the SetIP command to change the Address directive in the Director’s client resource to the IP address of the Console. Bacula will generate a random password during the configuration process. It is not generated through any special process. Password = <password> Specifies the password that must be supplied for a named Bacula Console to be authorized. if the console name. In addition. "Backup client 2" JobACL = "RestoreFiles" With the above specification.170 Bacula Version 5. This directive is required. • The second type of console. which has full privileges. Typically you would use it only for administrators. Thus you can have multiple Consoles with different names and passwords. You give them privileges or rather access to commands and resources by specifying access control lists in the Director’s Console resource. If you have either /dev/random bc on your machine. • The third type of console is similar to the above mentioned one in that it requires a Console resource definition in both the Director and the Console. The ACLs are specified by a directive followed by a list of access names. However. The password is plain text.0. is the same as a Client name. sort of like multiple users. Both the names and the passwords in these two entries must match much as is the case for Client programs. This is the kind of console that was initially implemented in versions prior to 1. Without this directive. As a default. which the administrator or user can use to interact with the Director. it is preferable for security reasons to choose random text.33 and higher. Multiple Job resource names may be specified by separating them with commas. For added security.3 17. the console cannot access any of the Director’s Job resources. This second type of console begins with absolutely no privileges except those explicitly specified in the Director’s Console resource. provided on the Name = directive. "Backup client 1". ClientACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of Client resource names that can be accessed by the console. otherwise it will be left blank. For example. Examples of this are shown below. the directive may be specified as: JobACL = kernsave. and new to version 1. and/or by specifying multiple JobACL directives. each with different privileges. The following directives are permitted within the Director’s configuration resource: Name = <name> The name of the console. This name must match the name specified in the Console’s configuration resource (much as is the case with Client definitions). • The first console type is an anonymous or default console. there are three different kinds of consoles. These three kinds of consoles comprise three different security levels. . the password is never actually passed across the network but rather a challenge response hash code created with the password. There is no console resource necessary for this type since the password is specified in the Director’s resource and consequently such consoles do not have a name as defined on a Name = directive. This permits portables or other machines using DHCP (non-fixed IP addresses) to ”notify” the Director of their current IP address.18 The Console Resource As of Bacula version 1.33 and higher is a ”named” console defined within a Console resource in both the Director’s configuration file and in the Console’s configuration file.33 and remains valid. The Console resource is optional and need not be specified. the console can access the Director’s resources for the four jobs named on the JobACL directives. these consoles can do absolutely nothing – no commands whatsoever. The same password must appear in the Console resource of the Console configuration file. JobACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of Job resource names that can be accessed by the console.

It also becomes the default. ScheduleACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of Schedule resource names that can be accessed by the console. When the counter is incremented past this value. Catalog = <catalog-name> If this directive is specified. zero is assumed. Minimum = <integer> This specifies the minimum value that the counter can have. any other value specified (there may be multiple WhereACL directives) will restrict the user to use that path. PoolACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of Pool resource names that can be accessed by the console. Aside from Director resource names and console command names.0. on a Unix system. the counter can have a maximum value of 2. WhereACL = <string> This directive permits you to specify where a restricted console can restore files.147. 17. only the default restore location is permitted (normally /tmp/bacularestores.483. If not specified or set to zero. This directive is untested. it is reset to the Minimum. If this directive is not present. Maximum = <integer> This is the maximum value value that the counter can have. if you specify ”/”. Name = <name> The name of the Counter. This is the name you will use in the variable expansion to reference the counter value. For an example configuration file. the special keyword *all* can be specified in any of the above access control lists. If not supplied. Counter Start of the Counter resource. *WrapCounter = <counter-name> If this value is specified.648 (2 to the 31 power).3 171 StorageACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of Storage resource names that can be accessed by the console. (This is not currently implemented).19 The Counter Resource The Counter Resource defines a counter variable that can be accessed by variable expansion used for creating Volume labels with the LabelFormat directive. the counter specified on the WrapCounter is incremented. the file will be restored to the original location. the counter and its values will be saved in the specified catalog. the counter will be redefined each time that Bacula is started. FileSetACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of FileSet resource names that can be accessed by the console. any resource or command name (which ever is appropriate) will be accepted. when the counter is incremented past the maximum and thus reset to the minimum. CatalogACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of Catalog resource names that can be accessed by the console. CommandACL = <name-list> This directive is used to specify a list of of console commands that can be executed by the console. See the LabelFormat directive in this chapter for more details. Counter directives are optional.Bacula Version 5. If *all* is specified any path the user enters will be accepted (not very secure). please see the Console Configuration chapter of this manual. . If this directive is not specified. When this keyword is present. For example.

# # For Bacula release 1. one per line or include an # external list with: # # @file-name # # Note: / backs up everything File = / } Exclude {} } # When to do the backups Schedule { Name = "WeeklyCycle" Run = level=Full sun at 2:05 Run = level=Incremental mon-sat at 2:05 } # Client (File Services) to backup Client { Name = rufus-fd Address = rufus Catalog = MyCatalog . See the "mail" and "operator" # directives in the Messages resource. # Director { # define myself Name = rufus-dir QueryFile = "/home/kern/bacula/bin/query.20 Example Director Configuration File An example Director configuration file might be the following: # # Default Bacula Director Configuration file # # The only thing that MUST be changed is to add one or more # file or directory names in the Include directive of the # FileSet resource.3 17.0.172 Bacula Version 5.15 (5 March 2002) -.sql" WorkingDirectory = "/home/kern/bacula/bin/working" PidDirectory = "/home/kern/bacula/bin/working" Password = "XkSfzu/Cf/wX4L8Zh4G4/yhCbpLcz3YVdmVoQvU3EyF/" } # Define the backup Job Job { Name = "NightlySave" Type = Backup Level = Incremental # default Client=rufus-fd FileSet="Full Set" Schedule = "WeeklyCycle" Storage = DLTDrive Messages = Standard Pool = Default } Job { Name = "Restore" Type = Restore Client=rufus-fd FileSet="Full Set" Where = /tmp/bacula-restores Storage = DLTDrive Messages = Standard Pool = Default } # List of files to be backed up FileSet { Name = "Full Set" Include { Options { signature=SHA1} # # Put your list of files here.redhat # # You might also want to change the default email address # from root to your address.

!skipped.0.status } 173 . . user = bacula. !skipped.send most everything to # the email address and to the console Messages { Name = Standard mail = root@localhost = all. !terminate operator = root@localhost = mount console = all.3 Password = "MQk6lVinz4GG2hdIZk1dsKE/LxMZGo6znMHiD7t7vzF+" File Retention = 60d # sixty day file retention Job Retention = 1y # 1 year Job retention AutoPrune = yes # Auto apply retention periods } # Definition of DLT tape storage device Storage { Name = DLTDrive Address = rufus Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ" Device = "HP DLT 80" # same as Device in Storage daemon Media Type = DLT8000 # same as MediaType in Storage daemon } # Definition for a DLT autochanger device Storage { Name = Autochanger Address = rufus Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ" Device = "Autochanger" # same as Device in Storage daemon Media Type = DLT-8000 # Different from DLTDrive Autochanger = yes } # Definition of DDS tape storage device Storage { Name = SDT-10000 Address = rufus Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ" Device = SDT-10000 # same as Device in Storage daemon Media Type = DDS-4 # same as MediaType in Storage daemon } # Definition of 8mm tape storage device Storage { Name = "8mmDrive" Address = rufus Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ" Device = "Exabyte 8mm" MediaType = "8mm" } # Definition of file storage device Storage { Name = File Address = rufus Password = "jMeWZvfikUHvt3kzKVVPpQ0ccmV6emPnF2cPYFdhLApQ" Device = FileStorage Media Type = File } # Generic catalog service Catalog { Name = MyCatalog dbname = bacula. password = "" } # Reasonable message delivery -. !saved } # Default pool definition Pool { Name = Default Pool Type = Backup AutoPrune = yes Recycle = yes } # # Restricted console used by tray-monitor to get the status of the director # Console { Name = Monitor Password = "GN0uRo7PTUmlMbqrJ2Gr1p0fk0HQJTxwnFyE4WSST3MWZseR" CommandACL = status.Bacula Version 5.

0.174 Bacula Version 5.3 .

1 The Client Resource The Client Resource (or FileDaemon) resource defines the name of the Client (as used by the Director) as well as the port on which the Client listens for Director connections. you will set this to: /var/run.Chapter 18 Client/File daemon Configuration The Client (or File Daemon) Configuration is one of the simpler ones to specify. This directive is required. Pid Directory = <Directory> This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory in which the Director may put its process Id file files. Standard shell expansion of the Directory is done when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be properly expanded. 175 . but may be shared by other Bacula daemons provided the daemon names on the Name definition are unique for each daemon. Generally. This directory should be used only by Bacula. On Win32 systems. other than changing the Client name so that error messages are easily identified. If you are not installing Bacula in the system directories. The following Client Resource definitions must be defined: • Client – to define what Clients are to be backed up. For a general discussion of configuration file and resources including the data types recognized by Bacula. Also. • Director – to define the Director’s name and its access password. This record is required. The process Id file is used to shutdown Bacula and to prevent multiple copies of Bacula from running simultaneously. in some circumstances you may need to specify a drive letter in the specified working directory path. Working Directory = <Directory> This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory in which the File daemon may put its status files. since it defines the properties of the current client program. Generally. 18. There must be one and only one Client resource in the configuration file. please see the Configuration chapter of this manual. • Messages – to define where error and information messages are to be sent. Client (or FileDaemon) Start of the Client records. Name = <name> The client name that must be used by the Director when connecting. Typically on Linux systems. please be sure that this directory is writable by the SYSTEM user otherwise restores may fail (the bootstrap file that is transferred to the File daemon from the Director is temporarily put in this directory before being passed to the Storage daemon). you will not need to modify the default Client configuration file. it is a good idea to use a name related to the machine so that error messages can be easily identified if you have multiple Clients. This directive is required. you can use the Working Directory as defined above.

Also. This is a known problem with NVidia NForce 3 drivers (4. if no heartbeat has been received from the Storage daemon and thus forwarded the File daemon will send a heartbeat signal to the Director and to the Storage daemon to keep the channels active. you should consider upgrading your ethernet driver. The default interval is zero which disables the heartbeat. If a port is not specified.176 Bacula Version 5. } ip = { addr = 1. but you may set it to a larger number.3. which is either a domain name or an IP address specified as a dotted quadruple. Under the Advanced tab set ”Checksum Offload” to disabled and click OK to save the change. port = 1205. The default is set to 2. port = http. port = 1205. For each heartbeat that the File daemon receives from the Storage daemon. or as a symbolic name (only in the ip specification).3. ip4. it will forward it to the Director. } ipv4 = { addr = 1. Lack of communications. Under the General tab. the File daemon will bind to any available address (the default). If you continue getting broken pipe error messages despite using the Heartbeat Interval. The default is 9102.. If an ip section is specified.4 } ip = { addr = 201:220:222::2 } ip = { addr = bluedot. job start request) is considered as a Job. This usually results in a broken pipe error message..3. the resolution can be made either by IPv4 or IPv6. addr.2 17/05/2004). Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs that should run concurrently. Each contact from the Director (e.4 port = 1205 } ip = { addr = 1. click ”Configure.2. and likewise with ip6. the default will be used. FDAddress = <IP-Address> This record is optional. If this record is not specified. so if you want to be able to do a status request in the console at the same time as a Job is running.”. and port are all keywords.4. FDAddresses = <IP-address-specification> Specify the ports and addresses on which the File daemon listens for Director connections. status request.net } } where ip. then only IPv4 resolutions will be permitted.3 Heartbeat Interval = <time-interval> This record defines an interval of time in seconds. Note.4. or IPv6 colon notation.g. This feature is particularly useful if you have a router such as 3Com that does not follow Internet standards and times out a valid connection after a short duration despite the fact that keepalive is set. If ip4 is specified.2. In addition. . it will cause the File daemon server (for Director connections) to bind to the specified IP-Address. and you are using Windows.0. or communications that get interrupted can also be caused by Linux firewalls where you have a rule that throttles connections or traffic. and if it is specified.2. } ipv6 = { addr = 1.3.4. port can be specified as a number or as the mnemonic value from the /etc/services file.2. It must agree with the FDPort specified in the Client resource of the Director’s configuration file. FDPort = <port-number> This specifies the port number on which the Client listens for Director connections. Probably the simplest way to explain is to show an example: FDAddresses = { ip = { addr = 1.4. you will need to set this value greater than 1.3.2. or try the following workaround suggested by Thomas Simmons for Win32 machines: Browse to: Start > Control Panel > Network Connections Right click the connection for the nvidia adapter and select properties. that the address can be specified as either a dotted quadruple.thun. ip6.

on certain Windows machines. this director will only be able to fetch the current status of this Client. PKI Signatures See the Data Encryption chapter of this manual.. it will cause the File daemon server (for Storage connections) to bind to the specified IP-Address. On systems where the transfer rates seem abnormally slow compared to other systems. . the case (upper/lower) of the characters in the name are significant (i. Monitor = <yes|no> If Monitor is set to no (default). Please note that if this director is being used by a Monitor. The default value is 65. Each one specifies a Director that is allowed to connect to this Client. you might try setting the Maximum Network Buffer Size to 32. the File daemon cancels the Job.e. This directive is required. this director will have full access to this Client.536 size. Please use care in setting this value since if it is too large. If no connection is made in the specified time interval.. Name = <name> The name of the Director that may contact this Client. . which may require a large number of system calls. Note.2 The Director Resource The Director resource defines the name and password of the Directors that are permitted to contact this Client.Bacula Version 5. it will be trimmed by 512 bytes until the OS is happy.3 177 FDSourceAddress = <IP-Address> This record is optional. If Monitor is set to yes. PKI Keypair See the Data Encryption chapter of this manual. There may be any number of Director resources in the Client configuration file.768 in both the File daemon and in the Storage daemon. This name must be the same as the name specified on the Director resource in the Director’s configuration file. which means no change is made to the socket. The following is an example of a valid Client resource definition: Client { # this is me Name = rufus-fd WorkingDirectory = $HOME/bacula/bin/working Pid Directory = $HOME/bacula/bin/working } 18. This size will be adjusted down if it is too large until it is accepted by the OS. which is either a domain name or an IP address specified as a dotted quadruple. Maximum Network Buffer Size = <bytes> where <bytes> specifies the initial network buffer size to use with the File daemon. This directive is required. Heartbeat Interval = <time-interval> This directive is optional and if specified will cause the File daemon to set a keepalive interval (heartbeat) in seconds on each of the sockets to communicate with the Storage daemon.) that provide the setsockopt TCP KEEPIDLE function.536 bytes. Password = <password> Specifies the password that must be supplied for a Director to be authorized. there are reports that the transfer rates are very slow and this seems to be related to the default 65. If this record is not specified. PKI Encryption See the Data Encryption chapter of this manual. SDConnectTimeout = <time-interval> This record defines an interval of time that the File daemon will try to connect to the Storage daemon. Director Start of the Director records.0. PKI Master Key See the Data Encryption chapter of this manual. we highly recommend to set this directive to yes to avoid serious security problems. The default is 30 minutes. the kernel will choose the best address according to the routing table (the default). Note. and if it is specified. The default value is zero. This password must be the same as the password specified in the Client resource in the Director’s configuration file. S is not the same as s). It is implemented only on systems (Linux.

gentoo 1.0.4 Example Client Configuration File An example File Daemon configuration file might be the following: # # Default Bacula File Daemon Configuration file # # For Bacula release 1.35. used by tray-monitor to get the # status of the file daemon # Director { Name = rufus-mon Password = "FYpq4yyI1y562EMS35bA0J0QC0M2L3t5cZObxT3XQxgxppTn" Monitor = yes } # # "Global" File daemon configuration specifications # FileDaemon { # this is me Name = rufus-fd WorkingDirectory = $HOME/bacula/bin/working Pid Directory = $HOME/bacula/bin/working } # Send all messages except skipped files back to Director Messages { Name = Standard director = rufus-dir = all.2 (16 August 2004) -.3 Thus multiple Directors may be authorized to use this Client’s services. The following is an example of a valid Director resource definition: # # List Directors who are permitted to contact the File daemon # Director { Name = HeadMan Password = very_good # password HeadMan must supply } Director { Name = Worker Password = not_as_good Monitor = Yes } 18.178 Bacula Version 5. and normally a different password as well.16 # # There is not much to change here except perhaps to # set the Director’s name and File daemon’s name # to something more appropriate for your site. # # # List Directors who are permitted to contact this File daemon # Director { Name = rufus-dir Password = "/LqPRkX++saVyQE7w7mmiFg/qxYc1kufww6FEyY/47jU" } # # Restricted Director.4. Each Director will have a different name.3 The Message Resource Please see the Messages Resource Chapter of this manual for the details of the Messages Resource. 18. !skipped } . There must be at least one Message resource in the Client configuration file.

Working Directory = <Directory> This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory in which the Storage daemon may put its status files. there are quite a large number of directives in the Device Resource definition that allow you to define all the characteristics of your Storage device (normally a tape drive). due to the great variation in backup media and system capabilities. For a general discussion of configuration file and resources including the data types recognized by Bacula. The following Storage Resource definitions must be defined: • Storage – to define the name of the Storage daemon. However. please see the Configuration chapter of this manual. the storage daemon must be highly configurable. Examples of Device resource directives that are known to work for a number of common tape drives can be found in the <bacula-src>/examples/devices directory. 19. Fortunately. the defaults are sufficient. This directory should be used only by Bacula. Name = <Storage-Daemon-Name> Specifies the Name of the Storage daemon. with modern storage devices. If you are not installing Bacula in the system directories. As a consequence. Typically on Linux systems. The process Id file is used to shutdown Bacula and to prevent multiple copies of Bacula from running simultaneously. • Messages – to define where error and information messages are to be sent. but may be shared by other Bacula daemons provided the names given to each daemon are unique. you will set this to: /var/run. • Director – to define the Director’s name and his access password.1 Storage Resource In general. Each Storage daemon configuration file must have one and only one Storage resource definition.Chapter 19 Storage Daemon Configuration The Storage Daemon configuration file has relatively few resource definitions. Standard shell expansion of the Directory is done when the configuration file is read so that values such as $HOME will be properly expanded. and very few directives are actually needed. 179 . and most will also be listed here. you can use the Working Directory as defined above. This directive is required. This directive is required. • Device – to define the characteristics of your storage device (tape drive). This directive is required Pid Directory = <Directory> This directive is mandatory and specifies a directory in which the Director may put its process Id file files. the properties specified under the Storage resource define global properties of the Storage daemon.

If an ip section is specified. Be aware that the longer the Storage daemon waits for a Client. The default is set to 10. status request.0. Also. If a port is not specified. you will need to set a number of other directives in the Director’s configuration file. When the Storage daemon is waiting for the operator to mount a tape.3. This usually results in a broken pipe error message.4. job start request) is considered as a Job. and port are all keywords.4.net where ip. Client Connect Wait = <time-interval> This directive defines an interval of time in seconds that the Storage daemon will wait for a Client (the File daemon) to connect.2. and likewise with ip6. that the address can be specified as either a dotted quadruple.2. port can be specified as a number or as the mnemonic value from the /etc/services file. } = 1. The default is 30 minutes. but you will almost certainly need to set the Maximum Concurrent Jobs in the Storage resource in the Director’s configuration file and possibly those in the Job and Client resources. Note. addr. port = http. The following is a typical Storage daemon Storage definition. = 1. the default is sufficient and you do not need to specify this directive. or IPv6 colon notation.2. but you may set it to a larger number.4. Which ones you set depend on what you want.4 = 201:220:222::2 = bluedot. Probably the simplest way to explain how this directive works is to show an example: SDAddresses addr ipv4 = { addr ipv6 = { addr port } ip = { addr port } ip = { addr } ip = { addr } ip = { addr } } = { ip = { = 1. ip4.3.3. . SDAddresses = <IP-address-specification> Specify the ports and addresses on which the Storage daemon will listen for Director connections. which is either a domain name or an IP address specified as a dotted quadruple. SDAddress = <IP-Address> This directive is optional. so if you want to be able to do a status request in the console at the same time as a Job is running.g. the Storage daemon will bind to any available address (the default).2. Each contact from the Director (e. Normally. each time interval. The default is 9103. To run simultaneous Jobs.4 = 1205 = 1.2. If this directive is not specified. it will cause the Storage daemon server (for Director and File daemon connections) to bind to the specified IP-Address. the resolution can be made either by IPv4 or IPv6. port = 1205.3 Heartbeat Interval = <time-interval> This directive defines an interval of time in seconds. The default interval is zero which disables the heartbeat. the more resources will be tied up. you will need to set this value greater than 1. or as a symbolic name (only in the ip specification). SDPort = <port-number> Specifies port number on which the Storage daemon listens for Director connections. If ip4 is specified.3.180 Bacula Version 5. } = 1. This feature is particularly useful if you have a router such as 3Com that does not follow Internet standards and times out an valid connection after a short duration despite the fact that keepalive is set. then only IPv4 resolutions will be permitted. ip6. and if it is specified. you can replace both the SDPort and SDAddress directives shown below. = 1205. it will send a heartbeat signal to the File daemon.thun.3. Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs that may run concurrently. the default will be used. Using this directive.

Monitor = <yes|no> If Monitor is set to no (default). we highly recommend to set this directive to yes to avoid serious security problems.3 Device Resource The Device Resource specifies the details of each device (normally a tape drive) that can be used by the Storage daemon. Name = <Director-Name> Specifies the Name of the Director allowed to connect to the Storage daemon.Bacula Version 5. The name you specify here is also used in your Director’s conf file on the Device directive in its Storage resource. It is generally a good idea to make it correspond to the English name of the backup device. This directive is required. and may be any string up to 127 characters in length.0. The following is an example of a valid Director resource definition: Director { Name = MainDirector Password = my_secret_password } 19. Please note that if this director is being used by a Monitor. it will be for example /dev/hdc. you must be sure to specify to use Berkeley . This directive is required. In addition. which have multiple tape access methods. this director will only be able to fetch the current status of this Storage daemon. This will usually be the device file name of a removable storage device (tape drive). this director will have full access to this Storage daemon. on systems such as Sun. Name = Device-Name Specifies the Name that the Director will use when asking to backup or restore to or from to this device.3 # # "Global" Storage daemon configuration specifications appear # under the Storage resource. This is the logical Device name. If Monitor is set to yes. There may be multiple Director resources. the properties specified within the Device resource are specific to the Device. In this case. The physical name of the device is specified on the Archive Device directive described below.2 Director Resource The Director resource specifies the Name of the Director which is permitted to use the services of the Storage daemon. for example ”/dev/nst0” or ”/dev/rmt/0mbn”. The Director Name and Password must match the corresponding values in the Director’s configuration file. When specifying a tape device. you must supply the full absolute path to the directory. There may be multiple Device resources for a single Storage daemon. Password = <Director-password> Specifies the password that must be supplied by the above named Director. It may also be a directory name if you are archiving to disk storage. In general. it is preferable that the ”non-rewind” variant of the device file name be given. Archive Device = name-string The specified name-string gives the system file name of the storage device managed by this storage daemon. # Storage { Name = "Storage daemon" Address = localhost WorkingDirectory = "~/bacula/working" Pid Directory = "~/bacula/working" } 181 19. For a DVD-writer.

This is the case with most removable devices such as USB that are mounted by the HAL daemon. Device Type = type-specification The Device Type specification allows you to explicitly tell Bacula what kind of device you are defining. Bacula is unlikely to be able to correctly guess that a device is a DVD.38. and then time it out and terminate the job. Bacula will attempt to guess what kind of device has been specified using the Archive Device specification supplied. and the filename used will be the Volume name as specified in the Catalog. This directive was implemented in Bacula version 1. All files must be random access devices. because you want the Storage daemon to open it only when a job starts. As a consequence. but you may also specify an absolute path to an existing directory. As noted above.e. Tape The device is a tape device and thus is sequential access. If the Device Type is not explicitly specified. on some systems. If you want to write into more than one directory (i. if the Archive Device is a FIFO. the mount point need not be defined until the device is opened. DVDs are sequential access for writing. It the type-specification may be one of the following: File Tells Bacula that the device is a file. For this kind of device. As noted above. to spread the load to different disk drives). but random access for reading. you may use the RunBeforeJob to start the writer program at the beginning of the job. Bacula will not attempt to read a label of a FIFO device. Secondly. Media type names are arbitrary in that you set them to anything you want.0. normally the Archive Device is the name of a tape drive. Media Type = name-string The specified name-string names the type of media supported by this device. each containing an Archive Device with a different directory. so you must explicitly set it to No. Fifo The device is a first-in-first out sequential access read-only or write-only device. It may either be a file defined on fixed medium or a removable filesystem such as USB. When the Storage daemon starts the job. There are several advantages to explicitly specifying the Device Type. A FIFO is a special kind of file that connects two programs via kernel memory. it will wait for MaximumOpenWait seconds for the read program to start reading. Device { Name = FifoStorage Media Type = Fifo Device Type = Fifo Archive Device = /tmp/fifo LabelMedia = yes Random Access = no AutomaticMount = no RemovableMedia = no MaximumOpenWait = 60 AlwaysOpen = no } During a restore operation. Bacula will accept the name of a FIFO. Bacula does not support SysV tape drive behavior. Bacula will wait MaximumOpenWait seconds for the program to begin writing and will then time it out and terminate the job. If the Device is a directory Bacula will write to file storage in the specified directory.182 Bacula Version 5. but will simply write on it. The Device Type directive is not required. you will need to define two Device resources. which means that on those systems. First. you never want to specify AlwaysOpen. The b in the Solaris (Sun) archive specification /dev/rmt/0mbn is what is needed in this case. and if not specified. for example. it is best to start the read program at the beginning of the job perhaps with the RunBeforeJob directive. To create a FIFO Volume in the catalog. then the mount point must exist when the Storage daemon starts. Bacula will attempt to read from the FIFO. Since a FIFO is a one way device. block and character devices have the same type. Tape devices are controlled using ioctl() calls. If a FIFO device is specified for a backup operation. DVD The device is a DVD. use the add command rather than the label command to avoid attempting to write a label.3 I/O conventions with the device. but they must be known to the volume database to keep track of which storage daemons can read . The Archive Device directive is required. you must have a program that reads what Bacula writes into the FIFO. ”DLT7000”. In addition to a tape device name or a directory name.6. if you explicitly specify the Device Type. so you must have an external program that writes into the FIFO.

each one must have a unique Media Type.Bacula Version 5. The same name-string must appear in the appropriate Storage resource definition in the Director’s configuration file. In addition.0. Autochanger = yes|no If Yes. Normally. Thus you should probably use the same Media Type specification for all drives where the Media can be freely interchanged. the volume must be manually changed. For more information. you may also specify the different Changer Command in each Device resource. Alert Command = name-string The name-string specifies an external program to be called at the completion of each Job after the device is released. Note. which is then used for all devices. For more details on the substitution characters that may be specified to configure your autochanger please see the Autochangers chapter of this manual. This specification is required for all devices. but it is with multiple Storage daemons. if you are using disk storage. what you specify here can vary. Bacula will be able to choose any Storage Daemon that handles ”DDS-4”. The purpose of this command is to check for Tape Alerts. In general. This directive is optional. you might want to name the Media Type in a way that is unique to the autochanger. However. each Device resource will generally have a different mount point or directory. for an Archive Device name of /dev/nst0.3 183 which volumes. on Linux systems. especially if they have incompatible media. An example of the use of this command to print Tape Alerts in the Job report is: Alert Command = "sh -c ’tapeinfo -f %c | grep TapeAlert’" and an example output when there is a problem could be: . For example. In order for Bacula to select the correct Device resource. This generic SCSI device name should be specified if you have an autochanger or if you have a standard tape drive and want to use the Alert Command (see below). Even though the names you assign are arbitrary (i. it is not necessary to have an autochanger to use this command. See the Using Autochangers chapter of this manual for more details of using this and the following autochanger directives. each different storage type should have a unique Media Type associated with it. An example of this command is in the default bacula-sd. and you must specify an Autochanger resource that points to the Device resources. which are present when something is wrong with your tape drive (at least for most modern tape drives). For FreeBSD users. you will need to specify a Changer Device directive in your Device resource (see above) so that the generic SCSI device name can be edited into the command (with the %c). You must also specify a Changer Device. You should also ensure to have unique Media Type names if the Media is not compatible between drives. this device belongs to an automatic tape changer. If you have an autochanger. You should also have an identical directive to the Storage resource in the Director’s configuration file so that when labeling tapes you are prompted for the slot. you should take care in specifying them because the Media Type is used to determine which storage device Bacula will select during restore. The example below uses the tapeinfo program that comes with the mtx package. unless you wish to possibly use the Volumes in other drives. you would specify /dev/sg0 for the Changer Device name. Most frequently. The same substitution characters that may be specified in the Changer Command may also be used in this string.conf file. but it can be used on any tape drive. if you specify a Media Type of ”DDS-4” then during the restore. please see the Autochangers chapter of this manual. Depending on your exact configuration. this directive will be specified only in the AutoChanger resource. you might want to see one of the several chio scripts in examples/autochangers.e. If the Autochanger directive is set to No (default). Changer Device = name-string The specified name-string must be the generic SCSI device name of the autochanger that corresponds to the normal read/write Archive Device specified in the Device resource. you choose the name you want). This is not generally an issue if you have a single Storage daemon. However. For example. you will specify the Bacula supplied mtx-changer script as follows: Changer Command = "/path/mtx-changer %c %o %S %a %d" and you will install the mtx on your system (found in the depkgs release). Changer Command = name-string The name-string specifies an external program to be called that will automatically change volumes as required by Bacula. and the number of autochangers or the type of autochanger.

the Storage Daemon will start new Jobs on any other available compatible drive. This permits Bacula to ensure that the tape drive is always available. don’t forget to remount the drive with mount when the drive is available or the next Bacula job will block. The next time Bacula wants to append to a tape on a drive that was freed. This can be a very time consuming operation. The default is 5 minutes. By default. Please be aware that if you set this interval too small. after asking the operator to mount a new volume Bacula will periodically poll (or read) the drive at the specified interval to see if a new volume has been mounted. you must specify multiple Bacula Device resources (one for each drive). Bacula will invalidate the Volume slot number stored in the catalog and try again. Autoselect = yes|no If this directive is set to yes (default).0. If this time is exceeded. If this time is exceeded. then the Device can only be referenced by directly using the Device name in the Director. simply use the unmount command in the Console program to release the drive. Maximum Changer Wait = time This directive specifies the maximum time in seconds for Bacula to wait for an autochanger to change the volume. If this directive is set to no.0. As of Bacula version 1. Bacula will ask the operator to intervene. To avoid unnecessary tape positioning and to minimize unnecessary operator intervention. If you set AlwaysOpen to no Bacula will only open the drive when necessary.184 bacula-sd Alert: TapeAlert[32]: Interface: Problem with SCSI interface between tape drive and initiator. If you have Always Open = yes (recommended) and you want to use the drive for something else.3 Drive Index = number The Drive Index that you specify is passed to the mtx-changer script and is thus passed to the mtx program. this directive is ignored. This directive can be useful if you want to avoid operator intervention via the console. this device can automatically be selected. and properly positioned. In addition. so if you have only one drive in your autochanger. If this time is exceeded. you . Using this directive. and the second Device Resource should contain a Drive Index set to 1. Instead. If no additional changer volumes exist. and Bacula on the next poll will recognize the new tape and continue. it will be freed. The default is 5 minutes. with this directive set to no. you must set this to No. The default is 5 minutes. Always Open = yes|no If Yes (default). and the Device belongs to an autochanger. and so on. However. Bacula will cancel the job. For a FIFO storage device.38. if you have multiple drives. because when the Maximum Concurrent Jobs limit is reached. Bacula will automatically ensure that only one drive at a time uses the autochanger script. no polling will occur. Please note that if you set this directive to No Bacula will release the tape drive between each job. Bacula Version 5. If the time interval is zero (the default). and thus the next job will rewind the tape and position it to the end of the data. The first Device should have the Drive Index set to 0. Bacula will always keep the device open unless specifically unmounted by the Console program. This also ensures that the drive is available when Bacula needs it. using the Autochanger resource. and at the end of the Job if no other Jobs are using the drive. so you no longer need locking scripts as in the past – the default mtx-changer script works for any number of drives. This is useful for reserving a drive for something special such as a high priority backup or restore operations. Maximum Rewind Wait = time This directive specifies the maximum time in seconds for Bacula to wait for a rewind before timing out. Maximum Open Wait = time This directive specifies the maximum time in seconds for Bacula to wait for a open before timing out. Bacula will cancel the job. the Drive Index is zero. This will then permit you to use two or more drives in your autochanger. everything will work normally. However. For File storage. it is highly recommended that Always Open = yes. then when the Autochanger is referenced by the Director. certain multiple drive autochanger operations will fail. We strongly recommend to keep Always Open set to Yes Volume Poll Interval = time If the time specified on this directive is non-zero. Bacula will rewind the tape and position it to the end. the operator can simply remove the old volume and insert the requested one. Maximum Concurent Jobs = num Maximum Concurrent Jobs is a directive that permits setting the maximum number of Jobs that can run concurrently on a specified Device. it is possible to have different Jobs using multiple drives. This facilitates writing to multiple drives with multiple Jobs that all use the same Pool.

This directive is used only for devices that have Requires Mount enabled such as DVD or USB file devices. the Offline On Unmount will leave the drive with no tape. if you have defined a mount point in /etc/fstab. However. and Unmount Command. To be able to write a DVD. since Bacula will read it on each poll. %a is replaced with the Archive Device. Normally this is not too useful unless you have the Offline on Unmount directive set. This can be avoided by ejecting the tape using the Offline On Unmount and the Close on Poll directives. USB devices mounted by udev or hotplug). Mount Command.g. If Removable media is enabled on a File device (as opposed to a tape) the Storage daemon will assume that device may be something like a USB device that can be removed or a simply a removable harddisk. For more information on this problem.Bacula Version 5. this device supports removable media (for example. please see the description of Offline On Unmount in the Tape Testing chapter. it looks at what actually is found. for a DVD. the Volume name is the same as the Filename). if the Volume is not found (for File devices. You must set this directive to yes for DVD-writers and removable file systems such as USB devices that are not automatically mounted by the operating system when plugged in or opened by Bacula. and %m with the Mount Point.6 kernel or other OSes such as FreeBSD or Solaris. the archive device is assumed to be a random access medium which supports the lseek (or lseek64 if Largefile is enabled during configuration) facility. When attempting to open such a device. the Storage daemon will submit a Mount Command before attempting to open the device. It should also be set to no for any removable device that is automatically mounted by the operating system when opened (e. and if it is an appendable Volume. but the mount command is necessary in order to determine the free space left on the DVD. USB. The default is 5 minutes. Mount Point = directory Directory where the device can be mounted.3 185 may excessively wear your tape drive if the old tape remains in the drive. If No.g. media cannot be removed (for example. This should be set to Yes for all file systems such as DVD. For DVDs. the following directives must also be defined: Mount Point. Most frequently. if you are using a Linux 2. the current Job will be terminated in error. Mount Command. This directive indicates if the device requires to be mounted using the Mount Command. it will use it. Maximum Open Wait = time This directive specifies the maximum amount of time in seconds that Bacula will wait for a device that is busy. and Bacula will not be able to properly open the drive and may fail the job. tapes or CDs). If the removable medium is not automatically mounted (e. an intermediate backup area on a hard disk). you will define it as follows: Mount Command = "/bin/mount -t iso9660 -o ro %a %m" However. Before the command is executed. Random access = yes|no If Yes. It should be set to no for all other devices such as tapes and fixed filesystems. and fixed files. Unmount Command and Write Part Command. It should be set to No for non-random access devices such as tapes and named pipes. Bacula close the device (equivalent to an unmount except no mount is required) and reopen it at each poll. Bacula will recognize the drive on the next poll and automatically continue with the backup. and for each one found. it will ask the Director if the Volume can be used. Please see above more more details. If the device cannot be obtained. Bacula will re-attempt to open the drive the next time a Job starts that needs the the drive. Mount Point. Once the operator inserts a new tape. the Storage daemon will use the first such Volume found. then you might consider using additional Storage daemon device directives such as Requires Mount. in which case the drive will be taken offline preventing wear on the tape during any future polling. Removable media = yes|no If Yes. Requires Mount = yes|no When this directive is enabled. Mount Command = name-string This directive specifies the command that must be executed to mount devices such as DVDs and many USB devices. udev). the device is written directly.0. If so. then the Storage daemon will search the entire device looking for likely Volume names. Thus it acts somewhat like a tape drive – if the correct Volume is not found. all of which can be used in conjunction with Removable Media. Close on Poll= yes|no If Yes. you might be able to use a mount command such as: .

186 Mount Command = "/bin/mount /media/dvd" Bacula Version 5. Before the command is executed. create a shell script. you will not need to specify this directive. If you want the block size to be variable but with a 64K minimum and 200K maximum (and default as well). %a is replaced with the Archive Device. suppose you want a fixed block size of 100K bytes.512 bytes. The default is that both the minimum and maximum block size are zero and the default block size is 64. or if it is in fixed block size mode. If you need to specify multiple commands.g. then you would specify: Minimum block size = 100K Maximum block size = 100K Please note that if you specify a fixed block size as shown above.0.000. if necessary. Blocks written by the storage daemon to a non-random archive device will never be smaller than the given size-in-bytes. the block size (generally defined by mt) must be identical to the size specified in Bacula – otherwise when you attempt to re-read your Volumes. tape drives). the tape drive must either be in variable block size mode. add padding to a block to achieve the required minimum size. set the Minimum block size and the Maximum block size to the same value (zero included). We do not recommend to turn this off particularly on older tape drives or for disk Volumes where doing so may allow corrupted data to go undetected. If adding data to a block would cause it to exceed the given maximum size.e. To force the block size to be fixed. The size written never exceed the given size-in-bytes. and the new data will begin a new block. The Storage daemon will attempt to efficiently fill blocks with data received from active sessions but will. The default is yes – i. If you need to specify multiple commands. you will define it as follows: Unmount Command = "/bin/umount %m" See the Edit Codes section below for more details of the editing codes that can be used in this directive. the checksum is computed on write and checked on read. the block will be written to the archive device. and %m with the Mount Point.3 See the Edit Codes section below for more details of the editing codes that can be used in this directive. . it will be to make Bacula use fixed block sizes. If you do so. For example. It will also permit Bacula to read a Volume that has corrupted data.512 bytes (126 * 512). Block Checksum = yes/no You may turn off the Block Checksum (CRC32) code that Bacula uses when writing blocks to a Volume. as is the case for some non-random access devices (tape drives). and if you do so.000. Doing so can reduce the Storage daemon CPU usage slightly. you will get an error. the Storage daemon will use a default block size of 64. As a consequence. This statement applies only to non-random access devices (e. If no value is specified or zero is specified. Unmount Command = name-string This directive specifies the command that must be executed to unmount devices such as DVDs and many USB devices. The Storage daemon will always attempt to write blocks of the specified size-in-bytes to the archive device. Minimum block size = size-in-bytes On most modern tape drives. this statement specifies both the default block size and the maximum block size. it will most likely be to use fixed block sizes (see Minimum block size above). Most frequently. you will not need or want to specify this directive. The maximum size-in-bytes possible is 2. create a shell script. you would specify: Minimum block size = 64K Maximum blocksize = 200K Maximum block size = size-in-bytes On most modern tape drives.

the tape will be positioned after the second EOF tape mark (two successive EOF marks indicated End of Medium). This function is used before appending to a tape to ensure that no previously written data is lost. We recommend if you have a non-standard or unusual tape drive that you use the btape program to test your drive to see whether or not it supports this function. this call is not used and the device must be rewound and advanced forward to the desired position. but they do not keep track of the file number. Operating systems known to work correctly are Solaris. this operation system deficiency seems to be the case only on a few *BSD systems. the archive device supports the MTBSF and MTBSF ioctls to backspace over an end of file mark and to the start of a file. but in addition. However. the operating system is not required to support keeping track of the file number and reporting it in the (MTIOCGET ioctl). Linux and FreeBSD. Note. your SCSI driver must keep track of the file number on the tape and report it back correctly by the MTIOCGET ioctl. and the storage daemon will use the forward space file function to find the end of the recorded data. If you must set this to No. they do not report end of medium. the archive device is not required to support end of medium ioctl request. All modern (after 1998) tape drives support this feature. the default. data must be read to advance the position on the device. which if set will cause the driver to lose track of the file number. Use MTIOCGET = yes|no If No. Default setting for Hardware End of Medium is Yes. and Bacula can append to the tape as desired. the archive device must support the ioctl MTEOM call. Forward Space Record = yes|no If Yes. . This causes no harm as the re-read process is precautionary rather than required. the archive device must support the ioctl MTFSF call. In addition. the SCSI driver has a fast-eod option. Default is Yes for non random-access devices. This function if enabled is used at the end of a Volume after writing the end of file and any ANSI/IBM labels to determine whether or not the last block was written correctly. BSF at EOM = yes|no If No. some SCSI drivers will correctly forward space. on some systems. but they do not keep track of the file number or more seriously. Note. the test will not be done.0. Bacula will write two end of file marks when terminating a tape – i. The default is Yes. If No. Backward Space File = yes|no If Yes. the archive device is not required to support keeping track of the file number (MTIOCGET ioctl) during forward space file. the archive device must support the MTFSF ioctl to forward space by file marks. Forward Space File = yes|no If Yes. when Bacula reads the End of Medium (end of tape). which will position the tape to the end of the recorded data. such as FreeBSD. If No. Bacula will only write one end of file to terminate the tape. the archive device must support the MTFSR ioctl to forward space over records. the archive device supports the MTBSR ioctl to backspace records. Fortunately. Backward Space Record = yes|no If Yes. Bacula will do the proper file position determination.e. Fast Forward Space File = yes|no If No. which virtually all drivers support. data must be read in order to advance the position on the device. If you turn this function off. Default is Yes for non random-access devices. Determination of whether or not you need this directive is done using the test command in the btape program. If No. your SCSI driver must keep track of the file number on the tape and report it back correctly by the MTIOCGET ioctl. If Yes. On Linux machines.3 187 Hardware End of Medium = yes|no If No. If Bacula appends from that point. If No. after the last job or at the end of the medium. The solution for such systems is to specify BSF at EOM which causes Bacula to backspace over the second EOF mark. all the appended data will be lost. TWO EOF = yes|no If Yes. Default is Yes for non random-access devices. If Yes. no special action is taken by Bacula with the End of Medium (end of tape) is reached because the tape will be positioned after the last EOF tape mark. Default is Yes for non random-access devices. You should ensure that this option is always turned off using the mt program. If No. the default. some SCSI drivers will correctly forward space to the end of the recorded data. but it is very unfortunate because it means that tape movement is very inefficient.Bacula Version 5. Default setting for Fast Forward Space File is Yes. these calls are not used and the device must be rewound and advanced forward to the desired position.

For more information on this problem.6 kernel or other OSes such as FreeBSD or Solaris.188 Bacula Version 5. In some rare cases of really antiquated tape drives that do not properly indicate when the end of a tape is reached during writing (though I have read about such drives. you can increase this number and improve performance. However. the Storage Daemon will start new Jobs on any other available compatible drive. regardless of the medium type (tape. . or use the Maximum Volume Bytes directive in the Director’s Pool resource. If Yes the archive device must support the MTOFFL ioctl to rewind and take the volume offline. Using this directive.3 Offline On Unmount = yes|no The default for this directive is No. The default is one Gigabyte. an end of file mark is written on the volume and subsequent data are written into the next file. disk. Maximum Concurrent Jobs = <number> where <number> is the maximum number of Jobs that can run concurrently on a specified Device. . 1MB). The default value is 32. The default is yes. It is clear that on a high speed local network. you probably will want to set the Maximum File Size to 2GB to avoid making the drive stop to write an EOF mark. You might use this directive if you wrote your tapes with Bacula in variable block mode (the default). It changes only the number of EOF marks on a tape and the number of block positioning records (see below) that are generated. it is possible to have different Jobs using multiple drives. Larger values for most users don’t seem to improve performance.g. but your drive was in fixed block mode. This size will be adjusted down if it is too large until it is accepted by the OS. Breaking long sequences of data blocks with file marks permits quicker positioning to the start of a given stream of data and can improve recovery from read errors on the volume. Note. If you want to limit the size of all Volumes for a particular device. Please note. you will generate lots of database records (JobMedia) and may significantly increase CPU/disk overhead. and on some systems require an explicit load command to be issued (mt -f /dev/xxx load) before the system will recognize the tape. please see the description of Offline On Unmount in the Tape Testing chapter. You will probably also want to make the corresponding change in each of your File daemons conf files. which does the same thing but on a Pool (Volume) basis. In this case. If you set this to a small value (e. some devices require an offline to be issued prior to changing the volume. This directive is used mainly in testing Bacula to simulate a small Volume. Maximum Network Buffer Size = bytes where bytes specifies the initial network buffer size to use with the File daemon. a record is put into the catalog database that permits seeking to that position on the medium for restore operations. Block Positioning = yes|no This directive tells Bacula not to use block positioning when doing restores. which may require a large number of system calls. Once this size is reached.. use the Maximum Volume Size directive (above). some users have found that if you use a value of 65.536 bytes they get five to ten times the throughput. This directive creates EOF marks only on tape media. Please use care in setting this value since if it is too large. If No Bacula will not attempt to offline the device before unmounting it. If you are using an autochanger.. This facilitates writing to multiple drives with multiple Jobs that all use the same Pool. If you are using a Linux 2. The default size was chosen to be relatively large but not too big in the case that you are transmitting data over Internet. DVD. I have never personally encountered one). this directive does not limit the size of Volumes that Bacula will create regardless of whether they are tape or disk volumes. this directive is deprecated (being phased out) in favor of the Maximum Volume Bytes defined in the Director’s configuration file.768 bytes. Turning this directive off can cause Bacula to be extremely slow when restoring files. Maximum File Size = size No more than size bytes will be written into a given logical file on the volume. Bacula will issue the offline (eject) request before closing the device during the unmount command. most devices do not and may get very confused. However. For example. If you are interested in improving your backup speeds. this is definitely a place to experiment. It can also be useful if you wish to limit the size of a File Volume to say less than 2GB of data. it will be trimmed by 512 bytes until the OS is happy. After an offline is issued.0. and Bacula will not be able to properly open the drive and may fail the job. If you are configuring an LTO-3 or LTO-4 tape. the Offline On Unmount will leave the drive with no tape. because when the Maximum Concurrent Jobs limit is reached.) each time a the Maximum File Size is exceeded. Maximum Volume Size = size No more than size bytes will be written onto a given volume on the archive device. the cassette will be ejected thus requiring operator intervention to continue.

and to no for all other devices (tapes/files). Unmount Command and Write Part Command directives must also be defined. it is recommended that you use a shell script instead of putting them all into the Mount Command. It is ignored for tape and FIFO devices. As of version 1.37 and later.6.5. The default is no limit. ”Mount Command”. This directory is also used to store temporary part files when writing to a device that requires mount (DVD). filename) 19. and ”Unmount Command” apply to removable filesystems such as USB in addition to DVD. Spool Directory = directory specifies the name of the directory to be used to store the spool files for this device. Bacula performs character substitution of the following characters: %% %a %e %n %m %v = = = = = = % Archive device name erase (set if cannot mount and first part) part number mount point last part name (i. %a is replaced with the Archive Device. and if it must be written in a special way.4 Edit Codes for Mount and Unmount Directives Before submitting the Mount Command. This directive indicates if the device requires to be mounted to be read.e. Write Part Command. Unmount Command. This directive is implemented only in version 1.Bacula Version 5. This directive is implemented only in version 1. The default is to use the working directory. If it set. instead of this: Mount Command = "/usr/local/bin/mymount" . The default is no limit. ”Mount Point”.38.37 and later. Requires Mount = yes|no You must set this directive to yes for DVD-writers. Maximum Job Spool Size = bytes where the bytes specify the maximum spool size for any one job that is running. it is transferred to the device when this size is reached. Before the command is executed. and %m with the Mount Point.0. or Free Space Command directives to the operating system. In this case. you will define it as follows: Mount Command = "/bin/mount -t iso9660 -o ro %a %m" For some media. Maximum Part Size = bytes This is the maximum size of a volume part file. Mount Command. For example. If so. it is left on the hard disk. you must take care to have enough disk space left in the spool directory.39. 19. The default is no limit.5 Devices that require a mount (DVD) All the directives in this section are implemented only in Bacula version 1. If the device requires mount. the directives ”Requires Mount”.3 189 Maximum Spool Size = bytes where the bytes specify the maximum spool size for all jobs that are running. Otherwise. you may need multiple commands. Mount Point.37 and later and hence are available in version 1. Mount Point = directory Directory where the device can be mounted. Most frequently. Mount Command = name-string Command that must be executed to mount the device.

you will most frequently specify the Bacula supplied dvd-handler script as follows: Free Space Command = "/path/dvd-handler %a free" Where /path is the path to your scripts install directory. This command will already be present. and with 0 otherwise.conf file. and %v with the current part filename. you will define it as follows: Unmount Command = "/bin/umount %m" If you need to specify multiple commands. To use it. For a DVD. If you need to specify multiple commands. %a is replaced with the Archive Device. and %m with the Mount Point. If you do not set it. in the default bacula-sd. in the default bacula-sd. simply remove the comment (#) symbol. Before the command is executed. create a shell script. and dvd-handler is the Bacula supplied script file. If you need to specify multiple commands. please look at the code of dvd-handler to see what output Bacula expects from this command. . Unmount Command = name-string Command that must be executed to unmount the device.0. Before the command is executed. %a is replaced with the Archive Device. %m with the Mount Point. For a DVD. If you want to specify your own command. %e is replaced with 1 if we are writing the first part. This command will already be present. To use it. Before the command is executed. Free Space Command = name-string Command that must be executed to check how much free space is left on the device. and with 0 otherwise. create a shell script. %e is replaced with 1 if we are writing the first part. and dvd-handler is the Bacula supplied script file.3 Similar consideration should be given to all other Command parameters. simply remove the comment (#) symbol. and %v with the current part filename. you will most frequently specify the Bacula supplied dvd-handler script as follows: Write Part Command = "/path/dvd-handler %a write %e %v" Where /path is the path to your scripts install directory.%a is replaced with the Archive Device. create a shell script. Write Part Command = name-string Command that must be executed to write a part to the device.conf file. but commented out. Most frequently. Bacula will expect there is always free space on the device. %m with the Mount Point. but commented out.190 Where that script contains: #!/bin/sh ndasadmin enable -s 1 -o w sleep 2 mount /dev/ndas-00323794-0p1 /backup Bacula Version 5.

and you want it to function correctly. the Director’s Storage directives referred directly to Device resources that were autochangers. DDS-4-3 Changer Device = /dev/sg0 Changer Command = "/etc/bacula/mtx-changer %c %o %S %a %d" } Device { Name = "DDS-4-1" Drive Index = 0 Autochanger = yes .0 and later.Chapter 20 Autochanger Resource The Autochanger resource supports single or multiple drive autochangers by grouping one or more Device resources into one unit called an autochanger in Bacula (often referred to as a ”tape library” by autochanger manufacturers). and your Director’s Storage directives that want to use an Autochanger must refer to the Autochanger resource name. The following is an example of a valid Autochanger resource definition: Autochanger { Name = "DDS-4-changer" Device = DDS-4-1. Changer Device = name-string The specified name-string gives the system file name of the autochanger device name.38. the Changer Device name is not needed in the Device resource. If you have an Autochanger. you will specify the Bacula supplied mtx-changer script as follows. You may specify multiple device names on a single line separated by commas. This directive is required. In version 1. Name = <Autochanger-Name> Specifies the Name of the Autochanger. it need not be specified in the Device resource. Most frequently. it will take precedence over the one specified in the Autochanger resource. } 191 . If you have a multiple drive autochanger.. each one referring to a separate Device resource that contains a Drive Index specification that corresponds to the drive number base zero. Device = <Device-name1.. referring directly to Device resources will not work for Autochangers. If it is specified in the Device resource (see above). Changer Command = name-string The name-string specifies an external program to be called that will automatically change volumes as required by Bacula.> Specifies the names of the Device resource or resources that correspond to the autochanger drive. you must specify multiple Device names. This directive is required. In previous versions of Bacula.. DDS-4-2. This name is used in the Director’s Storage definition to refer to the autochanger. If it is specified here. If it is also specified in the Device resource. device-name2.. it will take precedence over one specified in the Autochanger resource. . you must have an Autochanger resource in your Storage conf file. If specified in this resource. and/or you may specify multiple Device directives.

but will be used if DDS-4-3 is used. This is done initially when the daemon is started. This directive is particularly important if you have set Always Open = no because it permits Bacula to attempt to read the device before asking the system operator to mount a tape. In that case. which will not be selected when the name DDS-4-changer is used in a Storage definition. your Device directive in the Storage resource of the Director’s conf file should have the Autochanger’s resource name rather than a name of one of the Devices. Also. However. If you have a drive that physically belongs to an Autochanger but you don’t want to have it automatically used when Bacula references the Autochanger for backups. 20. The automatic labeling feature is most useful when writing to disk rather than tape volumes.0.1 Capabilities Label media = yes|no If Yes. An example of such a definition is shown above for the Device DDS-4-3. still use the drive by referencing it by the Device name directly rather than the Autochanger name. please see the Messages Resource Chapter of this manual. A device definition should not belong to more than one Autochanger resource. for example.. Automatic mount = yes|no If Yes (the default).. If this is No as by default.3 Please note that it is important to include the Autochanger = yes directive in each Device definition that belongs to an Autochanger. permits this device to automatically label blank media without an explicit operator command. It does so by using an internal algorithm as defined on the Label Format record in each Pool resource. } Bacula Version 5. Bacula will not automatically select that drive when accessing the Autochanger. Bacula will label tapes only by specific operator command (label in the Console) or when the tape has been recycled. you can add the directive: Autoselect = no to the Device resource for that drive. 20. permits the daemon to examine the device to determine if it contains a Bacula labeled volume. You can.3 Sample Storage Daemon Configuration File A example Storage Daemon configuration file might be the following: # # Default Bacula Storage Daemon Configuration file . you want to reserve it for restores. and then at the beginning of each job.2 Messages Resource For a description of the Messages Resource. Device { Name = "DDS-4-3" Drive Index = 2 Autochanger = yes Autoselect = no .192 Device { Name = "DDS-4-2" Drive Index = 1 Autochanger = yes . please note that the tape must be mounted before the job begins... 20.

conf must have the # same Name and MediaType. # when device opened.2 (07 July 2005) -. read it . AutoChanger = yes Alert Command = "sh -c ’tapeinfo -f %c |grep TapeAlert|cat’" } Device { Name = "HP DLT 80" Media Type = DLT8000 Archive Device = /dev/nst0 AutomaticMount = yes.16 # # You may need to change the name of your tape drive # on the "Archive Device" directive in the Device # resource. used by tray-monitor to get the # status of the storage daemon # Director { Name = rufus-mon Password = "9usxgc307dMbe7jbD16v0PXlhD64UVasIDD0DH2WAujcDsc6" Monitor = yes } # # Devices supported by this Storage daemon # To connect. # Storage { # definition of myself Name = rufus-sd Address = rufus WorkingDirectory = "$HOME/bacula/bin/working" Pid Directory = "$HOME/bacula/bin/working" Maximum Concurrent Jobs = 20 } # # List Directors who are permitted to contact Storage daemon # Director { Name = rufus-dir Password = "ZF9Ctf5PQoWCPkmR3s4atCB0usUPg+vWWyIo2VS5ti6k" } # # Restricted Director. AutoChanger = yes Alert Command = "sh -c ’tapeinfo -f %c |grep TapeAlert|cat’" } Device { Name = Drive-2 # Drive Index = 1 Media Type = DLT-8000 Archive Device = /dev/nst1 AutomaticMount = yes. RandomAccess = no.conf has corresponding changes.3 # # For Bacula release 1.gentoo 1. RemovableMedia = yes. # Autochanger { Name = Autochanger Device = Drive-1 Device = Drive-2 Changer Command = "/home/kern/bacula/bin/mtx-changer %c %o %S %a %d" Changer Device = /dev/sg0 } Device { Name = Drive-1 # Drive Index = 0 Media Type = DLT-8000 Archive Device = /dev/nst0 AutomaticMount = yes. read it AlwaysOpen = yes.4. RandomAccess = no. If you change the Name and/or the # "Media Type" in the Device resource.0. RemovableMedia = yes. please ensure # that bacula-dir. read it AlwaysOpen = yes. 193 # when device opened. # when device opened. the Director’s bacula-dir.Bacula Version 5.37.

read it # RemovableMedia = no. #} # # Send all messages to the Director. # AlwaysOpen = no. # SpoolDirectory = /tmp/backup.194 AlwaysOpen = yes. # when device opened. # WritePartCommand = "/etc/bacula/dvd-handler %a write %e %v" # FreeSpaceCommand = "/etc/bacula/dvd-handler %a free" #} # # A very old Exabyte with no end of media detection # #Device { # Name = "Exabyte 8mm" # Media Type = "8mm" # Archive Device = /dev/nst0 # Hardware end of medium = No. } #Device { # Name = SDT-7000 # # Media Type = DDS-2 # Archive Device = /dev/nst0 # AutomaticMount = yes. #} #Device { # Name = "NEC ND-1300A" # Media Type = DVD # Archive Device = /dev/hda # LabelMedia = yes. # when device opened. read it # AlwaysOpen = Yes. # AutomaticMount = yes. # lets Bacula label unlabeled media # Random Access = Yes.0. # AutomaticMount = yes. RemovableMedia = yes. # when device opened. # MountCommand = "/bin/mount -t iso9660 -o ro %a %m". # Random Access = Yes. read it # AlwaysOpen = yes. # RemovableMedia = yes. # AutomaticMount = yes. # MaximumPartSize = 800M. # RemovableMedia = yes. # lets Bacula label unlabeled media # Random Access = Yes. # when device opened. #} #Device { # Name = FileStorage # Media Type = File # Archive Device = /tmp # LabelMedia = yes. read it # RemovableMedia = yes. # RequiresMount = yes. # when device opened. # AlwaysOpen = no. # AutomaticMount = yes. read it # AlwaysOpen = no. #} #Device { # Name = Floppy # Media Type = Floppy # Archive Device = /mnt/floppy # RemovableMedia = yes. # UnmountCommand = "/bin/umount %m". # mount messages also are sent to the email address # Messages { Name = Standard director = rufus-dir = all operator = root = mount } Bacula Version 5. # MountPoint = /mnt/cdrom.3 .

or for those destinations that need and address specification (e. FATAL. . message-type is one of a predefined set of keywords that define the type of message generated by Bacula (ERROR. For example. However. etc. ERROR. 195 .g.. . and address varies according to the destination keyword. you may want all error messages both logged as well as sent to you in an email. WARNING.. message-type3. The records contained in a Messages resource consist of a destination specification followed by a list of message-types in the format: destination = message-type1. There are some rare cases. . On some systems. file. Full backups versus Incremental backups).Chapter 21 Messages Resource The Messages resource defines how messages are to be handled and destinations to which they should be sent.. The following are the list of the possible record definitions that can be used in a message resource. email): destination = address = message-type1. message-type2. where this is not possible. you can specify which message types you wish to see and where they should be sent. By defining multiple messages resources. Where destination is one of a predefined set of keywords that define where the message is to be sent (stdout. or logged together in a single file. a message may be sent to multiple destinations. Even though each daemon has a full message handler. Messages Start of the Messages records.). Name = <name> The name of the Messages resource. or if a communications error occurs between a daemon and the director. . within the File daemon and the Storage daemon. such as FreeBSD. but is typically an email address or a filename. In addition. since such messages are not attached to a Job. Each message that Bacula generates (i. message-type2.g. This permits all the messages associated with a single Job to be combined in the Director and sent as a single email message to the user.. and should be flushed at the end of the next Job. when no job is running. you may want to link it to the the above location.g. any that are mailed will be sent to /usr/lib/sendmail.. The name you specify here will be used to tie this Messages resource to a Job and/or to the daemon.e. message-type3. you can have different message handling for each type of Job (e. the message may remain in the system. In general. e. WARNING.). Using the message resource.. In those cases. that each daemon generates) has an associated type such as INFO. messages are attached to a Job and are included in the Job report. FATAL. if your sendmail is in a different place. you will normally choose to send all the appropriate messages back to the Director...

Where destination may be one of the following: stdout Send the message to standard output. <destination> = <address> = <message-type1>. Please test any mailcommand that you use to ensure that your bsmtp gateway accepts the addressing form that you use. Bacula will send all mail using the following command: mail -s ”Bacula Message” <recipients> In many cases. The OperatorCommand directive must appear in the Messages resource before the Operator directive. it will be appended to. The following is the command I (Kern) use. For additional details. this command may not work. Note. it will be overwritten. it will be created.196 Bacula Version 5.com -f \”\(Bacula\) %r\” -s \”Bacula: %t %e of %c %l\” %r” The bsmtp program is provided as part of Bacula. the following substitutions will be used: • %% = % • %c = Client’s name • %d = Director’s name • %e = Job Exit code (OK. you can specify exactly how to send the mail. If the file already exists. depending on your machine. During the processing of the command part. If the file already exists. Backup. <destination> = <message-type1>... In fact. . The substitutions performed for the MailCommand are also done for this command. . please see the bsmtp – Customizing Your Email Messages section of the Bacula Utility Programs chapter of this manual. MailOnSuccess. Error. normally specified as a quoted string.) • %i = Job Id • %j = Unique Job name • %l = Job level • %n = Job name • %r = Recipients • %t = Job type (e. Note.. Normally.3 MailCommand = <command> In the absence of this resource. console Send the message to the console (Bacula Console).. However. <message-type2>. stderr Send the message to standard error. .0. . append Append the message to the filename given in the address field. The destination may be one of the following: director Send the message to the Director whose name is given in the address field. each of those directives may be preceded by a different MailCommand. <message-type2>. in the current implementation. . Certain programs such as Exim can be very selective as to what forms are permitted particularly in the from part. the Director Name is ignored. If the file does not exist. or MailOnError directive. the whole command should appear on a single line in the configuration file rather than split as is done here for presentation: mailcommand = ”/home/kern/bacula/bin/bsmtp -h mail.example. and the message is sent to the Director that started the Job... by using the MailCommand. Where address depends on the destination. you will set this command to the same value as specified for the MailCommand. OperatorCommand = <command> This resource specification is similar to the MailCommand except that it is used for Operator messages... These messages are held until the console program connects to the Director. file Send the message to the filename given in the address field.) Please note: any MailCommand directive must be specified in the Messages resource before the desired Mail.g.

Bacula Version 5. Usually because the file cannot be accessed (i. Bacula will prune the Log records associated with a Job when the Job records are pruned. the message-type field is a comma separated list of the following types or classes of messages: info General information messages. operator Send the message to the email addresses that are specified as a comma separated list in the address field. notsaved Files not saved because of some error. For any destination. Any error message should be investigated as it means that something went wrong. .3 197 syslog Send the message to the system log (syslog) using the facility specified in the address field. any unchanged file during an incremental backup. The advantage of this destination is that you are notified about every Job that runs. !skipped Although the syslog destination is not used in the default Bacula config files. This is similar to mail above. Otherwise. so this destination is only used for special purpose programs (e.g.0. skipped Files that were skipped because of a user supplied option such as an incremental backup or a file that matches an exclusion pattern. Some users use filter programs such as procmail to automatically file this email based on the Job termination code (see mailcommand). error Non-fatal error messages. it will send it to the system syslog to prevent loss of the message. MailOnSuccess messages are grouped together during a job and then sent as a single email message when the job terminates.e. However. terminate Message generated when the daemon shuts down. so you might occassionally check the syslog for Bacula output (normally /var/log/syslog). the address field is ignored and the message is always sent to the LOG DAEMON facility with level LOG ERR. it is emailed. the output information is saved. If the Job terminates in error. This is most useful for mount messages (see below). This is not considered an error condition such as the files listed for the notsaved type because the configuration file explicitly requests these types of files to be skipped. catalog Send the message to the Catalog database. in certain cases where Bacula encounters errors in trying to deliver a message. bweb). MailOnError messages are grouped together during a job and then sent as a single email message when the job terminates. Example: syslog = all. the message is totally discarded (for this destination). except that each message is sent as received. fatal Fatal error messages. This destination differs from the mail destination in that if the Job terminates abnormally. for the moment. If the Job terminates normally. The job continues running. Fatal errors cause the job to terminate. Bacula never uses these records internally. as a last resort. mail on error Send the message to the email addresses that are given as a comma separated list in the address field if the Job terminates with an error condition. Generally this is some unusual condition but not expected to be serious. mail on success Send the message to the email addresses that are given as a comma separated list in the address field if the Job terminates normally (no error condition). it does not exist or is not mounted). The message will be written to the table named Log and a timestamp field will also be added. stderr Send the message to the standard error output (normally not used). mail Send the message to the email addresses that are given as a comma separated list in the address field. Thus there is one email per message. This permits Job Reports and other messages to be recorded in the Catalog so that they can be accessed by reporting software. stdout Send the message to the standard output (normally not used). if you backup five or ten machines every night. By using other destinations such as append you can ensure that even if the Job terminates normally. console Send the message to the Bacula console. This destination differs from the mail destination in that if the Job terminates normally. Mail messages are grouped together during a job and then sent as a single email message when the job terminates. the volume of email messages can be important. the message is totally discarded (for this destination). warning Warning messages. Note. it is emailed. or any subdirectory if the no recursion option is specified. See man 3 syslog for more details. For example.

com \ -f \"\(Bacula\) %r\" -s \"Bacula: Intervention needed \ for %j\" %r" MailOnError = security@example. the mailcommand and operatorcommand are on a single line – they had to be split for this manual: Messages { Name = Standard mailcommand = "bacula/bin/bsmtp -h mail.com = all. all All message types. an example Director’s Messages resource is as follows.com = mount console = all. Currently there are no volume mangement messages generated. !terminate operator = security@example. where all messages except files explicitly skipped or daemon termination messages are sent by email to enforcement@sec. !saved } .com \ -f \"\(Bacula\) %r\" -s \"Bacula: %t %e of %c %l\" %r" operatorcommand = "bacula/bin/bsmtp -h mail. !saved } With the exception of the email address (changed to avoid junk mail from robot’s). security Security info/warning messages principally from unauthorized connection attempts. emailed to enforcement@sec. !terminate operator = enforcement@sec.example. The following is an example of a valid Messages resource definition.e. volmgmt Volume management messages.com = all.com. !skipped.com).198 Bacula Version 5. These requests require a specific operator intervention for the job to continue. alert Alert messages. In addition all mount messages are sent to the operator (i. !skipped.com = mount console = all. !skipped. !skipped.0.example.3 mount Volume mount or intervention requests from the Storage daemon. \ !terminate append = "bacula/bin/log" = all. Finally all messages other than explicitly skipped files and files saved are sent to the console: Messages { Name = Standard mail = enforcement@sec. !skipped. These are messages generated by tape alerts. Note. restored The ls style listing generated for each file restored is sent to this message class.

This password must be identical to the Password specified in the Director resource of the Director’s configuration file.cats. It simply contains the information necessary to contact the Director or Directors.Chapter 22 Console Configuration 22. please see the Configuration chapter of this manual. If you have more than one. This value will most likely already be set to the value you specified on the --with-base-port option of the . and in general. Address = <address> Where the address is a host name. otherwise. Director Start of the Director directives. or a network address used to connect to the Director. You may have multiple Director resource specifications in a single Console configuration file. For a general discussion of the syntax of configuration files and their resources including the data types recognized by Bacula.1 General The Console configuration file is the simplest of all the configuration files. Name = <name> The director name used to select among different Directors. Password = <password> Where the password is the password needed for the Director to accept the Console connection.com password = xyz1erploit } 199 . you will be prompted to choose one when you start the Console program. a fully qualified domain name. The default is 9101 so this directive is not normally specified. this name is not used. An actual example might be: Director { Name = HeadMan address = rufus. The following Console Resource definition must be defined: 22. DIRPort = <port-number> Specify the port to use to connect to the Director. you should not need to change it except for the password./configure command. This directive is required.2 The Director Resource The Director resource defines the attributes of the Director running on the network. This port must be identical to the DIRport specified in the Director resource of the Director’s configuration file.

if the console name. which has full privileges.4 The Console Resource As of Bacula version 1. Note. It permits you to define the font that you want used to display in the main listing window. there are three different kinds of consoles. is the same as a Client name.0. ConsoleFont Start of the ConsoleFont directives. these consoles can do absolutely nothing – no commands what so ever. The Console resource is optional and need not be specified. For example. You give them privileges or rather access to commands and resources by specifying access control lists in the Director’s Console resource. This second type of console begins with absolutely no privileges except those explicitly specified in the Director’s Console resource. provided on the Name = directive. • The second type of console. the default specification is: Font = "LucidaTypewriter 9" Thanks to Phil Stracchino for providing the code for this feature. Name = <name> The name of the font. In addition. • The first console type is an anonymous or default console.33 and higher is a ”named” or ”restricted” console defined within a Console resource in both the Director’s configuration file and in the Console’s configuration file. As a default.33 and remains valid. the definition of what these restricted consoles can do is determined by the Director’s conf file. This gives the administrator fine grained control over what particular consoles (or users) can do. . and new to version 1. However. which the administrator or user can use to interact with the Director. Typically you would use it only for administrators. There is no console resource necessary for this type since the password is specified in the Director resource.3 22.200 Bacula Version 5. Font = <Pango Font Name> The string value given here defines the desired font. you can use ACLs (Access Control Lists) in the Director’s configuration file to restrict the particular console (or user) to see only information pertaining to his jobs or client machine.3 The ConsoleFont Resource The ConsoleFont resource is available only in the GNOME version of the console. This permits portables or other machines using DHCP (non-fixed IP addresses) to ”notify” the Director of their current IP address. An different example might be: ConsoleFont { Name = Default Font = "Monospace 10" } 22. Both the names and the passwords in these two entries must match much as is the case for Client programs. It is specified in the Pango format. These three kinds of consoles comprise three different security levels. sort of like multiple users. each with different privileges.33 and higher. This is the kind of console that was initially implemented in versions prior to 1. if it is specified. • The third type of console is similar to the above mentioned restricted console in that it requires a Console resource definition in both the Director and the Console. the user of that console is permitted to use the SetIP command to change the Address directive in the Director’s client resource to the IP address of the Console. Thus you may define within the Director’s conf file multiple Consoles with different names and passwords.

and thus when you choose a particular Director. Director = <director-resource-name> If this directive is specified. the appropriate Console configuration resource will be used.conf file (not directly accessible by the user). and the only command he can use in the Console is the run command. if we define the following in the user’s bconsole.) that provide the setsockopt TCP KEEPIDLE function. it binds a particular console resource with its name and password to a particular director.3 201 You may specify as many Console resources in the console’s conf file. . Name = <name> The Console name used to allow a restricted console to change its IP address using the SetIP command. If you do so. See below for more details. a FileSet named Restricted Client’s FileSet. and the Console resource is given a name. Then in the Director’s bacula-dir. In other words. The SetIP command must also be defined in the Director’s conf CommandACL list. any Schedule or Pool. Heartbeat Interval = <time-interval> This directive is optional and if specified will cause the Console to set a keepalive interval (heartbeat) in seconds on each of the sockets to communicate with the Director. the Console resource is optional. and he will only be able to see or access a Job with the name Restricted Client Save a Client with the name restricted-client. However. Note.. I. generally the first Console resource will be used. Password = <password> If this password is supplied. really. a Storage device main-storage.conf file): Director { Name = MyDirector DIRport = 9101 Address = myserver Password = "XXXXXXXXXXX" } # no. Console Start of the Console resource.e.conf file (or perhaps the bwx-console. Console { Name = restricted-user Password = "UntrustedUser" } Where the Password in the Director section is deliberately incorrect. this Console resource will be used by bconsole when that particular director is selected when first starting bconsole. a Catalog named DefaultCatalog..e. For example. then the password specified in the Director resource of you Console conf will be ignored. See the ”Director” directive in the Console resource described below for more information.0. we define: Console { Name = restricted-user Password = "UntrustedUser" JobACL = "Restricted Client Save" ClientACL = restricted-client StorageACL = main-storage ScheduleACL = *all* PoolACL = *all* FileSetACL = "Restricted Client’s FileSet" CatalogACL = DefaultCatalog CommandACL = run } the user logging into the Director from his Console will get logged in as restricted-user. you can bind one of your Console resources to a particular Director resource. It is implemented only on systems (Linux. this is not obfuscation. you want to connect to different directors). in this case restricted-user. The following configuration files were supplied by Phil Stracchino. which means no change is made to the socket. if you have multiple Director resources (i. but can be useful for restricted consoles as noted above.Bacula Version 5. this user is rather limited in what he can see and do with Bacula. . The default value is zero.

22. really.0.3 The following is an example of a bconsole conf file that can access several Directors and has different Consoles depending on the director: Director { Name = MyDirector DIRport = 9101 Address = myserver Password = "XXXXXXXXXXX" } Director { Name = SecondDirector DIRport = 9101 Address = secondserver Password = "XXXXXXXXXXX" } Console { Name = restricted-user Password = "UntrustedUser" Director = MyDirector } Console { Name = restricted-user Password = "A different UntrustedUser" Director = SecondDirector } # no. please see the Bacula Console chapter of this manual. The second Director referenced at ”secondserver” might look like the following: Console { Name = restricted-user Password = "A different UntrustedUser" JobACL = "Restricted Client Save" ClientACL = restricted-client StorageACL = second-storage ScheduleACL = *all* PoolACL = *all* FileSetACL = "Restricted Client’s FileSet" CatalogACL = RestrictedCatalog CommandACL = run. this is not obfuscation. # no. this is not obfuscation.com" Password = Console_password } . really.5 Console Commands For more details on running the console and its commands.202 Bacula Version 5. restore WhereACL = "/" } 22.6 Sample Console Configuration File An example Console configuration file might be the following: # # Bacula Console Configuration File # Director { Name = HeadMan address = "my_machine.my_domain.

It simply contains the information necessary to contact Directors. to define the daemons to monitor. Name = <name> Specify the Director name used to connect to Client and Storage. This password must be identical to the Password specified in the Console resource of the Director’s configuration file. Refresh Interval = <time> Specifies the time to wait between status requests to each daemon. you must not define more than one Monitor resource in the Monitor configuration file. The following Monitor Resource definition must be defined: • Monitor – to define the Monitor’s name used to connect to all the daemons and the password used to connect to the Directors. For a general discussion of configuration file and resources including the data types recognized by Bacula. or more than 10 minutes.2 The Director Resource The Director resource defines the attributes of the Directors that are monitored by this Monitor.Chapter 23 Monitor Configuration The Monitor configuration file is a stripped down version of the Director configuration file. and Storage daemons you want to monitor. This record is required if you wish to monitor Directors. and the default value is 5 seconds. Note. you must create a Console resource in the Director’s configuration file. The parameters you define here must be configured as a Director resource in Clients and Storages configuration files. please see the Configuration chapter of this manual. It can’t be set to less than 1 second. 23. Storage or Director resource. Clients. • At least one Client. and as a Console resource in Directors configuration files. Monitor Start of the Monitor records. Password = <password> Where the password is the password needed for Directors to accept the Console connection. using the Console Name and Password 203 . 23. to avoid obtaining full Director privileges.1 The Monitor Resource The Monitor resource defines the attributes of the Monitor running on the network. and the Console name used to connect to Director. This record is required. mixed with a Console configuration file. As you are not permitted to define a Password in this resource.

so the Client configuration file on the machine to be backed up must have the same password defined for this Director. To avoid security problems. The default is 9102. and permit the use of only two commands: status and . This record is required. DIRPort = <port-number> Specify the port to use to connect to the Director. .0. To avoid security problems. you should set the Monitor directive to Yes in this Director resource. Address = <address> Where the address is a host name. 23. It is not required to be the same as the one defined in the Client’s configuration file.204 Bacula Version 5. 23. To avoid security problems. This record is required. It is not required to be the same as the one defined in the Director’s configuration file. This record is required. using the Director Name defined in the Monitor resource./configure command. This value will most likely already be set to the value you specified on the --with-base-port option of the . Client (or FileDaemon) Start of the Client records. Storage Start of the Storage records. Director Start of the Director records. Address = <address> Where the address is a host name. you should set the Monitor directive to Yes in this Director resource. or a network address used to connect to the Director. a fully qualified domain name. This port must be identical to the DIRport specified in the Director resource of the Director’s configuration file. This record is required. Name = <name> The Director name used to identify the Director in the list of monitored daemons. you should configure this Console resource to allow access to no other daemons. You may have multiple Director resource specifications in a single Monitor configuration file. You may have multiple Director resource specifications in a single Monitor configuration file. a fully qualified domain name. You must create a Director resource in the Client’s configuration file.4 The Storage Resource The Storage resource defines the attributes of the Storages that are monitored by this Monitor. FD Port = <port-number> Where the port is a port number at which the Bacula File daemon can be contacted. or a network address in dotted quad notation for a Bacula File daemon. You may have multiple Director resource specifications in a single Monitor configuration file. The default is 9101 so this record is not normally specified.status (see below for an example). using the Director Name defined in the Monitor resource. Name = <name> The Client name used to identify the Director in the list of monitored daemons. You must create a Director resource in the Storage’s configuration file.3 The Client Resource The Client resource defines the attributes of the Clients that are monitored by this Monitor. Password = <password> This is the password to be used when establishing a connection with the File services.3 defined in the Monitor resource. This record is required.

Concerning File and Storage Daemons’ configuration: In tray-monitor. It could be a security problem if there is a bug in the code which check if a command is valid for a Monitor (this is very unlikely as the code is pretty simple). SD and DIR are configured properly. the password in the Monitor resource must point to a restricted console in baculadir. SD Port = <port> Where port is the port to use to contact the storage daemon for information and to start jobs. This record is required. It is not required to be the same as the one defined in the Storage’s configuration file. Address = <address> Where the address is a host name. if you use this password with bconsole. a fully qualified domain name.0. This record is required.5 Tray Monitor Security There is no security problem in relaxing the permissions on tray-monitor. This record is required.conf as long as FD. Concerning Director’s configuration: In tray-monitor. It could be a security problem if you consider the status information as potentially dangerous (I don’t think it is the case).conf (see the documentation). The default is 9103. This same password also must appear in the Director resource of the Storage daemon’s configuration file. 23.status). Password = <password> This is the password to be used when establishing a connection with the Storage services. with the Monitor directive set to Yes (once again. 23. or a network address in dotted quad notation for a Bacula Storage daemon.conf. see the documentation). It could be a security problem if there is a bug in the ACL code of the director.conf. This same port number must appear in the Storage resource of the Storage daemon’s configuration file. the Name in the Monitor resource must point to a Director resource in baculafd/sd.6 Sample Tray Monitor configuration An example Tray Monitor configuration file might be the following: # # Bacula Tray Monitor Configuration File # Monitor { Name = rufus-mon # password for Directors Password = "GN0uRo7PTUmlMbqrJ2Gr1p0fk0HQJTxwnFyE4WSST3MWZseR" RefreshInterval = 10 seconds } Client { Name = rufus-fd Address = rufus FDPort = 9102 # password for FileDaemon Password = "FYpq4yyI1y562EMS35bA0J0QC0M2L3t5cZObxT3XQxgxppTn" } Storage { Name = rufus-sd Address = rufus SDPort = 9103 # password for StorageDaemon Password = "9usxgc307dMbe7jbD16v0PXlhD64UVasIDD0DH2WAujcDsc6" } Director { Name = rufus-dir .3 205 Name = <name> The Storage name used to identify the Director in the list of monitored daemons. So. so the passwords contained in this file only gives access to the status of the daemons. you’ll only have access to the status of the director (commands status and .conf.Bacula Version 5.

2 Sample Storage daemon’s Director record.3 Sample Director’s Console record.6.206 DIRport = 9101 address = rufus } Bacula Version 5. # # Restricted console used by tray-monitor to get the status of the director # Console { Name = Monitor Password = "GN0uRo7PTUmlMbqrJ2Gr1p0fk0HQJTxwnFyE4WSST3MWZseR" CommandACL = status.1 Sample File daemon’s Director record. Click here to see the full example. # # Restricted Director. # # Restricted Director.3 23.6.0. . Click here to see the full example. Click here to see the full example. used by tray-monitor to get the # status of the storage daemon # Director { Name = rufus-mon Password = "9usxgc307dMbe7jbD16v0PXlhD64UVasIDD0DH2WAujcDsc6" Monitor = yes } 23. used by tray-monitor to get the # status of the file daemon # Director { Name = rufus-mon Password = "FYpq4yyI1y562EMS35bA0J0QC0M2L3t5cZObxT3XQxgxppTn" Monitor = yes } 23.status } .6.

and restore it by sending the files to a different directory on client B. Verify. As a consequence. jobs. you can restore the catalog entries using the program named bscan. there is a standalone program named bextract. You must use the restore command. then the JobIds are selected.Chapter 24 The Restore Command 24. You may also want to look at the bls program in the same chapter. allowing you simply to specify what kind of restore you want (current. . Bacula will quite willingly backup client A. which allows you to list the contents of your Volumes.. you will need a predefined restore job in your bacula-dir. if you have an old Volume that is no longer in the catalog. we will discuss restoring files with the Console restore command. Finally. documented in the same Bacula Utility Programs chapter. In general. By default. and those data will be restored not to the original places but to /tmp/bacula-restores.1 General Below. you will want to avoid this. It is not possible to restore files by automatically starting a job as you do with Backup. which is the recommended way of doing restoring files. in addition to the console restore command. the File records for those Jobs are placed in an internal Bacula directory tree. We don’t particularly recommend the bextract program because it lacks many of the features of the normal Bacula restore. 24..2 The Restore Command Since Bacula maintains a catalog of your files and on which Volumes (disk or tape). you can no longer simply run a restore job. explained below. First you select the kind of restore you want. please see the Bacula Utility Programs chapter of this manual. such as the ability to restore Win32 files to Unix systems. wherever possible to use Bacula itself for restores as described below. this should work perfectly well. if so desired. That is a job with Type = Restore. For more information on this program. You may modify any of these defaults when the restore command prompts you to run the job by selecting the mod option. Normally. This is accomplished using the restore command in the Console... As a consequence. but assuming the operating systems are not too different in their file structures. it is up to you to ensure that you or Bacula have selected the correct Client and the correct hard disk location for restoring those files. and the ability to restore access control lists (ACL). Bacula will then do the rest. and what files to restore. it can do most of the bookkeeping work. Bacula will automatically set them for you. In fact. to restore a file or a set of files. and the restore enters a file selection mode that allows you to interactively walk up and down the file 207 . However. before a particular date).) that you define are not important as you can either modify them manually before running the job or if you use the restore command.conf (Director’s config) file. which also permits restoring files. we recommend. they are stored. Bacula will restore data to the same Client that was backed up. Since Bacula is a network backup program. you must run a restore job. you must be aware that when you restore files. The exact parameters (Client. . FileSet.

you can select item 3 and enter them. then choose the files to restore. If a Job’s file records have been pruned from the catalog. The most common options (5 and 6) will not select a job that did not terminate normally. Bacula currently does not correctly detect this condition. See FileRegex option and below for more details on this. You may then select which files from those JobIds to restore. • Item 2 will list all the Jobs where a specified file is saved.3 tree selecting individual files to be restored. If you find the Job you want. If some of the Jobs that are needed to do the restore have had their File records pruned. the restore will be incomplete. you can access it through this option by specifying the JobId. Bacula will ask if you want to restore all of them or if you want to use a regular expression to restore only a selection while reading media. Within the Console program. you have the following choices: 1: List last 20 Jobs run 2: List Jobs where a given File is saved 3: Enter list of comma separated JobIds to select 4: Enter SQL list command 5: Select the most recent backup for a client 6: Select backup for a client before a specified time 7: Enter a list of files to restore 8: Enter a list of files to restore before a specified time 9: Find the JobIds of the most recent backup for a client 10: Find the JobIds for a backup for a client before a specified time 11: Enter a list of directories to restore for found JobIds 12: Cancel Select item: (1-12): There are a lot of options. check for this by looking carefully at the list of Jobs that Bacula selects and prints. There are two important things to note. Once you have found the JobId(s). you can then select item 3 and enter its JobId(s). Then you will be allowed to select which files from those JobIds are to be restored. First. so if you know a file is backed up by a Job that failed (possibly because of a system crash). the restore command will be unable to find any files to restore. this automatic selection will never select a job that failed (terminated with an error status). you are presented with the following selection prompt: First you select one or more JobIds that contain files to be restored. when files should have been backed up. You will be presented several methods of specifying the JobIds. This is probably the most primitive way of finding the desired JobIds. you would use this option if you have a particular version of a file that you want to restore and you know its JobId.0. If you find the Job you want. most people will want to slect item 5 (the most recent backup for a client). This mode is somewhat similar to the standard Unix restore program’s interactive file selection mode. The details of the above options are: • Item 1 will list the last 20 jobs run. It automatically enters the JobIds found into the directory tree in an optimal way such that only the most recent copy of any particular file found in the set of Jobs will be restored. If you have such a job and want to recover one or more files from it. • Item 3 allows you the enter a list of comma separated JobIds whose files will be put into the directory tree. and as a point of reference. will restore your system to the most current saved state. after entering the restore command. . Normally. • Item 5 will automatically select the most recent Full backup and all subsequent incremental and differential backups for a specified Client. • Item 4 allows you to enter any arbitrary SQL command. but at the same time. if reloaded. the most flexible. You can however. you can then select item 3 and enter the JobId. These are the Jobs and Files which. If you find Jobs with the JobFiles column set to zero. then you should expect problems. To select the JobIds. you will need to explicitly enter the JobId in item 3.208 Bacula Version 5. This is probably the most convenient of all the above options to use if you wish to restore a selected Client to its most recent state.

You may then select item 11 (see below) to restore one or more directories.0. Bacula will realize that there are no file records in any of the JobIds chosen and will inform you. The table must contain the JobId in the first column and the FileIndex in the second column. but those JobIds are retained internally as if you had entered them manually. As an example. so it prompts with: The defined FileSet resources are: 1: Full Set 2: Other Files Select FileSet resource (1-2): . which on my system. Each filename is entered one at a time or if you prefix a filename with the less-than symbol (<) Bacula will read that file and assume it is a list of filenames to be restored. it it will then ask for the desired Client. • Item 7 allows you to specify one or more filenames (complete path required) to be restored. nothing will be restored in the subdirectory unless you explicitly enter its name. You may then enter a full path to a directory name or a filename preceded by a less than sign (<). All files in those directories will be restored. will print all the Clients found in the database as follows: Defined clients: 1: Rufus 2: Matou 3: Polymatou 4: Minimatou 5: Minou 6: MatouVerify 7: PmatouVerify 8: RufusVerify 9: Watchdog Select Client (File daemon) resource (1-9): You will probably have far fewer Clients than this example. and if you have only one Client. In this case. • Item 10 is the same as item 9. and Bacula will include the rows of that table in the list to be restored. • Item 12 allows you to cancel the restore command. • Item 11 allows you to enter a list of JobIds from which you can select directories to be restored. then the filename will be interpreted as an SQL table name. after which Bacula will automatically select the most recent Full backup and all subsequent incremental and differential backups that started before the specified date and time. • Item 6 allows you to specify a date and time. Then Bacula needs to know what FileSet is to be restored. I enter Rufus to select the Client. If you prefix the filename with a question mark (?). This is much like option 5 (it uses the same code). but if the directory contains subdirectories. even if it does not know where particular files are located or what their names are.3 209 If all the File records have been pruned. The filename entry mode is terminated by entering a blank line. • Item 8 allows you to specify a date and time before entering the filenames. See Item 7 above for more details. The filename should contain a list of directories to be restored. it will be automatically selected. This is possible because Bacula still knows where the beginning of the Job data is on the Volumes. These JobIds will then be retained internally. This table feature is intended for external programs that want to build their own list of files to be restored.Bacula Version 5. • Item 9 allows you find the JobIds of the most recent backup for a client. suppose that we select item 5 (restore to most recent state). If you have not specified a client=xxx on the command line. It will then propose doing a full restore (non-selective) of those JobIds. The list of JobIds can have been previously created by using either item 9 or 10 on the menu. except that it allows you to enter a before date (as with item 6).

. cwd is: / $ Depending on the number of JobFiles for each JobId. It will then query the database. At this point. wildcards allowed . you may end up with an old version of that file (i. your Files have probably been pruned and you will not be able to select any individual files – it will be restore everything or nothing. you can enter help or a question mark (?) to produce a summary of the available commands: Command ======= cd count dir done estimate exit find help ls Description =========== change current directory count marked files in and below the cd long list current directory. not the most recent).210 Bacula Version 5. The third Job was an incremental backup to the previous Full backup. if you are manually entering JobIds.374 | 08-03 01:58 | DLT-19Jul02 | 67 | 18 | 1028042998 | | 1.1798 we would have arrived at the same point. with no files marked to be restored as a default. Directly entering the JobIds can also permit you to recover data from a Job that wrote files to tape but that terminated with an error status. and tells you that the current working directory (cwd) is /. Bacula found four Jobs that comprise the most recent backup of the specified Client and FileSet.. Building directory tree for JobId 1797 . you can simply enter mark *.0. wildcards allowed leave file selection mode estimate restore size same as done command find files.. and it will come up with something like the following. it will be selected automatically.. tells you how many files are in the tree.1792. Note. which is my full backup.797 | I | 254 | 08-04 13:53 | DLT-04Aug02 | 5 | 23 | 1028042998 | | 1. the Building directory tree . some of the columns are truncated here for presentation: +-------+------+----------+-------------+-------------+------+-------+------------+ | JobId | Levl | JobFiles | StartTime | VolumeName | File | SesId |VolSesTime | +-------+------+----------+-------------+-------------+------+-------+------------+ | 1.3 If you have only one FileSet defined for the Client. One point to note. and if your machines are similar (all Linux) you may only have one FileSet for all your Clients.. and it only saved 254 Files compared to 128. Bacula prompts with the dollar sign ($) to indicate that you may enter commands to move around the directory tree and to select files.e. you could have entered the command restore all.792 | F | 128. wildcards allowed print help list current directory. Instead of choosing item 5 on the first menu (Select the most recent backup for a client). The fourth Job was also an incremental backup that saved 15 files. If you notice ath all the JobFiles are zero.1797 Building directory tree for JobId 1792 . While in file selection mode. Normally. If you want all the files to automatically be marked when the directory tree is built. if we had chosen item 3 (Enter list of JobIds to select) and we had entered the JobIds 1792.. I choose item 1.792 | F | 128..374 for the Full backup.. Next Bacula entered those Jobs into the directory tree. If you enter them out of order and the same file was saved in two or more of the Jobs. Finally. Two of the Jobs have the same JobId because that Job wrote on two different Volumes. In our example.” can take a bit of time. Building directory tree for JobId 1798 . you will only have a single FileSet for each Job. Bacula has all the information it needs to find the most recent set of backups.1797.798 | I | 15 | 08-05 01:05 | DLT-04Aug02 | 6 | 24 | 1028042998 | +-------+------+----------+-------------+-------------+------+-------+------------+ You have selected the following JobId: 1792. is that you must enter them in the order they were run (generally in increasing JobId order). which may take a bit of time. or at the $ prompt.374 | 08-03 01:58 | DLT-04Aug02 | 0 | 18 | 1028042998 | | 1.

you will be able to modify the Restore Job to do what you want. If you want to restore everything. and using the Console interface. In particular. An example Restore Job resource definition is given below. in addition to .3 lsmark mark markdir pwd unmark unmarkdir quit ? list the marked files in and below the cd mark dir/file to be restored recursively in dirs mark directory name to be restored (no files) print current working directory unmark dir/file to be restored recursively in dir unmark directory name only no recursion quit and do not do restore print help 211 As a default no files have been selected for restore (unless you added all to the command line. restoring is a manual operation. These items will not always be completed with the correct values depending on which of the restore options you chose. you will start with an empty slate. at this point. which tells you where in the directory structure the files will be restored. However. We continue with the above example. The above assumes that you have defined a Restore Job resource in your Director’s configuration file. enter the count command. On entering the done command. you will only need one Restore Job resource definition because by its nature. Bacula prints: Bootstrap records written to /home/kern/bacula/working/restore. which displays: 128401 total files.bsr The job will require the following Volume(s) Storage(s) SD Device(s) =========================================================================== DLT-19Jul02 DLT-04Aug02 Tape Tape DLT8000 DLT8000 128401 files selected to restore. having accepted to restore all files as Bacula set by default. Any selected file has its name preceded by an asterisk. Each of the above commands will be described in more detail in the next section. so please check your work by using the ls or dir commands to see what files are actually selected. you should enter mark *.bsr Where: /tmp/bacula-restores Replace: always FileSet: Other Files Client: Rufus Storage: Tape When: 2006-12-11 18:20:33 Catalog: MyCatalog Priority: 10 OK to run? (yes/mod/no): Please examine each of the items very carefully to make sure that they are correct. Normally. which tells you which client will receive the files. To check what is marked or not marked. Now you can simply start looking at the tree and mark particular files or directories you want restored. 128401 marked to be restored.0. and Client. For example. It is easy to make a mistake in specifying a file to mark or unmark. You can change any of these default items by entering mod and responding to the prompts. and Bacula’s error handling is not perfect. you should verify that the Client name is correct before running the Job. If you do not enter the above mentioned mark * command. Note that by default the Client which will receive the files is the Client that was backed up.Bacula Version 5. look at Where. and then done and Bacula will write the bootstrap records to a file and request your approval to start a restore job. Returning to the above example. you may want to modify some of the parameters of the restore job. Run Restore job JobName: kernsrestore Bootstrap: /home/kern/bacula/working/restore.

you can either put the list of filenames in a file to be read by Bacula. i. or you can modify it using the mod option. normally Bacula can restore only all files saved.conf file. it will be ignored in restore. The restore will choose the files to be restored either by reading the Bootstrap file. The filenames must include the full path and filename.restore.1. after the restore.0. If you want to restore the files to their original location. it will restore all files associated with the specified backup JobId (i. or you can enter the names one at a time.e. Building directory tree for JobId(s) 1. you select item number 7 from the prompt list: To select the JobIds.1 Restore a pruned job using a pattern During a restore. If you now enter yes.3 Selecting Files by Filename If you have a small number of files to restore.Most likely your retention policy pruned the files Do you want to restore all the files? (yes|no): no Regexp matching files to restore? (empty to abort): /tmp/regress/(bin|tests)/ Bootstrap records written to /tmp/regress/working/zog4-dir. Finally before running the job. the JobId of the Job that originally backed up the files).3 checking the Client it is wise to check that the Storage device chosen by Bacula is indeed correct. Bacula will ask if you want to specify a Regex expression for extracting only a part of the full backup..3 . 24. That is there is no way using the catalog to select individual files. please note that the default location for restoring files is not their original locations.e. Although the FileSet is shown. The Storage daemon will first request Volume DLT-19Jul02 and after the appropriate files have been restored from that volume. so file selection is not possible. There were no files inserted into the tree. With this new feature. you must have Where set to nothing or to the root. You can change this default by modifying your bacula-dir. but rather the directory /tmp/bacula-restores. Bacula will run the restore Job. and you know the filenames.212 Bacula Version 5.bsr See also FileRegex bsr option for more information. No wild cards are used. To enter the files. /. or if not specified. you have the following choices: 1: List last 20 Jobs run 2: List Jobs where a given File is saved 3: Enter list of comma separated JobIds to select 4: Enter SQL list command 5: Select the most recent backup for a client 6: Select backup for a client before a specified time 7: Enter a list of files to restore 8: Enter a list of files to restore before a specified time 9: Find the JobIds of the most recent backup for a client 10: Find the JobIds for a backup for a client before a specified time 11: Enter a list of directories to restore for found JobIds 12: Cancel Select item: (1-12): which then prompts you for the client name: Defined Clients: .. it will request Volume DLT-04Aug02.2. 24. if all File records are pruned from the catalog for a Job.

bsr Where: /tmp/bacula-restores Replace: always FileSet: Other Files Client: Rufus Storage: DDS-4 When: 2003-09-11 10:20:53 Priority: 10 OK to run? (yes/mod/no): It is possible to automate the selection by file by putting your list of files in say /tmp/file-list. and proposes a Restore job to be run: Enter filename: Automatically selected Storage: DDS-4 Bootstrap records written to /home/kern/bacula/working/restore. Bacula requests you to enter a filename: Enter filename: At this point. it took the filename. This directive determines the action to be taken when restoring a file or directory that already exists. it will be automatically selected. And finally.in Enter filename: as you can see. this is because you have not yet specified either a Job number or a Bootstrap file. and Bacula will write the bootstrap file.0. You will be given a list of parameters to choose from. you simply precede the filename with a less-than symbol (<). it prints the following: Enter filename: junk filename No database record found for: junk filename Enter filename: If you want Bacula to read the filenames from a file.Bacula Version 5.bsr The restore job will require the following Volumes: test1 1 file selected to restore. 24. When you have entered all the filenames. you find that Bacula asks you to enter a Job number.4 Replace Options When restoring.3 1: Timmy 2: Tibs 3: Rufus Select the Client (1-3): 3 213 Of course. Run Restore job JobName: kernsrestore Bootstrap: /home/kern/bacula/working/restore. then using the following command: restore client=Rufus file=</tmp/file-list If in modifying the parameters for the Run Restore job. and if you have only one client. you have the option to specify a Replace option. your client list will be different. Full details on this option can be found in the Job Resource section of the Director documentation. tells you what tapes will be used. This directive can be set by selecting the mod option. . you enter a blank line. If Bacula cannot find a copy of the file. Simply entering zero will allow you to continue and to select another option to be modified. you can enter the full path and filename Enter filename: /home/kern/bacula/k/Makefile.

Bacula will thus read the list from that file. • where=/tmp/bacula-restore – restore files in where directory. • add prefix=/test – add a prefix to all files when restoring (like where) (can’t be used with where=).bkp. • file=filename – specify a filename to be restored. Prefixing the entry with a less-than sign (<) will cause Bacula to assume that the filename is on your system and contains a list of files to be restored. Will overwrite other filename manipulation. Note. and the yes suppresses the final yes/mod/no prompt and simply runs the restore. by using command line arguments with a single command by entering: restore client=Rufus select current all done yes The client=Rufus specification will automatically select Rufus as the client.old – add a suffix to all your files. with the exception of selecting the FileSet. Multiple file=xxx specifications may be specified on the command line. • yes – automatically run the restore without prompting for modifications (most useful in batch scripts).0. • client=xxxx – initially specifies the client from which the backup was made and the client to which the restore will be make. and restore current system before given date). • select – use the tree selection method. • regexwhere=!a. this command is not too user friendly in that you must specify the date/time exactly as shown. and to select the Pool to be used for restoring. This permits you to have several Pools. It is possible to do everything that was shown above.5 Command Line Arguments If all the above sounds complicated. • current – automatically select the most current set of backups for the specified client. then the restore is written to that client.214 Bacula Version 5. • pool=pool-name – specify a Pool name to be used for selection of Volumes when specifying options 5 and 6 (restore current system.pdf !a. • done – do not prompt the user in tree mode. you will probably agree that it really isn’t after trying it a few times. . Only Jobs started before the specified date/time will be selected. See also ”restoreclient” keyword.3 24. and as is the case for current Bacula will automatically find the most recent prior Full save and all Differential and Incremental saves run before the date you specify. • restoreclient=xxxx – if the keyword is specified. • jobid=nnn – specify a JobId to be restored. possibly one offsite. • jobid=nnn – specify a JobId or comma separated list of JobIds to be restored. • strip prefix=/prod – remove a part of the filename when restoring. • add suffix=. • before=YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS – specify a date and time to which the system should be restored.pdf ! – do complex filename manipulation like with sed unix command. the current tells Bacula that you want to restore the system to the most current state possible. The full list of possible command line arguments are: • all – select all Files to be restored. You must specify the full path and filename.

For example.1.bkp by hand. % : . If you use where=/tmp. regexwhere expression has three fields : • a search expression (with optionnal submatch) • a replacement expression (with optionnal back references $1 to $9) • a set of search options (only case-insensitive “i” at this time) Each field is delimited by a separator specified by the user as the first character of the expression.. such as adding a suffix to all your files.6. .1 Using File Relocation Introduction The where= option is simple. or you can add options to your restore job in as described in bacula-dir. or in an other directory without recreating the full path. Parameters to modify: 1: Level 2: Storage . To use this feature.2 RegexWhere Format A valid The format is very close to that used by sed or Perl (s/replace this/by that/) operator. the file will be restored to /tmp/. case.. However. you can modify your restore job before running it.Bacula Version 5.0.3 215 24. but not very powerful.6 24.. renaming files or directories.8 or later. there are command line options as described in the restore section of this manual. Bacula can restore a file to the same directory. implemented in Bacula 2.bkp options and Bacula will restore the file to its original location – that is /home/eric/mbox.snap/home/eric/mbox. Select parameter to modify (1-12): This will replace your current Where value 1: Strip prefix 2: Add prefix 3: Add file suffix 4: Enter a regexp 5: Test filename manipulation 6: Use this ? Select parameter to modify (1-6): 24. With file relocation.. etc.snap/home/eric/mbox and you will have to move the file to /home/eric/mbox. Theses options will overwrite where= option. which can complicate restores. You can also do filename and path manipulations. 10: File Relocation . you could use the strip prefix=/.snap and add suffix=. but with a different name. many users use OS snapshot features so that file /home/eric/mbox will be backed up from the directory /. The separator can be one of the following: <separator-keyword> = / ! .conf. ~ # = & You can use several expressions separated by a commas.6.

the directory will be created with SYSTEM ownership and permissions. also the actual number of files restored should be equal to the expected number. you can still select items within the directory to be restored by individually marking those files. which means on a different machine.7 Restoring Directory Attributes Depending how you do the restore.ini$/. In that case. the Bacula File daemon (Client) will try to create it. you should also notice that the actual number of files restored is less then the expected number. Bacula does the best it can in these situations. if the alternate directory does not already exist. 24./pdata/rdata/ !/prod/!/rect/!. they may map to different user/group names. This is also true if you are restoring those files to an alternate directory (using the Where option in restore). Bacula will not change the ownership and permissions of the directory if it is already created as long as it is not one of the directories being restored (i. if the directory is not on disk Bacula simply creates the directory with some default attributes which may not be the same as the original. In this case Bacula will restore a file before restoring the file’s parent directory entry. Then when Bacula tries to restore the parent directory Bacula sees that it already exists (Similar to the previous situation).old. Here are a few of the problems you can encounter. • The bextract program does not restore access control lists (ACLs) to Unix machines. how to avoid them. In the process of restoring the file Bacula will create the parent directory with open permissions and ownership of the file being restored. If you had set the Restore job’s ”Replace” property to ”always” then Bacula will change the Directory’s ownership and permissions to match what it backed up. and for same machine restores.ini/ /prod/rect/. • You are restoring into a directory that is already created and has file creation restrictions. you should create any alternate directory before doing the restore. • You selected one or more files in a directory./pdata/rdata/ /c:/d:/i Comments $ matches end of name uses two regexp use ! as separator case insensitive pattern match 24. Note. getting permissions back correctly in this situation depends to a large extent on your OS. In this case.216 Bacula Version 5. you should individually use the ”markdir” command to select all higher level directory entries (one at a time) to be restored if you want the directory entries properly restored. If you had set the Restore job’s ”Replace” property to ”never” then Bacula will not change the directory’s permissions and ownerships to match what it backed up.ini /prod/u01/pdata/ /prod/u01/pdata/ C:/WINNT New filename c:/system.e. . • You are doing a recursive restore of a directory tree.ini /rect/u01/rdata /rect/u01/rdata d:/WINNT RegexWhere /. Bacula will restore the files with the original ownerships and permissions as would be expected. you may or may not get the directory entries back to their original state.3 Examples Orignal filename c:/system. but did not select the directory entry to be restored. If you do not select a directory and all its contents to be restored. However. which Bacula does and will not do. In some cases. Bacula tries to reset everything but without walking up the full chain of directories and modifying them all during the restore.old. you may have problems accessing the newly restored files. To avoid this problem. it may not create the directories. written to tape).8 Restoring on Windows If you are restoring on WinNT/2K/XP systems.0. • You backed up on one machine and are restoring to another that is either a different OS or doesn’t have the same users/groups defined. Bacula has saved the user/groups in numeric form. but in that case. and if it does since the File daemon runs under the SYSTEM account.

9 Restoring Files Can Be Slow Restoring files is generally much slower than backing them up for several reasons. 24. Please see the Tape Testing chapter for more on this. Try the following things. and the operating system must allocate disk space for the file as Bacula is restoring it.10 Problems Restoring Files The most frequent problems users have restoring files are error messages such as: 04-Jan 00:33 z217-sd: RestoreFiles. because restoring files is done so rarely. Bacula will stop reading the tape.exe) runs. got ". This is a new directive and untested. and it is not at all recommended to continue backing up your data without correcting this condition.3 217 The default restore location is /tmp/bacula-restores/ and if you are restoring from drive E:. the default will be /tmp/bacula-restores/e/. instead of just reading a file for backup. For all the above reasons the restore process is generally much slower than backing up (sometimes it takes three times as long). you should try that size if 512 does not work. Set ”Minimum Block Size = 512” and ”Maximum Block Size = 512” and try the restore. so you should ensure that this directory exists before doing the restore. Bacula keeps only the start file and block on the tape for the whole job rather than on a file by file basis which would use quite a lot of space in the catalog. . from SYSTEM to a Domain Admin userid. but Bacula repositions the tape on a block basis when restoring files because this will speed up the restore by orders of magnitude when only a few files are being restored. 2.Bacula Version 5. resolves the problem. Set ”Block Positioning = no” in your Device resource and try the restore. and reset your Device resource to what it is now after each individual test: 1.31.c:868 Volume data error at 20:0! Short block of 512 bytes on device /dev/tape discarded. If you are able to determine the block size your drive was previously using. and finally sequentially read each record until it gets to the correct one(s) for the file or files you want to restore. They also report that changing the userid under which Bacula (bacula-fd. during the restore. Finally. Some users have experienced problems restoring files that participate in the Active Directory. Bacula must create the file.04 Error: block.2005-01-04_00.31. Bacula will forward space to the correct file mark on the tape for the Job.04 Error: block. or 04-Jan 00:33 z217-sd: RestoreFiles. Fixed block mode will work with any program that reads tapes sequentially such as tar.c:264 Volume data error at 20:0! Wanted ID: "BB02". each separately. or use the mod option to select a different where directory that does exist. Once the desired files are restored. 24. Both these kinds of messages indicate that you were probably running your tape drive in fixed block mode rather than variable block mode. then forward space to the correct block. The first is that during a backup the tape is normally already positioned and Bacula only needs to write.2005-01-04_00. Buffer discarded.".0. There are several ways that you can attempt to recover from this unfortunate situation. This is a really horrible solution. On the other hand.

The basic idea is to move up and down the in memory directory structure with the cd command much as you normally do on the system. If the restored size is smaller. file size error When Bacula restores files. The available commands are: . but this will work regardless of the block size. These are what causes Bacula to reposition the tape. Bacula will print an error message. • A Bacula miscount of files/directories.bsr file.0.13 File Selection Commands After you have selected the Jobs to be restored and Bacula has created the in-memory directory tree. you may select the files that you want restored. If the sizes do not agree. simply enter: cd / and mark *. soft/hard link. but remove all the VolBlock statements after the . This is an on-going problem due to the complications of directories. As a default no files are marked to be restored. Once you are in a directory. In this case. it checks that the size of the restored file is the same as the file status data it saved when starting the backup of the file. the size that Bacula restored will be greater than the status size.11 Restore Errors There are a number of reasons why there may be restore errors or warning messages. and such. 24. 24. 4. If you wish to start with all files. the default location for restoring files will be their original locations. and where problems occur if you have a fixed block size set for your drive.bsr file at the Run xxx yes/mod/no prompt before starting the restore job and remove all the VolBlock statements.12 Example Restore Job Resource Job { Name = "RestoreFiles" Type = Restore Client = Any-client FileSet = "Any-FileSet" Storage = Any-storage Where = /tmp/bacula-restores Messages = Standard Pool = Default } If Where is not specified. This often happens with log files. This size mismatch most often occurs because the file was being written as Bacula backed up the file. then you should be concerned about a possible tape error and check the Bacula output as well as your system logs.218 Bacula Version 5. you will enter file selection mode as indicated by the dollar sign ($) prompt. Otherwise proceed to select the files you wish to restore by marking them with the mark command. The VolFile commands also cause repositioning.bsr file is created (at the Run yes/mod/no) prompt but before you start the restore. 24. Use bextract to extract the files you want – it reads the Volume sequentially if you use the include list feature. Try editing the restore. or if you use a . Simply check that all the files you wanted were actually restored. While in this mode. you may use the commands listed above.3 3. Some of the more common ones are: file count mismatch This can occur for the following reasons: • You requested Bacula not to overwrite existing or newer files.

The argument may be a wildcard specification. ls The ls command produces a listing of all the files contained in the current directory much like the Unix ls command. unmark The unmark is identical to the mark command. . The other distinction is that it will recursively descend into any directory selected. lsmark The lsmark command is the same as the ls except that it will print only those files marked for extraction. except that it unmarks the specified file or files so that they will not be restored. First do a cd / before the unmark * command if you want to unmark everything.0. pwd The pwd command prints the current working directory. then the directory and all the files contained in that directory (recursively) are marked to be restored. After executing the mark command. supplying a full path on the mark command does not work as expected to select a file or directory in the current directory. ? This command is the same as the help command.Bacula Version 5. Also. in which case only those files will be listed.3 219 cd The cd command changes the current directory to the argument specified. . the various drives (c:.) are treated like a directory within the file tree while in the file selection mode. mark The mark command allows you to mark files to be restored. help This command prints a summary of the commands available.. and an estimate of the number of bytes to be restored. If no files were marked. Note: the unmark command works from the current directory. how many are marked to be restored. d:. Note. If the argument matches a directory rather than a file. It accepts no arguments. This command can be a bit slower than the ls command because it must access the catalog database for the detailed information for each file. dir The dir command is similar to the ls command. Any marked file will have its name preceded with an asterisk (*) in the output produced by the ls or dir commands. find The find command accepts one or more arguments and displays all files in the tree that match that argument. It operates much like the Unix cd command. if some files are marked. It takes a single argument which is the filename or directory name in the current directory to be marked for extraction. except that it prints it in long format (all details). exit This command terminates file selection mode (the same as done). the mark command works on the current and lower directories but does not touch higher level directories. done This command terminates file selection mode. estimate The estimate command prints a summary of the total files in the tree. You may specify an argument containing wildcards. Note. it will print a brief summary: No files marked. It is somewhat similar to the Unix command find / -name arg. so it does not unmark any files at a higher level. count The count command prints the total files in the directory tree and the number of files marked to be restored. This can be useful if you are short on disk space on the machine where the files will be restored. you must do a cd c: or possibly in some cases a cd C: (note upper case) to get down to the first directory. or: nn files marked. Any file that is marked to be restored will have its name preceded by an asterisk (*).. The argument may have wildcards. Wildcard specifications are not permitted. on Windows systems. Directory names will be terminated with a forward slash (/) to distinguish them from filenames. As a consequence. quit This command terminates the file selection and does not run the restore job. in which case all files that match in the current directory are marked to be restored.

You will probably need to use bextract to extract the backup copy. If you are using the default bacula-dir. First you should locate the listing of the job report from the last catalog backup. In addition to what is presented here.14 Restoring When Things Go Wrong This and the following sections will try to present a few of the kinds of problems that can come up making restoring more difficult. you can easily restore your Catalog. Assuming the above does not resolve the problem. Solution with a Job listing If you did save your database but did not make a bootstrap file. see the database repair sections of this manual for links to vendor information.3 24. Please see the Database Performance Issues sections of this manual for more details. use the vacuum command to try to fix the database./drop_bacula_tables . then re-initialize it. See the Catalog Maintenance chapter of this manual for examples of the command needed to restore a database from an ASCII dump (they are shown in the Compacting Your XXX Database sections). by running the following scripts: . However. there is more specific information on restoring a Client and your Server in the Disaster Recovery Using Bacula chapter of this manual.bsr Where: /tmp/bacula-restores Replace: always FileSet: Full Set Client: rufus-fd Storage: File When: 2005-07-10 17:33:40 Catalog: MyCatalog Priority: 10 OK to run? (yes/mod/no): A number of the items will be different in your case. Problem My database is broken. but you will need to ensure that your database indexes are properly setup. you will need to restore or rebuild your catalog. you do NOT want to do a make bacula tables command. the critical items are the Volume name(s). Storage. It has important information that will allow you to quickly find your database file. For either MySQL or PostgreSQL. For example. They have specific tools that check and repair databases. in the job report for the CatalogBackup shown below. this Job will be named RestoreFiles. Most likely it will prompt you with something such as: Run Restore job JobName: RestoreFiles Bootstrap: /home/kern/bacula/working/restore.220 Bacula Version 5. Problem How do I restore my catalog? Solution with a Catalog backup If you have backed up your database nightly (as you should) and you have made a bootstrap file. then running dbcheck might help. Also. If you know those. Catalog. and Where are correct.conf. You do so by entering the bf run command in the console and selecting the restore job. The FileSet is not used when you specify a bootstrap file. the Volume Session Id and the Volume Session Time. .0. you can manually run a restore job and specify your bootstrap file. Once you have set all the correct values. We will try to provide a few ideas how to get out of these problem situations. then recovering the database is more difficult. You will then need to follow the instructions for your database type to recreate the database from the ASCII backup file. you can immediately load back your database (or the ASCII SQL output). Make a copy of your current database. you should be able to run Bacula. run the Job and it will restore the backup of your database. it will not work because the database will be empty. which is most likely an ASCII dump. What you want to do is: to use the mod option to change the Bootstrap to point to your saved bootstrap file. please note that after you restore your database from an ASCII backup. see the vendor’s documentation. if it is a matter of some inconsistencies in the Bacula tables rather than a broken database./make_bacula_tables After re-initializing the database. and to make sure all the other items such as Client. If you now try to use the restore command. Note. or you will probably erase your newly restored database tables. Solution For SQLite.

240. then it is a bit more difficult.0. Either you use the bscan program to scan the contents of your tape into a database. Job=CatalogBackup. you do NOT want to do a make bacula tables command.428.2005-04-22_01. A fully specified bootstrap file would have the File and Blocks specified as follows: Volume="DLT-22Apr05" VolSessionId=11 VolSessionTime=1114075126 VolFile=118-118 VolBlock=0-4053 FileIndex=1-1 Once you have restored the ASCII dump of the database. There is a specific example of how to use bls below. which can be very time consuming depending on the size of the tape.3 22-Apr 10:22 HeadMan: Start Backup JobId 7510. We’ve also used a FileIndex of one.37. you will then to follow the instructions for your database type to recreate the database from the ASCII backup file.10.739.521 Rate: 1672. Bacula then reports: . A reconstructed bootstrap file for the above backup Job would look like the following: Volume="DLT-22Apr05" VolSessionId=11 VolSessionTime=1114075126 FileIndex=1-1 Where we have inserted the Volume name. you can manually create a bootstrap file.739. and Volume Session Time that correspond to the values in the job report. See the Catalog Maintenance chapter of this manual for examples of the command needed to restore a database from an ASCII dump (they are shown in the Compacting Your XXX Database sections). or you will probably erase your newly restored database tables.Bacula Version 5. The disadvantage of this bootstrap file compared to what is created when you ask for one to be written.5 KB/s Software Compression: None Volume name(s): DLT-22Apr05 Volume Session Id: 11 Volume Session Time: 1114075126 Last Volume Bytes: 1.10. Solution without a Job Listing If you do not have a job listing. and reconstruct a bootstrap file from the bls listing for the file or files you want following the instructions given above.00 Backup Level: Full Client: Polymatou FileSet: "CatalogFile" 2003-04-10 01:24:01 Pool: "Default" Storage: "DLTDrive" Start time: 22-Apr-2005 10:21:00 End time: 22-Apr-2005 10:23:06 FD Files Written: 1 SD Files Written: 1 FD Bytes Written: 210.395 SD Bytes Written: 210. please note that after you restore your database from an ASCII backup. and then follow the instructions given above for restoring your database.465 Non-fatal FD errors: 0 SD Errors: 0 FD termination status: OK SD termination status: OK Termination: Backup OK 221 From the above information. Volume Session Id. or you can use the bls program to list everything on the tape.14 (21Apr05): 22-Apr-2005 10:23:06 JobId: 7510 Job: CatalogBackup. so the restore code must search all data in the Volume to find the requested file.0 22-Apr 10:23 HeadMan: Bacula 1. which will always be the case providing that there was only one file backed up in the job. Problem I try to restore the last known good full backup by specifying item 3 on the restore menu then the JobId to restore. is that there is no File and Block specified. Also.2005-04-22_01.

.10.FileSetId: FileSet.2005-04-22_01.0. If you are using Bacula version 1.. then use bextract to restore the database. Begin Job Session Record: File:blk=118:0 SessId=11 SessTime=1114075126 JobId=7510 Job=CatalogBackup.ClientId: Client.33 save 0 B F 1 Rufus T 2005-12-05 18:27:32 2005-12-05 18:27:35 2005-12-05 18:27:37 1133803657 1 1133803624 236 0 0 4 Full 1 BackupSet Then you can find the Volume(s) used by doing: sql select VolumeName from JobMedia.395 Errors=0 Status=T .27. you can obtain all the important information about the job: llist jobid=120 JobId: Job: Job. 21-Jul 18:34 bls: Ready to read from volume "DLT-22Apr05" on device "DLTDrive" (/dev/nst0).Name: JobStatus: SchedTime: StartTime: EndTime: JobTDate: VolSessionId: VolSessionTime: JobFiles: JobErrors: JobMissingFiles: Job. you can create a bootstrap file as described in the previous problem above using this information.3 and restores nothing. when you select item 3 from the menu and enter the JobId.Media where JobId=1 and JobMedia.MediaId=Media.. .PoolId: Pool.38. . and it will collect the above information and write the bootstrap file for you. or better use bls to find where it is on the tape. 21-Jul 18:34 bls: End of Volume at file 201 on device "DLTDrive" (/dev/nst0).739. Finally. Problem You don’t have a bootstrap file.Name: Job. For example.0 or greater.MediaId. but you did backup the database.0 Date=22-Apr-2005 10:21:00 Level=F Type=B End Job Session Record: File:blk=118:4053 SessId=11 SessTime=1114075126 JobId=7510 Date=22-Apr-2005 10:23:06 Level=F Type=B Files=1 Bytes=210. Solution Most likely the File records were pruned from the database either due to the File Retention period expiring or by explicitly purging the Job. Solution Either bscan the tape (see below for bscanning). Volume "DLT-22Apr05" 21-Jul 18:34 bls: End of all volumes./bls -j -V DLT-22Apr05 /dev/nst0 Might produce the following output: bls: butil.2005-12-05_18..Name: PurgedFiles: Type: Level: Job.222 1 Job 0 Files Bacula Version 5.FileSet: 120 save. and you know the Volume to which it was backed up. and you don’t have the Job report for the backup of your database. it will ask you if you would like to restore all the files in the job.c:258 Using device: "/dev/nst0" for reading. Volume Record: File:blk=0:0 SessId=11 SessTime=1114075126 JobId=0 DataLen=164 . By using the ”llist jobid=nn” command.

or a version saved before a given date (menu option 8). scanning is unable to connect the Job records to the proper client. If you would like to know the JobId where a file was saved. This is also described at the above link. you can use menu option 3 to enter that JobId. When the above is complete. you just use the restore command to restore the most recently saved version (menu option 5).conf file so that it can create the Client and Storage records which are not stored on the Volumes. There are basically three steps to take: 1. but we have indicated the essential lines of output. and you will probably have to re-create your database from scratch and then bscan in all your Volumes. Please see the bscan section of the Volume Utility Tools of this chapter for more details. 2. and inexact process. Problem How can I find where a file is stored.0. 3. you can reconstruct a bootstrap file such as the one shown above. From the information on the Begin Job and End Job Session Records. Without these records.3 223 Of course. it is not necessary. . Ensure that your SQL server is running (MySQL or PostgreSQL) and that the Bacula database (normally bacula) exists.Bacula Version 5. You can also use the query command to find information such as: *query Available queries: 1: List up to 20 places where a File is saved regardless of the directory 2: List where the most recent copies of a file are saved 3: List last 20 Full Backups for a Client 4: List all backups for a Client after a specified time 5: List all backups for a Client 6: List Volume Attributes for a selected Volume 7: List Volumes used by selected JobId 8: List Volumes to Restore All Files 9: List Pool Attributes for a selected Pool 10: List total files/bytes by Job 11: List total files/bytes by Volume 12: List Files for a selected JobId 13: List Jobs stored on a selected MediaId 14: List Jobs stored for a given Volume name 15: List Volumes Bacula thinks are in changer 16: List Volumes likely to need replacement from age or errors Choose a query (1-16): Problem I didn’t backup my database. which is a very long. What do I do now? Solution This is probably the worst of all cases. you can begin bscanning your Volumes. there will be many more records printed. Solution Normally. See the Installation chapter of the manual. select restore menu option 2. Start and stop the Bacula Director using the propriate bacula-dir. painful. Ensure that the Bacula databases are created. If you know the JobId of the job in which it was saved.

224 Bacula Version 5.3 .0.

225 . Bacula can manage the recycling (such as defined above) automatically. You may not want Bacula to automatically recycle (reuse) tapes. Automatic recycling of Volumes is controlled by four records in the Pool resource definition in the Director’s configuration file. the file will be truncated before being rewritten. you will need to use one or more additional directives such as: • Use Volume Once = yes • Volume Use Duration = ttt • Maximum Volume Jobs = nnn • Maximum Volume Bytes = mmm Please see below and the Basic Volume Management chapter of this manual for more complete examples. another Pool of tapes that are used for Full backups once a week and recycled monthly. and in such a case. the number of tapes in your pool or pools remains constant. Thus all previous data will be lost.4 or greater ) The above three directives are all you need assuming that you fill each of your Volumes then wait the Volume Retention period before reusing them. However when Bacula recycles a Volume. once Bacula starts writing a Volume. it can append to the volume. These four records are: • AutoPrune = yes • VolumeRetention = <time> • Recycle = yes • RecyclePool = <APool> (This require bacula 2. This would require a large number of tapes though.Chapter 25 Automatic Volume Recycling By default. and Bacula can at some later time overwrite the previous contents of that Volume. the Volume becomes available for being reused. If you want Bacula to stop using a Volume and recycle it before it is full. see the section entitled Manually Recycling Volumes below in this chapter.1. and finally a Pool of tapes that are used once a month and recycled after a year or two. Most people prefer to have a Pool of tapes that are used for daily backups and recycled once a week. With a scheme like this. it is possible to manually recycle tapes. For more on manual recycling. If the Volume is a tape. If the Volume is a disk file. but it will not overwrite the existing data thus destroying it. the tape will be rewritten from the beginning. By properly defining your Volume Pools with appropriate Retention periods.

the database helps Bacula to decide which files to back up in an incremental or differential backup. it automatically removes all the Job records. it means that no Catalog records reference that Volume. you can manually set a volume to Full. Also when a Job record is pruned. In each case. Or. When a Job record is pruned. In addition. and you can still examine what Jobs ran. and helps you locate files on past backups when you want to restore something. The Volume will be purged if the VolumeRetention period has expired. you cannot use the Console restore command to restore the files. You’d usually do this when you want to reuse a Bacula volume. in which you explicitly tell Bacula to erase the catalog entries for a volume.1 Automatic Pruning As Bacula writes files to tape. you will see the volume information. which means that once an entry reaches a certain age (e. otherwise. (thanks to Bryce Denney for the above explanation). If there are no volumes with Status Purged. you can still restore it from the backup tape. it will always write to an appendable Volume before recycling even if there are Volume marked as Purged.226 Bacula Version 5. because there’s no point in keeping a list of files that USED TO BE on a tape. without the File records. All apply to catalog database records and not to the actual data in a Volume. but not the details of the Files backed up. When a Volume is marked as Purged. then the recycling occurs in two steps: The first is that the Catalog for a Volume must be pruned of all Jobs (i. the Job records can remain. When the File records are pruned. it will choose the oldest purged volume and recycle it. but one additional step is required: scanning the volume with bscan.e. At that point. If no Volumes can be found for recycling for any of the reasons stated above. The durations inter-depend a bit because if Bacula prunes a Volume. 25. Files contained on that Volume. the catalog will grow larger and larger as time goes on. and eventually it can become unacceptably large.3 Automatic recycling of Volumes is performed by Bacula only when it wants a new Volume and no appendable Volumes are available in the Pool. The pruning (or retention) durations are for: Volumes (Media records). Only Volumes marked Full or Used will be considerd for pruning. you must first ensure that no other Volume in the Pool is marked Append. This preserves your data as long as possible. pruning removes information about where older files are. Manual pruning is done with the prune command in the console. the Volume (Media record) for that Job can still remain in the database. and volumes in a database called the catalog. if you wish to ”force” Bacula to use a purged Volume. if the catalog is starting to get too big. and the Volume can be recycled. Having the File records in the database means that you can examine all the files backed up for a particular Job. If necessary. all the File records for that Job are also pruned (deleted) from the catalog. Purged). Once a job has been pruned. but it also prevents the catalog from . Bacula’s process for removing entries from the catalog is called Pruning. Among other things. 25. 30 days old) it is removed from the catalog. They take the most space in the catalog (probably 90-95% of the total). Bacula will request operator intervention (i. The alternative to Automatic Pruning is Manual Pruning. A key point mentioned above. So.0.g. Until recycling actually occurs.2 Pruning Directives There are three pruning durations. However. that can be a source of frustration. the Volume data remains intact. but the Job records (and its File records) will no longer be available. and the second step is the actual recycling of the Volume. jobs. The reason for this is that Bacula wants to preserve the data on your old tapes (even though purged from the catalog) as long as absolutely possible before overwriting it. The default is Automatic Pruning. There are also a number of directives such as Volume Use Duration that will automatically mark a volume as Used and thus no longer appendable.e. and all the File records. is that Bacula will only recycle purged Volumes if there is no other appendable Volume available. Jobs (Job records). it will ask you to label a new volume). it keeps a list of files. It will then search the Pool for any Volumes with the Recycle flag set and the Volume Status is Purged. and if you do a ”list volumes”. you could prune the oldest jobs to save space. and Files (File records).

it will be marked with VolStatus Purged. it is relabeled with the same Volume Name. If the Volume has another status. AutoPrune = <yes—no> If AutoPrune is set to yes (default). or Cleaning. minutes. and JobMedia records from the catalog database. It does not shrink the size of the Volume or affect the Volume data until the Volume gets overwritten. that the Volume Retention period is obtained by reading the Catalog Database Media record rather than the Pool resource record. Bacula will prune all Volumes that can be pruned (i. It is also possible to ”force” pruning of all Volumes in the Pool associated with a Job by adding Prune Files = yes to the Job resource. If during the autoprune.e. a Volume will be marked Purged (and hence ready for recycling) if the Volume status is Append. When all file catalog entries are removed from the volume. Bacula will begin volume pruning. When this time period expires. and if AutoPrune is set to yes. Pruning consists of deleting the corresponding Job..e. Read-Only. Recycle = <yes—no> This statement tells Bacula whether or not the particular Volume can be recycled (i. then even if Bacula prunes all the Jobs on the volume and it is marked Purged. Retention periods are specified in seconds. all files are pruned from the Volume. the Volume status will not be changed to Purged. or Error. You can always re-insert the records (with 98% of the original data) by using ”bscan” to scan in a whole Volume or any part of the volume that you want. If Recycle is set to yes and all Jobs have been pruned. No change to the physical data on the Volume occurs during the pruning process. The files remain physically on the Volume until the volume is overwritten. or years on the record. The Pool records that control the pruning are described below. the Volume will be marked as Purged implying that no Jobs remain on the volume. Busy. By setting AutoPrune to yes you will permit Bacula to automatically prune all Volumes in the Pool when a Job needs another Volume. such as Archive. AutoPrune set) in an attempt to find a usable volume. that although the File and Job records may be pruned from the catalog. The default is yes. its VolStatus is set to Purged. it will not consider the tape for recycling. . days. and a new Volume is needed. however all previous data will be lost. File. Purged. Doing so will insure that any new Volumes will be created with the changed Volume Retention period. and the size of the database. A key point is that this time period is not even considered as long at the Volume remains appendable. Volume pruning means removing records from the catalog.3 227 growing to be too large. The Volume Retention period count down begins only when the Append status has been changed to some othe status (Full. Any existing Volumes will have their own copy of the Volume Retention period that can only be changed on a Volume by Volume basis using the update volume command. See the Configuration chapter of this manual for additional details of time specification. Volume Retention = <time-period-specification> The Volume Retention record defines the length of time that Bacula will guarantee that the Volume is not reused counting from the time the last job stored on the Volume terminated. . If the volume is reused. weeks. the volume status will be set to Purged and the volume may then be reused when another volume is needed. The Volume Retention period takes precedence over any Job Retention period you have specified in the Client resource. Disabled. months. If Recycle is set to no (the default)..0. rewritten). Used. Note. This means that if you change the VolumeRetention in the Pool resource record. The default is 1 year.Bacula Version 5.e. Full. When all files are pruned from a Volume (i. quarters. When a Job requests another volume and there are no Volumes with Volume Status Append available. At that point.). no records in the catalog). Bacula will prune (remove) Job records that are older than the specified Volume Retention period. Used. hours. You choose the retention periods in function of how many files you are backing up and the time periods you want to keep those records online. but no appendable Volume is available. you must ensure that the corresponding change is made in the catalog by using the update pool command. Bacula will automatically apply the Volume retention period when running a Job and it needs a new Volume but no appendable volumes are available. It should also be noted. This means that all Jobs that are older than the VolumeRetention period will be pruned from every Volume that has Volume Status Full or Used and has Recycle set to yes.

• Search the Pool for a Volume with VolStatus=Append (if there is more than one. On the other hand. the Volume with the oldest date last written is chosen. a new Volume will not be created. Bacula will look for the oldest Volume that is Purged (all Jobs and Files expired). Purged. go back to step 2 above. one or more of the Retention periods must have expired so that there are no more catalog backup job records that reference that Volume. • Search the Pool for a Volume with VolStatus=Purged • If a Pool named ”Scratch” exists. the basic Pool defaults are applied as if it is a newly labeled Volume (equivalent to an update volume from pool command). Bacula will relabel it and write new data on it. if you have inserted a different Volume after the last job. search for a Volume and if found move it to the current Pool for the Job and use it. In this case. • Give up and ask operator. • If we were looking for Volumes in the Autochanger. or Append are pruned). it will request authorization from the Director to use this Volume. look for any Volume whether or not it is in the Autochanger. Recycle. • Search the Pool for a Volume with VolStatus=Recycle and the InChanger flag is set true (if there is more than one. If the maximum number of Volumes specified for the pool is reached. If two have the same date then the one with the lowest MediaId is chosen). look only for Volumes in the Autochanger (i. The full algorithm that Bacula uses when it needs a new Volume is: The algorithm described below assumes that AutoPrune is enabled. • Prune volumes applying Volume retention period (Volumes with VolStatus Full.228 Bacula Version 5. If two have the same date then the one with the lowest MediaId is chosen). Used. and that you have defined appropriate Retention periods. • Try recycling any purged Volumes.3 Recycling Algorithm After all Volumes of a Pool have been pruned (as mentioned above. The above occurs when Bacula has finished writing a Volume or when no Volume is present in the drive. a Python NewVolume event is generated before the Label Format directve is used. this happens when a Job needs a new Volume and no appendable Volumes are available). Once both those conditions are satisfied. when the Scratch Volume is moved into the current Pool. the volume can be marked Purged and hence recycled. First. with InChanger set and that have the correct Storage device).3 25. This record ensures that all retention periods are properly respected. Note. Note. As mentioned above. • Purge the oldest Volume if PurgeOldestVolume=yes (the Volume with the oldest LastWritten date and VolStatus equal to Full. and Bacula recognizes the Volume as valid. even if all the File and Job records are pruned from a Volume.e. Recycle. We strongly recommend against the use of PurgeOldestVolume as it can quite easily lead to loss of current backup data. • If the request is for an Autochanger device. Purged. that Recycling is turned on. • Prune the oldest Volume if RecycleOldestVolume=yes (the Volume with the oldest LastWritten date and VolStatus equal to Full. or used the defaults for all these items. • Attempt to create a new Volume if automatic labeling enabled If Python is enabled. Used. or Append is chosen). Used. there are two key points for getting a Volume to be recycled. if you have . and if the Recycle flag is on (Recycle=yes) for that Volume. the Volume with the oldest date last written is chosen. or Append is chosen).0. the Volume must no longer be marked Append (there are a number of directives to automatically make this change). but this time. the Volume will not be marked Purged until the Volume retention period expires. and second since the last write on the Volume.

A purged Volume simply means that there are no entries in the Catalog.0. and Volume retention periods are different. The data is lost only when the Volume is re-labeled and re-written. If volumes become free through pruning and the Volume retention period has expired. and possibly recycling.these will be used in preference to creating new volumes. This Recycle status is stored in the Media record of the Catalog. Bacula will prune the volume and if all jobs were removed during the pruning (respecting the retention periods). The other volumes are all marked recyclable and when their Volume Retention period (14400 seconds or four hours) expires. and if the volume does not contain a current copy of your backup data. If a pool doesn’t have maximum volumes defined then Bacula will prefer to demand new volumes over forcibly purging older volumes. A few points from Alan Brown to keep in mind: 1. Using the Console program. 25. For example in the following output from list volumes: +----------+-------+--------+---------+------------+--------+-----+ | VolumeNa | Media | VolSta | VolByte | LastWritte | VolRet | Rec | +----------+-------+--------+---------+------------+--------+-----+ | File0001 | File | Full | 4190055 | 2002-05-25 | 14400 | 1 | | File0002 | File | Full | 1896460 | 2002-05-26 | 14400 | 1 | | File0003 | File | Full | 1896460 | 2002-05-26 | 14400 | 1 | | File0004 | File | Full | 1896460 | 2002-05-26 | 14400 | 1 | | File0005 | File | Full | 1896460 | 2002-05-26 | 14400 | 1 | | File0006 | File | Full | 1896460 | 2002-05-26 | 14400 | 1 | | File0007 | File | Purged | 1896466 | 2002-05-26 | 14400 | 1 | +----------+-------+--------+---------+------------+--------+-----+ all the volumes are marked as recyclable. all the data on the Volume is still recoverable. they will be eligible for pruning. If the Job. the Volume will be recycled and used. but which is still not marked as ”purged”. Even though Volume File0007 has been purged. and the last Volume.4 Recycle Status Each Volume inherits the Recycle status (yes or no) from the Pool resource record when the Media record is created (normally when the Volume is labeled). so it may be immediately recycled. The recycling algorithm in this case is: • If the VolStatus is Append or Recycle is set. the volume will be used. +----------+------+-------+---------+-------------+-------+-----+ | VolumeNa | Media| VolSta| VolByte | LastWritten | VolRet| Rec | +----------+------+-------+---------+-------------+-------+-----+ | File0001 | File | Full | 4190055 | 2002-05-25 | 14400 | 0 | . File0007 has been purged. Even if the Volume Status is changed to Recycle. it will be recycled. 2. then it’s common to see a tape with no files or jobs listed in the database. you use the update volume pool=File command in the console program. If all Jobs are pruned from the volume. To modify Volume File0001 so that it cannot be recycled. or simply update and Bacula will prompt you for the information. 3. File. you may subsequently change the Recycle status for each Volume.3 229 set Recycle Current Volume = yes and the Volume is marked as Used or Full. it will be used. This permits users to manually change the Volume every day and load tapes in an order different from what is in the catalog. • If Recycle Current Volume is set and the volume is marked Full or Used. the data on the Volume will be recoverable.Bacula Version 5. then they get marked as ”purged” and are immediately available for recycling . Bacula will prune the volume (applying the retention period).

However. here is a picture created by Arno Lehmann: A typical volume life cycle is like this: because job count or size limit exceeded Append ----------------------------------------> Used ^ | | First Job writes to Retention time passed | | the volume and recycling takes | | place | | v Recycled <-------------------------------------. To get this to work. Weekly. There are an infinite number of such schemes.3 In this case. Using the tape only once. As you have noted.5 Making Bacula Use a Single Tape Most people will want Bacula to fill a tape and when it is full. . as an extreme example. the Volume Status (VolStatus) column in the catalog database contains the current status of the Volume. it will recycle the tape. If this latter record is not used and the tape is not full after the first time it is written. you must do two things: first. The same effect can be achieved by setting the Volume Status to Read-Only. Monthly Tape Usage Example This example is meant to show you how one could define a fixed set of volumes that Bacula will rotate through on a regular schedule.6 Daily. We start with the following assumptions: • A single tape has more than enough capacity to do a full save. and every night to rewrite it. To give you an idea of some of the values it can take during the life cycle of a Volume. An example Pool resource that does this is: Pool { Name = DDS-4 Use Volume Once = yes Pool Type = Backup AutoPrune = yes VolumeRetention = 12h # expire after 12 hours Recycle = yes } 25.230 | File0002 | File | Full | 1897236 | 2002-05-26 | 14400 | 1 | | File0003 | File | Full | 1896460 | 2002-05-26 | 14400 | 1 | | File0004 | File | Full | 1896460 | 2002-05-26 | 14400 | 1 | | File0005 | File | Full | 1896460 | 2002-05-26 | 14400 | 1 | | File0006 | File | Full | 1896460 | 2002-05-26 | 14400 | 1 | | File0007 | File | Purged| 1896466 | 2002-05-26 | 14400 | 1 | +----------+------+-------+---------+-------------+-------+-----+ Bacula Version 5. all of which have various advantages and disadvantages. File0001 will never be automatically recycled.0. it is possible for Bacula to write on a single tape. forces the tape to be marked Full after each use. Bacula will simply append to the tape and eventually request another volume. and so on. set the VolumeRetention to less than your save period (one day). which is normally maintained automatically by Bacula.Purged Volume is selected for reuse 25. and the next time Bacula runs. a new tape will be mounted. and the second item is to make Bacula mark the tape as full after using it once. This is done using UseVolumeOnce = yes.

you will have at least three and probably four Friday full saves of that file. the time between copies increases from daily to weekly to monthly. Daily10. a Monthly tape is used for the Full backup. For any given file you want to recover (or your whole system)... you will have a copy of that file made on the beginning of the month for at least a year. • There are 12 tapes that are used on a monthly basis for full backups. We start the system by doing a Full save to one of the weekly volumes or one of the monthly volumes.3 231 • There are ten tapes that are used on a daily basis for incremental backups. we remove the Daily tape and insert the next tape in the Weekly series. • No backups are done over the weekend (this is easy to change). What would the Bacula configuration look like to implement such a scheme? Schedule { Name = "NightlySave" Run = Level=Full Pool=Monthly 1st sat at 03:05 Run = Level=Full Pool=Weekly 2nd-5th sat at 03:05 Run = Level=Incremental Pool=Daily tue-fri at 03:05 } Job { Name = "NightlySave" Type = Backup Level = Full Client = LocalMachine FileSet = "File Set" Messages = Standard Storage = DDS-4 Pool = Daily Schedule = "NightlySave" } # Definition of file storage device Storage { Name = DDS-4 Address = localhost SDPort = 9103 Password = XXXXXXXXXXXXX Device = FileStorage Media Type = 8mm } FileSet { Name = "File Set" Include = signature=MD5 { fffffffffffffffff } Exclude = { *. Bacula will request the next one in the series. For older versions.Bacula Version 5.. They are prelabeled Daily1 . On the first Friday of the next month. • The first Friday of each month. we remove the tape and insert a Daily tape. When a Daily tape finally fills up. They are labeled Week1 . Week4. They are numbered Month1 . and going back further. So you have copies of any file (or your whole system) for at least a year.. you will have the last complete Full save plus several Incremental saves. What does this give? Well. • Incremental backups are done Monday .o } . Monday.0. and the next day when you notice the email message. we insert the next Monthly tape in the series rather than a Weekly tape. we remove the Weekly tape and re-insert the Daily tape.. but as you go back in time.Friday (actually Tue-Fri mornings). Friday evening. you will mount it and Bacula will finish the unfinished incremental backup. then continue.. • There are four tapes that are used on a weekly basis for full backups. at any point. The next morning. you will have a copy of that file every day for at least the last 14 days. Month12 • A full backup is done every Saturday evening (tape inserted Friday evening before leaving work).

3 25.232 } Pool { Name = Daily Pool Type = Backup AutoPrune = yes VolumeRetention = 10d # recycle in 10 days Maximum Volumes = 10 Recycle = yes } Pool { Name = Weekly Use Volume Once = yes Pool Type = Backup AutoPrune = yes VolumeRetention = 30d # recycle in 30 days (default) Recycle = yes } Pool { Name = Monthly Use Volume Once = yes Pool Type = Backup AutoPrune = yes VolumeRetention = 365d # recycle in 1 year Recycle = yes } Bacula Version 5. If you add the following resources to your Director’s configuration file: Schedule { Name = "30 minute cycle" Run = Level=Full Pool=File Messages=Standard Storage=File hourly at 0:05 Run = Level=Full Pool=File Messages=Standard Storage=File hourly at 0:35 } Job { Name = "Filetest" Type = Backup Level = Full Client=XXXXXXXXXX FileSet="Test Files" Messages = Standard Storage = File Pool = File Schedule = "30 minute cycle" } # Definition of file storage device Storage { Name = File Address = XXXXXXXXXXX SDPort = 9103 Password = XXXXXXXXXXXXX Device = FileStorage Media Type = File } FileSet { Name = "Test Files" Include = signature=MD5 { fffffffffffffffff } Exclude = { *.7 Automatic Pruning and Recycling Example Perhaps the best way to understand the various resource records that come into play during automatic pruning and recycling is to run a Job that goes through the whole cycle.0.o } } Pool { Name = File Use Volume Once = yes Pool Type = Backup .

. In addition.3 LabelFormat = "File" AutoPrune = yes VolumeRetention = 4h Maximum Volumes = 12 Recycle = yes } 233 Where you will need to replace the ffffffffff’s by the appropriate files to be saved for your configuration. you may want to manually force reuse (recycling) of a Volume.. but you simply want to write new data on the tape. or simply comment out the Schedule record in the Job resource. RemovableMedia = no. If you wish to reuse the tape by giving it a new name.20 and later (see the Automatic Recycling of Volumes chapter of this manual). 25.). /tmp/File0012. follow the following steps: • Use the purge jobs volume command in the Console to mark the Volume as Purged. Check by using list volumes. choose a directory that has one or two megabytes maximum since there will probably be approximately eight copies of the directory that Bacula will cycle through.8 Manually Recycling Volumes Although automatic recycling of Volumes is implemented in version 1. Please note that the relabel command applies only to tape Volumes.Bacula Version 5. After 4 hours. For Bacula versions prior to 1. you will need to add the following to your Storage daemon’s configuration file: Device { Name = FileStorage Media Type = File Archive Device = /tmp LabelMedia = yes. You should see this happening in the output produced. the steps to take are: • Use the update volume command in the Console to ensure that the Recycle field is set to 1 • Use the purge jobs volume command in the Console to mark the Volume as Purged. Bacula will start recycling the backup Volumes (/tmp/File0001 . } With the above resources. Assuming that you want to keep the Volume name. AutomaticMount = yes. Random Access = Yes. Bacula will start a Job every half hour that saves a copy of the directory you chose to /tmp/File0001 .30 or greater.. use the instructions below: . For the FileSet Include. Once the Volume is marked Purged.0.30 or to manually relabel the Volume. AlwaysOpen = no. Bacula will automatically create the Volumes (Files) the first time it uses them. either delete all the resources you’ve added. use the Console relabel command to relabel the Volume. To turn it off.. it will be recycled the next time a Volume is needed. • In Bacula version 1. Check by using list volumes.

. • Use the label command to write a new label to the tape and to enter it in the catalog. you must either restore your database as it was before the delete command. use the unmount command. and insert the tape to be renamed. Once it is done. to recover the File records. or use the bscan utility program to scan the tape and recreate the database entries. remove the tape. • Write an EOF mark in the tape using the following commands: mt -f /dev/nst0 rewind mt -f /dev/nst0 weof where you replace /dev/nst0 with the appropriate device name on your system.234 Bacula Version 5. • If a different tape is mounted.0.3 • Use the delete volume command in the Console to delete the Volume from the Catalog. Please be aware that the delete command can be dangerous.

AlwaysOpen = no. Most of the concepts apply equally well to both tape and disk Volumes. In the Storage daemon’s configuration file. Bacula will write to the file /home/bacula/backups/Vol001. For example. AutomaticMount = yes. 26. For example. if you want your disk backups to go into the directory /home/bacula/backups. However.. RemovableMedia = no. Storage { Name = FileStorage Address = . If you have a lot of hard disk storage or you absolutely must have your backups run within a small time window.. } Assuming you have the appropriate Storage resource in your Director’s configuration file that references the above Device resource. if you have labeled a Volume named Vol001.. so you will see it is slanted in that direction. you simply define an Archive Device to be a directory. Although you can later move the archive file to another directory. Device = FileBackup Media Type = File } Bacula will then write the archive to the file /home/bacula/backups/<volume-name> where <volumename> is the volume name of a Volume defined in the Pool. Password = . 235 .1 Key Concepts and Resource Records Getting Bacula to write to disk rather than tape in the simplest case is rather easy.Chapter 26 Basic Volume Management This chapter presents most all the features needed to do Volume management.. This chapter is intended to give you some of the options that are available to you so that you can manage either disk or tape volumes. you should not rename it or it will become unreadable by Bacula. but all the directives presented here apply equally well whether your volume is disk or tape. you could use the following: Device { Name = FileBackup Media Type = File Archive Device = /home/bacula/backups Random Access = Yes. the chapter was originally written to explain backing up to disk. you may want to direct Bacula to backup to disk Volumes rather than tape Volumes.

1 Pool Options to Limit the Volume Usage Some of the options you have. This is because during a restore. The first is that unless you specify otherwise. one Job per Volume or file in this case).0. use: Maximum Volume Bytes = mmmm. Bacula is currently unable to seek to the proper place in a disk volume to restore a file.3 This is because each archive has the filename as part of the internal label. Note that although you probably would not want to limit the number of bytes on a tape as you would on a disk Volume. If your Volumes are 50GB. use: UseVolumeOnce = yes. . use: Volume Use Duration = ttt. and the internal label must agree with the system filename before Bacula will use it. An example of such a configuration is given at the end of this chapter under Concurrent Disk Jobs.1. you can actually specify the desired value on a Volume by Volume basis. reading half or more of the volume could take quite a bit of time. • To write nnn Jobs to each Volume. the above directives can allow you to ensure that you rotate through a set of daily Volumes if you wish. In addition. In the case of Maximum Volume Job. Maximum Volume Bytes. 26. For example. with all versions up to and including 1. so no weekend backups will be done until Monday morning. all of which are specified in the Pool record. and Volume Use Duration. Also. you will need to understand a number of other details. As an example of the use of one of the above.236 Bacula Version 5. Although this is quite simple.e. if you want to use concurrent jobs that write to several different volumes at the same time. You can either manually change the Volume values. because each Volume it writes can only be used for 23 hours after the first write.28. Note. • To limit the use time (i. there are a number of problems. each of those directives is specified in the Pool or Pools that you use for your Volumes. you are more likely to be able to recover more data if they are in smaller Volumes. suppose your Pool resource contains: Pool { Name = File Pool Type = Backup Volume Use Duration = 23h } then if you run a backup once a day (every 24 hours).39. it gets its own copy of the Pool defaults. use: Maximum Volume Jobs = nnn. because Bacula will want a new Volume and no one will be present to mount it. and subsequently changing the Pool will have no effect on existing Volumes. are: • To write each Volume only once (i. Once a Volume has been created. you should probably limit the Volume size to some reasonable value such as say 5GB. setting the use duration to 23 hours is not a very good solution for tapes unless you have someone on-site during the weekends. if you use disk volumes. which means that it must read all records up to where the restore begins. As mentioned above. if you ever have a partial hard disk failure.e. This problem is addressed below. Bacula will always write to the same volume until you run out of disk space. The value specified in the Pool record becomes the default when labeling new Volumes. Note. or refresh them from the Pool defaults using the update volume command in the Console. write the Volume for a maximum of five days). • To limit the maximum size of each Volume. Bacula will use a new Volume for each backup. the other options can be very useful in limiting the time Bacula will use a particular Volume (be it tape or disk).

Bacula Version 5.3 237 26. you can either manually label each of your Volumes. See the Python Scripting chapter of this manual for more details. The second change that is necessary to make automatic labeling work is to give the Storage daemon permission to automatically label Volumes. For automated disk backup. or you can have Bacula automatically label new Volumes when they are needed. and this procedure will create one new archive file (Volume) every day. the automatic Volume labeling in version 1.30 and prior is a bit simplistic. For more information on this. LabelMedia = yes } You can find more details of the Label Format Pool record in Label Format description of the Pool resource records. but it is not nearly so practical since the tapes must be pre-mounted.1. RemovableMedia = no. With the above scheme. In version 1.31 permit automatic creation of a wide variety of labels including information from environment variables and special Bacula Counter variables. your Catalog will continue to fill keeping track of all the files Bacula has backed up. it is probably much better to use Python scripting and the NewVolume event since generating Volume labels in a Python script is much easier than trying to figure out Counter variables. but it does allow for automation. If you have not specified Retention periods. The tools Bacula gives you to help automatically manage these problems are the following: . 26. you must provide Bacula with a label format that it will use to create new names. This requires some user interaction.2 Automatic Volume Labeling Use of the above records brings up another problem – that of labeling your Volumes. This number starts at 0001 and is incremented for each Volume the catalog contains.37 and later.0. Vol0002. the features added in version 1. While. AutomaticMount = yes. There are several methods of labeling all volumes in an autochanger magazine. Do so by adding LabelMedia = yes to the Device resource as follows: Device { Name = File Media Type = File Archive Device = /home/bacula/backups Random Access = Yes.3 Restricting the Number of Volumes and Recycling Automatic labeling discussed above brings up the problem of Volume management. AlwaysOpen = no. and so on when new Volumes are needed. Thus if you modify your Pool resource to be: Pool { Name = File Pool Type = Backup Volume Use Duration = 23h LabelFormat = "Vol" } Bacula will create Volume names Vol0001. to which Bacula will append a four digit number. Automatic labeling from templates does NOT work with autochangers since Bacula will not access unknown slots. Automatic Volume labeling is enabled by making a change to both the Pool resource (Director) and to the Device resource (Storage daemon) shown above. a new Volume will be created every day. please see the Autochanger chapter of this manual. Please note that automatic Volume labeling can also be used with tapes. In the simplest form.1. Much more complex and elaborate labels can be created using variable expansion defined in the Variable Expansion chapter of this manual. In the case of the Pool resource. the label format is simply the Volume name.

. The Recycle Current Volume = yes record in the Pool resource tells Bacula to Prune the currently mounted volume in the Pool. 9. The Recycle = yes record in the Pool resource to permit automatic recycling of Volumes whose Volume retention period has expired. we discussed how you could have a single device named FileBackup that writes to volumes in /home/bacula/backups. and they are also discussed in detail in the Automatic Volume Recycling chapter of this manual. so now you should understand that you need multiple Device definitions in the case of different directories or different Pools. The AutoPrune = yes record in the Pool resource to permit application of the Volume retention period.B.238 Bacula Version 5. Only one Volume can be mounted on any Device at any time. This permits a tape for example to be re-read on any compatible tape drive. 3. and they are discussed in detail in the Automatic Volume Recycling chapter of this manual. and if all files were pruned to recycle this volume and use it. but instead use Recycle Oldest Volume 10. The Volume Retention = ttt record in the Pool resource. it will prune the specified volume. 26. The Maximum Volumes record can also be used in conjunction with the Volume Retention period to limit the total number of archive Volumes (files) that Bacula will create. By setting an appropriate Volume Retention period. a Volume will be purged just before it is needed and thus Bacula can cycle through a fixed set of Volumes.3 1. the File Retention = ttt record in the Client resource. and if all files were pruned to recycle this volume and use it. The first three records (File Retention. and Recycle determine how long Bacula will keep your Volumes before reusing them. when Bacula needs a new Volume. and AutoPrune) determine the amount of time that Job and File records will remain in your Catalog. If you want to simultaneously write multiple Volumes. you will need multiple Device resources in your bacula-sd. 7. which means multiple Volumes. The same applies to disk storage. 5.2 Concurrent Disk Jobs Above. and all the jobs will simultaneously write into the Volume that is being written. This record ignores retention periods! We highly recommend not to use this record. 8. run multiple concurrent jobs using the Storage definition given with this example. and thus multiple Storage resources in your bacula-dir. Now suppose you want to use multiple Pools. Catalog job record retention periods. The AutoPrune = yes record in the Client resource to permit application of the above two retention periods. in fact. neither of these two is possible.conf file.0. you will not be able to restore all your files . 2. AutoPrune. The Purge Oldest Volume = yes record in the Pool resource permits a forced recycling of the oldest Volume when a new one is needed. You can. Job Retention. or suppose you want each client to have its own Volume and perhaps its own directory such as /home/bacula/client1 and /home/bacula/client2 . Cycling through a fixed set of Volumes can also be done by setting Recycle Oldest Volume = yes or Recycle Current Volume = yes. Catalog file record retention periods. The Maximum Volumes = nnn record in the Pool resource to limit the number of Volumes that can be created. the Job Retention = ttt record in the Client resource. 4. The Recycle Oldest Volume = yes record in the Pool resource tells Bacula to Prune the oldest volume in the Pool. 6. OK. Volume Retention.. N. but you also need to know that the catalog data that Bacula keeps contains only the Media Type and not the specific storage device. Why? Because Bacula disk storage follows the same rules as tape devices. In this case.conf. The compatibility being determined by the Media Type. With the single Storage and Device definition above. Since a volume that is written by a Device in say directory /home/bacula/backups cannot be read by a Device with an Archive Device definition of /home/bacula/client1.

During the restore. The example consists of a two clients that are backed up to a set of 12 archive files (Volumes) for each client into different directories on the Storage machine. If this is confusing. This allows the Director to choose the correct device for restores .Bacula Version 5..3 An Example The following example is not very practical.3 239 if you give both those devices Media Type = File. each using its own Pool and storing their Volumes in different directories.sql" PidDirectory = "~/bacula/working" WorkingDirectory = "~/bacula/working" Password = dir_password } Schedule { Name = "FourPerHour" Run = Level=Full hourly at 0:05 Run = Level=Full hourly at 0:20 Run = Level=Full hourly at 0:35 Run = Level=Full hourly at 0:50 } Job { Name = "RecycleExample" Type = Backup Level = Full Client = Rufus FileSet= "Example FileSet" Messages = Standard Storage = FileStorage Pool = Recycle Schedule = FourPerHour } Job { Name = "RecycleExample2" Type = Backup Level = Full Client = Roxie FileSet= "Example FileSet" Messages = Standard Storage = FileStorage1 Pool = Recycle1 Schedule = FourPerHour } FileSet { Name = "Example FileSet" Include { Options { compression=GZIP signature=SHA1 } . 26. Bacula will simply choose the first available device.0. and there are four Full saves done every hour (so the whole thing cycles around after three hours). Thus you must explicitly tie your Volumes to the correct Device by using the Media Type. which may not be the correct one. The Director’s configuration file is as follows: Director { Name = my-dir QueryFile = "~/bacula/bin/query. but can be used to demonstrate the proof of concept in a relatively short period of time. Each Volume is used (written) only once. The example shown below shows a case where there are two clients. It does not know the Archive Device (or the full path) that is specified in the Storage daemon. What is key here is that each physical device on the Storage daemon has a different Media Type. just remember that the Directory has only the Media Type and the Volume name..

. } Pool { Name = Recycle Use Volume Once = yes Pool Type = Backup LabelFormat = "Recycle-" AutoPrune = yes VolumeRetention = 2h Maximum Volumes = 12 Recycle = yes } Pool { Name = Recycle1 Use Volume Once = yes Pool Type = Backup LabelFormat = "Recycle1-" AutoPrune = yes VolumeRetention = 2h Maximum Volumes = 12 Recycle = yes } Bacula Version 5.240 File = /home/kern/bacula/bin } } Client { Name = Rufus Address = rufus Catalog = BackupDB Password = client_password } Client { Name = Roxie Address = roxie Catalog = BackupDB Password = client1_password } Storage { Name = FileStorage Address = rufus Password = local_storage_password Device = RecycleDir Media Type = File } Storage { Name = FileStorage1 Address = rufus Password = local_storage_password Device = RecycleDir1 Media Type = File1 } Catalog { Name = BackupDB dbname = bacula.3 and the Storage daemon’s configuration file is: Storage { Name = my-sd WorkingDirectory = "~/bacula/working" Pid Directory = "~/bacula/working" MaximumConcurrentJobs = 10 } Director { . user = bacula. password = "" } Messages { Name = Standard ..0.

it will look like the following: Device { Name = client1 Media Type = File Archive Device = /disk1 LabelMedia = yes. Bacula will be able to find the appropriate drive. If you then create a standard Storage daemon Device resource for backing up to the first disk. of course.Bacula Version 5. it is possible to back up your data to multiple disks as if they were a single drive by linking the Volumes from the first disk to the second disk. You will also want to give each Device specification a different Media Type so that during a restore. } Messages { Name = Standard director = my-dir = all } 241 With a little bit of work. each disk must be a separate Device specification in the Storage daemon’s conf file. you can change the above example into a weekly or monthly cycle (take care about the amount of archive disk space used). AutomaticMount = yes. assume that you have two disks named /disk1 and /disk2. } Device { Name = RecycleDir1 Media Type = File1 Archive Device = /home/bacula/backups1 LabelMedia = yes. Random Access = Yes. Random Access = Yes.3 Name = my-dir Password = local_storage_password } Device { Name = RecycleDir Media Type = File Archive Device = /home/bacula/backups LabelMedia = yes.0. AlwaysOpen = no. AlwaysOpen = no. RemovableMedia = no. 26. For example. RemovableMedia = no. use multiple disks. Random Access = Yes. which Bacula does not directly support. AlwaysOpen = no. } Since there is no way to get the above Device resource to reference both /disk1 and /disk2 we do it by pre-creating Volumes on /disk2 with the following: ln -s /disk2/Disk2-vol001 /disk1/Disk2-vol001 ln -s /disk2/Disk2-vol002 /disk1/Disk2-vol002 . AutomaticMount = yes. but in general. RemovableMedia = no. The situation is a bit more complicated if you want to treat two different physical disk drives (or partitions) logically as a single drive.4 Backing up to Multiple Disks Bacula can. and you must then select what clients to backup to each disk. AutomaticMount = yes. However.

The Volumes that you create on the two drives cannot be easily exchanged as they can for a tape drive. you will probably want to give them different Media Types so that Bacula can distinguish what Device resource to use during a restore. because they are physically resident (already mounted in a sense) on the particular drive. but if you want to have multiple concurrent jobs that are writing to separate disks drives (or partitions). An important thing to know is that Bacula treats disks like tape drives as much as it can. Disk2-vol002. AlwaysOpen = no.242 ln -s /disk2/Disk2-vol003 /disk1/Disk2-vol003 . you might also define a different MediaType (e. and the Archive Device could be different.. . RemovableMedia = no.0. you will probably want to write to a different set. The fact that you have given them different Media Types will allow Bacula to quickly choose the correct Storage resource in the Director when doing a restore. Random Access = Yes. however.g. 26. File1). The Name must be different. An example would be the following: Device { Name = Disk1 Media Type = File1 Archive Device = /disk1 LabelMedia = yes. You can have multiple concurrent jobs running that all write to the one Volume that is being used.3 At this point. one to /disk1 and the other to /disk2. you would do so by defining a second Device resource in the Storage daemon... • If you wish the Volumes for the second client to go into a different directory (perhaps even on a different filesystem to spread the load). exactly as you would do for two different tape drives. } With the above device definitions. here are a few considerations: • Although the second client can write to the same set of Volumes.. This means that you can only have a single Volume mounted at one time on a disk as defined in your Device resource in the Storage daemon’s conf file. you will need to define separate Device resources for each one.5 Considerations for Multiple Clients If we take the above example and add a second Client. AlwaysOpen = no. } Device { Name = Disk2 Media Type = File2 Archive Device = /disk2 LabelMedia = yes. As a consequence. you can label the Volumes as Volume Disk2-vol001. Bacula Version 5. AutomaticMount = yes. Random Access = Yes. you can run two concurrent jobs each writing at the same time. which has a different name and a different LabelFormat. . AutomaticMount = yes. and Bacula will use them as if they were on /disk1 but actually write the data to /disk2. To ensure that Volumes are never mixed from one pool to another. There is one fundamental difference. The only minor inconvenience with this method is that you must explicitly name the disks and cannot use automatic labeling unless you arrange to have the labels exactly match the links you have created. RemovableMedia = no. • You can write to a different set of Volumes by defining a second Pool.

each with a different Pool and a different number of archive files retained.3 243 In this example.0. The Director’s configuration file is as follows: Director { Name = my-dir QueryFile = "~/bacula/bin/query. They also write to different directories with different Volume labeling.sql" PidDirectory = "~/bacula/working" WorkingDirectory = "~/bacula/working" Password = dir_password } # Basic weekly schedule Schedule { Name = "WeeklySchedule" Run = Level=Full fri at 1:30 Run = Level=Incremental sat-thu at 1:30 } FileSet { Name = "Example FileSet" Include { Options { compression=GZIP signature=SHA1 } File = /home/kern/bacula/bin } } Job { Name = "Backup-client1" Type = Backup Level = Full Client = client1 FileSet= "Example FileSet" Messages = Standard Storage = File1 Pool = client1 Schedule = "WeeklySchedule" } Job { Name = "Backup-client2" Type = Backup Level = Full Client = client2 FileSet= "Example FileSet" Messages = Standard Storage = File2 Pool = client2 Schedule = "WeeklySchedule" } Client { Name = client1 Address = client1 Catalog = BackupDB Password = client1_password File Retention = 7d } Client { Name = client2 Address = client2 Catalog = BackupDB Password = client2_password } # Two Storage definitions with different Media Types # permits different directories Storage { Name = File1 Address = rufus Password = local_storage_password Device = client1 Media Type = File1 } Storage { Name = File2 . we have two clients.Bacula Version 5.

. } Messages { Name = Standard director = my-dir = all .. RemovableMedia = no. } # Archive directory for Client2 Device { Name = client2 Media Type = File2 Archive Device = /home/bacula/client2 LabelMedia = yes. Random Access = Yes. AlwaysOpen = no. } # Two pools permits different cycling periods and Volume names # Cycle through 15 Volumes (two weeks) Pool { Name = client1 Use Volume Once = yes Pool Type = Backup LabelFormat = "Client1-" AutoPrune = yes VolumeRetention = 13d Maximum Volumes = 15 Recycle = yes } # Cycle through 8 Volumes (1 week) Pool { Name = client2 Use Volume Once = yes Pool Type = Backup LabelFormat = "Client2-" AutoPrune = yes VolumeRetention = 6d Maximum Volumes = 8 Recycle = yes } Bacula Version 5. AlwaysOpen = no.0. user = bacula. password = "" } Messages { Name = Standard . AutomaticMount = yes.3 and the Storage daemon’s configuration file is: Storage { Name = my-sd WorkingDirectory = "~/bacula/working" Pid Directory = "~/bacula/working" MaximumConcurrentJobs = 10 } Director { Name = my-dir Password = local_storage_password } # Archive directory for Client1 Device { Name = client1 Media Type = File1 Archive Device = /home/bacula/client1 LabelMedia = yes.244 Address = rufus Password = local_storage_password Device = client2 Media Type = File2 } Catalog { Name = BackupDB dbname = bacula. Random Access = Yes. RemovableMedia = no. AutomaticMount = yes.

3 } 245 .Bacula Version 5.0.

0.3 .246 Bacula Version 5.

The exact reason for the failure is still unknown. Worse yet. offsite capability was not needed (well perhaps it really is. 27. The rest of this chapter will explain how to setup Bacula so that it would automatically manage a set of disk files with the minimum sysadmin intervention.3 x 7) = 102. 27. then monthly for six months. The same techniques can be applied to a shop that has multiple tape drives. or that wants to mount various different Volumes to meet their needs. The only other intervention I have made is a periodic (about once a year) Bacula upgrade. but most of the information applies equally well to tape Volumes. but it was never used). their full backup size is about 15GB whereas the capacity of their broken DDS-3 was at best 8GB (rated 6/12). The chosen solution was to buy a 120GB hard disk for next to nothing – far less than 1/10th the price of a tape drive and the cassettes to handle the same amount of data. In addition. you will see that Pools can help you optimize disk storage space. The system has been running since 22 January 2004 until today (23 June 2007) with no intervention. with the exception of adding a second 120GB hard disk after a year because their needs grew over that time to more than the 120GB (168GB to be exact). a weekly basis for a month. and you may wonder what they are good for.Chapter 27 Automated Disk Backup If you manage five or ten machines and have a nice tape backup. or about 2GB per week. the total volume of data they need to keep to meet their needs is about 100GB (15GB x 6 + 2GB x 5 + 0.1 The Problem A site that I administer (a charitable organization) had a tape DDS-3 tape drive that was failing. A new DDS-4 tape drive and the necessary cassettes was more expensive than their budget could handle. Their daily changes amount to about 300MB on the average.2 The Solution They want to maintain six months of backup data.1GB. In this chapter. 247 . you don’t need Pools. The rest of this chapter will give an example involving backup to disk Volumes. and to have Bacula write to disk files. and be able to access the old files on a daily basis for a week. As a consequence.

this will be a bit of a problem. and is documented in the previous chapter. and one for Incremental saves. Bacula did not seek within a disk Volume.e. Any of these would work.0. they are recycled after six months). the simplest way to do this (and possibly the only) is to have a separate Pool for each backup type.0.. a Differential save once a week. The details of this will be discussed shortly. . why not do a Full save once a month. but why not use the features of Bacula. The other problem with a single Volume. that there is one job per volume (Maximum Volume Jobs = 1). In addition. This same problem applies to the use of tape Volumes if your tape fills. One needs to consider about what happens if we have only a single large Bacula Volume defined on our hard disk. weekly for a month. .3 Overall Design Getting Bacula to write to disk rather than tape in the simplest case is rather easy. such as limiting the volume size. by time. or by size. no space is lost by having separate Volumes for each backup (done once a month in this case). If you haven’t read it and are not familiar with Pools. so restoring a single file can take more time than one would expect. The decision was to use three Pools: one for Full saves. Six months after the first volume is used. the requirements are to be able to restore monthly for 6 months. or use a different system for switching volumes. The items to note are the retention period of six months (i. Everything works fine until the Volume fills.1 Full Pool Putting a single Full backup on each Volume. but we chose to limit the use of a single Volume by putting a single job in each Volume with the exception of Volumes containing Incremental backup where there will be 6 jobs (a week’s worth of data) per volume. you probably should at least read it once quickly for the ideas before continuing here. they may all be marked used. and daily for a week. and a retention period of six months. we need to limit the use and thus the size of a single Volume.0. or files on the disk. and Incremental saves daily. and each would have a different number of volumes and a different Retention period to accomplish the requirements. it will be subject to pruning and thus recycling. To do so. It should be obvious that it is better to use a number of smaller Volumes and arrange for Bacula to automatically recycle them so that the disk storage space can be reused.248 Bacula Version 5.. 27. then Bacula will ask you to mount a new Volume. As you noted from above. the volumes will be labeled Full-0001. So to simplify things. there should always be 3 volumes available (note. Being a hard disk and the only one you have. by number of jobs. This is a single client backup. is that until version 2. We’ll leave it to you to look at the details there. the solution is to have multiple Volumes.3 27. The Pool needed to do that is: Pool { Name = Full-Pool Pool Type = Backup Recycle = yes AutoPrune = yes Volume Retention = 6 months Maximum Volume Jobs = 1 Label Format = FullMaximum Volumes = 9 } Since these are disk Volumes. The next problem to resolve is recycling of Volumes. Full-0006 automatically. Now since each of these different kinds of saves needs to remain valid for differing periods. As mentioned. will require six Full save Volumes. but they will be marked purged and recycled as needed). one for Differential saves. so with a maximum of 9 volumes. so if you have multiple clients you will need to multiply those numbers by the number of clients.3. all the directives discussed here are explained in that chapter. One could have labeled these manually from the start.

3 Incremental Pool Finally.Bacula Version 5. In practice. here is the resource for the Incremental Pool: Pool { Name = Inc-Pool Pool Type = Backup Recycle = yes AutoPrune = yes Volume Retention = 20 days Maximum Volume Jobs = 6 Label Format = IncMaximum Volumes = 7 } We keep the data for 20 days rather than just a week as the needs require.3 249 If you have two clients. Again.2 Differential Pool For the Differential backup Pool. and there should then always be 3 volumes that can be purged and recycled. could be tightened up a lot. in that case. but the expense here is a few GB which is not too serious. . the Differential Pool can grow to a maximum of 9 volumes. This. we keep a week’s worth of data (6 incremental backups) in each Volume. and the Volumes are retained 40 days and thereafter they can be recycled.3. of course. it is also possible limit the size of the volumes. after 40 days. If you have two clients. If a new volume is used every week. and possibly increase the maximum number of Volumes.4 The Actual Conf Files The following example shows you the actual files used. you would want to set Maximum Volume Jobs to 2 instead of one. However. we can adjust these values so that the total disk usage doesn’t exceed the disk capacity.3. 27.0. 27. one will have used 7 volumes. See the discussion above concering the Full pool for how to handle multiple clients. you will need to have a better idea of the volume or add sufficient volumes to the pool so that you will be assured that in the next cycle (after 20 days) there is at least one volume that is pruned and can be recycled. 27. As mentioned above. Finally there is one job per volume. To reduce the proliferation of volume names. with only a few minor modifications to simplify things. So the following works: Pool { Name = Diff-Pool Pool Type = Backup Recycle = yes AutoPrune = yes Volume Retention = 40 days Maximum Volume Jobs = 1 Label Format = DiffMaximum Volumes = 10 } As you can see. the simplest thing to do is to increase the maximum volume jobs from 6 to 12. or set a limit on the size of the Volumes. the lost is very little and as the system reaches the full steady state. we choose a retention period of a bit longer than a month and ensure that there is at least one Volume for each of the maximum of five weeks in a month. the retention period should be set to just a bit more than a week and keep only two or three volumes instead of five.

compression=GZIP9 } File = / File = /usr File = /home File = /boot File = /var File = /opt } Exclude = { .0. to be changed by Console program Job { Name = "RestoreFiles" Type = Restore Client = havana-fd FileSet="Full Set" Storage = File Messages = Standard Pool = Default Where = /tmp/bacula-restores } Bacula Version 5.250 The Director’s configuration file is as follows: Director { # define myself Name = bacula-dir DIRport = 9101 QueryFile = "/home/bacula/bin/query. this job will back up to disk in /tmp Job { Name = client Type = Backup Client = client-fd FileSet = "Full Set" Schedule = "WeeklyCycle" Storage = File Messages = Standard Pool = Default Full Backup Pool = Full-Pool Incremental Backup Pool = Inc-Pool Differential Backup Pool = Diff-Pool Write Bootstrap = "/home/bacula/working/client.bsr" Priority = 11 # run after main backup } # Standard Restore template. # see comments in make_catalog_backup for details. RunBeforeJob = "/home/bacula/bin/make_catalog_backup bacula bacula" # This deletes the copy of the catalog RunAfterJob = "/home/bacula/bin/delete_catalog_backup" Write Bootstrap = "/home/bacula/working/BackupCatalog.3 # List of files to be backed up FileSet { Name = "Full Set" Include = { Options { signature=SHA1.bsr" Priority = 10 } # Backup the catalog database (after the nightly save) Job { Name = "BackupCatalog" Type = Backup Client = client-fd FileSet="Catalog" Schedule = "WeeklyCycleAfterBackup" Storage = File Messages = Standard Pool = Default # This creates an ASCII copy of the catalog # WARNING!!! Passing the password via the command line is insecure.sql" WorkingDirectory = "/home/bacula/working" PidDirectory = "/home/bacula/working" Maximum Concurrent Jobs = 1 Password = " *** CHANGE ME ***" Messages = Standard } # By default.

password = "" } Pool { Name = Full-Pool Pool Type = Backup Recycle = yes # automatically recycle Volumes AutoPrune = yes # Prune expired volumes Volume Retention = 6 months Maximum Volume Jobs = 1 Label Format = FullMaximum Volumes = 9 } Pool { Name = Inc-Pool Pool Type = Backup Recycle = yes # automatically recycle Volumes AutoPrune = yes # Prune expired volumes Volume Retention = 20 days Maximum Volume Jobs = 6 Label Format = IncMaximum Volumes = 7 } Pool { .sql } } Client { Name = client-fd Address = client FDPort = 9102 Catalog = MyCatalog Password = " *** CHANGE ME ***" AutoPrune = yes # Prune expired Jobs/Files Job Retention = 6 months File Retention = 60 days } Storage { Name = File Address = localhost SDPort = 9103 Password = " *** CHANGE ME ***" Device = FileStorage Media Type = File } Catalog { Name = MyCatalog dbname = bacula.0.fsck 251 } } Schedule { Name = "WeeklyCycle" Run = Level=Full 1st sun at 2:05 Run = Level=Differential 2nd-5th sun at 2:05 Run = Level=Incremental mon-sat at 2:05 } # This schedule does the catalog.3 File File File File . user = bacula...Bacula Version 5.journal /. = = = = /proc /tmp /. It starts after the WeeklyCycle Schedule { Name = "WeeklyCycleAfterBackup" Run = Level=Full sun-sat at 2:10 } # This is the backup of the catalog FileSet { Name = "Catalog" Include { Options { signature=MD5 } File = /home/bacula/working/bacula.

domain. } Messages { Name = Standard director = bacula-dir = all } . # lets Bacula label unlabeled media Random Access = Yes. !saved append = "/home/bacula/bin/log" = all.3 and the Storage daemon’s configuration file is: Storage { # definition of myself Name = bacula-sd SDPort = 9103 # Director’s port WorkingDirectory = "/home/bacula/working" Pid Directory = "/home/bacula/working" } Director { Name = bacula-dir Password = " *** CHANGE ME ***" } Device { Name = FileStorage Media Type = File Archive Device = /files/bacula LabelMedia = yes. !skipped } Bacula Version 5.0. read it RemovableMedia = no. !skipped operator = root@domain. AutomaticMount = yes.com = all. AlwaysOpen = no.252 Name = Diff-Pool Pool Type = Backup Recycle = yes AutoPrune = yes Volume Retention = 40 days Maximum Volume Jobs = 1 Label Format = DiffMaximum Volumes = 10 } Messages { Name = Standard mailcommand = "bsmtp -h mail.com -f \"\(Bacula\) %r\" -s \"Bacula: Intervention needed for %j\" %r" mail = root@domain. !skipped.domain. # when device opened.com -f \"\(Bacula\) %r\" -s \"Bacula: %t %e of %c %l\" %r" operatorcommand = "bsmtp -h mail.com = mount console = all.

In other words. One of the key points to remember is that the Pool that is specified for the migration job is the only pool from which jobs will be migrated. and hence is not directly available for restore.. 253 . In particular it refers to a Job (similar to a backup job) that reads data that was previously backed up to a Volume and writes it to another Volume. The Copy and the Migration jobs run without using the File daemon by copying the data from the old backup Volume to a different Volume in a different Pool. in the Pool resource specified for the Migration Job.Chapter 28 Migration and Copy The term Migration. when doing migration. Volume. it will promote the copy as real backup and will make it available for automatic restore. In addition. For migration to work properly. This essentially creates two identical copies of the same backup. and then purging the database records for the first Job. writing it to a different Volume in a different Pool. However. As part of this process. However. with one exception noted below. If bacula founds a copy when a job record is purged (deleted) from the catalog. Migration moves Bacula Job data from one Volume to another by reading the Job data from the Volume it is stored on. the copy is treated as a copy rather than a backup job. or Client name • the time a Job has been on a Volume • high and low water marks (usage or occupation) of a Pool • Volume size The details of these selection criteria will be defined below. To run a Migration job. means moving data from one Volume to another. as used in the context of Bacula. you should use Pools containing only Volumes of the same Media Type for all migration jobs. Bacula permits Pools to contain Volumes with different Media Types. you must first define a Job resource very similar to a Backup Job but with Type = Migrate instead of Type = Backup.. the Pool to which the selected Job or Jobs will be migrated is defined by the Next Pool = . the File catalog records associated with the first backup job are purged. The Copy process is essentially identical to the Migration feature with the exception that the Job that is copied is left unchanged. The section process for which Job or Jobs are migrated can be based on quite a number of different criteria such as: • a single previous Job • a Volume • a Client • a regular expression matching a Job. this is a very undesirable condition.

it is asked to migrate one or more Volumes). Note that when a copy is made. Pool = <Pool-name> The Pool specified in the Migration control Job is not a new directive for the Job resource.254 Bacula Version 5. • The previous Backup Job (already run). The new copies can not be used for restoration unless you specifically choose them by JobId. If you subsequently delete a JobId that has a copy. Note. directive to define the Pool to which the data will be migrated. 28. Then for each previous backup JobId found. A Migration Job is a sort of control job and does not have any Files associated with it. three jobs are involved during a migration: • The currently running Migration control Job. primarily a Selection Type (detailed a bit later). the original JobIds are left unchanged. in any case. If you subsequently do a restore. The File records for this Job are purged if the Migration job successfully terminates. and although a Pool directive must still be specified. unless you specifically include it in the SQL query. This if you select a very large volume or a number of volumes for migration. Please note that Migration doesn’t scale too well since Migrations are done on a Job by Job basis. Selection Type = <Selection-type-keyword> The <Selection-type-keyword> determines how the migration job will go about selecting what JobIds to migrate. and the original JobId can nolonger be used for restores. If the Migration control job finds a number of JobIds to migrate (e. it is used in conjunction with a Selection Pattern to give you fine control over exactly what JobIds are selected. Note. Copy jobs simply check to see if there is anything to Copy then possibly start and control new Backup jobs to copy the data from the specified Pool to another Pool. but it is particularly important because it determines what Pool will be examined for finding JobIds to migrate. In most cases. • A new Migration Backup Job that moves the data from the previous Backup job to the new Volume. they will run consecutively (not simultaneously).1 Migration and Copy Job Resource Directives The following directives can appear in a Director’s Job resource. the Migration job will simply terminate having done nothing.g. A Copy Job is a sort of control job and does not have any Files associated with it. The original data remains on the Volume until it is recycled and rewritten. and they are used to define a Migration job. The exception to this is when Selection Type = SQLQuery.3 The migration job normally is either manually started or starts from a Schedule much like a backup job. the data will be read from this Job. in which case. but normally at a minimum. This is only a control job for starting the migration child jobs. the copy will be automatically upgraded to a Backup rather than a Copy. and in that sense they are more or less like an Admin job. It is possible that no prior Jobs are found for migration. the Migration Job will run a new Job which copies the old Job data from the previous Volume to a new Volume in the Migration Pool. Migration jobs simply check to see if there is anything to Migrate then possibly start and control new Backup jobs to migrate the data from the specified Pool to another Pool.0.. no Pool is used. you may have a large number of Jobs that start. and in that sense they are more or less like an Admin job.. The possible values for <Selection-type-keyword> are: . and it will subsequently be used for restoration. Because each job must read the same Volume. Type = Migrate Migrate is a new type that defines the job that is run as being a Migration Job. Type = Copy Copy is a new type that defines the job that is run as being a Copy Job. it will start one new migration backup job for each JobId found on the specified Volumes. all restores will be done from the new migrated Job. It searches for a previous backup Job or Jobs that match the parameters you have specified in the migration Job resource. the Pool resource defined by the Pool directove must contain a Next Pool = . any original JobId that is migrated will be marked as having been migrated.

. PoolTime The PoolTime selection type will cause the Migration job to look at the time each JobId has been in the Pool since the job ended. for a given Job named. This calculation should be consider rather approximative because it is made once by the Migration job before migration is begun. All JobIds that were backed up for those filtered (regexed) Volumes will be migrated. Note. These do not include the Storage daemon overhead as is in the total Pool size. then it applies the Selection Pattern (defined below) as a regular expression to the list of Client names. For the SQLQuery keyword. The migration control job will then start and run one migration backup job for each of the Jobs found on this Volume. is not used. The Selection Pattern must be a valid SELECT SQL statement for your SQL engine. PoolUncopiedJobs This selection which copies all jobs from a pool to an other pool which were not copied before is available only for copy Jobs. Volume The Volume selection type. first selects all the Volumes that have been backed up in the Pool specified by the Migration Job resource. normally. the migration will migrate more bytes than strictly necessary. then it applies the Selection Pattern (defined below) as a regular expression to the list of Volume names.3 255 SmallestVolume This selection keyword selects the volume with the fewest bytes from the Pool to be migrated. is not used. For the Client. The Selection Pattern. the Migration job will migrate all JobIds beginning with the oldest Volume in the pool (determined by Last Write time) until the Pool bytes drop below the Migration Low Bytes defined in the Pool. For the OldestVolume and SmallestVolume. The Pool to be migrated is the Pool defined in the Migration Job resource. PoolOccupancy This selection type will cause the Migration job to compute the total size of the specified pool for all Media Types combined. giving a filtered Client name list. The migration control job will then start and run one migration backup job for each of the Jobs found. As a consequence. The migration control job will then start and run one migration backup job for each of the JobIds found for those filtered Clients. giving a filtered Job name list. used the Selection Pattern as an SQL query to obtain the JobIds to be migrated. All JobIds that were run for those filtered (regexed) Job names will be migrated. and thus does not take into account additional data written into the Pool during the migration. they can be many jobs (JobIds) that ran. The bytes calculate for Migration is based on the value stored in the Job records of the Jobs to be migrated. The Pool to be migrated is the Pool defined in the Migration Job resource. Client The Client selection type. if specified. Selection Pattern = <Quoted-string> The Selection Patterns permitted for each Selection-typekeyword are described above. All Jobs in the Pool longer than the time specified on Migration Time directive in the Pool resource will be migrated.0. All jobs that were backed up for those filtered (regexed) Clients will be migrated. The migration control job will then start and run one migration backup job for each of the JobIds found on those filtered Volumes. and Job keywords. and it must return the JobId as the first field of the SELECT. If it exceeds the Migration High Bytes defined in the Pool. The Selection Pattern. Job The Job selection type. if specified. In addition. this pattern must be a valid regular expression that will filter the appropriate item names found in the Pool.Bacula Version 5. Volume. this pattern must be a valid SELECT SQL statement that returns JobIds. The migration control job will then start and run one migration backup job for each of the Jobs found on this Volume. SQLQuery The SQLQuery selection type. then it applies the Selection Pattern (defined below) as a regular expression to the list of Job names. giving a filtered Volume list. this Selection pattern is not used (ignored). first selects all the Clients that have been backed up in the Pool specified by the Migration Job resource. the calculation of the total Pool byte size is based on the Volume bytes saved in the Volume (Media) database entries. first selects all the Jobs (as defined on the Name directive in a Job resource) that have been backed up in the Pool specified by the Migration Job resource. OldestVolume This selection keyword selects the volume with the oldest last write time in the Pool to be migrated.

Migration Time = <time-specification> If a PoolTime migration is done. We recommend only one Media Type per pool. • As noted above. and they are used to define a Migration job.256 Bacula Version 5.) will be used. . Migration Low Bytes = <byte-specification> This directive specifies the number of bytes in the Pool which will stop a migration if a PoolOccupancy migration selection type has been specified and triggered by more than Migration High Bytes being in the pool. schedule run. 28. The column RealEndTime in the catalog Job table will contain the time and date that the Migration terminated. hours. It also reduces other deadlock situations. .. • Migration takes place on a JobId by JobId basis.. the results may not be what you want. end time. so you must keep in mind that if you mix Media Types in a Pool. The fact that the Pool usage goes above this level does not automatically trigger a migration job. Bacula does not currently restrict a pool to have only a single Media Type.0. the Migration High Bytes will be applied. the calculation of the bytes to migrate is somewhat approximate. it will be on the new medium in the new Pool. This prevents Bacula from attempting to read the Volume at the same time it is writing it.2 Migration Pool Resource Directives The following directives can appear in a Director’s Pool resource. Used. the time specified here in seconds (time modifiers are permitted – e. Storage = <storage-specification> The Storage directive specifies what Storage resource will be used for all Jobs that use this Pool. Without this directive. for the Migration High Bytes. and by comparing it with the EndTime column you can tell whether or not the job was migrated. then they will be migrated. It takes precedence over any other Storage specifications that may have been given such as in the Schedule Run directive. In other words. as the Pool count of all bytes will be for all Media Types combined. Full. The original job is purged of its File records. and its Type field is changed from ”B” to ”M” to indicate that the job was migrated. That is each JobId is migrated in its entirety and independently of other JobIds. or Error. Migration High Bytes = <byte-specification> This directive specifies the number of bytes in the Pool which will trigger a migration if a PoolOccupancy migration selection type has been specified. it will appear with all the same characteristics of the original job (start. if a migration job runs and has the PoolOccupancy selection type set.).3 28. or in the Job resource. • If you keep Volumes of different Media Types in the same Pool. ..3 Important Migration Considerations • Each Pool into which you migrate Jobs or Volumes must contain Volumes of only one Media Type.. • It is possible to get into a resource deadlock where Bacula does not find enough drives to simultaneously read and write all the Volumes needed to do Migrations. Next Pool = <pool-specification> The Next Pool directive specifies the pool to which Jobs will be migrated.).g. aside from having a new JobId. Once the Job is migrated.. This directive is required to define the Pool into which the data will be migrated. We highly recommend that you define the Storage resource to be used in the Pool rather than elsewhere (job. it is not clear how well migration will work. but for the most part. once a migration job is started with PoolOccupancy migration selection and it determines that there are more than Migration High Bytes. as well as avoids the problem that you migrate a Volume and later find new files appended to that Volume. • Jobs on Volumes will be Migration only if the Volume is marked. the migration job will continue to run jobs until the number of bytes in the Pool drop to or below Migration Low Bytes. Volumes that are still marked Append will not be considered for migration. the migration job will terminate in error. For the moment. you must take care as all the resource deadlock algorithms are not yet implemented. If the previous Backup Job or Jobs selected have been in the Pool longer than the specified PoolTime. . However..

3 257 • Migration is done only when you run a Migration job. oldest. and for any particular Volume. and FileSet. a very large number of Migration jobs may start.. You cannot read on one Storage daemon and write on another. • Migration is only implemented for a single Storage daemon. You must schedule the migration jobs. • Only migration of Selection Types of Job and Volume have been carefully tested.4 Example Migration Jobs When you specify a Migration Job. • Figuring out what jobs will actually be migrated can be a bit complicated due to the flexibility provided by the regex patterns and the number of different options. so migration jobs that all reference the same Volume will run sequentially. occupancy. 28. certain such as the Level. . the Pool to be migrated (File) contains a Next Pool directive that defines the output Pool (where the data is written by the migration job). • The Next Pool = .. are ignored by the Migration job because the values from the original job used instead. ensure that all your migration pools contain only one Media Type. # Define the backup Job Job { Name = "NightlySave" Type = Backup Level = Incremental Client=rufus-fd FileSet="Full Set" Schedule = "WeeklyCycle" Messages = Standard Pool = Default } # Default pool definition Pool { Name = Default Pool Type = Backup AutoPrune = yes Recycle = yes Next Pool = Tape Storage = File LabelFormat = "File" } # Tape pool definition Pool { # default . you must specify all the standard directives as for a Job. smallest. only one Job can read that Volume at a time (no simultaneous read). All the other migration methods (time. • If you migrate a number of Volumes. This can be a potential bottle neck and does not scale very well to large numbers of jobs. In general. there is a Storage directive in each of the Pool resources. • Pay particular attention to the fact that data is migrated on a Job by Job basis. • Bacula currently does only minimal Storage conflict resolution. To note: there is no Storage directive in the Job resource. and that you always migrate to pools with different Media Types.. so you must take care to ensure that you don’t try to read and write to the same device or Bacula may block waiting to reserve a drive that it will never find. Turning on a debug level of 100 or more will provide a limited amount of debug information about the migration selection process. Client.. If you set a Migration High Bytes and that number of bytes is exceeded in the Pool no migration job will automatically start. As an example. though they must be defined.Bacula Version 5. suppose you have the following Job that you run every night.0. and they must run for any migration to take place. directive must be defined in the Pool referenced in the Migration Job to define the Pool into which the data will be migrated. However.) need additional testing.

the data will be backed up to File storage using the Default pool to specify the Storage as File. If instead. . Job { Name = "migrate-volume" Type = Migrate Level = Full Client = rufus-fd FileSet = "Full Set" Messages = Standard Pool = Default Maximum Concurrent Jobs = 4 Selection Type = Volume Selection Pattern = "File" } and then run the job named migrate-volume.0. all volumes in the Pool named Default (as specified in the migrate-volume Job that match the regular expression pattern File will be migrated to tape storage DLTDrive because the Next Pool in the Default Pool specifies that Migrations should go to the pool named Tape.258 Name = Tape Pool Type = Backup AutoPrune = yes Recycle = yes Storage = DLTDrive } # Definition of File storage device Storage { Name = File Address = rufus Password = "ccV3lVTsQRsdIUGyab0N4sMDavui2hOBkmpBU0aQKOr9" Device = "File" # same as Device in Storage daemon Media Type = File # same as MediaType in Storage daemon } # Definition of DLT tape storage device Storage { Name = DLTDrive Address = rufus Password = "ccV3lVTsQRsdIUGyab0N4sMDavui2hOBkmpBU0aQKOr9" Device = "HP DLT 80" # same as Device in Storage daemon Media Type = DLT8000 # same as MediaType in Storage daemon } Bacula Version 5. which uses Storage DLTDrive.3 Where we have included only the essential information – i.*Save" } All jobs ending with the name Save will be migrated from the File Default to the Tape Pool. we use a Job resource as follows: Job { Name = "migrate" Type = Migrate Level = Full Client = rufus-fd FileSet="Full Set" Messages = Standard Pool = Default Maximum Concurrent Jobs = 4 Selection Type = Job Selection Pattern = ". or from File storage to Tape storage.e. Now. Catalog. the Director. if we add the following Job resource to this conf file. Client. FileSet. Schedule. As you can see. and Messages resources are omitted. by running the NightlySave Job.

29. Otherwise. the backup will continue. and in my case about a month of data. • You can easily arrange for the Full backup to occur a different night of the month for each system.1. • There is little chance of operator error because the tape is not changed daily. one typically does a Full backup once a week followed by daily Incremental backups.1. • After a tape fills and you have put in a blank tape.1.1 Advantages • The operator intervenes only when a tape change is needed. 259 . a Differential backup on the 2nd-5th Sunday of the month.3 Practical Details This system is very simple. and incremental backups the rest of the week.Chapter 29 Backup Strategies Although Recycling and Backing Up to Disk Volume have been discussed in previous chapters. you unmount the tape from the Console program. Bacula will automatically mount the tape and resume the backup. In most cases after the label. you will lose your current backups. Using this strategy. 29. 29. insert a new tape and label it.1 Simple One Tape Backup Probably the simplest strategy is to back everything up to a single tape and insert a new (or recycled) tape when it fills and Bacula requests a new one. this chapter is meant to give you an overall view of possible backup strategies and to explain their advantages and disadvantages. When the tape fills and Bacula requests a new tape. Typically the best case will be one tape and worst two. and this will generally happen during working hours. 29.2 Disadvantages • If your site burns down. you simply mount the tape. thus load balancing and shortening the backup time. To minimize the amount of data written to the tape. (once a month at my site). • A minimum number of tapes will be needed for a full restore. one can do a Full backup once a month on the first Sunday of the month.

conf <\&ltEND_OF_DATA unmount storage=your-storage-name END_OF_DATA # the following is a shell command mt eject /full-path/bconsole -c /full-path/bconsole. 29. This is not very efficient. and possibly at the beginning of the month. and you will unmount it and then remount it when you have inserted the new tape. If you run several jobs. but the release command would tell Bacula to rewind the tape and on the next job assume the tape has changed.3 Daily Tape Rotation This scheme is quite different from the one mentioned above in that a Full backup is done to a different tape every day of the week. and remount it as follows: #!/bin/sh /full-path/bconsole -c /full-path/bconsole. you would have AlwaysOpen=yes. but does let you change the tape whenever you want.conf <<END_OF_DATA mount storage=your-storage-name END_OF_DATA 29. • The final strategy is similar to the previous case except that you would use the unmount command to force Bacula to release the drive.0. If you do not wish to interact with Bacula to change each tape. This strategy may not work on some systems. Then you would eject the tape. or using modifications of it based on two week cycles or longer.260 Bacula Version 5.conf <<END_OF_DATA release storage=your-storage-name END_OF_DATA In this example. and by having two Friday tapes. Bacula will release the tape after every job. Thus if backups are done Monday through Friday only. so recoveries are simple and faster.1 Advantages • All the data is stored on a single tape. the tape will be rewound and repositioned to the end at the beginning of every job. • Assuming the previous day’s tape is taken offsite each day. the backup will cycle continuously through five or six tapes each week. . there are several ways to get Bacula to release the tape: • In your Storage daemon’s Device resource. you need only five tapes. set AlwaysOpen = no In this case. This could also be an Admin job that runs after all your backup jobs. Bacula will ask you to change the tape. Many sites run this way. you need a total of six tapes. Generally. Variations are to use a different tape each Friday.2 Manually Changing Tapes If you use the strategy presented above. or on autochangers because Bacula will still keep the drive open.3. The script could be something like: #!/bin/sh /full-path/bconsole -c /full-path/bconsole. • Use a RunAfterJob statement to run a script after your last job. a maximum of one days data will be lost if the site burns down.3 29.

He has one Schedule that accomplishes this.3.3.conf # # Bacula Director Configuration file # Director { Name = ServerName DIRport = 9101 QueryFile = "/etc/bacula/query. 29.3 261 29. and on the run statement in the Schedule. He has named his Friday Pool WeeklyPool because in that Pool. to specify which Pool is to be used. • Initial setup of Bacula to run in this mode is more complicated than the Single tape system described above.3 Practical Details The simplest way to ”force” Bacula to use a different tape each day is to define a different Pool for each day of the the week a backup is done.2 Disadvantages • The tape must be changed every day requiring a lot of operator intervention. • If the wrong tape is inadvertently mounted. the Backup for that day will not occur exposing the system to data loss. he wishes to have several tapes to be able to restore to a time older than one week.sql" WorkingDirectory = "/var/lib/bacula" PidDirectory = "/var/run" SubSysDirectory = "/var/lock/subsys" Maximum Concurrent Jobs = 1 Password = "console-pass" Messages = Standard } # # Define the main nightly save backup job # Job { Name = "NightlySave" Type = Backup Client = ServerName FileSet = "Full Set" Schedule = "WeeklyCycle" Storage = Tape Messages = Standard Pool = Default Write Bootstrap = "/var/lib/bacula/NightlySave.0.conf file looks like the following: # /etc/bacula/bacula-dir. This is necessary for the tape ejection to work in his end of backup.bsr" . • More errors will occur because of human mistakes. his bacula-dir. Nic Bellamy has supplied an actual working model of this which we include here. and the backup cycle will re-synchronize the next day. In addition. he uses a Max Start Delay of 22 hours so that if the wrong tape is premounted by the operator. • Depending on the number of systems you have and their data capacity. it may not be possible to do a Full backup every night for time reasons or reasons of tape capacity. In addition. in his Storage daemon’s Device resource.Bacula Version 5. And finally. What is important is to create a different Pool for each day of the week. • There is much more movement of the tape each day (rewinds) leading to shorter tape drive life time. the job will be automatically canceled. For example. you will need to specify appropriate Job and File retention periods so that Bacula will relabel and overwrite the tape each week rather than appending to it. he has Automatic Mount = yes and Always Open = No.sh script below. and a second Schedule that does the same thing for the Catalog backup run each day after the main backup (Priorities were not available when this script was written).

bsr" Max Start Delay = 22h } # Standard Restore template. # see comments in make_catalog_backup for details. changed by Console program Job { Name = "RestoreFiles" Type = Restore Client = ServerName FileSet = "Full Set" Storage = Tape Messages = Standard Pool = Default Where = /tmp/bacula-restores } # List of files to be backed up FileSet { Name = "Full Set" Include = signature=MD5 { / /data } Exclude = { /proc /tmp /.0.journal } } # # When to do the backups # Schedule { Name = "WeeklyCycle" Run = Level=Full Pool=MondayPool Monday at 8:00pm Run = Level=Full Pool=TuesdayPool Tuesday at 8:00pm Run = Level=Full Pool=WednesdayPool Wednesday at 8:00pm Run = Level=Full Pool=ThursdayPool Thursday at 8:00pm Run = Level=Full Pool=WeeklyPool Friday at 8:00pm } # This does the catalog. and ejects the tape RunAfterJob = "/etc/bacula/end_of_backup. RunBeforeJob = "/usr/lib/bacula/make_catalog_backup -u bacula" # This deletes the copy of the catalog.sql } } # Client (File Services) to backup Client { Name = ServerName Address = dionysus FDPort = 9102 Catalog = MyCatalog Password = "client-pass" File Retention = 30d Bacula Version 5.sh" Write Bootstrap = "/var/lib/bacula/BackupCatalog.262 Max Start Delay = 22h } # Backup the catalog database (after the nightly save) Job { Name = "BackupCatalog" Type = Backup Client = ServerName FileSet = "Catalog" Schedule = "WeeklyCycleAfterBackup" Storage = Tape Messages = Standard Pool = Default # This creates an ASCII copy of the catalog # WARNING!!! Passing the password via the command line is insecure.3 . It starts after the WeeklyCycle Schedule { Name = "WeeklyCycleAfterBackup" Run = Level=Full Pool=MondayPool Monday at 8:15pm Run = Level=Full Pool=TuesdayPool Tuesday at 8:15pm Run = Level=Full Pool=WednesdayPool Wednesday at 8:15pm Run = Level=Full Pool=ThursdayPool Thursday at 8:15pm Run = Level=Full Pool=WeeklyPool Friday at 8:15pm } # This is the backup of the catalog FileSet { Name = "Catalog" Include = signature=MD5 { /var/lib/bacula/bacula.

send almost all to email address # and to the console Messages { Name = Standard mailcommand = "/usr/sbin/bsmtp -h localhost -f \"\(Bacula\) %r\" -s \"Bacula: %t %e of %c %l\" %r" operatorcommand = "/usr/sbin/bsmtp -h localhost -f \"\(Bacula\) %r\" -s \"Bacula: Intervention needed for %j\" %r" mail = root@localhost = all. !saved append = "/var/lib/bacula/log" = all. password = "" } # Reasonable message delivery -.Bacula Version 5. !skipped.3 Job Retention = 30d AutoPrune = yes } # Definition of file storage device Storage { Name = Tape Address = dionysus SDPort = 9103 Password = "storage-pass" Device = Tandberg Media Type = MLR1 } # Generic catalog service Catalog { Name = MyCatalog dbname = bacula. !skipped operator = root@localhost = mount console = all. but will hold no actual volumes Pool { Name = Default Pool Type = Backup } Pool { Name = MondayPool Pool Type = Backup Recycle = yes AutoPrune = yes Volume Retention = 6d Maximum Volume Jobs = 2 } Pool { Name = TuesdayPool Pool Type = Backup Recycle = yes AutoPrune = yes Volume Retention = 6d Maximum Volume Jobs = 2 } Pool { Name = WednesdayPool Pool Type = Backup Recycle = yes AutoPrune = yes Volume Retention = 6d Maximum Volume Jobs = 2 } Pool { Name = ThursdayPool Pool Type = Backup Recycle = yes AutoPrune = yes Volume Retention = 6d Maximum Volume Jobs = 2 } Pool { Name = WeeklyPool Pool Type = Backup Recycle = yes AutoPrune = yes Volume Retention = 12d 263 .0. !skipped } # Pool definitions # # Default Pool for jobs. user = bacula.

he uses a RunAfterJob script that deletes the ASCII copy of the database back and then rewinds and ejects the tape. In order to get Bacula to release the tape after the nightly backup. They were split to preserve the proper page width. I have truncated a number of the columns so that the information fits on the width of a page. you get something like the following: *list media Using default Catalog name=MyCatalog DB=bacula Pool: WeeklyPool +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ | MeId| VolumeName| MedTyp| VolStat| VolBytes | LastWritten | VolRet| Recyc| +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ | 5 | Friday_1 | MLR1 | Used | 2157171998| 2003-07-11 20:20| 103680| 1 | | 6 | Friday_2 | MLR1 | Append | 0 | 0 | 103680| 1 | +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ Pool: MondayPool +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ | MeId| VolumeName| MedTyp| VolStat| VolBytes | LastWritten | VolRet| Recyc| +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ | 2 | Monday | MLR1 | Used | 2260942092| 2003-07-14 20:20| 518400| 1 | +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ Pool: TuesdayPool +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ | MeId| VolumeName| MedTyp| VolStat| VolBytes | LastWritten | VolRet| Recyc| +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ | 3 | Tuesday | MLR1 | Used | 2268180300| 2003-07-15 20:20| 518400| 1 | +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ Pool: WednesdayPool +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ | MeId| VolumeName| MedTyp| VolStat| VolBytes | LastWritten | VolRet| Recyc| +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ | 4 | Wednesday | MLR1 | Used | 2138871127| 2003-07-09 20:2 | 518400| 1 | +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ Pool: ThursdayPool +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ | MeId| VolumeName| MedTyp| VolStat| VolBytes | LastWritten | VolRet| Recyc| +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ | 1 | Thursday | MLR1 | Used | 2146276461| 2003-07-10 20:50| 518400| 1 | +-----+-----------+-------+--------+-----------+-----------------+-------+------+ Pool: Default No results to list.0.3 Note. the mailcommand and operatorcommand should be on a single line each. if you list his Volumes.sh #! /bin/sh /usr/lib/bacula/delete_catalog_backup mt rewind mt eject exit 0 Finally. The following is a copy of end of backup.264 Maximum Volume Jobs = 2 } # EOF Bacula Version 5. Note. .

Current Bacula autochanger support does not include cleaning. In version 1. This is generally done with the label command. • You should also modify your Storage resource definition in the Director’s configuration file so that you are automatically prompted for the Slot when labeling a Volume. However. you must use this new resource.conf file so that you will be prompted for the slot number when you label Volumes. In order to work with an autochanger. For more details on these commands. as well as a few other parameters. FreeBSD users have provided a script in the examples/autochangers directory that allows Bacula to use the chio program. • You need to ensure that your Storage daemon (if not running as root) has access permissions to both the tape drive and the control device. You must pre-label the tapes manually before using them. See below for more details. but can also done after the tape is labeled using the update slots command. This resource is also recommended for single drive autochangers. or you can call any other script or program. Bacula also supports autochangers with barcode readers. We furnish such a script that works with mtx found in the depkgs distribution. Bacula uses its own mtx-changer script to interface with a program that actually does the tape changing. This support includes two Console commands: label barcodes and update slots. you may be able to make Bacula work with stackers (gravity feed and such). Stackers and silos are not supported because Bacula expects to be able to access the Slots randomly. If you have an autochanger. stackers.37 and later. • Modifications to your Storage daemon’s Device configuration resource to identify that the device is a changer.Chapter 30 Autochanger Support Bacula provides autochanger support for reading and writing tapes. Support for multi-drive autochangers requires the Autochanger resource introduced in version 1. The current version of mtx-changer works with the mtx program. if you are very careful to setup Bacula to access the Volumes in the autochanger sequentially. or silos. • You need to have Autochanger = yes in your Storage resource in your bacula-dir. Bacula requires a number of things. each of which is explained in more detail after this list: • A script that actually controls the autochanger according to commands sent by Bacula. see the ”Barcode Support” section below. 265 . there is a new Autochanger resource that permits you to group Device resources thus creating a multi-drive autochanger. mtx-changer can be adapted to function with any autochanger program. However.37. Thus in principle. • That each Volume (tape) to be used must be defined in the Catalog and have a Slot number assigned to it so that Bacula knows where the Volume is in the autochanger.

php. You can find a list of autochangers supported by mtx at the following link: http://mtx.net/..) on the Changer Device = Bacula directive. FreeBSD. You can also: cat /proc/scsi/sg/device_hdr /proc/scsi/sg/devices to find out how to specify their control address (/dev/sg0 for the first. please use the auto command in the btape program to test the functioning of your autochanger with Bacula.6.6. $ lsscsi -g [1:0:2:0] [1:0:14:0] [2:0:3:0] [3:0:0:0] [3:0:1:0] tape mediumx tape enclosu disk SEAGATE STK HP HP HP 36. . Note. and sometimes the drive will remain BLOCKED for a good deal of time (up to 7 minutes on a slow drive) waiting for the cassette to rewind and to unload before the drive can be used with a different Volume.10. you can use: camcontrol devlist To list the SCSI devices as well as the /dev/passn that you will use on the Bacula Changer Device = directive. In addition.) the Storage daemon runs as bacula.0. this is simply a matter of waiting a bit. As best we can determine.tape rather than root. so you will need to ensure that the Storage daemon has sufficient permissions to access the autochanger. The drive was previously in use writing a Volume.4G ULTRIUM06242-XXX L180 Ultrium 3-SCSI A6255A ST336753FC 1619 0315 G24S HP04 HP00 /dev/st0 /dev/sch0 /dev/st1 /dev/sdd /dev/sg9 /dev/sg10 /dev/sg11 /dev/sg3 /dev/sg4 For more detailed information on what SCSI devices you have please see the Linux SCSI Tricks section of the Tape Testing chapter of this manual.11 limit the number of slots to a maximum of 64. 30.opensource-sw. The home page for the mtx project can be found at: http://mtx.el5 of CentOS and RedHat and version 1. Some users have reported that the the Storage daemon blocks under certain circumstances in trying to mount a volume on a drive that has a different volume loaded... ..22 kernel. we have feedback from some users that there are certain incompatibilities between the Linux kernel and mtx.3 In principle. When Bacula is running.1. The solution was to use version 1.root.net/compatibility.266 Bacula Version 5.10 and 1.3. then it is just a question of adapting the mtxchanger script (or selecting one already adapted) for proper interfacing. For example between kernel 2.3. for example.8.11 of mtx. Under FreeBSD.g. Please check that your Storage daemon has permission to access this device.1 Knowing What SCSI Devices You Have Under Linux. please remember that for many distributions (e. /dev/sg1 for the second. If you are having troubles. if mtx will operate your changer correctly.3.18-8. version 1. . You can also use the excellent lsscsi tool. you can cat /proc/scsi/scsi to see what SCSI devices you have available. apparently certain versions of mtx. Debian.opensource-sw.3. This was fixed by upgrading to a version 2.

d/devfs restart Basically this will stop you having to manually change permissions on these devices to make Bacula work when operating the AutoChanger after a reboot. the Director (in the Storage resource) should reference the Autochanger resource name. You can check if the Slot number and InChanger flag are set by doing a: list Volumes in the Console program. When doing a mount command on an autochanger. or the slot is set to zero.Bacula Version 5. . If you want to see examples of configuration files and scripts. Bacula must know which Volume is in each slot of the autochanger. it will unload it and load the correct tape.0 device too just to be on the safe side. you will. If no slot is given. Slots are where the changer cartridges reside when not loaded into the drive.2 Example Scripts Please read the sections below so that you understand how autochangers work with Bacula. To get around this just edit the /etc/devfs. 30. Although we supply a default mtx-changer script. To bring these changes into effect just run:/etc/rc. Instead. but doing so. Bacula numbers these slots from one to the number of cartridges contained in the autochanger.conf Bacula Device resource. If the drive is loaded with a tape from another slot.0 nsa0.3 267 The following tip for FreeBSD users comes from Danny Butroyd: on reboot Bacula will NOT have permission to control the device /dev/pass0 (assuming this is your changer device). bypasses the proper functioning of the drives together. Bacula will not attempt to use the autochanger even if all the necessary configuration records are present. and several mtxchanger scripts that have been modified to work with different autochangers. where each device represents a drive. The new Autochanger resource introduced in version 1.4 Multiple Devices Some autochangers have more than one read/write device (drive). assign a slot. The Director may still reference the Devices (drives) directly.3 Slots To properly address autochangers. but normally.conf file and add the following to the bottom: own perm own perm pass0 pass0 nsa0. please look in the <bacula-src>/examples/devices directory where you will find an example HP-autoloader. Bacula will not automatically use a Volume in your autochanger unless it is labeled and the slot number is stored in the catalog and the Volume is marked as InChanger. no tape will be loaded because an unmount command causes Bacula to unload the tape in the drive.0. your autochanger may require some additional changes. For each Volume in your changer. using the Console program. you must specify which slot you want mounted. 30. This information is kept in Bacula’s catalog database along with the other data for the volume. 30. This is because it must know where each volume is (slot) to be able to load the volume.0 root:bacula 0666 root:bacula 0666 This gives the bacula group permission to write to the nsa0.37 permits you to group Device resources.

Four records: Autochanger. As a default. Autochanger = Yes—No The Autochanger record specifies that the current device is or is not an autochanger. which is the default. If you have a multiple drive autochanger and you want Bacula to write to more than one Volume in the same Pool at the same time. Such devices typically have several drives and a large number of tapes. load. Changer Device. the second device will have the same Changer Device (control channel) as the first drive. The default is no. The following substitutions are made in the command before it is sent to the operating system for execution: %% %a %c %d %f %j %o %s %S %v = = = = = = = = = = % archive device name changer device name changer drive index base 0 Client’s name Job name command (loaded. you need to define a second Device resource and set the Drive Index to 1 for that device. that the Changer Device and the Changer Command directives are not needed in the Device resource if they are present in the Autochanger resource. or unload) Slot base 0 Slot base 1 Volume name An actual example for using mtx with the mtx-changer script (part of the Bacula distribution) is: Changer Command = "/etc/bacula/mtx-changer %c %o %S %a %d" . These four records. you would typically have Changer Device = /dev/sg0. The command is assumed to be a standard program or shell script that can be executed by the operating system. To use the second Drive in an autochanger. but the standard SCSI interface for reading and writing the tapes. Multi-drive requires the use of the Drive Index directive in the Device resource of the Storage daemon’s configuration file. Please ensure that your Storage daemon has permission to access this device. the changer device will typically be some file under /dev/rdsk. This command is invoked each time that Bacula wishes to manipulate the autochanger. This is because most autochangers are controlled through a different device than is used for reading and writing the cartridges. Note. and also that two drives don’t reference the same Volume. you must specify a Changer Device name. On Solaris. one normally uses the generic SCSI interface for controlling the autochanger. however. are described in detail below. Note. For example.0. you will need to set Prefer Mounted Volumes in the Directors Job resource to no. On Linux. On FreeBSD systems. Bacula jobs will prefer to write to a Volume that is already mounted.3 Doing so permits the Storage daemon to ensure that only one drive uses the mtx-changer script at a time. on Linux. the changer device will typically be on /dev/pass0 through /dev/passn.268 Bacula Version 5. some of the more advanced autochangers will locate the changer device on /dev/sg1. Changer Command = <command> This record is used to specify the external program to call and what arguments to pass to it. 30. permitted in Device resources. Changer Device = <device-name> In addition to the Archive Device name. This will cause the Storage daemon to maximize the use of drives. In general. Changer Command.5 Device Configuration Records Configuration of autochangers within Bacula is done in the Device resource of the Storage daemon. and Maximum Changer Wait control how Bacula uses the autochanger. for the Archive Device = /dev/nst0. Drive numbers or the Device Index are numbered beginning at zero. but a different Archive Device.

it will be killed and Bacula will request operator intervention. Drive Index = <number> This record allows you to tell Bacula to use the second or subsequent drive in an autochanger with multiple drives.0. . If the autoloader program fails to respond in this time. you need a second Device resource definition in the Bacula configuration file. Maximum Changer Wait = <time> This record is used to define the maximum amount of time that Bacula will wait for an autoloader to respond to a command (e. you must define an Autochanger resource.3 269 Where you will need to adapt the /etc/bacula to be the actual path on your system where the mtxchanger script resides. load). load. Since the drives are numbered from zero. unload) as well as the output expected by Bacula are give in the Bacula Autochanger Interface section below.g. See the Multiple Drive section above in this chapter for more information. the second drive is defined by Device Index = 1 To use the second drive. Details of the three commands currently used by Bacula (loaded. In addition. If you have a slow autoloader you may want to set it longer.Bacula Version 5. The default is set to 120 seconds. for proper functioning of the Autochanger.

3 .0.270 Bacula Version 5.

Changer Device = name-string The specified name-string gives the system file name of the autochanger device name. and/or you may specify multiple Device directives. This directive is required. If specified in this resource. it will take precedence over the one specified in the Autochanger resource. } 271 . DDS-4-2. Most frequently.. If it is specified in the Device resource (see above). you will specify the Bacula supplied mtx-changer script as follows. referring directly to Device resources will not work for Autochangers. device-name2. you must specify multiple Device names. the Changer Device name is not needed in the Device resource. DDS-4-3 Changer Device = /dev/sg0 Changer Command = "/etc/bacula/mtx-changer %c %o %S %a %d" } Device { Name = "DDS-4-1" Drive Index = 0 Autochanger = yes . If it is also specified in the Device resource.0 and later. If you have a multiple drive autochanger. . Changer Command = name-string The name-string specifies an external program to be called that will automatically change volumes as required by Bacula. each one referring to a separate Device resource that contains a Drive Index specification that corresponds to the drive number base zero. and you want it to function correctly. If it is specified here. you must have an Autochanger resource in your Storage conf file. it will take precedence over one specified in the Autochanger resource.Chapter 31 Autochanger Resource The Autochanger resource supports single or multiple drive autochangers by grouping one or more Device resources into one unit called an autochanger in Bacula (often referred to as a ”tape library” by autochanger manufacturers). This name is used in the Director’s Storage definition to refer to the autochanger.. This directive is required. and your Director’s Storage directives that want to use an Autochanger must refer to the Autochanger resource name. Name = <Autochanger-Name> Specifies the Name of the Autochanger. In previous versions of Bacula. You may specify multiple device names on a single line separated by commas. Device = <Device-name1. The following is an example of a valid Autochanger resource definition: Autochanger { Name = "DDS-4-changer" Device = DDS-4-1... it need not be specified in the Device resource. In version 1. the Director’s Storage directives referred directly to Device resources that were autochangers. If you have an Autochanger.> Specifies the names of the Device resource or resources that correspond to the autochanger drive.38.

AutomaticMount = yes. Also. 31. Bacula will not automatically select that drive when accessing the Autochanger. and the path to the Changer Command to correspond to the values used on your system.2 A Multi-drive Example Configuration File The following resources implement a multi-drive autochanger: .3 Please note that it is important to include the Autochanger = yes directive in each Device definition that belongs to an Autochanger. You can. for example. An example of such a definition is shown above for the Device DDS-4-3. Device { Name = "DDS-4-3" Drive Index = 2 Autochanger = yes Autoselect = no ...272 Device { Name = "DDS-4-2" Drive Index = 1 Autochanger = yes . but will be used if DDS-4-3 is used. } Bacula Version 5.. you want to reserve it for restores. still use the drive by referencing it by the Device name directly rather than the Autochanger name. A device definition should not belong to more than one Autochanger resource. the Changer Device.1 An Example Configuration File The following two resources implement an autochanger: Autochanger { Name = "Autochanger" Device = DDS-4 Changer Device = /dev/sg0 Changer Command = "/etc/bacula/mtx-changer %c %o %S %a %d" } Device { Name = DDS-4 Media Type = DDS-4 Archive Device = /dev/nst0 Autochanger = yes LabelMedia = no. your Device directive in the Storage resource of the Director’s conf file should have the Autochanger’s resource name rather than a name of one of the Devices.. In that case. you can add the directive: Autoselect = no to the Device resource for that drive. AlwaysOpen = yes. 31.0. If you have a drive that physically belongs to an Autochanger but you don’t want to have it automatically used when Bacula references the Autochanger for backups. which will not be selected when the name DDS-4-changer is used in a Storage definition. } # Normal archive device where you will adapt the Archive Device.

You must also set Autochanger = yes in the Storage daemon’s Device resource as we have described above in order for the autochanger to be used. Bacula will mount the tape and then label it with the same name as the barcode. AutomaticMount = yes. and will not be labeled.Bacula Version 5. For example with: Please note that Volumes must be pre-labeled to be automatically used in the autochanger during a backup. AlwaysOpen = yes. AutomaticMount = yes. If your mtx-changer script is properly installed. Drive-2 Changer Device = /dev/sg0 Changer Command = "/etc/bacula/mtx-changer %c %o %S %a %d" } Device { Name = Drive-1 Drive Index = 0 Media Type = DDS-4 Archive Device = /dev/nst0 Autochanger = yes LabelMedia = no. } Device { Name = Drive-2 Drive Index = 1 Media Type = DDS-4 Archive Device = /dev/nst1 Autochanger = yes LabelMedia = no. Thus all stages of dealing with tapes can be totally automated. 31.. Bacula will attempt to access the autochanger only if a slot is non-zero in the catalog Volume record (with the Volume name). the Bacula Console will automatically prompt you for the slot number when the Volume is in the changer when you add or label tapes for that Storage device. will be treated as a cleaning tape. If your autochanger has barcode labels. An appropriate Media record will also be created in the catalog. Bacula will automatically load the correct tape during the label command. you can label all the Volumes in your autochanger one after another by using the label barcodes command.0. AlwaysOpen = yes. It is also possible to set or change the Slot using the update command in the Console and selecting Volume Parameters to update. } 273 # Normal archive device # Normal archive device where you will adapt the Archive Device. Cleaning Prefix = "CLN" } . Pool { Name . Even though all the above configuration statements are specified and correct. the Changer Device. and the path to the Changer Command to correspond to the values used on your system. If you do not have a barcode reader. this is done manually (or via a script).3 Specifying Slots When Labeling If you add an Autochanger = yes record to the Storage resource in your Director’s configuration file. Any barcode that begins with the same characters as specified on the ”CleaningPrefix=xxx” command. Please see the Storage Resource in the Director’s chapter and the Device Resource in the Storage daemon chapter for more details on these records.3 Autochanger { Name = "Autochanger" Device = Drive-1.. For each tape in the changer containing a barcode.

Bacula will ensure that any Volumes that are currently marked as being in the magazine are marked as no longer in the magazine. the Slot numbers of the Volumes will be corrected in Bacula’s catalog if they are incorrect (added or moved). 1.0. use Volumes that it knows to be in the autochanger before accessing Volumes that are not in the autochanger. Bacula will become completely confused about what is in the autochanger and may stop function because it expects to have exclusive use of the autochanger while it has the drive mounted. you should notify Bacula of this. By doing so. Every time. You can modify the mtx-changer script so that it simulates an autochanger with barcodes. 3. 31. you change a magazine. 2. This will cause Bacula to request the autochanger to return the current Volume names in the magazine. InChanger flag) in the catalog. or add or remove a cartridge from the magazine. Bacula will as a preference. You can issue a update slots scan command that will cause Bacula to read the label on each of the cartridges in the magazine in turn and update the information (Slot. the task of informing Bacula is simple. . you have several alternatives.3 Any slot containing a barcode of CLNxxxx will be treated as a cleaning tape and will not be mounted. you must first tell Bacula to release the autochanger by doing: unmount (change cartridges and/or run mtx) mount If you do not do the unmount before making such a change. If you do not have a barcode reader on your autochanger. If your autochanger has barcodes (machine readable tape labels). You can manually set the Slot and InChanger flag using the update volume command in the Console (quite painful). This will be done without actually accessing or reading the Volumes because the barcode reader does this during inventory when the autochanger is first turned on.5 Dealing with Multiple Magazines If you have several magazines or if you insert or remove cartridges from a magazine. and the new list of Volumes will be marked as being in the magazine. In addition. 31. This prevents unneeded operator intervention. This is quite effective but does take time to load each cartridge into the drive in turn and read the Volume label. simply do unmount (remove magazine) (insert new magazine) update slots mount in the Console program.274 Bacula Version 5. See below for more details.4 Changing Cartridges If you wish to insert or remove cartridges in your autochanger or you manually run the mtx program.

n2. .n2. the command: update slots=1. which can have any name. This is done by commenting out the one and only line in the list) case.. The n1. you may not want to scan all Volumes. then run the update slots command.6 scan will cause Bacula to load the Volume in Slot 1.Bacula Version 5. Then in its place add a new line that prints the contents of a file. or by simply deleting it. 3 are the slot numbers and Volume1.6. For example: cat /etc/bacula/changer. There is no need to stop and start Bacula when you change magazines. are the Volume names in those slots. Where the 1. which is: ${MTX} -f $ctl status | grep " *Storage Element [0-9]*:. The contents of the file must be of the following format: 1:Volume1 2:Volume2 3:Volume3 .2..6 will read the barcoded Volume names for slots 1. .volumes file..volumes Be sure to include a full path to the file. You can have multiple files that represent the Volumes in different magazines. 2. The command: update slots=1-3. and 7). and when you change magazines. It will do the same for the Volume in Slot 6.0. the above command will not find any Volume names so will do nothing. and your autochanger will appear to Bacula to be an autochanger with barcodes.3 275 31.g... . .6 Simulating Barcodes in your Autochanger You can simulate barcodes in your autochanger by making the mtx-changer script return the same information that an autochanger with barcodes would do. simply put the correct data in the file. read its Volume label and update the Catalog. For example. Volume2.. 4-7 will update Slots 4. so the update slots command (as well as the update slots scan command) has the additional form: update slots=n1... represent Slot numbers to be updated and the form n3-n4 represents a range of Slot numbers to be updated (e.3 and 6 and make the appropriate updates in the Catalog. 31. where the keyword scan can be appended or not.*Full" | awk "{print \$3 \$4}" | sed "s/Full *\(:VolumeTag=\)*//" at approximately line 99 by putting a # in column one of that line. simply copy the contents of the correct file into your /etc/bacula/changer. This form is particularly useful if you want to do a scan (time expensive) and restrict the update to one or two slots. If you don’t have a barcode reader or have not modified the mtx-changer script as described above.n3-n4.5.7 The Full Form of the Update Slots Command If you change only one cartridge in the magazine.

this is because FreeBSD has made the tape device /dev/nsa1 disappear when there is no tape mounted in the autochanger slot.3 31. If an error message is printed. If Bacula gets rewind I/O errors after a tape change. Please see the Tape Testing chapter of this manual for important information concerning your tape drive before doing the autochanger testing.9 Testing Autochanger and Adapting mtx-changer script Before attempting to use the autochanger with Bacula. In this case. /etc/bacula/mtx-changer /dev/sg0 list 0 /dev/nst0 0 This command should print: 1: 2: 3: . This problem is corrected in Bacula versions 1. it is simply ignored because the slot number is not used. After the mtx-changer script returns. However.g. but be careful to exit the script with a zero status by adding exit 0 after any additional commands you add to the script. /etc/bacula/mtx-changer /dev/sg0 unload 3 /dev/nst0 0 will unload the tape into slot 3. The solution to the problem is to make sure that some tape is loaded into the tape drive before starting Bacula. /etc/bacula/mtx-changer /dev/sg0 unload 1 /dev/nst0 0 If a tape is loaded from slot 1. it must be specified because the drive parameter at the end of the command is needed to select the correct drive. Bacula is unable to open the device. If your changer has barcodes.0.8 FreeBSD Issues If you are having problems on FreeBSD when Bacula tries to select a tape. /etc/bacula/mtx-changer /dev/sg0 load 3 /dev/nst0 0 Assuming you have a tape in slot 3. you will probably need to insert a sleep 20 after the mtx command. /etc/bacula/mtx-changer /dev/sg0 slots This command should return the number of slots in your autochanger. 31. /etc/bacula/mtx-changer /dev/sg0 loaded 0 /dev/nst0 0 It should print ”3” Note. try a different SCSI control device name if /dev/sg0 is incorrect). this should cause it to be unloaded. or one number per line for each slot that is occupied in your changer.. it will be loaded into drive (0). we have used an ”illegal” slot number 0. on FreeBSD systems.32f-5 and later. Bacula should be able to operate the changer. To do so. you must resolve the problem (e. Once all the above commands work correctly. The only remaining area of problems will be if your autoloader needs some time to get the tape loaded after issuing the command. we suggest you do the following commands (assuming that the mtx-changer script is installed in /etc/bacula/mtx-changer): Make sure Bacula is not running.276 Bacula Version 5. As a consequence. Bacula will immediately rewind and read the tape.. You can test whether or not you need a sleep by putting the following commands into a file and running it as a script: . the barcode will follow the colon. and the message is Device not configured. and the number should be terminated by a colon (:). For example. it is preferable to ”hand-test” that the changer works. This is because Bacula checks the return status of the script. the autochanger SCSI control device is generally /dev/pass2. assuming that you have the right Changer Command in your configuration. which should be zero if all went well.

A second problem that comes up with a small number of autochangers is that they need to have the cartridge ejected before it can be removed.10 Using the Autochanger Let’s assume that you have properly defined the necessary Storage daemon Device records. then with the Console program. and it prints: . you probably have no timing problems.” you most likely need more sleep time in your mtx-changer before returning to Bacula after a load command has been completed. If that works. because Bacula checks the return status of the script. there are several scripts in <bacula-source>/examples/devices that implement the above features. Now you fill your autochanger with say six blank tapes. As noted earlier. then you should move the sleep into the actual mtx-changer script so that it will be effective when Bacula runs.Bacula Version 5./bconsole Connecting to Director rufus:8101 1000 OK: rufus-dir Version: 1. so they may be a help to you in getting your script to work. What do you do to make Bacula access those tapes? One strategy is to prelabel each of the tapes. If it does not run. enter the label command: . if you need the offline command. If this seems to be your problem. you can insert an eject just after the unload so that the script looks like: #!/bin/sh /etc/bacula/mtx-changer /dev/sg0 unload 1 /dev/nst0 0 mt -f /dev/st0 offline /etc/bacula/mtx-changer /dev/sg0 load 3 /dev/nst0 0 mt -f /dev/st0 rewind mt -f /dev/st0 weof Obviously. the load 3 will never succeed regardless of how long you wait. If Bacula complains ”Rewind error on /dev/nst0.26 (4 October 2002) *label it will then print something like: Using default Catalog name=BackupDB DB=bacula The defined Storage resources are: 1: Autochanger 2: File Select Storage resource (1-2): 1 I select the autochanger (1).3 #!/bin/sh /etc/bacula/mtx-changer /dev/sg0 unload 1 /dev/nst0 0 /etc/bacula/mtx-changer /dev/sg0 load 3 /dev/nst0 0 mt -f /dev/st0 rewind mt -f /dev/st0 weof 277 If the above script runs.0. you should move it into the mtx-changer script ensuring that you save the status of the mtx command or always force an exit 0 from the script. ERR=Input/output error. and you have added the Autochanger = yes record to the Storage resource in your Director’s configuration file. If this is the case. start by putting a sleep 30 or possibly a sleep 60 in the script just after the mtx-changer load command. Do so by starting Bacula. 31.

278
Enter new Volume name: TestVolume1 Enter slot (0 for none): 1

Bacula Version 5.0.3

where I entered TestVolume1 for the tape name, and slot 1 for the slot. It then asks:
Defined Pools: 1: Default 2: File Select the Pool (1-2): 1

I select the Default pool. This will be automatically done if you only have a single pool, then Bacula will proceed to unload any loaded volume, load the volume in slot 1 and label it. In this example, nothing was in the drive, so it printed:
Connecting to Storage daemon Autochanger at localhost:9103 ... Sending label command ... 3903 Issuing autochanger "load slot 1" command. 3000 OK label. Volume=TestVolume1 Device=/dev/nst0 Media record for Volume=TestVolume1 successfully created. Requesting mount Autochanger ... 3001 Device /dev/nst0 is mounted with Volume TestVolume1 You have messages. *

You may then proceed to label the other volumes. The messages will change slightly because Bacula will unload the volume (just labeled TestVolume1) before loading the next volume to be labeled. Once all your Volumes are labeled, Bacula will automatically load them as they are needed. To ”see” how you have labeled your Volumes, simply enter the list volumes command from the Console program, which should print something like the following:
*{\bf list volumes} Using default Catalog name=BackupDB DB=bacula Defined Pools: 1: Default 2: File Select the Pool (1-2): 1 +-------+----------+--------+---------+-------+--------+----------+-------+------+ | MedId | VolName | MedTyp | VolStat | Bites | LstWrt | VolReten | Recyc | Slot | +-------+----------+--------+---------+-------+--------+----------+-------+------+ | 1 | TestVol1 | DDS-4 | Append | 0 | 0 | 30672000 | 0 | 1 | | 2 | TestVol2 | DDS-4 | Append | 0 | 0 | 30672000 | 0 | 2 | | 3 | TestVol3 | DDS-4 | Append | 0 | 0 | 30672000 | 0 | 3 | | ... | +-------+----------+--------+---------+-------+--------+----------+-------+------+

31.11

Barcode Support

Bacula provides barcode support with two Console commands, label barcodes and update slots. The label barcodes will cause Bacula to read the barcodes of all the cassettes that are currently installed in the magazine (cassette holder) using the mtx-changer list command. Each cassette is mounted in turn and labeled with the same Volume name as the barcode. The update slots command will first obtain the list of cassettes and their barcodes from mtx-changer. Then it will find each volume in turn in the catalog database corresponding to the barcodes and set its Slot to correspond to the value just read. If the Volume is not in the catalog, then nothing will be done. This command is useful for synchronizing Bacula with the current magazine in case you have changed magazines

Bacula Version 5.0.3

279

or in case you have moved cassettes from one slot to another. If the autochanger is empty, nothing will be done. The Cleaning Prefix statement can be used in the Pool resource to define a Volume name prefix, which if it matches that of the Volume (barcode) will cause that Volume to be marked with a VolStatus of Cleaning. This will prevent Bacula from attempting to write on the Volume.

31.12

Use bconsole to display Autochanger content

The status slots storage=xxx command displays autochanger content.
Slot | Volume Name | Status | Type | Pool | Loaded | ------+-----------------+----------+-------------------+----------------+---------| 1 | 00001 | Append | DiskChangerMedia | Default | 0 | 2 | 00002 | Append | DiskChangerMedia | Default | 0 | 3*| 00003 | Append | DiskChangerMedia | Scratch | 0 | 4 | | | | | 0 |

If you see a * near the slot number, you have to run update slots command to synchronize autochanger content with your catalog.

31.13

Bacula Autochanger Interface

Bacula calls the autochanger script that you specify on the Changer Command statement. Normally this script will be the mtx-changer script that we provide, but it can in fact be any program. The only requirement for the script is that it must understand the commands that Bacula uses, which are loaded, load, unload, list, and slots. In addition, each of those commands must return the information in the precise format as specified below:
- Currently the changer commands used are: loaded -- returns number of the slot that is loaded, base 1, in the drive or 0 if the drive is empty. load -- loads a specified slot (note, some autochangers require a 30 second pause after this command) into the drive. unload -- unloads the device (returns cassette to its slot). list -- returns one line for each cassette in the autochanger in the format <slot>:<barcode>. Where the {\bf slot} is the non-zero integer representing the slot number, and {\bf barcode} is the barcode associated with the cassette if it exists and if you autoloader supports barcodes. Otherwise the barcode field is blank. slots -- returns total number of slots in the autochanger.

Bacula checks the exit status of the program called, and if it is zero, the data is accepted. If the exit status is non-zero, Bacula will print an error message and request the tape be manually mounted on the drive.

280

Bacula Version 5.0.3

Chapter 32

Supported Autochangers
I hesitate to call these ”supported” autochangers because the only autochangers that I have in my possession and am able to test are the HP SureStore DAT40X6 and the Overland PowerLoader LTO-2. All the other autochangers have been reported to work by Bacula users. Note, in the Capacity/Slot column below, I quote the Compressed capacity per tape (or Slot). Since on most systems (other than FreeBSD), Bacula uses mtx through the mtx-changer script, in principle, if mtx will operate your changer correctly, then it is just a question of adapting the mtx-changer script (or selecting one already adapted) for proper interfacing. You can find a list of autochangers supported by mtx at the following link: http://mtx.opensource-sw.net/compatibility.php. The home page for the mtx project can be found at: http://mtx.opensource-sw.net/. OS Linux Linux Linux Linux Man. Adic Adic Adic Adic Media DDS-3 DLT LTO-1/2, SDLT 320 LTO-2 Model Slots Adic 1200G 12 FastStore 7 4000 Adic Scalar 24 24 Adic Fast- 8 Stor 2, Sun Storedge L8 BDT Thin- ? Stor Tape ?? PowerVault 122T/132T/136T PowerVault 124T VM RMM VXA PacketLoader 1x10 2U Magnum 1x7 LTO Tape Auotloader 215A SureStore DAT-40X6 MSL 6000/ 60030/ 5052 A4853 DLT 10 Cap/Slot 20GB 100GB 200GB

Linux Linux

BDT CA-VM Dell

AIT ?? DLT VI,LTO-2,LTO3

200GB ?? 100GB

Linux Linux

Dell DFSMS Exabyte

LTO-2 ?? VXA2

200GB ?? 80/160GB

-

Exabyte

LTO

7

200/400GB

Linux Linux Linux -

Exabyte HP HP HP

AIT-2 DDS-4 Ultrium-2/LTO DLT

15 (2 drives) 6 28 30

50GB 40GB 200/400GB 40/70GB

281

282

Bacula Version 5.0.3

Linux

HP paq) IBM IBM IBM

(Com-

DLT VI

Compaq TL895 IBM Tape Manager native tape IBM 3581 Ultrium Tape Loader IBM 3502R14 – rebranded ATL L-500 IBM TotalStorage 3582L23 Overland LoaderXpress LTO/DLT8000 Overland PowerLoader LTO-2 Overland Powerloader tape Overland Neo2000 LTO Superloader 3 Superloader 3 PX502 QUALSTAR TLS-4210

z/VM z/VM Linux

?? ?? LTO

96+4 import export 7

35/70GB

?? ?? 200/400GB

FreeBSD 5.4

IBM

DLT

14

35/70GB

Linux

IBM

???

??

??

Debian

Overland

LTO

10-19

40-100GB

Fedora

Overland

LTO

10-19

200/400GB

FreeBSD 5.4-Stable -

Overland

LTO-2

17

100GB

Overland

LTO

26-30

100GB

Linux Linux Linux FreeBSD 4.9

Quantum Quantum Quantum QUALSTAR TLS-4210 (Qualstar)

DLT-S4 LTO-2 LTO-3 AIT1: 36GB, AIT2: 50GB all uncomp

16 16 ?? 12

800/1600GB 200/400GB ?? AIT1: 36GB, AIT2: 50GB all uncomp 40/80 40GB 200GB

Linux Linux

Skydata Sony Sony

DLT DDS-4 AIT-2

Linux FreeBSD 4.9STABLE Solaris

Sony Sony

AIT-3 AIT-1

ATL-L200 TSL-11000 LIB304(SDX500C) LIB-D81) TSL-SA300C

8 8 ?

? 4

200GB 45/70GB

Storagetek Storagetek Sun

DLT ?? 4mm DLT

Linux

Tandberg

DLT VI

Timberwolf DLT ACSLS Sun Desktop Archive Python 29279 VS 640

6 ?? 4

40/70 ?? 20GB

8?

35/70GB

Bacula Version 5.0.3

283

Linux 2.6.x

Tandberg Data

SLR100

SLR100 Autoloader

8

50/100GB

284

Bacula Version 5.0.3

Chapter 33

Data Spooling
Bacula allows you to specify that you want the Storage daemon to initially write your data to disk and then subsequently to tape. This serves several important purposes. • It takes a long time for data to come in from the File daemon during an Incremental backup. If it is directly written to tape, the tape will start and stop or shoe-shine as it is often called causing tape wear. By first writing the data to disk, then writing it to tape, the tape can be kept in continual motion. • While the spooled data is being written to the tape, the despooling process has exclusive use of the tape. This means that you can spool multiple simultaneous jobs to disk, then have them very efficiently despooled one at a time without having the data blocks from several jobs intermingled, thus substantially improving the time needed to restore files. While despooling, all jobs spooling continue running. • Writing to a tape can be slow. By first spooling your data to disk, you can often reduce the time the File daemon is running on a system, thus reducing downtime, and/or interference with users. Of course, if your spool device is not large enough to hold all the data from your File daemon, you may actually slow down the overall backup. Data spooling is exactly that ”spooling”. It is not a way to first write a ”backup” to a disk file and then to a tape. When the backup has only been spooled to disk, it is not complete yet and cannot be restored until it is written to tape. Bacula version 1.39.x and later supports writing a backup to disk then later Migrating or moving it to a tape (or any other medium). For details on this, please see the Migration chapter of this manual for more details. The remainder of this chapter explains the various directives that you can use in the spooling process.

33.1

Data Spooling Directives

The following directives can be used to control data spooling. • To turn data spooling on/off at the Job level in the Job resource in the Director’s conf file (default no). SpoolData = yes|no • To override the Job specification in a Schedule Run directive in the Director’s conf file. SpoolData = yes|no 285

the job will be canceled. SpoolData=yes|no • To limit the the maximum spool file size for a particular job in the Job resource Spool Size = size Where size is a the maximum spool size for this job specified in bytes. then Bacula jobs will fail possibly in bizarre ways when the spool fills. otherwise. During this insertion. If the disk on which attributes are being spooled fills. • To limit the maximum total size of the spooled data for a particular device for a single job. • If you are running multiple simultaneous jobs. • When Bacula begins despooling data spooled to disk. but to an argument for the run command. Also. This is because in attempting to backup the spool file. In addition. 33. and so on ad infinitum.e. Another advice is to always specify the maximum spool size so that your disk doesn’t completely fill up. attribute spooling is not so kind to the user. the tape drive may be inactive. the File daemon must wait (i. the backup data will be written a second time to the spool file. Bacula will continue spooling other jobs while one is despooling to tape. and despool data allowing the job to continue. In other words. the working directory). there will be no catalog entries pointing to non-existent tape backups. The Director then inserts the file attributes into the catalog. When the file attribute insertion is completed. Specified in the Device Resource of the Storage daemon’s conf file (default.2 !!! MAJOR WARNING !!! Please be very careful to exclude the spool directory from any backup.286 Bacula Version 5. Maximum Job Spool Size = size Where size is the maximum spool file size for a single job specified in bytes.0. • Attribute spool files are always placed in the working directory of the Storage daemon. Bacula automatically turns on attribute spooling. and most probably terminate in error. spooling stops for the job while it is despooling). while a job is despooling to tape. • It is probably best to provide as large a spool file as possible to avoid repeatedly spooling/despooling.3 • To override the Job specification in a bconsole session using the run command. your job will write enormous amounts of data to the Volume. Specified in the Device resource of the Storage daemon’s conf file (default unlimited). . • To limit the maximum total size of the spooled data for a particular device. • To specify the spool directory for a particular device. However. Maximum Spool Size = size Where size is a the maximum spool size for all jobs specified in bytes. This has the major advantage that in running multiple simultaneous jobs at the same time. the blocks of several jobs will not be intermingled. Specified in the Device Resource of the Storage daemon’s conf file (default unlimited). • Attribute despooling occurs near the end of a job. This is done so that in case the job fails. • It probably does not make a lot of sense to enable data spooling if you are writing to disk files. data spooling will properly detect a full disk. it takes exclusive use of the tape. The Storage daemon accumulates file attributes during the backup and sends them to the Director at the end of the job. In principle. Spool Directory = directory 33. provided there is sufficient spool file space. the job terminates. Please note that this does not refer to a configuration statement. if your working directory is on the same partition as the spool directory.3 Other Points • When data spooling is enabled. it also spools the catalog entries to disk.

If you want to be sure to take in account only good jobs. but mainly for capacity planning. These statistics records aren’t used for restoring.. Ie. etc.. their size. 34. billings. you won’t be able to use them. Now. The Bweb interface provides a statistics module that can use this feature. you will find tips and information to measure bacula efficiency and report statistics. Using Bacula catalog during the day to get them permit to save resources on your servers. you probably want to delete the first bad job record and keep only the successful one. (In JobHistory table) When this time period expires. You can use the following Job resource in your nightly BackupCatalog job to maintain statistics. ie if one of your important job has failed but you have fixed the problem and restarted it on time. In this chapter. You can also use tools like Talend or extract information by yourself.Chapter 34 Using Bacula catalog to grab information Bacula catalog contains lot of information about your IT infrastructure. if jobs are purged from the catalog. For that simply let your staff do the job. and update JobHistory table after two or three days depending on your organization using the [days=num] option. However. how many files. 287 . The Statistics Retention = <time> director directive defines the length of time that Bacula will keep statistics job records in the Catalog database after the Job End time. you can use the update stats [days=num] console command to fill the JobHistory table with new Job records. Bacula will prune (remove) Job records that are older than the specified period.1 Job statistics If you (or probably your boss) want to have statistics on your backups to provide some Service Level Agreement indicators. the number of video or music files etc. these statistics are accurate only if your job retention is greater than your statistics period. and if user runs prune stats command. you could use a few SQL queries on the Job table to report how many: • jobs have run • jobs have been successful • files have been backed up • .

RunScript { Console = "update stats days=3" Console = "prune stats yes" RunsWhen = After RunsOnClient = no } } Bacula Version 5.3 ..0..288 Job { Name = BackupCatalog .

If it is specified in the the SD Device resource. Even though Bacula will recognize and write ANSI and IBM labels. this *must* be set. it will use this information to recognize the tape as a Bacula tape. you can set this to yes. If you have labeled your Volumes outside of Bacula. When using ANSI or IBM tape labeling. it will take precedence over the value passed from the Director to the SD. This allows ANSI/IBM labeled tapes to be used at sites with multiple machines and multiple backup programs. and Bacula will check the label type. and Bacula will recognize and support them.Chapter 35 ANSI and IBM Tape Labels Bacula supports ANSI or IBM tape labels as long as you enable it. If Bacula writes the labels. you must set this to yes. it will keep the label. If it is specified in the SD Device resource. The default is Label Type = Bacula. Bacula can create an ANSI or IBM label. Bacula will assume that labels are of Bacula type and will not check for ANSI or IBM labels. Consequently. but if Check Labels is enabled (see below). In other words.2 Storage Daemon Device Directives Label Type = ANSI — IBM — Bacula This directive is implemented in the Director Pool resource and in the SD Device resource. you can label the tapes with programs other than Bacula. then the ANSI/IBM label will be recognized by Bacula only if you have created the HDR1 label with BACULA. Even if the volume is not ANSI labeled. Without this directive set to yes. with the proper configuration. Check Labels = yes — no This directive is implemented in the the SD Device resource. you can force Bacula to require ANSI or IBM labels. 289 . 35. and if it is found. If you intend to read ANSI or IBM labels. it always writes its own tape labels as well. it will take precedence over the value passed from the Director to the SD. 35. if there is a possibility of Bacula encountering an ANSI/IBM label. you must restrict your Volume names to a maximum of six characters. Bacula will look for an existing label.DATA in the Filename field (starting with character 5).1 Director Pool Directive Label Type = ANSI — IBM — Bacula This directive is implemented in the Director Pool resource and in the SD Device resource. In fact.

290 Bacula Version 5.0.3 .

have been partially tested. displaying the document. and bwxconsole. 291 . and on that menu. but there are very few source code changes to the Unix code. The Windows version of the Bacula File daemon has been tested on Win98.20 or lower) installed. and still need to be documented. though this should normally never be necessary. please test them carefully before putting them into a critical production environment. so if you have already installed Windows software. the new installer (1. bconsole. it can also be stopped by using the system tray menu.22 and later) installs the binaries and dlls in c:\Program Files\Bacula\bin and the configuration files in c:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data\Bacula In addition. uninstall it. the Start>All Programs>Bacula menu item will be created during the installation. you will find items for editing the configuration files. Once installed Bacula normally runs as a system service. and runs in the background even if there is no user logged into the system.exe. but also the Director and the Storage daemon and all the other programs that were previously available only on Unix systems. The Uninstall program is normally found in c:\bacula\Uninstall.20 or greater. and provides a system tray menu to obtain additional information on how Bacula is running (status and events dialog boxes). If so desired.Chapter 36 The Windows Version of Bacula At the current time only the File daemon or Client program has been thouroughly tested on Windows and is suitable for a production environment. The Windows version of Bacula is a native Win32 port.conf. because the current installer uses a different directory structure (see below). As a consequence. are reported to have some bugs. This install is standard Windows . Providing you do not already have Bacula installed. it is perfectly integrated with Windows and displays its icon in the system icon tray. notably the Director and Storage daemon. Consequently. This means that it is immediately started by the operating system when the system is booted. If you have a previous version Bacula (1. which means that the Windows version is for the most part running code that has long proved stable on Unix systems. you should stop the service. As of Bacula version 1. and starting bwx-console or bconsole. but no longer have a system for testing. it should be very familiar to you. When running. We also recommend that you completely remove the directory c:\bacula. We have coded to support Win95.39. WinNT. you will install the Windows version of Bacula from the binaries.1 Win32 Installation Normally.exe that runs an install wizard using the NSIS Free Software installer. These additional programs. and we cannot currently accept or fix bug reports on them. when we speak of the Windows version of Bacula below. and Windows 2003 systems. 36. we are referring to the File daemon (client) only. the installer is capable of installing not just the Client program. WinMe.conf. WinXP.39. and remove the Bacula installation directory possibly saving your bacula-fd.39. Win2000.conf files for use with the new version you will install. They are not yet supported.

please do so before continuing. The actual name of the icon will vary from one release version to another. if not. • If you proceed. you will be asked to select the components to be installed.0. winbacula-1.exe • Once launched.xx. Both will be installed in sub-directories of . so we don’t recommend that option.exe NSIS install icon. • Next you will be asked to select the installation type.0.292 Finally. the installer wizard will ask you if you want to install Bacula. You may install the Bacula program (Bacula File Service) and or the documentation. Some users have attempted to install logged in as a domain administrator account and experienced permissions problems attempting to run Bacula. proceed with the installation.3 • You must be logged in as Administrator to the local machine to do a correct installation. Bacula Version 5.xx. • Simply double click on the winbacula-1.0.

or edit the file. The components dialog looks like the following: 293 • If you are installing for the first time.0. or have previously saved configuration files. • While the various files are being loaded. you will see the following dialog: .Bacula Version 5. If you are upgrading an existing installation. you will be asked to enter some very basic information about your configuration. then either replace the configuration files later with the ones saved. If you are not sure what to enter. you can put anything you want into the fields.3 the install location that you choose later. the following will not be displayed.

an icon representing a cassette (or tape) will appear in the system tray menu will appear. by selecting the Status item. right click on it and a The Events item is currently unimplemented.3 • Finally. When the Bacula File Server is ready to serve files. you can verify whether any jobs are running or not. . the finish dialog will appear: That should complete the installation process. When the Bacula File Server begins saving files.294 Bacula Version 5. the color of the holes in the cassette icon will change from .0.

disable the antivirus program and try another backup. More specifically. http://support. and you experience problems with Bacula not being able to open files. If turning off anti-virus software does not resolve your VSS problems. either get a different (better) antivirus program or use something like RunClientJobBefore/After to turn off the antivirus program while the backup is running.conf located on your Unix/Linux server. the holes in the cassette icon will change to red .768 in both the File daemon and in the Storage daemon. In addition. If it succeeds. Many Windows ethernet drivers have a tendency to either run slowly due to old broken firmware. To you might try setting the Maximum Network Buffer Size to 32.Q838183 the VSS Writer for please see the following Exlink: The most likely source of problems is authentication when the Director attempts to connect to the File daemon that you installed. If this is not the case. and if there is an error. The following link describes how to do this: http://support. In this case.EN-US.microsoft. it can be uninstalled using the standard Windows Add/Remove Programs dialog found on the Control panel.aspx?scid=kb. It will always be visible when you log into the console. you might have to turn on VSS debugging. and hence it will be unlikely that Bacula can access all the system files. Finally.microsoft. If you are using remote desktop connections between your Windows boxes. You can get to them by using: the Start>All Programs>Bacula menu item.2 Post Win32 Installation After installing Bacula and before running it. it is most likely that you are running an antivirus program that blocks Bacula from doing certain operations.com/kb/887013/en-us.com/default. This can occur if the names and the passwords defined in the File daemon’s configuration file bacula-fd. 36.0. be warned that that tray icon does not always appear. 36. or because they are running in half-duplex mode. . you probably have not installed Bacula while running as Administrator. the password found in the Client resource in the Director’s configuration file must be the same as the password in the Director resource of the File daemon’s configuration file. but the remote desktop may not display it. If you are not using the portable option. In Microsoft Windows Small Business Server 2003 change is turned off by default. 36.conf file on the Windows machine do not match with the names and the passwords in the Director’s configuration file bacula-dir. verify that Bacula is running as a process (not an Application) with User Name SYSTEM. Please check with the ethernet card manufacturer for the latest firmware and use whatever techniques are necessary to ensure that the card is running in duplex. and apparently some Windows ethernet controllers do not deal with a larger network buffer size. you should check the contents of the configuration files to ensure that they correspond to your installation. but pulling up the Task Manager (ctl-alt-del).4 Dealing with Win32 Problems Sometimes Win32 machines the File daemon may have very slow backup transfer rates compared to other machines. The default size is larger.3 Uninstalling Bacula on Win32 Once Bacula has been installed.Bacula Version 5. To turn it on. and you have VSS (Volume Shadow Copy) enabled in the Director.3 295 white to green . the name of the Director resource in the File daemon’s configuration file must be the same as the name in the Director resource of the Director’s configuration file.

0 and above should now accept all end of line conventions (Win32. the System Clock runs faster. This has not been confirmed though.trace in the current directory. about 7 seconds per minute.0_02.com/bugdatabase/view_bug.sleep() with a small argument affects the system clock". use the console. you should look in the System Applications log on the Control Panel to find any Windows errors that Bacula got during the startup process.34 on. See bug number 622 in the bugs. I think).do?bug_id=4500388).bacula. and specify trace=1 on a setdebug command in the Console.Version: 9.0. due to the above problems. it is not generally possible to see the debug information and certain error messages that Bacula prints. To enable this. As a consequence. When everything else fails and you want to see what is going on. Bacula will write the debug information to the file bacula. you will find the debug output in the bacula. the > redirects the output to the file named out. The -t option will cause Bacula to read the configuration file. print any error messages and then exit. it is possible. it is possible that you have run into an Oracle bug.trace file. c:\Program Files\bacula\bacula-fd -t >out type out The precise path to bacula-fd depends on where it is installed. The following information has been provided by a user on this issue: The information in this document applies to: Oracle HTTP Server . Cause + This is caused by the Sun JVM bug 4500388. you might try starting it as: c:\Program Files\bacula\bin\bacula-fd -d 100 >out In this case.4 Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Symptoms When starting an OC4J instance. when you turn on debugging. which you can list with the type command. and enter: trace on then run the job. and once you have terminated the File daemon.exe. which states that "Calling Thread. however. but if you understand that a Director normally has multiple Clients and a Client (or File daemon) may permit access by multiple Directors. Running Unix like programs on Windows machines is a bit frustrating because the Windows command line shell (DOS Window) is rather primitive.org database. when you start the File daemon in debug mode it can write the output to a trace file bacula. and Bacula version 2.4.0. If something is going wrong later.0. you can see that the names and the passwords on both sides must match for proper authentication. If you are having problems with ClientRunBeforeJob scripts randomly dying.3 It is a bit hard to explain in words. which will give you a chance to connect to it from your Unix/Linux server.sun.296 Bacula Version 5. or you want to run Bacula with a debug option. which will probably be located in the same directory as bacula-fd. In later versions of Bacula (1. Mac). With a bit of work.trace in the directory from which Bacula is executing. In addition. several reports contradict this (see the bug in http://bugs. before running a job. try the following: Start a DOS shell Window. Finally. . Although this is reported as fixed in JDK 1. Bacula will run until you explicitly stop it. One user had serious problems with the configuration file until he realized that the Unix end of line conventions were used and Bacula wanted them in Windows format. Unix.

This means that when you restore files. If you want to backup data on a WinNT/2K/XP system and restore it on a Unix/Win95/98/Me system. Unix Win95/98/Me) if you have used the defaults. In addition. Bacula should be able to read nonportable backups on any system and restore the data appropriately. if Bacula cannot open the file. it will print an error message.Bacula Version 5. The end result gives some distinct advantages and some disadvantages. then add -dnn after the /service option. on a system that does not have the BackupRead/BackupWrite calls (older Windows versions and all Unix/Linux machines).3 297 + Also reported by Microsoft as "The system clock may run fast when you use the ACPI power management timer as a high-resolution counter on Windows 2000-based computers" (See http://support. This means that a standard set of access permissions will be set for such restored files. Bacula can now access all system files. see the section below on Volume Shadow Copy Service that permits backing up any file. most Microsoft applications do not open files exclusively so that they can be backed up. During backup. such as WinNT/2K/XP. 36. On some systems. However.31 and later. be restored on any system. so you will either need to write it out to an ASCII file using regedit /e or use a program specifically designed to make a copy or backup the registry. You should always be able to restore any file backed up on Unix or Win95/98/Me to any other system. where nn represents the debug level you want. Bacula will not let you restore files backed up on WinNT/2K/XP to any other system (i. In Bacula version 1. Bacula will not be able to backup those files. so you will always know which files were not backed up. using the portable option means you may have permissions problems accessing files. but this remains to be seen in practice (not yet tested). Fortunately. . Typical of Windows. with the exception of files in exclusive use by another program. so be sure you close your applications (or tell your users to close their applications) before the backup. In principle. however. edit the following registry key: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\HARDWARE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Bacula-dir using regedit. For version 1. The file data can. Any file backed up on WinNT/2K/XP should in principle be able to be restored to a similar system (i. First. the advantages are that on WinNT/2K/XP systems. However. the security and ownership information is now backed up. however. In any case. the security and ownership information will be restored on WinNT/2K/XP along with the data.25 and greater.37. See the portable option on the Include statement in a FileSet resource in the Director’s configuration chapter for the details on setting this option. we use Windows backup API calls by default. we have provided a special portable option that backs up the data in a portable fashion by using portable API calls. you may have to reset the ownership of such restored files.5 Windows Compatibility Considerations If you are not using the VSS (Volume Shadow Copy) option described in the next section of this chapter. That is files and their data that are backed up on WinNT using the native API calls (BackupRead/BackupWrite) cannot be restored on Win95/98/Me or Unix systems.e.e. and none of the security and ownership information will be backed up or restored. Bacula doesn’t know about the system registry. WinNT/2K/XP). programming these special BackupRead and BackupWrite calls is a real nightmare of complications.microsoft.0. Bacula backs up Windows systems using the Windows API calls. though the file data can be restored. the Windows security and access control data will not be restored. I am unsure of the consequences if the owner information and accounts are not identical on both systems. The disadvantage of the Windows backup API calls is that it produces non-portable backups. you will need to experiment. As a default. a file backed up on WinNT can be restored on WinXP. To do so. However. and if any applications are running during the backup and they have files opened exclusively.com/?id=821893) You may wish to start the daemon with debug mode on rather than doing it using bconsole.

Bacula will be able to restore them on any other system. From the perspective of a backup-solution for Windows. ”Registry Writer” plus 3rd party-writers. if you specify the portable=yes option on the files you back up. this is an extremely important step. Error: Win32 data stream not supported.6 Volume Shadow Copy Service In version 1.0.39. Thanks to Marc Brueckner for doing the tests: Backup OS WinMe WinMe WinMe WinMe WinXP WinXP WinXP WinXP WinXP WinXP Restore OS WinMe WinNT WinXP Linux WinXP WinNT WinMe WinMe Linux Linux Results Works Works (SYSTEM permissions) Works (SYSTEM permissions) Works (SYSTEM permissions) Works Works (all files OK. any WinNT/2K/XP specific security and ownership information will be lost. Works if Portable=yes specified during backup. a shadow copy is still generated and the open files can be backed up. 36.3 Finally. ”Event Log Writer”. VSS allows Bacula to backup open files and even to interact with applications like RDBMS to produce consistent file copies.g.298 Bacula Version 5. Error: Win32 data stream not supported. Works if Portable=yes specified during backup. which will be backed up. Bacula produces a message from each of the registered writer programs when it is doing a VSS backup so you know which ones are correctly backed up. but got ”The data is invalid” message) Error: Win32 data stream not supported. but there is no guarantee that the file is consistent. Examples for these writers are ”MSDE” (Microsoft database engine). Works Works Error: Win32 data stream not supported. which may then create a consistent state in their application.30 and greater.37. Microsoft added VSS to Windows XP and Windows 2003. VSS aware applications are called VSS Writers. SQL Anywhere or probably MySQL). Bacula supports VSS on both Windows 2003 and Windows XP. you can turn on Microsoft’s Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS). Technically Bacula creates a shadow copy . The following matrix will give you an idea of what you can expect. Works if Portable=yes specified during backup. they register with the OS so that when Bacula wants to do a Snapshot. the OS will notify the register Writer programs. Works if Portable=yes specified during backup. If you have a non-vss aware application (e.x and later. However. non-portable Windows data can be restore to any machine. Works Works (SYSTEM permissions) Works Works (SYSTEM permissions) WinNT WinNT WinNT WinNT WinNT WinNT WinNT WinXP WinMe WinMe Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux Linux WinNT WinMe WinXP Note: with Bacula versions 1.

The first is to look at the status output for a job. Tibs: Generate VSS snapshots.113 Bytes=3. 36..45 rufus-sd: Wrote label to prelabeled Volume "TestVolume001" on device "DDS-4" (/dev/nst0) rufus-sd: Spooling data .32 (22 July 2005) VSS Windows XP MVS NT 5.g.. VSS Backup Job started: 23-Jul-05 13:25 Files=70. Here they all report VSS WS STABLE.2600 the VSS is shown in the line above. If VSS is not enabled.39. Job=NightlySave.: Running Jobs: JobId 1 Job NightlySave. If so.987. Driver="VSS WinXP". which means that you will get a consistent snapshot of the data handled by that writer.650 Bytes/sec=3.25. For example: Tibs-fd Version: 1. Please have in mind.pdd SDReadSeqNo=5 fd=352 Here. e.021 Processing file: c:/Documents and Settings/kern/My Documents/My Pictures/Misc1/Sans titre .0. that VSS creates a snapshot and thus backs up the system at the state it had when starting the backup. it will simply show ”Backup Job started . It will disregard file changes which occur during the backup process.25. The second way to know that the job was backed up with VSS is to look at the Job Report. you see that the VSS snapshot was generated for drive C (if other drives are backed up. first try running vssadmin to check for problems.. State: 1 (VSS_WS_STABLE) In the above Job Report listing..” This means that VSS is enabled for that job. The VSS aware File daemon has the letters VSS on the signon line that it produces when contacted by the console.3 299 as soon as the backup process starts.. Drive(s)="C" Tibs: VSS Writer: "MSDEWriter".2005-07-23_13.Bacula Version 5. then try running ntbackup which also uses VSS to see if it has similar problems. It does then backup all files from the shadow copy and destroys the shadow copy after the backup process.. State: 1 (VSS_WS_STABLE) Tibs: VSS Writer: "WMI Writer". The FD hang problems were reported with MSDEwriter when: .37.2005-07-23_13.” without the letters VSS. This only means that the File daemon is capable of doing VSS not that VSS is turned on for a particular backup. you see under Running Jobs that JobId 1 is ”VSS Backup Job started . you know that the problem is in your Windows machine and not with Bacula. State: 1 (VSS_WS_STABLE) Tibs: VSS Writer: "Microsoft Writer (Bootable State)". VSS can be turned on by placing an Enable VSS = yes in your FileSet resource.7 VSS Problems Problems!VSS If you are experiencing problems such as VSS hanging on MSDE. they will be listed on the Drive(s)=”C” You also see the reports from each of the writer program.180. which will look something like the following: 23-Jul 23-Jul 23-Jul 23-Jul 23-Jul 23-Jul 23-Jul 23-Jul 13:25 13:26 13:26 13:26 13:26 13:26 13:26 13:26 rufus-dir: Start Backup JobId 1. State: 1 (VSS_WS_STABLE) Tibs: VSS Writer: "Microsoft Writer (Service State)". There are two ways of telling if VSS is actually turned on during a backup.45 is running.1.247 Files Examined=75.244.

but this command is not accepted on my WinXP Home machine.300 Bacula Version 5.8 Windows Firewalls If you turn on the firewalling feature on Windows (default in WinXP SP2). you can enter the following command in a shell window: netstat -an | findstr 910[123] TopView is another program that has been recommend. which looks very promising. may be just what is needed to build a complete disaster recovery system for Win32. This can be deactivated through the Security Notification dialog.9 Windows Port Usage If you want to see if the File daemon has properly opened the port and is listening.nu/pebuilder/. 36. but it is not a standard Win32 program. which is apparently somewhere in the Security Center. Microsoft releases a Windows Pre-installation Environment (WinPE) that could possibly work. This means that until someone figures out the correct procedure. and the normal way Bacula saves files using the Windows API prevents the files from being restored on a Unix machine. 36. so I cannot give the exact details. The command: netsh firewall set opmode disable is purported to disable the firewall. The main piece lacking is a Windows boot floppy or a Windows boot CD. bextract does not run on Windows. then you can load a Bacula client and restore files. I don’t have this on my computer. which creates a Windows PE (Pre-installation Environment) Boot-CD. . Once you have an operational Windows OS loaded. It looks like Bart PE Builder. • msdtcs was installed to run under ”localsystem”: try running msdtcs under networking account (instead of local system) (com+ seems to work better with this configuration).11 Windows Restore Problems Please see the Restore Chapter of this manual for problems that you might encounter doing a restore. Please don’t count on using bextract to extract files from your backup tapes during a disaster recovery unless you have backed up those files using the portable option. you can run the File daemon and restore your user files. 36. so you must find and download it from the Internet.0.10 Windows Disaster Recovery We don’t currently have a good solution for disaster recovery on Windows as we do on Linux. you must restore the OS from the installation disks. Please see Disaster Recovery of Win32 Systems for the latest suggestion. you are likely to find that the Bacula ports are blocked and you cannot communicate to the other daemons.nu2. but we have not investigated it. This distribution can be found at http://www.3 • a local firewall locked local access to the MSDE TCP port (MSDEwriter seems to use TCP/IP and not Named Pipes). 36.

Microsoft supplies you with the way to cease the ownership of those files and thus change the permissions. In this case. you get the message: ERR=Access is denied and you are using the portable option. The symptoms include the following message when you try to click on that directory: . a much better solution to working with and changing Win32 permissions is the program SetACL. if users have allowed to have full control of their folders.exe) runs. then it is very unlikely that it will have sufficient permission to access all your files. Bacula may need to create some higher level directories that were not saved (or restored). The steps are performed using Windows 2000 Server but they should apply to most Win32 platforms.0. you must identify which folders or files are creating the problem and do the following: 1. specifying these two options should allow you to backup any file on a Windows system. If a restore job specifies / as the Where: value. which can be found at http://setacl. ”top-level” means something like c:\src. Grant full control permissions to the Administrators group. you should try both adding both the non-portable (backup API) and the Volume Shadow Copy options to your Director’s conf file. Bacula creates these files with full access permission.12 Windows Ownership and Permissions Problems If you restore files backed up from WinNT/XP/2K to an alternate directory. this problem will arise.sourceforge. from SYSTEM to a Domain Admin userid. in some cases. and change the user’s group to only have Modify permission to the file/folder and all child objects.3 301 sectionWindows Backup Problems If during a Backup. As of version 1. If you have not installed Bacula while running as Administrator and if Bacula is not running as a Process with the userid (User Name) SYSTEM. Thanks to Georger Araujo for the above information. resolves the problem.Bacula Version 5. the File daemon will create them under the SYSTEM account because that is the account that Bacula runs under as a service. 36. The procedure outlines how to deal with a problem which arises when a restore creates a top-level new directory. there may be cases where you have problems accessing those files even if you run as administrator. The problem appears as a directory which cannot be browsed with Windows Explorer. In the Options resource: portable = no In the FileSet resource: enablevss = yes In general. not c:\tmp\src where c:\tmp already exists.32f-3. In principle. However. In this example. with the option to replace the owner on all child objects. even system programs such a Bacula can be locked out. 2.net/. In this case. Some users have experienced problems restoring files that participate in the Active Directory. 36. They also report that changing the userid under which Bacula (bacula-fd. However. However.13 Manually resetting the Permissions The following solution was provided by Dan Langille <dan at langille in the dot org domain>. Grant ownership of the file/folder to the Administrators group.

3 If you encounter this message. If the following message appears. the following steps will change the permissions to allow full access. and click on OK. .302 Bacula Version 5. c:/src) and select Properties. click on the Security tab. Change the owner to something other than the current owner (which is SYSTEM in this example as shown below). right click on the top level directory (in this example.0. click on Advanced 5. 3. You should see something like this: 4. you can ignore it. 1. click on the Owner tab 6. 2.

Click on OK to close the Properties tab With the above procedure.bkf The backup is the command. .14 Backing Up the WinNT/XP/2K System State A suggestion by Damian Coutts using Microsoft’s NTBackup utility in conjunction with Bacula should permit a full restore of any damaged system files on Win2K/XP.bkf specifies where to write the state file.Bacula Version 5. 10. His suggestion is to do an NTBackup of the critical system state prior to running a Bacula backup with the following command: ntbackup backup systemstate /F c:\systemstate. ensure the ”Replace owner on subcontainers and objects” box is checked 8. When the message ”You do not have permission to read the contents of directory c:\src\basis. click on Yes. 36. there is a Microsoft program named cacls that can perform similar functions.3 303 7. and the /F c:\systemstate. this file must then be saved and restored by Bacula. Do you wish to replace the directory permissions with permissions granting you Full Control?”. the systemstate says to backup only the system state and not all the user files. click on OK 9.0. you should now have full control over your restored directory. In addition to the above methods of changing permissions.

0. Chinese. 36. please report your results to the Bacula email list. all Windows specific options are signaled with a forward slash character (/). you may note these options in some of the .37. 36. otherwise. you first reload a base operating system if the OS is damaged.28 do not support Windows Unicode filenames. and are documented here only for information purposes. you must either manually run Bacula or you must manually edit the system registry and modify the appropriate entries. to change the default options. or a minus minus (--). All the standard Bacula options can be used on the Windows version. Finally if there are any damaged or missing system files or registry problems.bat files that have been created for your use.39. To the best of my knowledge. At the current time.15 Considerations for Filename Specifications Please see the Director’s Configuration chapter of this manual for important considerations on how to specify Windows paths in Bacula FileSet Include and Exclude directives. In order to avoid option clashes between the options necessary for Bacula to run on Windows and the standard Bacula options. the following Windows only options are implemented: /service Start Bacula as a service /run Run the Bacula application /install Install Bacula as a service in the system registry /remove Uninstall Bacula from the system registry /about Show the Bacula about dialogue box /status Show the Bacula status dialogue box /events Show the Bacula events dialogue box (not yet implemented) /kill Stop any running Bacula /help Show the Bacula help dialogue box It is important to note that under normal circumstances the user should never need to use these options as they are normally handled by the system automatically once Bacula is installed. and then select it for restore. Path/filenames longer than 260 characters (up to 32.20. There may still be some problems with multiple byte characters (e. If you test it. this has not yet been tested. As of that version.3 To restore the system state. the standard Bacula options are signaled with a minus (-). you run NTBackup and catalogue the system statefile.) where it is a two byte character but the displayed character is not two characters wide. However.16 Win32 Specific File daemon Command Line These options are not normally seen or used by the user.304 Bacula Version 5. The documentation says you can’t run a command line restore of the systemstate..g. . . Older Bacula versions support only 260 character path/filenames. Bacula versions prior to 1.bkf file. then you would use Bacula to restore all the damaged or lost user’s files and to recover the c:\systemstate. while as usual. In addition..000) are supported beginning with Bacula version 1. both bconsole and bwx-console support Windows Unicode filenames. this is not necessary.

3 305 36.Bacula Version 5. you might take the shutdown program from the apcupsd project or one from the Sysinternals project.17 Shutting down Windows Systems Some users like to shutdown their Windows machines after a backup using a Client Run After Job directive. . If you want to do something similar.0.

3 .0.306 Bacula Version 5.

• Ensure that you always have a valid bootstrap file for your backup and that it is saved to an alternate machine. This will permit you to easily do a full restore of your system. if you have not previously saved the partitioning information for your hard disk. the procedures are still quite manual. If you have a single machine. PLD Linux rescue CD. For FreeBSD the same procedures may be used but they are not yet developed. a number of Bacula users have reported success using BartPE. you must have a plan.. and there are many good rescue disks on the Web (Knoppix. do you have off-site backup data? • Disaster recovery is much easier if you have several machines. and you must have prepared in advance otherwise the work of recovering your system and your files will be considerably greater. • If the building which houses your computers burns down or is otherwise destroyed.1 General When disaster strikes. they are offered by each distribution. For Solaris. As a consequence. RIP . tomsrtbt.2 Important Considerations Here are a few important considerations concerning disaster recovery that you should take into account before a disaster strikes..Chapter 37 Disaster Recovery Using Bacula 37. 37.3 Steps to Take Before Disaster Strikes • Create a rescue or CDROM for each of your Linux systems. sysrescuecd. many of the steps one must take before and immediately after a disaster are very operating system dependent. For Win32. For example. this chapter will discuss in detail disaster recovery (also called Bare Metal Recovery) for Linux and Solaris. how will you handle unforeseen events if your only machine is down? • Do you want to protect your whole system and use Bacula to recover everything? or do you want to try to restore your system from the original installation disks and apply any other updates and only restore user files? 37. 307 . Generally. • Create a bacula-hostname directory on each machine and save it somewhere – possibly on a USB key. how can you properly rebuild it if the disk must be replaced? Unfortunately.

6 Requirements Restoring a Client System Now. 3. as well as a statically linked version of the Bacula File daemon.conf. A Rescue CDROM. the Catalog. WiFi. has the Director.308 Bacula Version 5. This will permit you to restore your catalog more easily if needed. Please see the previous chapter for more details for those cases. A so called ”Bare Metal” recovery is one where you start with an empty hard disk and you restore your machine. but can be very useful if you do not want to reload everything. these files will be needed to get it back up and running. A recent Bacula backup (Full plus Incrementals) 2. • Ensure that you always have a valid bootstrap file for your catalog backup that is saved to an alternate machine. You will take the following steps to get your system back up and running: . we assume that you have: 1.4 Bare Metal Recovery on Linux with a Rescue CD Rescue CD. .e. please see the section below entitled As an alternative to creating a Bare Metal Recovery using a LiveCD. However there are many other good rescue disks available. we will discuss how you might recover from a situation where the machine that crashes is your main Bacula server (i. the Bacula Rescue CD as it was originally envisioned no longer exists. and the Storage daemon. Catalog. Unfortunately. • Perhaps a copy of your hard disk information. more and more complex hardware configurations (LVM. let’s assume that your hard disk has just died and that you have replaced it with an new identical drive. and in addition. Bare Metal Recovery assumes that you have the following items for your system: • A Rescue CDROM containing a copy of your OS. and your bacula-sd. and Storage daemon running on another machine on your local network. Bacula previously had a Rescue CD. • Test using the Rescue CDROM before you are forced to use it in an emergency situation. as time permits. .5 37.3 • If possible copy your catalog nightly to an alternate machine. RAID.. If you have a valid bootstrap file. and the Storage daemon). There are also cases where you may lose a file or a directory and want it restored. this is not necessary. As a consequence..). • A full Bacula backup of your system possibly including Incremental or Differential backups since the last Full backup • A second system running the Bacula Director. this CD did not work on every Linux Distro. but how to get around it is not yet documented here) 37. • Make a copy of your Bacula . and later in this chapter. USB. (this is not an absolute requirement. Your Bacula Director. particularly your bacula-dir. In addition. because if your server goes down. the Catalog. 37. This is a relatively simple case. and they can be difficult to rebuild from memory.0.conf files. Linux is evolving with different boot methods.conf files.

/mnt/disk/tmp. Please see the instructions that go with your CDROM. or pinging your broken machine machine from another machine. 309 37.7 Boot with your Rescue CDROM Each rescue disk boots somewhat differently. Perform a Bacula restore of all your files 7.conf Put the static file daemon and its The above command starts the Bacula File daemon with the proper root disk location (i. Now. Re-install your boot loader 8. Boot with your Rescue CDROM.. Do not proceed until your network is up. Re-partition your hard disk(s) as it was before 4. If Bacula does not start. 2. Re-format your partitions 5.0. correct the problem and start it. Reboot Now for the details . you should be able to use another computer with Bacula installed to check the status by entering: . You can check if it is running by entering: ps fax You can kill Bacula by entering: kill -TERM <pid> where pid is the first number printed in front of the first occurrence of bacula-fd in the ps fax command. Restore the Bacula File daemon (static version) 6.Bacula Version 5. Start the Network: You can test it by pinging another machine. Restore and Start the File Daemon: chroot /mnt/disk /tmp/bacula-fd -c /tmp/bacula-fd.e.3 1.. Partition Your Hard Disk(s): Format Your Hard Disk(s): Mount the Newly Formatted Disks: Somehow get the static File daemon loaded on your system conf file in /tmp. Start the Network (local network) 3.

conf to replace the name of the Storage daemon’s domain name with its IP address. run the .0. You must change the Where directory to be the root by using the mod option just before running the job and selecting Where. it is the same as the one that you previously tried with grub-install. In general this is not fatal to getting your system running. which may be very well resolved on the Director’s machine. You might be tempted to avoid using chroot and running Bacula directly and then using a Where to specify a destination of /mnt/disk. but before starting the restore. enter the following commands: . This is particularly true for the address in the Storage resource of the Director. but in any case. you omit the chroot command. This is possible. Set it to: / then run the restore. Then. I’ve even run into a case where grub-install was unable to rewrite the boot block. it produced the following error message: /dev/hdx does not have any corresponding BIOS drive. In that case.conf may contain machine addresses that are not properly resolved on the stripped down system to be restored because it is not running DNS. Restore Your Files: On the computer that is running the Director. The solution is to insure that all your disks are properly mounted on /mnt/disk. but not on the machine being restored and running the File daemon.conf and uncomment the line that reads: #boot=/dev/hda So that it reads: boot=/dev/hda Note. If you don’t know what your boot device is. and you must replace /dev/hda with your boot device. One common problem is that your bacula-dir. then do the following: chroot /mnt/disk mount /dev/pts Then edit the file /boot/grub/grub. Final Step: /sbin/grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/disk /dev/hda Note. you now run a restore command and select the files to be restored (normally everything). the /dev/hda may be /dev/sda or possibly some other drive depending on your configuration. Finally./run grub script once and it will tell you.310 status client=xxxx Bacula Version 5. however. in this case. and thus any soft links that have been specified with absolute paths will end up with /mnt/disk prefixed to them. the current version of Bacula always restores files to the new location. be prepared to edit bacula-dir. In my case. there is one final change you must make using the mod option. but be aware that you will have to fix these links if you do not use chroot. where xxxx is the name of the client you are restoring.3 into the Console program.

configure. and using the Console restore command. If not. If the Catalog uses MySQL or PostgreSQL. Catalog.0) setup (hd0) quit 311 If the grub call worked. you will need to make sure you have a valid driver for your tape drive.map \ --config-file=/boot/grub/grub. and figure out what is wrong. If not. If everything went well. • Ideally. However. and quit commands. use it to restore the files to the damaged machine. To do so. what happens if your server goes down and you no longer have a running Director. if you do not have a Bootstrap file. and after entering the setup command. This is done by using the restore command and at the yes/mod/no prompt. continue with the suggestions below.conf that has the same Client resource that was used to backup your system. selecting mod then specifying the path to the bootstrap file. or Storage daemon? There are several solutions: 1. you should now be back up and running. this may or may not be possible. Catalog. The second suggestion is probably a much simpler solution. re-insert the emergency boot CDROM. and create the Bacula database. . install it. we considered how to recover a client machine where a valid Bacula server was running on another machine. then reboot your machine by entering exit until you get to the main prompt then enter Ctrl-d. 2. • If you have the Bootstrap file. PostgreSQL or SQLite database. you will have a copy of all the Bacula conf files that were being used on your server. you will need to turn the power off. to loading all these programs on a bare system (quite possible). • Using bscan scan the last set of backup tapes into your MySQL. Use a Hot Spare Server on another Machine. The first option. 3. configure. and Storage daemon on the damaged machine. you will at a minimum need create a bacula-dir. otherwise they will not be cleanly shutdown. • Start Bacula. Reboot: First unmount all your hard disks. setup. restore the last valid copy of the Bacula database and the Bacula configuration files.0.3 grub --batch --device-map=/boot/grub/device. and one I have done myself. build and install it from source (or use rpms) on your new system. where you have loaded a static Bacula File daemon using the Rescue disk). • Load the Bacula source code onto your new system. Bring up static versions of your Director. Once back to the main CDROM prompt. it should indicate that it successfully wrote the MBR (master boot record). you should now be back up and running. then back on to your machine to get it to reboot. 37. is very difficult because it requires you to have created a static version of the Director and the Storage daemon as well as the Catalog. In addition. boot.conf --no-floppy root (hd0. you might want to consider the following steps: • If you are using MySQL or PostgreSQL. • If you have a valid saved Bootstrap file as created for your damaged machine with WriteBootstrap.8 Restoring a Server Above. Move your server to another machine. you will get a prompt of grub> before the root.Bacula Version 5.

9 Linux Problems or Bugs Since every flavor and every release of Linux is different. 4.10 Bare Metal Recovery using a LiveCD As an alternative to the old now defunct Bacula Rescue CDROM. 3. Also. so please be prepared to edit them in a minimal environment. these scripts do not do everything.312 • Move the database to the correct location. 2.3 • Start the database. Possibly run make bacula every night as part of your backup process to ensure that you have a current snapshot of your system. you can use any system rescue or LiveCD to recover your system. Copy the Bacula recovery directory to the damaged system using ftp. there are likely to be some small difficulties with the scripts. where you have loaded a Bacula File daemon using the Rescue disk. if necessary. lilo is a piece of cake. 2. Getting the boot loader back can be a problem if you are using grub because it is so complicated. for example. Knoppix). A rudimentary knowledge of vi is very useful. 3. Save the directory generated (more details below) preferrably on a CDROM or alternatively to some other system.g. and scripts that help restoring it. and system disk snapshot. scp. and restart Bacula. reboot your system from your floppy but using the restored disk image. restore all the files on the damaged machine. 37. This lack can be easily corrected by running the part of the Bacula Rescue code that creates a directory containing a static-bacula-fd. . Before a disaster strikes: 1. please see the Restoring When Things Go Wrong section of the Console Restore Command chapter of this manual. Bacula Version 5. Continue as documented above. how many of you remember your exact hard disk partitioning. Boot with your system rescue disk or LiveCD (e. The big problem with most rescue or LiveCDs is that they are not designed to capture the current state of your system. then proceed to a reinstallation of grub (looking at the run-grub script can help). Then use the Console restore command. Start the Network (local network). Run only the make bacula part of the Bacula Rescue procedure to create the static Bacula File daemon. Re-format your partitions.g. If all else fails. 5. wget or if your boot disk permits it reading it directly from a CDROM. Then when disaster strikes. By contrast. so when you boot them on a damaged system. Restore the Bacula File daemon (static version). if necessary.0. For additional details of restoring your database. 6. do the following: 1. Re-partition your hard disk(s) as it was before. You will need to reformat Windows partitions by hand. 7. a snapshot of your current system disk configuration. 37. you might be somewhat lost – e.

Under OS version 5 and greater. If you need to. Note. 9.Bacula Version 5.conf to fit this machine 14.11 FreeBSD Bare Metal Recovery The same basic techniques described above also apply to FreeBSD. The same hard drive issues as above apply here too. 4. Copy bacula-fd and bacula-fd. Perform a Bacula restore of all your files. you need a copy of the Bacula Rescue code as described above. under OS version 5 or higher.0. Boot with the FreeBSD installation disk 2. Alex Torres Molina has provided us with the following instructions with a few additions from Jesse Guardiani and Dan Langille: 1. Reboot.3 8. Create devs ad0 . your disk devices may be in /dev not /mnt2/dev. chmod u+x bacula-fd 13.. use sftp to copy files. mkdir /mnt/disk/tmp 9. 313 In order to create the Bacula recovery directory. Apply changes. if they don’t exist under /mnt2/dev (in my situation) with MAKEDEV. 7. 3.. after which you must do this: ln -s /mnt2/usr/bin /usr/bin 12. 37. Network configuration (ifconfig xl0 ip/mask + route add default ip-gateway) 8. mount /mnt2/dev/ad0s1a /mnt/disk mount /mnt2/dev/ad0s1c /mnt/disk/var mount /mnt2/dev/ad0s1d /mnt/disk/usr . ad0 is your first ATA drive. Copy /bin/sh to /mnt/disk. and you must first configure that directory. If you run this procedure on multiple machines. Partition and create your slices and go to Label and create the partitions that you want. 10. Otherwise the FD on the machine you are restoring to won’t be able to contact the SD and DIR on the remote machine. Once the configuration is done.. you will probably want to rename this directory to something like bacula-hostname. Modify bacula-fd. cd /mnt/disk/tmp 10. Go to Custom. Don’t forget to put your bacula-dir’s IP address and domain name in /mnt/disk/etc/hosts if it’s not on a public net. You need only save that directory either as a directory or possibly as a compressed tar file. your device files are most likely automatically created for you.. Go to Fixit to start an emergency console.. mkdir /mnt/disk this is the root of the new disk 6. Re-install your boot loader. you can do the following to create the Bacula recovery directory: cd <bacula-rescue-source>/linux/cdrom su (become root) make bacula The directory you want to save will be created in the current directory with the name bacula. . da0 would by your first SCSI drive. . Although we don’t yet have a fully automated procedure. 5. necessary for chroot 15.conf to this path 11.. The device or devices you create depend on what hard drives you have.

formatted and mounted. Once you have your disks repartitioned and formatted. In addition. 37. in the rescue/solaris subdirectory enter: su . the boot and disk preparation procedures are different: • there is no need to create an emergency boot disk since it is an integrated part of the Solaris boot.314 16. create a subdirectory diskinfo containing the output from several system utilities. as in the case of Linux described above. To do so.0. during the recovery phase. You must create /proc 37. it will contain the output from the SysAudit program as described in Curtis Preston’s book. In addition. 19.12 Solaris Bare Metal Recovery The same basic techniques described above apply to Solaris: • the same restrictions as those given for Linux apply • you will need to create a Rescue disk However. Curtis Preston’s book ”Unix Backup & Recovery” Once the disk is partitioned. the getdiskinfo script will create a start network script.bsi will contain the disk partitioning information that will allow you to manually follow the procedures in the ”Unix Backup & Recovery” book to repartition and format your hard disk./getdiskinfo . • you must partition and format your hard disk by hand following manual procedures as described in W. Now you can go to bacula-dir and restore the job with the entire contents of the broken server. you should prepare the information needed in the case of problems.3 18. before a disaster strikes. This file diskinfo/sysaudit. chroot /mnt/disk /tmp/bacula-fd -c /tmp/bacula-fd./make_rescue_disk The getdiskinfo script will. mkdir -p /mnt/disk/var/db/bacula 17.conf to start bacula-fd Bacula Version 5.13 Preparing Solaris Before a Disaster As mentioned above. you can continue with bringing up the network and reloading Bacula. do the following: • Start Your Network with the start network script • Restore the Bacula File daemon as documented above • Perform a Bacula restore of all your files using the same commands as described above for Linux • Re-install your boot loader using the instructions outlined in the ”Unix Backup & Recovery” book using installboot .

37. This procedure has been confirmed to work by Ludovic Strappazon – many thanks! A new tool is provided in the form of a bacula plugin for the BartPE rescue CD.bkf The backup is the command. this file must then be saved and restored by Bacula. This command can be put in a Client Run Before Job directive so that it is automatically run during each backup.16 Ownership and Permissions on Win32 Systems Bacula versions after 1. As a consequence. Bacula restores only the last of multiple copies of a file or directory. it first must create the directory. This has been corrected in Bacula version 1. Edit the configuration files to suit your installation and build your CD according to the instructions at Bart’s site.bkf specifies where to write the state file. and start the WX-Console. you first reload a base operating system.14 Bugs and Other Considerations Directory Modification and Access Times are Modified on pre-1. and registry problems.15 Disaster Recovery of Win32 Systems Due to open system files. To restore the system state. His suggestion is to do an NTBackup of the critical system state prior to running a Bacula backup with the following command: ntbackup backup systemstate /F c:\systemstate.30 Baculas : When a pre-1. The directory modification and access times are reset to the value saved in the backup after all the files and subdirectories have been restored. you will probably notice that the FileIndex item does not include all the files saved to the tape.0. and in such circumstances.Bacula Version 5. but not verified during a bare metal recovery. then it populates the directory with its files and subdirectories. BartPE is a self-contained WindowsXP boot CD which you can make using the PeBuilder tools available at http://www. run NTBackup and catalogue the system statefile.nu/pebuilder/ and a valid Windows XP SP1 CDROM. and thus saved to a Bacula Volume.30 and later.3 315 37. and the /F c:\systemstate. The programs menu on the booted CD contains entries to install the file client service. configure and start networking. then you would use Bacula to restore all the users files and to recover the c:\systemstate. all modification and access times of all directories will be updated to the time of the restore. and finally. start the file client service. Bacula cannot save and restore a complete Win2K/XP/NT environment. This is because in some instances there are duplicates (especially in the case of an Incremental save). This has been tested and verified on normal restore operations.31 should properly restore ownership and permissions on all WinNT/XP/2K systems. generally in restores to alternate directories because higher level directories . 37. The documentation says you can’t run a command line restore of the systemstate. You can also open a command line window and CD Programs\Bacula and run the command line console bconsole. The act of creating the files and subdirectories updates both the modification and access times associated with the directory itself.bkf file. and then select it for restore. start the bacula file client and access your director with the console program.30 version of Bacula restores a directory. Unzip the file and copy the bacula directory into the plugin directory of your BartPE installation.nu2. The plugin is provided as a zip archive. A suggestion by Damian Coutts using Microsoft’s NTBackup utility in conjunction with Bacula should permit a Full bare metal restore of Win2K/XP (and possibly NT systems). the systemstate says to backup only the system state and not all the user files. If you do experience problems. This will permit you to boot from the cd. Strange Bootstrap Files: If any of you look closely at the bootstrap file that is produced and used for the restore (I sure do).

316 Bacula Version 5.056. install a statically linked Bacula. hunt-dir: Begin pruning Files.586.44 Client: sauvegarde-fd Start time: 17-Apr-2003 13:21 End time: 17-Apr-2003 13:54 Files Restored: 1 Bytes Restored: 10. 37.560 Rate: 5073.2003-04-17_12.272 Rate: 10734. 37.conf /etc/X11/Conf .058. and backup any of the raw partitions you want.58. I can’t resist sending you the results: look at the rates !!! hunt-dir: Start Backup JobId 100. hunt-dir: Start Restore Job RestoreFilesHunt. hunt-dir: Bacula 1. Simply boot your Win32 system with a Linux Rescue disk as described above for Linux.net/projects/setacl/. you will need to take care not to overwrite the following files: /etc/grub. hunt-dir: No Files found to prune.17 Alternate Disaster Recovery Suggestion for Win32 Systems Ludovic Strappazon has suggested an interesting way to backup and restore complete Win32 partitions.080.883.2003-04-17_12.3 were not backed up by Bacula. you simply restore the raw partition or partitions.21.0. hunt-dir: No Jobs found to prune.21. hunt-dir: End auto prune.2003-04-17_13. hunt-dir: End auto prune.2003-04-17_13.9 KB/s Software Compression: None Volume names(s): 000103 Volume Session Id: 2 Volume Session Time: 1050576790 Last Volume Bytes: 10.18 Restoring to a Running System If for some reason you want to do a Full restore to a system that has a working kernel (not recommended). you can correct any problems with the SetACL available under the GPL license at: http://sourceforge.130.58. Here is the email that Ludovic recently sent on that subject: I’ve just finished testing my brand new cd LFS/Bacula with a raw Bacula backup and restore of my portable.520 FD termination status: OK SD termination status: OK Termination: Backup OK hunt-dir: Begin pruning Jobs. hunt-dir: No Files found to prune.26 FileSet: RawPartition Backup Level: Full Client: sauvegarde-fd Start time: 17-Apr-2003 12:58 End time: 17-Apr-2003 13:14 Files Written: 1 Bytes Written: 10. hunt-dir: Begin pruning Files.7 KB/s FD termination status: OK Termination: Restore OK hunt-dir: Begin pruning Jobs.30 (14Apr03): 17-Apr-2003 13:54 JobId: 101 Job: RestoreFilesHunt. Job=HuntBackup.44 hunt-sd: Forward spacing to file 1. Then to restore the system. hunt-dir: No Jobs found to prune.30 (14Apr03): 17-Apr-2003 13:14 JobId: 100 Job: HuntBackup.26 hunt-dir: Bacula 1.

And finally.Bacula Version 5. and it was this document that made me realize that Bacula could do the same thing.19 Additional Resources Many thanks to Charles Curley who wrote Linux Complete Backup and Recovery HOWTO for the The Linux Documentation Project.conf 317 37. ”Unix Backup & Recovery” by W.0. the O’Reilly book. . This is an excellent document on how to do Bare Metal Recovery on Linux systems. Curtis Preston covers virtually every backup and recovery topic including bare metal recovery for a large range of Unix systems.3 /etc/fstab /etc/mtab /lib/modules /usr/modules /usr/X11R6 /etc/modules. both commercial and free at Storage Mountain. You can find quite a few additional resources. formerly known as Backup Central.

0.318 Bacula Version 5.3 .

Chapter 38 Bacula TLS – Communications Encryption Bacula TLS (Transport Layer Security) is built-in network encryption code to provide secure network transport similar to that offered by stunnel or ssh. These new directives are defined as follows: TLS Enable = <yes—no> Enable TLS support. If TLS is not required. respectively. even if you set TLS Require = yes you need to have TLS enabled or TLS will not be used./configure line with --with-openssl 38. none of the other TLS directives have any effect. and Storage daemon) as well as the various different Console programs. The Bacula encryption implementations were written by Landon Fuller. If TLS is enabled and TLS is required. File daemon. TLS Require = <yes—no> Require TLS connections. These terms refer to the accepting and initiating peer. Appropriate autoconf macros have been added to detect and use OpenSSL if enabled on the . The use of DH anonymous ciphers increases the code complexity and places explicit trust upon the two-way CRAM-MD5 implementation. In other words. 319 . Diffie-Hellman anonymous ciphers are not supported by this code. then Bacula will connect with other daemons either with or without TLS depending on what the other daemon requests. If TLS is not enabled. Supported features of this code include: • Client/Server TLS Requirement Negotiation • TLSv1 Connections with Server and Client Certificate Validation • Forward Secrecy Support via Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral Keying This document will refer to both ”server” and ”client” contexts. and TLS is enabled. please see the Data Encryption Chapter of this manual. The data written to Volumes by the Storage daemon is not encrypted by this code. then Bacula will refuse any connection that does not use TLS. and it should be considered considerably less secure than PKI certificate-based authentication.1 TLS Configuration Directives Additional configuration directives have been added to all the daemons (Director. CRAM-MD5 is subject to known plaintext attacks. This directive is ignored unless TLS Enable is set to yes. For data encryption.

This can be used to ensure that only the CA-approved Director may connect. all server certificates will be verified against this list. Essentially. in which case the client certificate must correspond to the Allowed Common Name specified. Multiple certificates are permitted in the file.pem file containing both the certificate and the key valid for ten years can be made with the following: openssl req -new -x509 -nodes -out bacula.pem -days 3650 The above script will ask you a number of questions. They may also contain encrypted information. you may use openssl: openssl dhparam -out dh1024. however.3 TLS Certificate = <Filename> The full path and filename of a PEM encoded TLS certificate. PEM stands for Privacy Enhanced Mail. but in this context refers to how the certificates are encoded. One of TLS CA Certificate File or TLS CA Certificate Dir are required in a server context if TLS Verify Peer is also specified. It is used because PEM files are base64 encoded and hence ASCII text based rather than binary. If this directive is specified. This is necessary to prevent “man in the middle” attacks from tools such as ettercap. which is the subject name’s hash and an extension of bf .pem -5 1024 38. in the case of the Director making a connection to a File Daemon. and are always required in a client context. it can be tricked into talking to a malicious 3rd party who is relaying and capturing all traffic by presenting its own certificates to the Director . DH key exchange adds an additional level of security because the key used for encryption/decryption by the server and the client is computed on each end and thus is never passed over the network if Diffie-Hellman key exchange is used.0. TLS Key = <Filename> The full path and filename of a PEM encoded TLS private key. Instructs server to request and verify the client’s x509 certificate. This directive is valid only for a server and not in a client context. Any client certificate signed by a known-CA will be accepted unless the TLS Allowed CN configuration directive is used.pem -keyout bacula. You may simply answer each of them by entering a return. This directive is only valid within a server context. TLS CA Certificate File = <Filename> The full path and filename specifying a PEM encoded TLS CA certificate(s). the encryption/decryption key is always passed encrypted. but the certificate used by the Director must be signed by a certificate that is explicitly trusted on the File Daemon end. if the Director does not verify that it is talking to a trusted remote endpoint. In the current implementation. TLS CA Certificate Dir = <Directory> Full path to TLS CA certificate directory. It can be used as either a client or server certificate. For example. Note. If this directive is specified. TLS Allowed CN = <string list> Common name attribute of allowed peer certificates. the File Daemon may be configured to allow self-signed certificates. and are always required in a client context.320 Bacula Version 5. allowing for forward secrecy of communications.2 Creating a Self-signed Certificate You may create a self-signed certificate for use with the Bacula TLS that will permit you to make it function. It must correspond to the TLS certificate. This directive may be specified more than once.0. or if you wish you may enter your own data. certificates must be stored PEM encoded with OpenSSL-compatible hashes. To generate the parameter file. DH key exchange will be used for the ephemeral keying. Even if DH key exchange is not used. TLS Verify Peer = <yes—no> Verify peer certificate. One of TLS CA Certificate File or TLS CA Certificate Dir are required in a server context if TLS Verify Peer (see above) is also specified. TLS DH File = <Directory> Path to PEM encoded Diffie-Hellman parameter file. that self-signed certificates will only work for the outgoing end of connections. The . but will not allow certificate validation.

Matt Mesier & Pravir Chandra from O’Reilly explains how to do it.com .4. TLS Enable = yes TLS Require = yes TLS Verify Peer = yes TLS Allowed CN = "bacula@backup1. Matt Mesier & Pravir Chandra from O’Reilly explains how to do it. this example shows the directives necessary for a Director to Storage daemon session.sm-zone.pem # This is a client certificate.net/docs/OSPKI-2.3 Getting a CA Signed Certificate The process of getting a certificate that is signed by a CA is quite a bit more complicated. TLS Certificate = /usr/local/etc/ssl/backup1/cert. You can purchase one from quite a number of PKI vendors.. this link may change. and thus you can sign all your own certificates. The technique is the same between the Director and the Client and for bconsole to the Director.. 38.7/OSPKI-html/ospki-book.7/OSPKI-html/ospki-book. and thus you can sign all your own certificates.com" TLS CA Certificate File = /usr/local/etc/ssl/ca.. TLS Require = yes TLS CA Certificate File = /usr/local/etc/ssl/ca.com" TLS Allowed CN = "administrator@example. The only way to prevent this is by using trusted certificates. bacula-dir. Note.htm. The book OpenSSL by John Viega.4. you will either need to purchase certificates signed by a commercial CA or find a friend that has setup his own CA or become a CA yourself.pem # This is a server certificate.pem } Client { Name = backup1-fd .4 Example TLS Configuration Files Landon has supplied us with the TLS portions of his configuration files. or you can read the documentation provided in the Open-source PKI Book project at Source Forge: http://ospkibook. used for incoming # console connections.3 321 and File Daemons.Bacula Version 5. but that is not at all necessary for use with Bacula. 38. The program TinyCA has a very nice Graphical User Interface that allows you to easily setup and maintain your own CA. so that the man in the middle is incapable of spoofing the connection using his own.pem } Storage { Name = File Address = backup1.conf Director { # define myself Name = backup1-dir . Note.example. TinyCA can be found at http://tinyca. To get a CA signed certificate. Note. used by the director to # connect to the storage daemon TLS Certificate = /usr/local/etc/ssl/bacula@backup1/cert.htm.0.net/. To get a trusted certificate (CA or Certificate Authority signed certificate). which should help you setting up your own..net/docs/OSPKI-2.sourceforge.pem TLS Key = /usr/local/etc/ssl/bacula@backup1/key. this link may change.pem TLS Key = /usr/local/etc/ssl/backup1/key. you will either need to find a friend that has setup his own CA or to become a CA yourself. or you can read the documentation provided in the Open-source PKI Book project at Source Forge: http://ospkibook.sourceforge.example. The book OpenSSL by John Viega.

pem } # # List Directors who are permitted to contact Storage daemon # Director { Name = backup1-dir . # These TLS configuration options are used for incoming # file daemon connections.3 bacula-fd...pem } bacula-sd. It is used by connecting # directors to verify the authenticity of this file daemon TLS Certificate = /usr/local/etc/ssl/server1/cert...0.pem } FileDaemon { Name = backup1-fd .conf Storage { # definition of myself Name = backup1-sd . TLS Enable = yes TLS Require = yes TLS Verify Peer = yes # Allow only the Director to connect TLS Allowed CN = "bacula@backup1.peer validity # is verified by the storage connection cookie provided to the # File Daemon by the director. # you need these TLS entries so the SD and FD can # communicate TLS Enable = yes TLS Require = yes TLS CA Certificate File = /usr/local/etc/ssl/ca.com" TLS CA Certificate File = /usr/local/etc/ssl/ca. TLS Enable = yes TLS Require = yes # Peer certificate is not required/requested -.pem TLS Key = /usr/local/etc/ssl/server1/key.pem # This is a server certificate.conf Director { Name = backup1-dir .com ..pem TLS Key = /usr/local/etc/ssl/server1/key...pem } Bacula Version 5. TLS Enable = yes TLS Require = yes # Require the connecting director to provide a certificate # with the matching CN.example.pem # This is a server certificate.com" TLS CA Certificate File = /usr/local/etc/ssl/ca.pem .. It is used by connecting # file daemons to verify the authenticity of this storage daemon TLS Certificate = /usr/local/etc/ssl/backup1/cert..example.pem TLS Key = /usr/local/etc/ssl/backup1/key. Director TLS settings are handled # below.322 Address = server1.. TLS Verify Peer = yes TLS Allowed CN = "bacula@backup1.example. TLS Enable = yes TLS Require = yes TLS CA Certificate File = /usr/local/etc/ssl/ca.pem TLS Certificate = /usr/local/etc/ssl/server1/cert. TLS Verify Peer = no TLS CA Certificate File = /usr/local/etc/ssl/ca.

Bacula Version 5.pem TLS Key = /usr/local/etc/ssl/backup1/key.0. It is used by the connecting # director to verify the authenticity of this storage daemon TLS Certificate = /usr/local/etc/ssl/backup1/cert.pem } 323 .3 # This is a server certificate.

324 Bacula Version 5.0.3 .

3. off-site location. In general. the worst effect of this will be that you can no longer connect the File daemon. At no time does the Director or the Storage Daemon have access to unencrypted file contents. Only the Master Key’s public certificate should be made available to the File Daemon. ALWAYS store a copy of your master keys in a secure. • The implementation does not encrypt file metadata such as file path names.Chapter 39 Data Encryption Bacula permits file data encryption and signing within the File Daemon (or Client) prior to sending data to the Storage Daemon. The FD encrypts that session key via PKE for all recipients (the file daemon. any master keys). it’s possible for the director to restore new keys or a Bacula configuration file to the client. and ownership. The File daemon generates a session key. file signatures are validated and any mismatches are reported. NOTE!!! If you lose your encryption keys. File Daemon Keys are also a prime candidate for off-site backups. and not changing your File daemon keys. backups will be unrecoverable. Upon restoration. 325 . It is very important to specify what this implementation does NOT do: • There is one important restore problem to be aware of. The FD uses that session key to perform symmetric encryption on the data. Extended attributes are also currently not encrypted. namely. In addition to this key pair. and thus force later backups to be made with a compromised key and/or with no encryption at all. any number of ”Master Keys” may be specified – these are key pairs that may be used to decrypt any backups should the File Daemon key be lost. The Master Keys should never be kept on the same machine as the Storage Daemon or Director if you are worried about an unauthorized party compromising either machine and accessing your encrypted backups. The basic algorithm used for each backup session (Job) is: 1. you must ensure that no restore is done that restores the old configuration or the old keys. Encryption and signing are implemented using RSA private keys coupled with self-signed x509 public certificates. If you do change either one. However. You can avoid this by not changing the location of the keys in your Bacula File daemon configuration file. permissions. This is also sometimes known as PKI or Public Key Infrastructure. While less critical than the Master Keys. burn the key pair to a CD and send the CD home with the owner of the machine. Each File Daemon should be given its own unique private/public key pair. Mac OS X resource forks are encrypted. such as a CD placed in a in a fire-proof safe or bank safety deposit box. The Master Keys should be backed up to a secure location. 2. Under no circumstances should the Master Private Key be shared or stored on the Client machine.

To build Bacula with encryption support.326 Bacula Version 5. recovery with the master keypair is possible.2 Encryption Technical Details The implementation uses 128bit AES-CBC.SHA512 The various algorithms are exposed via an entirely re-usable.9. End-user configuration settings for the algorithms are not currently exposed – only the algorithms listed above are used. If you are running OpenSSL 0.RSA Digest Algorithms: . You must: • Concatenate the master private and public key into a single keypair file. asymmetric. The master keypair will be used to decrypt the file data. Unfortunately.1 Building Bacula with Encryption Support The configuration option for enabling OpenSSL encryption support has not changed since Bacula 1. should you lose the client’s keypair. The Volume format is DER-encoded ASN.keypair • Start the restore. 39.MD5 . non-encrypted copy of the client’s own encryption keypair.128. and 256-bit AES-CBC .keypair • Set the PKI Keypair statement in your bacula configuration file: PKI Keypair = master.0. using CMS directly was not possible. However.8 or later. with RSA encrypted symmetric session keys. 39.3 Decrypting with a Master Key It is preferable to retain a secure.SHA256 . OpenSSL-agnostic API (ie. the data written to Volume supports arbitrary symmetric.3 39. the signed file hash uses SHA-256 – otherwise. SHA-1 is used.. modeled after the Cryptographic Message Syntax from RFC 3852. ie: cat master.cert >master.38. and digest algorithms for future extensibility.SHA1 . The RSA key is user supplied. and the back-end implementation currently supports: Symmetric Encryption: . use: .Blowfish-CBC Asymmetric Encryption (used to encrypt symmetric session keys): . you will need the OpenSSL libraries and headers installed. 192..1. However. it is possible to drop in a new encryption backend). as at the time of coding a free software streaming DER decoder/encoder was not available.key master. When configuring Bacula./configure --with-openssl . .

0. public keys (RSA and DSA) and (x509) certificates. a .key fd-example. We use it in cases where there is both a public and a private key.cert extension to refer to X509 certificate encoding that contains only a single public key. A . there seems to be a lot of confusion around the file extensions given to these keys.key -x509 -out master. It is the default format for OpenSSL.pem Note. so is suitable for text mode transfers between systems. 39. It stores data Base64 encoded DER format.3 327 39.cert cat fd-example.cert >fd-example.4 Generating Private/Public Encryption Keys Generate a Master Key Pair with: openssl genrsa -out master.key 2048 openssl req -new -key master. above we have used the .cert" Signing Encryption # Public and Private Keys # ONLY the Public Key .5 Example Data Encryption Configuration bacula-fd.Bacula Version 5. For example.conf FileDaemon { Name = example-fd FDport = 9102 # where we listen for the director WorkingDirectory = /var/bacula/working Pid Directory = /var/run Maximum Concurrent Jobs = 20 PKI PKI PKI PKI } Signatures = Yes # Enable Data Encryption = Yes # Enable Data Keypair = "/etc/bacula/fd-example.key -x509 -out fd-example.key 2048 openssl req -new -key fd-example.cert Generate a File Daemon Key Pair for each FD: openssl genrsa -out fd-example. surrounded by ASCII headers. Typically.pem" Master Key = "/etc/bacula/master.pem file may contain any number of keys either public or private.pem file can contain all the following: private keys (RSA and DSA).

3 .0.328 Bacula Version 5.

Then you decide what attributes of each file you want compared by specifying comparison options on the Include statements that you use in the FileSet resource of your Catalog Jobs. and normally. on a regular basis (e. The first step is to set up a Verify Job and to run it with: Level = InitCatalog The InitCatalog level tells Bacula simply to get the information on the specified files and to put it into the catalog. The InitCatalog is normally run one time manually. and either SHA1 or MD5 signatures. We recommend that the Job name contain the name 329 . or that only certain features change.1 The Details In the discussion that follows. they will be system files that do not change. See the example below for the format of the output. or perhaps more often. That is your database is initialized and no comparison is done. Then you must define a Job. You decide what files you want to form your ”snapshot” by specifying them in a FileSet resource.g. 40. which runs at 5:05 in the morning every day. it can be an ideal tool for improving computer security. nightly). much as is done below. This is provided by the VerifyCycle Schedule. The main elements consist of adding a schedule. you will run a Verify Job on a daily (or whatever) basis with: Level = Catalog The Level = Catalog level tells Bacula to compare the current state of the files on the Client to the last InitCatalog that is stored in the catalog and to report any differences. which will normally be run daily. Thereafter. we will make reference to the Verify Configuration Example that is included below in the A Verify Configuration Example section.Chapter 40 Using Bacula to Improve Computer Security Since Bacula maintains a catalog of files. their attributes. This is done by making a snapshot of your system files with a Verify Job and then checking the current state of your system against the snapshot. You might want to look it over now to get an idea of what it does.

the n causes comparison of the number of links. You will notice that most records of the Job are quite standard. which are constantly changing. pins1 is a reasonable set to begin with. and we cannot imagine why not. The verify=pins1 is ignored during the InitCatalog Job. but you may want to look at the details of these and other options. you will want to include all system (or other) files that should not change on your system. On the other hand. they are included in the example below for completeness. The example below shows a list of files that I use on my Red Hat 7. Then if any of those files has changed. but you probably already have them created for your client and do not need to recreate them. MatouVerify in this example.330 Bacula Version 5. please send it to me). you can use verify=pins5 and signature=MD5. the console program will show you the basic parameters of the Job and ask you: Run Verify job JobName: MatouVerify FileSet: Verify Set Level: Catalog Client: MatouVerify Storage: DLTDrive OK to run? (yes/mod/no): mod . but is used during the subsequent Catalog Jobs to specify what attributes of the files should be compared to those found in the catalog. but that the FileSet resource contains verify=pins1 option in addition to the standard signature=SHA1 option. but is cryptographically less secure. Basically. however.0. thus allowing you to detect any changes (and possible intrusions into your system). You must also specify the Client and the Catalog resources for your Verify job. 40. The MD5 hash computes faster than SHA1. or because someone has broken into your computer and modified your files. If you don’t want SHA1 signature comparison. and you can determine if it changed because you loaded a new package. In our example. which will use the MD5 hash algorithm. the s compares the file size.2 Running the Verify The first thing you will want to do is to run an InitCatalog level Verify Job. it probably is missing a few important files (if you find one. and the 1 compares the SHA1 checksums (this requires the signature=SHA1 option to have been set also). you will be notified. you can drop the signature=SHA1 and none will be computed nor stored in the catalog. You will be presented with a list of Jobs that can be run. which will have the additional verify=pins1 option. The defined Job resources are: 1: MatouVerify 2: kernsrestore 3: Filetest 4: kernsave Select Job resource (1-4): 1 Next. your automatic Verify job will be constantly finding differences. If you select files. They can be found in the FileSet Resource section of this manual. as long as I don’t load any new packages. The objective in forming the FileSet is to choose all unchanging important system files. The easiest way to run the InitCatalog is manually with the console program by simply entering run. As mentioned above. This will permit you to easily identify your job when running it from the Console. you will need to have a FileSet resource for the Verify job. You will want to take some care in defining the list of files to be included in your FileSet. we named it MatouVerify.3 system.3 of your machine as well as the word Verify or Check. the i is to compare inodes. none of these files change during normal operation of the system. the p of the pins1 tells Verify to compare the permissions bits. This will initialize the catalog to contain the file information that will later be used as a basis for comparisons with the actual file system. Briefly. and you will choose the one that corresponds to your Verify Job. Or alternatively. Since I didn’t spend a lot of time working on it. such as log files or mail files.

Cat: 81317 File: 8131b st_size differ.21:41:05 Verifying against Init JobId 70 run 2002-06-21 18:58:51 File: /etc/pam. File: /etc/ssh/sshd_config st_ino differ.0. Cat: 1167 File: 1114 SHA1 differs. Cat: 81398 File: 81325 st_size differ.2002-06-25. Thereafter the Job will automatically start according to the schedule you have defined.3 What To Do When Differences Are Found If you have setup your messages correctly. and you will see the final display: Run Verify job JobName: MatouVerify FileSet: Verify Set Level: Initcatalog Client: MatouVerify Storage: DLTDrive OK to run? (yes/mod/no): yes at which point you respond yes. If you wish to immediately verify it. File: /etc/ssh/ssh_config.d/sshd st_ino differ. For example. Cat: 2528 File: 2407 . you want to respond mod to modify the parameters because the Level is by default set to Catalog and we want to run an InitCatalog Job. and the Job will begin.3 331 Here. and it will display: Levels: 1: Initialize Catalog 2: Verify from Catalog 3: Verify Volume 4: Verify Volume Data Select level (1-4): 1 Choose item 1. Cat: 56230 File: 56231 File: /etc/ssh/ssh_config st_ino differ. Cat: 812dd File: 812b3 st_size differ. Cat: 4674b File: 46765 File: /etc/rc. Cat: 1202 File: 1297 SHA1 differs. No differences should be found. below is the email received after doing an update of OpenSSH: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: HeadMan: Start Verify JobId 83 Job=RufusVerify. 40. File: /etc/ssh/sshd_config. the console will ask: Parameters to modify: 1: Job 2: Level 3: FileSet 4: Client 5: Storage Select parameter to modify (1-5): 2 you should select number 2 to modify the Level. Cat: 1182 File: 1579 SHA1 differs. After responding mod. you can simply run a Verify Catalog which will be the default.Bacula Version 5.d/sshd st_ino differ.d/init. you should be notified if there are any differences and exactly what they are.rpmnew st_ino differ. Cat: 81397 File: 812dd st_size differ.rpmnew st_ino differ.

then run a Verify Level=InitCatalog immediately after the installation. HeadMan: File: /usr/bin/ssh-add HeadMan: st_ino differ.2002-06-25. Cat: 43208 File: 47368 HeadMan: SHA1 differs. 40.21:41:05 FileSet: Verify Set Verify Level: Catalog Client: RufusVerify Start time: 25-Jun-2002 21:41 End time: 25-Jun-2002 21:41 Files Examined: 4. Cat: 219932 File: 234440 HeadMan: SHA1 differs. Cat: 89ed File: 81ed HeadMan: st_ino differ.3 system. HeadMan: File: /usr/bin/slogin HeadMan: st_ino differ. it was obvious that these files were modified during installation of the RPMs. Cat: 5e07e File: 5e343 HeadMan: st_size differ. Cat: 5e35b File: 5e35a HeadMan: st_size differ. HeadMan: File: /usr/bin/ssh-agent HeadMan: st_ino differ. HeadMan: File: /usr/bin/sftp HeadMan: st_ino differ. Cat: 46952 File: 46984 HeadMan: SHA1 differs. we simply re-run the Verify Job setting the level to InitCatalog (as we did above in the very beginning). Cat: 76328 File: 81448 HeadMan: SHA1 differs. The FileSet that is shown below is what I use on my Red Hat 7. HeadMan: File: /etc/ssh/moduli HeadMan: st_ino differ. Cat: 5e35c File: 5e35b HeadMan: st_size differ. This will re-establish the current state of the system as your new basis for future comparisons. and you will need to modify the FileSet to exclude that file (or not to Include it).0. you will get false matches. HeadMan: File: /usr/bin/ssh-keyscan HeadMan: st_ino differ. Cat: 80488 File: 84648 HeadMan: SHA1 differs. With a bit more thought. HeadMan: 25-Jun-2002 21:41 JobId: 83 Job: RufusVerify. To keep the above email from being sent every night when the Verify Job runs.3 At this point. Cat: 26728 File: 26952 HeadMan: SHA1 differs.258 Termination: Verify Differences Bacula Version 5. you should run a Verify Level=Catalog immediately before installing new software to verify that there are no differences.4 A Verify Configuration Example Schedule { Name = "VerifyCycle" Run = Level=Catalog sun-sat at 5:05 } Job { . Cat: 5e35a File: 5e359 HeadMan: st_size differ.332 HeadMan: SHA1 differs. Take care that you don’t do an InitCatalog after someone has placed a Trojan horse on your system! If you have included in your FileSet a file that is changed by the normal operation of your system. Cat: 5df1d File: 5e07e HeadMan: st_size differ. Cat: 5e359 File: 5e2e8 HeadMan: File: /usr/bin/ssh HeadMan: st_mode differ. Cat: 139272 File: 151560 HeadMan: SHA1 differs. you can probably add quite a number of additional files that should be monitored. Cat: 5e35d File: 5e96a HeadMan: st_size differ. Cat: 812b3 File: 812ab HeadMan: File: /usr/bin/scp HeadMan: st_ino differ. and then re-run the InitCatalog. Cat: 5e2e8 File: 5df1d HeadMan: st_size differ. If you want to be super safe. HeadMan: File: /usr/bin/ssh-keygen HeadMan: st_ino differ.

0.allow File = /etc/hosts.Bacula Version 5.3 Name = "MatouVerify" Type = Verify Level = Catalog Client = MatouVerify FileSet = "Verify Set" Messages = Standard Storage = DLTDrive Pool = Default Schedule = "VerifyCycle" 333 # default level } # # The list of files in this FileSet should be carefully # chosen.ssh File = /home/kern/.d/init. password = "" } .conf } Exclude = { } P Client { Name = MatouVerify Address = lmatou Catalog = Bacula Password = "" File Retention = 80d # 80 days Job Retention = 1y # one year AutoPrune = yes # Prune expired Jobs/Files } Catalog { Name = Bacula dbname = verify.conf File = /etc/named.d File = /etc/hosts.d File = /etc/resolv. user = bacula.conf File = /etc/pam. This is a good starting point.deny File = /etc/hosts File = /etc/modules.d File = /etc/sendmail.cf File = /etc/sysctl.ssh File = /var/named File = /etc/sysconfig File = /etc/ssh File = /etc/security File = /etc/exports File = /etc/rc.conf File = /etc/services File = /etc/xinetd. # FileSet { Name = "Verify Set" Include { Options { verify=pins1 signature=SHA1 } File = /boot File = /bin File = /sbin File = /usr/bin File = /lib File = /root/.

334 Bacula Version 5.3 .0.

below. This may be an undesirable situation if you have other users on your system. you will need to provide the full path to it.rpm mysql-devel-<version>. you can return to complete the installation of Bacula.1 or later installed in the mysql-directory.31. Installing and Configuring MySQL is not difficult but can be confusing the first time. There may be additional packages that are required to install the above.rpm mysql-server-<version>. then come back to Phase II of the MySQL installation. It is important to have the devel or dev package loaded as it contains the libraries and header files necessary to build Bacula. If you are using one of the new modes such as ANSI/ISO compatibility. you may experience problems. we list the steps that we used to install it on our machines./configure as shown below: 335 . you will probably need to install the following: mysql-<version>. If MySQL is installed in the standard system location. Please note that our configuration leaves MySQL without any user passwords. As a consequence.deb mysql-client-<version>./configure --with-mysql=mysql-directory statement for configuring Bacula. If you wish to install MySQL from rpms. If you install MySQL in your home directory or some other non-standard directory. Once these packages are installed. zlib and openssl. then run MySQL using the files installed with mysql-server. you need only enter --with-mysql since the configure program will search all the standard locations.deb The names of the packages may vary from distribution to distribution. The notes below describe how to build MySQL from the source tar files. for example. If you have a pre-installed MySQL.1 Installing and Configuring MySQL – Phase I If you use the . you will be able to build Bacula (using the files installed with the mysql package. you will probably need the following: mysql-server-<version>. If you have installed MySQL by debs or rpms. and hence you should add the --enable-thread-safe-client option to the . then come back to Phase II of the MySQL installation when indicated to do so.Chapter 41 Installing and Configuring MySQL 41.rpm If you wish to install them from debs. Beginning with Bacula version 1. and return to complete the installation of Bacula.deb libmysqlclient15off-<version>.deb libmysqlclient15-dev-<version>. the thread safe version of the MySQL client library is used. please skip Phase I below. you will need MySQL version 4.

this script can also be found in the bin directory in the installation directory The MySQL client library mysqlclient requires the gzip compression library libz. built and installed Bacula. come back to this chapter to complete the installation. you should return to completing the installation of Bacula. you will need to find the appropriate package for your system.mysql. please complete these items before proceeding. you should have built and installed MySQL. 41./configure --enable-thread-safe-client --prefix=mysql-directory where you replace mysql-directory with the directory name where you want to install mysql. or already have a running MySQL. You might want to use the startmysql script provided in the Bacula release. If you inspect create bacula database.a or libz. Please note. It doesn’t matter what database you have chosen. Normally for system wide use this is /usr/local/mysql. Now you will create the Bacula MySQL database and the tables that Bacula uses.com/downloads 2. create bacula database). If not./configure. make install This will put all the necessary binaries. If you are not using rpms or debs. Bacula will install scripts for manipulating the database (create. make tables etc) into the main installation directory. and you should have configured. These files are also available in the <bacula-src>/src/cats directory after running .0.336 1. These files will be of the form * bacula * (e. . Start mysql. 3. create bacula database will always create your database. I use ˜kern/mysql. you will see that it calls create mysql database.g. Detar it with something like: tar xvfz mysql-filename Bacula Version 5. 1. Download MySQL source code from www.so.3 Note.2 Installing and Configuring MySQL – Phase II At this point./scripts/mysql install db This will create the necessary MySQL databases for controlling user access. 5. At this point. you will need to load the zlib1g-dev package. where mysql-directory is the directory name that you specified on the ./configure command for configuring MySQL. The * bacula * files are provided for convenience. cd mysql-source-directory where you replace mysql-source-directory with the directory name where you put the MySQL source code. 7. Later after Bacula is installed. On Debian systems. the above command requires GNU tar. 6. Note. . delete. In my case. libraries and support files into the mysql-directory that you specified above. Please note that the . make This takes a bit of time. This is needed so that Bacula can find the necessary include headers and library files for interfacing to MySQL. a command such as: zcat mysql-filename | tar xvf will probably accomplish the same thing. the installation files used in the second phase of the MySQL installation are created during the Bacula Installation. If you are using rpm packages./configure used to build Bacula will need to include --with-mysql=mysqldirectory. 4. . these libraries are in the libz-devel package. If you do not have GNU tar.

you must write an end of file mark on the volume so that Bacula can reuse it. you will probably want to re-initialize the catalog database and throw away all the test Jobs that you ran. If you need more security. are password protected. To take a closer look at the access privileges that you have setup with the above. ./create mysql database This script creates the MySQL bacula database. 5. The program mysqladmin can be used for this. You may want to modify it to suit your situation. The description that follows is Linux specific. where <install-dir> is the directory name that you specified on the --prefix option. you can do: mysql-directory/bin/mysql -u root mysql select * from user. For other operating systems. For example. This can be useful for specifying the user and or password. The databases you create as well as the access databases will be located in <install-dir>/var/ in a subdirectory with the name of the database. Please note that none of the userids. you will need to rerun the ldconfig program shown below. To do so.3 Re-initializing the Catalog Database After you have done some initial testing with Bacula. but in my case it is. you may have to configure the loader so that it can find the MySQL shared libraries. 4. ./configure --enable-thread-safe-client --prefix=<mysql-directory> where <mysql-directory> is in my case /home/kern/mysql. Do so with: (stop Bacula or unmount the drive) mt -f /dev/nst0 rewind mt -f /dev/nst0 weof Where you should replace /dev/nst0 with the appropriate tape drive device name for your machine. cd <install-directory> This directory contains the Bacula catalog interface routines. you can do the following: cd <install-directory> .4 Linking Bacula with MySQL After configuring Bacula with . create mysql database and make mysql tables) allows the addition of a command line argument./make_mysql_tables Please note that all information in the database will be lost and you will be starting from scratch. If you have written on any Volumes. please consult your manuals on how to do the same thing: ./grant mysql privileges This script creates unrestricted access rights for the user bacula./drop_mysql_tables . 41. . please assign a password to the root user and to bacula. Each of the three scripts (grant mysql privileges. If you have previously followed this procedure and later add the --enable-thread-safe-client options. This can be important to know if you want to make a special backup of the Bacula database or to check its size. including root. you might need to add -u root to the command line to have sufficient privilege to create the Bacula tables.Bacula Version 5.3 2./make mysql tables This script creates the MySQL tables used by Bacula. 41. 337 3.0. If you put MySQL in a standard place such as /usr/lib or /usr/local/lib this will not be necessary.

spec file to account for the new MySQL version./configure \ <your-options> 41. Alternatively. In that case. and re-install Bacula otherwise you are likely to get bizarre failures.338 Bacula Version 5. You can do so by rebuilding from the source rpm.0. The client libraries are usually found in a devel package. you must also rebuild Bacula.5 Installing MySQL from RPMs If you are installing MySQL from RPMs. I use: LD LIBRARY PATH=/home/kern/mysql/lib/mysql Finally. the shared library names will probably change. or alternatively. In my case. . you must reconfigure. rebuild. For example. so you must install: mysql mysql-devel This will be the same with most other package managers too. you will need to install both the MySQL binaries and the client libraries. If you install from rpms and you upgrade MySQL. you can include them directly on the . it is: /home/kern/mysql/lib/mysql then rebuild the loader’s cache with: /sbin/ldconfig If you upgrade to a new version of MySQL.conf and add a new line to the end of the file with the name of the mysql-directory.6 Upgrading MySQL If you upgrade MySQL. and you must re-run the /sbin/ldconfig command so that the runtime loader can find them. you may need to add -lssl -lcrypto to the link. your system my have a loader environment variable that can be set. you can either export the appropriate LDFLAGS definition. on a Solaris system where I do not have root permission. To do so. 41.3 First edit: /etc/ld./configure line as in: LDFLAGS="-lssl -lcyrpto" \ . if you have encryption enabled in MySQL.so. you may need to modify the bacula.

you are required to dump your database in an ASCII format. Installing and configuring PostgreSQL is not difficult but can be confusing the first time. you should be aware of their philosophy of upgrades. NOTE! PostgreSQL versions earlier than 7. the article will contain useful configuration and setup information. If you install PostgreSQL in your home directory or some other non-standard directory. Most major Linux distros have thread safety turned on. PostgreSQL documentation. and the PostgreSQL server will not be able to start. 42. do the upgrade. If you prefer.4 or later installed. One way is to see if the PostgreSQL library that Bacula will be linked against references pthreads. please be sure to add the --enable-thread-safety option when doing the . you will need PostgreSQL version 7. you need only enter --with-postgresql since the configure program will search all the standard locations. you may want to use a package provided by your chosen operating system./configure for PostgreSQL. otherwise you will get data corruption. Even if you are not using FreeBSD. Basically at every major version upgrade. your database may become totally useless because none of the new tools can access it due to the format change. you will need to provide the full path with the --with-postgresql option. If you are building PostgreSQL from source. If PostgreSQL is installed in the standard system location.Chapter 42 Installing and Configuring PostgreSQL If you are considering using PostreSQL. which could be destabilizing for a production shop. we recommend following the instructions found in the If you are using FreeBSD.4 do not work with Bacula. If you configure the Batch Insert code in Bacula (attribute inserts are 10 times faster). If you prefer to install from source.a | grep pthread_mutex_lock The above command should print a line that looks like: 339 .1 Installing PostgreSQL If you use the . This can be done with a command such as: nm /usr/lib/libpq. and then reload your database (or databases). This is because they frequently update the ”data format” from version to version. and they supply no tools to automatically do the conversion./configure --with-postgresql=PostgreSQL-Directory statement for configuring Bacula. you must be using a PostgreSQL that was built with the --enable-thread-safety option. If you forget to do the ASCII dump. Binary packages are available on most PostgreSQL mirrors. this FreeBSD Diary article will be useful. but it is better to check.

340 U pthread_mutex_lock Bacula Version 5. and you should have configured. To create a new user under either your name or with say the name bacula. create bacula database will always create your database. you should have built and installed PostgreSQL. come back to this chapter to complete the installation. then everything is OK.0. delete. you can do the following: su (enter root password) su pgsql (or postgres) createuser bacula Shall the new user be allowed to create databases? (y/n) y Shall the new user be allowed to create more new users? (y/n) (choose what you want) exit Normally the bacula user must be able to create new databases. Now you will create the Bacula PostgreSQL database and the tables that Bacula uses. do not enable batch inserts when building Bacula. after Bacula is installed. or you will have to create one for it.3 if does. These files are also available in the <bacula-src>/src/cats directory after running . . This is needed so that Bacula can find the necessary include headers and library files for interfacing to PostgreSQL./configure used to build Bacula will need to include --withpostgresql=PostgreSQL-directory./configure. If you inspect create bacula database. You will need to perform these steps as a user that is able to create new databases. Please note that the . 1.. rpm.g. check the value of max connections in your PostgreSQL configuration file to ensure that it is larger than the setting Maximum Concurrent Jobs in your director configuration. 2.2 Configuring PostgreSQL At this point. built and installed Bacula. if you use the script in the next item. you will see that it calls create postgresql database. You must still come back to complete the second phase of the PostgreSQL installation even if you installed binaries (e. the PostreSQL master owner is pgsql and on others such as Red Hat and Fedora it is postgres. this is the pgsql user). After installing PostgreSQL.). deb. These instructions assume that you already have PostgreSQL running. If not. Create the database owner (bacula) On many systems. create bacula database). or already have a running PostgreSQL. 42.g. you do not need to specify the directory). make tables etc) into the main installation directory. It doesn’t matter what database you have chosen. . An important thing to note here is that Bacula makes two connections to the PostgreSQL server for each backup job that is currently running. The * bacula * files are provided for convenience. Setting this too low will result in some backup jobs failing to run correctly! Bacula will install scripts for manipulating the database (create. You can find out which it is by examining your /etc/passwd file. This can be the PostgreSQL user (on most systems. Later. If it prints nothing. you should return to completing the installation of Bacula. cd <install-directory> This directory contains the Bacula catalog interface routines.. where PostgreSQL-directory is the directory name that you specified on the . please complete these items before proceeding. These files will be of the form * bacula * (e. but it does not need to create new users./configure command for configuring PostgreSQL (if you didn’t specify a directory or PostgreSQL is installed in a default location. Please note. the installation files used in the second phase of the PostgreSQL installation are created during the Bacula Installation. If you are intending to run a large number of concurrent jobs.

but it is not always a good thing to do from a security standpoint./grant bacula privileges This script creates the database user bacula with restricted access rights. I had to modify my pg hba. and above the existing “local” and “host” lines. or by using su to become root and then using su .. .).conf file: once to the Catalog resource and once to the RunBeforeJob entry in the BackupCatalog Job resource. In the end. you can check with the command: psql -l and the column marked Encoding should be SQL ASCII for all your Bacula databases (normally bacula). this can be done using ”/etc/init.Bacula Version 5. 5. you should carefully think about what encoding sequence you want for the text fields (paths. Add a password to the bacula database for the bacula user using: \$ psql bacula bacula=# alter user bacula with password ’secret’. This can be useful for specifying the user name. you can do: PostgreSQL-directory/bin/psql --command \\dp bacula Also. Begin by editing the pg hba.postgres or su .pgsql to become postgres. After running the script. We strongly recommend that you use the default value of SQL ASCII that is in the create bacula database script. become the Postgres administrator.0. these two lines should look something like: .x/main on still others – what a mess!) from: local to local all all trust all all ident sameuser This solved the problem for me. You may want to modify it to suit your situation. Please note that this database is not password protected.. Each of the three scripts (create bacula database./make bacula tables This script creates the PostgreSQL tables used by Bacula. For example.3 3. To take a closer look at the access privileges that you have setup with the above. 4.d/postgresql restart” or ”service postgresql restart”) to put this new authentication rule into effect. I had an authorization problem with the password./create bacula database 341 This script creates the PostgreSQL bacula database. and in /etc/postgres/8. make bacula tables. you might need to add -h hostname to the command line to specify a remote database server. .x on others.conf file (in /var/lib/pgsql/data on my machine in /var/lib/postgresql/8. files. However. Before running this command. . either by logging on as the postgres user. Next.conf file. With the password in place. add the line: local bacula bacula md5 then restart the Postgres database server (frequently. postgres. it allowed me to run my regression scripts without having a password. . and grant bacula privileges) allows the addition of a command line argument. your backups may fail. Please be warned that if you change this value. A more secure way to perform database authentication is with md5 password hashes. ALTER USER bacula=# \\q You’ll have to add this password to two locations in the bacula-dir.

pgpass file instead.. and the mode set to 600. 42..3 Re-initializing the Catalog Database After you have done some initial testing with Bacula. and any users who will make use of any of the console programs. create a file named . and ensure that the baculadir. To do so. To eliminate this problem. # see comments in make_catalog_backup for details. The client libraries are usually found in a devel or dev package. and so on).. The files must then have the owner and group set to match the user (so root:root for the copy in root.0.3 Naturally. the environment variable that is used to supply the password to Postgres is available to all users of the local system. limiting access to the owner of the file.conf file containing this password is readable only by the root. user = bacula. password = "secret" . you will probably want to re-initialize the catalog database and throw away all the test Jobs that you ran./grant_bacula_privileges Please note that all information in the database will be lost and you will be starting from scratch. you should choose your own significantly more random password..pgpass containing the single line: localhost:5432:bacula:bacula:secret This file should be copied into the home directory of all accounts that will need to gain access to the database: typically. bacula. so you must install the following for rpms: postgresql postgresql-devel postgresql-server postgresql-libs and the following for debs: ./drop_bacula_tables . If you have written on any Volumes. and . RunBeforeJob = "/etc/make_catalog_backup bacula bacula secret" Bacula Version 5. there is still a security problem with this approach: on some platforms. Even with the files containing the database password properly restricted./make_bacula_tables .342 dbname = bacula. Do so with: (stop Bacula or unmount the drive) mt -f /dev/nst0 rewind mt -f /dev/nst0 weof Where you should replace /dev/nst0 with the appropriate tape drive device name for your machine. you must write an end of file mark on the volume so that Bacula can reuse it. root. the Postgres team have deprecated the use of the environment variable password-passing mechanism and recommend the use of a . you will need to install both the PostgreSQL binaries and the client libraries.4 Installing PostgreSQL from RPMs If you are installing PostgreSQL from RPMs. 42. # WARNING!!! Passing the password via the command line is insecure. To use this mechanism. you can do the following: cd <install-directory> .

take a complete backup of your databases before proceeding with this process! 1..0 WARNING: Always as a precaution.255 trust NOTE: you should restart your postgres server if you made changes .0.Bacula Version 5.5 Converting from MySQL to PostgreSQL The conversion procedure presented here was worked out by Norm Dressler <ndressler at dinmar dot com> This process was tested using the following software versions: • Linux Ubuntu Lucid • Mysql Ver 5.4 • Bacula 5. 7. 9.0. Mine has the following since it’s on a secure network: local all all trust host all all 127. Verify your pg hba./bacula stop) 2.sql 3. Shutdown Mysql.1 255. Recompile Bacula with a make and if everything compiles completely. Go to your Bacula source directory and rebuild it to include PostgreSQL support rather then Mysql support.0. Check the config. Start PostgreSQL on your system. Run the following command to dump your Mysql database: mysqldump -t -n -c --compatible=postgresql --skip-quote-names --skip-opt \ --disable-keys --lock-tables -u bacula -ppassword bacula \ | grep -v "INSERT INTO Status" \ | sed -e ’s/0000-00-00 00:00:00/1970-01-01 00:00:00/g’ \ | sed -e ’s/\\0//’ > bacula-backup. 6. 42.0. 8.log file for your original configure command and replace enable-mysql with enable-postgresql.83 • PostgreSQL 8. you may have to SU to the user who has privileges to create a user.4. Depending on your Postgres install. you will still need to run the scripts that set up the database and create the tables as described above.conf file contains sufficient permissions to allow bacula to access the server. Make a backup of your /etc/bacula directory (but leave the original in place).3 postgresql postgresql-common postgresql-client postgresql-client-common libpq5 libpq-dev 343 These will be similar with most other package managers too. 4.255.255. After installing from rpms. Create a bacula user in Postgres with the createuser command. 5. Shutdown bacula (cd /etc/bacula. perform a make install.

SETVAL(’fileset_filesetid_seq’.dmp> 13. SETVAL(’pool_poolid_seq’. SETVAL(’file_fileid_seq’./create_postgresql_database .0. (SELECT MAX(baseid) FROM basefiles)). SETVAL(’log_logid_seq’. verify your volume library and perform a test backup to make sure everything is working properly. Resequence your tables with the following commands: psql -Ubacula bacula SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SELECT SETVAL(’basefiles_baseid_seq’. (SELECT MAX(filesetid) FROM fileset)). Change into the /etc/bacula directory and prepare the database and tables with the following commands: . SETVAL(’job_jobid_seq’. SETVAL(’filename_filenameid_seq’. SETVAL(’file_fileid_seq’./make_postgresql_tables . (SELECT MAX(poolid) FROM pool)). (SELECT MAX(pathid) FROM path)).344 Bacula Version 5. SETVAL(’basefiles_baseid_seq’. Verify you have access to the database: psql -Ubacula bacula You should not get any errors. (SELECT MAX(baseid) FROM basefiles)). (SELECT MAX(fileid) FROM file)). SETVAL(’media_mediaid_seq’. you must also rebuild Bacula. 42. (SELECT MAX(deviceid) FROM device)). SETVAL(’filename_filenameid_seq’.spec file to account for the new PostgreSQL version. SETVAL(’client_clientid_seq’. SETVAL(’job_jobid_seq’. SETVAL(’path_pathid_seq’. you may need install from rpms and you upgrade PostgreSQL. rebuild. (SELECT MAX(clientid) FROM client)). (SELECT MAX(mediaid) FROM media)). start up Bacula. . (SELECT MAX(filenameid) FROM filename)). (SELECT MAX(loclogid) FROM locationlog)). SETVAL(’mediatype_mediatypeid_seq’. (SELECT MAX(jobmediaid) FROM jobmedia)). 14. SETVAL(’client_clientid_seq’.3 10. SETVAL(’storage_storageid_seq’. SETVAL(’jobmedia_jobmediaid_seq’. (SELECT MAX(clientid) FROM client)). (SELECT MAX(jobmediaid) FROM jobmedia)). If you to modify the bacula. (SELECT MAX(locationid) FROM location)). (SELECT MAX(mediatypeid) FROM mediatype)). and re-install Bacula otherwise you are likely to get bizarre failures. SETVAL(’fileset_filesetid_seq’. (SELECT MAX(logid) FROM log)). (SELECT MAX(fileid) FROM file)). SETVAL(’path_pathid_seq’. (SELECT MAX(storageid) FROM storage)). (SELECT MAX(jobid) FROM job))./grant_postgresql_privileges 11. SETVAL(’jobmedia_jobmediaid_seq’. At this point. (SELECT MAX(mediaid) FROM media)). SETVAL(’media_mediaid_seq’. (SELECT MAX(pathid) FROM path)).6 Upgrading PostgreSQL If you upgrade PostgreSQL. SETVAL(’location_locationid_seq’. you must reconfigure. Load your database from the Mysql database dump with: psql -Ubacula bacula <bacula-backup. You can do so by rebuilding from the source rpm. 12. SETVAL(’device_deviceid_seq’. (SELECT MAX(jobid) FROM job)). (SELECT MAX(filenameid) FROM filename)). To do so. (SELECT MAX(filesetid) FROM fileset)). SETVAL(’locationlog_loclogid_seq’.

8 Credits Many thanks to Dan Langille for writing the PostgreSQL driver. psql -Ubacula bacula ALTER SEQUENCE file_fileid_seq CACHE 1000.7 Tuning PostgreSQL If you despool attributes for many jobs at the same time. This will surely become the most popular database that Bacula supports.0. .3 345 42. 42.Bacula Version 5. you can tune the sequence object for the FileId field.

3 .346 Bacula Version 5.0.

tar. Detar it with something like: tar xvfz depkgs. 3. 1. If you use SQLite./configure --with-sqlite statement for configuring Bacula. .1 Installing and Configuring SQLite – Phase I If you use the . the above command requires GNU tar. You should not use the --enable-batch-insert configuration parameter for Bacula if you are using SQLite version 2 as it is probably not thread safe. If you do not have GNU tar. This has two consequences: 1. 2. a command such as: zcat depkgs.8. 43.gz | tar xvf will probably accomplish the same thing.8. If you are using SQLite version 3. Installing and Configuring is quite easy.gz Note. Please note that the version will be updated as new versions are available and tested..tar./configure used to build Bacula will need to include --with-sqlite or --with-sqlite3 depending one which version of SQLite you are using. but when building SQLite3 you MUST configure it with --enable-threadsafe and --enable-cross-threadconnections..16. and your Storage daemon is not on the same machine as your Director. Our standard location (for the moment) for SQLite is in the dependency package depkgs/sqlite-2. you will need to transfer your database to the Storage daemon’s machine before you can use any of the SD tools such as bscan.16 or later installed. you may use the --enable-batch-insert configuration option with Bacula. which means that they must be linked into the Director rather than accessed by the network as MySQL and PostgreSQL are. you will need SQLite version 2. SQLite cannot be used in the bweb web GUI package. Download the Bacula dependency packages 2.Chapter 43 Installing and Configuring SQLite Please note that SQLite both versions 2 and 3 are not network enabled. make sqlite Please note that the . 347 . cd depkgs 4.

348 Bacula Version 5. create bacula database will always create your database. If that fails./configure.db. The * bacula * files are provided for convenience. 43.3 Linking Bacula with SQLite If you have followed the above steps. then you may get this errr. If Bacula crashes with the following type of error when it is started: Using default Catalog name=MyCatalog DB=bacula Could not open database "bacula". 43. create bacula database). The solution is to start Bacula in a current directory where it has write permission. Bacula will install scripts for manipulating the database (create. you can create the SQLite database and tables: 1. This script will be automatically setup by the .unable to open a temporary database file for storing temporary tables this is most likely caused by the fact that some versions of SQLite attempt to create a temporary file in the current directory. However. this will all happen automatically and the SQLite libraries will be linked into Bacula.h. you can change the PRAGMA that is used in the file src/version. .4 Testing SQLite We have much less ”production” experience using SQLite than using MySQL. If you inspect create bacula database. sqlite. At this point. 2. make tables etc) into the main installation directory.db in Bacula’s working directory. delete. If you want more security. ERR=malformed database schema . SQLite3 is now run with PRAGMA synchronous=OFF this increases the speed by more than 30 time. For that reason. we do not recommend it for production use. but it also increases the possibility of a corrupted database if your server crashes (power failure or kernel bug). It doesn’t matter what database you have chosen. cd <install-directory> This directory contains the Bacula catalog interface routines./configure program to create a database named bacula. At this point.g. SQLite has performed flawlessly for us in all our testing. These files will be of the form * bacula * (e.2 Installing and Configuring SQLite – Phase II This phase is done after you have run the . you will see that it calls create sqlite database. several users have reported corrupted databases while using SQLite. you should return to completing the installation of Bacula. because Bacula does not have write permission on the current directory.c:151 Unable to open Database=/var/lib/bacula/bacula./make sqlite tables This script creates the SQLite database as well as the tables used by Bacula./configure command to configure Bacula.0.3 By default. 43. . These files are also available in the <bacula-src>/src/cats directory after running .

3 349 43. you must write an end of file mark on the volume so that Bacula can reuse it./drop_sqlite_tables . you can do the following: cd <install-directory> ./make_sqlite_tables Please note that all information in the database will be lost and you will be starting from scratch.Bacula Version 5. To do so.0. .5 Re-initializing the Catalog Database After you have done some initial testing with Bacula. If you have written on any Volumes. you will probably want to re-initialize the catalog database and throw away all the test Jobs that you ran. Do so with: (stop Bacula or unmount the drive) mt -f /dev/nst0 rewind mt -f /dev/nst0 weof Where you should replace /dev/nst0 with the appropriate tape drive device name for your machine.

0.350 Bacula Version 5.3 .

but Bacula uses the current values found in the Director’s Client resource to do the pruning. they already contain reasonable defaults for a small number of machines (less than 5). so if you fall into that case. quarters.37 and later. you will be able to restore all files in the job. months. and if AutoPrune is set to yes. By constantly deleting old expired records (dates older than the Retention period). Whatever the case may be. The pruning will occur at the end of a backup Job for the given Client. catalog maintenance will not be urgent if you have a few hundred megabytes of disk space free.1 Setting Retention Periods Bacula uses three Retention periods: the File Retention period. Note that the Client database record contains a copy of the File and Job retention periods. The Volume Retention period is specified in the Pool resource. Retention periods are specified in seconds. as long as the Job record still exists. your Catalog may continue to grow indefinitely as you run Jobs and backup Files. The default File retention period is 60 days. days.Chapter 44 Catalog Maintenance Without proper setup and maintenance. File Retention = <time-period-specification> The File Retention record defines the length of time that Bacula will keep File records in the Catalog database. there are a number of modifiers that permit easy specification in terms of minutes. If you started with the default configuration files. Job Retention = <time-period-specification> The Job Retention record defines the length of time that Bacula will keep Job records in the Catalog database. Once the File records have been removed from the database. and the details are given in the next chapter of this manual. or years on the record. some knowledge of retention periods will be useful. you can make space available for the new records that will be added during the next Job. By deleting records within the database. How fast the size of your Catalog grows depends on the number of Jobs you run and how many files they backup. Bacula will prune (remove) File records that are older than the specified File Retention period. hours. and/or it may become very inefficient and slow. Of these three. and the Volume Retention period. When this time period expires. However. your database size will remain constant. you will no longer be able to restore individual files in a Job. and if 351 . but as a convenience. The File Retention and the Job Retention are specified in each Client resource as is shown below. When this time period expires. weeks. the Job Retention period. with Bacula version 1. 44. Since File records in the database account for probably 80 percent of the size of the database. the File Retention period is by far the most important in determining how large your database will become. See the Configuration chapter of this manual for additional details of modifier specification. you should carefully determine exactly what File Retention period you need.

months. If you turn this off by setting it to no. To avoid this. you will no longer be able to restore individual files from the Job.sql rm -f bacula. hours. I had a bacula. it is generally a good idea to retain the Job records much longer than the File records. this will take more or less time and a fair amount of disk space. Note. Normally.sql Depending on the size of your database.2 Compacting Your MySQL Database Over time. PostgreSQL and SQLite.352 Bacula Version 5. or years. As a consequence. As a consequence. if a Job record is selected for pruning. days. large commercial database such as Oracle have commands that will compact a database to reclaim wasted file space. all associated File and JobMedia records will also be pruned regardless of the File Retention period set.sql file that had 174. I ended up with a total of 210. MySQL has the OPTIMIZE TABLE command that you can use. you normally will set the File retention period to be less than the Job retention period. and SQLite version 2. I’ve noticed that even though Bacula regularly prunes files. For a MySQL database. As mentioned above. if I cd to the location of the MySQL Bacula database (typically /opt/mysql/var or something similar) and enter: du bacula I get 620. compress it. you must compact your database. there are a number of modifiers that permit easy specification in terms of minutes.8. However. so below. We leave it to you to explore the utility of the OPTIMIZE TABLE command in MySQL. AutoPrune = <yes/no> If AutoPrune is set to yes (default). once the File records are removed from the database.0. your database will tend to grow. you could write the Bacula database as an ASCII file (bacula. quarters. we show you how you can do this for MySQL. 44.sql mysql bacula < bacula. but as a convenience. your Catalog will grow each time you run a Job. The retention period is specified in seconds.sql) then reload it by doing the following: mysqldump -f --opt bacula > bacula. MySQL does not effectively use the space. the compressed version of the database took approximately one third of the space of the database that had been in use for about a year.37 and later). As a consequence. After doing the mysqldump. All database programs have some means of writing the database out in ASCII format and then reloading it.644. In other words. as noted above. and after doing the mysql command to recreate the database. from time to time. See the Configuration chapter of this manual for additional details of modifier specification.3 AutoPrune is set to yes Bacula will prune (remove) Job records that are older than the specified Job Retention period.356 blocks. you will be able to restore all the files backuped for the Job (on version 1.644 which means there are that many blocks containing 1024 bytes each or approximately 635 MB of data. Bacula will automatically apply the File retention period and the Job retention period for the Client at the end of the Job.464 blocks rather than the original 629.4 and greater has the VACUUM command. as long as the Job record remains in the database. and instead continues growing. The default Job Retention period is 180 days. weeks. I suggest you monitor the size of your database and from time to time (once every six months or year). . For example. Doing so will re-create the database from scratch producing a compacted result.

4 MySQL Table is Full If you are running into the error The table ’File’ is full . the following script did the trick for me: #!/bin/sh for i in *. this is likely to be the source of your problem. you will need to create additional space on the partition or free up some space then repair the database probably using myisamchk..html You can display the maximum length of your table with: mysql bacula SHOW TABLE STATUS FROM bacula like "File". quit END_OF_DATA cp x${i} ${i} chown mysql:mysql ${i} myisamchk -r ${t} done I invoked it with the following commands: cd /var/lib/mysql/bacula .’ -‘ mysql bacula <<END_OF_DATA set autocommit=1. Simply running myisamchk -r did not fix the problem.com/doc/en/Repair. and you can modify it with: mysql bacula ALTER TABLE File MAX_ROWS=281474976710656.. you will probably want to use myisamchk. The program you need to run depends on the type of database indexing you are using. you should consider running MySQL’s database check and repair routines. It can clean up many of the orphaned record problems. the table is limited by default to a maximum size of 4 GB and you have probably run into the limit. The solution can be found at: http://dev. please consult the MySQL document at: http://www. Recently my root partition filled and the MySQL database was corrupted./repair Then after ensuring that the database was correctly fixed.com/doc/refman/5. it is probably because on version 4.html.3 353 44.MYD 44. I did: cd /var/lib/mysql/bacula rm -f x*..3 Repairing Your MySQL Database If you find that you are getting errors writing to your MySQL database. and certain other inconsistencies in the Bacula database.0. In such a case.x MySQL. truncate table $t.0/en/full-table. If the errors you are getting are simply SQL warnings.mysql. A typical cause of MySQL database problems is if your partition fills. do mv $i x${i} t=‘echo $i | cut -f 1 -d ’. If the column labeled ”Max data length” is around 4Gb.mysql. then you might try running dbcheck before (or possibly after) using the MySQL database repair program. .Bacula Version 5.MYD . For more details on how to do this. However. or Bacula hangs each time it tries to access the database. If you are using the default.

ERR=Connection reset by peer What you need to do is setup MySQL to use a different (larger) temp directory.com/doc/refman/5.x depending on the size of your catalog database.6 MySQL Temporary Tables When doing backups with large numbers of files. which can be found at: http://dev.cnf with these variables set: tmpdir=/path/to/larger/tmpdir bdb_tmpdir=/path/to/larger/tmpdir 44. Once that space fills up. you may get significant improvements by adding additional indexes.c:402 Spool data read error.0/en/gone-away. 44. MySQL creates some temporary tables. but as they approach some size. Bacula daemons such as the Storage daemon doing spooling can get strange errors. The comments in the Bacula make xxx tables give some indications as to what indexes may be appropriate. and in the [mysqld] section set: set-variable = myisam_data_pointer_size=6 The above myisam data pointer size must be made before you create your Bacula tables or it will have no effect. . Please see below for specific instructions on checking indexes.x.0.mysql. and also consider using Bacula’s dbcheck program if the conditions are reasonable for using (see above). That is.g. Fatal error: spool. which can be set in the /etc/my. Fatal error: backup. E.7 Repairing Your PostgreSQL Database The same considerations apply that are indicated above for MySQL. so making these changes should only be necessary on MySQL 4. then please read the MySQL documentation.8 Database Performance Issues There are a considerable number of ways each of the databases can be tuned to improve the performance.c:892 Network send error to SD. For each of the databases. Going from an untuned database to one that is properly tuned can make a difference of a factor of 100 or more in the time to insert or search for records. they spool off to disk. 44.3 Alternatively you can modify your /etc/my. The default location for these temp tables is /tmp.conf file before creating the Bacula tables. The row and pointer size changes should already be the default on MySQL version 5.354 Bacula Version 5.html 44.5 MySQL Server Has Gone Away If you are having problems with the MySQL server disconnecting or with messages saying that your MySQL server has gone away. When these tables are small they can be held in system memory. consult the PostgreSQL documents for how to repair the database.

There is also a PostgreSQL FAQ question number 3. filenameid).9 Performance Issues Indexes One of the most important considerations for improving performance on the Bacula database is to ensure that it has all the appropriate indexes. pathid. .0. 44. For PostgreSQL.varlena. the following document discusses a few of them: http://www.1 PostgreSQL Indexes On PostgreSQL. For a 2GB memory machine.com/varlena/GeneralBits/Tidbits/perf. Also for PostgreSQL. Several users have reported finding that their database did not have all the indexes in the default configuration.html.org/docs/faqs. pathid). Filename) index. look at what ”effective cache size”. CREATE INDEX file_jpf_idx on file (jobid. what is very important is to use the examine the my.cnf file (usually in /etc/my. The first index is on FileId and is automatically made because it is the unique key used to access the table. PathId.3.cnf files that come with the MySQL source code.cnf or my-huge. In addition. In addition. For SQLite3.3 355 For MySQL. you can check if you have the proper indexes by: mysql bacula show index from File.9. for a 2GB system. The other one is the (JobId. you may find that because of your own usage patterns. There are other settings for this PRAGMA that can give even further performance improvements at the risk of a database corruption if your system crashes. you need additional indexes.9. you probably want to set it at 131072. You may obtain significant performances by switching to the my-large. you can create the two additional indexes using: psql bacula CREATE INDEX file_jobid_idx on file (jobid). Make sure your checkpoint segments is set to at least 8. 44. you can check to see if you have the proper indexes using the following commands: psql bacula select * from pg_indexes where tablename=’file’. but don’t set it too high. The most important indexes for performance are the two indexes on the File table. This reduces the number of times that the database flushes the in memory cache to disk.FAQ.Bacula Version 5. your performance may suffer a lot. There are many different ways that you can tune PostgreSQL.cnf). If you do not see output that indicates that all three indexes are created. If these Indexes are not present.html#3.” statement. one significant factor in improving the performance is to ensure that there is a ”PRAGMA synchronous = NORMAL. you might want to consider turning fsync off.postgresql.2 MySQL Indexes On MySQL. Make sure that you doesn’t have an index on File (filenameid. 44. work mem = 256000 and maintenance work mem = 256000 seem to be reasonable values. Of course doing so can cause corrupted databases in the event of a machine crash.3 that may answer some of your questions about how to improve performance of the PostgreSQL engine: http://www.

10 Compacting Your PostgreSQL Database Over time. especially the JobId index. we show you how you can do this for PostgreSQL. Doing so will re-create the database from scratch producing a compacted result. 44. do: mysql bacula show index from Filename. you should ensure that the indexes defined for Filename and Path are both set to 255 characters. you could write the Bacula database as an ASCII file (bacula. you can drop and recreate the appropriate index with: mysql bacula DROP INDEX Path on Path. FilenameId. I’ve noticed that even though Bacula regularly prunes files. you have an index with Key name ”Name” and Sub part ”255”. FilenameId).db select * from sqlite_master where type=’index’ and tbl_name=’File’. you can create them with the following commands: sqlite <path>/bacula. PathId.0. PostgreSQL has a VACUUM command that will compact your database for you. For Path. If the indexes are not present. you can check if you have the proper indexes by: sqlite <path>/bacula. which can be run from a cron job.sql cat bacula. you can create them with the following commands: mysql bacula CREATE INDEX file_jobid_idx on File (JobId).sql) then reload it by doing the following: pg_dump -c bacula > bacula. CREATE INDEX Path on Path (Path(255). especially the JobId index. show index from Path. To check. CREATE INDEX file_jpf_idx on File (JobId.sql | psql bacula rm -f bacula. DROP INDEX Name on Filename. PathId). All database programs have some means of writing the database out in ASCII format and then reloading it.9. your database will tend to grow. Alternatively you may want to use the vacuumdb command. so below.3 If the indexes are not present. Some users reported performance problems when their indexes were set to 50 characters. and what is important is that for Filename.3 SQLite Indexes On SQLite. Though normally not a problem. If one or the other does not exist or the Sub part is less that 255.356 Bacula Version 5. For a PostgreSQL database.sql . you should have a Key name ”Path” and Sub part ”255”.db CREATE INDEX file_jobid_idx on File (JobId). as noted above. CREATE INDEX Name on Filename (Name(255)). CREATE INDEX file_jfp_idx on File (JobId. 44.

13 Backing Up Your Bacula Database If ever the machine on which your Bacula database crashes. on this subject at 44.4 and greater have the Vacuum command for compacting the database.12 Migrating from SQLite to MySQL or PostgreSQL You may begin using Bacula with SQLite then later find that you want to switch to MySQL or Postgres for any of a number of reasons: SQLite tends to use more disk than MySQL. it is necessary to completely delete (rm) the old database before creating a new compressed version. commands such as VACUUM FULL. For example. you need to backup the database after all the backup jobs have been run. To resolve these problems.8. SQLite version 2. Note. Several users have succeeded in converting by exporting the SQLite data and then processing it with Perl scripts prior to putting it into MySQL or PostgreSQL.html. REINDEX. This is. this is not a very good way to do it.0. you might want to look at the PostgreSQL documentation http://www. and CLUSTER exist specifically to keep you from having to do a dump/restore.db sqlite bacula. however.11 Compacting Your SQLite Database First please read the previous section that explains why it is necessary to compress a database. In addition. cd {\bf working-directory} echo ’vacuum.db < bacula. one of your first priorities will probably be to recover the database. If you want to fine-tweak the database storage.1/interactive/maintenance. adapted to your system: cd {\bf working-directory} echo ’. not a simple process. you will want to make a copy while Bacula is not modifying it. There are certain PostgreSQL users who do not recommend the above procedure. Worse yet. A normal process of vacuuming will prevent the database from every getting too large. you will backup the database before all the Bacula updates have been applied. To do so. because the database will be saved while Bacula is modifying it.Bacula Version 5. Scripts are available on bacula source distribution under examples/database. Finally.sql rm -f bacula.3 357 Depending on the size of your database. you can use two scripts provided in the release make catalog backup and delete catalog backup.db As an alternative. when the database is corrupted it is often more catastrophic than with MySQL or PostgreSQL.org/docs/8.postgresql.’ | sqlite bacula. 44. 44. in the case of SQLite.dump’ | sqlite bacula. These files will be .sql Where working-directory is the directory that you specified in the Director’s configuration file.db > bacula. Thus the database may be in an instable state. you can use the following commands. They have the following to say: PostgreSQL does not need to be dumped/restored to keep the database efficient. Although Bacula will happily backup your catalog database if it is specified in the FileSet. and you need to restore from backup tapes. you can cd to the location of the Bacula database (typically /usr/local/pgsql/data or possible /var/lib/pgsql/data) and check the size. this will take more or less time and a fair amount of disk space.sql rm -f bacula.

This is fine on machines with only trusted users. It is not acceptable on machines without trusted users. The basic sequence of events to make this work correctly is as follows: • Run all your nightly backups • After running your nightly backups.bsr" } # This schedule does the catalog. 44. If you do not have a bootstrap file. but it will be more work and take longer.sql file. run a Catalog backup Job • The Catalog backup job must be scheduled after your last nightly backup • You use RunBeforeJob to create the ASCII backup file and RunAfterJob to clean up Assuming that you start all your nightly backup jobs at 1:05 am (and that they run one after another). you can do the catalog backup with the following additional Director configuration statements: # Backup the catalog database (after the nightly save) Job { Name = "BackupCatalog" Type = Backup Client=rufus-fd FileSet="Catalog" Schedule = "WeeklyCycleAfterBackup" Storage = DLTDrive Messages = Standard Pool = Default # WARNING!!! Passing the password via the command line is insecure. The first script will make an ASCII copy of your Bacula database into bacula.0. make catalog backup is designed to take a password on the command line. which does not place the password on the command line. It starts after the WeeklyCycle Schedule { Name = "WeeklyCycleAfterBackup Run = Level=Full sun-sat at 1:10 } # This is the backup of the catalog FileSet { Name = "Catalog" Include { Options { signature=MD5 } File = \lt{}working_directory\gt{}/bacula.14 Security considerations We provide make catalog backup as an example of what can be used to backup your Bacula database. Most database systems provide a alternative method. it is preferable to write or copy the bootstrap file to another computer. It will allow you to quickly recover the database backup should that be necessary. However. RunBeforeJob = "/home/kern/bacula/bin/make_catalog_backup" RunAfterJob = "/home/kern/bacula/bin/delete_catalog_backup" Write Bootstrap = "/home/kern/bacula/working/BackupCatalog. # see comments in make_catalog_backup for details.sql } } Be sure to write a bootstrap file as in the above example.358 Bacula Version 5. .3 automatically generated along with all the other Bacula scripts. and the second will delete the bacula. Please read those tips.sql in the working directory you specified in your configuration. We expect you to take security precautions relevant to your situation. The make catalog backup script contains some warnings about how to use it. it is still possible to recover your database backup.

In particular. and we know MySQL has .000 * 4 + 10.0. you should decide how long you want File records to be maintained in the Catalog and set the File Retention period to that time. your Catalog will grow each time you run a Job. . In the list below. the most important Retention period will be the File Retention period. this will vary according to how many files are actually backed up. You will note that the File records (containing the file attributes) make up the large bulk of the number of records as well as the space used (459 Mega Bytes including the indexes). which has been renamed Storage Mountain (www.000) or Size = 203. Bacula will happily backup the files. The size of your database after a month can roughly be calculated as: Size = 154 * No.000 * 26) where we have assumed four weeks in a month and 26 incremental backups per month.000 * 4 + 10. Normally.com).MYD contain the data records whereas files with the extension . but if the database is in use while Bacula is reading it. We have provided you with a starting point. Systems * (100.000 files. the database grows by approximately 150 bytes.000 + 260. or use some tool specific to your database to make a valid live copy perhaps by dumping the database in ASCII format.pgpass. We hope it helps. 44. Only you can decide what is appropriate for your situation. A quick calculation shows that for each File that is saved. you may back it up in an unstable state. we know PostgreSQL has a password file.280. but if you are unsure about how to backup your database. For example.3 359 To help you get started.16 Database Size As mentioned above. This would give the following: Size = 154 * 2 * (100. only the user files and system files that change are backed up.MYI contain indexes. suppose you do a backup of two systems.my. The best solution is to shutdown your database before backing it up. The core part of the system is assumed to be easily reloaded from the Red Hat rpms. (Older File records have been pruned). Then you can either wait and see how big your Catalog gets or make a calculation assuming approximately 154 bytes for each File saved and knowing the number of Files that are saved during each backup and the number of Clients you backup. the files (corresponding to Bacula Tables) with the extension .000 bytes So for the above two systems. so I cannot provide you advice on how to do this.000 * 26) or Size = 308 * (400. you might try visiting the Backup Central site. and that the Incremental backup typically saves 4. each with 100. For these systems.cnf. I am not a database expert.000 files.5 months) and File records for the last 80 days. . if you do not do automatic pruning. their Free Backup and Recovery Software page has links to scripts that show you how to shutdown and backup most major databases. 44.15 Backing Up Third Party Databases If you are running a database in production mode on your machine.backupcentral. Suppose further that you do a Full backup weekly and an Incremental every day. we should expect to have a database size of approximately 200 Megabytes. As a consequence.Bacula Version 5. Below are some statistics for a MySQL database containing Job records for five Clients beginning September 2001 through May 2002 (8. Of course.

MYI This database has a total size of approximately 450 Megabytes.080.233 1 1 File =========== Client.MYD Version.062 30.512 581.MYD FileSet.MYD JobMedia.378 11 22.684 115.MYI JobMedia.896 2.752 13.902 4 1.026.632 36 3.316 3. but we would have less insight to the size of the individual tables as we have in this case.MYD Filename.072 1. SQLite databases may be as much as 50% larger than MySQL databases due to the fact that all data is stored as ASCII strings.MYD File. .360 Size in Bytes ============ 168 3.312 1.299. That is even binary integers are stored as ASCII strings.MYI File.048 49.004 3.MYI Filename.3 Records ========= 5 3.944 184 2.394.326 1. and this seems to increase the space needed.590.MYD Pool.MYI Job.191 106.MYI FileSet.072 5 1.MYI Version. Note.MYI Pool.0.MYD Path.MYD Job. the determination of the total database size would be much easier since it is a single file.280.072 344.MYD Client. If we were using SQLite.MYI Media.720 141.024 Bacula Version 5.MYD Media.MYI Path.

please tighten this up! • Don’t forget that Bacula is a network program. FDAddress. you will need to pass it by an environment variable or a secure file. In addition. This will ensure that not everyone can access the daemons. unfortunately require root access. Bacula does support TLS (transport layer security) and can encrypt transmitted data. it will not be able to automatically set your tape drive parameters on most OSes since these functions. • It is not necessary to run the Director as root. but can be cracked by experts. it will be passed as a command line option to that script. • By default. • You should restrict access to the Bacula configuration files. if you have a password on your database. all data that is sent across the network is unencrypted. so that the passwords are not worldreadable. so read the Critical Items Chapter of this manual. Please read the TLS (SSL) Communications Encryption section of this manual. • If you are using the recommended ports 9101. and 9103. if you do not run the Storage daemon as root. or SDAddress records in the respective daemon configuration files. See also Backing Up Your Bacula Database . • The default Bacula grant-mysql-permissions script grants all permissions to use the MySQL database without a password.Security Considerations for more information. • Be aware that if you are backing up your database using the default script. However. 361 . • You can restrict what IP addresses Bacula will bind to by using the appropriate DirAddress. • The Clients (bacula-fd) must run as root to be able to access all the system files. so anyone anywhere on the network with the console program and the Director’s password can access Bacula and the backed up data. and any user will be able to see this information. you will probably want to protect these ports from external access using a firewall and/or using tcp wrappers (etc/hosts. The Bacula daemons are password protected using CRAM-MD5 (i.e. • If you are using MySQL it is not necessary for it to run with root permission. 9102. It is a reasonably good protection. the password is not sent across the network).Chapter 45 Bacula Security Issues • Security means being able to restore your files. If you want security.allow). but you must ensure that it can open the tape drives. • It is not necessary to run the Storage daemon as root. which are often restricted to root access by default. • You should ensure that the Bacula working directories are readable and writable only by the Bacula daemons. If you want it to be secure.

.362 Bacula Version 5. For example.1 Backward Compatibility One of the major goals of Bacula is to ensure that you can restore tapes (I’ll use the word tape to include disk Volumes) that you wrote years ago. Try reading old tapes from time to time – e. Win32 data. it may save you someday.3 45. The following example is sufficient: undef-fd : localhost : allow undef-sd : localhost : allow . The first problem you will have is to ensure that the hardware is still working some years down the road." The libwrap code tries to avoid twist if it runs in a resident process. then your OS must be able to interface to the device. This option replaces the current process by an instance of the specified shell command. The exact name of the package you need loaded to build with TCP wrappers depends on the system. bacula-dir) being terminated if the first connection to their port results in the twist option being invoked. bacula-sd. With this code enabled.info \ : twist /bin/echo "You are not welcome to use %d from %h.g... This control is done by modifying the file: /etc/hosts. the kinds of data that we can put on the tapes are extensible. The second point is probably overkill but if you want to be sure. on SuSE. exists for an attacker to prevent the daemons from running. This situation is eliminated if your /etc/hosts.. and the second problem will be to ensure that the media will still be good. and finally Bacula must be able to recognize old formats.allow. something like this is used: ALL : ALL \ : severity auth. there have been two major Bacula tape formats. Obviously. All the problems except the last are ones that we cannot solve. In principle. Keep statically linked copies of every version of Bacula that you use in production then if for some reason. The program name that Bacula uses when applying these access restrictions is the name you specify in the daemon configuration file (see below for examples). but each newer version of Bacula should know how to read all the older streams. Since the very beginning of Bacula (January 2000) until today (December 2005). you can always pull out an old copy of Bacula . an older version of Bacula would not know how to read these newer data streams. The potential. If you read hosts options(5).g.27 in November of 2002.allow or it will terminate the Bacula daemon when a connection is refused. The second format was introduced in version 1.. This means that each new version of Bacula should be able to read old format tapes./configure --with-tcpwrappers). and I stress potential. . 45. but by careful planning you can.allow file contains an appropriate rule set. If you want to be 100should: 1. bacula-fd. you may control who may access your daemons. the package is named tcp wrappers. and it has not changed since then. Bacula can still read the original format.2 Configuring and Testing TCP Wrappers TCP Wrappers are implemented if you turn them on when configuring (. This will result in the process (e. encrypted data. but that test will not protect the first hosts access() call.0. at least once a year. Typically. Dan Langille has provided the following information on configuring and testing TCP wrappers with Bacula. we botch up old tape compatibility. On Red Hat. and that is how we added new features such as ACLs. 2.. but I haven’t tried it lately so who knows . You must not use the twist option in your /etc/hosts. you will see an option called twist. the TCP wrappers libraries needed to link Bacula are contained in the tcpd-devel package. Though the tape format is fixed.

168.0.0.0. Adjust to suit your situation.example. If you have a remote FD client.allow line 91 option: severity auth. Here is an example which indicates that your rules are missing a deny statement and the twist option has been invoked. $ This is the correct response.0. The above example rules assume that the SD. the Director is undef-dir. start the daemon(s).org warning: undef-dir: no such process name in /etc/inetd.168.1 server: process undef-dir matched: /etc/hosts.info option: twist /bin/echo "You are not welcome to use undef-dir from 10.org : allow undef-fd : ALL : deny where director..example.Bacula Version 5. Connection closed by foreign host.0.1 warning: undef-dir: no such process name in /etc/inetd.org is the host which will be contacting the client (ie. Connected to undef. then the following rule set on the remote client will suffice: undef-fd : director.conf client: address 10.org. and the File Daemon is undeffd. In these examples.56. If you see this: $ telnet undef 9103 Trying 192. You should see something like this: $ telnet undef 9103 Trying 192.1.0. then attempt to connect from an IP address which should be able to connect.0.example. $ then twist has been invoked and your configuration is not correct and you need to add the deny statement. To properly test your configuration. The use of ”ALL : deny” ensures that the twist option (if present) is not invoked. the box on which the Bacula Director daemon runs).allow rules.0. It is important to note that your testing must include restarting the daemons after each connection attempt. the warning above can be safely ignored. Escape character is ’^]’." access: delegated .conf client: hostname xeon. the Storage Daemon is undef-sd. You are not welcome to use undef-sd from xeon.example. Connected to undef. in general.168.0. $ tcpdmatch undef-dir 10. and DIR all reside on the same box.allow line 40 option: allow access: granted If you are running Bacula as a standalone daemon..org.example. Connection closed by foreign host. You can also tcpdchk(8) and tcpdmatch(8) to validate your /etc/hosts. Here is a simple test using tcpdmatch: $ tcpdmatch undef-dir xeon.org.56.0.org client: address 192.example. It is not possible to use the daemon names because multiple daemons may be running on the same machine but with different configurations..3 undef-dir : localhost : allow undef-fd : ALL : deny undef-sd : ALL : deny undef-dir : ALL : deny 363 You must adjust the names to be the same as the Name directives found in each of the daemon configuration files. Escape character is ’^]’. They are. not the same as the binary daemon names. FD.18 server: process undef-dir matched: /etc/hosts..example.

Starting the Bacula daemons To start the bacula daemons on a FreeBSD system. issue the following command: /usr/local/etc/rc.0 0.364 Bacula Version 5. I selected a User ID and Group ID of 1002 as they were unused on my system.conf bacula 63416 0.3 Running as non-root Security advice from Dan Langille: It is a good idea to run daemons with the lowest possible privileges. It is easier and less error prone to make Bacula a member of that group than it is to play around with system permissions.0 0.d/bacula-sd start /usr/local/etc/rc. The FreeBSD port creates this user and group for you. It is important to note that the storage daemon actually needs to be in the operator group for normal access to tape drives etc (at least on a FreeBSD system. you can secure the bacula home directory by issuing this command: chown -R bacula:bacula /var/db/bacula/ This ensures that only the bacula user can access this directory. those daemons also have restricted access. I also created a group in /etc/group: bacula:*:1002: The bacula user (as opposed to the Bacula daemon) will have a home directory of /var/db/bacula which is the default location for the Bacula database. The Storage Daemon and the Director Daemon do not need to be root. you need to create a user and a group.00 /usr/local/sbin/bacula-dir -v -c /usr/local/etc/bacula-dir. In other words. In order to run as non-root. that’s how things are set up by default) Such devices are normally chown root:operator.conf . The File Daemon needs to be root in order to access all files on your system.0. It also means that if we run the Director and the Storage daemon as bacula.01 /usr/local/sbin/bacula-sd -v -c /usr/local/etc/bacula-sd. This would not be the case if they were running as root. don’t run applications as root which do not have to be root.3 2040 1172 ?? Ss 4:09PM 0:00. if you can.3 1856 1036 ?? Ss 4:09PM 0:00.d/bacula-fd start To confirm they are all running: $ ps auwx | grep bacula root 63418 0.conf bacula 63422 0.0 0.00 /usr/local/sbin/bacula-fd -v -c /usr/local/etc/bacula-fd.4 2360 1440 ?? Ss 4:09PM 0:00.3 45.d/bacula-dir start /usr/local/etc/rc. Choosing bacula as both the user name and the group name sounds like a good idea to me. Here is what those entries looked like on my FreeBSD laptop: bacula:*:1002:1002::0:0:Bacula Daemon:/var/db/bacula:/sbin/nologin I used vipw to create this entry. Now that you have both a bacula user and a bacula group.

and thus you will never need to know the details of this file. or by using a Write Bootstrap record in your Backup Jobs. Volume = Test-001 VolSessionId = 1 VolSessionTime = 108927638 directs the Storage daemon (or the bextract program) to restore only those files on Volume Test-001 AND having VolumeSessionId equal to one AND having VolumeSession time equal to 108927638. or so that you can edit a bootstrap file produced by Bacula. The more keywords that are specified. Session Id. Session Time. what volume they are on. More precisely the keyword and their values serve to limit which files will be restored and thus act as a filter.1 Bootstrap File Format The general format of a bootstrap file is: <keyword>= <value> Where each keyword and the value specify which files to restore. 365 . For example. The bootstrap file contains ASCII information that permits precise specification of what files should be restored. 46. normally the bootstrap file will be automatically created for you during the restore command command in the Console program.Chapter 46 The Bootstrap File The information in this chapter is provided so that you may either create your own bootstrap files. It is a relatively compact form of specifying the information.. At lease one Volume specification is required. to which all the following commands apply until a new current Volume (if any) is specified. FileIndex. The full set of permitted keywords presented in the order in which they are matched against the Volume records are: Volume The value field specifies what Volume the following commands apply to. each keyword is ANDed with other keywords that may be present. In fact. the more selective the specification of which files to restore will be. . Job. Blank lines and lines beginning with a pound sign (#) in the bootstrap file are ignored. However. it should be enclosed in quotes. The absence of a keyword means that all records will be accepted. is human readable.. and where they are on the volume. If the Volume name contains spaces. Each Volume specification becomes the current Volume. There are keywords which permit filtering by Volume. Client. and can be edited with any text editor.

Each VolSessionId and VolSessionTime pair corresponds to a unique Job that is backed up on the Volume. This for a given Volume. a list of volume session ids. .3 Count The value is the total number of files that will be restored for this Volume. a list of Streams. This value is optional and not used by Bacula to restore files. This allows the Storage daemon to know when to stop reading the Volume. list of JobIds. Job The value specifies a Job name or list of Job names to be matched on the current Volume. Standard regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match Client names. this value (or a range of FileIndexes) is required. and FileIndex will be unique. and once the tape is past the last specified file. However. Multiple Volume records may be specified in the same bootstrap file. the triple VolSessionId. FileRegex=^/etc/passwd(. For a tape volume.old)? Slot The value specifies the autochanger slot. *JobLevel Not yet implemented. VolFile The value is a file number. VolSessionId The value specifies a VolSessionId. or a range of Streams to be selected from the current Volume. Multiple copies of the same file may be stored on the same Volume. The Volume record is a bit special in that it must be the first record. list of FileIndexes. Note. VolSessionTime The value specifies a Volume Session Time to be matched from the current volume. the first file written is assigned FileIndex equal to one and incremented for each file backed up. This value is optional and not used by Bacula to restore files. a list of block numbers. but each one starts a new set of filter criteria for the Volume. Unless you really know what you are doing (the internals of Bacula). FileRegex The value is a regular expression. you should avoid this specification. a list of file numbers. This value is optional and not used by Bacula to restore files. the triple VolSessionId. The other keyword records may appear in any order and any number following a Volume record. VolSessionTime.0. For each Session. To restore a particular file.366 Bacula Version 5. The block number represents the physical block within the file on the Volume where the data is stored. There may be only a single Slot specification for each Volume. Standard regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match Job names. the Job is perhaps a bit more readable by humans. this record is used to position to the correct starting file. the JobId may not be unique if you have multiple Directors. VolSessionTime. but for each file. Client The value specifies a Client name or list of Clients to will be matched on the current Volume. or a range of block numbers to match on the current Volume. or range of JobIds to be selected from the current Volume. reading will stop. This value is optional. The Client filter works only if you do not run multiple simultaneous jobs. The JobId filter works only if you do not run multiple simultaneous jobs. *JobType Not yet implemented. or if you have reinitialized your database. This value is optional and not used by Bacula to restore files. or a range of volume session ids to be matched from the current Volume. The Job filter works only if you do not run multiple simultaneous jobs. VolBlock The value is a block number. Stream The value specifies a Stream. and FileIndex uniquely identifies a file stored on the Volume. JobId The value specifies a JobId. When specified. or a range of file numbers to match on the current Volume. The file number represents the physical file on the Volume where the data is stored. only matching filenames will be restored. This triple is stored in the Catalog database for each file. or range of FileIndexes to be selected from the current Volume. FileIndex The value specifies a FileIndex. Each file (data) stored on a Volume within a Session has a unique FileIndex. The Job corresponds to a unique VolSessionId and VolSessionTime pair.

The following bootstrap file will restore those files: . each filter specified by a keyword is ANDed with the next. "Backup machine" FileIndex = 1-20. and the following three are all Incremental backups. Volume = Test-01 Client = "My machine" Client = "Backup machine" FileIndex = 1 will match records on Volume Test-01 AND (Client records for My machine OR Backup machine) AND FileIndex equal to one. suppose we query for the current set of tapes to restore all files on Client Rufus using the query command in the console program: Using default Catalog name=MySQL DB=bacula *query Available queries: 1: List Job totals: 2: List where a file is saved: 3: List where the most recent copies of a file are saved: 4: List total files/bytes by Job: 5: List total files/bytes by Volume: 6: List last 10 Full Backups for a Client: 7: List Volumes used by selected JobId: 8: List Volumes to Restore All Files: Choose a query (1-8): 8 Enter Client Name: Rufus +-------+------------------+------------+-----------+----------+------------+ | JobId | StartTime | VolumeName | StartFile | VolSesId | VolSesTime | +-------+------------------+------------+-----------+----------+------------+ | 154 | 2002-05-30 12:08 | test-02 | 0 | 1 | 1022753312 | | 202 | 2002-06-15 10:16 | test-02 | 0 | 2 | 1024128917 | | 203 | 2002-06-15 11:12 | test-02 | 3 | 1 | 1024132350 | | 204 | 2002-06-18 08:11 | test-02 | 4 | 1 | 1024380678 | +-------+------------------+------------+-----------+----------+------------+ The output shows us that there are four Jobs that must be restored. For example. A list is equivalent to multiple records of the same keyword.Bacula Version 5. there may be multiple Volume records in the same bootstrap file. you may supply a range or a list. you may specify a list. Thus. Volume = Test-01 Client = "My machine". and for all other values except Volumes. OR 20 OR 35).. Each new Volume definition begins a new set of filter conditions that apply to that Volume and will be ORed with any other Volume definitions. The first one is a Full backup.3 367 In processing the bootstrap file within the current Volume. For integer values. 35 will match records on Volume Test-01 AND (Client records for My machine OR Backup machine) AND (FileIndex 1 OR 2 OR 3 .. As previously mentioned above. Volume = Test-01 Client = "My machine" FileIndex = 1 will match records on Volume Test-01 AND Client records for My machine AND FileIndex equal to one. Thus. Multiple occurrences of the same record are ORed together.0. As an example.

/bconsole restore client=xxx select all done no quit Backup bootstrap file. So if you have spare cycles on your machine.0.368 Volume=test-02 VolSessionId=1 VolSessionTime=1022753312 Volume=test-02 VolSessionId=2 VolSessionTime=1024128917 Volume=test-02 VolSessionId=1 VolSessionTime=1024132350 Volume=test-02 VolSessionId=1 VolSessionTime=1024380678 Bacula Version 5. then by any Incremental or Differential saves. As consequence. you could optimize the bootstrap files by doing the following: . The output from query might look like: +-------+------------------+------------+-----------+----------+------------+ | JobId | StartTime | VolumeName | StartFile | VolSesId | VolSesTime | +-------+------------------+------------+-----------+----------+------------+ | 242 | 2002-06-25 16:50 | File0003 | 0 | 1 | 1025016612 | | 242 | 2002-06-25 16:50 | File0004 | 0 | 1 | 1025016612 | | 243 | 2002-06-25 16:52 | File0005 | 0 | 2 | 1025016612 | | 246 | 2002-06-25 19:19 | File0006 | 0 | 2 | 1025025494 | +-------+------------------+------------+-----------+----------+------------+ and the following bootstrap file would restore those files: Volume=File0003 VolSessionId=1 VolSessionTime=1025016612 Volume=File0004 VolSessionId=1 VolSessionTime=1025016612 Volume=File0005 VolSessionId=2 VolSessionTime=1025016612 Volume=File0006 VolSessionId=2 VolSessionTime=1025025494 46. assume that the initial Full save spanned two Volumes. all the files saved to an Incremental or Differential job will be restored first by the Full save. selecting everything and creates the bootstrap file. . This is because during Incremental and Differential jobs.3 As a final example.2 Automatic Generation of Bootstrap Files One thing that is probably worth knowing: the bootstrap files that are generated automatically at the end of the job are not as optimized as those generated by the restore command. The above will not work if you have multiple FileSets because that will be an extra prompt. only one copy (the most recent) of each file is restored. the records pertaining to the files written for the Job are appended to the end of the bootstrap file. However. When the bootstrap file is generated for the restore command. the restore client=xxx select all builds the in-memory tree.

3 The no answers the Do you want to run this (yes/mod/no) question. you can do it by selecting by JobId (code not tested) or better yet. if you know the File number where the Job starts. If you want to see a *real* bsr file.4 A Final Bootstrap Example If you want to extract or copy a single Job. Then look at the file restore. A bsr file might look like the following: Volume="Vol001" VolSessionId=10 VolSessionTime=1080847820 If you know how many files are backed up (on the job report). An example might be: Volume="Vol001" Volume="Vol002" Volume="Vol003" Volume="Vol004" Volume="Vol005" 46. Parsing it and properly applying it within Bacula *is* magic. then answer no when it prompts to run the job.0. specifying this is by far the best. you may exceed the command line limit (511 characters).bsr in your working directory. 369 46.Bacula Version 5. .3 Bootstrap for bscan If you have a very large number of Volumes to scan with bscan. Using the VolSessionTime and VolSessionId is the way Bacula does restores. you can also cause bcopy to forward space to the right file without reading every record: VolFile=20 There is nothing magic or complicated about a BSR file. if you know the VolSessionTime and the VolSessionId (printed on Job report and in Catalog). you can enormously speed up the selection by adding (let’s assume there are 157 files): FileIndex=1-157 Count=157 Finally. I that case. you can create a simple bootstrap file that consists of only the volume names. but you don’t need to worry about that. simply fire up the restore command in the console program. select something.

3 .0.370 Bacula Version 5.

371 . which is a free and open license. 47.2 GPL The vast bulk of the source code is released under the GNU General Public License version 2. md5.1 FDL The GNU Free Documentation License (FDL) is used for this manual. we would much prefer if you would send any corrections or changes to the Bacula project.4 Public Domain Some of the Bacula code. If you have a printed copy of this manual. the details of each of the licenses referred to in this chapter can be found in the online version of the manual at http://www.org.bacula.g. 47. Most of this code is copyrighted: Copyright c 2000-2009 Free Software Foundation Europe e.3 LGPL Some of the Bacula library source code is released under the GNU Lesser General Public License. and Licenses There are a number of different licenses that are used in Bacula. The most recent version of the manual can always be found online at http://www. E. 47.V. Portions may be copyrighted by other people. Trademark.bacula.c. This permits third parties to use these parts of our code in their proprietary programs to interface to Bacula. rather than distribute your own version of this manual. or code that Bacula references.org. However.Chapter 47 Bacula Copyright. This means that you may freely reproduce it and even make changes to it. has been released to the public domain. SQLite.. These files are released under different licenses which are compatible with the Bacula GPLv2 license. 47.

EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE. 47. TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. which guarantees them the right to use the code they have developed. OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE. This Fiduciary License Agreement is found on the Bacula web site at: http://www. and also ensures that the Free Software Foundation Europe (and thus the Bacula project) has the rights to the code. THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. you should fill it out then sent to: Kern Sibbald Cotes-de-Montmoiret 9 1012 Lausanne Switzerland When you send in such a complete document.3 47. BUT NOT LIMITED TO.en. YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING. INCLUDING ANY GENERAL. BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES. . 47. please notify me: kern at sibbald dot com.pdf and if you are submitting code. INCLUDING. EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED.0.bacula.6 Fiduciary License Agreement Developers who have contributed significant changes to the Bacula code should have signed a Fiduciary License Agreement (FLA). EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM ”AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND.7 Disclaimer NO WARRANTY BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE. THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM.5 Bacula R Trademark is a registered trademark of Kern Sibbald. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER.org/en/FLA-bacula. INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS). REPAIR OR CORRECTION.372 Bacula Version 5. SPECIAL.

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we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights. whether gratis or for a fee. we are referring to freedom. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Library General Public License instead. too. receive or can get the source code. We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software. that you receive source code or can get it if you want it. June 1991 Copyright (C) 1989.3 379 GNU General Public License image of a Philosophical GNU • What to do if you see a possible GPL violation • Translations of the GPL 48.) You can apply it to your programs. we want its . 48. By contrast. and that you know you can do these things.3 Preamble The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it.2 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2. Also. the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. but changing it is not allowed. You must make sure that they. we want to make certain that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software. not price. or if you modify it.0. 51 Franklin St. and (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy. that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs. Fifth Floor. For example.1 Table of Contents • GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE – Preamble – TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING. if you distribute copies of such a program. distribute and/or modify the software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on. This General Public License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation’s software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it. Inc. DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION – How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs 48. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you distribute copies of the software. To protect your rights.Bacula Version 5. When we speak of free software. for each author’s protection and ours. too. 1991 Free Software Foundation. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights. Boston. you must give the recipients all the rights that you have. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish).

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